BMG-207 ALL UNIT
UNIT 1 HANDLING VIDEO CAMERA
Program Name:BSc(MGA)
Written by: Mrs.Shailaja M. Pimputkar,Srajan
Structure:
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Unit Objectives
1.2 Video Camera Terminology
1.3 Planning
1.3.1 Shoot plan
1.3.2 Planning to edit
1.3.3 Shot plan
1.4 Camera Functions
1.4.1 Zoom
1.4.2 Focus
1.4.3 Iris
1.4.4 White balance
1.4.5 Shutter
1.4.6 Audio
1.4.7 Effect
1.5 Framing and composition
1.5.1 Rules of Framing
1.5.2 Basic Shots and types of shots
1.6 Camera Moves
1.7 Camera Angles
1.8 Video Camera Filters
1.9 Shooting techniques
1.10
Summary
1.11
Key Terms
1.12
End Questions
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1.0 INTRODUCTION
You are studying this course on how to handle video camera and other
details of camera functions. The main objective of this unit is to introduce you
to different aspects of camera work also aim at developing your skills related to
your camera work. The unit will include knowledge that can benefit both a
beginner and a professional in this field.
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This unit will tell all types of camera moves, camera angles, and camera
types. And also how the camera works, that is camera functions. In order to
acquire the maximum knowledge, it is important to ensure the following two
things:
1. Firstly, you should be aware of video camera. You should be aware of
its functions and features. Also you should be well aware about its
procedures. In case you face any trouble while handling video camera,
you must refer to the camera manual.
2. Second, you should be patient while handling the camera. You must be
extremely patient while learning the different aspect related to camera
work and while developing the skills.
1.1 UNIT OBJECTIVES:
After studying this unit you will be able to
Define the terms used in video production
Describe the planning of a video shoot
Explain the different angles
Analyses the basic camera moves
Describe different camera types
Describe techniques of framing
1.2 VIDEO CAMERA TERMINOLOGY
It is important to learn some of the terms associated with filming. Some of
the important and essential terms that you must know in order to get started
with learning your camera work are listed as follows:
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Active video lines: Video lines that do not occur in the horizontal and
vertical blacking intervals
Automatic gain control (AGC): an automatic control that modifies the
sensitivity of the pickup tube to create better image quality.
Aspect ratio: the ratio of the vertical to the horizontal image size,
usually 3:4
Aperture: the section of the lens that gathers light, regulated by the iris
Automatic iris: A lens that adjust automatically to allow the right
amount of light to fall on the imaging device.
Back Focus: A mechanical adjustment in a camera that moves the
imaging device relative to the lens to compensate for different focal
lengths of lenses.
Brightness: in color video, the feature that makes the images appear to
be the most intense, created by luminosity; also the quality of being
filled with light.
C-mount: the standard screw mounting for2/3 “and 1” camera lenses.
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CS-mount: A new generation of lenses designed for 2/3”, 1/2” and1/3”
cameras incorporating CS-mounts.the distance from the flange surface
to the focal point is 17.526mm.
CCD: Charged-Couple device used in some video cameras instead of an
image pickup tube.
Comb filter: An electric filtering system designed to pass a certain set
of frequencies but reject others.
Depth of field: The area in which all objects picked up by the camera
less appears in focus.
F-connector: The standard connector used with coaxial cable and the
RF inputs/outputs of most video equipment.
Focal length: The distance between the secondary principle point in the
lens and the plane of the imaging device.
Frame: one complete video picture, comprising both odd and even
fields. There are 30 frames per second.
Internal sync: The internal generation of sync pulses in a camera using
a crystal controlled oscillator. This is needed on non-mains powered
cameras.
Iris: Adjustable lens opening that regulates amount of light entering the
camera.
Macro-focus: A feature that allows you to get as close as one or two
inches to your subject.
Macro-lens: lens capable of close-up focusing.
PAL: Phase Alternate by Line is the 625-line color video system
currently used in most of Western Europe, England, Europe, Australia,
and South Africa.
Pre-set controller: A function contained within a telemetry system that,
on receipt of a signal, causes a particular camera to pan, tilt and zoom
to a predetermined field of view.
Real-time recording: The highest speed of a video recorder governed by
the monitor.
Remote switcher: A video switcher which is connected to the camera
cables and which contains the switching electronics.
Residual color: this is amount of color in the image of a white target
after a color camera has been white balanced.
Resolution: The clarity or sharpness of the picture. Resolution is most
often stated in the number of total lines that make up an image.
Scene illumination: The density of light falling on the area to be viewed
for best result the ratio of the lightest to the darkest areas should not be
more than a factor of two.
Shot: Different shots combined together make up video. A shot can be
described as the point when you press record, to the time when you
finally stop recording. Just like different photographs together make an
album, different shots when combined together make up video.
Terminating resistor: A resistor attached to the end of a cable or to an
input or output on a piece of video equipment. The resistor restores
proper system impedance.
Video motion detector: A method of detecting movement in the view of
the camera by the electronic analysis of the change in picture contrast.
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Wide angle: The wide –angle position of a lens enables the lens to
capture a wider area of view.
1.3 PLANNING
One of the most important steps in developing and mastering the whole process
is the act of planning .this is most essential step in any kind of production, it is
important to direct maximum energies towards the process of planning.
Camera work is only one of the stages of video production. The actual
goal may be to produce a complete presentation, a TV program or a complete
video. It is important to have a complete understanding of larger picture and
the prime objective, which will aid enhancing your camera work. It is
extremely important for you to understand and have an idea of how the final
product should look like and sound like.
It is the core act of planning that actually distinguishes amateurs from
core professionals in this field. However, there can be circumstances when you
actually do not have sufficient time to plan or prepare before you start with
your recording work.
That is, at times you may have to start work at a very short notice.
When it comes to planning for the general camera you can plan for two
different segments, ie, the shoot plan and the shot plan.
1.3.1 Shoot plan
Shoot plan plays a very important role in getting a well organized
footage. For that, you should have a shoot plan in place and it is important to
consider that everything that is recorded is actually a part of the shoot itself.
This should be followed by panning for each shoot.
Before you go ahead with preparing a shoot plan, you should be completely
aware of the prime purpose of each and every shoot. You should ensure that
whatever steps you are taking are going to contribute to the larger plan. This
will, however, depend on several factors. Some of these factors include the
following:
• While making a feature film, your long-term plan should be to collect
all the shots. This should be done in accordance with the script or the
storyboard.
• While making home videos, or long-term plan may be to create a future
reference for the generations to come.
• While you are shooting for only a one-off project, the long term
implications of the shoot actually become significant.
Planning is important for preparing the necessary requirements for the
shoot. You should not just instantly shoot with your camera. The shooting
should be in accordance with your plan and how you want to particular subject
or script to appear on the video camera. Thus, you should plan to take
necessary actions in order to achieve your ultimate goals.
It is also important to plan the approximate length of the shoot. This can be
done based on your objectives related to the extent of the footage that you
want to get from a video and the length of the video. While planning, you
should also prepare the checklist for the various equipments that will be
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required during the shoot such as tapes, camera, microphones and audio
visual equipment, batteries, documents, power supply etc.
1.3.2 Planning to Edit
Editing is another essential component of production and applies to
every shoot. Editing can be achieved in two ways:
Post production and in-camera.
• Post –production editing: in this form of editing all the recorded shots
are reassembled. This type of editing helps in getting flexibility, which
results in a better finished product. The requirements for this type of
editing include a camera, a video recorder and a few connecting leads.
While preparing the shooting plan, it is possible to collect the shots in
order of preference. This is because all the shots that are required at the
time of editing can be discarded at this stage. Additionally; it will be
possible for you to assemble all the desired shots in order of your
preference. Though this may consume a lot of time, it is extremely
useful for enhancing the quality of the final product.
• In camera editing: This form of editing does not allow edit at later
stage and therefore all the results primarily depend on what is actually
shot. There is no post-production involved in this type of editing.
Therefore, it is important to decide the order of the shots at the earlier
stage itself. In this type of editing may not lead to appropriate results
under all circumstances and requires a lot of planning, experience as
well as foresightedness.
Whichever type of editing you may use, it is important to support it with some
of the fundamental rules of editing. In order to grasp the basic guidelines of
editing, it is important to have some basic understanding related to the various
shot types and framing.
1.3.3 Shot plan
Once u completely planned your entire shoot you can go ahead with the
preparation of individual shot plans.
Before preparing various shot plans, it is important to know the reason for each
shot. Various questions need to be answered.
• What is my objective through this shot?
• It is extremely important to have this shot?
• Is this shot similar to any other shot that I have already taken?
• Will my audience like the subject of this shot?
• What is the message to be conveyed to the audience?
After answering these questions, if you fell that you have sufficient reasons
available to go ahead with a shot, you should think of the best possible way to
carry on with the shot. You should then concentrate on the different angles and
framing required for the shot. It is also important to practice in order achieve
good composition for each shot.
It is only after a clear understanding of the shot that you will be able to
capture it in a manner that creates the best shot. You should give sufficient
time to ensure that a particular shot is taken appropriately, especially if it is an
important shot. In case you are going to indulge in post-production editing, you
should aim at different versions of the shot so that you can select the most
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appropriate later at the time of editing. You should be sure that five seconds of
footage should be available in the beginning as well as at the end of each shot
so as to facilitate post editing. This performs the role of a safety buffer and is
an essential requirement during editing.
Check your progress-1
What is a frame?
What is depth of field?
What is a focal length?
What is aspect ratio?
1.4 FUNCTIONS OF CAMERA
The camera is the image-forming device .Nowadays, most camcorder have
automatic functions and which help you to operate it very easily .you just need
to switch them on and press the record button in order to start recording. The
recording medium can be the film itself, or a digital electronic or magnetic
memory. For the right functioning of camera, the first step the photographers
take is to control the camera and lens. Most professional camera operators will
always refrain from using auto –focus or auto iris functions.
1.4.1 Zoom
Zooming is a significant camera operation. Zoom is a function that helps
you view the subject from a close distance or from a long distance. Thus, the
effect of zoom operation is similar to taking a camera close or further away
from a particular subject. It is important to realize that the steadiness of the
picture is largely impacted if you zoom in to a large extent. Therefore it is
better at times to take the camera closer and to then zoom out in order to get
the same type of framing but with steady picture result. To zoom your image
means get your object closer view of far-away objects. The Difference between
Optical Zoom and Digital Zoom on Your Digital Camera are Optical zoom gets
up close and personal by using an actual lens adjustment and digital zoom
adjusts the image in the camera.
Optical zoom: optical zoom is a real zoom feature. It is always
important to have optical zoom if taking a lot of photos from far away
subjects. They produce much better-quality images.
Digital zoom: Digital zoom more focus on image area rather than
background. When you use a digital zoom, the camera enlarges the
image area at the center of the frame and trims away the outside edges
of the picture.
1.4.2Focus
The auto-focus feature is useful only in case of still photography. This
function is mostly used by amateur photographers. Most professional
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photographers never rely on the autofocus function. This is because the auto
focus function can never meet the result that a professional or a serious video
camera operator is looking forward to get. Most people find the manual focus
function to be complicated in nature but it is extremely important to realize that
manual focus control is essential for ensuring good camera work.
A manual focus ring can be found on most professional cameras,
generally in front of the lens housing. The manual focus ring needs to be
operated either in a clockwise direction or an anti clockwise direction
depending on the focus needs. For closer focus, in the ring is turned in a
clockwise direction and for achieving a distant focus; the ring is rotated in an
anti clockwise direction. There are different types of focus mechanisms that are
available in consumer cameras. These focus mechanisms are generally
operated through a small dial.
The best way to obtain a good focus is to zoom in on the subject on
which the focus needs to be achieved. In order to sharpen the focus, the ring
needs to be adjusted.
1.4.3 Iris
On a digital camera iris is an adjustable aperture that allows and control
the amount of light coming through the lens. The more the iris is opened, the
more light enter through the iris and the picture will be brighter. The video
camera iris works in basically the same way as a still camera iris. When you
open the iris, more light comes in and the picture appears brighter.
Fig 1.1: Iris Ring
However, if light comes through the aperture is less, and then the
quality of picture may be poor. Professional cameras have an iris ring on the
lens housing. The ring can be turn clockwise to close and it can be turn
anticlockwise to open the iris of the camera. It is important to set your iris so
that the subject appears correctly exposed. The subject is usually more
important no matter that other parts of picture are bright or dark.
Professional cameras have an additional feature called zebra stripes which
can help you to judge exposure.
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1.4.4 White Balance
White balance (WB) is the process of removing unrealistic color casts,
so that objects which appear white in person are rendered white in your photo.
Proper camera white balance has to take into account the "color temperature"
of a light source, which refers to the relative warmth or coolness of white light.
White Balance is an aspect of photography that many digital camera
owners don’t understand or use – but it’s something well worth learning about
as it can have a real impact upon the shots you take.
Sometimes it happens that after taking shots, you might have noticed that
images can come out with different color like an orange, blue, yellow etc. Even
if fact that when you look them on naked eye the scene was quite normal. The
reason for this is that images different sources of light have a different ‘color’
to them.
Fig 1.2: White Balance
There are different ways of adjusting white balance depends upon the digital
camera
Many digital cameras have automatic and semi-automatic modes to help you
make the adjustments.
You can perform this function by pointing the camera towards nonreflective background. The background should be white for the good result.
You should frame it a manner such that the entire picture appear white. You
can now press white balance button to perform the function. Different camera
has different process of changing white balance .For example, most Nikon
professional cameras has white balance button on the top dial, while cameras
such as Nikon D90 have a “WB” button on the back of the camera close to the
LCD screen.
1.4.5 Shutter
There are several applications of this particular camera function and its
particularly useful in case of fast action footage as well as footage related to
sports etc. Camera shutter is a curtain in front of the camera sensor that stays
closed until the camera fires. When the camera fire, the shutter opens and fully
exposes the camera sensor to the light that passes through the lens. The prime
advantage is that the individual frames appear much sharper because of the
shutter function. However the drawback is that at the times motion may appear
jerky.
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The prime application of the shutter function is to control the exposure.
In order to get any advantages from the shutter function, it is extremely
important to know the modality to use this function.
1.4.6Audio
There are several audio functions which are available in different
consumer cameras. They include built-in –microphones, hi-fi stereo system,
etc. These are the only functions that you may require for general camera work.
Getting good audio results can be very tedious and difficult and there
are several aspects involved in it. At this juncture, it is essential for you to
realize that the audio functions are extremely vital and therefore cannot be
ignored.
You can also expect to get a better audio quality by utilizing an external
microphone than the in-built mic of the camera. This can be used by plugging
the microphone in the mic input socket of the camera. There can be different
reasons for using an external microphone. Some of these are as follows:
I.
The external microphone may be more suitable for the kind of
results that you desire than the microphone which has been
provided within the camera.
II.
The external microphones enables you take different positions
with respect to the camera.
It is important to realize that in terms of sound the level of audio control
plays an important role in the camera. An auto gain control is present in most
cameras that enable audio control. Under most circumstances, this works well
and most of the consumer cameras operate in a similar manner. There is also
manual audio control function available in some cameras.
There can be audio controls that may be required for some other shots,
for example ambient audio control may be required in case of some of the
shots. It is important to be very careful about the background music at the time
of shooting. Another aspect that you need to be careful about is the wind or
breeze. This can affect the quality of an audio.
1.4.7Effects
There are several built in digital effects in most consumer cameras.
Examples of these effects include digital till, mix, strobe, etc.For best result; it
is important to first experiment with the effects. It is always advisable to use
them only moderately as excessive usage can result in adverse effects.
Fig 1.3: Effect Panel
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However, it is essential to realize that whatever effects you can actually
create through a camera, can be better achieved by using video editing
software. Thus, it is always advisable to shoot without effects and add effects
later using editing software.
Check your progress-2
What is iris?
How the shutters work in camera?
What is optical zoom?
What is digital zoom?
1.5 FRAMING AND COMPOSITION
It is very important to compose an image while shooting .The
composition of image is called Framing. In other ways, Framing is the
technique of drawing attention to the subject of your image by blocking other
parts of the image with something in the scene. While shooting the picture that
can be viewed on the monitor is called the Frame. The way the picture actually
look with respect to what is the subject, what is its position in the frame and
which way it is looking or facing ect.will go to describe its composition. Even
the background, foreground and lighting, etc., will be a part of the composition
itself.
In order to obtain the described composition, it is important to adjust
the camera. This is generally done while framing a shot. In order to get the
described composition, either the camera position needs to be adjusted or the
lens is zoomed till the described composition is achieved.
1.5.1 Rules of framing and composition:
Following are some rules of Framing and composition:
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RULE OF THIRDS
While framing an image, some guidelines are required with respect to
the image. These guidelines are possible through the rule of thirds. Imagine
that your image is divided into 9 equal segments by 2 vertical and 2
horizontal lines. The rule of thirds says that the points of interest or lines
should always be one-third or two-third of the way up the frame. Doing so
will add balance and interest to your photo. It should never be in the center
of the frame. As shown in the above figure the light house is not in the
center.
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Fig 1.4: Example of rule of third eye
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Crossing the line(Reverse cut)
Another important concept in video and film production is known as
‘crossing the line’. It is a very important concept in video and film
production. It describe as one imaginary line are used to cut through the
middle of the scene. Cut goes from side to side. It also depends on the
position and angle of the camera. In most of the cases viewer get
confused as crossing the line generally changes the perspective of the
viewers as well as disorientation in some cases. Because of this reason
crossing the line concept should be avoided in most of the time. For
more detail just see the following example.
Fig 1.5(a)
In this shot, the position of the camera is
on left side of the lady (shown in this
fig1.5 (a)).the line is an imaginary line to
understand the concept.
Fig 1.5(b) shows the resulting shot is
capturing the position and movement of
that lady from viewer’s angle. It means if
you are the viewer can see the lady
moving from right to left.
Fig 1.5 (b)
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When shooting film two opposite side of line, it would be referred as
crossing the line.
In this shot camera is now crossing the
line as shown in fig 1.5 (c). Thus the
result is different from the previous one.
You see now the lady is moving in the
other direction.ie.moving from left to
right .as shown in fig1.5 (d).thus the
movement of the lady is actually reverse
in this case.
Fig 2.5(c)
Fig 3.5(d)
This will create confusion for the viewers. This is because it leads to
sudden reversal of viewpoint as well as the action of the subject. This is
referred as reverse cut.
It is always advisable to prevent these reverse cuts. This will help you
to shoot it completely in one side itself.
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Sports and multi camera Action
This concept is often use in live-action shots such as sports coverage. It
is necessary to use crossing the line concept. For example, In case of
live sports coverage it would not create a problem if team is playing as
suitable for audience view. But it will be more difficult and confusing if
a team suddenly seems to be playing in the wrong direction. In such
case we need to find other alternative by either giving graphic key such
as “Reverse Angle", or wait for the commentator to check that replay
from a different angle.
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The 180° Rule
Fig 4.6: The 180° Rule
The 180° Rule may be describe as the rule of line crossing. In
other word, it means a camera should be placed somewhere
inside 180 degrees .on a particular side of the invisible line of
a shot containing two people filmed in sequence. If the camera
crosses the line, it will create confusion for the film viewers,
because it makes it look like the people are switching places as
one watches the film. For
Examples look at the following scene.
Fig 5.7: Example of 180° Rule
Imagine you are looking at a scene from the side. You can see the whole
scene. In this scene two characters looking at each other. One character is on
the left hand side of the scene facing right and the other character is on the
right side of the scene facing left.
For facial expression we need to take mid shots and close-up shots for both
the characters. Shooting such kind of shot like first in one direction then other
direction is called shot reverse shot. See camera 2 and camera 3.in above
figure. When the shots are edited together, we understand that they are looking
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at each other, because they are looking in the same direction as they were in
Shot 1.
For this works, we need to imagine a line between the two characters. This
is called the axis of action. We need to keep the camera on the side of the line
.this is called 180 degree rule. It is because camera can’t move more than 180
degree around the characters.
• Leading lines:
Fig 6.8: Example of leading lines
The rule of leading lines, which says that the human eye are unconsciously
drawn along lines–whether they are curved, straight, diagonal or otherwise.
When we look at a photo our eye is naturally drawn along lines. These “leading
lines” lead your eyes through the image. Curved lines can lead you on
a journey around the frame, leading you towards the main subject. Lines exist
everywhere, in the form of walls, fences, roads, buildings and telephone
wires. When the pictures like this contain a strong line, your eyes can easily
follow them.
1.5.2 Camera shots
A camera shot is the amount of space that is seen in one shot or frame.
Camera shots are used to demonstrate different aspects of a film's setting,
characters and themes. As a result, camera shots are very important in shaping
meaning in a film. Reviewing the examples on the right hand side of this page
should make the different camera shots clearer.
Following are some shots with examples:
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Extreme Wide Shots (EWS) act to establish the area. It is difficult to
see the subject in the shot as it is too far from the camera. It is often
used for background shoot at the beginning of a scene .This is also
known as an establishing shot.
Wide Shots (WS) show the entire person or area. It is also known as
the long shot. A long shot may show the viewers the building or place
where the action will take place.
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Medium Shots (MS) is the most common shot. This shot gives the
whole impression of the subject but the focus is particularly on some
part of the subject.
Medium Close Ups (MCU) shots comes between mid shot and close
up. This shot show the subject in more detail and are often framed from
just below the shoulders to the top of the head. From this shot, viewers
can see the characters' faces more clearly as well as their interaction
with other characters. This is also known as a social shot.
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Close Ups (CU) .in this shot the whole frame focuses on the certain
feature or some particular part of the subject. A close up contains
just one character's face. Because of this shot the viewers can see the
actor's emotions .This is also known as a personal shot.
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Extreme Close Ups (ECU) this type of shot generally focuses at
complete detail. An extreme close-up contains one specific part of a
character face like eyes ear nose etc. or other object. This technique is
quite common in horror films.
Fig 7.9: Example Different camera shots
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Advanced Camera Shot Types
Two Shot: This is a shot of two people will appear comfortably
together. The framing is almost similar to a mid shot.
Cut Away (CA): Cutaways are described as a shot that shows
something other in footage which is different from the main action. Broll is often used for cut-away. This would be used when interviewee
someone, the cutaway would be something linking in with what the
interviewer is talking about.
Fig 1.10: Cut Away Shot
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Over the Shoulder Shots (OSS) this shot gives the view of one person
from behind the person towards their subject. Generally the frame is
cut off just behind the ear, although there are several variations. A
good technique to use to get this shot is to frame the person facing the
subject with about one third of the frame.
Fig8.11: Example of OSS
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Point of View (POV): This type of shot express the view that audience
t feel that they are seeing it from the eyes of the performer. This shot
express the view from the perspective of the subject.
Figure 9.12: The Point of view shot
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Weather shot: In this shot, the subject most likely the sky and is used
generally when expressing weather. This can however be used in other
situations as well.
Fig 10.13: Weather shot
Check your progress-3
What is POV?
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What is a rule of leading lines?
What is cutaway shot?
1.6 CAMERA MOVES
Camera moves helps you to make your shot proper if u know how to use them
properly. A combination of some of the basic camera moves constitutes almost
all camera moves. There are different camera moves wherein combination of
techniques is used simultaneously. We have divided the moves into 3 easy
sections are as follows:
• Mounted camera creates the move.
