Oracle Database New Features Guide
Oracle® Database
1[]
New Features Guide
11g Release 2 (11.2)
E41360-06
September 2015
Oracle Database New Features Guide is addressed to those of
you familiar with previous releases of Oracle Database and
who would like to become familiar with features, options,
and enhancements that are new in this release of the
database.
Oracle Database New Features Guide, 11g Release 2 (11.2)
E41360-06
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Contents
Preface ................................................................................................................................................................ xi
Audience......................................................................................................................................................
Documentation Accessibility ....................................................................................................................
Related Documents ....................................................................................................................................
Conventions ................................................................................................................................................
xi
xi
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xii
1 Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.4) New Features
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
Oracle Data Redaction................................................................................................................
Trace File Analyzer and Collector ............................................................................................
RACcheck - The Oracle RAC Configuration Audit Tool ......................................................
Database Replay Support for Database Consolidation .........................................................
Optimization for Flashback Data Archive History Tables....................................................
Desupported Features ................................................................................................................
New sqlnet.ora Parameter SSL_EXTENDED_KEY_USAGE................................................
New PrimaryLostWriteAction Property .................................................................................
ENABLE_GOLDENGATE_REPLICATION for Oracle GoldenGate ..................................
1-1
1-1
1-1
1-2
1-2
1-2
1-2
1-3
1-3
2 Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.3) New Features
2.1
General.......................................................................................................................................... 2-1
2.1.1
Support Hybrid Columnar Compression on Pillar Axiom and Sun ZFSSA............... 2-1
2.1.2
Support for SHA-2 Certificate Signatures ........................................................................ 2-1
2.1.3
TDE Hardware Acceleration for Solaris ........................................................................... 2-2
2.1.4
Support for Multiple Certificates on Smart Card............................................................ 2-2
2.1.5
QoS Management Support for Oracle RAC Enterprise Edition ................................... 2-2
2.1.6
QoS Management Support for Instance Caging on Oracle Exadata ............................ 2-2
2.1.7
Oracle ACFS Snapshot Enhancements ............................................................................. 2-3
2.1.8
Oracle ACFS Security and Encryption Features ............................................................. 2-3
2.1.9
Support for ACFS Replication and Tagging on Windows ............................................ 2-3
2.1.10
Oracle LogMiner Support for Binary XML ...................................................................... 2-4
2.1.11
SQL Apply Support for Binary XML ................................................................................ 2-4
2.1.12
Oracle LogMiner Support for Object Relational Model ................................................. 2-4
2.1.13
SQL Apply Support for Object Relational Model ........................................................... 2-4
2.1.14
Deprecation of Obsolete Oracle XML DB Functions and Packages ............................. 2-4
2.1.15
Oracle Warehouse Builder Support for Partition DML ................................................. 2-5
2.1.16
Enhanced Partitioning Support in Oracle Warehouse Builder ..................................... 2-5
iii
2.1.17
2.1.18
2.1.19
2.1.20
Oracle Warehouse Builder External Table Data Pump Support ..................................
Oracle Warehouse Builder External Table Preprocessor Support................................
Compressed Table and Partition Support in Oracle Warehouse Builder....................
Support for PL/SQL Native Compilation........................................................................
2-5
2-5
2-6
2-6
3 Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2) New Features
3.1
General.......................................................................................................................................... 3-1
3.1.1
General .................................................................................................................................. 3-1
3.1.1.1
Control File Updates Can Be Disabled During NOLOGGING Operations......... 3-1
3.1.1.2
New Package for Configuring Automatic SQL Tuning.......................................... 3-1
3.1.1.3
Enhanced Security for DBMS_SCHEDULER E-Mail Notification ........................ 3-1
3.1.1.4
Enhanced TRUNCATE Functionality........................................................................ 3-2
3.1.1.5
Support for In-Place Upgrade of Clients................................................................... 3-2
3.1.1.6
Maintenance Package for Segment Creation on Demand ...................................... 3-2
3.1.1.7
Maximum CPU Utilization Limit............................................................................... 3-2
3.1.1.8
Name Matching ............................................................................................................ 3-3
3.1.1.9
Named Entity Extraction ............................................................................................. 3-3
3.1.1.10
Default Size of First Extent of Any New Segment for a Partitioned Table Has
Changed ......................................................................................................................... 3-3
3.1.1.11
Parallel Statement Queuing ........................................................................................ 3-3
3.1.1.12
PMML Import ............................................................................................................... 3-4
3.1.1.13
Result Set Interface ....................................................................................................... 3-4
3.1.1.14
Segment Creation On Demand for Partitioned Tables ........................................... 3-4
3.1.1.15
Simplification of XML and XQuery Interfaces ......................................................... 3-5
3.1.1.16
SMTP Authentication................................................................................................... 3-5
3.1.1.17
SMTP Encryption.......................................................................................................... 3-5
3.1.1.18
SPA Support for Active Data Guard Environment ................................................. 3-5
3.1.1.19
The EDITION Attribute of a Database Service ........................................................ 3-6
3.1.1.20
Using Binary XML with SecureFiles as the XMLType Default Storage ............... 3-6
3.1.1.21
JDBC 4.0 SQLXML........................................................................................................ 3-6
3.1.1.22
ID Key LCRs in XStream ............................................................................................. 3-7
3.1.2
ACFS Improvements ........................................................................................................... 3-7
3.1.2.1
ACFS, ADVM and Snapshots on Solaris and AIX................................................... 3-7
3.1.2.2
Oracle ACFS Replication ............................................................................................. 3-7
3.1.2.3
Oracle ACFS Security and Encryption Features ...................................................... 3-7
3.1.2.4
Oracle ACFS Tagging................................................................................................... 3-8
3.1.3
Quality of Service (QoS) Management ............................................................................. 3-8
3.1.3.1
Database QoS Management Server............................................................................ 3-8
3.1.3.2
Database Quality of Service (QoS) Management Support ..................................... 3-9
3.1.3.3
Enterprise Manager QoS Management Integration ................................................ 3-9
3.1.3.4
Server Memory Stress Protection for Oracle Clusters............................................. 3-9
3.1.4
Database Replay................................................................................................................ 3-10
3.1.4.1
Database Replay SQL Performance Analyzer (SPA) Integration ....................... 3-10
3.1.4.2
Database Replay Timeout Function........................................................................ 3-10
3.1.4.3
Database Replay Workload Analyzer .................................................................... 3-10
3.1.5
Management ...................................................................................................................... 3-10
3.1.5.1
DBCA Support for Creating an Oracle RAC One Node Database..................... 3-11
iv
3.1.5.2
3.1.5.3
3.1.5.4
3.1.5.5
3.1.5.6
3.1.5.7
3.1.5.8
3.1.5.9
3.1.5.10
3.1.5.11
3.1.5.12
3.1.5.13
Option of Downloading Latest Updates During Installation .............................
Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant Support for Out-of-Place Upgrades ......
Oracle Database Upgrade Assistant Support for Out-of-Place Upgrades ........
Oracle Enterprise Manager DB Control Support for Oracle RAC One Node ..
Online Relocation of an Oracle RAC One Node Database..................................
SRVCTL-Based Management of Oracle RAC One Node Databases..................
CRSCTL Command Enhancements ........................................................................
SRVCTL Command Enhancements ........................................................................
Enhanced XStream Manageability ..........................................................................
Columnar Compression Support in Supplemental Logging and XStream ......
Standalone Configuration Wizard for Post-Installation Cluster
Configuration .............................................................................................................
Redundant Interconnect Usage ...............................................................................
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3-13
3-13
3-13
4 Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.1) New Features
4.1
Application Development .........................................................................................................
4.1.1
Oracle Application Express ................................................................................................
4.1.1.1
Application Date Format .............................................................................................
4.1.1.2
Custom Themes ............................................................................................................
4.1.1.3
Declarative BLOB Support ..........................................................................................
4.1.1.4
Documented JavaScript Libraries...............................................................................
4.1.1.5
Enhanced Report Printing ...........................................................................................
4.1.1.6
Forms Conversion ........................................................................................................
4.1.1.7
Improved Security ........................................................................................................
4.1.1.8
Interactive Reporting Region ......................................................................................
4.1.1.9
Runtime-Only Installation...........................................................................................
4.1.2
Other General Development Features ..............................................................................
4.1.2.1
Support WITH HOLD Option for CURSOR DECLARATION in Pro*C .............
4.1.2.2
Pro*C Support for 8-Byte Native Numeric Host Variable for INSERT and
FETCH............................................................................................................................
4.1.2.3
Pro*COBOL Support for 8-Byte Native Numeric Host Variable for INSERT
and FETCH ....................................................................................................................
4.1.2.4
JDBC Support for Time Zone Patching .....................................................................
4.1.2.5
JDBC Support for SecureFile Zero-Copy LOB I/O and LOB Prefetching ...........
4.1.2.6
OCI Support for 8-Byte Integer Bind/Define...........................................................
4.2
Availability...................................................................................................................................
4.2.1
Backup and Recovery..........................................................................................................
4.2.1.1
Automatic Block Repair...............................................................................................
4.2.1.2
Backup to Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) Using OSB Cloud
Computing.....................................................................................................................
4.2.1.3
DUPLICATE Without Connection to Target Database...........................................
4.2.1.4
Enhanced Tablespace Point-In-Time Recovery (TSPITR).......................................
4.2.1.5
New DUPLICATE Options .........................................................................................
4.2.1.6
New SET NEWNAME Clauses and Format Options..............................................
4.2.1.7
Tablespace Checks in DUPLICATE ...........................................................................
4.2.2
Online Application Maintenance and Upgrade ..............................................................
4.2.2.1
Edition-based Redefinition..........................................................................................
4-1
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v
Enhance CREATE or REPLACE TYPE to Allow FORCE ....................................... 4-7
Fine-Grained Dependencies for Triggers.................................................................. 4-7
IGNORE_ROW_ON_DUPKEY_INDEX Hint for INSERT Statement .................. 4-8
Oracle Data Guard............................................................................................................... 4-8
Compressed Table Support in Logical Standby Databases and Oracle
LogMiner ....................................................................................................................... 4-8
4.2.3.2
Configurable Real-Time Query Apply Lag Limit.................................................... 4-8
4.2.3.3
Integrated Support for Application Failover in a Data Guard Configuration .... 4-9
4.2.3.4
Support Up to 30 Standby Databases ........................................................................ 4-9
4.3
Business Intelligence and Data Warehousing......................................................................... 4-9
4.3.1
Improved Analytics............................................................................................................. 4-9
4.3.1.1
Analytic Functions 2.0.................................................................................................. 4-9
4.3.1.2
Recursive WITH Clause............................................................................................... 4-9
4.3.2
Improved Data Loading .................................................................................................. 4-10
4.3.2.1
EXECUTE Privilege for DIRECTORY Objects ...................................................... 4-10
4.3.2.2
Preprocessing Data for ORACLE_LOADER Access Driver in External
Tables........................................................................................................................... 4-10
4.3.3
Improved Partitioning ..................................................................................................... 4-10
4.3.3.1
Allow Virtual Columns in the Primary Key or Foreign Key for Reference
Partitioning ................................................................................................................. 4-10
4.3.3.2
System-Managed Indexes for List Partitioning..................................................... 4-11
4.3.4
Improved Performance and Scalability ......................................................................... 4-11
4.3.4.1
In-Memory Parallel Execution................................................................................. 4-11
4.3.4.2
Minimal Effort Parallel Execution - Auto Degree of Parallelism (DOP) and
Queuing....................................................................................................................... 4-11
4.3.4.3
The DBMS_PARALLEL_EXECUTE Package ........................................................ 4-12
4.3.4.4
Significant Performance Improvement of On-Commit Fast Refresh................. 4-12
4.3.5
Oracle Warehouse Builder............................................................................................... 4-12
4.3.5.1
Advanced Find Support in Mapping Editor ......................................................... 4-12
4.3.5.2
Business Intelligence Tool Integration.................................................................... 4-13
4.3.5.3
Copy and Paste of Operators and Attributes in Mapping Editor ...................... 4-13
4.3.5.4
Current Configuration Dropdown List in Design Center Toolbar .................... 4-13
4.3.5.5
Enhanced Support for Flat File Imports................................................................. 4-13
4.3.5.6
Enhanced Table Function Support.......................................................................... 4-14
4.3.5.7
Experts Available in Editor Menu........................................................................... 4-14
4.3.5.8
Expression Editing in Operator Edit Dialog.......................................................... 4-14
4.3.5.9
Grouping and Spotlighting of Objects in Mapping Editor.................................. 4-14
4.3.5.10
Improved Management of Locations Registered in Multiple Control
Centers......................................................................................................................... 4-14
4.3.5.11
Improved User Interface for Managing Locations ............................................... 4-15
4.3.5.12
Key Lookup Operator Enhancements .................................................................... 4-15
4.3.5.13
Mapping Debugger Enhancements ........................................................................ 4-15
4.3.5.14
New JDeveloper-Style User Interface ..................................................................... 4-15
4.3.5.15
Operator References Included in Generated PL/SQL Code............................... 4-16
4.3.5.16
Quick Mapper ............................................................................................................ 4-16
4.3.5.17
Repository Browser Changes................................................................................... 4-16
4.3.5.18
Simplified Oracle Warehouse Builder Repository Upgrades ............................. 4-16
4.3.5.19
Support for Extracting Data From Tables Containing LONG Data Type......... 4-16
4.2.2.2
4.2.2.3
4.2.2.4
4.2.3
4.2.3.1
vi
4.3.5.20
Support for Subqueries in Join Operator ...............................................................
4.4
Clustering..................................................................................................................................
4.4.1
Oracle Real Application Clusters Ease-of-Use .............................................................
4.4.1.1
Configuration Assistants Support New Oracle RAC Features...........................
4.4.1.2
Enhanced Cluster Verification Utility ....................................................................
4.4.1.3
Integration of Cluster Verification Utility and Oracle Universal Installer........
4.4.1.4
Cluster Time Service .................................................................................................
4.4.1.5
Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) Enhancements......................................................
4.4.1.6
Grid Plug and Play (GPnP) ......................................................................................
4.4.1.7
Oracle Restart .............................................................................................................
4.4.1.8
Policy-Based Cluster and Capacity Management.................................................
4.4.1.9
Improved Clusterware Resource Modeling ..........................................................
4.4.1.10
Role-Separated Management...................................................................................
4.4.1.11
Agent Development Framework.............................................................................
4.4.1.12
Zero Downtime Patching for Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC ..................
4.4.1.13
Enterprise Manager-Based Clusterware Resource Management.......................
4.4.1.14
Enterprise Manager Provisioning for Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real
Application Clusters .................................................................................................
4.4.1.15
Enterprise Manager Support for Grid Plug and Play ..........................................
4.4.1.16
Enterprise Manager Support for Oracle Restart ...................................................
4.4.1.17
Configuration Assistant Support for Removing Oracle RAC Installations ......
4.4.1.18
Oracle Universal Installer Support for Removing Oracle RAC Installations ...
4.4.1.19
Improved Deinstallation Support With Oracle Universal Installer ...................
4.4.1.20
Downgrading Database Configured With DBControl.........................................
4.4.1.21
Oracle Restart Integration with Oracle Universal Installer .................................
4.4.1.22
Out-of-Place Oracle Clusterware Upgrade............................................................
4.4.1.23
OUI Support for Out-of-Place Oracle Clusterware Upgrade..............................
4.4.1.24
Server Control (SRVCTL) Enhancements ..............................................................
4.4.1.25
Server Control (SRVCTL) Enhancements to Support Grid Plug and Play .......
4.4.1.26
SRVCTL Support for Single-Instance Database in a Cluster...............................
4.4.1.27
Universal Connection Pool (UCP) Integration with Oracle Data Guard ..........
4.4.1.28
UCP Integration With Oracle Real Application Clusters ....................................
4.4.1.29
Universal Connection Pool (UCP) for JDBC..........................................................
4.4.1.30
Java API for Oracle RAC FAN High Availability Events....................................
4.5
Database Overall ......................................................................................................................
4.5.1
General ...............................................................................................................................
4.5.1.1
Flashback Data Archive Support for DDLs ...........................................................
4.5.1.2
Instance Caging..........................................................................................................
4.5.2
Improvements to Oracle Scheduler................................................................................
4.5.2.1
E-mail Notification ....................................................................................................
4.5.2.2
File Watcher................................................................................................................
4.5.2.3
Multiple Destination Jobs.........................................................................................
4.5.2.4
Remote Database Jobs ...............................................................................................
4.5.3
Improvements to Utilities................................................................................................
4.5.3.1
Data Pump Legacy Mode .........................................................................................
4.5.4
IPv6 Support......................................................................................................................
4.5.4.1
Complete IPv6 Support for JDBC Thin Clients .....................................................
4-16
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4.5.4.2
Complete IPv6 Support for JVM and Java Debuggers.........................................
4.6
Diagnosability...........................................................................................................................
4.6.1
Support Workbench .........................................................................................................
4.6.1.1
Enterprise Manager Support Workbench for ASM..............................................
4.7
Information Integration...........................................................................................................
4.7.1
Oracle Database XStream ................................................................................................
4.7.1.1
XStream .......................................................................................................................
4.8
Performance ..............................................................................................................................
4.8.1
General Server Performance ...........................................................................................
4.8.1.1
Database Smart Flash Cache ....................................................................................
4.8.1.2
Stored Outlines Migration to SQL Plan Management .........................................
4.8.1.3
Client Result Cache Using Table Annotations Support.......................................
4.8.1.4
Support 4 KB Sector Disk Drives.............................................................................
4.9
Security ......................................................................................................................................
4.9.1
Audit Data Management .................................................................................................
4.9.1.1
Audit Trail Cleanup ..................................................................................................
4.9.2
Encryption Key Management .........................................................................................
4.9.2.1
Tablespace Master Key Rekey .................................................................................
4.10
Server Manageability...............................................................................................................
4.10.1
Automatic Storage Management for All Data ..............................................................
4.10.1.1
ASM Cluster File System (ACFS) ............................................................................
4.10.1.2
ASM Dynamic Volume Manager (DVM)...............................................................
4.10.1.3
ASM FS Snapshot ......................................................................................................
4.10.1.4
Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) and Voting Disk on ASM ...................................
