Structure - Shodhganga

Structure - Shodhganga
Structure:
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10.1
MS Office Overview
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10.2
Design Goals of MS Office
10.3
Components of MS Office
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10.4
MS-WORD
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MS-POWERPOINT
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10.6
MS-EXCEL
10.7
MS-ACCESS
10.8
Introduction to Word Processing
10.9
Getting Started with MS Word
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10.10
Getting Started with MS Powerpoint
10.11
Getting Started with MS Excel
10.12
Getting Started with MS Access
10.13
MS Front Page
Computer Application in Business
10.1 MICROSOFT OFFICE OVERVIEW
Microsoft Office 2000 is the most efficient suite of applications for document creation, communication and business
information analysis. For many functions, the business platform has evolved from paper to the Web. Microsoft Office
2000 extends desktop productivity to the web, streamlining the way you work and making it easier to share, access and
analyze information so you get better results. Office 2000 offers a multitude of new features. Of particular importance
for this release are the features that affect the entire suite. These Office-wide, or shared features hold the key to the new
realm of functionality enabled by Office 2000. Office 2000 offers a new Web-productivity work style that integrates core
productivity tools with the Web to streamline the process of sharing information and working with others. It makes it
easier to use an organization’s intranet to access vital business information and provides innovative analysis tools that help
users make better, timelier business decisions. Office 2000 delivers new levels of resiliency and intelligence, enabling
users and organizations to get up and running quickly, stay working and achieve great results with fewer resources.
10.2 DESIGN GOALS OF MS OFFICE
A Common User Interface
•
While learning one application of the suite you get to learn the operational basics of the other applications,
while maintaining some uniqueness in the applications.
•
Consistency in MS Office applications is in the form of:
•
•
•
(i)
Tool Bars
(ii)
Menus
(iii)
Dialog Boxes
(iv)
Customizable features and operational features are similar too.
The MS Office provides the Microsoft Office Short-cut Bar, which is used for the following:
(i)
Create a new file based on templates and wizards
(ii)
Opening existing files and automatically launching the related applications
(iii)
Add tasks, make appointments, record tasks and add contacts and journal entries.
(iv)
Create a new Outlook Message.
(v)
Switch between and launch Microsoft Office Applications.
Microsoft Office Provides several means of sharing data between applications:
(i)
Copying — copies the data from the source application to the target applications using the clipboard.
(ii)
Linking — links the data from the source document to the target document and saves with the source
document.
(iii)
Embedding — embeds the data from the source document to the target document and saves with the
source document.
Microsoft Office extends the data sharing beyond application integration by providing workgroup integration
with the Microsoft Outlook.
MS Office
(2)
Quick Access to Other Applications
Sharing Data Across Applications
Users can mail documents, spreadsheets, presentations and data files from within the source applications.
Providing a Common Language
•
Providing the common language has been a more challenging goal from Microsoft Office. It provides a
common macro programming language for all the applications —- Visual Basic for the Applications.
10.3 COMPONENTS OF MICROSOFT OFFICE
•
MS-WORD
•
MS-EXCEL
•
MS-POWER-POINT
•
MS-ACCESS
10.4 MS-WORD
Ms-word is a powerful word processor that allows you to create:
•
Memos
•
Fax coversheets
•
Web pages
•
Reports
•
Mailing labels
•
Brochures
•
Tables
•
And many other professional and business applications.
MS-word provides easy graphics handling, calculation of the data tables, ability to create a mailing list, list sorting
and efficient file management.
Major enhancements of the Word are as follows:
•
Autos Summarize Feature — automatically summarizes the key points in the document. Word determines
the most important sentences and gives a custom summary based on the analysis.
•
Auto Complete Feature — automatically offers suggestions to complete the word or the phrase that has
been typed partially. To accept suggestions, press the Enter Key and the word automatically replaces the
partially typed word with the complete word.
Word automatically completes the current date, a day of the week, a month other than the current one, your name
and the company name and the AutoText entries.
•
Automatic Grammar Checking — marks the incorrect grammar with a green wavy line as you type.
•
Letter Wizard — Helps you format and enter the key information for the letters to ensure that they are
consistent and professional.
It lets you write quickly and easily and also to add to your letter.
Computer Application in Business
•
Office Assistant — uses Intelligence natural-language technology. The assistant anticipates the kind of
help you require and suggests the Help topics on the work that you are doing. This office assistant provides the visual examples and the step-by-step instructions for the specific tasks.
•
Smart Spelling Feature
❖
Recognizes your name, your organization’s name and the professional names of varying ethnicity.
❖
Recognizes your writing pattern and does not mark some patterns as errors in the document.
❖
Ignores the Internet and the file addresses as error in the spellings.
•
Natural Language —■ grammar checker-offers improved syntactical analysis, better rewrite suggestions
and user friendly grammar styles.
•
The Spelling and the grammar checking combination facility — eliminates the separate dialog boxes and
provides the interface that lets you proofread the document online.
•
Hyperlinks Features — links to the Microsoft Outlook, HTML or the other files on any internal and
external Website or file server.
10.5 MS-POWERPOINT
MS-PowerPoint is powerful presentation software, used to create:
•
Professional quality presentations.
•
These can be reproduced on the
•
❖
Transparency,
❖
Paper,
❖
35mm slide,
❖
Photo print,
❖
On screen presentations
This allows you to easily publish presentations on the Internet.
Features of MS-Powerpoint
1.
POWER POINT CENTRAL — connects you with the resources like the templates, sounds and the animation
clips on the CD-ROM and the sites on the Internet.
2.
SLIDE FINDER — allows the previewing and the insertion of slides from the other presentations.
3.
QUICK START TUTORIAL — helps to introduce the features of Power Point.
4.
GRAPHS — improved charting module for the Power Point has the following features:
(a)
ADDITIONAL CHART TYPES — MS-POWER POINT gives new chart types such as bubble, pie of
pie and the bar of pie . It also offers additional 3-D and 2-D chart types such as cylinder, pyramid and
cone.
(b)
CHART DATA TABLES — enhances the chart by adding explanatory details by attaching the data table
that contains the numbers represented diagrammatically.
MS Office
(c)
ROTATED TEXTS ON THE CHART AXES — to display all the necessary data proportionately for
easier viewing, the fonts can be scaled and the text rotated along the chart axes.
(d)
PICTURE, TEXT AND GRADIENT FILLS — to graphically represent data, you can fill the chart
elements such as the bars, areas and the surfaces with texture, imported pictures or gradient fills.
5.
MULTIPLE UNDO FEATURE — displays an Undo List on the standard tool bar from which you can select
the change you want to reverse.
6.
ACTIVE WEB service is used — shared by all Microsoft Office programs to browse rich webs of the
presentations and documents on the local computer, any server, an Intranet or the Web.
7.
Power Point has a set of built in buttons for the actions such as Forward, Back. Home, Help, Information,
Sound and Movie. By clicking on any of these buttons another program can be started.
8.
CD — Audio tracks can be played during the presentation.
9.
AUTO CONTENT WIZARD — guides user to pick from the set of pre-built templates. It also provides ideas
and the starter text for the presentations.
10.
Summary slide — is used to create a summary slide based on the titles of the slides created.
11.
OFFICE ART is a drawing tool shared by Microsoft Office programs and provides:
(a)
AutoShapes — includes six new auto shapes.
(b)
Bezier Curves — used to draw exact curves with point positions.
(c)
Transparent Background — inserts a bit map as a part of design of the slides.
Animation Effects and Multi media Capabilities include•
Custom Animation — an easier way to define and preview animated effects.
•
Voice narration — to add a presenters voice to the self-running documentation.
•
Music tracks — to add background music and the sound effects to the presentations.
•
Animated templates — animation effects can be added to the slide master and will be automatically added
when the slides are created.
10.6 MS-EXCEL
MS-Excel is a spreadsheet package. When you start excel, a blank workbook appears in the document window.
The workbook is the main document using excel for storing and manipulating the data.
A workbook has individual worksheets each of consisting of data. Each worksheet is made up of 256 columns and
65,536 rows.
The Features of Excel
•
The multiple Undo feature can Undo up to the last 16 actions.
•
When you quit Miciosoft Excel with multiple files open, you get a YES to ALL option. You can choose this
option to save all the files before exiting, instead of being prompted to close each open file.
•
Conditional Formats dynamically apply a different font style, pattern and the border to the cells whose values
A fall outside or within the limit specified by you.... this lets you quickly spot areas of interest without reading
through tables of values.
Computer Application in Business
•
The Hyperlinks Feature helps you to create hyperlinks that connect to other office files on the system,
your network. A hyperlink can be text in the cell, a graphic or you can write a formula that creates a
hyperlink.
•
The Web Queries features allow you to create and run the queries to retrieve data available on the World
Wide Web.
•
The Internet assistant wizard steps you through the process of saving the worksheet data and the charts
in the HTML format. You can save the data and the chart as a complete new Web Page or add them to an
existing Web Page.
•
The new Share Workbook feature lets multiple users open a workbook on the network and edit the document
simultaneously.
•
CellTips and the ScrollTips automatically display the comments added to cell.
•
The worksheet has expanded to include 65,536 rows and you can type up to 32,000 characters in a cell.
•
Natural Language formulas allow you to create formulas that use row and the column headers instead of
the range references,
•
The Auditing and the Validation facility allow you to circle the invalid data and to see at a glance all the
entries that don’t meet your validation rules.
•
The enhanced Get External Data features enable you to query Access and the other databases either on the
system or a network or the Internet or intranet resources.
10.7 MICROSOFT ACCESS
Ms-Access is the relational database application in the Microsoft Office Professional. With Access, you can perform
the following tasks:
•
Organize data into manageable related units.
•
Enter, modify and locate data.
•
Extract subsets of data based on the specific criteria.
•
Create custom forms and reports.
•
Automate common database tasks.
•
Graph data relationships.
The major enhancements of Access are as follows:
•
The Publish to the Web Wizard — converts your Access information to a dynamic Internet or intranet site
including query pages.
•
The Outlook Journal — helps you to track when a database file was opened or closed, or when an object
was printed.
•
A new Hyperlink data type is supported to allow insertion of links to other objects, documents, or Internet
performance.
•
Improved design features include the ability to create forms with multiple tabs.
•
Lightweight Forms and Reports — load without loading Visual Basic for Applications, leading to faster
performance.
MS Office
&
•
User-Level Security Wizard creates a secured copy of the database.
•
The Visual basic code for the objects has been updated with the methods, properties and other language
elements.
•
Data interpretation is as follows:
Data Range for Abbraviated Year Format Interpretation
1/1/00 through 13/31/29
1/1/2000 through 12/31/2029
1/1/30 through 12/31/99
1/1/1930 through 12/31/1999
10.8 INTRODUCTION WORD PROCESSING
Let us consider an office scene. Many letters are typed in the office. The officer dictates a letter. The typist first
types a draft copy of the letter. The officer goes through it to check mistakes regarding spelling errors, missing words,
etc. and suggests corrections. The typist changes the letter as suggested by the officer. This is a simple example of word
processing.
There are many software packages to do the job of word processing. Some of them work in DOS environment.
Examples are WordStar, Word Perfect and Professional Write. But in these days working in WINDOWS is becoming
more and more popular. So let us consider software for word processing which works in WINDOWS. Our choice is
MS-WORD because it is the most popular software in these days.
MS-WORD is a part of the bigger package called MS OFFICE, which can do much more than word processing. In
fact,when you open up MS OFFICE you will find four main components in it. They are MS-WORD (for word processing),
MS EXCEL (for spreadsheet), MS ACCESS (for database management) and MS POWERPOINT (for presentation
purposes). However, we will limit ourselves to MS-WORD only in this lesson.
What is word Processing?
Word Processor is a Software package that enables you to create, edit, print and save documents for future retrieval
and reference. Creating a document involves typing by using a keyboard and saving it. Editing a document involves
correcting the spelling mistakes, if any, deleting or moving words, sentences or paragraphs.
(aAdvantages of Word Processing: One of the main advantages of a word processor over a conventional
typewriter is that a word processor enables you to make changes to a document without retyping the entire
document.
Qyf' Features of Word Processing: Most Word Processors available today allow more than just creating and
editing documents. They have wide range of other tools and functions, which are used in formatting the
documents. The following are the main features of a Word Processor :
(a)
Text is typed into the computer, which allows alterations to be made easily.
(b)
Words and sentences can be inserted, amended or deleted.
(c)
Paragraphs or text can be copied /moved throughout the document.
(d)
Margins and page length can be adjusted as desired.
(e)
Spelling can be checked and modified through the spell check facility.
(f)
Multiple document/files can be merged.
(g)
Multiple copies of letters can be generated with different addresses through the mail-merge facility.
(c)
Some Common Word Processing Packages: The following are examples of some popular word processor
available:
•
Softword
•
WordStar
•
Word perfect
•
Microsoft word
Important Features of-Ms-Word
Ms-Word not only supports word processing features but also DTP features. Some of the important features of
Ms-Word are listed below:
1.
Using word you can create the documents and edit them later, as and when required, by adding more text,
modifying the existing text, deleting/moving some part of it.
2.
Changing the size of the margins can reformat complete document or part of text.
3.
Font size and type of fonts can also be changed. Page numbers and Header and Footer can be included.
4.
Spelling can be checked and correction can be made automatically in the entire document. Word count and
other statistics can be generated.
5.
Text can be formatted in columnar style as we see in the newspaper. Text boxes can be madev
6.
Tables can be made and included in the text.
7.
Word also allows the user to mix the graphical pictures with the text. Graphical pictures can either be created
in word itself or can be imported from outside like from Clip Art Gallery.
8.
Word also provides the mail-merge facility.
9.
Word also has the facility of macros. Macros can be either attached to some function/special keys or to a tool
bar or to a menu.
10.
It also provides online help of any option.
10.9 GETTING STARTED WITH MS-WORD
All the commands available in these older versions are also available in WORD 97 and they are compatible. While
working in MS-WORD you have to work with a mouse. Also one can work, to some extent, through the keyboard. The
use of mouse is simpler as it is fully menu driven. In MS-WORDjevery command is available in the form of ‘icons.’
You can go inside MS-WORD by the following way:
1.
Take the mouse pointer to START button on the task bar. Click the left mouse button. The monitor will show
like as follows:
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Computer Application in Business
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Menus
When you begin to explore Word 2000, you will notice a significant change in the menu structure if you are familiar
with previous versions of Word. The menus in Word 2000 display only the commands you have recently used. To viewall options in each menu, you must click the double arrows at the bottom of the menu. The images below show the
Format menu collapsed (left) and expanded (right) after the double arrows at the bottom of the menu were clicked:
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Follow the steps below to display menus similar to previous versions of Word with all the choices listed initially:
•
Select View|TooIbars|Customize from the menu bar.
•
Click on the Options tab.
Uncheck the Menus show recently used commands first check box.
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Shortcut Menus
These features allow you to access various Word commands faster than using the options on the menu bar. View
shortcut menus by right-clicking with the mouse. The options on this menu will vary depending on the element that was
right-clicked. For example, the shortcut menu below is produced by right-clicking on a bulleted list.
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Actions such as “Decrease Indent” and “Increase Indent” are only applicable to lists and therefore only appeal' on
the list shortcut menu. The shortcut menus are helpful because they only display the options that can be applied to the
item that was right-clicked and, therefore, prevent searching through the many menu options.
Computer Application in Business
Toolbars
Many toolbars displaying shortcut buttons are also available to make editing and formatting quicker and easier.
Select View|Toolbars from the menu bar to select the toolbars. The toolbars that are already displayed on the screen are
checked. Add a toolbar simply by clicking on the name.
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Customizing Toolbars
There may be certain actions on a toolbar that you do not use and there may also be commands that you execute
often but that are not located on any toolbar. Word toolbars can be customized, so these commands can be added and
deleted.
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Select ViewjTooIbarsjCustomize and click the Commands tab.
•
By highlighting the command categories in the Categories box, the choices will change in the Commands
box to the right.
•
Select the command you would like to add to the toolbar by selecting it in the Commands box.
•
Drag the command with the mouse to the desired location on the toolbar and release the mouse button.
•
Remove a button from the toolbar by clicking and dragging the button off the toolbar.
Files
Creating and Opening Documents
There are several ways to create new documents, open existing documents, and save documents in Word:
Create a New Document
•
Click the New Document button on the menu bar.
•
Choose File|New from the menu bar.
•
Press CTRL+N (depress the CTRL key while pressing “N”) on the keyboard.
Open an Existing Document
•
Click the Open File button on the menu bar.
•
Choose File|Open from the menu bar.
•
Press CTRL+O on the keyboard.
Each method will show the Open dialog box. Choose the file and click the Open button.
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Computer Application in Business
Save a Document
•
Click the Save button on the menu bar.
•
Select File|Save from the menu bar.
•
Press CTRL+S on the keyboard.
Renaming Documents
To rename a Word document whde using the program, select File|Open and find the file you want to rename.
Right-click on the document name with the mouse and select Rename from the shortcut menu. Type the new name for
the file and press the ENTER key.
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Working on Multiple Documents
Several documents can be opened simultaneously if you are typing or editing multiple documents at once. All open
documents are listed under the Window menu as shown below. The current document has a checkmark beside the file
name. Select another name to view another open document or click the button on the Windows taskbar at the bottom of
the screen.
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Close a Document
Close the current document by selecting File|Close or click the Close icon if it’s visible on the Standard Toolbar.
Text
Typing and Inserting Text
To enter text, just start typing! The text will appear where the blinking cursor is located. Move the cursor by using
the arrow buttons on the keyboard or positioning the mouse and clicking the left button. The keyboard shortcuts listed
below are also helpful when moving through the text of a document:
Move Action
Keystroke
Beginning of the line
HOME
End of the line
END
Top of the document
CTRLrfHOME
End of the document
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Formatting Text
The formatting toolbar is the easiest way to change many attributes of text. If the toolbar as shown below isn’t
displayed on the screen, select ViewJToolbars and choose Formatting.
Formatting
font menu
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style menu
justify across page
numbered and
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•
Style Menu — Styles are explained in detail later in this tutorial.
•
Font Face — Click the arrowhead to the right of the font name box to view the list of fonts available. Scroll
down to the font you want and select it by clicking on the name once with the mouse. A serif font (one with
“feet” circled in the illustration below) is recommended for paragraphs of text that will be printed on paper
as they are most readable. The following graphic demonstrates the difference between serif (Times New
Roman on the left) and sans-serif (“no feet”, Arial on the right) fonts.
•
Font Size — Click on the white part of the font size box to enter a value for the font size or click the
arrowhead to the right of the box to view a list of font sizes available. Select a size by clicking on it once. A
font size of 10 or 12 is best for paragraphs of text.
•
Font Style — Use these buttons to bold, italicize, and underline text.
•
Alignment — Text can be aligned to the left, center, or right side of the page or it can be justified across the
page.
Computer Application in Business
•
Numbered and Bulleted Lists — Lists are explained in detail later in this tutorial.
•
Increase/Decrease Indent —- Change the indentation of a paragraph in relation to the side of the page.
•
Outside Border — Add a border around a text selection.
•
Highlight Color — Use this option to change the color behind a text selection. The color shown on the
button is the last color used. To select a different color, click the arrowhead next to the image on the button.
•
Text Colour — This option changes the color of the text. The color shown on the button is the last color
chosen. Click the arrowhead next to the button image to select another color. The Font dialog box allows
you to choose from a larger selection of formatting options. Select Format|Font from the menu bar to
access the box.
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Format Painter
A handy feature for formatting text is the Format Painter located on the standard toolbar. For example, if you have
formatting a paragraph heading with a certain font face, size, and style and you want to format another heading the same
way, you do not need to manually add each attribute to the new headline. Instead, use the Format Painter by following
these steps:
•
Place the cursor within the text that contains the formatting you want to copy.
•
Click the Format Painter button in the standard toolbar. Notice that your pointer now has a paintbrush
beside it.
MS Office
•
Highlight the text you want to add to the same format with the mouse and release the mouse button.
To add the formatting to multiple selections of text, double-click the Format Painter button instead of clicking
once. The format painter then stays active until you press the ESC key to turn it off.
