Aquilla 582 Manual
Aquilla 582
Manual
1
RECORD OF OWNERSHIP
DATE
NEW OWNERS NAME
2
INDEX
PAGE
4
GENERAL
SPECIFICATIONS
5
FLIGHT MANUAL
6
OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS
7
MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS
8
RIGGING PROCEDURE
9-13
PRE – FLIGHT INSPECTION
14-17
CONTROLLING YOUR TRIKE
18
FLYING SAFELY
19
MAINTENANCE MANUAL
20
TROUBLE SHOOTING
21
ENGINE PROBLEM ISOLATION CHART
22-24
AIRFRAME MAINTENANCE
25-26
ANNUAL INSPECTION
27-28
TUNING INSTRUCTION FOR AN AQUILLA WING
29
TRIMMING IN PITCH
30
RECOMMENDED FACTORY JETTING
31
Issue date: 01.07.86
Rev. date: 02.05.90, 01.03.96, 01.12.96,01.11,99,15.12.03,12.09.07
3
GENERAL
Insert picture here
AIRCRAFT MANUFACTURER:
Solo Wings cc
AIRCRAFT MODEL:
Aquilla
AIRCRAFT SERIAL NUMBER:
WA
AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION NO:
ZU-
REGULATIONS:
As laid down by the CAA and the
Air Navigation Regulations.
OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS:
4
AQUILLA 582 SPECIFICATIONS
POWER PLANT
WING AREA
Rotax 582 – 64HP, 2 cylinder, 2 stroke,
liquid cooled, dual ignition
STD
MED
LG
14 square metres
15 square metres
16.5 square metres
WING SPAN
10.5 metres
EMPTY WEIGHT
195 kg’s
MAXIMUM ALL UP WEIGHT
450 kg’s
FUEL CAPACITY
50 litres
FUEL RATING
95 / 97 octane
PERFORMANCE
CLIMB RATE
Solo
Dual
6 mt/s
4 mt/s
STALL SPEED
Solo
Dual
50 kph
65 kph
FUEL CONSUMPTION
Solo
Dual
11 litres per hour
13 litres per hour
CRUISE SPEED
65 – 100 kph
MAXIMUM SPEED
140 kph
DEISGN LOADS – AQUILLA
- POSITVE
DESIGN LOADS - AQUILLA
- NEGATIVE
DESIGN LOADS – TOP LASS
- POSITIVE
DESIGN LOADS – TOP LASS
- NEGATIVE
LIMITING AND RECOMMENDED AIRSPEEDS
4 g’s
1.5 g’s
4 g’s
1.0 g’s
Best angle of climb
30 degrees
Best rate of climb
70 kph
Never exceed
140 kph
Stall with full load
60 kph
5
FLIGHT MANUAL
INTRODUCTION
We strongly recommend that you study this chapter of the manual as we feel that it could
increase your general awareness in the air.
Irrespective of your previous flying experience, unless that experience is already on a Trike,
do not attempt to fly the AQUILLA without first getting some dual instruction from a qualified
instructor. You must go through the process of getting your M.P.L.
TRIKE CONFIGURATION
It is controlled by weight shift on all three axes. The power is controlled by a foot throttle on
the right pedal and the choke and cruise throttle levers are under the seat on the left. The two
position ON / OFF switches are in the instrument pod. The front wheel brake can only be
operated from the front with the left foot.
The designated flight envelope of the AQUILLA excludes all aerobatics. This is defined as pitch
greater that 30 degrees and roll greater that 60 degrees. Pilots are urgently warned to ensure
that they fly the AQUILLA within the specified flight envelope.
SECURING YOUR UNATTENDED AQUILLA
We suggest you always carry extra bungee, rope and tie down pegs, you may not always
land next to your hangar, and it could prevent on of those “if only” stories. If your Trike is
left unattended, even for a short time, it should be parked side on to the wing with the
windward wingtip resting on the ground.
6
OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS
POINTS TO REMEMBER
-
The pilot must have his/her pilots licence with him in the aeroplane.
-
You must have an “Authority to Fly Certificate” (this document has different names in
different countries – such as “Microlight Flight Certificate” issued by the Civil Aviation
Authority of the country in which you reside and fly.
-
You cannot fly in controlled airspace or within the circuit area of any licensed airfield, or
above 1,000 ft agl unless the microlight is equipped with an approved VHF radio, a
sensitive altimeter, an air speed indicator, a compass and the pilot is in contact with ATC
and other air traffic.
-
Your aircraft needs to be maintained in accordance with the laws governing
maintenance of microlight aeroplanes.
-
You cannot fly at night or in IMC, nor fly over built up areas or over an open-air assembly
of persons.
