IPv6 Introduction and Configuration

IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
Front cover
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
Introduction to IPv6
IPv6 addressing and packet format
IPv6 host configuration
Sangam Racherla
Jason Daniel
ibm.com/redbooks
Redpaper
International Technical Support Organization
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
May 2012
REDP-4776-00
Note: Before using this information and the product it supports, read the information in “Notices” on page v.
First Edition (May 2012)
This edition applies to Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) implementation with Microsoft Windows Server 2008,
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.5, IBM AIX 5L V5.3, and VMware vSphere ESXi 5.0.
© Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 2012. All rights reserved.
Note to U.S. Government Users Restricted Rights -- Use, duplication or disclosure restricted by GSA ADP Schedule
Contract with IBM Corp.
Contents
Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .v
Trademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
The team who wrote this paper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii
Now you can become a published author, too! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii
Comments welcome. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii
Stay connected to IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii
Chapter 1. Internet Protocol version 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Introduction to IPv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
1.1.1 IPv6 features overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2 IPv6 header format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.2.1 Extension headers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.2.2 IPv6 addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
1.2.3 Traffic class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
1.2.4 Flow labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.2.5 IPv6 security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
1.2.6 Packet sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.3 DNS in IPv6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
1.3.1 Format of IPv6 resource records. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
1.4 DHCP in IPv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
1.4.1 DHCPv6 messages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
1.5 IPv6 mobility support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Chapter 2. Internet Control Message Protocol version 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1 ICMPv6 messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.1 Neighbor discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.1.2 Multicast Listener Discovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27
28
29
37
Chapter 3. Internet Protocol version 6 host configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1 Network topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 Microsoft Windows Server 2008 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.1 Stateless auto-configuration or DHCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.2 Static addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 5.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.1 Stateless auto-configuration or DHCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3.2 Static address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4 IBM AIX 5L V5300-006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.1 Stateless auto-configuration or DHCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.2 Static address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5 VMware vSphere ESXi 5.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.1 Enabling IPv6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.2 Configuring IPv6 on a standard virtual switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.3 Static address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Related publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Other publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2012. All rights reserved.
iii
Online resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Help from IBM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
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IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
Notices
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vi
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
Preface
Anyone who is involved with information technology knows that the Internet is running out of
IP addresses. The last block of Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) addresses was allocated in
2011. Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the replacement for IPv4, and it is designed to
address the depletion of IP addresses and change the way traffic is managed.
This IBM® Redpaper™ publication describes the concepts and architecture of IPv6 with a
focus on:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
An overview of IPv6 features
An examination of the IPv6 packet format
An explanation of additional IPv6 functions
A review of IPv6 mobility applications
This paper provides an introduction to Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) and
describes the functions of ICMP in an IPv6 network.
This paper also provides IPv6 configuration steps for the following clients:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
Microsoft Windows
Red Hat Enterprise Linux
IBM AIX®
VMware vSphere ESXi 5.0
After understanding the basics of IPv6 concepts and architecture, IT network professionals
will be able to use the procedures outlined in this paper to configure various host operating
systems to suit their network infrastructure.
The team who wrote this paper
This paper was produced by a team of specialists from around the world working at the
International Technical Support Organization, San Jose.
Sangam Racherla is an IT Specialist and Project Leader working at the ITSO in San Jose,
California. He has 12 years of experience in the IT field and has been with the ITSO for the
past eight years. Sangam has extensive experience in installing and supporting the ITSO lab
equipment for various IBM Redbooks® projects. He has expertise in working with Microsoft
Windows, Linux, IBM AIX, IBM System x®, IBM System p® servers, and various SAN and
storage products. Sangam holds a degree in electronics and communication engineering.
Jason Daniel is a Technical Support Representative working for IBM SAN Central Support
team in Raleigh, North Carolina. Jason has provided customer support for IBM hardware
since 1995 (IBM NHD), and in his current role, he provides technical support for Fiber
Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) environments. He also works with other IBM departments to
provide technical support for Ethernet-related issues for IBM Mid-Range Disk, System x
PE/PFE, and nSeries PE/PFE systems. He also manages the lab network used by several
IBM internal organizations in Raleigh.
Thanks to the following people for their contributions to this project:
Ann Lund, Jon Tate, David Watts
International Technical Support Organization, San Jose
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2012. All rights reserved.
vii
Nghiem V. Chu, Kam-Yee (Johnny) Chung, Michael Easterly, David Faircloth, Nathan
Flowers, Mario David Ganem, David Iles, Jeffery M. Jaurigui, Harry W. Lafnear, Lan T.
Nguyen, Tuan A. Nguyen, Pushkar B. Patil, William V. (Bill) Rogers, Rakesh Saha, Hector
Sanchez, Tim Shaughnessy, Selvaraj Venkatesan
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IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
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Preface
ix
x
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
1
Chapter 1.
Internet Protocol version 6
Anyone who is involved with information technology knows that the Internet is running out of
IP addresses. The last block of Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) addresses was allocated in
2011. Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the replacement for IPv4, and it is designed to
address the depletion of IP addresses and change the way traffic is managed.
This chapter describes the concepts and architecture of IPv6. This chapter includes the
following topics:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
An overview of IPv6 features
An examination of the IPv6 packet format
An explanation of additional IPv6 functions
A review of IPv6 mobility applications
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2012. All rights reserved.
1
1.1 Introduction to IPv6
The IPv4 addressing scheme, with a 32-bit address field, provides over 4,000,000,000
possible addresses, which seems more than adequate to the task of addressing all of the
hosts on the Internet. Unfortunately, this situation is not the case for a number of reasons,
for example:
򐂰 An IP address is divided into a network portion and a local portion, which are administered
separately. Although the address space within a network may be sparsely filled, allocating
a portion of the address space (range of IP addresses) to a particular administrative
domain makes all addresses within that range unavailable for
allocation elsewhere.
򐂰 The address space for networks is structured into Class A, B, and C networks of differing
sizes, and the space within each network needs to be considered separately.
򐂰 The IP addressing model requires that unique network numbers be assigned to all IP
networks, whether they are connected to the Internet.
򐂰 The growth of TCP/IP usage into new areas outside the traditional connected PC will
shortly result in a rapid explosion of demand for IP addresses. For example, widespread
use of TCP/IP for interconnecting hand-held devices, electronic point-of-sale terminals, or
web-enabled television receivers (all devices that are now available) will enormously
increase the number of IP hosts.
These factors mean that the IP address space is much more constrained than our simple
analysis indicates. This problem is called IP address exhaustion. Methods of relieving this
problem, such as the usage of Classless Inter Domain Routing (CIDR) and the increased
usage of Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), are already being employed to
relieve pressure on the IP address space.
Apart from IP address exhaustion, other restrictions in IPv4 also call for the definition of a new
IP protocol:
1. Even with the use of CIDR, routing tables, primarily in the IP backbone routers, are
growing too large to be manageable.
2. Traffic priority, or class of service, is vaguely defined, scarcely used, and not at all
enforced in IPv4, but highly desirable for modern real-time applications.
3. The number of mobile data applications and devices are growing quickly, and IPv4 has
difficulty in managing forwarding addresses and in realizing visitor-location
network authentication.
4. There is no direct security support in IPv4. Various open and proprietary security solutions
cause interoperability concerns. As the Internet is part of every day life, security
enhancements of the infrastructure should be placed into the basic IP protocol.
In view of these issues, the IETF established an IPng (IP next generation) working group to
make recommendations for the IP Next Generation Protocol. Eventually, the specification for
Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) was outlined in RFC 2460 - Internet Protocol, Version 6
(IPv6) specification as the latest version of the IP protocol.
2
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
1.1.1 IPv6 features overview
IPv6 offers the following significant features:
򐂰 A larger address space, which is said to be sufficient for at least the next 30 years
򐂰 Globally unique and hierarchical addressing, based on prefixes rather than address
classes, to keep routing tables small and backbone routing efficient
򐂰 A mechanism for the auto-configuration of network interfaces
򐂰 Support for encapsulation of itself and other protocols
򐂰 A class of service that distinguishes types of data
򐂰 Improved multicast routing support (in preference to broadcasting)
򐂰 Built-in authentication and encryption
򐂰 Transition methods to migrate from IPv4
򐂰 Compatibility methods to coexist and communicate with IPv4
Packet versus datagram: IPv6 uses the term packet rather than datagram. The
meaning is the same, although the formats are different.
IPv6 uses the term node for any system that runs IPv6, that is, a host or a router. An
IPv6 host is a node that does not forward IPv6 packets that are not explicitly addressed
to it. A router is a node that forwards IP packets not addressed to it.
1.2 IPv6 header format
The format of the IPv6 packet header is simplified from its counterpart in IPv4. The length of
the IPv6 header increases to 40 bytes (from 20 bytes) and contains two 16-byte addresses
(source and destination), preceded by 8 bytes of control information, as shown in Figure 1-1.
0
4
v e rs
12
16
tra ffic c la s s
24
31
flo w la b e l
p a ylo a d le n g th
nxt hdr
h o p lim it
s o u rc e a d d re s s
d e s tin a tio n a d d re s s
d a ta ....
Figure 1-1 IPv6 header format
Chapter 1. Internet Protocol version 6
3
The IPv4 header has two 4-byte addresses preceded by 12 bytes of control information and
possibly followed by option data. The reduction of the control information and the elimination
of options in the header for most IP packets optimizes the processing time per packet in a
router. The infrequently used fields removed from the header are moved to optional extension
headers when they are required.
In Figure 1-1 on page 3:
Vers
4-bit Internet Protocol version number: 6.
Traffic class
8-bit traffic class value. For more information, see 1.2.3, “Traffic class”
on page 14.
Flow label
20-bit field. For more information, see 1.2.4, “Flow labels” on page 15.
Payload length
The length of the packet in bytes (excluding this header) encoded as a
16-bit unsigned integer. If length is greater than 64 KB, this field is 0
and an option header (Jumbo Payload) gives the true length.
Next header
Indicates the type of header immediately following the basic IP header.
It can indicate an IP option header or an upper layer protocol. The
protocol numbers used are the same as the ones used in IPv4. The
next header field is also used to indicate the presence of extension
headers, which provide the mechanism for appending optional
information to the IPv6 packet. The following values appear in IPv6
packets, in addition to the values mentioned for IPv4:
41 Header
45
Interdomain Routing Protocol
46
Resource Reservation Protocol
58
IPv6 ICMP Packet
The following values are all extension headers:
0
Hop-by-Hop Options Header
43
IPv6 Routing Header
44
IPv6 Fragment Header
50
Encapsulating Security Payload
51
IPv6 Authentication Header
59
No Next Header
60
Destination Options Header
We describe different types of extension headers in 1.2.1, “Extension
headers” on page 5.
Hop limit
This field is similar to the IPv4 TTL field, but it is now measured in hops
and not seconds. It was changed for two reasons:
–
The IP protocol normally forwards datagrams faster than one hop
per second and the TTL field is always decremented on each hop,
so, in practice, it is measured in hops and not seconds.
–
Many IP implementations do not expire outstanding datagrams
based on elapsed time.
The packet is discarded after the hop limit is decremented to zero.
4
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
Source address
A 128-bit address. We describe IPv6 addresses in 1.2.2, “IPv6
addressing” on page 10.
Destination address A 128-bit address. We describe IPv6 addresses in 1.2.2, “IPv6
addressing” on page 10.
A comparison of the IPv4 and IPv6 header formats shows that a number of IPv4 header fields
have no direct equivalents in the IPv6 header:
򐂰 Type of service
Type of service issues in IPv6 are handled by using the flow concept, described in 1.2.4,
“Flow labels” on page 15.
򐂰 Identification, fragmentation flags, and fragment offset
Fragmented packets have an extension header rather than fragmentation information in
the IPv6 header. This configuration reduces the size of the basic IPv6 header, because
higher-level protocols, particularly TCP, tend to avoid fragmentation of datagrams (this
action reduces the IPv6 header processing costs for normal cases). IPv6 does not
fragment packets en route to their destinations, only at the source.
򐂰 Header checksum
Because transport protocols implement checksums, and because IPv6 includes an
optional authentication header that can also be used to ensure integrity, IPv6 does not
provide checksum monitoring of IP packets.
Both TCP and UDP include a pseudo-IP header in the checksums they use, so in these
cases, the IP header in IPv4 is being checked twice.
TCP and UDP, and any other protocols using the same checksum mechanisms that run
over IPv6, continue to use a pseudo-IP header, although the format of the pseudo-IPv6
header is different from the pseudo-IPv4 header. ICMP, IGMP, and any other protocols
that do not use a pseudo-IP header over IPv4 use a pseudo-IPv6 header in
their checksums.
򐂰 Options
All optional values associated with IPv6 packets are contained in extension headers,
ensuring that the basic IP header is always the same size.
1.2.1 Extension headers
Every IPv6 packet starts with the basic header. In most cases, this header is the only header
necessary to deliver the packet. Sometimes, however, it is necessary for additional
information to be conveyed along with the packet to the destination or to intermediate
systems on route (information that would previously been carried in the Options field in an
IPv4 datagram). Extension headers are used for this purpose.
Extension headers are placed immediately after the IPv6 basic packet header and are
counted as part of the payload length. Each extension header (except for 59) has its own 8-bit
Next Header field as the first byte of the header that identifies the type of the following
header. This structure allows IPv6 to chain multiple extension headers together.
Chapter 1. Internet Protocol version 6
5
Figure 1-2 shows an example packet with multiple extension headers.
0
4
vers
12
16
traffic class
payload length
24
31
flow label
nxt hdr: 0
hop limit
source address
destination address
nxt hdr: 43
hdr length
hop-by-hop options
nxt hdr: 44
hdr length
routing information
nxt hdr: 51
reserved
fragment offset
M
fragment identification
nxt hdr: 6
hdr length
authentication data
TCP header and data
Figure 1-2 IPv6 packet that contains multiple extension headers
The length of each header varies, depending on type, but is always a multiple of 8 bytes.
There are a limited number of IPv6 extension headers, any one of which can be present only
once in the IPv6 packet (except for the Destination Options Header, 60, which can appear
more than once). IPv6 nodes that originate packets are required to place extension headers
in a specific order (numeric order, except for 60), although IPv6 nodes that receive packets
are not required to verify that order. The order is important for efficient processing at
intermediate routers. Routers are generally only interested in the hop-by-hop options and the
routing header. After the router reads the options and header, it does not need to read further
in the packet and can immediately forward the packet. When the Next Header field contains a
value other than one for an extension header, this value indicates the end of the IPv6 headers
and the start of the higher-level protocol data.
IPv6 allows for the encapsulation of IPv6 within IPv6 (tunneling). This activity is done by
using a Next Header value of 41 (IPv6). The encapsulated IPv6 packet can have its own
extension headers. Because the size of a packet is calculated by the originating node to
match the path MTU, IPv6 routers should not add extension headers to a packet. Instead,
IPv6 routers should encapsulate the received packet within an IPv6 packet of their own
making (which can be fragmented if necessary).
6
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
Except for the hop-by-hop header (which must immediately follow the IP header if it is
present), extension headers are not processed by any router on the packet's path except the
final one.
Hop-by-hop header
A hop-by-hop header contains options that must be examined by every node the packet
traverses, as well as the destination node. It must immediately follow the IPv6 header (if
present) and is identified by the special value 0 in the Next Header field of the IPv6 basic
header. (This value is not actually a protocol number, but a special case to identify this unique
type of extension header).
Hop-by-hop headers contain variable length options of the format shown in Figure 1-3
(commonly known as the Type-Length-Value (TLV) format).
//
type
length
value
//
Figure 1-3 IPv6 Type-Length-Value (TLV) option format
Where:
Type
The type of the option. The option types all have a common format
(Figure 1-4).
t y p
0
1
x x
e
l e
2
n
g
3
t h
v a
4
5
6
l u
/
/
/
/
e
7
z z z z z
y
Figure 1-4 IPv6 Type-Length-Value (TLV) option type format
Where:
xx
A 2-bit number, indicating how an IPv6 node that does not
recognize the option should treat it:
0
Skip the option and continue.
1
Discard the packet quietly.
2
Discard the packet and inform the sender with an
ICMP Unrecognized Type message.
3
Discard the packet and inform the sender with an
ICMP Unrecognized Type message unless the
destination address is a multicast address.
Chapter 1. Internet Protocol version 6
7
y
If set, this bit indicates that the value of the option might
change en route. If this bit is set, the entire Option Data
field is excluded from any integrity calculations performed
on the packet.
zzzzz
The remaining bits define the option:
0
Pad1
1
PadN
194
Jumbo Payload Length
Length
The length of the option value field in bytes.
