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Language
: English
Original
: English
AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT BANK
GROUP
PROJECT
: THIKA THERMAL POWER PROJECT
COUNTRY
: KENYA
_________________________________________________________
SUMMARY OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT
Team Manager :
Team members :
R. Claudet (OPSM.3);
R. Mshana (OPSM.3);
M. Gabisch (OPSM.0);
E. Wheeler (KEFO);
E. Mutambatsere (ADOA);
M. F. Mvula (ORPF);
M. Sakho (FFMA2);
S. Gebhardt (GECL);
A. Fourati (ONEC3),
R. Durowoju (OPSM.5)
Sectoral Division Manager:
Sectoral Director :
Regional Director :
Tas ANVARIPOUR
Tim TURNER
G. NEGATU
Project
team
September 2011
THIKA ESIA Executive Summary
Page 1
Contents
LIST OF ACRONYMS .......................................................................................................................... 3
1.
INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................... 4
2.
PROJECT DESCRIPTION & JUSTIFICATION ........................................................................... 4
2.1.
Project Description.................................................................................................................. 4
2.2.
Project Justification ................................................................................................................. 6
POLICY, LEGAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK ................................................... 6
3.
Legislative and Institutional Framework ................................................................................ 6
3.1.
DESCRPTION OF PROJECT ENVIRONMENT .......................................................................... 7
4.
4.1.
The bio-physical environment ............................................................................................ 7
4.2.
Socio-economic context ...................................................................................................... 9
PROJECT ALTERNATIVES ....................................................................................................... 10
5.
5.1.
Justification on the Choice of Technology............................................................................ 10
5.1.1.
Energy options .............................................................................................................. 10
5.2.
Technical Alternatives .......................................................................................................... 10
5.3.
No Project Alternative .......................................................................................................... 10
POTENTIAL IMPACTS AND MITIGATION/ENHANCEMENT MEASURES ...................... 11
6.
6.1.
Impact Periods ...................................................................................................................... 11
6.2.
Impacts on the ambient environment .................................................................................... 11
6.3.
Social and socio-economic impacts ...................................................................................... 15
6.4.
Cumulative Impacts .............................................................................................................. 15
6.5.
Mitigation/Enhancement measures ....................................................................................... 16
7.
ENVIRONMENTAL RISK MANAGEMENT ............................................................................ 18
8.
MONITORING PROGRAMME .................................................................................................. 18
9.
PUBLIC CONSULTATIONS ...................................................................................................... 19
10.
COMPLEMENTARY INITIATIVES ...................................................................................... 20
11.
CONCLUSION ......................................................................................................................... 20
12.
REFERENCES AND CONTACTS .......................................................................................... 21
THIKA ESIA Executive Summary
Page 2
LIST OF ACRONYMS
AfDB
African Development Bank
EMCA
Environmental Management and Coordination Act
EIA
Environmental Impact Assessment
ESAP
AfDB Environment and Social Assessment Procedures
ESIA
Environment and Social Impact Assessment
ESMP
Environmental and Social Management Plan
HFO
Heavy Fuel Oil
IFC
International Finance Corporation
KPLC
Kenya Power and Lighting Company
NEMA
National Environmental Management Authority
RAMSAR
The Convention on Wetlands of International Importance
SCRP
A Site Clearance and Restoration Plan
SEP
Stakeholder Engagement Plan
TPL
Thika Power Limited
THIKA ESIA Executive Summary
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Environmental and social impact assessment (ESIA)
Summary
Project title
Country
Project reference
:
:
:
THIKA POWER PLANT PROJECT
THIKA, KENYA
P-KE-FAA-001
1. INTRODUCTION
This document is a summary of the Environmental and Social Impact Assessment (ESIA)
reports prepared for the proposed Thika Power Plant Project (TPP). Two independent ESIA
reports have been prepared: one by a local consultant Enviroplan, which was completed in
December 2010 and submitted to the National Environmental Management Authority
(NEMA) in May 2011 from which an environmental licence was delivered in July 2011; the
second report was finalised by Environmental Resources Management Limited (ERM) in
August 2011.
This ESIA was prepared in accordance with the African Development Bank’s (AfDB) 2001
Environmental & Social Impacts Assessment Procedures (ESAP) and the IFC procedures.
Specifically, this summary provides information on project activities; anticipated impact of
the project activities; measures to be put in place to mitigate identified adverse impacts; and
institutional arrangement to facilitate implementation and monitoring of the environmental
management plan.
The project proponent is Thika Power Limited, a company registered in Kenya and
established to develop and implement the proposed project.
2. PROJECT DESCRIPTION & JUSTIFICATION
2.1. Project Description
The proposed TPP, a Heavy Fuel Oil (HFO) powered Thermal Power Plant, will be located in
Thika district in Kenya on a purchased plot approximately 8 acres in area, adjacent to a
coffee farm. Project activities will include: clearance of approximately 8 acres of land for
construction; construction of a powerhouse (to house the diesel engines and a chimney of 6570 metres height) - installation of boilers and condenser, diesel tanks, switchgear; and
construction of water treatment and pump house, and ancillary buildings. The power house
will generate 60-80 Megawatts of power; and will be connected to electricity transmission
network via an existing substation. Once operational the plant will run continuously;
decommissioning is estimated at more than 30 years into the future. Key project components
are itemised in Table.1.