• Camera and operator or devices move together.
• Only the camera lens moves.
A. Mounted Camera Creates the Move
I.
Pan
It can be described as horizontal Movement of the camera and is
generally in a left to right direction. You can use a tripod for a smooth
effect. It is use to follow a subject or show the distance between two
objects.
II.
Tilt
Section 1.01
It describes as a vertical movement of the camera.
Without raising its position moving the camera up or down.
III.
Pedestal
It describe as a physically moving the height of the camera up or
down, usually on a tripod.
B. Camera and Operator or Devices Move Together
I.
Dolly
A dolly is also type of camera movement. It is a smooth movement of
camera ensured by mounting a camera on cart which travels around specified
predefined track. This camera movement also known as a tracking shot or
trucking shot.
II.
Crane or Boom
This works and looks similar to a construction crane. It is used for high
sweeping shots or to follow the action of your subject. This camera moves
often for street scenes so they can shoot from above the crowd and the traffic.
III.
Dolly Zoom
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In this type of camera movement, the camera is moved closer to or further
from the subject and at the time, the zoom angle is adjusted in order to keep the
size of the subject the same in the frame.
C. Only the Camera Lens Moves
I.
Zoom
This is not exactly a camera movement .technically; this means that
there is change in focal length of the lens. This type of an effect leads
to an illusionary
1.7 CAMERA ANGLES
There is a difference between camera angles and camera shots. Camera
shots are used to elaborate different aspects of setting, themes and characters.
Camera angles are used to position the viewer so that we can understand the
relationships between the characters.
The following are some examples of camera angles
•
Bird’s eye
A bird's eye angle is an angle that looks directly from the upward
direction. This angle is often used as an establishing angle, along with an
extreme long shot, to establish setting. This is also used to show the
position as well as the movement of different object in the shot. This type
of view generally used for sports, documentaries etc.
•
High Angle
This type of angel shows character small .A high angle shows an
angle of a camera that character from above. A character shot with a
high angle will look less powerful or small.
•
Eye Level
This is a very common camera angle .An eye-level angle feels the
audience that it would appear in their real life. This is the most commonly
used angle in most films and thus describe as a real world angle.
•
Low-Angle
A low angle is a camera angle that shows the subject from a
downward direction so that the character at look up. This is the
opposite of a high angle and it produce highlight the subject makes a
character look more dominant and powerful.
•
Dutch Angle
This camera angle is known as Slanted. A camera shot in which camera
angle deliberately sainted a particular angle is termed as a Dutch tilt. This type
of shot generally used in order to produce some kind of dramatic effect which
Handling Video Camera
18
could be related to an expression of a frantic or desperate action, madness etc.
this type of camera is very common in music video.
1.8 CAMERA FILTERS
Camera filters are transparent or translucent optical elements that alter
the properties of light entering the camera lens for the purpose of improving
the image being recorded. Filters can affect contrast, sharpness, highlight flare,
color, and light intensity, either individually, or in various combinations. The
main objective of the filters is to alter the light before it ultimately reaches the
CCD. Most of these properties related similarly to filter use in both film and
video imaging.
CAMERA FILTERS FOR BOTH COLOR AND BLACK-ANDWHITE
•
Ultraviolet Filters(UV)
Ultraviolet filters are used to remove ultra violet light. Many time
in for the outdoor shooting it happens that , especially at the place
where altitudes is high and the UV-absorbing atmosphere is thinner,
like marine scenes. It can show up as a bluish color cast with color
film. This type of filter will selectively remove the UV light but will
maintain the visible light. It also protects the lenses and is thus
sometime known as protective filters.
•
Neutral Density Filters(ND)
This type of filters will absorb light evenly throughout the
visible spectrum, effectively altering exposure without requiring
a change in lens opening and without introducing a color shift.
These filters are generally used in case of strong light
conditions, when the prime purpose is to reduce the amount of
light coming through the lens.
•
Polarizing Filters
The main objective of polarizing filter is to control reflection. Using
this filter we can get color look more saturated and vibrant in nature .we
can get the original color from its source. If the light has white color
and object has blue color. If this White light reflects on a blue object,
object will still appear in blue. This happens because object observed
all other colors. A small portion of the reflected light bounces off the
object without being absorbed and colored, retaining the original (often
white) color of its source.
Pro-Mist
This filters generally produce highlight flare that, by staying closer to
the source, appears more as a "halo" than will the more outwardly
extended flare of a fog filter. They create an almost pearlescent glow to
highlights.
•
Handling Video Camera
19
•
•
•
•
Sepia: This type of filter is generally used when the prime objectives is
to produce historical images or flashbacks as it is produce sepia tone
effect using this type of filter.
Fog: This filter is used for creation of a fog effect.
Color correction: This type of filter is used for adjustment and
correction of the colors, which is usually achieved by adjusting the
color temperature of the light.
Star Effect: When the objectives to give a dramatic, glamorous and a
more sophisticated look, then these types of filters are generally used.
1.9 SHOOTING TECHNIQUES
1. Position yourself and your camera.
Whenever you use a tripod for camera support makes sure that it is stable.
Also have to check that it should be at a level unless you have to tilt. It is also
important to check the spirit level.
In case if you’re planning to do some camera moves like tiled or pan it is
very important to ensure your position is comfortable throughout the entire
move. Before starting a pan or tilt move be insure that how far you will be
reach for whatever you want to achieve or expecting at the end. In case it is
going to difficult for you to find the proper place, you need to move in
some conformable position by the time you complete the move.
Sometime it happens that some cheap tripod doesn’t have bowl .while
using such tripod, it’s very important to check that the framing still looks level
as you pan. It is important to reassure it because even though it may look fine
but it can actually become extremely slanted when you pan in left and right.
Even though you're not using a tripod, you have to position yourself and
your camera in a manner such that you and your camera both stabilized
properly. You should keep your arms and elbows close to your body and
breathe steadily. For static shots, place your feet at shoulder width and take a
support of solid object such as furniture, walls, or anything to hold yourself.
2. Frame your shot
Always do a quick mental check of some important camera functions like
white balance; focus; iris; framing .also check the different vertical and
horizontal lines and background.
3. Think about your audio
Audio is as important as the other objects. So it is also important to ensure
that audio should be appropriate according to the concept behind the shot.
4. Press "record".
Be ensuring while recording the record button is on. Make sure that you are
actually recording. Because later if you realize that you were under false
impression of recording, you start frustrating. There are generally delay
between times you press record and actually camera begins recording. This is
happening because of the tape "roll-in time” present in many cameras. It is
Handling Video Camera
20
therefore important to undertake some experimenting in order to assess the
‘roll-in time’ for a particular camera so you can keep that in mind and
accordingly adjust the time of your shot.
5. Keep checking the status
Always check the status displays on the monitor. Try to learn and
understand the meaning of all the indicators. They can provide you
valuable information.
6. Use both eyes
It is always good and advisable to use both the eyes. You should try to
learn and focus on your vision in the manner that you are able to use one
eye to look through the viewfinder, and the other eye to examine your
surroundings. It takes very little time to adjust your eye in this manner. It is
also important to pay attention to the place where actual action taken place.
7. Learn to walk backwards.
You'll often see television presenters walking and talking, as the camera
operator walks backwards shooting them. For this, you can take help of
someone who can place their hand in the middle of your back and guide you.
These shots can look great.
8. Keep thinking about Framing and Audio
For the entire process of recording, pay attention on changing composition
of your frame as well as on audio, which should be match with the
composition.
9. Press "record stop" before moving.
It is always advisable to wait for a second after you finish your recording.
Otherwise sudden jerky movements may be visible in the last part of your shot.
10. Be diplomatic while shooting.
You have to be diplomatic while shooting. People are often feel
uncomfortable or awkward while shooting .so it is always preferred to maintain
a modest and discreet profile while shooting.
Many people find comfortable while the red recording light starts on the
camera. Sometime they got stuck and freeze whenever they see it. In this
situation take a piece of tape and cover the light. However some essential
aspect of shooting cannot be avoided even if they are incontinent for people.
11. Use the "date/time stamp" feature sparingly.
It's not necessary to have the time and date displayed throughout your
video, it doesn’t look nice. If you want date and time in some place then have it
there, but most of the camera have the facility of hiding the display.
12. Be prepared to experiment.
Always try to do new things. For success from new techniques, it is
essential to experiment. Believe in experimentation and try to creatively
indulge in things which you would have always wanted to do.
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21
1.10 SUMMARY
Planning is one of the most important steps in developing and
mastering the whole process is the act of planning .this is most essential
step in any kind of production, it is important to direct maximum
energies towards the process of planning.
Camera work is only one of the stages of video production. The actual
goal may be to produce a complete presentation, a TV program or a
complete video. It is important to have a complete understanding of
larger picture and the prime objective, which will aid enhancing your
camera work. It is extremely important for you to understand and have
an idea of how the final product should look like and sound like.
Shoot plan plays a very important role in getting a well organized
footage. For that, you should have a shoot plan in place and it is
important to consider that everything that is recorded is actually a part
of the shoot itself. This should be followed by panning for each shoot.
Resolution: The clarity or sharpness of the picture. Resolution is most
often stated in the number of total lines that make up an image.
White balance (WB) is the process of removing unrealistic color casts,
so that objects which appear white in person are rendered white in your
photo. Proper camera white balance has to take into account the "color
temperature" of a light source, which refers to the relative warmth or
coolness of white light.
Camera shots are used to elaborate different aspects of setting, themes
and characters. Camera angles are used to position the viewer so that
we can understand the relationships between the characters.
Zooming is a significant camera operation. Zoom is a function that
helps you view the subject from a close distance or from a long
distance. Thus, the effect of zoom operation is similar to taking a
camera close or further away from a particular subject.
Camera filters are transparent or translucent optical elements that alter
the properties of light entering the camera lens for the purpose of
improving the image being recorded. Filters can affect contrast,
sharpness, highlight flare, color, and light intensity, either individually,
or in various combinations.
.
1.11 KEY TERMS
•
•
•
•
•
•
Pan: Movement of the camera from side to side.
Tilt: Movement of the camera in up-down direction.
Zoom: movement of the camera in inwards and out wards direction to
see the objects closely and from a distance.
Iris: the opening through which light is allowed to enter into camera.
White balance: Color adjustment in order to make them look more
natural as well as consistent.
Shutter: a mechanical device that controls the duration of photographic
exposure.
Handling Video Camera
22
•
•
Frame: The picture that can be viewed while shooting on the monitor or
on the viewfinder may be describes as the Frame.
Resolution: The clarity or sharpness of the picture. Resolution is most
often stated in the number of total lines that make up an image.
1.12 END QUESTIONS
1. What is framing? Explain the rules of framing.
2. What is composition?
3. What is postproduction editing?
4. Explain the importance of planning in video production?
5. Explain the functions of framing?
6. What is iris?
7. Write a note on shooting techniques.
8. What is a function of a shutter?
9. What is white balance?
10. Explain the angles and shots in video camera.
Answer to check your progress questions
Check your progress -1:
Frame: one complete video picture, comprising both odd
and even fields.
Depth of field: The area in which all objects picked up by
the camera less appears in focus.
Focal length: The distance between the secondary principle
point in the lens and the plane of the imaging device.
Aspect ratio: the ratio of the vertical to the horizontal image
size.
Check your progress -2:
On a digital camera iris is an adjustable aperture that allows and
control the amount of light coming through the lens.
Camera shutter is a curtain in front of the camera sensor that
stays closed until the camera fires. When the camera fire,
the shutter opens and fully exposes the camera sensor to the
light that passes through the lens.
Optical zoom is a real zoom feature. It is always important to
have optical zoom if taking a lot of photos from far away
subjects.
Digital zoom: Digital zoom more focus on image area rather
than background. When you use a digital zoom, the camera
enlarges the image area at the center of the frame and trims
away the outside edges of the picture.
Handling Video Camera
23
Check your progress -3:
This type of shot express the view that audience t feel that
they are seeing it from the eyes of the performer.
The rule of leading lines, which says that the human eye are
unconsciously drawn along lines–whether they are curved,
straight, diagonal or otherwise.
Cutaways are described as a shot that shows something
other in footage which is different from the main action.
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24
UNIT 2 VIDEO CAMERA FUNCTIONS
Program Name: BSc (MGA)
Written by: Mrs.Shailaja M. Pimputkar, Srajan
Structure:
2.0 Introduction
2.1 Unit Objectives
2.2 Video Camera Focus
2.2.1 How to use manual Focus
2.2.2 Back Focus
2.2.3 Depth of Field
2.2.4 The focus Pull
2.3 Video Camera Iris
2.3.1 How to know the correct exposure
2.3.2 Backlight
2.4 Video Camera White Balance
2.4.1 Performing a Manual White Balance
2.4.2 How to perform a Black Balance
2.5 Video Camera View Finder
2.6 Camera Shutter
2.7 Summary
2.8 Key Terms
2.9 End Questions
.
2.0 INTRODUCTION
In the previous unit we learn about the video camera and brief introduction
about the camera functions. In this unit we are going to learn about camera
functions in detail. Video camera has mainly three functions. Focus, Iris and
Lens. Focus is an essential function and in this unit we ae going to learn how to
work with manual focus. In order to chive the complete control over the focus,
we should first understand the concept of depth of focus and focus pull.
In this unit we come to know about the different function of iris and
importance of iris in camera. You will introduce the term white balance and
black balance. Thus, the techniques to correct the white balance and the use of
black balance have been further elaborate.
2.1 UNIT OBJECTIVES:
After studying this unit you will be able to
Define video camera focus
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25
Describe the functions of the Iris
Elaborate on the role of white balance in video production
Explain the operations of a video camera viewfinder
Describe the significance of camera shutter
2.2 VIDEO CAMERA FOCUS
There are three basic functions of video camera. (i) Lens (ii) Focus and (iii)
Iris. In this section we are going to learn about the focus function. Focusing is
the process to adjust your camera until you can see your image clearly. We can
adjust focus manual as well as some camera has auto focus feature. To adjust
focus of the camera is one of the tricky jobs for any individual. To learn the
advance focus techniques, you should have the basic knowledge about focus.
Before understanding the term focus, you have to know the following terms:
•
•
Depth of Field: The range of the distance from the lens of the camera
from where it is possible to maintain a sharp focus of an image.
Focus Pull: The adjustment of focus to a different point during the
shot.
2.2.1 How to use the Manual Focus:
It is important to locate the control of focus at first. Many professional
cameras have manual focus ring. This ring normally present near the front of
the lens housing. For closer focus turn the focus ring clock wise and for far
distance focus turn the ring anticlockwise.
Fig2. 11: Focus ring
2.2.1.1 Following steps are showing how to use manual focus on your
camera:
1. Check AF (Auto Focus)/MF (Manual Focus) Switch .Most camera has
AF set in default setting. Change it to MF. Most of the cameras have
these switches on the lens barrel.
Handling Video Camera
26
2. Always focus on the subject and twist the focus ring until you will get
the sharp image. You have to twist the ring back and forth to get the
proper result.
3. In order to ensure that the result of the picture obtained is nice as well
as sharp, it is important to get the required framing by zooming out.
4. Zoom your image and navigate to the specific area you focused on.
Check the back focus feature in case you feel that the picture is losing
the focus when it is zoomed out.
If you are in the middle of shooting something important and you need to
adjust your focus. Then it is very important to know on which direction you
have to turn the focus ring. It is very important because if you do not correctly
focus, your work will get worse. To take the right focus direction, you need to
keep comparing the subject with background. If you find that while shooting
the subject, background appear to be much sharper than the subject then it
becomes important to pull the focus to a closer point. Vice versa, in case you
find subject appearing sharper in comparison to background you should
defocus.
2.2.1.2 Difficult focus conditions
There are many conditions, in which focusing can be difficult. Among
them the main problem occurs when light is low. Focusing in the low light is
very difficult. It is always easier to focus during the shot if proper lighting
conditions are available. You can try various options when you are struggling
with the poor light conditions and when it is not possible to add more light.
These are as follows:
•
•
•
•
You need to ensure that the shutter of your camera is closed and is
switched off.
Ensure and check that you are using the correct low-light filter. It is
always advisable to remove any add-on filters.
Digital camera has gain function. Try to add little gain using this
function. However, always be aware that this might comprise the
picture quality to some extent.
You should always try to keep the zoom effect as much as possible and
try to zoom as wide as possible.
2.2.2 Back Focus
If case you find two different effects on your image while zoom in and
zoom out, it shows that your back focus needs to be adjusted. While zoom in
camera result in Sharpe focus and while zoom out camera result soft focus, it’s
time to adjust the back focus. This is generally true in case of cameras with
detachable lens.
Handling Video Camera
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Fig 12.2: Back Focus ring
In order to adjust the back focus you will require the following:
•
•
Firstly there should be back focus ring in your camera. This ring is
generally located near the rear of the lens housing.
Any object with the sharp contrast can be used to adjust the back focus.
2.2.2.1 Following are the steps involved in adjusting the camera back focus
1. Put the camera on tripod. You can use other stable things to place the
camera. Camera should be placed along with the subject or back focus
chart or some contrasting object. Subject should be at least at the
distance of 20 meters or 70 feet from the camera.
2. Open Iris of your camera as widely as possible. If iris is open widely it
will give good result in low light also. You can also add a dome shutter
speed or neutral density filter.
3. You should always ensure to switch your lens to a 1X extender, in case
it has a 2X extender.
4. Always zoom in completely on your subject.
5. Try to focus till you get the sharp picture. While using the back focus,
you will always see the blurred chart. When your focus will be the
sharpest, the blurred circle will appear the smallest in size.
6. You should also zoom out.
7. You should try to fasten the back focus ring. This can be done by using
the locking screw of back focus ring. Also try to make adjustments with
the ring till the picture sharpens.
8. You have to repeat step 3 to step 6 until you will get the best result.
9. Finally, it is important to tighten the locking screw of the back-focus
ring.
2.2.3 Depth of Filed
In camera there will be an area that appears in focus behind or in front
of the subject. This area called Depth of Filed (DOF).In other words; Depth
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28
of field is the area of an acceptable sharpness within the photo that will
appear in focus. There are two ways to describe the qualities of depth of
field - shallow DOF or deep DOF. Some images may have very small area of
focus which is called shallow depth of field. Some images have a very large
area of focus which is called deep depth of field. In both cases DOF is
measured in front of the focus point and behind the focus point.
Fig2. 13: Example of Depth of Field
This is extremely important in case of video work, primarily because of
two reasons:
1. In order to have complete control over the focus, it is important to
understand DOF, which may otherwise result in soft footage.
2. You may be exposed to a good number of creative possibilities if
you become ware as to how to manipulate the DOF.
2.2.3.1 How to control DOF
There are mainly three factors effecting DOF.
1. Aperture size
2. Distance from the lens
3. The focal length of the lens
Aperture allows and decides how much light should allow traveling
through lens to the camera sensors. The size of aperture controls the light.
You can easily control Depth of field using aperture. Thus, the smaller the
aperture, the greater the depth of field and vice versa. In other world, it
becomes easier to focus the subject when you are greater light available.
Handling Video Camera
29
Fig2.14: Shallow DOF and Deep DOF
If your subject is closer to the camera, depth of filed become small.
So that distance from the camera is important factor in depth of field. There
are several other factors that can influence the depth of field. These factors
include the following:
•
•
•
•
•
Conditions related to light
Filter of the camera
Shutter of the camera
Gain
Angle of the lens
2.2.3.2 How to get greater DOF
If the depth of field is grater then it is easier to maintain and achieve
the accepted focus. The following can be done to get the greater depth of
field:
•
•
•
•
By increasing light
By removing filters. This will help to enter more light.
You can add some digital gain, but sometime this will result poor
image quality.
You can turn off the shutter or reducing the speed of the shutter.
2.2.3.3 How to reduce DOF
Under certain circumstances, you may need to reduce the depth of field.
This is generally required when you want subject should be sharper than
the background. This means background should be soft and subject should
be in focus. There are several ways in which we can reduce the depth of
field. This can be achieved as follows:
•
•
By adding natural density (ND) filter.
By increasing speed of the shutter.
Handling Video Camera
30
•
By reducing the light and then opening the iris, thus increasing the
aperture of iris. But you have to be very careful while reducing light
because quality of the picture gets impacted due to poor lighting.
2.2.4 The focus Pull
The Focus pull is one of the camera techniques that help to change the focus
from one subject to another during the shot. This is also known as rack focus.
Following figure shows a shot that first begins with focus of the image
is sharpened around the big cat in the foreground. However, later the focus of
the image sharpened around the small cat at the background. This is achieved
by adjusting the focus.
Fig2. 15: Focus Pull
This type of camera techniques is generally effective in order to direct
the attention of the viewers on a particular subject in a shot. For example a shot
where there are two persons in the shot but actually one person is the focus,
then objective would be to direct the viewer’s attention to the person who is in
the focus. We can achieve this through rack focus. This will help in the cinema
where the focus keeps shifting to the backward and forward between people
who are delivering the dialogs. Using focus pull we can first focusing on one
person who is delivering the dialog and then shifting focus to another person to
take his silent reaction.
2.2.4.1Focus Throw/defocus
When the focus is dropped completely, it is called ‘throwing focus’. This is
generally done with the certain part of the picture or even sometimes with the
entire picture, especially when focusing on a particular part of the picture is not
important.
Throwing focus on part of a picture cannot normally be done during the
shot because it requires making adjustments such as changing the filter or
adding shutter. Throwing focus on the entire picture only done when we ensure
that the focus is totally lost. This can be done by turning the focus ring; this
Handling Video Camera
31
type of a shot which is achieved by throwing focus is generally used as the first
or the last shot.
Today, because of digital editing, this kind of focus throwing effects
achieved in post production. It is thus extremely safe to first record the pictures
without effects and later adds the effects at the time of editing.
Check your progress-1
What is Depth of Field?
What is Focus Pull?
What is focusing process?
What is throwing focus?
How can you reduce the depth of field?
2.3 VIDEO CAMERA IRIS
You have already been introduced to the term iris in Unit 1. Iris is the
adjustable aperture that allows and decides how much light should allow
traveling through lens to the camera sensors. The iris of the camera is
responsible for controlling the exposure of the camera. The size of aperture
controls the light.
It is very important to handle iris carefully, because image quality is
depended upon the iris opening. An iris plays an important role to maintain the
require light level to the image sensor so that images can be clear, sharp, and
correctly exposed with good contrast and resolution. We can adjust iris lenses
manually or automatically. Manual iris are called auto iris and automatic iris
are called P-Iris.
Both the still camera as well as video camera iris works in a similar
fashion. The only difference between video camera and the other still cameras
is that when you make adjustments in the iris, the viewfinder will
simultaneously show the changes in the brightness of the image in video
camera.
Fig2. 16: Iris Ring
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There are two prime aspects related to the iris of a camera. These are as
follows:
• Most of the professional cameras have iris ring present on the lens
housing. This can be turned clockwise direction to close the iris and it
can be turned anti-clockwise to open the iris.
• In comparison to professional cameras, the consumer cameras will have
a set of buttons or a dial. You need to adjust the exposure by making
the use of the manual iris.