4.10.1.5
ASM Intelligent Data Placement .............................................................................
4.10.1.6
ASM Storage Management Configuration Assistant ...........................................
4.10.1.7
Automatic Storage Management (ASM) File Access Control .............................
4.10.1.8
ASMCMD Command Extensions ...........................................................................
4.10.1.9
Enterprise Manager Support for ASM Cluster File System (ACFS) ..................
4.10.1.10
Enterprise Manager Integration for ASM File Access Control ...........................
4.10.2
Database Management.....................................................................................................
4.10.2.1
EMCA Supports New Oracle RAC Configuration for Enterprise Manager.....
4.10.2.2
Patch Application with DBControl .........................................................................
4.10.2.3
Automatic Patching of Time Stamp With Time Zone Data ................................
4.10.2.4
Prevent Data Loss for Time Zone with Local Time Zone Data Type ................
4.10.2.5
Segment Creation on Demand.................................................................................
4.10.2.6
Zero-Size Unusable Indexes and Index Partitions................................................
4.10.2.7
Metadata SXML Comparison Tool .........................................................................
4.10.2.8
Compare Period Report............................................................................................
4.10.2.9
Compare SQL Tuning Sets .......................................................................................
4.10.2.10
Enable Sampling for Active Data Guard................................................................
4.10.2.11
Oracle Exadata Simulation .......................................................................................
4.10.2.12
Global Oracle RAC ASH Report + ADDM Backwards Compatibility..............
4.10.2.13
Oracle MTS and Streams Support...........................................................................
4.10.2.14
Parallel Query + Alt Plan Recording, Export STS Enhancements......................
4.10.2.15
Synchronization Controls.........................................................................................
4.11
Unstructured Data Management...........................................................................................
viii
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4.11.1
4.11.1.1
4.11.1.2
4.11.1.3
4.11.1.4
4.11.2
4.11.2.1
4.11.2.2
4.11.2.3
4.11.2.4
4.11.2.5
4.11.3
4.11.3.1
4.11.3.2
4.11.4
4.11.4.1
4.11.4.2
4.11.4.3
4.11.4.4
Enhanced Oracle Multimedia and DICOM Support...................................................
Attribute Extraction of Requested Attributes Only..............................................
Client-Side DICOM Attribute Extraction...............................................................
DICOM Enhancements .............................................................................................
Watermarking and Image Processing Enhancements..........................................
Enhanced Oracle Spatial Support...................................................................................
3D Visualization Framework ...................................................................................
Network Data Model Enhancements .....................................................................
New GeoRaster JAVA API.......................................................................................
Raster Reprojections and Ground Control Point-Based (GCP)
Georeferencing...........................................................................................................
Routing and Geocoding Enhancements.................................................................
Oracle SecureFiles.............................................................................................................
Database File System (DBFS) ...................................................................................
Support for Oracle SecureFiles ................................................................................
Oracle XML DB Scale and Performance Improvements .............................................
Binary XML Enhancements......................................................................................
Oracle XML DB Repository Performance Improvements and Guidelines .......
XMLIndex Enhancements ........................................................................................
XMLType Partitioning ..............................................................................................
4-37
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4-37
4-37
4-38
4-38
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Preface
This Preface contains these topics:
■
Audience
■
Documentation Accessibility
■
Related Documents
■
Conventions
Audience
Oracle Database New Features Guide is addressed to people familiar with previous
releases of Oracle Database who would like to become familiar with features, options,
and enhancements that are new in this release of the database.
Documentation Accessibility
For information about Oracle's commitment to accessibility, visit the Oracle
Accessibility Program website at
http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=docacc.
Access to Oracle Support
Oracle customers that have purchased support have access to electronic support
through My Oracle Support. For information, visit
http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=info or visit
http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=trs if you are hearing
impaired.
Related Documents
For more information, see the following documents in the Oracle Database 11g Release
2 (11.2) documentation set:
■
Oracle Database Error Messages Reference
■
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide
■
Oracle Database Concepts
■
Oracle Database Reference
xi
Conventions
The following text conventions are used in this document:
xii
Convention
Meaning
boldface
Boldface type indicates graphical user interface elements associated
with an action, or terms defined in text or the glossary.
italic
Italic type indicates book titles, emphasis, or placeholder variables for
which you supply particular values.
monospace
Monospace type indicates commands within a paragraph, URLs, code
in examples, text that appears on the screen, or text that you enter.
1
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.4) New
Features
1
This chapter contains descriptions of all of the features that are new to Oracle Database
11g Release 2 (11.2.0.4).
1.1 Oracle Data Redaction
This new database security feature is part of Oracle Advanced Security and prevents
data columns (such as credit card numbers, U.S. Social Security numbers, and other
sensitive or regulated data) from being displayed by applications. It is driven by
declarative policies that can take into account database session factors and information
passed by applications. Sensitive display data can be redacted at runtime on live
production systems with minimal disruption to running applications and without
altering the actual stored data. Different types of redaction are supported including
full, partial, random, and regular expression redaction. You can conceal entire data
values or redact only part of the value. The functionality is implemented inside of the
database, therefore separate installation is not required.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Guide for details
1.2 Trace File Analyzer and Collector
The Trace File Analyzer (TFA) and Collector, also known as TFA Collector, is a
diagnostic collection utility to simplify diagnostic data collection on Oracle
Clusterware, Oracle Grid Infrastructure and Oracle RAC systems.
Unlike similar solutions, the TFA Collector optimizes data gathering by providing a
single source of management as well as various focus levels. Data for a whole cluster
can be gathered from one node using one command and can be stored on a central
server for further analysis and processing. The TFA Collector also allows for trimming
data collection by focusing on certain components or relevant time frames only.
See Also:
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for details
1.3 RACcheck - The Oracle RAC Configuration Audit Tool
RACcheck is designed to audit vital configuration settings for the Oracle Database,
single instance databases, as well as Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC)
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.4) New Features 1-1
Database Replay Support for Database Consolidation
databases. It also includes checks for Oracle Clusterware, Oracle Automatic Storage
Management (Oracle ASM) and Oracle Grid Infrastructure.
RACcheck provides best practices recommedations considering the whole stack,
including Maximum Availability Architecture (MAA) configurations and is therefore
the ideal tool for regular health checks as well as pre- and post-upgrade best practices
assessments.
See Also:
Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide
for details
1.4 Database Replay Support for Database Consolidation
Database Replay now supports simultaneous execution of multiple database captures
on a single consolidated database. Consolidated database replay supports scheduling
of the individual replays enabling investigations of various scenarios (for example,
what if all my individual workloads hit their peak utilizations at the same time).
Consolidated replay provides the ability to test database performance for database
consolidation projects, whether consolidating onto an Oracle database machine or
other consolidated infrastructure.
See Also:
Oracle Database Testing Guide for details
1.5 Optimization for Flashback Data Archive History Tables
When using flashback data archive to track changes on tables, you can now enable
optimization of the corresponding history tables using the OPTIMIZE DATA clause when
creating or altering a flashback data archive.
Optimization of flashback data archive history tables provides better storage efficiency
and better performance for flashback queries on the change history without additional
intervention needed by the DBA.
See Also:
Oracle Database Development Guide for details
1.6 Desupported Features
The following features are desupported in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2):
■
■
The -cleanupOBase flag of the deinstallation tool is desupported. There is no
replacement for this flag.
The DES and RC4 algorithms are desupported.
See Also:
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for details
1.7 New sqlnet.ora Parameter SSL_EXTENDED_KEY_USAGE
Starting with this release, you can use the SQLNET.SSL_EXTENDED_KEY_USAGE parameter
in the sqlnet.ora file to select a Secure Sockets Layer certificate to be used
automatically to authenticate clients. For example, suppose you have multiple
1-2 Oracle Database New Features Guide
ENABLE_GOLDENGATE_REPLICATION for Oracle GoldenGate
certificates for a smart card but only one of the certificates has an extended key usage
field of client authentication. In the application, a certificate chooser dialog box would
appear, prompting the user to select the type of authentication. Because the type of
authentication would always be for clients, the SQLNET.SSL_EXTENDED_KEY_USAGE
parameter can enable the application to bypass this dialog box and automatically
choose client authentication. As a result, the user has fewer steps to perform in a task,
thereby making the user's job easier and more efficient.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Guide for details
1.8 New PrimaryLostWriteAction Property
The new PrimaryLostWriteAction Data Guard broker configuration property
determines what action is taken if a standby database detects that a lost write has
occurred at the primary database.
See Also:
Oracle Data Guard Broker for details
1.9 ENABLE_GOLDENGATE_REPLICATION for Oracle GoldenGate
The ENABLE_GOLDENGATE_REPLICATION initialization parameter controls services
provided by the RDBMS for Oracle GoldenGate (both capture and apply services). Set
this to true to enable RDBMS services used by Oracle GoldenGate.
See Also:
Oracle Database Reference for details
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.4) New Features 1-3
ENABLE_GOLDENGATE_REPLICATION for Oracle GoldenGate
1-4 Oracle Database New Features Guide
2
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.3) New
Features
2
This chapter contains descriptions of all of the features that are new to Oracle Database
11g Release 2 (11.2.0.3).
2.1 General
The following sections describe the new features for Oracle Database 11g Release 2
(11.2.0.3).
2.1.1 Support Hybrid Columnar Compression on Pillar Axiom and Sun ZFSSA
Oracle’s Hybrid Columnar Compression (HCC) technology is a new (to Oracle
Database 11g Release 2) method for organizing data within a database block. HCC
utilizes a combination of both row and columnar methods for storing data. A logical
construct called the compression unit is used to store a set of HCC-compressed rows.
When data is loaded, groups of rows are stored in columnar format, with the values
for a given column stored and compressed together. After the column data for a set of
rows has been compressed, it is fit into the compression unit. Storing column data
together, with the same data type and similar characteristics, dramatically increases
the storage savings achieved from compression. This feature extends Hybrid
Columnar Compression to Pillar Axiom and Sun ZFS Storage Appliance (ZFSSA)
storage.
The support of Hybrid Columnar Compression on Pillar and ZFSSA enables Oracle
Database users to utilize Oracle’s Hybrid Columnar Compression on Pillar Axiom and
Sun ZFS Storage Appliance (ZFSSA) storage hardware. This provides the storage
benefits of Oracle’s Hybrid Columnar Compression, which had previously been
exclusive to the Oracle Exadata platform, to Oracle Database users who use Pillar
Axiom or Sun ZFSSA storage (or both), enabling compression ratios of 10x to 50x,
depending on the data and the compression level chosen by the user.
See Also:
Oracle Database Concepts for details
2.1.2 Support for SHA-2 Certificate Signatures
With this new feature, the database can handle SHA-2 (256 bit) signed certificates in
addition to older SHA-1 signed certificates. These certificates are issued by a separate
certificate authority and are exchanged between the database and a client when a
secure database connection is being established (for example, where certificate-based
network encryption and authentication are being used).
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.3) New Features 2-1
General
This enhancement is particularly critical for customers who are facing deadlines for
when their certificate authorities will stop issuing older SHA-1 signed certificates.
2.1.3 TDE Hardware Acceleration for Solaris
Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) can automatically detect whether the database
host machine includes specialized cryptographic silicon that accelerates the encryption
or decryption processing. When detected, TDE uses the specialized silicon for
cryptographic processing accelerating the overall cryptographic performance
significantly.
In prior releases, cryptographic hardware acceleration for TDE was only available on
Intel Xeon, and only for Linux. With release 11.2.0.3 and later releases, it works with
the current versions of Solaris 11 running on both SPARC T-Series and Intel Xeon.
2.1.4 Support for Multiple Certificates on Smart Card
Consider the scenario, a database user inserts a card containing one or more digital
certificates into a card reader device and manually enters a corresponding personal
identification number (PIN). Oracle has supported card-based authentication to the
database and, starting with release 11.2.0.3, can now handle situations where multiple
certificates are contained on the card. The database attempts to intelligently select
which certificate to read and, if it cannot figure out which one to read, a selection box
pops up on the Windows client machine.
This is an important enhancement for customers who use card-based, two-factor
authentication to log in to Oracle Database. In August 2004, the Homeland Security
Presidential Directive Number 12 (HSPD-12) was issued to unify the government's
identification badge systems. The new guidelines are dictating the deployment of
Common Access Cards (CAC) that contain digital certificates.
2.1.5 QoS Management Support for Oracle RAC Enterprise Edition
Oracle Database Quality of Service (QoS) Management allows system administrators
to directly measure application service levels hosted on Oracle RAC Enterprise Edition
databases. Using a policy-based architecture, QoS Management correlates accurate
run-time performance and resource metrics based on user-defined workload classes.
QoS Management then presents them in an integrated Enterprise Manager dashboard
to review real-time performance of consolidated applications. In conjunction with
Cluster Health Monitor (CHM), QoS Management’s memory guard detects nodes that
are at risk of failure due to the over commitment of memory. QoS Management
responds by automatically preventing new connections thus preserving existing
workloads and restores connectivity once sufficient memory is available again.
The benefits of this feature aids in the schema and database consolidation of
applications within Oracle Real Application Clusters yielding information technology
efficiency and cost savings. This feature also actively protects application availability
under high memory conditions with memory guard.
2.1.6 QoS Management Support for Instance Caging on Oracle Exadata
Oracle Database Quality of Service (QoS) Management allows system administrators
to directly measure application service levels hosted on Oracle RAC Enterprise Edition
databases. Using a policy-based architecture, QoS Management correlates accurate
run-time performance and resource metrics based on user-defined workload classes,
analyzes this data with its expert system to identify bottlenecks, and produces
recommended resource adjustments to meet and maintain performance objectives
2-2 Oracle Database New Features Guide
General
under dynamic load conditions. QoS Management then presents the findings in an
integrated Enterprise Manager dashboard to review real-time performance of
consolidated applications. Along with moving the server between server pools, QoS
Management now also supports moving CPUs between databases within the same
pool to better manage performance in consolidated Oracle Exadata deployments.
This new support manages service-level agreements (SLA) for Online Transaction
Processing (OLTP) database applications consolidated on Oracle Exadata yielding
information technology efficiency and cost savings.
2.1.7 Oracle ACFS Snapshot Enhancements
The read/write snapshot feature for Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster
File System (Oracle ACFS) adds support for fast creation of an Oracle ACFS snapshot
image that can be both read and written without impacting the state of the Oracle
ACFS primary file system hosting the snapshot images.
With this enhancement, you can test new versions of application software on
production file data reflected in the read/write snapshot image without modifying the
original production file system.
You can also run what-if scenarios on a real data set without modifying the original
file system.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
details
2.1.8 Oracle ACFS Security and Encryption Features
The Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS)
security feature provides realm-based security for Oracle ACFS.
The Oracle ACFS encryption feature enables data stored on disk (data-at-rest) to be
encrypted.
Oracle ACFS security feature provides the ability to create realms to specify security
policies for users or groups for accessing file system objects. The Oracle ACFS security
feature provides finer-grained access control on top of the access control provided by
the operating system.
Oracle ACFS encryption feature provides the ability to keep data in an Oracle ACFS
file system in encrypted format to prevent unauthorized use of data in the case of data
loss or theft.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
details
2.1.9 Support for ACFS Replication and Tagging on Windows
Support for replication and tagging functionality is now available on the Windows
platform.
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS) replication
enables replication of Oracle ACFS file systems across the network to a remote site,
providing disaster recovery capability for the file system.
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.3) New Features 2-3
General
Oracle ACFS tagging assigns a common naming attribute to a group of files. Oracle
ACFS replication can use this tag to select files with a unique tag name for replication
to a different remote cluster site. The tagging option avoids having to replicate an
entire Oracle ACFS file system.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
details
2.1.10 Oracle LogMiner Support for Binary XML
This feature extends Oracle LogMiner data type support to include support for
XMLType columns and tables stored in binary format.
Oracle LogMiner can now be used with applications having XML stored using binary
format.
See Also:
Oracle Database Utilities for details
2.1.11 SQL Apply Support for Binary XML
This feature extends SQL Apply data type support to include support for XMLType
columns and tables stored in binary format.
SQL Apply can now be used with applications having XML stored using binary
format.
See Also:
Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration for details
2.1.12 Oracle LogMiner Support for Object Relational Model
This feature extends Oracle LogMiner data type support to include support for
XMLType columns and tables stored using the Object Relational (O/R) model.
Oracle LogMiner can now be used with applications having Oracle XML stored using
the O/R model.
See Also:
Oracle Database Utilities for details
2.1.13 SQL Apply Support for Object Relational Model
This feature extends SQL Apply data type support to include support for XMLType
columns and tables stored using the Object Relational (O/R) model.
SQL Apply can now be used with applications having XML stored using the O/R
model.
See Also:
Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration for details
2.1.14 Deprecation of Obsolete Oracle XML DB Functions and Packages
The following Oracle XML DB constructs are deprecated in Oracle Database 11g
Release 2 (11.2.0.3):
2-4 Oracle Database New Features Guide
General
■
PL/SQL procedure DBMS_XDB_ADMIN.createRepositoryXMLIndex
■
PL/SQL procedure DBMS_XDB_ADMIN.XMLIndexAddPath
■
PL/SQL procedure DBMS_XDB_ADMIN.XMLIndexRemovePath
■
PL/SQL procedure DBMS_XDB_ADMIN.dropRepositoryXMLIndex
■
XML schema annotation (attribute) csx:encodingType
■
XMLIndex index on CLOB portions of hybrid XMLType storage, that is, on CLOB
data that is embedded within object relational storage
These constructs are still supported in 11.2.0.3 for backward compatibility, but Oracle
recommends that you do not use them in new applications.
See Also:
Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide for details
2.1.15 Oracle Warehouse Builder Support for Partition DML
In this release, Oracle Warehouse Builder (OWB) can now generate DML specific to
manipulating database partitions. This allows OWB users to perform extract,
transform, and load (ETL) operations with all types of partitioned tables.
This feature enables fuller exploitation of database resources and capabilities, and
improves developer and DBA productivity by making these capabilities available from
within OWB.
For additional information, see the Oracle Warehouse Builder documentation.
