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SERVING TODAY'S MUSIC/RECORDING-CONSCIOUS SOCIETY
VOL. 3 NO.
9
JUNE 1978
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One of the best,
playing the best.
Al DiMeola is one of the year's top poll- winning
guitarists. His music covers the widest range of expression,
from the subtle to the powerful. His equipment must be
capable of the same range of sound as he is, so Al uses the
Dual Sound Pickup. The Dual Sound is the only pickup
that could capture all of his music, and capture it right.
Musical Instrument Pickups, Inc.
643 !fay St.. State# Island, N.Y. 10304
(212) 981 -9286
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Here is how to enter the drawing for one of three professional
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Cond Mics, 2 D1000E AKG Card Dyn Mics, 2 D2000 AKG Card
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1
2nd PRIZE -Worth over $5570. 2 S15 -3 E -V 3 -way Stage Spkrs, 2
FM12 -2 E -V 2 -way Fir Monitors, CP500 TAPCO Power Amp, 1
CP120 TAPCO Power Amp, 1 6100RB /EB TAPCO 14 -Ch Mixer, 1
2200 TAPCO Stereo Graphic Equalizer, 2 ANVIL Rack -Mount
Cases, 4 AKG Mic Stands, 2 C505E AKG Card E'tret Cond Mics, 2
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3rd PRIZE -Worth over $2686. 2 S12 -2 E -V 2 -way Stage Spkrs,
CP120 TAPCO Power Amp, 1 2200 TAPCO Stereo Graphic
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OFFICIAL RULES
Complete the official entry form at a participating TAPCO dealer and put it in
the mail so it is postmarked no later than August 15, 1978. Winners will be
selected in a random drawing September 15, 1978 by persons not employees
of AKG, Anvil, Electro-Voice, or TAPCO. One entry per name. Odds of winning
are determined by the number of entries received. You must be 15 years of age
or older to enter. No purchase required. The results of the drawing will be final,
and the winners notified by mail. If a winner has TAPCO products duplicated by
winning a system, the winner will receive his or her choice of AKG, Anvil, E-V,
or TAPCO products of equal value. State, Federal, and other taxes imposed on
each prize winner will be the sole responsibility of that prize winner. Requests
for winning names should be addressed to TAPCO, 3810148th Ave. NE,
Redmond, WA 98052. Employees of AKG, Anvil, Electro-Voice and TAPCO,
affiliated companies, sales agents, and their families not eligible. Void where
prohibited or restricted by law.
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CIRCLE 95 ON READER SERVICE CARD
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JUNE 1978
DIRN
VOL. 3 NO. 9
RDIING
SERVING TODAY'S MUSIC / RECORDNG- CONSCIOUS SOCIETY
,...
1 1f'
..
,rs..
THE FEATURES
I
By David Moyssiadis
4
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
THE MAKING OF A RECORD
-Part
THE STAPLES
8
TALKBACK
Putting together all the parts -people
and equipment -that go into the making
of a record requires time, planning and
money. Turn to the proper page and learn
that there certainly is a right way and a wrong
way to start out on that road to a Grammy.
Part of a three -part series.
The technical Q & A scene.
1
6
THE PRODUCT SCENE
By Norman Eisenberg
The notable and the new, with a comment
on a new phono cartridge.
32
I
A SESSION WITH THE
MARSHALL TUCKER BAND
By Larry Rebhun
Marshall Tucker is a "good- time" band that
46
records no- frills music. Their "live" attitude
towards recording is refreshing, as is their
willingness to take a chance to keep their
perspective new.
II
By Peter Weiss
36
AMBIENT SOUND
62
By Len Feldman
Looking into several new findings concerning the problems of disc playing.
LAB REPORT
By Norman Eisenberg
and Len Feldman
Aiwa /Meriton AD -6800 Cassette Recorder
Phase Linear 6000 Audio Delay System
Tapco Model CP500M Power Amplifier
64
ECHO, REVERB AND DELAY
-Part
MUSICAL NEWSICALS
By Fred Ridder
New products for the musician.
52
this second and final section, Mr. Weiss
reviews some definitions and then delves
into some practical approaches for the uses
of the special effects we know as "Echo,"
"Reverb" and "Delay."
In
HANDS -ON REPORT
By Jim Ford
74
and Brian Roth
Choosing a mixer.
76
COMING NEXT ISSUE!
Eric Clapton "Live!"
Kris Kristofferson & Rita Coolidge
The Making of a Record -Part ll
GROOVE VIEWS
Reviews of albums by Larry Coryell, Toshiko
Akyoshi, Harold Dejan, Little Feat, Journey
and David Spinozza.
ADVERTISER'S INDEX
88
Cover photos by Herb Kossover
Modern Recording is published monthly by Cowan Publishing Corp., 14
Vanderventer Ave., Port Washington. N.Y. 11050. Design and contents are
copyright by Cowan Publishing Corp. and must not be reproduced in any
manner except by permission of the publisher. Second class postage
paid at Port Washington, New York, and at additional mailing offices.
Subscription rates: $12.00 for 12 issues; $22.00 for 24 issues. Add $3.00
per year for subscriptions outside of U.S. Subscriptions must be paid in
American currency.
3
MODERN
RECORDING
SERVING TODAY
S
MUSIC i RECORDING CONSCIOUS SOC IE I r
H.G. La TORRE
Editor
Ine IbMON
PAM HIGHTON
Going Direct
NORMAN EISENBERG
LEONARD FELDMAN
JIM FORD
BRIAN ROTH
Technical Editors
I have just finished reading the Peter Weiss article on direct box
construction ( "Building a Direct Box," April 1978, pages 48 -52)
Assistant Editor
ROBERT ANGUS
NAT HENTOFF
DAVID MOYSSIADIS
FRED RIDDER
PETER WEISS
Contributing Editors
SEDGWICK CLARK
JOE KLEE
GIL PODOLINSKY
RUSSELL SHAW
Music Editors
LORI RESSA
Production Manager
BILL TRAVIS
Art Director
THOMAS BATCH ER
LIZ BEENER
HAROLD PERRY
SHERYL STERN
FRAN VITRANO
Art Staff
JANET KURTZ
Circulation Manager
MELANIE DEUTSCH
Assistant to the Publisher
BILL SLAPIN
West Coast
Advertising Representative
STEPHEN CARAWAY
Advertising Director
VINCENT P. TESTA
Publisher
Editorial and Executive Offices
Modern Recording
14 Vanderventer Ave.
Port Washington, N.Y. 11050
516-883-5705
COWAN PUBLISHING CORP.
Chairman of the Board Sanford R. Cowan
President Richard A. Cowan
Controller Cary L. Cowan
Editorial contributions should be addressed to
The Editor, Modern Recording, 14 Vanderventer
Ave., Port Washington, N.Y. 11050. Unsolicited
manuscripts will be treated with care and must be
accompanied by return postage.
4
Irrst
and found it to be very interesting. I have been associated with a
Long Island -based direct box manufacturer and, based upon
what I learned from this experience, I would like to offer some
additional advice on direct box construction.
A direct box subjected to daily studio use should be made of
die -cast aluminum to withstand nosedives off bass amps and
Fender Rhodes pianos. In addition, the input connectors to the
direct box transformers should be floating, (i.e. isolating washers
on female tip sleeve connectors) above the chassis of the box. The
chassis itself should be on ground potential (console shield or
system ground) to provide additional hum shielding. All internal
wiring should be twisted, except for hi -Z cable, and kept as close
as possible to the inside of the box. I do not suggest the use of a
cable run from the inside of the direct box to the instrument.
Although convenient, it rarely holds up to the studio abuse that it
receives. Besides recommending the use of high -quality parts
and proper wiring, there is little more I can add to what has
already been written on construction.
Moving to the slightly more technical aspect of direct boxes, I
question your method of ground switching. In the Unit One
diagram (page 50), you show the low side of the primary and the
transformer's shield going to the ground switch, leaving the
switch and being connected to pin two (C -2) of the XLR connector.
Pin two in most balanced systems is audio low. The switching
action should take the transformer's primary low side and shield
to the console ground (generally pin one of the XLR). I suspect
this was a misprint in the article.
Another point is the use of an external speakerjack as an input
to the direct box. Although this technique produces a very nice
"miked" sound, I would not attempt this practice without the use
of a pad on the input to the direct box, seeing how the voltage
developed across the speaker could burn out the primary of the
transformer.
Last, but not least, keeping proper phase in all the boxes is very
important, especially in using two boxes in dual output instruments, such as Fender Rhodes. A phase flip, the two signals
subsequently cancelling each other out, could leave you wondering where the Rhodes went.
Having said my piece, I will conclude by saying you have a
great publication and I hope it continues as long as recording
does. Remember-"Go Direct!"
-Bruce Maddocks
Recording Technician
A &R Recording Studios
New York, N.Y.
We forwarded Mr. Maddocks' letter to author Peter Weiss.
Herewith is his response.]
MODERN RECORDING
Allen & Heath
SD 12 -2
No other mixer
delivers so many
features for so
little money .. .
Pan pots
Input metering
Stereo echo return
Built -in power supply
12 Mic and line inputs
4 band EQ on each input
600 ohm line level on outputs
12 direct outputs and patch points
Headphone monitor with stereo tape monitor and metering
Foldback (stage monitor), echo send, and PFL (solo+ on each input
Allen & Heath S6 -2
complete broadcast
production console
and an incredible
disco console .. .
A
stereo RIAA phono inputs with EQ
Stereo main and monitor output
80db signal to noise /.05 THE)
Input and output patch points
2 stereo tape inputs with EQ
Automatic voice-over circuit
Gain control on each input
TTL logic machine starts
2
2 Mic inputs with EQ
Broadcast cue
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will try to respond to the points you
have raised as directly as possible, but I
can't guarantee that they will necessarily be in the same order.
In both Units I and II, the aluminum
mini -box is at the same potential as the
"ground" side of the guitar amp chassis.
This is because of the mechanical electrical connection between the phone
jack and the box itself, and the electrical
connection between the input cable
shield and the "ground" side of the
phone jack. If it is required to have all of
these at console ground potential, the
grounding switch should be closed.
Let's next consider the question of the
configuration of the output leads and
pin numbers. There are six possible
combinations of pin numbers and leads
and many equipment users have modified original equipment wiring to
conform to their own "standard." The
wiring scheme shown in the article is
compatible with many professional balanced systems using XLP "large cannon") connectors. Most systems using
XLR ( "small cannon") type connectors,
and most original equipment wiring
schemes employ the method you've outlined (i.e., 1- ground, 2 -Audio low,
3 -Audio high). I agree that this point
could have been made more clearly in
the article.
As for durability, several versions of
Units I and II have been in regular use
( and abuse) in a large studio complex for
at least seven years, cables and all.
Also, I'd much rather be faced with a
dent in a $5.00 mini -box than with a
similar blemish in a more expensive
die-cast enclosure.
Finally, although the power delivering capability of an instrument
amplifier is formidable, the maximum
level developed at the direct box (Unit
II)- assuming a 200 watt output signal
to the main speaker is approximately
+10 dBm-is well within the margin of
safety for the transformer.
Thanks for your letter and especially
the additional wiring "how -tos." Future
construction articles are planned for
publication in Modern Recording and
an active correspondence with the readership is most welcome.
I
At Last,
an Equalizer that
Comes Clean...
Up until now, whether you
tried to equalize your control
room or contour your sound
system for a concert hall, the
end result was an increase in
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That was yesterday.
Klark -Teknik equalizers are
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Uncompromised.
Unequalled.
If your livelihood depends
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After all, if you're using
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you be ready for tomorrow?
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Drive, Syosset, New York
11791 or call (516) 364 -1900
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-20 dBm to +24 dBm; input protection 60V RMS. CENTER FREQUENCY ACCURACY: -2%. CALIBRATION ACCURACY: ±0.5 dB. FREQUENCY RESPONSE (CONTROLS FLAT): ±0.5 dB : 20Hz to 20kHz. OUTPUT CLIPPING
POINT: +22 dBm into 600 ohms load. DISTORTION: Less than 0.01 % ... 1kHz
at +4 dBm into a 600 ohms load; less than 0.05% ... 20Hz to 20kHz at +18 dBm
into a 600 ohm load. EQUIVALENT INPUT NOISE: Less than -90 dBm unweighted,
20Hz to 20kHz.
(
-Peter Weiss
Contributing Editor
Modern Recording Magazine
KLARK-TEKNIH
A Member of the Hammond Industries Group
What to Charge
The Sound of Today.
This may be a very stupid question, but
how do you compute the hourly rate you
would charge for an on- the -scene recording with a system consisting of a
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6
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ON READER SERVICE CARD
MODERN RECORDING
I
he 'better than" equalizer
TONE CONTROL
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EQ -2 is batter than a
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New RTA- It's also "better than" because Crown
Simple set-up- The Crown
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Its "better thai' because it's Crown.
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VVr to or call today. We'll be giac to arrange a cerronstration of both the EC -2 and tf new RTA at
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8
A Reader's Viewpoint
My compliments once again on the excellence of your publication. I'd like to
cast my vote for more articles concern-
ing "live" sound reinforcement, although, I do enjoy the recording studio
"in session with" articles very much indeed.
I do wish to point out a small error
made in the artist's profile of Frank
Zappa (see Profile, March 1978, page
46). Some poor beginner might be confused by the mention on page 50 to the
"8440" reference tone if he doesn't
realize that it should have read "A 440
Hz."
Another subject of importance to me,
and obviously to other readers as well
judging by the letters I've seen printed,
is sources of instructional materials for
learning the technical arts of recording
and "live" sound reinforcement. All the
available magazines (Audio, Stereo Review, Popular Electronics, db, Record-
ing
Engineer /Producer,
Audio
Amateur, etc.) offer some sort of information, some of more value than others.
Many books have been published on
related topics, but all seems to have
shortcomings of one sort or another.
Don Davis' Sound System Engineering
is geared primarily to non -musical
sound reinforcement and is extremely
technical in nature. I found Bob Heil's
Practical Guide For Sound Reinforcement (although containing quite a bit of
information and ideas) to be poorly
edited and somewhat biased in many of
its statements. Of the. many other fine
recording books, I find John Woram's
Recording Studio Handbook extremely
well written. One book which seems to
have been ignored to some degree, but
which I found to be a real gem is Abraham B. Cohen's Hi-Fi Loudspeakers
and Enclosures. It contains very thorough and practical explanations of all
types of enclosures and in the process
has much to say about acoustics and
sound in general.
Hope you keep up the fine work.
-T. Young
New Hartford, Ct.
We can't figure out how that "erroneous
tone" slipped past our usually sharp
eyes, but you are absolutely right. Thank
you for catching it.
Take Two
In April of 1977 I picked up my first copy
of Modern Recording. Needless to say,
that afternoon I mailed in a two -year
subscription. Your fine magazine has
been of great help to me in the area of
sound reinforcement. I would like one
question answered, though: where can I
get a reprint of Jim Ford and Brian
Roth's three-part "P.A. Primer?" The
back issues of MR in which it originally
appeared (June /July, Aug /Sept, Oct/
Nov, all of 1976) are apparently out of
print. When I tried to get it with the MR
1978 Buyer's Guide, I received a letter
saying that because of the huge demand
for the Guide you were temporarily out
of stock. My check was returned. Please
tell me where I can obtain a reprint of
this article and, of course, a copy of the
1978 Buyer's Guide.
-Chris Christel
Greenfield, Wi.
We hope you still have $1.50 in that
checking account because we have received a new shipment ofBuyer's Guides
and, ifyou act quickly, we will be able to
satisfy your request this time. However,
we cannot be sure how long we will have
it in stock so please don't delay.
The Ultimate Tool Box
The following letter was prompted by a
request made by Brian Roth and Jim
Ford in their article "Inside A Sound man's Toolkit" that readers share their
helpful hints on stocking up and taking
along all the indispensables.
found your article "Inside A Sound man's Toolkit" by Jim Ford and Brian
Roth (February 1978, page 60) to be
very interesting and I would like to offer
a bit more on the subject.
Having a bit of a fetish for well -kept
tools and being in the business of supI
MUUtFiIV Y(tl VFiUIIN
plying technicians and engineers with
the tools of their trade, we feel that we
have at last come up with the ultimate
tool box.
Looking at several of the more prominent suppliers of electronic tool cases
(Jensen, Xcelite, Platt) we found that
all offer very well layed out cases. The
cases are generally available either
with or without tools. The empty case
seems to us to be the best choice for it
allows for the most flexibility in the
user's special requirements or preferences. However, none of these cases
offer much in the way of roadability:
that is to say, none will hold up to
abuse-dropping, being stood on, etc.
Realizing that most, if not all, of the
items for which tools are required
(amps, speakers, instruments) have
protective cases, we soon thought, why
shouldn't the tools and test equipment
be similarly protected? We had Anvil
Cases build us cases modeled in part on
the Xcelite TC100, which also was the
source for the pallets. The pallets in the
top of the case have fold out "wings"
which provide plenty of pockets and the
bottom pallet is suspended in the case
allowing room beneath for meters, soldering irons and small parts. Supplied
with a combination lock, and standard
Anvil features, this case provides a
well -organized, roomy and nearly indestructible portable workshop.
Advantages of this type of case with a
separate pocket for each tool, include
easy accessibility and easy inventory
it is simple to find out what's missing so
we don't leave it behind.
We offer the case empty so that each
person may choose those items he
deems necessary to include. We are,
however, willing to make some basic
suggestions patterned very much along
those mentioned in your article. More
elaborate suggestions have included
temperature- controlled soldering stations, portable vises (Panavise), parts
bins, shrink-tubing assortments, heat
guns, and some cordless tools. A recent
purchaser plans to install removable
you bought a new guitar or bass amp
yesterday, it's already out of data! The
reason is Sunn's new Beta Series
the most innovative amplifier vet
developed or the musician.
The Beta Series' ` Digital -M:'S
Technology" offers musical
benefits unmatched by any other
if
Se
-
Is Obsolele
amplifier .n
ti-e world.
Dual channel operation; Instantaneous
switching fro-n channel -o channel;
Remote switcl-Mg con_rol; Integrated
design for pa:cbing throughout the
system; Drive control Nth C -MOS
offers tube -type (plate -resistance)
response; Variable Q tone control
circuitry for best possib e EQ for
musical performance.
Nothing approaches the versatility erd
quality of Sunn's rew Beta Series. But
don't take our wood for i:. A live lemo at
ycur Sunn dealer will convince you to
get yourself up-to-date as soon as
possible.
Write us for rrwre information
and the name .) f your nearest
Sunr Dealer.
Bunn.
1h. Difq,si
SUN MUì1CAL
t b Sotund
ECUPMENT COMPANY
HiRTé=IL ORPCRPTION COMP/W.'
AMU ìN INü1STRIl.L PARK
TUsLATN GREGOR v71e2
A
-
sum
8
legs on his!
I hope your readers find this material
of interest.
-Joe Phillips
Vice-President
Pacific Audio Exchange
Hollywood, Ca.
Aroused By Aphex
want to add my name to the list of
enthusiastic readers who have taken
I
CIRCLE 82 ON READER SERVICE CARO
JUNE 1978
9
advantage of this column space to offer
their congratulations on a fine publication. I have found MR to be the most
informative magazine around for both
musicians and engineers.
My other reason for writing to you is
the curiosity and excitement that
you've aroused in me (and many other
readers I'm sure) regarding the Aphex
Aural Exciter. The authors of both articles you've printed thus far (Michael
Gershman's "The Aphex Aural
Exciter -A Psychoacoustic Phenomenon," October 1977, page 38 and Jim
Ford and Brian Roth's Hands -On Report, March 1978, page 64) started off
sounding a bit skeptical about the
promises made by its creator, and
wound up sounding, if not positively
convinced of its capabilities, at least optimistic about its possibilities.
You've done an excellent job of covering its technical points, but as a follow up, how about an article on its actual
in-the -field performance, perhaps how
different major artists are using it, such
as James Taylor did on his recent suc-Jim Ittenbach
cess, JT?
Crownsville, Md.
We have no plans
at this time to search
out a specific session at which the Aphex
is to be used. However, we are fairly certain that in the course of covering a
major recording session each month, we
are bound to encounter this unique device at work sooner or later. When this
happens, we will be sure to include all
the details for those readers, like yourself, who are eager to learn more about
its applications.
Two For The Dan
succeeding letters
independently of one another, (and we
direct our response to both gentlemen as
well as all those other 'Dan Fans" who
haven't written but that wejust know are
interested in the whys and wherefores of
these fine musicians.]