-
Your aeroplane must be maintained as per the Air Navigation Regulations of your
country are met.
-
The Aeroplane Operators Manual and Airframe logbook, as required by your country’s
Aviation regulations, must be readily available at the time of operation and the pilot in
command must be conversant with its contents. The pilot must also be responsible for
recording the flying times in the airframe logbook after each flight.
7
MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS
Again, the following is a guide only, the requirements of your country’s Civil Aviation Authority
pertaining to the maintenance of microlight aeroplane takes precedence:
The owner is responsible for the serviceability of his microlight aeroplane and has to
-
ensure that it is in a fully serviceable condition prior to each flight.
An annual inspection of the microlight aeroplane must be carried out in accordance with
-
the Aeroplane Operators Manual by an appropriately licensed AMO, AME or Approved
Person at intervals not exceeding 12 months. The maintenance records of the microlight
aeroplane must be endorsed in the Airframe logbook and a signed form detailing the
inspection and maintenance record sent to the Civil Aviation Authority.
In addition to the annual inspection, microlight aeroplanes in the training category must
-
have inspections equivalent to annual inspections, every 50 flying hours.
NOTE:
The aeroplane may not in any way be modified without the prior approval of the CAA. The
approved modification or repair must be inspected and recorded in the Airframe Logbook by
an appropriately licensed AMO, AME or an Approved Person.
AEROPLANES USED FOR TRAINING
The following is a guide for microlight aeroplanes to by used for training.
-
The microlight is registered in the training category with the CAA.
-
The insurance is valid for training.
-
A suitable communication system between the instructor and the student must be
provided and maintained during training flights.
-
The microlight must have full dual controls.
-
The aeroplane must be inspected at 50 hour intervals as per the maintenance
requirements of the CAA.
ACCIDENTS AND INCIDENTS
All accidents and incidents as defined in the Air Navigation Regulations must be reported to the
CAA and Microlight Association of your country.
8
RIGGING PROCEDURE AQUILLA I
1.
Lay the wing bag on the ground with the zip facing up.
2.
Assemble the trapeze control bar and then turn the wing over.
3.
Now remove the wing bag.
4.
Insert the centre (nose) batten.
5.
Spread the leading edges.
6.
Ensure that the crossbar cables are on either side of the kingpost locating plug.
7.
Plug in the kingpost and hook the rear cable in place.
8.
Install the fixed washout tubes. These are attached to the tip of the leading edges
with bungee cord.
9.
Install the four half battens. These are top battens but are inserted under the sail. The
difference between these and the other curved battens are the tips which are the
same, front and rear. (Only applicable to Aquilla I wings)
10.
Install and attach the rest of the top battens.
11.
12.
Pull the crossbar retention cord rearwards and install bolt and wingnut to crossbar
cable. Use the first hole i.e. the loosest setting. Make sure cord is secure in the Velcro
pocket.
Lift the wing up and attach the nose cable
13.
Insert bottom battens. (Straight battens)
14.
Check over complete wing and leave nose down into the wind.
15.
Wheel the undercarriage in from the rear with the nose wheel rolling over the base bar.
16.
Attach Trike to the universal hang block
17.
Raise the nose until the keel is level. Velcro the nose cone in place.
18.
Chock rear wheels to ensure that the Trike does not roll backwards.
19.
Attach top of the airfoil tube to the U bracket on the pylon.
20. Grab base bar and lift the wing up until you can position the airfoil tube into its lower
U-bracket.
21.
Insert attachment pin to lower airfoil mount
NOW DO YOUR PRE-FLIGHT INSPECTION
9
RIGGING PROCEDURE – AQUILLA II
1.
Lay the wing bag on the ground with the zip facing up.
2.
Assemble the trapeze control bar and then turn the wing over.
3.
Now remove the wing bag.
4.
Insert the centre (nose) batten from the front
5.
Spread the leading edges.
6.
Ensure that the crossbar cables are on either side of the kingpost locating plug.
7.
Plug in the kingpost and hook the rear top cable in place.
8.
Install the washout tubes. These are attached near the tip of the leading edges
with bungee cord. You access them through the Velcro. You do nto need to loosen the
Velcro
much.
9.
Install and attach all of the top battens. The bungee cords are always tensioned double
i.e. top and bottom.
10.
11.
Pull the crossbar retention cord rearwards and install bolt and wingnut to crossbar
cable. Use the first hole i.e. the loosest setting. Make sure cord is secure in the Velcro
pocket.
Lift the wing up and attach the nose cable
12.
Insert bottom battens. (Straight battens)
12.
Check over complete wing and leave nose down into the wind.
13.
Wheel the undercarriage in from the rear with the nose wheel rolling over the base bar.