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Table 1: Key project components
Component
Details
Power House
Containing five 4-stroke MSD engines 18.9MW, and a
steam turbine 7MW
Tank farm
3 x 4700m3 HFO tank
1 x 560m3 DFO tank
1 x 560m3 HFO service tank
1 x 75m3 Sludge tank
1 x 75m3 Lubricant oil storage tank
1 x 50m3 Maintenance lubricant oil storage tank
Pump House & Water Fie fighting and raw water tank (1096m3) and demineralised
Treatment Plant
water tank (65m3)
Diesel Combined Cycle Heat 5 boilers, a condenser etc
Recovery System
Medium and High Voltage
Switchgear
Transformers
Step-up transformers (15kV/132kV) and 2
auxiliary transformers (15kV/0.4kV)
Ancillary
Systems
and Loding area, fire protection system, administration
Facilities
buildings, workshop, store, laboratory etc
Up to 500 people will be employed during construction. However, once operational, only 40
to 50 persons will be permanently employed.
The proposed project site is located adjacent to the Nairobi – Thika highway, approximately
30 km north of Nairobi city centre and 5 km south - west of Thika town (Figure1).
Figure 1: Proposed project location
THIKA ESIA Executive Summary
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2.2. Project Justification
The level of economic growth predicted in Kenya’s Vision 2030, suggests that the electric
power generation system’s capacity will be outstripped by demand, unless the development
of additional ( and cost-effective) energy generating resources is fast-tracked.
Historically the sector has been reliant on the development of hydro power, however
increasing climate variability, especially increased prevalence of drought, has brought into
question the reliability of supply from hydropower. Power shortages have resulted in various
impacts, including increased cost of consumer goods resulting from the inflationary pressure
on prices (as oil supplies are diverted for emergency power generation).
Diversifying power generation sources is necessary; and fossil-fuel powered plants are
considered viable options, whilst the further development of hydro power resources is
assessed. The proposed power plant at Thika is included in Kenya’s Least Cost Power
Development Plan, one among three plants which are to contribute to increasing the
availability of electricity on the national grid – complementing the Kenya Power and
Lighting Company’s (KPLC) transmission and substation project that is under construction
(independently of this proposed project).
3. POLICY, LEGAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE FRAMEWORK
The TPP ESIA studies have been carried out in accordance with the Environmental Policy,
the Environmental and Social Assessment Procedures and Guidelines of the AfDB and have
also taken in to account the requirements of the International Finance Corporation (IFC). The
ESIA also conform to the national regulations of the Government of Kenya.
3.1. Legislative and Institutional Framework
ESIA in Kenya is governed by the provisions of the Environmental Management and
Coordination Act (EMCA) of 1999. The implementation of the project requires
administrative clearance from the Ministry of Environment and Mineral Resources (MEMR),
in conformity with the provisions of the Act. Under the MEMR, the National Environmental
Management Authority (NEMA) is mandated to manage all environmental issues across all
the sectors. Specifically the NEMA has developed a number of quality standards, including:
EIA and Audit Regulation, 2003; Water Quality Regulation, 2006; Noise and Excessive
Vibrations Regulation, 2006; Waste Management Regulation, 2006; and Draft Air Quality
Regulation, 2008.
It was agreed that the primary standards to be used for this project are the European Union
(EU) air quality standards (Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for Large
Combustion Plants; European Commission. May 2005). In addition, consideration will be
made of the draft Kenyan air quality standards (2008) for residential standards. The EU
standards apply equally at all off-site locations.
International conventions and protocols of relevance include: The Vienna Convention for the
Protection of the Ozone Layer; The Montreal Protocol on the Substances that Deplete the
Ozone Layer; United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change; Stockholm
THIKA ESIA Executive Summary
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Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants; and International Labour Organization
Convention concerning Discrimination in Respect of Employment and Occupation.
4. DESCRPTION OF PROJECT ENVIRONMENT
4.1. The bio-physical environment
Geography: Thika District lies between latitudes 3°53′ and 1° 45′ south of the Equator and
longitudes 36° 35′ and 37° 25′ east. The landscape is generally flat, at an elevation above
1,500m, with a few ridges and depressions in wetland areas. To the west, the area is
characterised by escarpments and a series of hills; the highest, Ol Doinyo Sabuk, is 2,144m
above sea level. These western highlands form the catchment areas for most of the rivers
flowing into the south-eastern parts of the District. The proposed project site is on the northfacing, gently-sloping, valley side of a seasonal watercourse, between 1,508m and 1,528 m
above sea level.
Geology and Soils: The geology of Thika District mostly comprises volcanic rock Tertiary to
Pleistocene, underlain by ancient (i.e. Pre-Cambrian) Basement rocks that are mostly
gneisses. Key geological features at the Project site are tertiary volcanic rocks, i.e.
pyroclastics, a thin basalt flow and Kapiti phonolite.
The soils are stable and rich in organic matter. Black-cotton soils occur in poorly drained
areas while sandy soils and murrams characterise well drained areas. Soils in the highland
areas are of moderate to high fertility, whereas soils in the lowland areas tend to be sandy and
less fertile, but suitable for cattle rearing. Red soils also occur, suitable for agriculture and
for brick making. At the Project site, the soils are lateritic, with some small outcrops of
underlying rock.
Hydrology: Most rivers in the Thika region flow from the highlands in the west towards the
lowlands in the southeast of the District, where they join the River Tana and form part of the
Tana and Athi river drainage system. The nearest permanent watercourse to the proposed
project site is the Ndarugo River, located 3.5km from the site, which originates in the
Aberdare Mountains to the west; however, the Project site is in the valley of a seasonal water
course, the River Komu, which at its closest is 250-300m distant.