We received the two
would like to know if you have any
plans to run a story on a band that we all
really love -Steely Dan. I think that a
superior band like the Dan would receive more attention from the media
than they do now. Donald Fagen, Walter Becker and their producer Gary
Katz are a team that have been writing
and recording superior music for almost
seven years now, but I never seem to see
much about them. They are top -notch
studio musicians and their albums
prove their musical genius. How about
an article on these wizards of today's
music world?
By the way, did they cancel their tour
scheduled for this year?
Joseph E. Forthome
Maumee, Oh.
I
-
If there
First
congratulate
you on a fine publication. I read every
issue from cover to cover and love every
off, I would like to
word of it!
I would also like to know if you've
ever done a feature story on Steely Dan.
If so, is it still possible to receive a copy
of that issue?
-Joe Bocchetti
Dorothy, N.J.
,
Get the`
iC
ë`
:t
nce
is a dearth of material written
about Steely Dan, one must assume that
it is through their own choice. Larry
Solters of Front Line Management (the
company that handles Steely Dan) told
us thatwhile he's not ruling out the
possibility of a tour sometime in the
distant futureBecker and Fagen prefer
to record and create in the studio.
They've never toured and have no current plans to do so.
r +
...fro
with the
Your music will come alive with
Showco's new sound control Stereo Mixer
Preamplifier. The S -1600 is a compact, high
quality control center designed and engineered by
the world famous producers of the Showco concert sound. Its features include four inputs with
individual level controls, a master level control and four bands of equalization. The
versatile and efficient S -1600 also offers
a special balance control which minimizes the possibility of overdriving
speakers and power amplifiers.
Designed for rack or flush console mounting, Showco's S -1600
is amazingly easy to operate.
Also suited for sophisticated
home stereo systems, Showco's
S -1600 Mixer Preamplifier allows
you the ultimate control of sound!
sOy
Mt¿,
;7
0
Mqsr_
4.7
'Hk
SHOWCO Manufacturing Corp.
1225 Round Table Dr./Dallas,Tx. 75247
Phone: (214)630-7121 TWX 910 -861 -4278
CIRCLE 79 ON READER SERVICE CARD
10
MODERN RECORDING
The Series IS, based on the world famous industry standard Series I.
Unequalled features, technical sophistication and a modest price.
Input channels (12 16 or 20
Transformer a once mic input with a 20dB pad. Variable gain mic
amp. Insert send /return (line input). 120Hz high pass filter. Four band EQ,
with the two mid band frequencies sweepable. Two monitor sends
(post -EQ) and one echo send (post-fade). Automatic pre-fade Solo.
LED peak indicator whose delay time indicates the relative size of the
transient.
Five outputs
Left and right main, monitors A and B and master echo, each with two
band EQ, solo and insert. Each output may be balanced by o plug -in
transformer.
Meters
Two studio quality VU's and peak reading LED's display the main
stereo output or any function soloed.
Communication
There's both talkback and intercom. The talkback mic can speak into
the main output, monitors A or B, Or into a ClearCom (or compatible)
intercom system.
pecfications
Excel ent, ie incredibly quiet and distortion -free.
Finally
Two echo returns, conductive plastic poentiometers throughout,
socket for Shure lamp and, of course, the Soundcraft comprehensive
2-year warran v.
Encore.
Début.
The new EX4S studio quality 2, 3 or 4 -way stereo electronic crossover.
Internal switching
Thefacilities for changing the crossover points, and for converting the
unit to a 2, 3 or 4 -way are inside, to provide maximum protection for P.A.
systems, by avoiding accidental sw tching.
Front panel controls
Eight band -attenuators, eight LED peak indicators, and LED's to
ind'cate 2, 3 or 4 -way mode.
Circuitry
Bessel function filters (super or to Butterworth filters in other
crossovers) give an ultimate slope of 24dB /octave, the most linear phase
response and the best transient response. The result is, quite simply,
a better sound.
And the rest
EX4S is built into an all extruded black anodised 19" case, tough
enough to stand up to all the wear and tear of the road. XLR and multipin
connectors on the back. Inputs are electronically balanced while outputs
maybe balanced by plug -in transformers. Of course, it's also covered by
Soundcraft's comprehensive 2 -year warranty.
Soundcraft Electronics Ltd., 5 -8 Great Sutton Street, London EC1V OBX.
Telephone 01 -251 3631. Telex 21198.
Soundcraft North America, PO Box 883, JFK Station, Jamaica, New York
11430, USA. Telephone (212) 528 8158. Telex 01 -2203.
SOU10CF WI
ELECTRONICS LIMVTED
CIRCLE 83 ON READER SERVICE CARD
ANEW SPECIES
While we haven't had the opportunity
to feature a piece on the Dan, you'll be
happy to know that Gil Podolinsky took a
close look at their latest effort, Aja (see
March 1978 Groove Views, page 70),
and confirms that their musical prowess
is all it's cracked up to be.
(Luba=
No Purchase Necessary
1917 Series
Monitor Systems
.
Amanita
musica
[We received the following letters in
response to Brian Roth's answer to a
reader's question concerning the feasibility of building his own mixing board
(see `Plan On Buying It," Letters To
The Editor, February 1978, page 8).]
Identifying Traits: Amanita monitors
are one -piece molded of durable polyethylene. All have
recessed handles and clasps, stacking ribs, tongue & groove mating units, and safe rounded
corners.
Survival Adaptation: All Amanita
musica
have an internal suspension system which isolates
the interior components from aggressive attacks from their environment. Series A & B monitors
are equipped with tweeter protection circuitry for added security.
Reproduction (Acoustical): Amanita's monitors were developed to meet
a wide range of
sound reinforcement requirements and will generate pleasing sounds when mated with other
musical equipment.
an EVM 12L and Amperex soft-dome tweeter for natural vocal reproduction, wide
dispersion, and the greatest sound pressure level before feedback. Crossover: ©5000Hz.,12db/
octave.
Series A: Utilizes
12L but with an EV T -35 horn for extra high -end distinction sometimes
desired in high volume music. Crossover: © 3500Hz., 12db/octave.
Series B: Also uses an EVM
Series C: Has an Eminence 12" speaker and piezo -electric superhorn for use in less critical sound
applications where high wattage handling capability is not necessary. Crossover: electro- mechanical.
P.O. BOX
694 40 MAINE AVE., EASTHAMPTON, MA. 01027 U.S.A. (413) 527 -6910
CIRCLE 65 ON READER SERVICE CARD
mix and patch like
theprofessionals
pup
,.
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DFCDDER
MSI°.
L-d
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LB
..RPJ.UL
i
IN
EE `Ì
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it0. N'
(fig
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REd7C<i0M
RB
Lp
l.
RB
LD
RussoundfF
Canal Street
P,
Inc.
8 -out mixer.
Most of the circuits were taken from a
Howard W. Sams' publication IC OpAmp Cookbook by Walter G. Jung. I
had to tie the circuits tegether to build
the mixer, but that was part of the fun
(that and saving lots of bucks!).
With well- matched components, and
no input transformers, I get a common mode rejection ratio of equal to 105 dB,
with an input noise figure of 1.5 dB
uvolt and a flat fregaency response to
beyond audibility.
-John Nagle
Russound'sQT- 1audiocon
trol center and patchbay permits the tape monitor loop of your audio system to conveniently accommodate
up to four tape recorders of quad, stereo or mono format in any combination, plus outboard noise reduction,
equalizers, compressor/limiters, and SQ, QS, RM, and CD -4 decoder /demodulators. All accessories plug
into phono jacks on the QT -1 rear panel (72 available) and are programmed from the front panel.
Use for recording, playback, dubbing and mixing down from tapes at the flip of a switch. Patch
cords (12 furnished) permit convenient sound -on- sound, sound -with -sound, channel interchanging, and insertion of equalization, noise reduction, etc., anywhere in the audio chain and in any desired sequence.
The QT -1 is obsolescence -proof and provides professional studio type flexibility and convenience at
an audiophile price of $249.95.
For complete product information and list of demonstrating dealers, contact
riP
First of all, thanks for a great magazine
which fills most of my audio and recording needs. Keep it up!
Second, in regard to Neill C. Porter's
Letter in the February issue, I can give
you the source I used to build my 24 -in/
OEDE
J
-y.+n
Audio Consultant Specialist
Gales Ferry, Ct.
In regard to Neill C. Porter's request
for information on building a mixer
for his sound reinforcement system,
I offer the following suggestions.
The magazine The Audio Amateur has
run several articles on mixer construction with hints on expanding the mixer
in building-block fashion. The address
is P.O. Box 176, Peterborough, New
Hampshire 03458. I understand that
back issues are available.
Also, Craig Anderton's book, Electronic Projects For Musicians offers an
8 -input basic mixer with instructions
on expanding to 16 -in and stereo operation with panpots. All of this is presented as an expansion of a basic high -level
8 -in /1 -out mixer which uses low -noise
4739 ICs as the summing amplifier.
Craig's book is available from Godbout
Electronics, P.O. Box 2355, Oakland
Airport, California 94614. Godbout also
offers kits for the projects in the book.
Hope this proves helpful to other
-Bob Eiser
lovers of MR.
Toledo, Oh.
North Berwick, Maine 03906
12
CIRCLE 77 ON READER SERVICE CARD
MODERN RECORDING
To get a superb performà
you need a precision machin
command a great performance, a cassette shell and
cassette tape must be engineered to the most rigorous standards.
Which explains why we get so finicky about details. Consider:
To
Precision Molded Cassette Shells -are made by
1
continuously monitored
injection molding that
virtually assures a
mirror-image
match. That's insurance
against signal overlap or
channel loss in record or
playback from A to B
sides. Further insurance: high impact styrene
parallel
Five -Screw Assemblyfor practically guaranteed
warp-free mating of the
cassette halves. Then
nothing-no dust or tape
snags -can come between
the tape and a perfect
performance.
Perfectly Circular Hubs
and Double Clamp
System -insures there is
that resists temperature
extremes and sudden
stress.
no deviation from circularity that could result in tape
tension variation producing wow and flutter and
dropouts. The clamp weds
the tape to the hub with a
curvature impeccably
matched to the hub's
perimeter.
-
An Ingenious Bubble
Surface Liner Sheet
commands the tape to
follow a consistent running
angle with gentle,
fingertip-embossed
cushions. Costly lubricants
forestall drag, shedding,
friction, edgewear, and
annoying squeal. Checks
channel loss and dropouts.
Head Cleaning Leader
Tape- knocks off foreign
matter that might interfere with superior tape
performance, and prepares
the heads for...
Tapered, Flanged
Rollers -direct the tape
from the hubs and program
it against any up and down
movement on its path towards the heads. Stainless
steel pins minimize friction
and avert wow and flutter,
Our famous SA and AD
Tape Performance -two
of the finest tapes money
can procure are securely
channel loss.
housed inside our cassette
shells. SA (Super Avilyn)
is the tape most deck
manufacturers use as their
reference for the High
(Cr02) bias position. And
the new Normal bias AD,
the tape with a hot high end,
is perfect for any type of
music, in any deck. And
that extra lift is perfect for
noise reduction tracking.
-
Resilient Pressure Pad
and Holding System
spring- mounted felt helps
maintain tape contact at
dead center on the head
gap. Elegant interlocking
pins moor the spring to the
shell, and resist lateral
slipping.
TDK Cassettes -despite all we put into them, we
don't ask you to put out a lot for them. Visit your TDK
dealer and discover how inexpensive it is to fight
dropouts, level variation, channel
loss, jamming, and other problems
that interfere with musical enjoyment.
Our full lifetime warranty* is your
assurance that our machine is the
machine for your machine. TDK Electronics Corp.,
Garden City, N.Y. 11530. Canada: Superior
Electronics Ind., Ltd.
The machine for your machine.
In the unlikely event that any TDK cassette ever tails to perform due to a defect in materials er wo-kmanshrp, simply return
CIRCLE 73 ON READER SERVICE CARD
it
to your local dealer or to TDK for
a
Pee replacement.
am looking
speaker cabusical instruou help me
steer me to
e this infor-
Furselfer
-Edward
Sison
t Palm Beach, FI.
You should be able to find the information you need in the December 1977 issue on page 8 in the Talkback item entitled "Folded Horn `How To'."
Help Is On Its Way
wonder if you can help me out. I recently purchased an Ashly Audio SC -50
parametric peak compressor /limiter and,
to my surprise, there was no instruction
manual included. I understand the features found on a compressor /limiter,
but I really need to know the parameters of this machine. I also thought you
might feature this piece in an upcoming
Lab Report.
-Alain Benetis
Longueuil, Quebec, Canada
I
called Dick Webber of Ashly Audio
to tell him of your dilemma and he in-
formed us that the instruction and usage manual for that piece is in the process of being printed. He has added your
name to the list of those who are eagerly awaiting the manual and you can expect to receive it within three to four
weeks. For more information on the
piece, you can refer back to Norman
Eisenberg's Product Scene column in
the August, 1977 issue of Modern Recording (page 19). We have no plans at
this time to lab test this piece.
Here's Herald!
We
AND NOW,
ABO OVERLOAD,
HEISER'S
MD 421
Can you help me locate the address of
Herald Electronics of Lincolnwood, Illinois? I need a part from them and only
have their name and town.
-D. Olmstead
New Haven, Ct.
You now have name, town, et al. Herald Electronics is located at 6611 N.
Lincoln Ave., Lincolnwood, Illinois
60645. Their telephone number is
312- 675 -1100. Hope this eases your
route to replacement.
Mention Our Name
am interested in Westlake Audio's
Model 1200 Headphone Mult Box
which was shown way back in the July
1977 Product Scene (page 30). However, I cannot find an address to write
to for more information. Would you
please tell me Westlake's address? I
would appreciate it much!
-Brian Welty
Nappanee, In.
I
NONE:
A lot of musicians are worried
about overload
these days. And no
wonder: special
effects, high amplification and corn binations of acoustical and electronic
instruments all make it more necessary than ever for microphones to be
overload -free as well as accurate.
Like our tough MD 421 cardioid
dynamic.
In a test beyond what any
musical instrument or voice can
produce, we used a starter pistol to
produce an instantaneous sound pressure level of 175 dB, which the
MD 421 handled with no trace of
distortion.
Westlake Audio, Inc. is located at 6311
Wilshire Blvd., Los Angeles, California
90048. You can write there for the info
you desire or call Sales Manager C.J.
Flynn at 213 -655 -0303. All we ask is
Whatever your
application -sound
recording or broadcast'
consider our MD 421. Besides freedom
from overload, you'll discover its
precise cardioid directionality, rugged
design and wide, smooth response
give you superb results. Even under
difficult conditions.
The price won't overload you,
either.
*Outdoor test with Tektronix scope, set for 10V/division vertical, 01. µsec/div. horizontal:
.22 cal. starter's pistol mounted 15 cm from MD 421 measured pressure of 111,000 dynes /cm2
(175 dB SPL). Smooth, rounded scope trace indicates total lack of distortion.
SENNHEISER
ELECTRONIC CORPORATION
10 West 37th Street, New York 10018 (212) 239 -0190
Manufacturing Plant Bissendorf/Hannover, West Germany
that whatever you do, mention that you
saw it in Modern Recording. We would
appreciate it much!
Inadvertent Inversion
Somewhere along the line from. Len
Feldman's oscilloscope to the finished
April 1978 Modern Recording as it
rolled off the presses, a photo was inverted. The figure on page 67 of the Lab
Report on the Garrard MRM -101 Music
Recovery Module would read correctly to
a technician's eye if it were turned the
other way.
Sorry for any confusion this might
have caused our readers, and our
apologies to Len, who always gets them
to us right side up.
-Ed.
CIRCLE 78 ON READER SERVICE CARD
14
MODERN RECORDING
ttiat's what they cal' Grover
Washington, Jr. Washington and his
group, Locksmith, hake their most
stunning mi.sical magic with sound
equipment from Cynacord.
' The Dynacord Sound is clean,"
Washington says. "The cla-ity of tie
sound is incredible "
We're proud that someone like
Grover Washington, Jr. says nice
things about off* equipment. We
know that off complete line o*
Cynacord Sound Equipment is
durable very por.aole and
AFFORDABLE.
As "Mr. Magic" Fu's it, "Dynacord
Sound Equipment .. use it to make
your own magic."
6'n
r 1(Aú'
16-Channel F'.fsr
;
i
,r
Pl..
4
MC 1230
Stereo Mixing Caner is
For free, complete cata ogue of
Dynacord Sounc Equipment anc
Demonsration, ca (215)
482-4992 or write, P.O. Box 26C28,
Phila., P3. 19128.
CIRCLE 72 ON READER SERVICE CARD
1'TALK
EBA
"Talkback" questions are answered
many of
whose names you have probably seen
listed on the credits of major pop
albums. Their techniques are their own
and might very well differ from another's. Thus, an answer in "Talk back" is
certainly not necessarily the last word.
We welcome all questions on the subject of recording, although the large
volume of questions received precludes
our being able to answer them all. If
you feel that we are skirting any
issues, fire a letter off to the editor
right away. "Talk back" is the Modern
Recording reader's technical forum.
by professional engineers,
to the resistance divided by the value of
the resistance itself. Inspecting the
formula, we notice that 1) a higher
voltage can "push" more current
through a given resistance and 2) a lower resistance will permit more current to
flow in response to a given voltage. A
simple circuit diagram consisting of a
battery, resistors, voltmeter and ammeter will further serve to illustrate the relationships.
2
10v.
"O"
Is
R
5
Ohms
E
10v.
For Ohm's Law
In one of your recent articles, a reference was made to the Ohm's Law. I
tried to find out exactly what this law
states, but to no avail. Can you give me
a
=
amps
lamp
10v=
E
R
10
ohms
10v.
E
simple, complete explanation?
-Mark Allen
something somewhat removed from
recording-our Minimoog. I'm sure
other studios have had this problem, so
perhaps you could do us all a favor and
come up with an explanation.
The instrument in question is the
standard Moog Model D (ours is serial
number 1211) which I bought new in
1972. I can't count on it ever being in
tune -even when it's tuned right before
a take. Either the separate oscillators
go out or the whole thing does. If more
than a few minutes have elapsed or if
a Leslie is whirling anywhere in the vicinity, or if anything has happened to
vary the temperature in the studio even
a few degrees, it will not stay in tune.
I had it recalibrated a few yeras ago,
but that did nothing to alleviate this
problem. I have a friend in Italy with
the same instrument who experienced
the same difficulty and his was satisfactorily repaired over there.
Short of leaving it on all the time
even that doesn't always work -what
can we do?
-
Salina, Ks.
Ohm's Law is a relationship that exists
between three electrical quantities in a
circuit. For D.C. (direct current) circuits
the three properties of interest are E,
voltage (in volts); I, current (in amperes)
and R, resistance (in ohms). Ohm's Law
written as a formula states: E divided by
R equals I. This formula tells us that the
amount of current flowing through a
resistance is equal to the voltage applied
Ohm's law pie
E
=
I
Ohm's Law also applies to A.C. (alternating current) circuits in a similar
but slightly more complex way. Basic
circuit components- resistors, coils and
capacitors- affect not only the amplitude of voltage and current but also the
phase relationship between these two
properties.
-Peter
Weiss
Engineer
CBS Recording Studios
New York, N.Y.
x R
E_
A Perplexing Minimoog
R
R_E
To find the fo mula for a circuit property,
cover the syr rlrol for that property with
a
finger. The remaining symbols will he in
forrn desired.
Ore
Remember
16
R
means
Et-
R
or RYE
In the process of creating and recording
jingles, scores for about sixty TV shows
a year and soundtracks for a dozen or so
films, we have acquired quite a few very
specialized instruments for use in our
recording studio. The most perplexing
have always been the recorders themselves, but I am writing this letter about
-Robert S. Gollihur
Vice President & General Manager
G.B. Faneh Productions
Pitman, N.J.
Your Model D Minimoog serieal number
indicates it is an early production run.
modifications and circuit
Several
updates have been implemented since
its manufacture which increase the overall circuit stability. Some of these updates may affect your instrument.
Please contact the factory for installation instructions or service.
Presently there are two versions of
oscillator boards in the field. Earlier
boards were designed with discrete
matched transistor pairs in the current
drive sections. These oscillator boards
are easily identified as they contain
ten trimpots as compared to the seven
trimpots used on the newer, more
stable, version.
MODERN RECORDING
Another modification affecting the
later oscillator boards requires the installation of RC networks, along with
some precision resistor and capacitor
value changes to further improve
oscillator stability.
One important circuit change concerns
the interaction between front panel
ranges. To determine the need for this
change would require only a simple test.