2.3.1 How to know the Correct Exposure
It is always important to know how the correct exposure appears in your
viewfinder before using the manual iris. Thus, if possible first adjust the
different setting of the viewfinder. It is always better to start your camera on
auto –iris mode. After that checks the lighting and then tries to take a shot .first
you need to carefully asses the brightness of the picture and later set the iris to
a manual iris mode.
It happens that in the shot other part of the picture looks too bright or
too dark. However you should always try to set iris in a manner so that it leads
to a correct exposure to the subject. Subject is always an important in the shot.
Most of the professional camera s has additional feature called ‘zebra stripe’.
This feature can help to make correct judgments about the exposure.
To understand the correct exposure needs practice. For practice you can
take different number of shots using various lighting conditions. You can
experiments and try the results on your own. Best way to judge good exposure
in your shot, take a shot manually and then using auto iris feature in the camera
take another shot. Match the result of manual shot with the auto shot. Thus repractice till you are actually able to achieve the most appropriate exposure.
2.3.3 Backlight
As shown in the following figure the main problem occurs when uneven
lighting situation created. This problem creates because of a very strong
backlight.
Fig2.7 (a): Picture in Auto Iris Mode Fig2.17(b): Picture in Manual Iris Mode
As we can see in fig 2.7(a), the camera has been adjusted to auto-iris
mode. In this case the camera makes adjustment of the subject automatically
with respect to the strong backlight. This leads to the subject appearing very
dark and almost not visible. Even though some camera has backlight feature
Handling Video Camera
33
which we can use with auto iris .but this will not work as well as manual iris
control.
In the fig 2.7(b), adjustments are made with manual iris and it is opened
till the subject is correctly exposed. We can see clearer picture as compare to
earlier picture.
It is common to view a strong backlight against a particular subject. For
example, while watching the television the reflection of a window may appear
on the screen, but this may not disturb you from viewing the television. This is
because you are focused at viewing the subject that appears inside the
television.
2.4 VIDEO CAMERA WHITE BALANCE
As mentioned in Unit 1, many digital cameras and video cameras have
white balance feature to accurately balance the color. White balance can be
describe as a function wherein different colors are compared with white color
in order to identify the camera reference of a particular color against the true
white. This is possible because the white color is made by all the other colors
.it means it is a sum of all other colors and thus the camera is able to ensure a
correct display of all other colors. If there is an incorrect color balance in the
image, we can see orange or blue tints in the image.
Most consumer-level camcorder has an ‘auto-white balance’ feature.
These are generally operated by amateurs. This feature can help the camera to
perform a white balance without taking any input from the operator. But it is
important to note that auto white balance feature is not completely reliable and
it is always better to manually perform this function.
There are two different interpretations that have been generally
associated with automatic white balance. In consumer –level camera this term
is called completely automatic and in case of professional cameras this is called
white balance. In case of professional camera option, highly specialized vision
processing equipment is used and efforts are made to achieve ‘manual white
balance’.
Thus the following terminology defined:
•
•
•
Auto-white: this means that the function is completely automatic. There
is no user input that needs to be entered.
Manual-white: this refers to an operational which is generally used by
professional camera operators and has been as described in the
following section.
Color correction: this generally refers to a method which is used for
adjusting the colors.
2.4.1 Performing a Manual White Balance:
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Before going further we should understand why we need manual white
balance. Basically light sources capture colors in different temperature ranges.
For example if we see street lights in the night we can see orange color in our
image. This is typically called warm lighting. For cool lighting we use white or
blue colors. For example headlights of some expensive cars like Mercedes,
BMW etc. It is important to create white balance when the camera operator is
moving between indoor and outdoor with different lighting conditions. The
daylight conditions also change frequently. The lighting in the early morning is
different from the lighting in the evening. Camera can notice these changes
easily. Because of this it is important to conduct white balance when
significant light changes are being seen.
In order to ensure an appropriate white balance, you need the following:
1. First, you need a professional camera with the manual function for
creating white balance. In order to turn this operation on, you will need
to press the relevant button or switch.
2. In case you make use of add-on filters in your camera or if the camera
has a filter wheel, then it is extremely important to ensure that the most
appropriate filter is being used in order to accommodate the existing
light conditions.
3. You need to first focus your camera at one of the pure-white subjects.
This will ensure a purely white in the viewfinder. There have been
different opinions about that which white to be considering as perfect in
the frame. The most common consensus is that presence of white in
about 50-80 percent of the frame is generally most appropriate.
4. It is also important that the subject should not be glossy. And it should
be non-reflective.
5. As a next step, it is important to create adjustments related to focus and
exposure.
6. Now, you need to activate the white balance function. This can be done
by pressing a button or switch corresponding to this function on the
camera. Once you have done this, you must locate the icon or indicator
of this function on your viewfinder.
7. Once the white balance has succeeded, the camera will try to retain its
current color balance. This will only be possible if another color
balance is performed.
2.4.2 How to perform a Black Balance
Before going to perform the black balance we should know what exactly
the black balance is in the video camera. Black balance is another function
similar to white balance. but the main difference between the two is that white
balance gives reference to ‘true white’ and the black balance gives reference to
‘true black’. Most professional cameras have this function but people using
home video for casual purpose do not require this function.
When to use black balance
Handling Video Camera
35
There has been constant debate regarding the use of black balance. Some
people thought that black balance should always performed with white balance.
But in reality only few camera operators use this function. If you are using
black balance it is advisable to use it at the beginning of the shoot. It is always
safe to use black balance with white balance. Black balance should also be
used at the time of changing the filters. To perform this black balance you
should have professional cameras. There will be a distinct ‘black balance’
switch on the camera.
How to perform Black balance
There are several ways to perform black balance. Different camera has
different ways for black balance. So, there should not be any specific
sequences for this function. A common sequence of performing black balance
is as follows:
1. The operators generally perform white balance first.
2. As a next step the black balance is performed. In order to perform the
same, turn on the black balance switch. Once the switch is turned on,
the iris of the cameras will shut down. The camera will now perform
the black balance almost the similar way as it performs the white
balance. In some professional cameras, the iris may not shut down
automatically and you have to close it manually. In such cameras, you
will also open the iris manually once the operation is over.
3. Depending upon the operator’s requirement, he may perform the white
balance gain. Thus the sequence is generally maintained is ‘whiteblack-white’.
Check your progress-2
Define Iris.
What is white balance?
What is the difference between white balance and black balance?
What is color correction?
What is Auto-white?
2.5 VIDEO CAMERA VIEWFINDER
In this section we are going to discuss about the black and white
electronic viewfinders (EVFs).The operation of the color viewfinder is as same
as the black and white viewfinders.
There are different options available for adjusting EVS in different
cameras. We can adjust focus and sharpness in the consumer camcorders but
Handling Video Camera
36
with limited options. Professional camcorders have many options to adjust the
sharpness and the focus.
Fig2. 18: View Finder
The following procedures should be used for professional cameras.
Some points concerning electronic viewfinders are as follows:
•
Most of the professional cameras use black and white EVF.
Most consumer camcorders have the option of the color EVF.
•
The concept of ‘what you see what you get’ is primarily true for
the EVF. This indicates that whichever feature changes on the
viewfinder, it actually changes in the recorded signal as well.
Thus, once you have appropriately set up your viewfinder, it is
possible to access the quality of the picture that you actually see
on your viewfinder. Thus, it may not be required to make use of
the f-stop indicator to ensure appropriates of your exposure.
You can get valuable information from the different message
that appears on the viewfinder. Thus, it is important to learn the
exact meaning of these messages.
In case you feel that there is a fogging effect on your
viewfinder, you should try to keep your eye slightly away from
the eyepiece. You should drink less water to avoid sweating.
The main reason for fogging is sweating.
It is possible to flip open the eyepieces of the different
viewfinders. This is useful as it can allow you to stand slightly
away from the camera. This is especially helpful when the
camera is mounted over the tripod and also in case when there is
more than one person involved. This can be very useful in
reducing eye strain.
•
•
•
2.5.1 How to set brightness and contrast:
Following are the steps to set the brightness and contrast in viewfinder:
Handling Video Camera
37
1. Firstly switch your camera to color bars.
2. Try to adjust the brightness and contrast of the viewfinder till the time
you are able to see a smooth grayscale from peak white to black. It is
also important to ensure that you are able to see a dividing line between
each bar.
3. You should then switch the camera to the picture mode.
4. You should always make use of reliable monitor in order to check the
exposure. This can be ensuring by either connecting a cable from the
camera output or by using a test record.
2.5.2 How to set focus/sharpness (for diopter adjustment)
The eyepiece lens of the electronic viewfinder is called Diopter. It is
important to adjust the diopter to make the image on the viewfinder as sharp as
possible. A ring on the EVF or a sliding button can be used to make this
adjustment. Following are the steps required to set the focus/sharpness:
1. In order to make the focus easier, you should always choose a subject
with a plenty of contrast.
2. You should try to focus the lens of the camera normally and should also
try to zoom out.
3. The diopter needs to be used till the time you get the clearest image.
Zebra Stripes:
Zebra Stripes is one of the important feature is available in good
professional cameras. It’s also called zebras. This feature is important in order
to give an indication of the exposure levels when working with professional
cameras. Zebra stripes are diagonal lines. This lines appear across the part of
the picture, which indicates an over exposure.
It is important to note that these lines will only appear on the
viewfinder and are not a part of the camera output or they are not being
recorded. Following figure illustrate the zebra stripes features.
(a) Normal Setting
(b) Zebra Strips
Fig2. 19: Zebra Strips Feature
Setting up the Zebra strips
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38
1. First switch on the zebra stripe feature. This can be done through a
switch or a menu item that is labeled as ‘zebra stripes’.
2. There are options available in camera that allow you to choose different
settings. It is always important to make a note of the settings that is
being used by you and you should be well aware about the
corresponding effect.
The iris setting can be set by making use of the zebra stripes. It should
be remembered that zebra stripes are not foolproof and should be only used to
seek guidance.
2.6 VIDEO CAMERA SHUTTER
The term shutter has been derived from still photography. In simply words
shutter is a curtain exits in front of camera sensor. This shutter is generally
closed until the photograph is being clicked. When the camera starts, the
shutter opens and exposes the camera sensors to the light coming from the
aperture.
Shutter speed is also called exposure time is actually the speed at which
shutter operates. Which means it determines the length of time of a camera
shutter is open or close. If the shutter opens only for a small duration of time,
then a very small amount of light will actually fall on the lens.
If the shutter speed is low it will create a motion blur effects. In motion
blur moving object will look blurred. Many times in advertisements of cars or
sports coverage uses this effect. The speed of the shutter is measured in
fractions of a second. If the speed of the shutter is 1/60, this indicates that the
shutter opens only for 1/60th part of a second. The usage of a video camera
shutter is different from a still camera shutter. However, the mechanism may
differ but the result is usually the same.
Fig 2.10 :Shutter Speed
The above figure shows that the shutter speed is slow the motion blur
effect is more prominent. But when the shutter speed is fast the picture looks
sharper.
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39
When camera is set to the auto mode, the shutter speed an aperture is
set by the camera only. If you want to manually set the shutter speed following
are the two ways:
1. Set the camera to the shutter priority mode. Here you can set the shutter
speed.
2. Set the camera to the manual mode. Here you can set the shutter speed
as well as aperture.
Check your progress-3
What is viewfinder?
What is a use of zebra stripes?
What is diopter?
What is shutter?
What is shutter speed?
2.7 SUMMARY
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Focusing is the process to adjust your camera until you can see your
image clearly. We can adjust focus manual as well as some camera has
auto focus feature.
In poor focusing conditions it is essential to check whether the shutter is
closed, the correct low light filter should be used, keep the zoom effect.
Depth of field is the area of an acceptable sharpness within the
photo that will appear in focus. There are two ways to describe the
qualities of depth of field - shallow DOF or deep DOF.
The Focus pull is one of the camera techniques that help to change the
focus from one subject to another during the shot. This is also known as
rack focus.
The iris of the camera is responsible for controlling the exposure of
the camera. The size of aperture controls the light.
White balance can be describe as a function wherein different colors are
compared with white color in order to identify the camera reference of a
particular color against the true white.
Zebra Stripes is one of the important feature is available in good
professional cameras. It’s also called zebras. This feature is important
in order to give an indication of the exposure levels when working with
professional cameras.
Shutter speed is also called exposure time is actually the speed at which
shutter operates. Which means it determines the length of time of a
camera shutter is open or close.
2.8 KEY TERMS
•
Depth of field: It may be described as the range of the distance from
the lens of the camera from where it is possible to maintain a sharp
focus of an image.
Handling Video Camera
40
•
•
•
•
•
•
Focus pull: Adjusting the focus to a different point during the shot.
Back Focus: The distance that exists between the real lens element and
the CCD
Portrait effect: Activating this feature reduces DOF by adding a little
shutter, forcing the auto-iris to open wider.
Throwing focus: Complete dropping of the focus.
Diopter: The eyepiece lens of an electronic viewfinder.
Shutter: A mechanical door, which exists between the camera lens and
the film.
2.9 END QUESTIONS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Describe the procedure for using manual focus.
What are the various options for focusing in the poor lighting?
How to adjust back focus in the camera?
Explain the different factors that effecting Depth of Field?
How to understand the correct exposure in manual iris?
Write a note on white balance.
How to perform black balance?
Explain the term ‘zebra stripes’? Write the steps to set the zebra stripes
in camera.
9. How to adjust brightness and contrast in viewfinder?
10. Elaborate on the significance of a video camera shutter in video
production.
Answer to check your progress questions
Check your progress -1:
Depth of field is the area of an acceptable sharpness
within the photo that will appear in focus.
The Focus pull is one of the camera techniques that help to
change the focus from one subject to another during the
shot.
Focusing is the process to adjust your camera until you can
see your image clearly.
When the focus is dropped completely, it is called ‘throwing
focus’.
By adding natural density (ND) filter, By increasing
speed of the shutter.
Check your progress -2:
Iris is the adjustable aperture that allows and decides how
much light should allow traveling through lens to the
camera sensors.
Handling Video Camera
41
White balance can be describe as a function wherein
different colors are compared with white color in order to
identify the camera reference of a particular color against
the true white.
Black balance is another function similar to white balance.
but the main difference between the two is that white
balance gives reference to ‘true white’ and the black balance
gives reference to ‘true black’.
This generally refers to a method which is used for adjusting
the colors.
Auto white means that the function is completely automatic.
There is no user input that needs to be entered.
Check your progress -3:
A device on a camera showing the field of view of the lens,
used in framing and focusing the picture.
Zebra stripes are diagonal lines. This lines appear across the
part of the picture, which indicates an over exposure.
The eyepiece lens of the electronic viewfinder is called
Diopter.
Shutter is a curtain exits in front of camera sensor.
Shutter speed is also called exposure time is actually the
speed at which shutter operates.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. ‘The video making guide to video production’ fifth edition
2. ‘The complete video production’ Eve Light Honthaner
UNIT 3 VIDEO CAMERA TRIPODS
Program Name:BSc(MGA)
Written by: Mrs.Shailaja M. Pimputkar,Srajan
Structure:
3.0 Introduction
3.1 Unit Objectives
3.2 Tripods
3.2.1 Tripod Parts
3.3 Choosing a Tripod
3.3.1 Head
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3.3.2 Leg
3.4 Setting up Camera Tripod
3.5 How to use Tripod
3.6 Monopods
3.7 Summary
3.8 Key Terms
3.9 End Questions
.
3.0 INTRODUCTION
As the third Unit of the course we are going to learn about the video
camera tripods. Tripod is basically a stand which as legs and on which we can
connect our camera. Tripod will allow to positioning your camera in fixed
position. So if you are working with slower or longer shutter speeds, a tripod is
definitely something that you going need. If you are shooting in studio or you
are shooting group shots, it makes us easier.
For good camera work it is essential to choose a good quality tripod.
Quality of a tripod may effect on camera output. Some time camera gets heavy
a specially if you are a wildlife photographer you have hold the camera the
whole time to waiting for the animal shot, in such case keep it on your tripod.
Tripod has major two parts that includes head and leg. There are many
tripods are available which has combine as well as separate leg and head. In
this unit we will learn about the different parts of the tripod. Also it is
important to set the tripod before using it. We will learn step by steps to how to
set the tripod.
We are going to learn about the other two other stand i.e monopod and
bipod. These are similarly as tripod but monopod has two legs and bipod has
one leg which is little bit difficult to use.
3.1 UNIT OBJECTIVES:
After studying this unit you will be able to
Explain the importance of tripods for video cameras
Learn how to use camera tripods
Elaborate on the role monopods and its uses
Explain how to set the camera tripod
3.2 TRIPODS
A tripod is basically a stand which has three legged structure. The word
tripod is comes from the Greek word tripous, which means ‘three feet’. In
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photography tripod is used to give stability and elevation to the camera so that
it is very important to know the correct procedure to use them.
A tripod gives stability along the side-to- side and up-down coordinate axis
of motion in addition to a large amount of leverage. Tripods are used for still as
well as motion photography. A tripod is also useful when we want a precise
framing of the image or in case where n more than one image is established of
the same scene. It gives a more thoughtful approach to photography. Because
of ala these strong ability it becomes popular among the professional
photographers. Tripods are helpful to reduce camera shake that resulting in
increased sharpness. A camera tripod allows free flowing movement enabling
the cameraman to easily track a subject or pan left/right and tilt up and down.
To take a close-up shot for a small object need lots of skill. Tripod is useful in
such cases to avoid the unwanted movements of the camera.
The primary drawback of using tripods is their weight as their basic role is
to provide stability.
Fig 3.1: A Basic Tripod
3.2.1 Tripods Parts
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There are different parts of the tripod. The primarily parts of the tripod are
as follows:
Head
Legs
Most tripods have separate components. However, the shipping of
consumer level tripods is ensured with the head and the leg attached together.
Fig 3.2: Different Parts of the Tripod
•
Head: it is an important part f the camera that supports the camera
and movement of the camera. The quality of the head of the tripod
also plays an important role for the quality of the resulting video.
To get the good video head also need to be assembled properly.
There are two types of head assembles:
(i) Ball and (ii) Three way. The ball assemble comes with the single
button which helps user to attach and release head. This is usually
used for those that often need to changes the camera and also the
position. The three ways assemble helps to lock camera in three
different positions.
•
Leg: Tripods have three legs. But still there are different varieties
of legs. The differences between tripod varieties are based on
height, weight, and the general level of the sturdiness of the tripods.
Handling Video Camera
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Most of the tripod’s leg made by plastic or rubber. Some feet also
has pin or spike which help the tripod leg to dug into ground.
Some other important parts are as follows:
•
Camera Plate: the base plate is attached to the bottom of the
camera and head plate is attached to the top of the camera. In many
tripods, the camera plate is permanently fixed to the tripod.
•
Knob: With the help of adjusting knob, without moving the tripod
we can move camera in any direction.
3.3 CHOOSING THE TRIPOD
It is always advisable to never compromise with the quality of the
tripod. A good tripod will always prove to be a good investment in most the
cases and will also be long term investment.
The main thing you should be considered while choosing a tripod are
explained as follows:
Separate Head and Leg:
Many good tripods will generally be available with separate detachable head
and legs. However, in most consumer tripod you will find the head and leg
paired together and they will be sold by the manufacturers as a single unit
itself. But Separate head and leg tripod is also useful in most situations like it is
the legs of the tripods that generally need a replacement earlier than the head of
the tripod.
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Fig 3.3: Separate head and leg tripod
3.3.1 Head
In most cases the head of the tripods are fluid heads. They are referred to as
such as they make use of internal fluid in order to create a dampening effect.
This dampening effect is known as resistance, tension or drag.
Following are tips while choosing the head of the tripod:
•
The amount of drag cannot be controlled effectively in case of cheaper
heads whereas an effective control can be achieved with certain good
heads that can help in establishing a finer control. It is always better to
have a greater control.
•
It is always important to check the head’s flexibility. You should
always check the head and make sure it moves smoothly and there
should not be any jerkiness with respect to the drag.
•
There are many counterbalance systems available in most good tripods.
These systems are helpful in keeping the camera balanced. This is
particularly useful if you have an unevenly balanced camera or if the
camera is extremely large. In this system you will get the option of
moving your camera forward and backward. There are other
counterbalancing features which include a system of springs. This is
useful in proving vertical resistance, particularly when you tilt the
camera either in an upwards or a downwards direction. The system of
springs pushes the camera backwards and brings it in a horizontal
position.
•
There is also another important system called the quick-release
mechanism. This is essential unless your camera and tripod has a
permanent installation. The importance of this feature is that you can
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47
immediately remove the camera from the tripod and start a hand-held
shooting. Actually there is a small attachment responsible for holding
the camera with the tripod. This attachment goes from the camera and
fits into the head of the tripod. There is a small black plate which is
present in the middle of the head. While selecting the tripod, you must
ensure that this always remains attached to your camera.
3.3.2 Legs
•
Stability and sturdiness both are very important factors in case of
tripod. While selecting the legs of the tripod, it is important to consider
their sturdiness as the legs should be able to bear the weight of the
camera. Another important aspect that needs to be considered is that if
you want to add any peripherals at the later stage, the legs should be
able to accommodate those peripherals. Examples of these peripherals
are bigger lens, audio equipments etc.
•
You should always check the highest and lowest points to which a
tripod can be adjusted, by checking the height of the tripod. A good
tripod is one which can go slightly higher than normal eye level.
•
The weight of the tripod is also important if there is a lot of movement
involved at the time of your shoot. High quality tripods always have
heavy weight. However most modern tripods have been manufactured
with the objective to significantly reduce the weight of the legs and thus
they are made of the materials such as carbon fiber etc.
Fig 3.4: Tripod Legs
Travel Case
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In order to protect your tripod, especially during transit, you should always
focus on carrying them in a carry case. This case should be sufficiently hard to
render protection to the tripod. It is important to realize that battering of the
tripod is possible during their transit.
Check your progress-1
What are the assemblies of the head?
What are the parts of the tripod?
What is camera plate?
What is the use of knob?
What is drag or resistance?
3.4 SETTING UP THE CAMERA TRIPOD
To get the proper image it is very important to set our tripod properly. To
understand how to set the camera tripod we are taking an example of miller
tripod. Miller tripod is having a fluid head and 2-stage legs. It is a popular midrange professional tripod.
Fig 3.5: Miller Tripod
Following are some steps show how to set the miller tripod:
i.
Spread the legs of the Tripod:
First, need to spread the legs of the tripod so that tripod can stand on
three legs on a flat surface, and then adjust the spreaders. This should
be done in case the spreaders are the part of the tripod.
Handling Video Camera
49
ii.
Extend and Secure the legs of the Tripod:
The legs of the tripod should be extended to the desire height. It is
important that all of the legs are at the same length, so that the
pictures are not tilted. It is important to release the tensions. As Shown
on Fig 3.6.
Fig 3.6: Extend and secure the legs
iii.
Use Sand bags:
If in case you are working in windy conditions, it is advisable to use
sandbags in order to anchor the tripod. These sandbags can be placed
either against the legs of the tripods or against the spreaders.
Fig 3.7: Sand Bag
iv.
Adjust the angle:
To get the desire angle, you should adjust the pan/tilt of the handle.