14.
Attach Trike to the universal hang block
15.
Raise the nose until the keel is level. Velcro the nose cone in place.
16.
Chock rear wheels to ensure that the Trike does not roll backwards.
17.
Attach top of the airfoil tube to the U bracket on the pylon.
18.
Grab base bar and lift the wing up until you can position the airfoil tube into its lower
U-bracket.
19.
Insert attachment pin to lower airfoil mount
NOW DO YOUR PRE-FLIGHT INSPECTION
10
RIGGING PROCEDURE – TOP LASS
Assembling the Top Lass wing from its bag
1.
Lay the wing on its back and open the bag.
2.
Assemble the trapeze with the wing nut on the corner.
3.
Assemble the two struts using the clevis pins on either corner of the trapeze.
4.
Turn it over and stand it on the trapeze.
5.
Insert the front cable at the nose
6.
Spread the wings open
7.
Insert the battens
8.
Level the wing and tension the spreader bar cable. Connect in place at the back of the
keel.
9.
Swivel the sprog and washout tubes into place.
Assembling the Top Lass wing from trailer
1.
Remove wing bags
2.
Open out wings
11
3.
Insert all the battens
4.
Insert washout tubes and attach the sprog tubes with velcro straps.
5.
Tension the spreader bar cable.
12
6.
Insert the front airfoil tube into the top U-bracket with its pin and lift the wing.
7.
Place the airfoil tube in the bottom U-bracket position and insert the pin.
8.
Insert the locating bolt through the lower pylon.
9.
Wheel off the trailer
NOW DO YOUR PRE-FLIGHT INSPECTION
13
PRE-FLIGHT INSPECTION
The pre-flight or visual exterior inspection is done before each and every flight. Spectators
as well as other pilots like to look, feel, touch your aircraft, usually when you are not
around! During the pre-flight inspection you need to make sure that nothing is missing or
out of place and that no-one has tampered with the aircraft.
To conduct the inspection in a manner that ensures that nothing is left out, get into a habit
of following a fixed routine. First break down the components or sections of the pre-flight
into small logical units and do a hands – on “touch and feel” check.
Checking out your aircraft is as important as checking out the weather. PLEASE
don’t ever become complacent about pre-flights.
NOSE WHEEL
1.
Check the tyre for wear and cuts also for proper inflation.
2.
Check foot throttle and foot brake assemblies for freedom of movement and cable wear.
3.
Check axle nut for security.
4.
Check if mudguard is secure.
5.
Check proper installation of pin and safety ring at the base of the airfoil upright.
6.
Check shock absorbers.
7.
Check brake
SEAT
1.
Check front and rear seat belts for security and also check mechanism.
2.
Check all seat attachment straps for security, wear and proper placement.
3.
Check front seat attachment clamps for security and wear.
4.
Check security of all nuts and bolts.
5.
Check hand throttle for friction and cable wear
6.
Check choke lever for friction and cable wear.
REAR WHEELS AND UNDERCARRIAGE
1.
Check the wheel nuts for security.
2.
Check tyres for proper inflation, wear and tear.
3.
Check all cables – those attached to the axles as well as the bolt.
4.
Check main axle tubes.
5.
Check mudguards for security and freedom of tyre movement.
14
PYLON
1.
Check the general condition of the pylon, look for cracks and elongation of hole.
2.
Check the front support attachment pin and ring.
3.
Check for free movement of hang point assembly and elongation of hangbolt hole.
4.
Check hinge point area for security, wear and tear – Brackets, bolts, locking bolt etc.
5.
Check that the safety cable between the pylon and the keel goes around the wing keel twice
and is in front of the wing hangblock. It must pass underneath the crossbar tensioning
cables.
WING
1.
Check front of nose batten is correctly located.
2.
Open the inspection zips and check that bolts and cables are secure.
3.
Run your hands down the leading edges to check for dents or irregularities.
4.
Check all cables for fraying and kinks.
5.
Check fixed washout tubes on wing tips are correctly located.
6.
Check all luff lines are secure and kingpost is in place (Does not apply to Top Lass)
7.
Check sprog tube & cable is correctly positioned with velcro secure (Top Lass only)
8.
Check all batten bungee cords are in place and not worn.
9.
Check crossbar tensioning rope is secure in pocket. (Does not apply to Top Lass)
10.
Check struts for straightness and security (Top Lass only)
11.
Open surface Velcro and check crossbar hinge point and cable attachment point.
12.
Check the trapeze tubes, corner fittings, attachment point and all brackets, bolts
13.
and nuts.
Check that the control bar and downtubes of the trapeze are perfectly straight.
14.
