combustion analyzer for furnaces with a closed combustion

combustion analyzer for furnaces with a closed combustion
COMBUSTION ANALYZER FOR
FURNACES WITH A CLOSED
COMBUSTION CHAMBER
PROGRAMMABLE RELAY
LMBD4 PLC
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
Build
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
Before you start using the analyzer
Prior to using the device you should thoroughly read this user's manual. In it you will find
tips regarding safe use of the device and it will get you acquainted with the device's build
and functions.
What’s in the box
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flue gas combustion analyzer central unit (CPU)
power supply unit with a cord
USB cable to connect the device to the computer
CD with software, drivers and a manual
18 MM nut made from stainless steel used to install the lambda probe in the
exhaust stack
calibrated lambda probe (the parameters of the probe will be programmed in the
device)
Unpacking and checking
After unpacking you should check whether the device is damaged. If you have any doubts
do not turn on the device. In this case you should contact the seller.
Any materials from the package ( foil, rubber etc.) should be kept away from children as
they may be dangerous to them.
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
Connecting to mains electricity
Connection to mains electricity must be done accordingly to the manufacturers guidance and
the binding safety regulations.
To do this you should use the power supply provided together with the device and:
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put the power supply on a non-flammable surface or
hang the power supply or
put the power supply on a non-flammable dais (e.g. brick)
put the power supply in a place where it is safe from being accidentally flooded
with water
do not put the power supply on the floor because any water leak can flood it
do not put the power supply too close to heat sources
mount the power supply away from flammable liquids and gases prone to ignition
and self-ignition
the guidances above should also be applied to the device itself
The mains electricity socket you are connecting the device to must be equipped with an
appropriate fuse (depending on the circuit) and a residual current device to ensure the user
will not be electrocuted due to insulation being ruptured, a short circuit, touching, flooding
etc. The electrical installation should be done accordingly to binding safety regulations.
The manufacturer is not responsible for any damage to third parties or objects caused by not
adhering to the manufacturers guidances.
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
Preparing to start
The LMBD4PLC combustion analyzer is designed to be used with any boiler unit with a
closed combustion chamber and a blowtorch where all exhaust gases are not additionally
mixed with air and the whole amount of air needed for the combustion process is delivered
by the blowtorch so we can analyze their unchanged composition immediately after they are
blown out from the boiler unit.
The combustion analyzer is designed to use an universal lambda probe that is normally used
to analyze the composition of exhaust gases in cars.
You should only use a four-wire, zirconium lambda probe with a built-in heater. The heaters
grounding, signal wire and internal ground potentials should be physically isolated from the
metal case of the probe.
You can buy and calibrate the probe on your own, buy a probe with known parameters or use
an additionally bought calibrated probe. The lambda probe is not an element of the package
and you need to buy it separately.
The durability of the probe depends on the fuel type and the temperature it is working in.
When the fuel that is burned is free of sulfur and other chemical contaminations then the
probe should last anywhere from a year to a couple of years. However, if we experiment
with solid fuels, varnished woodwork wastes, coal, charred coal, used engine oil or fuel
contaminated with plastic we might damage the probe in just a few days.
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
How to prepare and where to place the lambda probe
Picking the mounting spot
These pictures show different ways to mount the
probe in your exhaust stack depending on its
shape. Due to their design, some probes should
not be mounted horizontally as it will cause drip
to accumulate. Probes mounted in improper
ways were marked with a red 'X'. The probes
should always be mounted vertically, at an angle
pointing downward or – as a last resort –
horizontally and as close to the boiler units
exhaust as possible. Do not mount the probe
upside down or at an angle where the cables are
pointing downward.
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
The probe should be protected so that water does not get inside it through the wires. You
cannot seal the spot where the wires enter the probe.
A prepared probe should be mounted in a spot suitable for doing measurements, that is as
close to the boiler units exhaust as possible (as seen on the pictures above). When possible,
the probe should be placed in the exhaust gases draft where the temperature is the highest,
not further from the exhaust than at a distance of four times the diameter of the exhaust
stack. The closer to the boiler unit and it's exhaust, the better.
A built-in heater makes the lambda probe less sensitive to the distance from the exhaust and
the exhaust gas temperature. However, pick the mounting spot with care as you want to be
sure that the exhaust gases are hot and make contact with the probe. Sometimes a few
attempts of picking the mounting point are needed before the right one is found.
The durability of the probe will be shortened if the gases are too hot.
The outer part of the probe should be kept clean. Liquids should not be used to clean the
probe as they can leak into the casing through the front of the probe or the back where the
cables are placed. The probe should not be cleaned using solvents or wire brushes.
!!! ATTENTION !!!
After the lambda probe is placed inside the exhaust - pipe it must at all times be heated by
the built-in heater. The device takes care of heating the probe. If you plan any breaks in
using the device (e.g. you plan to disconnect the power supply from the device) you should
remove the lambda probe from the exhaust pipe. Otherwise it will soon become damaged
or degraded.
Remember to always keep the heater's power supply on!
!!! ATTENTION !!!
Connecting electricity to a signal wire will damage the LAMBDA probe.
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
Drilling the hole in the exhaust - pipe
The probe's screw-thread is
18mm in diameter and has a
pitch of 1.5mm.
To mount the probe on the
inside of the exhaust - pipe
use the nut made of stainless
steel, received in the package.
To place the probe in the
exhaust - pipe you first need
to drill a hole in it. The hole
should be drilled on a flat part
of the exhaust - pipe so that
the nut can stick to the
exhaust pipe relatively flat and not deform it.
Below is a picture of the recommended drill bit ( cone drill ). It does not shred the hole's
edges.
The probe must enter the hole perpendicularly to the surface. The probe must be mounted
air-tight or the results of the measurements will be skewed because air will be sucked into
the exhaust - pipe from the outside.
Remember, a ragged graph is an indication that 'fake' air is getting inside to the boiler
unit.
We advise you to use the drill bit shown above when drilling in exhaust - pipe made of
stainless steel. After many tests we have come to a conclusion that this type of drill bit
causes a minimum amount of damage to the hole's edge making the mounting air-tight.
Other drill bits shred the edges.
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
The hole should have a diameter of exactly 18mm so the probe's screw-thread does not fit
loosely. The nut should be screwed very strongly but be careful not to damage the probe in
the process.
Sealing the exhaust stack
!!!ATTENTION!!!
DO NOT additionally seal the probe in the hole with any kind of chemical substances (glue,
silicone) as that causes a risk of damaging the surface of the probe's electrodes. This is called
poisoning. Substances based on silicone and many types of glue are known to permanently
damage lambda probes. If you find the hole you drilled unusable, drill a new one and
hermetically close the old one.
You must also remember to seal the exhaust stack in the places where its parts connect with
each other, especially if the exhaust - pipe has regulated bent pipes (elbow - pipe). These
types of elbows should not be used between the boiler unit's exhaust and the probe as they
are never completely air-tight. The places where the parts connect can be sealed using
aluminum tape resistant to high temperatures (such as used to fire-places). It is most
important to seal the parts between the exhaust and the probe. Otherwise the results of the
measurements will either be completely skewed or will constantly oscillate between
minimum and maximum. This oscillation indicates that 'fake air' is being sucked into the
exhaust - pipe from the outside.
It is important that the combustion chamber is properly sealed using a sealing rope. The
revision door also need to be leak-proof and the viewer needs to be shut. If you think air is
getting to the combustion chamber, seal any place where the suspected leak may be with
aluminum tape.
!!! The only source of air for the combustion process should be the burner itself !!!
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
Picking the Pt-100 temperature sensor mounting point
The Pt-100 sensor is not required for the device to work properly. The sensor gives
information needed to calculate combustion efficiency but the temperature of the exhaust
gases can be measured in another way or simply estimated and set to a desired value after
taking control of this measuring channel.
If you do not plan on using the sensor simply build a 'bridge' with a piece of cord between
pins 5 and 6 as shown on the picture below and skip to the part regarding software.
If we do not build the 'bridge' when not using the sensor, the device may start to malfunction
or stop reacting to the software and go into firmware update mode. We don't need the 'bridge'
when we want to use the sensor. In that case connect the sensor to the device accordingly to
the scheme on the device's front panel.
Normal Pt-100 sensors have 3 cords.
Some have only 2 cords. In this case connect the
sensor between pins 6 and 7 without removing the
'bridge'.
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
Also available are sensors with 4 cords where usually
we connect the two white cords together and treat them
as one.
Mount the sensor accordingly to the sketch and:
- the sensor must have a length of at least half of the exhaust stack's diameter
(ideally 1- 2cm longer)
- be hermetically mounted
- be made from stainless steel
- mounted not further away from the boiler unit's exhaust than at a distance of 2
diameters of the exhaust stack
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
Pin description
Lp.
Symbol
Description
1
HEAT
Stabilized, negative supply voltage output to the lambda probe's
heater. This is usually a white cord. The order of both white cords of
the heater is irrelevant. The probes ground and its casing must be
isolated from signal ground and heater ground.
2
HEAT
Stabilized, positive supply voltage output to the lambda probe's
heater. This is usually a white cord. The order of both white cords of
the heater is irrelevant
3
LMBD
Measurements signals from the lambda probe input. This is usually
a black cord.
4
GND ground
Ground, zero potential of the lambda probe. The probe's ground and
its casing must be isolated from … This is usually a grey cord.
5
Pt-100
Pt-100 sensor input. This is usually a red cord.
6
Pt-100
Pt-100 sensor input. This is usually a red cord.
7
GND ground
Pt-100 sensor ground. This is usually a white cord. If you plan to
use an USB extension cord you should also connect the electric
network zero here. Do not use neutral, only ground.
8
GND
1-Wire bus ground
9
+5V
+5V 50mA power supply for 1-Wire bus
10
BUS
1-Wire bus
11
EARTH
Ground
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
Front panel LED description
On it's front panel the device has five LEDs which show the lambda parameter's value, the
level of oxygen or carbon dioxide depending on the setting in the software, while the device
is working.
These LEDs should be set up initially:
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after regulating the burner and finding the wanted value of the lambda parameter
you should enter this value in the 'LAMBDA Center value' box in the 'FRONT LED'
window that you can find in the 'LMBD2’ tab of the ‘I/O’ window.
This will be our average value that we want to retain and it will be represented by
three LEDs (-2,-1,0) on the front panel being on at the same time
lower, in the 'LAMBDA Measuring range +/-' box we can set the range of indication
for the LEDs e.g. if we set the center value to 1.200 and enter 0.075 as the range of
indication then:
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
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The LED '0' will represent lambda value 1.200
The LED '1' will represent lambda value 1.238
The LED '2' will represent lambda value 1.275 (0.075 more than the center
value)
The LED '-1' will represent lambda value 1.163
The LED '-2' will represent lambda value 1.125 (0.075 less than the center
value)
Assuming this, the Lambda coefficient value shown by the LEDs on the picture is about
1.125
( 1 LED is on)
We can also tighten the range of the readings so we can better observe the combustion
process.
The LEDs on the front panel allow us to constantly observe the value of the Lambda
parameter, oxygen and carbon dioxide levels and how they change without having to connect
the device to a computer.
If you change any of the settings remember to save them with the SAVE button.
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
The devices applications
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combustion analyzer
remote control or automatic operation without the user’s constant supervision
option to add two input/output modules controlled by DS2408 units using 1-wire
(modules need to be bought separately). In this configuration the outputs and inputs
work in groups of eight, you can have 8 or 16 additional outputs or 8 or 16 additional
inputs connected by the 1-Wire bus
Now our device comes with new additional functions:
– programming, controlling and monitoring our devices via the internet using computers and
Android devices ( smartphones and tablets )
– real time data transmission
– full communication with all PLC2011 controllers, devices can communicate with each
other without the user’s supervision
– AES-256/SHA-256 data encryption
– multichannel astronomical clock tracking sunrise and sunset times, cooperating with the
device’s built-in timer
– 1-wire bus
– option to add two input/output modules controlled by DS2408 units using 1-wire (modules
need to be bought separately). In this configuration the outputs and inputs work in groups of
eight, you can have 8 or 16 additional outputs or 8 or 16 additional inputs connected by the
1-Wire bus
– option to add up to 32 digital DALLAS thermometers DS18B20, DS18S20 or DS1822
– every digital thermometer connected by the 1-wire bus can be used as a thermostat with a
set hysteresis
– heating control (e.g. floor heating)
– 16 built in thermostats
– 8 differential temperature regulators with set hysteresis
– every pair of neighboring digital thermometers can work as a differential temperature
regulator
– option to set a hysteresis or differential hysteresis for each thermostat
– each differential thermostat has an individually set minimal and maximal temperature
– each digital thermometer can work as a high temperature alarm, fire alarm
– each thermostat can work in a heating and cooling mode
– each differential thermostat can work in both the heating and cooling mode simultaneously
– thermocouples
– thermocouple control using MAX31850 / MAX31851 amplifiers
– option to connect up to 32 thermocouples instead of DS18B20 thermometers. This opens
up an array of industrial applications where the temperature rise up to 2000 °C . You only
need to buy a 1-wire thermocouple module and enter it’s serial number into one of the
thermometer fields
– every thermocouple type (K, J, N, T, S, R, E) can be used
– thermocouples allow to measure very low or very high temperatures in an industrial
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
environment where typical industrial thermocouples come at a very high cost. Using our
device you can connect up to 32 of them, mix them with DS18 sensors and relay
measurements using modbus, read them using DLL, have readings in your phone or simple
process them in your device
– automatic compensation of cold junction
– MODBUS TCP/IP master via Ethernet/LAN/Internet
– MODBUS UDP/IP master via Ethernet/LAN/Internet
– can be used to expand other PLC devices and systems functionality by remote control
over devices using the internet on Android devices
– LMBD4PLC can send out all variables, thermometer readings, output statuses to other
PLC or computer
– LMBD4PLC has 4MB Flash memory where all work parameters from the last 9 days are
stored
– LMBD 4PLC can also be used to control several boiler rooms simultaneously from one
central location
What else can you control using LMBD4?