2.1.16 Enhanced Partitioning Support in Oracle Warehouse Builder
In this release, Oracle Warehouse Builder (OWB) exposes the full range of database
partitioning types available up through Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2). This
allows OWB users to design and perform extract, transform, and load (ETL)
operations with all types of partitioned tables.
This feature improves developer productivity by making these capabilities available
from within OWB and enables fuller exploitation of database resources and
capabilities.
For additional information, see the Oracle Warehouse Builder documentation.
2.1.17 Oracle Warehouse Builder External Table Data Pump Support
In this release, Oracle Warehouse Builder (OWB) exposes the database support for the
ORACLE_DATAPUMP access driver. This enables OWB to use external tables to unload
data to Data Pump export files and load from Data Pump export files through external
tables in extract, transform, and load (ETL) mappings.
Use of Data Pump export files for moving bulk data is the recommended best practice
for ETL into an Oracle data warehouse because it is faster than other methods (such as
using database links) of moving data between Oracle databases.
For additional information, see the Oracle Warehouse Builder documentation.
2.1.18 Oracle Warehouse Builder External Table Preprocessor Support
In this release, Oracle Warehouse Builder (OWB) exposes the database support for the
external table preprocessor.
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.3) New Features 2-5
General
The external table preprocessor enables more flexible handling of external table source
files, such as compressed flat files or multiple files, from within extract, transform, and
load (ETL) mappings.
For additional information, see the Oracle Warehouse Builder documentation.
2.1.19 Compressed Table and Partition Support in Oracle Warehouse Builder
In this release, Oracle Warehouse Builder (OWB) exposes the table-level and
partition-level compression options of all Oracle Database releases up to Oracle
Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2). This allows OWB users to manage the compression
of tables and individual partitions as part of the design of their sources and targets.
This feature improves developer productivity by eliminating the need to manage these
options outside of OWB and enables fuller exploitation of database resources.
For additional information, see the Oracle Warehouse Builder documentation.
2.1.20 Support for PL/SQL Native Compilation
Oracle Warehouse Builder (OWB) now supports PL/SQL native compilation. With
PL/SQL native compilation enabled, the PL/SQL statements in a PL/SQL unit are
compiled into native code and stored in the catalog. The native code need not be
interpreted at run time, therefore it runs faster.
PL/SQL native compilation provides the greatest performance gains for
computation-intensive procedural operations, such as certain data warehouse
computations that are usually not performed in set-based SQL.
For additional information, see the Oracle Warehouse Builder documentation.
2-6 Oracle Database New Features Guide
3
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2) New
Features
3
This chapter contains descriptions of all of the features that are new to Oracle Database
11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2).
3.1 General
The following sections describe the new features for Oracle Database 11g Release 2
(11.2.0.2).
3.1.1 General
The following sections provide information on new features for 11.2.0.2.
3.1.1.1 Control File Updates Can Be Disabled During NOLOGGING Operations
Parameter DB_UNRECOVERABLE_SCN_TRACKING = [ TRUE | FALSE ] can be used to turn
off control file writes to update fields that track the highest unrecoverable SCN and
Time during a NOLOGGING direct path operation.
Performance of the NOLOGGING load operation could be limited by the control file write
I/O.
3.1.1.2 New Package for Configuring Automatic SQL Tuning
A new PL/SQL package, DBMS_AUTO_SQLTUNE, has been introduced to provide more
restrictive access to the Automatic SQL Tuning feature.
With this package, access to Automatic SQL Tuning can be restricted to DBAs so that
only they can change its configuration settings that effect run-time behavior of the
query optimizer, such as enabling or disabling automatic SQL profile creation.
See Also:
Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide for details
3.1.1.3 Enhanced Security for DBMS_SCHEDULER E-Mail Notification
Encryption and authentication have been added to the Oracle Scheduler's e-mail
notification feature.
E-mail notification on job failures was added in 11.2.0.1, but it did not support those
e-mail servers that require either encryption or authentication. This feature adds this
support in 11.2.0.2.
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2) New Features 3-1
General
See Also:
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for details
3.1.1.4 Enhanced TRUNCATE Functionality
While truncating a table or partition, you can now specify whether or not to keep any
segments. Truncating a table or partition with the new extended syntax removes all
segments and does not use any space until new data is inserted.
All allocated space in a database can now be reclaimed by truncating tables or
partitions with the new extended syntax, optimizing the space foot print of any
application.
See Also:
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for details
3.1.1.5 Support for In-Place Upgrade of Clients
Both in-place and out-of-place upgrades are supported for client installations.
You now have the option of doing in-place client upgrades reducing the need for extra
storage and simplifying the installation process.
See Also:
Oracle Database Client Installation Guide for Linux for details
3.1.1.6 Maintenance Package for Segment Creation on Demand
Customers can manage the space allocation of any application through extended
functionality of the DBMS_SPACE_ADMIN package. This package can be used to remove
the segments for all empty tables in a database, a user schema, or for specific tables.
This package also provides the opposite functionality to materialize all segments for
empty tables or partitions with deferred segment creation
The explicit management of deferred segment creation enables you to take advantage
of this functionality at any given point in time, even after table or partition creation.
This is especially useful for systems that were upgraded in-place and makes a
re-creation of all empty objects unnecessary.
See Also:
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for details
3.1.1.7 Maximum CPU Utilization Limit
Resource Manager provides a new directive called MAX_UTILIZATION_LIMIT that
allows you to place a hard limit on the amount of CPU utilized by a consumer group.
The MAX_UTILIZATION_LIMIT directive is useful for limiting the CPU utilization of low
priority workloads. This directive is also useful for providing more consistent
performance for the workload in a consumer group, and it helps to build systems
where end users experience consistent response times for each database operation.
See Also:
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for details
3-2 Oracle Database New Features Guide
General
3.1.1.8 Name Matching
This feature provides an efficient method for matching proper names (and words) that
take a query as input and returns a ranked list of matches. The new operator NDATA is
introduced for this functionality.
In today's multicultural society, a person accustomed to the spelling rules of one
demographic may have difficulty applying those same rules to a name originating
from a different culture.
Name matching provides a solution to match proper names that might differ in
spelling due to orthographic variation.
See Also:
Oracle Text Reference for details
3.1.1.9 Named Entity Extraction
Entity extraction is the recognition of entity names (people and organizations), places,
temporal expressions, and types of numerical expressions such as currencies and
measures.
The goal of entity extraction is to identify instances of a particular pre-specified class
of entities in textual documents.
The benefit is to produce a "structured" view of a document that can later be used for
text or data mining and more comprehensive intelligence analysis.
See Also:
Oracle Text Reference for details
3.1.1.10 Default Size of First Extent of Any New Segment for a Partitioned Table
Has Changed
The default size of the first extent of any new segment for a partitioned table is now 8
MB instead of 64 K.
The goal is to improve I/O performance. However, under certain circumstances,
loading a table will take significantly more disk space.
See Also:
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for details
3.1.1.11 Parallel Statement Queuing
Parallel Statement Queuing ensures all statements run on a system get the appropriate
parallel resources to perform well by allowing you to ensure that a system is neither
overwhelmed nor starved for parallel server processes. Queuing can be implemented
per resource group and allows for both prioritization of statements and the above
mentioned management of a parallel workload. Parallel Statement Queuing works in
conjunction with Automatic Degree of Parallelism.
Data Warehouses are evolving into systems that support both operational
environments and the more classic strategic data warehouse workloads. These mixed
workloads require active workload management. One of these resources that should
be managed as part of the workload management process is the use of Parallel Server
Processes. Parallel server resources are allocated by Automatic Degree of Parallelism
(DOP). Statement queuing is then used to ensure that each statement can run with the
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2) New Features 3-3
General
optimal DOP within the system limits. Allowing each statement to run with the
optimal DOP allows a system to:
■
■
Perform well overall and avoid large wait times on system resources.
Utilize all resources in an optimal manner without trashing the system in peak
times or due to runaway queries.
■
Balance overall performance to be much more predictable.
■
Allocate appropriate resources based on policies, not based on user abuse.
See Also:
Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide for details
3.1.1.12 PMML Import
This release adds support for importing external data mining models (linear and
binary logistic regression) using the Data Mining Group Predictive Model Markup
Language (PMML) standard. The imported models become native Oracle Data Mining
(ODM) models capable of Oracle Exadata offload.
If you use an external data mining product to generate models, you could encounter
difficulty when deploying those models into their production databases. The current
process of deploying such models is expensive, error prone, and non-performant. This
feature streamlines the movement of external models into production Oracle systems
and leverages optimized performance of the ODM option.
See Also:
Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for details
3.1.1.13 Result Set Interface
The client interface CTX_QUERY.RESULT_SET runs a query and generates a result set. The
components of the result set are:
■
Documents.
■
Support order by SDATA.
■
A total estimated count of number of matching documents.
■
A count, broken down by metadata value, of matching documents in each
category.
A page of search results consist of many disparate elements (for example, metadata of
the first few documents, snippet, total hit counts, and so on). Instead of accessing the
database to construct bits of the search results, it would be useful to have a clean result
set mechanism. The result set interface is able to produce the various kinds of data
needed for a page of search results all at once, improving performance by sharing
overhead. The result set interface can also return data views which are difficult to
express in SQL, such as top n by category queries.
See Also:
Oracle Text Application Developer's Guide for details
3.1.1.14 Segment Creation On Demand for Partitioned Tables
The initial segment creation for partitioned tables and indexes can be deferred until
data is first inserted into an object. Individual partitions will not be physically created
before data is inserted for the first time.
3-4 Oracle Database New Features Guide
General
Several prepackaged applications are delivered with large schemas containing many
partitioned tables and indexes. With deferred segment creation for partitioned tables,
empty database objects do not consume any space, reducing the installation footprint
and speeding up the installation.
See Also:
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for details
3.1.1.15 Simplification of XML and XQuery Interfaces
This feature extends the XQuery 1.0 standard's operator fn:doc and fn:collection to
allow direct access to collections of XML documents stored in the database.
Direct access to XML content in tables and views is provided by extending fn:doc and
fn:collection to support DBUri-style paths through the pseudo protocol xdb://.
Simplification of Oracle XML and XQuery interfaces provides standard mechanisms,
allows building of portable XML applications that are easier to maintain, and
deprecates redundant or unused functionality.
See Also:
Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide for details
3.1.1.16 SMTP Authentication
Starting with this release, you can configure the UTL_SMTP PL/SQL package for use on
both Transport Layer Security (TLS) and Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) servers."
This allows the package to be used to send to SMTP servers that require authentication
to combat spam.
See Also:
Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for details
3.1.1.17 SMTP Encryption
UTL_SMTP is extended in this release to provide Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and
Transport Layer Security (TLS) support.
This allows the package to be used to send to SMTP servers using SSL and TLS to
ensure channel integrity.
See Also:
Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for details
3.1.1.18 SPA Support for Active Data Guard Environment
If you are using Oracle Active Data Guard physical standby database, you already
have full dataset or clone or both of the production environment that can be leveraged
for testing with SQL Performance Analyzer (SPA). Using remote test execution SPA
trial method, you can connect to a physical standby database in read-only mode and
use it for testing. The physical standby database continues to be in read-only and
standby mode (changes are being applied) during SPA testing. The SPA analysis and
reports are available from the remote database that is orchestrating the SPA trials. The
orchestrating database (SPA system) can be the primary database or any remote
database running Oracle Database 11g and higher releases.
This feature allows customers to leverage existing Active Data Guard physical standby
databases for SQL Performance Analyzer Testing.
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2) New Features 3-5
General
See Also:
Oracle Database Testing Guide for details
3.1.1.19 The EDITION Attribute of a Database Service
The EDITION attribute of a database service specifies the initial session edition for a
session that is started using that service. If the program that creates a new session does
not specify the initial session, then the edition name specified by the service is used. If
the service does not specify the edition name, then the initial session edition is the
database default edition.
When an edition-based redefinition exercise is implemented to support hot rollover,
some clients to the database will want to use the pre-upgrade edition and others will
want to use the post-upgrade edition. In this scenario, the database default edition is
insufficient because, by definition, it denotes a single edition. The EDITION attribute of
a database service provides a way to allow the client to specify the edition it wants
using environment data rather than by changing the client code.
See Also:
Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for details
3.1.1.20 Using Binary XML with SecureFiles as the XMLType Default Storage
In this release, the default storage model has changed for XMLType from STORE AS
CLOB to STORE AS SECURE FILE BINARY XML. This affects the storage used when an
explicit STORE AS clause is not supplied when creating an XMLType table or column.
Not specifying a STORE AS CLAUSE indicates that it is left to the database to determine
what the optimal storage model should be.
Prior to database release 11.2.0.2, the default storage model was STORE AS BASICFILE
CLOB. In 11.2.0.2, the default is changed to STORE AS SECUREFILE BINARY XML.
This change requires the installation of the XDB feature in order to work correctly.
Customers that choose not to install the XDB feature must explicitly add STORE AS
CLOB to any DLL statements that create XMLType table or columns to avoid DDL
errors. Note that the use of XMLType without having the XDB installed is not a
supported configuration as of 11.1.0.1.
No data migration takes place when databases are upgraded to 11.2.0.2.
Binary XML with SecureFiles provides efficient storage, retrieval, and DML
capabilities for semi-structured and unstructured XML data. Changing the default
storage for XMLType to binary XML with SecureFiles helps customers to adopt best
practices.
See Also:
Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide for details
3.1.1.21 JDBC 4.0 SQLXML
This feature implements the JDBC 4.0 specification of the SQLXML interface for
managing the XML data type in the database.
This feature allows Java applications using JDBC-Thin or JDBC-OCI to manage the
XML data type in the database, using the standard SQLXML type (java.sql.SQLXML).
See Also:
Oracle Database JDBC Developer's Guide for details
3-6 Oracle Database New Features Guide
General
3.1.1.22 ID Key LCRs in XStream
ID key LCRs enable an XStream client application to process changes to rows that
include unsupported data types. ID key LCRs do not contain all of the columns for a
row change. Instead, they contain the rowid of the changed row, a group of key
columns to identify the row in the table, and the data for the scalar columns of the
table that are supported by XStream Out. ID key LCRs do not contain columns for
unsupported data types.
This feature enables XStream users to capture database changes that cannot be
supported using Oracle Streams.
See Also:
Oracle Database XStream Guide for details
3.1.2 ACFS Improvements
The following sections provide information on ACFS improvements for 11.2.0.2.
3.1.2.1 ACFS, ADVM and Snapshots on Solaris and AIX
Oracle ACFS, Oracle ASM Dynamic Volume Manager (Oracle ADVM) and Snapshots
were delivered in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.1) on Windows NT and Linux
platforms.
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2) now provides a general purpose cluster file
system which leverages the capabilities of Oracle ASM on Solaris and AIX platforms.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
details
3.1.2.2 Oracle ACFS Replication
The Oracle Automatic Storage Management Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS)
Replication feature supports asynchronous replication of an ACFS file system from a
primary to standby site.
The Oracle ACFS Replication feature allows you to replicate ACFS file systems across
the network to another (possibly distant) site. This provides a disaster recovery
capability for the file system. This feature can be used in conjunction with Oracle Data
Guard to replicate all Oracle data.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
details
3.1.2.3 Oracle ACFS Security and Encryption Features
Oracle ASM Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS) security feature provides realm-based
security for Oracle ACFS.
Oracle ACFS encryption feature enables data stored on disk (data-at-rest) to be
encrypted.
Oracle ACFS security feature provides the ability to create realms to specify security
policies for users or groups for accessing file system objects. The Oracle ACFS security
feature provides a finer-grained access control on top of the access control provided by
the operating system.
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2) New Features 3-7
General
Oracle ACFS encryption feature provides the ability to keep data in an Oracle ACFS
file system in encrypted format to prevent unauthorized use of data in the case of data
loss or theft.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
details
3.1.2.4 Oracle ACFS Tagging
The Oracle ACFS Tagging feature provides a method for relating a group of files based
on a common naming attribute assigned to these files called a tag name.
You can use this feature alone or in conjunction with other features. For example, in
conjunction with Oracle ACFS Replication, you can select specific files that you would
like to replicate to a different remote cluster site by assigning a unique tag name to
them. You would then instruct Oracle ACFS Replication to replicate files based upon
this tag name. By using tagging in this respect, the need to replicate entire Oracle
ACFS file systems is reduced.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
details
3.1.3 Quality of Service (QoS) Management
A new Quality of Service (QoS) Management Server enables run time management of
service levels for hosted database applications on a shared infrastructure by cluster
administrators. The goal is to present an easy-to-use, policy-driven management
system that ensures meeting service levels if sufficient resources are available and
when they are not, allocates resources to the most business critical workloads not
meeting their service levels at the expense of the less critical ones.
The following sections describe Quality of Service Management Server features.
3.1.3.1 Database QoS Management Server
The Database Quality of Service (QoS) Management Server allows system
administrators to manage application service levels hosted in Oracle Database clusters
by correlating accurate run-time performance and resource metrics and analyzing with
an expert system to produce recommended resource adjustments to meet policy-based
performance objectives.
The Database QoS Management Server enables the pooling of resources to help ensure
that, when sufficient resources are available, performance and availability objectives
are met, even under demand surges. Managing resource allocations to match
performance objectives using a set of predefined policies, the Database QoS
Management Server greatly reduces system administrator and DBA time and
expertise. By continuously monitoring the system performance based on real demand,
it quickly identifies bottlenecks and potential problems that can be corrected before an
actual outage occurs. This system cuts time to resolve service level violations as it
provides detailed metrics and bottleneck identification along with recommendations
for resolution. The end result is the stakeholders trust to share resources thus reducing
capital and operational expenses.
3-8 Oracle Database New Features Guide
General
See Also:
Oracle Database Quality of Service Management User's Guide for
details
3.1.3.2 Database Quality of Service (QoS) Management Support
To support the Database Quality of Service (QoS) Management Server, the Oracle
Database Resource Manager and metrics have been enhanced to support fine-grained
performance metrics and now have the ability to manage workloads by user-defined
performance classes.
By supporting the Database QoS Management Server, applications sharing a single
database or multiple databases within a cluster can be managed discretely to monitor
and maintain their service levels. This consolidation reduces hardware, software and
management costs while maintaining business objectives.