Generally , you can use of the right hand to operate the handle and you
Handling Video Camera
50
should use the left hand to take care of the camera functions such as
focus, iris etc. it is important to experiment using different camera
angles. This need to be decided on the basis of the camera angles that is
most suited as per requirements. This is shown in fig 3.8.
Fig 3.8: Adjusting the pan
There are four graduated tension strings that are available on the head. For fast
moving subjects and for close projects, it is always better to use lighter
tensions. Heavier tensions can also be used in case there is difficult to keep the
shots steady. In order to prevent the movement of the camera completely, it is
important to provide a pan and tilt locks. Accessories such as remote zoom
and focus control can also be attached with the handle of the camera. It is very
important to place these accessories. The drawback of these accessories is it
will tie you to the tripod and they will not allow you to have quick release of
the camera.
v.
Adjust the level with the help of screw:
There is screw present below the centre of the head as shown in fig 3.9.
This screw is helpful in loosening the head and thus it is possible to
adjust the level. This screw is also help to attach the camera to the head
of the tripod.
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Fig 3.9: Screw present in tripod
vi.
Attached the plates:
There is a plate present in both professional camera a as well as tripod
heads. The base plate of the camera is attached at the bottom of the
camera and the head plate is attached to the top of the head. There is a
screw between both the plates through which both the plates are
attached together because of which the camera is attached to the tripod.
Fig 3.10: Plates
It is important that you are able to provide the best balance for the
camera. This can be done by positioning and screwing the plates
together at the optimal point. It is possible to screw any two plates
together, i.e., any of the two plates from either the tripod or the camera.
It has been found that most of the tripods and cameras are compatible
with each other.
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vii.
Attached the camera:
You need to attach the camera to the base plate. With the help of screw
which is there at the centre of the head, into the hole at the base of the
camera. Most cameras already have a small indention on the bottom.
So that it become easy to put screws into the head of the tripod. You
need to check a click and also give the camera a shake so as to be
doubly assured that the camera is safe.
Fig 3.11: Attaching the camera
3.5 HOW TO USE A TRIPOD
As we seen in the previous section that how to set up the tripod.
You should always setup tripod before you actually start the shooting.
In reality using a tripod is a not that easy that we think. It is a little more
complicated. When you are operating a professional camera as shown
in the fig 3.12, you should always stand between the two legs of the
tripod. This technique will help to control the focus, exposure and zoom
with their left hand.
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Fig 3.12: Operating a professional Camera
Following are some tips to show how to use your tripod and get the
best out of it.
•
Plan your shot: it is always better to frame your shot by
taking camera on hand before you set your camera on
tripod. This is time consuming process but this will help you
to get the best composition. You first frame up the end of
the shoot and then decide the starting position of the move
for yourself.
•
Tripod stability: it is advisable to set your tripod on a hard
surface and make sure that legs are secure. To stabilize the
camera tripod put some weight in the centre for e.g., camera
bag.
•
Level balance: most of the cheaper tripods doesn’t have
blow in the tripod head. It is important that even if you pan,
he framing still should look level. This is important as at
times, it may look appropriate in one direction but it can
look slanted when you pan in left or right directions.
•
Use time release, cable or remote release: It happened that
you may cause vibration or unwanted movements whenever
you touch your camera. You can avoid these movements
and vibrations by using a time-release, a cable or remote
release.
•
The right Drag for the Job: In order to decide the extent
force that is required to pan and tilt, the drag setting plays
the most important role. Drag setting can also be called as
AKA resistance or tension. There are several factors that go
to determine the type of settings that should be chosen.
These factors include camera weight, personal preferences
and the type of shot that you are attempting, etc. the
personal preferences also plays a very important role.
For fast moving subjects, it is always more appropriate
to use the lighter setting. In case of slow moves, longer
zooms, you may require to use more drag. More drag may
also require in case you find great difficulty in keeping the
shot steady.
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Fig 3.12: A Read out Display
There is a read out display available in some of the
professional heads such as Cartoni Master as Illustrated in
Fig 3.13, which shows precise settings as read out display.
3.6 MONOPODS
Monopods have only one leg. In other words, a tripod that has only
one leg termed as monopod. It also described as a single-legged camera
support. It is however important to note that a monopod will not be
highly stable and thus it may not be advisable to use in all given
situations.
Fig 3.13: Monopod
There are some advantages of monopod as listed below:
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i.
Monopods are very light in weight and thus easier to carry
than tripods.
ii.
The time required in setting them up is much less than the
tripods.
iii.
Monopods can be set up in those places where the space is
less and where it is difficult to set up the tripods. For
example in crowded places or in terrain, etc.
iv.
Monopods are more flexible. Because of its flexibility it can
also be used for different types of camera movements.
We can prepare a monopod from an old tripod itself. This could be
really a good option in order to get more out of a tripod itself and thus
we can also expect to increase the life of your existing tripod.
How to use Monopod
To use the monopod in an appropriate manner, you can put your two legs
together with the monopod, which will work as a tripod. Instead of placing
monopod in a completely vertical manner, it is always advisable to lean the
monopods slightly towards you and try to place legs slightly apart in order to
create perfect balance. It is also important that a correct angle is formed for the
monopod head; therefore adjustment need to be made accordingly.
Bipods
A bipod is something between monopod and tripod. It can be described as
a two leg support. The use of bipod is generally not made in case of video
production or shoots where the commercial models are involved. The effect of
bipod can be created by using only two legs.
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Fig 3.14: Bipod
Check your progress-2
What is monopod?
What is the use of screw?
What is miller tripod?
3.7 SUMMARY
The major parts of a tripod are the head and leg. There are different
varieties of legs. The differences between tripod varieties are the based
on height, weight and the general level of sturdiness of the tripods.
A camera tripod allows free flowing movement enabling the
cameraman to easily track a subject or pan left/right and tilt up and
down. To take a close-up shot for a small object need lots of skill.
Tripod is useful in such cases to avoid the unwanted movements of the
camera.
In case you are working in windy conditions, it is advisable to use
sandbags in order to anchor the tripod. These sandbags can be placed
either against the legs of the tripods or against the spreaders.
Accessories such as remote zoom and focus control can also be
attached with the handle of the camera.
Plate present in both professional camera a as well as tripod heads. The
base plate of the camera is attached at the bottom of the camera and the
head plate is attached to the top of the head. There is a screw between
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both the plates through which both the plates are attached together
because of which the camera is attached to the tripod.
It is always better to frame your shot by taking camera on hand before
you set your camera on tripod. This is time consuming process but this
will help you to get the best composition. You first frame up the end of
the shoot and then decide the starting position of the move for yourself.
Monopods have only one leg. In other words, a tripod that has only one
leg termed as monopod. It also described as a single-legged camera
support.
3.8 KEY TERMS
•
•
•
•
•
Tripod: An adjustable, three –legged object used as a platform or
support for a camera.
Tripod head: the part of the tripod that constitutes the titling device
and pan of the camera.
Pan: The horizontal movement of a camera along an axis.
Monopod: A single-legged support for a camera.
Bipod: A two-legged support for a camera.
3.10 END QUESTIONS
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)
What are the advantages of the tripod?
Explain the basic parts of the tripod?
What is the role of a counterbalance system?
How to set a tripod? Write the steps.
How the sandbags are important in tripod?
What is the use of plates in tripod?
How to use tripod?
What are the advantages of monopod?
How to use monopod?
Answer to check your progress questions
Check your progress -1:
Ball and three ways.
Head, leg, camera plate, knob
The base plate is attached to the bottom of the camera and
head plate is attached to the top of the camera.
With the help of adjusting knob, without moving the tripod
we can move camera in any direction.
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Fluid heads make use of internal fluid in order to create a
dampening effect. This dampening effect is known as
resistance, tension or drag.
Check your progress -2:
tripod which has only one leg termed as monopod.
This screw is helpful in loosening the head and thus it is
possible to adjust the level. This screw is also help to attach
the camera to the head of the tripod.
A tripod is having a fluid head and 2-stage legs is called
miller tripod.
UNIT 5 VIDEO CHROMA-GREEN SCREEN
Program Name:BSc(MGA)
Written by: Srajan
Structure:
4.0 Introduction
4.1 Unit Objectives
4.2 How to make a Green Screen
4.3 Planning the Studio Setting
4.4 Green Screen Material
4.5 Lighting the Green Screen
4.6 Using Green Screen Footage
4.7 Duplicating a Person in the Same Frame*
5.7.1 Split-Screen Method*
5.7.2 Keying Method*
4.8 Star Trek Transporter Effect*
4.9 How to Blur Part of an Image*
4.10
How to Create the Star Wars Lightsaber Effect*
4.11
Summary
4.12
Key Terms
4.13
End Questions
5.0 INTRODUCTION
In this we are going to learn about one of the interesting things that is
chroma keying. Chroma key is often referred as green screen or a blue screen
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technique. With the help of chroma key we can replace the background of a
video or image with any other still or moving image.
Today, this technique widely used in the entertainment industry.
Chroma key is a function built in to some video editing software. In this unit
we will see the procedure of making green screen. Also we will learn about the
material used in green screen as well as will learn about the lighting. Lighting
is a very important while using green screen shot.
In this unit we are going to learn about some special effects for video.
Those effects are ghost effect, transporter effect, star trek effect, duplicating a
person in the same screen.
5.1 UNIT OBJECTIVES:
After studying this unit you will be able to
Explain The role of video chroma or green screen in video production
Know how to plan the studio setting
List the material used in green screen
Explain importance of lighting with green screen
Describe how to incorporate footage of the green screen into a video
Explain the procedure for duplicating a person on screen
Learn how to create the transporter and lightsaber effects
5.2 HOW TO MAKE A GREEN SCREEN
Before going further we should know about chroma keying. Chroma
Keying is a technique mostly used in films. It is a process by which a specific
color element which called chroma is removed from the background and
replaced by a preferable background.
There are often two colors used in chroma key. These colors are blue and
green. Reason to use these two colors is these colors are least likely to affect
the foreground shot. Blue screen and green screen sets are very common in
film and television studios. Chroma keying can be done in post production.
Sometime it used in real time also.
There are so many different green screen techniques so you have to
develop your own techniques using available resources with you. There are two
important considerations that must be kept in mind while developing the same.
They are as follows:
1. Ensure that the color and the lighting of the green screen are as
even as possible.
2. Anything in the foreground should not have same color as the green
screen.
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.
Fig 5.1: Green screen Effect
Following are some steps required to setup a green screen. These steps are
as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
Planning the studio setting
Green screen material
Lighting the green screen
Using green screen in footage
Create different special effects.
Above all the points we will discuss in this section.
5.3 PLANNING THE STUDIO SETTING
It is very important to plan your studio layout, size of your green screen and
positioning of the green screen as well as the camera. Place the green screen at
the far end of your space at least 25 feet from the camera. Your subject should
be positioned 7 to 9 feet from the screen. Always ensure that you have planned
for some extra space on the sides of the screen, which will be required in order
to place the extra light.
5.4 GREEN SCREEN MATERIAL
There are always different opinions about the material that is most
suitable for green screen. Many professionals advice you that the color has to
be right shade of green or there should be some made of some specific
material. However in practice, it is possible to make an effective green screen
by using any smooth green surface.
There are different websites available that provide the information
related to special material that can be useful making a green screen. However if
you are just getting started, you can find a suitable material that is
comparatively cheap so that you do not have to spend a large amount. The
different options that you can consider the same are as follows:
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1. You can make a use of solid material like wood or cardboard and paint
them green.
2. You can also use spongy and more flexible material like foam.
3. Fabric is also one option. You can either buy green fabric or you can
use white material and then paint or dye it green.
Following are the materials used for making green screen.
Fabric
Following are some guidelines that may be kept in mind while
selecting the material for a green screen.
1. You should not choose the material which is very reflective.
This can lead to the creation of lighter ‘hotspots’.
2. Always make a note that a lighter and brighter green color is
always better than a dark green color.
3. You should select a material that is crease resistance. The
material should be such that it can be easily setup and moved
without losing its smoothness.
4. In order to get more consistent color, it is always appropriate to
choose a heavy material. This is especially beneficial when
there is a possibility that things behind the screen might show.
It is always advisable to roll the material when you are packing it. You
can make a use of a cylindrical object, which has a diameter of at least 5-10
cms to store the material. Heavy cardboard cylinders that are used for
newsprint rolls are ideal for this purpose.It is important to note that the
materials are required to be ironed from time to time in order to remove
wrinkles.
Solid Material
When selecting solid material, it is ideal to use cardboard or
wood. Solid material has consistent and wrinkle free surface. However,
a major disadvantage of the solid material is that they are difficult to
pack and transport.
Check your progress-1
What is a Chroma Keying?
What are the colors used in chroma key?
Why blue and green color used in chroma key?
What are the materials used for making green screen?
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5.5 LIGHITING THE GREEN SCREEN
Lighting is the most important part of chroma keying. While lighting
we have to take care of some things like appearance of shadows. Removal of
shadow is a difficult task. So it is important to put proper light in proper
direction.
While lighting a green screen you need at least two lights. For larger
screen more than two lights are required. Following figure shows the process in
which you can lighten a green screen located only a few meters away. Proper
lighting can be ensured by using a set of 300 w-500w lights. It is advisable to
use each light at each end. You can also make use of a couple of 100w-250w
lights pointing towards an upward direction.
Fig 5.2: Location of lights for a Green Screen
Every chroma screen has its own tolerance; it is advisable that a green or blue
background should be lit as evenly as possible. Once you have ensured that the
screen is lighting according to your satisfaction, it is important to focus on the
lighting of the subject. As we discuss early about shadows, it is important to
adjust the positions of the light and also the filters to achieve the best effects.
5.6 USING GREEN SCREEN FOOTAGE
After recording your green screen shot with the proper lighting, you
need to work to remove green parts from the footage. And need to replace this
green color with your own background. This is done by using chroma keying
technique. The process involves selecting a particular color and then removal
of everything of that color in a particular image. Thus, any image placed
behind this image becomes visible. You will more understand this procedure
from the below figure 5.3.
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Fig 5.3: Procedure for the Application of Green Screen
You can create chroma keying using two ways are as follows:
1. Using a video switcher in real time. You can also make use of
the special effects generator in this respect.
2. Using editing or compositing software in post-production.
Most of the people generally use the second method. There is different
software used for chroma keying. So that, Chroma keying technique is depend
upon the editing software that you are using. Each software has different
process or steps for chroma keying. However, the general process used by the
most applications is as follows:
1. Firstly, you have to place the green screen footage on a layer in the
timeline.
2. After that place the footage or image that you wish to use as the
background on a layer should be below the green screen footage.
3. Add a green screen or chroma key effect to the top layer (the example
shown is the effect supplied with Adobe Premiere).
4. Select green as a prime color that you should use in the key. This can
be done by making use of a color picker most softwares have a
provision for the color that can assist you to do this.
5. Once you have selected the color, you will see that certain parts of the
image will become transparent and you will notice that you can see the
background appearing in these parts. In order to get the best effect, it is
important to adjust different parameters appropriately.
6. A dedicated green and blue screen effect may be provided by some
software packages. In this case, the prime requirement is that t screen
needs to be of a specific color. In case you find that these effects are
not able to work, it becomes important to make use of the more
general chroma key effect.
7. Similarity and blending are the two prime parameters that should be
adjusted. Therefore, you should experiment with these parameters in
order to evaluate their work. It is always important to make adjustment
with these to create an acceptable effect.
8. Most important thing that we should keep in mind that the people
appearing in the video do not wear a green color. If you are using blue
for chroma then no blue color wear by the people appearing in the shot.
Special attention should be paid to the logos that are present on the
clothing of the people. Though logos are too small, they can appear as
holes on the body of the person on big screen.
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5.7 DUPLICATE A PERSON IN THE SAME
FRAME
To understand how to duplicate a person in the same frame we are
taking a shot from a film where actor Lindsay Lohan appears in double role.
Following figure shows the output which shows duplicating a person in the
same frame.
Fig 5.3: Duplicating person in the same frame
To achieve this out put you will need the following:
•
Camera & tripod (or other stable mount).
•
Editing software with support for layers and transparency.
There are two different methods to achieve this effect, both of which use
image transparency. The transparent area in the image represent through
checkered patterns.
A static background is used in both methods to keep it simple. Static means
the camera and background is still there will be no movement of camera as
well as background.
Followings are the two methods:
a) Split Screen
b) Keying Method
5.7.1 Method 1: Split Screen
Split screen is a very easy method. This is suitable wherein the scene
different versions of the actor are well separated. In this method you should
shoot two versions of the scene such that the actor is in a different position in
both the shots. Make half of one of the shots transparent then and superimpose
it over the other shot.
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Firstly, you will require the editing software. This software should have
some sort of split-screen feature. For this, you can usually use a wipe transition
or cropping tool.
The basic idea is the same scene has to shoot twice with the actor in
different parts of the frame. After that join this two frames together.
To understand this see the following figure 5.5. The checkered area
represents transparency.
Fig 5.5: Procedure for duplicating in the same frame using the split screen
method
Step 1: Shooting
•
The camera needs to be placed on a tripod or stable mount. There
should be no camera movement at all. Another thing we should be
keep in mind that the background of the scene should be
unchanging.
•
The camera settings should e consistent. Always use the
camera's manual functions.
•
Record the first shot of the actor in one position, then record the
second shot with the actor in the other position. This requires lot oif
practice and time so that you are able to achieve synchronization in
the later stage.
Step 2: Compositing
The placement of the two clips in the timeline is very important. In editing
application, both the clip should be in similar timeline and with one clip in a
layer above the other.
Fig 5.6 : Compositing both the scene
In this example, the top layer contains the clip of the actor on the right (he
enters the frame later), and the bottom clip is the actor on the left.
Handling Video Camera
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As a next step is to remove the left half of the upper clip, so that we should
be able to see the left half of the lower clip. We can achieve this by using
different editing software. In our example we will use the Adobe Premier
software. There is an effect called Linear Wipe in Adobe Premiere (Effects >
Transitions > Wipe). In order to make some part transparent we could also
use a cropping tool.
Apply the wipe effect to the top clip. In the Effects Control palette, move
the Transition Completion slider to about halfway across the frame, or until
the desired part of the lower frame becomes visible. Set the Feather value
fairly high to smooth the transition between the two halves. You can also
change the Wipe Angle if you don't want to have a vertical split.
At this stage , you will be able to see both versions of the actor together,
thus you will be adjust the position of the two clips in manner that they are
relative to each other to get the timing right. You can add more duplicated
actors by splitting the screen into three or more parts. However, you should
realize that the greater the number of splits, greater the complexity.
5.7.2 Method 2: Keying
This is more advance method in comparison to the split screen method. But
this method is a bit more complex than the split screen method. This method
requires software with keying capabilities like chroma key or difference matte.
But this method provides much more flexibility.
Fig 5.7: procedure for duplicating in the same frame by keying
In the split-screen, the effect is created by shooting the same scene twice
and then joining them together. Where as in keying not only splitting the screen
is involved but rather the actor in one shot is isolated and superimposed over
the other.
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Step 1: Shooting
Initially, first version of the scene with the actor has to create in the first
position. The rules of shooting are pretty much the same as the split-screen
(e.g. keep the camera completely steady with consistent settings), but there is
some flexibility. There are different options that can be used particularly when
you are recording the second shoot. As shown in following figure a green
screen shot has been illustrated.
Step 2: Compositing
Firstly, put the two clips in the timeline of your editing application. You
should place the clip to be keyed in a layer above the other clip.
In order to remove the background from the top clip, you should apply the
appropriate key effect. This will ensure that the actor will appear overlaid in
the lower clip.
There is another option available, if your editing software should have that
feature. This feature is called difference matte key. In this option, you should
first take a still image of the scene background without any actor in the frame
and use it as a matte. In order to acquire information related to the same, view
the application’s help file and understand the different keying features.
5.8 STAR TREK TRANSPORTER EFFECT
In this section we are going to learn about how to create the Star Trek
transporter effect. To create this effect first you should have a video editing
application that is capable to work with multi layers and mattes. As we discuss
earlier there are many editing application available which can create star trek
transporter effect. In this section we are going to use Adobe Premiere
Pro and Adobe Photoshop. We are taking two video files and one audio file.
Following are the steps to achieve the star trek transporter effect
Step 1: The Files and Project
The first step involves gathering the required files required for the project.
a) The Transport Scene
The first clip is the most important video clip and begins with an empty
scene. Slowly and steadily the subject is shown to be entering the shot and
takes the "materialized" position. Later stage the subject is shown to be acting.
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b) The Sparkles
The sparkling effect is generally provided by the second video clip. The
duration of the clip is generally five-second. The clip generally comprises full
screen flickering sparkles on a black background.
c) The Audio File
We will also add a transporter sound effect which is the same duration as
the sparkle video clip.
Download files (optional)
All video files are MPEG-2 format with 4:3 aspect ratios. You'll need to
make a couple of decisions before choosing the best files to download. They
are as follows:
•
NTSC or PAL:
NTSC for USA, Japan and a few other countries.
PAL for the rest of the world.
•
1/4 frame or full-frame:
there are smaller file sizes in one-fourth of the frame project. This
includes the main transport shot. Following table shows lists of
appropriate software used for the transporter effect.
PAL
NTSC
Transport Scene
PAL 360*288
25fps(2.4 MB)
NTSC 360*240 29.9
fps(2.4MB)
Sparkles
PAL 360*288
25fps(1.3 MB)
NTSC 360*240 29.9
fps(1.3MB)
Transporter Sound
Effect
WAV file (65KB,
PAL or NTSC)
¼ frame video project
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Full-frame video Project:
Sparkles
PAL 720*576 25fps
(9MB)
NTSC 720*480
29.97fps (9MB)
Transporter Sound
Effect
WAV file
(65KB,PAL or
NTSC)
NTSC 720*480
29.97fps(9MB)
The Project
The new project needs to be created with four video tracks and two audio
tracks in premier. The video clip that you will be using for the main shot needs
to be imported. The other clips that should be imported are the sparkles video
clip and the transporter sound effect file.
Step 2: Prepare the Shot
You should place the main shot as shown in the following figure.
Following are the steps:
• Firstly, cut the shot just before the subject enters frame.
• The first clip should be renamed as Start and rename the second clip as
Finish.
• Trim the Finish clip in manner such that it starts from the point where
the subject has assumed their materialized position and is expected to
start moving or acting.
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• Now move the Start clip to the Video 4 track and click on the
visibility icon to make this track invisible for now.
• As a next step, you should lock the Video 4 track and then drag
the Start audio (Audio 1) to fill the gap that gets created. After that
unlock the Video 4 track.
• Press right-click the finished clip and then select Copy.
• Now need to lock the Audio 1 track, then paste the clip at the start of
the Video 1 track. Rename the new clip Freeze. Unlock the Audio
1 track.
• Right-click the Freeze clip, select Speed/Duration and
enter 00.00.05.00 (5 seconds).
• Again right-click the clip again, selects Frame Hold and enter Hold
On In Point.
• Move the Freeze and Finished clips together on the timeline.
You should ensure that the timeline should look like as following figure:
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Once you play the timeline you will see the subject frozen for almost five
seconds and then begin their movement. The next step is to create a matte to
superimpose the sparkles over the freeze
Step 3: Create the matte
You should export the frozen image in order to create matte effect into
Photoshop.