As this device is a combination of an analyzer and PLC controller you can, with the help of a
computer or mobile phone, use it for controlling:
– pumps such as hot water circulation pumps
– floor heating
– hot water tank control in several points
– switching furnaces into economy mode
– control over 8-16 circuits using relays
– reading the status of 8-16 different circuits
– lighting
– garage gates
– alarms of different manufacturers
– flood sensors, smoke sensors
– solar panels, heat buffers, window shutters
– everything that can be controlled using relays
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
Technical data and guidance
Weight
Dimensions (LxWxH in mm)
120/80/45
Mounting
Any means available
Power supply
12V
Measured values
O2
Exhaust fumes temp.
Air temp.
Calculated values
CO2
Efficiency
Lambda
Recommended maximum length of the lambda probe cords (the
shorter, the better)
1m
Minimal cross-sectional area of the lambda probe cords
1.5 mm2
Recommended length for the Pt-100 cords
3m
Measurement accuracy of the lambda coefficient depends mostly
on what probe is used. For a BOSCH LSU probes the values are:
LAMBDA=1.3
LAMBDA=1.8
<0.013
<0.050
Maximum exhaust gases temperature
600 OC
Exhaust gases temperature influence on the lambda coefficient for
a new BOSCH LSU-11 probe in a range of 130OC to 230OC
<0.010
Recommended minimal power of the lambda probe heater
18W
Nominal voltage (stabilized)
12V
Electricity consumption
<100mA
Work temperature
0..40 OC
The lambda measuring range is dependent on the probe used. It is 1.1 to 2
usually between 1.1 and 1.5 but please check these values in your
probe's documentation.
Communication with the computer
USB2.0 Full speed only
for network
configuration and time
synchronization
RJ45 10Mbit Ethernet
Ethernet
10
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
Operation
About the software
The LMBD4 software for Windows does not have any functions that would spy on the user.
It does not steal data, connect to unknown internet addresses or to the manufacturer or the
software's author. No data are saved to the Windows registry system and all settings and
configuration files are created only in the folder containing the *.exe executable file. The
software does not automatically check for updates so the user's ip address and location are
not logged. There are no functions of this type.
Using this software is extremely safe, especially when you want to control a device placed in
a building far away. You can expose the relay's IP address to the public address pool or do a
port redirection at the router without any concern that the device will be broken into.
The device cannot be broken into because it has no operating system able to execute a code
received from the outside. This problem does not exist at all due to how the device is built.
When running the software on Windows 7 you should be logged in as the administrator
when you want to edit the time server or firewall settings.
A few words about safety
The device was designed with a lot of attention put on safety. An advanced, military strength
cryptographic system protects data from being intercepted during transmission and used
again, prevents unauthorized access to the device by people trying to impersonate the
rightful user. From now on you can safely open gates or roller shutters even on the other side
of the planet without fear that an intruder will intercept the Internet transmission and use it to
break into your house, open your gate or roller shutters or disarm the alarm.
The safety system is based on many factors
For the communication with the device to start you need to enter a long password. You do
this either using your keyboard or using your mouse and a virtual keyboard on your screen.
This is a means of defense against spy-software, especially programs which register
keystroke.
The entered password is not transmitted through the Internet. This password is only used to
mathematically generate a substitutionary password using the SHA256 hash function. This
digest is also not transmitted through the Internet. The digest is used to encrypt the data
between the user's computer and the device, and is automatically wiped from the computer's
memory before the software is shut down. The long password you entered is overwritten in
the memory when approved and a memory dump after the software is closed will not reveal
our secrets.
The device has a digest of an identical password, entered to it's own memory while it was
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
being configured through USB but does not have a password per se. It also does not have a
function reading anything from the device's memory that could reveal the password or it's
digest. It is impossible to extract the password through USB, the Internet or from electronic
elements of the device. You can only change the password personally after connecting the
device to your computer by an USB cable and entering the 12 byte PIN code which prevents
unauthorized password change through USB.
During the first phase, the password goes through one way hashing function SHA256. This
is a cryptographic function which changes any character string to a so called digest that is
256 bits long (32 bytes). This digest will be used as a password to the actual encryption
algorithm AES-256, which requires a 256 bit long password.
Before a packet of data is encrypted, a 128 bit random number is generated, precisely the
same length as the block of data that is being processed by the AES-256 algorithm. From this
moment, a packet of data with commands transmitted to the device is formed. Placed in this
packet is also our computer's current system time with no more than a 15 second difference
between the device and the computer. The packet is then put through the XOR function with
the generated random number. The random number is generated separately for every packet.
Next, the random number and the packet are encrypted with the 256 bit digest. You say that a
packet like this is time stamped and encrypted. Additionally, every packet looks different
thanks to the random numbers and is only valid for 15 seconds after being formed. As the
device has it's own independent real-time clock, the communication will work if the time
stamp entered in the transmitted data packet before encryption is the same (the difference
can be up to 15 seconds) in the computer and in the device. The password or digest are not
processed at all during the transmission. The device receives the packet and tries to decrypt it
using the digest in it's memory. If the decryption is unsuccessful, the device will not reply to
the packet at all. It will not find data identifying the sender, the time stamp will be incorrect,
the data will be encrypted using a different key etc.
The way the data is encrypted is transparent and it's safety is not based on secret algorithms.
It's based mainly on the length of the password and whether or not you keep the password to
ourself or lose it. If you have any doubts whether your password is still safe you can always
change it through USB and using the PIN code, and reinstall the infected operating system.
Used security technologies:
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Hash function SHA-256 - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sha256
Symmetrical encryption with the AES-256 algorithm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aes256
Time stamping
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
Firmware
This device has an easy-to-use, user friendly firmware update function. Frequent firmware
updates will accommodate the device to the user's needs.
On request we can prepare additional functions for the device.
Firmware can be updated very conveniently through USB and any breaks in communication
will not result in damage to the device. Firmware update is secured by a long PIN code so
that no unauthorized persons can use this function. Every firmware is digitally signed which
ensures that only the manufacturer's firmware will work in the device.
Interfaces
The device has all interfaces used for communication and no additional cords or adapters are
required. Standard computer network wiring is enough for the device to work properly. This
type of functionality is not found in any other device available on the market.
Safety code
Code 147 – simply enter 147 into the field marked by the red arrow. When you enter this
code, the device will exit the 'safe mode'. This mode protects you from accidentally clicking
on an input, the RESET button or a function button. It is a sort of a safety fuse. After you
enter the number 147, the screen will change color into light pink and all the options in the
program will be unlocked.
Pressing the small 'RESET' button, placed next to the field where you enter the code, will put
the device back into safe mode. In safe mode you can enter individual menus but you cannot
click on strategic places on the screen.
Another PIN code – 369 – also exists. It has a similar function as the one presented
above but it also makes the device send out packets 10 times per second. This mode is for
testing the bandwidth.
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
Programming and operation
The software is common for PLC2011 and LBMD4 devices.
When adding a new device to your list you must chose from:
- TYPE A1 – PLC2011A1 Relay
- TYPE B1 – PLC2011B1 Programmable Alarm
- TYPE C1 – PLC2011C1 Multicontroller
- TYPE LMBD4 – Analyzer
Depending on the device type you have chosen, the DEVICE A1, DEVICE B1, DEVICE C1
or LMBD4 tab will be activated.
The AUTO time zone means the device is in the same time zone as the computer where you
open the software. If you are in a different time zone you need to pick the appropriate from a
list together with current DST settings for the device location. This setting is supposed to
show the time in the place where the device is installed.
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
First run
In short:
1. You configure the network addresses and set up the password through an USB cable
2. You synchronize time through an USB cable
The first run can only be carried out using an USB cable.
You cannot do it through the local computer network. It is a safety measure so that the
password cannot be changed remotely. You can only change the password if you connect
with the device directly using an USB cable.
To run the device for the first time you also need the PIN code.
This code is placed on the cover of the CD containing drivers.
This code must not be lost!
Without it you will not be able to re-acquire control over the relay if you lose or forget your
password.
The purpose of the first run is to set the device's:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Network addresses
TCP/IP protocol port numbers
Time zone
Password
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
Password and SALT
The password should have at least 15 characters to be sure that device is immune to
hacker attempts at guessing or breaking the password. In buildings of heavy importance the
recommended password length is over 24 characters.
In the older software versions the password had to be at least 15 characters long and you
could not save the configuration if the password was too short. There was no way of
surpassing this requirement due to user safety.
In the newer versions of the software you can now create a shorter password or an empty
password (the password field is left empty). This is due to frequent user requests motivated
by operation convenience.
However, we advise you to use a password of at least 15 characters.
If the password is too short then the following message will display in the console.
The configuration will be saved but the following message will be displayed:
Password too short.
The field where the password is entered will be in red. This is to show that the password is
shorter than 15 characters.
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
If the password is 15 characters or longer the message in the console will look like this:
Configuration was saved.
The field where you enter the password has changed to green which means the password is
15 characters or longer.
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
Information shown in the console:
The first part is a cryptographic hash ( also called digest ) generated using SHA-256
function.
In our case the password is fifteen "1" ( 111111111111111 ) without SALT.
Hash for this password will always look the same:
D3447652BB8A5FBB29C85423666D645A50C12D47B9B037D2E0E326EF0922ABEA
Additionally, to make it even harder to break the password, that it is to guess it if the hash is
revealed, you can turn on the SALT function.
Salt is data added to the password before hashing with the SHA-256 function. It's nothing
more than a connection of the text of your password and another, non secret text.
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
To activate the SALT function we have to go to the SETTINGS tab first.
You have two options:
Salt PLC
Salt TXT
Only the first function is important when assigning a password.
Both of the Salt functions are switched on by default and consist of a random string of
characters. In the fields you can enter any Salt you want.
The Salt can consist of up to 64 characters. The characters should be entered randomly. It is
also a good idea to use special characters such as letters written in different alphabets. The
more complicated, the better. Both Salts must be different from each other. More about Salt
for text messages is written in a latter part of the manual.
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
To make any changes to the default settings you must first check the Enable changes
checkbox.
The ability to make changes will be unlocked.
You will now be able to switch Salt on and off and enter your own Salt text.
Using two different Salts will give you two different encryption keys for the same password.
When you send commands to your PLC device they will be encrypted in a different way
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
than when you use the Encryption tools window for text messages.
After you save the changes with the SAVE button the ability to modify the settings will be
blocked until you check the Enable changes checkbox again.
To return to default settings you need to press the Reset button while remembering to first
check the Enable changes checkbox.
The settings will be changed to the default settings and the ability to make changes will be
blocked until you check the Enable changes checkbox again.
The values entered in these fields are kept in an XML file in the folder with the software to
control the PLC.
Below you have a comparison of a password hash for the same password (fifteen “ones”):
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
-without Salt
-with the default Salt
As you can see, both are completely different.
When assigning a password you need to pay attention whether Salt is on or not. If you assign
a password with Salt switched on and then you switch the Salt option off, you will not be
able to connect to your device because even though the password is seemingly the same, the
hash is completely different for the salted and unsalted versions of the password.
A hash with or without salt is generated each time you enter the password and confirm it
using the Accept button. If you pick from the list a device without salt or with a different
salt, you need to enter the password again. The password is destroyed immediately after
being confirmed and the software is operating solely with the mathematically processed hash
of that password and with or without values from the Salt options.
It may happen that you will not be able to connect to the device without any apparent reason.
You should then check the Salt settings, remind yourself what settings have you made in the
software and how did you configure the device via USB. If the device password was set
without Salt then you need to switch off the Salt PLC option, then save the settings and
enter the password again.
Both the Salt PLC and Salt TXT options are switched on by default and use the default
values to operate.
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We advise to use even the default values.
ATTENTION!
Most failures in communication are connected to Salt settings, either in the software
for PC or Android, or to errors made during configuration via USB. You should really
pay attention to what you are doing. The SHA-256 hashes are visible so that you can
see whether the password with salt gives out the same result as during the device
configuration. If you have any problems with connecting to the device, you should first
check the SALT settings. Try to remember whether Salt was on during configuration
via USB, whether the Salt is now the same in both your PC and Android software.