With all modulations off, listen to oscillators no. 1 and no. 2 on a higher octave range (such as 4'). Depress any note
on the keyboard and insure that the two
oscillators zero beat. Without listening
to oscillator no. 3, switch its octave
selector through all ranges. If oscillators
no. 1 and no. 2 begin to beat against
each other, your instrument requires
the additional buffer circuitry that is
present on all current Minimoogs.
Pitch problems may also be due to
some unstable integrated circuits. These
ICs are factory selected for offset and
stability and are located on the oscillator board. A change of 1 millivolt on
the outputs of these ICs will cause a
pitch change noticeable to the ear.
Thus, it becomes evident how important
these components are when analyzing
the problem of changing pitch.
Due to the age of your instrument, it
may be wise to clean the gold -plated
printed circuit board contacts "pads"
or "traces" which plug into the circuit
board connectors. Smoke and dust
deposit a tarnishing film over these
areas which over an extended period of
time may cause intermittent high resistance connections. Precision control voltages flowing through these connections
become innaccurate and directly affect
the system. Below the left hand controller are two other important connectors that should also be cleaned. A typewriter eraser would suffice in these
areas to remove the tarnish.
Temperature variances will affect the
tuning of the Minimoog to some extent,
but drastic pitch changes would indicate that a circuit problem exists. A
standard twenty-minute warm -up time
should be observed before attempting to
calibrate the instrument. This will insure the circuits have all temperature
When Jerry Garcia, BobWeir,
Stege Miller, BiYrCobham and
GeorgeBenson all use the
AD23ODelax..
You know it's good!
AD 230 AD 220
Continucusly variable delay
up ta 6CJ mil iseconds
Cont nuously variable
delay up to 500 milliseconds
4 bandwicth selections up
to 20 kHz
3 bancwidth selectiors up
Built n flaiger with
separate controls
Studic quality siçnal to
noise ratio
LED ladder-tjpe VU me:ers
for inpLt and delay levels
High /lov inpedence with
eitl er 1/4" or 3-pin
to 1CKHz
Builtin Flanger
ExtrErrely low noise
circuitry
Input sensitivity and output
level controls
19" rack mount cabinet
connectors
And you can bet that these experienced
electronic pioneers know how tc judge a delay
line. The Ibanez Analog Delay with Multi-Flarger
does what ro other analog device of its kind has
been able to do - peat the digital delays a: tieir
ovn game and at a price that almost any bard can
aford_ It's unbelievably quiet, features selective
bandwidth, and has the most 'ersatile range of
contrcls of any comparable device.
You can get dcuble- tracking, slapback echo,
long delay, flanging, automatic vibrato, revarb,
and most ary other time delay efeat possible. Ask
about it at your Ibanez dealer bday.
.1=
d
! !
A.
,1.
rl.
.,.
stabiliized.
If further technical assistance is required please contact the factory, at
this address: Moog Music, Inc., 2500
Walden Avenue, Buffalo, New York
14225, telephone number 716-681-7242.
-Donald J. Besecker
Field Service Specialist
Moog Music, Inc.
Buffalo, N.Y.
JUNE 1978
,.
1V0QL AO -Pao
IBANEZ, P.O. BOX 469, CORNWELLS HEIGHTS, PA 19020 327 BROADWAY, IDAHO FALLS,
IN CANADA: EFKAY MUSICAL INST. LTD., 6355 PARK AVE., MONTREAL, P.Q. H2V 4H5
VD
$3401
CIRCLE 70 ON READER SERVICE CARD
17
synffiesozer
and
Kars
ARIES
Ih(
()RPC
modulles
music
R
(617) 744 -2400
111 I)
Shetland Industrial Park
Salem, MA. 01970
CIRCLE 67 ON READER SERVICE CARD
What on Earth.serids
*music men orbiting
around Neptune?
Out of this worÌd quality. Quietness
and macho ruggedness. Portability that's appreciated on tour.
Neptune mixers, PA's, analyzers
and egLalizers are housed in
super strong metal cases. They're
just as dependably built and
Analyzes /Equalizers
The
909 Real Time
displays sound in
octave bands. Graphs
room. Shows where to
assembled inside as well. No
wonder music men go to Neptune
for the finest in sound reinforcement equipment. Why on Earth
don't you go to your authorized
Neptune dealer and see for
yourself.
Mixers
Truly professional
quality in 6 channel
mono and 8 channel
stereo mixers for PA
and recording. Low
noise units feature Hi
and Lo impedence
inputs, monitor buss,
reverb -with solid
walnut end panels or
19" rack mount ears.
equalize 'or optimum
sound in Dny room.
The 910 Graphic is a 9
band, ± 5dB octave
equalizer Easy to use.
mated to
another 910 for stereo
graphics, with the 909
Easily
Real TIME Analyzer or
model
.
I.( mows
WEP
TUNE¡ v rRPORATED
1
load. Features input
level control- unique
output indicator with 6
segment bar display
showing output level.
Line in /line out jacks
let you strap two or
more units. Two
speaker outputs. Low
noise.
Power Amp
110
Power Amplifier
Has quality every
music man can afford.
RMS output is 100
watts into a 4 ohm
934
N.E.
25th Avenue
Portland, Oregon 97232
!
(503) 232 -4445
A Good Beginning
I'm in the process of buying a new
P.A. system and I'd like your opinion on several things as well as the
answers to a lot of questions. I am
just getting into bi -amped or triamped systems, and to say the very
least, it's all Greek to me.
So far, the system I am planning
consists of four JBL 4560 type
cabinets with Gauss 5842 speakers,
two Peavey MF1 -X radial horns, two
Peavey T -12 tweeter banks, one
Peavey CS-800 power amp, one
Peavey CS-200 power amp and one
Peavey 600 S mixer.
I guess the best way to start is to
tell you how I plan to set the system
up and let you advise me on my idea.
The four JBL cabinets are going
to be powered by the Peavey CS800. Two of these cabinets are going
to be used for the extreme low end,
and the other two cabinets are to be
for the mid -bass or lower end of the
mid -range frequencies.
The two Peavey MF1 -X horns and
the two T -12 tweeter banks are
going to be powered by the Peavey
CS -200. The MF1 -X horns are going
to be used for the upper mid -range
and the T-12 tweeter banks for the
high end.
The major part of my misunderstanding is in regard to ohms.
The CS -800 is rated at 400 RMS per
channel into 4 ohms. The JBL
cabinets are 8 ohms each. So, if I
connect two of these cabinets per
channel, does it equal the required 4
ohm load?
My next question is a bit more
complex, at least to me. The MF 1-X
horns are 8 ohms each. I cannot find
any resistance rating in regard to
the T-12 tweeter banks! Does a tweeter bank have any resistance?
To continue, the CS -200 mono amp
is rated at 140 RMS into 8 ohms, 220
RMS into 4 ohms and 120 RMS into 2
ohms. The CS -200 is going to power
the MF1 -X radial horns and the T -12
tweeter banks, but I don't know
what power rating I'm going to end
up with, because I don't know the
resistance of the T -12s! Please answer that question!
Now, as you have probably
noticed, this system is still missing
several important pieces of equipment, specifically, a crossover and
an equalizer. This is quite simply
because I don't know much about
either one. I do know what they do
and why they're necessary, but I
CIRCLE 68 ON READER SERVICE CARD
18
MODERN RECORDING
ktat
doesn't
$1,000 p¢ ¢c
use Maxell.
Or aMOO tape deck that
houldn't.
If you spen- $1
000 on a tape
deck, you'd be concerned with
hec-ing every bit of sound it
could produce.
That's
rnamE3llnt%
wh; owne -s
C90
tttll,trit.tlllgt
sit' ìi\ü}1\
1
11`.Nt1tn
o
more,
cf tie world's best tape
cec<s use Maxel
that any othe- Grand.
But if you're like
most people, you don't own
the oest tape deck in the world
cnd you're proxrbly not using
Maxell. And chances are, you're not
hearing every bi- of sound your tape
cec< is capable of producing.
Whateve- you spent for your tape
cec<, it's a was -e not to get the most
maxelllllllllllll
out of it. So spend a little more
d buys Maxell.
MMJlaxell. You can think of us as
expensive tape. Or the cheapest way in
the world -c get a better sounding system.
IIIIIIIIIII 1111111111111111
IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIlI11IIIIIillll
IIIIIIIIIIIIII
haxeltCorooraticncfAmerica, oCOxfordDrive,fvc,onachíe
1
JFC_E 96 ON READER SERVICECARD
N._.07074.
In the
Black D
=:::1;=i!
Performance, beauty, quality
three attributes that have
always been the hallmarks of
SAE products. SAE systems in
the past have had them, this
system's predecessor had them,
and the new In The Black system has them and much more.
The 2900 Parametric Preamplifier offers our new flexible
parametric tone control system, full dubbing and tape EQ.
New phono and line circuitry
results in unparalleled clarity
and definition with distortion
of less than 0.01% THD & IM.
The 2200 Stereo Power Amplifier with fully complementary
circuitry delivers 100 Watts
RMS per channel from 20 -20K
into 8 ohms; at less than 0.05%
Total Harmonic Distortion,
from 250mW to full rated
-
power.
The 8000 Digital FM Tuner
has linear phase filters, phase lock multiplex, and of course,
our famous digital readout
tuning indicator system.
Combine these products together and you have a system
would want more advice before I
invested in one. Several have been
recommended to me. These include
the Uni -Sync XO-4 Crossover, the
Uni -Sync EQ -241 Equalizer, the
Tapco 4400 Equalizer and the Tapco
2200 Reverb Unit. If you have any
other recommendations I would
appreciate you passing them on to
me. Otherwise, I'd like your opinion
of these.
Correctly setting up the system is
another one of my concerns. The use
of "sends" and "returns" is also new
to me -an explanation of these
terms please? Can you possibly tell
me all the basics I need to know to
properly set up the system?
I know this is a lot to ask, but you
guys are the people that know. The
dealers in the music stores down
here, once you get right down to it,
don't know that much more than I
do. And the really heartbreaking
thing is that they'll talk in circles
about nothing if they think you'll
spend more money. So if you'll help
me out, I'll know what I need to
know to get started and most of all
I'll know it's right!
Thank you for your time and
trouble.
-Butch Fitzgerald
Moorestown, N.J.
As indicated by your letter, a great deal
of information is in order and adequate
answers to all of your questions would
require writing a book on the subject. I
plan to do this someday; however, even
then I would not profess to be able to tell
you everything you need to know. I
hope, however, at this time, to be able to
give you some interconnecting and
operating guides for the equipment you
have listed.
As you can tell from the block diagram, I have done a bit of redesign on
your system. The most notable change
is the departure from your original split
bass cabinet approach. There would be
no gain in performance by using two
4560s for low bass and two more 4560s
for the mid bass. It will be much more
efficient, easier to interface and most of
all, less expensive to use all four bass
cabinets for the low end of a two-way
biamplified system.
A simplified explanation for this approach is that the 4560s are a combination horn/bass reflex type of enclosure
that performs quite well up to approximately 800 Hz. They can be stacked for
coupling if used in a two -way system,
and you will lose the benefit of coupling
if you try to use a split bass configuration. You will also run into phasing
problems between your bass cabinets in
a split bass system.
As far as bass system impedance
matching is concerned, you will have a
near optimum condition if you connect
your components as indicated by the
block diagram. Each side of the CS -800
will have a total load impedance of
approximately 4.0 ohms which is optimum for this unit. You should also
note that your power amplifier/speaker
system is well matched. With everything connected as shown, each speaker
will be required to handle an RMS
power of 100 watts. This is a safe power
Microphone inputs
T-12
1lI
600S
MFI X
mixer
A OUT
CS200
B
Graphic
equalizer
OUT
-
_el
1--4
Active
B
crossover
network
-01
HIGH PASS OUT
^I
T-12
ance in all areas, excellent
control flexibility, and the sonic
quality that is typically SAE.
A
Scientific Audio Electronics, Inc.
4560
LOW PASS OUT
that ensures superior perform-
For Complete Information Write:
4560
CS800
Power A
NOTES:
Bass
Power
MFI-X
A
OUT
B
OUT
4560
B
section cable AWG 10.
High frequency cable AWG 12.
The A and B outputs must be connected for mono operation.
4560
P.O. Box 60271 Terminal Annex, Los Angeles, CA 90060
CIRCLE 69 ON READER SERVICE CARD
20
MODERN RECORDING
INTRODUCING THE MODEL 15.
24 x 8. $9500:
*16 x 8 version, $7500.
Manufacturer's suggested
retail price.
Remember when
recording was simple?
The only one you had to
satisfy was you. As tracks
of information have grown
from 4 to 16 and beyond, so
have the demands placed
on the board operator. Now,
instead of satisfying just your
mix, there's everyone else's to
consider.
We've experienced the same
frustrations: how to control and
distribute this complex information. That's why we created
the Model 15. We wanted to
make complex mixing simple
to understand and less
difficult to do.
took engineers from three
countries two years to build
It
the first intelligently conceived
board with the flexibility to go
as far as your imagination can
take it.
That flexibility begins in the
Model 15's basic 24 -in x 8 -out
mixing section. Six more inde _
pendent submixes-
two 24 x 1,
two 8 x 1, and
two 8 x
2-
enable you to
blend infinite com-
binations of signals.
None are pre- assigned
so that you determine what
signals get routed and mixed
and redistributed.
can cascade the submixers
or use them independently in 8
or 16 channel mixing. Create
any cue mix, musician's mix or
something unusual for a producer quickly and easily.
You
With our operator-oriented
design concept came new
electronics. There's more
headroom in the Model 15.
And improved transient
response. Lower overall noise
across the entire signal path.
Even the power supply is
housed in a separate unit
reducing the possibility
of hum.
Our new switchable 6 -band,
4 control equalization section
lets you command a wider
selection of frequencies. And
our new channel assign system simplifies the signal flow:
channel assigns 1 through 4 become 5 through 8 at the flick of
a switch. Two color-coded
LED's tell you visually
what's happening.
So if you want to satisfy
still coneveryone
-and
centrate on your music
see the Model 15 today.
-
TASCAM SERIES BYT EAC®
A new generation of recording instruments
for a new generation of recording artists.
In
Canada TEAC
is
distributed by White Electronic Development Corporation
(1966) Ltd.
For your nearest TASCAM dealer, write TEAC Corporation of America, P.O. Box 750, Montebello, California. 90640.
SUBSCRIBER SERVICE
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issue of MODERN RECORDING. Attach old
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Also include your mailing label whenever you
write concerning your subscription to insure
prompt service on your inquiry.
m
4
for these units. The CS -800 power
amplifier is fitted with LED peak overload indicators which indicate that the
amplifier is at clipping. It is normal for
these lamps to illuminate for short
periods during extreme transient conditions. If the overload indicators remain
illuminated for any length of time
(greater than 20%-), I will guarantee
that something in your speaker system
is going to quit. A modern high power
amplifier can destroy almost any
Attach
Label
Here
4
MODERN RECORDING Magazine
14
Vend,
Avv
'
R,n Wa.hinyt,,
1
,
DON'T MISS OUT
on back issues
of MR!
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F
l'<;(?'
!ÏC'`!1J 4
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4
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handling per issue to:
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Back Issues Dept.
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CIRCLE 59 ON READER SERVICE CARD
22
speaker made if it is run into clipping
for any length of time!
In your system, I would recommend
an 800Hz crossover frequency, although the use of 500 Hz can be considered. The reason I picked the 800 Hz
point is that you will have a very good
balance between your bass cabi nets and
high frequency horns without placing
an undue amount of stress on your horn
drivers. The lower you go with the
crossover point, the more work your
horn drivers will be called upon to dcliver. With a quality system such as
yours, there is no point in stressing any
of the component parts.
The crossover network itself can be
any professional quality unit as long as
it has a 12.0 dB per octave or greater
rolloff at the crossover point. For your
application, I would recommend a
Spectra Sonics crossover because it is
extremely reliable, requires no adjustment and is compact. You can buy much
more sophisticated units with all kinds
of knobs and other frills but keep in
mind that one incorrectly adjusted knob
can destroy your horn drivers in short
order. In your system, simplicity and
reliability are essential.
The Peavey MF1 -X radial horns are a
good choice for your high frequency
components. I have used and recommend JBL horns and drivers for specific
applications such as whenever a very
directive horn array is required. The
basic difference between the MF1 -X
horn and a conventional radial horn
design is that you have very wide, yet
controlled, dispersion characteristics.
This is essential in your system because
you only have one horn/driver combination per side and you need a very smooth
and controlled pattern at all frequencies within the passband of your horn/
driver combinations.
As far as impedance matching is concerned, you will have no compatibility
problems with your CS -200 and high
frequency components. The total load
on your CS -200 with two MF1 -X systems and two T -12 tweeter arrays will
be approximately 3.8 ohms. To answer
your question on the tweeter banks regarding their impedance would take
three pages of rather complex mathematical analysis. The tweeter banks
have an impedance curve that looks like
a roller coaster. They may be 500 ohms
at one frequency and 5.0 ohms at a
higher frequency. After using the
things for a number of years, I can
safely say Don't worry about it, they
will work fine.
Because you are relatively inexperienced in electronics, I am going to recommend that you follow my advice on
how to connect your total system. I can
wave my undergraduate and graduate
degrees all day long and still not establish any credibility with all of the "audio experts" that seem to exist
everywhere. I can, however, say that
after being on- the -road over a period of
years as a professional sound contractor, I have learned quite a bit through
the school of trial and error. Please
follow my advice until you gain some
practical knowledge.
All connections between your mixing
console, equalizer, crossover network
and power amplifiers must be made
with good quality shielded cable. I
would recommend that you purchase all
of your shielded cables from a recognized company such as Switchcraft or
Radio Shack. Pick up a few spares while
you are there; I guarantee you will need
them. Connect the equipment as indicated on the block diagram.
At this point, I am going to recommend something that will cause many
"audio experts" to have a fit and go into
controlled feedback. Locate your power
amplifiers at the mixing console and
run heavy cables to your speaker system. I have a very good reason for telling you to do this ground loops. For
someone who does not have a working
knowledge of electronics, this is the
safest way of assuring that you do not
get a loud 60 -cycle hum when you setup
your equipment. For your size system,
number 10 cable should be used for the
bass section and number 12 cable
should be used for the high frequency
section. You will lose a few watts in the
line; but take my word for it, this approach will work the first time you plug
it in. The only precaution is to very
clearly mark your low frequency cables
to help prevent you from accidently
plugging them into your high frequency
horn/driver components. If you do reverse the leads, the result will be quite
spectacular, loud, and expensive. When
wiring your speaker system components (cables, jacks, bass cabinets, etc.),
MODERN RECORDING
dbx 158.
IT'LL GROW ALONG WITH YOU.
db
db.
alo
a
s
s
Introducing our first
economical, expandable, modular,
simultaneous tape noise reduction system.
Now you can have a tape noise reduction system that
will stay with you from high -end audiophile, through
semi -pro and into full professional equipment.
Our new dbx 158 system can start life in your
place with the 158 main frame and as few as two
modules or as many as eight modules for its full eight
channel capacity. It also has storage space for a ninth
spare module in its compact chassis. The rear panel
has phono and multi -pin connectors that will interface
directly to your cables. Acditional 158's can be used
for 16 or 24 track recording.
The dbx 158 offers tine semi -pro recordist or
small studio all the advanrages of dbx professional
systems, including 30 dB of noise reduction, and
10 dB additional recorder headroom. It's a
classic 2:1 mirror image compander which
preserves the full dynamic range of program
material without audible tape hiss. Each module
contains separate record and playback noise reduction
electronics. Its simultaneous record /playback
capablity permits the noise reduced, decoded tape
to be monitored while recording without manual
switching or remote control.
Requiring only 51/4" of rack space, the 153's light
weight (17 lbs.) makes it easily portable for location
dates. And naturally, tapes recorded with this system
are compatible with any other dbx professional tape
noise reduction system as well as on board dbx tape
noise reduction in TEAC /TASCAM recorders. We'll be
happy to send you further information and the rame
GI your nearest dbx dealer. Just write us.
dbx, Incorporated
71 Chapel Street
Newton, Massachusetts
02195
617- 964 -3210
Here's a generous offer: buy all 8 channels up front,
and we'll throw in the ninth module free.
CIRCLE 58 ON READER SER++ICE CARD
Impeccable sound
in a packable size.
New! SU -2 and S15.3 from Electro -Voice.
The best small touring systems you can buy.
They'll do great things for your act.
In a lot of ways.
ACCURATE OUTPUT.