See Also:
Oracle Database Quality of Service Management User's Guide for
details
3.1.3.3 Enterprise Manager QoS Management Integration
The administration of the Database Quality of Service (QoS) Management Server is
integrated into the new Cluster Administration section of Enterprise Manager. This is
designed as a task-based interface to create policy sets using a wizard, manage
application service levels using a dashboard, and monitor performance through
historical graphs, logs and alerts.
This feature provides full task-based integration into Enterprise Manager, simplifying
the administration tasks necessary to manage database application service levels using
the Database QoS Management Server. It both reduces task and troubleshooting time
as well as the level of training required thus reducing costs while maintaining
application availability.
See Also:
Oracle Database Quality of Service Management User's Guide for
details
3.1.3.4 Server Memory Stress Protection for Oracle Clusters
When QoS Management is enabled and managing an Oracle Clusterware server pool,
it receives a metrics stream from the Cluster Health Monitor that provides real-time
memory data including the amount available, in use, and swapped to disk for each
server. Should a node be determined to be under memory stress, the CRS-managed
database services are stopped on that node preventing new connections from being
created thereby protecting existing sessions. Once the memory stress is relieved (for
example, by either existing sessions closing or user intervention), the services are
restarted automatically and the listener begins sending opening connections on that
server.
Enterprise database servers can run out of available memory due to too many sessions
or runaway workloads. This can result in failed transactions or, in extreme cases, a
reboot of the server and loss of a valuable resource. Oracle Database QoS Management
detects memory pressure in real-time and prevents the addition of new sessions from
exhausting available memory thus protecting existing workloads and the availability
of the server. This adds a new resource protection capability in managing Service
Levels for Oracle RAC database-hosted applications.
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2) New Features 3-9
General
3.1.4 Database Replay
The following sections provide information on new Database Replay features for
11.2.0.2.
3.1.4.1 Database Replay SQL Performance Analyzer (SPA) Integration
This feature allows you to perform SQL Tuning Set (STS) capture and workload
capture or replay at the same time in a single process. STS is automatically exported
when the AWR data for the capture or replay is exported into the specified directory
object. By integrating SPA and Database Replay, you can analyze SQL-centric issues in
the workload more easily than if they were to do this manually in separate steps. An
SPA report can be generated at the end of workload replay to facilitate SQL-centric
analysis. Oracle RAC is not yet supported.
Integration of SPA and Database Replay features provides the ability to perform SQL
Tuning Set and workload capture or replay in one process and at the same time. As a
result, an SPA report is available to help with SQL-centric analysis when workload
replay is done.
See Also:
Oracle Database Testing Guide for details
3.1.4.2 Database Replay Timeout Function
During workload replay, it is sometimes possible that due to an execution plan, system
change or otherwise, a replay call may hang or take a long time. You can specify a
replay timeout parameter. If the call exceeds the timeout, that particular call is aborted.
This is useful with workloads when one or a few calls result in the workload replay to
run too long or hang. Aborting these will still provide a useful workload replay.
Database Replay timeout functionality provides the ability to control how long a long
running or runaway replay call will take. Without this functionality, a replay call may
take a long time or hang depending on the situation.
See Also:
Oracle Database Testing Guide for details
3.1.4.3 Database Replay Workload Analyzer
Database Replay Workload Analyzer is a tool that analyzes a captured workload and
provides an assessment of how reliably it can be replayed. It highlights any potential
problems that might be encountered during replay by outlining the parts that cannot
be replayed accurately due to insufficient data, errors during capture, and usage of
features that are unsupported by Database Replay.
This feature tells you, at the time of capture, whether the specific workload captured is
something that can be relied upon for future testing.
See Also:
Oracle Database Testing Guide for details
3.1.5 Management
The following sections provide information on new management features for 11.2.0.2.
3-10 Oracle Database New Features Guide
General
3.1.5.1 DBCA Support for Creating an Oracle RAC One Node Database
Support has been added in this release to Oracle Database Configuration Assistant
(DBCA) to create an Oracle Real Application Clusters One Node (Oracle RAC One
Node) database as part of the database creation process.
Oracle RAC One Node is a new option to the Oracle Enterprise Edition introduced
with the Oracle Database 11.2.0.1. Oracle DBCA now recognizes Oracle RAC One
Node databases and provides the required configuration options to ease the
management of Oracle RAC One Node.
See Also:
Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide
for details
3.1.5.2 Option of Downloading Latest Updates During Installation
This feature allows the installer to download mandatory patches for itself as well as
for the base product at installation time so that they do not need to be applied later. It
also helps resolve installation issues at the middle of a release without either recutting
the media or deferring the bug fix to a later release.
Currently, when there is a bug in the base installation, you have to wait until the next
release before it can be fixed. This feature helps resolve installation issues at the
middle of a release without either recutting the media or deferring the bug fix to a
later release. The feature also applies mandatory patches for the base product, thereby
creating more certified installations out-of-box.
See Also:
Oracle Database Installation Guide for Linux for details
3.1.5.3 Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant Support for Out-of-Place Upgrades
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster 11g Release 2 supports out-of-place upgrades.
The Oracle ASM Configuration Assistant (ASMCA) now fully supports out-of-place
upgrades to this new release.
The graphical user interface (GUI) provides a simple interactive method for upgrading
environments to this new release. To allow scripting, the assistant also provides an
on-interactive method (silent) mode, which addresses various deployment scenarios
used by customers.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
details
3.1.5.4 Oracle Database Upgrade Assistant Support for Out-of-Place Upgrades
Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster 11g Release 2 supports out-of-place upgrades.
The Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA) now fully supports out-of-place upgrades to
this new release.
The graphical user interface (GUI) provides a simple interactive method for upgrading
environments to this new release. To allow scripting, the assistant also provides an
on-interactive method (silent) mode, which addresses various deployment scenarios
used by customers.
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2) New Features 3-11
General
See Also:
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for details
3.1.5.5 Oracle Enterprise Manager DB Control Support for Oracle RAC One Node
Oracle Enterprise Manager DB Control provides support for Oracle RAC One Node
databases.
Oracle RAC One Node is a new option to the Oracle Enterprise Edition introduced
with the Oracle Database 11.2.0.1. Oracle Enterprise Manager DB Control now
recognizes Oracle RAC One Node databases and provides the required configuration
options in an easy-to-use graphical user interface (GUI), which simplifies the
management of Oracle RAC One Node beyond the scope of the command-line tools
that are already available.
3.1.5.6 Online Relocation of an Oracle RAC One Node Database
Oracle RAC One Node allows the online relocation of an Oracle RAC One Node
database from one server to another. The migration period can be customized up to 12
hours.
Oracle RAC One Node allows the online relocation of an Oracle RAC One Node
database from one server to another, which provides increased availability for
applications based on an Oracle Database. You can now move a database for workload
balancing as well as for performing planned maintenance on the server, on the
operating system, or when applying patches to the Oracle software in a rolling fashion.
See Also:
Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide
for details
3.1.5.7 SRVCTL-Based Management of Oracle RAC One Node Databases
Oracle RAC One Node is a new option to the Oracle Database Enterprise Edition.
Oracle RAC One Node represents an Oracle RAC database that runs only one active
database instance which can be managed using SRVCTL as any other Oracle RAC
database.
Using SRVCTL simplifies and optimizes the management of Oracle RAC One Node
databases.
See Also:
Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide
for details
3.1.5.8 CRSCTL Command Enhancements
The CRSCTL command set has been enhancement to enable the management of various
new Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster resources.
Using these new commands simplifies the management of Oracle Grid Infrastructure
for a Cluster.
See Also:
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for details
3-12 Oracle Database New Features Guide
General
3.1.5.9 SRVCTL Command Enhancements
The SRVCTL command set has been enhancement to enable the management of various
new Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster and Oracle RAC resources.
Using these new commands simplifies the management of Oracle RAC and Oracle
Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster.
See Also:
Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide
for details
3.1.5.10 Enhanced XStream Manageability
To increase the manageability of XStream, new process parameters are added to
provide capabilities such as process memory control, changes to sequences, and the
ability to exclude changes performed by specific users or transactions. Repositioning
within the stream by either SCN or TIME is available. In addition, new views specific to
XStream are provided such as V$XSTREAM_OUTBOUND_SERVER and V$XSTREAM_
TRANSACTION, and existing views have been extended to provide additional
information such as the client status or memory utilization of a process.
These enhancements give the XStream user more control over and visibility into
XStream processing.
See Also:
Oracle Database XStream Guide for details
3.1.5.11 Columnar Compression Support in Supplemental Logging and XStream
Columnar compression is now supported with Oracle Streams and XStream.
This feature enables logical replication of tables compressed using Hybrid Columnar
Compression.
See Also:
Oracle Streams Concepts and Administration for details
3.1.5.12 Standalone Configuration Wizard for Post-Installation Cluster
Configuration
The installation of Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster with Oracle Database 11g
Release 2 includes a software-only option. This wizard assists the administrator with
completing the cluster configuration independently of the software installation.
The configuration wizard provides an easy-to-use interface to configure the cluster
independently of the software installation. Post-installation configuration of the
software at the customer site is a standing requirement.
Customers that need to be able to mass deploy Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster
or that need to support remote installations benefit from this feature.
See Also:
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for details
3.1.5.13 Redundant Interconnect Usage
Oracle RAC requires a dedicated network connection between the servers of the
Oracle RAC cluster. The dedicated network connection, called interconnect, is crucial
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.2) New Features 3-13
General
for the communication in the cluster. Using redundant network connections for load
balancing and for failure protection is recommended. While in previous releases,
technologies like bonding or trunking had to be used to make use of redundant
networks for the interconnect, Oracle Grid Infrastructure for a Cluster and Oracle RAC
now provide a native way of using redundant network interfaces in order to ensure
optimal communication in the cluster.
Using redundant interconnects optimizes the stability, reliability, and scalability of an
Oracle RAC cluster.
See Also:
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide for Linux for details
3-14 Oracle Database New Features Guide
4
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.1) New
Features
4
This chapter contains descriptions of all of the features that are new to Oracle 11g
Database, Release 2. This chapter contains the following sections:
■
Application Development
■
Availability
■
Business Intelligence and Data Warehousing
■
Clustering
■
Database Overall
■
Diagnosability
■
Performance
■
Security
■
Server Manageability
■
Unstructured Data Management
4.1 Application Development
The following sections describe the new application development features for Oracle
Database 11g Release 2 (11.2).
4.1.1 Oracle Application Express
The following sections describe Oracle Application Express features.
4.1.1.1 Application Date Format
You can now define a date format to be used throughout an application. This date
format is used to alter the NLS_DATE_FORMAT database session setting prior to showing
or submitting any page within the application. This format is used by all reports
showing dates and is also picked up by form items of type "Date Picker (use
Application Date Format)".
The ability to specify a date format at the application level ensures consistency across
the application. Therefore, whenever dates are displayed or input, they are in the same
format.
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.1) New Features 4-1
Application Development
4.1.1.2 Custom Themes
In addition to the default themes provided with Oracle Application Express, you can
create your own customized themes. You can either start with one of the twenty
standard themes available with Oracle Application Express and modify the
underlying templates or define your own templates from scratch. Each theme consists
of a set of templates defined with cascading style sheets (CSS) and HTML.
The ability to publish custom themes enables you to design a specific look and feel to
meet your corporate requirements and then publish them as a theme for all other
applications to use.
4.1.1.3 Declarative BLOB Support
Declarative BLOB support enables files to be declaratively uploaded in forms, and
downloaded or displayed using reports. BLOB display and download can also be
authored procedurally using PL/SQL.
The storing of binary large objects (BLOBs) within the database is growing in
popularity due to the many advantages over storing content on disparate file systems.
By incorporating declarative support for managing BLOBs into Application Express,
the loading and manipulating of content is greatly simplified.
4.1.1.4 Documented JavaScript Libraries
This release includes an improved framework for advanced Oracle Application
Express developers to build and leverage custom Web 2.0 capabilities, improving
performance and enabling developers to create more dynamic application widgets.
Oracle Application Express also includes the ability to suppress standard JavaScript
and CSS files. All included JavaScript files are now compressed to improve page load
time.
Many developers want to extend their applications to include additional Web 2.0
capabilities or to minimize the page weight for use on mobile devices such as iphones
and smartphones. The documentation and declarative capabilities allow developers to
design applications for these disparate requirements.
4.1.1.5 Enhanced Report Printing
Release 3.1 includes XML as a download format and supports multiple SQL
statements.
Oracle Application Express interactive reporting provides the ability to manipulate the
way in which the data is displayed on the screen. Users can also download this data in
various formats including PDF, RTF, XLS and now XML.
4.1.1.6 Forms Conversion
Forms Conversion captures the design of existing Oracle Forms and automatically
converts some components, primarily the user interface. Other components, such as
complex triggers, need to be manually converted post-generation.
Moving to native HTML is not seamless and changes to the user interface are required
to deliver optimal Web interactivity.
The Oracle Application Express Forms Conversion enables you to take advantage of
Oracle Application Express dynamic HTML capabilities, including interactive reports.
Given the similarities between Oracle Forms and Oracle Application Express
development (both use SQL and PL/SQL), retraining requirements are also low.
4-2 Oracle Database New Features Guide
Application Development
4.1.1.7 Improved Security
Oracle Application Express offers a number of security enhancements. Key
enhancements include the ability to declaratively encrypt session state and specify
session time outs for maximum idle time and maximum session duration as well as
create new password item types that enable users to enter passwords without ever
saving them to session state.
Other features include reducing the privileges required by the Oracle Application
Express database account, disabling database monitoring by default, and the ability to
specify HTTPS for administration. In addition, administrators can now restrict
password reuse. This release also includes a new Hidden and Protected item type. This
item type greatly simplifies the developer's task of protecting item session state. This,
together with other minor improvements, makes the default security functionality
more robust within Oracle Application Express.
The additional declarative security capabilities make it easier for developers and
administrators to harden the security of their applications and the development
environment. These new capabilities complement existing Oracle Application Express
security features some of which include flexible authentication, authorization schemes,
and URL tampering protection.
4.1.1.8 Interactive Reporting Region
Interactive Reporting Regions enable end users to customize reports. Users can alter
the layout of report data by choosing the columns they are interested in, applying
filters, highlighting, and sorting. They can also define breaks, aggregations, different
charts, and their own computations. Users can create multiple variations of the report
and save them as named reports and download to various file formats including
comma-delimited file (CSV) format, Microsoft Excel (XLS) format, Adobe Portable
Document Format (PDF), and Microsoft Word Rich Text Format (RTF).
Oracle Application Express Interactive Reporting enables developers to quickly
develop reports that can be manipulated by end users to meet a wide range of
reporting requirements. Therefore, instead of developers having to define specific
report layouts for different users or groups, they can define a common report that can
be used to meet the majority of the different requirements.
4.1.1.9 Runtime-Only Installation
For testing and production instances, Oracle Application Express now supports the
ability to install a runtime version of Oracle Application Express. This minimizes the
installed footprint and privileges. Scripts are also provided to remove or add the
developer interface from an existing instance.
The ability to implement a runtime-only environment improves application security as
developers cannot inadvertently or maliciously update a production application.
4.1.2 Other General Development Features
The following sections describe new features in the areas of OCI, Pro*C, JDBC, and
other development APIs.
4.1.2.1 Support WITH HOLD Option for CURSOR DECLARATION in Pro*C
The WITH HOLD option can now be specified during cursor declaration.
This new option provides easy migration of Pro*C applications.
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.1) New Features 4-3
Application Development
See Also:
Pro*C/C++ Programmer's Guide for details
4.1.2.2 Pro*C Support for 8-Byte Native Numeric Host Variable for INSERT and
FETCH
Oracle Call Interface (OCI) now provides Pro*C support for 8-byte native numeric host
variable for INSERT and FETCH on 32-bit and 64-bit platforms.
Fusion applications need Pro*C to be able to support 8-byte native data type for
bind/define while inserting or fetching data to and from a NUMBER(18) column.
See Also:
Pro*C/C++ Programmer's Guide for details
4.1.2.3 Pro*COBOL Support for 8-Byte Native Numeric Host Variable for INSERT
and FETCH
Oracle Call Interface (OCI) now provides Pro*COBOL support for 8-byte native
numeric host variable for INSERT and FETCH on 32-bit and 64-bit platforms.
Fusion applications need Pro*COBOL to be able to support 8-byte native data type for
bind/define while inserting or fetching data to and from a NUMBER(18) column.
4.1.2.4 JDBC Support for Time Zone Patching
The JDBC driver is updated to conform with the new time zone upgrading scheme.
This feature provides a simplified time zone patching process. As a result, Java
applications using the TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE data type are immune to Daylight
Saving Time (DST) changes.
4.1.2.5 JDBC Support for SecureFile Zero-Copy LOB I/O and LOB Prefetching
JDBC now supports SecureFile zero-copy LOB I/O and LOB prefetching.
This feature allows performant and secure Java access to structured (relational) and
unstructured data.
See Also:
Oracle Database JDBC Developer's Guide for details
4.1.2.6 OCI Support for 8-Byte Integer Bind/Define
Oracle Call Interface (OCI) now provides support for 8-byte integer bind/define on
32-bit and 64-bit platforms.
Fusion applications need Pro*C or Pro*COBOL to be able to support 8-byte native data
type for bind/define while inserting or fetching data to and from a NUMBER(18)
column. Pro*C or Pro*COBOL need this support from OCI to be able to pass it on to
application developers.
See Also:
Oracle Call Interface Programmer's Guide for details
4-4 Oracle Database New Features Guide
Availability
4.2 Availability
The focus of this Availability section is aimed towards providing capabilities that keep
the Oracle database available for continuous data access, despite unplanned failures
and scheduled maintenance activities. These various capabilities form the basis of
Oracle Maximum Availability Architecture (MAA), which is the Oracle blueprint for
implementing a highly available infrastructure using integrated Oracle technologies.
4.2.1 Backup and Recovery
The following sections describe new features in this release that provide
improvements in the area of backup and recovery.
4.2.1.1 Automatic Block Repair
Automatic block repair allows corrupt blocks on the primary database or physical
standby database to be automatically repaired, as soon as they are detected, by
transferring good blocks from the other destination. In addition, RECOVER BLOCK is
enhanced to restore blocks from a physical standby database. The physical standby
database must be in real-time query mode.
