Transparent Factory - Guillevin Industrial Automation Group

Transparent Factory - Guillevin Industrial Automation Group
Transparent Factory
User and Planning Guide
31003156
00
31002903.00
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Version 1.0
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Table of Contents
About the Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Chapter 1
Transparent Factory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
At a Glance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
What is Transparent Factory? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
How Transparent Factory Takes Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Chapter 2
Ethernet in the Industrial Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
At a Glance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Industrial Environment and Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Real-time and Determinism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Switched 10/100 Mbps Ethernet—Implicit Quality of Service (QoS). . . . . . . . . .
Switched 10/100 Mbps Ethernet—Explicit Quality of Service (QoS). . . . . . . . . .
Summary of Switched Network Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Migration from Legacy Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
High Availability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Four Levels of Resilience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 3
Transparent Factory Ethernet Service Layers . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
At a Glance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Services Supported by TF Ethernet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transparent Factory Basic Level. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transparent Factory Automation Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
SNMP Facility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Global Data Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Managing Faulty Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transparent Factory Web Diagnostic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Chapter 4
4.1
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14
16
18
19
20
21
23
25
29
30
32
33
36
37
38
39
Transparent Factory Ethernet Products and Components
Selection Guide. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
At a Glance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ethernet Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ethernet Products Listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ethernet Premium Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ethernet Quantum Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
41
42
42
46
48
3
4.2
Chapter 5
Ethernet Momentum/Adapters Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Ethernet Micro Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Ethernet Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Ethernet Components Listing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Ethernet Hubs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Ethernet TCP/IP Bridges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
Ethernet Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Ethernet Transceivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Ethernet Cabling Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
At a Glance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Shielded Twisted Pair Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Optical Patch Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
10 Mbps Connection Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
100Mbps Connection Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Distance Rules for Designing Networks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Chapter 6
Web-Based Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
At a Glance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Embedded Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Web-Based Network Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
FactoryCast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
MonitorPro Web Client. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
OPC Factory Server. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
Appendices
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
At a Glance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Appendix A
Ethernet Frame. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
At a Glance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Ethernet Frame Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
Frame Cells Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Glossary
4
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
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About the Book
At a Glance
Document Scope
This User and Planning Guide presents an overview of the Transparent Factory
concepts and introduces Ethernet-based systems. It gives a general description of
the Schneider Electric products used in Ethernet network environments.
It provides Schneider Electric customers with an understanding as to why Ethernet
networks should be designed in a particular manner to use Schneider products, why
the rules of network design need to be followed, and which Schneider Electric
products should be used in a particular situation.
This manual is intended for users of Schneider Electric Transparent Factory
products and should be used as a supplement to product user manuals.
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This manual is organized as follows.
Validity Note
6
Chapter/Appendix
Description
Chapter 1
Transparent Factory
Introduces the Transparent Factory objectives and gives a brief
description of the innovative products that support this strategy.
Also describes this manual and provides customer support
contact information.
Chapter 2
Ethernet In The
Industrial Environment
Describes the specific Ethernet requirements related to the
industrial environment
Chapter 3
Transparent Factory
Ethernet Service Layers
Describes the four layers of services that are supported by
Transparent Factory Ethernet
Chapter 4
Transparent Factory
Ethernet Products and
Components Selection
Guide
Provides descriptions of Schneider Electric’s Ethernet products
and components suitable for Transparent Factory applications
Chapter 5
Ethernet Cabling
Information
Provides cabling information for designing Ethernet networks
using Schneider Electric’s products and components
Chapter 6
Web-based Solutions
Provides a detailed description of Transparent Factory’s Webbased management features.
Appendix
Contains detailed information concerning Ethernet
implementation.
Glossary
Provides a complete glossary of terms related to Ethernet, Web
and Internet technologies
The data and illustrations found in this book are not binding. We reserve the right to
modify Schneider Automation’s products in line with Schneider Automation’s policy
of continuous product development. The information in this document is subject to
change without notice and should not be construed as a commitment by Schneider
Electric.
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
Related
Documents
Title of Documentation
Reference Number
Transparent Factory Network Design and Cabling Guide
490 USE 134 00
ConneXium Ethernet Cabling System Switch Management Manual
490 USE 135 00
FactoryCast User’s Guide For Quantum and Premium
890 USE 152 00
ConneXium Ethernet Cabling System: Quick Reference Guide
490 USE 136 00
170 ENT 110 00 Ethernet Communication Adapter User Guide
870 USE 112 00
Quantum Automation Series NOE 771 Ethernet Module User Guide 840 USE 116 00
Ethernet Modbus/TCP/IP Developers Guide (Software)
Ethernet Modbus/TCP/IP Developers Guide (Hardware)
PL7 Junior/Pro Communication Applications
TLX DS COM PL7
TSX Micro Modules TSX ETZ 410/510 Implementation Manual
For technical support:
l Tel: USA and Canada (800) 468-5342
l Tel: Other countries: contact your local Schneider Electric agent
l Fax: All (978) 975-9301
l BBS: Bulletin Board (978) 975-9779
When calling the Schneider 800 telephone number, you will get a recording asking
you to enter a one-digit code for the type of service you request, provided you use
a touch tone telephone.
Product Related
Warnings
Schneider Electric assumes no responsibility for any errors that may appear in this
document. If you have any suggestions for improvements or amendments or have
found errors in this publication, please notify us. No part of this document may be
reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including
photocopying, without express written permission of the publisher, Schneider
Electric.
All pertinent state, regional and local safety regulations must be observed when
installing and using this product. For reasons of safety and to assure compliance
with documented system data, only the manufacturer should perform repairs to
components.
User Comments
We welcome your comments about this document. You can reach us by e-mail at
[email protected]
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Transparent Factory
1
At a Glance
Overview
Transparent Factory is Schneider Automation’s innovative Web-based architecture,
providing seamless manufacturing control from any location in the world.
Transparent Factory incorporates the latest technology combined with the dynamics
of Web technology.
What’s in this
Chapter?
This chapter contains the following maps:
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Topic
Page
What is Transparent Factory?
10
How Transparent Factory Takes Form
11
9
Transparent Factory
What is Transparent Factory?
At the Beginning
In the beginning, Transparent Factory was an attempt to answer the question: "Why
couldn’t the ‘information enabling’ properties of the Internet be transferred to the
manufacturing environment?" After all, thousands of users are communicating and
sharing information without ever having to decide on the "right" bus, the "right"
operating system, the "right" software or the "fastest" PC.
The ability to obtain and act upon real-time information is critical to a company’s
ability to be globally competitive. The major goal is to have timely information for
decision making within the corporation to drive performance and cost reductions.
Historically
Historically, the data used in operating manufacturing equipment has been the
domain of the PLC. Therefore, access to the data from higher systems required
special proprietary knowledge about where and how data is stored and knowledge
of the methods and protocols required to import or export the data. The multi-vendor
environment crystallized every plant in several layers, making difficult access to realtime information. This in turn hampered decision-making and hindered the
realization of a company’s performance and cost objectives.
Transparent
Factory’s ThreeStage Strategy
Today, Transparent Factory solves these issues by developing a three-stage
strategy.
l Expose PLC information using open or de facto standards.
OPC and Embedded Web server products open Schneider Automation PLC
controllers to several systems, systems that can easily access information and
knowledge buried in the controllers. Furthermore, the Web server technology
allows any qualified personnel within the enterprise to interact with the
automation system using standard tools.
l Interface / Integrate automation systems with business applications.
Using the PLC as a data server within a client/server architecture allows
Schneider alliances to easily develop interfaces to business systems in Windows
or UNIX environments.
l Develop an open infrastructure that supports real-time and determinism
behaviors.
The network is the backbone for an efficient information exchange. Ethernet and
TCP/IP, along with the worldwide standard MODBUS, are Schneider’s primary
choices for delivering a truly open network.Switches and hubs help to build realtime and highly available subnetwork and to address a broad range of
applications.
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Transparent Factory
How Transparent Factory Takes Form
The Transparent
Factory Concept
The following figure illustrates the basic components involved in the Transparent
Factory concept.
Products
• Fast Ethernet to link Automation with Business Applications
• Embedded Web servers for easy management of information
Partners
• Complementary products to
Transparent
FACTORY
Open for Business
Open
Standards
HTTP
deliver open solution to our customers
• Modbus and TCP/IP
Fast Ethernet
TM
Modbus
TCP/IP
Services
• Complete open network and information enabling architectures
• Consultation, project management and services
Innovative
Products
Schneider supports the Transparent Factory concept with many innovative
products.
l Communication modules for Premium (ETY), Quantum (NOE), and Micro (ETZ)
l Controllers with embedded Ethernet on the Momentum (M1E)
l Ethernet I/Os using the communication adapter for the Momentum line (ENT)
l Embedded Web servers for Premium (ETY), Quantum (NOE), and Micro (ETZ)
l OPC Factory server (OFS)
l Infrastructure components, i.e. hubs (NEH, NOH), switches (NES, NOS),
transceivers (NTR) and accessories/cables
l Access to information from the installed base using bridge products: MODBUS
and MODBUS Plus to MODBUS Ethernet TCP/IP
Solutions
Schneider Alliances program supports our network of partners around the world to
deliver complete solutions to our customers. Complementary products and system
integrators are the two main categories addressed by the Schneider Alliance
program.
Services
We offer complete assistance to our customers covering initial design network/
information consulting, program management and servicing.
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Transparent Factory
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Ethernet in the Industrial
Environment
2
At a Glance
Overview
This chapter describes the specific Ethernet requirements related to the industrial
environment.
What’s in this
Chapter?
This chapter contains the following maps:
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Page
Industrial Environment and Ethernet
14
Real-time and Determinism
16
Switched 10/100 Mbps Ethernet—Implicit Quality of Service (QoS)
18
Switched 10/100 Mbps Ethernet—Explicit Quality of Service (QoS)
19
Summary of Switched Network Solutions
20
Migration from Legacy Systems
21
High Availability
23
Four Levels of Resilience
25
13
Ethernet in the Industrial Environment
Industrial Environment and Ethernet
Overview
Ethernet has been well-known in the office environment for a number of years. The
advantages of Ethernet in office environments are well proven. Ethernet brought
information to the desk of anybody connected on the network allowing quick and
efficient decision making.
This technology is now being used in industrial environment. The deployment of
such technology in this type of environment raises new questions that standard
Ethernet does not address.
Industry Trends
Changing manufacturing practices are leading towards a new industrial automation
and infrastructure. As firms move into the global marketplace and implement
advanced production systems, new technologies – such as Internet, wireless
communications, graphical client/server applications, smart devices and decision
support systems – are being deployed to reduce costs and streamline operations
The Internet today focuses on people going to information-rich servers. The next
stage of information technology development is for Internet to extend beyond people
to network-enable all the devices in an entire manufacturing operation.
Adding new processes, systems and technologies to today’s automation and control
communication infrastructure will stress it unbearably. The bottlenecks caused by
the classic architecture of three discrete networks (plant, control, and device) need
to be removed before networks become a transparent and plant wide utility.
Recent
Enhancements
Over the past five years there have been many enhancements to Ethernet
standards, especially in areas of determinism, speed and prioritization. There is no
longer any reason why Ethernet cannot be used to build deterministic fieldbus
solutions that are cost effective and open. Since Ethernet is already the network of
choice for business computing, its presence at the control level will make sensor-toboardroom integration a reality rather than a goal for manufacturers.
To meet the demands of the next generation of automation and control system, the
network will require a new architecture comprising four key dimensions: real-time,
migration from legacy systems, fault-tolerance, and capability to operate in harsh
environments.
Rough
Environment
The industrial environment is a lot tougher than office environment. Any piece of
equipment located in such locations requires conformance to very demanding
standards. Usually a standard "office" component does not fulfill these requirements
or must be isolated in an artificial micro "office environment" (usually, a dedicated
room, or a specific temperature and moisture control cabinet).
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Ethernet in the Industrial Environment
Industrial
Environment
Requirements
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Our Ethernet products comply to the following requirements.
l Extended temperature range, 0-60°C minimum
l High MTBF rates
l DIN rail mountable
l 24VDC power supply
l CE, FCC, UL, FM approved
l Plug and play installation (no specific tool required to replace a faulty component)
15
Ethernet in the Industrial Environment
Real-time and Determinism
Bottlenecks to
Overcome
In the past, there were concerns over Ethernet’s ability to deliver the levels of
deterministic performance demanded by real-time Industrial applications and
processes.
The diagram below shows network issues and bottlenecks that needed to be
overcome before Ethernet could be considered a ‘real-time’ network.
Control
Room
Controller must
contend with all other
devices to transmit.
No mechanism for
requesting QoS from
the network.
Device cannot
transmit and
receive
simultaneously
i,e, half duplex.
Ethernet Frame
Ethernet
Collision
Bridge/Router
Many devices
sharing the same
10Mbps reduces
effective
bandwidth/device.
Infeasibility of
Real-time
Transmission
16
Input buffers fill up
resulting in dropped
frames, no priority
means no distinction in which frames
are dropped.
Ethernet
Bridge/Router
All routed frames
pass through the
processor to be
routed over a low
speed link.
Processor limitations
and link speed cause
major bottleneck.
Output buffer must
wait for quiet time
before forwarding
onto wire.
Any two devices that
access the wire
simultaneously
will result in a
collision and forced
re-transmission.
Control
Domain
This example highlights why real time transmission has, in the past, not been
feasible. As data travels over the Ethernet frame, that data could be held up in any
number of places as it journeys from a controller to device. Terms such as latency,
jitter, head of line blocking, frame loss, and errors are often used to measure
forwarding performance and capabilities. In this configuration, these tests and
measurements would confirm that once loading reached 30%, the network would be
noticeably slower; at 50% it will cause application to time out.
No guarantees are given that the data will arrive at its destination: shared Ethernet
will just do its best!
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Ethernet in the Industrial Environment
Summary
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To summarize, the issues that have prevented Ethernet being used for real-time
applications and processes in the past are as follows.
l Bandwidth is shared not dedicated.
l Sharing necessitated bus arbitration with no concept of priority
l Sharing results in collisions when 2 or more devices transmit simultaneously
l Collisions block the network and prevent all devices from transmitting
l More devices on one segment increases the probability of collisions
l Large broadcast domains eat up usable bandwidth.
l There is no way to differentiate between high priority and low priority traffic.
l There is no way to provide a low delay path for real time traffic.