Undo
Feel free to experiment with various text styles. You can always undo your last action by clicking the Undo button
on the standard toolbar or selecting EditjUndo... from the menu bar. Click the Redo button on the standard toolbar or
select EditjRedo... to erase the undo action.
Formatting Paragraphs
Paragraph Attributes
Format a paragraph by placing the cursor within the paragraph and selecting Format|Paragraph from the menu
bar.
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Moving (Cutting) Text
Highlight the text that will be moved and select Edit|Cut from the menu bar, click the Cut button on the standard
tool bar, or press CTRL+X at once. This will move the text to a clipboard.
To move a small amount of text a short distance, the drag-and-drop method may be quicker. Highlight the text you
want to move, click the selection with the mouse, drag the selection to the new location, and release the mouse button.
Computer Application in Business
Copying Text: To copy text, choose Edit|Copy, click the Copy button on the standard toolbar, or press
CTRL+C to copy the text to the clipboard.
Paste Text: To paste cut or copied text, move the cursor to the location you want to move the text to and
select Edit|Paste from the menu bar, click the Paste button on the standard toolbar, or press CTRL+V.
The Clipboard: The last 12 elements that were cut or copied are placed onto Word’s clipboard. You can
view the elements on the clipboard by selecting View|Toolbars|Clipboard from the menu bar.
Go on item and click on an element to add its contents to the document. Click Paste AH to add all of the items to the
document at once. Click the Clear Clipboard button (the icon with an “X” over the clipboard image) to clear the
contents of the clipboard.
Columns
To quickly place text in a column format, click the Columns button on the standard toolbar and select the number
of columns by dragging the mouse over the diagram.
For more column options, select FormatjColumns from the menu bar. The Columns dialog box allows you to
choose the properties of the columns. Select the number and width of the columns from the dialog box.
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MS Office
Drop Caps
A drop cap is a large letter that begins a paragraph and drops through several lines of text as shown below:
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Add a drop cap to a paragraph by following these steps:
•
Place the cursor within the paragraph whose first letter will be dropped.
•
Select Format|Dro;.j Cap from the menu bar
•
The Drop Cap dialog box allows you to select the position of the drop cap, the font, the number of lines to
drop, and the distance from the body text.
•
Click OK when all selections have been made.
•
To modify a drop cm;;, select FormatjDrop Cap again to change the attributes, or click on the letter and use
the handles to move and resize the letter.
Spelling and Grammar
AutoCorrect
Word automatically correct many commonly misspelled words and punctuation marks with the AutoCorrect
feature. To view the list of woof- that are automatically corrected, select Tools|AutoCorrect. This may be a hidden
feature, so click the double arrr .s at the bottom of the Tools menu listing, if the AutoCorrect choice is not listed.
9
Computer Application in Business
AutoConect; English fU.S.)
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Capitalization of the first word of the sentence can be automatically corrected from this page. If there are words
you often misspell, enter the wrong and correct spellings in the Replace and With fields.
Spelling and Grammar Check
Word will automatically check for spelling and grammar errors as you type unless you turn this feature off. Spelling
errors are noted in the document with a red underline. Grammar errors are indicated by a green underline. To disable this
feature, select TooIs|Options from the menu bar and click the Spelling and Grammar tab on the dialog box. Uncheck
“Check spelling as you type” and “Check grammar as you type”, and click OK.
To use the spelling and grammar checker, follow these steps:
•
Select Tools|Spelling and Grammar from the menu bar.
•
The Spelling and Grammar dialog box will notify you of the first mistake in the document and misspelled
words will be highlighted in red.
MS Office
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•
If the word is spelled correctly, click the Ignore button or click the Ignore All button if the word appears
more than once in the document.
•
If the word is spelled incorrectly, choose one of the suggested spellings in the Suggestions box and click the
Change button or Change All button to correct all occurrences of the word in the document. If the correct
spelling is not suggested, enter the correct spelling in the Not In Dictionary box and click the Change
button.
•
If the word is spelled correctly and will appear in many documents you type (such as your name), click the
Add button to add the word to the dictionary so it will no longer appear as a misspelled word.
As long as the Check Grammar box is checked in the Spelling and Grammar dialog box, Word will check the
grammar of the document in addition to the spelling. If you do not want the grammar checked, remove the checkmark
from this box. Otherwise, follow these steps for correcting grammar:
•
If Word finds a grammar mistake, it will be shown in the box as the spelling errors. The mistake is highlighted
in green text.
•
Several suggestions may be given in the Suggestions box. Select the correction that best applies and click
Change.
If no correction is needed (Word is often wrong more than it is right), click the Ignore button.
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Computer Application in Business
Synonyms
Word 2000 has a new feature for finding synonyms. Simply right-click on the word and select Synonyms from the
shortcut menu. From the list of suggested words, highlight the word you would like to use or click Thesaurus... for
more options.
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To use the thesaurus, select Tools|Language|Thesaurus from the menu bar or select it from the Synonyms
shortcut menu as detailed above.
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click the Look Up button to view similar words. Double-click words in the Replace with Synonym box to view
synonyms of those words. Highlight the word you would like to add and click the Replace button.
MS Office
yStyles
The use of styles in Word will allow you to quickly format a document with a consistent and professional look.
Paragraph and character styles can he saved for use in many documents.
Document4 - Microsoft Word
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Applying a Style
•
Place the cursor in the paragraph where the style will be applied.
•
Click the Style drop-down menu on the Formatting toolbar and select a style by clicking on it.
•
To apply the same style to multiple paragraphs, double click the Format Painter button on the standard
toolbar and click in all the paragraphs that the style should be applied to. Press the ESC key to disable the
Format Painter.
Apply a Style from the Style Dialog Box
Choose from a larger selection of styles from the Style dialog box.
•
Click in the paragraph you want to add a style to.
•
Select Format|StyIe... from the menu bar.
•
From the List drop-down menu, choose All styles to view all the styles available.
The styles are displayed in the Styles list. Preview each style by clicking once on the name. Paragraph styles are
preceded by the paragraph symbol () and character styles are preceded by an “a” icon (). A pointer arrow is located next
to the current style. Highlight the style you want to apply to the paragraph and click Apply.
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Computer Application in Business
Create a New Style from a Model
To create a style from text that is already formatted in a document, follow these steps:
•
Place the cursor in the paragraph you would like to set as a new style.
•
Click the Style box on the formatting toolbar so the style name is highlighted.
•
Delete the text in the field and type the name of the new style.
•
Press the ENTER key to save the new style.
j 0e Edit View Insert Format Tods Table Window Help
Create a Simple Style from the Style Dialog Box
•
Select Format|Style... from the menu bar and click the New button on the Style dialog box to access the
New Style dialog box.
•
Type the name for the new style in the Name field.
•
Select “Paragraph” or “Character” from the Style type drop-down menu.
•
Click the Format button at the bottom of the window and choose the paragraph element that will be
formatted for the style. Continue to make changes from the options from the Format button menu, making
changes to the dialog boxes for each element you choose.
•
Click OK to set the style and close the New Style dialog box.
Click Apply on the Style dialog box to apply the new style to the current paragraph.
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MS Office
Modify or Rename a Style
o
An existing style can be changed from the Style dialog box,
•
Select FormatjStyle... from the menu bar.
•
Highlight the style from the Styles list that you want to modify and click the Modify button.
•
Use the same methods to modify the style from the Modify Style dialog box that were used for the New
Style box.
•
To only rename the style, type a new name in the Name field.
•
Click OK when you are finished making modifications.
•
Click Apply to update the style in the document.
Delete a Style
Preset styles created by Word cannot be deleted, but to delete a style you have made, follow these steps:
•
Select Format|Style... from the menu bar
•
Highlight the style from the Styles list that you want to delete.
•
Click the Delete button.
•
You will be asked if you really want to delete the style. Click Yes.
Click Close on the dialog box.
Computer Application in Business
Lists
To create a bulleted or numbered list, use the list features provided by Word.
Bulleted and Numbered Lists
•
Click the Bulleted List button or Numbered List button on the formatting toolbar.
•
Type the first entry and press ENTER. This will create a new' bullet or number on the next line. If you want
to start a new line w-ithout adding another bullet or number, hold down the SHIFT key while pressing
ENTER
•
Continue typing entries and press ENTER twice when you are finished typing to end the list.
Use the Increase Indent and Decrease Indent buttons on the formatting toolbar to create lists of multiple levels.
NOTE: You can also type the text first, highlight the section, and press the Bulleted List or Numbered List
buttons to add the bullets or numbers.
Formatting Lists
‘ The bullet image and numbering format can be changed by using the Bullets and Numbering dialog box.
•
Highlight the entire list to change all the bullets or numbers, or Place the cursor on one line within the list to
change a single bullet.
•
Access the dialog box by selecting Format|Builets and Numbering from the menu bar or by right-clicking within the list and selecting Bullets and Numbering from the shortcut menu.
•
Select the list style from one of the seven choices given, or click the Picture... button to choose a different
icon. Click the Numbered tab to choose a numbered list style.
•
Click OK when finished.
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MS Office
Graphics
Adding Clip Art
To add a clip art image from the Microsoft library to a document, follow these steps:
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Select Insert|I*icture|Clip Art from the menu bar.
•
To find an image, click in the white box following Search for clips. Delete the words “Type one or more
words, .
and enter keywords describing the image you want to use. - OR - Click one of the category
icons.
•
Click once on the image you want to add to the document and the following popup menu will appear:
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Insert Clip to add the image to the document.
•
Preview Clip to view the image full-size before adding it to the document. Drag the bottom, right corner of
the preview window to resize the image and click.
•
Add Clip to Favourites will add the selected image to your favourites directory that can be chosen from the
Insert ClipArt dialog box.
•
Find Similar Clips will retrieve images similar to the one you have chosen.
•
Continue selecting images to add to the document and click the Close button in the top, right corner of the
Insert ClipArt window to stop adding clip art to the document.
Computer Application in Business
Add An Image from a File
Follow these steps to add a photo or graphic from an existing file:
•
Select Insert|Picture|From File on the menu bar.
•
Click the down arrow button on the right of the Look in: window to find the image on your computer.
•
Highlight the file name from the list and click the Insert button.
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Editing A Graphic
Activate the image you wish to edit by clicking on it once with the mouse. Nine handles will appear around the
graphic. Click and drag these handles to resize the image. The handles on the corners will resize proportionally while the
handles on the straight lines will stretch the image. More picture effects can be changed using the Picture toolbar. The
Picture toolbar should appear when you click on the image. Otherwise, select ViewjTooIbars|Picture from the menu
bar to activate it.
Image Control
1
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Brightness
Line
Style
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Insert
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•
Insert Picture will display the image selection window and allows you to change the image.
•
Image Control allows to make the image grayscale, black and white, or a watermark.
•
More/Less Contrast modifies the contrast between the colours of the image.
MS Office
•
More/Less Brightness will darken or brighten the image.
•
Click Crop and drag the handles on the activated image to delete outer portions of the image.
•
Line Style will add a variety of borders to the graphic.
•
Text Wrapping will modify the way the document text wraps around the graphic.
•
Format Picture displays all the image properties in a separate window.
•
Reset Picture will delete all the modifications made to the image.
Auto Shapes
The AutoShapes toolbar will allow you to draw many different geometrical shapes, arrows, flow chart symbols,
stars, and banners on the document. Activate the AutoShapes toolbar by selecting Insert|Picture|AutoShapes or
View|Toolbars|AutoShapes from the menu bar, or clicking the AutoShapes button on the Drawing toolbar. Click each
button on the toolbar to view the options for drawing the shape.
Lines
Block
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Lines — After clicking the Lines button on the AutoShapes toolbar, draw a straight line, arrow, or doubleended arrow from the first row of options by clicking the respective button. Click in the document where
you would like the line to begin and click again where it should end. To draw a curved line or freeform
shape, select curved lines from the menu (first and second buttons of second row), click in the document
where the line should appear, and click the mouse every time a curve should begin. End creating the graphic
by clicking on the starting end or pressing the ESC key. To scribble, click the last button in the second row,
click the mouse in the document and hold down the left button while you draw the design. Let go of the
mouse button to stop drawing.
• Basic Shapes — Click the Basic Shapes button on the AutoShapes toolbar to select from
many two- and three-dimensional shapes, icons, braces, and brackets. Use the drag-anddrop method to draw the shape in the document. When the shape has been made, it can be
resized using the open box handles and other adjustments specific to each shape can be modified
using the yellow diamond handles.
•
Block Arrows — Select Block Arrows to choose from many types of two- and threedimensional arrows. Drag-and-drop the arrow in the document and use the open box and
yellow diamond handles to adjust the arrowheads. Each AutoShape can also be rotated by first
clicking the Free Rotate button on the drawing toolbar. Click and drag the green handles around
the image to rotate it. The tree image below was created from an arrow rotated 90 degrees.
Computer Application in Business
•
Flow Chart — Choose from the flow chart menu to add flow chart elements to the document and use the
line menu to draw connections between the elements.
•
Stars and Banners — Click the button to select stars, bursts, banners, and scrolls.
•
Call Outs — Select from the speech and thought bubbles and line call outs. Enter the call out text in the
text box that is made.
•
More AutoShapes — Click this button to choose from a list of clip art categories. Each of the submenus on
the AutoShapes toolbar can become a separate toolbar. Just click and drag the gray bar across the top of the
submenus off of the toolbar and it will become a separate floating toolbar.
[AutoShapes
AutoShapes
Lines
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Page Formatting
Page Margins
The page margins of the document can be changed using the rulers on the page and the Page Setup window. The
ruler method is discussed first:
Move the mouse over the area where the white ruler changes to gray.
Document 1 - Miciosoft Word
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When the cursor becomes a double-ended arrow, click with the mouse and drag the margin indicator to the
desired location.
•
Release the mouse when the margin is set.
The margins can also be changed using the Page Setup dialog box:
•
Select File)Page Setup and choose the Margins tab in the dialog box.
•
Enter margin values in the Top, Bottom, Left, and Right boxes. The Preview window will reflect the
changes.
•
If the document has Headers and/or Footers, the distance this text appears from the edge of the page can
be changed.
•
Click OK when finished.
MS Office
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Page Size and Orientation
Change the orientation page within the Page Setup dialog box.
•
Select File|Page Setup and choose the Paper Size tab.
•
Select the proper paper size from the drop-down menu.
•
Change the orientation from Portrait or Landscape by checking the corresponding radio button.
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Cbmputer Application in Business
Headers and Footers
A header is text that is added to the top margin of every page such as a document title or page number and a footer
is text added to the bottom margin. Follow these steps to add or edit headers and footers in the document:
Select View|Header and Footer from the menu bar. The Header and Footer toolbar will appear and the top of the
page will be highlighted as shown below:
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insert date/
insert time
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format page number
insert number of pages
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switch between
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insert page number
•
Type the heading in the Header box. You may use many of the standard text formatting options such as font
face, size, bold, italics, etc.
•
Click the Insert AutoText button to view a list of quick options available.
•
Use the other options on the toolbar to add page numbers, the current date and time.
•
To edit the footer, click the Switch Between Header and Footer button on the toolbar.
•
When you are finished adding headers and footers, click the Close button on the toolbar.
Page Numbers
Follow these instructions for another way to add page numbers to a document.
•
Select Insert|Page Numbers from the menu bar and the following dialog box will appear.
•
Select the position of the page numbers by choosing “Top of page” or “Bottom of page” from the Position
drop-down menu.
•
Select the alignment of the page numbers in the Alignment drop-down menu.
•
If you do not want the page number to show on the first page (if it is a title page, for example), uncheck the
Show number of first page box.
Click OK when finished.
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Print Preview and Printing
Preview your document by clicking the Print Preview button on the standard toolbar or by selecting File|Print
Preview. When the document is ready to print, click the Print button from the Print Preview screen or select File|Print.
“x” close button to end the preview.
Mail Merge
Introduction
When sending out a specific letter to a group of people, it is sometimes easier to create a mail merge that automatically
places addresses, names, and personal greetings in the letters, rather than having to manually address or retype names in
the body of the letter. This workshop will help you create a mail merge from scratch.
Creating a Main Document
1.
To start a mail merge from scratch, click the New page button in the Standard toolbar. The new blank page
will be the main document (letter) with which the data source will be merged. The data source contains the
actual names, titles, addresses, etc.
2.
From the Tools menu, choose Mail Merge. The Mail Merge Helper appears as shown below:
....1
'
3.
•
In step 1, choose Create and select a document type. A message box appears asking if you want to use the
document in the active window or create a new one. Choose Active Window.
Computer Application in Business
Creating a Data Source
4.
In the Mail Merge Helper dialog box, choose Get Data (step 2) and select Create Data Source. The
Create Data Source dialog box appears as in the figure below:
Insert Merge Field
Insert:
(»} Address F»elds
( > £aftabase Fields
Fields:
■Unique Identifier
Sk
Courtesy Title
: First Name
;Mkjdte Name
Last Name
'Suffix
Nickname
: Job Tide
: Company
Address I
Address 2
City
State
• Postal Code
'Country or Region
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Insert
Cancel
]
5.
Add and remove field names from the Field names in header row list as described above. When finished,
choose OK.
6.
Enter a filename for the data source in the save box that is displayed, and choose OK.
7.
When the message box appears, choose Edit Data Source to display the first blank data form.
9.
In the Data Form, as shown below, enter the records by typing information into the fields. Use the Tab key
to move between fields. Choose the Add New button after completing a record to display a new blank record.
When finished entering records, choose OK.
Completing the Main Document
Completing the main document involves adding the necessary fields from your data source and finishing the typing
of your document. Entering standard text into this document is accomplished by following the same methods used to
enter text into any other type of document. However, Word adds a special Mail Merge toolbar to the top of the screen to
allow you to insert the data source fields and complete the merge.
MS Office
Inserting Data Source Fields
1.
Move the insertion point to the location for the first field.
2.
Choose the Insert Merge Field button on the Mail Merge toolbar.
3.
Select the appropriate field name from the list, as shown in the figure below:
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Continue typing the document, inserting fields where necessary. Be sure to include spaces and other punctuation
in appropriate places along with the field names. For example, you will want to place a comma and a space
after the city field in an address.
Note: You can change the foul used for a field name just like you can change the font for any text in the document. To do this, select the field
name and change the font and its attributes with either the formatting toolbar or the Format/Font dialog box.
Merging Data with the Main Document
Once the document is finished, you are ready to merge the data source with the document. The fields will be
replaced with the data from your data source. You can either merge directly to the printer or merge to a file to print later.
You can also preview your documents. This will allow you to make any necessary adjustments before actually printing or
saving.
Be sure that the main document is displayed. The Mail Merge toolbar displays on the screen whenever a main
document is open.
•
Choose the View Merged Data button to preview the resulting documents on the screen.
•
Choose the Merge to Printer button to send the resulting documents directly to the printer.
•
Choose the Merge to New Document button to display the resulting documents in a single file for saving.
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Word also allows you to use other data sources that have been created in other applications. For example, you may
have an Excel spreadsheet that already lists all of your employees and their addresses, or you may want to use the Contact
list from Outlook.
Computer Application in Business
Attaching an Alternative Data Source
If you were writing a letter to everyone in your Contact list in Outlook, it would be time consuming to recreate that
entire data source in Word. Word allows you to attach other data sources.
In step 2 of the Mail Merge Helper dialog box, as shown below, choose Get Data.
2
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Select Open Data Source to use a file from another program such as Excel.
Select Use Address Book to use other sources such as your Outlook Contact List. Once you have chosen the data
source, Word creates the appropriate field names that can be inserted into the main document using the Mail Merge
toolbar.
In the following example, we have chosen Use Address Book to use our Contact list from Outlook. The steps are
displayed in the following figures:
Use Address L:oi>
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I
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When a data source from another application is used, the data source is linked to that application. In other words,
when information is updated in that application, the data source is updated as well.
EXERCISES
1.
With the help of MS-WORD draw a product life cycle.
2.
Draft a letter to a foreign supplier negotiating Import terms and conditions.
3.
Using MS-WORD, prepare and present Export procedures and mention the documents.
MS Office
4.
Prepare an application form for the Export assistant to be published in a Newspaper.