The main groundwater resource in the area occurs as shallow aquifers at the contact zones
between the Tertiary volcanic sediments and the Basement rocks, with deeper aquifers
possibly occurring along fault or fracture zones. A significant number of boreholes have been
identified within a 1- 5Km radius of the project site, with yields of between 0.4 and 27 m3/hr.
Meteorology:
Average minimum and maximum temperatures are 11.5 and 28°C
respectively. Rainfall is highly variable, but typically ranges between 500 to 1,500mm per
year. Precipitation falls during two distinct rainy seasons: the ‘long rains’ , driven by the
south-easterly monsoon, usually between March and May; and the ‘short rains’ , driven by
the north-easterly winds that predominate towards the end of the northern monsoon, typically
occur from October t to December.
Terrestrial habitats: Vegetation typically corresponds to climatic conditions. The Thika
region is characterised by woodland and shrub grassland, comprised of semi-evergreen and
THIKA ESIA Executive Summary
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deciduous bush lands. However, the area is also identified as a semi-humid agro-climatic
zone, with relatively high agro ecological potential; as such the habitats of the Project area
and its surroundings have been disturbed and significantly modified. No evidence gathered to
date has indicated the presence of rare or protected plant or animal species within, or close to,
the Project site.
Protected areas and RAMSAR sites: The nearest National Park or other major protected area
(e.g. National Reserve) is Ol Doinyo Sabuk National Park, more than 20km to the east of the
Project site.
Air quality and ambient noise:
Air quality: The Project site environs are generally agricultural-rural and there are no
significant industrial or commercial enterprises within a radius of several kilometres, with the
exception of the neighbouring Agro Tropical coffee farm and a large flower farm
approximately 1.5 km to the north-east. The major localised source of air pollution in the
vicinity of the site is the Nairobi-Thika highway which runs 200-300m to the north and east
of the Project site.
A limited ‘spot check’ survey was undertaken in the vicinity of the Project as part of the EIA
process. General assumptions have been made as follows (Table.2):
Table 2: Assumptions on ambient air quality
Particulate
The baseline concentrations of particulate matter will be elevated compared
matter
to the Kenyan and EU air quality standards; associated with natural sources,
(PM10,
as the area is semi-arid and therefore likely to generate elevated emissions
PM2.5 and
from sources such as fields and open land as a result. Emissions arising from
TSP)
traffic on the nearby highway will also contribute to the baseline.
Sulphur
Low concentrations, as the major sources of would be industrial, and to a
dioxide
lesser extent road vehicles. There are few significant industrial sources (none
within 4-5 km of the Project site), and whilst there is a major highway
adjacent there are very few other traffic sources.
Nitrogen
Low concentrations, apart from in the immediate vicinity of the highway
dioxide and
where concentrations would be expected to be somewhat higher.
oxides of
nitrogen
Carbon
Low concentrations, there are no industrial sources in the vicinity and the
monoxide
contribution from road traffic is unlikely to be substantial.
Ambient noise:
Based on a survey conducted as part of the EIA the following baseline levels have been
recorded for significant sites within the project area of influence (Table.3).
Table 3: Baseline noise levels
Noise Sensitive Receptor
1 – Agro Tropical Staff Accommodation
2 – Mang’u High School Teacher Accommodation
3 - Nearest Houses to Site – Building 1 (NE Facade)
THIKA ESIA Executive Summary
Baseline Noise Level
dB LAeq, 1 hour
Day
Night
42
40
47
35
62
50
Page 8
3 - Nearest Houses to Site – Building 1 (SW Façade)
3A - Second Nearest House to Site – Building 2
4 - Kanyire Farm
5 - Witeithie Estate
5A - Witeithie Estate Further From Road
61
63
51
67
47
49
51
52
61
41
Kenyan regulations state the following general thresholds for noise levels: 60dB during day
time; and 35dB during night time.
4.2. Socio-economic context
Population: The population of Thika District is estimated at 472, 334 (2010). Approximately
50% of the population is of working age (15-64), with 31% of people falling into the 15-30
age brackets Women make up approximately 50% of the population. 80 % or the population
in the vicinity of the project site (housing estates) have been in residence for less than ten
years; proximity a major transport route and the establishment of a number of commercial
and industrial operations in the area have catalysed in-migration.
Settlement pattern, land tenure and land use: Thika District is one of the industrial areas in
Kenya, it also supports large and small-scale agriculture. The district is also highly urbanised.
Land ownership in resides with the State. Under the Government Lands Act, the
Commissioner of Lands grants leases of town plots for terms up to 99 years and agricultural
land for terms up to 999 years in duration.
Local economy: Approximately 43% of households in Thika District rely on agriculture. The
sector employs an estimated 189,072 people directly or indirectly, 70% of them are women.
The main cash crops are coffee, tea, pineapples and macadamia nuts; coffee and pineapples
are grown on a large-scale for export. Animal husbandry is also practiced. Fish farming is
also an important activity, employing an estimated 67,700 people and producing 65.5 m
tonnes of fish per year. The trade and industrial sectors also provide an important source of
employment; According to the Thika District Development Plan, a total of 31 agro-based
industries, 16 chemical and 15 engineering industries are operating, while commercial trading
employs roughly 3,000 people.
However, although the total productive labour force in Thika District is approximately
267,000 people or 56% of the population, an estimated 170,000 people (37%) live in absolute
poverty.