After choosing the Verbose logging to console option, the SHA-256 hash with the inclusion
of the SALT will be shown in the console, when trying to connect to the device after you
enter and confirm the password. You should analyze this data and the settings that you have
made.
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Computer network
The computer network parameters must be set accurately as otherwise there is no chance of
connecting with the device. Remember to enter the IP address with the dots, do not enter
other characters. You configure the device, entering network addresses and the password,
'blindly'. There is no possibility or any function of the device or software that will enable
you to retrieve the password or set parameters if communication through the computer
network is lost or you forget your passwords. In this case you need to use the PIN code and
then reenter all the parameters. The values seen in the configuration window at the moment
are only default values, an example of how the values should be entered, and you need to
change them to your own values. Those values are not read from the device, they are entered
by the software itself only as an example.
Every device should have a unique IP address and network interface MAC address,
these two parameters are the minimum that should differ the devices from each other.
Otherwise there will be conflicts in the local network. The computer you are planning to use
for testing should belong to the same subnetwork as the device whose IP address you have
entered ( Relay ).
First, we must set up our computer, at least for a while, to be sure that a connection is
possible.
Network addresses in our computer should be set statically.
Our computer's IP address should be set to 10.0.5.2
Our subnet mask should be set to 255.255.255.0
Our gateway should be set to that of the router's – usually ends with '1' – 10.0.5.1
Save the network settings.
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Entering the device into the configuration and password saving mode
To enter the configuration mode you need to follow these steps:
1. Set a bridge between pins 5 and 7 as shown below
2. Turn on the power supply
3. The LEDs on the front panel will switch on in the following sequence :
4. From the moment the middle LED stays on the device in the configuration/update
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mode.
5. Connect the device to a computer using the received USB cable
6. Run the software ( you will find it on the CD in the package or you can download the
newest version from the website ) on the computer
7. Enter the first tab ('USB CONSOLE') in the main window
8. In the 'USB configuration' field click the 'Save configuration' option button.
Appropriate boxes will become highlighted.
9. Assuming the default values stay unaltered, you only need to enter the PIN code from
the sticker on your CD cover, enter an at least 15 character password in the password
text box, set the time zone and mark whether or not the device is placed in a location
in which summer is during winter in Europe (southern hemisphere) e.g in Australia.
The time zone is very important as you need the correct time to be able to connect to
the device through the LAN. The PIN code text box is in the lower right corner.
10. The failure of this operation is usually caused by entering a wrong PIN. For
example, make sure that you have distinguished the number '1' from the letter
'l' or the number '0' from letter 'O'
11. Press the configuration saving button – Save configuration
12. If the actions presented above are executed properly then in the text window you will
see a message with the digest of your password. It is the proper password which will
be used to encrypt the transmission. Do not save the digest. It is of no use to us and
can help hackers. The digest is presented only to slake the user's curiosity during the
first configuration and should not be saved anywhere.
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13. After this action, communication will not yet be possible. On the left side of the
program window you will see that your device has been added but you must
synchronize time before communication between the device and the computer
network is possible. If you enter different IP addresses you must also change the
device's description in the device list on the left. Without a proper entry on the device
list, you will not be able to connect with the device by LAN or the Internet.
14. After completing these actions press the RESET button and wait until the device
reboots itself an enters it's normal work mode. From this moment the device's WWW
website will be working and you can ping the device's IP address.
15. To see if this is true open your web browser and type in “http://10.0.5.100” or
whatever other IP address you have given the device. Our devices web server
response should show up.
16. You can also open menu START->Run and type in the command “ping -t 10.0.5.100”
or other given IP address. Remember to type without the quotation marks.
17. Communication using software will not yet be possible due to safety concerns as
the software allows you to deeply interfere with the device and switch the relays. You
still need to do a one-time time synchronization.
18. Please watch the video manual and read the chapter about time
synchronization.
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Time synchronization
The goal of time synchronization is to set the time in the device to same that is in the
computer or mobile device you are using to connect to the device. Without proper time
synchronization it will be impossible to connect to the device. The difference in time cannot
be bigger than 15 seconds.
When do you need to synchronize time using a USB cable?
1. After you run the device for the first time and save the password and network settings
The device is equipped with a battery to support the clock so there is no need to
synchronize the time after each time you disconnect the power supply.
Updating time in the computer
Before you update the time in your device, you first need to update the time in your
computer. Some clocks in computer can be ahead or behind the actual time even ten-odd
seconds. This is not a good occurrence. Synchronization of time in the device means you
download the time from your computer to the device via an USB cable. This means you need
to have the correct time set in your computer. In any Windows operation system updating
time is easy. Just double-click on the clock in the lower right corner of your screen, at the
end of the task bar. The 'Date and time properties' window will pop-out. In this window in
the 'Internet time' tab you will find a button used to update the time.
It is essential that you do this operation before you synchronize your device's time
with your computer's.
If the time in your computer differs more than 15 seconds from the time in your
device, there will be no communication regardless of previous synchronization.
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The device will make sure that the difference in time is no more than 1 second if you enter a
working IP for an Internet time server. Computers usually synchronize their clock once a
week, so after a couple of days you may discover that communication was lost with your
computer being at fault. You can change the frequency at which your computer synchronizes
it's time. Appropriate tools are found in the 'SETTINGS' window. So, you need to make
Windows synchronize the time with an Internet time server. The device synchronizes it's
time every two minutes (only odd minutes), around the 30th second of the minute.
It does not matter whether the computer and the device use the same time server, they can
use different servers, after synchronization they will always have the same time with a
difference of no more than 1 second.
Why all of this? Why is time synchronization so important?
If only not to give an intruder a chance to intercept the transmission and use the stolen data
in the future. All the data is time stamped an is valid in the present, not an hour or even a
minute later. In the same time, the ability to access the device from several computer at once
is preserved. All this is for safety. Remember that a couple of users can be connected to the
device at the same time. You can have small, mobile computers in your home or office, you
can connect to the device from one place having your other computers connected
simultaneously from different locations.
Sent commands and data packets are invalid 15 second after being generated but usually are
useless after only one second.
Synchronizing the time personally may be a bit a of a hassle for the user but you are
shedding comfort for the sake of safety. Without seeing the password when you type it in
to your computer it is not possible to take over control of the device. And even then you can
always go home, connect the device to your computer with an USB cable, type in the PIN
code and set a new password. The password cannot be changed via the Internet so even if
someone does steal your password, he will not be able to change it afterwards. You always
have the possibility to take away access to the device by changing the password.
Remember that if you lose the PIN code you received with the device, you will not be
able to change the password ever again. Therefor this code should be kept safe. It has been
generated automatically and the manufacturer does not posses a copy. The PIN code is
written into the device permanently and cannot be changed. When entering the password,
remember different letter sizes are recognized.
The PIN code is not needed for time synchronization.
The only thing you need is the password you have entered when you started the device for
the first time. The PIN code is used for the first and any other configuration and firmware
update.
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What to remember about when making time related settings
You need to ensure that the device always has the most up-to-date time as possible. Before
synchronizing the time in the device with the time in your computer you must download the
current time from an internet time server. You should not synchronize time if you entered the
time in your computer manually. It is highly probable that when the computer finally
downloads the time from a time server, the difference between the accurate time and what
you entered manually and wrote into your device is so big that you will lose the ability to
connect to the device. In this case you would need to synchronize the time again. However,
if you download the accurate time from the internet from the beginning then you will avoid
such problems.
Remember to properly set the time zone where the device is mounted. For example, if the
device is in a place where the time zone is GMT+10 but during synchronization you set the
time zone to GMT+1 then the device will have problem with communication with the time
server and will not update it's time. You do not change time zones when switching from
winter to summer time or back. A properly configured device will take care of it itself. For
example, if you place the device in Melbourne or Sydney then during the summer you
should not change the time zone from GMT+10 to GMT+11, the software will do it for you
automatically. Analogically, if you place it in Paris, Berlin or Rome then during the summer
the time zone stays GMT+1, you do not change it to GMT+2. If the device is placed in the
southern hemisphere then remember to check the check box for the option that makes
the device recognize this. Otherwise the device will not properly recognize it's time zone
and time changes will be executed in an improper manner.
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Example of settings for a device located in Paris:
Example of settings for a device located in Melbourne:
Remember to enter the rules concerning time changes in the location of the device. If you
choose wrong months, days or hours of the time changes then in the moment when the time
actually changes, either in the device or in your computer, connection with the device will be
lost because the time will suddenly become incorrect.
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Example of settings for Melbourne (GMT+10)
Example of settings for Paris (GMT+1)
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
If you are in the same time zone as your device, then when adding a new device to the
device list you set the time zone to AUTO. If you are sure that all settings, except the time
settings, are correct then failure to connect while in AUTO mode means that there is
definitely a problem with the time settings. You then need to revise all your steps to find the
mistake that you have made.
If you are in a different time zone than the device then you need to take that into account
when adding a new device to the device list. Instead of setting AUTO you need to choose the
timezone in the location where the device is placed including whether it currently has winter
or summer time.
For instance, if in July you want to connect to a device in Hamburg while being in another
part of the world, you need to enter GMT+1 Summer.
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If you want to connect to a device in New York in December, you need to enter GMT-5
Winter.
You use the AUTO option only when being in the same timezone as the device.
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How to synchronize time?
To synchronize time you need to enter the device into the time synchronization mode.
After making configuration settings you need to:
1. Disconnect the power supply
2. Dismount the bridge
3. Connect the PT-100 sensor according to the diagram or
4. Create a bridge between pins 5 and 6 (as originally in the device)
5. Connect the power supply
6. Connect the USB cable (if it was previously disconnected)
7. USB will switch to time synchronization mode
8. In the 'USB console' tab click the Synchronize time round option button.
9. Boxes needed for this operation will become highlighted.
10. You need to set the timezone, enter your password and press the 'Time
synchronization' button. After a second you should get the message shown below
and the device will reboot itself. If thb43e password entered is incorrect, the device
will not reset and the red LED on the left will switch on. In this case you need to
reenter the password correctly.
11. From this moment communication between the device and the computer should be
working.
12. After synchronization you do not need to reenter the password when switching to the
'Device' tab.
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13. Sometimes you need to close and reopen the added device on the device list on the
left. Double-click to collapse and the double-click again to expand. This should
initiate the IP addresses again.
ATTENTION!!!
The main causes of failure in achieving connection between the device and a
computer are wrong time, wrong timezone or inaccurate network parameters. As the
timezone you should enter it's name e.g. Europe/Berlin, set AUTO for local time or
enter as GMT+2, GMT+1, GMT etc. Entering the precise name of the timezone in
which the relay is located (Europe/Berlin) gives you certainty that summer and
winter time will be included automatically.
Your computer's local time and timezone are not important. You can be in any
timezone you wish. The relay however is mounted in a certain timezone with certain
rules regarding switching from summer to winter time and back. For instance, if you
mount the relay in Moscow, the timezone should be 'Europe/Moscow'.
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Main configuration
The main configuration panel is designed to change the devices settings using the Internet,
after you have successfully executed the 'First Run' procedure and synchronized time,
meaning you should now be able to communicate with the device via the Internet. You will
not be able to use this option without proper communication with the device.
To enter the main configuration panel press the Configuration button in the program's main
screen. On the picture below this button is marked with a red arrow.
A window with the main configuration panel will pop out
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The following settings can be changed in this window:
1. All parameters of the computer network
2. The geographical coordinates of the device's localization
3. Set the time zone, the way of calculating the day of the switch from standard to
summer time (DST) and back, and mark whether or not the device is placed in a
location in which summer is during winter in Europe (southern hemisphere) e.g in
Australia
4. Battery loading parameters
5. Switch RS232 on or off
6. Switch ethernet full duplex on or off. We recommend to switch off full duplex to
reduce interference between the signals in the computer network cable.
7. You cannot change the password. The password can only be changed when the
device is connected to your computer via an USB cable and you enter the PIN code.
Be careful and know what you are doing when configuring the computer network. If
you enter a wrong parameter you will not be able to communicate with the device. You
will then have to connect the device to a computer with an USB cable and use the PIN
code to execute the First Run procedure again.
You will not need to synchronize time again if the only thing wrong is the IP address.
If you keep the device at your house then configuring again using an USB cable will not be a
big hassle, but if it's at your company or shop then you will lose precious time to get there
and reconfigure the device. The transmission is secured using a couple of methods, including
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cryptographically, and there is no chance that the lack of communication is caused by the
device. If a packet has even 1 bit corrupted is not possible to decrypt the packet, the whole
packet will be recognized as invalid and rejected by the device.
The device configuration procedure in the Main configuration window is the same in
LMBD4, PLC2011A1, PLC2011B1 and PLC2011C1 controllers.
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Network configuration
An example of how the network can be configured is shown on the next diagram.
Presented network addresses are just the exemplary settings.
Your real addresses and router configuration should be provided
to you by your network administrator.