Value
The value of the option. This value depends on the type.
Hop-by-hop header option types
Each extension header is an integer multiple of 8 bytes long. This arrangement allows 8-byte
alignment for subsequent headers. This arrangement is used because processing is much
more efficient if multibyte values are positioned on natural boundaries in memory (and today's
processors have natural word sizes of 32 or 64 bits).
In the same way, individual options are also aligned so that multibyte values are positioned on
their natural boundaries. In many cases, this positioning results in the option headers being
longer than otherwise necessary, but still allow nodes to process packets more quickly. To
allow this alignment, two padding options are used in hop-by-hop headers:
Pad1
An X'00' byte used for padding a single byte. For longer padding sequences, use
the PadN option.
PadN
An option in the TLV format (see Figure 1-4 on page 7). The length byte gives the
number of bytes of padding after the minimum two that are required.
The third option type in a hop-by-hop header is the Jumbo Payload Length. This option is
used to indicate a packet with a payload size in excess of 65,535 bytes (which is the
maximum size that can be specified by the 16-bit Payload Length field in the IPv6 basic
header). When this option is used, the Payload Length in the basic header must be set to
zero. This option carries the total packet size, less the 40-byte basic header. For details,
see Figure 1-5.
0
8
16
24
type= C2
31
length=4
Jumbo Payload Length
Figure 1-5 Jumbo Payload Length option
Routing header
The path that a packet takes through the network is normally determined by the network itself.
Sometimes, however, the source wants more control over the route taken by the packet. It
might want, for example, for certain data to take a slower but more secure route than would
normally be taken.
8
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
The routing header (see Figure 1-6) allows a path through the network to be predefined. The
routing header is identified by the value 43 in the preceding Next Header field. It has its Next
Header field as the first byte and a single-byte routing type as the second byte. The only type
defined initially is type 0, strict/loose source routing, which operates in a similar way to source
routing in IPv4.
0
8
next hdr
16
hdr length
24
type
31
addrs left
reserved
address[0]
address[1]
...
//
//
address[n-1]
Figure 1-6 IPv6 routing header
In Figure 1-6:
Next hdr
The type of header after this one.
Hdr length
Length of this routing header, not including the first 8 bytes.
Type
Type of routing header. Currently, this field can have only the value 0,
meaning strict/loose source routing.
Segments left
Number of route segments that remain, that is, number of explicitly
listed intermediate nodes still to be visited before reaching the
final destination.
Address 1..n
A series of 16-byte IPv6 addresses that make up the source route.
The first hop on the required path of the packet is indicated by the destination address in the
basic header of the packet. When the packet arrives at this address, the router swaps the next
address from the router extension header with the destination address in the basic header.
The router also decrements the segments left field by one, and then forwards the packet.
Fragment header
The source node determines the maximum transmission unit or MTU for a path before
sending a packet. If the packet to be sent is larger than the MTU, the packet is divided into
pieces, each of which is a multiple of 8 bytes and carries a fragment header. We provide
details about the fragmentation header in “IPv6 packet fragmentation” on page 19.
Authentication header
The authentication header is used to ensure that a received packet is not altered in transit
and that it really came from the claimed sender. The authentication header is identified by the
value 51 in the preceding Next Header field. For the format of the authentication header and
further details about authentication, see 1.2.5, “IPv6 security” on page 15.
Chapter 1. Internet Protocol version 6
9
Encapsulating Security Payload
The Encapsulated Security Payload (ESP) is a special extension header, in that it can appear
anywhere in a packet between the basic header and the upper layer protocol. All data that
follows the ESP header is encrypted. For more details, see 1.2.5, “IPv6 security” on page 15.
Destination options header
This header has the same format as the hop-by-hop header, but it is only examined by the
destination node or nodes. Normally, the destination options are only intended for the final
destination only and the destination options header is immediately before the upper-layer
header. However, destination options can also be intended for intermediate nodes, in which
case, they must precede a routing header. A single packet can, therefore, include two
destination options headers. Currently, only the Pad1 and PadN types of options are
specified for this header (see “Hop-by-hop header” on page 7). The value for the preceding
Next Header field is 60.
1.2.2 IPv6 addressing
The IPv6 address protocol is specified in RFC 4291 – IPv6 Address Architecture. IPv6 uses a
128-bit address instead of the 32-bit address of IPv4. That theoretically allows for as many as
340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 addresses. Even when used with
the same efficiency as today's IPv4 address space, that still allows for 50,000 addresses per
square meter of land on Earth.
The IPv6 address protocol provides flexibility and scalability:
򐂰 It allows multilevel subnetting and allocation from a global backbone to an individual
subnet within an organization.
򐂰 It improves multicast scalability and efficiency through scope constraints.
򐂰 It adds an address for server node clusters, where one server can respond to a request to
a group of nodes.
򐂰 The large IPv6 address space is organized into a hierarchical structure to reduce the size
of backbone routing tables.
IPv6 addresses are represented in the form of eight hexadecimal numbers divided by colons,
for example:
FE80:0000:0000:0000:0001:0800:23E:F5DB
To shorten the notation of addresses, leading zeros in any of the groups can be omitted, for
example:
FE80:0:0:0:1:800:23E7:F5DB
Finally, a group of all zeros, or consecutive groups of all zeros, can be substituted by a double
colon, for example:
FE80::1:800:23E7:F5DB
Double colons: The double colon shortcut can be used only once in the notation of an
IPv6 address. If there are more groups of all zeros that are not consecutive, only one
can be substituted by the double colon; the others must be noted as 0.
The IPv6 address space is organized by using format prefixes, similar to telephone country
and area codes, that logically divide it in the form of a tree so that a route from one network to
another can easily be found.
10
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
Table 1-1shows the prefixes that are assigned so far.
Table 1-1 IPv6 - format prefix allocation
Allocation
Prefix (bin)
Start of
address
range (hex)
Mask length
(bits)
Fraction of
address
space
Reserved
0000 0000
0:: /8
8
1/256
Reserved for
NSAP
0000 001
200:: /7
7
1/128
Reserved for
IPX
0000 010
400:: /7
7
1/128
Aggregatable
global unicast
addresses
001
2000:: /3
3
1/8
Link-local
unicast
1111 1110 10
FE80:: /10
10
1/1024
Site-local
unicast
1111 1110 11
FEC0:: /10
10
1/1024
Multicast
1111 1111
FF00:: /8
8
1/256
Total
allocation
15%
In the following sections, we describe the types of addresses that IPv6 defines.
Unicast address
A unicast address is an identifier assigned to a single interface. Packets sent to that address
are delivered only to that interface. Special purpose unicast addresses are defined as follows:
򐂰 Loopback address (::1): This address is assigned to a virtual interface over which a host
can send packets only to itself. It is equivalent to the IPv4 loopback address 127.0.0.1.
򐂰 Unspecified address (::):This address is used as a source address by hosts while
performing auto-configuration. It is equivalent to the IPv4 unspecified address 0.0.0.0.
򐂰 IPv4-compatible address (::<IPv4_address>): Addresses of this kind are used when IPv6
traffic needs to be tunneled across existing IPv4 networks. The endpoint of such tunnels
can be either hosts (automatic tunneling) or routers (configured tunneling).
IPv4-compatible addresses are formed by placing 96 bits of zero in front of a valid 32-bit
IPv4 address. For example, the address 1.2.3.4 (hex 01.02.03.04) becomes ::0102:0304.
򐂰 IPv4-mapped address (::FFFF:<IPv4_address>): Addresses of this kind are used when an
IPv6 host needs to communicate with an IPv4 host. This address requires a dual stack
host or router for header translations. For example, if an IPv6 node wants to send data to
host with an IPv4 address of 1.2.3.4, it uses a destination address of ::FFFF:0102:0304.
򐂰 Link-local address: Addresses of this kind can be used only on the physical network to
which a host's interface is attached.
򐂰 Site-local address: Addresses of this kind cannot be routed into the Internet. They are the
equivalent of IPv4 networks for private use (10.0.0.0, 176.16.0.0-176.31.0.0, and
192.168.0.0-192.168.255.0).
Chapter 1. Internet Protocol version 6
11
Global unicast address format
IPv6 unicast addresses are aggregatable with prefixes of arbitrary bit-length, similar to IPv4
addresses under Classless Inter-Domain Routing.
The latest global unicast address format, as specified in RFC 4291 – IPv6 Address
Architecture and RFC 3587 – IPv6 Global Unicast Address Format, is expected to become
the predominant format used for IPv6 nodes connected to the Internet.
Unicast format: This note is intended for readers who worked on the previous unicast
format. For new readers, you can skip this special note.
The historical IPv6 unicast address used a two-level allocation scheme that has been
replaced by a coordinated allocation policy defined by the Regional Internet Registries
(RIRs). There are two reasons for this major change:
򐂰 Part of the motivation for obsoleting the old TLA/NLA structure is technical; for
example, there is concern that TLA/NLA is not the technically best approach at this
stage of the deployment of IPv6.
򐂰 Another part of the reason for new allocation of IPv6 addresses is related to policy and
to the stewardship of the IP address space and routing table size, which the RIRs
manage for IPv4.
The Subnet Local Aggregator (SLA) field in the original Unicast Address Structure remains
in function, but with a different name called “subnet ID”.
Figure 1-7 shows the general format for IPv6 global unicast addresses.
<
n bits
><
Global Routing Prefix
m bits
Subnet ID
> <
128-n-m bits
>
Interface ID
Figure 1-7 Global unicast address format
Where:
Global Routing Prefix
A value assigned to a site for a cluster of subnets/links. The global
routing prefix is structured hierarchically by the RIRs and ISPs.
Subnet ID
An identifier of a subnet within the site. The subnet field is
structured hierarchically by site administrators.
Interface ID
Interface identifiers in IPv6 unicast addresses are used to identify
interfaces on a link. They are required to be unique within a subnet
prefix. Do not assign the same interface identifier to different nodes
on a link. They can also be unique over a broader scope. In some
cases, an interface's identifier is derived directly from that
interface's link layer address. The same interface identifier can be
used on multiple interfaces on a single node if they are attached to
different subnets.
All unicast addresses, except the addresses that start with binary value 000, have interface
IDs that are 64 bits long and constructed in Modified EUI-64 format.
12
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
Multicast address
A multicast address is an identifier assigned to a set of interfaces on multiple hosts. Packets
sent to that address are delivered to all interfaces corresponding to that address. There are
no broadcast addresses in IPv6, their function being superseded by multicast addresses.
Figure 1-8 shows the format of an IPv6 multicast address.
0
8
FP
12
16
127
Group ID
Flags Scope
Figure 1-8 IPv6 multicast address format
Where:
FP
Format Prefix: 1111 1111.
Flags
Set of four flag bits. Only the low-order bit currently has any meaning,
as follows:
Scope
Group ID
0000
Permanent address assigned by a numbering authority.
0001
Transient address. Addresses of this kind can be established
by applications as required. When the application ends, the
address is released by the application and can be reused.
4-bit value that indicates the scope of the multicast. Possible
values are:
0
Reserved.
1
Confined to interfaces on the local node (node-local).
2
Confined to nodes on the local link (link-local).
5
Confined to the local site.
8
Confined to the organization.
E
Global scope.
F
Reserved.
Identifies the multicast group.
For example, if the NTP servers group is assigned a permanent multicast address, with a
group ID of &hex.101, then:
򐂰 FF02::101 means that all NTP servers are on the same link as the sender.
򐂰 FF05::101 means that all NTP servers are on the same site as the sender.
Certain special purpose multicast addresses are predefined as follows:
FF01::1
All interfaces are node-local. Defines all interfaces on the host itself.
FF02::1
All nodes are link-local. Defines all systems on the local network.
FF01::2
All routers are node-local. Defines all routers local to the host itself.
FF02::2
All routers are link-local. Defines all routers on the same link as
the host.
FF05::2
All routers are site-local. Defines all routers on the same site as
the host.
Chapter 1. Internet Protocol version 6
13
FF02::B
Mobile agents are link-local.
FF02::1:2
All DHCP agents are link-local.
FF05::1:3
All DHCP servers are site-local.
For a complete listing of reserved multicast addresses, see the IANA documentation– IPv6
Multicast Addresses (Assignments). That document also defines a special multicast address
known as the solicited node address, which has the format FF02::1:FFxx:xxxx, where xx xxxx
is taken from the last 24 bits of a node’s unicast address. For example, the node with an IPv6
address of 4025::01:800:100F:7B5B belongs to the multicast group FF02::1:FF 0F:7B5B.
The solicited node address is used by ICMP for neighbor discovery and to detect duplicate
addresses.
Anycast address
An anycast address is a special type of unicast address that is assigned to interfaces on
multiple hosts. Packets sent to such an address are delivered to the nearest interface with
that address. Routers determine the nearest interface based upon their definition of distance,
for example, hops in case of RIP or link state in case of OSPF.
Anycast addresses use the same format as unicast addresses and are indistinguishable from
them. However, a node that is assigned an anycast address must be configured to be aware
of this fact.
RFC 4291 – IPv6 Address Architecture currently specifies the following restrictions on
anycast addresses:
򐂰 An anycast address must not be used as the source address of a packet.
򐂰 Any anycast address can be assigned only to a router.
A special anycast address, the subnet-router address, is predefined. This address consists of
the subnet prefix for a particular subnet followed by trailing zeros. This address can be used
when a node needs to contact a router on a particular subnet and it does not matter which
router is reached (for example, when a mobile node needs to communicate with one of the
mobile agents on its “home” subnet).
1.2.3 Traffic class
The 8-bit traffic class field allows applications to specify a certain priority for the traffic they
generate, thus introducing the concept of class of service. This concept enables the
prioritization of packets, as in Differentiated Services.
The structure of the traffic class field is illustrated in Figure 1-9
0
5 6
DSCP
Figure 1-9 Traffic class field
14
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
7
ECN
Where:
DSCP
Differentiated Services Code Point (6 bits)
It provides various code sets to mark the per-hop behavior for a packet that
belongs to a service class.
ECN
Explicit Congestion Notification (2 bits)
It allows routers to set congestion indications instead of dropping the packets.
This configuration avoids delays in retransmissions, while allowing active
queuing management.
1.2.4 Flow labels
IPv6 introduces the concept of a flow, which is a series of related packets from a source to a
destination that requires a particular type of handling by the intervening routers, for example,
real-time service. The nature of that handling can either be conveyed by options attached to
the datagrams (that is, by using the IPv6 hop-by-hop options header) or by a separate
protocol (such as Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP)).
All packets that belong to the same flow must be sent with the same source address,
destination address, and flow label. The handling requirement for a particular flow label is
known as the state information, which is cached at the router. When packets with a known
flow label arrive at the router, the router can efficiently decide how to route and forward the
packets without needing to examine the rest of the header for each packet.
The maximum lifetime of any flow-handling state established along a flow's path must be
specified as part of the description of the state-establishment mechanism, for example, the
resource reservation protocol or the flow-setup hop-by-hop option. A source must not reuse a
flow label for a new flow within the maximum lifetime of any flow-handling state that might be
established for the prior use of that flow label.
There can be multiple active flows between a source and a destination, as well as traffic that
is not associated with any flow. Each flow is distinctly labeled by the 24-bit flow label field in
the IPv6 packet. A flow is uniquely identified by the combination of a source address and a
non-zero flow label. Packets that do not belong to a flow carry a flow label of zero.
A flow label is assigned to a flow by the flow's source node. New flow labels must be chosen
(pseudo-)randomly and uniformly from the range 1 to FFFFF hex. The purpose of the random
allocation is to make any set of bits within the Flow Label field suitable for use as a hash key
by routers for looking up the state associated with the flow.
See RFC 3697 - IPv6 Flow Label Specification for further details about the use of the flow
label.
1.2.5 IPv6 security
There are two optional headers defined for security purposes:
򐂰 Authentication Header (AH)
򐂰 Encapsulated Security Payload (ESP)
AH and ESP in IPv6 support authentication, data integrity, and (optionally) confidentiality. AH
conveys the authentication information in an IP package, while ESP carries the encrypted
data of the IP package.
Chapter 1. Internet Protocol version 6
15
Either or both headers can be implemented alone or combined to achieve different levels of
user security requirements. They can also be combined with other optional headers to
provision security features. For example, a routing header can be used to list the intermediate
secure nodes for a packet to visit on the way, thus allowing the packet to travel only through
secure routers.
IPv6 requires support for IPSec as a mandatory standard. This mandate provides a
standards-based solution for network security needs and promotes interoperability.