Public social services: Infrastructure in the District is relatively poor. Road coverage is
considered fairly low, with 1,339 km of classified and 123 km of earth roads for the entire
District. Poor access to road networks in the interior of the district makes it difficult for
farmers to bring products to market, and contributes to higher poverty levels.
As of 2008, approximately 14,000 households (12%) in the district had access to piped water,
and another 11,500 (10%) had access to potable water. Approximately 83% of households
have latrines, with pit latrines in the majority of households (75%), the remainder being
uncovered pit latrines. At the district level, electricity accounts for 21% of energy use, while
kerosene accounts for 75.6% of use.
THIKA ESIA Executive Summary
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The District has 317 primary schools, with a net primary school enrolment rate of 80% for
both boys and girls. However, he teacher to pupil ratio is 61:1.
Most of the population has poor access to health facilities. There are approximately 105
health facilities. However of these only one is a hospital, and on average patients travel 5km
to reach a health facility. The doctor; patient ratio is estimated at 1: 11,620.
Areas of cultural significance: heritage: Thika District currently does not have any
documented heritage sites.
5. PROJECT ALTERNATIVES
5.1. Justification on the Choice of Technology
5.1.1. Energy options
Technically, electricity can be generated from nuclear, geothermal, hydro, solar, wind, coal,
oil, gas sources or combinations of them. However, currently there are factors limiting their
development in the short to medium term in Kenya. For example: nuclear power requires
sophisticated infrastructure and cautionary planning; geothermal potential is still exploratory;
70% of electricity is already generated through hydropower, the viability of further potential
is being explored; wind power development requires large capital outlay and
characteristically requires long rollout periods and is viable in the medium to long term; and
solar power development is expensive.
The preferred technology, thermal power can be generated through the burning of fossil fuels
such as diesel, heavy fuel oil (HFO) and natural gas. Coal and natural gas are unavailable in
Kenya, however liquid fuels are imported either as crude oil or refined fuel. Although HFO
thermal plants produce greenhouse gases (CO2) and high levels of sulphur, and could
potentially incur higher operational costs than other energy sources - projects are compact,
reliable and can be installed within short timeframes. (Furthermore in Kenya, thermal plants
have the added advantage of being able to mobilise expertise and funding from independent
power producers).
5.2. Technical Alternatives
Water source: based on hydro-geological and geophysical studies, ground water is the
preferred option as opposed to piped water (the municipality is currently challenged by low
flow pressure and frequent interruptions are anticipated ) or surface water (abstraction from
the most viable source entails substantial costs related to the installation of piping and
dumping).
In addition, as a result of the EIA process and associated discussion, one of the design
alterations proposed is an increase of the stack height to improve dispersion of emissions to
air.
5.3. No Project Alternative
From a national perspective, demand for energy currently outstrips supply; current supply is
also unreliable and subject to frequent interruptions. The Kenyan economy is thus being
undermined by the lack of adequate energy – due to the limited development of power
THIKA ESIA Executive Summary
Page 10
sources. The Ministry of Energy plans to construct three 60-80MW power plants by 2013 to
address this problem, in line with Kenya’s energy policy and strategy. Without the project
the wider benefits to the national economy would not be realised, the ‘no project’ alternative
is thus not considered a viable option.
At more local level, in the absence of the project the proposed site would either remain empty
or be converted to farm coffee.
6. POTENTIAL IMPACTS AND MITIGATION/ENHANCEMENT MEASURES
6.1. Impact Periods
The main impact periods have been defined as: construction – site clearance and works;
operation - fuel supply and consumption, water supply and consumption, plant emissions and
waste; and decommissioning – demolition and site clearance. The key negative impacts and
associated mitigation measure are described below1. The proposed project does not result in
any resettlement.
6.2. Impacts on the ambient environment
Air quality
During construction, the main impact variables are dust and emissions. Dust will be
generated by the traffic, particularly during the dry season; while emissions (PM102,
NO2/NOx) will also mainly arise from vehicular activity onsite. However, these impacts have
been assessed as insignificant, they are also temporal.
During operation, emissions (SO2, NO2, PM10, PM2.5 and CO), dust, and odours (mostly
anticipated to arise from the burning of fuel oil and operation of vehicles) are anticipated to
be insignificant but effects are long-term. Furthermore, the burning of heavy fuel oil has
been classified as an impact of moderate significance as the activity in itself is unsustainable.
Additionally, the emission of greenhouses gases throughout the life of the plant has been
assessed as significant.
The negative impacts anticipated during decommissioning and site clearance are mainly
associated with the generation of dust and have been assessed to be of moderate significance
but short-term; and emissions from vehicles, are considered insignificant and also short-term.
A Site Clearance and Restoration Plan (SCRP) will be implemented to manage anticiapted
impacts during decommissioning.
01 For purpose of this EIA: Negligible impacts (or ‘ insignificant impacts’) are where a resource or receptor
(including people) will not be affected in any way by a particular activity or the predicted effect is deemed to be ‘negligible’
or ‘imperceptible’ or is indistinguishable from natural background variations; An impact of minor significance (a ‘minor
impact’) is one where an effect will be experienced, but the impact magnitude is sufficiently small (with or without
mitigation) and well within accepted standards, and/or the receptor is of low sensitivity/value; An impact of moderate
significance (a ‘Moderate impact’) is one within accepted limits and standards. Moderate impacts may cover a broad
range, from a threshold below which the impact is minor, up to a level that might be just short of breaching a legal limit; and
An impact of major significance (a ‘Major impact’) is one where an accepted limit or standard may be exceeded, or
large magnitude impacts occur to highly valued/sensitive resource/receptors.