5.
Present the annual report of an Export firm using MS-WORD.
6.
Give the outline of a Research report by using MS-WORD.
7.
Create the front page of a Newspaper.
8.
Type a document and perform the following:
9.
(a)
Change a paragraph into two column cash book.
(b)
Change a paragraph using bullets (or) numbering format.
(c)
Find any word and replace it with another word in document.
Prepare a class time table using a table menu.
10.
Prepare a mail merge for an interview call letter.
11.
Create a resume wizard.
12.
Design a cheque book of a bank.
Create a table with the following field name: EMP-no, Emp-name, designation, department, experience:
MS-Word Short Cut Keys
All Caps
-
CTRL+SHIFT+A
Annotation
-
ALT+CTRL+M
Auto Format
-
ALT+CTRL+K
Auto Text
-
F3 or ALT+CTRL+V
Bold
-
CTRL+B or CTRL+SH1FT+B
Bookmark
-
CTRL+SHIFT+F5
Copy
-
CTRL+C or CTRL+1NSERT
Copy Format
-
CTRL+SH1FT+C
Copy Text
-
SHIFT+F2
Create Auto Text
-
ALT+F3
Date Field
-
ALT+SHIFT+D
Delete Back Word
-
CTRL+BACKSPACE
Delete Word
-
CTRL+DELETE
Dictionary
-
ALT+SHIFT+F7
Do Field Click
-
ALT+SH1FT+F9
Doc Maximize
Doc Move
_
CTRL+F10
CTRL+F7
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Computer
Application in Business
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Doc Restore
CTRL+F5
Doc Size
CTRL+F8
Grow Font
CTRL+SHIFT+.
Grow Font One Point
CTRL+]Hanging Indent - CTRL+T
Pleader Footer Link
ALT+SHIFT+R
Help
FI
Hidden
CTRL+SHIFT+H
Hyperlink
CTRL+K
Indent
CTRL+M
Italic
CTRL+I or CTRL+SHIFT+I
Justify Para
CTRL+J
Left Para
CTRL+L
Line Up Extend
SHIFT+UP
List Num Field
ALT+CTRL+L
Outline
ALT+CTRL+O
Outline Collapse
ALT+SHIFT+- or ALT+SHIFT+NUM -
Outline Demote
ALT+SHIFT+RIGHT
Outline Expand
ALT+SHIFT+=
Outline Expand
ALT+SHIFT+NUM +
Outline Move down
ALT+SHIFT+DOWN
Outline Move up
ALT+SHIFT+UP
Outline Promote
ALT+SHIFT+LEFT
Outline Show First Line
ALT+SHIFT+L
Lock Fields
CTRL+3 or CTRL+FU
Web Go Back
ALT+LEFT
Web Go Forward
ALT+RIGHT
Word Left
CTRL+LEFT
Word Left Extend
CTRL+SHIFT+LEFT
Word Right
CTRL+RIGHT
MS Office
MS Powerpoint
O
10.10 GET WG STARTED WITH TO MS-POWER POINT
Micros’' P°werP°‘nt *s a software product used to perform computer-based presentations. There are various
Kumstar jS 'n which a presentation is made: teaching a class, introducing a product to sell, explaining an organizational
•UfHire, etc. When performing a presentation, there are two main kinds of presentation you can deliver: before an
dence or not. The preparation and the actual delivery of each are quite different. Before getting into the details of each,
e will first take a look at the software and analyze what it has to offer a presentation.
Open Power Point and you will be prompted by a dialog box with four choices. Each of these options is explained
on this page. If Power Point is already open or this box does not appear, select FilejNew from the menu bar.
Create a new presentation using -
C AutoContent Wizard
(*
besign Templatej
C Blank presentation
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Open an existing presentation
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Computer Application in Business
AutoContent Wizard
The AutoContent Wizard provides templates and ideas for a variety of presentation types. Page
^
by clicking the Next button on the bottom of each page after making necessary choices.
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wizard
Design Template
Power Point provides many templates with different backgrounds and text formatting to begin your presentation.
Preview each design by highlighting the template name on the list. Press OK after you have chosen the design.
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New Presentation
General Design templates I Presentations
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© Blends
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©Blue Diagonal
©Global
i© Radar
©Blueprint
© High Voltage
©Ribbors
©Bold Stripes
©Japanese Waves
©Rtcepiper
© Cactus
© Capsules
© Checkers
©LaVer ne
©Romanesque
©Lock And key
©Mar He
©Satyr a
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©Soar mg
©Construction
©Dads Tie
©Nature
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Ok
Cancel
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Blank Presentation
Select Blank Presentation to build the presentation from scratch with no preset graphics or formatting.
Open an Existing Presentation
Select this option to open a Power Point presentation that already exists. Select the folder the file is located in from
the Look in: drop-down menu and highlight the file on the list. Click Open to open the presentation.
Look in:
My Documents
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Pi My Webs
File name:
Web Folders
▼
Files of type: [aII PowerPoint Presentations (*.ppt;*.pps;*.potp.htro;*.I
Oper
|
Cancel
AutoLayout
After selecting the presentation type, you will be prompted to choose the layout of the new slide. These layouts
include bulleted lists, graphs, and/or images. Click on each thumbnail image and a description will be printed in the
message box. Highlight the layout you want and click OK.
New Slide
Choose an AutoLayout:
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OK
Cancel
Title Slide
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Computer Application in Business
Screen Layout
The Power Point screen layout in Normal View:
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Power Point gives you four screen layouts for constructing your presentation in addition to the Slide Show. You
can select the page view by clicking the buttons just above the formatting toolbar and the bottom of the page.
Normal View
This screen is split into three sections showing the presentation outline on the left, the slide in the main window, and
notes at the bottom.
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Slide View
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The slide view displays each slide on the screen and is helpful for adding images, formatting text, and adding
background styles.
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Outline View
The presentation outline is displayed on the majority of the screen with small windows for the slide and notes. This
view is recommended for editing text.
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A small image of each slide is displayed in Slide Sorter view. Slides can easily be ordered and sorted from this
screen.
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Working with Slides
Insert a New Slide
Follow these steps to insert a new slide into the presentation:
•
In the Outline window, select the slide you want, the new slide to appear after clicking the slide’s number.
•
Select Insert|New Slide from the menu bar or click the new slide button on the standard toolbar.
•
Choose the page layout from the window and press OK.
Applying a Design Template
To add a design template or changing the existing one, selection Format|Design Template from the menu bar.
Select the template and click Apply.
Changing Slide Layouts
To change the layout template of the slide select Format|Siide Layout from the menu bar. Select one of the layout
thumbnail images and click Apply.
New Slide
OK
|
Cancel
Title Slide
T~ gon't show this dialog box again
Reordering Slides
To reorder a slide in Slide Sorter View, simply click on the slide you wish to move and drag it to the new location.
In Normal or Outline View, click the slide icon beside the number of the slide you want to move and drag the icon to
a new location.
Hide Slides
If you do not want a slide to appear during the slide show, but do not want to delete the slide as it may be used later,
the slide can be hidden by selecting Slide Show|Hide Slide from the menu bar. To add the slide back to the slide show,
select Slide ShowjHide Slide again.
Create a Custom Slide Show
The Custom Slide Show feature allows you to select the slides you want to display in the slide show if not all the
slides should be used.
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Select Slide Show|Custom Slide Show from the menu bar.
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Custom shows:
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Custom Show 1
Edit...
Remove
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Close
Show
•
Click the New... button in the Custom Show window.
•
In the Define Custom Show window, type a name for the slide in the Slide show name field.
Define Custom Show
Slide show name: | Custom Show 2
Slides in presentation:
1. Title
(2) Title
OK
Cancel
•
Add slides to the custom show by highlighting them in the Slides in presentation window and clicking the
Add » button. Those slides will then appear in the Slides in custom show window.
•
To remove slides from the custom show, highlight their names in the Slides in custom show window and
click the Remove button.
•
To reorder slides in the custom show, highlight the slide that should be moved and click the up and down
arrows to change its order in the show.
•
Click OK when finished.
•
Click the Show button on the Custom Shows window to preview the custom slide show and click Close to
exit.
Edit a Custom Slide Show
•
Select Slide ShowjCustom Slide Show from the menu bar.
•
Edit the show by highlighting the name in the Custom shows box and clicking the Edit... button.
•
To delete a show, highlight the name and click Remove.
Computer Application in Business
•
Create a copy of a show by clicking the Copy button. The copy can then be renamed by clicking the Edit...
button.
•
Click the Show button to preview the custom slide show and click Close to exit.
Custom shows:
[New...
Custom Show 1
Edit.,.
Bemove
Copy;
Close
I
Show
Color Seheme
The colors of predesigned slide templates can be changed and a color scheme can be added to blank presentations.
This page explains how to add color schemes and background images to slides.
Color Schemes
•
Select Format|Slide Color Scheme from the menu bar.
•
Click one of the preset color scheme thumbnail images in the Color schemes box.
•
Click the Preview button to see how the scheme will appear on the slide.
Coloi Scheme
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£olor schemes
Title.
- Bullet
•
Title
- Bullet
Apply to All]
Title
- Bullet
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Apply
1
Cancel
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To make changes to the color scheme, click the Custom tab on the dialog box.
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Change the colors of the slide elements by selecting the color swatch beside the name of the element and
clicking the Change color button.
Highlight one of the colors from the Text and Line Color window or select the Custom tab to view more
color choices and click OK when finished.
Coloi Scheme
Standard
Custom
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Preview
Title of Slide
Bullet text
Change the colors of the slide elements by selecting the color swatch beside the name of the element and
clicking the Change color button.
Highlight one of the colors from the Text and Line Color window or select the Custom tab to view more
color choices and click OK when finished.
When you have finished all color formatting, click Apply to All to apply the color scheme to all the slides in
the presentation or Apply to add the scheme only to the current slide.
Computer Application in Business
Backgrounds
Follow these steps to add background colors and patterns to a slide:
•
Select Format|Background from the menu bar.
•
Select a color from the drop-down menu below the Background fill preview or choose More Colors... for
a larger selection.
•
Select Fill Effects from the drop-down menu to add gradients, texture, patterns, or a picture to the background.
Select a color from the drop-down menu below the Background fill preview or choose More Colors... for
a larger selection.
Select Fill Effects from the drop-down menu to add gradients, texture, patterns, or a picture to the background.
Gradient tab
Select One color if the color chosen will fade into the background and select the color from the Color 1
drop-down menu. Choose Two colors if the gradient will use two colors and select those colors from the
Color 1 and Color 2 drop-down menus. Preset provides a selection of color combinations. Select one from
the Preset colors drop-down menu.
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Fill Effects
Gradient j Textire | Pattern ] Picture
OK
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Cancel
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Variants -
C^Horissntal.
C Vertical
C: Diagonal up
F ibfagonal down
C From corner
C From title
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•
Select the type of gradient from Shading styles.
•
Click one of the four Variants of the styles chosen.
•
Texture tab from the Texture window, select a repeating background by scrolling through the thumbnail
images or click Other Texture... to select an image from a file.
•
Pattern tab Select a two-tone pattern by clicking one of the pattern swatches and selecting the Foreground
and Background colors.
•
Picture tab Click the Select Picture button to choose a picture from a file. After the picture is selected, a
preview and description will be shown in this window.
•
Click OK to apply the changes made from the Fill Effects windows.
Click Apply to All to add the changes to every slide or Apply to make changes only to the current Slide.
Fill Effects
Gradient | Texture
Pattern | Picture
■-OK
Pattern:
Cancel
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Master Slides
Slide Master
Change the style of all slides in the presentation by changing the properties on the Slide Master. Each Design
Template has its own Slide Master that can be altered. If you create slides from scratch, a consistent style can be added
to the presentation by formatting the Slide Master.
•
Select View|Master|Slide Master from the menu bar.
•
Format the master slide just as you would format a regular slide by formatting text, formatting lists, adding
background patterns and effects, and setting footers.
•
Click the Close button on the Master toolbar to quit editing the master slide and return to the presentation.
Computer Application in Business
▼ Master
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Click to edit Master title style
................................................................................................ Title Area for AutoLayouts
Click to edit Master text styles
- Second level
* Third level
- Fourth level
» Fifth level
Object Area for Autptayputs
<dateAim«>
<M>
<fbater>
Date Area I
Footer Area
Number Area
Headers and Footers
Add the date and time, slide numbers, and other footer text to the master slide from the Header and Footer window.
•
Select View|Header and Footer... from the menu bar.
•
Check the Date and time box to add this feature to the slide. Select Update automatically to always display
the current date and time or click Fixed and enter a date that will not change in the text field provided.
•
Check the Slide number box to add this feature to the slides.
•
Click the Footer box and add other text to the footer area of the slide.
•
Check the Don’t show on title slide box to hide these features on the title slide of the presentation.
•
Click the Notes and Handouts tab to make the same changes to notes and handout pages.
•
Click Apply to All to add the changes to every slide or Apply to add only to the current slide.
Slide Numbers
To add the slide numbers in a fixed position on the slide, use the Header and Footer window detailed above. The
slide number can otherwise be added anywhere on the slide by placing the cursor where the slide number should appear
and selecting InsertjSlide Number from the menu bar. The text of the slide number can be formatting just as regular text
style is changed.
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| Notes and Handouts |
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Date and Time
A date and/or time can also be added using the Header and Footer window or anywhere else on the slide. Place the
cursor where the date and time should appear on the slide and select Insert|Date and Time from the menu bar. Select a
format from the Available formats box and click Update automatically if this feature should always be updated to
reflect the current date and time. Click OK to finish.
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Date and Time
Available formats:
9/12/00
Tuesday, September 12, 2000
12 September 2000
September 12, 2000
12-Sep-00
September 00
Sep-00
9/12/00 9:21 AM
9/12/00 9:21:31 AM
: 09:21
09:21:31
9:21 AM
9:21:31AM
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j English (U.5.)
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Calendar type:
| Western
OK
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Cancel
| ,
Saving and Printing
Save as Web Page
Presentations can be saved by selecting File|Save from the menu bar. However, if you want to post Power Point
presentations on the Internet, you may want to save them as web pages so students and other visitors to your web site
can view the presentation even if they do not have Power Point installed on their computers. Select File|Save As Web
Page from the menu bar. Choose your web page directory on the network from the Look in: drop-down menu and name
the file in the File name: box. Click Save to save the presentation in web format.
Computer Application in Business
Page Setup
Select File|Page Setup from the menu bar to access options for printing the presentation slides. Select the format
the printed slides will be used for from the Slides sized for drop-down menu or enter a specific print size using the
Width and Height boxes. Select the page orientation for the slides and for other print material from the presentation in
the Orientation section.
Page Setup
Slides sized for:
in-screen Show
Orientation----------------
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C Portrait
Width:
J10 .HF] Inches
Height:
OK
r Slides ——— —-—--------
Cancel
(* Landscape
NoteSj handouts & outline
j7!i jF] Inches
Number slides from:
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C Landscape
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Print
Select FilejPrint from the menu bar to print the presentation.
Print range — Select All to print all the slides in the presentation, Current slide to print only the current slide, or
enter slide numbers in the Slides field to print only certain slides.
Copies — Enter the number of copies of each slide specified in Print range and check the Collate box if necessary.
Print What
•
Slides prints a full-page slide on each page.
•
Handouts prints as many slides as you designate on each page.
•
Notes Page prints one slide with that slide’s notes on each page
•
Outline view prints the outline of the presentation
Click OK to print.
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TIPS (Design Tips )
•
Keep text simple and easy to read by not using many different text effects such as bold, italics,, larger font
size for emphasis within a sentence, or a different font all on the same slide.
•
Use contrasting colors for the text and the background so the text will be easy to read.
•
Use font size large enough to be seen from the back of the room where the presentation willbeheld. A
size of 24-point or larger is recommended.
•
Use short phrases and sentences to convey your message.
•
Use simple slide transitions. Too many different transitions will distract your audience from thesubject of
the presentation.
•
Avoid cluttering the slides with too much text or graphics. Your audience should hear what you have to say
and not be distracted by a busy screen.
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Presentation Basics
•
Begin the slide show by clicking the Slide Show button on the bottom of the screen.
•
Move to the next slide by pressing the SPACE BAR, ENTER, PAGE DOWN. or right arrow keys or by
clicking the left mome button.
•
Go back to the previous slide by pressing BACKSPACE, PAGE UP, or the left arrow key.
•
To end the slidesho / before it is complete press ESC on the keyboard.
•
A pen tool is available for drawing on the screen with the mouse. Press CTRL+P or click the right mouse
button at any time and a popup window will appear. Choose Pen and the pointer will change to a pen that
allows you to draw freehand on the screen using the mouse. Press the E key to erase all pen strokes. Press
CTRL+A to disable the pen feature and revert the pen back to a pointer arrow.
•
If you would like to use the pen to draw on a blank screen during a presentation, press the B or W keys, or
select Screen/Black Screen from the popup menu and the screen will turn black. Press B or W again or
choose Next from the popup menu to return to the presentation when you are finished drawing.
•
To hide the pointer and button from the screen press the A key.
•
Be sure to preview the slide show using a projector if one will be used during the presentation. The projector
may cut off words or graphics that are close to the edge of the screen.
EXERCISES
1.
Using PowerPoint draft out the steps / procedures for customs clearance of imports.
2.
Using PowerPoint prepare Export Import documents.
3.
Draw a flow chart using PowerPoint to find the sum of 25 numbers.
4.
Explain the methods in data processing by using slides in PowerPoint.
5.
Using PowerPoint list out the members of SAARC / EEC / EFTA / LAFTA.
6.
Design an effective advertisement copy for a product of your choice using PowerPoint performance of the
salesmen’s.
MS Powerpoint Short Cut Keys
Apply subscript formatting
-
CTRL+EQUAL SIGN (=)
Apply superscript formatting
-
CTRL+PLUS SIGN (+)
Bold
-
CTRL+B
Capitalize
-
SHIFT+F3
Copy
-
CTRL+C
Delete a word
-
CTRL+BACKSPACE
Demote a paragraph
-
ALT+SHIFT+RIGHT ARROW
Find
-
CTRL+F
Insert a hyperlink
-
CTRL+K
Insert a new slide
-
CTRL+M
Italicize
-
CTRL+I
Make a duplicate of the current slide
-
CTRL+D
Open
-
CTRL+O
Open the Font dialog box
-
CTRL+T
Paste
-
CTRL+V
Print
-
CTRL+P
Promote a paragraph
-
ALT+SHIFT+LEFT ARROW
MS Office
Repeat your last action
-
F4 or CTRL+Y
Save
-
CTRL+S
Select all
-
CTRL+A
Start a slide show
-
F5
Switch to the next pane (clockwise)
-
F6
Switch to the previous pane
-
SH1FT+F6
Undo
-
CTRL+Z
View guides
CTRL+G
-
rMS Excel
10.11 GETTING STARTED WITH MS-EXCEL
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Microsoft Excel is a member of the spreadsheet family of software. Spreadsheet software is used to store information
in columns and rows, which can then be organized and/or processed. Spreadsheets are designed to work well with
numbers but often include text. Sometimes text in a spreadsheet is called a label, because it is labeling columns and rows
of numbers. Numbers are called values sometimes, and can include numbers for counts or measurements, dates, times,
and calculations from numbers.
Spreadsheets can help organize information, like alphabetizing a list of names or other text or reordering records
according to a numeric field. However, spreadsheets are more often used for calculating, such as totaling a column of
numbers or generating a more sophisticated formula to calculate some statistical measure on a list of numbers.
Computer Application in Business
Spreadsheets and databases are in competition and have similar features. Yet the way they work in the background
is different. When you work in a spreadsheet, you view the data you are entering as a section. In a database, you only sec"
the data you are entering — you have to request a report or different display to see more of the information. Other
differences are: (1) databases are more often used for applications with long textual entries, (2) very large applications
(thousands of entries) are more often handled in databases; and (3) spreadsheets are easier to learn to use and get
calculations from than a database program. This latter reason is why many researchers and students prefer spreadsheets
for keeping track of their data over databases.