The relay must have an invariable static IP address or otherwise you will not be able to
connect to the device from outside the local network or even in the local network. Your
every device must have a static IP known to you if you want to communicate with it.
It is also good to have a public, static IP address visible from the Internet. If that is a
problem, you can also use DDNS services (dynamic domain name system). Router
configuration is up to the network administrator. Every router is different and therefor you
should read it's manual or ask the administrator.
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Example of network configuration
IP: 10.0.5.100 – every device in a local network must have a unique IP address.
There cannot be two identical IP addresses in a LAN segment.
MASK: 255.255.255.0 – The subnet mask is the same for every device in a Local
Area Network.
GW: 10.0.5.1 – The default gateway is the router's LAN interface IP address. The
router's address depends on the settings done by the network administrator. A router can be a
dedicated device or one of the computer in the network.
NTP: 10.0.5.1 – An NTP server (time server) can be any computer, or even the
router, if it has a time server function. It can be any computer on the Internet, your network
or even your own computer.
MAC: 00:11:12:13:14:15 – The MAC address must be unique in the whole Local
Network Area. It's the physical address of the Network Interface Controller in the device.
There cannot be two identical MAC addresses in one LAN segment.
WWW PORT: 80 - The TCP port at which the device's WWW server listens.
Normally this port is set to 80. If you change this value then after entering the address in a
web browser you need to add ' :port_number '. For example, if you change the port to 81
then you need to type in ' http://10.0.5.101:81 ' or ' http://www.myrouter.com:81 '.
If you enter 0 as the port number, the WWW server in the device will be switched off.
If you enter 80 as the port number, you will not have to add the colon and port number to the
address.
The port number can be a value in the range from 1 to 65535.
UDP PORT: 27136 - The UDP port at which the relay listens. It can be set to any
number in the range from 1 to 65535.
NTP PORT: 123 – UDP port that the relay connects to. It is usually the time server
port and you should expect the time server will use this port.
OUT PORT: 27015 - Local exit port for the UDP packets. When the device sends a
message to the NTP server, it sets this number as the source's port and awaits a response at
this port. It can be set to any number in the range from 1 to 65535.
STATIC IP – The router assigns IP addresses statically. This means the device will
not acquire a new network address each time it is connecting to the network but you must set
a permanent IP address. An example of how to set addresses of devices inside a network is
shown on the picture below.
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The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
What is a NTP server?
An NTP server is also called a time server.
It is used to give us the current time. It synchronizes itself to another computer in the
Internet or an atomic time standard.
It's very important for communication with the relays that you have the
actual current time. Computers used to control the device should have
their times synchronized with an Internet time standard. If the time in
your computer and the time in your device differ by more than 15 seconds,
the communication between them will be lost.
This does not mean however that the communication has been lost for good.
Communication will be regained if you synchronize your computer's time to an Internet or
your own time server.
If you use several relays, you should not set the same time server for every one of them. This
time server will be flooded by packets coming from several devices, looking as if they all
came from one source. This may cause the NTP server administrator to refuse you access to
his server. This regards public NTP servers available on the internet.
In this case you can use a local device, like your router, to be the NTP server for your
devices. The router would then synchronize it's time with an external NTP server and your
relays would synchronize their time to the router without flooding an external NTP server.
Your own time server would be able to handle a lot of your devices without creating too
much traffic on an external server that does not belong to you but allows you access. You can
also use a different NTP server for each of your devices.
NTP server addresses can be found using Internet search engines. There are lots of these
servers and you should pick the ones close to your location.
The safest method is to set one of the computers in your local network or your router as the
NTP server. The computer will not have to work all the time. It should be on every 2-3 days
so that the relays can download the current time.
If the NTP server is not switched on continuously then it may happen sporadically that a
command sent to the relay will not be executed. This occurs because when checking the
communication with the NTP server, the device also checks communication with the local
network. The relay the executes a short network settings initiation procedure which may
cause loss of a command that was supposed to get to the relay at that moment. This is a way
of protection against freezing. The relay must send out a question and receive an answer
from the NTP server. If there is no response, data packets will be removed and network
settings will be initiated again. The relay logic processes are not disrupted.
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You need to make sure the computer frequently synchronizes time with the Internet. This is
the safest method as it eliminates the risk of using a fake time server or someone
manipulating with the time server. Any computer with any Windows system can be a time
server. In some systems the time server option is turned off by default. You can switch it on
using the tools in the 'SETTINGS' tab. Also, unblock port 123 in the Windows Firewall. For
your laptop to become your time server you need to start the server service, set your laptop's
update time to 3600s and unblock a port in the firewall. If you are using your laptop in your
office even for only five minutes it will be enough for the relays to update the time.
It is good to have a continuously working router with a time server.
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Geographic location of the device
In the devices location fields enter the geographical coordinates of the place where the
device is mounted. They are required for the Astro timer to work correctly. The Astro timer
uses this data to calculate the sun's position based on the location on Earth. You must also set
your time zone in relation to the universal time (UT, UTC, GMT).
The next field contains options regarding automatic changes from standard time to summer
time and back. For example, summer time starts on the last Sunday of March at 2:00 (A.M.)
and ends on the last Sunday of October at 3:00 (A.M.). You can set this settings adequately
for your region and in following years the time changes will be made automatically.
In this field there is one more important box. The options here are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Winter time (+0h), (-0.833°), astronomic twilight
Summer time (+1h), (-0.833°), astronomic twilight
Winter time (+0h), (-6.000°), civil twilight
Summer time (+1h), (-6.000°), civil twilight
Auto Summer time, (-0.833°), Summer time honored for Sun calculations
Auto Summer time, (-6.000°), Summer time honored for Sun calculations
[RECOMMENDED]
7. Auto Summer time, (-0.833°), Summer time disabled for Sun calculations
8. Auto Summer time, (-6.000°), Summer time disabled for Sun calculations
•
Picking fields 1 to 4 will mean that you have to set winter and summer time
manually. On the day that the time is changed you need to connect to the device and
change it's time accordingly. After changing the time, the connection between the
computer and the device will be lost as there will now be an hour of time
difference. After you change your computer's time, the connection should be
restored.
•
Picking fields 5 to 8 will mean that the time change will be done automatically on the
dates set above.
Astronomic twilight – the center of the Sun is -0.833° below the horizon. The Sun is
not visible however the sky is still pretty bright. This is the time between sunset and dusk
and between dawn and sunrise.
Civil twilight – the center of the Sun is -6° below the horizon. The Sun has not been
visible for a long time now. At dusk it is almost completely dark. At dawn it is starting to get
bright.
“Summer time honored” – an hour will be added to the astronomical time during
summer. The Astro timer is also corrected by an hour during summer.
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“ Summer time disabled” – during summer the astronomical time will not be
changed and an hour will not be added to sunset/sunrise calculations
This does not influence the three additional 'break' time periods that you can set individually
for every day of the week ( timer ). These periods of time are always based on the current
local time that changes from winter time to summer time and back. An hour will not be
added to sunrise and sunset times, they will always stay in winter time – in relation to bars 1
and 2 in the Astro timer.
The default setting, appropriate for most users, is setting 6. In this setting
everything is automatic. Twilight is set to civil, during summer an hour is
added to the astronomical time.
At the bottom there is the Summer is during European Winter check-box. Tick it only if
your device is actually in a place where summer is during European winter (southern
hemisphere) such as Australia.
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Starting work with the software
The basic version of the software used to control the device using a PC is delivered together
with the device.
The software does not require installation.
Simply copy the software file to any location on your computer and run it.
Do not run the software from the CD!
After starting the software, a new file “myrelays.xml” will be created in the same folder.
This is a configuration file containing descriptions of sensors, alarms, buttons etc. If you
want to see use the software on a different computer remember to also copy this file as
otherwise you will need to start from scratch with the list of devices, the names, descriptions,
etc.
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After you first start the software, the window will look like below
On the list on the left you need to enter the data of the device you want to connect to. This
device needs to be previously configured. The configuration process is described in previous
parts of this manual.
Click New Device.
It will become highlighted in blue. Now you can enter your name for the chosen device.
Below enter the device’s IP address, UDP port number and device type.
In this case the device type will be TYPE LMBD4.
The last position is the time zone where the device is installed.
If the device is in the same time zone as the computer you are using to connect to it then
enter AUTO. Otherwise enter the time zone where the device is installed.
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After you enter all data the software should look like this.
The IP address and port number are only examples.
Next, in the Password field on the bottom of the screen enter the 15-character or longer
password which you set during the device configuration. Confirm the password using the
Confirm button or by pressing Enter on your keyboard.
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Tab description
This is the software’s main window which will be shown after you connect to the device.
On the left there is a list of devices where you choose the one you want to connect to.
The yellow ONLINE triangle ( 9 ) indicates the connect was made. If there is no connection
the triangle is gray.
The pink 1-Wire square ( 8 ) indicates that there is a device connected to the 1-Wire bus. If
no device is connected then the square is gray.
OWR (33) and OWR (34) 1-16 lights ( 1 ) show the status of the inputs and outputs
connected by 1-Wire. If it is red it means that this input/output is on.
X1-X6 lights ( 2 ) show if the X variable is active. If it is the lamp will be cyan.
T1-T20 lamps ( 5 ) show which timers are active
Pink – timer is active
Yellow – count to ON
Red – count to OFF
Lower are lights indicating the status of thermostats ( 7 ).
Below the Timers are buttons which open configuration windows.
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The LMBD4 button
opens the window shown below:
MAIN tab
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
Here we can view combustion parameters:
In the Main Measurements window we observe:
- % O2 – calculated excess of oxygen
- % CO2 – calculated excess of carbon dioxide
- Lambda – measured by an oxygen sensor (in our case that is a lambda probe) placed in the
exhaust stack
- calculated efficiency of the combustion process (in %)
At the top you will find five lights.
5 lights at the top of the Main measurements window show the Lambda coefficient value
and are a reflection of the lamps on the device’s front panel
Manual sensor value override – if we switch off the flow of data (the switch color changes
from green to red) from the temperature and oxygen sensors to the device then we can
manually (using adjusting knobs) set the values of three parameters: Lambda, Room
temperature and Gas temperature.
The knobs can be turned using the mouse or the arrow keys on the keyboard.
This lets us simulate different values of the parameters and see how this affects e.g. the
combustion process efficiency.
In case you do not have a temperature sensor in your exhaust stack you can use this feature
to manually set the gas temperature value that you have measured in a different way.
Temperatures – if thermometers / PT-100 are connected then their readings are displayed
here.
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
LMBD4 tab
In this window we can:
– observe the combustion process parameters in the form of a graph
– record these parameters to a text file (*.txt) and a graph (*.elk)
– open and view previously saved graph files
How to view and save the graph to a file:
Data is logged in real time to the device’s memory.
To view press the SYNC button.
The graph will be shown going back from this moment.
Next to the button there is a window where you can enter a value from 0 to 4096.
25 is approximately one screen meaning when you enter this value the graph will fill out the
whole screen.
To save the graph you need to press the Save to *.ELK and *.TXT button.
- set the wanted Time interval e.g 10 seconds
- set the wanted Pen width – this parameter determines the thickness of the lines in the
graph
- select the parameters you want to be displayed on the graph ( we have 7 parameters )
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To move around in the graph use the arrows on the top of the window.
The RESET button clears the screen and switches off the Start recording option.
Turning off the Start recording option will cause the graph to stop being drawn.
The device will still log the parameters.
Follow current - this option will cause the graph to move automatically when it reaches the
end of the screen.
In the lower-right part of the window you can see the date and time of the reading – when
you move the cursor on the graph the date and time will change.
OWR33 / OWR34 tab
These windows show the status of inputs / outputs of modules connected to the 1-Wire bus.
Moving the cursor you will see the date, time and status at a given moment.
Each window is one module.
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
DS18B20 tab
Graphs for chosen temperatures from 1-Wire thermometers. To choose the thermometers you
need to click the I/O button in the main window and then enter the LMBD2 tab.
ANALYSIS tab
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
Main analysis based on internal counters
The device has internal counters.
Based on these readings and entered configuration parameters (LMBD4 tab in the I/O
window) we can estimate the 'Burner ON time in %', 'Burnt fuel', 'Produced energy' and
'Price of fuel'.
There are four types of counters – hourly, daily, weekly and indefinite which can be reset
e.g. after every refueling or at the beginning of the heating season to check the heating costs
for the whole season.
On what basis does the burners counter work?
If the device measures that the Lambda value crosses the border value that we set (in this
case 1.60) it starts to count the amount of 'ON' seconds.
In other words – the burner turns on, the scale tips left, crosses 1.60 – in this moment the
counter starts to count 'ON' seconds, the scale drops further and stabilizes eg. at 1.20 – the
counter is still counting 'ON' seconds. When the burner stops working and the lambda value
rises the scale tips right and when in our case it reaches 1.99 the counter starts to recognize
the burner as not working and will start to count 'OFF' seconds.
In the 'Burner counters [seconds]' area you can see exactly for how many seconds the
burner was on and off.