Authentication header
The authentication header is used to ensure that a received packet has not been altered in
transit and that it really came from the claimed sender (Figure 1-10). The authentication
header is identified by the value 51 in the preceding Next Header field. The format of the
authentication header and further details are specified in RFC 4302 - IP
Authentication Header.
Security Parameters Index (SPI)
Sequence Number (SN) Field
Integrity Check Value-ICV
Figure 1-10 IPV6 security authentication header
Where:
Security Parameters Index (SPI)
The SPI is an arbitrary 32-bit value that is
used by a receiver to identify the Security
Association (SA) to which an incoming
packet is bound.
For a unicast SA, the SPI can be used by
itself to specify an SA, or it can be used in
conjunction with the IPSec protocol type
(in this case, AH).The SPI field is
mandatory. Traffic to unicast SAs
described earlier must be supported by all
AH implementations.
If an IPSec implementation supports
multicast, it must support multicast SAs by
using a special de-multiplexing algorithm.
Sequence Number
16
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
This unsigned 32-bit field contains a
counter value that increases by one for
each packet sent, that is, a per-SA packet
sequence number.
For a unicast SA or a single-sender
multicast SA, the sender must increment
this field for every transmitted packet.
Sharing an SA among multiple senders is
permitted, though generally
not recommended.
The field is mandatory and must always
be present even if the receiver does not
elect to enable the anti-replay service for a
specific SA. Processing of the Sequence
Number field is at the discretion of the
receiver, but all AH implementations must
be capable of performing the processing,
Thus, the sender must always transmit
this field, but the receiver does not need to
act upon it.
The sender's counter and the receiver's
counter are initialized to 0 when an SA is
established. The first packet sent by using
an SA has a sequence number of 1; if
anti-replay is enabled (the default), the
transmitted sequence number must never
be allowed to cycle. Therefore, the
sender's counter and the receiver's
counter must be reset (by establishing a
new SA and thus a new key) before the
transmission of the 232 packet on an SA.
Extended (64-bit) Sequence Number (ESN)
To support high-speed IPSec
implementations, a new option for
sequence numbers should be offered, as
an extension to the current, 32-bit
sequence number field. Use of an
Extended Sequence Number (ESN) must
be negotiated by an SA management
protocol. The ESN feature is applicable to
multicast as well as unicast SAs.
Integrity Check Value (ICV)
This field is a variable-length field that
contains the Integrity Check Value (ICV)
for this packet. The field must be an
integral multiple of 32 bits (IPv4 or IPv6) in
length. All implementations must support
such padding and must insert only enough
padding to satisfy the IPv4/IPv6 alignment
requirements.
Chapter 1. Internet Protocol version 6
17
Encapsulating Security Payload
The Encapsulated Security Payload (ESP) is defined in RFC 4303 - IP Encapsulating
Security Payload (ESP). All data that follows the ESP header is encrypted. Figure 1-11
illustrates the ESP structure with the additional field explained after the figure.
Security Parameters Index (SPI)
Sequence Number Field
Payload
Padding
Next Header
Length
Integrity Check Value-ICV
Figure 1-11 IPv6 ESP
The packet begins with the Security Parameters Index (SPI) and Sequence Number (SN).
Following these fields is the Payload Data, which has a substructure that depends on the
choice of encryption algorithm and mode and on the usage of TFC padding. Payload Data is
a variable-length field that contain data (from the original IP packet). It is a mandatory field
and is an integral number of bytes in length. Following the Payload Data are Padding and
Pad Length fields and the Next Header field. The optional Integrity Check Value (ICV) field
completes the packet.
If the algorithm used to encrypt the payload requires cryptographic synchronization data, for
example, an Initialization Vector (IV), this data is carried in the Payload field.
Any encryption algorithm that requires an explicit, per-packet synchronization data must
indicate the length, any structure for such data, and the location of this data.
If such synchronization data is implicit, the algorithm for deriving the data must be part of the
algorithm definition.
The beginning of the next layer protocol header must be aligned relative to the beginning of
the ESP header. For IPv6, the alignment is a multiple of 8 bytes.
1.2.6 Packet sizes
All IPv6 nodes are expected to dynamically determine the maximum transmission unit (MTU)
supported by all links along a path (as described in RFC 1191 – Path MTU Discovery) and
source nodes send only packets that do not exceed the path MTU. IPv6 routers, therefore, do
not have to fragment packets in the middle of multihop routes, which allows for much more
efficient use of paths that traverse diverse physical transmission media. IPv6 requires that
every link supports an MTU of 1280 bytes or greater.
18
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
IPv6 packet fragmentation
The source node determines the MTU for a path before sending a packet. If the packet sent is
larger than the MTU, the packet is divided into pieces, each of which is a multiple of 8 bytes
and carries a fragment header. The fragment header is identified by the value 44 in the
preceding Next Header field and has the following format (Figure 1-12).
0
8
next hdr
16
hdr length
24
type
31
segments
left
reserved
address[0]
address[1]
...
//
//
address[n-1]
Figure 1-12 IPv6 fragment header
Where:
Nxt hdr
The type of next header after this one.
Reserved
8-bit reserved field; initialized to zero for transmission and
ignored on reception.
Fragment offset
A 13-bit unsigned integer that gives the offset, in 8-byte units, of
the following data relative to the start of the original data before it
was fragmented.
Res
2-bit reserved field; initialized to zero for transmission and
ignored on reception.
M
More flag. If set, it indicates that this fragment is not the last one.
Fragment identification
This identifier is an unambiguous identifier used to identify
fragments of the same datagram. It is similar to the IPv4 Identifier
field, but it is twice as wide.
1.3 DNS in IPv6
With the introduction of 128-bit addresses, IPv6 makes it even more difficult for the network
user to be able to identify another network user with the IP address of the user’s network
device. The use of the Domain Name System (DNS) therefore becomes even more of
a necessity.
Chapter 1. Internet Protocol version 6
19
A number of extensions to DNS are specified to support the storage and retrieval of IPv6
addresses. These extensions are defined in RFC 3596 – DNS Extensions to Support IP
Version 6, which is a proposed standard with elective status. However, there is also work in
progress on usability enhancements to this RFC, described in an Internet draft of the
same name.
The following extensions are specified:
򐂰 A new resource record type, AAAA, which maps the domain name to the IPv6 address
򐂰 A new domain, which is used to support address-to-domain name lookups
򐂰 A change to the definition of existing queries so that they perform correct processing on
both A and AAAA record types
1.3.1 Format of IPv6 resource records
RFC 3596 – DNS Extensions to Support IP Version 6 defines the format of the AAAA record
as similar to an A resource record, but with the 128-bit IPv6 address encoded in the data
section and a Type value of 28 (decimal).
A special domain, IP6.INT, is defined for inverse (address-to-host name) lookups (similar to
the in-addr.arpa domain used in IPv4). As in IPv4, the address must be entered in reverse
order, but hexadecimal digits are used rather than decimal notation.
For example, for the IPv6 address 2222:0:1:2:3:4:5678:9ABC, the inverse domain name
entry is:
c.b.a.9.8.7.6.5.4.0.0.0.3.0.0.0.2.0.0.0.1.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.2.2.2.2.IP6.INT.
So, if the previous address relates to the node ND1.test.com, we might expect to see the
following entries in the name server zone data:
$origin test.com.
ND1
99999 IN AAAA 2222:0:1:2:3:4:5678:9ABC
cba98765400030002000100000002222.IP6.INT. IN
PTR ND1 1
Proposed changes to resource records
The IPv6 addressing system is designed to allow for multiple addresses on a single interface
and to facilitate address renumbering (for example, when a company changes one of its
service providers). RFC 3596 – DNS Extensions to Support IP Version 6 proposes changes
to the format of the AAAA resource record to simplify network renumbering.
The proposed format of the data section of the AAAA record is shown in Figure 1-13.
IPv6 address
P
domain name
Figure 1-13 AAAA resource record - proposed data format
1
20
All characters making up the reversed IPv6 address in this PTR entry should be separated by a period(.). These
periods are omitted in this example for clarity.
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
Where:
IPv6 address
128-bit address (contains only the lower bits of the address)
P
Prefix length (0 - 128)
Domain name
The domain name of the prefix
To see how this format works, consider the example shown in Figure 1-14.
2111
2122
TOP1
TOP2
OOCD
PROV1
ction
new conne
OOAB
OOBC
OOA1
PROV2
OOB1
X
TEST.COM
ND1
10005A123456
Figure 1-14 Prefix numbering example
Site X is multihomed to two providers, PROV1 and PROV2. PROV1 gets its transit services
from top-level provider TOP1. PROV2 gets its service from TOP2. TOP1 has the top-level
aggregate (TLA ID + format prefix) of 2111. TOP2 has the TLA of 2222.
TOP1 is assigned the next-level aggregate (NLA) of 00AB to PROV1. PROV2 is assigned the
NLA of 00BC by TOP2.
PROV1 is assigned the subscriber identifier 00A1 to site X. PROV2 is assigned the
subscriber identifier 00B1 to site X.
Node ND1, at site X, which has the interface token of 10005A123456, is therefore configured
with the following two IP addresses:
򐂰 2111:00AB:00A1::1000:5A12:3456
򐂰 2222:00BC:00B1::1000:5A12:3456
Site X is represented by the domain name test.com. Each provider has their own domain,
top1.com, top2.com, prov1.com, and prov2.com. In each of these domains, an IP6 subdomain
is created that is used to hold prefixes. The node ND1 can now be represented by the
following entries in the DNS:
ND1.TEST.COM AAAA ::1000:5A12:3456 80
IP6.TEST.COM
Chapter 1. Internet Protocol version 6
21
IP6.TEST.COM AAAA 0:0:00A1:: 32 IP6.PROV1.COM
IP6.TEST.COM AAAA 0:0:00B1:: 32 IP6.PROV2.COM
IP6.PROV1.COM AAAA 0:00AB:: 16 IP6.TOP1.COM
IP6.PROV2.COM AAAA 0:00BC:: 16 IP6.TOP2.COM
IP6.TOP1.COM AAAA 2111::
IP6.TOP2.COM AAAA 2222::
This format simplifies the job of the DNS administrator considerably and makes renumbering
changes much easier to implement. Say, for example, site X decides to stop using links from
providers PROV1 and PROV2 and invests in a connection direct from the top-level service
provider TOP1 (who allocates the next-level aggregate 00CD to site X). The only change
necessary in the DNS is for the two IP6.TEST.COM entries to be replaced with a single entry,
as follows:
IP6.TEST.COM AAAA 0:00CD:: 16 IP6.TOP1.COM
1.4 DHCP in IPv6
Although IPv6 introduces stateless address auto-configuration, DHCP retains its importance
as the stateful alternative for those sites that want to have more control over their addressing
scheme. Used together with stateless auto-configuration, DHCP provides a means of passing
additional configuration options to nodes after they obtain their addresses.
RFC 3315 - Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for IPv6 (DHCPv6) defines DHCP in IPv6,
and RFC 3736 - Stateless Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Service for IPv6
defines stateless DHCP for IPv6.
DHCPv6 has some significant differences from DHCPv4, because it takes advantage of
some of the inherent enhancements of the IPv6 protocol. Some of the principal
differences include:
򐂰 As soon as a client boots, it already has a link-local IP address, which it can use to
communicate with a DHCP server or a relay agent.
򐂰 The client uses multicast addresses to contact the server, rather than broadcasts.
򐂰 IPv6 allows the use of multiple IP addresses per interface and DHCPv6 can provide more
than one address when requested.
򐂰 Some DHCP options are now unnecessary. Default routers, for example, are now
obtained by a client using IPv6 neighbor discovery.
򐂰 DHCP messages (including address allocations) appear in IPv6 message extensions,
rather than in the IP header as in IPv4.
򐂰 There is no requirement for BOOTP compatibility.
򐂰 There is a new reconfigure message, which is used by the server to send configuration
changes to clients (for example, the reduction in an address lifetime). Clients must
continue to listen for reconfigure messages after they receive their initial configuration.
22
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
1.4.1 DHCPv6 messages
The following DHCPv6 messages are currently defined:
DHCP Solicit
This message is an IP multicast message. The DHCP client forwards
the message to FF02::1:2, the well-known multicast address for all
DHCP agents (relays and servers). If received by a relay, the relay
forwards the message to FF05::1:3, the well-known multicast address
for all DHCP servers.
DHCP Advertise
This message is a unicast message sent in response to a DHCP
Solicit. A DHCP server responds directly to the soliciting client if on the
same link, or through the relay agent if the DHCP Solicit is forwarded
by a relay. The advertise message can contain one or more
extensions (DHCP options).
DHCP Request
After the client locates the DHCP server, the DHCP request (unicast
message) is sent to request an address, configuration parameters, or
both. The request must be forwarded by a relay if the server is not on
the same link as the client. The request can contain extensions
(options specified by the client) that can be a subset of all the options
available on the server.
DHCP Reply
An IP unicast message sent in response to a DHCP request (can be
sent directly to the client or through a relay). Extensions contain the
address, parameters, or both committed to the client.
DHCP Release
An IP unicast sent by the client to the server, informing the server of
resources that are being released.
DHCP Reconfigure
An IP unicast or multicast message, sent by the server to one or more
clients, to inform them that there is new configuration information
available. The client must respond to this message with a DHCP
request to request these new changes from the server.
For further details about DHCPv6, see RFC 3315 - Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol for
IPv6 (DHCPv6) and RFC 3736 - Stateless Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
Service for IPv6.
1.5 IPv6 mobility support
There are some unique requirements in mobile network applications. For example, while a
mobile station or mobile node is always logically identified by its home address, it can
physically move around in the IPv6 Internet. For a mobile node to remain reachable while
moving, each mobile node must have a temporary address when it is newly attached to a
visiting location network.
While situated away from its home, a mobile node is associated with a care-of address, which
provides information about the mobile node's current location. IPv6 packets addressed to a
mobile node's home address are transparently routed to its care-of address. IPv6 mobile
network cache the binding of a mobile node's home address with its care-of address, and
then send any packets destined for the mobile node directly to it at this care-of address.
Chapter 1. Internet Protocol version 6
23
At any traveling location, there are always multiple service providers for competition in the
wireless market, and multiple network prefixes are available. Mobile IPv6 provides binding
support for the address to an attached visiting network. The native IPv6 routing header also
supports route selection for a packet to go through the wanted networks. The capability
allows network service provider selection. And as a result, it enforces a security and service
policy by going through only authorized gateway service nodes.
There are certain enhancements in IPv6 that are suited to the mobile environment, including:
򐂰 A mobile node uses a temporary address while away from its home location. It can use the
IPv6 Destination Optional header to store its home address. An intended destination can
access the field to get the mobile node’s home address for substitution when processing
the packet.
򐂰 A mobile station can list the all routing header for the packets to follow particular paths to
connect to a selective service provider network.
򐂰 Also, most packets sent to a mobile node while it is away from its home location can be
tunneled by using IPv6 routing (extension) headers, rather than a complete encapsulation,
as used in Mobile IPv4, which reduces the processing cost of delivering packets to
mobile nodes.
򐂰 Unlike Mobile IPv4, there is no requirement for routers to act as “foreign agents” on behalf
of the mobile node, because neighbor discovery and address auto-configuration allow the
node to operate away from home without any special support from a local router.
򐂰 The dynamic home agent address discovery mechanism in Mobile IPv6 returns a single
reply to the mobile node. The directed broadcast approach used in IPv4 returns separate
replies from each home agent.
To better use the native IPv6 capabilities in next generation (3G) wireless network and
service, the IPv6 working group, and 3rd Generation Partnership Project (or 3GPP) working
group, has conducted joint discussions. As a result of adopting native IPv6 features (for
example, IPv6 address prefix allocation), they ensure that handsets are compatible with
mobile computers in sharing drivers and related software.
On top of the native IPv6 support to mobility, standard extensions are added to ensure that
any nodes, whether mobile or stationary, can communicate efficiently with a mobile node.
Additional Mobile IPv6 features include:
򐂰 Mobile IPv6 allows a mobile node to move from one link to another without changing the
mobile node's “home address.” Packets can be routed to the mobile node by using this
address regardless of the mobile node's current point of attachment to the Internet. The
mobile node can also continue to communicate with other nodes (stationary or mobile)
after moving to a new link. The movement of a mobile node away from its home link is
thus transparent to transport and higher-layer protocols and applications.
򐂰 The Mobile IPv6 protocol is as suitable for mobility across homogeneous media as for
mobility across heterogeneous media. For example, Mobile IPv6 facilitates node
movement from one Ethernet segment to another as well as node movement from an
Ethernet segment to a wireless LAN cell, with the mobile node's IP address remaining
unchanged despite such movement.