This feature reduces time when production data cannot be accessed, due to block
corruption, by automatically repairing the corruptions as soon as they are detected in
real-time using good blocks from a physical standby database. This reduces block
recovery time by using up-to-date good blocks from a real-time, synchronized physical
standby database as opposed to disk or tape backups or flashback logs.
See Also:
Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration for details
4.2.1.2 Backup to Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3) Using OSB Cloud
Computing
Oracle now offers backup to Amazon S3, an internet-based storage service, with the
Oracle Secure Backup (OSB) Cloud Module. This is part of the Oracle Cloud
Computing offering.
This feature provides easy-to-manage, low cost database backup to Web services
storage, reducing or eliminating the cost and time to manage an in-house backup
infrastructure.
See Also:
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Reference for details
4.2.1.3 DUPLICATE Without Connection to Target Database
DUPLICATE can be performed without connecting to a target database. This requires
connecting to a catalog and auxiliary database.
The benefit is improved availability of a DUPLICATE operation by not requiring
connection to a target database. This is particularly useful for DUPLICATE to a
destination database where connection to the target database may not be available at
all times.
See Also:
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide for details
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.1) New Features 4-5
Availability
4.2.1.4 Enhanced Tablespace Point-In-Time Recovery (TSPITR)
Tablespace point-in-time recovery (TSPITR) is enhanced as follows:
■
■
■
■
You now have the ability to recover a dropped tablespace.
TSPITR can be repeated multiple times for the same tablespace. Previously, once a
tablespace had been recovered to an earlier point-in-time, it could not be recovered
to another earlier point-in-time.
DBMS_TTS.TRANSPORT_SET_CHECK is automatically run to ensure that TSPITR is
successful.
AUXNAME is no longer used for recovery set data files.
This feature improves usability with TSPITR.
4.2.1.5 New DUPLICATE Options
The following are new options for the DUPLICATE command:
■
NOREDO
NOREDO indicates that archive logs are not applied. Because targetless DUPLICATE
does not connect to the target database, it cannot check if the database is running
in NOARCHIVELOG mode. It can also be used during regular duplication to force a
database currently in ARCHIVELOG mode to be recovered without applying archive
logs (for example, because it was in NOARCHIVELOG mode at the point-in-time it is
being duplicated).
■
UNDO TABLESPACE <tsname> [ , <tsname> ... ]
When not connected to a recovery catalog and not connected to an open target
database, RMAN cannot obtain the list of tablespaces with undo segments,
therefore, you must specify them with this clause.
This feature improves the usability of the DUPLICATE command.
4.2.1.6 New SET NEWNAME Clauses and Format Options
The following are new clauses and format options for the SET NEWNAME command:
■
A single SET NEWNAME command can be applied to all files in a tablespace, or for all
files in the database. For example:
SET NEWNAME FOR TABLESPACE <tsname> TO <format>;
Or,
SET NEWNAME FOR DATABASE TO <format>;
■
New format identifiers for SET NEWNAME...<format> are as follows:
–
%U
Unique identifier. data_D-%d_I-%I_TS-%N_FNO-%f
–
%b
UNIX base name of the original data file name. For example, if the original
data file name was ORACLE_HOME/data/tbs_01.f, then %b is tbs_01.f.
The benefit is improved flexibility of RESTORE, DUPLICATE, and TSPITR.
See Also:
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide for details
4-6 Oracle Database New Features Guide
Availability
4.2.1.7 Tablespace Checks in DUPLICATE
The DUPLICATE...TABLESPACE and DUPLICATE... SKIP TABLESPACE commands now
perform the following initial checks:
■
■
Excluded tablespaces are checked to see if they contain any objects owned by SYS.
DBMS_TTS.TRANSPORT_SET_CHECK is run to ensure that the set of tablespaces being
duplicated are self-contained before the actual duplicate process.
These checks are not possible for a targetless DUPLICATE as they are required to be run
at the target database.
This feature improves usability of DUPLICATE. Any tablespace issues are
immediately identified prior to commencement of the actual duplicate operation.
4.2.2 Online Application Maintenance and Upgrade
The following sections describe online application maintenance and upgrade features.
4.2.2.1 Edition-based Redefinition
Edition-based redefinition allows an application's database objects to be changed
without interrupting the application's availability by making the changes in the
privacy of a new edition. Every database has at least one edition. The DBA creates a
new edition as a child of the existing one. The changes are made in the child edition
while you continue to use the parent edition. When needed, changes to data are made
safely by writing only to new columns or new tables not seen by the old edition.
Editioning views expose a different projection of each changed table into each edition
to allow each to see just its own columns. Crossedition triggers propagate data
changes made by the old edition into the columns of the new edition. When the
installation of the changes is complete, some users start to use the new edition while
others drain off the old edition. Here, crossedition triggers propagate data changes
made by the new edition into the columns of the old edition.
Large, mission critical applications are often unavailable for long periods of time while
database objects are patched or upgraded. Edition-based redefinition allows this cost
to be avoided.
See Also:
Oracle Database Development Guide for details
4.2.2.2 Enhance CREATE or REPLACE TYPE to Allow FORCE
The FORCE option can now be used in conjunction with the CREATE or REPLACE TYPE
command.
This feature provides enhanced usability and allows a CREATE or REPLACE TYPE
operation to be performed even when TYPE dependent objects are present. However, if
at least one TABLE dependent is present, then FORCE does not allow CREATE or REPLACE
TYPE to succeed.
See Also:
Oracle Database Object-Relational Developer's Guide for details
4.2.2.3 Fine-Grained Dependencies for Triggers
Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) brought both fine-grained dependency tracking
and the new possibility that a trigger might be a dependency parent by virtue of the
new FOLLOWS keyword.
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.1) New Features 4-7
Availability
In release 11.1, dependents on triggers did not have fine-grained dependency. In
release 11.2, this fine-grained dependence exists. (Release 11.2 also provides the new
PRECEDES keyword which also allows trigger-upon-trigger dependencies.)
See Also:
Oracle Database Development Guide for details
4.2.2.4 IGNORE_ROW_ON_DUPKEY_INDEX Hint for INSERT Statement
With INSERT INTO TARGET...SELECT...FROM SOURCE, a unique key for some
to-be-inserted rows may collide with existing rows. The IGNORE_ROW_ON_DUPKEY_INDEX
allows the collisions to be silently ignored and the non-colliding rows to be inserted. A
PL/SQL program could achieve the same effect by first selecting the source rows and
by then inserting them one-by-one into the target in a block that has a null handler for
the DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX exception. However, the PL/SQL approach would take effort to
program and is much slower than the single SQL statement that this hint allows.
This hint improves performance and ease-of-programming when implementing an
online application upgrade script using edition-based redefinition.
See Also:
Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for details
4.2.3 Oracle Data Guard
The following sections describe new features in this release that provide
improvements in Oracle Data Guard.
4.2.3.1 Compressed Table Support in Logical Standby Databases and Oracle
LogMiner
Compressed tables (that is, tables with compression that support both OLTP and direct
load operations) are supported in logical standby databases and Oracle LogMiner.
With support for this additional storage attribute, logical standby databases can now
provide data protection and reporting benefits for a wider range of tables.
See Also:
Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration for details
4.2.3.2 Configurable Real-Time Query Apply Lag Limit
A physical standby database can be open for read-only access while redo apply is
active only if the Oracle Active Data Guard option is enabled. This capability is known
as real-time query.
The new STANDBY_MAX_DATA_DELAY session parameter can be used to specify a
session-specific apply lag tolerance, measured in seconds, for queries issued by
non-administrative users to a physical standby database that is in real-time query
mode.
This capability allows queries to be safely offloaded from the primary database to a
physical standby database, because it is possible to detect if the standby database has
become unacceptably stale.
See Also:
Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration for details
4-8 Oracle Database New Features Guide
Business Intelligence and Data Warehousing
4.2.3.3 Integrated Support for Application Failover in a Data Guard Configuration
Applications connected to a primary database can transparently failover to the new
primary database upon an Oracle Data Guard role transition. Integration with Fast
Application Notification (FAN) provides fast failover for integrated clients.
Flexibility and manageability of disaster recovery configurations using Oracle Data
Guard is improved.
See Also:
Oracle Data Guard Broker for details
4.2.3.4 Support Up to 30 Standby Databases
The number of standby databases that a primary database can support is increased
from 9 to 30 in this release.
The capability to create 30 standby databases, combined with the functionality of the
Oracle Active Data Guard option, allows the creation of reader farms that can be used
to offload large scale read-only workloads from a production database.
See Also:
Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration for details
4.3 Business Intelligence and Data Warehousing
The following sections describe new Business Intelligence and Data Warehousing
features for Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2).
4.3.1 Improved Analytics
The following sections describe new and improved analytical capabilities in this
release.
4.3.1.1 Analytic Functions 2.0
New and enhanced analytical functions are introduced in this release. A new ordered
aggregate, LISTAGG, concatenates the values of the measure column. The new analytic
window function NTH_VALUE (a generalization of existing FIRST_VALUE and LAST_VALUE
functions) gives users the functionality of retrieving an arbitrary (or nth) record in a
window.
The LAG and LEAD functions are enhanced with the IGNORE NULLS option.
The new and enhanced SQL analytical functions allow more complex analysis in the
database, using (simpler) SQL specification and providing better performance.
See Also:
Oracle Database Data Warehousing Guide for details
4.3.1.2 Recursive WITH Clause
The SQL WITH clause has been extended to enable formulation of recursive queries.
Recursive WITH clause complies with the American National Standards Institute
(ANSI) standard. This makes Oracle ANSI-compatible for recursive queries.
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.1) New Features 4-9
Business Intelligence and Data Warehousing
See Also:
Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for details
4.3.2 Improved Data Loading
The following sections describe new and improved data loading capabilities in this
release.
4.3.2.1 EXECUTE Privilege for DIRECTORY Objects
EXECUTE privilege is allowed for DIRECTORY objects in this release. The ORACLE_LOADER
access driver creates a process that runs a user-specified program. That program must
live in a directory path specified by a directory object defined in the database. Only a
user that has been given EXECUTE access to the directory object is allowed to run
programs in it.
This feature allows the DBA to control who is allowed to run preprocessors as part of
loading data with external tables. It also allows the DBA to restrict which programs
those users can run. No existing users with access to the directory object are allowed to
run any programs from that directory unless the DBA gives them EXECUTE access to
that directory.
See Also:
Oracle Database Utilities for details
4.3.2.2 Preprocessing Data for ORACLE_LOADER Access Driver in External Tables
The syntax for the ORACLE_LOADER access driver is extended in this release to allow
specification of a program to preprocess the data files that are read for the external
table. The access parameters can specify the name of a directory object and the name of
an executable file in that directory object. When the access driver needs to read data
from a file, it creates a process that runs the specified program, passing in the name of
the data file. The output from the program is passed into the access driver which
parses the data into records and columns.
The initial use of this feature is by a customer who needs to load data that is stored in
compressed files. The user specifies the name of the program used to decompress the
file as part of the access parameters. The access driver reads the output of the
decompression program.
Large customers want to load data from compressed files which requires less disk
space and uses the I/O bandwidth between the disk and memory more efficiently.
See Also:
Oracle Database Utilities for details
4.3.3 Improved Partitioning
The following sections describe new and improved partitioning capabilities in this
release.
4.3.3.1 Allow Virtual Columns in the Primary Key or Foreign Key for Reference
Partitioning
Virtual columns can be used as the primary or the foreign key column of a reference
partition table.
4-10 Oracle Database New Features Guide
Business Intelligence and Data Warehousing
Allowing the use of virtual columns for reference partitioned tables enables an easier
implementation of various business scenarios using Oracle Partitioning.
4.3.3.2 System-Managed Indexes for List Partitioning
System-managed domain indexes are now supported for list partitioned tables.
This feature provides enhanced completeness of domain-specific indexing support for
partitioning to meet user requirements including Oracle XML DB. Performance of
local domain indexes on list partitioned tables is improved in this release.
See Also:
Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for details
4.3.4 Improved Performance and Scalability
The following sections describe new and improved performance and scalability
capabilities in this release.
4.3.4.1 In-Memory Parallel Execution
Traditionally, parallel execution has enabled organizations to manage and access large
amounts of data by taking full advantage of the I/O capacity of the system.
In-memory parallel execution harnesses the aggregated memory in a system to
enhance query performance by minimizing or even completely eliminating the
physical I/O needed for a parallel operation. Oracle automatically decides if an object
being accessed using parallel execution benefits from being cached in the SGA (buffer
cache). The decision to cache an object is based on a well defined set of heuristics
including size of the object and the frequency that it is accessed. In an Oracle RAC
environment, Oracle maps fragments of the object into each of the buffer caches on the
active instances. By creating this mapping, Oracle knows which buffer cache to access
to find a specific part or partition of an object to answer a given SQL query.
In-memory parallel query harnesses the aggregated memory in a system for parallel
operations, enabling it to scale out with the available memory for data caching as the
number of nodes in a cluster increases. This new functionality optimizes large parallel
operations by minimizing or even completely eliminating the physical I/O needed
because the parallel operation can now be satisfied in memory.
See Also:
Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide for details
4.3.4.2 Minimal Effort Parallel Execution - Auto Degree of Parallelism (DOP) and
Queuing
When activated, Oracle determines the optimal degree of parallelism (DOP) for any
given SQL operation based on the size of the objects, the complexity of a statement,
and the existing hardware resources.
The database compensates for wrong or missing user settings for parallel execution,
ensuring a more optimal resource consumption and overall system behavior.
See Also:
Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide for details
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.1) New Features 4-11
Business Intelligence and Data Warehousing
4.3.4.3 The DBMS_PARALLEL_EXECUTE Package
The DBMS_PARALLEL_EXECUTE package provides subprograms to allow a specified
INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, MERGE, or anonymous block statement to be applied in parallel
chunks. The statement must have two placeholders that define the start and end limit
of a chunk. Typically, these are values for the rowid or a surrogate unique key in a
large table. But, when an anonymous block is used, the block can interpret the values
arbitrarily. The package has subprograms to define ranges that cover the specified
table. These include rule-based division of a table's rowid or key range and support
user-defined methods. The SQL statement together with the set of chunk ranges define
a task. Another subprogram starts the task. Each task is processed using a scheduler
job and automatically commits when it completes. Progress is logged. Untried,
successful, and failed chunks are flagged as such on task completion or interruption.
Another subprogram allows the task to resume to try untried and failed chunks.
Many scenarios require the bulk transformation of a large number of rows. Using an
ordinary SQL statement suffers from the all-or-nothing effect. In the common case,
where the transformation of one row is independent of that of other rows, it is correct
to commit every row that is transformed successfully and to roll back every row where
the transformation fails. Some customers have implemented schemes to achieve this
from scratch, using the Oracle Scheduler and suitable methods to record progress. This
package provides a supported solution and adds database-wide manageability
through new catalog views for parallel task metadata. The package is especially useful
in online application upgrade scenarios to apply a crossedition trigger to all the rows
in the table on which it is defined.
See Also:
Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for details
4.3.4.4 Significant Performance Improvement of On-Commit Fast Refresh
Fast refresh of a materialized view is now significantly faster due to reducing the time
spent on log handling.
This provides significantly reduced maintenance time and more fast refreshes are
possible.
See Also:
Oracle Database Data Warehousing Guide for details
4.3.5 Oracle Warehouse Builder
The following sections describe improvements to the extraction, transformation, and
loading (ETL) capabilities available with Oracle Warehouse Builder (OWB).
4.3.5.1 Advanced Find Support in Mapping Editor
The mapping editor has been enhanced with advanced find capabilities to make it
easier to locate and make updates to operators, groups, and attributes in a mapping
diagram, in the Available Objects tab, and in the Selected Objects tab.
This feature enhances ETL mapping developer productivity, especially on large and
complex mappings and, for example, when working with complex data sources with
large numbers of tables, views, or columns.
4-12 Oracle Database New Features Guide
Business Intelligence and Data Warehousing
See Also:
Oracle Warehouse Builder Data Modeling, ETL, and Data Quality Guide
for details
4.3.5.2 Business Intelligence Tool Integration
Oracle Warehouse Builder (OWB) now offers metadata integration with Oracle
Business Intelligence Standard Edition (Discoverer) as well as Oracle Business
Intelligence Enterprise Edition.
For Oracle Business Intelligence Enterprise Edition (OBI EE), this feature allows
derivation of ready-to-use physical, business model and presentation layer metadata
from a data warehouse design, visualization and maintenance of the derived objects
from within OWB, and deployment of the derived objects in the form of an RPD file
that can be loaded into OBI EE.
Oracle Discoverer integration was added in a previous release, and includes derivation
of metadata for Discoverer from the data warehouse design, and deploying those
derived objects into Discoverer. In this release, similar capabilities are now available
for OBI Enterprise Edition. All business intelligence application objects are modeled in
OWB and can be included in lineage and impact analysis at the column level.
Customers using Oracle business intelligence tools with their Oracle data warehouses
can get better answers from their warehouses faster, with no additional design or
development effort.
4.3.5.3 Copy and Paste of Operators and Attributes in Mapping Editor
In the mapping editor, users can now copy and paste operators within a mapping or
across mappings, including attribute settings.
This enhancement saves time and reduces errors in the development of complex ETL
mappings that reuse common or similar elements.
See Also:
Oracle Warehouse Builder Data Modeling, ETL, and Data Quality Guide
for details
4.3.5.4 Current Configuration Dropdown List in Design Center Toolbar
In the Design Center, there is now a dropdown list that displays the active
configuration of the user.
This feature improves usability of the multi-configuration feature.
See Also:
Oracle Warehouse Builder Installation and Administration Guide for
details
4.3.5.5 Enhanced Support for Flat File Imports
There are numerous support improvements for importing flat files, including a
simplified Flat File Sampling wizard, support for multi-character and hexadecimal
format delimiters and enclosures, simplified support for fixed format fields, and
support for bulk flat file loads into heterogeneous targets.
Flat files are frequently used for simple and high performance data movement in ETL
applications. These changes improve ETL developer productivity and provide flexible
handling of flat files in more scenarios.