The total time of work of the furnace is displayed on the counter on the right of the timer,
under the Reset buttons. It displays the time of work of the furnace in hours, minutes,
second and rounded-off to full days.
RESETTING the counters
The counters can be easily reset at any moment.
This can be done using the RESET buttons below the counters.
To reset the counters you first need to enter the PIN code in the box beside RESET ALL
button.
PIN code for RESET is 2600
After resetting one counter you must enter PIN code again to reset the next counter.
You can also reset all counters simultaneously by pressing RESET ALL button.
Low fuel threshold – in the settings ( click I/O button in main window, then LMBD4 tab )
enter the fuel tank level ( in % ) below which the graphic low-fuel-level alarm will turn on
( change color ).
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I / O button – Inputs/Outputs
Clicking this button will open a configuration and calibration window.
LMBD1 tab
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
In this window you enter the Lambda probe parameters.
These values you receive together with your probe and they are different for every probe.
You should store them in case you need to reenter them.
Important calibration values are: calibration parameter for 4% and 21% (red font). The
other, 1% and 7% are used to evaluate the probe. Their use will be described in another
manual. You do not have to set them up as they do not take part in any ongoing calculations.
The Air calibration and 4% calibration buttons are used to calibrate the lambda probe by
yourself. If your probe is already calibrated then do not use these buttons.
In the Select fuel type column you pick the type of fuel that you use. The last option is to
enter the parameters of your fuel by yourself if it does not match any of the types of fuel on
the list in the program. Tables with fuel parameters are available on the internet and fuel
suppliers.
Probe offset
Once in a while there will be a need to carry out probe compensation due to temperature
changes in the exhaust stack.
This regards periods of time when it is very warm or very cold.
You will notice this effect when the Oxygen Lambda sensor [mV] parameter (in the LMBD 3
tab) becomes different from the 21% O2 [mV] value set in the device.
Example:
Between the heating cycles, 3-5 minutes after the burner stops working you will notice that
the parameter:
Oxygen Lambda sensor [mV] = -5mV
or
Oxygen Lambda sensor [mV] = -15mV
when the programmed value for 21% O2 is -10 mV
This is the probe offset
If you see the difference between:
- the programmed value for 21% O2 (LMBD 1 tab)
- the Oxygen Lambda sensor [mV] parameter (LMBD 3 tab)
is higher than +/- 3 mV then you need to correct the probe offset.
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
How to do this?
1. Check the following parameters:
- Oxygen Lambda sensor [mV] (LMBD 3 tab)
- 21% O2 (LMBD 1 tab)
2. Check if the difference between these parameters is bigger than +/-3mV
3. If the difference is bigger, wait for the burner to turn off
4. Wait 3-5 minutes after the burner stops until the readings of the Oxygen Lambda sensor
[mV] parameter stabilize. The burner cannot be working at this time.
5. Enter the LMBD1 menu and click the Correct probe offset button
6. The Oxygen Lambda sensor value will be copied to the OFFSET [mV] field in the
LMBD1 menu.
7. Save the settings using the Save button.
This procedure should also be done when the device is mounted and started for the first time.
Remember that the device first needs to work for a couple of hours and the probe needs to
heat up. You will be able to do this procedure only after some time. If there is no need for
this procedure then do not do it.
You save the settings with the SAVE button.
LMBD 2 tab
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In this tab are the following options:
Units of temperature
– you can pick the scale you want the temperature to be measured in:
- degrees Celsius – switch set at 0
- degrees Fahrenheit – switch set at 1
Flue temperature sensor Pt-100
– you can manually correct the readings of the sensor
Room & outside
– you can choose two thermometers which will show the temperature inside and outside
DS18B20 logging
– you can choose 8 thermometers of which readings will be shown in the DS18B20 tab in
the LMBD4 window
FRONT LED
The Front LED panel is used to set up the LEDs on the device's front panel.
Detailed description of how to set up the LEDs is found on page 14.
Remember to save the settings after making any changes in the LED options.
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LMBD 3 tab
The device’s calibration parameters.
This tab should be printed out or saved as an image in case you ever need to recover and
reenter the values.
LMBD 4 tab
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This tab allows you to analyze and plan expenses connected to heating and purchasing fuel.
To use it you first need to enter the required Configuration parameters such as the 'Nozzle
size' [Usgal/h].
The 'pump pressure' can be given either in bars or pounds per square inch (you only need to
fill one of the boxes, the second value will be calculated automatically).
'Nozzle size at actual pressure' – this box will be filled automatically after the 'Nozzle size'
and 'Pump pressure' are given.
The 'Fuel density' and 'Fuel energy density by mass' can be found in special documents
with fuel parameters that can be found on the internet or available through your fuel supplier.
Values shown on the picture above are correct for mineral oil.
The 'Fuel price' can be given for liter or for gallon.
The 'Tank size' (volume) can also be given in liters or gallons. This is the total volume of the
tank.
However the value in the 'Fuel in the tank after refueling' box should be reentered
manually after each refueling. It is important to correctly measure and give the amount of
fuel in the tank after refueling because the graphic representation of the amount of fuel left
in the tank and the low fuel alarm work partially based on this information.
'BURN variable when Burner is ON [Lambda]' – here you enter the value of the lambda
coefficient below which the burner will be recognized as working (eg. on the picture above
this value is 1.60, when the lambda coefficient reaches that value, the device will recognize
the burner as working)
'BURN variable when Burner is OFF [Lambda]' – the lambda coefficient value above
which the device will recognize the burner as not working
'LMAL variable Lambda alarm when lambda drops below this value' – the lambda
coefficient value below which the low lambda level alarm will be activated. This drop can be
caused by changing quality or type of fuel, changing burner settings etc. LMAL is a variable
which can be used in equations.
'LMAL variable Lambda alarm when it returns to the OFF state' – when lambda exceeds
this value the LMAL variable will be deactivated
'Fuel low alarm [%]' – enter how many % of fuel in the tank should be recognized as low
level. The depiction of the tank in the software will then change color to red.
The above is also true for the PT100 variable.
BURN, LMAL and PT100 – these are variables which can be used when creating equations.
After altering the settings or resetting counters etc., remember to always save the changes
(SAVE button).
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
OWR1...OWR12 / OWR13...OWR16, X1...X6 tabs
These tabs are for programming inputs/outputs connected to 1-Wire and X1-X6 variables.
RESET=1 – checking this box will make the output automatically switch to ON after reset
(only applicable to outputs)
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
FUNCTION – enter the equation for this input/output
Time to OFF – the delay from the moment the input/output is clicked to the moment it is
actually deactivated
Pulse time – this is for limiting how long the input/output can be active
Outputs, inputs, X variables and timers are programmed using equations.
Each variable, output, input, thermostat, timer or memory cell can be used in the equations.
The equation for one output can be a variable for another output. For LMBD4 the maximum
limit of variables in one line is 6 and the number or parenthesis is unlimited.
Legend tab
In this tab you will find the available variables which can be used in equations.
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
T1...T12 / T13...T20 tabs
TI ( timer input ) and T ( timer ) variables are fields of general purpose.
They can be used in any way depending on the user’s creativity, e.g. as auxiliary variables.
The TI variable is data before the timer ( before time modules ).
After the timer processes the data the T variable is received - it's timer output.
Every output and input can be controlled individually and remotely using the PC software or
an Android mobile device. You can control each output separately, a group of chosen outputs
or all of the outputs at the same time.
Available logic functions are:
“&” - AND function
“|” - OR function
“^” - XOR fuction
“~” or “!” - NOT function (both symbols can be used depending on the user’s preference)
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
Please pay attention to the example shown in the picture above
In the TI2 you have a combination : (OCO1 | OCO2 | OCO3) & AC
This means that TI2 = (OCO1 | OCO2 | OCO3) & AC as this equation was entered in the TI2
field.
Please be aware of GOOD PROGRAMMING PRACTICE!!!
TI2 = (OCO1 | OCO2) | (OCO3) & AC
TI4 = T2 & OWR32
TI6 = T4 & ~(AT)
Variable TI2 was calculated once and if similar equations were to be inserted again into
variables TI4 and TI6 it would like this:
TI2 = (OCO1 | OCO2 | OCO3) & AC
TI4 = ((OCO1 | OCO2 | OCO3) & AC) & OWR32
TI6 = ((((OCO1 | OCO2 | OCO3) & AC) & OWR32) & (~AT))
This is INCORRECT!
This adds unnecessary operations for the controller as the already calculated equation must
be calculated again and despite the fact that the equation itself is correct this is bad practice!
Anywhere you can you should simplify the calculation process and if you have a function
that is used in several places it should be calculated once and then only the calculated value
should be used. It can be calculated in either one of the OCO, OWR or TI fields, the
important thing is not to recalculate an already existing function.
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
The controlloer processes the equation fields a couple dozen of times every second in the
following order:
OCO1...OCO24
OWR1...OWR32
TI1...TI16
Then returns to executing the equation from line OCO1 and that time and again.
The speed at which this happens depends on the complexity of the equations and may range
from a couple of dozen cycles per sencod to only a couple cycles per second. This is why
you need to pay attention to optimalization. Also the equation execution order should be
considered when optimalizing the controller operation. Equation fields for unused outputs
can be used as varaibles. There are no restrictions concerning the use of available resources.
You can intentionally skip outputs if you intend to use their fields as variables when you
need a quick reaction time and it suits you to calculate something while processing.
The worse you program the controller the slower it will work.
Output operation is based on events. This means that the output status will be switched to
opposite only when the equation result changes. This kind of event can be annulled, the
output status can be changed in any given moment. The output status is not blocked by the
occurring event.
Any output can be set to the wanted status automatically after a device reset. If you check
the „RESET=1” check box then the chosen output will be switched on after a reset.
An equation assigned to a timer input TI – TI20 is then processed by a time module.
For each timer there are three time modules.
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
•
•
•
Time to ON – it counts time from the moment the signal appear to the moment the
period of time set in this field passes. This function can be used to delay a reaction to
a signal appearing. If the signal disappears before the time passes, the timer will be
reset and will be ready for the signal to appear again. Only if the signal is active for a
period longer that what was set the device will respond to it.
Time to OFF – it works in exactly the opposite way. The loss of signal for a time
period shorter than the time set will not cause the device to see the signal as inactive.
Pulse time – time is counted from the moment the signal appears at a given timer to
the moment the timer switches off. It means that if you set this value for e.g. 20
seconds, the timer will switch off after 20 seconds. If during this time the signal
appears again, the count will be restarted. If the signal disappears before this time
passes, the timer will switch off.
Example:
An example of how to use this settings can be a power supply outage detector with
switching to auxiliary supply. If you set 10 seconds at each counter in a timer then voltage
must appear for at least 10 seconds to qualify the power supply as working. Also, a loss of
power for less than 10 seconds will not switch on the auxiliary power supply. The input will
be invulnerable for short power losses.
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
Data export to shared memory – Config tab
This section will discuss settings which allow you to control other PLC2011 devices
or allow the configured device to be controlled by commands from other PLC2011
devices.
To be exact, you can send out data from your device to use it to create equations in other
devices or get data from other devices and use it to create equations in your device.
For this you use the CONFIG tab.
PLC2011 devices can cooperate with each other, send out and receive data from other
devices. For this they used the ‘shared memory’.
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
A couple of conditions must be met for this function to be working.
First, the cooperating devices must have the exactly the same password and salt set in the
main configuration (read more in the section about the password and salt).
Second, the devices must have the same transmission channel.
The transmission channel for the device is set in the Channel field. It is a value between 0
and 255.
Third, the devices must be in the same local area network.
Depending on whether you want the device to send out or receive commands you need to set
the options:
Enable shared memory input
Enable shared memory output
If you want the device to do both those things, you need to select both of these options.
The command which you can use are the same as those presented in Legend tab.
You cannot however send out a combination of commands or an equation. Equations will be
created in the receiving device using data from your device.
Entered commands will be signals from your device that will trigger a reaction in other
devices. For example, if you enter OCO1 into the table then the signal for other devices will
be sent out when you switch on this open collector output in the transmitting device. Also,
the signal will be sent out when the output is switched off. The command will then stop
being active.
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
Sending out commands
First, you need to set the Start Address Offset. This is the place in the shared memory
where you will start entering commands which you want to send to other devices.
The command table has 32 spaces (cells). This is the maximal number of commands that can
be transmitted between devices on one channel. Therefor you need to pick a values between
1 and 32.
The table is the same for all cooperating devices, but at any given moment you can only see
the commands coming from the device you are currently logged on to.
From your device you cannot see what variables on what addresses are sent out from other
devices.
This is why you should be careful when entering commands from multiple devices. You
should not enter more than one command in a single cell. This may cause unpredictable
changes in how the device works.
We advise you to print out or draw a similar table and use it as a ‘cheat sheet’ where you can
check what command from which device is in which cell.
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
The Start Address Offset field is supposed to help you keep the command in the shared
memory in order.