In conclusion - a shared Ethernet system can never offer determinism.
17
Ethernet in the Industrial Environment
Switched 10/100 Mbps Ethernet—Implicit Quality of Service (QoS)
Implicit QoS
This following figure shows that by removing the bottlenecks from the network and
having the ability to differentiate between traffic types it is possible to architect,
design and build Ethernet networks where the QoS is implicit in the type of physical
connection given to the device. Prioritization is not dynamic, as the application is still
unable to request QoS from the network. Deterministic performance can be
achieved by having devices with dedicated ports and allocating adequate
bandwidth to the network.
Transparent Factory reduces bottlenecks as information moves from the control
room to the control domain.
Control
Room
Controller NIC has
Full Duplex transmit
and receive paths.
No mechanism for
requesting QoS from
the network.
Schneider
10/100 Switch
Device can
transmit and
receive
simultaneously
using Full Duplex.
Quantum
Premium
Controller
D A T A
Full Duplex Ethernet
Full Duplex Ethernet
Ethernet Frame
One device per
switch port full
20Mbps/200Mbps
available to each
device.
18
Input buffers fill up
resulting in dropped
frames; However,
802.1p priority means
distinction can be
made as to which
frames are dropped.
200Mbps Inter-links
NO bottleneck.
All frames are switched
in hardware at wire
speed
- NO bottleneck.
No bus arbitration
required, therefore no
performance loss due
to collisions.
Control
Domain
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Ethernet in the Industrial Environment
Switched 10/100 Mbps Ethernet—Explicit Quality of Service (QoS)
Explicit QoS
The following figure introduces Explicit QoS, whereby the application or process
itself can dynamically request a communication path that exhibits a particular set of
characteristics. These might include delay, jitter and errors. The network would then
respond to the request if such a path was available.
The Explicit Quality of Service (QoS) is shown below.
Control
Room
Controller NIC has
Full Duplex transmit
and receive paths.
Application uses
RSVP to request
“real-time” quality
from the network
using ISSLL to map
the request to the
802.1p field.
Schneider
10/100 Switch
Device can
transmit and
receive
simultaneously
using Full Duplex.
Quantum
Premium
Controller
Full Duplex Ethernet
D A T A
Full Duplex Ethernet
Ethernet Frame
One device per
switch port full
20Mbps/200Mbps
available to each
device.
200Mbps Inter-links
NO bottleneck.
Input buffers fill up
resulting in dropped
frames; However,
All frames are switched
802.1p priority means
in hardware at wire
distinction can be
speed
made as to which
- NO bottleneck.
frames are dropped.
No bus arbitration
required, therefore no
performance loss due
to collisions.
Control
Domain
Explicit QoS will be implemented later in our PLC programming packages.
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Ethernet in the Industrial Environment
Summary of Switched Network Solutions
Features of
Switched
Network
Solutions
In conclusion, switched network solutions bring the following features to support
real-time industrial applications:
l Bandwidth is dedicated (although it still can be shared with mixed architectures)
l Port switching overcomes the needs for bus arbitration
l Full 10 Mbps or 100 Mbps per device (10 Mbps for Micro)
l Full duplex eliminates collision
l Bandwidth is scalable
l Fast Ethernet provides 200 Mbps of bandwidth in the backbone using full duplex
transmission
Additional
Features
The switched network architectures using Explicit QoS (driven by programming
languages, function blocks, and data types), will provide these additional services.
l Meet the IEEE802.1p/Q standards for delivery of priority and QoS fields to the
standard Ethernet frame format
l SVP, ISSLL, IEEE802.1p/Q standards provide explicit techniques for requesting
granularity of QoS
l Data prioritization and multiple queues for data ensure that real time traffic is
given the fastest path through the network
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Ethernet in the Industrial Environment
Migration from Legacy Systems
Overview
Implementing Ethernet in new projects does not require new device suppliers or
expensive gateways to an existing insallation.
Today, many devices are connected to a control network through proprietary serial
cabling and protocols. Information is then consolidated from the control network
running at speeds typically under 2Mbps. For this information to reach the corporate
systems it must cross the divide between the control network and the information
network with its links back into the enterprise office automation network. Typically,
a PC based gateway or HMI workstation carries out this function. With interfaces to
the proprietary control network on the one side and the Ethernet MODBUS TCP/IP
based information network on the other, the gateway provides a route, albeit
restricted, across the divide.
Migrating Legacy
Systems
The first casualty of the information explosion will be the legacy fieldbus system with
2Mbps as its upper limit. Shared 10Mbps Ethernet will also be replaced initially by
10Mbps switched increasing to 100Mbps as need dictates. Ethernet will also extend
its reach, driving the technology closer to intelligent devices and remote I/O.
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Ethernet in the Industrial Environment
Improved
Functionalities
The Internet and modern networking designs will enable three major functions to be
radically improved.
l Use HTTP server and browser technology to monitor status and perform setup
and reconfiguration, resulting in easier product installation for remote or local
personnel
l Use SNMP, FTP, peer-to-peer, or HTTP technology to
l Find and solve problems with a devices’ mission using diagnostics and repair
help
l Execute memory dumps sent to the host for analysis
l Download programs to RAM or flash memory
l Use the HTTP server to gather a wealth of information from a device
Improved functionalities occur as a result of implementing Transparent Factory.
Premium Controller
100Mbps Fiber optic (F/O)
10Mbps Twisted Pair (TP)
MODBUS Twisted Pair
Quantum
Controller
MODBUS
Twisted Pair
Micro
MODBUS
MODBUS
TCP/IP
MODBUS
TCP/IP
Bridge
ETZ
Uni-Telway
Momentum I/Os
Device
Device
Collision Domain
One Machine
22
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
Ethernet in the Industrial Environment
High Availability
Overview
According to International Data Corporation, "A system is considered to be highly
available if, when failure occurs, data is not lost, and the system can recover in a
reasonable amount of time." Therefore keeping the network available is one of the
top priorities. Above average availability of the system is required for a missioncritical application or when equipment and industrial systems are located in a harsh
environment. Today, it is estimated that at least 30 to 40% of applications require a
high level of availability.
Ethernet
Standard 802.3
Compliance
All Schneider Automation products are fully compliant to Ethernet standard 802.3.
Where further standards apply which are essential for industrial network design, for
example in delivering QoS and security, Schneider Automation adopts standards
such as IEEE 802.1p/Q. Where implementation issues or standards fall short of
industrial networking requirements, Schneider Automation leads the world in the
development of value added features that make Transparent Factory products
unique.
These features include the following:
l Fast Path Recovery time - <300msec maximum
l Multiple levels of Redundancy tailored to application requirements
l Single and double optical ring structures
l Dual 24VDC power inputs
l Robust design for harsh conditions
l Extended operating temperature (0C - 60C) without fan
Spanning Tree
Path recovery times of less than one second are not achievable with spanning tree,
the Ethernet 802.1d standard for layer 2 link recovery. Typically spanning tree will
take on the order of 30 - 60 seconds to detect and bypass a communication path
failure, whilst doing so all networked devices will be isolated. This solution is
acceptable for applications within an office automation environment but not for a
mission-critical industrial solution.
Ethernet Ring
Ethernet ring topologies use ConneXium switches to provide network path resilience
in many traditional systems. However, Ethernet ring technology is new. Ethernet is
a bus architecture that uses broadcast messages to resolve addresses of connected
devices. If a ring, or more importantly a loop, is created, any Ethernet broadcast
frame will be sent around the loop, eventually degrading network performance to
unacceptable levels.
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Ethernet in the Industrial Environment
Redundancy
Manager
24
Schneider Automation has included in each Ethernet switch a "Redundancy
Manager" which adds the ability to overcome the architectural limitation of Ethernet
described above. In addition to performing all the standard Ethernet switching
functions, the Redundancy Manager allows a physical 200Mbps ring to be created
by terminating both ends of the traditional Ethernet Bus (fiber or copper).
Logically there are two sides to the Redundancy Manager; each is continuously
transmitting and receiving real-time diagnostic messages to the other around the
ring. The result is a real-time report on the actual state of the network at any instant.
In the case of a failure in the ring (i.e. either a node or a link has been lost) the
Redundancy Manager will interpret the loss of diagnostic data as a network failure.
When the network failure is detected, the Redundancy Manager connects the two
interfaces internally. This will return the network to full operational status. The
detection and network healing process will be complete in between 20 and 300
msec, depending on the size of the ring.
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Four Levels of Resilience
Resilience
Supported by
Transparent
Factory Ethernet
The Transparent Factory Ethernet architecture implements four levels of resilience
to meet the needs of most, if not all applications. Resilience is not just a function of
the network nodes and communication paths. The network extends all the way into
the attached system via the network interface and driver software. Therefore the
higher levels of resilience depend on the combined capabilities of the networked
devices and the infrastructure.
Resilience
Level 1
A resilience level 1 architecture (shown below) does not support redundancy. Single
network failures will break down part of the system. It is a very cost-effective solution
with single network interfaces at each device.
Quantum
Controller
100 Mbps Ethernet
Ethernet Switch
100 Mbps Ethernet
Quantum
Controller
Micro
Control
Room
Internet
Server
ETZ
HMI
Premium
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
ETZ Module + Micro
25
Ethernet in the Industrial Environment
Resilience
Level 2
A resilience level 2 architecture (shown below) supports a redundant
communication path. It tolerates a single failure in the network. There is still a single
network interface at each device. If a device’s network interface fails, that part of the
system is not able to communicate with the rest of the system.
100 Mbps Ethernet Full Duplex
Quantum
Controller
Ethernet Switch
Redundant 200 Mbps
Control Network
Quantum
Controller
Control
Room
Internet
Server
Micro
HMI
ETZ
Premium
Resilience
Level 3
Building on the level 2 resilience features, a level 3 architecture (shown below) also
supports tolerance of a node or network interface failure. Combined with the hot
standby capability of the Quantum or the warm standby capability of Premium, this
architecture delivers a high level of resilience.
100 Mbps Ethernet Full Duplex
Quantum
Controller
Ethernet Switch
Control
Room
Intranet
Server
Dual Node
Redundant 200 Mbps
Control Network
Quantum
Controller
with Hot Standby
Micro
HMI
ETZ
Premium
26
ETZ Module + Micro
ETZ Module + Micro
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
Ethernet in the Industrial Environment
Resilience
Level 4
Level 4 provides the highest level of resilience (shown below): each node is doubled,
allowing a second failure of the communication path without impact on the whole
system.
Dual Ring
Redundant 200 Mbps
Control Network
Control
Room
Quantum
Controller
with
Hot Standby
Intranet Server
Micro
HMI
ETZ
Premium
ETZ Module + Micro
The appropriate level of availability is application-dependent. The greater the need
for mission-critical uptime, the greater the justification for high availability.
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Ethernet in the Industrial Environment
28
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
Transparent Factory Ethernet
Service Layers
3
At a Glance
Introduction
This chapter describes the four layers of services that are supported by Transparent
Factory Ethernet.
What’s in this
Chapter?
This chapter contains the following maps:
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
Topic
Page
Services Supported by TF Ethernet
30
Transparent Factory Basic Level
32
Transparent Factory Automation Level
33
SNMP Facility
36
Global Data Utility
37
Managing Faulty Devices
38
Transparent Factory Web Diagnostic
39
29
Transparent Factory Ethernet Service Layers
Services Supported by TF Ethernet
The Four Layers
of Services
Transparent Factory Ethernet defines four service layers. Ethernet Basic is the
minimum level of services to implement in a device. FactoryCast is the maximum
level of services that can be supported by intelligent devices.
The four levels of services are depicted below.
Web Control § Monitoring
“TF Open Web Control”
Device
30
“TF Basic”
Device
Modbus
TCP/IP
“TF Automation”
Device
Network Management
I/O Scanning
Global Data
“TF Web Diagnostic”
Device
Web Diagnostic
Process/ Application
Monitoring and Diagnostic
Basic Diagnostic
Optionally, parameterization
Easy maintenance
SNMP Monitoring and
Diagnostic
Control/Command
through Modbus TCP/IP
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Transparent Factory Ethernet Service Layers
3rd Party
Toolkit
Bridges
Momentum
I/O
Momentum
CPU
Micro
Quantum
Minimum internal resources are required to implement the TF Basic layer, while
higher resources are needed to embed a TF Control layer in a device.
The following matrix shows which service layer is implemented in which product.
Premium
Service Layer
Implementation
by TF Product
MODBUS TCP/IP
IO Scanner
SNMP
Web Diagnostics
Web Control & Monitoring
Global Data
Faulty Device Replacement
Future enhancements legend
The following sections explain the content of each of the Transparent Factory layers
illustrated above.
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Transparent Factory Ethernet Service Layers
Transparent Factory Basic Level
Basic Level
of Service
TCP/IP is the common transport protocol of the Internet and is actually a set of
layered protocols, providing a reliable data transport mechanism between
machines. Ethernet has become the de facto standard of corporate enterprise
systems, so it comes as no surprise that it has also become the de facto standard
for factory networking.
In order to move MODBUS protocol into the 21st century, an open MODBUS TCP/
IP specification was written. Combining a versatile, scalable, and ubiquitous
physical network (Ethernet) with a universal networking standard (TCP/IP) and a
vendor-neutral data representation (MODBUS) gives a truly open, accessible
network for exchange of process data. It is also extremely simple to implement for
any device that supports TCP/IP sockets.
MODBUS/TCP is a variant of the MODBUS family of simple, vendor-neutral
communication protocols intended for supervision and control of automation
equipment. Specifically, it covers the use of MODBUS messaging in an Intranet or
Internet environment using the TCP/IP protocols. The most common use of the
protocols at this time is for Ethernet attachment of PLCs, I/O modules, and gateways
to other simple field buses or I/O networks.
The MODBUS/TCP protocol is being published as a (de facto) automation standard.