򐂰 You can think of the Mobile IPv6 protocol as solving the network layer mobility
management problem. Some mobility management applications, for example, handover
among wireless transceivers, each of which covers only a small geographic area, are
solved by using link layer techniques. As another example, in many current wireless LAN
products, link layer mobility mechanisms allow a “handover” of a mobile node from one
cell to another, re-establishing link layer connectivity to the node in each new location.
24
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
Handovers: In mobility terminology, a handover deals with moving from a cell to
another cell. But the concept can be generalized into a wireless-wireline integration
environment. For example:
򐂰 Layer-2 handover provides a process by which the mobile node changes from one
link layer connection to another in a change of a wireless or wireline access point.
򐂰 Subsequent to an L2 handover, a mobile node detects a change in an on-link subnet
prefix that requires a change in the primary care-of address.
򐂰 Mobile IPv6 route optimization avoids congestion of the home network by getting a mobile
node and a corresponding node to communicate directly. Route optimization can operate
securely even without prearranged Security Associations.
򐂰 Support for route optimization is a fundamental part of the protocol, rather than as a
nonstandard set of extensions. It is expected that route optimization can be deployed on a
global scale between all mobile nodes and correspondent nodes.
򐂰 The IPv6 Neighbor Unreachability Detection ensures symmetric reachability between the
mobile node and its default router in the current location. Most packets sent to a mobile
node while away from home in Mobile IPv6 are sent by using an IPv6 routing header
rather than IP encapsulation, increasing efficiencies when compared to Mobile IPv4.
򐂰 Mobile IPv6 is decoupled from any particular link layer, because it uses IPv6 Neighbor
Discovery instead of Address Resolution Protocol (ARP). This configuration also improves
the robustness of the protocol.
򐂰 Mobile IPv6 defines a new IPv6 protocol by using the Mobility header to carry the
following messages:
– Home Test Init, Home Test, Care-of Test Init, and Care-of Test
These four messages perform the return routability procedure from the mobile node to
a correspondent node.
– Binding Update and Acknowledgement
A Binding Update is used by a mobile node to notify a node or the mobile node's home
agent of its current binding. The Binding Update sent to the mobile node's home agent
to register its primary care-of address is marked as a “home registration.”
– Binding Refresh Request
A Binding Refresh Request is used by a correspondent node to request that a mobile
node re-establish its binding with the correspondent node. The association of the home
address of a mobile node with a care-of address for that mobile node remains for the
life of that association.
򐂰 Mobile IPv6 also introduces four new ICMP message types, two for use in the dynamic
home agent address discovery mechanism, and two for renumbering and mobile
configuration mechanisms:
– The following two new ICMP message types are used for home agent address
discovery: Home Agent Address Discovery Request and Home Agent Address
Discovery Reply.
– The next two message types are used for network renumbering and address
configuration on the mobile node: Mobile Prefix Solicitation and Mobile Prefix
Advertisement.
Chapter 1. Internet Protocol version 6
25
In summary, IPv6 provides native support for mobile applications. Additional extensions have
also been added to Mobile IPv6 protocols. IETF is cooperating with other standard
organizations, such as 3GPP in Mobile IPv6. For more details, see RFC 3775 - Mobility
Support in IPv6.
26
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
2
Chapter 2.
Internet Control Message
Protocol version 6
The IP protocol concerns itself with moving data from one node to another. However, in order
for the IP protocol to perform this task successfully, there are many other functions that need
to be carried out: error reporting, route discovery, and diagnostic tests, to name a few. All
these tasks are carried out by the Internet Control Message Protocol. In addition, Internet
Control Message Protocol Version 6 (ICMPv6) carries out the tasks of conveying multicast
group membership information, a function that was previously performed by the Internet
Group Management Protocol (IGMP) in IPv4 and address resolution, previously performed
by ARP.
This chapter describes the functions of ICMP in an IPv6 network.
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2012. All rights reserved.
27
2.1 ICMPv6 messages
ICMPv6 messages and their usage are specified in RFC 4443 – Internet Control Message
Protocol (ICMPv6) for the Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Specification and RFC 4861 –
Neighbor Discovery for IP Version 6 (IPv6). Both RFCs are draft standards with a status
of elective.
Every ICMPv6 message is preceded by an IPv6 header (and possibly some IP extension
headers). The ICMPv6 header is identified by a Next Header value of 58 in the immediately
preceding header.
ICMPv6 messages all have a similar format, as shown in Figure 2-1.
0
8
Type
16
Code
31
C hecksum
B o d y o f IC M P M e s s a g e
Figure 2-1 ICMPv6 general message format
Where:
Type
There are two classes of ICMPv6 messages. Error messages have a
Type 0 - 127. Informational messages have a Type 128 - 255.
1
2
3
4
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
Destination Unreachable
Packet Too Big
Time (Hop Count) Exceeded
Parameter Problem
Echo Request
Echo Reply
Group Membership Query
Group Membership Report
Group Membership Reduction
Router Solicitation
Router Advertisement
Neighbor Solicitation
Neighbor Advertisement
Redirect Message
Code
Varies according to message type.
Checksum
Used to detect data corruption in the ICMPv6 message and parts of the
IPv6 header.
Body of message
Varies according to message type.
For full details of ICMPv6 messages for all types, see RFC 4443 – Internet Control Message
Protocol (ICMPv6) for the Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) Specification.
28
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
2.1.1 Neighbor discovery
Neighbor discovery is an ICMPv6 function that enables a node to identify other hosts and
routers on its links. The node needs to know of at least one router so that it knows where to
forward packets if a target node is not on its local link. Neighbor discovery also allows a router
to redirect a node to use a more appropriate router if the node initially made an
incorrect choice.
Address resolution
Figure 2-2 shows a simple Ethernet LAN segment with four IPv6 workstations.
IP
MAC
FE80::0800:5A12:3456
08005A123456
IP
MAC
A
FE80::0800:5A12:3458
08005A123458
C
B
D
IP
MAC
FE80::0800:5A12:3457
08005A123457
IP
MAC
FE80::0800:5A12:3459
08005A123459
Figure 2-2 IPv6 address resolution example
Workstation A needs to send data to workstation B. It knows the IPv6 address of workstation
B, but it does not know how to send a packet, because it does not know its MAC address. To
discover this information, it sends a neighbor solicitation message, using the format shown
in Figure 2-3.
6
Traffic Class
Payload = 32
Flow Label
Next = 58
Hops = 255
Source Address - FE80::0800:5A12:3456
IP Header
Destination Address - FF02::1:5A12:3458
Type = 135
Code = 0
Checksum
Reserved = 0
ICMP
Message
Target Address - FE80::0800:5A12:3458
Opt Code=1 Opt Len=1
Source Link Layer Address = 08005A123456
Figure 2-3 Neighbor solicitation message format
Chapter 2. Internet Control Message Protocol version 6
29
Where:
Next
58 (for the following ICMP message header).
Hops
Any solicitation packet that does not have hops set to 255 is
discarded. This setting ensures that the solicitation does not cross
a router.
Destination address This address is the solicited node address for the target workstation (a
special type of multicast). Every workstation must respond to its own
solicited node address but other workstations ignore it. This setting is
an improvement over ARP in IPv4, which uses broadcast frames that
must be processed by every node on the link.
In the ICMP message itself:
Type
135 (Neighbor Solicitation).
Target address
This address is the known IP address of the target workstation.
Source link layer address
This address is useful to the target workstation and saves it
from having to initiate a neighbor discovery process of its own
when it sends a packet back to the source workstation.
The response to the neighbor solicitation message is a neighbor advertisement, which has
the format shown in Figure 2-4.
6
Traffic Class
Payload = 32
Flow Label
Next = 58
Hops = 255
Source Address - FE80::0800:5A12:3458
FE80::0800:5A12:3456
IP Header
Destination Address - FE80::0800:5A12:3456
Type = 136
Code = 0
R S O
ICMP
Message
Checksum
Reserved = 0
Target Address - FE80::0800:5A12:3458
Opt Code=2 Opt Len=1
Target Link Layer Address = 08005A123458
Figure 2-4 Neighbor advertisement message
The neighbor advertisement is addressed directly back to workstation A. The ICMP message
option contains the target IP address together with the target's link layer (MAC) address.
Consider the following flags in the advertisement message:
R
Router flag. This bit is set on if the sender of the advertisement is a router.
S
Solicited flag. This bit is set on if the advertisement is in response to a solicitation.
O
Override flag. When this bit is set on, the receiving node must update an existing
cached link layer entry in its neighbor cache.
After workstation A receives this packet, it commits the information to memory in its neighbor
cache, and then forwards the data packet that it originally wanted to send to workstation C.
30
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
Neighbor advertisement messages can also be sent by a node to force updates to neighbor
caches if it becomes aware that its link layer address has changed.
Router and prefix discovery
Figure 2-2 on page 29 shows a simple network example. In a larger network, particularly one
connected to the Internet, the neighbor discovery process is used to find nodes on the same
link in the same way. However, it is more than likely that a node needs to communicate not
just with other nodes on the same link, but with nodes on other network segments that might
be anywhere in the world. In this case, there are two important pieces of information that a
node needs to have:
򐂰 The address of a router that the node can use to reach the rest of the world
򐂰 The prefix (or prefixes) that define the range of IP addresses on the same link as the node
that can be reached without going through a router
Routers use ICMP to convey this information to hosts with router advertisements. The format
of the router advertisement message is shown in Figure 2-5. The message generally has one
or more attached options; this example shows all three possible options.
6
Flow Label
Traffic Class
Next = 58
Payload = 64
Hops = 255
Source Address
IP Header
Destination Address - FF02::1
Type = 134 Code = 0
Hop Limit
Checksum
M O Rsvd
Router Lifetime
Reachable Time
Retransmission Timer
Opt Type=1 Opt Len=1
Option 1
Source Link Address
Opt Type=5 Opt Len=1
Option 2
Reserved
MTU
Opt Type=3 Opt Len=4
Prefix Len L A Rsvd
Valid Lifetime
Preferred Lifetime
Option 3
Reserved
Prefix
Figure 2-5 Router advertisement message format
Chapter 2. Internet Control Message Protocol version 6
31
Notice the following important fields in the IP header of this packet:
Next
58 (for the following ICMP message header).
Hops
Any advertisement packet that does not have hops set to 255 is
discarded. This setting ensures that the packet does not cross
a router.
Destination address
This address is the special multicast address that defines all
systems on the local link.
In the ICMP message itself, note the following fields:
Type
134 (router advertisement).
Hop limit
The default value that a node should place in the Hop Count field of
its outgoing IP packets.
M
1-bit Managed Address Configuration Flag (see “Stateless address
auto-configuration” on page 36).
O
1-bit Other Stateful Configuration Flag (see “Stateless address
auto-configuration” on page 36).
Router lifetime
How long the node should consider this router to be available. If
this time period is exceeded and the node does not receive another
router advertisement message, the node should consider this
router to be unavailable.
Reachable time
This setting sets a parameter for all nodes on the local link. It is the
time in milliseconds that the node should assume that a neighbor is
still reachable after receiving a response to a neighbor solicitation.
Retransmission timer
This field sets the time, in milliseconds, that nodes should allow
between retransmitting neighbor solicitation messages if no initial
response is received.
The three possible options in a router advertisement message are:
Option 1 (source link address)
Allows a receiving node to respond directly to the
router without having to do a neighbor solicitation.
Option 5 (MTU)
Specifies the maximum transmission unit size for the
link. For some media, such as Ethernet, this value is
fixed, so this option is not necessary.
Option 3 (Prefix)
Defines the address prefix for the link. Nodes use this
information to determine when they do, and do not,
need to use a router. Prefix options used for this
purpose have the L (link) bit set on. Prefix options are
also used as part of address configuration, in which
case the A bit is set on. For more details, see
“Stateless address auto-configuration” on page 36.
A router constantly sends unsolicited advertisements at a frequency defined in the router
configuration. A node might, however, want to obtain information about the nearest router
without having to wait for the next scheduled advertisement (for example, a new workstation
that has just attached to the network). In this case, the node can send a router
solicitation message.
32
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
The format of the router solicitation message is shown in Figure 2-6.
6
Flow Label
Traffic Class
Payload = 16
Next = 58
Hops = 255
Source Address
Destination Address - FF02::2
Type = 133 Code = 0
Checksum
Reserved = 0
Target Address - FE80::0800:5A12:3458
Opt Type=1 Opt Len=1
Source Link Address
Figure 2-6 Router solicitation message format
Notice the following important fields in the IP header of this packet:
Next
58 (for the following ICMP message header).
Hops
Any advertisement packet that does not have hops set to 255 is
discarded. This setting ensures that the packet does not cross
a router.
Destination address
This address is the special multicast address that defines all
routers on the local link.
In the ICMP message itself:
Type
133 (Router Solicitation).
Option 1 (source link address) Allows the receiving router to respond directly to the node
without having to do a neighbor solicitation.
Each router that receives the solicitation message responds with a router advertisement sent
directly to the node that sent the solicitation (not to the all systems link-local
multicast address).
Redirection
The router advertisement mechanism ensures that a node is always aware of one or more
routers through which it is able to connect to devices outside of its local links. However, in a
situation where a node is aware of more than one router, it is likely that the default router
selected when sending data is not always the most suitable router to select for every packet.
In this case, ICMPv6 allows for redirection to a more efficient path for a particular destination.
Chapter 2. Internet Control Message Protocol version 6
33
Consider the simple example shown in Figure 2-7.
Node
Y
Router B
Router A
Node
X
Figure 2-7 Redirection example
Node X is aware of routers A and B, having received router advertisement messages from
both. Node X wants to send data to node Y. By comparing node Y's IP address against the
local link prefix, node X knows that node Y is not on the local link and that it must therefore
use a router. Node X selects router A from its list of default routers and forwards the packet.
This path is not the most efficient path to node Y. As soon as router A forwards the packet to
node Y (through router B), router A sends a redirect message to node X.
34
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
The format of the redirect message (complete with IP header) is shown in Figure 2-8.
6
Traffic Class
Payload Length
Flow Label
Next = 58
Hops = 255
Source Address (Router A)
Destination Address (Node X)
Type = 137 Code = 0
Checksum
Reserved = 0
Target Address (Router B)
Destination Address (Node Y)
Opt Type=1 Opt Len=1
Source Link Address (Router B)
Opt Type=4 Opt Length
Reserved = 0
Reserved = 0
IP Header and Data
Figure 2-8 Redirect message format
Notice the following field in the message:
Type
137 (Redirect).
Target address
This address is address of the router that should
be used when trying to reach node Y.
Destination address
Node Y's IP address.
Option 2 (target link layer address)
Provides the link address of router B so that node
X can reach it without a neighbor solicitation.
Option 4 (redirected header)
Includes the original packet sent by node X, full IP
header, and as much of the data that can fit so that
the total size of the redirect message does not
exceed 576 bytes.
Neighbor unreachability detection
An additional responsibility of the neighbor discovery function of ICMPv6 is neighbor
unreachability detection (NUD).
Chapter 2. Internet Control Message Protocol version 6
35
A node actively tracks the reachability state of the neighbors to which it is sending packets. It
can do this task in two ways: either by monitoring the upper layer protocols to see if a
connection is making progress (for example, TCP acknowledgments are being received), or
by issuing specific neighbor solicitations to check that the path to a target host is still
available. When a path to a neighbor appears to be failing, appropriate action is taken to try
and recover the link. This action includes restarting the address resolution process or deleting
a neighbor cache entry so that a new router can be tried to find a working path to
the target.
NUD is used for all paths between nodes, including host-to-host, host-to-router, and
router-to-host. NUD can also be used for router-to-router communication if the routing
protocol that is used does not already include a similar mechanism. For more information
about neighbor unreachability detection, see RFC 4861 – Neighbor Discovery for IP Version
6 (IPv6).
Stateless address auto-configuration
Although the 128-bit address field of IPv6 solves a number of problems inherent in IPv4, the
size of the address itself represents a potential problem to the TCP/IP administrator.
Therefore, IPv6 has the capability to automatically assign an address to an interface at
initialization time, with the intention that a network can become operational with minimal to no
action on the part of the TCP/IP administrator. IPv6 nodes generally use auto-configuration to
obtain their IPv6 address. This auto-configuration can be achieved by using DHCP, which is
known as stateful auto-configuration, or by stateless auto-configuration, which is a new
feature of IPv6 and relies on ICMPv6.