•
In the Premiere timeline, place the current-time indicator at the start
of the Freeze clip.
•
From the File menu select File > Export > Frame.
•
Save the file as a bitmap.
Now switch to Adobe Photoshop and open the bitmap.
•
Using the lasso tool, carefully select the outline of the subject.
•
From the File menu select Select > Inverse .
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•
Delete everything except the subject.
•
From file menu go to Select> Inverse
•
The selection needs to be filled with black.
File needs to be saved as a PSD file and Photoshop needs to be closed. You
should now open the Premier Pro.
Step 4: Add the Sparkles
• Place the sparkles video clip in the Video 2 track above the Freeze clip.
Rename it Sparkles.
• Import the the PSD file you created in the previous step, and place it in
the Video 3 track above the Sparkles clip. Rename it Matte. Make
the Video 3 Track invisible.
If it is required, you may have to adjust the duration of both new
additions to match the duration of the Freeze clip.
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You should now transfer the information to the Sparkles clip in order to use the
Matte clip as matte.
•
In the Effects window select Video Effects > Keying > Track Matte
Key. Drag this effect onto the Sparkles clip in the timeline.
•
In the Effects Control window you will now see the Track Matte
Options under Video Effects. Set the Matte to Video 3.
At this stage you will find that the matte starts working. The subject
appears to be replaced by an outline containing the moving sparkles as
you scrub through the Freeze clip as illustrated below. As a next step,
you should ensure this effect is faced out such that you are able to
reveal the subject clearly.
•
The current-time indicator needs to be placed in the timeline at
the start of the sparkles clip. However, you should make sure
that the clip has been selected.
•
The opacity key frames should be created at the start and end of
the clip in the Effect Control window.
•
The opacity of the end key frame needs to be adjusted to 0 per
cent.
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74
With this, you are able to ensure a slow fade out from the start to the end of the
clip (from 100% opacity level, bring it down to 0% opacity). You will see the
sparkles slowly disappear and the subject comes into view when you scroll
down through the freeze clip.
The middle and end of the materialization are now complete. The next step is
to fade the whole effect in at the start.
•
You should ensure the visibility of the video$ track and then the
Start key should be selected.
•
Three opacity frames should be created in the effects control
window. One at the start, one at the end and a third one in the
middle. This is where the other clips actually begin.
•
The opacity needs to be set at the last key frame to 0 per cent.
The presentation of the timeline should be as illustrated below in case
you are able to show the opacity handles for these clips.
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The timeline now will be beginning from the start clip. This fades in a
manner such that it reveals the sparkles effect, which in turn will fade
out in a manner such that it is able to reveal the subject which is
standing there. Once the effect is faded out, the finished clip starts with
the movement of the actor.
Step 5: Audio
The final step is to add the transporter sound effect.
•
If you haven't done so already, download the transporter.wav file.
Import this file into the project and place it in the Audio 2 track,
beginning at the same point as
the Freeze, Sparkles and Matte clips.
•
If necessary, adjust the duration and volume of the transporter audio
clip.
•
If necessary, make any other adjustments to the clips in the Audio
1 track. You might like to add fades in and out.
This is the whole procedure. The whole process has to be repeated in
reverse in case you wish to beam out the subject.
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Check your progress-2
What are the two ways to create chroma keying?
Which countries uses NTSC format?
Name the two methods of duplicating a person.
What is split screen method?
What is keying method in case of duplicating person?
5.9 HOW TO BLUR PART OF AN IMAGE
In this section we are going to learn about how to blur some specific
part in the video image. In most of cases, the blurring of image is generally
done to hide an identity of the particular subject. In our example, the face of
the subject is blurred. See figure 5.8.
Fig 5.8: Blurring an Image
You can use any editing application for blur effect. In any editing
application you need two video tracks and that application should be able to
support multiple layers or multiple tracks. For this example we are using
Adobe Premier pro application.
1. In order to start this process, you should first place the video
clip on the timeline.
2. After this, try to make an exact copy of the clip and place it on
the video track above the original clip as displayed below.
3. Now add blur effect from the effect palette. This need to be
added to the top track.
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4. Set the amount of blur accordingly. For example, in above
image the Gaussian blur (Video Effects> Blur & Sharpen>
Gaussian Blur) set to 27.
5. After blur set the entire image gets blurred or pixilated. But we
just need to blur face in the image.
6. In this case you need to add a crop filter (Video Effects>
Transform > Crop) to the top track.
7. You should then adjust the crop parameters till the time only the
blurred face remains. These crop parameters should be adjusted
in all directions such as left, right, top and bottom.
Ghost Effect
It is a very simple to creating a ghost effect for video. Only one condition
is your application software should be able to use multiple layers. To create a
ghost effect steps are as follows:
1. Firstly, you have to set the camera up on a tripod and frame the
shot.
2. Take an empty shot that means shot without any object or person.
3. Again shoot the same scene without moving a camera but this time
with the person means a ghost actor. He background should be still.
4. After shooting import both the shots in to editing program. In this
case we are taking Adobe Premier Pro software.
5. Now take a two video track. In first track put the empty shot which
has just a background and the in second track put the shot which
has person in it.
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6. Now set the opacity of the second track to around 30% or
accordingly the requirement of the shot. And you will get the ghost
effect as shown in below figure.
Figure 5.9: Ghost Effect
5.10 HOW TO CREATE THE STAR WARS
LIGHTSABER EFFECT
Lightsaber effects can be created in many ways depending upon the
software which you are using to create the effect. Adobe After effect is very
friendly software to create the effect. You can use the beam effect along with
key frames in order to get the best result using Adobe After effect software
without taking too much effort. But the same effect get using the Windows
Movie Maker, is little bit tedious job. Following figure shows the lightsber
effect in the shot.
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Fig 5.10 : The Lightsber Effect
Whichever method you intend to use, you still have to perform some of the
common task. The common tasks are as follows:
1. Create the beam effect
2. Animate the beam over time
Creating the Beam
Ligtsaber beam can be created by three ways are as follows:
•
The beam can be draw manually.
Using the editing software like Photoshop or Illustrator you can
achieve the effect. You can use the rotoscoping tool in a video
editor.
•
Defining the beam using a mask.
Create a new layer in your video editor. This can be done using a solid
color. Now a matte needs to be added to the shape of the beam. Effects like
glow and blur are now added in order to ensure that the beam should look
good.
•
Use a built-in beam effect.
It is also possible to customize some of the effects that are included in a
lightsaber beam. This is possible by making use of some particular
applications. Some of the examples of this are the lighting effect in Premiere
Pro and the beam effect in After Effects.
Animating the Beam
By manually adding the beam to each individual frame, it is possible to get
some good results. This can be done by completely redrawing each new frame.
However, this process is a very slow and hard in order to maintain consistency.
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One of the better and quicker method is using a preset shape which can be
modified or mask it for each frame.
One more method which is much quicker method is to set key frames every
second. The editing software can be used in order to create the movement
between the keyframes. In practically, it is always better to make use of a
combination of different techniques. You should key frame each single frame
in case of fast action shots. The use of key frames should be made sparsely for
slower and smoother movements.
5.11 SUMMARY
Chroma Keying is a technique mostly used in films. It is a process by
which a specific color element which called chroma is removed from
the background and replaced by a preferable background.
There are often two colors used in chroma key. These colors are blue
and green. Reason to use these two colors is these colors are least likely
to affect the foreground shot. Blue screen and green screen sets are very
common in film and television studios.
The selection of material is based on different considerations such as,
the material should not be too reflective , lighter and brighter green is
always preferable to a darker shade of green, the material should be
crease-resistant.
Lighting is the most important part of chroma keying.
To create chroma keying there are two ways:
Using a video switcher in real time. You can also make use of the
special effects generator in this respect. And second, using editing or
compositing software in post-production.
There are two different methods to achieve the effect of duplicating a
person in same screen. Methods are split screen method and keying
method, both of which use image transparency.
To create transporter effect you should have a video editing application
that is capable to work with multi layers and mattes. This mechanism
involves two video files and one audio file.
To create a blur effect in any editing application you need two video
tracks and that application should be able to support multiple layers or
multiple tracks.
It is a very simple to creating a ghost effect for video. Only one
condition is your application software should be able to use multiple
layers.
Lightsaber effects can be created in many ways depending upon the
software which you are using to create the effect. You can use the beam
effect along with key frames in order to get the best result using Adobe
After effect software without taking too much effort.
5.12 KEY TERMS
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•
•
•
Chroma Keying: A technique in which two images or frames are
combined and color removed from one image revealing another
image behind it.
Split screen method: a method of duplicating in which the same
person appears twice in the same frame, the actor is present in two
different parts of the frame and then joined together using the
appropriate editing software.
Keying Method: A method of duplicating in which not only simple
splitting is involved but rather the actor in one of the shots is
isolated and then superimposed over the other.
5.13 END QUESTIONS
10) What is chroma keying? How to make a green screen?
11) Explain the essential guidelines for selecting fabric material for a
green screen.
12) Why lighting is important while using green screen shot?
13) Describe the general procedure to remove chroma in post
production.
14) Describe the method of split screen for duplicating a person in the
same frame.
15) Describe the method of keying for duplicating a person in the same
frame.
16) Describe the procedure for blurring an image in premier Pro
application.
17) Explain the procedure for creating Star Trek transporter effect?
18) How to create a lightsaber effect?
Answer to check your progress questions
Check your progress -1:
Chroma Keying is a process by which a specific color
element which called chroma is removed from the
background and replaced by a preferable background.
There are often two colors used in chroma key. These colors
are blue and green.
These colors are least likely to affect the foreground shot.
Blue screen and green screen sets are very common in film
and television studios.
Fabric and solid materials
Check your progress -2:
1) Using a video switcher in real time. You can also make
use of the special effects generator in this respect.
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2) Using editing or compositing software in postproduction.
NTSC for USA, Japan and a few other countries.
1) Split screen 2) keying
a method of duplicating in which the same person appears
twice in the same frame, the actor is present in two different
parts of the frame and then joined together using the
appropriate editing software.
A method of duplicating in which not only simple splitting
is involved but rather the actor in one of the shots is isolated
and then superimposed over the other.
UNIT 7 STREAMING VIDEO
Program Name: BSc (MGA)
Written by: Mrs.Shailaja M. Pimputkar, Srajan
Structure:
5.0 Introduction
5.1 Unit Objectives
5.2 Creative Steaming video
7.2.1 Conversion Utilities
7.2.2 Exporting a File
5.3 Streaming Video Servers
7.3.1 True Streaming
7.3.2 HTTP Streaming Video
5.4 Streaming Formats
7.4.1 Windows Media
7.4.2 RealMedia
7.4.3 Quicktime
7.4.4 MPEG-4
7.4.5 Flash Video
5.5 Summary
5.6 Key Terms
5.7 End Questions
.
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7.0 INTRODUCTION
In this unit we are going to learn about different aspects of video
steaming on the internet. Before going further we should know what exactly
streaming means and how it is useful. Basically, Streaming video is
compressed form content sent over the Internet and viewer can see it in real
time. The main feature of streaming media or streaming video is to play a file,
Web user doesn’t have to wait to download the file. With the help of video
streaming, the media is sent in a continuous stream of data and is played as it
arrives.
There are two methods generally involved in streaming video:
streaming servers which also called true streaming and HTTP streaming. In this
unit will also learn how different website work. The two significant elements
of video streaming are the file format and the streaming method.
7.1 UNIT OBJECTIVES:
After studying this unit you will be able to
Describe the streaming video
Explain the concept of conversion utilities
Describe the procedure for exporting a file
Explain the other formats
7.2 CREATING STREAMING VIDEO
In this section we are going to learn about how to streaming video files can
be created.
There are two methods of streaming video files, they are as follows:
1. Conversion utility program can be used. This program takes an
existing video file and actually converted to select streaming
format.
2. The streaming files should be exported by making use of different
video editing software such as Adobe Premier, Final Cut Pro, etc.
Note: Before going through the same, it is important to note that these methods
creating stored video files which are suitable for the purpose of streaming and not for
live video broadcasts. It is always advisable to make use of the streaming server in
case of a live event.
7.2.1 Conversion Utilities
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Conversion utility is one of the standalone programs which are useful in
importing video clip and exporting it to different format.
A program used to import a video clip and export it to another video file
format is known as video format conversion utility. You can easily do this by
opening a file and selecting the file format in which you want to save your file.
This setting can be user-defined in order to create a desire video. This will be
followed by conversion procedure that will result in a usable video file to
stream on your website. After the conversion process is over the video is
exported. This can be done with reference to the help file of the particular
software program.
There are several programs available that are able to convert to a .swf
format, as well as other extensions. In order to display the file it is necessary to
add the required HTML code in the web page. The specific HTML code tags
are required to embed the video files is based on the specific video format.
As shown in the following figure, the original file is depicted on the left
side of the window pan. The right pan actually shows the file in the format as it
is being converted by dreaming media format.
Fig 7.1: Conversion Utility
7.2.2 Exporting a File
It is also possible to export the video for the internet. This can be done by
making use of certain video editing applications. This is one of the easiest and
often used ways for creating streaming video files.
Let us understand this process through an illustration of Adobe Premiere 6
software. This example will be helpful in giving you a general idea. Different
applications will have different procedures.
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Following are some steps to export the file:
1. Open your file in Premier.
2. Go to the File Menu and then select the Export clip.
Fig 7.2: Export clip
There are several options available, however the exact option for
use is dependent on different plug-in that have been installed.
However you should be export files to RealMedia, Windows Media
and QuickTime by default itself.
3. Choose the format to which you would like to export.
4. For this select the Save for Web option. Once you select this option,
you will get following window.
Fig 7.3: Save for Web Window
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A range of pre-made templates are generally provided through this
Save for Web window. These templates are suitable for different
formats. It is also possible to customize these formats by using your
own settings.
Once the streaming video file has been created, it should be
uploaded on the website. The location of the file is not important tll
the time you are actually able to access it from your webpage. You
may like to create a folder by the name of ‘media’ or ‘video’ and it
is possible to put all your files in that folder.
Check your progress-1
What are the two methods of streaming video files?
What is conversion utility?
7.3 STREAMING VIDEO SERVER
7.3.1 True Streaming
Steaming video is a specialized application which sends the contents
over the internet in compressed form but viewer can see them in real time. In
other words, a specialized application which runs over the internet server
termed as streaming media or streaming video. Since the other available
methods can only simulate streaming, therefore this can be described as ‘True
Streaming’.
•
•
•
•
Following are some advantages of True Streaming:
Web user plays the file without waiting to download a file. Media is
sent in a continuous stream of data.
It can handle the greater traffic load.
It is possible to broadcast live events.
It is possible to detect the speed of the user’s connection and thus
appropriate files can be automatically supplied.
We can access the streaming server in two possible ways. These two ways are
as follows.
I.
The server can be operated on your own either by purchasing or
leasing.
II.
You can sign up in order to get a hosted streaming plan with an ISP
(Internet Service Provider).
Operate your Own Server
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You can run your own streaming server, by either purchasing a
standalone machine or streaming server package. This can be installed on an
existing web browser.
There are several server platform for which the streaming software is
available. For example Windows, Linux etc.
Some media software are also available for streaming. Some of the
examples of streaming media software are as follows:
•
•
•
Helix Universal Server from Real Network- A variety of formats can be
supported by this server. The examples of some of these formats are
Real Media, Windows Media, Quicktime and MPEG-4.
Apple Quicktime streaming Server: formats supported by this server are
MPEG-4 and 3GPP.
Macromedia Communication Server: This server is specialized in
Flash-based video and interactive multimedia.
Sign up for a hosted streaming plan
Similar to the process and planning involved in hosting a website, it is
also possible to prepare a hosting plan which can specialize in
streaming media. This is considered to be a more realistic option for
most people.
The different examples of the hosted streaming media plans are
as follows:
• RealNetworks Managed Application Services (MAS)
• Apple Quicktime Streaming Service
• Macromedia Communication Server Hosts
Note: It is extremely important to note that it can be expensive to go ahead with true
video streaming. Therefore, unless you actually have the need for it, you should first plan to
start with the basic HTTP streaming which will be more appropriate.
7.3.2 HTTP streaming video
One of the simplest and cheapest ways to stream video from a website
is by making use of HTTP streaming video. In most the cases it has been seen
that very small and medium sized websites are used this method instead of
using more expensive streaming server.
There is no requirement of any special type of website or host in this
method. Just one thing requires is a host server which is capable of recognizing
different common video file types.
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Fig 7.4: HTTP Streaming
There are some limitations for HTTP streaming. Those limitations are
as follows:
• HTTP streaming is not suitable for heavier traffic, .i.e if more than ten
people working at the same time. In case there is a heavy traffic, you
may consider a more serious streaming solution. This is more optimal
for websites that have modest traffic.
• This type of streaming works with only complete files. So that you may
not be actually stream live videos. HTTP streaming will only consider
the complete files that are stored on the server.
• In this screaming you can not automatically detect the end user’s speed.
If you want to create different versions for different speeds, you need to
create a separate file for each speed.
• Efficiency of HTTP streaming method is not as good as other methods
and it can actually lead to heavier server load.
Though there are many limitations in HTTP streaming, it will not really bother
most web producers. You should be only worried in case of heavy traffic.
To Create HTTP streaming Video
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Fig 7.5: HTTP Streaming Video Process
Following are the steps to create HTTP streaming video:
1. Firstly, a video files needs to be created. The format in which it has to
be created is the common streaming media format.
2. Upload the file to your web server.
3. As a next step, either makes use of special HTML tages or you can also
make a simple hyperlink to the video file in order to ensure that the
video gets embedded onto a web page.
4. Click on the media player. The media player will open and streaming of
the video file will start. The file plays on the page itself once it has been
embedded.
7.4 STREAMING FORMATS
This section we are going see the main video streaming formats. Video
stream can be created by making different video file formats.
Some main streaming formats are as follows:
•
•
•
•
•
Windows Media
RealMedia
QuickTime
MPEG (in particular MPEG-4)
Flash Video
7.4.1 Windows Media
Windows Media Video (WMV) is a compressed video compression
format for several proprietary codecs developed by Microsoft. It is a part of
windows media framework. WMV consists three different codecs. The original
video format was developed for internet streaming application is WMV, as a
rival to RealVideo. Other formats, such as WMV Screen and WMV image, are
used for specialized content.
•
Video Compression Formats
Windows Media Video (WMV) is a very well-known compression
format. Often WMV refers as Microsoft Windows Media Video
format. In 1999, the first version of WMV as WMV 7 was
introduced. Its biggest rivals include MPEG-4, AVC, RealVideo,
DivX, and Xvid. While all versions of WMV support variable bit
rate, and consist bit rate, WMV 9 introduced significant
characteristics, such as native support for interlaced video, nonsquare pixels, and frame interpolation. WMV 9 was introduced a
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new profile titled Windows Media Video 9 Professional, which is
activated automatically whenever the video resolution exceeds
3,00,000 pixels and bit rate 1000 Kbit/s. it is specially designed for
high-definition video content, at resolutions like 720p and 1080 p.
•
Windows Media Video Screen
Windows Media Video Screen (WMV Screen) is a screencast
codec. It can capture live screen content, or convert video form
third-party screen capture programs into WMV 9 Screen files. It
works best when the source material is static and contains a small
color palette. The codec is used in computer step-by step
demonstration videos.
•
Windows Media Video Image
Windows Media Video Image (WMV image) is a video
slideshow codec. This codecs operates by applying timing, panning
and transition effects to a series of images during playback. The
codecs obtains better compression ratio and image quality than
WMV9 for still images since files encoded with WMV images
rather than full-motion video.
Hardware support for WMV Image is available from Portable
Media Centers, Windows Mobile-powered devices with Windows
Media Player 10 Mobile.
7.4.2 RealMedia
RealMedia is a multimedia container format developed by RealNetworks.
Its extention is ‘.rm’. It is normally used with RealVideo and RealAudio and
for streaming over the internet. These streams are in CBR (Constant BitRate).
Recently, RealNetworks has developed a new container for VBR (Variable
BitRate) streams. This is known as RMVB (RealMedia Variable BitRate)
7.4.3 QuickTime
QuickTime is an extensible proprietary multimedia framework developed
by Apple. The first version of QuickTime is released on December 2, 1991.
QuickTime supports many different formats of digital video, 3D models,
sound, text, animation, music, panoramic images and interactivity.
It is an object oriented file format and compatible with Mac OS classic,
Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows operating systems. QuickTime supports
many media formats. Some of them are AVI, DV Stream, MPEG-2, MPEG-4,
QuickTime Movie format. With additional QuickTime Components, it can also
support Ogg, ASF, Flash Video, Matroska, Div X media Format etc.
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All Apple systems have QuickTime pre-installed. QuickTime for windows
systems can be downloaded, either as a standalone installation or together with
iTunes.
Software development kits (SDKs) for QuickTime are available to the
public with an Apple Developer Connection (ADC) subscription.
QuickTime Player
QuickTime can work with Mac OS X and Windows operating systems. It is
absolutely free of charge. Some of the other free player applications that are
based on QuickTime framework provide features not available in the basic
QuickTime Player.
Some of these Players are as follows:
iTune can export audio in WAV, AIFF, MP3, AAC, and Apple
Lossless.
In Mac OS X, a simple AppleScript can be used to play a movie in fullscreen mode.
The QuickTime (.mov) file format work as a multimedia container that
contains one or more tracks. Each track stores a particular type of data: audio,
video, text or effects. Each track either constitutes a digitally-encoded media
steam using a specific code or a data reference to the media stream located in
another file.
QuickTime is suitable for editing as it is able to import and edit without
copying data. QuickTime is capable of containing abstract data references for
media data and separating media data from the media offset. It is capable to
track list. Because of all the above reasons QuickTime is suitable for editing.
Other media container formats such as Microsoft’s Advanced Systems
format or the open source Ogg and Matroska containers lack this abstraction,
and need all media data to be rewritten after editing.
7.4.4 MPEG-4
MPEG-4 is established in 1998, MPEG is a digital multimedia container.
According to the ISO/IEC Moving Picture Expert Group(MPEG) (ISO/IEC
JTC1/ SC29/WG11) under the formal standard ISO/IEC 14496, it is capable to
store audio and video as well as able to store data such as still images and
subtitles. MPEG-4 is used in compression of AV data for web (streaming
media) and CD distribution, voice (telephone, Videophone) and broadcast
television applications.
MPEG-4 has various characteristics of MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 and other
related standards. MPEG-4 has advanced features, such as VRML support for
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3D rendering, object-oriented composite files (including audio, video and
VRML objects) support for externally-specified Digital Rights Management
and different kinds of interactivity. AAC (Advance Audio Coding) was
standardized as an adjunct to MPEG-2 before MPEG-4 was issued.
MPEG-4 still in its developmental phase and is segregated into various
segments. Most characteristics of MPEG-4 are based on its developers. Thus,
there is a partial application of the entire MPEG-4 set of standards.
MPEG-4 mainly focused on a low bit-rate video communications; however
its preview as multimedia coding standard later increased. MPEG-4 is suitable
across various bit-rates ranging from a few kilobits per second to tens of
megabits per second.