It is impossible to give a complete listing of applications that can be done in spreadsheets, but they include budgeting
displays, checkbook registers, enrollment records, inventories, coded surveys, field and laboratory research data, and
financial and accounting applications.
The capacities of Excel are as follows. You can have 256 columns of information. You can have up to 16,384 rows.4
That comes out to over 4,194,000,000 cells of information and that’s only on the first sheet!!! You can have 16 sheets of
information in one workbook, and the number of sheets can be increased, if needed. Excel refers to each file as a
workbook, because there can be multiple sheets (pages) in one file.
You will want to load Excel at this time to continue this first lesson. Double-click on the Excel icon to start the
program.
Spreadsheet Basic
Excel allows you to create spreadsheets much like paper ledgers that can perform automatic calculations. Each
Excel file is a workbook that can hold many worksheets. The worksheet is a grid of columns (designated by letters)
and rows (designated by numbers). The letters and numbers of the columns and rows (called labels) are displayed in 1
gray buttons across the top and left side of the worksheet. The intersection of a column and a row is called a cell. Each
cell on the spreadsheet has a cell address that is the column letter and the row number. Cells can contain either text,
numbers, or mathematical formulas.
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Adding and Renaming Worksheets
The worksheets in a workbook are accessible by clicking the worksheet tabs just above the status bar. By default,
three worksheets are included in each workbook. To add a sheet, select InsertjWorksheet from the menu bar. To
rename the worksheet tab, right-click on the tab with the mouse and select Rename from the shortcut menu. Type the
new name and press the ENTER key.
Computer Application in Business
The Standard Toolbar
This toolbar is located just below the menu bar at the top of the screen and allows you to quickly access basic Excel
commands.
Save
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New: Select File|New from the menu bar, press CTRL+N, or click the New button to create a new workbook.
Open: Click FilejOpen from the menu bar, press CTRL+O, or click the Open folder button to open an existing
workbook.
Save: The first time you save a workbook, select FiIe|Savc As and name the file. After the file is named click
File|Save, CTRL+S, or the Save button on the standard toolbar.
Print: Click the Print button to print the worksheet.
Print Preview: This feature will allow you to preview the worksheet before it prints.
Spell Check: Use the spell checker to correct spelling enors on the worksheet.
Cut, Copy, Paste, and Format Painter: These actions are explained in the Modifying a Worksheet section.
Undo and Redo: Click the backward Undo arrow to cancel the last action you performed, whether it be entering
data into a cell, formatting a cell, entering a function, etc. Click the forward Redo arrow to cancel the undo action.
Insert Hyperlink: To insert a hyperlink to a web site on the Internet, type the text into a cell you want to be the link
that can be clicked with the mouse. Then, click the Insert Hyperlink button and enter the web address you want the text
to link to and click OK.
Autosum, Function Wizard, and Sorting: These features are discussed in detail in the Functions tutorial.
Zoom: To change the size that the worksheet appears on the screen, choose a different percentage from the Zoom T
menu.
Modifying a Spread Sheet
Moving Through Cells
Use the mouse to select a cell you want to begin adding data to and use the keyboard strokes listed in the table below
to move through the cells of a worksheet.
Movement
Key stroke
One cell up
up arrow key
One cell down
down arrow key or ENTER
One cell left
left arrow key
MS Office
One cell right
right arrow key or TAB
Top of the worksheet (cell Al)
CTRL+HOME
End of the worksheet (last cell containing data)
CTRL+END
End of the row
CTRL+right arrow key
End of the column
CTRL+down arrow key
Any cell
File|Go To menu bar command
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Freeze panes has been added to row 1 in the image above. Notice that the row numbers skip from 1 to 6. As the
worksheet is scrolled, row 1 will remain stationary while the remaining rows will move.
Formulas and Functions
The distinguishing feature of a spreadsheet program such as Excel is that it allows you to create mathematical
formulas and execute functions. Otherwise, it is not much more than a large table for displaying text. This page will show
you how to create these calculations.
Formulas
Formulas are entered in the worksheet cell and must begin with an equal sign “=”. The formula then includes the
addresses of the cells whose values will be manipulated with appropriate operands placed in between. After the formula
is typed into the cell, the calculation executes immediately and the formula itself is visible in the formula bar. See the
example below to view the formula for calculating the sub total for a number of textbooks. The formula multiplies the
quantity and price of each textbook and adds the subtotal for each book.
Computer Application in Business
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Linking Worksheets
You may want to use the value from a cell in another worksheet within the same workbook in a formula. For
example, the value of cell A1 in the current worksheet and cell A2 in the second worksheet can be added using the format
“sheetnamelcelladdress.” The formula for this example would be “= Al+Sheet2!A2” where the value of cell A1 in the
current worksheet is added to the value of cell A2 in the worksheet named “Sheet2.”
Relative, Absolute, and Mixed Referencing
Calling cells by just their column and row labels (such as “A 1”) is called relative referencing. When a formula
contains relative referencing and it is copied from one cell to another, Excel does not create an exact copy of the formula.
It will change cell addresses relative to the row and column they are moved to. For example, if a simple addition formula
in cell C1 “= (A1+B1)” is copied to cell C2, the formula would change to “= (A2+B2)” to reflect the new row. To prevent
this change, cells must be called by absolute referencing and this is accomplished by placing dollar signs “$” within the
cell addresses in the formula. Continuing the previous example, the formula in cell Cl would read “=($A$1+$B$1)” if the
value of cell C2 should be the sum of cells A1 and Bl. Both the column and row of both cells are absolute and will not
change when copied. Mixed referencing can also be used where only the row OR column fixed. For example, in the
formula “= (A$1+$B2)”, the row of cell A1 is fixed and the column of cell B2 is fixed.
Basic Functions
Functions can be a more efficient way of performing mathematical operations than formulas. For example, if you
wanted to add the values of cells D1 through DIO, you would type the formula
“=D1+D2+D3+D4+D5+D6+D7+D8+D9+D10.” A shorter way would be to use the SUM function and simply type
“=SUM(D1:D10).” Several other functions and examples are given in the table below:
Function
Example
Description
SUM
= SUM(A 1:100)
finds the sum of cells A1 through A100
AVERAGE
= AVERAGE® 1:B 10)
finds the average of cells B1 through B10
MAX
= MAX(CECIOO)
returns the highest number from cells Cl through C100
MIN
= MIN(D1:D100)
returns the lowest number from cells D1 through D100
SQRT
= SQRT(DIO)
finds the square root of the value in cell D10
TODAY
= TODAY0
returns the current date (leave the parentheses empty)
MS Office
Function category:
Most Recently Used
All
Financial
Date & Time
Math & Trig
Statistical
Lookup & Reference
Database
Text
Logical
1 Information
Function name:
DATE
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HOUR
MINUTE
MONTH
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code.
Cancel
OK
•
Click OK to select a function.
•
The next window allows you to choose the cells that will be included in the function. In the example below,
cells B4 and C4 were automatically selected for the sum function by Excel. The cell values {2, 3} are located
to the right of the Number 1 field where the cell addresses are listed. If another set of cells, such as B5 and
C5, needed to be added to the function, those cells would be added in the format “B5:C5” to the Number 2
field.
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Number 1
Number2
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Number 1: numberl,number2,,.. are 1 to 30 numbers to sum, Logical values and text
are ignored in cells, included if typed as arguments.
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Click OK when all the cells for the function have been selected.
Autosum
Use the Autosum function to add the contents of a cluster of adjacent cells.
•
Select the cell that the sum will appear in that is outside the cluster of cells whose values will be added. Cell
C2 was used in this example.
•
Click the Autosum button (Greek letter sigma) on the standard toolbar.
•
Highlight the group of cells that will be summed (cells A2 through B2 in this example).
•
Press the ENTER key on the keyboard or click the green check mark button on the formula bar .
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Sorting AND Filling
Basic Sorts
To execute a basic descending or ascending sort based on one column, highlight the cells that will be sorted and
click the Sort Ascending (A-Z) button or Sort Descending (Z-A) button on the standard toolbar.
Complex Sorts
To sort by multiple columns, follow these steps:
•
Highlight the cells, rows, or columns that will be sorted.
•
Select DatajSort from the menu bar,
•
From the Sort dialog box, select the first column for sorting from the Sort By drop-down menu and choose
either ascending or descending.
•
Select the second column and, if necessary, the third sort column from the Then By drop-down menus.
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No header row
OK
Cancel
•
If the cells you highlighted included the text headings in the first row, mark My list has...Header row and
the first row will remain at the top of the worksheet.
•
Click the Options button for special non-alphabetic or numeric sorts such as months of the year and days of
the week.
•
Click OK to execute the sort.
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Autofill
The Autofill feature allows you to quickly fill cells with repetitive or sequential data such as chronological dates or
numbers, and repeated text.
•
Type the beginning number or date of an incrementing series or the text that will be repeated into a cell.
•
Select the handle at the bottom, right comer of the cell with the left mouse button and drag it down as many
cells as you want to fill.
•
Release the mouse button.
If you want to autofill a column with cells displaying the same number or date you must enter identical data to two
adjacent cells in a column. Highlight the two cells and drag the handle of the selection with the mouse.
Alternating Text and Numbers with Autofill
The Autofill feature can also be used for alternating text or numbers. For example, to make a repeating list of the
days of the week, type the seven days into seven adjacent cells in a column. Highlight the seven cells and drag down with
the mouse.
Autofilling Functions
Autofill can also be used to copy functions. In the example below, column A and column B each contain lists of
numbers and column C contains the sums of columns A and B for each row. The function in cell C2 would be
“= SUM (A2:B2).” This function can then be copied to the remaining cells of column C by activating cell C2 and dragging
the handle down to fill in the remaining cells. The auto fill feature will automatically update the row numbers as shown
below if the cells are reference relatively.
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Computer Application in Business
Charts
Chart Wizard
The Chart Wizard brings you through the process of creating a chart by displaying a series of dialog boxes.
Enter the data into the worksheet and highlight all the cells that will be included in the chart including headers.
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2 English
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3 Biology
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4 Calculus
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5 Physics
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Histoiv
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6
•
Click the Chart Wizard button on the standard toolbar to view the first Chart Wizard dialog box.
•
Chart Type: Choose the Chart type and the Chart subtype if necessary. Click Next.
Chart Wizard - Step 1 of 4 - Chart
Standard Types | Custom Types |
Chart type;
Column
Chart sub-type:
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English
Biology
Calculus
Physics
History
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Qata range:
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Cancel
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Finish
Chart Options: Enter the name of the chart and titles for the X- and Y-axes. Other options for the axes, grid
lines, legend, data labels, and data table can be changed by clicking on the tabs. Press Next to move to the
next set of options.
Chari Wizard - Step 3 of 4 - Chari Options
Titles
|
Axes
Chart tjtle:
| Gridlines J
________________
(Class sizes
N w b c r o f S t« d c > ts
Category (X) axis:
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Value (Y) axis:_________ _
[Number of Students
Second category (X) axis:
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Finish
Chart Location : - Click As new sheet if the chart should be placed on a new, blank worksheet or select As
object in if the chart should be embedded in an existing sheet and select the worksheet from the drop-down
menu.
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Computer Application in Busimess
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Click Finish to create the chart.
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Resizing the Chart
To resize the chart, click on its border and drag any of the nine black handles to change the size. Handles on the
corners will resize the chart proportionally while handles along the lines will stretch the chart.
Moving the Chart
Select the border of the chart, hold down the left mouse button, and drag the chart to a new location. Elements
within the chart such as the title and labels may also be moved within the chart. Click on the element to activate it, and use
the mouse to drag the element to move it.
Chart Formatting Toolbar
display data
by row or
by column
format
legend
button
toggle
chart objects list
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Chart Objects List: To select an object on the chart to format, click the object on the chart or select the object
from the Chart Objects List and click the Format button. A window containing the properties of that object will then
appear to make formatting changes.
Chart Type: Click the arrowhead on the chart type button to select a different type of chart.
Legend Toggle: Show or hide the chart legend by clicking this toggle button.
Data Table view: Display the data table instead of the chart by clicking the Data Table toggle button.
Display Data by Column or Row: Charts the data by columns or rows according to the data sheet.
Angle Text: Select the category or value axis and click the Angle Downward or Angle Upward button to angle
the the selected by +/- 45 degrees.
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Copying the Chart to Microsoft Word
A finished chart can be copied into a Microsoft Word document. Select the chart and click Copy. Open the
destination document in Word and click Paste.
Paper Properties and Printing
Page Breaks
To set page breaks within the worksheet, select the row you want to appear just below the page break by clicking
the row’s label. Then choose InscrtjPage Break from the menu bar. You may need to click the double down arrow at
the bottom of the menu list to vie v this option.
Page Setup
Select FilejPage Setup fro
•
the menu bar to format the page, set margins, and add headers and footers.
Page: Select the Orientation under the Page tab in the Page Setup window to make the page Landscape or
Portrait. The size of ie worksheet on the page can also be formatting under Scaling. To force a worksheet
to print only one page wide so all the columns appear on the same page, select Fit to 1 page(s) wide.
Computer Application in Business
Margins: Change the top, bottom, left, and right margins under the Margins tab. Enter values in the header
and footer fields to indicate how far from the edge of the page this text should appear. Check the boxes for
centering horizontally or vertically on the page.
I Margins ] j Header/Footer
Page
Sheet
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Lop:
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Left:
Right:
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Footer;
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Header/Footer: Add preset headers and footers to the page by clicking the drop-down menus under the
Header/Footer tab.
Page Setup
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Header:
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Custom Header...
footer:
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Custom Footer...
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MS Office
To modify a preset header or footer, or to make your own. click the Custom Header and Custom Footer buttons.
A new window will open allowing you to enter text in the left, center, or right on the page.
page number
aJ
format text
date time
tab name
Jy aj A]©J ejoj
total number
of pages
file name
Format Text: Click this button after highlighting the text to change the font, size, and style. Page Number: Insert
the page number of each page. Total Number of Pages: Use this feature along with the page number to create strings
such as “page 1 of 15”. Date: Add the current date. Time: Add the current time. File Name: Add the name of the
workbook file. Tab Name: Add the name of the worksheet’s tab.
Sheet Check Gridlines if you want the gridlines dividing the cells to be printed on the page. If the worksheet is
several pages long and only the First page includes titles for the columns, select Rows to repeat at top to choose a title
row that will be printed at the top of each page.
Page Setup
Page
| Margins
Print area:
Print titles
j
Header/Footer
Sheet
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|
31
................. ....... ..........................................................
Rows to repeat at top:
j
Columns to repeat at left:
|
Print...... ........ ......................................-
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I- Row and column headings
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Comments:
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Page order -----------------(*
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OK
Cancel
Print Preview
Select File|Print Preview from the menu bar to view how the worksheet will print. Click the Next and Previous
buttons at the top of the window to display the pages and click the Zoom button to view the pages closer. Make page
layout modifications needed by clicking the Page Setup button. Click Close to return to the worksheet or Print to
continue printing.
Computer Application in Business
Print
To print the worksheet, select File/Print from the menu bar.
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•
Print Range: Select either all pages or a range of pages to print.
•
Print What: Select selection of cells highlighted on the worksheet, the active worksheet, or all the worksheets
in the entire workbook.
•
Copies: Choose the number of copies that should be printed. Check the Collate box if the pages should
remain in order.
Click OK to print.
Excel Exercises
Financial Functions in Excel
Excel provides 16 standard financial functions for making depreciation, loan payment, present value, future value,
and rate of return calculations. To see which financial functions Excel provides or to see which arguments a function'
requires, choose the Insert menu’s Function command and then select Financial from the Function Category list box (see
Figure below). The first Insert Function dialog box shows the categories of functions that Excel provides — such as
which financial functions are available.
MS Office
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Insert Function
Search for a function:
Type a brief description of what you want to do and then
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Select a function:
DB
DDB
FV
IPMT
IRR
ISPMT
MIRR
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DB(cost,salvage,life,period,month)
Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period using the
fixed-declining balance method.
Help on this functionl
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Cancel
Calculation of Net Present Value
The NPV function calculates the net present value of a set of cash flows given the discount rate and the cash flow
values (usually a worksheet range holding the cash flow values). If you are using the NPV function to compare alternative
investments, the investment opportunity with the largest NPV is the one that generates the largest profit in absolute,
present value terms.
The function uses the following syntax:
NPV(rate, values)
Net Present Value is similar to Present Value in that they both determine what aseries of futurecash flows would
be worth today as a lump sum. The primary difference is that the payments in PVmust beof an equal amount whereas
the payments with NPV need not be.
•
If the NPV is positive, the project should be accepted.
•
If the NPV is negative, the project should be rejected.
•
When comparing mutually exclusive projects, the one with the highest positive NPV should be selected.
= NPV (Rate, value 1, value2, value3,... value 29)
Rate: is the rate of discount over the length of one period. (Cost of Capital)
ValueX ... are the payments and income.
Value 1, value2,... must be equally spaced in time and occur at the end of each period. NPV uses the order of value 1,
value2,... to interpret the order of cash flows. Be sure to enter your payment and income values in the correct sequence.
•
Arguments that are numbers, empty cells, logical values, or text representations of numbers are counted;
arguments that are error values or text that cannot be translated into numbers are ignored.
•
If an argument is an array or reference, only numbers in that array or reference are counted. Empty cells,
logical values, text, or error values in the array or reference are ignored.
•
The NPV investment begins one period before the date of the value 1 cash flow and ends with the last cash
flow in the list. The NPV calculation is based on future cash flows. If your first cash flow occurs at the
beginning of the first period, the first value must be added to the NPV result, not included in the values
arguments. For more information, see the examples below.
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Computer Application in Business
Example 1
Initial Investment Begins One Year from Today
You are considering a project which requires an initial investment of $10,000 one year from today and will returr
annually: $.3000, $. 4200, and $. 6800 in the 3 years that follow. At an annual discount rate of 10 per cent, the net presen
value of this investment is calculated as follows:
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Example 2
Initial Investment Begins Today
This example is almost exactly like the previous example except that the initial investment of $10,000 is made today,
not one year from today. When this is the case, the initial investment must be outside of the NPV formula. If it were
within the NPV function, Excel would use the present value of 10,000 a year from today rather than its current value.
The calculations are as under:
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Calculation of Internal Rate Return (IRR)
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The IRR calculates the internal rate of return implicit in a set of cash flows given a values argument (usually a
worksheet range holding the cash flow values), and, optionally, a guess at the internal rate of return value. The internal
rate of return of a set of cash flows is the discount rate that produces a net present value equal to zero.
The internal rate of return (IRR) provides a measure of the average annual rate of return that a project will provide.
If the IRR exceeds the required return for a project, the project should be accepted.
It is the interest rate received for an investment consisting of payments (negative values) and income (positive
values) that occur at regular periods. It finds the discount rate that equals the present value of future cash inflows to the
investment cost.
•
The cash flows do not have to be even, as they would be for an annuity
•
The project with the highest IRR is the most profitable considering time.
= IRR (values, guess)
Values
Values are an array or a reference to cells that contain numbers for which you want to calculate the internal rate of
return. (b3:bl0 for example)
•
Values must contain at least one positive value and one negative value to calculate the internal rate of return.
•
IRR uses the order of values to interpret the order of cash flows. Be sure to enter your payment and income
values in the sequence they occur.
•
If an array or reference argument contains text, logical values, or empty cells, those values are ignored.
Guess
Guess is a number that you believe is close to the Internal Rate of Return.
•
In most cases you do not need to provide guess for the IRR calculation. If guess is omitted, it is assumed to
be 0.1 (10 per cent).
•
Microsoft Excel uses an iterative technique for calculating IRR. Starting with guess, IRR cycles through the
calculation until the result is accurate within 0.00001 per cent. If IRR can’t find a result that works after 20
tries, the #NUM! Error value is returned.
•
If IRR gives the #NUM! Error value, or if the result is not close to what you expected, try again with a
different value for guess.
Example 1
You wish to invest in your own business. You estimate it will cost $1, 50,000 to start the business and expect to net
the following income in the first six years: 20,000, 25,000,45,000, 50,000, 60,000, and 65,000. The IRR calculation is
given below:
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Enter the values in the appropriate columns and go to Insert / fa/ All/ IRR.