Note: The MODBUS/TCP specification can be obtained in this Web site:
http://www.modicon.com/openmbus/standards/openmbus.htm
32
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Transparent Factory Automation Level
I/O Scanner
One controller scans I/O modules on an Ethernet network at 10 Mbps. In this case,
the controller is configured as the I/O scanner (master), which accesses the I/Oscanned slaves (such as Momentum) through read and write operations.The
maximum number of I/O scanned modules is 64.
It is also possible to configure a second (or more) I/O scanner on different controllers
to operate a sub-set of the same I/O devices or a separate set of I/O devices.
HMI
Switch
Rail Switch
10/100
TX/FX (SM)
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
Premium
Hub
Hub
R
R
Quantum
Hub
10 Mbits/s
R
Hub
R
33
Transparent Factory Ethernet Service Layers
Coordination
between
Controllers
Controllers can exchange data among each other through the I/O scanning service.
This ensures automatic Modbus read/write over TCP/IP without any programming.
In the case below the same controller operates in a scanner (master) and scanned
(slave) mode transparently, enabling the application to coordinate controllers by
means of read/ write requests.
HMI
I/O Scanner
Premium
Switch
Quantum
MIE
Rail Switch
10/100
TX/FX (SM)
Premium
Quantum
Micro(+ETZ)
MIE
Third Party Devices
I/O Scanned
Momentum I/Os
34
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
Transparent Factory Ethernet Service Layers
Coordination
between
Controllers
& I/O Access
The same controller can exchange data with another controller and in parallel
access to I/O modules. This enables the application to coordinate operations among
controllers and at the same time to operate remote I/O modules.
HMI
Premium
Quantum
Micro
M1E
I/O Scanned
Rail Switch
10/100
TX/FX (SM)
I/O Scanner
Switch
I/O Read & Write
I/O Scanned
I/O Scanner
Quantum
M1E
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
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Transparent Factory Ethernet Service Layers
SNMP Facility
SNMP
Communication
on UDP/IP
The SNMP as implemented in ETY, NOE, ETZ, and ENT modules defines network
management solutions in terms of protocol and the exchange of supervised data.
The SNMP structure relies on the following essential elements:
l The manager allows entire or partial network supervision,
l One or more agents. Each supervised device has a software module named
agent, used by the SNMP protocol.
l A MIB (Management Information Base) is a data base or collection of objects.
The SNMP module agent is implemented on all modules. This allows a manager to
access MIB-II standardized objects from the agent via the SNMP protocol. The MIBII allows management of TCP/IP communication layers. It is possible to access
objects from the MIB Ethernet Transparent Factory, which provides specific
information on global data, I/O scanning, and messaging utilities.
Following is a branching view of the MIB Ethernet Transparent Factory:
_
private
_
enterprises
_
schneider group
_
transparentFactoryEthernet
switch
+
port502messaging
+
I/Oscanning
+
globalData
+
web
+
addressServer
+
deviceProfile
The source file of the private MIB Ethernet Transparent Factory is available on the
module. It can be downloaded from an Internet browser by clicking on the
"Download MIB file" link on the HTTP server index page. This file may be compiled
by industry-standard SNMP managers.
36
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
Transparent Factory Ethernet Service Layers
Global Data Utility
Overview
The Global Data service allows several PLCs to exchange data through a Publish/
subscribe mechanism and is supported by ETY, NOE modules.
Operation
By this service, one controller publishes an array of variables on the network.
Several others controllers can subscribe to these variables.
Up to 64 controllers can share information through this service. with a very simple
configuration.
This efficient way to share information relies on TCP/IP Multicast and takes
advantage of "Multicast filtering" technology. When used on a switched network,
Multicast Filtering allows control of the traffic generated by the muticasting.
Distribution Group
IP multicast: 255 255 255 251
Data distribution
Intranet
Control
2..n stations
Data distribution
Distribution Group
IP multicast: 255 255 255 250
A publication/subscription protocol on UDP/IP is used for data distribution. The
publication of a variable is synchronized at the start of the PLC cycle. Subscribed
variables are recopied in the PLC application memory at the end of the cycle.
The PLC memory zones, which receive the various subscribed variables, should not
be recovered.
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Transparent Factory Ethernet Service Layers
Managing Faulty Devices
Replacing Faulty
Remote Stations
The objective of the faulty device replacement utility is to provide automatic recovery
of remote I/O module parameters or intelligent modules connected to a Transparent
Factory Ethernet sub-segment when exchanging a faulty module with a functioning
module.
Objective
The objective of the faulty device replacement utility is:
l to supply an IP address to a remote station from the name given to this station
(role name)
l to give a remote station the capacity to store parameters and also to recover
them, if required.
Note: The role name is limited to 16 characters in ASCII.
Operation
38
The faulty device replacement utility requires the use of the DHCP address server
and the FTP/TFTP server of the ETY 410/510 module or possibly ETZ or NOE or
ENT module.
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
Transparent Factory Ethernet Service Layers
Transparent Factory Web Diagnostic
How it Works
Modules, I/Os or devices connected on TF Ethernet can embed diagnostic screens
as HTML pages. These pages are pre-defined and not modifiable by the end user.
The user can view these diagnostic screens using any Web browser.
Dedicated screens can also be embedded to allow the user to change some
configuration parameters after identification.
Communication Stack
Adjust operation parameters
Monitor performance
Device oriented Diagnostic
Tune real-time com. parameters
Monitor communication performance
Communication profile oriented Diag.
Built-in Web pages
Device Function
TF Diagnostic Device
User Data
(program. parameters)
Ethernet
Example
The following figure illustrates an example with NOE, ETY and ETZ modules that
embed Configuration screens to tune the communication stack, Ethernet statistics
and diagnostic screens.
Statistics and Diagn ostic
in a standard W eb Browser
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
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Transparent Factory Ethernet Service Layers
40
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
Transparent Factory Ethernet
Products and Components
Selection Guide
4
At a Glance
Introduction
This chapter provides descriptions of Schneider Electric’s Ethernet products and
components suitable for Transparent Factory applications.
What’s in this
Chapter?
This chapter contains the following sections:
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
Section
Topic
Page
4.1
Ethernet Products
42
4.2
Ethernet Components
54
41
Transparent Factory Ethernet Products and Components Selection Guide
4.1
Ethernet Products
Ethernet Products Listing
Introduction
This section contains a brief summary of Schneider Electric’s Premium, Quantum,
Momentum, and Micro Ethernet product lines.
Premium,
Quantum, &
Momentum
Ethernet
Products
The products described in this section are listed below.
42
Part Number
Description
TSX ETZ 410
Ethernet Module for Micro
TSX ETZ 510
Ethernet Module for Micro
TSX ETY 110
Ethernet Module for Premium
TSX ETY 110WS
Ethernet Module for Premium
TSX ETY 410
Ethernet Module for Premium
TSX ETY 510
Ethernet Module for Premium
140 NOE 211 00
Ethernet Module for Quantum
140 NOE 211 10
Ethernet Module for Quantum
140 NOE 251 00
Ethernet Module for Quantum
140 NOE 251 10
Ethernet Module for Quantum
140 NOE 771 00
Ethernet Module for Quantum
140 NOE 771 10
Ethernet Module for Quantum
170 CCC 960 20
Ethernet Momentum Processor
170 CCC 980 20
Ethernet Momentum Processor
170 ENT 110 00
Ethernet Momentum I/O Device
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
Transparent Factory Ethernet Products and Components Selection
List of Services
for Premium
The following table details the services available with the Premium line of Ethernet
products.
Service
TSX ETY 110
TSX ETY
110WS
TSX ETY 410
TSX ETY 510
MB – TCP/IP
X
X
X
X
X
X
Coordination
between controllers
X
X
X
X
Web diagnostic
X
X
X
X
I/O – scanner
Web control and
monitoring
X
X
Global Data
10 Mbps
X
X
X
100 Mbps
Electrical connectors
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Optical connectors
List of Services
for Quantum
The following table details the services available with the Quantum line of Ethernet
products.
Services
140 NOE
211 00
140 NOE
211 10
140 NOE
251 00
140 NOE
251 10
140 NOE
771 00
140 NOE
771 10
MB – TCP/IP
X
X
X
X
X
X
I/O scanner
X
X
X
Coordination
between controllers
X
X
X
Web diagnostic
X
Web control and
monitoring
X
X
X
X
X
Global Data
10 Mbps
X
X
X
100 Mbps
Electrical
connectors
Optical connectors
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
43
Transparent Factory Ethernet Products and Components Selection Guide
List of Services
for Momentum
The following table details the services available with the Momentum line of Ethernet
products.
Services
174 CEV
300 10
174 CEV
200 3010
170 CCC
960 20
170 CCC
980 20
170 ENT
110 00
MB – TCP/IP
X
X
X
X
X
I/O – scanner
X
X
Coordination
between controllers
X
X
Web diagnostic
Web control and
monitoring
10 Mbps
X
X
X
X
X
Electrical connectors X
X
X
X
X
100 Mbps
Optical connectors
List of Sevices
for Micro
The following table details the services available with the Micro line of Ethernet
products.
Service
ETZ 410
ETZ 510
MB – TCP/IP
X
X
I/O – scanner
Coordination between controllers
X
X
Web diagnostic
X
X
Web control and monitoring
X
10 Mbps
X
X
100 Mbps
X
X
Electrical connectors
X
X
Optical connectors
44
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
Transparent Factory Ethernet Products and Components Selection
What’s in this
Section?
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
This section contains the following maps:
Topic
Page
Ethernet Premium Products
46
Ethernet Quantum Products
48
Ethernet Momentum/Adapters Products
51
Ethernet Micro Products
53
45
Transparent Factory Ethernet Products and Components Selection Guide
Ethernet Premium Products
Overview
This section describes the Ethernet Premium products.
Premium TSX
ETY 110 &
110WS Module
A summary of the TSX ETY 110 and 110WS modules features follows.
46
Function
Description
Speed
Ethernet 10 Mbit/s
Interfaces
10BaseT (RJ45 connector)
10Base5 (AUI connector)
Transmission media
Shielded twisted pair cable
Tri-axial cable
Configuration
Maximum number of stations: 64
Maximum lengths:
l 100 meters with STP cable to hub or switch
l 50 meters with several tap-off cables (TSX ETY
CB 0··) end to end to a transceiver (TSX ACC2)
on trunk cable
Maximum stations/PLC rack: 4 (RJ45 connections) /
2 (AUI connections)
Services
ETHWAY: Handling messages (Uni-TE, application
to application, PLC scanning), Common words
TCP/IP: message handling X-Way / Uni-TE /
MODBUS
FactoryCast: Diagnostic, monitoring, and control of
the application via Web browser.
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
Transparent Factory Ethernet Products and Components Selection
Premium TSX
ETY 410 & 510
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
A summary of the TSX ETY 410 and 510 modules features follows.
Function
Description
Speed
Ethernet 100 Mbit/s
Interfaces
10/100BaseTX (RJ45 connector) Auto Sensing
10 Mbps/100 Mbps/Half/Full duplex
Transmission media
Shielded twisted pair cable
Configuration
Maximum number of stations: 64
Maximum lengths:
l 100 m with SFTP cable to hub or switch
Maximum stations/PLC rack: 4 RJ45 connections
Services
SNMP
TCP/IP: message handling Uni-TE/MODBUS
I/O Scanner up to 64 devices
Web based Management
Global Data
FactoryCast (TSX ETY 510 only)
47
Transparent Factory Ethernet Products and Components Selection Guide
Ethernet Quantum Products
Overview
This section describes the Ethernet Quantum products.
Quantum 140
NOE 211 00 & 211
10 Modules
A summary of the NOE 211 00/10 modules features follows.
48
Function
Description
Speed
Ethernet 10 Mbits/
Interfaces
10BaseT (RJ45 connector)
Transmission media
Shielded twisted pair cable
Configuration
Maximum number of stations : 64
Maximum lengths: 100 meters with STP cable to hub/
switch/transceiver
Maximum stations/PLC rack: 6
Services
Message handling: MODBUS
FactoryCast: Diagnostic, monitoring and control of
the application via a Web browser
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
Transparent Factory Ethernet Products and Components Selection
Quantum 140
NOE 251 00 & 251
10 Modules
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
A summary of the NOE 251 00/10 features follows.
Function
Description
Speed
Ethernet 10 Mbit/s
Interfaces
10BaseFL (BFOC or ST connector)
Transmission media
Fiber optic
Configuration
Maximum number of stations : 64
Maximum lengths: 3000m with multi-mode fiber
Maximum stations / PLC rack: 6
Services
Message handling: MODBUS
FactoryCast: Diagnostic, monitoring and control of
the application via a Web browser
49
Transparent Factory Ethernet Products and Components Selection Guide
Quantum 140
NOE 771 00 & 771
10 Modules
50
A summary of the NOE 771 00/10 modules features follows.
Function
Description
Speed
Ethernet 10/100 Mbit/s
Interfaces
10/100BaseTX (RJ45 connector)
Mbps / 100 Mbps / Half / Full duplex
100BaseFX multi-mode (MT-RJ connector)10BaseT
(RJ45 connector)
Half / Full duplex
Transmission media
Shielded twisted pair cable/Optic fiber
Configuration
Maximum number of stations: 64
Maximum lengths:
l 100 meters with STP cable to hub switch or
transceivers
l 3000 meters with multi-mode fiber
Maximum stations / PLC rack: 6
Services
Message handling: MODBUS Automatic scanner of
128 I/O devices
FactoryCast: Diagnostic, monitoring, and control of
the application in a Web browser
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
Transparent Factory Ethernet Products and Components Selection
Ethernet Momentum/Adapters Products
Overview
This section describes the Ethernet Momentum products.
Momentum 171
CCC 960 20 / 171
980 20 Adapters
The following table describes these adapters:
l 171 CCC 960 x0: Ethernet RJ45 port and I/O communications
l 171 CCC 980 x0: Ethernet RJ45 port and RS485 communications
Function
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
Description
Speed
Ethernet 10 Mbit/s
Interfaces
10BaseT (RJ45 connector)
10 Mbps: Half duplex
Transmission media
Shielded twisted pair cable
Configuration
Maximum number of stations: 64
Maximum lengths:100m with STP cable-to-hub, or to
station
Services
TCP/IP: message handling MODBUS
VO Scanner up to 64 devices
Web-based management
51
Transparent Factory Ethernet Products and Components Selection Guide
Momentum 170
ENT 110 00
Adapter
52
A summary of the 170 ENT 11000 adapter features follows.