The stateless auto-configuration process is defined in RFC 4862 – IPv6 Stateless Address
Auto Configuration. It consists of the following steps:
1. During system startup, the node begins the auto-configuration by obtaining an interface
token from the interface hardware, for example, a 48-bit MAC address on token-ring or
Ethernet networks.
2. The node creates a tentative link-local unicast address by combining the well-known
link-local prefix (FE80::/10) with the interface token.
3. The node attempts to verify that this tentative address is unique by issuing a neighbor
solicitation message with the tentative address as the target. If the address is already in
use, the node receives a neighbor advertisement in response, in which case the
auto-configuration process stops. (Manual configuration of the node is then required.)
4. If no response is received, the node assigns the link-level address to its interface. The
host then sends one or more router solicitations to the all-routers multicast group. If there
are any routers present, they respond with a router advertisement. If no router
advertisement is received, the node attempts to use DHCP to obtain an address and
configuration information. If no DHCP server responds, the node continues using the
link-level address and can communicate with other nodes on the same link only.
5. If a router advertisement is received in response to the router solicitation, this message
contains several pieces of information that tell the node how to proceed with the
auto-configuration process (see Figure 2-5 on page 31):
– M flag: Managed address configuration.
If this bit is set, the node used DHCP to obtain its IP address.
– O flag: Other stateful configuration.
If this bit is set, the node uses DHCP to obtain other configuration parameters.
36
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
– Prefix option: If the router advertisement has a prefix option with the A bit (autonomous
address configuration flag) set on, the prefix is used for stateless
address auto-configuration.
6. If stateless address configuration is used, the prefix is taken from the router advertisement
and added to the interface token to form the global unicast IP address, which is assigned
to the network interface.
7. The working node continues to receive periodic router advertisements. If the information in
the advertisement changes, the node must take appropriate action.
It is possible to use both stateless and stateful configuration simultaneously. It is likely that
stateless configuration is used to obtain the IP address, but DHCP is then used to obtain
further configuration information. However, Plug and Play configuration is possible in both
small and large networks without requiring DHCP servers.
The stateless address configuration process, together with the fact that more than one
address can be allocated to the same interface, also allows for the graceful renumbering of all
the nodes on a site (for example, if a switch to a new network provider necessitates new
addressing) without disruption to the network. For more details, see RFC 4862 – IPv6
Stateless Address Auto Configuration.
2.1.2 Multicast Listener Discovery
The process used by a router to discover the members of a particular multicast group is
known as Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD). MLD is a subset of ICMPv6 and provides the
equivalent function of IGMP for IPv4. This information is then provided by the router to
whichever multicast routing protocol is being used so that multicast packets are correctly
delivered to all links where there are nodes that listen for the appropriate multicast address.
MLD is specified in RFC 2710 – Multicast Listener Discovery (MLD) for IPv6. MLD uses
ICMPv6 messages with the format shown in Figure 2-9.
Flow Label
Vers. Traffic Class
Payload Length
Next = 58
Hops = 1
(Link Local)Source Address
Destination Address
Type
Code = 0
Max. Response Delay
Checksum
Reserved
IP Multicast Address
Figure 2-9 MLD message format
Chapter 2. Internet Control Message Protocol version 6
37
Note the following fields in the IPv6 header of the message:
Next
58 (for the following ICMPv6 message header).
Hops
Always set to 1.
Source address
A link-local source address is used.
In the MLD message itself, note the following fields:
Type
There are three types of MLD messages:
130
Multicast Listener Query.
There are two types of queries:
Code
•
General query: Used to find which multicast addresses are being
listened for on a link.
•
Multicast-address-specific query: Used to find if any nodes are
listening for a specific multicast address on a link.
131
Multicast listener report. Used by a node to report that it is
listening to a multicast address.
132
Multicast listener done. Used by a node to report that it is
ceasing to listen to a multicast address.
Set to 0 by a sender and ignored by receivers.
Max response delay This setting sets the maximum allowed delay before a responding
report must be sent. This parameter is only valid in query messages.
Increasing this parameter can prevent sudden bursts of high traffic if
there many responders on a network.
Multicast address
In a query message, this field is set to zero for a general query, or set
to the specific IPv6 multicast address for a multicast-address-specific
query. In a response or done message, this field contains the multicast
address being listened for.
A router uses MLD to learn which multicast addresses are being listened for on each of its
attached links. The router needs to know only that nodes that listen for a particular address
are present on a link; it does not need to know the unicast address of those listening nodes,
or how many listening nodes are present.
A router periodically sends a General Query on each of its links to the all nodes link-local
address (FF02::1). When a node listens for any multicast addresses receives this query, it
sets a delay timer (which can be anything between 0 and maximum response delay) for each
multicast address for which it is listening. As each timer expires, the node sends a multicast
listener report message that contains the appropriate multicast address. If a node receives
another node's report for a multicast address while it has a timer still running for that address,
it stops its timer and does not send a report for that address. This action prevents duplicate
reports from being sent and, together with the timer mechanism, prevents excess or burst
traffic from being generated.
The router manages a list of, and sets a timer for, each multicast address it is aware of on
each of its links. If one of these timers expires without a report being received for that
address, the router assumes that no nodes are still listening for that address, and the address
is removed from the list. Whenever a report is received, the router resets the timer for that
particular address.
38
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
When a node finishes listening to a multicast address, if it was the last node on a link to send
a report to the router (that is, its timer delay was not interrupted by the receipt of another
node's report), it sends a multicast listener done message to the router. If the node was
interrupted by another node before its timer expired, it assumes that other nodes are still
listening to the multicast address on the link and therefore does not send a done message.
When a router receives a done message, it sends a multicast-address-specific message on
the link. If no report is received in response to this message, the router assumes that there
are no nodes still listening to this multicast address and removes the address from its list.
Chapter 2. Internet Control Message Protocol version 6
39
40
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
3
Chapter 3.
Internet Protocol version 6 host
configuration
A client can be configured to use stateless address auto-configuration, DHCP or stateful
configuration, or manual configuration. It is also possible to use stateless and stateful
configuration at the same time.
This chapter shows examples of how to configure the following clients:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
Microsoft Windows Server 2008
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5.5
IBM AIX 5L™ V5300-06
VMware vSphere ESXi 5.0 Host
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2012. All rights reserved.
41
3.1 Network topology
The network setup shown in Figure 3-1 was used for the setup of the clients in our example.
2222:0:0:1::1
2222:0:0:3::1
2222:0:0:2::1
Vlan 10
2222:0:0:1::/64
AIX 5.3
Vlan 20
2222:0:0:2::/64
VMware ESX 4.1
Figure 3-1 Network topology
42
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
RHEL 5.5
Vlan 30
2222:0:0:3::/64
Windows Server 2008
The router in this setup is an IBM RackSwitch G8052. The router was configured by using the
settings shown in Figure 3-2.
!
interface ip 10
ipv6 address 2222:0:0:1:0:0:0:1 64
enable
vlan 10
no ipv6 nd suppress-ra
exit
!
interface ip 20
ipv6 address 2222:0:0:2:0:0:0:1 64
enable
vlan 20
no ipv6 nd suppress-ra
exit
!
interface ip 30
ipv6 address 2222:0:0:3:0:0:0:1 64
enable
vlan 30
no ipv6 nd suppress-ra
exit
Figure 3-2 Router configuration
3.2 Microsoft Windows Server 2008
Microsoft Windows Server 2008 automatically includes the IPv6 protocol. There is no option
to add or remove this protocol. However, it can be enabled or disabled. Configuring Microsoft
Windows Server 2008 for IPv6 is the same as configuring it for an IPv4 address. First, you
must open the Properties window for the Ethernet interface that is used. From the Control
Panel, open the Network Connections folder, right-click the interface on which you want to
configure IPv6, and click Properties. In this example, we use Local Area Connection 2.
Chapter 3. Internet Protocol version 6 host configuration
43
Figure 3-3 shows the adapter properties for Local Area Connection 2.
Figure 3-3 Windows Server 2008 adapter properties
To enable or disable IPv6, select or clear the Internet Protocol Version 6 (TCP/IPv6)
check box.
Link-local address: When setting up an IPv6 interface, whether for DHCP, stateless
auto-configuration, or a static IPv6 address, a link-local address is always assigned.
3.2.1 Stateless auto-configuration or DHCP
When configuring a Windows system to use a DHCP server or stateless auto-configuration,
the settings are the same for both configurations.
Differences in configurations: The only difference in stateless auto-configuration or
DHCP depends on if there is a DHCP server in the network to provide IPv6 address or
other information.
To configure the protocol, open the properties for the IPv6 protocol and assign the settings
you want to use. You can open the properties for the IPv6 protocol by selecting the Internet
Protocol Version 6 (TCP/IPv6) entry in the window shown in Figure 3-3 and
clicking Properties.
44
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
Figure 3-4 shows the settings for using DHCP or stateless auto-configuration.
Figure 3-4 Windows DHCP or stateless auto-configuration - TCP/IPv6 Properties window
Using the settings shown in Figure 3-4, the adapter is configured with the IPv6 information
shown in Figure 3-5. You can obtain the information shown in Figure 3-5 by opening a
command prompt and running the ipconfig /all command. To open a command prompt,
from the Windows main menu, click Start  Run. In the Run dialog box, enter cmd and
press Enter.
Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection 2:
Connection-specific DNS Suffix
Description . . . . . . . . . .
(NDIS VBD Client) #2
Physical Address. . . . . . . .
DHCP Enabled. . . . . . . . . .
Autoconfiguration Enabled . . .
IPv6 Address. . . . . . . . . .
Link-local IPv6 Address . . . .
Default Gateway . . . . . . . .
DNS Servers . . . . . . . . . .
. :
. : Broadcom BCM5708C NetXtreme II GigE
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
00-1A-64-CA-6A-4E
Yes
Yes
2222::3:d957:3936:64cf:b2e4(Preferred)
fe80::d957:3936:64cf:b2e4%13(Preferred)
fe80::a17:f4ff:fea2:ad1d%13
fec0:0:0:ffff::1%1
fec0:0:0:ffff::2%1
fec0:0:0:ffff::3%1
NetBIOS over Tcpip. . . . . . . . : Disabled
Figure 3-5 Windows stateless auto-configuration address
Chapter 3. Internet Protocol version 6 host configuration
45
The Ethernet interface automatically picked up the network portion of the address,
2222:0:0:3/64, from the router broadcasts. The interface then assigned the remaining portion
of the address, that is, d957:3936:64cf:b2e4. The only default gateway listed is for the
Link-local address. If there was a DHCP server configured in the network, it could be used to
assign an IPv6 address from its pool of address and additional information, such as DNS
servers.
The netstat command can be used to display the information about network communication
between computer and network devices. netstat -r is used to show the IP routing table, and
the output of the command is shown in Figure 3-6. The IPv4 route tables are removed from
this example.
IPv6 Route Table
===========================================================================
Active Routes:
If Metric Network Destination
Gateway
13
266 ::/0
fe80::a17:f4ff:fea2:ad1d
1
306 ::1/128
On-link
13
18 2222:0:0:3::/64
On-link
13
266 2222::3:d957:3936:64cf:b2e4/128
On-link
13
266 fe80::/64
On-link
13
266 fe80::d957:3936:64cf:b2e4/128
On-link
1
306 ff00::/8
On-link
13
266 ff00::/8
On-link
===========================================================================
Persistent Routes:
None
Figure 3-6 Windows stateless auto-configuration - IPv6 route table
46
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
The route for 2222:0:0:3::/64 allows us to communicate across the subnets, and this
communication can be verified by running ping and tracert. Figure 3-7 shows the results of
the ping and tracert commands to the router IPv6 address and a system on a
different subnet.
C:\Users\Administrator>ping 2222:0:0:3::1
Pinging 2222:0:0:3::1 with 32 bytes of data:
Reply from 2222:0:0:3::1: time=27ms
Reply from 2222:0:0:3::1: time<1ms
Reply from 2222:0:0:3::1: time<1ms
Reply from 2222:0:0:3::1: time<1ms
Ping statistics for 2222:0:0:3::1:
Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 27ms, Average = 6ms
C:\Users\Administrator>ping 2222::2:214:5eff:fed6:170a
Pinging 2222::2:214:5eff:fed6:170a with 32 bytes of data:
Reply from 2222::2:214:5eff:fed6:170a: time<1ms
Reply from 2222::2:214:5eff:fed6:170a: time<1ms
Reply from 2222::2:214:5eff:fed6:170a: time<1ms
Reply from 2222::2:214:5eff:fed6:170a: time<1ms
Ping statistics for 2222::2:214:5eff:fed6:170a:
Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms
C:\Users\Administrator>tracert 2222:0:0:3::1
Tracing route to 2222:0:0:3:::1 over a maximum of 30 hops
1
2 ms
<1 ms
<1 ms
2222:0:0:3::1
Trace complete.
C:\Users\Administrator>tracert 2222::2:214:5eff:fed6:170a
Tracing route to 2222::2:214:5eff:fed6:170a over a maximum of 30 hops
1
2
<1 ms
<1 ms
<1 ms
<1 ms
<1 ms
<1 ms
2222:0:0:3::1
2222::2:214:5eff:fed6:170a
Trace complete.
Figure 3-7 Windows stateless auto-configuration - ping and traceroute results
Tip: ping and tracert both accept a switch to force the use of IPv6. The commands with
these switches are ping -6 and tracert -6.
Chapter 3. Internet Protocol version 6 host configuration
47
3.2.2 Static addressing
Configuring a static address in Windows is the same as assigning a static IPv4 address.
Open the adapter properties and then open the properties for the protocol, as described in
3.2, “Microsoft Windows Server 2008” on page 43 and 3.2.1, “Stateless auto-configuration or
DHCP” on page 44. In the examples used in this section, the adapter is assigned the address
2222:0:0:3::2, a 64-bit prefix length, and a router address of 2222:0:0:3::1. Figure 3-8
shows the options for setting a static address.
Figure 3-8 Windows static address - TCP/IPv6 Properties window
48
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
Using the settings shown in Figure 3-8 on page 48, the adapter is configured with the IPv6
information shown in Figure 3-9. You can obtain the information shown in Figure 3-9 by
opening a command prompt and running the ipconfig /all command. To open a command
prompt, from the Windows main menu, click Start  Run. In the Run dialog box, enter cmd
and press Enter.
Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection 2:
Connection-specific DNS Suffix . :
Description . . . . . . . . . . . : Broadcom BCM5708C NetXtreme II GigE
(NDIS
VBD Client) #2
Physical Address. . . . . . . . . : 00-1A-64-CA-6A-4E
DHCP Enabled. . . . . . . . . . . : Yes
Autoconfiguration Enabled . . . . : Yes
IPv6 Address. . . . . . . . . . . : 2222:0:0:3::2(Preferred)
Link-local IPv6 Address . . . . . : fe80::d957:3936:64cf:b2e4%13(Preferred)
Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . : 2222:0:0:3::1
DHCPv6 IAID . . . . . . . . . . . : 301996644
DHCPv6 Client DUID. . . . . . . . :
00-01-00-01-13-0B-86-6C-00-1A-64-CA-6A-4C
DNS Servers . . . . . . . . . . . : fec0:0:0:ffff::1%1
fec0:0:0:ffff::2%1
fec0:0:0:ffff::3%1
NetBIOS over Tcpip. . . . . . . . : Disabled
Figure 3-9 Windows static address
With the address and default gateway statically assigned, the adapter needs the router
broadcasts to determine network information.
Chapter 3. Internet Protocol version 6 host configuration
49
We verify the IP routing table by running netstat -r, as shown in Figure 3-10. The IPv4 route
tables are removed from this example.
IPv6 Route Table
===========================================================================
Active Routes:
If Metric Network Destination
Gateway
13
266 ::/0
fe80::a17:f4ff:fea2:ad1d
13
266 ::/0
2222:0:0:3::1
1
306 ::1/128
On-link
13
18 2222:0:0:3::/64
On-link
13
266 2222:0:0:3::2/128
On-link
13
266 2222::3:d957:3936:64cf:b2e4/128
On-link
13
266 fe80::/64
On-link
13
266 fe80::d957:3936:64cf:b2e4/128
On-link
1
306 ff00::/8
On-link
13
266 ff00::/8
On-link
===========================================================================
Persistent Routes:
If Metric Network Destination
Gateway
0 4294967295 ::/0
2222:0:0:3::1
===========================================================================
Figure 3-10 Windows static address - IPv6 route table
In Figure 3-10, we now have a Persistent Route for the default gateway configured in
Figure 3-8 on page 48.