For example you begin to enter commands in the first device starting with address no.1
enter a string of command remembering to separate them with a single space
click SAVE in the lower right corner, this is how the window will look after saving:
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
the commands will automatically be sorted and separated by comas
the number of commands will be counted automatically
the commands will be entered in the designated cells
you must remember to switch on command transmitting and, if needed, also command
reception
In the next device you need to set the Start Address Offset to 4 because the first three
addresses are already taken and the command table will be filled from this device starting
with cell no.4.
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
You act in a similar fashion in other devices.
How to use shared memory data
If you have a command table ready you can start to use shared memory data in
equations.
How to enter this data in equations?
In the device receiving the commands you must enter it as a value from the command table,
from M1 to M32.
The number depends on the cell the command was assigned to in the transmitting device.
The M1 field starts the first column of the first row. The following fields are numbered in an
ascending way from left to right. The second row starts with cell M9, the third with M17 and
the fourth with M25. The last cell is M32.
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
For instance, you want to use open collector output OCO5 from one of the devices in your
network and you know it is written into cell M29. This is the value you need to enter into
your equations.
The T1 variable will be activated when the equation result (here M29) equals 1, which
means the content of cell M29 changes it’s value.
The T1 variable will only be updated in the moment when the M29 cell changes it’s value
from 0 to 1 or 1 to 0.
What are you going to use these commands for depends solely on your creativity. The
commands from the shared memory can be bound together in more complex equations or
used with data from the receiving device
An advantage of the solution used in the device is that the commands are sent out to
each cooperating device at the same time.
Thanks to this you avoid situations where devices receive and react to a command with delay
caused by the fact that the commands were sent out to each device separately. This enables
you to carry out synchronized operations in many devices at the same time.
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
1-Wire bus
The device is equipped with a 1-Wire bus.
The bus can be used to connect:
– up to 32 DALLAS digital thermometers
– up to 2 modules with eight relays working based on a DS2408 system
– up to 2 input/output modules working based on a DS2408 system
– one relay module and one input/output module
This bus is vulnerable to interference and you need to make sure wiring is done accordingly
to rules you can find at http://1wire.org
The status of the bus is displayed in the 5th screen ( main window )
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If there is a device connected to the bus the light will be pink and the display will say:
1-Wire device PRESENT
If there are no devices connected to the bus the light will be gray and the display will say:
1-Wire NO devices
To enter the 1-Wire configuration window click the 1-Wire button in the main window.
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Dallas digital thermometers
The 1-Wire configuration window will pop out.
For the thermometers to be visible you first need to read and then enter in the program their
serial numbers.
Smallest mistakes when entering the serial number will make it impossible to communicate
with the thermometer.
The serial numbers of the devices connected to the 1-wire bus should be read by connecting
them to the device one-by-one.
Only one device may be connected at the moment you do the reading.
‘1-W ERR’ field – used to set up 1-Wire data reading resistance to occurring transmission
errors which are displayed by momentary thermometer disappearances. The 1-Wire bus itself
is not very immune to interferences and the way wiring was installed is critical. All data
regarding the 1- Wire bus can be seen at http://www.1wire.org
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
These errors can be caused by:
1. Interferences from electrical machines
2. 1-Wire wiring being installed to close to electrical wiring
3. Wrong 1-Wire topology
4. Cords in use being too long
5. Use of wrong cords with too much capacity
In the ‘1-W ERR’ field you set how many temperature queries can be erroneous in relation to
one read correctly. If you set the value to 100 it will mean that if at least 1 in a 100 readings
is correct, the temperature for the chosen thermometer will not disappear.
Of course, as the controller is getting erroneous readings (with incorrect CRC control sum)
then it is not refreshing thermometers until it gets at least one correct reading in the chosen
range.
For bus testing and initial observation the value set should be ‘0’. For normal use the value
should be between ‘5’ and ‘10’. In case of very bad communication the maximum value can
be 250.
The information about the status of the bus and the serial number will be refreshed every
second without regard to what is set in the ‘1-W ERR’ field. Therefore bus errors will be
visible in these fields even though momentary thermometer disappearances will be ignored.
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
To read the serial number you need connect the thermometer to the device like in the
diagram below:
When you connect the thermometer, it's serial number will be visible on the bottom of
window 5 of the display.
You need to write it down and then enter it in the list of thermometers.
Enter the serial number in the '64-bit SERIAL' column.
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When you enter the serial number the thermometer will be visible on the list but will not yet
show any temperature. It will show the real temperature only after you connect the
thermometer to the bus.
The 'DESCRIPTION' column is used to make a description of a chosen thermometer, e.g.
'Yellow bedroom'.
This is how the window looks after all is entered:
Remember that the serial numbers are saved in the device when you press the SAVE button.
They will be visible on any computer that connects to the device.
However, the thermometer names are saved in the 'myrelays.xml' file which is created
automatically in the folder where the program is located.
Different users may assign different names to the same thermometers on their individual
computers or mobile devices. The file can be copied to a different computer.
When you first save the thermometer configuration, all the free spaces are assigned numbers
from 1 to 33 (DESCRIPTION). Field 33 is used to enter the serial number of the DS2408 IC
based relays.
Remember to always save the configuration after adding and naming a thermometer.
You can read all thermometer number in the beginning and immediately enter them and save
them in the device.
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As you are connecting succesive thermometers to the bus and assigning them names, you
can place them on the top of the list or group them in any way you want, e.g. make group
based on where in the building the thermometers are placed.
Important
If you have 1-Wire DS18B20 thermometer serial numbers entered but these thermometers
are not physically connected to the device then the maximum/minimum temperature value
exceeding alarm will occur and inform you about damage to the sensor or the bus itself. The
device treats the entered thermometer as broken, not disconnected, and does not know
whether this event is a thermometer malfunction or the thermometer is missing. If you have
such thermometers then you should change the first to numbers in the serial numbers to
zeros.
28xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx → 00xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
10xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx → 00xxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
You will not lose the serial number but the field with the unconnected thermometer will
be blocked.
As you can see on the picture below, the Thermometer in the office is connected and is
showing the temperature but the Thermometer in the corridor is only entered in the device,
assigned a name but is not yet connected.
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Relay modules and input/output modules connected to 1-Wire
In addition to the thermometers, you can also connect:
• up to 2 boards with eight relays based on the DS2408 IC
• up to 2 modules with inputs/outputs based on the DS 2408 IC
• one relay module and one input/output module.
The last two positions (33 and 34) in the 1-Wire settings are used to enter their serial
numbers.
The procedure is the same as with thermometers.
Using these DS2408 modules you expand the device by another 8 or 16 relays.
The DS2408 modules work in sets of eight meaning you can have 8 or 16 additional inputs
or 8 or 16 additional outputs.
In the 1-Wire thermometer window you pick whether you want the modules to work as
inputs or outputs.
Click the 1-Wire button.
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The 1-Wire settings window will pop out.
Scroll to the bottom.
There are two check boxes there
33 INPUT
34 INPUT
Checking the box will make the chosen module work as inputs.
E.g. checking the 34 INPUT box will make the second module work in input mode.
1-Wire module serial numbers are on the bottom of the list – positions 33 and 34.
The numbers above are the serial numbers of the thermometers.
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
Check boxes:
33 NEG
34 NEG
are used to switch polarization to the opposite – adjust the electric signal polarization to the
connected module – 0 is off, 1 is on.
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
Thermoregulators
Each DS18 thermometer can operate like a simple thermometer with no additional features
or as a single thermoregulator with regulated hysteresis.
This way you can build 16 simple thermoregulators.
Simple thermoregulators – heating or cooling (variables TMP1...TMP16)
What does each icon represent?
- a green triangle pointing up means the thermoregulator is expressing a need for heating or
cooling and sets up variable TMPx
- a blue triangle pointing down means the TMPx variable is inactive due to being in the
hysteresis range after crossing the wanted temperature level for either heating or cooling.
The sign of the hysteresis shows whether the process is cooling or heating
- a blinking red circle means there is a problem, a thermometer which serial number was
entered is missing and provides no temperature readings
- a gray rectangle depicts a unprogrammed thermoregulator
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
Each pair of DS18 thermometers can work as a differential thermoregulator. You can build
8 differential thermoregulators with regulated hysteresis. You build them in pairs in
green fields.
Differential thermoregulators – heating (Variables TDH1...TDH15 odd numbers only)
Differential thermoregulators – cooling (Variables TDH2...TDH16 even numbers only)
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
ADJ – temporary regulation of the set temperature.
This tab allows you to make interim changes in the current temperature without interfering
with the settings in the 1-Wire thermometer configuration.
For instance, the temperature in a room is set at 22°C but you are cold then you can choose
the thermostat in that room and change it’s current temperature.
This change can be only for a chosen time of day.
You can change the temperature using the arrow buttons or by entering the wanted value and
clicking SET.
The RESET button restores all previously set values in all thermostats.
The same can be achieved by resetting the device.
Displayed are the current temperature in a room as well as the set temperature value.
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
To enter the thermoregulator and thermometer configuartion and programming menu you
need to double-click the 1-Wire button..
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
Thermoregulators – basic concepts
Basic concepts:
• negative hysteresis value – heating mode
• positive hysteresis value – cooling mode
Example:
Each thermometer or thermometer working as a simple thermoregulator can work also as a
sensor of:
- too high/too low temperature (variables AL1...AL16)
- AL variables can be connected with other into logic functions
”T/ΔT” mean:
T – day or night temperature for a simple thermoregulator
ΔT – day or night temperature difference for a differential thermoregulator
T/ΔT Day – Day temperature at which heating or cooling are switched off
T/ΔT Night – Night temperature at which heating or cooling are switched off
Hys – Hysteresis. When the entered value is negative then the thermoregulator works in
heating mode, when positive then in cooling mode, when zero the thermoregulator will not
work.
The temperature at which at which the processes are switched on again including the
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
hysteresis is a result of the following equation: T/ΔT + Hys. The result is decided by the
hysteresis sign. E.g. if the hysteresis is negative (-1°C) and the temperature set is
T/ΔT=22°C the system will work in the following way. It will heat up to 22°C, switch off,
wait until the temperature falls to 22°C–1°C=21°C and then switch on again.
If the hysteresis is positive then the result of the T/ΔT + Hys equation will be
22°C+1°C=23°C.
The system will cool down to 22°C, stop cooling and then start again when the temperature
reaches 23°C.
To connect the thermoregulators to outputs you use variables TMP1...TMP16. The number
of the line form the thermometer window corresponds to the number of the TMP variable.
An example of picking both too low (< 0°C ) and too high ( > 100°C )alarm temperatures.
AL1...AL16 variables are connected to temperatures exceeding the upper value and
to temperatures falling below the lower value. In the example below (position 2 – Alarm
only) – the lower value=0.0000 and the higher=100.0000.
For the temperatures to be dependable on the time of day, clock, Astro Timer or any other
condition you need to enter the value of the lower temperature in the last column of the
1-Wire settings. In this example the temperature entered was T/ΔT Night = 18°C in line 1.
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
Nightly temperature drop is the name used for a change in temperature for a period of time.
If you leave this field empty then there will be no temperature drop.
You need to program the clock/Astro Timer if you want to use it. Instructions on how to do it
are in a separate part of this manual. You also need to assign a variable which will trigger the
nightly drop. Each thermoregulator can have a different nightly drop variable. Usually you
should use any empty T variable to build a condition for the nightly drop.
E.g. T20= ((~R) & OCO1) and choosing T20 as the condition causing the temperature drop.
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
Examples:
Heating mode example:
If T/ΔT = 24.0000°C and Hys = -0.5000°C (negative hysteresis value) then the
thermoregulator is in working in heating mode. The thermoregulator will switch off the
heating when the temperature rises above 24.0000°C and switch in on again when it falls
half a degree to 23.5000°C.
Cooling mode example:
If T/ΔT = 20.0000°C and Hys = +0.5000°C (positive hysteresis value) then the
thermoregulator works in cooling mode. The thermoregulator will switch off the cooling
when the temperature falls to 20.0000°C and will switch it on again when it rises half a
degree to 20.5000°C
Thermoregulator off:
When you enter 0 into the Hys field or you leave the Hys field empty and save the settings
then thechosen thermometer will stop working as a thermoregulator.
The alarms for crossing temperature levels (AL Lo and AL Hi) work even if the
thermoregulator option is switched off. They can be used as variables AL1...AL16
This is an example of possible configurations of simple thermoregulators and temperature
level crossing alarms. The nightly drop is in the last column. The nightly drop is not a
binding name and can be activated with any chosen variable.
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Differential thermoregulators
Any neighboring pair of thermometers can work also as a more advanced differential
thermoregulator.
In the 1-Wire configuration menu neighboring rows are displayed in the same shade of green
– brighter or darker. Only the fields of the same shade can be used to build a differential
thermoregulator. The device does not need to be informed in any way that you want to create
a differential thermoregulator. You just need to enter real values into fields ”T/ΔT” i ”Hys”
and assign the differential thermoregulator in the output configuration window using the
correspondingvariable.