2
Particulate matter
THIKA ESIA Executive Summary
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As described above, impacts on ambient air quality associated with project activities are
anticipated to occur during all phases of the project life.
- Climate Change:
The proposed facility will contribute to greenhouses gases through the emission of fossil fuel
derived carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. The main source of CO2 emissions during
operation being from the combustion of HFO to generate power.
The following calculation has been undertaken to quantify CO2 emissions:
total HFO usage: 470m3/day;
emissions of CO2 from HFO combustion: 2596 kg/m3 (cited in reference as
11.8kg CO2/ gallon HFO) (1);
total emissions of CO2: 1220000 kg/day; or
total emissions of CO2: 445000 tonnes/year.
The total Project operational emissions are estimated as 445 kt eq CO2/y so the Project
constitutes a significant impact to GHG emissions.
However, the project facilitates the retiring of inefficient emergency diesel plant and actually
benefits the environment by producing less CO2 per kWh. The Thika plant is 45% efficient
as it has a steam cycle and big low speed engines, whereas the small diesels are high speed
engines and only about 35% efficient. Thika power plant saves about 85,000 tonnes of CO2 /
year if we assume that it is entirely for retirement of diesel plant and about 40,000 tonnes
CO2 if we consider 50% for retirement of diesel and 50% for new capacity.
Noise
The main noise sensitive receptors in the project area of influence include a coffee farm, a
housing estate and a high school (Table.3).
The sources of noise will include localised and temporal noise from construction activities –
site clearance, piling, and concreting and equipment installation. Construction will take place
during daytime hours only.
Based on Kenyan regulation3, changes in ambient noise levels for sensitive receptors within
the project area of influence are likely to be negligible; with the exception of the housing
nearest to the project site (receptors’ 3) which will experience minor impacts of short
duration.
The construction noise impacts assessed as minor are not elevated enough to warrant changes
in project design, however ‘good practice’ will be employed to minimise noise levels, and
will comprise the following measures: selection of low noise equipment; temporary screening
of the equipment; switching equipment off when not in use; and Construction of on-site
buildings first, to act as noise screens.
Operational noise is expected to be generated on a 24 hour basis during the project life;
mainly as a result of the operation of plant equipment (radiator fans, engine room, ventilation
3
Kenyan regulation thresholds are 60dB during the day and 35 dB at night: (Low magnitude Impact) Minor if 1
to 5 dB above regulations; (Moderate Magnitude Impact) Moderate if >5 to 10 dB above regulations; and (High
Magnitude Impact) of Major impact if > 10 dB above regulations.
THIKA ESIA Executive Summary
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units, and air cooled condensers). Based on Kenyan4 regulations and also taking into
consideration IFC standards56, changes in ambient noise levels are anticipated to be:
negligible for the farm and furthest parts of the housing estate (receptors 4, 5); minor for the
nearest parts of the housing estate and school accommodation facilities (receptor 5A, 2); and
moderate with regards to the coffee farm accommodation facilities, and nearest housing to
the site (receptors 1, 3,3A).
The mitigation measures to be implemented to reduce noise levels of minor significance at
the nearest receptors (housing facilities, receptors 3) include installation of quieter equipment
and provision of onsite barriers to screen noise from key equipment items.
The decommissioning of the project is likely to result in localised and temporal noise impacts
similar to those generated during construction. Minor impacts are predicted for the nearest
housing facilities (receptor 3). Mitigation measures similar to those for construction will be
used to reduce noise levels. A SCRP will be implemented.
Water resources
Impacts on water resources during the construction, operation and decommissioning of the
Project will arise in two main ways: exploitation of local water resources to provide water
during construction and operation; and contamination of water resources from construction,
operation and decommissioning activities.
The major potential impacts during construction include: pollution of surface water through
accidental spills, and the pollution of groundwater through infiltration. During operation the
major impacts also relate to the pollution of waters sources through various plant activities.
During decommissioning, impacts are similar to those anticipated during construction.
Adverse impacts can be mitigated through industry- standard good management practice
(Table.4).
Table 4: Impact on water resources
Impact
Pollution of surface water from run off and accidental spills
Pollution to groundwater from infiltration, and via new path ways
Construction
Poor yield from borehole
Drawdown of groundwater
Management of wastewater
4
Kenyan regulation thresholds of 55dB during the day and 35 dB at night for residential receptors; and 40 dB
during the day and 35 dB at night for the high school.
5
IFC thresholds of 55dB during the day and 45 dB at night for residential, institutional and educational
receptors; and 70 dB for both day and night for industrial and commercial receptors.
6
(Low Magnitude Impact) Minor if exceeds Kenyan regautions, but plant levels meet or are below IFC criteria;
(Moderate Magnitude Impact) Moderate if exceeds IFC performance standards by less than 10 dB; and (High
Magnitude Impact) Major if exceeds IFC performance standard by more than 10 dB).
THIKA ESIA Executive Summary
Page 13
Pollution of surface water and groundwater from: process water and chemicals leakage;
fuel oil leakage; fuel oil delivery; from surface water management; storage and handling
of waste; fire water and major uncontrolled releases of fuel oil and chemicals.