Function
Description
Speed
Ethernet 10 Mbit/s
Interfaces
10BaseT (RJ45 connector)
10 Mbps: Half duplex
Transmission media
Shielded twisted pair cable
Configuration
Maximum number of stations : 64
Maximum lengths:100m with STP cable-to-hub, or to
station
Services
Associated with all Momentum I/O BasesI/O
scanning compatibility
TCP/IP: message handling MODBUS
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
Transparent Factory Ethernet Products and Components Selection
Ethernet Micro Products
Overview
This section describes the Ethernet Micro products.
Micro TSX ETZ
410 & 510
Modules
A summary of the TSX ETZ 410 and 510 modules features follows.
Function
Description
Speed
Ethernet 100 Mbit/s
Interfaces
1 x RJ45 for Uni-telway
1 x 10/100 Base TX (RJ45 connector) Auto sensing 10 Mbps
(Half/full duplex) /100 Mbps (Half duplex) for Ethernet
1 x RS-485 (terminal port)
1x RS-232 serial link for modem
Transmission Media
RJ45 and RS-484: Sheilded twisted pair cable
RS-232: NULL modem cable
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
Configuration
Maximum number of stations: 32
Maximum lengths: 100 meters with STP cable to hub or switch
Maximum stations per PLC rack: 1
Services
SNMP
TCP/IP: message handling Uni-TE MODBUS
I/O scanned
Web-based management
Factory cast (ETZ 510 only)
53
Transparent Factory Ethernet Products and Components Selection Guide
4.2
Ethernet Components
Ethernet Components Listing
Premium,
Quantum, &
Momentum
Ethernet
Products
What’s in this
Section?
54
This section contains a brief summary of Schneider Electric’s Ethernet hubs,
switches, and transceiver product lines. The products described in this section are
listed below.
Part number
Description
499NEH00410
Ethernet Hub 10Mbps 4TP
499NEH04100
Ethernet Hub 100Mbps 4TX
499NOH00510
Ethernet Hub 10Mbps 3TP/2FL
174CEV20030
MODBUS Plus to Ethernet TCP/IPBridge
174CEV30010
MODBUS to Ethernet TCP/IPBridge
499NES07100
Ethernet Switch 10/100Mbps 7TX
499NOS07100
Ethernet Switch 10/100Mbps 5TX/2FX
499NTR00 010
Ethernet Transceiver 10Mbps TP/FL
499NTR00100
Ethernet Transceiver 100Mbps TX/FX
This section contains the following maps:
Topic
Page
Ethernet Hubs
55
Ethernet TCP/IP Bridges
58
Ethernet Switches
61
Ethernet Transceivers
64
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
Transparent Factory Ethernet Products and Components Selection
Ethernet Hubs
Overview
This section describes the Transparent Factory Ethernet hubs.
499NEH00410
Ethernet Hub
10Mbps 4 TP
A summary of the 499 NEH 004 10 Ethernet hub features follows.
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
Function
Description
Speed
Ethernet 10 Mbit/s
Interfaces
4 x 10BaseT ports (RJ45 connector)
Transmission media
Shielded twisted pair cable
Configuration
Various topologies for small and medium sized
networks: Star topology and Bus topology via twisted
pair cable
Maximum: 4 cascading 499NEH410 in a star
configuration
Maximum range
TP-line length: max. 100 meters with 100 ohms (max.
330 ft.)
Services
Fault tolerant 24VDC power supply
Specific signaling contact for function control
Propagation Delay
Transition: TP Port <-> TP port
Propagation Equivalent: 190 meters (312 ft.)
Variability Value: 4 BT
55
Transparent Factory Ethernet Products and Components Selection Guide
499NEH04100
Ethernet Hub
100Mbps 4 TX
56
A summary of the 499 NEH 04 100 Ethernet hub features follows.
Function
Description
Speed
Ethernet 100 Mbit/s
Interfaces
4 x 100BaseTx ports (RJ45 connector)
Transmission media
Shielded Twisted Pair cable
Configuration
Various topologies for small and medium sized
networks: Star topology and Bus topology via twisted
pair cable
Maximum: 2 cascading 499NEH04100 in a star
configuration
Maximum range
TP-line length: max. 100 meters with 100 ohms (max.
330 ft.)
Services
Fault tolerant 24VDC power supply (12 to 48VDC)
Propagation Delay
Transition: TP Port <-> TP port
Mark round trip delay: 92 BT
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
Transparent Factory Ethernet Products and Components Selection
499NOH00510
Ethernet Hub
10Mbps 3TP/2 FL
A summary of the 499 NOH 005 10 Ethernet hub features follows.
Function
Description
Speed
Ethernet 10 Mbit/s
Interfaces
3 10BaseT ports (RJ45 connector)
2 10Base-FL ports (ST connector)
10 Mbps/Half duplex or Full duplex
Transmission media
Shielded Twisted Pair cable Fiber optic
Configuration
Various topologies for small and medium sized
networks:
l Optical ring via optic fiber
l Star topology and Bus topology via fiber optic and
twisted pair cable
Maximum: 11 499NOH00510 in a fiber optical bus/
ring configuration with a maximum length < 1180
meters
Maximum: 4 cascading 499NOH00510 in a star
configuration
Maximum range on 50/125m fiber: max.2,600 meter
(max. 8,500 ft.) > 11 dB Link Budget
Maximum range on 62, 5/125m-fiberon 62,65/125mfiber: max. 3,100 meters (max. 10,000 ft.) > 14 dB
Link Budget
Maximum range on TP-line length: max. 100 meters
with 100 ohms (max. 330 ft.)
TP-line length: max 100 meters with 100 ohms (max.
330 ft.)
Services
Fault tolerant 24VDC power supply
Specific signaling contact for function control
Fault tolerant network with redundant copper ring
structure
Propagation Delay
See table below.
The following table shows the propagation delay for the 499NOH00510 Ethernet
Hub 10 Mbps 3TP/2 FL.
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
Transition
Propagation Delay Propagation Equivalent Variability Value
TP port < - > TP port
1, 9 s
190 meters (623 ft.)
3 BT
TP port < - > OF port
3, 6s
360 meters (1,181 ft.)
6 BT
TP port < - > OF port
2, 6s
260 meters (853 ft.)
3 BT
57
Transparent Factory Ethernet Products and Components Selection Guide
Ethernet TCP/IP Bridges
Overview
58
This section describes the Transparent Factory Ethernet TCP/IP Bridges.
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
Transparent Factory Ethernet Products and Components Selection
174 CEV 300 10
MODBUS to
Ethernet TCP/IP
Bridge
The 174 CEV 300 10 supports multiple devices on the serial line and multiple
MODBUS TCP connections.
A summary of the 174 CEV 300 10 MODBUS to Ethernet TCP/IP bridge follows.
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
Function
Description
Speed
Ethernet 10 Mbit/s
Ethernet Interfaces
10BaseT network interface, with a shielded connector.
Ethernet v2 encapsulation, TCP/IP Version 4. Good link
indicator LED. Up to 8 quasi-simultaneous connections.
Power Supply
9-30 VDC, suitable for 12V and 24V operated systems. DC
inrush and surge protected. Power requirement is 3 Watts
maximum total.
Case
Approximately 35 x 95 x 60 mm (Approx. 1.4 x 3.7 x 2.4
inches). DIN rail snap mounting.
Operating Environment
0 to 60°C, 20% to 90% humidity, non-condensing.
Configuration Parameters
IP address, gateway, netmask. Baud rate, parity, number of
bits, stop bits, 2/4 wire operation. MODBUS RTU/ASCII or
other protocol, PLC address, time-outs. Configuration
parameters are stored in non-volatile memory.
Status Indicators
Six colored LEDs display Ethernet, MODBUS and device
status.
Functions
Conversion of MODBUS RTU or MODBUS ASCII protocol to
MODBUS/TCP (slave functionality).
Conversion of MODBUS/ TCP to MODBUS RTU or
MODBUS ASCII (master functionality). Enables multiple
Masters (MMI, DCS, PLC) to access devices connected to
serial port. Two units can be used to bridge a MODBUS
connection over a TCP/IP network.
Serial Interface
RS232 or RS485 interface, switch selectable. RS485 twowire and 4-wire operation. MODBUS RJ45 connector for
RS232, can be wired to PLC with straight patch cable.
59
Transparent Factory Ethernet Products and Components Selection Guide
174 CEV 200 30
MODBUS Plus to
Ethernet TCP/IP
Bridge
The 140 CEV 200 30 bridge is a compact industrial PC with Ethernet and MODBUS
Plus interfaces plus bridge software.
A summary of the 140 CEV 200 30 bridge follows.
60
Function
Description
Speed
Ethernet 10Mbit/s
Ethernet Interfaces
10 base-T (RJ45), 10 base-2 (BNC), 10 base-5 (AUI)
network interface
Serial Interface
1 dual/single cable MODBUS Plus
Power Supply
110/220 v AC, auto sensing
Mounting
Vertical panel or horizontal shelf
Case
122 x 229 x 248 mm (4.8 x 9 x 9.8 inches)
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
Transparent Factory Ethernet Products and Components Selection
Ethernet Switches
Overview
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
This section describes the Transparent Factory Ethernet Switches.
61
Transparent Factory Ethernet Products and Components Selection Guide
499NES07100
Ethernet Switch
10/100Mbps 7 TX
62
A summary of the 499 NES 071 00 Ethernet Switch 10/100Mbps 7 TX follows.
Function
Description
Speed
Ethernet 10/100 Mbit/s
Interfaces
5 10/100Base-TX (RJ45 connector) with autonegotiation
2 10/100Base-TX (RJ45 connector) for backbone in
redundant ring
Transmission media
Shielded Twisted Pair cable
Various topologies for small and medium sized
networks
Configuration
Redundant copper ring, Star topology, Bus topology
via twisted pair.
Maximum cascading depth / up: 50 (actual products
to confirm it with new products) 499NES07100
(manageable by ring manager so with 5 ports: 250
users with a recovery time < 300 ms. The 50 switches
network can achieve 5 km with twisted pair (full
duplex) (perimeter of the copper ring).
Maximum range on TP-line length : max. 100 meters
with 100 ohms (max. 330 ft)
Services
Fault tolerant network with redundant copper ring
structure
Self learning Store & Forward Switch
Fault tolerant 24VDC power supply (18VDC to
32VDC)
Specific signaling contact for function control
SNMP, RMON, VLAN
Manageable via a Web browser
Performances
Fast recovery time in copper ring :
on shared 10 Mbps / 100 Mbps architecture (hubs)
(worst case
l on switched 200 Mbps architecture (switches)
The configurable controller switch manages the
redundant switched ring. It supervises the ring and is
responsible for recognition and elimination of
occurring faults in the ring within less than 300 ms.
l
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
Transparent Factory Ethernet Products and Components Selection
499NOS07100
Ethernet Switch
10/100Mbps 5TX/
2FX
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
A summary of the 499 NOS 071 00 Ethernet Switch 10/100Mbps 5TX/2FX follows.
Function
Description
Speed
Ethernet 10/100 Mbit/s
Interfaces
5 10/100Base-TX (RJ45 connector) with autonegotiation
Transmission media
Shielded Twisted Pair cable Fiber optic
Configuration
Various topologies for small and medium sized
networks:
l Redundant optical ring via optic fiber
l Star topology via optic fiber and twisted pair
l Bus topology via optic fiber and twisted pair
Maximum cascading depth / up: 50 499NOS07100
(manageable by optical ring manager so with 5 ports:
250 users with a recovery time < 300 ms.
Maximum range on 50/125m-fiber: max. 2.600 m
(max. 8.500 ft.), > 11 dB Link Budget
Maximum range on 62,5/125m-fiber: max. 3.100 m
(max. 10.000 ft.), > 14 dB Link Budget
Maximum range on TP-line length: max. 100 m with
100 ohms (max. 330 ft.)
Services
Fault tolerant network with redundant copper ring
structure
Self learning Store & Forward SwitchFault tolerant
24VDC power supply (18VDC to 32VDC
Specific signaling contact for function control
SNMP, RMON, VLAN
Manageable via a Web browser
Performances
Fast recovery time in optical ring:
on shared 10 Mbps / 100 Mbps architecture (hubs)
(worst case)
l on switched 200 Mbps architecture (switches)
The configurable controller switch manages the
redundant switched ring. It supervises the ring and is
responsible for recognition and elimination of
occurring faults in the ring within less than 300 ms.
l
63
Transparent Factory Ethernet Products and Components Selection Guide
Ethernet Transceivers
Overview
This section describes the Transparent Factory Ethernet Transceivers.
499NTR00010
Ethernet
Transceiver
10Mbps TP/FL
A summary of the 499 NTR 000 10 Ethernet Transceiver 10Mbps TP/FL follows.
64
Function
Description
Speed
10Mbit/s
Interfaces
10BaseT (RJ45 connector)
10Base FL (ST connector)
10 Mbps / Half duplex or full duplex auto-negotiation
Transmission media
Shielded Twisted Pair cable
Fiber optic
Configuration
Maximum range on 50/125m-fiber: max. 2.600 m
(max. 8.500 ft.), > 11 dB Link Budget
Maximum range on 62,5/125m-fiber: max. 3.100 m
(max. 10.000 ft.), > 14 dB Link Budget
Maximum range on TP-line length: max. 100 m with
100 ohms (max. 330 ft.)
Services
Fault tolerant 24VDC power supply
Specific signaling contact for function control
Propagation Delay
Transition: TP Port <-> OF port
Propagation Delay: 0, 5s
Propagation Equivalent: 50 meters (164 ft.)
Variability Value: 1 BT
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
Transparent Factory Ethernet Products and Components Selection
499NTR00100
Ethernet
Transceiver
100Mbps TX/FX
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
A summary of the 499 NTR 00 100 Ethernet Transceiver 100Mbps TX/FX follows.