7.4.5 Flash Video
In the streaming world flash plays a very important role. This format is
strongly recommended. Flash video is a file format that transfers video across
the Internet with the help of the Adobe Flash Player versions 6-10. Flash video
content may also be embedded within SWF (ShockWave Flash) files.
There are two formats defined by Adobe systems and supported in Flash
Player: FLV and F4V.
FLV format is originally developed by Macromedia. Flash Video has
gained the popularity especially for embedded video on the web. Some of the
most popular sites that use the format include YouTube, Google Video, and
Yahoo! Video etc. see Fig 7.3.
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Fig 7.6: Different sites uses FLV format
Though the flash video container itself is published, most of the compression formats used with it is patented. Flash Video FLV files normally
contain material encoded with codecs following the Sorenson Spark or VP6
video compression formats. Flash Video is viewable on most operating
systems, though the widely available Adobe Flash Player and Web Browser
plug-in, or one of several third –party programs.
Check your progress-2
What is a full form of SWF?
List the common streaming formats.
When was MPEG-4 established?
What is a full form of RMVB?
7.5 SUMMARY
•
•
•
•
A specialized application
which runs over the internet
server termed as streaming media or streaming video.
It is possible to export the video for the internet. This can be done by
making use of certain video editing applications. This is one of the
easiest and often used ways for creating streaming video files.
One of the simplest and cheapest ways to stream video from a website
is by making use of HTTP streaming video. In most the cases it has
been seen that very small and medium sized websites are used this
method instead of using more expensive streaming server.
QuickTime supports many media formats. Some of them are AVI, DV
Stream, MPEG-2, MPEG-4, QuickTime Movie format. With additional
QuickTime Components, it can also support Ogg, ASF, Flash Video,
Matroska, Div X media Format etc.
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•
•
•
QuickTime is suitable for editing as it is able to import and edit without
copying data. QuickTime is capable of containing abstract data
references for media data and separating media data from the media
offset.
MPEG-4 mainly focused on a low bit-rate video communications;
however its preview as multimedia coding standard later increased.
Flash Video has gained the popularity especially for embedded video
on the web. Some of the most popular sites that use the format include
YouTube, Google Video, and Yahoo! Video etc.
7.6 KEY TERMS
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Video format conversion utilities: Programs used to import a
video clip in a file format and export it to another video file format
is known as video format conversion utilities.
Steaming video: A specialized video application which runs on an
internet serve.
Windows Media Video (WMV): A compressed video format for
several proprietary codecs developed by Microsoft.
RealMedia: A multimedia container format developed by
RealNetworks.
QuickTime: An extensible proprietary multimedia framework
developed by Apple.
MPEG-4: A group of procedures representing a compression of
audio and visual (AV) digital data.
Flash Video: A file format that transfers video across the Internet
with the help of the Adobe Flash Player.
7.7 END QUESTIONS
11. What is a role of conversion utilities in streaming video?
12. What is true streaming? What are the advantages of true streaming?
13. What are the possible ways to access the streaming server?
14. Write some examples of streaming media software?
15. What are the limitations of HTTP streaming server?
16. Write a note on MPEG-4 format.
17. Give a detail description of Flash Video Format.
18. Write a note on QuickTime Media Player.
19. Write the steps to create a HTTP streaming video?
Answer to check your progress questions
Check your progress -1:
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(a) Conversion utilities,
(b) Exporting a file
Conversion utility is one of the standalone programs which
are useful in importing video clip and exporting it to
different format.
Check your progress -2:
ShockWave Flash
Windows Media, RealMedia, Quicktime, MPEG (in
particular MPEG-4), Flash Video
In 1998
RealMedia Variable BitRate
UNIT 8 INTRODUCTION TO VIDEO
EDITING
Program Name:BSc(MGA)
Written by: Srajan
Structure:
6.0 Introduction
6.1 Unit Objectives
6.2 Video editing
6.3 Editing Methods
6.4 Video editing terminology
6.5 Linear Editing (Tape to Tape)
6.6 Assemble editing
6.7 Insert Editing
6.8 Non-Linear Digital Editing
6.9 Editing Software
6.10
Video Transitions
6.11
Manipulating time in videoproduction
6.12
Summary
6.13
Key Terms
6.14
End Questions
8.0 INTRODUCTION
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In the previous units we learned about video cameras and its functions.
Also we learned about the green screen and shooting techniques. In this unit we
are going to learn another important part of video production. It is called video
editing. We will see the basic concepts of video editing. Also we are going to
learn about meaning of editing, reasons of editing, what is expected to be
achieved out of it. We are going see different methods of editing video in this
unit.
8.1 UNIT OBJECTIVES:
After studying this unit you will be able to
Describe the important aspects of the video editing
Describe the meaning and objectives of the video editing
Explain the various techniques of video editing
Explain linear editing
Explain assemble editing
Explain non-linear editing
Describe different editing software
Describe video transitions
8.2 VIDEO EDITING
The process of manipulating and rearranging different video shots in
order to create new work is termed as video editing. Editing is generally
considered to be a part of post production process. There are several other post
production tasks. These include titling, sound mixing, colour correction, etc.
The post-production work is described by the term editing by many
people. This is particularly true in case of e non-professional situations.
In this section, the term editing has been used to describe the
following:
•
•
•
Adding or removing, arranging or rearranging some of the
sections of video clips or audio clips.
Applying certain enhancements, filters or some sort of
colour correction.
Creation of transition between different clips.
Why do Editing?
There are certain objectives which are expected to be achieved by editing.
The desired outcome will decide the approach that you should be using.
However, before starting any editing methods, it is important to be clear about
the different editing goals and define them appropriately.
The different editing goals may be described as follows:
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To remove unwanted footage
One of the most common goals that is expected to be achieved by editing
is ensuring the removal of unwanted or flawed portions from the footage.
Choose the best footage
Generally the camera operators will shoot more footage than what is
actually required. One of the most important goals is to choose the best
material At times, the camera operator may be shooting multiple versions and
later he may choose the best possible version while editing.
Create a flow
The primary purpose served by most videos is related to narrating a story
or providing some sort of information. The prime purpose of editing is to
ensure that an appropriate flow is attained.
Add effects, graphics, music, etc
One of the best parts of editing is the addition of certain effects, graphics,
music, etc. Extra elements can generally lead to improvisation of the videos.
Alter the style, pace or mood of the video
At times, the purpose of editing is to add some sort of mood prompts in a
particular video. There are different techniques that can influence audience
reactions. These techniques include adding good music and different visual
effects.
Give the video a particular 'angle'
The customization of a video can be done in order to support a particular
viewpoint. This can be ensured by imparting a message or by serving an
agenda.
The term video editing can refer to:
•
•
•
non-linear editing system, using computers with video editing
software
linear video editing, using videotape
vision mixing, when working with live video signals
History of video editing
Video editing is the process of editing segments of motion video footage,
special effects and sound recordings. Motion picture film editing is a
predecessor to video editing and, in several ways, video editing simulates
motion picture film editing, in theory and the use of non-linear and linear
editing systems. Using video or film, a director can communicate nonfictional and fictional events. The goals of editing are to manipulate these
events for better or for worse communication. It is a visual art.
Early video recorders were so expensive, and the quality degradation
caused by copying was so great, that 2 inch Quadruple videotape was edited
by visualizing the recorded track with ferrofluid and cutting with a razor
blade or guillotine cutter and splicing with tape. Improvements in quality and
economy, and the invention of the flying erase head, allowed new video and
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audio material to be recorded over the material already recorded on an
existing tape. This technique was referred to as linear editing. If a scene
closer to the beginning of the videotape needed to be changed in length, all
later scenes would need to be recorded onto the tape again. In addition,
sources could be played back simultaneously through a vision mixer to create
more complex transitions between scenes.
There was a transitional analog period using multiple source VCRs or
LaserDisc players, but modern non-linear editing systems use video digitally
captured onto a hard drive from an analog or digital video source. Content is
ingested and recorded natively in the appropriate codec which will be used by
software such as Sony Vegas, Avid's Media Composer and Xpress Pro,
Apple's Final Cut Pro, and Adobe's Premiere (see Figure C9) to manipulate
the captured footage. High definition video is becoming more popular and
can be readily edited using the same software along with related motion
graphics programs. Clips are arranged on a timeline, music tracks and titles
are added, effects can be created, and the finished program is "rendered" into
a finished video. The video may then be distributed in a variety of ways
including DVD, web streaming, Quick time Movies, iPod, CD-ROM, or
videotape.
For the home market, products such as AVS Video Editor, Adobe
Premiere Elements, AVID Express DV, Cyber Link Power Director, Final
Cut Express, Sony Vegas, Pinnacle Studio, Lilly, Ulead Video Studio, Roxio
Easy Media Creator, and muvee auto Producer have come on the market with
the emergence of computer video editing for the home PC. Two free
programs that are bundled with computers are Apple's iMovie and Microsoft's
Windows Movie Maker. There are many other free open source video-editing
programs too.
Video editing software, also known as Non Linear Editing (NLE), is
application software which handles the editing of video sequences on a
computer. NLE systems replace traditional flatbed celluloid film editing tools
and analogue video tape-to-tape machines.
8.3 EDITING METHODS
There are many different methods for video editing. As every coin has two
sides every method has its advantages and disadvantages. Following are some
different methods for video editing. Among these methods most editors choose
digital non-linear editing method for most projects. It is very important to
understand that how each method works.
Video editing Methods are as follows:
•
Film Splicing
•
Linear editing
•
Digital/Computer (non-linear Editing)
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•
Live editing
1. Film Splicing
Actually technically speaking film splicing is actually film editing.
However it is important to know that this method was the first way to edit
moving pictures. It can be described as the fundamental basis for all video
editing.
Traditionally, film is edited by cutting different sections of the film, which
are then rearranging or discarding them. The process is very simple and
mechanical process. Splicing machine is used to cut and slice the film footage.
A splicing machine allows film footage to be lined up and held in place while it
is cut or spliced together. Figure 8.1 illustrated as a splicing machine.
Fig 8.1: Splicing Machine
2. Linear Editing
The original method of editing electronic video tapes is known as linear
editing. Linear editing was become very popular till the computers became
available in the 1990s. Linear editing is still used in some situations.
Linear editing needs at least two machines connected together. The
basic mechanism behind the linear editing is that video is copied from one tape
to another. One of these acts as the source and the other acts as a recorder.
Following are some steps:
a) The video which you want to edit, place that video in the source
machine and a blank tape in the recorder.
b) Next step is video needs to be played so press the play button on the
source machine and record on the recorder.
Fig 8.2: Simple Linear Editing Configuration
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The main objective is to record only those parts of the source tape that are
required and you want to keep. So that desired footage is copied in the correct
order from the original tape to a new tape. The new tape becomes the edited
version.
In this method you need to start from the first shot and finish to the last
shot in a linear manner. Thus, the procedure done in the linear manner. So that
the method of editing is called "linear". The main drawback of the linear
editing is the editor cannot go back to the first frame as well as he cannot reedit
any earlier part of the video. It is extremely important that no error is
committed. However, with a little practice, linear editing is relatively simple
and trouble-free.
3. Digital/Computer (Non-linear) Editing
In this method, video footage is recorded (captured) onto a computer hard
drive and then edited using specialized software. Once the editing is complete,
the finished product is recorded back to tape or optical disk.
There are many advantages of non-linear editing over linear editing. The
main advantage of non-linear method is that it is flexible. You do not need to
edit in a linear manner. So that it will become easier for the editor to make any
changes in to any part of the video at any time. This is why it's called "nonlinear".
One of the complexities involved in this method is the variety of hardware
and software that are available. There are also several common video standards
which are incompatible with each other, and setting up a robust editing system
can be a challenge. Also non-linear editing is more difficult to understand than
the linear.
4. Live Editing
For editing in real time in case of live shows, the use of certain mixing
console is generally made and multiple cameras as well as other video sources
are routed through this mixer. One of the best examples of live editing is a Live
television coverage.
8.4 VIDEO EDITING TERMINOLOGY
The following is a list of terms used in video editing:
•
Capture device: the conversion of an analogue video into a digital
video is done by making use of hardware or a firmware device. This
device is termed as a capture device.
•
Compressors and codecs: The digital video can be compressed or
decompressed by making use of some software or firmware termed as
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compressors and codecs. The size of the file can be reduced through
compression.
•
Editing: It can be described as a process through which different
sections of video clips are added, removed, arranged or re-arranged.
The process is useful in creating transition between different clips. The
process is generally conducted in the post-production stage.
•
Encoding: It can be described as the process of converting a digital
video into a particular format for example, in order to ensure DVD
distribution; a video project may be saved in a particular MPEG-2
format.
•
Layering: this can be described as the process of adding multiple
layers to a superimposed video.
•
Linear editing: A process in which footage is copied from one tape to
another in a specific order. This method is known as tape to tape editing
•
Non-linear editing: A method that allows you to access any frame in a
digital video by using a cut-and-paste method.
•
Transition: This can be described as the manner in which one shot
changes to the next one.
•
Post-production: this is a stage involving various changes from video
and audio after production, i.e., once a particular footage has been shot.
The various processes that may be conducted in the post-production
stage are editing, color correction, audio editing, addition of effects, etc.
•
Audio video interleave (AVI): A common format used for audio
/video data on the PC.
•
Anti-alias: Removing the jagged edges from letters or graphics
elements such as titles and 3D objects.
•
Assembly edit: An edit where all existing signals on a tape, if any, are
replaced with new signals.
•
Component video: Component video improves the picture quality
above S-Video. Component video is most frequently labeled Y, Cb and
Cr on high-quality video players such as DVD and HDTV decoders.
•
Compression: Reducing the amount of digital data associated with a
single frame of video information.
•
Codec: Short for compressor/decompressor, a codec in any
terminology for compressing and decompressing data. Codec can be
implemented in both software and hardware.
•
Capture device: A hardware component that converts analog content
to digital for use on a computer.
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•
Cross-fade: A method of smoothly moving from one video clip to
another. With cross fade transition, the frames in the playing clip fade
out as the frame in the new clip fade in.
•
Cutaway: A shot of something outside the frame that can be used to
hide an edit (i.e., going from a wide shot of a scene to a close-up of
unwrapping presents at a birthday party)
•
Dissolve: A video transition where one shot gradually fades out while a
second shot fades in.
•
Digital video (DV): A format for storing digital audio and video used
by DV-standard digital video cameras.
•
Fade: A video image that gradually increase or decrease in brightness
usually to or from black. Sound can also fade to or from silence.
•
FPS (Frame per Second): The number of two frames is shown on a
screen every second. PAL and SECAM video are delivered to the
screen at 25 FPS. NTSC video is 29.97 or 30 FPS, while cinema films
are 24 FPS.
•
FireWire: A standard for high-speed transfers between devices
including camcorders and FireWire-enabled PCs. This standard
supports data rates of 100/200/400 Mbps.
•
FlashPVR: A technology that allows Pinnacle TV Center Pro Software
to run from the PCTV HD Ultimate stick’s on-board flash memory.
Users can automatically record TV shows to the integrated flash
memory or to their hard drive in a board range of formats including
iPod, PSP, DivX, or even direct-to-DVD.
•
H.264: The high-compression multimedia format supported by Apple
ipod and Sony PSP. H.264 encoding of solutions such as the MPEG-2
standard, which is used in DVD video.
•
Latterbox: A technique for displaying wide screen video on a screen
with a different aspect ratio by adding black borders above and below
the original frame.
•
Picture-In-Picture (PIP): A special effects procedure in which two
video images are combined, scaling or cropping one image so that it is
less than a full screen size and then placing the smaller image within
the frame of the larger image.
•
Player: A program that displays multimedia content, typically
animated images, video and audio, examples: Microsoft Windows
Media Player and Apple Quick Time Media Player.
•
Project file: The file created when you save the results of adding
various clips to the workspace. The extension varies with the program
being used, for example a Premier file will be saved as .PPJ file, while
a VideoStudio 6 file will be saved with a .VSP extension.
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•
Rendering: The computer process of creating a special effect,
animation or editing task.
•
Streaming: Video that can be played in portions over a network,
before the entire file is delivered.
•
S-Video: S-Video provides better color separation and a much cleaner
signal than composite by keeping separate the color and picture parts of
a composite-video signal.
•
Tracks: Timelines are divided into horizontal sections known as tracks.
Clips are arranged in various tracks to adjust their timing relative to one
another.
•
Transition: The method of smoothly moving from one video clip or
photo to another.
•
Widescreen: Video material produced in wider aspect ratio than the
standard TV ratio (4:3 or 1.33:1) is commonly referred toas widescreen
video. In general anything with an aspect ratio above 1.66:1 can be
considered widescreen.
Check your progress-1
What is video editing?
What are the methods of editing?
What is film splicing?
What is linear editing?
What are the drawbacks of linear editing?
What is non-linear editing?
8.5 LINEAR EDITING
As we describe earlier about the linear editing. In this section we are
going to learn the process of linear editing i.e. how to edit from one video tape
to another. You will require:
• You will need two VCRs (video tape machines), which has audio and
video (AV) outputs. RF (aerial) outputs are also one option if you
don't have AV outputs. Incase if you have only one VCR then
camcorder can also work as a second VCR.
• You will require at least one video monitor. But it is preferable if you
have two. It is always advisable to use professional monitors, but in
some case you can use televisions.
• Need to connect cables.
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• The tapes(s) that needed to be edited and a blank tape on which you
want to put edited version.
How to set up a Tape-to-Tape Editing System
Fig 8.3: Linear Editing System
The diagram on the right above shows a simple linear (tape to tape) editing
system. It consists of two VCRs, two video monitors (or televisions) and
connecting leads. The basic process is to play the original tape in
the source machine and record a new (edited) version on the record machine.
Begin by choosing which of your VCRs will be your source and which will
be the record. In most cases it won't matter which is used for each purpose, but
if one machine is strong in one area it might make a difference. For example, if
one machine has better recording features it will be the obvious choice for the
record machine. If you don't know which to use, assign them at random.
a) Connect the VCRs
Fig 8.4 :The Video and the Audio Outputs of the Source Machine have to be
Plugged in to the Video and Audio Inputs of the Record Machine
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The video and the audio outputs of the source machine have to be plugged
in to and audio inputs of the record machine in order to connect the two VCRs
as illustrated in Figure 8.4.
RCA, RF, (AKA aerial or Belling-Lee), S-Video and SCART, etc., are
the common analogue connection types that are available. The best choice for
video and RCA for audio is S-Video. You should avoid using RF as it
relatively of a low quality ad may present complications.
There are connectors such as Fire wire or USB available in Digital video
machines. These are generally of a high quality.
b) Connect the monitors
Each of the tape machines have to be connected to their individual
monitors once they bone been connected with each other. The exact method
will depend on your VCRs. The following guidelines should be followed for
the same:
•
It is important that the AV outputs should be available in the record
machine. These need to be plugged into the record monitor. If the
only output is RF (aerial), then this needs to be connected to the
monitor (similar to a TV).
•
The AV outputs need to be connected to the source monitor in case
the source machine has spare AV outputs. If necessary, the RF
output should be used.
Always select the correct inputs on the record machine and on both the
monitors.
Notes:
•
Though the use of a single monitor can be made for editing,
however it is simpler to edit by using two monitors. In case you
do not have a second video monitor, you should make use of a
small TV.
•
However, in case you want to confine to one single monitor,
you should ensure that itself with the record monitor.
•
The assumption that has been made in this respect is that the
monitors will play back audio similar to a TV.
c) Testing
It is also important to test the system completely once everything has been
connected.
•
You should first play a tape in the record machine and ensure that it
should appear on the record monitor. It is also important to check
the audio at this stage.
•
Play a tape in the source machine after you have stopped the record
tape. It must appear on the record as well as the source monitor.
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(The reason for the same is that it is being through the record
machine). Now check the audio.
In case, you find that something is not working appropriately, this
indicates that you may have connected the wires incorrectly or selected the
wrong input(s). A trial and error approach can be followed in case there are
only a few combinations. After a successful testing, you are now ready for
editing.
d) Edit controllers
In case you have an access to an edit controller computer, you can consider
yourself very lucky. This device can be aid you in connecting and for
controlling both the source as well as the record machines.
One of the typical examples of such an edit controller is the Sony edit
controller, illustrated in Figure 8.5. The source machine is primarily controlled
by the control that is available on the left. The controls for the record machine
are available on the right hand side (red record button).
Fig 8.5: The Sony Edit Controller
The edit options are available through different controls available in the
middle. Thus, you can make in/out points using the same.
There are smaller edit controllers also available that feature only one set
of controls. They may also contain a switch in order to select the record or the
source machine. Thus, through such edit controllers, you can still control the
machines; however it is only possible to control one single machine at a given
point of time. You can achieve precision by making use of the edit controllers.
It is always important to preview the edit before recording it. You should
perform the other important tasks simultaneously. At times, multiple edits can
be generated by making use of an on-screen menu.
e) Adding titles and graphics
Specialized equipment is generally required for adding the titles and
effects in case of linear editing. You may require a title maker or a
professional graphics generator in this case. Figure 8.6 illustrates an editing
system with a graphic generator.
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The addition of a graphics generator can be made to your edit suite. The
role performed by the graphics generator is that of creating titles or graphics.
This will be done on either a solid or a transparent background. Thus, below
the superimposed graphics, the video from the source machine can also be
visible.
Fig 8.6: Editing system with graphic Generator
There are several different types of graphic devices and therefore it will
be impractical to cover all of them. You need to search for a 'video title
generator' and then assess whatever you able to find.
In the absence of a graphics generator, there are other options available.
There is a title feature available in certain cameras. Linear editing is one of
the legacy techniques of editing that has existed from the early days of video
production and is still found to be extremely useful and at times it is also
preferred over several modem methods of editing.
8.6 ASSEMBLE EDITING
The kind of editing in which different shots are assembled one at a
time, in a sequential order is termed as assemble editing. It is important to
however note that this type of editing is only possible when different shots
have been added to each other in a linear fashion. A section of picture
disturbance will always be noted at the end of the newly-recorded section when
you are recording the new footage on an analogue video tape. This may have
been noticed by anyone who has previously used a VHS tape for recording.
While recording, at the end normally the picture jumps all over the place. It
goes to the 'snow' before finally settling down and in this case any previously
recorded video becomes visible.
This only happens at the end ofthe newly-recorded section. The new
video will start in an organized manner. It generally appears as an instant cut
while moving from one shot to another. Thus, when working in a correct order,
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it is possible to record several sections ofthe video. You need to however
ensure that you are beginning with recording of the end ofthe previous video.
You will notice that an unstable video will appear at the end of the entire video.
How to assemble edit
In order to assemble edit first prepare the editing equipment including the
master tape.
The first edit
You should first bring the record tape to a particular point (where you
actually want to start the process of recording) by using the controls. Always
avoid recording at the beginning of the tape. However, you can record the
colour bars or black in the beginning. Now, bring the machine to the
record/pause mode such that it may begin recording as soon as you hit the
pause button. You can view the pictures that you are about to record by using
the record/pause button. After this, you should bring the tape to the start of the
clip where you want to add the edit in the source machine and then press the
pause button.
Now both the machines are in the pause mode. Thus, press the pause
button simultaneously in both the machines. Once you do this, the record
machine will start recording the pictures while the source tape will start
playing. You need to allow both the machines till the recording is complete.