Decom
Ops
Damage to crops and increased soil erosion form increased surface water run off
Water supply conflicts from borehole use
Pollution of surface water and groundwater from: dismantling fuel storage tanks, fuel
delivery area and associated pipe work; dismantling of effluent treatment plant; removal
of diesel engines and transformers; draining of water systems and water treatment
chemical storage; surface water management; refueling of plant and equipment; storage
and handling of waste; creation of new pathways from the removal of piles and
foundations.
Traffic and transport
Impacts associated with traffic during all three phases of the project life have been assessed
to be of minor significance (Table.6). However, a Traffic Control Management Plan (TCMP,
annex to EIA) will be implemented.
Table 5: Impacts arising from traffic
Const
Ops
Decom
Impact
Road User Delay
Road User Safety
o Pedestrians/Community Safety
o Increased volume
o Overtaking
o Highway infrastructure Degradation
o Noise, vibration and air pollution
Pedestrians/Community Safety
Road User Safety
Waste
Waste generated during construction is likely to consist of: excavation spoil, construction
waste, general waste, and sewage and wastewater. During operation most waste generated
will be process waste and a range of other wastes from transport and administration
associated with the project. With regards to decommissioning the range of wastes will
comprise machinery, metal (mostly ferrous) and demolition waste.
Landscape and visual
The construction of the power plant will introduce changes to the existing landscape and view
both that are both temporal and permanent. Mitigation will be embedded within the design
where possible, for example orientation of the new facilities to match landscape
characteristics. Furthermore, an appropriate landscape plan will be developed and adopted
that uses tree belts and buffer screenings to provide visual relief and shade. Standard best
practice will apply.
Given the rural location of the site, and absence of any areas designated as of cultural or
touristic interest, the significance of the impact is considered minor.
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6.3. Social and socio-economic impacts
The Key social and economic issues anticipated relate to: impacts on employment and the
local economy during construction; impacts on employment and the local economy during
operation; impacts of a new workforce on community health and wellbeing during
construction and operation; and employment legacy issues associated with a change in land
use.
It is expected that up to 500 workers (skilled and unskilled) will be recruited during
construction. The large labour pool which exists in Thika District will allow for recruitment
locally. Furthermore, indirect job opportunities will be available to local people through the
requirement for local goods and service; construction will take place over a 2 year period. In
the short term, those employed will have greater ability to invest in education and health care.
Postive impact is assessed to be minor to moderate. To enhance benefits, on-the-job training
will be provided, contracts will be required, workers will be provided with certificates upon
completion of their contracts and a grievance mechanism will be put in place.
During operation however, skilled labour will be required and recruitment locally will mostly
be limited to fewer semi-skilled and unskilled positions (drivers, cleaners). Positive impacts
are assessed as of minor significance and enhancement measures will be similar to those
described under construction.
An influx of workers from outside the locality is likely to result in the introduction of new
norms and values. The risk of spread of communicable diseases is also likely to increase.
However, as the majority of workers will be recruited locally, there are no plans for on-site
accommodation facilities. The magnitude of anticipated negative impacts is low. However, a
health risk assessment and workforce management plan will be implemented to mitigate the
risks.
With regards to legacy issues, the project site was previously a portion (5%) of a still existing
coffee plantation which provides only seasonal employment opportunities for the local
communities. Relatively few jobs were lost as a result of the land take. The impact is
assessed to be insignificant; anticipated benefits will be enhanced through implementation of
an employment policy that will look to recruit locally and also implementation of a Social
Investment Strategy to support social development initiatives.
6.4. Cumulative Impacts
The impacts of developments already underway or committed (such as the highway
upgrading, and the neighbouring KPLC substation and transmission project) have been taken
into account by including them in the future baseline for the project within this impact
assessment.
Although there is a general aspiration that Thika District should develop economically – and
that industry will be a part of that development – no specific developments have yet been
proposed. Nor is there any indication that the area south of Thika close to the project site
would be favoured over other areas for any such developments in the future. Therefore, it is
concluded that there are no significant future developments for which this ESIA should
consider cumulative impacts.
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6.5. Mitigation/Enhancement measures
An ESMP has been developed to meet international standards on environmental and social
management and performance, specifically those set out by the IFC and the AfDB.
The main mitigation measures adopted in this ESMP :
-
Air : The mitigation measures proposed are itemised in Table.6.
Decom
Ops
Construction
Table 6: Mitigation measures for air quality
Upon completion of finish grading, earth firebanks and slopes that will remain unseeded
will be temporarily protected against erosion by applying a coat of liquid asphalt to the
surface, as indicated: Tightly bonded surfaces: 1.4 litre/sq. meter of MC-30; Loosely
bonded fine- grained surfaces: 2.3 litre/sq.meter of MC-70 or SC-70; and Loosely bonded
coarse- grained surfaces:3.6 litre/sq. meter of MC-250 or SC-250.
Natural binder material extracted from plants, as manufactured by Roadbind Inc. will also
be used for erosion and dust control, if required, for example on long term exposed
surfaces, or on long term stockpiles. These products are environmentally safe, non-toxic,
and biodegradable. The spraying rate shall be per manufacturer’s recommendation.
All materials with the potential to lead to dust emissions will be transported in sheeted
trucks.
Wash down of dirty equipment, such as excavators, dump trucks and drilling equipment
will be undertaken as required, to avoid excessive build up of dirt and mud on equipment.
Water suppression or dust extraction will be fitted where possible to construction
equipment that has the potential to generate dust, e.g. during drilling, excavating, etc.