Function
Description
Speed
Ethernet 100 Mbit/s
Interfaces
100BaseT (RJ45 connector)
100Base FX (SC connector)
Half duplex or full duplex
Transmission media
Shielded and Foiled Twisted Pair cable
Fiber optic
Configuration
Maximum range on 50/125m-fiber: max. 2.600 m
(max. 8.500 ft.), > 11 dB Link Budget
Maximum range on 62,5/125m-fiber: max. 3.100 m
(max. 10.000 ft.), > 14 dB Link Budget
Maximum range on TP-line length: max. 100 m with
100 ohms (max. 330 ft.)
Services
Fault tolerant 24VDC power supply (12VDC to
48VDC)
Specific signaling contact for function control
Performances
Transceiver failure recognized in less than XXms
65
Transparent Factory Ethernet Products and Components Selection Guide
66
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
Ethernet Cabling Information
5
At a Glance
Introduction
This chapter provides cabling information for designing Ethernet networks using
Schneider Electric’s Ethernet products and components.
What’s in this
Chapter?
This chapter contains the following maps:
490 USe 133 00 Version 1.0
Topic
Page
Shielded Twisted Pair Cable
68
Optical Patch Cables
71
10 Mbps Connection Guide
73
100Mbps Connection Guide
75
Distance Rules for Designing Networks
77
67
Ethernet Cabling Information
Shielded Twisted Pair Cable
Description
The low cost connection of devices can be implemented with the Ethernet shielded
twisted pair cable (490NTW000xx, 490NTC000xx). This is an STP category 5 cable.
It is suitable for installation in industrial environments subject to electromagnetic
interference. The flexibility of the cables allows simple installation.
Because links to cascade Ethernet components are subject to a crossover function
in the IEEE 802.3 norm, hubs and switches can be interconnected with a dedicated
crossed cable (490NTC000xx).
Common
Features
The cord is made of 4 twisted pairs and has the following features:
l 100 ohms cable impedance
l Category 5 according to EIA/TIA-568, and to class Dq—IEC 11801 / EN 50173
l Material is LSZH: Low Smoke Zero Halogen and flame-retardant—NFC32 070
N°1 (C2) and CEI 332/1
l Double shielding for industrial applications (STP technology / screens: foil + braid
tin)
l Connectors pre-assembled with two shielded RJ45 connectors according to EIA/
TIA-568, and to class D—IEC 11801 / EN 50173 (easiness, reliability in
environment)
l Approvals: EN50167, EN50168, EN50169, ISO 11801, EN50173 (Europe)
l 490NTW/NTC000xxU cables are not "Zero Halogen," but are UL approved.
These cables are not suitable for European sale.
Note: For a full explanation of cabling rules, refer to Transparent Factory Network
Design and Cabling Guide (490 USE 13400).
68
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
Ethernet Cabling Information
Non-Crossing
Ethernet Cabling
Part Numbers
This type of cord allows connection links between Ethernet module (NOE, TSX ETY)
or Central Unit fit out with Ethernet and components (hubs, switches, routers).
The following table indicates the connector pinouts for a 490NTW000xx noncrossover cable.
Connector A
Pair 1
Pair 2
Pair 3
pin 4
<--------->
pin 4
blue (white)
pin 5
<--------->
pin 5
white-blue
TD+
pin 3
<--------->
pin 3
TD+
white-orange
TD-
pin 6
<--------->
pin 6
TD-
orange-white
RD+
pin 1
<--------->
pin 1
RD+
white-green
RD-
pin 2
<--------->
pin 2
RD-
green (white)
pin 7
<--------->
pin 7
white-brown
pin 8
<--------->
pin 8
brown (white)
Pair 4
Non-Crossing
Ethernet Cabling
Part Numbers
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
Connector B
The following table lists the part numbers for 490NTW000xx Ethernet non-crossover
cables.
Cable
Length
Part Number
STP category 5 RJ45
2 meters
490NTW00002
STP category 5 RJ45
5 meters
490NTW00005
STP category 5 RJ45
12 meters
490NTW00012
STP category 5 RJ45
40 meters
490NTW00040
STP category 5 RJ45
80 meters
490NTW00080
69
Ethernet Cabling Information
Crossover Wire
Ethernet Cable
490NTC000xx
The following table indicates the connector pinouts for a 490NTW000xx noncrossover cable.
Connector A
Connector B
Pair 1
Pair 2
Pair 3
pin 4
Crossover
Ethernet Cabling
Part Numbers
70
pin 7
blue (white)
pin 5
<--------->
pin 8
TD+
pin 3
<--------->
pin 1
TD+
white-orange
TD-
pin 6
<--------->
pin 2
TD-
orange-white
RD+
pin 1
<--------->
pin 3
RD+
white-green
-
pin 2
<--------->
pin 6
-
pin 7
<--------->
pin 4
white-brown
pin 8
<--------->
pin 5
brown (white)
RD
Pair 4
<--------->
white-blue
RD
green (white)
The following table lists the part numbers for 490NTC000xx Ethernet crossover
cables.
Cable
Length
Part Number
STP category 5 RJ45 crossed over
5 meters
490NTC00005
STP category 5 RJ45 crossed over
15 meters
490NTC00015
STP category 5 RJ45 crossed over
40 meters
490NTC00040
STP category 5 RJ45 crossed over
80 meters
490NTC00080
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
Ethernet Cabling Information
Optical Patch Cables
Three Versions
Available
Three versions of optical patches -- SC duplex, ST or MT-RJ -- are available in order
to connect the MT-RJ equipped optical port of Ethernet Module to a patch panel, a
hub or a switch.
l One MT-RJ connector and two ST connectors (490NOT00005)
l One MT-RJ and one SC duplex connectors (490NTC00005)
l Two MT-RJ connectors
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
71
Ethernet Cabling Information
Common
Features
The cord is composed of 2 fibers and has the following features
l Two 62.5/125 Multi mode glass fibers; it is used in 1300 nano-meters wavelength
l Low Smoke Zero Halogen according to HD.624-7
l Flame-retardant according to NFC32 070 N°1 (C2) and CEI 332/1
l Approvals: ANSI/TIA/ EIA -568-B, ISO/IEC 11801, CENELEC
Optical Cable
Part Numbers
Part numbers for the three versions of optical patch cable are listed below.
72
Cable
Length
Part Number
MT-RJ/SC duplex optical patch
5 meters
490NOC00005
MT-RJ/ST optical patch
5 meters
490NOT00005
MT-RJ/MT-RJ optical patch
5 meters
490NOR00005
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
Ethernet Cabling Information
10 Mbps Connection Guide
Overview
The following sections provide connection information for Schneider Electric’s
components running at 10 Mbps.
Product
Selection Guide
The following table provides product selection information for Schneider Electric’s
Ethernet products running at 10Mbps.
Product
RJ45
BFOC or
ST
Premium
TSX ETZ 410 Ethernet Module
X
TSX ETZ 510 Ethernet Module
X
TSX ETY 110 Ethernet Module
X
TSX ETY 110WS Ethernet Module
X
TSX ETY 410 Ethernet Module
X
TSX ETY 510 Ethernet Module
X
Quantum
140 NOE 211 00 Ethernet Module
X
140 NOE 211 10 Ethernet Module(WS)
X
140 NOE 251 00 Ethernet Module
X
140 NOE 251 10 Ethernet Module(WS)
X
140 NOE 771 00
X
X
140 NOE 771 10
X
X
174 CEV 300 10 MODBUS / Ethernet TCP/IP Bridge
X
174 CEV 200 3010 MODBUS Plus / Ethernet TCP/IP Bridge
X
Momentum
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
170 CCC 96020 Ethernet Processor
X
170 CCC 98020 Ethernet Processor
X
170 ENT 11000 Ethernet I/O Device
X
73
Ethernet Cabling Information
Component
Selection Guide
The following table provides component selection information for Schneider
Electric’s Ethernet components running at 10Mbps
Component
RJ45
BFOC or ST
Transceivers
TSX ETH NTR 1 Mini transceiver 10 Mbps TP/AUI
1 port
499NTR00010 Ethernet 10Mbps TP/FL
1 port
1 port
Hubs
TSX ETH NEH 8 Ethernet Hub 8 TP/1 AUI
1 port
499NEH00410 Ethernet 10Mbps 4TP
4 ports
499NOH00510 Ethernet 10Mbps 3TP/2FL
3 ports
2 ports
Switches
Cables
499NES07100 Ethernet 10/100Mbps 7TX
5 ports (10/
100Mbps)
499NOS07100 Ethernet 10/100Mbps 5TX/2FX
5 ports (10/
100Mbps)
The following table provides cabling information for Schneider Electric’s Ethernet
components running at 10Mbps.
Cable
RJ45
BFOC or ST
Shielded Twisted Pair
490NTW000xx Ethernet STP cat 5 RJ45 non- 2 connectors
crossover cable for connections to a hub,
switch, or transceiver
490NTC000xx Ethernet STP cat 5 RJ45
crossover cable for connection to inter hubs,
switches, or transceivers
2 connectors
Fiber Optic Patch
490NOT00005 Ethernet MT-RJ/ST for product
connection to patch panel, hub, or transceiver
74
2 connectors
(xmitter/receiver)
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
Ethernet Cabling Information
100Mbps Connection Guide
Product
Selection Guide
The following table provides connection information for Schneider Electric’s
Ethernet products running at 100Mbps.
Product
RJ45
MT-R
Micro
TSX ETZ 410 Ethernet Module
X
half duplex
TSX ETZ 510 Ethernet Module
X
half duplex
Premium
TSX ETY 410
X
full duplex
TSX ETY 510
X
full duplex
Quantum
Component
Selection Guide
140 NOE 771 00 Ethernet Module
X
full duplex
X
140 NOE 771 10 Ethernet Module(WS)
X
full duplex
X
The following table provides connection information for Schneider Electric’s
Ethernet components running at 100Mbps.
Component
RJ45
SC
1 port
1 port
Transceivers
499NTR00100 Ethernet 100Mbps TX/FX
Hubs
499NEH00410 Ethernet 100Mbps 4TX
4 ports
Switches
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
499NES07100 Ethernet 10/100Mbps 7TX
7 ports
499NOS07100 Ethernet 10/100Mbps 5TX/2FX
5 ports
2 ports
75
Ethernet Cabling Information
Cables
The following table provides connection information for Schneider Electric’s
Ethernet cables running at 100Mbps.
Cable
RJ45
MT-RJ
SC
490NOC00005 Ethernet MT-RJ/SC
duplex for product connection to patch
panel, switch, or transceiver
1 connector
(xmitter/
receiver)
1 connector
(xmitter/
receiver)
490NOR00005 Ethernet MT-RJ/MT-RJ
for product connection to patch panel, or
switch
2 connectors
(xmitter/
receiver)
Shielded Twisted Pair
490NTW000xx Ethernet STP cat 5 RJ45 2 connectors
non-crossover cable for connections to a
hub, switch, or transceiver
90NTC000xx Ethernet STP cat 5 RJ45
crossover cable for connection to inter
hubs, switches, or transceivers
2 connectors
Fiber Optic Patch
76
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
Ethernet Cabling Information
Distance Rules for Designing Networks
10Mbps Hubs
The following rules apply to Ethernet networks using 10Mbps hubs.
Condition
No. of Hubs/Cable Length
Cascaded hubs (*)
4 hubs
Hubs in optical ring
11 hubs
Cabling between hubs / hub and station on copper 100 meters
media
Cabling between stations in copper bus (with 4
cascaded 10 Mbps hubs)
500 meters
Cabling between stations in copper / optical bus
(with 2 cascaded 10 Mbps hubs)
3100 meters
(*) according to 802.3 norm
100Mbps Hubs
The following rules apply to Ethernet networks using 100Mbps hubs.
Condition
No. of Hubs/Cable Length
Cascaded hubs (*) class 2
2 hubs
Cabling between hubs / hub and station on copper 100 meters
media
Cabling between stations in copper bus (with 2
cascaded 100 Mbps hubs)
210 meters
(*) according to 802.3u norm
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
77
Ethernet Cabling Information
Ethernet Cabling
System
Distances
The following table provides cabling distance information for Ethernet network
design.
Condition
Standard
IEEE 802.3 Norm
Copper cable length limit (10 / 100 Base T / TX)
100 meters
100 meters
Collision Domain Limit with 10Mbps hubs and
STP cable
500 meters
500 meters
Collision Domain Limit with 10Mbps hubs and
optical cable(s)
Between 1180 &
3100 meters
Maximum number of Hubs in ring
11 hubs
Maximum number of Switches in copper or
optical ring
50 switches
Maximum optical cable length between switches 3,000 meters
(full duplex 100BaseFX)
2,000 meters
Maximum optical cable length between switches 412 meters
(half duplex 100BaseFX)
412 meters
Note: Optical fiber is Multimode fiber 62.5/125.
78
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
Web-Based Solutions
6
At a Glance
Introduction
This chapter describes Transparent Factory’s Web-based management features.
Internet technology gives you access to any information available in each server
connected to the Internet or an Intranet.
Transparent Factory uses the same technology to connect PLCs together over TCP/
IP. By embedding Web servers in PLCs, Transparent Factory makes it possible for
authorized users to view and interact with control processes over an Intranet or the
Internet.The following sections present services delivered using this technology.
What’s in this
Chapter?
This chapter contains the following maps:
Topic
Embedded Diagnostics
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
Page
80
Web-Based Network Management
81
FactoryCast
82
MonitorPro Web Client
85
OPC Factory Server
87
79
Web-Based Solutions
Embedded Diagnostics
Transparent
Factory Web
Diagnostic
Layers
Transparent Factory Ethernet modules (NOE, ETY and ETZ) support the first three
Transparent Factory layers:
l Modbus and UNI-TE Messaging and BootP for the Transparent Factory Basic
l SNMP and I/O scanning master to support Transparent Factory Automation
l An embedded Web server to deliver network statistics, module health status, and
advanced diagnostic via embedded Web pages. This sophisticated level of
services is part of the Transparent Factory Web Diagnostic layer.
