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NOTICE NO. 83
APPENDIX 1
Issue: 1
Page: 1
Date: 15 May 2005
Supplementary to AN 83
Introduction
The material in this Appendix concerns flight recorders intended for installation in aeroplanes engaged in
international air navigation. Flight recorders comprise two systems – flight data recorders and a cockpit voice
recorder. Flight data recorders are classified as Type I, Type II and Type IIA depending upon the number of
parameters to be recorders and the duration required for retention of the recorded information.
1.
Flight Data Recorder (FDR)
1.1
General requirement
1.1.1
The FDR is to record continuously during flight time.
1.1.2
The FDR container is to :
1.1.3
a)
be painted a distinctive orange or yellow colour;
b)
carry reflective material to facilitate its location; and
c)
have securely attachment an automatically activated under-water locating device.
The FDR is to be installed so that :
a)
the probability of damage to the recording is minimized. To meet this requirement it should be located
as far aft as practicable. In the case of pressurized aeroplanes it should be located in the vicinity of the
rear pressure bulkhead.
b)
it receives its electrical power from a bus that provides the maximum reliability for operation of the FDR
without jeopardizing service to essential or emergency loads; and
c)
there is an aural or visual means for pre-flight checking that the FDR is operating properly.
1.2
Parameters to be recorded
1.2.1
Type I FDR. This FDR will be capable of recording, at least the 32 parameters in Table 1. However, other
parameters may be substituted with due regard to the areoplane type and the characteristics of the
recording equipment.
1.2.2
Type II and IIA FDRs. These FDRs will be capable of recording, as appropriate to the aeroplane, at least
the first 15 parameters in Table 1. However, other parameters may be substituted with due regard to the
aeroplane type and the characteristic of the recording equipment.
1.3
Additional information
1.3.1
A TYPE IIA FDR, in addition to a 30-minute recording duration, is not retain sufficient information from the
preceding take-off for calibration purposes.
1.3.2
The measurement range, recording interval and accuracy of parameters on the installed equipment is
usually verified by methods approved by the appropriate certificating authority.
1.3.3
The manufacturer’s usually provides the national certificating authority with the following information in
respect of the FDRs :
a)
manufacturer’s operating instructions, equipment limitations and installation procedures;
b)
parameter origin or source and equations which relate counts to units of measurement; and
c)
manufacturer’s test reports.
1.3.4
Documentation concerning parameter allocation, conversion equations, periodic calibration and other
serviceability/ maintenance information should be maintained by the operator. The documentation must be
sufficient to ensure that accident investigation authorities have te necessary information to read out the data
engineering units.
2
Cockpit voice recorder (CVR)
2.1
General requirements
NOTICE NO. 83
APPENDIX 1
Issue: 1
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2.1.1
2.1.2
The CVR is to be designed so that it will record at least the following :
a)
voice communication transmitted from or received in the aeroplane by radio;
b)
aural environment on the flight deck;
c)
voice communication of flight crew members on the flight deck using the aeroplane’s interphone
system;
d)
voice or audio signals identifying navigation or approach aids introduced in the headset or speaker ;
e)
voice communication of flight crew members using the passenger address system, if installed ; and
f)
digital communications with ATS, unless recorded by the FDR.
The CVR container is to :
a)
be painted a distinctive orange or yellow colour ;
b)
carry reflective material to facilitate its location ; and
c)
have securely an automatically activated underwater locating device.
2.1.3
To aid in voice and sound discrimination, microphones in the cockpit are to be located in the best position
for recording voice communications originating at the pilot and co-pilot stations and voice communications
of the other crew members on the flight deck directed to those stations. This can be best be achieve by
wiring suitable boom microphones to record continuously on separate channels.
2.1.4
The CVR is to be installed so that :
a)
to probability of damage to the recording is minimized. To meet this requirement it should be located as
far aft as practicable. In the case pressurized aeroplanes it should be located in the vicinity of the rear
pressure bulkhead ;
b)
it receives its electrical power from a bus that provides the maximum reliability for operation of the CVR
without jeopardizing service to essential or emergency loads ;
c)
there is an aural or visual means for pre-flight checking of the CVR for proper operation ; and
d)
if the CVR has a bulk erasure device, the installation should be designed to prevent operation of the
device during flight time or crash impact.