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Lastly click OK and you will be displayed the IRR (See below).
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The following example demonstrates how time can affect the Internal Rate of Return of a project. Projects 2, 3,
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Payment (PMT)
Excel provides five standard payment functions: IPMT, ISPMT, PMT, PPMT, and NPER. Typically, you use these
functions to calculate loan payment information. You can also use them for investment annuity calculations. The paragraphs
that follow describe each of these payment functions and give examples of each. As you work with each, however, keep
two factors in mind:
•
Be sure that you stay consistent in your period assumptions between the payment and the term and rate. In
other words, if you work with monthly payments, your term and interest rate must also be expressed as
monthly amounts. And if you work with annual payments, your term and interest rate must also be expressed
as annual amounts.
•
Note that you must use the sign of a value to indicate whether it is a cash inflow or cash outflow. An initial
loan balance — assuming you’re the borrower — should be shown as a positive value because it represents
a cash inflow. And loan payments as well as any balloon payments — again, assuming you’re the
borrower — should be shown as negative values because they represent cash outflows. Note, too, that
Excel uses signs of values in the same ways. It shows cash inflows as positive values and cash outflows as
negative values.
You must keep both of these factors in mind as you work with the financial functions and especially as you work
with the payment functions.
The PMT function in Excel returns the periodic payment for an annuity based on constant payments and a constant
interest rate. For example, you can find out what your car payments would be for a given loan amount, time, and interest
rate.
= PMT (Rate, n Periods, PV, FV, type)
Rate
:
This is the interest rate per period. For example, if you borrow a car at 9% annual
interest, the monthly rate would be 9%/12.
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This is the total number of payment periods for an annuity. For example, if you take
out a 3 year car loan, and make monthly payments, then the number of periods are
nPeriods
3*12.
PV
:
(Optional) The Present Value is the total amount that a series of future payments is
worth now (the loan amount).
FV
:
(Optional) The Future Value is the cash balance you want to attain after the last payment
is made. If FV is omitted, it is assumed to be 0. (The FV of a loan for example would
be 0).
Type
:
(Optional) Type is either: 1 or 0.
0 or omitted means that payments are due at the end of the period.
1 means that payments are due at the beginning of the period.
Notes:
•
FV and PV both have the word (optional) next to them, but you must use one or the other or both in the equation.
•
To find the total amount paid over the duration of the annuity, multiply the returned PMT value by nPeriods.
Example 1 (USING PV)
You are planning to buy a new car. You are taking out a 3 year loan of $5,000 to help you pay for it and you are
borrowing at an interest rate of 8%. What will the monthly loan payments be?
(i)
Rate: 8% / 12 months per year
(ii)
nPeriods: 3years * 12 payments per year
(iii)
PV: $5,000
(iv)
FV: Doesn’t apply
Solution
The following steps are followed for the calculation of through PMT function in MS Excel:
1.
Go to Insert option
2.
Select fx function, then you will be displayed with varieties of functions
3.
Type the rate, nperiods, pv, fv in the cells as below
4.
Place the cursor in the cells below and type the formula as = PMT(rate, nperiods, pv)
5.
Press enter. The result will be displayed
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Example 2 (USING FV)
You would like to have $500,000 in your savings account by the time you retire. You have 30 years until retirement
and you have found a saving account which pays 6% interest. How much do you have to deposit each month to reach
your goal?
1.
Rate: 6% /12 months
2.
nPeriods: 30 * 12 months
3.
PV: Doesn’t apply
4.
FV: 500000
Solution
The following steps are followed for the calculation of through PMT function in MS Excel:
1.
Go to Insert option
2.
Select fic function, then you will be displayed with varieties of functions
3.
Type the rate, nperiods, pv, fv in the cells as below
4.
Select PMT from fx
5.
Insert all the necessary inputs in the PMT dialog box
6.
Press Enter button
7.
The result will be displayed
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function.
Computer Application in Business
IPMT:
The IPMT function calculates the interest portion of a payment given its interest rate, the period, the term (or
number of payments), present value (or loan balance), future value (or balloon payment), and, optionally, the type-ofannuity switch. If you set the type-of annuity switch to 1, Excel assumes payments occur at the beginning of the period,
following the annuity due convention. If you set the annuity switch to 0 or you omit the argument, Excel assumes
payments occur at the end of the period following the ordinary annuity convention.
The function uses the following syntax:
IPMT (rate,period,nper,pv,fv,type)
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is the interest rate per period.
Period
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Nper
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Pv
is the present value, or the lump-sum amount that a series of future payments is worth rightnow.
Fv
is the future value, or a cash balance you want to attain after the last payment is made.
If fv is omitted, it is assumed to be 0 (the future value of a loan, for example, is 0).
Type
is the number 0 or 1 and indicates when payments are due. If type is omitted, it is assumed to be 0.
Example
To calculate the period interest rate for the 54th payment on a 30-year, $150,000 Mortgage charging 8% annual
interest, you use the following formula:
= IPMT(.08/12,54,30*12,150000,0,0)
The function returns the value - 957.51. Notice that to convert the 8% annual interest to a period interest, the
formula divides the annual interest rate by 12. Notice, too, that to convert the 30-year term to a term in months, the
formula multiplies 30 by 12. The function returns the interest payment amount as a negative value because it reflects a
cash outflow you pay.
Solution
•
Open the Excel spreadsheet
•
Type the required data in the cells
•
Click Insert and select fic
•
Choose the IPMT function from the function
•
Fill all the relevant inputs in the appropriate cells/or locate the required fields in the relevant cells in the dialog
box
Click OK to view the result
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Statistical Functions in MS Excel
Excel 2000 provides an almost countless number of tools you can use to analyze data and make meaningful statements
about it. However, without understanding the purpose and design of the tools and the details of how to use them, they
offer little help. This chapter supplies the background information required to determine which statistical tool to use and
how to use it to find the information you need.
To determine which function to use and to insert the correct variables in the correct places, you need to know some
key statistical terms. This section describes these terms. The science of statistics makes a fundamental distinction
between two types of data sets, population data and sample data. A population is the set of all elements of interest, while
a sample is a subset of that population, drawn to make inferences about the characteristics of the population. For
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example, if you want to describe the average number of televisions in American households, you can't possibly collect
data for the entire population (all American households), Instead, you must draw a sample from the population and make
an estimate about the whole population based on that sample. Unless otherwise stated, the Excel functions described here
make a critical assumption regarding the process used to select the sample: they assume that the sample drawn w'as
drawn at random, so in this case, every household w'ould have the same likelihood (probability) of being selected.
Statistical Formulas
This section describes the basic statistical functions that come with Excel. To see which functions Excel provides
or to see which arguments a function requires, click the Insert / Function (fx) and then select Statistical from the
Function Category list box (see below).
Once you select a function and click Next, the second Paste Function dialog box shows which arguments are
required for the function to make its calculations.
Average/Mean
The AVERAGE function ignores cells that contain text, that are empty, or that contain logical values. To use the
AVERAGE function, simply enter the data set range as the single argument using the following syntax:
= AVERAGE (data set range)
Example
Given the class marks of 15 students in 5 different subjects. Calculate the Average of every students in their five
subjects
Solution
Open Excel Spreadsheet and type the Name, Roll No. and the marks of each student.
— Place the cursor in H Cell and Type "Average”
Go to Insert/^/Average and locate the exact fields in the dialog box
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Median (MEDIAN)
The median is the middle value in a set of values. Half of the data in the set fall above this value and half fall below,
so the median estimates the 50r.: quartile. The MEDIAN function uses the following syntax:
Computer Application in Business
= MEDIAN (data set range)
If the data set contains an even number of values, Excel averages the two middle values.
Mode (MODE)
The mode is the most frequently occurring value in a set of values. When Excel calculates the mode, it ignores
empty cells and cells containing text or logical values. The MODE function uses the following syntax:
= MODE (data set range)
COUNT Function
A fourth type of statistical function is the COUNT function (Figure below). The COUNT function counts the total
number of cells that contain numbers or data.
Basic Concept = COUNT (valuel,value2,...)
MAX Function
Another type of statistical function is the MAX function. The MAX function returns the largest value of all the
numbers evaluated by the formula.
Basic Concept = MAX (number 1, number2, number3,...)
MIN Function
Another type of statistical function is the MIN function. The MIN function returns the smallest value of all the
numbers evaluated by the formula.
Basic Concept = MIN (numberl,number2,number3,...)
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Correlation
Correlation shows the closeness of the relationship between two variables. The benefit of using a correlation coefficient
to measure the relationship between two variables as opposed to using covariance is that the unit of measurement doesn’t*
matter.
You can use Excel’s Correlation tool to create a table of Correlation coefficient data. Like covariance, a correlation
coefficient also measures the linear association between two variables, but unlike covariance, correlation coefficients take
values between -1 and +1. Values near -1 indicate a strong negative linear relationship. Values near zero indicate lack or
relationship, and values near +1 indicate a strong positive linear relationship. To use Excel’s Correlation tool on the PR
Releases and Sales spreadsheet shown in the below Figure, follow these steps:
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Determining the correlation coefficient between number of press releases and weekly sales:
1.
Choose the Tools menu’s Data Analysis command
Excel displays the Data Analysis dialog box.
2.
Select Correlation from the list, and click OK
Excel displays the Correlation dialog box.
3.
Identify the data you want to analyze
In the example, you would enter A2:B11 in the Input Range box.
4.
Describe how the data is organized
In the example, you would make sure the Columns option button is selected.
5.
Use the Output Options to describe the location you want for the Correlation data table.
Click Output Range, and enter the upper left corner of the range where you want the data table to go.
Alternately Click New Worksheet Ply to create a new worksheet in the current workbook for the data, or click
New Workbook to create a new workbook for the data. The cell listed in Figure 4-17 shows where Excel places
the data table when you click the Output Range option button and enter D5 in the box.
6.
Click OK.
You use the CORREL function in Excel to determine whether two data sets are related, and if so, how strongly. The
correlation coefficient ranges from +1, indicating a perfect positive linear relationship, to -1, indicating a perfectly
negative linear relationship. To calculate a correlation coefficient for a sample, Excel uses the covariance of the samples
and the standard deviations of each sample. To use the CORREL function in Excel, just select the two sets of data to use
as the arguments and use the following syntax:
= CORRELCdata set 1 ,data set 2)
For example, if you have a set of preliminary test scores for a sample of employees in column A and a set of
performance feedback scores in column B, as shown in Figure shown below, and you want to find out whether they’re
related and if so, how strongly, you can use Excel to find the correlation coefficient for the samples.
Computer Application in Business
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value of the other also increases), but the relationship isn’t perfect.
Pearson
The Pearson product moment correlation coefficient function, PEARSON, uses a different equation for calculating
the correlation coefficient. This formula doesn’t require the computation of each deviation from the mean. Still, the
correlation coefficient ranges from +1, indicating a perfect positive linear relationship, to -1, indicating a perfectly
negative linear relationship. The PEARSON function uses the following syntax:
= PEARSON (data set 1 .data set 2)
Using the PEARSON function on the data shown in to compute the correlation coefficient returns the same value as
the CORREL function does.
Average Absolute Deviation from the Mean (AVEDEV)
The AVEDEV function finds the average of the absolute value of the deviation from the mean for each value in a data
set. The AVEDEV function uses the following syntax:
= AVEDEV (data set range)
To use the AVEDEV function, simply enter the data set range as the single argument in the function. For example,
if your data set is in the range A2:C6, you would enter the function as follows:
=AVEDEV (A2.C6)
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Computer Application in Business
Standard Deviation
Standard deviation is a common measure of describing the spread of observations in a distribution. The standard
deviation is equal to the square root of the variance.
STDEV
To find the standard deviation of a sample, ignoring logical values and text, use the STDEV function. This function
has the following syntax:
= STDEV (data set range)
For example, to find the standard deviation in the worksheet containing a 10-game sample of a bowler’s scores, as
shown in the below Figure, enter:
= STDEV (B2:B: 11)
Rank and Percentile
Excel includes six functions used for finding rank and percentile on values in a data set.
Large
Use the LARGE function to find the kth largest value in a data set. While you can use the maximum function to find
the largest value in a data set, you can use the LARGE function to find the runner up or third-place value. The LARGE
function uses the following syntax:
= LARGE (data set range, k)
Small
Use the SMALL function to find the kth smallest value in a data set. Although you can use the MIN function to find
the smallest value in a data set, you can use the SMALL function to find multiple values at the bottom. The SMALL
function uses the following syntax:
= SMALL (data set range, k)
Rank
To find the rank of a value in a data set relative to other values in the data set, you can use the RANK function. The
RANK function uses the following syntax:
= RANK (number, data set, order)
where number is the number whose rank you want to find, data set is the list of values against which you want to
rank it, and order tells Excel to rank in ascending or descending order. Enter a non-zero value to rank the numbers in
ascending order. Enter zero or leave the order parameter blank to rank in descending order.
7
Percentrank
To find the rank of a value in a data set as a percentage, you can use the PERCENTRANK. function. The
PERCENTRANK function uses the following syntax:
= PERCENTRANK (data set, x, significance)
where x is the value whose rank you want to find, data set is the list of values against which you want to rank it, and
significance tells Excel the number of significant digits it should use for the value. The value you get is between 0 and 1;
you need to multiply by 100 to get the actual per cent ranking.
Percentile
Percentile is a measure that locates where a value stands in a data set. The kth percentile divides the data so that at
least p per cent are of this value or less and (100-p) per cent are this value or more. If you have a set of data and need to
find the value at a certain percentile, you use the PERCENTILE function in Excel. The PERCENTILE function uses the
following syntax:
= PERCENTILE (data set range, k)
For example, if a score needs to be above the 80th percentile for admission, you can find which value defines that
percentile by entering 0.8 for k.
Quartile
The QUARTILE function in Excel is closely related to the PERCENTILE function. People often use quartiles,
which order the values in a data set into quarters, when dividing populations into groups based on sales and survey data.
The first quartile is the 25th percentile. The second quartile is the median, or 50th percentile. The third quartile is the 75th
percentile. The fourth quarter is the maximum value. The QUARTILE function uses the following syntax:
= QUARTILE (data set range, quartile)
For the quartile parameter, enter 0 for the minimum value, 1 for the first quartile, 2 for the second quartile, 3 for the
third quartile, or 4 for the maximum value. Skewness (SKEW) Like kurtosis, skewness is used to help determine the
shape of a distribution. Skewness shows whether a distribution is symmetrical or not. A symmetric distribution, such as
the normal curve, has a skew of zero. A positive skewness value indicates a long tail in the positive direction. A negative
skewness value indicates a long tail in the negative direction. To find the skewness of a data set, enter the data set range
as the single parameter in Excel’s SKEW function:
= SKEW (data set range)
Calculation of Rank and Percentile
You can use the rank and percentile tool to create a table listing the rank, value, and percentile of data points in the
data set. To do this, follow these steps:
Computer Application in Business
1.
Choose the Tools menu’s Data Analysis command.
Excel displays the Data Analysis dialog box.
2.
Select Rank and Percentile from the list, and click OK.
Excel displays the Rank and Percentile dialog box.
3.
Identify the data you want to analyze.
Enter the range of data you want to analyze in the Input Range box.
4.
Specify whether the values are organized in columns or rows.
5.
Specify whether the input ranges include labels.
6.
Specify the location for the Rank and Percentile table.
Click Output Range, and enter the upper left corner of the range where you want the table to go. Alternatively,
click New Worksheet Ply to create a new worksheet in the current workbook for the table, or click New
Workbook to create a new workbook for the table.
7.
Click OK.
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Database Functions in MS Excel
In Excel, database functions operate over ranges that can span more than one row or column. Learn here how to
use the myriad functions at your disposal, using the general syntax for all DFUNCTIONS.
Database functions operate over ranges that can span more than one row or column. As with all functions, you can
reference the database with a range name or with the cell references, either way works.
MS Office
General Dfunction Syntax
If you have large data stores or databases, DFUNCTIONS can be quite useful. The general syntax for the
DFUNCTIONS is as follows:
= DFUNCTION (database,field,criteria)
•
The database argument refers to the range encompassing the entire list or database.
•
The field argument refers to a particular column in the list that contains the data that you want calculated. If
you omit the field argument, the function operates on the entire list.
•
The criteria argument specifies the basis on which you want the function to select particular cells. Another
way to describe it is: Criteria is the specific requirements you set for the return. If you omit the criteria
argument, the function operates on the entire range specified in the field argument.
Note
The database range can be a cell reference (Example la) or a named range (Example 2a) on all database functions.
la. = DFUNCTION (C3.F17, field, criteria)
2a. = DFUNCTION (database, field, criteria)
The field can be the number of the column such as 3, meaning the third column in the list (Example lb). It can be
a cell reference such as C3 that contains the column heading that you want calculated (Example 2b). The field can also
be the column heading’s text, however the text must be enclosed in quotes, though it is not case sensitive (Example 3b).
lb. = DFUNCTION (Database, 3, Criteria)
2b. = DFUNCTION (Database, C3, Criteria)
3b. = DFUNCTION (Database, “Column Heading Name”, Criteria)
The criterion is the range containing restrictions on which data should be included in the calculation. This means
that you can specifically call out parameters, such as the sum of all numbers greater than 30, with the DSUM function,
‘n\
Daverage
DAVERAGE indicates the average of the values that meet the specified criteria.
= DAVERAGE (database, field, criteria)
The DAVERAGE function averages the range of numbers that span over a range based on criteria you specify. The
criterion is the range containing restrictions on which data should be included in the calculation. This means that you can
specifically call out parameters, such as the sum of all numbers greater than 30, with the DSUM function. The DAVERAGE
function counts the total number of entries and divides the total of the numbers by the number of entries. When sampling
data, populations, or analyzing sales data over large ranges, the DAVERAGE function quickly summarizes and returns the
average. Notice the example in the below figure. The field can be referenced as a column number, as shown in column 4.
The 4 represents the number of columns starting from left to right. In the second example the field is referenced as a
column heading “1999.” The column heading is text and needs to be in quotes. The third example also references column
4, however, the criteria in range C21:C22 shows the criteria as all numbers that exceed 3,000 and less than 7,000.
Dcount
DCOUNT counts the number of cells containing numbers that meet the specified criteria.
= DCOUNT (database, field, criteria)
The DCOUNT function tallies the number of cells containing numbers. Cells that contain text and blank cells are
ignored. To include text cells, use DCOUNT (see upcoming section). If you have a list or database, the database can be
referenced as a cell reference or as a named range. The field is the number of the column in the database from left to right
or the column heading in quotes (not case sensitive). The criterion is a range that contains the constraints the function
operates from. For example, let’s say you had a large database that had several blank cells as well as cells containing
numbers, only some of which you were interested in. The criteria could specify to count all numbers having a value of
more than 4,000 and less than 7,000, as shown in the third example in the below figure. The criteria range is C20:C22,
the field reference is left blank so that the function searches the entire list (C5:F9).
f20
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Dmax
DMAX extracts the highest value that meets the specified criteria.
= DMAX (database, field, criteria)
The DMAX function looks up the highest value in a range or database. The database is the cell reference range or
named range of the database; and the field is referenced as the column number from left to right. The criterion is a range
that is referenced and the function operates from the parameters set. The field can also be a cell reference. For example,
notice the formula in below figure that references the column heading Minnesota in cell F23. The criterion looks up the
highest temperature less than 20 degrees. If you type a new column heading in the cell reference F23, the DMAX formula
responds. The cell reference could be Minnesota or 1, meaning column one of the databases, either way works. You can
use cell references for the field in all Database functions. When you look at the figure, you’ll notice that Minnesota in cell
F23 is not case sensitive, however, the criteria headings are.
G23
.A-
=DMAX(0S:G1B.F23.D3D:G21)
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Dmin
DMIN extracts the lowest value that meets the specified criteria.
= DMIN (database, field, criteria)
The DMIN function looks up the lowest value in a range or database. The database is the cell reference range or
named range of the database and the field is referenced as the column number from left to right. The criterion is a range
that is referenced and the function operates from the parameters set. The field can also be a cell reference. The DMIN
function works the same way as the DMAX function. See DMAX for an example. See also the CD-ROM included with
this book.