Check the hang point, safety cable and trapeze top joint are secure.
On the Aquilla II wing check the spreader bar restraining strap is securely velcroed in place.
This holds the spreader bar down in front of the trapeze bracket.
15.
Check sail for damage.
15
582 ROTAX ENGINE
1.
Check the engine bolts and rubbers for security and wear.
2.
Check engine mount cradle as well as bolts and nuts.
3.
Check fuel system. From tank to filter to carburettor. Check all tubes for wear, leaks and
to make sure they are secure.
4.
Check tank for water and contamination. Do not rely on filters.
5.
Check fuel valve and breather are clear and open.
6.
Check the complete electrical system, loose connections, worn wires and loose spark
plugs.
7.
Systematically check and feel all bolts and nuts for security and corrosion.
8.
Check the propeller for general condition, dents and dings, also ensure all 6 propeller
bolts are properly secured with lock nuts.
9.
Check the complete exhaust system, attachment bolts, springs, exhaust gaskets
(for leaks) and make sure springs are wired.
10.
Check carburettors are secure by moving them up and down on their mounting rubbers.
Check carburettor rubbers for perishing and cracks.
11.
Check radiator and all the mounting points, also check hoses for security, wear and tear.
NOW YOU ARE READY TO GO!!
But first do your Operation Check List
ENGINE START
-
Before allowing your passenger into the rear seat it is advisable to first warm up the
engine. Look around to ensure there are no onlookers, children, animals near to the
propeller.
-
Chock the rear and front wheels.
-
Apply full choke.
-
Make sure the throttle is properly closed.
-
Switch both ignition switches on
-
Loudly shout “prop clear”
-
Turn the ignition key.
-
Close the choke as the throttle is gently opened.
-
Check the operation of both ignition switches. At 3000rpm the engine should not loose
more than 300rpm when one ignition is switched off.
-
Warm the engine up for until the oil temperature is at least 50 degree celsius.
16
BEFORE TAKE OFF
- Check that the passenger is securely strapped in and that he has no loose items that
could fly into the propeller during flight. Ensure that his intercom, helmet and goggles
are secure.
-
Start the engine, let the aircraft move slowly forward and then check the brake.
-
Taxi the aircraft to a safe operating area.
-
Check the full and free movement of the universal joint between the trike and the wing
by moving the wing backwards and forwards and from side to side.
-
Check that the seat belts are securely fastened, including the back seat belt if there is no
passenger.
-
Ensure that the saddle bags are closed and that there are no other loose objects that
may fall into the propeller.
-
Do not move onto the runway until the engine has been running for at least 2 minutes
and is warm. Do a full power engine check for at least 10 seconds. Before doing the
power check look at what is behind the Aquilla so that something is not damaged or
blown away by the prop blast. Check in which direction the dust from the prop blast will
travel.
-
Check that the approaches to the runway are clear and that there is no traffic on final
approach.
-
Check wind direction and strength.
-
Check that the altimeter and other instruments are set correctly.
-
Again check the two ignition circuits by switching one off at a time.
-
Check you have sufficient fuel.
-
TAKE OFF
Re-check the wind direction
-
Rev the engine slowly up to full power against the brake and back down to idle.
-
Release the brake and rev the engine slowly up to full power for take off.
-
Keep the nose pointed straight down the runway by steering the nose wheel.
-
From the beginning of the take-off run, hold the control bar approximately 90% of the
way out i.e. about 8cm from the forward airfoil tube stop. This will ensure that the
aircraft becomes airborne at about 50 km/h. Once airborne let the control bar move
back to the neutral position and the Aquilla will climb out at approximately 70km/h. Do
not climb too steeply.
-
When all obstacles have been cleared, reduce the throttle setting as required.
17
CONTROLLING YOUR TRIKE
TAXIING
Once familiar with all the controls, your instructor will require that you become totally at home
with the nose wheel fork, brake and throttle controls for ground handling. The footrests are
attached directly to the nose wheel fork unit and the steering is thus similar to that of a
tricycle. The wheel follows the movement of your feet, i.e. the right foot forward for a left turn
and vice-versa. You need to be competent with the ground handling, as it is very important
during the take off and landing roll.
FLIGHT CONTROLS
The trike unit is attached to the wing by means of a universal joint, which is free to pivot in two
planes. The longitudinal movement (fore and aft) of the trike is used to control the Aquilla in
the pitching plane, and lateral movement for controlling the rolling plane. To be more specific,
by moving the wing control bar backwards the Aquilla’s nose is towards you. By pushing the
control bar away from you, the angle of attack increases with increased drag, resulting in a
decrease in airspeed.