2.2
Performance requirements
2.2.1
The CVR will be capable of recording on at lease four tracks simultaneously except for the CVR in Chapter
6, 6.3.7.2. To ensure accurate time correlation between tracks, the CVR is to record in-line time format. If a
bi-directional configuration is used, the in-line format and track allocation should be retained in both
directions.
2.2.2
The preferred track allocation is as follows :
Track 1 – co-pilot headphones and live boom microphone
Track 2 – pilot headphones and live boom microphone
Track 3 – - area microphone
Track 4 – time reference plus the third and fourth crew member’s headphone and live, if applicable.
Note 1. - Track 1 is located closest to the base of the recording head.
Note 2.- The preferred track allocation presumes use of current conventional magnetic tape transport
mechanisms, and is specified because the outer edges of the tape have a higher risk of damage
than the middle. It is not intended to preclude use alternative recording media where such
constraints may not apply.
2.2.3
The CVR, when tested by methods approved by the appropriate certificating authority, will be demonstrated
to be suitable for the environmental extremes over which it is designed to operate.
2.2.4
Means will be provided for an accurate time correlation between the FDR and CVR.
NOTICE NO. 83
APPENDIX 1
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Note – One method of achieving this is by supermposing the FDR time sinal on the CVR.
2.3
Additional information
The manufacturer usually provides the national certificating authority with the following information in
respect of the CVR :
a)
Manufacturer’s operating instructions, equipment limitatins and installation procedures; and
b)
Manufacturer’s test reports.
3.
Inspections of FDR and CVR Systems
3.1
Prior to the first flight of the day, the built-in test features on the flight deck for the CVR, FDR and Flight Data
Acquisition Unit (FDAU), when installed, should be monitored.
3.2
Annual inspections should be carried out as fallows :
a)
the read-out of the recorded data from FDR and CVR should ensure that the recorder operates
correctly for the nominal duration of the recording ;
b)
the analysis of the FDR should evaluate the quality of the recorded data to determine if the bit error rate
is within acceptable limits and to determine the nature and distribution of the errors ;
c)
a complete flight from the FDR should be examined in engineering units to evalute the validity of all
recorded parameters. Particular attention should be given to parameters from sensors dedicated to the
FDR. Parameters taken from theaircarft’s electrical bus system need not be checked if their
serviceability can be detected by other aircarft systems ;
d)
the read-out facility should have the necessary software to accurately convert the recorded values to
engineering units and to determine the status of discrete signals ;
e)
an annual examination of the recorded signal on the CVR recording. While installed in the aircraft, the
CVR should record test signals each aircarft source to ensure that all required signals meet intelligibility
standards ; and
f)
where practicable, during the annua examination, a sample of in-flight recordings of the CVR should be
examined for evidence that the intelligibility of the signal is acceptable.
3.3
Flight recorders systems should be considered unserviceable if there is a significant period of poor quality
data, unintelligible signals, or if one or more of the mandatory parameters is not recorded correctly.
3.4
A report of the annual inspection should e made available on request to the State’s regulatory for monitoring
purposes.
3.5
Calibration of the FDR system :
a)
The FDR system should be re-calibrated at least every five years to determine any discrepancies in the
engineering conversion routines for the mandatory parameters, and to ensure that parameters are
being recorded within the calibration tolerance; and
b)
when the parameters of altitude and airspeed are provided by sensors that are dedicated to the FDR
system, there should be a re-calibration performed as recommended by the sensor manufacturer, or at
least every two years.