You can add all the eq you want,
and be heard as sweet or as gusty as you
want, because what you put in is what
comes out. There's no built -in coloration
to irritate your audience or drive your
sound man up the wall.
GREAT SOUND.
These speaker systems have the low
end (50 Hz) to give your vocals a full,
robust sound. They have the high end
(16 KHz) that lets your vocals and instruments sound crisp and lifelike.
VENTED MIDRANGE.
It used to be that if you wanted high
sound pressure levels in the midranges
you had to use a horn. But it took a big
horn to keep the sound accurate. Trouble
is, big horns just won't fit into small
stage system enclosures. So you had to
settle for the pinched, "honky" sound
typical of small horn drivers. No more.
The midrange speaker in the S15 -3 is a
cone. Not just any cone, but a cone in
an integral vented enclosure coupled to
a massive 16 lb. magnet
structure. The vent and
cone work together to
deliver accurate midrange, without coloration, at high sound
pressure levels hereto-
100 watts in will get you 116 dB out
at four feet. You wont have to haul
around a bank of super -amps to get the
sound out where you want it. The wide
120° dispersion of our stage systems lets
your audience hear mids and highs
clearly, even if they're far off axis. Every
seat in the house is now the best seat
in the house. Even the ushers will think
you sound great.
COMPACT AND RUGGED.
The S12 -2 and S15-3 are compact.
More room for you and your instruments... onstage and off. Our use of
the speaker theories of A.N. Thiele and
R.H. Small made it possible. We applied
them to the development of a computer
model for vented enclosures. Result:
speakers that deliver the optimum combination of high efficiency and bass
response in the smallest package possible. In the most rugged package possible.
Constructed of 3/4" plywood. Oversized,
recessed handles. Finished in durable
black vinyl. Extruded aluminum trim
protects all edges from damage. Even
the grill cloth is rugged. It's actually a
metal mesh that protects your drivers
Vent
from accidental abuse.
THEY ARE
SUPER SYSTEMS.
These systems have
a lot going for you.
Accuracy, efficiency,
compactness, ruggedness and great sound.
16 lb. Magnetic
21/2"
61/2"
Give them a test listen
Voice Coil
Structure
Cone
at your E -V music dealer.
E -V first.
Find the one nearest you in the listEFFICIENT OPERATION.
ing on the right -or write or call:
And you get the efficiency to get the
Electro- Voice, 600 Cecil Street,
sound pressure levels you want. With
Buchanan, Michigan 49107.
equipment you can handle.
Phone: (616) 695 -6831
fore associated with
horns. The vented midrange speaker is an
sstage system
stage
ALABAMA
BIRMINGHAM
Music Alley
Sonics Associates, Inc.
GADSDEN
Carl Green Music
Center
HUNTSVILLE
Robbins Music Center
MOBILE
Andys Music
ARIZONA
PHOENIX
Bill Fry's Music
Axe Handlers & Co.
TUCSON
Chicago Store
CALIFORNIA
ALHAMBRA
The Soundsmith
BURBANK
The Burbank Sound
Electronic City
CHICO
Sounds by Dave
CULVER CITY
Creative Audio
HOLLYWOOD
Ametron
L.A. Sound Co.
LAWNDALE
Hogan's House of Music
LOS ANGELES
American Electronic
Audio Concepts, Inc.
Sound Foyer Division
MT. VIEW
Hals Music Center
NORTH
HOLLYWOOD
Filmways Audio
Services, Inc.
REDWOOD CITY
Gelb Music
SALINAS
Gadsby Music Co.
SAN DIEGO
Amcom Div.
SANTA CRUZ
Alpha Audio
SAN JOSE
Alco Paramount
Guitar Showcase
SAN RAFAEL
Bananas at Large
TORRANCE
V-J Electronics
COLORADO .
BOULDER
Solid Sound, Inc.
DENVER
Pro Sound Music
Center
CONNECTICUT
DANBURY
Danbury Electronic
Music Center
WEST HARTFORD
LaSalle Music Shop
DELAWARE
NEWARK
Studio 42
WILMINGTON
East Coast Music
S12.2 two -way
stage system
Specifications subject to change without notice.
Medley Music
Music Museum
FLORIDA
DANIA
Hollywood Music
FT. LAUDERDALE
Modern Music, Inc.
JACKSONVILLE
Music City
ORLANDO
Warehouse Music
SARASOTA
Interworld, Inc.
TAMPA
Thoroughbred Music
GEORGIA
ATLANTA
Metro Music Center
DECATUR
Maestro Music
Center, Inc.
MARIETTA
Marietta Music
Center, Inc.
SAVANNAH
Ben Portman
Musicenter
HAWAII
HONOLULU
Harry's Music Store, Inc.
Hawkins Audio
IDAHO
BOISE
Boise Music Inc.
ILLINOIS
ARLINGTON
HEIGHTS
Roy Baumann Music
HARVEY
Pyramid Sound Co.
PEKIN
Milam Audio Corp.
WHEELING
Sounds Music Shack
INDIANA
ANDERSON
Top in Sound
GREENSBURG
House of Music
INDIANAPOLIS
IRC Music Stores, Inc.
Thompson's Music Inc.
JEFFERSONVILLE
Far Out Music
SOUTH BEND
Drumville Guitarland
WEST LAFAYETTE
Pro Audio, Inc.
IOWA
DES MOINES
Celestial Power & Light
DUBUQUE
Rondinelli Soundworks
KANSAS
HAYS
Sunshine Sound
MANHATTAN
Music Village
WICHITA
Superior Sound Rental
& Service
JACKSON
GMS Music
KENTUCKY
ERLANGER
Wert Music
LACENTER
Mobil Sound
LEXINGTON
Carl's Music
LOUISIANA
EUNICE
Savoy Music Center
NEW ORLEANS
Sound City
SHREVEPORT
The Guitar Shop
MAINE
AUBURN
Carroll's Music Center
PORTLAND
New England Music Co.
MARYLAND
BALTIMORE
Gordon Miller Music
ROCKVILLE
CMG Sound, Inc.
WHEATON
Washington Music
Center Sales, Inc.
MASSACHUSETTS
BOSTON
Sid Stone
Laboratories, Inc.
E.U. Wurlitzer Music
DANVERS
Syntha Sounds
WENDELL
Klondike Sound Co.
WEST CONCORD
Acton Concord Music
MICHIGAN
ADRIAN
Aldrich Music Co.
ANN ARBOR
Al Nalli Music Co.
CANTON
Arnoldt & Williams
Music, Inc.
FLINT
Flint Music Center
GRAND RAPIDS
Farrow's Music
Kenny Gordon's
Sound & Lights
HOWELL
Schafers House of
Music
KALAMAZOO
Progressive Music
ROCHESTER
Music World
STURGIS
Welty Music
WARREN
Gus Zoppi Music
Center
MINNESOTA
BURNSVILLE
Lavonne Wagner
Music
MOORHEAD
Marguerite's Music
MISSISSIPPI
CLEVELAND
Morrison Brothers
Music Store
MISSOURI
COLUMBIA
Music Village
KANSAS CITY
Superior Sound
ST. LOUIS
North County
Sound Shop
SPRINGFIELD
Mr. Music's Rock Shop
of Springfield, !nc.
NEBRASKA
OMAHA
Rainbow Recording
Studio
NEW JERSEY
BELLEVILLE
Muscara Music
CHERRY HILL
East Coast Music
EDISON
Lou Rose Music
Center, Inc.
ENGLEWOOD
Gilsonite Music Store
LINDENWOLD
Sater School of Music
NANUET
Gamma II Music
Center. Inc.
PITMAN
Music Museum
RED BANK
Red Bank Music
UNION CITY
Pastore Music, Inc.
UNION
Rondo Music
NEW YORK
BUFFALO
Kubera Music Store
KENMORE
Kenmore Music, Inc.
MARCELLUS
Diversified
Concepts, Inc.
NANUET
Gamma II
Music Center Inc.
NORTH
WILKESBORO
North Wilkesboro
Bible Book Store
RALEIGH
Coliseum Sound
Systems, Inc.
WILMINGTON
Sticks & Picks Music
OHIO
CANTON
Gattuso Music
CINCINNATI
Midwest Music
Distributors
Swallens, Inc.
COLUMBUS
ESI Video Systems
Sound Advocate Co.
Swallens, Inc.
ELYRIA
Wagner Music
FINDLAY
Fellers Electronics
FOSTORIA
Audio Emporium
KENT
Music Box
MANSFIELD
Swallens, Inc.
MIDDLETOWN
Swallens, Inc.
PARMA
Winteradio Electronic
Supply Corp.
RICHMOND
HEIGHTS
Sodja Music, Inc.
STRONG V ILLE
The Music
Connection, Inc.
TOLEDO
Penguin Music
Ron's Music, Inc.
OKLAHOMA
BETHANY
Driver Music
OKLAHOMA CITY
Ford Audio
TULSA
Doug Brown & Assoc.
Music Sound World
Shield's Music
NEWBURGH
Phoenix Audio
NEW YORK
Manny's Music
OREGON
PORTLAND
Portland Music Co.. Inc.
SYRACUSE
Bonne Music Co., Inc.
NEVADA
LAS VEGAS
Professional Music
PENNSYLVANIA
ALLENTOWN
Audio Visual
Specialist
BRYN MAWR
Medley Music Mart, Inc.
ERIE
Transcendental Music
McKEES ROCK
Chujko Bros. Sound
NORTH CAROLINA
CHARLOTTE
Joseph A. Cohen, Inc.
Reflection Sound
Systems
Medley Music
WEST CHESTER
Studio 42
PATCHOGUE
Square Deal Radio &
Television In.:.
ROCHESTER
Multi-Sonus, Inc.
Center & Dram Shop PHILADELPHIA
Cintioli Music Center
Dimension Five Studio
Eight Street Music
WOMELSDORF
Dimension Five Studio
SOUTH CAROLINA
GREENVILLE
Pecknel Music
NORTH
CHARLESTON
Weymann Music Store
SPARTANBURG
Smith Music House
TENNESSEE
HENDERSONVILLE
HI FI Man
KNOXVILLE
Lynn's Guitars
MEMPHIS
A.D. Studio Sound
MURFREESBORO
Murfreesboro
Music Center
NASHVILLE
Corner Music
Electra Distributing
OAK RIDGE
Lynn's Guitars
TULLAHOMA
Tennessee Audio
TEXAS
AUSTIN
Heart of Texas
GARLAND
Arnold & Morgan
Music Co.
HOUSTON
Parker Music
UTAH
OREM
Burbank Sound
VERMONT
BURLINGTON
Dartmouth Audio Inc.
VIRGINIA
ARLINGTON
Zavarellas Music
FALLS CHURCH
Rolls Music
LYNCHBURG
Family Music Centre
NORFOLK
Ambassador Music
RICHMOND
Don Warner Music
WASHINGTON
SEATTLE
American Music
WISCONSIN
EAU CLAIRE
University Musicians
Supply
MADISON
American TV
Ward -Brodt Co.
MILWAUKEE
Audio Engineering Co.
Select Sound Service
Uncle Bob's Music
Walker Music
Ey Eleclroifoice®
oi1IIDf
a
company
600 Cecil St., Buchanan, Michigan 49107
CIR -LE 62 ON READER SERVICE CARD
JUNE 1978
make sure that everything is in phase.
Have a qualified technician check your
wiring and bass cabinets for proper
phase relationships before actually
using your system. Improper phasing
will not destroy anything, however, the
resulting sound will be terrible and the
probability for feedback will be greatly
increased.
I cannot begin to tell you how to
operate your system, as every location
will be different. I will, however, list a
few of the most important operational
considerations.
1. Use good quality microphones. I
strongly recommend the Electro -Voice
DS-35 as a general purpose microphone.
Try to avoid the very sensitive (and
fragile) condenser microphones until
you gain some experience. Do not use a
microphone with an on/ofswitch. They
are always in the wrong position.
2. Do not over -equalize. Use the
graphic equalizer for feedback control
and the board equalization for the required tonal balance.
3. Stay with quality equipment produced by recognized manufacturers. A
custom -made console may work fine in
the shop but what do you do when it
quits in Waco, Texas?
4. Use common sense and read everything you can on the subject. When
you make a mistake, learn a lesson; this
is the most valuable type of education.
-Lothar A. Krause, Jr.
Design Engineer
Peavey Electronics Corp.
Meridian, Ms.
To Gobo Or Not To Gobo?
I have recently read in The Recording
Studio Handbook by John M. Woram
his section on the use of acoustic baffles
such as goboes. I am confused on the
use and placement of such devices. He
seems to avoid the things like the
plague, yet I have seen them in studios.
Woram gave me all the "don'ts" about
the use of goboes, now can you please
advise me on the "dos" on how and
when to use goboes?
-Paul Kalris
Bellevue, Wa.
Well, you do have a point. Most studios
do use lots of goboes, despite the fact
that many microphone designers don't
think much of them.
I've found that, more often than not,
goboes cause more problems than they
cure. However, if you must use them,
consider the following few points before setting them up.
25
In order for a directional microphone
to function as designed, the space surrounding it must be free from obstructions. This allows the sounds from the
side and rear to enter the microphone
(via its side- and rear -entry ports) and
thereby cancel out. Prove this to yourself by covering these ports with your
hand, and listen to the drastic deterioration in the microphone's performance-it's not subtle. The point is,
any obstruction in the vicinity of the
microphone is apt to have an undesirable effect on sound quality. The deterioration may be either slight, or quite
obvious, depending on the nature of
the obstruction.
The next point to ponder is that practically every construction material used
for gobo- building (wood, masonite,
fiberglass, etc.) has a very uneven "frequency response." This means that
sounds reflected (or absorbed) by these
materials have a drastically atlered
sound quality. Also, unless the gobo is
infinitely large, low frequencies are
refracted (bent) around it.
Therefore, since no gobo offers total,
or even uniform, absorption of all
frequencies, the sounds that get by it
have a severely distorted frequency
response, and it is these sounds that are
then picked up by the microphone.
The result is usually an unpleasantly
"muddy" sound.
If you don't mind this kind of sound
"leakage" into your microphone, then
feel free to use goboes wherever you
like. As for me, I'd rather have "clean"
leakage, and then try to minimize this
by careful microphone placement.
A little trial -and -error will tell you if
a gobo is helping or hurting your recording. Try listening (carefully!) to the
leakage, with and without the gobo in
place. If it's fouling up the sound, get
rid of it.
Be prepared to make at least a few
test takes, to convince the people you're
working with that you are not really
crazy. A lot of recording -types look at
the gobo as a sort of acoustic security
blanket and get very upset when there
aren't any in sight. Unfortunately, the
basic laws of physics have not yet been
repealed in the recording studio, although it's often impossible to get this
point across.
-John M. Woram
Audio Consultant /Author
Woram Audio Associates
Rockville Centre, N.Y.
Clearing Up Some
"Live" Misconceptions
I have two questions concerning "live"
sound reinforcement that I hope you
can answer for me.
When setting up stage monitors, it
seems to be common practice to cup
one's hands over the microphone
to induce any feedback, which is then
(hopefully) EQd out. Why will a mic
feed back when this is done? I know
from experience that putting one
hand against or near the mic can cause it
to start and that during an actual performance the singer's face can also
activate ringing. But what it seems
is happening (especially with hands cupped around the diaphragm area) is that
you are acoustically isolating the mic
from the monitor speaker, therefore,
why is there such severe feedback?
When employing real time analysis
and equalization in "live" sound reinforcement, it has always seemed obvious
to me that the end result is very seldom
"flat." That is, once you obtain a flat
response from your system, you
continue to EQ by ear until a pleasant
tonal balance is achieved. However, I've
read numerous accounts by pros who
seem to believe that a flat system is the
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CIRCLE 66 ON READER SERVICE CARD
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MODERN RECORDING
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When you cup your hands around a microphone, you are not acoustically isolating the mic from the monitor speaker.
Your hand is acting like a plate or
ground to the diaphragm of the mic and
it changes the pick -up pattern of the
mic to an omni -directional or some
other weird pattern that may be quite
unpredictable. Thus, the mic will pick
up the monitor speaker even stronger
than before and this will cause excessive
feedback. This changing of the mic's
pattern can also occur if the mic is held
too close to the singer's face or body.
As to why real -time equalization of
"live" sound reinforcement doesn't
always sound natural, this can be the
result of any number of situations.
Rather than go into great detail, I'll
just briefly describe the various pos-
sible reasons.
The equalizing of the system overloads the amps in certain frequency
bands causing distortion, or the equalizer used may not be the best suited for
the application, causing much more dis-
tortion to be present in the system than
without it.
The system may be set up for a "flat"
response only in one spot in the room,
therefore all other areas of the room
may not sound as good.
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end goal, and I have heard many
concerts set up this way which sound
flat and not very pleasing or natural.
Does this indicate that pros who usually
have access to advanced techniques and
equipment are lacking
aesthetic
common sense or am I confused somewhere along the line?
-T. Young
Thomaston, Ct.
NAME
STREET
CITY
STATE
ZIP
When setting up the room the engineer
may have set up the EQ for a "flat"
response without people, then when
the audience is there (bodies and
clothing absorb the higher frequencies)
the room will sound very dead and not
pleasing or natural.
Also, most engineers know that even
the most advanced real -time analysis
equipment is not as good as the human
ear and it can't tell you if the sound
is pleasing or natural. Therefore, engineers should only use real -time analysis
and equalization as a tool to obtain a
good sound and rely on their ears and
past experience when it comes to the final
mixing and equalizing of the speakers.
-Clyde R. Green
Chief Engineer
Cookhouse Recording Studios
Minneapolis, Mn.
ON READER SERVICE CARD
MODERN RECORDING
A Symphonic Affair
There is the possibility that I might
have the opportunity to aid in the
recording of an orchestra for
mastering purposes. I now produce
two orchestras for FM broadcast,
but these are very simple mic
layouts. I would like to know how
producers set up full -scale
recordings. For
symphonic
example, what types of mies are
used for the various sections and
how they are placed most
effectively. I realize that every company probably has a different
later during the mixdown session. But
the basic method remains the same
using many mies to pick up all parts of
-
the orchestra.
Let's take it section by section. First,
the strings. Normally, I use seven mies
as follows: two for the first violins, two
for the second violins and one each for
the violas, cellos, and basses. Most of
the time these are AKG C -12s (these are
no longer available but the AKG 414s
are equivalent). Neumann U -87s are
also satisfactory, but to my ear, they
produce a slightly strident edge to the
high strings which I must subsequently
remove with equalization. The mies are
usually placed about three to four feet
above the player's heads.
For the woodwinds, the number of
microphones varies with the size of the
section. We used to use one mic when we
recorded the Philadelphia Orchestra or
the Cleveland Orchestra. I use two in
Louisville, but recently, in a recording
of "The Rite of Spring," I used eight
woodwind mics. Like the strings, they
are placed a few feet above the player's
heads.
The brass is more simple. Sometimes,
they don't need a mic at all. Generally, I
method for any given piece of music,
but perhaps you could give me a
basic format.
Also, could you please describe
how all the mies are kept in phase
during recording and how the
panpots are set on the mixer during
recording.
I'm in your eternal debt for these
answers! Thank you!
-Patrick J. Suarez
Miami Valley Recordings
Dayton, Oh.
Your first inquiry as to whether our
method of recording a symphony
orchestra is very different from yours is
hard to answer. This is for two reasons.
First, I don't know what "yours" is, but
more importantly, there is no "ours."
In any large commercial recording
company, there are several producers
on staff. Each one is allowed the
freedom to develop and practice
whatever techniques suit his aesthetic
taste and working methods. Generally
speaking these methods fall into two
broad categories: 1) few mies and 2)
many mies.
I suspect that the first system is
similar to what you already do on your
FM broadcasts. My own personal preferences favor the multi -mic technique,
so I will describe that in detail.
To begin with, please note that I refer
to "multi -mies" not multi- tracks. I feel
that these are two distinct issues. Naturally, an advocate of the two-mic system
is going to record on two tracks. But
with many mies, one has two choices:
record on two tracks or record on many
tracks. I do not see these last two
options as two different techniques.
After all, it is all going to wind up on two
tracks in the end either way. The
difference is simply whether the
producer wants to decide on final
musical balances at the recording
sessions, or if he is allowed to wait till
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the Experts
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RELIEFS:
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For years, everybody thought that connec- lief available with a reliable contact- making
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The Tip looks just like a "military" plug, with
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whirlwind
P.O. Box 1075
Rochester, N.Y. 14603
(716) 663 -8820
use one each for the trumpets and
trombones, and two for the french
horns. These last are placed a few feet
behind the players, facing their bells.