Roll control is accomplished in a very similar fashion. To roll to the right is achieved by pushing
the control bar over to the left. When the required angle of bank has been established, the
wing must be centralised by moving the control bar back to the middle or neutral position.
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES
ENGINE STOPS, LOSES POWER OR RUNS ROUGHLY
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Don’t panic
Check terrain below for the best flat field or road.
Check for obstacles especially power lines.
Check wind direction.
Approach with a little more speed than usual.
Practice these landings over a large airfield regularly.
YOU GET CAUGHT IN A CLOUD
Don’t panic
Keep bar centralized and in neutral pitch
If there are any high obstacles around, climb.
If you have a compass or GPS use them to keep on a straight heading.
Your options are either to climb through and pop out above or find a clear area and
descend. These Trikes have flown over 30 minutes in cloud on many occasions so keep
your head and you’ll be fine. But never voluntarily go into cloud.
18
FLYING SAFELY
In the previous pages of this manual there seem to have been many “dire warnings” but in the
interests of your safety and because we really want to encourage fun safe flying we are
including a few more tips on how to keep flying for a long, long time.
In particular we would like to highlight what has proven to be one of the most dangerous
acrobatic manoeuvres:~
The Whipstall is defined as a stall break induced from an angle above 30 degrees. At the stall
break the wing will pitch down sharply and accelerate rapidly. The steeper the entry into this
break, the steeper the subsequent dive. A high whipstall where airspeed decays significantly
can lead to an irrecoverable situation. If the wing loses all airspeed at a high angle of attack, the
nose drops sharply and it accelerates forward. It can easily fly around the mass of the Trike unit
and occupants completely inverting the aircraft. If a whipstall is entered into by accident or
careless piloting, under no circumstances must the control bar be pulled back at the break or
immediately after the nose pitch – down recovery has begun. Action of this kind may turn a
survivable whipstall into a non survivable one. The correct approach is to hold the bar out past
the neutral position until the airspeed has built up, holding off the back pressure caused by the
nose rotating downward. Be ready for a very high forward pressure as the airspeed goes up
and the wing starts to recover. There is a chance of a second and steeper whipstall being
entered at the recovery of the first.
One way to prevent a second whipstall is to bank the aircraft as the speed starts to rapidly
decay after initial recovery. This will put you into a high-speed turn from which you should be
able to recover normal flight.
Operating aircraft at or beyond the limits of the flight envelope has severe limitations. It can
lead to loss of pilot control due to control error. (Trike inertia forces beyond the ability of the
pilot to counteract) or a host of other unknowns. As the design speeds of microlights increase,
so it is easier to fly outside the limits of the microlight. There is no reason why they should ever
be reached in safe and normal flight. To sum up: Unacceptable steep angles of attack after
shoot-ups or similar flight manoeuvres result in whipstalls and subsequent inversion of the
aircraft with resultant loss of flight control and possible structural failure.
19
MAINTENANCE MANUAL
RUNNING IN YOUR 582 ENGINE
It is advisable to run in your engine for at least one hour, avoid long climb outs at full power
and long periods of idling which will cause high temperatures. Circuit work is best for the
engine
at this time as you are running at various power settings.
JETTING
At sea level your Aquilla 582 will run best on standard main jet. If you are operating at higher
altitudes +-3 000 ft, then it is advisable to use the Rotax chart for selecting jet size.
FUEL
Use regular or premium unleaded car fuel. Avgas can be used.
OIL MIX RATIOS
Use a good quality two-stroke oil, the type recommended for high performance engines, and
mix 50:1 if not fitted with a separate oil feed. Be aware that synthetic and mineral oils do not
mix.
The gearbox oil we use is SAE 140.
SPARK PLUGS
We recommend NGK spark plugs – they are supplied as standard equipment by Rotax. Check
your engine manual for the grade of plug used for your engine.
FUEL FILTERS
Use diesel engine types. They have a nylon mesh filter element instead of a paper filter.
Check regularly – Dirty filters cause engine outs.
AIR FILTERS
Air filters can be washed with a mild detergent.
20
TROUBLE SHOOTING
Carburettor malfunctions can be identified by the following symptoms:~
FUEL / AIR MIX TOO RICH
1.
Engine noise is dull and intermittent.
2.
The condition grows worse when the engine is hot.
3.
The condition becomes worse when the choke is opened.
4.
The condition may improve slightly when the air filter is removed.
5.
Spark plugs become fouled.
6.
Exhaust gas is heavy
7.
Engine chokes when throttle is opened too quickly.
FUEL / AIR MIX TOO LEAN
1.
The engine becomes overheated.
2.
The condition improves when the choke is opened or the primer pump is operated.
3.
Acceleration is poor.
4.
Spark plugs burn whitish.