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.1) New Features 4-13
Business Intelligence and Data Warehousing
4.3.5.6 Enhanced Table Function Support
OWB now has improved support for table functions, including importing metadata for
existing table functions, an editor for creating table functions from within OWB, and
better support for table functions in mappings.
Improved support simplifies using table functions for much more flexible and
powerful transformations, such as user-defined aggregations and data mining
sampling operators.
4.3.5.7 Experts Available in Editor Menu
It is now possible to add OWB experts to the mapping editor menu.
This feature makes it possible to enhance and extend the functionality of the mapping
editor, improving developer productivity.
4.3.5.8 Expression Editing in Operator Edit Dialog
Expressions associated with operator attributes can now be entered directly into an
Operator Edit Dialog or Expression Editor, rather than requiring that these expressions
be entered into a property in the Property Inspector.
Developers can finish more of their work in one place when creating operators in ETL
mappings, thus improving their productivity.
See Also:
Oracle Warehouse Builder Data Modeling, ETL, and Data Quality Guide
for details
4.3.5.9 Grouping and Spotlighting of Objects in Mapping Editor
In the mapping editor, users can now temporarily or permanently group objects in the
mapping editor so that they are collapsed to a single icon. This hides complexity in
mappings. Users can also spotlight a single operator, which temporarily hides all
objects in the mapping except for those objects that connect directly to the operator.
These features improve productivity for developers working with complex mappings
with large numbers of operators.
See Also:
Oracle Warehouse Builder Data Modeling, ETL, and Data Quality Guide
for details
4.3.5.10 Improved Management of Locations Registered in Multiple Control Centers
The user interface for managing the registration of locations in control centers has been
reworked to improve usability, especially when working with locations registered in
multiple control centers.
This change improves productivity of OWB administrators responsible for managing
locations across control centers.
See Also:
Oracle Warehouse Builder Sources and Targets Guide for details
4-14 Oracle Database New Features Guide
Business Intelligence and Data Warehousing
4.3.5.11 Improved User Interface for Managing Locations
The user interface for managing OWB locations has been reworked to improve
usability and support access to non-Oracle data sources using newly supported
connectivity methods.
These changes improve Oracle Warehouse Builder administrator and developer
productivity in heterogeneous and Oracle-only environments.
4.3.5.12 Key Lookup Operator Enhancements
Extensive changes have been made to the key lookup operator:
■
More efficient use of screen real estate.
■
Support for non-equality lookups.
■
Dynamic lookups, where the lookup table may be modified during the mapping
execution.
These changes make the lookup operator more powerful in many situations, including
improving Type 2 slowly changing dimension support.
4.3.5.13 Mapping Debugger Enhancements
There are numerous enhancements to the OWB mapping editor, including:
■
■
■
Improved support for watch points and enabling and disabling individual break
points.
Support for user-defined type columns.
Enhanced support for numerous existing operators, such as VARRAY, EXPAND, and
CONSTRUCT.
■
Support for key lookup and table function operators.
■
Support for correlated joins.
■
Improved cleanup of debugger-specific objects.
These enhancements improve productivity for ETL mapping developers, especially
when working with complex mappings where the mapping debugger adds the most
value.
4.3.5.14 New JDeveloper-Style User Interface
The Oracle Warehouse Builder Design Center user interface has been updated to use
the Fusion Client Platform, the same core Integrated Development Environment (IDE)
platform as Oracle JDeveloper and Oracle SQL Developer.
The advantages of this user interface include:
■
■
■
More efficient and flexible use of screen real estate.
Support for opening multiple editors of the same type, for example, editing
several ETL mappings at once in different windows.
More consistent behavior across different parts of the OWB user interface.
This change brings Oracle Warehouse Builder Design Center in line with other
development tools from Oracle. Developers experience increased productivity in the
Oracle Warehouse Builder environment, which now benefits from the usability
research behind the Fusion Client Platform and consistency with other Oracle
products.
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.1) New Features 4-15
Business Intelligence and Data Warehousing
See Also:
Oracle Warehouse Builder Sources and Targets Guide for details
4.3.5.15 Operator References Included in Generated PL/SQL Code
PL/SQL code generated for OWB ETL mappings now includes detailed comments to
help developers associate specific operators in a mapping with sections of the
generated code.
Developers can more easily troubleshoot issues with OWB-generated code that can
only be detected when the code is deployed. This additional information enhances
developer productivity.
4.3.5.16 Quick Mapper
In this release, Oracle Warehouse Builder (OWB) introduces a new spreadsheet-like
dialog for connecting operators in a mapping. This functionality replaces the existing
auto mapping dialog.
This improvement saves developer time and reduces errors when working with
operators with a large number of inputs or outputs.
See Also:
Oracle Warehouse Builder Data Modeling, ETL, and Data Quality Guide
for details
4.3.5.17 Repository Browser Changes
The Repository Browser has been updated to support foldering, expose the new types
of metadata associated with the release 11.2 feature set, and support OC4J 10.3.3.
These changes improve Oracle Warehouse Builder manageability.
4.3.5.18 Simplified Oracle Warehouse Builder Repository Upgrades
The repository upgrade automatically upgrades an Oracle Warehouse Builder (OWB)
repository to the current release with less user intervention.
This feature simplifies the task of upgrading from one release to the next.
4.3.5.19 Support for Extracting Data From Tables Containing LONG Data Type
Oracle Warehouse Builder can now generate SQL*Plus code to extract data from
database schemas supporting the deprecated LONG data type, such as occurs in
PeopleSoft application data sources.
Support for LONG data types used in PeopleSoft data enables OWB users to integrate
more effectively with PeopleSoft data or any other data source that uses the LONG data
type.
4.3.5.20 Support for Subqueries in Join Operator
The join operator in Oracle Warehouse Builder (OWB) now supports several new
behaviors related to the use of subqueries in joins:
■
Specifying subqueries using EXISTS, NOT EXISTS, IN, and NOT IN.
■
Specifying outer joins using the input role instead of the + (plus) sign.
■
Generating ANSI SQL syntax for all join types instead of only outer joins.
4-16 Oracle Database New Features Guide
Clustering
More flexible handling for join operations improves developer productivity and makes
possible more flexible data transformations.
4.4 Clustering
The following sections describe new clustering features for Oracle Database 11g
Release 2 (11.2).
4.4.1 Oracle Real Application Clusters Ease-of-Use
This release of Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) provides many features
to dramatically simplify installation and on-going management of a cluster and Oracle
RAC database, making it easy for the novice to adopt clustering and Oracle RAC and
reap the benefits of this technology.
The following sections describe ease-of-use features for Oracle RAC.
4.4.1.1 Configuration Assistants Support New Oracle RAC Features
Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA), Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA), and
Net Configuration Assistant (NETCA) have been updated to support all of the new
features of this release and provide a best practice implementation.
Configuration Assistants automate the configuration of the environment ensuring the
correct steps are taken. The assistants simplify the implementation of clusters and
clustered databases.
See Also:
Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide for Linux and UNIX
for details
4.4.1.2 Enhanced Cluster Verification Utility
Additional functionality has been added to the Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) in
regard to checking certain storage types and configurations. Furthermore, it gives
more consideration to user-specific settings.
These enhancements provide easier implementation and configuration of cluster
environments and improved problem diagnostics in a cluster environment.
See Also:
Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide for Linux and UNIX
for details
4.4.1.3 Integration of Cluster Verification Utility and Oracle Universal Installer
The Cluster Verification Utility (CVU) is now fully integrated with the installer so that
checks are done automatically for all nodes included in the installation.
This integration improves Oracle RAC manageability and deployment by ensuring
that any problems with cluster setup are detected and corrected prior to installing
Oracle software.
See Also:
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide for Linux for details
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.1) New Features 4-17
Clustering
4.4.1.4 Cluster Time Service
The Cluster Time Service synchronizes the system time on all nodes in the cluster. A
synchronized system time across the cluster is a prerequisite to install and successfully
run an Oracle cluster.
This feature simplifies management, maintenance, and support of an Oracle cluster
and an Oracle RAC environment by providing an out-of-the-box time server. It also
improves the reliability of Oracle RAC environments.
See Also:
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for details
4.4.1.5 Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) Enhancements
There have been improvements in this release in the way the Oracle Cluster Registry
(OCR) is accessed. These improvements include:
■
Faster relocation of services on node failure.
■
Support for up to 5 copies of the OCR for improved availability of the cluster.
■
Storage of OCR in Automatic Storage Management (ASM).
The tools to manage the OCR have changed to support the new management options.
These enhancements improve performance in Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real
Application Clusters environments and provide easier management of the cluster
through consistent storage management automation
See Also:
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for details
4.4.1.6 Grid Plug and Play (GPnP)
Grid Plug and Play (GPnP) eliminates per-node configuration data and the need for
explicit add and delete nodes steps. This allows a system administrator to take a
template system image and run it on a new node with no further configuration. This
removes many manual operations, reduces the opportunity for errors, and encourages
configurations that can be changed easily. Removal of the per-node configuration
makes the nodes easier to replace, because they do not need to contain
individually-managed state.
Grid Plug and Play reduces the cost of installing, configuring, and managing database
nodes by making their per-node state disposable. It allows nodes to be easily replaced
with regenerated state.
See Also:
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide for details
4.4.1.7 Oracle Restart
Oracle Restart improves the availability of your single-instance Oracle database.
Oracle Restart automatically restarts the database instance, the Automatic Storage
Management (ASM) instance, the listener, and other components after a hardware or
software failure or whenever your database host computer restarts. Server Control
(SRVCTL) is the command line interface to manage Oracle processes that are managed
by Oracle Restart on a standalone server.
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Clustering
This feature provides improved reliability and automated management of a
single-instance Oracle database and the management of any process or application
running on the database server.
See Also:
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for details
4.4.1.8 Policy-Based Cluster and Capacity Management
Oracle Clusterware allocates and reassigns capacity based on policies defined by you.
This enables faster resource failover and dynamic capacity assignment using a
policy-based management.
Policy-Based Cluster and Capacity Management allows the efficient allocation of all
kinds of applications in the cluster. Various applications can be hosted on a shared
infrastructure being isolated regarding their resource consumption by policies and,
therefore, behave as if they were deployed in single system environments.
See Also:
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for details
4.4.1.9 Improved Clusterware Resource Modeling
In this release, there are now more options for managing all types of applications and
creating dependencies among them using Oracle Clusterware.
Improved Clusterware Resource Modeling enables a granular definition of
dependencies among applications or processes to manage them as one entity.
See Also:
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for details
4.4.1.10 Role-Separated Management
Role-separated management for Oracle Clusterware allows certain administrative
tasks to be delegated to different people, representing different roles in the company. It
is based on the idea of a clusterware administrator. The administrator may grant
administrative tasks on a per resource basis. For example, if two databases are placed
into the same cluster, the clusterware administrator can manage both databases in the
cluster. But, the clusterware administrator may decide to grant different administrative
privileges to each DBA responsible for one of those databases.
Role-separated management allows multiple applications and databases to share the
same cluster and hardware resources, but ensures that different administration groups
do not interfere with each other.
See Also:
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for details
4.4.1.11 Agent Development Framework
Oracle Clusterware provides an agent framework for managing all kinds of
applications with Oracle Clusterware. Using the agent framework provides optimized
application startup, checking, and stopping based on user-defined scripts.
Making it easy to protect applications with Oracle Clusterware reduces costs allowing
you to efficiently enable high availability for applications.
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.1) New Features 4-19
Clustering
See Also:
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for details
4.4.1.12 Zero Downtime Patching for Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC
The patching of Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters can now be
completed without taking the entire cluster down. Patchsets are now installed as
out-of-place upgrades to the Oracle Grid infrastructure for a cluster software (Oracle
Clusterware and Automatic Storage Management) and Oracle Database.
Now you can reduce your unplanned downtime of clustered databases and
applications running in a cluster.
4.4.1.13 Enterprise Manager-Based Clusterware Resource Management
New in this release is an Enterprise Manager graphical user interface (GUI) to manage
various Oracle Clusterware resources with full lifecycle support. In addition to
allowing the creation and configuration of resources within Oracle Clusterware, it also
helps to monitor and manage resources once deployed in the cluster.
Using Oracle Enterprise Manager as a GUI to monitor and manage various Oracle
Clusterware resources eases the daily management in high availability environments.
See Also:
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for details
4.4.1.14 Enterprise Manager Provisioning for Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real
Application Clusters
Enterprise Manager provisioning introduces procedures to easily scale up or scale
down Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application Clusters.
Ease-of-implementation and management for a clustered database environment can be
achieved through utilizing the Enterprise Manager provisioning framework.
See Also:
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide for Linux for details
4.4.1.15 Enterprise Manager Support for Grid Plug and Play
Oracle Enterprise Manager, the graphical user interface (GUI) for managing Oracle
RAC, provides management and monitoring for the Grid Plug and Play environment.
Enterprise Manager is the standard GUI interface for Oracle Database. This integration
provides an easy-to-use interface that customers are familiar with to manage Grid
Plug and Play environments.
See Also:
Oracle Database 2 Day + Real Application Clusters Guide for details
4.4.1.16 Enterprise Manager Support for Oracle Restart
Enterprise Manager provides support for Oracle Restart and the configuration with
single-instance databases. This is a change in configuration, monitoring, and
administration to enable Oracle Restart.
Enterprise Manager provides a graphical user interface (GUI) interface to easily
manage Oracle databases. This additional functionality enables you to restart your
Oracle databases.
4-20 Oracle Database New Features Guide
Clustering
See Also:
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for details
4.4.1.17 Configuration Assistant Support for Removing Oracle RAC Installations
Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA), Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA), and
Net Configuration Assistant (NETCA) have been updated to support the complete
deinstallation and deconfiguration of Oracle RAC databases and listeners.
This support improves the manageability of an Oracle RAC environment through
automation of deinstallation and deconfiguration of Oracle RAC databases.
See Also:
Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide for Linux and UNIX
for details
4.4.1.18 Oracle Universal Installer Support for Removing Oracle RAC Installations
The installer can clean up a failed Oracle Clusterware installation or upgrade of an
environment prior to reattempting the operation. This ensures that the reattempted
operation is done over a clean environment, thereby eliminating the chances of errors
related to environmental inconsistencies.
Easily cleaning up an environment provides improved Oracle RAC manageability and
deployment.
See Also:
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide for Linux for details
4.4.1.19 Improved Deinstallation Support With Oracle Universal Installer
The installation of Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC now have recovery points. If a
failure occurs during installation, you can rollback to the closest recovery point and
restart the installation once the problem has been corrected.
Installation rollback and recovery make the installation and configuration of Oracle
Clusterware and Oracle RAC easier. It reduces project time lines by making it easy to
recover from installation failures.
See Also:
Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide for Linux and UNIX
for details
4.4.1.20 Downgrading Database Configured With DBControl
Scripts are included to support DBControl downgrade as part of database downgrade.
If an upgrade is deemed unsuccessful, the system needs to be returned to the starting
release. In order to maintain the reliability of management when modifying software
releases, DBControl must be at the same release as the database that it is monitoring.
See Also:
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for details
4.4.1.21 Oracle Restart Integration with Oracle Universal Installer
Oracle Restart requires a separate installation from Oracle Database. This installation
is the Oracle Grid infrastructure for a cluster installation for standalone servers which
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.1) New Features 4-21
Clustering
includes Oracle Restart and Oracle Automatic Storage Management (ASM). This
allows separation of roles such that the system administrator can manage the
infrastructure and the database administrator can manage the database.
Oracle Universal Installer is the tool to install Oracle software. This improves the
manageability of the Oracle environment on a standalone server allowing separation
of roles and improved resiliency of the Oracle software.
4.4.1.22 Out-of-Place Oracle Clusterware Upgrade
A new version of Oracle Clusterware is now installed into a separate home from the
current installation. This reduces the downtime required to upgrade a node in the
cluster and facilitate the provisioning of clusters within an enterprise.
The benefit is a reduction in planned outage time required for cluster upgrades which
assists in meeting availability service levels. This also makes it easier to provide a
standard installation across the enterprise.
See Also:
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide for Linux for details
4.4.1.23 OUI Support for Out-of-Place Oracle Clusterware Upgrade
You can now perform out-of-place upgrade of Oracle Clusterware software. The new
version can be installed in a separate directory and pointed to during deployment.
Out-of-place upgrades provide easier Oracle RAC and grid deployment and
manageability, as well as better testing for controlled application migration.
See Also:
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide for Linux for details
4.4.1.24 Server Control (SRVCTL) Enhancements
The server control (SRVCTL) commands have been enhanced to manage the
configuration in a standalone server with Oracle Restart as well as the new style of
cluster management (Policy-Based Cluster and Capacity Management).
This feature provides easier management of Oracle Database through a consistent
interface which can be used from the console or scripted.
See Also:
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for details
4.4.1.25 Server Control (SRVCTL) Enhancements to Support Grid Plug and Play
The command-line interface (CLI) for Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Real Application
Clusters has been updated to support the new features of this release.
The CLI provides the ability to manage the cluster using a command line from a single
point in the cluster and allows you to manage the cluster as a single entity. This
reduces the management complexity for clusters and clustered databases. All changes
to the cluster must be reflected in the management tool.
See Also:
Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide
for details
4-22 Oracle Database New Features Guide
Clustering
4.4.1.26 SRVCTL Support for Single-Instance Database in a Cluster
Using SRVCTL, you can register a single-instance database to be managed by Oracle
Clusterware. Once registered, Oracle Clusterware starts, stops, monitors, and restarts
the database instance.
This feature provides an improved management interface which makes it easy to
provide higher availability for single-instance databases that are running on a server
that is part of a cluster.
See Also:
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for details
4.4.1.27 Universal Connection Pool (UCP) Integration with Oracle Data Guard
In this release, Java applications that use the Oracle Universal Connection Pool (UCP)
for Java now have fast connection failover when the primary site fails. When Data
Guard fails over or switches over to the standby database site, the connection pool
cleans up connections to the primary site, terminates active transactions, and creates
connections to the standby database.
This feature provides increased availability for Java applications using UCP with
Oracle RAC and Oracle Data Guard. Applications can easily mask failures to the end
user.