50
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
After verifying the IP routing table, we can verify the communication across the subnets by
running ping and tracert. Figure 3-11 shows the results of the ping and tracert commands
to the router IPv6 address and a system on a different subnet.
C:\Users\Administrator>ping 2222:0:0:3::1
Pinging 2222:0:0:3::1 with 32 bytes of data:
Reply from 2222:0:0:3::1: time=1ms
Reply from 2222:0:0:3::1: time<1ms
Reply from 2222:0:0:3::1: time<1ms
Reply from 2222:0:0:3::1: time<1ms
Ping statistics for 2222:0:0:3::1:
Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 1ms, Average = 0ms
C:\Users\Administrator>ping 2222::2:214:5eff:fed6:170a
Pinging 2222::2:214:5eff:fed6:170a with 32 bytes of data:
Reply from 2222::2:214:5eff:fed6:170a: time<1ms
Reply from 2222::2:214:5eff:fed6:170a: time<1ms
Reply from 2222::2:214:5eff:fed6:170a: time<1ms
Reply from 2222::2:214:5eff:fed6:170a: time<1ms
Ping statistics for 2222::2:214:5eff:fed6:170a:
Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
Minimum = 0ms, Maximum = 0ms, Average = 0ms
C:\Users\Administrator>tracert 2222:0:0:3::1
Tracing route to 2222:0:0:3::1 over a maximum of 30 hops
1
1 ms
<1 ms
<1 ms
2222:0:0:3::1
Trace complete.
C:\Users\Administrator>tracert 2222::2:214:5eff:fed6:170a
Tracing route to 2222::2:214:5eff:fed6:170a over a maximum of 30 hops
1
2
<1 ms
<1 ms
<1 ms
<1 ms
<1 ms
<1 ms
2222:0:0:3::1
2222::2:214:5eff:fed6:170a
Trace complete.
Figure 3-11 Static address - ping and traceroute results
Chapter 3. Internet Protocol version 6 host configuration
51
It is possible to specify an IPv6 address and prefix length without entering a Default Gateway.
To specify these settings, use the parameters shown in Figure 3-12.
Ethernet adapter Local Area Connection 2:
Connection-specific DNS Suffix
Description . . . . . . . . . .
(NDIS
VBD Client) #2
Physical Address. . . . . . . .
DHCP Enabled. . . . . . . . . .
Autoconfiguration Enabled . . .
IPv6 Address. . . . . . . . . .
IPv6 Address. . . . . . . . . .
Link-local IPv6 Address . . . .
Default Gateway . . . . . . . .
DNS Servers . . . . . . . . . .
. :
. : Broadcom BCM5708C NetXtreme II GigE
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
00-1A-64-CA-6A-4E
Yes
Yes
2222:0:0:3::2(Preferred)
2222::3:d957:3936:64cf:b2e4(Preferred)
fe80::d957:3936:64cf:b2e4%13(Preferred)
fe80::a17:f4ff:fea2:ad1d%13
fec0:0:0:ffff::1%1
fec0:0:0:ffff::2%1
fec0:0:0:ffff::3%1
NetBIOS over Tcpip. . . . . . . . : Disabled
Figure 3-12 Windows static address without Default Gateway
To verify the IP routing table, run netstat -r, as shown in Figure 3-13. Here we can verify that
only the Default Gateway for the Link-local address is shown.
IPv6 Route Table
===========================================================================
Active Routes:
If Metric Network Destination
Gateway
13
266 ::/0
fe80::a17:f4ff:fea2:ad1d
1
306 ::1/128
On-link
13
266 2222:0:0:3::/64
On-link
13
266 2222:0:0:3::2/128
On-link
13
266 2222::3:d957:3936:64cf:b2e4/128
On-link
13
266 fe80::/64
On-link
13
266 fe80::d957:3936:64cf:b2e4/128
On-link
1
306 ff00::/8
On-link
13
266 ff00::/8
On-link
===========================================================================
Persistent Routes:
None
Figure 3-13 Windows static address without Default Gateway - IPv6 route table
From the IP routing table shown in Figure 3-13, we can also verify that there is no longer a
Persistent Route, but there is the route for 2222:0:0:3::/64 that was picked up from the
router broadcast. This route allows communication to other subnets.
52
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
3.3 Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) 5.5
Configuring RHEL to use IPv6 requires the manual editing of configuration files. In this
version of RHEL 5.5, there is no graphical interface that can be used to manage the settings,
beyond enabling or disabling IPv6. All editing must be done through a command-line
interface (CLI).
To enable the IPv6 protocol, edit /etc/sysconfig/network. Add the line shown
in Figure 3-14.
NETWORKING_IPV6=yes
Figure 3-14 RHEL - Enable or Disable IPv6
To enable IPv6 on an interface, from the desktop, click System  Administration 
Network and then edit the interface that is used. In our example, we use interface eth1.
Figure 3-15 shows the settings to enable IPv6 for the interface.
Figure 3-15 RHEL - Eth1 interface settings
Chapter 3. Internet Protocol version 6 host configuration
53
These settings can also be set by editing the configuration file for the interface,
/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth1, and inserting the line shown in Figure 3-16.
IPV6INIT=yes
Figure 3-16 RHEL enable or disable IPv6 for an interface
Important: When setting up an IPv6 interface, whether for DHCP, stateless
auto-configuration, or a static IPv6 address, a Link-local address is always assigned.
3.3.1 Stateless auto-configuration or DHCP
After the settings described in the previous section are set, restart networking by issuing
service network restart. The interface should now be functioning in stateless
auto-configuration or DHCP mode.
Note: The only difference in stateless auto-configuration or DHCP depends on whether
there is a DHCP server in the network to provide IPv6 address or other information.
The eth1 Interface now has the IPv6 address shown in Figure 3-17.
[[email protected] ~]# ifconfig eth1
eth1
Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:14:5E:D6:17:0A
inet6 addr: 2222::2:214:5eff:fed6:170a/64 Scope:Global
inet6 addr: fe80::214:5eff:fed6:170a/64 Scope:Link
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:64 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:23 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:4154 (4.0 KiB) TX bytes:3925 (3.8 KiB)
Interrupt:82 Memory:d8000000-d8012800
Figure 3-17 RHEL stateless auto-configuration - IPv6 address
Notice that the Ethernet interface automatically picked up the network portion of the address,
2222:0:0:2/64, from the router broadcasts and then assigned the remaining portion of the
address, 214:5eff:fed6:170a. If there were a DHCP server configured in the network, it could
be used to assign an IPv6 address from its pool of address and additional information, such
as DNS servers.
54
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
After verifying the IP configuration in Figure 3-17 on page 54, we can verify the IP route table
that lists the routes to particular network destinations. To show the route table for IPv6, you
must run route -A inet6 instead of netstat. Figure 3-18 shows the output from the route -A
inet6 command.
Kernel IPv6 routing table
Destination
Flags Metric Ref
Use Iface
2222:0:0:2::/64
UA
256
3
0 eth1
fe80::/64
U
256
0
0 eth0
fe80::/64
U
256
0
0 eth1
*/0
UGDA 1024
1
0 eth1
localhost6.localdomain6/128
U
0
2
1 lo
2222::2:214:5eff:fed6:170a/128
U
0
0
1 lo
fe80::214:5eff:fed6:1708/128
U
0
0
1 lo
fe80::214:5eff:fed6:170a/128
U
0
0
1 lo
ff00::/8
U
256
0
0 eth0
ff00::/8
U
256
0
0 eth1
Next Hop
*
*
*
fe80::a17:f4ff:fea2:ad13
*
*
*
*
*
*
Figure 3-18 RHEL stateless auto-configuration - IPv6 Route table
Chapter 3. Internet Protocol version 6 host configuration
55
The route for 2222:0:0:2::/64 allows us to communicate across the subnets, which can be
verified by running ping and tracert. Figure 3-19 shows the results of the ping and tracert
commands to the router IPv6 address and a system on a different subnet.
[[email protected] ~]# ping6 -c 4 2222:0:0:2::1
PING 2222:0:0:2::1(2222:0:0:2::1) 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 2222:0:0:2::1: icmp_seq=0 ttl=64 time=2.58 ms
64 bytes from 2222:0:0:2::1: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.592 ms
64 bytes from 2222:0:0:2::1: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.712 ms
64 bytes from 2222:0:0:2::1: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=0.526 ms
--- 2222:0:0:2::1 ping statistics --4 packets transmitted, 4 received, 0% packet loss, time 3001ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.526/1.103/2.582/0.856 ms, pipe 2
[[email protected] ~]# ping6 -c 4 2222:0:0:3::2
PING 2222:0:0:3::2(2222:0:0:3::2) 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 2222:0:0:3::2: icmp_seq=0 ttl=63 time=1.80 ms
64 bytes from 2222:0:0:3::2: icmp_seq=1 ttl=63 time=0.169 ms
64 bytes from 2222:0:0:3::2: icmp_seq=2 ttl=63 time=0.134 ms
64 bytes from 2222:0:0:3::2: icmp_seq=3 ttl=63 time=0.119 ms
--- 2222:0:0:3::2 ping statistics --4 packets transmitted, 4 received, 0% packet loss, time 3002ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.119/0.556/1.803/0.720 ms, pipe 2
[[email protected] ~]# traceroute 2222:0:0:2::1
traceroute to 2222:0:0:2::1 (2222:0:0:2::1), 30 hops max, 40 byte packets
1 2222:0:0:2::1 (2222:0:0:2::1) 1.215 ms 1.533 ms 1.862 ms
[[email protected] ~]# traceroute 2222:0:0:3::2
traceroute to 2222:0:0:3::2 (2222:0:0:3::2), 30 hops max, 40 byte packets
1 2222:0:0:2::1 (2222:0:0:2::1) 0.849 ms 1.163 ms 1.522 ms
2 2222:0:0:3::2 (2222:0:0:3::2) 0.193 ms * *
Figure 3-19 RHEL stateless auto-configuration - ping6 and traceroute results
In Figure 3-19, ping6 was used instead of ping to force the use of IPv6.
56
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
3.3.2 Static address
To configure a static address that is persistent across reboots, edit
/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth1. In the examples used in this section, assign
the address 2222:0:0:2::2, a 64-bit prefix length, and the router address 2222:0:0:2::1, to
the adapter. Figure 3-20 shows a sample ifcfg-eth1 configuration file with these changes.
# Broadcom Corporation NetXtreme II BCM5708S Gigabit Ethernet
DEVICE=eth1
HWADDR=00:14:5E:D6:17:0A
ONBOOT=yes
HOTPLUG=no
BOOTPROTO=static
TYPE=Ethernet
USERCTL=no
IPV6INIT=yes
PEERDNS=yes
IPV6ADDR=2222:0:0:2::2/64
IPV6_DEFAULTGW=2222:0:0:2::1
Figure 3-20 Static addressing - ifcfg-eth1
After changing the configuration file, a restart of the network service is needed. Run service
network restart to restart the network service. Disabling and re-enabling the interface by
running ifconfig eth1 down and ifconfig eth1 up does not assign the static IPv6 address.
To temporarily assign an address for testing, run ifconfig eth1 add 2222:0:0:2::2/64 to
assign the interface address and then run route -A inet6 add 2222:0:0:2::/64 gw
2222:0:0:2::1 to assign the default gateway. If the system is rebooted or service network
restart is issued, the temporary IPv6 address and default gateway information is lost.
To verify the assignment of the IP address, run ifconfig. Figure 3-21 shows the output from
the ifconfig eth1 command.
eth1
Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:14:5E:D6:17:0A
inet6 addr: 2222::2:214:5eff:fed6:170a/64 Scope:Global
inet6 addr: fe80::214:5eff:fed6:170a/64 Scope:Link
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:8 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:10 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:570 (570.0 b) TX bytes:2110 (2.0 KiB)
Interrupt:82 Memory:d8000000-d8012800
Figure 3-21 RHEL static address - ifconfig eth1
Chapter 3. Internet Protocol version 6 host configuration
57
The IP route table displays the information about network communication between a
computer and network devices. You can obtain the route table by running route -A inet6.
Figure 3-22 shows the IPv6 route table.
Kernel IPv6 routing table
Destination
Flags Metric Ref
Use Iface
2222:0:0:2::/64
U
256
2
0 eth1
fe80::/64
U
256
0
0 eth0
fe80::/64
U
256
0
0 eth1
*/0
UG
1
0
0 eth1
*/0
UGDA 1024
0
0 eth1
localhost6.localdomain6/128
U
0
0
1 lo
2222:0:0:2::2/128
U
0
0
1 lo
2222::2:214:5eff:fed6:170a/128
U
0
0
1 lo
fe80::214:5eff:fed6:1708/128
U
0
0
1 lo
fe80::214:5eff:fed6:170a/128
U
0
0
1 lo
ff00::/8
U
256
0
0 eth0
ff00::/8
U
256
0
0 eth1
Figure 3-22 RHEL static address - IPv6 route table
58
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
Next Hop
*
*
*
2222:0:0:2::1
fe80::a17:f4ff:fea2:ad13
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
The route for 2222:0:0:2::/64 allows communication across subnets, which can be verified
by running ping and tracert. Figure 3-23 shows the results of the ping and tracert
commands to the router IPv6 address and a system on a different subnet.
[[email protected] ~]# ping6 -c 4 2222:0:0:2::1
PING 2222:0:0:2::1(2222:0:0:2::1) 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 2222:0:0:2::1: icmp_seq=0 ttl=64 time=0.646
64 bytes from 2222:0:0:2::1: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.559
64 bytes from 2222:0:0:2::1: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.579
64 bytes from 2222:0:0:2::1: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=0.536
ms
ms
ms
ms
--- 2222:0:0:2::1 ping statistics --4 packets transmitted, 4 received, 0% packet loss, time 3002ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.536/0.580/0.646/0.041 ms, pipe 2
[[email protected] ~]# ping6 -c 4 2222:0:0:3::2
PING 2222:0:0:3::2(2222:0:0:3::2) 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 2222:0:0:3::2: icmp_seq=0 ttl=63 time=0.836
64 bytes from 2222:0:0:3::2: icmp_seq=1 ttl=63 time=0.152
64 bytes from 2222:0:0:3::2: icmp_seq=2 ttl=63 time=0.161
64 bytes from 2222:0:0:3::2: icmp_seq=3 ttl=63 time=0.122
ms
ms
ms
ms
--- 2222:0:0:3::2 ping statistics --4 packets transmitted, 4 received, 0% packet loss, time 3000ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.122/0.317/0.836/0.300 ms, pipe 2
[[email protected] ~]# traceroute 2222:0:0:2::1
traceroute to 2222:0:0:2::1 (2222:0:0:2::1), 30 hops max, 40 byte packets
1 2222:0:0:2::1 (2222:0:0:2::1) 1.194 ms 1.508 ms 1.835 ms
[[email protected] ~]# traceroute 2222:0:0:3::2
traceroute to 2222:0:0:3::2 (2222:0:0:3::2), 30 hops max, 40 byte packets
1 2222:0:0:2::1 (2222:0:0:2::1) 0.643 ms 0.996 ms 1.305 ms
2 2222:0:0:3::2 (2222:0:0:3::2) 0.191 ms * *
Figure 3-23 RHEL Static address - ping6 and traceroute output
In Figure 3-23, ping6 was used instead of ping to force the use of IPv6.
It is possible to assign a static IPv6 address without specifying a default gateway address.
Remove or comment out the IPV6_DEFAULTGW= parameter in the
/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth1 file and restart the work service (restarting the
interface does not work).
Chapter 3. Internet Protocol version 6 host configuration
59
Figure 3-24 shows the output from the ifconfig eth1 command after the IPv6 Default
Gateway is removed.
eth1
Link encap:Ethernet HWaddr 00:14:5E:D6:17:0A
inet6 addr: 2222:0:0:2::2/64 Scope:Global
inet6 addr: 2222::2:214:5eff:fed6:170a/64 Scope:Global
inet6 addr: fe80::214:5eff:fed6:170a/64 Scope:Link
UP BROADCAST RUNNING MULTICAST MTU:1500 Metric:1
RX packets:6 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 frame:0
TX packets:22 errors:0 dropped:0 overruns:0 carrier:0
collisions:0 txqueuelen:1000
RX bytes:442 (442.0 b) TX bytes:3981 (3.8 KiB)
Interrupt:82 Memory:d8000000-d8012800
Figure 3-24 RHEL static address without Default Gateway - ifconfig eth1
With the removal of the Default Gateway from the configuration, we now have the following
entries in the route table shown in Figure 3-25. You can obtain this route table by running
route -a inet6.