5.
The revolutions of the engine fluctuate and a lack of power is noticed.
6.
Engine backfires
If a carburettor is experiencing too rich or too lean fuel mix problems:~
1.
Check to see that the throttle is working properly.
2.
Disassemble and clean the carburettor.
3.
Clogged air or fuel passages are the usual cause of a rich or lean mix.
4.
If cleaning does not work – tuning may be necessary or new jets
5.
Check to see that one or both of the fuel chokes are not sticking.
If the fuel choke is sticking the motor will start but will run very rough. At idle it will cut out, on
removing plugs a quantity of fuel will run out of the plug hole and the plug will be full of fuel.
Excess play on the choke cable is an indication of which one is sticking.
21
ENGINE PROBLEM ISOLATION CHARTS
ENGINE DOES NOT START AND NO SPARK:~
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Switch not on or malfunction
Spark plugs fouled oiled or damaged
Plug cap damaged, leaking or shorted
High tension wires loose, grounded or
shorted
C.D unit faulty
1.
2.
3.
4.
Turn switch on or replace
Replace spark plugs
Replace plug cap
Service high tension wires / coils
5. Replace
ENGINE DOES NOT START – NO FUEL GETTING THROUGH:~
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Fuel tank empty
Cracked, broken or pinched fuel line
Fuel filter blocked
Obstructed or damaged fuel pump
Carburettor jets plugged or fuel pump
malfunctioning
Impulse line is cracked, broken or
pinched
Incorrect carb adjustment
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Fill tank with fuel
Replace fuel line
Replace fuel filter
Clean or replace fuel pump
Service the carburettor or fuel
pump
6. Replace the impulse line
7. Adjust carb
ENGINE STOPS GRADUALLY AFTER RUNNING:~
1.
2.
Obstruction in fuel tank or fuel filter
Fuel line obstructed or pinched
3.
Damaged head gasket
1. Clean or replace fuel filter
2. Remove obstruction, clear pinch
in line
3. Replace head gasket
ENGINE DOES NOT IDLE OR IDLE R.P.M FLUCTUATES:~
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Air screw adjusted incorrectly
Idle screw adjusted incorrectly
Defective fuel pump / valve
Impulse line cracked, kinked or broken
Oil seals leaking
Air leak (pressure check engine)
7.
Choke stuck
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Adjust air screw
Adjust idle screw
Service the fuel pump and check valve
Replace or repair impulse line
Replace oil seals
Disassemble and replace worn, defective
or damaged parts
7. Strip and clean out choke
22
ENGINE WILL NOT START – FUEL WILL NOT IGNITE:~
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Air leak between carburettor, silencer
seal or intake manifold
Carburettor adjusted incorrectly
Water in carburetor
Engine is flooded
No compression: worn or broken rings,
scored piston or damaged cylinder
Blown gasket head
1.
Tighten mounting bolt and nut
2. Re-adjust the carburettor
3. Disassemble and clean the carburettor
4. Turn switch off, remove spark plug and
dry. Crank the engine over 5 to 10 times.
Install spark plug and start engine, if it
continues to flood, check carburettor.
5. Check compression, replace worn or
damaged parts
6. Replace head gasket
ENGINE DEVELOPS POWER LOSS OR RUNS ONLY ON ONE CYLINDER:~
1.
2.
3.
1.
2.
3.
Replace spark plugs
Replace in-line filter
Clean exhaust ports
4.
5.
Fouled or defective spark plugs
In-line filter dirty or blocked
Excessive carbon build-up in exhaust
ports.
Damaged or worn rings
Low crankcase pressure
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Damaged piston
Damaged head gaskets
Broken (shorted) high tension leads
Defective spark plug caps
Cracked exhaust – low power
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Replace the rings
Check the crankcase for leaks, replace
oil seal or gasket.
Replace piston and related components
Replace head gasket
Replace complete ignition coil
Replace caps
Weld up crack
ENGINE OVERHEATS:~
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Incorrect spark plugs
Cooling radiators obstructed
Air leak between carburettor, intake
manifold and cylinders
Carburettor adjusted incorrectly
Excessive carbon deposits in combustion
Chamber, exhaust port or muffler
Low water levels
1. Install correct spark plugs
2. Clean radiators
3. Replace gaskets, tighten mounting
hardware
4. Re-adjust carburettor
5. Clean affected components
6. Fill up water in radiators with clean pure
water. Distilled or purified.
23
ENGINE BACKFIRES, HAS IRREGULAR RUNNING CONDITION:~
1.
2.
3.
4.