The following diagram describes the first three Transparent Factory layers of a
Transparent Factory Ethernet module.
TF Open Web Control
TF Web Diagnostic
TF Automation
TF Basic
80
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
Web-Based Solutions
Web-Based Network Management
Support for the
First Three
Transparent
Factory Layers
ConneXium switches also support the first three Transparent Factory layers.
TF Open Web Control
TF Web Diagnostic
TF Automation
TF Basic
l ConneXium switches are key components in the building of Transparent Factory
Ethernet architectures. They support MODBUS TCP/IP to complete the TF basic
layer.
l SNMP is part of each switch, including a standard and Transparent Factory MIB.
This permits standard network management tools to monitor and troubleshoot
applications with the Transparent Factory switch.This is an important element in
conforming to the Transparent Factory Automation layer.
l ConneXium NxS switch maintenance can be done remotely via any standard
Web browser. A Web server, including standard Web pages, is embedded in
each NxS switch allowing the customer to view the status of the switch, including
ports, power supply and network health.
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
81
Web-Based Solutions
FactoryCast
What is
FactoryCast?
FactoryCast is the ultimate range of new Transparent Factory Ethernet modules. It
includes all features of a standard communication module with an embedded Web
server and FTP support. FactoryCast is available on Micro, Premium, and Quantum
PLCs, and the package includes:
l hardware module,
l software for administering the Web pages, which runs in a Windows environment,
and
l CD-ROM user manual.
The FactoryCast module is a standard in-rack module for both Premium and
Quantum PLCs. It is an external device that is plugged into a COM port for Micro
PLCs.
Communication
Features
FactoryCast hardware contains standard communication features, including:
l Uni-Telway and MODBUS protocol,
l SNMP profile (Simple Network Management Protocol), and
l I/O scanner services and Global Data management for various modules.
Embedded
Web Server
The embedded Web server available in FactoryCast is a standard Web server. It
features a standard HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) and an FTP (File Transfer
Protocol) server. Real time PLC data is presented in standard Web pages, and can
be accessed via any standard Web browser (Internet Explorer, Netscape,
etc....).FactoryCast contains a set of predefined web pages designed to help the
user diagnose and maintain the installation and extra memory required to host web
pages. Users that want to create custom web pages must use a standard HTML
editor (Front Page, Dreamweaver, etc.).standard Web browser (Internet Explorer,
Netscape, etc....). FactoryCast contains a set of pre-defined Web pages designed
to help the user diagnose and maintain the installation and extra memory required
to host Web pages.Users that want to create custom Web pages must use a
standard HTML editor (Front Page, Dreamweaver, etc.).
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Illustration
The following diagram describes the features of new Transparent Factory Ethernet
modules.
TF Open Web Control
TF Web Diagnostic
TF Automation
TF Basic
What Services
are Available
with
FactoryCast?
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
The pre-defined web pages deliver the following services:
l Automatic learning of the configuration;
l Graphic visualization of the PLC configuration, including distributed and remote
I/O;
l Display of status, health, and diagnostic specific to each module;
l Data editor that controls, monitors, and troubleshoots a PLC application. A
spreadsheet is embedded in the Web server with variable names coming directly
from the programming software package. The user can view or modify PLC
variables, if authorized to do so. For example, tables can be built and stored in
the server for later use to decrease downtime;
l Graphic editor that allows the user to build custom screens in order to view and
interact with the process. The FactoryCast module contains a pre-defined set of
graphic objects, including bar graphs, sliders, buttons, etc.;
l Alarm viewer to view, acknowledge, and manage alarms stored in the buffer of
the Premium PLC;
l Capability of writing specific HTML pages that can embed the standard graphic
objects shipped with the product. Hyperlinks can be integrated in these pages to
get access to Enterprise or supplier databases; and
l Java applets can be developed with the Applet Java Toolkit and downloaded in
the FactoryCast modules to add specific features to the product.
83
Web-Based Solutions
FactoryCast
Configurator
The configurator shipped with FactoryCast is a stand-alone tool that operates in a
Windows environment to:
l manage the security of the Web site,
l save and restore user-defined Web pages,
l prepare the list of PLC variables that are accessed via Web pages, and
l manage the Web site (backup, restore, etc.).
Illustration
All services from FactoryCast products can be activated locally via any standard
Web server connected to the network using the standard architecture, as shown
below.
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MonitorPro Web Client
Introduction
MonitorPro WebClient provides the capability to remotely monitor and control
MonitorPro applications using the Microsoft Internet Explorer browser or any other
ActiveX-enabled application. Using Internet standard technology, application
information is communicated across either an Internet or Intranet connection,
allowing either full-control bi-directional connections or secure view-only
connections.
WebClient
WebClient adds to the MonitorPro architecture, by allowing graphics to be executed
on a remote workstation or client. WebClient’s provide several configuration options
including different levels of security for a MonitorPro application.
WebClient remote users can display all MonitorPro windows and, if configured for
full-control, can control the application. In a default full-control connection the user
has access to all the features and controls of the MonitorPro application.In addition,
full-control users can alter set points, adjust controls, and respond to alarms just as
if connected over the local network. This is in addition to standard security measures
built into the application, such as supervisor passwords.All configuration and
enforcement of these levels of control occurs on the server side.
View-only
WebClient
When user control is not required or not prudent, the remote users can be configured
as view-only, making them unable to write information to the real-time database.
View-only WebClient connections provide the maximum level of security for
MonitorPro applications. Remote users configured as view-only can write only to a
small subset of tags in the MonitorPro real-time database as specifically configured
on the server.
MonitorPro
The MonitorPro application developer has some flexibility in defining the set of tags
view-only connections can write to.
The remote user can view the application in exactly the same manner as a local
user, changing windows and navigating to different views; however, control of the
application via buttons, sliders, input text, and other controls is limited.
ActiveX Control
The client software consists of an ActiveX control, which enables the graphic display
of information to the user in a Microsoft Internet Explorer browser. A standard HTML
page containing the codes required to start the ActiveX control and connection to the
server is loaded. Included with the client software is a task used to connect to a
MonitorPro server from a remote node, executing outside the ActiveX control or a
container application, such as Internet Explorer.
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Web-Based Solutions
Tasks
Associated with
WebClient
On the server side, two tasks manage the functions associated with WebClient.
One task manages the WebClient connection to the application, accepting incoming
connections and terminating connections as WebClients disconnect.
The other task is initiated when remote users request server connections. This task
interfaces with the real-time database, performs file transfer functions, and manages
security operations. It also prevents unauthorized real-time database writes, based
on who is connected.
WebClient
Benefits
WebClient benefits include:
l A real client server architecture: The application runs on the server and is
automatically distributed to client stations. Thin client architecture requires no
specific development on client stations.
l Share functions between users: Local or remote multi-station control; an ideal
tool for maintenance.
l Reduce cost of implementation: Single-server applications are more costeffective than individual, networked stations. A centralized application reduces
maintenance and administration costs. Concurrent WebClient licenses reduce
the number of SCADA licenses required.
l Reduce downtime: Allow authorized personnel to access SCADA applications
remotely to diagnose production process problems.
An example of real client server architecture is illustrated below.
Web
Monitor Pro Server
Client
Intranet
Station
TCP/IP
Monitor Pro
Server
86
PPP Dialup
Internet
Web
Client
Station
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OPC Factory Server
Introduction
Using the OPC Foundation standard, makers and integrators of software and
hardware product no longer need to spend time developing communications drivers
for every hardware vendor’s products. The OPC interface provides standard access
to real-time information for all products with OPC Clients available to access OPC
Servers.
MODBUS
End users can use every OPC Client application compliant with the OPC standard
version 1.1 and 2.0 via Modicon MODBUS® over the following:
l TCP/IP, Modicon MODBUS Plus®
l Uni-TE UNITELWAY
l FIPWAY
l ETHWAY
l ISAWAY
l Uni-TE over TCP/IP
Schneider’s PLC
Products
Compatible with
OPC Factory
Server
The OPC Factory Server provides access to Schneider’s PLC families including:
l Premium
l Micro
l Nano
l Quantum
l Momentum
l Compact
Modicon
IEC1131 Concept
Software
Of particular interest to end users and OEMs is this solution’s ability to dynamically
access Schneider’s Modicon IEC1131 Concept programming software database
with the OPC Factory Server. This server provides access to located and unlocated
variables for use by OPC Client applications including HMI, Batch, MES. This is a
feature of the Schneider Automation OPC Server that no other products offer.
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Web-Based Solutions
Additional
Features
88
The OPC Factory Server offers the following features:
l OFS, the Schneider Automation OPC server
l Connection to Schneider Automation PLCs
l Openness to many clients for off the shelf and custom applications via OPC
Automation and OPC Custom Interfaces
l Compliant with the OPC standard V 1.0a and 2.01
l Supports Modicon Modsoft®, ConCept, and PL7 programming software
database access via an export feature.
l Interfaces OPC Automation, OPC Custom (including browser)
l Tested with leading HMI products from Wonderware, Intellution, and Iconics with
excellent results
l Local or Remote Server access
l Multi PLC (Quantum, Premium, Micro, Nano, Momentum...)
l Multi Communication Protocols (MODBUS and Uni-TE V2.0)
l MODBUS RTU, MODBUS Plus, MODBUS TCP/IP
l Unitelway, Fipway, Ethway, Uni-TE on Isabus, Uni-TE on TCP/IP (XIP)
l Multi Clients
l Address and Symbol variable access
l Read/Write device variables
l Synchronous or Asynchronous
l Symbolic access from Concept, Modsoft, PL7, ProWorks
l Direct access to the Concept symbols database - Symbolic access
l Located/unlocated variables
l Simple or structured variables
l Browse interface for symbol databases
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Appendices
At a Glance
Purpose
This part provides supplemental information on the Ethernet Frame.
What’s in this
Appendix?
The appendix contains the following chapters:
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Chapter
Chapter Name
A
Ethernet Frame
Page
91
89
Appendices
90
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
A
Ethernet Frame
At a Glance
Purpose
This appendix provides definitions and parameters for the Ethernet frame.
What’s in this
Chapter?
This chapter contains the following maps:
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Topic
Page
Ethernet Frame Definition
92
Frame Cells Definition
93
91
Ethernet Frame
Ethernet Frame Definition
Frame Structure
An Ethernet frame carries between 46 and 1500 data bytes with an 18-byte fixed
overhead, coming before a 64-bit preamble and start frame delimiter. These give a
maximum frame size of 1518 bytes and a minimum frame size of 64 bytes.
The following diagram describes the MAC frame structure.
MAC FRAME STRUCTURE
PREAMBLE
I/G U/L 46 Bit
bit bit Address
48 BIT ADRESS FORMAT
1
START FRAME
DELIMITER
6
DESTINATION
ADDRESS
0
6
SOURCE
ADDRESS
1 : Locally administered address
0 : Globally administered address
2
LENGTH or
TYPE
I/G
bit
U/L 46 Bit
bit Address
48 BIT ADDRESS FORMAT
46 or
1500
4
MAC client
DATA
PAD
Frame Check
Sequence
Length Frame calculation
7
1 : Locally administered address
0 : Globally administered address
CRC Calculation
1 : Group address
0 : Individual address
Note: The maximum and minimum frame sizes include the destination address
field through the FCS field preamble. Preamble and SFD fields are not included.
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Frame Cells Definition
Preamble
490 USE 133 00 Version 1.0
The preamble comes in first and allows the receiver’s clock to synchronize on the
emitter’s clock.
The preamble is at the physical level, since other frame’s fields are issued from the
MAC layer.
The preamble field is a 7-octet field formed by a succession of 1,0 bits following.
The preamble field is immediately followed by the 1-octet Start Frame Delimiter field
(10101011) which indicates the start of the frame’s MAC fields.
93
Ethernet Frame
MAC Address
Each MAC frame contains two address fields: First, the destination address field,
followed by the source address field. The source and the destination address sizes
shall be the same for all stations on a given network.
In the IEEE 802.3 standard, the first address bit for destination address is named
Individual/Group (I/G). This bit is always at 0 in the source address field and
reserved for later use.
1. Individual address: The address corresponding to a particular station on the
network.
2. Group address: A multi-destination address corresponding with one or more
stations on a given network.
There are two types of multi-destination address:
1. Multicast-group-address: An address attached to a group of stations.
2. Broadcast-address: for all stations of a particular network.
The destination address field with all bits set to 1 involves a broadcast address. The
second bit (U/L) indicates if the address is either of universal type or locally
administered type.
Universal type: U/L = 0: The three first octets identify the manufacturer of the card
and the other next three the coupler number with this constructor. This address is
globally administered.
The numbers of these first three octets are attributed at the word level by the IEEE.
e.g.:
Address
is assigned to
00-00-CC
CISCO
i00-AA-00
INTEL
02-60-8C
3COM
00-00-54
Modicon, Inc.
00-80-F4
Telemecanique Electrique
00-80-67
SquareD
Address field:
1-octet
2-octet
Constructor number
3-octet
4-octet
5-octet
6-octet
Card number
(2563 possibilities = 16.78 millions)
Locally administered type: U/L = 1: The 47 bits following are selected by the user
and locally administered.
When a broadcast address is used this bit is also assigned with 1.
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Ethernet Frame
Length/
Type Field
Indicates the number of MAC client data octets / the protocol see in the data field. If
the value is less than the minimum required by the protocol, a PAD field is added at
the end of the data field.
Data and
PAD Fields
The Data field contains n octets (46 <= n <= 1500). This field has no meaning for the
MAC layer.
If the higher layer supply less than 46 octets then the data field is completed with a
PAD.
In this case, the data field is completed by appending extra bits in order to reach the
minimum frame length. The content of the PAD has no meaning.
The length of PAD required is computed as follows: max (0, min. Frame Size - (8 n
+ 2 address Size + 48)) bits.
Frame Check
Sequence
(FCS) Field
The FCS field contains a 4-octet (32 bits) cyclic redundancy check (CRC) value and
place at the end of the frame. This value is computed as a function of the contents
of the source and destination address, length, data and PAD if used.