Kernel IPv6 routing table
Destination
Flags Metric Ref
Use Iface
2222:0:0:2::/64
U
256
1
0 eth1
fe80::/64
U
256
0
0 eth0
fe80::/64
U
256
0
0 eth1
*/0
UGDA 1024
0
0 eth1
localhost6.localdomain6/128
U
0
0
1 lo
2222:0:0:2::2/128
U
0
0
1 lo
2222::2:214:5eff:fed6:170a/128
U
0
0
1 lo
fe80::214:5eff:fed6:1708/128
U
0
0
1 lo
fe80::214:5eff:fed6:170a/128
U
0
0
1 lo
ff00::/8
U
256
0
0 eth0
ff00::/8
U
256
0
0 eth1
Next Hop
*
*
*
fe80::a17:f4ff:fea2:ad13
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
Figure 3-25 RHEL static address without Default Gateway - IPv6 route table
60
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
3.4 IBM AIX 5L V5300-006
Configuring IPv6 on AIX can be done by using the smit or smitty commands. However, to
make some of the settings permanent across system reboots, certain files need to be edited.
Interface en1 is used in this example.
Using root authority, run autconf6 -i en1 to enable IPv6 on en1 only. Then run startsrc -s
ndpd-host to start the network discovery protocol.
To set up IPv6 to be started at boot time, edit /etc/rc.tcpip and uncomment the two lines
shown in Figure 3-26.
# Start up autoconf6 process
start /usr/sbin/autoconf6 ""
# Start up ndpd-host daemon
start /usr/sbin/ndpd-host "$src_running"
Figure 3-26 AIX - enable IPv6 at boot
Then edit /etc/rc.tcpip by adding the -A to the start /usr/sbin/autoconf6 “”: line shown
in Figure 3-27.
start /usr/sbin/autoconf6 "" -A
Figure 3-27 AIX - Enable IPv6 at boot
Changing the settings in these files also assumes that the Ethernet interface that is used for
IPv6 is enabled at boot time.
For more information about configuring the adapter for IPv6, go to:
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/pseries/v5r3/topic/com.ibm.aix.howtos/doc
/howto/networks_communications.htm
Important: When setting up an IPv6 interface, whether for DHCP, stateless
auto-configuration, or a static IPv6 address, a Link-local address is always assigned.
3.4.1 Stateless auto-configuration or DHCP
The AIX host is now configured to use stateless auto-configuration or a DHCP server.
Note: The only difference in stateless auto-configuration or DHCP depends on whether
there is a DHCP server in the network to provide IPv6 address or other information.
Chapter 3. Internet Protocol version 6 host configuration
61
After configuring IPv6 on an Ethernet interface, en1 in this case, run ifconfig to verify the IP
address assignment. Figure 3-28 shows the output of the ifconfig command and here we
can verify that en1 has a IPv6 address.
# ifconfig en1
en1:
flags=5e080863,c0<UP,BROADCAST,NOTRAILERS,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST,GROUPRT
,64BIT,CHECKSUM_OFFLOAD(ACTIVE),PSEG,LARGESEND,CHAIN>
inet6 2222::1:20d:60ff:fe51:3d93/64
inet6 fe80::20d:60ff:fe51:3d93/64
Figure 3-28 AIX stateless auto-configuration address
The Ethernet interface picked up the network portion of the address, 2222:0:0:1/64, from the
router broadcasts and then assigned the remaining portion of the address,
20d:60ff:fe51:3d93. If there were a DHCP server configured in the network, it could be used
to assign an IPv6 address from its pool of address and additional information, such as
DNS servers.
After configuring IPv6, we must verify the routing table. The routing table lists the routes to
particular network destinations and can be displayed by running netstat -r, as shown in
Figure 3-29. Route information for IPv4 is removed.
Route Tree for Protocol Family 24 (Internet v6):
::/96
0.0.0.0
UC
0
=
>
default
fe80::a17:f4ff:fe UGS
0
::1
::1
UH
0
2222:0:0:1::/64
link#3
UC
0
fe80::/64
link#3
UCX
1
fe80::a17:f4ff:fea 8:17:f4:a2:ad:0
UHL
0
ff01::/16
::1
US
0
ff02::/16
fe80::20d:60ff:fe US
1
ff11::/16
::1
US
0
ff12::/16
fe80::20d:60ff:fe US
0
Figure 3-29 AIX stateless auto-configuration - IPv6 route table
62
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
0 sit0
-
-
0
0
0
0
0
0
8
0
0
-
-
en1
lo0
en1
en1
en1
lo0
en1
lo0
en1
The route for 2222:0:0:1::/64 allows us to communicate across the subnets, which can be
verified by running ping and tracert. Figure 3-30 shows the results of the ping and tracert
commands to the router IPv6 address and a system on a different subnet.
# ping -c 4 2222:0:0:1::1
PING 2222:0:0:1::1: (2222:0:0:1::1): 56
64 bytes from 2222:0:0:1::1: icmp_seq=0
64 bytes from 2222:0:0:1::1: icmp_seq=1
64 bytes from 2222:0:0:1::1: icmp_seq=2
64 bytes from 2222:0:0:1::1: icmp_seq=3
data bytes
ttl=64 time=1.254
ttl=64 time=0.596
ttl=64 time=0.644
ttl=64 time=0.599
ms
ms
ms
ms
----2222:0:0:1::1 PING Statistics---4 packets transmitted, 4 packets received, 0% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 0/0/1 ms
# ping -c 4 2222:0:0:2::2
PING 2222:0:0:2::2: (2222:0:0:2::2): 56
64 bytes from 2222:0:0:2::2: icmp_seq=0
64 bytes from 2222:0:0:2::2: icmp_seq=1
64 bytes from 2222:0:0:2::2: icmp_seq=2
64 bytes from 2222:0:0:2::2: icmp_seq=3
data bytes
ttl=63 time=2.320
ttl=63 time=0.162
ttl=63 time=0.106
ttl=63 time=0.167
ms
ms
ms
ms
----2222:0:0:2::2 PING Statistics---4 packets transmitted, 4 packets received, 0% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 0/0/2 ms
# traceroute 2222:0:0:1::1
trying to get source for 2222:0:0:1::1
source should be 2222::1:20d:60ff:fe51:3d93
traceroute to 2222:0:0:1::1 (2222:0:0:1::1) from 2222::1:20d:60ff:fe51:3d93
(222
2::1:20d:60ff:fe51:3d93), 30 hops max
outgoing MTU = 1500
1 2222:0:0:1::1 (2222:0:0:1::1) 1 ms 1 ms 1 ms
# traceroute 2222:0:0:2::2
trying to get source for 2222:0:0:2::2
source should be 2222::1:20d:60ff:fe51:3d93
traceroute to 2222:0:0:2::2 (2222:0:0:2::2) from 2222::1:20d:60ff:fe51:3d93
(222
2::1:20d:60ff:fe51:3d93), 30 hops max
outgoing MTU = 1500
1 2222:0:0:1::1 (2222:0:0:1::1) 1 ms 1 ms 1 ms
2 2222:0:0:2::2 (2222:0:0:2::2) 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms
Figure 3-30 AIX stateless auto-configuration - ping and traceroute results
Tip: ping accepts the switch -a inet6. This switch specifies the use of IPv6.
Chapter 3. Internet Protocol version 6 host configuration
63
3.4.2 Static address
To set a static IPv6 address, issue smit tcpip. Click IPV6 Communication  IPV6 Network
Interfaces  Change / Show Characteristics of an IPV6 Network Interface and then select
the interface that is used from the list that appears, as shown in Figure 3-31.
IPV6 Network Interfaces
Move cursor to desired item and press Enter.
List All Network Interfaces
Add an IPV6 Network Interface
Change / Show Characteristics of an IPV6 Network Interface
Remove a Network Interface
Configure Tunnel Interface
Configure Aliases
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|
Available Network Interfaces
|
|
|
| Move cursor to desired item and press Enter.
|
|
|
|
en0 07-08
Standard Ethernet Network Interface
|
|
en1 07-09
Standard Ethernet Network Interface
|
|
et0 07-08
IEEE 802.3 Ethernet Network Interface
|
|
et1 07-09
IEEE 802.3 Ethernet Network Interface
|
|
|
| Esc+1=Help
Esc+2=Refresh
Esc+3=Cancel
|
| Esc+8=Image
Esc+0=Exit
Enter=Do
|
Es| /=Find
n=Find Next
|
Es+--------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Figure 3-31 AIX SMIT - interface selection window
As before, interface en1 is used in our example.
64
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
Figure 3-32 shows the entry fields for specifying an IPv6 address. You can specify an IP
address and the prefix length in this screen and press Enter to save the changes.
Change / Show an IPV6 Standard Ethernet Interface
Type or select values in entry fields.
Press Enter AFTER making all desired changes.
[Entry Fields]
en1
[2222:0:0:1::2]
[64]
down
Network Interface Name
IPV6 ADDRESS (colon separated)
Prefixlength
Current STATE
Esc+1=Help
Esc+5=Reset
Esc+9=Shell
Esc+2=Refresh
Esc+6=Command
Esc+0=Exit
Esc+3=Cancel
Esc+7=Edit
Enter=Do
+
Esc+4=List
Esc+8=Image
Figure 3-32 AIX IPv6 static address
Even though the Current STATE for this interface is shown as down, ifconfig en1 up was
previously issued. The down state shows that this interface will not be enabled at boot time.
After configuring IPv6 on an Ethernet interface, en1 in this case, run ifconfig to verify the IP
address assignment. Figure 3-33 shows the output of the ifconfig command, and here we
can verify that en1 has a IPv6 address.
# ifconfig en1
en1:
flags=5e080862,c0<BROADCAST,NOTRAILERS,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST,GROUPRT,64
BIT,CHECKSUM_OFFLOAD(ACTIVE),PSEG,LARGESEND,CHAIN>
inet6 fe80::20d:60ff:fe51:3d93/64
inet6 2222:0:0:1::2/64
Figure 3-33 AIX static address - ifconfig en1
Chapter 3. Internet Protocol version 6 host configuration
65
After configuring IPv6, we must verify the routing table. The routing table lists the routes to
particular network destinations and can be displayed by running netstat -r, as shown in
Figure 3-34. Route information for IPv4 is removed.
Route Tree for Protocol Family 24 (Internet v6):
::/96
0.0.0.0
UC
0
=
>
default
fe80::a17:f4ff:fe UGS
0
::1
::1
UH
0
2222:0:0:1::/64
link#3
UC
0
2222:0:0:1::1
8:17:f4:a2:ad:0
UHLW
0
fe80::/64
link#3
UCX
1
fe80::a17:f4ff:fea 8:17:f4:a2:ad:0
UHL
1
ff01::/16
::1
US
0
ff02::/16
fe80::20d:60ff:fe US
0
ff11::/16
::1
US
0
ff12::/16
fe80::20d:60ff:fe US
0
Figure 3-34 AIX static address - IPv6 route table
66
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
0 sit0
132
0
0
26
0
14
0
14
0
0
en1
lo0
en1
en1
en1
en1
lo0
en1
lo0
en1
-
-
-
-
The route for 2222:0:0:1::/64 allows us to communicate across the subnets, which can be
verified by running ping and tracert. Figure 3-35 shows the results of the ping and tracert
commands to the router IPv6 address and a system on a different subnet.
# ping -c 4 2222:0:0:1::1
PING 2222:0:0:1::1: (2222:0:0:1::1): 56
64 bytes from 2222:0:0:1::1: icmp_seq=0
64 bytes from 2222:0:0:1::1: icmp_seq=1
64 bytes from 2222:0:0:1::1: icmp_seq=2
64 bytes from 2222:0:0:1::1: icmp_seq=3
data bytes
ttl=64 time=0.630
ttl=64 time=0.672
ttl=64 time=0.623
ttl=64 time=0.576
ms
ms
ms
ms
----2222:0:0:1::1 PING Statistics---4 packets transmitted, 4 packets received, 0% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 0/0/0 ms
# ping -c 4 2222:0:0:2::2
PING 2222:0:0:2::2: (2222:0:0:2::2): 56
64 bytes from 2222:0:0:2::2: icmp_seq=0
64 bytes from 2222:0:0:2::2: icmp_seq=1
64 bytes from 2222:0:0:2::2: icmp_seq=2
64 bytes from 2222:0:0:2::2: icmp_seq=3
data bytes
ttl=63 time=0.132
ttl=63 time=0.169
ttl=63 time=0.121
ttl=63 time=0.175
ms
ms
ms
ms
----2222:0:0:2::2 PING Statistics---4 packets transmitted, 4 packets received, 0% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 0/0/0 ms
# traceroute 2222:0:0:1::1
trying to get source for 2222:0:0:1::1
source should be 2222:0:0:1::2
traceroute to 2222:0:0:1::1 (2222:0:0:1::1) from 2222:0:0:1::2 (2222:0:0:1::2),
30 hops max
outgoing MTU = 1500
1 2222:0:0:1::1 (2222:0:0:1::1) 17 ms 2 ms 1 ms
# traceroute 2222:0:0:2::2
trying to get source for 2222:0:0:2::2
source should be 2222:0:0:1::2
traceroute to 2222:0:0:2::2 (2222:0:0:2::2) from 2222:0:0:1::2 (2222:0:0:1::2),
30 hops max
outgoing MTU = 1500
1 2222:0:0:1::1 (2222:0:0:1::1) 1 ms 1 ms 1 ms
2 2222:0:0:2::2 (2222:0:0:2::2) 0 ms 0 ms 0 ms
Figure 3-35 AIX static address - ping and traceroute output
Tip: ping accepts the switch -a inet6. This switch specifies the use of IPv6.
In this setup, we did not specify a default gateway. There is no option for a default gateway
for IPv6 by using smit. However, we can assign a static route. To set a static route for IPv6,
run smit tcpip and click IPV6 Configuration  IPV6 Static Routes.
Chapter 3. Internet Protocol version 6 host configuration
67
The window shown in Figure 3-36 opens.
IPV6 Static Routes
Move cursor to desired item and press Enter.
List All Routes
Add an IPV6 Static Route
Remove an IPV6 Static Route
Flush Routing Table
Esc+1=Help
Esc+9=Shell
Esc+2=Refresh
Esc+0=Exit
Figure 3-36 AIX SMIT - static route
68
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
Esc+3=Cancel
Enter=Do
Esc+8=Image
Click Add an IPV6 Static Route to view the screen shown in Figure 3-37.
Add an IPV6 Static Route
Type or select values in entry fields.
Press Enter AFTER making all desired changes.
[Entry Fields]
net
[2222:0:0::]
Destination TYPE
* IPV6 DESTINATION Address
(colon separated or symbolic name)
* IPV6 GATEWAY Address
(colon separated or symbolic name)
COST
Prefixlength
Network Interface
(interface to associate route with)
Enable Active Dead Gateway Detection?
Esc+1=Help
Esc+5=Reset
Esc+9=Shell
Esc+2=Refresh
Esc+6=Command
Esc+0=Exit
+
[2222:0:0:1::1]
Esc+3=Cancel
Esc+7=Edit
Enter=Do
[0]
[64]
[en1]
#
#
+
no
+
Esc+4=List
Esc+8=Image
Figure 3-37 AIX SMIT - Add an IPv6 Static Route
Chapter 3. Internet Protocol version 6 host configuration
69
As you can use this screen to add a static route and not a default gateway, it is possible to
improperly configure the route and break communications to other subnets. The ndpd-host
command manages the Neighbor Discovery Protocol (NDP) for non-kernel activities: router
discovery, prefix discovery, parameter discovery, and redirects. The ndpd-host command
deals with the default route, including the default router, default interface, and default
interface address. Because we turned on ndpd-host, this interface is also picking up the route
that is being broadcast by the router interface, as shown in Figure 3-38.
Route Tree for Protocol Family 24 (Internet v6):
::/96
0.0.0.0
UC
0
=
>
default
fe80::a17:f4ff:fe UGS
0
::1
::1
UH
0
2222::/64
2222:0:0:1::1
UG
0
2222:0:0:1::/64
link#3
UC
0
2222:0:0:1::1
8:17:f4:a2:ad:0
UHLW
0
2222:0:0:1::2
UHLWl
0
fe80::/64
link#3
UCX
1
fe80::a17:f4ff:fea 8:17:f4:a2:ad:0
UHL
1
ff01::/16
::1
US
0
ff02::/16
fe80::20d:60ff:fe US
0
ff11::/16
::1
US
0
ff12::/16
fe80::20d:60ff:fe US
0
0 sit0
163
0
0
0
83
6
0
19
0
14
0
0
en1
lo0
en1
en1
en1
lo0
en1
en1
lo0
en1
lo0
en1
-
-
-
-
Figure 3-38 AIX - IPv6 static route
Note: ping accepts the switch -a inet6. This switch specifies the use of IPv6.