Sometimes, I utilize a mic up over the
bell of the tuba, but this really depends
on the kind of writing that has been
done for the instrument.
The percussion is usually picked up
on two or three mics but recently on a
recording of Varese's "Ionisation" I used
a total of fourteen percussion mics.
In addition to the above, I mic harps
(sometimes as many as three, each with
their own mic), celeste, piano, timpani,
chorus (usually with three or four mies,
but in "Carmine Burana" we used
eight) and soloists (vocal or
instrumental).
Your last two questions are
somewhat puzzling. "Phase" is probably
the most misunderstood word and
concept in our business. All the mies are
not kept in phase! Sure the polarities of
the output transformers are wired so
that a similar acoustic pressure impulse
will produce similar voltage outputs in
each mic -but this is nearly a
meaningless convention. With one
hundred plus players scattered all over
a concert stage, the voltages that any
one of them generate in twenty -five or
thirty microphones can only be thought
of as being randomly related in phase
and the phase connections of any one
microphone becomes truly insignificant. However, it should be stated that
if a simple pair of mies is used for the
entire orchestra, then the question of
phase is critical -but then, the problem
is easily solved with only two mies!
As far as panpots go, I hardly ever use
them when I do a multi -track recording.
The exact placement of instrument images is determined in the mixing
sessions. If you wish to use several mies
fed to only two tracks, you will have to
make placement decisions (as well as
musical balance decisions) right in the
recording session. Then you will need to
incorporate panpots into your thinking.
How are they set? In whatever way
produces the kind of stereo imagery you
desire. Generally, it is wise to position
the microphone signals to correspond
with the actual seating of the orchestra.
Best of luck and I hope you do get to
work on some orchestral recordings. I'd
like to hear the results.
-Andrew Kazdin
Director of Masterworks, A &R Services
Columbia Records
New York, N.Y.
CIRCLE 45 ON READER SERVICE CARD
MODERN RECORDING
Listen
to the
Noise in the form of hiss, hum and
rumble -all the things that effectively
cloud the clarity of records, tapes
and FM broadcasts. Ideally, music
should be heard against a silent
background. The Phase Linear 1000
achieves just that with two unique
SICsystems: AutoCorrelator Noise
Reduction and Dynamic Range
Recovery. The AutoCorrelator reduces
noise by 10 dB without the loss of high
frequency music and without
pre- encoding. The Dynamic Range
Recovery System restores 7.5 dB
of the overall dynamic range, without
the pumping and swishing associated with other systems. The
Phase Linear 1000 represents the
most significant improvement in sound
reproduction for the money... more than any other single piece of
equipment you could add to your system. It is easily installed to
any stereo receiver or preamplifier.
Ask your dealer for an audition,
and listen to the music.
MU
.
Not the
noise.
cZI,etWo
THE POWERFUL DIFFERENCE
MADE IN U.S A. DISTRIBUTED IN CANADA BY
H
ROY GRAY LTD. AND IN AUSTRALIA BY MEGASOUND PTY. LTD
CIRCLE 76 ON READER SERVICE CARD
4
SCENE
4
By Norman Eisenberg
RANDALL P.A. SYSTEM
Said to be a great favorite of many traveling
groups, the Randall model RPA -300 public address
system has eight channels capable of accepting
either high- or low -Z mics. Each channel has EQ
controls for highs, middles and lows, plus separate
reverb and sliding pot volume controls. The master
section has a five bar slide pot equalizer, master
reverb and auxiliary input volume controls. Green
and red LEDs show normal or overload power conditions. The system also has a gain boost and cut
switch, plus a hi-F boost switch that provides an additional 10 -dB boost at 10 kHz, and a low-F cut
switch that reduces the 50 -Hz region by 10 dB.
Recommended columns have two 12 -inch and two
10 -inch speakers plus two piezo super horns. Self contained, the RPA -300 system is rated to produce
up to 300 watts and is claimed to be highly reliable
and "almost totally free of failure due to open or
short circuiting."
DBX OFFERS BOOM BOX
New from dbx is the model 100, colloquially named
the Boom Box and more technically described as a
sub - harmonic synthesizer. What it does, essentially, is generate low- frequency bass (which often has
been removed deliberately from a recording). The
range below 60 Hz is the one the device is concerned
with, and especially the octave between 25 and 50
Hz. According to dbx, this range often is removed
by mastering engineers in order to limit the depth
and excursion of the record groove, a technique that
can get more music on the same side at higher output levels. The Boom Box works to overcome this
bass lack by using program material in the region
above 60 Hz to synthesize signals an octave below.
It then mixes them back into the program via the
tape- monitor loop. This technique is claimed to
restore the "missing bass information" without
such undesirable side-effects as increased noise
from turntable rumble, acoustic feedback or warped
disc syndrome. The result, claims dbx, is heightened accuracy in the playback. The Boom Box also
is said to permit the listener to a larger system to
"physically experience the air motion created by
the increased bass ... tactile, as well as the aural
sensation of being present at a live concert."
Priced at $199, the Boom Box has two controls. a
bypass switch and an LED indicator.
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ON READER SERVICE CARD
AN APT FIRST PRODUCT
AUTOMATED MIXING CONSOLE
First product from the Apt Corporation of Cam-
Sound Workshop of Hauppauge, N.Y. has announced its Series 1600, described as an automated
mixing console and based on what the company
calls "a new philosophy of console design." Using a
fully modular mainframe, the console may be purchased in configurations from 12x8 up to 36x32,
and any configuration may be expanded to full
capability by adding sections. The automation
package may be ordered with the console or it can
be added later. The automation retro -fit is accomplished in two steps: one is the addition of VCA
automation control cards to each input module,
permitting VCA input subgrouping. Next is the addition of Sound Workshop's automation processor,
which allows full level and mute automation, and
which is compatible with MCI's automation
system.
Instead of being designed around the standard
I/O module, the new console has separate input and
output modules which interface electronically and
mechanically to form one unit. In addition, both the
EQ and send assign matrix are separate interval
subassemblies to allow ease of service as well as a
choice of equalizers. Two EQs are now available
one is a 3 -band, peak/dip type with four frequencies
per band; the other is a 3 -band parametric with a
20:1 frequency sweep and four "Q" positions per
band.
Console interface is simplified by the unique
design of the modular patch bay -all jacks associated with a given input /output channel are mounted
on a removable PC board. Sound Workshop claims
state -of-the -art circuitry throughout for "superior
sonic qualities and specifications." Prices range
from $10,000 to over $60,000.
bridge, Ma. is the Holman preamplifier, said to
reverse the "recent trends in preamplifier design"
by being the "first unit to feature adaptablity to a
wide range of system requirements without any
sacrifice of sonic accuracy . . ." Its phono preamp
and tone -control sections are based on new
research. The design emphasizes freedom from
detrimental interactions, defeatable infra- and
ultrasonic filters, cross -talk -free program and
recorder switching and "smart" muting of transients. The mode control is continuously variable to
provide adjustment between mono, stereo and left
and right mix for matching the "depth" dimension
of true stereo recordings to the loudspeaker-room
characteristic. Loudness compensation is claimed
to be "psychoacoustically appropriate" with a
special bass control that has two modes: loudness
and program. Price is $447.
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TILT THE DECK
-
CIRCLE 19 ON READER SERVICE CARD
Ruslang has introduced a deck -frame tilt feature
available on its tape transport consoles. With the
deck frame locked in tilt position, the recordist may
view and work the deck while seated. The option
permits operating a transport either flat or at some
convenient angle. Other Ruslang console features
include front -panel access in both horizontal and
vertical positions, and a rear shelf for power supplies. The tilt feature adds $10 to the cost of any
Ruslang console.
CIRCLE 17 ON READER SERVICE CARD
CROWN OFFERS
FANCY RACK MOUNT
Originally intended as a demo and dealer display,
the Crown 70R cabinet is now availabe for the general public. Free standing and finished in oiled
walnut veneer, the 70R is 70 inches high and offers
28 vertical inches of rack mounting space including
a special turntable shelf plus tape and disc storage
area behind doors. The whole thing rests on precision bearing casters.
CIRCLE 18 ON READER SERVICE CARD
HEADPHONE AMPLIFIER
Designed to accept high or low level signal inputs
and drive up to four sets of stereo headphones, the
Edcor AP -10 headphone amplifier is rated to deliver
up to 4 watts of power on each of its eight output
channels. Outputs have separate low -noise amplifiers and individual gain controls, while a master
gain control handles all channels. Inputs may be
stereo or mono. Connectors are standard stereo
phone jacks. An "info pad" provides the user with a
"hands on" position to mark detail info such as gain
setting, headphone assignment, etc. The AP-10 also
may be used as a low -power amp to drive speakers.
Self- powered, it measures 2'/2 by 6 by 9 inches. Two
units will rack -mount side by side.
NEW FROM NEUTRIK
From Philips Audio Video Systems Corp. comes
word of two new professional products. One is the
Neutrik AD-4 Analog Tapped Audio Delay Line.
The AD -4 is designed for establishing a virtual
sound source and for improving speech and /or
music articulation in distributed -speaker sound reinforcement installations, as well as for generating special effects and ambience (or enhancing
reverb delay) in recording work. The AD -4's
"bucket brigade" design employs charge -coupled
devices and steep Butterworth filters that offer
four discrete, time-incremented, delayed outputs.
All are commonly and continuously adjustable over
a 4:1 range (12.5 -50 msec., 25 -100 msec., 37.5 -50
msec. and 50 -200 msec.). Output level is independently adjustable on each. the unit's low distortion, input -limiting amplifier has a three position time-constant /defeat switch to suit music
and speech characteristics, plus additional features
including adjustable sensitivity. Dimensions are
rack -mount.
CIRCLE 8 ON READER SERVICE CARD
AUTOMATIC GRAPHIC EQ
Audio Developments International (ADI) of Palo
Alto, California offers its Type 1500 Automatic
Graphic Equalizer which features red and green
LEDs above each of ten equalizer slider controls to
indicate flat response when both LEDs light up. For
excess energy in a given band only the red LED
comes on; for too little energy, the green LED lights
up. This technique is claimed to enable the user to
achieve accurate sound shaping and flattening
without any other test equipment and "in mere
seconds." The Type 1500 is priced at $795.
The other new item from Neutrik is their model
3201 Audiotracer. This device provides self contained facilities for measuring and making permanent "hard copy" recordings of the level
response of any audio system or device, electronic
or electroacoustic. Basically, the 3201 measures
and thermographically records audio frequency or
time phenomena versus linear or log (dB) amplitude. Included is a voltage-controlled oscillator; a 5
Hz "warble" generator with switchable -width FM
of VCO; switchable 1 -kHz reference oscillator; output amplifier with RMS drive capability of 3 watts
into 4.5 ohms; input amplifier with calibrated
stepped and vernier attenuation; motional- feedback
pen -drive amplifier and galvanometer movement
with switchable range and writing speed; electronically- controlled paper drive mechanism; DC- heated
pen.
Price of the delay line model AD -4 has been set at
$795. Price of the Audiotracer was not available at
presstime.
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34
CIRCLE 10 ON READER SERVICE CARD
MEDIAMIX OFFERS
RING MODULATOR
A new voice and instrument manipulation device
called the Mediamix Ring Modulator is offered by
the firm called Mediamix of Dallas, Texas. AC
powered and totally self- contained, the unit
features a built -in mic preamp, a variable symmetry
audio oscillator (used in conjunction with mic to
produce talking computers, androids, etc.), and
LFO (for tremolo and stereo spatial effects
applicable, for instance, to a Rhodes stage piano),
and Squaring function for synthesizer pitch doubling and stereo spatial effects and an external input
enabling the user to sing along with a synthesizer,
thus producing a melodic yet electronic- sounding
singing or speaking voice. A kit version is priced at
$85; the finished unit costs $120. A small company
(so far), Mediamix also offers other specialized
devices, including a stereo effects unit, a joystick
for manual pitch bend on a synthesizer, and a series
of add -on modifications for Oberheim, Arp and
Moog synthesizers. For $2.50, the company will
send you a 30- minute stereo demo tape illustrating
its line.
-
CIRCLE 20 ON READER SERVICE CARD
SHURE ANNOUNCES
"TOTAL DESIGN" PICKUP
"Trackability " -a term introduced into disc playback some years ago by Shure Brothers Inc.
receives renewed attention with the introduction of
the latest of the V -15 pickups. The new model is the
V -15 Type IV and it is based on new design techniques that are interrelated in a "total design" approach based on a lot of research and experimentation, which was explained to a group of invited
press people (yours truly included) at a recent
seminar held at Shure.
-
The basic concern is still the ability of the stylus
to remain in contact with both walls of a record
groove at the lightest possible vertical-tracking
force (this defines "trackability" which Shure holds
is the most important measure of overall cartridge
performance). But the new techniques found in the
V -15 Type IV that are integrated with each other
and with the total product in an effort to further improve trackability are significant, in my view, and
worth more than casual mention.
In general, disc playback is always subject to
such problems as heavily modulated grooves, warpage and surface crud which can frustrate any
pickup's ability to consistently track accurately. A
major assault on these problems by Shure engineers
is documented by a pile of engineering data and,
more germane, by the new pickup itself which incorporates new design features. One is a new stylus
assembly that uses a "hyperelliptical" nude diamond tip, a telescoped shank structure, a lightweight high -energy magnet and a new two -function
bearing system that is independently optimized for
low and high frequencies. Effective mass has been
lowered, and the elongated tip -groove contact is
credited with up to a 25- percent reduction in distortion vis -a -vis a conventional biradial (elliptical)
stylus.
Also new is the "dynamic stabilizer " -a built in
viscous- damped brush -like extension that is primarily designed to attenuate arm-cartridge
resonance effects and, by resisting sudden warp caused changes in motion, to maintain proper discto-pickup distance as well as vertical tracking angle
and VTF. In addition to adding this kind of stability to the pickup performance, the stabilizer- consisting of over 10,000 electrically conductive
fibers- also removes static electricity charges; it
sweeps the groove ahead of the stylus to minimize
dust buildup. Finally, it safeguards the stylus from
damage since, in its engaged position, it will
cushion the stylus from impact if carelessly
dropped onto the turntable.
Now all this is very interesting in theory -but
how does the new cartridge sound when playing
records? In a word, great! The bass is solid, clean
and well- defined. Middles and highs are smooth,
with excellent inner detailing; transient response is
forceful but not exaggerated. At a list price of $150
(which includes the option of also getting a free new
Shure test record), the V -15 Type IV is hardly the
cheapest phono pickup around. But to my ears it
sure is (pun intended) one of the very best.
CIRCLE 12 ON READER SERVICE CARD
-N
MONITOR SPEAKERS
Electro -Voice has introduced a pair
of new floor monitor designs. The
Model FM12 -2 is a two-way system using an EVM12L woofer and a T35
tweeter, while the FM12-3 is a three way system which adds a Thiele alignment- vented cone -type midrange
driver to the EVM12L and T35. Both
models are rated at 100 watts RMS,
but to protect the T35 from receiving
-1
By Fred
and thereby reducing the amount of
power ultimately needed for a given
sound level. The net result of the
design is said to be as much as 4 dB
more sound at the performer's ears
without feedback. The 12 incher is
rated at 70 watts RMS, but the amplifier must be limited to 35 volts RMS to
protect the piezo -electric tweeter.
CIRCLE 6 ON READER SERVICE CARD
MIXING CONSOLES
filter, level control and panpot for the
reverb and effects returns, and VU
meters for the left and right main outputs. Other features of the Biamp
series include input transformers on
each mic input, transformerless balanced main outputs and direct channel
outputs for multi -channel recording
which can be taken before or after the
channel equalizer. Several options are
available including a 48 -jack patchbay
to facilitate submixing or interconnection of several Biamp Systems mixers.
CIRCLE
i
that full amount of power and possibly
blowing out, E -V came out with a
special High- Frequency Auto-Limiting circuit which reduces the drive to
the tweeter to safe levels in very high
power situations. Both models are in
wedge -shaped enclosures which allow
30 -, 60- or 90- degree orientation for
versatility.
CIRCLE
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ON READER SERVICE CARD
Soundcannon
Industries
Biamp Systems, Inc. is now shipping their new six -, eight -, and twelve input mixing consoles including the
12- channel Model 1282. The new
Biamp mixers are notable for their use
of the latest Bi -Fet operational
amplifiers, which operate with lower
noise and lower distortion than the
more commonly used conventional opamps, and which also feature very high
slewing rates for reduced transient intermodulation (TIM) distortion. Input
channels of the Biamp 1282 feature a
variable 50 dB attenuator, a pre EQ /pre -fader monitor send, three-band
EQ, post -fader reverb/effects send
is internal), slide fader and
( reverb
stereo panpot. The Master section includes master faders for left, right and
monitor outputs each with its own
variable- cutoff, 18 dB /octave bass
Ridder
7
ON READER SERVICE CARD
A totally modular audio mixing
system is the new offering from
Custom Audio Electronics. The XPC16 series is totally modular and does
not use a mainframe or mother board;
the modules simply connect side-toside, allowing the mixer to be
expanded or the configuration to be
changed at will. Two different input
modules are available in the system.
The XPC -16 input module features mic
pad (20 dB), phase reverse switch, continuously variable mic gain (40 dB
range), break switch for interrupting
the signal path to patch external
effects devices, LED level indicator,
assign switches for eight stereo submaster buses, panpot, two echo/cue
sends with selectable pickup points
comes an interesting solution to related problems of inaudibility and excessive leakage in stage monitoring
systems. The Soundcannon SM112
looks rather like an oversized floodlight, but in reality it is a highly directional speaker system using a 12 -inch
extended-range speaker and a piezoelectric super horn in a special, hooded
enclosure. The sound field from the
Soundcannon is limited to about 20
degrees so that the sound can be focused exactly where needed, and the
unit's small size and 360 degree swivel
base allow for mounting the speaker
much closer to the performer's ears
36
MODERN RECORDING
(post- preamp, post-EQ or post- fader),
low- frequency and high- frequency
equalizers with four selectable frequencies each and a solo switch. The XPC 16P input module has all the same features as the XPC -16 but adds a third
echo send and uses a three-band para-
metric equalizer. Also available as an
option in the XPC -16P module is a
limiter circuit built into the preamp;
continuously variable controls are provided for threshold, compression ratio
and release time. A variety of sub master, master and special function
modules are available to allow a wide
variety of overall configurations to
suit particular applications.
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ON READER SERVICE CARD
SOUND REINFORCEMENT
Shure Brothers, Inc. has added two
new speaker systems with identical
performance characteristics to their
line of sound reinforcement equip-
One of the most interesting new
products presently available is the
Schaffer-Vega Diversity System, a
radio transmitter /receiver system
designed for "wireless" musical instrument amplification systems. Wireless
systems are becoming increasingly
popular with performers because they
offer virtually unlimited freedom of
movement to musicians previously
tethered by their cords, and also
beeap§e the instrument is no longer
electrically connected to a highpowered amplifier which under fault
conditions could deliver lethal
voltages to the musician. Wireless
systems have traditionally suffered
from several shortcomings, however
-they are prone to fading in and out
as the performer and his transmitter
move in relation to the receiver; they
are susceptible to picking up interfering signals from radio and TV transmissions (particularly from police and
emergency communications bands and
the now- overcrowded citizens band);
and they tend to be noisy relative to
normal instrument amplification
ment. The two models do, however, differ in packaging; the SR112 is designed for permanent installation
while the SR116 is a portable model
with a carrying handle and extra protection for the drivers. The units are
very compact, measuring only 153/4"
high x 23" wide x 15" deep, yet they
are designed to handle up to 100 watts
of continuous power. Wide frequency
response and maximum broadband efficiency were the primary objectives in
the design of the new models, and the
results are quite impressive for so compact a system: sound pressure output
of 95.5 dB at 4 feet with a 1 -watt input,
and virtually flat response from 45 Hz
to 16 kHz without a response- correcting equalizer. The systems each use a
pair of heavy -duty 8 -inch bass
speakers in a bass reflex enclosure and
a high frequency compression driver
with a 120 degree radial horn, and
either model weighs in at under forty
pounds.
CIRCLE
JUNE 1978
2 ON READER SERVICE
CARD
systems. Designer Ken Schaffer based
his system on the Vega Diversity
system which was introduced in 1976
by Vega Division of Cetec Corp., who
have long been leaders in the wireless
microphone field. Their Diversity
System uses two antennas separated
from each other by at least two wavelengths so that it is virtually certain
that at least one of them will be
receiving an adequate radio signal at
any given instant. Each antenna feeds
its own tuner and demodulator in the
Diversity Receiver, and a Diversity
Switching circuit chooses between the
two demodulated audio signals to give
the strongest audio output at all
times, virtually eliminating fade-outs.