Surfaces that are to be excavated or cleared will be dampened prior to clearing or
excavation where there is potential for excessive dust to be created.
In the event that there is a buildup of dirt or mud on access roads of the highway, this will
be cleaned to remove this build up.
On-site vehicle speeds on unhardened roads and surfaces will be limited to less than 15
kph.
Drop heights for material transfer activities such as unloading materials will be minimized.
Bowsers (water tankers) or similar equipment will be available for use to wash down
surfaces and roads and damp down surfaces.
Drains and guttering on site will be maintained in a clean state to reduce the potential for
materials to become dry and friable.
Bitumen will not be overheated and where possible, bitumen will not be heated with open
flame burners.
Pots and tanks containing hot bitumen will be covered to minimize fume production.
The main mitigation measure during operation is to ensure that the sulphur content of the
heavy fuel does not exceed 2%, so as not to increase SO2 emissions from the plant
Emissions monitoring for SO2, NOx, PM and CO
Mitigation measures are similar to those identified under the construction phase.
Implementation of SCRP.
THIKA ESIA Executive Summary
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-
Water resources:





-
Implementation of appropriate operational controls and monitoring of water
quality
Installation of appropriate screening filters in the pumping system
Channeling and discharge of surface water runoff to ground in unused parts of the
project site. Via soakaways or reticulated drainage
Siting of soakaways/drainage areas, and their design, will take account of the
risks of runoff affecting any sensitivities such as the railway line and agricultural
plots that lie downstream.
All wastewater on site that will have the potential to become contaminated either
because it is directly used as process/contact water, or because rainwater has
collected in an area such as the tank farm where the presence of contaminants is
possible, will be collected, channeled and processed through the Effluent
Treatment Plant (ETP).
Fuel delivery, fuel oil and chemical storage
 appropriately design of storage facilities, including bunds and impervious



-
Traffic management









-
services for any hazardous materials (fuels, lubricants, water treatment
chemicals);
covering all stockpiles to avoid rainwater ingress and runoff, including
process waste residues;
regular inspection and maintenance of all vehicles, equipment and storage
facilities (including integrity checks for all underground fuel tanks); and
appropriate spill response and cleanup strategies, and regular training and
instruction of staff in their implementation
Implementation of TCMP which will address: access to construction
areas;routing of construction traffic;
temporary traffic control and management;
road crossings;
parking facilities;
keeping highways clean of mud and dust;
driver training;
road safety and awareness training for school children; and
reducing the probability of traffic accidents
Regulations regarding transportation of heavy loads
A Waste Management Plan was prepared adopting the waste minimisation; reuse and
recycling, waste treatment; and waste disposal principles. TPL will contract a certified
private operator with similar experience in Kenya.
This ESMP will be incorporated into TPL’s Environmental Management System (EMS),
which TPL will develop before the Project becomes operational. The ESMP will be a living
document, and will continue to develop during the design and construction phase to enable
continuous improvement of the Project’s environmental and social performance. The plan
details the mitigation and enhancement measures TPL has committed to implement through
the life of the Project and includes desired outcomes, performance indicators, targets or
acceptance criteria, timing for actions, responsibilities, and associated costs. TPL will have
principal responsibility for all measures outlined in the ESMP, but may delegate
responsibility to its contractor(s), where appropriate. In cases where other individuals or
organisations have responsibility for mitigation measures, this is clearly indicated within the
ESMP. The ESMP Unit will consist of one or more qualified staff, with experience
THIKA ESIA Executive Summary
Page 17
appropriate to oversee the implementation of the ESMP. Initial and ongoing training will be
provided as necessary to strengthen the capacity of the individual(s) in the Unit. The
functions the Unit will provide via its staff will be:
• Environmental management and monitoring, including capability to task and
manage the work of sub-contracted environmental technical specialists as
necessary;
• Environmental auditing and reporting; and
• Community liaison.
The ESMP Unit will report directly to Plant Manager.
7. ENVIRONMENTAL RISK MANAGEMENT
The risks linked to public safety and staff welfare mainly stem on-site; for example, accidents
during construction, operation and decommissioning, and exposure to various hazardous
(process wastes) and non-hazardous (packaging) materials.
An Occupational Health and Safety Management Plan (OHSP, annex to EIA) and Unplanned
Events and Emergency Response Plan (UERP, annex to EIA) are among the mechanisms
through which such risks will be managed. In summary, the safety programme will include:
training; inspection and testing; accident investigation and reporting.
8. MONITORING PROGRAMME
As part of the ESMP, several Management Plans were prepared and will be implemented and
monitored:
Construction Management Plan;
Traffic control Management Plan;
Construction Spoil andWaste Management Plan;
Unplanned Events and Emergency Response Plan;
Occupational Health & Safety Management Plan.
The main activities of the monitoring program include:
Air Quality : Visual assessment of dust: routine and, if necessary, in response to a
complaint through the Grievance Mechanism, Continuous monitoring of air quality
during plant operation (NOx, SO, PM, CO) against EU / Kenyan standards, Monitor
sulphur content of heavy fuel oil to ensure it does not exceed 2%.
Noise
Water resources
dust control and visual screening
Monitor requirements laid out in the specific management plans
Monitor issues raised through the Grievance Mechanism
Monitor numbers of local people being recruited during constructionand operation.
THIKA ESIA Executive Summary
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The costs of implementing the ESMP are estimated to be around $ 361, 360.