3.5 VMware vSphere ESXi 5.0
Configuring a VMware vSphere ESXi 5.0 host to use IPv6 can be done through the VMware
vSphere Client, a console, or the CLI. Configuration using the vSphere Client is described in
this section, see the VMware Knowledge Base for information about how to configure IPv6
support by using the console or CLI. No configuration is required to use IPv6 on a
virtual machine. You can find this knowledge base at:
http://kb.vmware.com
70
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
3.5.1 Enabling IPv6
To enable IPv6 on the ESXi Host through the vSphere Client, from the vSphere Client home
page, click Hosts and Clusters, select the host, click the Configuration tab, and click the
Networking link under Hardware. In the vSphere Standard Switch view, click the vSwitch0
Properties link, as shown in Figure 3-39.
Figure 3-39 vSphere Client - network configuration
The window shown in Figure 3-40 opens. Check the box to enable IPv6 and restart the host.
By default, IPv6 is not enabled. The examples in this section use vSwitch0.
Figure 3-40 Enabling IPv6 support
Preferred practice: If the host is part of a vSphere Cluster, change the status to
“Maintenance Mode” before rebooting the host.
3.5.2 Configuring IPv6 on a standard virtual switch
To configure IPv6 on standard virtual switch (vSwitch0 in this case), complete the
following steps:
1. Log on to the vSphere Client and select the Hosts and Clusters from the inventory view.
2. Select the host in the inventory pane.
3. On the host’s Configuration tab, click Networking.
Chapter 3. Internet Protocol version 6 host configuration
71
4. Click the Properties link under Standard Switch (vSwitch0)
5. Select the Management Network port, as shown in Figure 3-41, and click Edit to change
the port configuration.
Figure 3-41 Changing Management Port configuration
6. On the IP Settings tab, shown in Figure 3-42, configure the IPv6 address. By default, No
IPv6 Settings is selected.
Figure 3-42 Modifying IPv6 values
72
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
Here are the available options for IPv6 setting:
– Obtain IPv6 addresses automatically through DHCP: Uses DHCP to obtain
IPv6 addresses.
– Obtain IPv6 addresses automatically through router advertisement: Uses router
advertisement to obtain IPv6 addresses.
– Static IPv6 addresses:
•
•
•
Click Add to add an IPv6 address.
Enter the IPv6 address and subnet prefix length, and click OK.
To change the VMkernel default gateway, click Edit.
7. For our example, we configure the port group that obtains IPv6 address from the DHCP
Server by checking the Obtain IPv6 addresses automatically through DHCP check
box, as shown in Figure 3-42 on page 72.
8. Click OK to continue and click Close in the vSwitch0 properties window.
Now we have the vSwitch0 configured with IPv6 support and receiving a IPv6 address from
DHCP, as shown in Figure 3-43.
Figure 3-43 vSwitch IPv6 configured
Chapter 3. Internet Protocol version 6 host configuration
73
At this stage, we have only a Link-local address. To get an address that can communicate in
the network, we need to open the properties window for vSwitch0, as shown in Figure 3-43 on
page 73. Click Management Network  Edit to open the properties window and select the
IP Settings tab, as shown in Figure 3-44.
Figure 3-44 Modifying IPv6 values
Selecting the Obtain IPv6 address automatically through Router Advertisement option
allows the ESXi Host to assign an IPv6 address based on the network information broadcast
by the router, as shown in Figure 3-45. This action results in the IP information as in
Figure 3-45 being assigned.
Figure 3-45 vSphere Client - IPv6 address - router broadcast
74
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
After we assign the IP address, we must verify the communication, and without direct access
to a console on the ESXi Host or using the CLI, there is no setting to show the route table,
ping results, or traceroute commands. So we verify the configuration by running ping and
tracert from another client in the network, as shown in Figure 3-46.
[[email protected] ~]# ping -6 2002::90b:e002:218:216:41ff:feed:b4dd
PING 2002::90b:e002:218:216:41ff:feed:b4dd
(2002::90b:e002:218:216:41ff:feed:b4dd) 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 2002::90b:e002:218:216:41ff:feed:b4dd: icmp_seq=0 ttl=64
64 bytes from 2002::90b:e002:218:216:41ff:feed:b4dd: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64
64 bytes from 2002::90b:e002:218:216:41ff:feed:b4dd: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64
64 bytes from 2002::90b:e002:218:216:41ff:feed:b4dd: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64
time=1.39 ms
time=0.145 ms
time=0.133 ms
time=0.142 ms
--- 2002::90b:e002:218:216:41ff:feed:b4dd ping statistics --4 packets transmitted, 4 received, 0% packet loss, time 3001ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.133/0.454/1.399/0.545 ms, pipe 2
[[email protected] ~]# traceroute 2002::90b:e002:218:216:41ff:feed:b4dd
traceroute to 2002::90b:e002:218:216:41ff:feed:b4dd
(2002::90b:e002:218:216:41ff:feed:b4dd), 30 hops max, 40 byte packets
1 2002::90b:e002:218:216:41ff:feed:b4dd (2002::90b:e002:218:216:41ff:feed:b4dd)
ms 0.289 ms 0.281 ms
0.333
Figure 3-46 Stateless address - ping and traceroute from RHEL client to ESX host
3.5.3 Static address
To assign a static address, open the vSwitch0 properties to the IP Settings tab and select the
Static IPv6 addresses: check box, as shown in Figure 3-47.
Figure 3-47 vSphere Client - enable static address
Chapter 3. Internet Protocol version 6 host configuration
75
Click the Add... button to open the window to assign an address, as shown in Figure 3-48.
Figure 3-48 vSphere Client - assign static address
After clicking OK, you see the results shown in Figure 3-49.
Figure 3-49 vSphere Client - static address assigned
76
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
With the option to obtain an address through router advertisement checked, the interface
receives network information and automatically sets up a default gateway. To manually add a
default gateway, click the Edit... button, and enter the gateway address, as shown in
Figure 3-50.
Figure 3-50 vSphere Client - assign default gateway
If both options are checked, as shown in Figure 3-47 on page 75, the interface has two IPv6
addresses, as shown in Figure 3-51.
Figure 3-51 vSphere Client - multiple IPv6 addresses
Chapter 3. Internet Protocol version 6 host configuration
77
Without direct access to a console on the ESXi Host or using the CLI, there is no setting to
show the route table, ping output, or traceroute output. Figure 3-52 shows another client in
the network that pings the ESXi host IPv6 addresses.
[[email protected] ~]# ping -6 2222:0:0:2::5
PING 2222:0:0:2::5(2222:0:0:2::5) 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 2222:0:0:2::5: icmp_seq=0 ttl=64 time=1.91 ms
64 bytes from 2222:0:0:2::5: icmp_seq=1 ttl=64 time=0.136 ms
64 bytes from 2222:0:0:2::5: icmp_seq=2 ttl=64 time=0.121 ms
64 bytes from 2222:0:0:2::5: icmp_seq=3 ttl=64 time=0.123 ms
--- 2222:0:0:2::5 ping statistics --4 packets transmitted, 4 received, 0% packet loss, time 3000ms
rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 0.121/0.572/1.910/0.772 ms, pipe 2
[[email protected] ~]# traceroute 2222:0:0:2::5
traceroute to 2222:0:0:2::5 (2222:0:0:2::5), 30 hops max, 40 byte packets
1 2222:0:0:2::5 (2222:0:0:2::5) 0.315 ms 0.292 ms 0.282 ms
Figure 3-52 Static address - ping and traceroute from RHEL client to ESX host
For more information about networking configuration, see the VMware document found at:
http://pubs.vmware.com/vsphere-50/topic/com.vmware.ICbase/PDF/vsphere-esxi-vcenter
-server-50-networking-guide.pdf
78
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
Related publications
The publications listed in this section are considered particularly suitable for a more detailed
discussion of the topics covered in this paper.
IBM Redbooks
The following IBM Redbooks publications provide additional information about the topic in this
document. Note that some publications referenced in this list might be available in softcopy
only.
򐂰 10 Gigabit Ethernet Implementation with IBM System Networking Switches, SG24-7960
򐂰 IBM BladeCenter Products and Technology, SG24-7523.
򐂰 BNT 1/10Gb Uplink Ethernet Switch Module for IBM BladeCenter, TIPS0705
򐂰 BNT Virtual Fabric 10Gb Switch Module for IBM BladeCenter, TIPS0708
򐂰 IBM System Networking RackSwitch G8052, TIPS0813
򐂰 IBM System Networking RackSwitch G8124, TIPS0787
򐂰 IBM System Networking RackSwitch G8264/G8264T, TIPS0815
You can search for, view, download or order these documents and other Redbooks,
Redpapers, Web Docs, draft and additional materials, at the following website:
ibm.com/redbooks
Other publications
These publications are also relevant as further information sources:
򐂰 IBM 1/10Gb Uplink Ethernet Switch Module for IBM BladeCenter Application Guide:
http://www-947.ibm.com/systems/support/supportsite.wss/docdisplay?brandind=5000
008&lndocid=MIGR-5076214
򐂰 IBM 1/10Gb Uplink Ethernet Switch Module for IBM BladeCenter BBI Quick Guide:
http://www-947.ibm.com/systems/support/supportsite.wss/docdisplay?brandind=5000
008&lndocid=MIGR-5076219
򐂰 IBM 1/10Gb Uplink Ethernet Switch Module for IBM BladeCenter Command Reference:
http://www-947.ibm.com/systems/support/supportsite.wss/docdisplay?brandind=5000
008&lndocid=MIGR-5076525
򐂰 IBM 1/10Gb Uplink Ethernet Switch Module for IBM BladeCenter Installation Guide:
ftp://ftp.software.ibm.com/systems/support/system_x_pdf/dw1gymst.pdf
򐂰 IBM 1/10Gb Uplink Ethernet Switch Module for IBM BladeCenter ISCLI Reference:
http://www-947.ibm.com/systems/support/supportsite.wss/docdisplay?brandind=5000
008&lndocid=MIGR-5076215
© Copyright IBM Corp. 2012. All rights reserved.
79
򐂰 IBM BladeCenter H Installation and Users Guide:
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/bladectr/documentation/topic/com.ibm.b
ladecenter.8852.doc/bc_8852_iug.html
򐂰 IBM BladeCenter H Trouble Shooting:
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/bladectr/documentation/topic/com.ibm.b
ladecenter.8852.doc/bc_8852_pdsg.html
򐂰 IBM BladeCenter HT Installation and Users Guide:
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/bladectr/documentation/topic/com.ibm.b
ladecenter.8750.doc/bc_8750_iug.html
򐂰 IBM BladeCenter HT Trouble Shooting:
http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/bladectr/documentation/topic/com.ibm.b
ladecenter.8750.doc/bc_8750_pdsg.html
򐂰 IBM RackSwitch G8052 Browser-Based Interface Quick Guide:
http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=isg3T7000348
򐂰 IBM RackSwitch G8052 Installation Guide:
http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=isg3T7000287&aid=1
򐂰 IBM RackSwitch G8052 ISCLI Command Reference:
http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=isg3T7000344
򐂰 IBM RackSwitch G8052 Menu-Based CLI Reference Guide:
http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=isg3T7000347
򐂰 IBM RackSwitch G8052 OS Application Guide:
http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=isg3T7000353
򐂰 IBM RackSwitch G8124 Installation Guide:
https://www-304.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=isg3T7000299&aid=1
򐂰 IBM RackSwitch G8124 OS Application Guide:
http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=isg3T7000388
򐂰 IBM RackSwitch G8124/G8124E Browser-Based Interface Quick Guide:
򐂰 http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=isg3T7000389
򐂰 IBM RackSwitch G8124/G8124E ISCLI Command Reference:
http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=isg3T7000390
򐂰 IBM RackSwitch G8124/G8124E Menu-Based CLI Reference Guide:
http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=isg3T7000391
򐂰 IBM RackSwitch G8264 Browser-Based Interface Quick Guide:
http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=isg3T7000342
򐂰 IBM RackSwitch G8264 Installation Guide:
https://www-304.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=isg3T7000294&aid=1
򐂰 IBM RackSwitch G8264 ISCLI Command Reference:
http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=isg3T7000329
򐂰 IBM RackSwitch G8264 Menu-Based CLI Reference Guide:
http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=isg3T7000328
80
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
򐂰 IBM RackSwitch G8264 OS Application Guide:
http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=isg3T7000326
򐂰 IBM Virtual Fabric 10Gb Switch Module for IBM BladeCenter Application Guide:
http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=isg3T7000496&aid=2
򐂰 IBM Virtual Fabric 10Gb Switch Module for IBM BladeCenter BBI Quick Guide:
http://download.boulder.ibm.com/ibmdl/pub/systems/support/system_x_pdf/bmd00192
.pdf
򐂰 IBM Virtual Fabric 10Gb Switch Module for IBM BladeCenter Command Reference:
http://download.boulder.ibm.com/ibmdl/pub/systems/support/system_x_pdf/bmd00190
.pdf
򐂰 IBM Virtual Fabric 10Gb Switch Module for IBM BladeCenter Installation Guide:
http://download.boulder.ibm.com/ibmdl/pub/systems/support/system_x_pdf/46m1525.
pdf
򐂰 IBM Virtual Fabric 10Gb Switch Module for IBM BladeCenter ISCLI Reference:
http://download.boulder.ibm.com/ibmdl/pub/systems/support/system_x_pdf/bmd00191
.pdf
Online resources
These websites are also relevant as further information sources:
򐂰 IBM RackSwitch G8052 Announcement Letter:
http://www.ibm.com/common/ssi/cgi-bin/ssialias?infotype=AN&subtype=CA&appname=g
pateam&supplier=872&letternum=ENUSAG11-0005&pdf=yes
򐂰 IBM RackSwitch G8124 Announcement Letter:
http://www.ibm.com/common/ssi/cgi-bin/ssialias?infotype=AN&subtype=CA&appname=g
pateam&supplier=899&letternum=ENUSLG11-0096&pdf=yes
򐂰 IBM RackSwitch G8264 Announcement Letter:
http://www.ibm.com/common/ssi/cgi-bin/ssialias?infotype=AN&subtype=CA&appname=g
pateam&supplier=872&letternum=ENUSAG11-0005&pdf=yes
򐂰 IBM Virtual Fabric 10Gb Switch Module Announcement Letter:
http://www.ibm.com/common/ssi/rep_ca/5/872/ENUSAG09-0245/ENUSAG09-0245.PDF
򐂰 IBM 1/10Gb Uplink Ethernet Switch Module Announcement Letter:
http://www.ibm.com/common/ssi/rep_ca/5/872/ENUSAG08-0365/ENUSAG080365.PDF
Help from IBM
IBM Support and downloads
ibm.com/support
IBM Global Services
ibm.com/services
Related publications
81
82
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
Back cover
®
IPv6 Introduction and Configuration
Redpaper
Introduction to IPv6
IPv6 addressing and
packet format
IPv6 host
configuration
Anyone who is involved with information technology knows that the
Internet is running out of IP addresses. The last block of Internet
Protocol version 4 (IPv4) addresses was allocated in 2011. Internet
Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the replacement for IPv4, and it is designed
to address the depletion of IP addresses and change the way traffic
is managed.
™
INTERNATIONAL
TECHNICAL
SUPPORT
ORGANIZATION
This IBM Redpaper publication describes the concepts and
architecture of IPv6 with a focus on:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
An overview of IPv6 features
An examination of the IPv6 packet format
An explanation of additional IPv6 functions
A review of IPv6 mobility applications
This paper provides an introduction to Internet Control Message
Protocol (ICMP) and describes the functions of ICMP in an
IPv6 network.
This paper also provides IPv6 configuration steps for the
following clients:
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
򐂰
Microsoft Windows
Red Hat Enterprise Linux
IBM AIX
VMware vSphere ESXi 5.0
After understanding the basics of IPv6 concepts and architecture, IT
network professionals will be able to use the procedures outlined in
this paper to configure various host operating systems to suit their
network infrastructure.
BUILDING TECHNICAL
INFORMATION BASED ON
PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE
IBM Redbooks are developed
by the IBM International
Technical Support
Organization. Experts from
IBM, Customers and Partners
from around the world create
timely technical information
based on realistic scenarios.
Specific recommendations
are provided to help you
implement IT solutions more
effectively in your
environment.
For more information:
ibm.com/redbooks
REDP-4776-00
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