TDH1...TDH15 (odd numbers) differential thermoregulator – heating
TDC2...TDC16 (even numbers) differential thermoregulator – cooling
If you enter differential thermoregulator variables then you need to ignore TMP variables as
they will not have any sense.
The differential regulator measures the difference between two thermometers while at the
same time calculating two addition equations. One for heating, one for cooling.
For example, for rows 1 and 2:
Row 1: T/ΔT = 8.0000°C Hys = -4.0000°C (differential temperature positive, hysteresis
value negative) the equation is 8°C + (-4)°C = 4°C. The relay will switch on when the T1-T2
difference reaches 8°C and will switch off when the T1-T2 difference falls down to 4°C.
Row 2: T/ΔT = -8.0000°C Hys = +4.0000°C (Temperature difference T2-T1 negative,
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
hysteresis value positive) the equation is -8°C + 4°C = -4°C. The relay will switch on then
the T2-T1 difference reaches -8°C and will switch off when the T2-T1 difference reaches
-4°C.
Please remember that the values described are temperature differences, not negative
temperature values and it makes no difference if measured values are positive or negative.
Temperature differences are shown in the „ Δ TEMP” fields. T1-T2 in the upper one and T2T1 in the lower one.
You can limit the differential thermoregulators operation in a way that will make them
inactive when the absolute temperature value from one of the sensors will be out of it’s
given range. See rows 5 and 6 in the picture below.
- when you enter e.g. 45
°C in the Al Lo field of row 5 then the differential thermoregulator for
heating will start working when the temperature falls below 45°C
- when you enter e.g. 85°C in the Al Hi field of row 5 then the differential thermoregulator
for
heating will stop working when the temperature exceeds 85°C
- when you enter e.g. 10°C in the Al Lo field of row 6 then the differential thermoregulator
for
cooling will stop working when the temperature falls below 10°C
-when you enter e.g. 20°C in the Al Hi field of row 6 then the differential thermoregulator
for
cooling will start working when the temperature exceeds 20°C
Switching Al Lo and Al Hi values makes no sense. The Lo field is always the lower limit of
the
given range and the Hi field is always the upper limit. If you do not want to limit the
thermoregulator work range when you should leave the fields empty as shown on the picture
below
Once more, keep in mind these facts:
If you want to use differential thermoregulators then you need to enter a temperature
difference in
the T/ΔT field instead of a target temperature. You do not need to use heating and cooling at
the
same time.
From each pair of thermometers the upper one is the high heating channel and the lower one
is the
low cooling channel – see the picture below. You cannot change this as it was designed to
work this way and will not work in any other configuration. Therefor with every pair of
thermometers you need to set:
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
- Positive T/ΔT temperature differences in the upper fields of the same shade of green
- Negative hysteresis for heating in the upper fields of the same shade of green
- Negative T/ΔT temperature differences in the lower fields of the same shade of
green
- Positive hysteresis for cooling in the lower fields of the same shade of green
Hysteresis diagram for heating and cooling:
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
Modbus
The Modbus protocol was implemented in LMBD4 to make the resources of the device
available for other devices or computers. In a cheap and easy way you can expand your
installation, based on PLC, with additional interfaces. You can also use LMBD4 as an
Internet interface controller for a bigger PLC using mobile and encrypted software.
For instance, if you have another manufacturer’s PLC device equipped with a RJ45 input,
you can share your resources with that device. You can control a different PLC device using
an Android mobile device via LMBD4. LMBD4 can also act as a shield for your network as
it has strong transmission encryption mechanisms with the AES-256 algorithm.
You can activate or deactivate an output or variable in your LMBD4 device using your
phone and immediately send this information to a different PLC device in your ethernet
network using the Modbus protocol. You can also connect your device’s open collector
outputs to another device’s inputs.
LMBD4 uses the Modbus protocol to send out a command to a desired IP address, TCP or
UDP port and MAC address.
LMBD4 uses TCP and UDP protocols for data transmission from the device to a chosen
internet or local network address and does not expect a response or confirmation.
LMBD4 ignores any commands sent it’s direction, ignore responses and does not react to
other Modbus inquiries from other Master devices. A computer, other PLC device, router or
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
any other device can be a recipient.
Due to a lot of errors in network protocol implementation in many older PLC devices, which
are not supported anymore, we decided on the following configuration.
LMBD4 sends out TCP or UDP packets in the following way:
LMBD4 → different PLC
1. If “different PLC” is in your local network, the same subnetowork, the same network
segment, that means it has a similar IP address, e.g.:
LMBD4: 10.0.5.5
different PLC: 10.0.5.10
Then you must establish what is that different PLC’s MAC address and enter it in the
appropriate field in the Modbus configuration window. The MAC address is a physical,
device address of the ethernet interface. There are may ways to find out a MAC address. It
can be printed on a sticker on a device, you can program your own address, use software
dedicated for checking devices inside a network, check in the router or by doing a couple of
simple operations.
In Windows, run the CMD window (Start → Run → enter cmd)
In the cmd (command line) window enter:
c:\>ping 10.0.5.10 (there must be an answer – 3-4 packets if the “different PLC” is alive, you
must of course know it’s IP address)
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Next enter:
c:\> arp -a
A table with IP and MAC addresses will be displayed. Write down the MAC address
belonging to the IP address in question.
In the LMBD4 Modbus configuration you should enter:
IP:10.0.5.10 – IP address of the different PLC to which you will send out packets
port: 502 – TCP or UDP port of the different PLC to which you will send out packets
MAC: 00:11:12:13:14:!0 – MAC addres of the different PLC to which you will send out
packets
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
2. If the “different PLC” is ‘somewhere’ in the Internet, which means it has a completely
different IP address (it must be a public address), then you must establish it’s router’s LAN
interface IP address and the routers MAC address instead of looking for the “different
PLC’s” IP and MAC address.
Knowing the router’s IP address you can establish it’s MAC in the way shown before, first
pinging the router and then reading it’s arp table entering the “arp -a” line.
For example, you will receive this data which you must enter in the Modbus configuration
field of your LMBD4 device:
IP: 10.0.5.1 – this will be the router’s IP address
port: 502 – this will be the TCP or UDP port of the remote PLC – you do not change this
MAC: 00:A2:1A:3F:D4:18 – this will be the router’s MAC address
To resume, if the receiving device is in your local network, you send data directly to the
device. If it is somewhere in the internet, you sen data to it’s router.
Modbus packets sent from LMBD4 to a different PLC reach the space in it’s memory
entered in the Start address (16 bit) field, e.g. address no.300. Starting from this address,
there will be as many 16bit words taken as is the total from the options you selected using
the check boxes next to these options which interest you.
Every kind of data which is transmittable using LMBD4 has a defined length in 16 bit, 2
byte words and that many cells in the receiving PLC will be taken up, beginning from the
start address.
The data is connected, ‘glued’ together.
If you select four check boxes, like in the picture below, then first six words will come from
the Date, Time and Sunrise/Sunset, the next ten from timer outputs T1...T20, then the
next four from 1-Wire I/O OWR1...OWR8 and the last four from Thermometers 17...20.
They will be sent out in one packet in this order. The order goes from top of the list to the
bottom.
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Under the start address 300 of the receiving PLC you will find the first word of the Date,
Time and Sunrise/Sunset, then the first word from timer outputs T1...T20 begins in 306,
1-Wire I/O OWR1...OWR8 in 316 and DS18B20Thermometers 1...20 in 320.
If you select another data segment which lies in between the currently selected one, then the
data below the selected check box will be moved down by as many cells as needed for the
new data segment. The data order in the receiving PLC will change.
You can use this data in the receiving PLC in any way you want, depending on your needs
and abilities.
Other fields also require some explanation.
Some older PLC’s with errors in Modbus implementation simply do not accept certain
values entered in the fields Transaction indentifier and lower.
There are controllers which do not accept certain values and there is no logical explanation
as to why this occurs. This concerns especially the Transaction indentifier value.
Remember that errors in entering the IP or MAC address will cause a total lack of
transmission. The device will not receive anything and will not signal that something is
wrong. These settings should be made carefully.
As the Modbus protocol is in no way secured from attacks at devices, encrypted or secured
from impersonating devices, you should take steps to ensure safety of the wiring and
separate the devices, which receive the transmission, from the internet with routers. Its good
to configure a VPN tunnel between boundary routers. This exceeds the contents of this
manual and you should consult a specialist on this matter.
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
Your LMBD4 sends out packets directly to the network interface of the destination PLC
using it’s MAC address without making ARP “who has” inquiry and without waiting for
ARP “is at” response.
This is why you need to establish the destination MAC address ‘manually’. This is an
advantage as an intruder trying to intercept IP addresses and corresponding MAC addresses
will not be able to ‘hear’ the devices. This is because ARP packets are sent to every switch
port and are ‘broadcast’ packets which makes possible to use them to create a device list and
impersonate these devices. Another reason to know the MAC address during configuration
are examples of tested devices which did not have properly operating network protocols.
We advise you to use the UDP protocol for transmission instead of TCP. The UDP protocol
generates highly lower network traffic between devices. Because the LMBD4 only sends out
data to another device, the retransmission ability of the TCP is not needed and even
undesirable as it generates unnecessary traffic and CPU usage. However, using the UDP
protocol may not always be possible as some devices may not adapted to it’s operation.
Using the Modbus protocol you can send out LMBD4 data from the AstroTimer, T1-T20
inputs, T1-T20 outputs, 1-Wire inputs and outputs, thermometers connected to 1-Wire and
front LEDs and ADC. All signals are assigned to a group which is sent out together. You
cannot send out a signal from a single input or variable. For instance, if you want to send out
the signal for OWR2 you need to select the group OWR1...OWR8. Available signal groups
are shown on the right of the Modbus configuration window. To select a group of signal you
need to check the check box next to it.
What does each field mean?
•
Third party remote PLC IP or ROUTER IP – IP address of the device that is
supposed to receive the signal.
•
Third party remote PLC UDP PORT – port used by the Modbus protocol. By
default this is port 502.
•
Third party remote PLC MAC or ROUTER MAC – MAC address of the device
that is supposed to receive the signal
•
Transaction indentifier (16 bit) –
•
Protocol indentifier (16 bit) – this field is always 0 for Modbus messages
•
Unit indentifier (8 bit)
•
Modbus function code (8 bit)
•
Start address (16 bit) – the place where data saving in the receiving device will
start
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•
Transmit Interval 1...255s – how often will the device send out data to the receiver
•
UDP src port
•
Modbus mode – the type of used Modbus protocol. You can choose UDP, TCP or
Modbus OFF
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
Astro Timer
The Astro timer is used to start and shut down various types of electric devices, e.g. lighting,
accordingly to the daily rhythm of sunrises and sunsets for the given geographic zone. It can
also be used to block or start some functions depending on the time of day.
How does the astro timer work?
The Astro timer operates based on the following information:
•
•
•
current date
the device's location (geographical coordinates of the place where the device was
mounted)
time zone (time difference between the time zone where the device is used and
universal time)
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This information must be entered during the device's primary configuration or in our device's
at any time via the computer network. Based on these information, the Astro timer switches
on and off appliances connected to the device, accordingly to astronomical sunrise and
sunset.
What is universal time
Universal time (UT, UTC, GMT) – the mean solar time on the Prime Meridian at
Greenwich Royal Observatory. It is the prime time zone. The time in other time zones is
measured in reference to this time zone.
Time zone – a region on Earth, more or less bounded by lines of longitude, that has a
uniform, legally mandated standard time, usually referred to as local time. The main 24 time
zones on Earth compute their local time as an offset from UTC. Local time in each time zone
is UTC plus current time zone offset for the location in question.
The Earth is divided into 24 time zones.
Examples of time zones and countries within them:
•
•
UTC +0:00 - United Kingdom, Ireland, Portugal
UTC +1:00 - Germany ( the local time in Germany differs by +1h from the
universal time meaning that when it is 12:00 AM in a country which uses UTC+0:00,
like the United Kingdom, in Germany the time is shifted forward by an hour to 13:00
or 1:00 PM) , Poland, Austria, Belgium, France, Denmark, Spain, The Netherlands,
Norway, Switzerland, Italy
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
•
•
•
•
•
•
UTC +2:00
UTC +3:00
UTC +8:00
area),
UTC +9:00
- Finland, Greece, Turkey
- European Russia
- China (the whole country uses the same local time, despite its large
- Japan, North and South Korea
The United States are scattered across several time zones.
UTC -8:00 - West Coast, states such as California ( Los Angeles, San Francisco ) or
Washington ( Seattle )
UTC -5:00 - East Coast with cities such as New York or Washington D.C.
Where do you use the Astro timer
The Astro timer can be used in street lighting systems, shop-window lighting systems,
billboard lighting systems etc.
The way it works is similar to light sensors – it's task is to switch on or off the lighting on a
street or square depending on the time of day. It can turn on the lights when the sun is setting
and turn them off when the sun is rising and lighting is no longer required.