After this, stop both the tapes.
The second edit
In order to ensure the second edit, you need to first rewind the record
machine and bring it to the end point of the recorded footage. Now place the
machine in the record/ pause mode. After this, bring the source tape to the start
of the next clip which needs to be added, and then bring it to the pause mode.
Record the clip after releasing the pause buttons. You need to repeat the
process till the editing is complete.
Get the timing right
Most of the times, in consumer level VCRs, the recording will not be
accurate in terms of its timing. In this case, either the recording will start before
or after the paused positions. The reason for the same is the time taken by the
machines to speed up in order to begin playing or recording once the pause
button has been released.
This is generally not a problem in most professional machines. This is
because there is an in-built 'pre-roll' function available in these machines. This
function makes it possible to automatically rewind for a few seconds and thus
the timing can be corrected. It is also possible to set the exact pre-roll time. In
case of consumer-level machines, you will have to make efforts to learn the
exact characteristics of the machine. This can be ensured by experimenting.
The machines will be different from one another in terms of consistency and
some of the machines may be less consistent than the others. The accuracy of
a few frames can be achieved on most video machines.
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8.7 INSERT EDITING
At times, your objective may be to insert a new video clip over the existing
video footage. However, trying to achieve this by assemble editing may result
in disturbances. Additionally, other errors may result such as the existing audio
may be replaced by a new audio.
Therefore, the most optimal way of achieving this is through insert
editing. Insert editing can be described as a method wherein a new video is
inserted over an old video with a clean beginning as well as a neat end. The
original audio can also be retained by you and new pictures may be added.
However, it may not be possible to achieve these video inserts by all video
machines. It is generally an advance level function which can be performed
through consumer-level equipments. This type of function can be possibly
achieved only through semi-professional or the professional machines. The
important aspect related to insert editing is that it should be either done over
the pre-recorded footage or stable black.
The reason for the same is that in this type of editing, the use of the
synch pulse is generally made for the underlying video. Thus, you may get an
unstable picture in case you insert edit over an unrecorded video.
Different machines will have a different way to proceed with the insert
editing function. Therefore, you should learn about the exact process by going
through the meals of the machines.
Audio insert editing
Another process that works similar to video insert editing is the audio
insert editing. This is also known as audio dubbing. The only difference is that
in this method a section of the audio is replaced with a new sound.
The video machines that allow the process of insert editing will generally
allow you to insert both video as well as audio simultaneously. Thus, you can
replace both pictures as well as sound with new ones at a given point of time.
Check your progress-2
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What is Assemble editing?
What is audio dubbing?
What is insert editing?
8.8 NON-LINEAR (DIGITAL) EDITING
The different aspects related to non-linear editing have also been discussed
as a part of this unit. You will learn about the various aspects related to setting
a computer editing system, recording footage from a camera or a VCR on the
hard drive, editing the footage as well as recording it back on the tape or disk.
One of the most complex processes could be edited using a computer.
The general instructions for the same haye been included as a part of this
section. The following screenshot illustrates non-linear editing.
Setting up a non-linear edit suite
While making use of a computer for the purpose of video editing, you will
require the -following:
•
A source device: This device is required to play the original tape or
disk. Most of the times, the use of a VCR camera is made as a
source device.
•
A computer: The specifications of the computer that is selected
should be at least: 200 MHz processor / 64 MB RAM / Fast hard
drive with 1 GB or more free space.
•
A video capture device: The prime role is to capture the video
from an analogue source. This analogue source could be VHS or
Video8. You will require a device to convert the video into a digital
format. Either this could be a standalone device that is plugged into
the computer or it could also be a capture card that becomes a part
of the computer itself. A capture may not be required in case you
are using a source device which outputs a digital signal. However,
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in any case you will have to ensure that an appropriate input signal
is available with your computer.
•
Connecting leads: These are required in order to plug the source
device into the capture device or computer.
•
Software: Software is required to control different functions related
to ca wring, editing and outputting.
•
A video monitor (or television).
Let us now understand different hardware and their physical connections.
You will have several different options available with you based on your
equipment.
Camera and computer
In most of non-professional situations, the most common equipment used
is the camera and the computer. The video camera is plugged directly into the
computer by making use of a fire wire or a USB connection. Thus, the footage
can be directly shifted from the camera into the computer by making use of the
digital connections. This is a very easy and an inexpensive way to operate. In
order to get the details about the same, you can make use of the camera
manual. In case a digital output is not available with your camera but there are
analogue AV outputs available, you can make use of the capture device. In
case there are no video outputs present in your camera, you should use the
VCR as your source device. Figure 8.7 illustrates firewire connectors.
Fig 8.7: Firewire Connectors
Computer and VCR
It is possible to use a VCR as the source device as has been shown in
the Figure 8.8. The VCR has been connected to the computer through a capture
card. The use of a television or a video monitor is being made to monitor the
pictures. The TV speakers are being used to monitor the audio. The use of
separate sound systems or headphones can be made in this respect.
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Fig 8.8: Use of a VCR as Source Device
1. In case there are two or more AV outputs available in a VCR, you
need to ensure the use of one of them to plug into the AV input of
the monitor. The use of RF (aerial) output can be made in case you
have only one AV output. The use AV output has to be explained
in the next step.
2. You need to ensure the plugging of the second AV output into the
AV input of the computer’s capture card.
3. Now ensure the plugging of the AV output into the AV input of the
VCR.
The footage in this system is played from the VCR to the computer.
It is then edited as the next step. It is further played back from the
computer to the VCR for recording.
Computer and two VCRs
Another system that is slightly more elaborate is the computer and the two
VCRs. The prime advantage of this system is its ability to record directly from
one VCR to the other, i.e., it is able to ensure linear editing. In case,
appropriate hardware is available in the computer, you can make its use in
order to overlay graphics in the real time while you are recording from one
VCR to the other.
Fig 8.9: Use of Two VCRs as Source Device
As seen in Figure 8.9, the top VCR is the source device while the bottom
VCR is the recording device.
1. The AV output of the recording is plugged into the AV input of
the monitor.
2. The AV output of the source VCR is plugged into the AV input
of the computer's capture card.
3. The AV output of the capture card is plugged into the AV input
of the record VCR.
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4. The second AV (or RF) output of the source VCR is plugged
into the second AV (or RF) input of the record VCR.
You need to now select an appropriate input on the record VCR. This is
required in order to record from either of the computers or the source VCR.
Note: The use of the second or third AV output of the source deck could
also be made in order to feed another video monitor.
Example of a home-based edit suite
There are several possibilities available in case you wish to be adventurous.
In fact the possibilities are endless. As shown in Figure 8.10, the edit suite
comprises both consumer-level as well as professional equipment. The use of
such a setting could be made for editing home movies, DVDs, television
quality productions, etc. This could be also useful for authoring internet
material.
Fig 8.10: An Edit Suite
Linear v/s non-linear editing
In earlier times, linear editing was the only method that was available to
edit video tapes. This is also referred to as tape-to-tape editing. Later, the
process of non-linear editing became available which was implemented by
using editing software in computers. This type of method provides both power
and flexibility. However, this method of editing is not easily accepted by
everyone. In the initial times, there were issues related so performance as well
as uncertainty. There were definitely several advantages of this type of editing
and they could not be ignored in any case. Non-linear editing is considered to
be one of the most attractive methods for editing in the present scenario, while
linear editing is considered to be obsolete. However, there are some distinct
advantages that are associated with linear editing. These advantages include
the following:
1. This method is simple and inexpensive and involves less number
of complications.
2. It is more suited for certain jobs. It has proved to be a much
quicker method where only two sections were supposed to be
added with each other. This was more convenient than using nonlinear editing method.
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3. The knowledge base and versatility of an editor can be increased
by learning linear editing skills.
8.9 EDITING SOFTWARE
It is not very easy to take decisions with respect to selection of video
editing software. This is because there is a huge range of software available.
The range of editing software Sam some of the basic applications including
Windows Movie Maker to most professional packages like the Final Cut Pro,
ULead MediaStudio and Adobe Premiere.
The main limitation is the availability of money. Most good editing
software is found to be expensive. Also, for running good editing software a
good computer is maybe high-priced. Thus, depending upon how much money
you can get an appropriate editing system. There are several cameras and that
come with their own editing software.
How to editing software works
There are primarily three functions performed by most editing software,
these are as follows:
1. Capture
2. Edit
3. Output
Thus an editing software is capable of recording footage, it also edits
footage and of the output to a recording device such as a VCR or DVD.
Though you may use separate software for capturing output, however
initially it will be always better and also more convenient to make use of a
program that is capable of multitasking.
Projects
The concept of project is actually applicable to non-linear video editing.
There are several elements which are a part of an editing project. All these
elements play an important role in the creation ofthe finished product. The
examples of these elements include video clips, audio clips, titles, graphics, etc.
The information related to how these elements need to be arranged in an
edit process is also a part of the project. Thus, the project contains information
related to all the elements as well as the different instructions of how these
elements should be put together along with each other. The different elements
are imported or captured while creating a video project. It is important to
arrange them in a manner in which they are required.
What to look for in editing software
The following is a list of requirements for editing software.
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1. The editing software should be compatible with both your hardware
as well as your operating system.
2. You need to verify the different capture, check and export options.
3. The editing software should be capable of handling different
formats and resolution that you wish to handle.
4. You need to also verify the software for it capabilities related to
layering and effects.
5. The other advanced features of the editing software should also be
checked.
6. Check for any additional software available as a part of the
package. For example, audio editing may be available.
7. Check for the compatibility of the editing software with the other
available software.
You will now learn about different video editing software options that are
available for beginners and are also important up to the level of for mid-level
professionals. These include the following.
Microsoft
Windows Movie Maker
The advantage of this simple application is that it is possible to install
most Window PCs simply by default. This application can be easily
experimented by making use video editing and by learning some basic
concepts. Since, it is only a limited program, it is particularly suitable for
beginners.
Apple
Apple iMovie
This may be described as one of the free low-end applications, which are
shipped with the operating system. It is definitely superior to the Windows
version. However, this is also more suitable for amateurs and beginners.
Apple Final Cut Express
The low budget version of the Final Cut Pro which is however capable of
producing some of the challenging videos is termed as the Final Cut Express.
This version is generally suitable for amateur enthusiasts.
Apple Final Cut Pro/Studio
Mot of momentum was gained by FCP and it became more popular with
most midrange video professionals. This version is definitely more widely
acceptable and is almost similar to the industry standard. It is extremely useful
with respect to ensuring compatibility and extending the ease of transition for
new staff members, production houses, etc.
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Adobe
Adobe Premiere Elements
One of the low budget versions of the Premiere Pro is Premiere Elements.
This is also more suitable for amateur enthusiasts. It is definitely a good option
for professionals.
Adobe Premiere Pro, Adobe Bundled Products
A similar set of features is offered by both Premiere Pro and Final Cut
Pro and both of them are roughly equivalent to each other. In most of the
cases, FCP is preferred over Premiere on the Mac, though Premiere is a
powerful and a completely professional video editor. It is however important
to note that some of the advanced audio and graphic features are not available
in this version. Thus, in order to ensure maximum functionality, separate
products have to be used along with it. Using a bundle of different versions
can be definitely very useful and cost-effective. Separate products that are
highly regarded in this range include After Effects and Photoshop.
Sony
Sway Vegas
One of the most user-friendly applications is Sony Vegas. This version is
easy to use because of the effects and transitions possible through this version.
Most advanced features are however not available in this version.
ULead
ULead Video Studio, Media Studio
This product has definitely been able to maintain its position as one of the
possible alternatives to Adobe and Apple products. However, it really does not
match these products in their standards. It is still considered to be an optimally
fair choice. However, it cannot be considered as the best alternative.
Avid
One of the most respected forces in both the television as well as video
industry is Avid. Most professionals have been found to be familiar with the
different features of almost all Avid products. It was initially established at a
professional level and was known to produce some high-end editing solutions.
In the present scenario, the software that is offered by-Avid is highly costeffective.
Capturing video for non- linear editing
After setting up the edit system appropriately, you need to now ensure the
recording of the footage from the source device to the hard drive of the
computer.
This process requires the following steps:
1. Launch the video capture software and learn about the
mechanism with which it works. In most cases, the capture
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window can be opened by making use of the menu option,
for example, the window which is shown in the screenshot
below can be opened in Adobe Premiere Pro by selecting
File > Capture (F5).
2. Most of the times, you will be able to capture the picture by
pressing 'play' on the source machine.
3. You should now locate the record or capture button in the
capture window. You will be able to record by simply
clicking this button. The recording should be continued till
the time you have the footage matching your needs in place.
It is always advisable to capture a greater amount of footage
than what you exactly need. This is because the unwanted
clips can be discarded at a later stage.
4. The video needs to be saved to the hard drive once the entire
footage has been captured.
Using edit software
You can start with a new project once you have captured all the footage
that was required. As a next step, you can now start with the process of editing.
The Editing Workspace
Three basic areas have been shown in the following screenshot from Adobe
Premiere Pro. These areas are commonly seen in most editing software
packages. However, in different software, different terminology may be used.
1. The project window
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The project window is present on the top left of the screenshot. It
shows all the elements that are used in the current project. These
elements include audio, video clips, graphics, etc.
2. The monitor window
The window primarily shows the video that is being edited and it is present
on the top centre of the screen. Generally, you will find one single monitor for
the as the master edit.
3. The timeline
The flow of the video project is generally described through a
timeline. In this timeline, you an insert the video as well as other
elements and arrange them accordingly. While you present the
output of the video, everything that is included on the timeline will
also be played from left to right.
The element can be simply added and arranged into the timeline by
dragging and dropping them into the timeline from the project window. Later,
you can ensure the adjustment of the different elements. The rearrangement of
the elements is also possible to a great extent and before the finalization of the
elements; it is also possible to preview them.
You can also add multiple layers using good software packages. Thus, it is
layers of audio, video and graphics. These can be used to create various effects.
Outputting video
Once you have finished with the process of editing and finalized the
timeline, it is now the video file as illustrated in the following screenshot. This
can be achieved in two ways:
The video can be encoded to a digital format such as MPEG-2. It can be
then recorded directly to the DD or any other optical disk.
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The video can be outputted from the video card of your computer to a
recording device.
For specific instructions, you will need to use a software/hardware manual.
The best option which is closely matches your needs can be selected. You can
however define the various settings before exporting.
8.10 VIDEO TRANSITIONS
Transition is a method by which any two video shots are joined together.
Transitions play an important role in video editing. Everyone who is involved
in video production must have good knowledge of transitions and how they
play a vital role in video production.
Following are some types of transitions:
•
Cut: it is a very common transition. In this transition one shot
changes instantly to the next.
•
Crossfade: in this transition, one shot gradually fades into the
next. It also called mix or dissolve.
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•
Wipe: in this transition one shot is replaced by another shot in a
geometric pattern. There are many types of wipe, from straight lines
to complex shapes.
•
Digital effect: effects include color replacement, animated effects,
pixelization, focus drops, lighting effects, etc.
It could be great fun making use of transitions but you should be careful as
over usage of transition can be distracting and impact on the flow of the video.
Although selection of transition is very important, however assessing how
well the two shots fit together is more significant. Therefore it is important to
answer the following questions:
What is an objective of using a particular type of transition and what
can be achieved out of it?
What is the connection between the two shots and how can it be best
established through transitions?
Does the transition makes sense, or is if confusing?
Does it progress the story?
Creating Transitions
There is a no particular processing involved in using ‘cut’ transition. There
are several ways in which other types of transition can be added.
•
In-camera: Some cameras come with built-in transitions and fades.
•
Generating Device: In live productions, transitions can be added in
real-time using special effects generators. Most vision
switchers include a selection of transitions.
•
Post-Production: Transitions can be added during editing, using
appropriate software.
8.11 MANIPULATING TIME IN VIDEO
PRODUCTION
Manipulating the perceived time flow is one of the crucial jobs in video
editing. In many instances your video will be real-time but this happens very
rarely. In most cases the video duration will be much different to the real-world
time span.
In a video or film sequence, the time can be presented in following three
ways:
1. Time is expanded: In this case time is actually slower than realtime. For example, a fight sequence that is shown in slow motion
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and from several different angles. But in real time the action
sequence that only took a few seconds.
2. Real-time. The time in the video is exactly the same as the time it
was recorded in. Examples: Live music video; sports event; a walkthrough of a scene without interrupting the recording.
3. Time is compressed. The time of a video is compressed in this
case, which is a common situation under most circumstances. The
time of a video generally compressed to an acceptable duration in
this case.
•
Expanding time
Expanding term describe as to extend. When we are making
duration of video longer than the real time, it means we are expanding time in a
video sequence. Expanding time is a very rare as audience preferred to see real
time video instead of something slowly.
There are different exceptions to this rule. For example, in case of
recording of a sport events, when the objective is to show some specific shot
replay in slow motion. This is generally done to add some impact to the video.
The objective could be providing some additional information, or to help the
viewer process information that would be too fast in real-time.
Slow Motion
In this technique, the speed of a video clip is slowed down and the duration
of the video clip is increased.
Time Remapping
At the beginning of the 21st century time remapping technique become
popular. This technique is used by making use of different editing software
packages, which have capability to perform this technique. This technique is
more flexible to editor as there is no limited setting for speed. Editor can set
different time speed in one video. For example, editor can start a video in real
time quickly increase in speed later on.
Repetition, Different Angles
In this type of technique, the same shot is repeated from different angles.
This is common in case of coverage related to sports events. This is also seen
in case of action films wherein explosions are generally shown from different
angles.
Through this technique, it is possible to show the different things that
happen in different locations in a single sequence.
By adding cutaways and different angles, it is possible for the editor to
drag out an event that is generally very quick in real time. The climax of most
reality shows which constitutes the announcement of a winner is an example
of the same, in which a huge build-up is ensured before the name of the
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winner is finally announced. This is done to add excitement to the climax.
Most of the times, such types of shots are successful in engaging the
audience's attention.
Real time Video
The video sequences that are commonly seen in genres such as sports,
event coverage, musk, etc, are the real —time video sequences. Creation and
shooting of a real-time video can be extremely challenging in nature. It is
generally not a problem if the scene is static in nature. This could involve a
high degree of challenge if you are trying to follow a dynamic scene and you
are also walking along with the camera. In this case, a lot of effort has to go
into the shoot so as to generate a footage that is completely useable.
The use of multiple cameras can be made in this respect. In most
sporting events, several cameras are placed from different angles and thus the
director can shortlist and use the best possible shot.
A feature may be prepared for certain music videos by making use of a
single shot for the entire video. This has been found to be extremely effective.
A soap drama is an example of a serialized story. It is one of the
variations of true real-time video. In this case, in each of the episodes, the time
compression is ensured but more or less the series as a whole develops in a
real time setting. The viewers generally feel that they are actually following
the lives of the different characters when the story telling is almost in a realtime setting.
TV series 24 is an example of something which is `pseudo-real-time'. In
this type of a setting, a day is generally portrayed by an episode of an hour and
there are several tricks involved in this process. This involves a combination
of both time compression as well as time expansion.
Time Compression
This technique generally refers to compression of time in a video. The
duration of the video is generally shorter than real-time. This is a core process
involved in video editing. It is used in most productions to some extent.
Therefore, it is important for a good editor to understand the mechanism
involved in the same.
There are different techniques that are involved in the process of time
compression. These include the following:
Time lapse (Fast Motion)
This is one of the simplest techniques used for time compression and can
really speed up a given video clip. This is suitable in those cases where most
of the action takes place at a common location and continues for a long period
of time. A moving camera can also be used to shoot fast-motion. Most of
editors will prefer time re trapping in this case rather than using an overall
change of speed.
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Time remapping
The speed of the video clip can be smoothly varied by making use of time
remapping. This can be used both for time expansion as well as time
compression. In case, the technique is being used for time compression, the
speed of the video is generally increased. Using time remapping, a visitor or a
tourist could be shown to explore a given tourist attraction when he visits a
particular city and the audience can experience it more effectively.
Editing: Cuts
Passing of time can be expressed by careful use of cuts. The understanding
of this time compression technique is extremely important, as it is a primary
time compression technique and is widely used in both film as well as
television production. One has to ensure careful planning while making use of
cuts to ensure a smooth transition from ape shot to another.
You can place the shots of different subjects in a sequence that facilitates
the passing of time, for example, first one person walks to a particular location
followed by another person walking to the same location. However, the
connection between the shots and the objective needs to be established. You
can also begin the new shots when the subject is out of the frame. In this case,
the required gaps will be filled by the viewer himself.
Editing: Other Transactions
A change in time may be implied in certain transitions. Thus, in cases,
where you have removed a shot, you can fade to black and then fade back up
again. This has been generally seen in case of most interview shots. In some of
cases, dip to white has been commonly used. This is generally used when it is
important to depict a shift in time, for example, when portraying a flashback.
A slow fade is suggested of greater time lapse than a quick fade.
Editing: B-roll Footage
Mother type of editing that can be used is the B-roll footage. This is
generally used in case of shots other than the main action. This type of editing
is used to cover up the removed time similar to a dip to black. Thus, cutaways
and noddies can be used successfully in order to remove the unwanted
sections.
The same techniques should not be used for time compression. This is
because; at times your techniques may become predictable or artificial.
Another important thing to be noticed is that it may appear absurd if the
subject appears out of the frame in every shot. It is advisable to therefore use
different ways of time compression.
Different levels of time manipulation should be achieved under varying
situations. The objective of the video is of vital importance, for example, if a
child is going to school, then you may want to speed up the time whereas if
the video is solely focused on parenting skills then, a greater time may be
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focused at a child getting dressed up. Thus, different details need to be ensured
in a video when it is being targeted for different set of audience. Time
compression is one of the most important techniques out of all the available
time manipulation techniques and it is also one of the most difficult techniques
to master. Whenever your objective is to shrink the time in a particular video,
then you should try to experiment. However, you must strive to work on
different options.
Check your progress-3
List three functions performed by editing software.
What is video transition?
Explain the term ‘Repetition’.
8.12 SUMMARY
The process of manipulating and rearranging different video shots in
order to create new work is termed as video editing.
Various editing goals include removing unwanted footage, choosing the
best footage, creating a flow, adding effects, altering the style, pace,
mood of the video and giving the video a particular angle.
There are different methods in which editing of a video can be achieved
such as, film splicing, linear editing, non-linear editing and live editing.
Linear editing is a process in which footage is copied from one tape to
another in a specific order. This method is also known as tape to tape
editing.
Non-Linear editing is a method that allows you to access any frame in a
digital video by using cut and paste method.
8.13 KEY TERMS
•
•
•
•
•
Video editing: The process of manipulating and rearranging
different video shots in order to create new work.
Film splicing: A process of editing by cutting different sections of
the film, which are then rearranged or discarded.
Linear editing: In this method, there are at least two video
machines that are generally connected to each other. One of these
acts as a source while the other acts as a recorder.
Non-Linear editing: In this case, the use of a computer hard drive
is generally made in order to record the video footage. The editing
is then done by making use of specialized software.
Assemble editing: The kind of editing in which different shots are
assembled one at a time, in a sequential order.
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•
•
•
•
Insert Editing: A method wherein a new video is inserted over an
old video with a clean beginning as well as a neat end.
Video Transitions: A method by which two shots are joined
together.