Dsum
DSUM returns the total of the values that meet the specified criteria.
= DSUM (database, field, criteria)
Computer Application in Business
m
The DSUM function operates much as the sum function except that it operates on a database with criteria. The
database is the cell reference range or named range of the database, and the field is referenced as the column number
from left to right. The criteria is a range that is referenced, and the function operates from the parameters set. The field
can also be a cell reference. The criteria enable you to apply constraints, as shown in the example in the below figure.
Notice the criterion applies the sum of all sales for the cars greater than 1995 and less than 2000. The sum of sales dollars
from 1996 through 1999 equals $2,034,572.
F22
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Exercises
1.
Using your own data draw pie chart of national income level. Explain the contribution of various sectors with
the help of bar chart.
2.
Using statistical function present a percentage analysis and Trend analysis for the following information
using Excel.
3.
Using statistical function present a trend analysis for the given information using Excel.
4.
With the help of given data, draw population growth rate chart using Excel.
5.
Using Statistical function present a correlation analysis for the following information using Excel.
6.
Develop the Students Mark List worksheet and calculate total, average and save it. Specify the Result also
(Field names: S.NO, Name of the student, course, markl, mark2, mark3, total, average and result).
7.
Design a chart projecting the cash estimate of a concern in the forth coming years.
8.
Create a Pivot table showing the performance of the salesmen.
MS Excel Short Cut Keys
Move to next cell in row
-
Tab
Move to previous cell in row
-
Shift + Tab
Up one screen
-
Page Up
Down one screen
Page Down
Move to next worksheet
Ctrl + Page Down
Move to previous worksheet
Ctrl + Page Up
Go to first cell in data region
Ctrl + Home
Go to last cell in data region
Ctrl + End
Bold toggle for selection
Ctrl + B
Italic toggle for selection
Ctrl +1
Underline toggle for selection
Ctrl + U
Strike through for selection
Ctrl + 5
Change the font
Ctrl + Shift + F
Change the font size
Ctrl + Shift + P
Apply outline borders
Ctrl + Shift + 7
Remove all borders
Ctrl + Shift + Underline
Wrap text in same cell
Alt + Enter
Format cells
Ctrl + 1
Select font
Ctrl + Shift + F
Select point size
Ctrl + Shift + P
Format as currency
Ctrl + Shift + 4
Format as general
Ctrl + Shift + # (hash sign)
Format as percentage
Ctrl + Shift + 5
Format as number
Ctrl + Shift + 1
Autosum a range of cells
Alt + Equals Sign
Insert the date
Ctrl + ; (semicolon)
Insert the time
Ctrl + Shift + ; (semicolon)
Insert columns/rows
Ctrl + Shift + + (plus sign)
Insert a new worksheet
Shift + FI 1
Read Monitor Cell One
Alt + Shift + 1
Read Monitor Cell Two
Alt + Shift + 2
Read Monitor Cell Three
Alt + Shift + 3
Read Monitor Cell Four
Alt + Shift + 4
List Visible Cells With Data
Ctrl + Shift + D
Lists Data In Current Column
Ctrl + Shift + C
List Data In Current Row
Ctrl + Shift + R
Select Hyperlink
-
Ctrl + Shift +
-
Ctrl + Shift +
-
Ctrl + Shift +
Select Worksheet Objects
-
Ctrl + Shift +
List Cells At Page Breaks
-
Ctrl + Shift +
Move To Worksheet Listbox
Move To Monitor Cell
Options Listbox
-
Insert + V
MS Access
Introduction to Database
All of us are familiar with the term data. In fact, unknowingly we come across data in our day-to-day life everyday.
The age of a person, price of potato, number of students in a school, pin code of a city, etc. are some examples of data.
In our life we have to remember so much of data. But it is easier for us to remember all information for a few individuals.
For example, you may be in a position to tell accurately the age, height, complexion, income, educational qualification,
residential address, etc. of your close friends. But it is too difficult for you to memorize all these information for a large
number of individuals. Let us consider the example of Rai University (RU). Every year about one lakh students take
admission in RU. If you are asked to memorize records of date of birth, subjects offered and postal address of all these
students, it will not be possible for you.
To deal with such problems we construct a database. We arrange all information about students in a tabular form.
We keep all the records so that if I am asked, ‘How many students are there in Economics?’ I am in a position to answer.
10.12 GETTING STARTED WITH MS
Relational Database
A database is a collection of data which is organized in
records, and files, much like a telephone book. A field is a
record is one complete set of fields (your entry in the telephc
entire telephone book). When you look at the phone book fc
for the telephone book database. The only difference is t
probably a little faster than you are at retrieving information
trieved. They consist of fields,
your last name is one field); a
e is a collection of records (the
:r, you are the “search engine”
ed with database programs is
Let us begin with the concept ‘database’ and its managi
way. We can say that it is a collection of a group of facts. Y(
keep track of, such as personal friends and members of your tamily.
i of information in a structured
database of names you like to
Relational Database
A relational database is a single database spread across multiple tables. Think of a
database as a file cabinet and each drawer of the file cabinet is a table.
Example: All of the employee information is kept in the first drawer; all of the
vendor information is kept in the second drawer; and all of the purchase orders are kept in
the third drawer. To connect each of these drawers (which is what makes it “relational”),
a set piece of data from one drawer has to be present in one of the other drawers.
For instance, a purchase order will have a vendor name, address, and phone number
on it, along with the items purchased, purchase price, and any discounts. If the vendor
name is the “set” piece of data, it is entered in the purchase order table, but the address and
phone number are retrieved from the vendor table instead of having to retype that information
each time it is needed in the purchase order table.
MS Office
Table Relationships
To prevent the duplication of information in a database by repeating fields in more than one table, table relationships
can be established to link fields of tables together. Follow the steps below to set up a relational database:
•
Click the Relationships button on the toolbar.
•
From the Show Table window (click the Show Table button on the toolbar to make it appear), double click
on the names of the tables you would like to include in the relationships. When you have finished adding
tables, click Close.
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.
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TestlGr.
Test2Gr.
,
|
ftdd
~|
Close
create by entering data
Mailing List
Tablet_______________
Table2
iU
To link fields in two different tables, click and drag a field from one table to the corresponding field on the
other table and release the mouse button. The Edit Relationships window will appear. From this window,
select different fields if necessary and select an option from Enforce Referential Integrity if necessary.
These options give Access permission to automatically make changes to referential tables if a key record in
one of the tables is deleted. Check the Enforce Referential Integrity box to ensure that the relationships
are valid and that the data is not accidentally deleted when data is added, edited, or deleted. Click Create to
create the link.
1 D| X
I FirstName
ILastf
Test:
Test;
*1
Edit Relationships
Table/Query:
1 r able,';
Related Table/Query;
y I Table i
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Cancel
A.
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▼
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i r* Cascade Update Related Felds
|
Cascade Delete Related Records
Relationship Type:
One-To-Many
Create Mew..
Computer Application in Business
•
A line now connects the two fields in the Relationships window.
A-...
‘
s
FirstName
*
LastName
StudentID _
Test 1 Grade
Test2Grade
•
z\
I
m
FirstName
LastName
Address
City
▲
—
The datasheet of a relational table will provide expand and collapse indicators to view sub datasheets containing
matching information from the other table. In the example below, the student address database and student
grade database were related and the two can be shown simultaneously using the expand feature. To expand
or collapse all sub datasheets at once, select Format|Subdatasheet|Expand All or Collapse All from the
toolbar.
B3
Table2 : Table
First Name
Last Name
ID
Address
123
Main Street Ft.
977422811 John
Smith
Test2Grade
TesGGrade CourseAveragi
Testl Grade
►
95
85
90
90
*
0
0
0
0
+
1002552704 Jane
Jones
456 Elm Ave.
Ft.
Record: l< | ■* 11
T ► I H !►*! of 1
Sorting and Filtering
Sorting and filtering allow you to view records in a table in a different way either by reordering all of the records in
the table or view only those records in a table that meet certain criteria that you specify.
Sorting
You may want to view the records in a table in a different order than they appear such as sorting by a date or in
alphabetical order, for example. Follow these steps to execute a simple sort of records in a table based on the values of
one field:
•
In table view, place the cursor in the column that you want to sort by.
•
Select Records|Sort|Sort Ascending or Records|Sort|Sort Descending from the menu bar or click the
Sort Ascending or Sort Descending buttons on the toolbar.
To sort by more than one column (such as sorting by date and then sorting records with the same date alphabetically),
highlight the columns by clicking and dragging the mouse over the field labels and select one of the sort methods stated
above.
MS Office
Filter by Selection
This feature will filter records that contain identical data values in a given field such as filtering out all of the records
that have the value "Smith” in a name field. To Filter by Selection, place the cursor in the field that you want to filter the
other records by and click the Filter by Selection button on the toolbar or select Records|Fi!ter|Filter By Selection
from the menu bar. In the example below, the cursor is placed in the City field of the second record that displays the value
“Ft. Myers” so the filtered table will show only the records where the city is Ft. Myers.
H Mailing List: Table
Last Name
First Name
Address
State
City
123 Main Street Ft. Myers
Ft. M^ers
1
FL
wk
O':
Smith
► Smith
John
Sally
123 Main Street
FL
Jv
Jones
Mark
492 W. 21 st Av. Naples
FL
3:
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Filter by Form
If the table is large, it may be difficult to find the record that contains the value you would like to filter by so using
Filter by Form may be advantageous instead. This method creates a blank version of the table with drop-down menus for
each field that each contains the values found in the records of that field. Under the default Look for tab of the Filter by
Form window, click in the field to enter the filter criteria. To specify an alternate criteria if records may contain one of
two specified values, click the Or tab at the bottom of the window and select another criteria from the drop-down menu.
More Or tabs will appear after one criteria is set to allow you to add more alternate criteria for the filter. After you have
selected all of the criteria you want to filter, click the Apply Filter button on the toolbar.
The following methods can be used to select records based on the record selected by that do not have exactly the
same value. Type these formats into the field where the drop-down menu appears instead of selecting an absolute value.
Computer Application in Business
Filter by Form
Format
Explanation
Like ‘“Street”
Selects all records that end with “Street”
<=”G”
Selects all records that begin with the letters A through G
>1/1/00
Selects all dates since 1/1/00
<> 0
Selects all records not equal to zero
«iis*sit
Address
Last Name
Mailing ListID
First Name
City
;
"123 Main St
Remove a Filter
To view all records in a table again, click the depressed Apply Filter toggle button on the toolbar.
Queries
Introduction to Queries
Queries select records from one or more tables in a database so they can be viewed, analyzed, and sorted on a
common datasheet. The resulting collection of records, called a dynaset (short for dynamic subset), is saved as a
database object and can therefore be easily used in the future. The query will be updated whenever the original tables are
updated. Types of queries are select queries that extract data from tables based on specified values, find duplicate
queries that display records with duplicate values for one or more of the specified fields, and find unmatched queries
display records from one table that do not have corresponding values in a second table.
Create a Query in Design View
Follow these steps to create a new query in Design View:
•
From the Queries page on the Database Window, click the New button.
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Create query by using wizard
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Simple Query Wizard
Crosstab Query Wizard
Find Duplicates Query Wizard
Find Unmatched Query Wizard
; Create a new query without
j using a wizard.
1
1
Cancel
OK
Select Design View and click OK.
Select tables and e-Csting queries from the Tables and Queries tabs and click the Add button to add each one
to the new query.
Click Close when all of the tables and queries have been selected.
Tables ] Queries | Both
Add
Close
Tabie2
iU
Field:
Table:
Sort:
Show:
□
Criteria:
□
or:
jjJ
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Add fields from the tables to the new query by double-clicking the field name in the table boxes or selecting
the field from the Field: and Table: drop down menus on the query form. Specify sort orders, if necessary.
Computer Application in Business
query
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Enter the criteria for the query in the Criteria: field. The following table provides examples for some of thcJ
wildcard symbols and arithmetic operators that may be used. The Expression Builder can also be used to
assist in writing the expressions.
Query Wildcards and Expression Operators
Wildcard / Operator
Explanation
? Street
The question mark is a wildcard that takes the place of a single letter.
43th*
The asterisk is the wildcard that represents a number of characters.
<100
Value less than 100
>=1
Value greater than or equal to 1
o”FL”
Not equal to (ail states besides Florida)
Between 1 and 10
Numbers between 1 and 10
Is Null Is Not Null
Finds records with no value or all records that have a value
Like “a*”
All words beginning with “a”
>0 And <=10
All numbers greater than 0 and less than 10
“Bob” Or “Jane”
Values are Bob or Jane
MS Office
Tables/Queries
jTable; Table2
3
Available Fields;
^elected Fields:
ID
Address
City
State
PostalCode
WorkPhone
FirstName
LastName
HomePhone
<
«
Cancel
Bnish
Next >
From the first window, select fields that will be included in the query by first selecting the table from the
drop-down Tables/Queries menu. Select the fields by clicking the > button to move the field from the
Available Fields list to Selected Fields. Click the double arrow button »to move all of the fields to Selected
Fields. Select another table or query to choose from more fields and repeat the process of moving them to the
Selected Fields box. Click Next> when all of the fields have been selected.
Simple Query Wizard
J
What title do you want for your query?
j
*
i
i
|
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!|
[
I
j
That's all the information the wizard needs to create your
query.
Do you want to open the query or modify the query's design?
(* Open the query to view information.
C Modify the query design.
P Display Help on working with the query?
Cancel
<|ack
ioyF
On the next window, enter the name for the query and click Finish.
Finish
Computer Application in Business
Find Duplicates Query
This query will filter out records in a single table that contain duplicate values in a field.
Click the New button on the Queries database window, select Find Duplicates Query Wizard from the New
Query window and click OK.
New Query
Design View
Simple Query Wizard
Crosstab Query Wizard
This wizard creates a query
that finds records with
;. duplicate field values in a
single table or query.
■Find Duplicates Query Wizard
Find Unmatched Query Wizard
OK
•
|
Cancel
j
Select the table or query that the find duplicates query will be applied to from the list provided and click
Next >.
Find Duplicates Query Wizard
'CisC;
Which table or
1
XXX XXX XXX |
2 xxx xxx xxx
A;
3 xxx xxxxxx [I
2 xxx xxx xxx
|fl
4
I
Jieychobse a Customer table below,
xxx xxx_m|2_
[create by entering data
2 xxx xxx xxx
2 xxx xxx xxx
Tablet
Table2
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^
Mailing List
^
-View ------------------—------------------------(• Tables
Cancel
.
•
..
C Queries
< Back-
C Both
Next >
Finish
_
Select the fields that may contain duplicate values by highlighting the names in the Available fields list and
clicking the > button to individually move the fields to the Duplicate-value fields list or »to move all of the^
fields. Click Next > when all fields have been selected.
MS Office
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Find Duplicates Query Wizard
Which fields might contain duplicate information?
1
2
3
2
4
For example, if you are looking for cities with more than one customer, you
would choose City and Region fields here.
XXX XXX XXX
XXX XXX XXX
XXX XXX XXX
XXX XXX XXX
Available fields
Duplicate-value fields:
Mailing ListID
FirstName
LastName
Address
City
State
hPostalCodi
|HomePhone
WorkPhone
XXX XXX XXX
_L
<«
Cancel
•
< Back
Next >
Einish
Select the fields that should appear in the new query along with the fields selected on the previous screen and
click Next >.
Find Duplicates Query Wizard
1
2
3
2
4
XXX XXX XXX
For example, jf you chose to lode for duplicate City values, you corid choose r
CustomerName and Address here...-
XXX XXX XXX
XXX XXX XXX
XXX XXX XXX
Available fields:
XXX XXX XXX
(FirstName
S'”
i,
Additional query fields:
^
Computer Application in Business
Name the new query and click Finish.
Find Duplicates Query Wizard
What do you want to name your query?
•ind duplicates for Mailing List]
Do you want to view the query results, or modify the query design?
<• View the results.
C Modify the design.
I” Display Help on working with the query.
Cancel
-.......................................
< Back
.Next
Finish
;
Delete a Query
To delete a table from the query, click the table’s title bar and press the Delete key on the keyboard.
Forms
Forms are used as an alternative way to enter data into a database table.
Create Form by Using Wizard
To create a form using the assistance of the wizard, follow these steps:
•
Click the Create form by using wizard option on the database window.
•
From the Tables/Queries drop-down menu, select the table or query whose datasheet the form will modify.
Then, select the fields that will be included on the form by highlighting each one the Available Fields
window and clicking the single right arrow button > to move the field to the Selected Fields window. To
move all of the fields to Select Fields, click the double right arrow button ». If you make a mistake and
would like to remove a field or all of the fields from the Selected Fields window, click the left arrow < or left
double arrow « buttons. After the proper fields have been selected, click the Next > button to move on to
the next screen.
MS Office
Which fields do you want on your form?
You can choose from more than one table or query.
~u
jTable: Tablet
Available Fields:
,
Selected Fields:
Student ID
Test 1 Grade
f:. Test2Grade
Test3Grade
CourseAverage
fc ExtraCredit
I
•
I
Einish
On the second screen, select the layout of the form.
❖
Columnar: A single record is displayed at one time with labels and form fields listed side-by-side in
columns.
❖
Justified : A single record is displayed with labels and form fields are listed across the screen
❖
Tabular : Multiple records are listed on the page at a time with fields in columns and records in rows
❖
Datasheet: Multiple records are displayed in Datasheet View
Click the Next > button to move on to the next screen.
*
*
s»*
*
Hp£ Computer Application In Business
Select a visual style for the form from the next set of options and click Next>
Form Wizard
What stylo would you like?
Blends
Blueprint
Expedition
International
Ricepaper
Sandstone
Standard
Stone
Sumi Painting
< lack
Next >
Einish
On the final screen, name the form in the space provided. Select “Open the form to view or enter information’’
to open the form in Form View or “Modify the form’s design” to open it in Design View. Click Finish to
create the form.
Form Wizard
What title do you want for your form?
Form for Tablet
That’s all the information the wizard needs to create your
form.
Do you want to open the form or modify the form's design?
<* Qpen the form to view or enter information,
C Modify the form's design.
r*" Display Help on working with the form?
t-
t
ou
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Create Form in Design View
To create a form from scratch without the wizard, follow these steps:
•
Click the New button on the form database window.
Next >
Finish
MS Office
•
Select “Design View” and choose the table or query the form will be associated with the form from the
drop-down menu,
•
Select View'|Toolbox from the menu bar to view the floating toolbar with additional options.
▼ Toolb 3
iabc
option group
Am abl
□ r*
logg’e button
check box
oiM-o-i button
combo box
fcst box
command
image
bound object frame
unbound object frame
page break
subfornvsubreport
rectangie
•
text box
tab controi
H \
teie
□
more controls...
Add controls to the form by clicking and dragging the field names from the Field List floating window'.
Access creates a text box for the value and label for the field name when this action is accomplished. To add
controls for all of the fields in the Field List, double-click the Field List window’s title bar and drag all of the
highlighted fields to the form.
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fast bianrie;
LastName
FirstName
lastNarne
Address
City
State
PostalCode
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Adding Records Using a Form
Input data into the table by filling out the fields of the form. Press the Tab key to move from field to field and create
a new record by clicking Tab after the last field of the last record. A new record can also be created at any time by clicking
the New Record button at the bottom of the form window. Records are automatically saved as they are entered so no
additional manual saving needs to be executed.
171
SI Form for Tablel
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m StudentlD
Test1Grade
80
Test2Grade
95
Test3Grade
90
CourseAveraye
m
ExtraCredit
0
No
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Editing Forms
The following points may be helpful when modifying forms in Design View:
•
Grid lines: By default, a series of lines and dots underlay the form in Design View so form elements can be
easily aligned. To toggle this feature on and off select View|Grid from the menu bar.
•
Snap to Grid: Select Format|Snap to Grid to align form objects with the grid to allow easy alignment of
form objects or uncheck this feature to allow objects to float freely between the grid lines and dots.
•
Resizing Objects: Form objects can be resized by clicking and dragging the handles on the edges and
comers of the element with the mouse.
•
Change form object type: To easily change the type of form object without having to create a new one,
right click on the object with the mouse and select Change To and select an available object type from the
list.