The main difference between the Astro timer and devices based on light sensors is that the
Astro timer can work whether or not it is getting information about the current state of
illuminance outdoors. It is also much more precise. It can work closed in an electrical
cupboard and is insensitive to factors such as high cloudiness, massive snowfall or rainfall
etc. which can cause temporary darkness. Also, light sensors can get dirty which can make
them malfunction. The timer calculates the time of sunrise and sunset each day and
commands connected devices based on these calculations.
Timer function – Night Breaks ( Night Intervals )
The device also has a programmable timer that cooperates with the Astro timer. Using this
timer you can set for every day of the week three periods of time when the Astro timer will
stop working.
This function is sometimes called a 'Night Break' as you usually use it during the night when
despite the fact that it is dark outside you turn off the lighting to save energy.
You can also use during the day when you want to turn the lighting on for a period of time
even after sunrise.
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How to use the Astro Timer
All variables coming from the Astro Timer can be used anywhere you may enter an equation.
The list of this variables is in the Legend tab.
AC – Astro Timer after correction
AT – Astro Timer
R – red part of the timer diagram
G – green part of the timer diagram
B – blue part of the timer diagram
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The variables below are used to recognize the beginning and end of each diagram of the
Astro Timer
ACU
ACD
ATU
ATD
RU
RD
GU
GD
BU
BD
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The example below represents the red part of the diagram but is also true for the other
variables.
RU (Red UP) will appear for one second at the moment when the period of time represented
by the red strip begins.
RD (Red DOWN) will appear for one second at the moment when the period of time
represented by the red strip ends.
RU and RD variable will change the state from 0 to 1 for one second only and then return to
0.
To understand what each description means you need to enter the Astro time configuration
window – the button shown with the red arrow below.
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The Astro time configuration window will pop out.
(TIMER RED) = ASTRO TIMER RED TIME LINE
(TIMER GREEN) = ASTRO TIMER GREEN TIME LINE
(TIMER BLUE) = ASTRO TIMER BLUE TIME LINE
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The settings for these timers are made in the configuration window in the fields of the same
color.
When you set the timer it will become visible on the diagram below.
The strips at the bottom represent the diagrams for the currently chosen day of the week –
Wednesday in this example.
On Saturday the RED timer is set to:
begin at 10:00
end at 16:00
This period of time is now represented on the third diagram as a red strip.
The representation is the same for the green and blue timers.
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
If no timer is set the third diagram will be empty.
In the Start time / Stop time field you can choose the correlation and the corrected Astro
timer.
OR will always change the logic status from 0 to 1 but never the other way around.
XOR will always change the status to opposite because the Timer intervals are always
treated as 1.
OFF will cause the timer settings to not be ignored in the corrected Astro Timer.
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
How to use the device – in short
The basic version of the software used to control the device using a PC is delivered together
with the device.
The software does not require installation.
Simply copy the software file to any location on your computer and run it.
Do not run it from CD!
Starting the software
This window will pop out:
Next you should:
–
turn on the relay and connect it with the computer using an USB cable
–
do the 'First Run' operation. It is described thoroughly on page 23.
–
when you achieve connection with the device, it's ready to use
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
Main window
This is how the software looks any time you run it.
At the bottom, in the Password field you need to enter the password that you have set during
the First Run procedure and the press Accept.
When you quickly double-click the field where you enter the password, a virtual keyboard,
which you can use to enter the password, will appear.
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
You need to enter the password every time you run the software.
Without entering the password it is impossible to connect to the device through the internet.
After you enter the correct password for the chosen relay, the triangle indicator will turn
yellow. This means that connection has been achieved.
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USB console tab
This tab is for:
- configuring the device and setting up the password
- updating firmware (last section of this manual)
- synchronizing time
All these procedures require the device to be connected to the computer
with an USB cable!!!
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SETTINGS tab
Cryptographic salt for secret passwords
Salt configurations are described in the Password and Salt section.
SAVE/RESTORE configuration
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The current configuration of:
– inputs
– outputs
– astro timer
– www server
can be saved to a file (*.ccr) by pressing the Save to file button.
To restore the settings or apply the in another device, after picking it from the list in the left
part of the window and connecting to it, you need to press the Restore from file button, find
the configuration file and press Open.
The device will load the configuration file and restart.
In the STATUS field the information “RESET” will be shown.
This does not concern the main configuration as the network settings etc.
LANGUAGE selection
You can choose the language from a list.
After setting AUTO the language automatically switches to the language of your Windows.
Language settings are saved automatically after every change.
NTP settings
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To use the following settings you need to log on as the administrator on
computers with Windows7 !!!
Local NTP server on this computer
This is a tool that allows you to configure your computer to be the NTP server. This menu
does not require being connected to the device as it's used to configure only your computer.
NTP client – this service downloads the current time from the internet. It should always be
on.
NTP server – this service will allow other computers or relays to download the time from
your computer. It will 'serve' time to relays.
NTP Client – pooling interval – how often (in seconds) will your computer download time
from the internet as an NTP client. If you want the time in your computer to be correct you
should enter 3600 – update every hour.
Windows Firewall settings on this computer
You need to configure your Windows Firewall to let through requests going to the NTP
server if you want your computer to work as one. You need to allow UDP packets with port
number 123 to go from the LAN to your NTP server service.
In Windows Vista and Windows 7 you need to run the software when
logged in as the administrator.
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LMBD4 tab
You can see the status of the device that you are connected to.
You can manually change the status of an input, output or Timer after you enter the 147
safety PIN code in the field in the right of the window.
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When you enter the code, the display in the middle of the screen will change it's color to
pink (normally it is grey). After you are finished making changes, we advise you to switch
back to safe mode so that you do press and change anything by accident. To do this press the
Reset button next to the field where you entered the code. The display will go gray again
and you will be able to make changes only after you enter the code again.
Display
Screen #1
– name of the chosen device
– it's IP address
– UDP port number
– firmware version
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Screen #2
– currently only information for testing purposes
Screen #3
– ping between the device and the computer
– sunrise and sunset times
– the rest of the parameters are only for testing and may be subject to change
Screen #4
– time according to the NTP server and the device's internal clock and the difference
between them
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Screen #5
- 1-Wire bus status information
- single 1-Wire thermometer serial number
Screen #6
– not used yet
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
Adding a new device
To add a new device (relay, alarm on analyzer) to your list right-click in the field where the
list is placed on the left side of the window.
Pick Add a new device
The Add a new device window will pop out. Here enter the name under which you want the
device to be displayed on the list, the device's IP address, UDP port number, device type and
the time zone where the device is placed. If the device's timezone is the same as the
computer's timezone then pick AUTO.
TYPE LMBD4 – LMBD4PLC analyzer
You save by pressing the Accept button.
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The added device will be displayed on the list on the left of the window.
To connect to it you need to choose it, enter the password and the accept it.
The device must be configured before you will be able to connect.
The configuration is described in an earlier part of the manual.
Resetting the device using the software
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To reset the device you need to press the round button next to the display ( 147 code first ).
The cursor will change to hand when you put it over the button. The button changes to red
when pressed.
Resetting the device will set the variable to the status existing at the moment power is
supplied, counters and uncertain statuses are cleared and the device resumes normal
operation. Only the software is reset.
Work in tray
Double-clicking the display will hide the software to tray – next to the clock.
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Firmware update
To update the firmware you will need the PIN code.
There is txt file with the PIN code on the CD with the device's drivers.
How to turn on the firmware update mode
To turn on the firmware update mode you need to execute the following instructions
1. Create a bridge between pin 5 and 7 – as shown on the picture below
2. Turn on the power supply
3. LEDs on the front pannel will turn on in the following sequence
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
4. When the middle green LED stays on the device has entered the firmware update mode
5. Connect the device to a computer using the delivered USB cable.
6. Start the software
7. Enter the USB CONSOLE tab
8.In the USB configuration section choose the Firmware update option. The available
settings will be highlighted.
9 Enter the delivered PIN code in the PIN for USB functions field.
10. Do not press Enter, typing the correct PIN code is enough
11. Click the Open firmware button and find the firmware update file in the dialog window.
12. Update file have a „*.bin” extension. If you got a „*.zip” or „*.rar” file you must unpack
it first.
13. Choose the correct file and click Open.
14. The update file will be loaded.
15. The file path and it’s volume will be displayed in the console.
16. Save the loaded file.
17. Click the Write firmware button.
Assuming the suggested values remain unchanged you now need to enter the PIN code from
the sticker on the CD, assign an at least 15 character long password, set the timezone and
mark whether the device is mounted in the southern hemisphere or not. The timezone
settings are very important as incorrectly counted time will not allow you to connect to the
device. The PIN code is entered in the lower right corner.
Usually this procedure fails due to errors in entering the PIN code. Often mistake
include mistaking „1” and „l” or „0” and „O”.
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
Final Remarks
Should be remembered:
- USB DRIVERS
It is impossible to use the software without installing USB drivers first. Without proper
drivers, every time you try to run the software it will cause a system error saying some
system files are missing. This is normal and should not cause concern.
You should first connect the device to the computer with an USB cable, then turn on the
power supply, wait for Windows to ask for the drivers and then install them from the CD.
Windows will ask for the drivers twice and you should pick the folder on the CD where they
are stored.
Only after installing the drivers you will be able to run the software.
- LAMBDA PROBE CALIBRATION COEFFICIENTS
The calibration coefficients received with the probe should be stored in case there is a need
to reenter them. There is no other way to later retrieve the data from the sticker received with
every probe.
- CALIBRATION OF THE DEVICE
You should make a printout of the CALIBRATION window and store it in case you need to
reenter the calibration parameters manually. You can also simply write them down in a
notebook.
- USB EXTENSION CORDS
A lot of clients ask us whether it is possible to extend the USB cord to an adjoining room.
There are a couple of ways to do that. We can try connecting the analyzer and the computer
with a basic USB extension cord. We can also buy an active USB extension which would
give us the ability to control a device placed even 100m away if we use a twisted-pair wire.
There is a wide range of such devices. Some are made of an USB-to-LAN converter on one
side and driver software on the side of the computer. The USB device is then seen in the
local network. Other require a small device to be plugged into a free USB port. All these
methods are more or less effective. The cause of any trouble usually are noises affecting the
long cord between the device and the computer.
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
Safety measures
The carton packing is suitable for recycling and is marked with the recycling symbol.
The device should be scrapped accordingly to local regulations about waste disposal.
Do not let children play with the device. Remember to mount the device in a place
unavailable for children.
Remember to disconnect the device's power supply before any maintenance work.
To clean the casing use a neutral detergent and a moist cloth.
Do not use abrasive detergents.
Do not wet the device.
The device is designed to be used only indoor in temperatures above 0°C
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
Table of Contents
Build..........................................................................................................................................2
Before you start using the analyzer...........................................................................................3
Preparing to start.......................................................................................................................5
Picking the mounting spot...............................................................................................6
Drilling the hole in the exhaust - pipe.............................................................................8
Sealing the exhaust stack.................................................................................................9
Now our device comes with new additional functions:.................................................15
What else can you control using LMBD4?....................................................................16
Operation.................................................................................................................................18
A few words about safety..............................................................................................18
The safety system is based on many factors..................................................................18
Firmware........................................................................................................................20
Interfaces........................................................................................................................20
Safety code.....................................................................................................................20
First run..........................................................................................................................23
Password and SALT.......................................................................................................24
Updating time in the computer......................................................................................36
What to remember about when making time related settings........................................38
How to synchronize time?.............................................................................................43
Example of network configuration................................................................................49
What is a NTP server?...................................................................................................51
Geographic location of the device.................................................................................53
Starting work with the software..............................................................................................55
The LMBD4 button.......................................................................................................59
MAIN tab.......................................................................................................................59
LMBD4 tab....................................................................................................................61
OWR33 / OWR34 tab....................................................................................................62
DS18B20 tab..................................................................................................................63
ANALYSIS tab..............................................................................................................63
I / O button – Inputs/Outputs.........................................................................................65
LMBD1 tab....................................................................................................................65
LMBD 2 tab...................................................................................................................67
LMBD 3 tab...................................................................................................................69
LMBD 4 tab...................................................................................................................69
OWR1...OWR12 / OWR13...OWR16, X1...X6 tabs.....................................................71
Legend tab.....................................................................................................................72
T1...T12 / T13...T20 tabs...............................................................................................73
Data export to shared memory – Config tab..................................................................77
How to use shared memory data....................................................................................82
1-Wire bus...............................................................................................................................84
Thermoregulators – basic concepts...............................................................................98
Differential thermoregulators......................................................................................102
Hysteresis diagram for heating and cooling:...............................................................104
Modbus..................................................................................................................................105
What does each field mean?........................................................................................110
Astro Timer...........................................................................................................................112
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
How to use the device – in short...........................................................................................121
Main window...............................................................................................................122
USB console tab..........................................................................................................124
SETTINGS tab............................................................................................................125
LMBD4 tab..................................................................................................................128
Display.........................................................................................................................129
Adding a new device...................................................................................................132
Resetting the device using the software.......................................................................133
Work in tray.................................................................................................................134
Firmware update...................................................................................................................135
Final Remarks.......................................................................................................................137
The Combustion Analyzer – User's Manual
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