The CRC calculation is done with a 32 degree polynomial generator.
The receiving station uses this CRC field to decide if the frame is correct and can be
send to the higher layer.
This is the only field that is transmitted with the most significant bit at left (X31
coefficient first, tailing X0).
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Ethernet Frame
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Glossary
#
100BaseT4
100-Mbps Ethernet running on four pairs of Category 3, 4, or 5 UTP wire.
10Base-F
10 Mbps Ethernet running on optical fiber. 10BASE-F is a point-to-point network
media: hub / switch device to station.
10Base-T
10 Mbps Ethernet running on unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cable. 10BASE-T is a
point-to-point network media: hub / switch device to station.
10Base2
10 Mbps Ethernet running on thin coax network cable.
10Base5
10 Mbps Ethernet running on Thick wire network cable.
802
IEEE specifications for local area networks (LANs) and metropolitan area networks
(MANs).
802.1
general management and inter-network operations such as bridging.
802.2
sets standards at the logical link control sub-layer of the data link layer.
802.3
CSMA/CD (Ethernet) standards, which apply at the physical layer and the media
access control (MAC) sub-layer.
802.4
Token passing bus standards.
802.5
Token ring standards.
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Glossary
802.6
MAN standards. IEEE 802 standards become ANSI standards and usually are
accepted as international standards.
A
AUI (Attachment
Unit Interface)
A 15-pin shielded, twisted pair Ethernet cable used to connect network devices and
a Medium Attachment Unit (like transceiver).
Auto-Negotiation
/ Auto-sensing
The ability (MAC sub-layer) of a device to identify the speed (10 or 100 Mbps) and
the duplex or half mode of connection, and to adjust it, according to the Clause 28
of the IEEE 802.3u standard.
B
Backbone
The main cable of the network.
Bandwidth
The range of frequencies that a line transmission can carry. The capacity of a digital
channel is measured in "bits per seconds" (bit/s).
Base-band LAN
A LAN that uses a single carrier frequency over a single channel. Ethernet uses
base-band transmission.
bit/s
Bits per second, units of transmission speed.
BNC (Bayonet
Neill Concelman)
Standard connector used to link 10Base2 thin coaxial cable to a transceiver.
BOOTP
A TCP/IP network protocol that offers network nodes request configuration
information from a BOOTP "server" node.
Bridge
A networking device that connects two LANs and forwards or filters data packets
between them, based on their destination addresses. Bridges operate at the data
link level (or MAC-layer) of the OSI reference model, and are transparent to
protocols and to higher level devices like routers.
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Glossary
Bridges are used to connect networks using dissimilar protocols and operate at the
Data Link level or Layer Two of the OSI model. They are often described as media
access control level or MAC level bridges. They do not carry out any interpretation
of the information they are carrying. When two LANs are successfully bridged
together, they become one effective LAN. Various load balancing techniques have
been developed to combat the problems of bandwidth limitations and the failure of
any element on the network. Bridges are increasingly used to control network traffic
so that the rest of the network is not involved. This boosts network performance and
is also useful for security purposes.
Bridge / Router
A device that can provide the functions of a bridge, router or both concurrently. A
bridge/router can route one or more protocols, such as TCP/IP and/or XNS, and
bridge all other traffic.
Broadcast
A broadcast cast is a message that is sent out to all devices on the network.
Brouter
A device that routes specific protocols, such as TCP/IP and IPX, and bridges other
protocols, thereby combining the functions of both routers and bridges.
Bus
A LAN topology in which all the nodes are connected to a single cable. All nodes are
considered equal and receive all transmissions on the medium.
C
Channel
The data path between two nodes.
Circuit Switching
A switched circuit is only maintained while the sender and recipient are
communicating, as opposed to a dedicated circuit which is held open regardless of
whether data is being sent or not.
Circuit-Switched
Network
Network that establishes a physical circuit temporarily, until it receives a disconnect
signal.
Coaxial Cable
An electrical cable with a solid wire conductor at its center surrounded by insulating
materials and an outer metal screen conductor with an axis of curvature coinciding
with the inner conductor.
Collision
Collision is the result of two network nodes transmitting on the same line at the same
time. The both transmitted data is not usable, so the stations have to sent again. A
delay mechanism employed by both stations reduces the chances of another
collision occurrence.
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Glossary
Collision
Detection
In case of collision; a signal indicating that one or more stations are contending with
the local station’s transmission. The signal is sent by the Physical layer to the Data
Link layer on an Ethernet/IEEE 802.3 node. With Ethernet, each device can detect
collisions and try to send the signal again. CSMA/CD is based on this principle.
Communication
Server
A dedicated, standalone system that manages communications activities for other
computers.
Concentrator
In star-topology network, a concentrator is a device that serves as a wiring hub.
CRC (Cyclical
Redundancy
Check)
A way of checking for errors in a message by doing mathematical calculations on
the number of bits in the message, which are then sent along with the data, to the
recipient. The recipient checks what it has received and repeats the calculation. If
there are any discrepancies in the two calculations, the recipient requests the
originator to send the data again.
Crosstalk
Noise passed between communications cables or device elements.
CSMA/CD
(Carrier Sense
Multiple Access
with Collision
Detection)
CSMA/CD is Ethernet and IEEE 802.3 media access method. All network devices
contend equally for access to transmit. If a device detects another device’s signal
while it is transmitting, it aborts transmission and retries after a random period of
time.
Cut-through
Technique for examining incoming packets whereby an Ethernet switch looks only
at the first few bytes of a packet before forwarding or filtering it. This process is faster
than looking at the whole packet, but it also allows some bad packets to be
forwarded.
D
Data Link
A logical connection between two nodes on the same circuit.
Data Link Layer
Layer 2 of the seven-layer OSI reference model for communication between
computers on networks. This layer defines protocols for data packets and how they
are transmitted to and from each network device. It is a medium-independent, linklevel communications facility on top of the Physical layer, and is divided into two sublayers: medium-access control (MAC) and logical-link control (LLC).
Datagram
A means of sending data by which parts of the message are sent in a random order
and the recipient machine has the task of reassembling the parts in the correct
order.
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Glossary
Distributed
Processing
A system in which each station or node in the network performs its own processing
and manages some of its data while the network facilitates communications
between the stations.
Drop Cable
A cable that allows connection and access to the trunk cable in a network. It is also
called AUI (Attachment Unit Interface) cable, and sometimes transceiver cable.
E
Encapsulation
Wrapping a data set in a protocol header. For example, Ethernet data is wrapped in
a specific Ethernet header before network transit. Also, a method of bridging
dissimilar networks where the entire frame from one network is simply enclosed in
the header used by the link-layer protocol of the other network.
Ethernet
The most popular LAN technology used today. The IEEE standard 802.3 defines the
rules for configuring an Ethernet network. It is a 10 or 100 Mbps, CSMA/CD base
band network that runs over thin coax, thick coax, twisted pair or fiber optic cable.
F
Fault Tolerance
Increases network integrity and uptime. Failure of any one part of the network will
not cause disruption of the network services.
Examples: redundant power supply on transceivers / hubs and switches; simple or
doubled redundant optical or copper ring-topology.
FDDI (Fiber
Distributed Data
Interface)
Interface cable ability in transmitting data at 100 Mbps. Originally specified for fiber
lines, FDDI can also operate over twisted-pair cable for short distances CDDI.
ANSI standard for the use of fiber optics to provide networks up to 100 Mbps.
Fiber-Optic
Cable
A transmission medium composed of two glass optical (or plastic) fibers. It transmits
digital signals in the form of modulated light pulses from a laser or LED (LightEmitting Diode).
Features thin filament of glass, typically 125 to 140 microns in overall diameter
Because of its high bandwidth and high immunity to interference, fiber-optic cable is
used in long-haul or noisy applications.
File Server
A computer that stores data for network users and provides network access to that
data.
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Glossary
Filtering
Process whereby an Ethernet switch or bridge reads the contents of a packet and
then finds that the packet does not need to be forwarded, drops it. a filtering rate is
the rate at which a device can receive packets and drop them without any loss of
incoming packets or delay in processing.
Firewall
A router or workstation with multiple network interfaces that controls and limits
specific protocols, types of traffic within each protocol, types of services, and
direction of the flow of information.
FOIRL (Fiber
Optic InterRepeater Link)
Fiber-optic signaling methodology based on the IEEE 802.3 fiber-optic specification.
Forwarding
Process whereby an Ethernet switch or bridge reads the contents of a packet and
then passes that packet on to the appropriate attached segment. A forwarding rate
is the time that it takes the device to execute all of the steps.
Fragment
A piece of a larger packet that has been broken down into smaller units.
Fragmentation
Breaking a packet into smaller units when transmitting over a network medium that
cannot support the original size of the packet.
Frame
A group of bits sent over a link that contains its own control information, such as
address and error detection. The size and composition of the frame varies according
to the protocol. The terms frame and packet tend to used synonymously, although
strictly speaking in OSI terms a frame is made at Layer Two, a packet at Layer Three
or above.
Framing
Dividing data for transmission into groups of bits, and adding a header and a check
sequence to form a frame.
FTP (File
Transfer
Protocol)
A TCP/IP protocol for file transfer.
Full Duplex
The ability of a device or line to transmit data independently and simultaneously in
both directions, as opposed to half-duplex transmission.
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Glossary
G
Gateway
A combination of hardware and software that interconnects otherwise incompatible
networks or networking devices. Gateways include Packet Assembler /
Disassembler (pads) and protocol converters. Gateways operate at levels five, six
and seven layer OSI model; they are the Session, Presentation and Application
layers respectively.
H
Half Duplex
Data transmission that can occur in two directions over a single line, but only one
direction at a time. Contrast full duplex.
Hardware
Address
See Network Address.
Head-end
A central point or hub in broadband networks that receives signals on one set
frequency band and retransmits them on another. Every transmission from one
workstation to another has to go through the head-end in a broadband network. The
head-end is the piece of hardware that enables a network to send and receive on
the same piece of cable.
Header
The control information added to the beginning of a transmitted message containing
essential information such as the packet or block address, source, destination,
message number, length and routing instructions.
Host
Generally a node on a network that can be used interactively, i.e., logged into, like
a computer.
Host Table
A list of TCP/IP hosts on the network along with their IP addresses.
Hub
The center of a star topology network or cabling system. A multi-node network
topology that has a central multiplexer with many nodes feeding into and through the
multiplexer or hub. The other nodes do not usually directly interconnect. LAN hubs
are becoming increasingly popular with the growing of twisted pair of fiber optics and
the need for LAN management.
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Glossary
I
IEEE 802.3
The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers) standard that defines the
CSMA/CD media-access method and the physical and data link layer specifications
of a local area network. Among others, it includes 10BASE2, 10BASE5, 10BASEFL and 10BASE-T Ethernet implementations.
Internet
A series of interconnected local, regional, national and international networks, linked
using TCP/IP. Internet links many government, university and research sites. It
provides E-mail, remote login and file transfer services.
Internetworking
General term used to describe the industry composed of products and technologies
used to link networks together.
IP Address
The 32 bits address associated to workstation in connection with TCP/IP Internet.
ISO Layered
Model
The International Standards Organization (ISO) sets standards for computers and
communications. Its Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model specifies
how dissimilar computing devices such as Network Interface Cards (NICs), bridges
and routers exchange data over a network. The model consists of seven layers.
From lowest to highest, they are: Physical, Data Link, Network, Transport, Session,
Presentation and Application. Each layer performs services for the layer above it.
J
Jabber
Network error caused by an interface card placing corrupted data on the network.
Or, an error condition due to an Ethernet node transmitting longer packets than
allowed.
L
LAN (Local
Area Network)
104
Local Area Network, a data communications system consisting of a group of
interconnected computers, sharing applications, data and peripherals. The
geographical area is usually a building or group of buildings.
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Glossary
LAN
Segmentation
Dividing LAN bandwidth into multiple independent LANs to improve performance.
Latency
The delay incurred by a switching or bridging device between receiving the frame
and forwarding the frame.
Layer
In networks, layers refer to software protocol levels comprising the architecture, with
each layer performing functions for the layers above it.
Line Speed
Expressed in bit/s, the maximum rate at which data can reliably be transmitted over
a line using given hardware.
Link
Physical connection between two nodes in a network. It can consist of a data
communication circuit or a direct channel (cable) connection.
LLC (Logical
Link Control;
Link Layer
Control)
A data link protocol based HDLC, developed for LAN’s by the IEEE 802 Committee
and consequently common to all LAN standards for Data link (Upper part of ISO
layer 2) transmission.
LNI (Local
Network
Interconnect)
A Port Multiplier, or concentrator supporting multiple active devices or
communications controllers, either used standalone or attached to standard
Ethernet cable.
Logical Link
A temporary connection between source and destination nodes, or between two
processes on the same node.
LS (Low Smoke)
Cable ability to don’t give off toxic smoke in case of fire.
M
MAC (Media
Access Control)
Generic term for the way in which workstations gain access to transmission media.
Most widely used in reference to LAN’s.
MAC Address
(Media Access
Control Address)
The address of a device that is "burnt" into a DNI card and is added near the
beginning of packets as opposed to an IP address which is software.
MAN
(Metropolitan
Area Network)
A network spanning a geographical area greater than a LAN but less than a WAN
(Wide Area Network). IEEE 802.6 specifies the protocols and cabling for a MAN.
However, they could be superseded by ATM.
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Glossary
MAU (Medium
Attachment Unit)
A device used to convert signals from one Ethernet medium to another. Transceiver
is a MAU.
MIB
(Management
Information
Base)
A database of network parameters used by SNMP and CMIP (Common
Management Information Protocol) to monitor and change network device settings.
It provides a logical naming of all information resources on the network that are
pertinent to the network’s management.
MII (Media
Independent
Interface)
New standard developed for Fast Ethernet in IEEE 802.3u specification. The Fast
Ethernet equivalent to the AUI in 10 Mbps Ethernet, allowing different types of Fast
Ethernet media to be connected to a Fast Ethernet device via a common interface.
MMF (Multi
Mode Fiber)
This cable passes light instead of electronic pulses. The maximum length is 2 KM,
using point-to-point connections only. This has been classified as the best type of
cable to use between buildings.