4.4.1.28 UCP Integration With Oracle Real Application Clusters
Universal Connection Pool (UCP) is the new Java connection pool. It has many
features that make it easy for Java applications to manage connections to an Oracle
Real Application Clusters database such as Web Session Affinity, XA Affinity, Runtime
Connection Load Balancing, and Fast Connection Failover.
This feature provides a robust connection pool for Java applications with improved
throughput and fast failover in an Oracle Real Application Clusters environment.
4.4.1.29 Universal Connection Pool (UCP) for JDBC
Universal Connection Pool for JDBC supersedes Implicit Connection Cache and
provides the following functions:
■
Connection labeling, connection harvesting, logging, and statistics
■
Performance and stabilization enhancements
■
Improved diagnostics and statistics or metrics
UCP for JDBC provides advanced connection pooling functions, improved
performance, and better diagnosability of connection issues.
See Also:
Oracle Universal Connection Pool for JDBC Developer's Guide for
details
4.4.1.30 Java API for Oracle RAC FAN High Availability Events
A new Java API allows Oracle RAC customers who are not using an Oracle connection
pool to receive Fast Application Notification (FAN) events (for example, DOWN and UP)
and then process these events, clean up or add connections when an instance, service
or node leaves or joins the cluster.
Applications using this API can be notified quickly when a failure occurs in the cluster.
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.1) New Features 4-23
Database Overall
See Also:
Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide
for details
4.5 Database Overall
The following sections describe new database features for Oracle Database 11g Release
2 (11.2).
4.5.1 General
The following sections provide new feature information for Flashback Data Archive
and instance caging.
4.5.1.1 Flashback Data Archive Support for DDLs
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) users can now use most DDL commands on tables
that are being tracked with Flashback Data Archive. This includes:
■
Add, Drop, Rename, Modify Column
■
Drop, Truncate Partition
■
Rename, Truncate Table
■
Add, Drop, Rename, Modify Constraint
For more complex DDL (for example, upgrades and split table), the Disassociate and
Associate PL/SQL procedures can be used to temporarily disable Total Recall on
specified tables. The Associate procedure enforces schema integrity after association;
the base table and history table schemas must be the same.
This feature makes it much easier to use the Total Recall option with complex
applications that require the ability to modify the schema.
4.5.1.2 Instance Caging
Instance Caging allows the DBA to limit the CPU usage of an Oracle instance by
setting the CPU_COUNT initialization parameter and enabling CPU resource
management.
With Instance Caging, users can partition CPU resources among multiple instances
running on a server to ensure predictable performance.
See Also:
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for details
4.5.2 Improvements to Oracle Scheduler
The following sections detail improvements made to Oracle Scheduler.
4.5.2.1 E-mail Notification
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) users can now get e-mail notifications on any job
activity.
This feature improves efficiency by enabling users to be notified of any job activity that
is of interest to them without having to constantly monitor the job.
4-24 Oracle Database New Features Guide
Database Overall
See Also:
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for details
4.5.2.2 File Watcher
File watcher enables jobs to be triggered when a file arrives on a given machine.
This feature improves efficiency and ease-of-use. Jobs with file dependencies are
automatically triggered when the specified file is received instead of constantly
monitoring for the file.
See Also:
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for details
4.5.2.3 Multiple Destination Jobs
This feature enables users to specify multiple destinations for a job.
This is a key feature for Enterprise Manager scheduling. It improves efficiency and
ease-of-use by enabling a job to be run on multiple nodes while managing it as one
entity from a central location.
See Also:
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for details
4.5.2.4 Remote Database Jobs
This feature enables users to run PL/SQL blocks or stored procedures that reside in a
remote database as a job.
This is a key feature for Enterprise Manager scheduling. It improves efficiency and
ease-of-use by enabling job scheduling in a distributed environment to be managed
centrally.
See Also:
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for details
4.5.3 Improvements to Utilities
The following features provide improvements to the various utilities in Oracle
Database 11g Release 2 (11.2).
4.5.3.1 Data Pump Legacy Mode
Data Pump Legacy Mode provides backward compatibility for scripts and parameter
files used for original Export and Import scripts.
This feature enables users to continue using original Export and Import scripts with
Data Pump Export and Import. Development time is reduced as new scripts do not
have to be created.
See Also:
Oracle Database Utilities for details
4.5.4 IPv6 Support
The following sections describe improvements in IPv6 networking support.
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.1) New Features 4-25
Diagnosability
4.5.4.1 Complete IPv6 Support for JDBC Thin Clients
JDBC supports Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) style addresses in the JDBC URL and
machine names that resolve to IPv6 addresses. For example:
2001:0db8:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0001
1080:0:0:0:8:800:200C:417A
A JDBC URL would look like the following:
jdbc:oracle:thin:@(DESCRIPTION=(ADDRESS=(PROTOCOL=tcp)
(HOST=[2001:0db8:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0001]) (PORT=5521))
(CONNECT_DATA=(SERVICE_NAME=boston.us.example.com)))
This feature provides Java interoperability with IPv6.
4.5.4.2 Complete IPv6 Support for JVM and Java Debuggers
IPv6 now provides support for the database resident Java virtual machine.
This allows Java applications running in the database to connect to and accept
connections from both IPv4 and IPv6 hosts.
See Also:
Oracle Database Java Developer's Guide for details
4.6 Diagnosability
The following sections describe diagnosability features for Oracle Database 11g
Release 2 (11.2).
4.6.1 Support Workbench
Enterprise Manager Support Workbench is a GUI workbench for customers and
support to ease diagnosis and resolution of database errors.
4.6.1.1 Enterprise Manager Support Workbench for ASM
Enterprise Manager Support Workbench (Support Workbench) has been enhanced to
help diagnose and package incidents to Oracle support for Automatic Storage
Management (ASM) databases.
This feature extends the benefit of Enterprise Manager Support Workbench to ASM by
helping customers package all necessary diagnostic data for incidents.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
details
4.7 Information Integration
This is area 2581
The following sections describe new information integration features for Oracle
Database 11g Release 2 (11.2).
4-26 Oracle Database New Features Guide
Performance
4.7.1 Oracle Database XStream
The following section describes the new Oracle Database XStream feature.
4.7.1.1 XStream
XStream provides application programming interfaces (APIs) that enable client
applications to receive data changes from an Oracle database and to send data changes
to an Oracle database. These data changes can be shared between Oracle databases
and other systems. The other systems include non-Oracle databases, non-RDBMS
Oracle products, file systems, third party software applications, and so on. The client
application is designed by the user for specific purposes and use cases.
XStream consists of two components: XStream Out and XStream In. XStream Out
provides APIs that enable you to share data changes made to an Oracle database with
other systems. XStream In provides APIs that enable you to share data changes made
to other systems with Oracle databases.
See Also:
Oracle Database XStream Guide for details
4.8 Performance
The following sections describe improvements in performance of the database and
functionality of performance-related database features.
4.8.1 General Server Performance
The following sections describe general server performance enhancements.
4.8.1.1 Database Smart Flash Cache
New in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), the Database Smart Flash Cache feature is
a transparent extension of the database buffer cache using solid state device (SSD)
technology. The SSD acts as a Level 2 cache to the (Level 1) SGA.
Database Smart Flash Cache can greatly improve the performance of Oracle databases
by reducing the amount of disk I/O at a much lower cost than adding an equivalent
amount of RAM.
4.8.1.2 Stored Outlines Migration to SQL Plan Management
Stored outlines can be migrated for future and enhanced usage with SQL Plan
Management (SPM).
Stored outlines lack the flexibility and adaptability of SQL Plan Management. By
providing a migration path, old applications using stored outlines can be transparently
migrated and can instantaneously take advantage of the enhanced functionality of
SPM.
See Also:
Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide for details
4.8.1.3 Client Result Cache Using Table Annotations Support
Table annotations support provides the ability to annotate a table as being cache
worthy, which enables applications to leverage client and server result caching
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.1) New Features 4-27
Security
through deployment time knobs as opposed to making application changes. In
addition, this feature provides automatic client cache invalidation.
This feature allows non-intrusive application performance acceleration using client
and server result caches.
See Also:
Oracle Call Interface Programmer's Guide for details
4.8.1.4 Support 4 KB Sector Disk Drives
Today, disk drives have 512 byte sectors. Disk drive manufacturers are moving to 4 KB
sector drives because it allows them to offer higher capacity with lower overhead. If
customers use 4 KB sector drives as 512 byte sector drives, then there is likely to be a
performance penalty (because they have to run in 512 byte emulation mode). This
feature allows Oracle to work with 4 KB (and 512 byte) sector drives without a
performance penalty. There is also the capability in Automatic Storage Management
(ASM) to allow migration of a disk group from 512 byte sector drives to 4 KB sector
drives.
This feature allows customers to take full advantage of new generation, higher
capacity disk drives.
See Also:
Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for details
4.9 Security
The new features discussed in the following section cover areas that include
encryption and auditing. Significant new encryption key management functionality
has been introduced in Oracle Database 11g Release 2 to enable complete integration
with Hardware Security Modules and increased performance for Transparent Data
Encryption. Audit Management has been simplified through the introduction of a new
package for managing audit data on the Oracle database.
4.9.1 Audit Data Management
Simplify the management of audit data created by the Oracle Database to facilitate
compliance with various privacy and compliance mandates such as SOX, HIPAA, and
PCI.
4.9.1.1 Audit Trail Cleanup
Audit Trail Cleanup provides the ability to manage the Oracle database audit trail by:
■
■
■
Automating the periodic deletion of audit records from the database tables and
operating system files after they have been securely backed up or are no longer
needed.
Controlling the size and age of the audit trail written to operating system files
before a new operating system audit trail file is created.
Moving the database audit trail tables out of the SYSTEM tablespace to a different
tablespace.
Audit Trail Cleanup reduces the time and cost required to manage the Oracle database
audit content. It enables you to dedicate an optimized tablespace for audit records and
move the audit tables out of the SYSTEM tablespace for improved performance. In
4-28 Oracle Database New Features Guide
Server Manageability
addition, it provides automated deletion of audit records from the database tables and
operating system files.
4.9.2 Encryption Key Management
Encryption key management provides the ability to change the master key associated
with transparent data encryption (TDE) encrypted tablespaces. The tablespace master
key is used to encrypt the encryption keys associated with individual tablespaces. This
is commonly referred to as a 2-tier key architecture. Prior to Oracle Database 11g
Release 2 (11.2), changing the master key was only possible when using TDE column
encryption.
4.9.2.1 Tablespace Master Key Rekey
In Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), Oracle Advanced Security capability allows
customers to change the master key used to protect the encryption keys used to
encrypt Oracle tablespaces.
Industry initiatives, such as the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI
DSS), mandate periodic rotation of encryption keys associated with credit card data.
This support is now available in this release.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Guide for details
4.10 Server Manageability
The following sections describe server manageability features for Oracle Database 11g
Release 2 (11.2).
4.10.1 Automatic Storage Management for All Data
These features extend the capabilities of Automatic Storage Management (ASM) to
support all types of data including database files, clusterware files, and file system
data such as Oracle homes and binaries.
The following sections describe ASM features.
4.10.1.1 ASM Cluster File System (ACFS)
The ASM Cluster File System (ACFS) extends Automatic Storage Management (ASM)
by providing a robust, modern, general purpose file system for files beyond the Oracle
database files. ACFS provides support for files such as Oracle binaries, report files,
trace files, alert logs, and other application data files. With the addition of the Oracle
ASM Cluster File System, ASM becomes a complete storage management solution for
both Oracle database and non-database files.
ACFS supports large files with 64-bit file and file system data structure sizes leading to
exabyte-capable file and file system capacities. ACFS scales to hundreds of nodes and
uses extent-based storage allocation for improved performance. A log-based metadata
transaction engine is used for file system integrity and fast recovery. The ACFS on-disk
structure supports endian neutral metadata. ACFS file systems can be exported to
remote clients through industry standard protocols such as NFS and CIFS.
Oracle ASM Cluster File System (ACFS) complements and leverages Automatic
Storage Management (ASM) and provides a general purpose journaling file system for
storing and managing non-Oracle database files. This eliminates the need for
expensive third-party cluster file system solutions while streamlining, automating and
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.1) New Features 4-29
Server Manageability
simplifying all file type management in a single node as well as Oracle RAC and
Oracle Grid infrastructure for a cluster computing environments.
ACFS supports dynamic file system expansion and contraction without any
downtime. ACFS is highly available leveraging the ASM mirroring and striping
features in addition to hardware Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks (RAID)
functionality.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
details
4.10.1.2 ASM Dynamic Volume Manager (DVM)
The ASM Dynamic Volume Manager (DVM) is a kernel-loadable device driver that
provides a standard device driver interface to clients (for example, ACFS). File systems
or other processes can do I/O to this device driver as they would to any other disk
device driver on the system. DVM is the primary I/O interface for ACFS to perform
I/O and build a file system leveraging ASM as a volume manager. DVM is loaded on
ASM start up. The device driver is cluster-aware and communicates with ASM for
extent map information, extent rebalancing, and I/O failures.
The ASM Dynamic Volume Manager (DVM) provides a standard I/O interface
allowing general purpose file systems to leverage the full functionality of ASM as a
volume manager. Oracle database files as well as non-Oracle database files, for
example Oracle binaries, can now reside on ACFS eliminating the need for third-party
file systems or volume managers to host general purpose files.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
details
4.10.1.3 ASM FS Snapshot
ASM FS Snapshot is a point-in-time copy of a file system and can provide up to 64
snapshot images. ASM FS Snapshot performs fast creation of persistent ASM FS
images at a specific point-in-time with low overhead leveraging the Copy on Write
technology.
Read-only ASM FS Snapshots can be generated on an interval basis. They may reside
in existing ASM FS storage or in an additional storage device and persist following a
system restart.
Even as the file system changes, the snapshot does not, giving you the ability to view
the file system as it was at the time the snapshot was created. Initially, snapshots are
read-only, which preserves their point-in-time capture. The following are the benefits
of ASM FS Snapshots:
■
■
■
ASM FS Snapshots can be used as a source for backup. The original file system can
continue to change but the static nature of the snapshot makes them ideal as a
source for backup without keeping the original file system offline.
ASM FS Snapshots can be used as a means for you to recover accidentally deleted
or modified files.
ASM FS Snapshots can be used as a source for data mining or report applications
which need to work on a static, point-in-time data set.
4-30 Oracle Database New Features Guide
Server Manageability
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
details
4.10.1.4 Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) and Voting Disk on ASM
Automatic Storage Management (ASM) disks are used to store the Oracle Cluster
Registry (OCR) and the voting disks. ASM Partnership and Status Table (PST) is
replicated on multiple disks and is extended to store the OCR. Consequently, the OCR
tolerates loss of the same number of disks as the underlying disk group. OCR is
relocated in response to disk failures.
ASM reserves a number of blocks at a fixed location of every ASM disk for storing the
voting disk. Should the disk holding the voting disk fail, ASM selects another disk to
store this data.
Storing the OCR and the voting disk on ASM eliminates the need to use expensive
third-party cluster volume managers or deal with the complexity of managing disk
partitions for OCR and voting disks in Oracle RAC configurations.
See Also:
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide for Linux for details
4.10.1.5 ASM Intelligent Data Placement
Disk drives have higher transfer rates and bytes per track on the outer tracks. This
makes it preferable to keep the hotter data closer to the edge of the disk; that is, the
lower numbered blocks. This feature enables ASM to identify higher performance disk
regions. Most frequently accessed ASM files can be marked to be moved into the hot
region and take advantage of higher I/O performance (for example, hot tablespaces
and indices) and able to better meet the application I/O demand. This feature is only
applicable when whole physical disks are presented to ASM versus local unit numbers
(LUN).
Most frequently accessed Oracle database files in ASM disk groups (ASM files) can be
placed in hot disk regions to deliver higher bandwidth and reduce seek latency to
meet the application I/O performance requirements.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
details
4.10.1.6 ASM Storage Management Configuration Assistant
ASM Storage Management Configuration Assistant was previously known as
Enterprise Manager Integration with ASM Optimal Disk Placement.
This release now allows the configuration, monitoring, and management of Optimal
Disk Placement with Enterprise Manager which is the graphical user interface (GUI)
for management.
This GUI manages ASM which makes storage management easier in an Oracle
environment.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
details
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.1) New Features 4-31
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4.10.1.7 Automatic Storage Management (ASM) File Access Control
Automatic Storage Management (ASM) on UNIX platforms implements access control
on its files to isolate different database instances from each other and prevent
unauthorized access. ASM implements new SQL statements to grant, modify, and
deny file permissions. The new security model and syntax is coherent with those
already implemented for the objects represented in Oracle Database.
Multiple database instances can store ASM files in the same disk group and, therefore,
are able to consolidate multiple databases with security. This prevents unauthorized
database instances from accessing or overwriting each other's files.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
details
4.10.1.8 ASMCMD Command Extensions
The ASMCMD tool is extended to include management of ASM disks, disk groups,
and ASM instance in addition to managing ASM files. This is a comprehensive
command-line interface that parallels the SQL*Plus command functionality and
provides an easy user interface for the system and storage administrators to manage
ASM.
The ASMCMD extensions provide the system and storage administrators with a
comprehensive and user friendly command-line interface to manage ASM from all
perspectives.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
details
4.10.1.9 Enterprise Manager Support for ASM Cluster File System (ACFS)
Oracle Enterprise Manager provides a graphical user interface (GUI) to manage the
ASM Dynamic Volume Manager and ASM cluster file system (ACFS) as part of the
Automatic Storage Management (ASM) solution.
Enterprise Manager provides a graphical user interface which makes is easier to
manage the environment whether it is a standalone server or a cluster deployment of
ASM. The centralized console provides a consistent interface for managing volumes,
database files, and file systems as well as the Oracle Database.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
details
4.10.1.10 Enterprise Manager Integration for ASM File Access Control
In this release, Oracle provides a graphical user interface (GUI) for managing File
Access Control for Automatic Storage Management (ASM) files.
This GUI simplifies management of ASM for the DBA, system administrator, or
storage administrator.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
details
4-32 Oracle Database New Features Guide
Server Manageability
4.10.2 Database Management
The following sections describe general database management features to ease
database management.
4.10.2.1 EMCA Supports New Oracle RAC Configuration for Enterprise Manager
Enterprise Manager Configuration Assistant (EMCA) has been updated to support the
new configuration required for Enterprise Manager to support new features of the
release.