The switching circuit matches both
the amplitude and phase of the two
signals for undetectable switching and
is designed to be "smart" enough to
switch only when the alternate audio
output is audibly better than the
signal already in use rather than
switching solely on the basis of RF
signal strength. Vega's years of experience have led to a sophisticated,
crystal-controlled receiver circuit with
multiple helical resonaror filters to virtually eliminate frequency drift and
interference signals. Previous wireless
systems had a signal -to -noise ratio on
the order of 60 dB, which is about the
same as a good FM broadcast station
and which was adequate for most applications; for use with a high-gain,
high-power amplification set-up in a
concert hall, however, 60 dB proved
inadequate. Schaffer's solution to this
was an effective compression/expansion system which stretches the
overall signal -to-noise ratio to something in excess of 85 dB while maintaining frequency response to 15 kHz
and total harmonic distortion under
1 %. Oh, yes, one other specification
you are undoubtedly interested
in -the price of all this high technology. The base price for a single transmitter /diversity receiver system is
$3300. The State of the Art is never
cheap.
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MUSICAL INSTRUMENT
AMPLIFIERS
Multivox/Sorkin Music Co. has carried a line of high- quality, moderately
priced amplifiers under the Premier
label for many years, and they recently
announced the new lineup of Premier
amps which features several portable
models using advanced "power -pak"
circuitry. The Premier P -50 is a 20
watt RMS guitar amplifier with a
special 10 -inch speaker. Electronically,
the P -50 features three inputs compen-
sated for normal, "bright," or microphone signals, volume, bass and treble
controls, and a tremolo circuit with
on/off switch, speed control and foot switch jack. The same basic amp is
available with a reverb unit as the
model P -50R. The Model P -54B is a 20
watt RMS, 12 -inch bass amplifier with
three inputs, and volume, bass and treble controls, while the Model P -35 is a
small guitar amp with normal and
microphone inputs, volume and tone
controls, and a tremolo circuit which
delivers 7.5 watts RMS into its
specially-designed 8 -inch speaker.
CIRCLE
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37
o
© ©
spit,
o
0-\L\
s?,-cPs'9
After years of watching an incredible parade of musical life flow
across that big glass window, one
picks up on the better ways of marching along the route to a record. Probably the reason many fall down is because few realize just how complex it
all is. And it has been getting more
complex during the last decade.
There are several factors to be considered when making a record. First
and most important is the song.
Thought I was going to say the studio
didn't you? But no, the song or whatever material you have is the most
important. Without that you have no
need for anything else, do you? Yet,
you would be surprised at how many
producers walk into a studio without
the first idea of what they are going to
record. Improvisation is great when it
is called for, such as in a "live" situation, but not at an irreversible and uhrelenting $2 per minute.
I'm not about to delve into the
theoretical aspects of music since my
index finger has spent most of its life
lighting up record buttons, but common sense (which has never been all
that common) will tell you that the
recording studio is not the place to see
if an arrangement works. At three or
four cents a second you should know
that it works.
Dollars and Steps
Unartistic as it may seem, you do
have to consider the great god $. How
much of him there is will determine
what you do and how you go about it.
Let's set up a situation as common to
all situations as is possible and one
that is easily adaptable. That is, producing your own record for your own
(self -owned) record company. You go
about it the same way you would if you
were making a demo for a biggy.
Whether you do it only with a self contained group or with the "sweets"
(strings & horns) depends on how big $
is. You will find musicians to be expensive. We will confine our discussions to
a single, with just a few pertinent references to LPs. Perhaps this would be
a good time to spread out the road map
and explain where we are going with
all of this. Here are the steps; you
need:
A song. You know, lyrics &
melody.
2. An arrangement (how to get
1.
one).
3. Musicians (how to get them).
4. A studio (how to find one).
IMITATED...
5.
NEVER
6.
DUPLICATED
7.
8.
9.
A mastering house (how to find
one).
A plating & pressing plant (how
to find one).
Labels (how to get them).
Promotion (how to get it).
Distribution (how to get it).
10. $ (sorry).
Step 1. This is easy. You must already have a song or you wouldn't be
planning on recording one, so on to
Step 2.
If you have a group you probably
have worked out the arrangement, or
are working on it. Keep the following
in mind. Playing "live" on stage in
front of an audience and playing in a
studio are two totally different animals with only a song title in common.
What works on stage probably will not
work on a record because very often,
on stage you have a visual show to fill
in the weak areas. While we're on this
topic let's grope through the psychology of it. Just why are the two areas
studio and stage -rarely compatible?
First, you can get away with almost
anything on stage ... short of exposing yourself. Mistakes, false starts,
even wrong words to a song. Why?
Because everyone is having a good
time, even you, or you wouldn't be
there and you know it. You have an audience and unless you are bombing
miserably, they are with you. Empathy I think it's called. So if you have
made them happy, made them laugh a
little, they will forgive you for even a
glaringly bad note or dropped line if
you are smooth enough to turn it
around. You can make a dozen minor
musical bloopers and get away with it
because in a "live" situation most of
the errors probably aren't even heard.
Even if the errors are heard they only
last a fraction of a second and then are
gone forever. On a recording they
come back to haunt you.
-
MODEL 210
Suggested Retail $295"
GRAPHIC EQUALIZER
of 1975 Spectro Acoustics
introduced the first graphic equalizer
utilizing operational amplifier synthesized inductors, completely eliminating
wound coils.
In October
The
results have been phenomenal.
So phenomenal in fact that the list of
imitators reads like a "Who's Who of
Equalization."
The synthesized inductors provide total
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and 25 volt peak to peak headroom for
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We've
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SPECTRO
ACOUSTICS
3200 George Washington Way Dept. BT
Richland, Wa. 99352 (509) 946 -9608
TC ELECTRONICS - Quebec, Canada
INTERNATIONAL
FIMC 30 Greenhill Rd.
Westwood, Mass. 02090
CIRCLE 90 ON READER SERVICE CARD
40
Be Prepared
A good experienced arranger will
know what works on a record and what
doesn't. So if you can't get an arranger
to do the job you will have to learn
from experience. Don't ask! I don't
know. Of course, when you get to the
studio there will be minor changes
especially if you are hiring studio cats
with whom you have never worked before and therefore haven't rehearséd.
The point is, don't ever walk into a
studio unprepared. Have the charts
completely written out, or, if it's a
head arrangement, know exactly what
your group will do. Expect a few
changes in the studio but don't plan on
a major rewrite or you've just blown
the lid off your budget.
Even if your funds come from a
bottomless hole in the backyard, it will
cost you in other ways. For one thing,
there is an electric feeling at the beginning of a session with all the last
minute mic touch- ups, musicians tuning up or warming up, board set -ups
and track assignments. The adrenaline
flow helps get the session started on
good vibes. But if someone looks at the
chart in front of him and says it can't
work (the bomb that sends everyone
for the pencils and aspirin), and the arranger has to rewrite the horn parts on
the spot, then that excitement turns to
anxiety and eventually to boredom.
Then the good vibes are as useful as a
sonic boom, 'cause they just went byebye. And when there are bad vibes or
hassles you just can't make a record.
These bad vibes also penetrate the
glass window. There is no wetter
blanket than for a studio crew all set to
go, having to sit idly by while the
music people get their act together.
The fact that they will get paid is of little consolation. Eventually ennui
turns to derisive commentary and
you've not only knocked the enthusiasm out of your mixer, but lost his interest and sometimes his respect. At
that point, no one can give his best no
matter how much he would like to.
Session Planning
When you have your arrangement
and know how many musicians you
will need plan your studio time, but be
flexible. The best laid plans ... and all
that. About the time you are getting
your arrangement together you should
also be applying for copyrights and
publishing and all that legal rot.
It is suggested that sessions be limited to three or four hours each and
that you go back to the studio several
times on different days. This gives you
time to think and get away from it.
You can look at it [listen to the song]
more objectively than you can during
forty or fifty hour marathon sessions.
I recall one time we went into our
windowless cocoon and when we came
out the city had gone through a snow
storm, dug its way out and the snow
had melted. We didn't even know it until we inquired as to why the parking
lot was auctioning off our cars.
So, by now you have the music part
MODERN RECORDING
v
together on paper and should have it
practiced to make sure it will work. If
you've been in a studio before you
have a good idea of what the differences are and what to compensate for
with respect to the studio environment. If not, prepare for some surprises (next issue for that). Make sure
of your basic plan, of what you want to
record and of how to go about it. Make
sure you've got yourself and your
group together musically, then plan
your attack. Know in advance everything that you want to record and that
will be included in the music, down to
the last tambourine, scratcher and
jew's -harp. This is important; you
might wind up without that essential
"vibraslap" part you wanted.
Now once you have it down and are
ready to go into the studio, you have
to hire musicians (if you need them).
You can call a bunch of guys yourself
-if you know good experienced
players -or you can call a contractor
who will hire them for you and also
handle the hassle of juggling the
studio and the various musicians so
that they all end up doing the same
thing at the same time in the same
place. For this he gets double pay.
Studio Tracking
By now you should also have picked
out a studio to do your recording in. So
let's see how we go about finding a
studio to suit your needs. Usually you
get what you pay for, but there are a
few minor bargains around. Everyone
dreams of recording in one of the big
name studios that the superstars
record in but most individuals have a
hard time cracking the $200+ /hr. nut.
There is no doubt that you will get a
technically superb recording at these
places, but there are other considerations. Many super studios cater to the
superstars, natch, and tend to look
down on the little guys bumbling
along. They don't want to waste their
time on a guy who probably isn't going
to make it (and the odds are against
making it, if you want to be realistic).
They want the big name to add to their
trophy room. That is what they are
geared for and one small session seems
to throw the machine back into second
gear.
Now on the other hand if you go to a
studio suited more to your stature you
will be greeted by the owner himself,
treated more cordially and see people
act as if they really want your busiJUNE 1978
SONG
ARRANGEMENT
PRACTICE
SESSIONS
COPYRIGHT
PUBLISHING
MUSICIANS
(
STUDIO
MUSICIANS
(lay tracks)
(
STUDIO
MUSICIANS
(overdubs)
PRODUCER
(no musicians)
STUDIO
(mix down)
DUBS
(final check)
MASTERING
(last chance)
LABEL &
ARTWORK
PLATING
PRESSING
PRINTING
DISTRIBUTION
PROMOTION
AIRPLAY
ROYALTIES
$
$
$
ness- because they
do. This is not to
imply that discourteous behaviour is
the rule at the big places. On the contrary, the treatment will be first class,
they're trained for it. But like the
stewardess' smile it's painted on for
the guy who can only spend a couple of
thou' on a studio. They'd really rather
cater to the group with a hundred kilo dollars. And so would you. Anyway, if
the size of the place doesn't put you off
and you can hack the bread go to the
big place, you can't do better. But if
you want genuinely friendly service
without having to leave your left arm
and right leg in payment, go to a good
small studio. Look for the owner operated places. Here the owner sees
what is needed equipment -wise (and
everyother -wise) and does it without
red tape and arguing with the accounting department about cost -effective
crap. He has the biggest stake in making you happy.
Remember, some people are crazy
and others don't know which end is up
technically so a good small studio is
hard to find. If you have friends who
make good recordings and you know
they don't own a printing press ask
them. If not look around and go visit a
few places; see if you can get the 5c
tour. Then keep your eyes open. Is the
receptionist efficient and not just a
knockout; are last week's beer cans
and pizza boxes still in the trash cans;
is the console clean. Ask to see their
test equipment, even if you don't know
an oscillator from an oscilloscope. You
may get a surprised look, but unless
there is a proud display and a little
spontaneous boasting about how well maintained their equipment is, be
wary. If there is total silence followed
by excuses, apologies, and a lot of double talk about how great the equipment is and how it never needs maintenance and has stayed in spec since it
came from the factory- without a clip
lead in sight -run for the nearest exit.
While you may not be able to hear the
difference between a well- maintained
recorder and one that is just barely on
the outer edge of spec, it is an important consideration.
Today's professional equipment is of
such high caliber that it is hard to
distinguish a recorder that is in top
condition from one miserably out of
alignment by listening- especially
with an untrained ear. But that is not
the point. The reason for such high
standards is not for that first generation recording, as almost any $800
amateur deck today can meet professional spec on that first recording.
But, rather the overriding concern is
the subsequent copies. That's where
the expensive decks maintain quality
above human ability to detect deterioration, and where the amateur stuff
rapidly makes mincemeat of the program material. Otherwise a studio
would have machines costing one-third
the cost of their normal equipment
outlay. Don't forget that by the time
your initial recording gets down to a
record, cassette or cartridge you will
have gone through at least five or six
generations!
41
Decisions, Decisions
After you've made as good a technical evaluation as you can then go to
the standard areas of decision. Of
course you want a decent rate that
doesn't include a free ticket to the
poorhouse. But if you have to pay
more for a better place, choose that
one over the $15 /hr. place that looks as
if it were just resurrected from the city
dump, and has a mixer wearing a
moth-eaten, coffee-stained T- shirt.
Also beware of the rate structures.
Some places have favorable hourly
rates, but charge to place the mic in
front of you before the session and
then charge to put the mic back in the
corner after the session. All multiplied
by how long it took the engineer to
drive to work. Hang clear of a dive like
that. All you should have to pay for is
an hourly studio rate plus tape, plus
rental on unusual musical instruments
not commonly found in a studio (i.e.,
the Mormon Tabernacle organ, an electric bass flugelhorn or bass marimba,
which the studio itself has to rent).
Sometimes, use of an extraordinary
piece of equipment beyond the normal
studio control room contingent -such
as a third 24- track -may bring a rise in
the billing. But those are the excep-
tions. You need mics, recorders and
equalizers, and they have to be set up
before the session and torn down after
the session, and a reputable studio will
not charge extra for these normal and
necessary tasks. Read the rate card
carefully.
Another very important concern, is
that you should have a good rapport
with your mixer. You have to have a
good line of communicaiton since the
two of you have to function as one
single unit. You're the brains and he's
your hands. If right after he shakes
your hand he says he's got to run out
for popcorn or is "too busy to talk
right now," you don't need him either.
Location is also a thing to think
about. People for some reason prefer to
fight city traffic, hassle with parking
lot attendants and try to cram harps,
vibes and Hammond organs into elevators which were obviously designed by
a guy who hates music, rather than go
to a quiet peaceful studio out in the
suburbs, on ground level, with its own
parking lot. Many attractive suburban
studios have failed because of people's
strange attraction to the city hustle bustle, and I'll never know why.
There is of course the opposite extreme -the studio perched on a moun-
ROil
tain top accessible only by helicopter,
or the studio two hundred miles into
the Everglades able to be found only
with the aid of a jungle guide. Even
that is preferable to the city, but it's
awfully rough on the guy who has to
haul in the special 13 -foot grand piano
for the channel on side B. But it's your
choice, and if that's how your crew
works best, then it's worth it.
Plan For Surprises
Once you find the studio for you and
you're ready, it's time to book the
room. Be ready with all pertinent information such as how much time you
want, how may tunes you want to do,
what instrumentation you are using,
which mixer you want to work with
and how the studio can get in touch
with you (a working number or two
that you can be reached at, not your
estranged wife's old number).
It's best to plan about a month in
advance so there is time to change
things around without inconveniencing anyone should a snafu get loose.
Remember, you, or your contractor,
are trying to coordinate several musicians and a studio so that everything
ends up in the same place at the same
MUSICAL PRODUCTS
''
//
/
s /e
<1.°'.°'
Qsec-
s.--1P//
Made in U.S.A.
.441
.,c.°'t+"
*,
s.--`
--'
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°
-'"
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SPECIFICATIONS
EO control range
-
+ 12db
Less than .1%
500K ohm
50 ohm
12 volts peak
Distortion
Input Impedance
Output Impedance
Maximum Input level
Gain with control settings at 0
Unity
Signal to noise ratio
Greeter than 85db
Power requirements
105 -125 VAC @ 50mA
Frequency response
20Hz to 20KHz + 1db
Maximum output level .. + 15dbm [ref : 1 mwatt /800ohm], 8VRMS into 10K ohm
SUGGESTED LIST
$ 119.95
KEASELECTRONICS,
INC.
210 W. MAIN
CHANUTE, KANSAS
66720
316 -431 -0400
CIRCLE 89 ON READER SERVICE CARD
42
MODERN RECORDING
time. Have alternate plans (for the
drummer who flew to the Coast the
night before the session because he
thought it was next week, and the conga player who woke up with a bad cold
on the big day). When you book a
studio for the first time figure on a little more time than you expect it will
take (unless you are one of those
meticulously well-organized people),
because when the clock starts it seems
that everything else slows down just
like in that bad dream where you're
running through molasses. You will
also bump into a few surprises you
didn't figure on.
After booking the time you will be
expected to provide some sort of
deposit to hold the time. Don't act like
a pompous ass and get indignant over
it. You've got to pay it anyway. You'd
be surprised how many people book
time all over the place for the same
time and never show up. The deposit
establishes your credibility and insures that you will arrive at the appointed time. You've got to admit that
people in our business excel in flakiness. And the electric company just
doesn't understand music people.
Those meanies don't care that you
really intended to show up but forgot.
They want their money for supplying
all that electricity, even if no one used
it. They even get unreasonable about it
and send out other mean people to
shut off the electricity. So that's why
you have to establish a line of credit
before the studio will dispense with the
deposit requirement. In this field
studios have no power over a bad debt.
Because chances are if you can't pay
the bill the record is a bomb anyway,
and no one, not even the owner, will
pay to get his tapes back. So how can
the studio get a bad debt back? It
WHY QSC?
Think about it ... why pay for a "high -end' piece of audio gear that is over- engineered
and over -Eric d for your application` The QSC Audio Produ.`ts line ain.s direc tl-y
at the person who needy high
quality engireering arid design
incorporated in'o a usefal and
practical product at a reasonable
pr_ce. Witn thre rugged power
amplifiers, two electronic crossovers, and tte -ompact AudioRack, the ÇSC line s-a nds up
strong agains: models :osting
substantially mare.
AUDIO
PRODUq'5
cb t,
"Think
lacentiz
Pleree
Costa Mess, CA 926
ie qr
caD
7,
cs for additional i, orrnatior.
CIRCLE 88 ON READEF SERVICE CARD
OCTAVE BAND ANALYZER
THE NEW MODEL 154
Simultaneous display - TEN oie octave bards -31.5 Hz to 16 kHz
Meets ANSI 1.11, Class II for
Lign- Emitting D ode reaJcut
FEATURES
Broaitand
=idly calibratec it dBsdl
Octave Band Filter Se.-s
dBsp L ne Input -calibrated in dBrr Flat or A- weighed measure ments Hand held -battery ooerated (rechargeable 'uickel- cadrrium
Precision rricîrcprone, carrying case. noise generator,
cells)
battery charger included
can't.
When the session is over pay your
bill promptly. That will insure good
APPLICATIONS
Sound system set-up
Noise surveys
Cctave equalizer
service next time. If they have to
worry about getting paid, you won't
get all the amenities and enthusiastic
service that Mr. Goodpay gets. Just
remember that balking at bill -paying
time or getting indignant over a
deposit marks you as a deadbeat.
Studios get stung a lot and have
learned to spot quickly the losers.
Don't get offended, try to understand
their position.
Next issue we will talk about what
happens when you finally get to the
studio.
END -Part I of a three -part series
JUNE 1978
adjustment
Speaker cFeckcut
Hon alignment
floornsurreys and
speak sr p' acerent
ALSO. Active and passive
egjal zers Other real time
analy_ers
D =ale inquiries
a®
irvied
INC.
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or.tir tetoday: WHITE INSTRLMENTS,
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CIRCLE 87 ON READER SERVICE CARD
43
The TC-K7 1I front-bad ing
cassette deck is its own best
spokesman.
Switch it on, and that disciplined Sony engineering will
come through loud and clear.
And no wonder. Sony's
been making tape recorders for
30 years. And today, we're still
pushing back the frontiers. The
K7 I[ shows how.
Its transport mechanism is
a DC servo-controlled motor, with
a frequency generator. It emits a
signal which is relayed to electronic circuitry that locks in the
tape movement exactly.
Our heads are ferrite -andferrite. And they're Sony's own
- crmula -we don't buy them, we
!se our heads and make them.
You'll also find a direct coupled head -playback amplifier.
This means we've eliminated the
middleman -the coupling capacitor-from the signal path. You
get your sound direct, with minimum distortion.