5
High tension lead wire shorting out
Fouled or incorrect spark plugs
(Heat range too hot)
Air leak between intake manifold and
cylinders
Air leak between intake manifold and
cylinders
Jets – incorrect or incorrectly installed
1. Replace complete ignition coil
2. Replace spark plugs or install spark
plugs having cooler heat range
3. Check carburettor manifold
rubbers for perishing
4. Install new intake manifold gaskets
5. Fit correct jets
ENGINE STOPS SUDDENLY AFTER RUNNING :~
1.
2.
Defective C.D unit / coil
Obstruction in fuel tank or fuel filter
3.
Fuel line obstructed or pinched
4.
5.
Spark plug bridged
Seized piston(s)
6.
Seized crankshaft
1. Replace
2. Clean fuel tank (should be done
regularly) or replace fuel filter
3. Remove obstruction or remove pinches
in fuel line
4. Replace spark plug
5. Replace piston and any affected
components
6. Replace crankshaft and any
affected components
24
AIRFRAME MAINTENANCE
RETIREMENT LIFE OF CRITICAL COMPONENTS
Replace the following components at the hours or number of landings (whichever comes first)
as indicated.
After the first 1000 hours and at every 500 hours thereafter, the entire undercarriage must be
stripped down for a complete inspection of every part. If components are corroded, the
replacement period must be shortened by 50%, and all bolts and nuts must also be replaced as
soon as excessive corrosion is noticed.
UNDERCARRIAGE
PART
HOURS
LANDINGS
Hang block
1 000
10 000
Pylon
1 000
10 000
Brake cable assembly
1 000
10 000
Throttle cable assembly
1 000
10 000
All hang bolts, nuts and rubbers
1 000
10 000
Boom
1 500
10 500
Rear shock tube
1 000
10 000
Prop bolts and nuts
1 000
10 000
Engine bracket
1 500
15 000
Engine mounting plate
1 000
10 000
Exhaust rubber mounts
1 000
10 000
Engine rubber mounts
1 000
10 000
Ignition switches and wiring
1 000
10 000
Seat side tubes
2 000
20 000
Rear axle
2 000
20 000
Choke cable assembly
2 000
30 000
Radiator mount rubbers
1 000
10 000
25
WING
PART
HOURS
LANDINGS
Wing sail
1 500
15 000
Leading edge tube
1 500
15 000
Keel
1 500
15 000
Crossbar
1 500
15 000
Upright
1 500
15 000
Control bar
1 500
15 000
All flying and landing cables
1 000
10 000
All bolts, pins and nuts
2 000
15 000
All brackets
2 000
15 000
Side struts (Top Lass)
1500
15 000
CABLES
For safety reasons all cables must be checked regularly and changed when necessary.
ONLY MANUFACTURER APPROVED CABLES MUST BE USED.
INSPECTION
ENGINE
PART
INSPECTION FREQUENCIES
Install new plugs
Every 50 hours
Lubricate throttle assembly and check adjustments
Every 50 hours
Check fuel filter
Every 50 hours
Check fuel line & hose clamps
Every 20 hours
Check ignition timing
Every 100 hour service
Clean carburettor bowl
Every 50 hours
Tighten exhaust manifold & all other bolts & nuts
First 10 hours, thereafter every 100 hours
26
ANNUAL INSPECTION
AIRFRAME
1.
Carefully inspect the undercarriage for general condition
2.
Check installed systems and components for proper installation, security, defects and
satisfactory functioning
3.
Check seats, safety belts and harness for wear and tear security
4.
Check engine and brake controls for correct installation, security of connections,
condition and proper operation
5.
Check front and rear wheels for general condition and security of attachment
6.
Check brakes for condition, correct adjustment and operation
7.
Check engine bracket for wear and stress
8.
Check radiator bracket and mounts for wear and tear.
9.
Check pylon, boom, airfoil and side brace tubes for dents and any deformities
10.
Check pylon hinge point
11.
Check hang point
WING
1.
Check all flying wires (Top Lass) and landing wires for wear, kinks, fraying and general
condition.
2.
Check the leading edges, crossbar, keel, stut (Top Lass) kingpost and trapeze bar tubes for
3.
4.
dents, cracks, corrosion, kinks and general deformities
Check fixed washout tubes & sprogs (Top Lass) for security, correct location and
attachment
Check all batten tension bungees on trailing edge of sail
5.
Check all brackets and plates for dents, bending and stress
6.
Check all battens for correct shape, attachment of batten end fittings and condition of
tubing
7.
Check the wing fabric for visual signs of ageing and ultra – violet damage. Check for
wear along the leading edges and especially at the tips. The wing fabric should be in
good enough condition to withstand a minimum of 50 lbs: inches with a fabric tester
8.