Slow motion: In this technique, the speed of the video clip is
slowed down and the duration of the video clip is increased.
Repetition: In this technique, the same shot is repeated from
different angles. Through this technique, it is possible to show the
different things that happen in different locations in a single
sequence.
8.14 END QUESTIONS
19) What are the goals of editing?
20) What is film splicing?
21) What are the advantages and disadvantages of linear editing
method?
22) What are the advantages and disadvantages of non-linear editing
method?
23) What is the procedure for linear editing?
24) What is assemble editing? Explain in detail.
25) What is insert editing? What is the difference between audio insert
editing and insert editing?
26) What are the essential requirements for editing software?
27) List some editing software. Explain in brief.
28) What is a video transition? Explain some of video transitions.
29) How to manipulate time in video production?
Answer to check your progress questions
Check your progress -1:
The process of manipulating and rearranging different
video shots in order to create new work.
Video editing Methods are as follows:
Film Splicing
Linear editing
Digital/Computer (non-linear Editing)
Live editing
A process of editing by cutting different sections of the
film, which are then rearranged or discarded.
In this method, there are at least two video machines that
are generally connected to each other. One of these acts as a
source while the other acts as a recorder.
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The main drawback of the linear editing is the editor cannot
go back to the first frame as well as he cannot reedit any
earlier part of the video.
In Non-Linear editing, the use of a computer hard drive is
generally made in order to record the video footage. The
editing is then done by making use of specialized software.
Check your progress -2:
The kind of editing in which different shots are assembled
one at a time, in a sequential order is termed as assemble
editing.
In this method a section of the audio is replaced with a
new sound.
A method wherein a new video is inserted over an old
video with a clean beginning as well as a neat end.
Check your progress -3:
Capture, Edit, Output
Transition is a method by which any two video shots are joined
together.
In this technique, the same shot is repeated from different angles.
Through this technique, it is possible to show the different things
that happen in different locations in a single sequence.
UNIT 9 EMBEDDING STREAMING VIDEO IN
A WEB PAGE
Program Name: BSc (MGA)
Written by: Mrs.Shailaja M. Pimputkar, Srajan
Structure:
7.0 Introduction
7.1 Unit Objectives
7.2 Code for Embedding a Video File
7.3 Streaming Video files with QuickTime
7.4 Streaming MPEG-4
7.5 Streaming Video using Flash
7.6 Streaming Video Using Flash Media Server
7.7 Flash Video: Progressive Download
7.8 Streaming Video Using Windows Media
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7.9 Summary
7.10
Key Terms
7.11
End Questions
.
9.0 INTRODUCTION
In the previous unit we learn about streaming video. In this unit you are
going to learn about the concept of embedding streaming video in web page.
There are two ways to add a video clip to a web page. First one is direct link
and other is embedded file. Direct link is simple hyperlink which points to the
video file. Embedding a video file is actually placing a video file right there on
the web page.
In this unit we are going to introduce you some streaming formats
including Windows Media, Real Media, Quick time, MPEG-4 and Flash.
Before working on this format it is important to understand the mechanism of
video streaming. Also it is extremely important to understand the difference
between true streaming and HTTP streaming.
Also we will see the procedure for streaming video files with Quick
Time, Flash, Flash media Server and MPEG-4 video files. The technique of
progressive download as well as HTTP download is also explained in this unit.
9.1 UNIT OBJECTIVES:
After studying this unit you will be able to
Describe the process of embedding streaming video in a web page
Explain the concept of coding for embedding a video
Describe streaming video files with QuickTime
Describe the procedure for streaming MPEG-4 video files
Explain the method of streaming video using Flash
Explain the streaming video with Flash media server
Describe about Flash Video
9.2 CODE FOR EMBEDDING A VIDEO FILE
There are two different ways to add a video clip to a given web page.
These include the direct link and embedded file.
A direct link described as a simple hyperlink which points to the video file
as follows: <a herf= “videofilename.mov> Click here to view video</a>
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Using direct link, it is possible t open the video file in the user’s default
media player. Thus, when you click a Windows Media file, your Windows
Media Player will open and play the file. The prime advantage for the end user
is that he gets the full control by making use of the preferred player.
The word embedded describe as the player itself is embedded in the
webpage. The advantage of the flash clip is that it extends a high amount of
control over the way a particular video has been displayed.
In order to ensure the embedding of a file, you need to add an HTML code
to the web page. The video format will decide the code that should be used.
One of the examples for a Window Media file is as shown below:
<OBJECT ID = “MediaPlayer” WIDTH= “192” HEIGHT= “190”
CLASSID= “CLSID:22D6F312-BOF6-11D0-94AB-0080C74C7E95”
STANDBY = “Loading Windows Media Player Components…”
TYPE = “application /x-oleobject”>
<PARAM NAME = “FileName” VALUE = “videofilename.wmv” >
<PARAM NAME = “ShowControls” VALUE = “true” >
<PARAM NAME = “ShowStatusBar” VALUE = “false” >
<PARAM NAME = “ShowDisplay” VALUE = “false” >
<PARAM NAME = “autostart” VALUE = “false” >
< EMBED
TYPE = “application/x-mplayer2”
SRC = “videofilename.wmv” NAME = “MediaPlayer”
WIDTH = “192” HEIGHT = “190” ShowControls = “1”
ShowStatusBar = “0” ShowDisplay = “0” autostart= “0” >
</EMBED>
< /OBJECT>
The use of two tags is generally made in order to ensure maximum browser
compatibility:
•
•
<object> for Internet Explorer
<embed> for Firefox etc.
9.3 STREAMING VIDEO FILES WITH
QUICKTIME
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One of the most respected formats that have existed since the very beginning in
the field of digital video production is QuickTime. This has been found to be
more complicated than Windows Media Real Media. In 1992, Apple computers
developed QuickTime a multimedia technology. It has a versatile platform
which can handle any audio, video, text, animation, music and virtual reality
(VR) panoramas.
It is very important to understand the mechanism to deal with the
QuickTime’s .mov files for any average web designer. After sufficiently
exploring and learning about the QuickTime’s advance features, you may be
even capable to creating different panoramas, virtual reality setting and also
different interactive videos.
There are different viewpoints of different people about QuickTime.
Some of them find it to be one of the best formats while others simply cannot
understand the working of this format. There are definitely several unique
features that are present in this format and therefore, we can say it is a
definitely a good format. However it can be really challenging to get a good
quality video. It is important to note that there are a very few default setting
with which you may be able to work successfully. In most cases,
experimentation plays an important role. It is important to ensure that
QuickTime is well integrated with the other products. This is generally
supported by several applications related to authoring, editing and general
interest.
9.4 STREAMING MPEG-4
In the late 1990s Moving Picture Experts Group defined the video standard
called MPEG-4. Many companies have been involved in its initial development
such as Apple and Microsoft. However, Microsoft has now removed its active
support from its development. The support however continues from Apple and
also from some other companies such as DIV-X.
There are different versions of this format. Some of the versions have been
found to be complaint with the ISO standards while others have not been found
to be complaint. QuickTime is capable of dealing with all kinds of ISOComplaint, non-complaint, mp4 files and mov files. There is some specificity
involved such as some of the MPEG-4 files will be able to play in any player
while some others will only be able to be played on certain specific players.
There are different applications available through which it is possible to create
MPEG-4. The best known application in this respect is Apple QuickTime Pro.
In the recent year there has been some development in the MPEG-4
standard and its adoption into architectures like Apple QuickTime and
technology improvements in compression, server, and players in systems
including RealNetworks RealMedia and Microsoft Windows Media. Each
of these approaches has become more than just video and audio compression,
and has transformed to end-to-end systems for creation, hosting, delivery, and
playback of a broad range of multimedia data.
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MPEG-4, approved in 1998, provides scalable quality, high resolution and
also extended to lower resolution and lower bandwidth applications. It also
supports scalable delivery, with error resilience features for delivery across
difficult channels including the Internet, satellite, and wireless. The Mpeg-4
specification constitutes a new audio format, AAC (Advanced Audio Coding)
developed by many of the companies involved with the creation of MP3 and
Dolby AC3.
Check your progress-1
What is the advantage of direct link in media player?
Describe the word ‘Embedded’.
What is full form of AAC?
9.5 STREAMING VIDEO USING FLASH
Adobe Flash is one of the formats that recommended very strongly in
the word of streaming video. It is also a platform for creating a digital
media content. In recent year flash become very popular in online video
delivery.
The main formats that re used by Flash are:
• .swf : this is required for the standard flash files which are
generally used in the WebPages.
• .flv: this may be described as a special Flash Video Format.
In order to get the maximum advantages from this format, it is always
appropriate to make use of the Adobe Flash authoring program.
Advantages of Flash:
• One of the significant advantages of using flash is that 2008
Flash also supports H.264 Files.
• Power and Flexibility that is extended by Flash through which
you can ensure a great deal of creativity.
• It also provides you with the advantage of several custom
controls and menus.
• You can also make use of different interactive videos and
animations.
• It is also possible to ensure advanced integration with different
web pages.
• Flash has most widely supported cross-platform player.
• The flash plug-in is widely popular.
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Disadvantage of Flash:
• One of the prime disadvantages of flash is that it is expensive.
• It is relatively complex format for beginners.
Sorenson squeeze
The codec that is used by Flash is known as the Sorenson Video
Standard Edition. The prime purpose it is used for making flash files.
Another version available for this codec is known as Sorenson Video
Professional Edition. It is always advisable to make use of the professional
version in order to get better result and also in order to get higher quality
video and smaller file sizes.
In order to ensure that you are capable of using the professional codec,
you must take the decision of purchasing a specialist coding application.
This specialist coding application is known as the Sorenson squeeze.
Methods for Streaming Video
There are two popular methods to playback your FLV video
file:
• Progressive Streaming
•
Flash Server side Streaming
FLV hosting provides both services within your account. FLV hosting
uses RTMP MEDIA SERVER for large size (20 mins or more) video
streaming and server side recording.
The flash player browser plugin can play an FLV, but that FLV must be
either embedded in or linked to a SWF. That is, you can’t just put the actual
FLV on and HTML page. You can however reference the FLV file using
action script and SWF which now opens up the door to brand your player,
add colors and logos, skins and links to further information.
The embedded plugin in flash player allows playback of Flash SWF
files. It is preferred method as there is no need for a third party download
such as Real Player WMP, or QuickTime.
The difference between progressive streaming and Server Side Media
streaming is the Player (SWF). The streaming server needs the addition of
action scripting to communicate to the server properly. If you cannot
construct your own RTMP Streaming player during Dreamweaver or Flash
8, you can use players, available for purchase as a SWF file or complete
editable FLA files.
Check your progress-2
What is Sorenson Squeeze?
What is the purpose of Sorenson Video Standard edition?
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What are the main formats used by flash?
What are the two methods to playback FLV videos?
What is Sorenson squeeze?
9.6 STREAMING VIDEO USING FLASH MEDIA
SERVER
The Macromedia Flash Media Server (FMS- Flash Communication
Server) is the best solution for flash streaming. The FMS is basically a
software package which runs on a normal web server and provides extra
functionality for the Flash format (e.g. live streaming, chat, etc). In
streaming, each Flash client opens a “persistent connection” between flash
media server and the end user that is client.
Flash Media Server uses bandwidth detection to deliver video or audio
content based on their ability to easily access and download content. For
example, if a user with a dial-up modem accesses your video content; you
can deliver an appropriately encoded file that doesn’t require too much
bandwidth.
Flash Media Server also provides you with quality of service metrics,
detailed tracking and reporting statics, and a range of interactive features
designed to enhance the video experience. As with progressive
downloading, the video content (FLV file) is kept external to the other
Flash content and the video playback controls. This lets you easily add or
change content and the video playback controls. This lets you easily add or
change content without having to republish the SWF file.
Streaming video with Flash Media Server or FVSS provides the
following advantages over embedded and progressively downloaded video
for both clients as well as for web masters:
• Video playback is faster than other methods of incorporating
video.
• Streaming uses less of the client’s memory and disk space, as
the clients do not need to download the entire files.
• Network resources are used more efficiently, because only parts
of the video that are viewed are sent to the client.
• Delivery of media is more secure, because media is not saved to
the client’s cache when streamed.
• Streaming video provides better tracking, reporting, and logging
ability.
• Streaming lets you deliver live video and audio presentations, or
capture video from a web cam or digital video camera.
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• Flash Media Server enables multi way and multiuser streaming
for video chat, video messaging, and video conferencing
applications.
• By using server-side scripting to control video and audio
streams, you can create server-side play lists, synchronized
streams, and more intelligent delivery options based on the
client’s connection speed.
The first step is to encode your media, making it web ready. Abode
provides many tools that will help encoding into the proper formats easy.
Adobe Creative Suit products help you to encode your files easily and
efficiently, either individually or in the batches. For live video, you can
encode directly from your webcam using Flash Player in your browser, or
for high-quality broadcasts, you can use free Flash Media Live Encoder
software.
Once your files are encoded into proper format, Flash Media Server
software enables you to stream them to your viewers over the web. Flash
Media Server is available in two scalable editions: Flash Media Interactive
Server for streaming applications with real-time, multi way communication
and Flash Media Streaming Server for simple streaming applications. Both
editions enable the delivery of protected, high-quality live and on-demand
video with encrypted streaming support and no file caching.
9.7 FLASH VIDEO: PROGRESSIVE DOWNLOAD
An easiest way to display Flash video on internet is Progressive
downloading. It is also the cheapest way to show Flash files over internet.
There are some limitations of progressive downloading as follows:
1. It only stored video file and not useful for live events.
2. It cannot automatically adjust the seed with end user’s seed.
3. True streaming is more efficient than progressive streaming.
4. Security is less.
5. The end users have to wait to go further until the downloading
completed.
Progressive download is a term used to describe the transfer of digital
media files from a server to a client, typically using the HTTP protocol
when initiated from a computer.
The main difference between streaming media and progressive
download is in how the digital media data is received and stored by the end
user device that is accessing the digital media.
A media player that is capable of progressive download playback relies
on meta data located in the header of the file to be intact and local buffer of
the digital media file as it is downloaded from a web server. At the point in
which a specified amount data becomes available to the local playback
device, the media will begin to play. The specified amount of buffer
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embedded into the file by the producer of the content in the encoder
settings and is reinforced by additional buffer settings imposed by the
media player.
HTTP Progressive Download versus Streaming Media
The end user experience is similar to streaming media; however the
digital file is downloaded to a physical drive on the end user’s device. The
digital media file will shutter or stop playback if the rate of playback
exceeds the rate at which the file is downloaded. The file will begin to play
again after further download.
HTTP Progressive download opens digital media to piracy in that it can
be saved and shared by the end user. Due to this unrestricted access to the
digital media file, entities concerned with piracy and security of their data
opt for streaming based solutions that create a small buffer in order to
initiate playback.
9.8 STREAMING VIDEO USING WINDOWS
MEDIA
There are three things required to use Windows Media for streaming or
downloading video and audio. If you have Win Media file ready then no
need to follow first two steps. You can directly go on 3rd step.
1. Choose a format
There are several different file formats that are available in
Windows Media. In case, you are not sure about the particular
format that you should be using, the easiest format should be
chosen, i.e., WMV. There can be limited options available in
your editor; therefore you need to follow the next step.
2. Create a video/audio file
In order to create a Windows Media file, one of the easiest ways
is to export a file from your favorite editing application. You
should first open the original video clip and then look under File
> Export to assess the available options. You can further learn
about the working of the same by exporting the Win Media
from Adobe Premiere.
3. Place the files on a web page
In order to place the files on a web page, you need to enter an
HTML code.
In case, you already have a WinMedia file which is
ready to use, you will have to only perform the third step.
The remaining discussion in this section is based on the
assumption that you have already placed a file on a web page.
There are primarily two ways in which this can be ensured:
Hyper linking and embedding.
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Hyperlinks to Windows Media Files
The following code can be used in order to make a hyperlink
directly to the video file (change “videofilename.wmv” to your
own file name):
< a href = “videofilename.wmv”> Click here to view video</a>
A link is created like this: Click here to view video
The windows Media Player will open when the end user
clicks this hyperlink. The file can then be opened and you can
load the video file for playing. The playback may be started as
soon as the video starts. However, sometimes it may not even
start, the results are quite unpredictable. Thus, it is always better
to embed the file instead in most cases.
Embedding Windows Media Files
The process of embedding a Windows Media file involves
placing a video clip on the web page. The following code can be
used in order to create a simple embedded video file. (You
should ensure to swap both instances of videofilename.wmv for
your own file name).
<OBJECT ID = “MediaPlayer” WIDTH= “192” HEIGHT= “190”
CLASSID= “CLSID:22D6F312-BOF6-11D0-94AB-0080C74C7E95”
STANDBY = “Loading Windows Media Player Components…”
TYPE = “application /x-oleobject”>
<PARAM NAME = “FileName” VALUE = “videofilename.wmv” >
<PARAM NAME = “ShowControls” VALUE = “true” >
<PARAM NAME = “ShowStatusBar” VALUE = “false” >
<PARAM NAME = “ShowDisplay” VALUE = “false” >
<PARAM NAME = “autostart” VALUE = “false” >
< EMBED
TYPE = “application/x-mplayer2”
SRC = “videofilename.wmv” NAME = “MediaPlayer”
WIDTH = “192” HEIGHT = “190” ShowControls = “1”
ShowStatusBar = “0” ShowDisplay = “0” autostart= “0” >
</EMBED>
< /OBJECT>
Windows Media File Formats
Following are some Windows Media File Formats:
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ASF, ASX, WMA, WMV, WMVHD, DVR-MS
•
Windows Media ASF Files
One of the streaming media formats that are developed by
Microsoft is ASF or Advanced streaming Format. These files are
capable of containing video, audio, slide shows and other
synchronized events. There is similarity between ASF files and
WMV files. The ASF files can be created by making use of a
variety of codecs. However, it is important that the end user should
have the same codec installed in order to view a particular file. In
order to stream an ASF file, the use of an ASX file can be made.
•
Windows Media ASX Files
A special type of file that works very closely with the Windows
Media ASF files is termed as ASX file. ASX stands for Advanced
Stream Redirector.
While the actual media file is the ASF file which also contains
video, audio, etc., the ASX file is a Meta file, i.e., a file that
contains data about another file. In most cases, it is the text file that
contains the reference to an ASF file. The main objective of using
the ASX file to ensure that streaming of the ASF file can be started.
Creating an ASX file
The use of text editor is made in order to create an ASX metafile.
You need to first open a text editor such as a Notepad and then the
following text needs to be entered. (Substituting your own ASF file
name for “videofilename.asf”):
<ASX version="3" >
<Entry>
<ref href="videofilename.asf" />
< /Entry>
< /ASX >
The ASX file then needs to be saved in the same directory where
you have saved the ASF file. The name of the file should also be
kept as the same as that foe an ASF file, but with “.asx” extension.
(e.g. “videofilename.asx”)
To create a Hyperlink to the ASX file
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In order to create a hyperlink to the ASX file, you need to add a
simple link to the web page which should point to the ASX file in
the following manner:
< a href= “videofilename.asx” > click here to play Video</a>
Once you click on this link, the ASF file will start playing after the
media player is opened. In this process, the text file is transparent.
With respect to the user, this link is only useful in starting video
stream.
•
Windows Media WMA Files
There is a great similarity that exist between the WMA (Windows
Media Audio) files and the WMV files except WMA contain only
audio
•
Windows Media WMV Files
A similarity is found to exist between WMV files (Windows Media
File with Audio/Video) and the ASF files. The use of WMV files
can also be made to provide downloadable or streaming video.
•
Windows Media WMVHD Files
WMVHD refers to Windows Media High-Definition. These files
are similar to other Windows Media Files. The only difference is
that there is a higher resolution associated with these files. Thus,
these files lead to clearer and sharper pictures. These files are
particularly useful for high-definition monitors. There are currently
two resolutions that are possible for High-definition WMVHD files:
1080p and 720p.
•
DVR-MS Files
The proprietary file format used by Windows Media Centre
Edition is DVR-MS. ‘DVR’ refers to Digital Video Recorder’ and
‘MS’ refers to Microsoft. The drawback of DVR-MS format is that
it is not possible to import a DVR-MS file directly into a media
player or video editor. We that we need to convert DVR-MS to
other formats.
There are certain software applications that may treat DVR-MS
files as standard MPEG files. This is simply done by changing the
extension to .mpg. However, this is generally an expectation
because in most cases, you will require a utility to convert the file.
However, the conversion process is very simple in most cases and it
is possible to create a file almost of the same quality as the original
file.
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Check your progress-3
What is a full form of ASF?
What is ASX file?
What is WMVHD stands for?
9.9 SUMMARY
•
•
There are two different ways to add a video clip to a given web page.
These include the direct link and embedded file.
One of the most respected formats that have existed since the very
beginning in the field of digital video production is QuickTime. This
has been found to be more complicated than Windows Media Real
Media.
•
Adobe Flash is one of the formats that recommended very strongly in
the word of streaming video. It is also a platform for creating a digital
media content. In recent year flash become very popular in online video
delivery.
•
The main difference between streaming media and progressive
download is in how the digital media data is received and stored by the
end user device that is accessing the digital media.
•
An easiest way to display Flash video on internet is Progressive
downloading. It is also the cheapest way to show Flash files over
internet.
The Macromedia Flash Media Server (FMS- Flash Communication
Server) is the best solution for flash streaming. The FMS is basically a
software package which runs on a normal web server and provides
extra functionality for the Flash format.
One of the streaming media formats that are developed by Microsoft is
ASF or Advanced streaming Format. These files are capable of
containing video, audio, slide shows and other synchronized events.
A special type of file that works very closely with the Windows Media
ASF files is termed as ASX file. ASX stands for Advanced Stream
Redirector.
•
•
•
9.10 KEY TERMS
•
•
Direct Link: A simple hyperlink which points to a video file.
Embedded file: A multimedia file that you might insert, or embed
into the Web page. This includes files like graphics and sound files.
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•
Sorenson Squeeze: A compression suite for video. It encodes to
multiple formats including QuickTime, Windows Media and Flash
Video.
9.11 END QUESTIONS
20. Write a note on MPEG-4 format.
21. Describe the procedure for streaming video with MPEG-4.
22. Describe the procedure for streaming video with Flash.
23. What are the advantages and disadvantage of flash?
24. What are the advantages of streaming video with flash media server?
25. What are the limitations of progressive download?
26. Which is more preferable –streaming video or progressive download?
27. How to streaming video in windows Media?
28. Explain any three Windows Media File Formats.
Answer to check your progress questions
Check your progress -1:
The prime advantage for the end user is that he gets the full
control by making use of the preferred player.
The word embedded describe as the player itself is
embedded in the webpage
Advanced Audio Coding
Check your progress -2:
The codec that is used by Flash is known as the Sorenson
Video standard Edition.
The prime purpose it is used for making flash files.
.swf and .flv
Progressive Streaming and Flash server side streaming.
Specialist coding application is known as the Sorenson
squeeze.
Check your progress -3:
Advanced Streaming Format.
A special type of file that works very closely with the
Windows Media ASF files is termed as ASX file. ASX
stands for Advanced Stream Redirector.
WMVHD -Windows Media High-Definition.
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