Another reason the K7 II is
the logical choice: our logic controlled feathertouch push- buttons
actually go from fast -forward, to
rewind, to play, without going
through the stop position.
The K7 II also speaks for
itself with Dolby Noise Reduction
System!' Large, professionally
calibrated VU meters. Three
LED's for peak level indication.
There's also bias and
equälization switches for standard, Ferri -Chrome and Chromium Dioxide tapes. In fact, with
nine possible combinations, any
tape possibility of the future can
be accommodated.
So if you're intrigued by
quality that speaks for itself, get
down to your Sony dealer and
check this new cassette deck.
Before they're all spoken for.
But it won't be s lent for
long. Because the moment you
record on one of our bank tapes,
that quality will make itself heard.
Witness our Ferri -Chrome
cassette.
Everybody knows that
ferric -oxide tapes are ideal for
reproducing the low frequencies.
And that chromium dioxide is
ideal for the high frequenc es.
As usual, Sony wouldn't
settle for anything but the best
of both.
And as usual, Sony's engineers solved the problem. With a
process that allows a coating cf
chromium dioxide to be applied
over a coating of ferric -oxide.
Cf coarse, in addition to
Ferri -C rome, Sony makes a
complete line: Chrome, Hi- Ficelity, Low Noise, Elcaset and
Our two coats are leaving
M icrocasserte.
other brands of tape cut in the
Sony's been making tape
cold. 3ecause Ferri -Chrome
for 30 years.
boasts shockingly low cis :ortion
o when it comes to
and s:artling dynamic rar ge.
answering the tough questiors
Sony is this advanced
abcut :ne manufacture of tape,
because we make more thar tape.
no ane fills it the blanks like Sony.
We rrake tape heads and tape
recorie-s, too. (No other corsumer company is teat involved.)
Because we know where tape
winds up, we're bette- able to
design and produce i:.
1978 Sony Corxration d Amr ca. 9 West 57th Street, New York, tic 10019
SONY
IE
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CIROLE 85 ON READER SERVICE CARD
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The only way to describe a session
is to
use the wpres engineer Kurt Kinzel
uses -no frills and "live." The proverbia. bottom li:e is: it works.
The distance between Macon, Georgia and Hollywood, California cannot
even be measured in miles; they are
wo -lds apart in many ways, but the
guys in the Marshall Tucker Band
have made the trip from Macon to
Hollywood to work on their new
wit: the Marshall Tucker Band
altum.
After s :x Gold and two Platinum
albums, a-1 cf which were recorded in
Macon at Capricorn Records, the band
has decided to shake things up a little
biz. The/ lave a new producer,
Stewart Levine, and are recording at
Criteria in Miami, Fla. and Hollywood
Sound, Los ' ngeles, Ca. Kurt Kinzel,
who has engneered their previous four
rezords, ias handled the Miami sessions anc is co-engineering the overdubs and mixing with Rik Pekkonen.
Marshall Tucker fans know that the
band cor. sib s of: Toy Caldwell (lead
guitar, stee' guitar and vocals); Tommy Cald-wel (bass and vocals); Doug
Gray (lead vocals); George McCorkle
(guitars); Jerry Eubanks (horns and
vocals); and Vail Riddle (drums).
They net Kurt when he was working
for the Eecard Plant recording studio
in Sausalito, Ca. He had engineered a
"live" KSAN broadcast and the band
had been impressed with the sound.
About two years later Kurt packed up
and moved to Macon. His laid-back
rature seems a contrast with that of
producer Stewart Levine's.
High- energy Person
In the fifteen minutes I had to speak
alone w.th Stewart, I found out more
than I'c ever have to know to write a
book at ou: Tucker. Levine is a highenergy person, no doubt about it. He's
constantly in motion. He also has impressive credits, most notably the Crusaders. His background seems to be
that of )nE heavily into R&B and Jazz oriented groups. Nevertheless, I came
to realise ;hat Levine is just right for
the job. Fe has always been knocked
out by ;he group's concerts, beginning
with the early years when they opened
the Allma Brothers' shows.
The relationship began one day
when Stewart received a call from the
group. Soon after he was off to Spar tanbur 3.C., where the group lives.
After spending three days with each
membcr, trading ideas and getting
i
know everyone, things began to gel.
Levine with his "live" Jazz approach
to recording was in alignment with
Marshall Tucker's "live get- down -andboogie" recording technique, and his
background also would allow him to
better communicate with Jerry [Eubanks, horns] and his jazzy horn lines.
Session Spontaneity
Now anyone who has ever been to a
Marshall Tucker concert knows that
this group can really put out on stage.
The basis for their albums has always
been play it and record it the way it
goes down with a minimum of overdubbing. For the new album, the band
is recording away from their homebase at Capricorn for the first time.
They chose Studio C at Criteria in
Miami.
The band has spent five or six days
rehearsing the seven new songs; they
do not rehearse the solos. The reason is
simple. They don't want Toy, for
example, to get locked in to a certain
solo lick that would not add to the
spontaneity of the session. Remember,
everything is "live." All the guitar
solos, all the horn solos, all the lead
vocals are performed in the room. I
frankly haven't heard of a band with
the guts to try this approach in a long
time, and I have to respect them for it.
Stewart says that the new album will
be about 80% "live," with the overdubbing mostly for adding emphasis
wherever needed.
The seven songs were recorded in
three working days of six -seven hours
each. They did move into Studio A for
the final day because the Bee Gees
were booked in. For just such emergencies Stewart carries a tape of familiar
material along with him, and he consequently is able to note the characteristics in each studio.
There is a certain irony in having
these two groups recording in the
same studio complex, because the Bee
Gees rely heavily on a loop with a
drum lick on it to set the tempo, and
painstakingly add the other instruments, until they have a complete
song. Tucker doesn't work that way;
[they feel] the results would be too
sterile.
Mics and Baffles
Kurt fills me in on the mic set -up at
Criteria. Paul's drums have eleven
microphones around them. The list is
as follows:
48
Bass drum (batter side)-Beyer 101
Bass drum (inside)-Sony C500
Snare drum -Shure 57
Hi- Hat -KM -84
Shell Tom -U -87
Floor Tom -U -87
Floor Tom two -U -87
Overhead Left -AKG 414EB
Overhead Right -AKG 414EB
Ride cymbal -AKG 452EB
Swish cymbal -AKG 414EB
Paul is set in a corner near the back
of the room. There is a hardwood floor
in the corner and a canopy over the
top. He has admired Kinzel's drum
sound ever since the KSAN broadcasts. The philosophy remains
straightahead.
"If you want a big drum sound,"
says Paul, "use BIG DRUMS! I can't
see taking a big set and padding it
down to sound like cardboard."
Kurt keeps track 1 & 2 for the two
kick drum mics; 3 & 4 are for drums
left and right; snare is on 5; and hi -hat
stays separate on track 6.
For Tommy Caldwell's bass, the
studio setup is exactly the same as his
stage rig. Kurt positions Caldwell's
amp in an isolation booth that is then
sealed from floor to ceiling. The bass is
taken direct, and also miked with a
Sennheiser 441.
Lead guitarist Toy Caldwell's amp is
baffled and picked up in stereo with
side by side mics, a 421 [Sennheiser]
and a Beyer 201. In an adjacent baffled area, one with a hardwood floor,
George McCorkle's rhythm guitar is
miked with a U -87. Jerry Eubanks is
across the room, and he plays into a
KM -86 [Neumann], through an 1176
limiter.
This arrangement pretty much
leaves the room open for Doug Gray's
vocals. Doug sings into an 86 with an
1176 on it. There is a room U -87 which
gets recorded for some additional ambience if it is needed.
If there is an acoustic guitar, it is
taken direct from a pickup and miked
with a 414 with a Pultec MEQ on it.
The console is a 20 -input desk built
by MCI, but it has been highly modified. Kurt records Tucker 24 -track at
30 ips. He uses Dolbys on all tracks except the drum, vocal and acoustic guitar tracks, because he feels you lose
some "realism" if they are Dolbyed.
Hollywood Overdubbing
We are overdubbing in Studio A at
Hollywood Sound. The finishing
touches have to be added before mix-
ing can begin. For this band, this simply means an additional rhythm instrument here or a harmony line there.
George is out in the studio tuning his
guitar for a rhythm overdub on "I'll
Be Loving You," and the other members of the band and producer Levine
are throwing a few ideas at him. He
plugs into the Strobotuner, leans over
to me and says, "I listen to what
everybody tells me, and then I do what
want."
Co- engineer Rik Pekkonen wants to
take the instrument direct, so George
sits down behind the console with his
guitar. Rik brings the fader up, George
checks his tuning again, and the tape
starts rolling. He adds a driving
chicka-chicka part that gets Paul
banging on the console and Toy jumping around waving his arms in the air.
Soon the entire band is on its feet, supporting George's playing. There is applause when he's through. Stewart
loves it. Doug yells, "Hey Kool
George, KG. Maybe we ought to
change your name to 'One Take
George.' "
Happy about the strength he's
added to the track, OTG heads out to
put his guitar away and says, "People
get too serious about makin' records.
It oughta' be fun."
The playback is heard on a set of
Auratones. An infectious opening riff
sets you up for a locomotive of energy
that stays up there until the last bar.
Next up is "Love Is A Mystery."
George smiles and says, "This song
has a real sleazy feel to it." Rik sets up
the Caldwell brothers for bass and
guitar ODs by putting an AKG C -12
on Toy's amp and a U -87 on Tommy's
bass amp. Stewart is all smiles. "You
guys are smellin' the end of this
album," he says. Tommy and Toy are
getting the sounds they want from
their amps. Tommy adds some reverb
on his Fender. They run through the
song one time in order to work out
their parts. Kurt patches in some 1176
limiters.
Stewart decides that all that is
needed in certain sections is a little
strength on the bottom. The two
tracks are panned extreme left and
right in the monitors, and the song
starts. They lay out on the opening
section and then add a six -note unison
part. Stewart is thinking about saving
this until the second chorus, but the
guys are playing it straight through so
that he will have it on tape and can add
it when he needs it in the mix. The second take is the keeper. The band hears
I
MODERN RECORDING
it back a few times, discussing when to
bring it in. Tommy opens his notepad
and compares notes with Stewart on
what else has to be put on the songs
before mixing starts tomorrow.
There's not much left to do.
The plan for the mixing session follows the same pattern as the tracking
and overdub sessions: straightahead.
'!
!i
5
55 5
50
115
1
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Wk.
1
.
It's a beautiful Sunday afternoon
and some of the guys have headed over
to Pasadena to race at a miniature
Grand Prix track that is set up out
there. The band has a couple of drag
racing fanatics in it, and (I think)
George holds some national speed
record. (After all, South Carolina is the
drag racing center of the world.)
Toy tells a story about the time he
was in the service and was hitching
aliong a deserted road. He heard some
crazy person chewing through his
gears and then saw a '54 Ford tearing
up the road in his (Toy's) direction.
Toy stuck out his thumb, but was
thinking, "I sure hope this nut doesn't
stop." The "nut" did, and Toy got in,
somewhat apprehensive. Well, this kid
had a huge mother engine in the damn
car and didn't even have a shift lever
on the bare transmission. He was shifting with a pair of vise grips clamped on
the side of the housing. Toy got home
in record time. There are hundreds of
these crazies down in S.C. Two of them
are sitting here in Studio B as Rik
begins to set up a mix on the board.
Simple Stuff
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The console, like the one in A is very
simple. The band likes it that way.
George: "Yeah, it don't have none of
that weird stuff on it." It has faders,
API 550 EQ, track and echo assignment thumbwheel switches and echo
send. Other outboard equipment that
Kurt has at his shoulder includes a
Cooper Time Cube, an Eventide
phaser, an Altec Program Eq and a
Lexicon digital delay unit. None of this
is used on the Marshall Tucker album.
A 3M 79 24 -track and sister 2 -track sit
at the back of the control room. We are
mixing on the Altec 604s but switching to a pair of bookshelf sized Mitsubishi speakers that are propped up on
the console. Rik is handling most of
the mixing today. He has worked at
Hollywood Sound on many albums,
and he and Stewart have recorded
many tracks together.
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11
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Tommy Caldwell (L) and Toy Caldwell working on
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right into the following guitar solo
before anyone realizes that it is a new
instrument.
The song opens with a bare guitar
riff. There is an overdubbed line here
because the original was really gritty
sounding, but the band decides to keep
it [the original] because there is
something about the "feel" that they
like. And that is what is important
Sennheiser 441
Alembic
15" Cabinets
8
i
w/ JBL Speakers
here.
McIntosh 2300 amp
Alembic preamp
Hiu
Drum Booth
Baffle
Floor to Ceiling
Hat
Drum
Canopy
Overhead
w/ Hardwood
Floor
With Stewart, Rik and Kurt on the
board, the mix is finished after three or
four tries. Everyone hears the entire
song on both speaker systems before
the final nod is given. Doug has a great
vocal on this song and the harmonies
are used very effectively in certain
lines.
Room
e
U
-87
Microphone
_Fender Twin Reverb
w/ Marshall or
Roland Cabinet
Vocalist
e
Sax &
Flute
e
Lead
KM -86
Guitar
Sennheiser
421®
Beyer 201
Hardwood
Floor 3'x3'
KM -86
/
Rhythm
Guitar
G
U -87
Boogie or
Roland amp
Control Room
The set -up in Studio C of Criteria Recording Studios in Miami, Florida where Capricorn recording artists, The Marshall Tucker Band chose to record their latest group
effort. It was the first time they had recorded away from their home base in Macon.
Love Is First
The schedule is: three songs mixed
on Saturday, three on Sunday and one
on Monday. First up is "Love Is A
Mystery."
Pekkonen brings up the drum faders
and supplies a bit of "10 K "to add a
little crispness to the cymbals. He
cranks in some "5 K" and "400 Hz" on
the snare for bite and punch. Setting
the echo return with the snare track
(he has a "live" chamber at his
disposal) he brings up the bass guitar
and balances it to the kick drum. Once
he is satisfied with those instruments
50
on both sets of monitors, Toy's stereo
guitar is blended with some echo. An
acoustic guitar to the right, sax in the
center, echo on the tamborine, and
then, some decisions have to be made
as far as building the track.
Stewart hears the song through a
few times, and decides to keep the bass
and guitar ODs out until the second
chorus. Everyone gets in on the process. This song is unusual for Marshall
Tucker in that it has about six 'tracks
of overdubs. This mix will be the hardest one on the album. The saxophone
solo is balanced so that it will slide
Everyone takes a break to clear his
head out and grab something to eat.
Rik tells a story about a well-known
San Francisco acid -rock group that
went to Mexico to do its album at a
small 8 -track studio that nobody was
familiar with. When the mixes were
completed, the group's engineer asked
for the 8-track masters and was told
that the tape they had used was the
only reel the studio owned, and the
studio needed it for the next group.
Playin' What They Like
If only one feeling comes across to
the reader in this article, I hope it will
be the sense of energy and pride that
the Marshall Tucker Band has in its
music. It is a good feeling to be playing
what you enjoy and have the public
start to pick up on it. It is a form of
acknowledgement that you are doing
something worthwhile.
These guys have a lot of guts to
change producers and switch to two
new studios during a string of albums
that is all gold, but in a sense, the
changes don't mean a thing. The
Tucker band is the same; they just
keep on playing what they like to play.
No digital delays, phasers, flangers,
Super Power Noobies or what have
you. Straightahead, high- energy,
Southern boogie travelin' music. They
never went after that "single" -type
record, although they did have a hit
with "Heard It In A Love Song."
If their fans can pull a hit 45 off an
album and expand the Tucker legions
once, they can do it again. I think there
are a lot of people out there who are going to be turned on to these guys when
this album comes out.
MODERN RECORDING
GOOGA MO
A SPEAKS!
Come hear the final word on bass instrumental amplification and reinforcement.
Listen to Googa Mooga speak at you= CDm_r.anity dealer now.
J
Camriunity Licht & Sound, Inc.
,
iy 17
5701 ársys Avenue Dhladelpn a, PA 19.43
CIRCLE 36 ON READER SERVICE CARD
(215) 727 -0900
By
Ret
Weis
Last month, in Part I, we began to
discuss the terminology and general
applications of reverberation devices
and effects. We left off with descriptions and simplified block diagrams of
stereo echo systems. The block diagrams are simplified in that they show
only basic signal paths for illustrative
purposes, rather than actual electrical
interconnections between units. Also,
signal conditioning devices in the echo
system, such as filters and equalizers,
were omitted for clarity, and because
these devices deserve separate attention. Now that we are familiar with
basic artificial echo systems, we can
proceed to discuss these additional
features.
Recalling Definitions
In order to understand the need for
filtering the echo send signal, let us
consider what happens to sound waves
in an actual room, and recall our definition of decay time. We defined decay
time as the time it takes for a reverberating signal of a specific frequency
to decrease in intensity to a level of 60
dB below that of the original signal. In
general the decay time of a room (at a
their original level much sooner than
the low frequency portions. This
shorter decay time for high frequencies
creates an overall effect of "warming"
or boosting the bass portion of the
reverberant sound. Acoustical echo
chambers reproduce these aural effects, as do most high- quality plate
and spring units. Figure 1 shows the
decay time vs. frequency characteristics of a high -quality spring echo
chamber. Note that the difference in
decay time between signals at 200 and
2000 cycles can be as great as two
seconds.
If, in all cases, echo chambers were
used to recreate the ambience of a
large room, then the extended, enhanced bass characteristics described
would be necessary and welcome.
There would be no need for any signal
conditioning devices in the echo
system. However, in actual multitrack remixing of many contemporary
music productions echo is considered
and used as a special effect, rather
than as an aid to realism. ( "Special effects" as used here refers to any means
used to significantly alter the sound of
a particular mix element. As applied to
echo chambers, any use other than re-
haps to the tracks containing the snare
and other elements of the drum set.
We turn off all the other tracks, open
the echo returns to normal settings,
and begin to crank open the echo send
control on the drum track(s). If we are
using a good quality echo chamber, we
should hear a rich, reverberant, and
generally very impressive sound. However, as we begin to mix in the remaining tracks, the reverberation seems
less and less impressive, and finally
almost disappears. The immedate impulse is to turn up the echo send control(s) on the drum track(s). Unfortunately, this causes the VU meter
monitoring the echo send level to hit
the pin with every snare drum beat,
and we still do not hear enough echo.
Okay, then let's turn up the echo
return. We do this and discover that
the bass portion of our mix is now indistinct and muddy. Also, the VU
meters monitoring the stereo output
level of the console are in the red a little more than we would like. We could
turn down the stereo master fader to
correct the level, but this would not
help the bottom end.
The cause of all these problems is the
bass response of the echo chamber.
AIGHT CHANNEL
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MODEL
MlPwAHai'..
OVT
ATHIN
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DUAL.
EVERBE1*ATIi7N
OGIBAN/PAggSOUND
given frequency) depends on room size
and the acoustical nature (absorptive
or reflective) of the room surfaces.
Most room surface materials, even
plaster, are more absorptive (less
reflective) at increasing frequencies.
This means that after each successive
reflection of a complex sound wave
(i.e., containing signals at many different frequencies, in varying proportions) from the surfaces of a large
room, the high- frequency content of
the reverberant sound will be smaller
and smaller. Another way of saying
this is that the high frequency portions of the reverberant signal are diminished in intensity to 60 dB below
JUNE 1978
creating room ambience qualifies as a
special effect.) In most multi -track
applications enhanced bass response
becomes a problem.
Bass Response Problems
In order to define this problem clearly, let us consider the amount of lowfrequency signal present in a typical
rock production -electric bass, mixed
"up front," bass drum likewise, tomtoms, full -range keyboards, etc. Now
let us imagine that we are engineering
the remix of such a production, and we
are asked by the producer to "add
echo" to the snare drum track, or per-
The chamber is returning a more or
less full -spectrum signal to the stereo
mix, but we don't need the full spectrum. The only portion we need (and
can hear distinctly) is the upper half
(mid and high frequencies). The low
frequencies coming from the chamber
add to the stereo meter reading. but
'r,
contribute very little to what -
except the muddiness
before. What we do
portion of our mi
the low- frequP'
return sirtwo coqv -
1-
mc)
EMT 140 TS
of one is increased, the other is totally
overpowered.)