The sail trailing edge is an important structural component on the wing. There must be no
tears, or weak seams anywhere in this area. Any other part of the sail can be patched with
adhesive number cloth if the hole is not too big (up to 50mm long).
9.
Check all bolts and nuts for security and corrosion
27
ROTAX 582 POWER PLANTS
1.
Inspect the entire engine for evidence of oil and fuel leaks
2.
Check all studs, nuts and other fasteners for security, condition and correct torqueing
3.
Check the compression of all cylinders (minimum 6.0 kg/m/3)
4.
Check the engine shock mounts for condition, security and correct installation
5.
Check the complete exhaust system for security, cracks, wiring of springs and general
condition
6.
Check the engine controls for correct installation, operation, condition and security
7.
Check the carburettor air-intake filters for cleanliness, condition, security and correct
installation
8.
Check the ignition system for condition
9.
Check the complete fuel system including the tank, filters and fuel lines for security,
correct installation, freedom from leaks and functioning of components
10.
Check the propeller for condition. Check the bolts for wear and that they are correctly
locked and tightened
11.
Check the track of the propeller and adjust to correct if necessary
12.
Check the radiator, its mounting and hoses for correct installation, cracks and security.
ENGINE OPERATION
On completion of the annual inspection the engine should be run and the following
checks should be made:
1.
Check the carburretor mixture by inspecting the spark plugs after running the engine at
full power (for main jet check) and half power for needle height check. The correct
colour of the spark plug should be light brown
2.
The operation of all engine controls should be checked
3.
Check the operation of the starter mechanism
4.
Check security of battery and terminal connections
28
TUNING INSTRUCTION FOR AQUILLA WING
It is very important to achieve 100% trim with your wing. To check for this you need to fly level
hands off for about 10 seconds. There should be no tendency for the wing to pull to either side.
You may find that in smooth air and flying solo you can’t notice any turn. So to make absolutely
certain you need to fly with a passenger in some slight turbulence. This will bring out any
hidden turns.
To correct for a turn you will need a 10mm spanner and a 5mm allen key. On each wing tip is a
cap that can swivel, this is locked in position with a 6mm bolt. There is a black line drawn from
the leading edge tube to this cap.
If you find that the wing turns to the right - loosen the bolt and turn the cap anti clockwise and
re-lock the bolt. Do this on both tips left and right.
If the wing turns to the left – turn the caps clockwise.
If you have turned the caps as far as they can go and the turn in the wing is still there, then try
the following:~
Take the last 3 curved ribs from each wing tip. Increase the camber on the ribs on the wing side
that drops and decrease the camber on the ribs of the wing that is lifted too much.
We highly recommend your trim your wing as you will enjoy your flying so much more.
29
TRIMMING IN PITCH
Moving your hang block gives you a wide range of trim speeds. The ideal hands off trim speed
is 45 – 50 MPH (72 – 80 KPH).
If you move the block back it makes the Aircraft climb better but there is more bar pressure
when pulling in and roll is slower.
Moving the block forward increases trim speed with lighter pull in and roll pressures. If you
need more speed for a cross country flight this is the direction to move the hang point. It will
mean higher engine revs and fuel consumption.
Try different settings to suit varying weights and conditions.
Do not move more than one position at a time.
30
RECOMMENDED FACTORY JETTING
Main Jet
Idler Jet
Needle Jet
Jet Needle
Circlip position
Air Regulating Screw
(turns out)
503
Single carb
with intake
silencer
503
Single carb
w/out intake
silencer
503
Twin carb
with intake
silencer
503
Twin carb
w/out intake
silencer
532/582
Twin carb
with intake
silencer
532/582
Twin carb
w/out intake
silencer
165
45
2,70
15 k2
3
185
45
2,72
15 k2
3
148
45
2,68
11 k2
2
158
45
2,70
11 k2
2
145
55
2,68
15 k2
3
165
55
2,72
11 G2
3
0,5
0,5
1
0,5
1
1
MAIN JET CORRECTION CHART
Altitude – Ft. above sea
level
Ambient Temp C
0
10
15
20
30
0
1500
3000
4500
6000
7500
9000
1.01
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.99
1.00
0.99
0.99
0.98
0.97
0.98
0.97
0.97
0.97
0.96
0.97
0.96
0.96
0.95
0.94
0.95
0.95
0.94
0.94
0.93
0.94
0.93
0.93
0.93
0.92
0.93
0.92
0.92
0.91
0.90
Example:
Your 503 twin carb has a standard main jet 158 (which is correct for sea
level), if your altitude is 6000 ft. asl at an ambient temperature of 20 degree Celsius,
then multiply by the constant found in the chart 158 x .94 = 148.52
The nearest jet available is 148.
31
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