Configuration assistants automate the configuration of the environment ensuring the
correct steps are taken. The assistants simplify the configuration of Enterprise
Manager in clusters and clustered database settings.
4.10.2.2 Patch Application with DBControl
Enterprise Manager DBControl manages the application of patches to a single-instance
database.
Using Enterprise Manager to apply patches simplifies software maintenance.
See Also:
Oracle Enterprise Manager documentation for additional details.
4.10.2.3 Automatic Patching of Time Stamp With Time Zone Data
Time stamp with time zone data could become stale in the database tables when the
time zone version file is updated. Today, users have to manually fix the affected data.
This feature updates the system and user data transparently with minimal downtime
and provides automatic and transparent patching of time stamp with time zone data
whenever a time zone file is updated.
Also, when a server time zone version is patched, all of the clients that communicate
with the server need to be patched as well. With this feature, OCI, JDBC, Pro*C, and
SQL*Plus clients can now continue to work with the server without having to update
their client-side files.
This new feature provides automatic and transparent patching of time stamp with
time zone data whenever a time zone file is updated.
See Also:
Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide for details
4.10.2.4 Prevent Data Loss for Time Zone with Local Time Zone Data Type
This feature makes TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE data type immune to Daylight Saving
Time (DST) changes and reduces the overhead of patching time zone data file and
upgrading data on disk.
The benefit of this feature is the elimination of the processing cost and the complexity
of maintaining TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE data type whenever there are new changes
to DST transition rule and time zones.
See Also:
Oracle Call Interface Programmer's Guide for details
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.1) New Features 4-33
Server Manageability
4.10.2.5 Segment Creation on Demand
The initial segment creation for nonpartitioned tables and indexes can be delayed until
data is first inserted into an object.
Several prepackaged applications are delivered with large schemas containing many
tables and indexes. Depending on the module usage, only a subset of these objects are
really being used. With delayed segment creation, empty database objects do not
consume any space, reducing the installation footprint and speeding up the
installation.
See Also:
Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for details
4.10.2.6 Zero-Size Unusable Indexes and Index Partitions
Unusable indexes and index partitions no longer consume space in the database
because they become segmentless.
Unusable indexes and index segments are not usable for any data access. Any space
allocated by this unusable (dead) object is freed as soon as an object is marked
unusable.
See Also:
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for details
4.10.2.7 Metadata SXML Comparison Tool
The Metadata API has been enhanced to provide a cross database comparison tool to
compare object metadata of the same type from different databases. This comparison
depends on an alternate XML representation, called SXML. Full XML is typically
complex and opaque. In contrast, SXML is somewhat simplified and more closely
maps to the SQL creation DDL. These SXML documents provide the building blocks
for the new comparison tool in which two SXML documents of the same type can be
compared and a new SXML document is produced which describes their differences.
This feature enables users to compare objects between databases to identify drift (that
is, metadata changes over time) in objects of the same type.
See Also:
Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for details
4.10.2.8 Compare Period Report
A Replay Compare Period Report performs a high-level comparison of workload
replay to its capture or to another replay of the same capture. The Replay Compare
Period report contains a summary of the most important changes between the two
runs in terms of performance, errors and data divergence. This makes it easier for
Database Replay users to understand and test the impact of system changes.
Replay Compare Period Report simplifies understanding and assessment of the
impact of system change in testing by providing summarized information on how the
replay performed versus capture or other replays in terms of performance, errors and
divergence.
See Also:
Oracle Database Testing Guide for details
4-34 Oracle Database New Features Guide
Server Manageability
4.10.2.9 Compare SQL Tuning Sets
Compare SQL Tuning Set feature of the SQL Performance Analyzer allows:
■
■
Building a trial from SQL Tuning Set (STS).
Comparison of two such trials built from two different STSs. A detailed
comparison report including any new or missing SQL statements in one and not in
another trial and any plan changes noticed in the compared trials is compiled.
Compare SQL Tuning Sets makes it possible for Database Replay users to perform
SQL-centric analysis through the SQL Performance Analyzer report. The two STSs are
captured as follows:
■
One during workload capture on production.
■
And, the other during replay on the test system.
Then, the two STSs are used to generate the SPA report.
Compare STS feature can also be used in non-Database Replay scenarios where
customers already have existing test scripts and can capture the SQL into two STSs;
one for before system change and one for after.
Compare SQL Tuning Sets feature simplifies assessment of system changes by
providing detailed SQL-centric analysis when using Database Replay or other load
testing mechanisms.
See Also:
Oracle Database Testing Guide for details
4.10.2.10 Enable Sampling for Active Data Guard
Active Session History (ASH) is now available on standby systems.
Having ASH data available on standby systems for Data Guard environments allows
customers to troubleshoot performance problems specific to their standby
environments.
See Also:
Oracle Database High Availability Overview for details
4.10.2.11 Oracle Exadata Simulation
For a given workload, you can now simulate the possible benefits in I/O interconnect
throughput that can be obtained from migration to Oracle Exadata architecture. SQL
Performance Analyzer, a feature of Oracle Real Application Testing, allows simulation
to be performed on a non-Oracle Exadata installation without needing to provision the
Oracle Exadata system. The SQL Performance Analyzer Oracle Exadata simulation
feature can be used to identify workloads that are good candidates for Oracle Exadata
migration.
This feature simplifies simulation and testing of workloads for Oracle Exadata
migration system change without requiring provisioning of Oracle Exadata hardware.
See Also:
Oracle Database Testing Guide for details
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.1) New Features 4-35
Server Manageability
4.10.2.12 Global Oracle RAC ASH Report + ADDM Backwards Compatibility
The Active Session History (ASH) report now includes cluster-wide information,
greatly enhancing it's utility in identifying and troubleshooting performance issues
that span nodes for a cluster database.
Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor (ADDM) has been enhanced to be backward
compatible allowing it to analyze archived data, or data preserved through database
upgrades, allowing a customer to do performance comparisons over a longer time
frame.
See Also:
Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide for details
4.10.2.13 Oracle MTS and Streams Support
Database Replay supports capture and replay of workloads on shared server and
Oracle Streams architecture.
Customers using shared server and Oracle Streams architecture can benefit from
Database Replay testing and have the ability to adopt technology faster.
See Also:
Oracle Database Testing Guide for details
4.10.2.14 Parallel Query + Alt Plan Recording, Export STS Enhancements
This release includes the following enhancements to SQL Tuning Advisor:
■
■
■
SQL Tuning Advisor may recommend accepting a profile that uses the Automatic
Degree of Parallelism (Auto DOP) feature. A parallel query profile is only
recommended when the original plan is serial and when parallel execution can
significantly reduce the elapsed time for a long-running query.
While tuning a SQL statement, SQL Tuning Advisor searches real-time and
historical performance data for alternative execution plans for the statement. If
plans other than the original plan exist, then SQL Tuning Advisor reports an
alternative plan finding.
You can transport a SQL tuning set to any database created in Oracle Database 10g
(Release 2) or later. This technique is useful when using SQL Performance
Analyzer to tune regressions on a test database.
These features are introduced to enhance the capabilities of the SQL Tuning Advisor.
The newest version can recommend alternative plans that were seen at some time in
the past, in case they perform better, as well as recommending queries to run in
parallel if that is beneficial for the total runtime of each query.
The STS export to old releases is designed to help customers with upgrades so that
they are using the most recent version of the database software.
See Also:
Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide for details
4.10.2.15 Synchronization Controls
Synchronization controls have been enhanced to allow more concurrency, filtering,
and scale-up during replay.
This gives you the ability to replay workload more realistically to identify the impact
of system change and provide flexibility during replay.
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Unstructured Data Management
See Also:
Oracle Database Testing Guide for details
4.11 Unstructured Data Management
The new features in the following sections describe the significant performance,
developer productivity and advanced capabilities in Oracle Multimedia, Oracle
Spatial, Oracle Database SecureFiles, and XML Database.
4.11.1 Enhanced Oracle Multimedia and DICOM Support
The following sections describe the new features and capabilities for Oracle
Multimedia and Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM).
4.11.1.1 Attribute Extraction of Requested Attributes Only
Oracle Multimedia now allows extraction of a subset of DICOM metadata attributes as
requested by a user or an application, without first extracting all DICOM attributes
from the DICOM content.
DICOM content can contain hundreds of metadata attributes. Often only a few
attributes are required for indexing, searching and partitioning. Extraction of a subset
eliminates the previous requirement of extracting all attributes thus improving
performance.
See Also:
Oracle Multimedia DICOM Developer's Guide for details
4.11.1.2 Client-Side DICOM Attribute Extraction
Oracle Multimedia now allows DICOM metadata extraction to be performed outside
the database by a client tool or in the middle-tier.
This enables extraction of DICOM metadata before the data is loaded into the
database, facilitating metadata-based partitioning of DICOM data in the database.
See Also:
Oracle Multimedia DICOM Developer's Guide for details
4.11.1.3 DICOM Enhancements
The following enhancements have been added to Oracle Multimedia:
■
Metadata extraction
Any portion of a DICOM attribute can now be extracted (for example, extraction
of the last name portion of the patient name attribute).
■
Constraint definitions
Validation of recursive structures such as DICOM Structured Reports can now be
specified, and new FOR EACH syntax has been added to allow iteration through all
the components in a single predicate.
■
DICOM content processing:
–
DEFLATE transfer syntax support has been added.
–
RLE compression is now supported.
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.1) New Features 4-37
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–
Encoding of multi-bit monochrome images is now supported.
–
YBR photometric interpretation is now supported.
–
DICOM to AVI and DICOM to MPEG conversions are now supported.
–
MPEG encapsulated into DICOM format is now supported.
These new features allow more complete and powerful operations on DICOM data
that include:
■
Flexible extraction of metadata from DICOM data.
■
Support for DICOM Structured Reports.
■
Presentation of DICOM videos in any browser, without requiring specific DICOM
support in the browser.
See Also:
Oracle Multimedia DICOM Developer's Guide for details
4.11.1.4 Watermarking and Image Processing Enhancements
Oracle Multimedia now includes a new applyWatermark method to add an image or
text watermark to any supported image. It also supports new image processing
operators to remove metadata when creating thumbnail images and to sharpen image
quality.
Watermarking is commonly used to prevent misuse of copyrighted or trademarked
images. With this feature, watermarking may be enforced by the database. Removing
metadata when creating thumbnail images allows for the production of the smallest
possible thumbnail images.
See Also:
Oracle Multimedia Reference for details
4.11.2 Enhanced Oracle Spatial Support
The following sections describe new features in Oracle Spatial support for 3D,
geocoder, routing engine, GeoRaster, and network data model.
4.11.2.1 3D Visualization Framework
This release includes a set of metadata tables to describe themes, scenes, textures,
viewpoints, light sources, non-geographic data, and other elements used to visualize
three-dimensional (3D) content. It also delivers a number of performance
improvements to the 3D analysis operations.
This metadata support for 3D content enables a consistent way to combine all 3D,
raster, vector, and non-geometric data into a unified visualization framework.
Information may be logically grouped into themes to simplify the development,
analysis, use, and maintenance of 3D applications.
See Also:
Oracle Spatial and Graph Developer's Guide for details
4.11.2.2 Network Data Model Enhancements
Oracle Spatial network data model (NDM) delivers numerous enhancements. These
include a 30-50% more memory-efficient representation of user attribute data
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associated with the network, many additional highly requested path and subpath
analysis functions such as traveling sales person (TSP), hierarchical shortest path
(HSP), and K-shortest path (KSP).
This release also allows the logical partitioning of networks based on metrics
appropriate to the application. For analysis of data associated with the network, NDM
has added a network buffer feature to derive the zone of influence with coverage and
cost information and a "minimum cost polygon" to allow for the association of
geographic points of interest or coverages with a network defined region.
These enhancements allow NDM to support more completely a wider range of
requirements found in utility networks, logistics and other applications dependent
upon network-based analysis.
See Also:
Oracle Spatial and Graph Topology Data Model and Network Data Model
Graph Developer's Guide for details
4.11.2.3 New GeoRaster JAVA API
With Oracle Spatial, there is a new Java application programming interface (API) to all
functions currently available in the existing PL/SQL interface. These include support
for all the search, analysis and raster management features in Oracle Spatial
GeoRaster.
In addition, this API includes calls to support the development of extraction,
transformation, and loading (ETL) tools, Web applications and raster processing
applications.
This new feature simplifies the development of Java applications that use, access, and
manipulate raster and gridded data sets stored in Oracle Spatial.
See Also:
Oracle Spatial and Graph GeoRaster Developer's Guide for details
4.11.2.4 Raster Reprojections and Ground Control Point-Based (GCP)
Georeferencing
Oracle Spatial currently includes support for over 4,000 coordinate systems when
using vector data. Oracle GeoRaster now supports the reprojection of imagery to any
of these 4,000 plus Oracle Spatial coordinate systems.
In this release the GeoRaster feature also supports native storage and georeferencing of
Ground Control Point (GCP) data.
These capabilities remove the requirement for third-party tools currently required
when using vector data and raster imagery in different coordinate systems. Oracle
Spatial can now be used to perform these reprojections.
Ground Control Point-based georeferencing is used in data collection and processing
applications. This native GCP storage and georeferencing can be used to georeference
raw (non-rectified) and processed (rectified) raster data.
See Also:
Oracle Spatial and Graph GeoRaster Developer's Guide for details
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.1) New Features 4-39
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4.11.2.5 Routing and Geocoding Enhancements
With this release, the Oracle Spatial routing engine is based on the network data
model. This increases the ability of Oracle to support the restrictions and conditions
required for advanced routing applications.
The Oracle Spatial 11.2 geocoder, in addition to the support for standard address
geocoding based on interpolation, now supports point-based geocoding where data
sets include the exact location of addresses, intersections, and points of interest.
Oracle Spatial now supports truck routing data sets to produce driving directions that
include restrictions based on roads, weight, height, time of day, and other conditions
applied to commercial and logistics applications.
Point-based geocoding is becoming increasingly popular because it allows for more
accurate results and can be used in situations where interpolation is not possible.
See Also:
Oracle Spatial and Graph Developer's Guide for details
4.11.3 Oracle SecureFiles
The following sections describe improvements in Oracle SecureFiles.
4.11.3.1 Database File System (DBFS)
The Oracle Database File System (DBFS) enables the database to be used as a
POSIX-compatible file system on Linux. This feature includes a PL/SQL package on
the database server that enables the DBFS server functionality and a Linux client for
DBFS (dbfs_client). The dbfs_client client is a utility that enables mounting of a
DBFS file system as a mount point on Linux. It provides the mapping from file system
operations to database operations. The dbfs_client client runs completely in user space
and interacts with the kernel through the FUSE library infrastructure.
DBFS Hierarchical Store provides an easy and application-transparent way to archive
SecureFiles data that is stored in DBFS file systems to secondary storage tiers such as
tape and storage clouds, using DBFS Links. It also allows archived data to be
dearchived and brought back into the database on demand.
DBFS makes it easy for files to be accessed by database applications, and for file-based
tools to access files stored in the database. With DBFS, all important file data can be
seamlessly stored in an Oracle database, providing the benefits of security, backup,
performance, and scalability that are standard with the Oracle Database.
SecureFiles is a high performance solution for storing files or unstructured data in
Oracle Database. Customers often need to store these files for long periods of time for
business or compliance reasons. Consequently, customers are looking to transfer files
to cheaper forms of storage in an application-transparent manner to reduce
manageability and administration overhead. DBFS Hierarchical Store provides a
seamless, automatic, and transparent way to archive cold file data to inexpensive
storage.
See Also:
Oracle Database SecureFiles and Large Objects Developer's Guide for
details
4-40 Oracle Database New Features Guide
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4.11.3.2 Support for Oracle SecureFiles
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2) introduces a new compression level for
SecureFiles LOBs called COMPRESS LOW. This compression level introduces a
lightweight compression option that removes the majority of the CPU cost that is
typical with file compression. Compressed SecureFiles at the LOW level now provides a
very efficient choice for SecureFiles storage. SecureFiles LOBs compressed at LOW
generally consume less CPU than BasicFile (pre-11g Release 1) LOBs, consume less
storage than BasicFile LOBs and typically makes the application run faster because of
reduced disk I/O.
See Also:
Oracle Database SecureFiles and Large Objects Developer's Guide for
details
4.11.4 Oracle XML DB Scale and Performance Improvements
The following sections address key customer requirements in the area of scalability
and performance by delivering partitioning of XML tables, scaling on registering large
XML Schemata, significant improvements in XML indexing and query performance
for common real-world workloads, and significant improvements in performance of
repository operations.
4.11.4.1 Binary XML Enhancements
This release includes support for partitioning of binary XMLType table and relation
tables containing binary XML columns, where the partition key is derived from the
XML content. Also included are guidelines on how to optimize performance of binary
XML operations.
This new feature allows Oracle partitioning to be used with binary XML content,
thereby allowing large volumes of XML data to be managed effectively.
See Also:
Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide for details
4.11.4.2 Oracle XML DB Repository Performance Improvements and Guidelines
Oracle XML DB Repository performance improvements include guidance on:
■
■
How to optimize hierarchical queries using EQUALS_PATH and UNDER_PATH
condition.
How to optimize performance of hierarchical index when querying the repository.
The benefit is improved performance for repository operations.
See Also:
Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide for details
4.11.4.3 XMLIndex Enhancements
This release includes improvements to the ability for Oracle to index unstructured,
semi-structured, and highly-structured XML documents stored using binary XML.
Also included is support for partitioned indexes and parallel operations. These
enhancements incorporate all features of existing XMLIndex and XMLTable Index into
a single unified index.
Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.1) New Features 4-41
Unstructured Data Management
The benefits are high performance query, fragments, and scalar extraction operations
on schema and schema-less binary XML storage.
See Also:
Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide for details
4.11.4.4 XMLType Partitioning
This feature allows partitioning of the nested tables that are used to manage collections
of child elements when storing XML documents using object-based persistence in
conjunction with nested tables.
XMLType partitioning enables all the advanced features of the Oracle partitioning
option to be used to manage XMLType data.
See Also:
Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide for details
4-42 Oracle Database New Features Guide
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