MT-RJ
A new standard connector for optical cables.
Multi-port
Repeater
A repeater, either standalone or connected to standard Ethernet cable, for interconnecting up to eight Thin-wire Ethernet segments.
Multicast
A multicast is a message that is sent out to multiple devices on the network by a
host.
A special form of broadcast where copies of the packet are delivered only to a
subset of all possible destinations.
N
Name Server
Software that runs on network hosts charged with translating (or resolving) text-style
names into numeric IP addresses.
Network
An interconnected system of computers that can communicate with each other and
share files, data and resources.
Network Address
Every node on a network has one or more addresses associated with it, including at
least one fixed hardware address such as "ae-34-2c-1d-69-f1" assigned by the
device’s manufacturer. Most nodes also have protocol specific addresses assigned
by a network manager.
Network
Management
Administrative services for managing a network, including configuring and tuning,
maintaining network operation, monitoring network performance, and diagnosing
network problems.
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NIC (Network
Interface Card)
An adapter card that is inserted into a computer, and contains the necessary
software and electronics to enable the station to communicate over the network.
Node
Any intelligent device connected to the network. This includes terminal servers, host
computers, and any other devices (such as printers and terminals) that are directly
connected to the network. A node can be thought of as any device that has a
"hardware address".
O
OSI (Open
Systems
Interconnection /
Open System
Interconnect)
A structure for internetworking heterogeneous computers for distributed applications
processing according to international standards.
OSI
Reference Model
Seven-layer network architecture model of data communication protocols
developed by ISO and CCITT. Each layer specifies particular network functions
such as addressing, flow control, error control, encapsulation and reliable message
transfer.
P
Packet
A series of bits containing data and control information, formatted for transmission
from one node to another, including a preamble, or header, with a start frame,
source and destination addresses, control data, the message itself, and the postamble or trailer, with error control data called the frame check sequence.
Packet-switched
network
A network in which data is transmitted in units called packets. The packets can be
routed individually over the best available network connection and reassembled to
form a complete message at the destination.
Physical
Address
An address identifying a single node.
Physical
Control Layer
Layer 1 in the SNA architecture model.
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Physical Layer
Layer 1, the bottom layer of the OSI model, is implemented by the physical channel.
The Physical layer insulates Layer 2, the Data Link layer, from medium-dependent
physical characteristics such as base-band, broadband or fiber-optic transmission.
Layer 1 defines the protocols that govern transmission media and signals.
Physical Layer
First layer of the OSI Reference Model; governs hardware connections and bytestream encoding for transmission. It is the only layer that involves a physical transfer
of information between network nodes.
Physical Media
Any physical means for transferring signals between OSI systems. Considered
outside the OSI Model, and sometimes referred to as "Layer 0," or the bottom of the
OSI Reference Model.
Ping (Packet
internet groper)
A program used to test reachability of destinations by sending them an ICMP echo
request and waiting for a reply. Ping is used as a verb: "Ping the host to see if it is
available".
Point-to-Point
A circuit connecting two nodes only, or a configuration requiring a separate physical
connection between each pair of nodes.
Port
The physical connector on a device enabling the connection to be made.
Port Multiplier
A concentrator providing connection to a network for multiple devices.
PPP
Point-to-Point Protocol. The successor to SLIP, PPP provides router-to-router and
host-to-network connections over both synchronous and asynchronous circuits.
Print Server
A dedicated computer that manages printers and print requests from other nodes on
the network.
Protocol
Any standard method of communicating over a network.
R
Remote Access
Access to network resources not located on the same physical Ethernet (Physical
Ethernet here refers to an entire site network topology).
Remote Control
Form of remote access where a device dialing in assumes control of another
network node - all keystrokes on the remote are translated into keystrokes on the
network node. Used primarily with IPX protocol.
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Remote Node
Form of remote access where the device dialing in acts as a peer on the target
network. Used with both IP and IPX protocols.
Repeater
A network device for connecting one Ethernet segment to another within the same
local area network. The repeater transmits signals both ways between the
segments. It amplifies the electrical signals, regenerates the preamble of each
packet, extends packet fragments and performs auto-segmentation and autoreconnection on ports with continuous collisions.
Ring
A network topology in which the nodes are connected in a closed loop. Data is
transmitted from node to node around the loop, always in the same direction.
RJ Connectors
This is a connector type used with twisted pair UTP / STP. One example is RJ45.
RMON (Remote
Monitoring)
Subset of SNMP MIB II allows flexible and comprehensive monitoring and
management capabilities by addressing up to 10 different groups of information.
RMON MIB
(Remote Monitor
Management
Information
Base)
The nine (Ethernet) levels of network management statistics reporting.
Router
Device capable of filtering/forwarding packets based upon data link layer
information. Whereas a bridge or switch may only read MAC layer addresses to
filter, routers are able to read data such as IP addresses and route accordingly.
Routers
Unlike bridges, routers operate at level 3 (Network Layer) of the OSI seven layer
model. Also unlike bridges, routers are protocol specific, acting on routing
information carried by the communications protocol in the Network layer. Bridges
pass Layer Two (Data Link) packets directly onto the next segment of a LAN
whereas a router is able to use the information it has about the network topology and
so can choose the best route for a Layer Three packet to follow. Because routers
operate at level 3, they are independent of the Physical level (Layer One) and so can
be used to link a number of different network types together. They have to be able
to exchange information between themselves so that they know the conditions on
the network; which links are active and which nodes are available.
Routing
The process of delivering a message across a network or networks via the most
appropriate path. While simple in principle, routing uses a specialized, complex
science, influenced by a plethora of factors. The more networks are joined together,
the more esoteric it is set to become.
Routing Bridge
MAC-layer bridge that uses network layer methods to determine a network’s
topology.
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Glossary
Routing Protocol
Protocol that accomplishes routing through the implementation of a specific routing
algorithm.
Routing Table
Table stored in a router or some other internetworking device that keeps track of
routes (and, in some cased, metrics associated with those routes) to particular
network destinations.
Routing Update
Message sent from a router to indicate network reachability and associated cost
information. Routing updates are typically sent at regular intervals and after a
change in network topology.
S
Segment
A bus LAN term meaning an electrically continuous piece of the bus. Segments can
be joined together using repeaters, or bridges.
Segment Delay
The amount of time it takes a signal to propagate from one end of the segment to
the distant end.
Segmentation
Splitting an overloaded ring into two or more separate rings, linked by a bridge/
router or multipurpose hub.
Server
A computer that provides resources to be shared on the network, such as files (file
server) or terminals (terminal server).
Session
A connection to a network service.
Shared Ethernet
Ethernet configuration in which a number of segments are bound together in a single
collision domain. Hubs produce this type of configuration where only one node can
transmit at a time.
Conventional CSMA/CD Ethernet configuration, where all stations are attached to a
hub sharing 10 Mbps of bandwidth; only one station can transmit at a time. simplex
transmission Data transmission that can occur in only one direction on a given line.
Compare half duplex and full duplex.
SLIP
Serial Line Internet Protocol, a protocol for running TCP/IP over serial lines.
Smart
Wiring Hub
This is a network concentrator enabling multiple media to be supported and
managed from a central location. When supporting structured wiring systems, smart
hubs provide port management.
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SMF (Single
Mode Fiber)
A fiber having a small core diameter, approximately three micrometers, with a
cladding having a refractive index very close to that of the core. Will transmit light
rays that enter at narrow angle but will transmit over very wide bandwidth. Single
Mode Fiber Fiber with a relatively narrow diameter, through which only one mode
will propagate. Carries higher bandwidth than multi mode fiber, but requires a light
source with a narrow spectral width.
SNA
Systems Network Architecture. IBM’s layered protocols for mainframe
communications.
SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol, allows a TCP/IP host running an SNMP
application to query other nodes for network-related statistics and error conditions.
The other hosts, which provide SNMP agents, respond to these queries and allow a
single host to gather network statistics from many other network nodes.
SNMP
The simple Network Management protocol consists of three part: structure of
management information (SMI), management information base (MIB), and the
protocol itself. The SMI and MIB define and store the set of managed entities; SNMP
itself conveys information to and from these entities. The public domain standard is
based on the operational experience of TCP/IP internet works within DARPA/
NSFnet.
SNP
(Sub-network
Protocol)
(TCP/IP) Protocol residing in the Sub-Network layer below IP that provides data
transfer through the local Sub-Net. In some systems, an adapter module must be
inserted between IP and the Sub-Network Protocol to reconcile their dissimilar
interfaces.
Spanning Tree
A technique that detects loops in a network and logically blocks the redundant paths,
ensuring that only one route exists between any two LANs; used in an IEEE 802.1d
bridged network.
Spanning
Tree Algorithm
An algorithm used by bridges to create a logical topology that connects all network
segments, and ensures that only one path exists between any two stations.
Star Topology
A network where each workstation is connected to a central hub through a dedicated
point to point connection.
Store
and Forward
Technique for examining incoming packets on an Ethernet switch or bridge whereby
the whole packet is read before forwarding or filtering takes place. Store and forward
is a slightly slower process than cut-through, but it does ensure that all bad or
misalign packets are eliminated from the network by the switching device.
STP (Shielded
Twisted Pair)
Common transmission medium which consists of a Receive (RX) and a Transmit
(TX) wire twisted together to reduce crosstalk. The twisted pair is shielded by a
braided outer sheath.
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Switch
Multi-port Ethernet device designed to increase network performance by allowing
only essential traffic on the attached individual Ethernet segments. Packets are
filtered or forwarded based upon their source and destination addresses.
Switched
Ethernet
An Ethernet hub with integrated MAC layer bridging or switching capability to
provide each port with 10 Mbps of bandwidth; separate transmissions can occur on
each port of the switching hub, and the switch filters traffic based on destination
MAC address.
Switched
Virtual LAN
A logical network consisting of several different LAN Emulation domains controlled
through and intelligent network management application.
Switching Hubs
Hubs that use intelligent Ethernet switching technology to interconnect multiple
Ethernet LANs and higher-speed LANs such as FDDI.
T
T-Connector
A T-shaped device with two female and one male BNC connectors.
TCP/IP
(Transmission
Control Protocol/
Internet
Protocol)
Set of protocols developed by the U.S. Defense Department’s Advanced Research
Projects Agency (ARPA) during the early 1970s. Its intent was to develop ways to
connect different kinds of networks and computers. TCP/IP does not have the
functionality that OSI provides.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is a transport and internet
working protocol; that is de factor networking standard. It is commonly used over
X.25 and Ethernet wiring and is viewed as one of the few protocols available that is
able to offer a true migration path towards OSI. TCP/IP is able to operate in most
environments. TCP/IP operates at Layers Three and Four of the OSI model
(Network and Transport respectively).
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP) are the standard
network protocols in UNIX environments. They are almost always implemented and
used together and called TCP/IP.
Terminal Server
A concentrator that facilitates communication between hosts and terminals.
Terminator
Used on both ends of a standard Ethernet or Thin wire Ethernet segment, this
special connector provides the 50 ohm termination resistance needed for the cable.
TFTP (Trivial
File Transfer
Protocol)
On computers that run the TCP/IP networking software, TFTP is used to quickly
send files across the network with fewer security features than FTP.
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Thick Wire
Half-inch diameter coax cable.
Thin Wire
Thin coaxial cable similar to that used for television/video hookups.
Topology
The arrangement of the nodes and connecting hardware that comprises the
network. Types include ring, bus, star and tree.
TP (Twisted Pair)
Cable consisting of two 18 to 24 AWG (American Wire Gauge) solid or stranded
copper conductors, each coated in an insulating material, that are twisted together.
The twisting provides a measure of protection from electromagnetic and radiofrequency interference.
Transceiver
A network device, capable of both transmitting and receiving messages, that serves
as the interface between a user device and a network, so that actively converts
signals between the network and the local node
Transceiver
Cable
Cable that attaches a device either to a standard or thin coax Ethernet segment.
Twisted-Pair
Cable
Inexpensive, multiple-conductor cable comprised of one or more pairs of 18 to 24
gauge copper strands. The strands are twisted to improve protection against
electromagnetic and radio frequency interference. The cable, which may be either
shielded or unshielded, is used in low-speed communications, as telephone cable.
It is used only in base-band networks because of its narrow bandwidth.
U
UL Approval
Tested and approved by Underwriters Laboratories, Inc.
UL Cable
Certification
In conjunction with several manufacturers, UL has developed a data transmissions
performance level marking program. This approval is printed on a cable as shown
below. The UL program identifies five Levels of performance requirements as
follows:
Level I - Level I cable performance is intended for basic communications and powerlimited circuit cable.
Level II - Level II cable performance requirements are similar to those for Type 3
cable (multi-pair communications cable) of the IBM Cabling System Technical
Interface Specification (GA27-3773-1). These requirements apply to both shielded
cable with two-to-25-pair conductors.
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Level III - Level III data cable complies with the transmission requirements in the
EIA/TIA Wiring Standard for Horizontal Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable and
with the requirements for Category 3 in the proposed EIA/TIA 568A Standard. These
requirements apply to both shielded and unshielded cables. Level IV Level IV cable
complies with the requirements in the proposed National Electrical Manufacturer’s
Association (NEMA) Standard for Low-Loss Premises Telecommunications Cable.
Level IV - Level IV requirements are similar to Category 4 requirements of the
proposed EIA/TIA 568A Standard. These requirements apply to both shielded and
unshielded cable constructions. Level V Level V cable complies with the
requirements in the proposed NEMA Standard for Low-Loss Extended-Frequency
Premises Telecommunications Cable. Level V requirements are similar to Category
5 requirements of the EIA/TIA 568A Standard. These requirements apply to both
shielded and unshielded cable constructions.
UTP
Unshielded twisted pair, one or more cable pairs surrounded by insulation. UTP is
commonly used as telephone wire.
W
WAN (Wide
Area Network)
A network using common carrier transmission services for transmission of data over
a large geographical area.
Workgroup
Switching
Configuration in which a number of users are connected to an Ethernet network via
a switch. Switching allows each user to get greater throughput than would be
available through a hub.
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