•
Label/object alignment: Each form object and its corresponding label are bounded and will move together
when either is moved with the mouse. However, to change the position of the object and label in relation to
each other (to move the label closer to a text box, for example), click and drag the large handle at the top, left
comer of the object or label.
•
Tab order: Alter the tab order of the objects on the form by selecting View|Tab Order... from the menu bar.
Click the gray box before the row you would like to change in the tab order, drag it to a new location, and
release the mouse button.
MS Office
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Tab Older
-Section----- -—-
C form Header
f* Detail
C Perm Footer
Click to select a row, or
click and drag to select
multiple rows. Drag
selected row(s) to move
them to desired tab
order.
Custom Order:
_
_
_
_
FirstName
tastName
Address
City
State
HomePhone
PostalCode
WorkPhone
Cancel
•
Auto Order
Form Appearance: Change the background color of the form by clicking the Fill/Back Color button on the
formatting toolbar and click one of the color swatches on the palette. Change the color of individual form
objects by highlighting one and selecting a color from the Font/Fore Color palette on the formatting toolbar.
The font and size, font effect, font alignment, border around each object, the border width, and a special
effect can also be modified using the formatting toolbar:
FltBack
Color
Line,'Border
Color
&
Font'Fore
Color
•
rr
Special
Effects
Ime/Border
W*dth
Page Header and Footer: Headers and footers added to a form will only appear when it is printed. Access
these sections by selecting ViewjPage Header/Footer on the menu bar. Page numbers can also be added to
these sections by selecting Insert|Page Numbers. A date and time can be added from Insert|Date and
Time..., Select View|Page Header/Footer again to hide these sections from view in Design View.
Form Controls
List and Combo Boxes
If there are small, finite number of values for a certain field on a form, using combo or list boxes may be a quicker
and easier way of entering data. These two control types differ in the number of values they display. List values are all
displayed while the combo box values are not displayed until the arrow button is clicked to open it as shown in these
examples:
Combo Box
| Academic
3
List Box
Academe 3
Ben Hill Griffin i Hall
Reed Hall
3
3
By using a combo or list box, the name of the academic building does not need to be typed for every record.
Instead, it simply needs to be selected from the list. Follow these steps to add a list or combo box to a form:
Computer Application in Business
Open the form in Design View.
Select View|Tooibox to view the toolbox and make sure the “Control Wizards” button is pressed in.
Click the list or combo box tool button and draw the outline on the form. The combo box wizard dialog box
will appear.
Select the source type for the list or combo box values and click Next >.
Combo Box Wizard
Depending on your choice in the first dialog box, the next options will vary. If you chose to look up values
from a table or query, the following box will be displayed. Select the table or query from which the values of
the combo box will come from. Click Next > and choose fields from the table or query that was selected.
Click Next > to proceed.
Combo Box Wizard
• •, * '
iStSSSl’. 'J-
'
WNch table oft^ery should provide the values for ybur combo
box?
Type the name that will appear on the box’s label and click Finish.
MS Office
Check Boxes and Option Buttons
Use check boxes and option buttons to display yes/no, true/false, or on/off values. Only one value from a group of
option buttons can be selected while any or all values from a check box group can be chosen. Typically, these controls
should be used when five or less options are available. Combo boxes or lists should be used for long lists of options. To
add a checkbox or option group:
•
Click the Option Group tool on the toolbox and draw the area where the group will be placed on the form
with the mouse. The options group wizard dialog box will appear.
•
On the first window, enter labels for the options and click the tab key to enter additional labels. Click Next >
when finished typing labels.
Option Group Wizard
An option group contains a set of option buttons, check
•
On the next window, select a default value if there is any and click Next >.
Option Group Wizard
Do you Want one option to be the default choice?
the default choice is:
.
"HI
jYes
f {No;T dorft want a default, y%
-
Cancel
j
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1
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•
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tiext >
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.Computer Application in business
•
Select values for the options and click Next >,
Option Group Wizard
Choose what should be done with the value and click Next >.
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You can either store the value of a selected option in a field,
or use the value later to perform a task such as printing a
report.
What do you want to do with the value of a selected option?
C Save the value for later use.
f* Sore the value in this field:
Caned
< Back
|OrderNo
Next >
u
Ejnish
MS Office
Choose the type and style of the option group and click Next >.
Option Group Wizard
Type the caption for the option group and click Finish.
Command Buttons
In this example, a command button beside each record is used to open another form.
•
Open the form in Design View and ensure that the Control Wizard button on the toolbox is pressed in.
•
Click the command button icon on the toolbox and draw the button on the form. The Command Button
Wizard will then appear.
•
On the first dialog window, action categories are displayed in the left list while the right list displays the
actions in each category. Select an action for the command button and click Next >.
Command Button Wizard
What action do you want to happen when the button is
pressed?
Different actions are available for each category,
Categories;71/ ..
{Record Navigation
Record Operations
Form Operations
Report Operations
Application
Miscellaneous
;4- *
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Actions;
Apply Form Filter
Close Form
Edit Form Filter
Open Form
Open Page
Print a Form
Print Current Form
Refresh Form Data
Next >
Finish
Computer Application in Business
•
The next few pages of options will vary based on the action you selected. Continue selecting options for the
command button.
•
Choose the appearance of the button by entering caption text or selecting a picture. Check the Show AH
Pictures box to view the full list of available images. Click Next >.
Cothmand Button Wizard
Do you want text or a picture on the button?
If you choose Text, you can type the text to display, If you
choose Picture, you can click Browse to find a picture to display.
(* Text:
C picture:
(Product Info
MS Access Form
Browse,
;jT” sfiow All pictures
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Enter a name for the command button and click Finish to create the button.
Sub forms
A subform is a form that is placed in a parent form, called the main form. Subforms are particularly useful to display
data from tables and queries that have one-to-many relationships. For example, in the sample below, data on the main
form is drawn from an item information table while the subform contains all of the orders for that item. The item record
is the “one” part of this one-to-many relationship while the orders are the “many” side of the relationship, since rpany
orders can be placed for the one item.
The remainder of this page explains three methods for creating subforms and they assume that the data tables and/
or queries have already been created.
.i
i
MS Office
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The remainder of this page explains three methods for creating subforms and they assume that the data tables and/
or queries have already been created.
Create a Form and Subform at Once
Use this method if neither form has already been created. A main form and subform can be created automatically
using the form wizard if table relationships are set properly or if a query involving multiple tables is selected. For
example, a relationship can be set between a table containing customer information and one listing customer orders so
the orders for each customer are displayed together using a main form and subform. Follow these steps to create a
subform within a form:
•
Double-click Create form by using wizard on the database window.
•
From the Tables/Queries drop-down menu, select the first table or query from which the main form will
display its data. Select the fields that should appear on the form by highlighting the field names in the
Available Fields list on the left and clicking the single arrow > button or click the double arrows » to
choose all of the fields.
Foun Wizard
‘ •
Which fields do you want on your form?
p-sn
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, u, /
.Tabt^Quedes '
You can choose from more than one table or query.
sir':-''. • - '
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(Table; tblCustr.merOrder
ZJ
Available Fiei A:
Selected Fields;
>
Cancel
1
tblCustomer. CustomerAccount
CustomerName
OrderDate
OrderNo
GrandTotal
i tbiCusfcomerOrder, CustomerAccouil
< Sack
Mext>
Finish
•
From the same wir...ow, select another table or query from the Tables/Queries drop-down menu and
_choose the fields tb . should appear on the form. Click Next to continue after all fields have been selected.
, •
Choose an arranger nt for the forms by selecting form with subform(s) if the forms should appear on the
same page or Linked forms if there are many controls on the main form and a subform will not fit. Click
Next to proceed to ' e next page of options.
Computer Application in Business
Foim Wizard
How do fou want to view your
data?
by tblCustomer
tblCustomer_CustomerAccount; CustomerName
by tblCustomerOrder
OrderDate, OrderNo, GrandTotal,
tblCustomerOrder CustomerAccount
48
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<*■ Form with gubform(s)
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•
Linked forms
Select a tabular or datasheet layout for the form and click Next
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MS Office
Select a style for the form and click Next.
Fotm Wizaid
What style would you like?
Blends
Blueprint
Expedition
Industrial
International
Ricepaper
Sandstone
Standard
Stone
Sumi Painting
Cancel
<Back
Next >
Finish
SubFoim Wizard
You can use an existing form to create your subform or subreport, or
create your own using tables and/or queries.
>.xi'
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►
]
What data would you like to use for your subform or subreport?
C Use existing Tables and Queries
(* Use an existing form
frmCustomerOrder
frmltemOrders
frmOrderLine
Cancel
Next >
Finish
Computer Application in Business
The next dialog window will display table relationships assumed by Access. Select one of these relationships
or define your own and click Next.
SubForm Wizard
subform yourself or choose from the list below?
XKtfX*
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1
from a list.
<? IChoose
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1
r
Define my own.
Show qryOrderLine for each record in tblProduct using ItemNo
None
«•
<
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i
•
’
Cancel
< Back
Next >
Finish
On the final dialog box, enter the name of the subform and click Finish.
Drag-and-Drop Method
Use this method to create subforms from two forms that already exist. Make sure that the table relationships have
already been set before proceeding with these steps.
Open the main form in Design View and select Window|Tile Vertically to display both the database window and
the form side-by-side.
Database : Database
nagrxi
ga- frmlterns : Form
Ham
♦ Form Header
lltjeriiNd:I:: jjDesjcriptibh:
♦Detail
ItemNo
IjDescription
♦ Form Footer
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MS Office
Drag the form icon beside the name of the subform onto the detail section of the main form design.
81 frmltems: Form
|Open MDesign
3
X : ~d ‘r I'X
|f|New
Create form in Design view
Create form by using wizard
■# Form Header
ItfifiiNd: ! i dDesjefiptibb
# Detail
frmCustomerOrder
ItemNo
frmltemOrders
1 ^Description
frmltems
i
frmOrderline
•# Form Header
OrderMbi: dHwbNB
■f
Qbaiijd
Form Footer
More On Forms
Multiple-Page Forms Using Tabs
Tab controls allow you to easily create multi-page forms. Create a tab control by following these steps:
•
Click the Tab Control icon on the toolbox and draw the control on the form.
•
Add new controls to each tab page the same way that controls are added to regular form pages and click the
tabs to change pages. Existing form controls cannot be added to the tab page by dragging and dropping.
Instead, right-click on the control and select Cut from the shortcut menu. Then right-click on the tab
control and select Paste. The controls can then be repositioned on the tab control.
Bi bmOrdeiLine
Pa3e 1 | page 2 |
ItemNo
AP653
Description Pencil #2
UnitPrice
Record: 1<1 < 1 j
•
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Add new tabs or delete tabs by right-clicking in the tab area and choosing Insert Page or Delete Page
from the shortcut menu.
Computer Application in Business
•
Reorder the tabs by right-clicking on the tab control and selecting Page Order.
•
Rename tabs by double-clicking on a tab and changing the Name property under the Other tab.
Conditional Formatting
Special formatting that depends on the control’s value can be added to text boxes, lists, and combo boxes. A default
value can set along with up to three conditional formats. To add conditional formatting to a control element, follow these
steps:
•
Select the control that the formatting should be applied to and select Format|Conditional Formatting from
the menu bar.
•
Under Condition 1, select one of the following condition types:
•
Field Value Is applies formatting based upon the value of the control. Select a comparison type from the
second drop-down menu and enter a value in the final text box.
•
Expression Is applies formatting if the expression is true. Enter a value in the text box and the formatting
will be added if the value matches the expression.
•
Field Has Focus will apply the formatting as soon as the field has focus.
•
Add additional conditions by clicking the Add » button and delete conditions by clicking Delete... and
checking the conditions to erase.
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Default Formatting------------This format will be used if no
conditions are met:
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Password Text Fields
To modify a text box so each character appears as an asterisk as the user types in the information, select the text
field in Design View and click Properties. Under the Data tab, click in the Input Mask field and then click the button *
[...] that appears. Choose “Password” from the list of input masks and click Finish. Although the uss;r will only see
asterisks for each character that is typed, the actual characters will be saved in the database.
MS Office
Change Control Type
If you decide the type of a control needs to be changed, this can be done without deleting the existing control and
creating a new one although not every control type can be converted and those that can have a limited number of types
they can be converted to. To change the control type, select the control on the form in Design View and choose
Format|Change To from the menu bar. Select one of the control types that is not grayed out.
Multiple Primary Keys
To select two fields for the composite primary key, move the mouse over the gray column next to the field names
and note that it becomes an arrow. Click the mouse, hold it down, and drag it over all fields that should be primary keys
and release the button. With the multiple fields highlighted, click the primary key button.
Reports
Reports will organize and group the information in a table or query and provide a way to print the data in a database.
Using the Wizard
Create a report using Access wizard by following these steps:
•
Double-click the “Create report by using wizard” option on the Reports Database Window.
•
Select the information source for the report by selecting a table or query from the Tables/Queries drop­
down menu. Then, select the fields that should be displayed in the report by transferring them from the
Available Fields menu to the Selected Fields window using the single right arrow button > to move fields
one at a time or the double arrow button » to move all of the fields at once. Click the Next > button to move
to the next screen.
Report Wizard
Which fields do you want on your report?
You can choose from more than one table or query.
/
Tables/Queries
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Selected Fields:
Maiiinq ListID
FirstName
LastName
Address
City
State
PostalCode
HomePhone
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Computer Application in Business
Select fields from the list that the records should be grouped by and click the right arrow button > to add
those fields to the diagram. Use the Priority buttons to change the order of the grouped fields if more than
one field is selected. Click Next > to continue.
Do you want to add any grouping
levels?
FirstName
LastName
Address
City
State
PostalCode
HomePhone
WorkPhone
Priority
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FirstName, LastName, Address, City,
State, PostalCode, HomePhone,
WorkPhone
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Cancel
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Next >
Finish
If the records should be sorted, identify a sort order here. Select the first field that records should be sorted
by and click the A-Z sort button to choose from ascending or descending order. Click Next > to continue.
Report Wizard
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What sort order do you want for your records?
You can sort records by up to four fields, in either
ascending or descending order,
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FirstName
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Next >
Finish
MS Office
Select a layout and page orientation for the report and click
Next >.
How would you like to lay out your report?
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Select a color and graphics style for the report and click
Mext >
Einish
Next >.
Report Wizard
What style would you like?
Bold
Casual
Compact
Corporate
Formal
Soft Gray
Cancel
< Back
Next >
Finish
Computer Application in Business
•
On the final screen, name the report and select to open it in either Print Preview or Design View mode. Click
the Finish button to create the report.
Report Wizard
What title do you want for your report?
jMailing List Report}
That's all the information the wizard needs to create your
report,
Do you want to preview the report or modify the report's
design?
(* Preview the report,
C Modify the report's design.
1~ Display Help on working with the report?
Cancel
< Back
Finish
Create in Design View
To create a report from scratch, select Design View from the Reports Database Window.
•
Click the New button on the Reports Database Window. Highlight "Design View” and choose the data source
of the report from the drop-down menu and click OK.
Choose the table or query where
the object’s data comes from:
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Cancel
MS Office
•
You will be presented with a blank grid with a Field Box and form element toolbar that looks similar to the
Design View for forms, Design the report in much the same way you would create a form. For example,
double-click the title bar of the Field Box to add all of the fields to the report at once. Then, use the handles
on the elements to resize them, move them to different locations, and modify the look of the report by using
options on the formatting toolbar. Click the Print View button at the top. left corner of the screen to preview
the report.
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Printing Reports
Select File|Page Setup to modify the page margins, size, orientation, and column setup. After all changes have
been made, print the report by selecting File|Print from the menu bar or click the Print button on the toolbar.
Importing, Exporting, Linking
Importing
Importing objects from another database will create a complete copy of a table, query, or any other database object
that you select. Import a database object by following these steps:
•
Open the destination database.
•
Select FiIe|Get ExternaI|Import from the menu bar.
•
Choose the database the object is located in a click the Import button.
•
From the Import Objects window, click on the object tabs to find the object you want to import into the
database. Click the Options » button to view more options. Under Import Tables, select “Definition and
Data” if the entire table should be copied or “Definition Only” if
the table structure should be copied but not the data. Under Import Queries, select “As Tables” if the
queries should appear as regular tables in the destination database. Highlight the object name, and click OK.
Computer Application in Business
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Import Objects
Tables
Queries
Forms I Reports
Pages
Macros
Modules
create by entering data
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•
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The new object will now appear with the existing objects in the database.
Exporting
The effect of importing can also be achieved using the opposite method of exporting.
•
Open the database containing an object that will be copied (exported) to another database.
•
Find the object in the Database Window and highlight it. Then, select FilejExport... from the menu bar.
•
Select the destination database from the window and click Save.
•
You will be prompted to name the new object and may also be given other options, such as whether to copy
the structure or data and structure of a table. Click OK to complete the export procedure.
Linking
Unlike importing, linking objects from another database will create a link to an object in another database while not
copying the table to the current database. Create a link by following these steps:
•
Open the destination database.
•
Select File|Get External|Link Tables... from the menu bar.
•
Choose the database that the table is located in and click the Link button.
•
A window listing the tables in the database will then appear. Highlight the table or tables that should be linked
and click OK. A link to the table will appear in the Database Window as a small table icon preceded by a small
right arrow.
MS Office
EXERCISES
1.
Create Debtors table with the following structure:
Debtor’s No., Debtor’s Name, Amount outstanding, Discount, Net amount due.
❖
Find the net amount due for all the records.
❖
Display only the debtors’ name for net amount due > 10000
❖
Increase the rate of discount by Rs. 100 for all the records.
2.
With the given data prepare a table using design view in MS-Access.
3.
Using MS-ACCESS create a table giving employee details with minimum 10 records.
4.
With the given data prepare a report in wizard view in MS-ACCESS:
Emp No.
Emp name
Designation
Department
Experience
Some Useful Short Cut Keys
Microsoft natural keyboard shortcuts
Windows Logo (Display or hide the Start menu)
Windows Logo + BREAK (Display the System Properties dialog box)
Windows Logo + D (Display the desktop)
Windows Logo + M (Minimize all of the windows)
Windows Logo + SHIFT + M (Restore the minimized windows)
Windows Logo + E (Open My Computer)
Windows Logo + F (Search for a file or a folder)
CTRL + Windows Logo + F (Search for computers)
Windows Logo+Fl (Display Windows Help)
Windows Logo-t- L (Lock the keyboard)
Windows Logo + R (Open the Run dialog box)
Windows Logo + U (Open Utility Manager)
Computer Application in Business
Playback
Play, Restart, or Unpause - X or Numeric Keypad 5
Stop - V
Stop with Fadeout - Shift + V
Pause and Unpause - C
Next Track - B or Numeric Keypad 6
Previous Track - Z or Numeric Keypad 4
Play list related
Search song - J
Select All - Control + A
Crop Play list - Control + Delete
Sort Play list by Title - Control + Shift + 1
Sort Play list by File Name - Control + Shift + 2
Sort Play list by File Path and Name - Control + Shift + 3
Shortcuts for Yahoo Messenger
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Alt + A - Open my Account web page
Alt + C - Show the Call menu off of the split drop down menu control
Alt + D - View/Edit Contact Details
Ctrl + Shift + L - End Call
Alt + R - Hold/Resume
Alt + L-Call PC/Call Back
Alt + M - Mute/ Unmute
Alt + S - Save to Address Book
Ctrl + M - Send an IM
Ctrl + T - Send a Text Message
Ctrl + Y - Email
Ctrl + K - Call a Telephone Number
Ctrl + N - Start a Conversation
Ctrl + F - Show only online buddies
Show the File menu - ALT+F
Play or pause a file - CTRL+P
Stop playback - CTRL+S
Turn captions and subtitles on or off - CTRL+SHIFT+C
Play faster than normal speed (time compression) - CTRL+SHIFT+G
Play slower than normal speed (time expansion) - CTRL+SHIFT+S
Repeat the play list - CTRL+T
Switch between the inner and outer areas of the Player - CTRL+TAB
Specify either a URL or path of a file - CTRL+U
Close or stop playing a file on the File menu - CTRL+W
Delete a selected item in the Sync feature - DELETE
Computer Application in Business
Select the next item in the list - DOWN ARROW
Play an item - Enter
Play the next item - CTRL+F
Shuffle the play list on the Play menu or the Skin shortcut menu - CTRL+H
Capture a still image from a DVD on the View menu - CTRL+I
Show the menu bar in full mode - CTRL+M
Create a play list on the File menu - CTRL+N.