Table 7: Breakdown of ESMP costs
CAPEX (one off equipment purchases / plans)
Air quality equipment
Met equipment
One off AQ set up and install
Noise equipment
Conceptual landscape plan (initial cost of conceptual plan only)
Cost, US$
$75,000.00
$30,000.00
$20,000.00
$3,200.00
$2,500.00
Total $130,700.00
OPEX (one off costs during construction / commissioning phases only)
Noise monitoring during construction (ambient and then $8,000.00
construction monitoring)
Noise monitoring during commissioning (ambient)
$860.00
TPL staff training
$10,000.00
Total $18,860.00
OPEX (additional costs predicted over assumed 25-year project lifetime)
Noise monitoring during operation (over project lifetime of 25 $4,300.00
years)
Implementation of mitigation in the traffic management plan
$50,000.00
Air quality and met monitoring - maintenance, periodic data $100,000.00
validation as
required (contingency)
Safety programme implementation
$7,500.00
Summary
CAPEX
$130,700.00
OPEX (one off construction/commissioning phase)
$18,860.00
OPEX (additional costs predicted over assumed 25-year project $211,800.00
lifetime
TOTAL (over lifetime of project, i.e. CAPEX, OPEX $361,360.00
construction, OPEX annual +
additional lifetime costs)
Note 1: these are only the additional material costs above costs or resources that are assumed
to fall within general TPL staff job requirements
Note 2: this does not cover any costs related to the Stakeholder Investment Strategy
9. PUBLIC CONSULTATIONS
Stakeholder have been identified and engagement as part of the ESIA process. The first phase
of the consultation was undertaken between October 2010 and March 2011; and has been
recorded in a Stakeholder Engagement Plan (SEP, annex to the EIA). Consultation will be
ongoing over the life of the project.
The project information brief was circulated in both English and Kiswahili.
THIKA ESIA Executive Summary
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The stakeholders identified include - affected households and villages, traditional leadership,
civic organisations, local authorities and Non- Governmental Organisations (NGO).
Key areas of discussion during consultations included: details of the proposed project;
potential positive and negative impacts; community expectations and concerns regarding the
project; potential benefits to the local area; community health and safety issues; wages,
timings, access to work occupational health and other livelihood matters; indigenous people
and culture and heritage sites within the potential areas of influence. Provisions have been put
in place to manage grievances.
Furthermore, in order to fulfil the requirements of the Bank’s Information Disclosure and
Public Consultation Policy, the summary will be posted on the Bank’s website at least 60
days prior to presentation of the investment proposal for Board approval.
10. COMPLEMENTARY INITIATIVES
The magnitude of the project will result in co-benefits, the creation of employment
opportunities for both unskilled and semi-killed labour in the local communities; although
these will be mostly short-term. TPL has committed to collaborate with the local authority
and the population’s representatives through the following plans and strategies:
Stakeholder Engagement Plan: a process of sharing information and knowledge,
seeking to understand and respond to the concerns of others, and building
relationships based on collaboration. The management of grievances is therefore a
vital component of stakeholder management and an important aspect of risk
management for a project.
Worker Management Plan: TPL and their contractor(s) will implement this WMP
with reference to the International Standards, a commitment to Transparency, Nondiscrimination and Equality; Optimisation of Local Content; and Commitment to
Health and Safety.
Social Investment Strategy: This document presents an outline Social Investment
Strategy to guide the work of TPL (and of other organisations such as CBOs with
whom it may partner) through the development of a Social Investment Framework
and Plan. Further, it will inform the development of individual Social Investment
projects and activities, and ensure effective engagement of communities through all
stages, from identification of activities through to monitoring and ex post evaluation.
A Grievance Mechanism specific to the Project has been developed by TPL.
11. CONCLUSION
The impact assessment has demonstrated that the impacts likely to arise during the project
life cycle are various and of varying significance. Comprehensive monitoring will be required
to ensure impacts are managed.
The project proponent needs to comply with Kenyan Authority regulations and guidelines as
well as the various DFI requirements. The requirement to submit Environmental and Social
Monitoring Reports will be stated. However, good working practice, health and safety, are
usually components of company procedures.
THIKA ESIA Executive Summary
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12. REFERENCES AND CONTACTS
The documents reviewed by the AfDB include the two Environmental and Social Impact
Assessment Studies drafted by Enviroplan and Environmental Resources Management
Limited respectively.
Thika Power Limited
Mr. Semaan Semaan
Project Manager
Chiromo Lane, Westlands, Purshottam House, Plot L.R. No. 209/66/44 – Nairobi – Kenya
Mobile : +254711737421
E-mail: [email protected]
African Development Bank
Mrs Tas Anvaripour
Manager of Infrastructures, Finance and PPP Division
Private Sector Department, African Development Bank, BP 323 - 1002 Tunis Belvedere, Tunisia
Tel: (216) 71 10 2228, Email: [email protected]
Mr. Kurt LONSWAY, Manager,
Environment, Environment & Climate Change Division (ONEC.3),
Department of Energy Environment & Climate Change,
African Development Bank,
BP 23 – 1002 Tunis Belvedere, Tunisia
Tel: (216) 71 10 38 54.
Email: [email protected]
Mrs.Awatef FOURATI, Senior Environment officer,
Environment & Climate Change Division (ONEC.3),
Department of Energy, Environment & Climate Change,
African Development Bank,
BP 23 – 1002 Tunis Belvedere, Tunisia
Tel: (216) 71 10 38 54.
Email: [email protected]
THIKA ESIA Executive Summary
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