TABLE 1 – Parameters of Flight Data Recorders - Aeroplane
Serial
Number
Parameter
Measurement
Range
24 hours
2
Time (UTC when
available, otherwise
elapsed time)
Pressure-altitude
3
Indicated airspeed
1
-300 m (-1000
ft) to maximum
certificated
altitude of
aircraft +1 500
m (+5 000 ft)
95 km/h (50 kt) to max
VSo (Note I) VSoto 1.2
VD (Note 2)
Recording
Interval
(seconds)
4
1
1
Accuracy Limits (Sensor
input compared to FDR readout)
±0.125% per hour
±30 m to ±200
m (±100 ft to
±700 ft)
±5% ±3%
NOTICE NO. 83
APPENDIX 1
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4
5
Heading
Normal acceleration
6
7
8
Pitch attitude
±75°
1
Roll attitude
±180°
1
Radio transmission
On-off (one discrete)
1
keying
1 (per engine)
Power on each engine
Full range
±2%
(Note 3)
Trailing edge flap or
Full range or each
2
±5% or as pilot's indicator
cockpit control
discrete position
selection
Leading edge flap or
Full range or each
2
±5% or as pilot's indicator
cockpit control
discrete position
selection
1 (per engine)
Stowed, in transit, and
Thrust reverser
reverse
position
ground spoiler/speed
Full range or each
±2% unless higher accuracy
brake selection
discrete position
uniquely required
Outside air
Sensor range
±2°C
temperature
Autopilot/auto
A suitable combination
throttle/AFCS mode
of discretes
and engagement
status
The preceding 15 parameters satisfy the requirements for a Type ll FDR
Longitudinal
±1 g
0.25
±1.5% max range excluding datum
acceleration
error of ±5%
Lateral acceleration
±lg
±1.5% max range excluding datum
0.25
error of ±5%
Pilot input and/or
Full range
±2° unless higher accuracy
control surface
uniquely required
position-primary
controls (pitch, roll,
yaw) (Note 4)
Pitch trim position
Full range
±3% unless higher accuracy
1
uniquely required
Radio altitude
-6 m to 750 m (-20 ft 1
±0.6 m (±2 ft) or ±3%whichever
to 2 500 ft)
is greater below 150 m (500 ft)
and ±5% above 150 m (500 ft)
Glidepath deviation
Signal range
1
±3%
Signal range
1
±3%
Localizer deviation
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
Marker beacon
passage
Master warning
NAV 1 and 2
frequency selection
(Note 5)
DME 1 and 2
distance(Notes 5 and
6)
Landing gear squat
switch status
GPWS (ground
proximity warning
system)
Angle of attack
Hydraulics, each
system (low pressure)
Navigation
data(latitude/longitude,
ground speed and drift
angle) (Note 7)
Landing gear or gear
selector position
360°
-3 g to +6 g
1
0.125
±2°
±1% of maximum range excluding
datum error of ±5%
±2°
±2°
Discrete
1
Discrete
Full range
1
4
As installed
0 - 370 km
4
As installed
Discrete
1
Discrete
Full range
Discrete
0.5
2
As installed
As installed
1
As installed
Discrete
4
As installed
NOTICE NO. 83
APPENDIX 1
Issue: 1
Page: 5
Note: The preceding 32 parameters satisfy the requirements for a Type I FDR.
Notes:
1. Vs stalling speed or minimum steady flight speed in the landing configuration.
2. VD design diving speed.
3. Record sufficient inputs to determine power.
4. For aeroplanes with conventional control systems "or" applies. For aeroplanes with non-mechanical control
systems "and" applies. In aeroplanes with split surfaces, a suitable combination of inputs is acceptable in lieu
of recording each surface separately.
5. If signal available in digital form.
6. Recording of latitude and longitude from INS or other navigation system is a preferred alternative.
7. If signals readily available.
If further recording capacity is available, recording of the following additional information should be con sidered:
a)
operational information from electronic display systems, such as electronic flight instrument systems
(EFIS), electronic centralized aircraft monitor (ECAM) and engine indication and crew alerting system
(EICAS). Use the following order of priority:
1)
parameters selected by the flight crew relating to the desired flight path, e.g. barometric pressure
setting, selected altitude, selected airspeed, decision height, and auto flight system engagement and
mode indications if not recorded from another source;
b)
2)
display system selection/status, e.g. SECTOR, PLAN, ROSE, NAV, WXR, COMPOSITE, COPY, ETC.;
3)
warnings and alerts;
4)
the identity of displayed pages for emergency procedures and checklists;
retardation information including brake application for use in the investigation of landing overruns and rejected
take-offs; and
c)
additional engine parameters (EPR, NJ, EGT, fuel flow, etc.).
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