10.13 MS FRONT PAGE
Following words are used often in the Front page :
•
Hyperlink: Text or graphic hotspots that load other webpages when clicked on.
•
Pixel: The unit of measurement on the web. One pixel is approximately the size of a period (.) in 12-point
Arialfont.
•
Shortcut menu: As with all PC programs, access popup shortcut menus by right-clicking on objects with
the mouse.
•
URL (Universal Resource Locator): The address of a web site. This is after the “http://” on the location
bar on your browser.
•
Web: In FrontPage, your website is referred to as a web.
FrontPage Screen Layout
Below is a diagram of the default page layout in FrontPage. You can change the view by selecting a different View
Option
MS Office
Views
•
Page view gives you a WYSIWYG editing environment for creating and editing web pages.
•
Folders view lists all of the files and folders in your web for easy management.
•
Reports view identifies problems with pages and links in the web including slow-loading pages, broken
links, and other errors.
•
Navigation view lists the navigation order of the site and allows you to change the order that a user would
view the pages.
•
Hyperlinks view allows you to organize the links in the web pages.
•
Tasks view provides a grid for inputting tasks you need to complete in your web.
Creating a Web Using the Web Wizard
1.
Open FrontPage and select File|New|Web... from the menu bar or click the small down arrow next to the
New button on the standard toolbar and select Web...,
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Select the type of web you want to create. It is usually best to create a simple One Page Web which you can
add additional blank pages to as you need them. Enter a location for the web in the box provided beginning
with "http://". This is the location where you can preview the \>.eh on your computer. It will need to be
copied to the server to be viewed to the world on die WWW
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Click OK and wait for FrontPage to finish creating the web.
4.
Now, explore your web. Click Folders view to see ihe initial page 'default.him) that was created and two
folders. The "images" folder is where you will place all your graphics and photos. While it is not imperative
that the images be placed in a separate folder, it keeps the web organized.
Computer Application in Business
5.
Click on Reports view to see a list of reports for the site. As you construct your web. this page will be much
more useful. From here, you can identify and correct broken hyperlinks and fix large pages that take a long
time to load.
6.
View the navigation layout of the web by clicking Navigation view. Right now, there is only one page - the
home page - listed. As more pages are added, this page becomes helpful to see how all your pages are linked
together.
7.
Hyperlinks view allows you to manage the links on your pages.
8.
Optional-in Tasks view, list the tasks that need to be accomplished to create the web. Select Edit|Task|Add
Tasks to add a task. Or click the down arrow beside the New button on the standard toolbar.
9.
Make pages and save them, marking them as completed in the task view,
10.
Click Folders view to locate the open the next page to work on.
11.
When you are ready to publish your web on the FGCU server, copy the folder to the server.
Creating a Web Page from a Template
FrontPage provides many individual page templates that can be added to any web. Follow these steps to add a
template to a web page.
1.
Select File|New|Page... and choose a template.
2.
Select a template and click OK.
3.
Replace the place-holding body text with your own text and photos with images you would like on your web
page.
Report View
When your web is completed, click Reports view to verify that links are correct and use the Reporting toolbar to
switch between reports.
MS Office
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To open a web you have already created, select File|Open Web... from the menu bar. Select the web folder from
the list and click Open.
Saving A Web
Save all the pages within the web created by FrontPage. These pages, however, are not visible to anyone on the
Internet. You must copy the entire web folder to a network drive.
Page Properties
Change various page properties by selecting File)Properties from the menu bar. The Page Properties window will
allow you to change many general properties, the page background, margins, and more.
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General: Under the General tab, one property that needs to be changed is the Title. This is the text that will
appear across the top of the screen above the browser’s menu bar when the page is viewed on the web.
Background sounds are not recommended and design-time control scripting options do not need to be
changed.
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Background: Check the Background picture box and select an image by clicking the Browse... button to
add a repeating graphic to the background of the page.
Enable hyperlink rollover effects adds a Cascading Style Sheet to the page that causes the appearance
of text links to change when the mouse is placed over them. These effects are not visible in Netscape version
4 and lower.
Set the Background color and a default Text color if it is not black.
Hyperlink colors can be changed as well. The color set for Hyperlink will be the color of the text of a link
that has not been viewed yet by the website user. Visited hyperlink is the color the link will turn after the
page has been visited. Active hyperlink is the color of the link as it is being pressed. This color is usually
barely seen as the user quickly clicks the link. The default colors that web users are used to are blue for
normal and purple for visited. Refrain from swapping these colors so users will not be confused!
•
Margins: Set the top and left margin width by pixels if necessary. It is not necessary to alter any of the
properties on the remaining tabs.
Themes
Themes can quickly add color, graphics, and a common layout to your web pages.
•
Open a web page and select Format|Theme from the menu bar or right-click on the page and select
Theme... from the shortcut menu.
MS Office
13
Theme*
Sample d Theme.
Apply Theme lo:
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Under Apply Theme to, select All pages to add the theme to all pages in your web or Selected page(s) to
only apply the theme to activated pages.
•
Scroll through the theme selections and highlight the theme names to preview the theme in the Sample of
Theme window. Click the check boxes to change the theme as well.
•
*>
Vivid Colors enhance the colour of the theme.
❖
Active Graphic will convert navigation buttons to Java applets that change when the mouse hovers
over them.
❖
Background picture including a repeating background image to the page. Uncheck the box for a plain
color background.
❖
Apply Using CSS will add the properties to a style sheet.
Click OK when you have chosen the theme.
Removing a Theme
To remove a theme from a page after it has been applied, select Format|Theme from the menu bar and select the
first “(no theme)” option from the themes list. Click OK.
Font Properties
Many properties of fonts can be changed from the Font dialog box. Highlight the text that will be formatted and
select Format|Font from the menu bar.
Computer Application in Business
•
Font: Select a simple, common font for the web page. Keep in mind that the list that appears in FrontPage
is the list of fonts loaded onto your computer while many of the visitors of your web site will not have the
same fonts. Choose a font such as Arial, Geneva, Verdana, Helvetica, or another sans-serif font that is easy
to read and most people have loaded on their computers.
•
Font Style: Select bold, italics, or a combination of both.
•
Size: Font sizes on web pages are designated by different values than the point sizes you may be used to
working with in Word and other word processing programs. Font sizes are listed in parentheses next to the
HTML point sizes. A point size of 2 or 3 is usually best for paragraph text. Below are examples of the font
sizes using Arial font.
font size 1
font size 2
font size 3
font size 4
font size 5
*
Effects: Many of these effects are unnecessary and some are not viewable on all browsers. It is not
recommended that you underline any text as this will confuse your user since links are usually underlined.
Use bold and italics to emphasize text instead of underlining. Blink is an old HTML specification and since it
is quite annoying, many browsers no longer support it. Strong and Emphasis produce similar results to bold
and italics.
•
Press OK when finished.
Headings
Explain these. They generally don’t work properly in Netscape, but do work when assigned values in themes.
Converting Text to Tables
The text below was typed into FrontPage by pressing the TAB key after each number and ENTER to begin each
new line.
MS Office
Microsoft Office
•
Microsoft FrontPage
•
Microsoft Power Point
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The text can be put into a table by selecting Table|Convert|Text to Table from the menu bar. This dialog window
will appear. Make a selection and click OK.
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row.
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Commas: A new column will begin at each comma. The text below produces the same table format as the
TAB setup.
FGCU Microsoft FrontPage Tutorial
1.
Microsoft Frontpage Tutorial
2.
Microsoft Power Point Tutorial
•
None: All the highlight text will be placed into a single table cell.
FGCU Microsoft Frontpage Tutorials
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2.
Microsoft Power Point Tutorial
•
Other: Select another delimiter for creating a table.
Creating Links
Hyperlinks are text or graphics that can be clicked to bring the user to another web file such as a web page or
graphic. They are the essence of the World Wide Web as they link pages within sites and web sites to other web sites. To
create a hyperlink in FrontPage, follow these steps:
Computer Application in Business
1.
Highlight the text or graphic that will be the hyperlink and select InsertjHyperlink from the menu bar or
pressing CTRL+K.
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If the link will lead to a page within your site, highlight the page on the list and click OK. If it is an external
link that will lead to another web site, enter the URL in the URL box. External URLs must begin with
“http://” or they will not work. For example, to link to the FGCU home page, type “http://www.fgcu.edu/”
instead of “www.fgcu.edu/”.
E-mail Links
Create an e-mail address link by highlighting the text (which should be written as the e-mail address) and pressing
CTRL+K. Click the e-mail button with the envelope icon (circled in red below) and enter the e-mail address in the box
provided. Click OK on both windows to finish.
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. graphics can be set as bookmarks (called "anchors” everywhere except FrontPage) that can be linked to
;e. For example, if a page lists a course syllabus, the titles for each week can be set as bookmarks and a row
.an be added to the top of the page that will each skip down to those bookmarked sections. This method of using
irks allows visitors to your site to quickly access information by not having to scroll down the page to view the
.ation they want.
Add a bookmark to a page by following these steps highlighting the text or graphic that will be the bookmark and
act InsertjBookmark... from the menu bar. Enter the bookmark name in the space provided and click OK.
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Create a link to a bookmark by highlighting the text that will be the link and pressing CTRL+K. Select the
bookmark from the drop-down menu in the Optional category and click OK. Link to a bookmark on a separate page by
first selecting the file name from the listing and then choosing from the bookmarks in the drop-down menu.
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Hotspots
By making a graphic a link in the ways that have already been discussed, each graphic can only link to one location.
However, you may have a single graphic that has several sections that each need to link to different pages. Hotspots allow
you do to this by creating an image map over the graphic. The main header on the FGCU homepage will be used as an
example:
Computer Application in Business
The FGCU logo, “Search”, "Directory”, and “Index” images all link to different pages on this single
Hotspots can be created by following these steps:
Insert the graphic onto the webpage.
Using the hotspot tools on the Drawing toolbar, use the necessary shapes to draw the hotspots on
graphic.
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The rectangle tool will be used first to draw the hotspot around “search.”
3.
The hyperlink window will appear when the mouse button is released. Enter the URL, e-mail address, or
bookmark the hotspot will link to.
4.
Repeat steps 2-3 until all the hotspots have been added. Use the handles on the hotspots to resize them.
5.
If the remainder of the graphic (any part not covered by a hotspot such as the green to blue gradient in the
center of this graphic) should be another link, right-click on any area of the graphic that is not a hotspot,
select Picture Properties and enter the Default hyperlink location.
Table Uses
On web pages, tables can serve many functions:
•
Page layout
•
Displaying information in formatted tabular form
•
Adding background color and borders to blocks of text
Creating a Table
A quick way to create a small table is using the table button on the standard toolbar. Click the button and drag the
mouse over the grid, highlighting the cells that should appear on the table. When the table size has been selected, click the
mouse button again.
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A table outline with 2 rows and 2 columns will appear on the page:
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Table Properties
Select Table|Properties|Table from the menu border to modify the table’s properties
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Alignment refers to the table’s position on the page, not the alignment of the text within the table. Choose
“Center” to center the table on the page, or select left, right, or justify. Default is usually left alignment.
•
Cell padding is the number of pixels between the text and the cell walls.
•
Cell spacing is the number of pixels between the table cells.
•
Specify width sets the w'idth of the table by a distinct number of pixels or by a percentage of the screen
width.
•
Specify height is usually not necessary to set since the height depends on the number of rows in the table.
The following table was produced by the settings shown in the window above.
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Border size indicates the depth of the table border. The dotted lines on the table above are shown only as a
visual reference of the table structure, but since this table’s border is set to 0 pixels, no borders will show on
a web page:
Computer Application in Business
1.
Microsoft Frontpage
2.
Microsoft Power Point
Below is the same table with a border set to 5 pixels:
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Microsoft Frontpage
2.
Microsoft Power Point
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Use background picture will add a background image to the table and again, there are differences between
browsers. MSIE will repeat the image over the entire background of the table while Netscape repeats the
image in each cell:
Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.0
Microsoft FrontPage
Microsoft PowerPoint
•
Microsoft PowerPoint
Background color adds a background to the table cells. MSIE will add the color to the background of the
cells and the space between the cells while Netscape only adds the color to the background of the cells:
Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.0
•
; Microsoft FroncPage
Light border and dark border change the highlight and shadow colors of the table. Be aware that these
attributes are not read by Netscape. Light and dark borders of red and green were added to the table, but
notice that the Netscape table is still blue:
Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.0
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Cell Properties
Select Tables|Properties|Cell from the menu bar or Cell Properties from the shortcut menu to change the
properties of the table cells. Begin by highlighting the cells whose properties will be changed.
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Horizontal alignment is defaulted to the left side of the table cell. Change this attribute to center or rightjustify the text within the table cell.
Vertical alignment is defaulted at middle as shown in the example below. Since the text in the right-hand
column cover more than one line and the left-hand cells do not, that text is centered vertically in the cell.
Select “top” or “bottom” to override this default setting.
1
Microsoft FrontPage
tutorial
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Microsoft PowerPoint
tutorial
Setting rows spanned and columns spanned is better achieved by a method explained below.
Specify width and specify height will set the width and height of the cells. Percentages refer to the portion
of the table, not a percentage of the entire screen.
Select Header cell to automatically bold and center the content of the cell.
Border color is a setting that is not read by Netscape. This changes the color of the cell border only when
viewed with MSIE. Note the red borders on the cells in the top row of the MSIE example:
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Light and dark border settings will additionally be read by MSIE but not by Netscape.
Background color changes the cell’s background color. In Netscape, this is the same effect of setting the
entire table’s background color since the color is not added between the cells.
Computer Application in Business
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Background image adds a graphic to the background of each cell. In Netscape, this is the same effect as
setting the background graphic for the entire table since it begins a new repeating pattern for each cell.
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Inserting Rows and Columns
Quickly add rows or columns to a table by placing the cursor in the cell the new row or column will be adjacent to,
right-click the mouse to access the popup shortcut menu, and select Insert Row or Insert Column. Another method is
to use the Insert Row or Column dialog box:
1.
Place the cursor in a cell where the new row or column will be adjacent to.
2.
Select Tabie|Insert|Rows’ or Columns’ from the menu bar.
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To insert a row, select Rows and enter the Number of Rows. Then select the Location of the new row by
selecting Above selection or Below selection from where you placed the cursor in step 1.
4.
Click Columns to insert a new column and the choices will change. Enter the Number of columns and the
Location left or right of the selected point.
5.
Click OK.
Spanning Cells
There is often the need to create a cell than spans rows or columns, such as the a title at the top of a table. This
example will begin with the same table already used on this page.
1.
Insert a new row to the top of the table.
MS Office
Type the text of the row that will be spanned across the columns by typing into the first cell and highlight the
cells as shown below:
FGCU Microsoft Office Tutorials
3.
1.
Microsoft Frontpage tutorial
2.
Microsoft Power Point tutorial
Select TablejMerge Cells from the menu bar or right-click with the mouse and select Merge Cells from the
popup shortcut menu..
FGCU Microsoft Office Tutorials
4.
1.
Microsoft Frontpage tutorial
2.
Microsoft Power Point tutorial
Center the text in the cell by from the Cell Properties window and deselect the cell.
FGCU Microsoft Office Tutorials
5.
1.
Microsoft Frontpage tutorial
2.
Microsoft Power Point tutorial
To split the cell again, select the cell and choose Table|Split Cell from the menu bar.
Image Types
HTML code used on the web recognizes two basic graphic formats — GIF and JPEG. All the images on your web
page must be either of these formats.
•
JPEG (Joint Photographic Exchange Group) — As a general rule, photos should be saved as JPEGs. This
file type consists of 16 million colors.
•
GIF (Graphic Interchange Format): These files contain 256 colors or less and should generally be used for
non-photo graphics. All of the images on these tutorial pages are saved in GIF format.
Inserting a Graphic
To add a photo or graphic to a web page, select Insert|Picture|From File from the menu bar. Choose the file and
click OK.
Computer Application in Business
Picture Properties
To change the properties of the picture, select the image and choose FormatjProperties from the menu bar.
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of the graphic if the user browses your site with graphics turned off ori their browser and will also be displayed while the
picture is loading.
Click the Appearance tab.
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Change the Alignment if the picture should be aligned to the right or left of the text on the page or if it should
be centered on the page.
•
Border thickness will add a border to the picture depending on the number of pixels you enter. Leave this
value at “0” if there is no border on the picture.
•
Horizontal spacing and Vertical spacing are measured in pixels and will add white space surrounding the
picture either above and below (vertical) or on both sides (horizontal).
•
FrontPage automatically calculates the size of the image. However, if you would like it smaller or larger than
actual size, check the Specify size box and enter the new Width and Height values. Please note, it is
recommended that you change the actual size of the image in an editing program such as Adobe Photoshop
instead of changing these values, particularly if the actual size is large and you want it to appear smaller on
the screen. Resizing the actual size of the graphic will lower the download speed of the image.
MS Office
Horizontal Lines
Horizontal lines can divide sections of text for easy reading.
1.
Place the cursor on the page where the horizontal line should be added.
2.
Select Insert|Horizontal Line from the menu bar.
3.
Double click on the line to change its properties.
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Set the Width of the line either as a percentage of the window or an absolute size in pixels.
5.
Change the thickness of the line by setting the Height in pixels.
6.
Set the Alignment of the line to the left, center, or right size of the page.
7.
The lines are automatically shaded to give the illusion of depth. Check the Solid line box to make the line all
one color and set a Color for the line if necessary (not supported by Netscape).
Shaded horizontal line:
Solid horizontal line (red when viewed with MSIE):
8.
Click OK when finished.
Symbols
Add unique symbols such as the copyright (©) and accented letters (e) from the Symbol dialog box. Select
Insert|Symbol... from the menu bar. Click the symbol on the list you want to add and it will appear in the preview
window. Click the Insert button to add the symbol to the page. Keep adding symbols and click Close when finished.
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Computer Application in Business
Comments
Text can be hidden from visitors to your web page and still be visible to you when the page is edited in FrontPage.
These comments can be added by following these steps:
1.
Place the cursor on the page at the location where the comment will be added.
2.
Select InsertjComment from the menu bar.
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Type the text in the Comment box and click OK.
4.
Notice that the commented text begins with “Comment: “ and is another color to differentiate it from regular
text. Open the page in a browser to see that the commented text is not visible on the page.
This text can be viewed by visitors to the web page.
Comment This text is a comment that will be hidden from visitors
Shortcut Keys
Keyboard shortcuts can save time and the effort of constantly switching from the keyboard to the mouse to execute
simple commands. Print this list of FrontPage keyboard shortcuts and keep it by your computer for a quick reference.
Note: A plus sign indicates that the keys need to be pressed at the same time.
Action
Keystroke
Document actions
Open a page
-
CTRL+O
New page
-
CTRL+N
Save
-
CTRL+S
Print
-
CTRL+P
Properties
-
ALT+ENTER
Refresh
-
F5
Spelling
-
F7
Thesaurus
-
SHIFT+F7
Line break
-
SHIFT+ENTER
Remove formatting
-
CTRL+Spacebar
Action
Keystroke
Editing
Find
-
CTRL+F
Replace
-
CTRL+H
Insert hyperlink
-
CTRL+K
Spell checker
-
F7
Macros
-
ALT+F8
Select all
-
CTRL+A
Copy
-
CTRL+C
Cut
-
CTRL+X
Paste
-
CTRL+V
Undo
-
CTRL+Z
Redo
-
CTRL+Y
Bold
-
CTRL+B
Italics
-
CTRL+I
Left justified
-
CTRL+L
Center justified
-
CTRL+E
Right justified
-
CTRL+R
Formatting
Decrease indent
Increase indent
_
CTRL+SHIFT+M
CTRL+M
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