Since the low- frequency portion of
the echo signal (in our example, at
least) is so troublesome, some means
must be found to control or eliminate
it. The best way to overcome these difficulties is to prevent the low frequencies from getting to the echo
chamber at all. This is simply accomplished by placing a low- frequency
cut-off filter in the echo send line.
units provide no integral filters or
equalizers and require the user to supply these if deemed necessary. The
Orban/Parasound spring echo chamber has low and midrange equalization
(boost or cut) at the input to each of
the unit's two independent echo channels. There is a "digital echo chamber"
available from Quad /Eight that is
reported to recreate room acoustics
with amazing realism. It is assumed
that this realism includes the extended
real question remaining concerning
their use is, "When ?" As mentioned in
the beginning of Part I, artificial echo
is sometimes used to re- create the effect of an instrument, voice or entire
group performing in a "live" (reverberant) environment. This use of echo
chambers occurs most often in the
recording and mixing of "serious"
music. Whether or not this effect is
desired in a given situation is a decision that rests with the person or persons ultimately responsible for the
quality of the production. In most professional situations the responsible
parties are the A & R person and the
engineer. Often these two roles are
assumed by a producer /engineer, and
sometimes by performers.
The use of echo chambers to create
special effects is also a production/
engineering decision, and is probably
the most commonly encountered use of
these devices in contemporary music
productions. Since echo chambers are
designed for a more or less limited purpose the scope of special effects possible with them is also limited. Actually,
by our definition, "echoing" only certain tracks in a mix is in itself a special
effect, since in an actual room all elements of a performance would contribute to the reverberation, not just
selected ones.
CPR -16
()I( 1AI
NEYEREIERATiON SYSTEM
[email protected]
SIZE
TIME
,
e)\eelel fII(llEl
t-U-a I[eItog
Signal Conditioning
Very often conditioning of the echo
return signal is required. The reason
may be either a further need to overcome masking effects, or to emphasize
a particular frequency range in order
to produce special effects. For these
applications a program equalizer of
moderate flexibility can be inserted in
the echo return line.
The various electro- mechanical echo
chambers available on the market prodifferent degrees of input and outonditioning. The very
140 TS plate
'ER
bass response already discussed, since
the front panel controls include a lowfrequency cut -off filter. Several of the
spring -type echo chambers available
include a fixed-time delay circuit which
performs the function of the external
delay devices described in Part I.
Using one of these units would free a
delay device for other applications.
"When Do I Use It ?"
Now that our understanding of echo
chambers and their associated equipment is a bit more complete, the only
Other special effects involving echo
chambers are usually created on the
spot, and tend to be pretty subtle. For
example, when a true stereo echo system, as described in Part I, is not available, but two or more single -channel
echo chambers are on hand, it is possible to have a track and its returned
echo at opposite sides or at the same
location in the stereo spread. Any panning scheme between these extremes is
also possible. With more than one
single -channel echo chamber it is
possible (assuming the chambers have
variable decay times -the decay time
of an echo chamber is usually rated at
MODERN RECORDING
www.americanradiohistory.com
Last year, under the
direction of the U.S.
State Department, the
Nitty Gritty Dirt Band
made history by being
the first American
band to do a tour of
the Soviet Union.
From a diplomatic
stand point, it would
prove to be the most
significant series of
concerts an American
group had ever
The
sound system
that raised the
Iron Curtain!
played.
The prerequisites
for such a tour were
obvious. Only the
most reliable, high
performance sound
equipment should be
used. Maximum
efficiency, versatility,
and compactness
would be absolute
necessities.
I
r
The choice was
Peavey. SP -1 en-
closures bi -amped
with CS -800 power
amplifiers would
create the backbone
of the system. Artist
and LTD instrument
amps would make up
the on stage gear
along with Peavey
monitor enclosures
and a 1200 Stereo
Mixing Console.
May 2, 1977 the tour
began through five
cities and twenty three performances in
every imaginable
condition from large
auditoriums to outdoor bicycle tracks.
Dirt Band sound
man Gary Mullen
recalls, "One of the
problems we faced
was severe drops in
voltage. At times we
were running on
voltages as low as 80
volts. can't tell you
how or why, but the
equipment kept on
working. Not only was
it loud, but through
the wonders of biamping, it was crystal
clear. In the five
shows at the bicycle
track, the system was
left on the stage each
night and two nights
brought enough rain
to float a barge. Each
time we uncovered it
for a show it worked
great,...the tour was a
total success!"
The folks at Peavey
appreciate the Dirt
Band's confidence in
our equipment. We're
proud to have had a
part in bringing a
piece of the U.S.A. to
the U.S.S.R.
Peavey Electronics Corp.
Street
Meridian, Mississippi 39301
711 A
©1.78
"The system was set up with FH -1 bass cabinets
stacked two high with two MF1 -X 'horns on
top of each stack and two stacks on each
side of the stage. It looked pretty small but
the system totally covered the area with
no dead spots and enough acoustic
power to make it loud enough to
wake the dead!
Gary Mullen
Dirt Band sound man
CIRCLE 94 ON READER SERVICE CARD
I'd like to know
more about the
Peavey line of
advanced sound
gear. Send me a
free catalog.
Name
Address
I
I
I
I
I
Decay
time
sec.
e
4
2
10 Hz.
50
100
500
1000
5000
10.000
Fig. 1: The frequency vs. decay time characteristic of the AKG BX -10E spring reverb unit at
setting of 3.5 seconds.
a signal frequency of 1000 cycles. The
actual decay time at other frequencies
can be determined from graphs such as
those in Figure 1) to have a long decay
time for an electric organ, and a
separate chamber with a shorter decay
time for percussion tracks.
Sometimes echo chamber special effects can be emphasized to the point of
becoming a major musical element of a
mix. Examples of this kind of treatment can be found on Simon and Gar funkel's "Bridge Over Troubled
Water," "The Boxer," and other of
their recordings. The "exploding
drum" effect heard on these productions was created by producer/ engineer Roy Halee, using only echo chambers and compression [For more on
Halee's techniques, see MR's Oct. '77
issue-Ed.] The resulting sound was
then placed prominently in the mix.
associated fader. Part of the signal
travels the normal signal path and the
other portion is sent to the delay
device. If a delay device with only one
output is used this output is patched
to an available mixing fader and
placed in the desired left -to -right perspective in the stereo spread. Other
outputs, if available and needed, are
treated separately. The stereo placement of the delayed signals may coincide with that of the original signal, or
the signals may be panned to different
stereo locations. Each of the signals,
original and delayed, is available for
any processing which may be required,
such as further equalization, limiting,
a
nominal decay time
or adding echo to some or all of the
signals.
The precise nature of the effects
created in the above set -up will depend
on the actual delay time available. For
tape delay on a 71/2/15 ips deck, the
times are (approximately) 260 and 130
milliseconds, respectively. These times
are a bit long for many purposes. For
example, a vocal track mixed with a
260 ms.-delayed version of itself will
become unintelligible if the delayed
signal is mixed loud enough to be clearly heard. The original and delayed
signals overlap and mask each other.
Even a 130 ms. delay may be too long
to use effectively for vocals, but may
To echo send bus
Echo oll
Delay
In Part I we discussed the use of
delay devices (tape & digital) in conjunction with echo chambers as an aid
to achieving natural -sounding echo.
Now we will re- examine the different
types of delay devices and explore
their uses in creating various effects.
We will divide our discussion into two
parts, based on the kinds of effects
produced by delay devices and the
types of interconnection schemes required to produce these effects.
Frequency
Input from
multi-track
>
O
Pre/0
Echo send level
To stereo
min buses
EO
Fader
R
Tape or digital delay
Fader
Delay Without Feedback
(See Figure 2) Delay without feedback can be achieved with either tape
or digital delay. The signal from the
track to which the effect is to be apis split, generally at a point after
ualizer and before the
To stereo
mix buses
R
Fig. 2: Delay without feedback.
MODERN RECORDING
Sound Workshop
introduces its arms.
The Auto - Recall Mixdown System brings computerized
mixing to the Sound Workshop Series 1600.
The Series 1600 is a high- performance, automation -ready audio
recording console available in
several mainframe sizes, all fully
expandable to a maximum configuration of 36 x 32, and all ready for
direct interface with both the VCA
input sub -group package and the
ARMS Automation Processor.
arm
r
-7-1` "7`7
i'
'
r
d
`..
1
During m xdown, ARMS stores fader levels which can be recalled for
track by -rack update of the mix.
ALTO RECALL MIXOOCn SYSTEM
The Sound Workshop Series 1600 Recording Console.
A new philosophy in console design. Now with arms.
Tapes processed with ARMS are compatible with MCI's JH -50 Autor-
the technology wi*'
Sound Workshop Bringing
1324 Motor Parkway, Hauppa'
PROFESSIONAL AUDIO PRODUCTS
be suitable for other mix elements. A
tape deck running at 30 ips, producing
a delay of 65 ms. is probably more
generally useful for tape delay without
feedback.
Digital delay devices offer much
more versatillity than tape delays.
Most digital delay devices have more
than one output, with variable delay
times for each output. The following is
a partial but representative list of currently available digital delay devices,
with the delay range and number of
outputs available with each.
MXR Digital Delay- single channel
input and output .08 to 320 ms. delay
range.
Lexicon delta -T- single channel input, up to 5 outputs 5 to 40 ms. delay
per output.
Eventide 1745M- single channel input, two independently adjustable out puts. .02 to 320 ms. delay range, expandable to 640 ms. with narrowed frequency response.
Selecting Delay Times
The selection of delay time for a nofeedback delay effect should be based
on the aesthetic needs of the production, but perhaps we can offer some
guidance. Delay times in the 10 -50 ms.
range produce a "doubling" effect,
which sounds almost as if the delayed
signal were a separately performed
version of the original track. Delay
times in the 20-150 ms. range are used
when the delay device is to be incorporated into a complete echo system
as described in Part I. Delay devices
with variable delay times and multiple
outputs also find wide application in
sound reinforcement work, where they
can be used to synchronize speakers
that are at different distances from the
stage with the direct sound and action
from the stage.
gained into how and why certain special effects are created in the control
room. If we think about it, even on our
favorite album there may be a cut that
is our least favorite, one that is a
musical outcast for any number of reasons. Well, performers and producers
often have "least favorite" cuts on
albums they create. These are the cuts
that don't really move anybody but
end up on the album anyway.
This writer, while engaged in the
remix of just such a gem, was asked to
"come up with something that'll help
that guitar solo stand out." The solo
was tonally and dynamically pretty
tame, so the only recourse was to use
some sort of special effect. On this particular album, delay and other rever-
beration effects had already been applied to other solo instruments, and
when applied to the guitar solo in question, didn't help. As a result (probably)
of a combination of sleep deprivation
and caffeine overdose a variation on
straight 15 ips tape delay without
feedback was suggested by this writer.
A small lump of masking tape was
fixed to the delay tape machine capstan, causing it to flutter the tape
speed at a high rate. This delayed,
warbling, growling guitar, when mixed
with the original guitar track during
the solo, certainly was attention getting, and a mix containing this effect ended up on the album. Unfortunately, as is the case with many effects,
indeed whole mixes on occasion, that
are created under conditions as
described above, that particular album
cut and effect are still held in low
esteem by the people responsible for
their creation.
Delay With Feedback
When a portion of the delayed output signal from either a tape or digital
delay is fed back to the input of the
same device, the effect created is one
we have defined (in Part I) as "reverb,"
Story Time
If the reader is willing to suffer a
t digression, some insight may be
MODERN RECORDING
Theirweight makes them portable
Their performance makes them professional.
Introducing Technics new professional pc-table
cassette decks. Our top -of- the -line RS -686DS speaks
far itself. Its 6 lbs.,l 3 oz. say it's portable. Its 3 heads
say it's professional. And all the other features say it
will give you recordings of professional caliber.
Features like a unique anti-rolling mechanism for
unprecedented portable transport stability. A
frequency generator servo motor that ime ediately
counteracts any variation in rotational speed.
Separate bias and equalization. Even Do by
The RS -686DS also gives you controls you won't
find on many non -portables. Like a tape /source
monitor swiitch. Low cut 'filter..Mike aittenuator. And a
three- minute tape end alert eye.
A less expensive alternative is the RS- 646DS. The
portable deck with performance specifications usually
found only in higher priced cassette decks.
The RS -686DS and RS- 646DS. Professional
specifications. Plus the flexibility of recording sound
wherever it may take you.
TRACK SYSTEM: 4 -track 2- channel record/
playback. MOTOR: FG servo -controlled DC motor
(RS- 686DS). DC e ectronic speed control motor
(RS- 646DS). FREQ RESP. (± 3 dB): RS- 686DS: Cr02
tape, 50- 16,000 Hz; Normal Tape, 50- 14,000 Hz.
RS- 646DS: Cr02 and Normal Tape, 50- 14,000 F-z.
WOW AND FLUTTER (WRMS): 0.07% (686). 0.10%
(646). S/N RATIO ;Dolby): 66 dB (686). 65 dB (6-46).
DIMENSIONS: 3 "H x 91/2"Wx 77/8"D (686).
41/4"Hx 141/4"Wx11l "D (646).
Technics RS -686DS and Technics RS- 646DS.
A raire combination of audio technology. A new
standard of audio excellence.
'Dolby
is
a
trademark of Dolby Laboratories, Inc.
Technics
by Panasonic
CIRCLE 53 ON READER SERVICE CARD
Professional Series
or slap echo. This effect can be heard
on many rock productions of 1950's
vintage and is characterized by a
series of low- level, closely -spaced repetitions of the last note or word of a
phrase. The effect is most noticeable
(as is the case with practically all reverberation effects) in relatively
sparse places in the music, where the
repetitions can be heard. Moderate
amounts of "reverb," sometimes in
conjunction with echo, adds extra fullness and resonance to a mix element.
In order to understand how this effect is created, let us trace a signal
through a reverb set-up. The signal
from the track we wish to enhance
with this effect is split, as before, with
a portion following the normal signal
path, and another portion sent to the
delay device. The delayed output is
then assigned to a mixing fader. This
time, however, a portion of the delayed
output signal is split off after this
fader and sent back to the input of the
delay device. (Some delay devices
feature an integral feedback loop with
a front panel mix control. If such a
unit is used for reverb, no external
feedback arrangement is required.)
The reverb effect is created when the
delayed signal is sent back to the delay
device to be delayed over and over.
Now, instead of a single repetition, as
when using delay without feedback, we
have multiple repetitions, evenly
spaced in time. If we wish to maintain
the volume level of the repetitions we
must have a feedback loop with unity
gain, or no loss in level. (Gain is the
ratio of output to input level. Unity
gain means that the output and input
levels are identical.) The fader to which
the output of the delay device is connected in the description above serves
to reduce the feedback loop gain below
unity, resulting in a fall-off in volume
for each successive repetition. If we
were to have a gain greater than unity
in the feedback loop, the system would
begin to run away and overload, since
each repetition would now be louder
than its predecessor. These effects can
be verified by experimentation with a
tape deck with separate record and
playback heads, and a mixing facility.
In the most widely used version of
the slap-echo effect, the repetitions
diminish in volume and are equally
spaced in time. The time interval between repetitions depends on, and is
equal to, the delay time selected on the
delay device. Once again, it is worth
mentioning that tape machines provide a very limited choice of times,
corresponding to the tape speeds available. With variable delay time digital
devices it becomes possible to vary the
time interval between repetitions to
complement or coincide with rhythmic
To echo send bus
Echooff
OL/
Pre
/C)
O
Echo send level
Post
l
Input from
multi -track
>
To stereo
mix buses
EO
Fader
R
patterns in the music. Also, some units
provide a means of sweeping the delay
time between preset values.
Unique Device
A discussion of delay devices and
reverb would not be complete without
mention of a unique device first encountered by this writer at the studio
complex of a major record company.
The unit has no specific name, but it is
or was manufactured by the Audio
Instrument Company of New York.
The machine consists of a deck plate,
1/4 -inch tape guides, capstan, puck,
erase head, record head and three
moveable playback heads that slide in
a track. The outputs of the playback
heads are combined in a single linelevel output channel, and there is a
feedback mixing control. A loop of 1/4inch tape, moving at 30 ips is used as
the storage medium. The moveable
playback heads provide the means for
varying the time between repetitions.
In this case the first three repetitions
occur as the recorded signal reaches
each of the playback heads for the first
time. The aural illusions attainable
with this device were intriguing
enough to cause the studio staff to do
some modification work on one of
them. A variable speed capstan motor
was installed, and a fourth playback
head was added. Also, rather than
leave the outputs of the playback
heads to be combined within the unit,
each of the four heads was fed to an individual playback preamplifier. This
provided four individually controllable
line -level outputs, which could then be
fed back or not, as desired. Some engineers tried placing the four outputs
at the "corners" of a quad remix and
achieved very interesting results. The
original unit, modified in 1972, is still
in use.
Although our discussion of reverber-
ation effects "Echo," "Reverb,"
(
Tape or digital delay
Fader
To stereo
mix buses
R
Feedback loop
"Delay ") has dealt with these effects
separately, in many working situations all of them are put to use, sometimes all in the same mix. The choice of
effects and the extent to which they
are used is a decision that is unique to
a mixing situation, and should be governed by the participants' collective
musical and auditory tastes and judgement. It is the intent of this and the
previous article to provide guidelines,
but there is no substitute for hands-on
and ears -on experimentation.
-77
Fig. 3: Delay with feedback or " reverb."
60
End of
a
Two -Part Series
MODERN RECORDING
APiotographea at Oskos Disco,
Los Angeles, CA. Sound Installation
by Sourd ()namited Systems.
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BE
CIRCLE 52 CN READER SERVICE :ARC
SYSTEMS
Get Behänd Us.
BY LEN FELDMAN
Just for the Record
Ever since this publication first saw the light of day,
the emphasis has been on tape recording. Taping is
what the majority of our readers is into, whether they
be professionals who earn their livings in a recording
studio, musicians who use their tape equipment and its
peripheral hardware as a tool to further their artistic
pursuits, or serious audio hobbyists who have progressed beyond the point of passive enjoyment of their
sound reproducing systems. But, when you stop to
think of it, most of the music we hear originates from
discs, not tape. The end goal of the recording engineer
is to have his or her carefully created master tape mix
become a commercially successful record. The amateur
or semi-pro music group with its multi- track semi-pro
tape equipment hopes that some day one of its tapes
will make the transition to vinyl -and thenceforth to
gold -plated fame. So, I thought that this month it
might be a good idea to explore some of the problems
that still beset record playing in the real world of
recorded sound.
Most of the earlier treatises I have read concerning
record playing deal with the laboratory, or ideal situation. Records are presumed to be perfectly flat -a presumption which anyone who regularly purchases discs
from the current crop of offerings knows is far from
true. Records are presumed to be free of dirt and dust
and devoid of electrostatic charge or build -up- again,
hardly ever the real-world case. Phono cartridges are
often analyzed without regard to the interface between
them and the tone arm in which they are mounted.
Recommended downward tracking forces of phono cartridges are often quoted without regard to some of the
external influences which might significantly alter the
trackability of the stylus tip in the record groove.
The importance of these problems was highlighted in
a recent technical seminar sponsored by Shure
Brothers Inc., the well-known makers of phono cartridges, microphones and related electronic products.
The climax of this seminar was, as you might have
guessed, the introduction of a brand new cartridge
(V -15 Type IV) which had, according to Shure, taken
many of these real -world record playing problems into
account and gone a long way towards alleviating them.
Our purpose here is not to evaluate the relative success
62
of the new pickup, but rather to focus on some of the
problems themselves.
Tone Arm/Cartridge Resonance
Any tone arm and cartridge combination will be
resonant at some frequency. This resonance exists
because the arm and pickup assembly behaves like an
effective mass that is coupled to the record groove by
means of a stylus assembly with its own mass, compliance and mechanical resistance. Just as a weight
hanging from a spring has a natural resonant frequency, so do the compliance of the stylus and the effective
mass of the pickup /arm assembly. If you have ever
read the specification sheets relating to tone arms you
will know that, in most cases (and for most cartridges
mounted in modern tonearms), this resonance frequency is well into the sub-audible range- usually in the
range between 5 Hz and 10 Hz or so. You might at first
suppose that such resonances are unimportant, since
there is no musical signal content at such low frequencies (and even if there were you could not, by definition, hear such low frequencies). It can be argued,
therefore, that there is nothing in the record groove
which will excite the arm/cartridge combination at its
resonant frequency. Well, here is where those "real
world" imperfections in the record come into play.
Warped Records
The most common source of resonance excitation is
that of warped records. It has been found that warps
occur in a broad low- frequency spectrum extending
from 0.5 to about 10 Hz. This form of excitation of
resonance operates mostly in the vertical direction.
One major problem caused by the excitation of the
stylus/tone arm resonance is that of mis- tracking.
Assume that a tone arm has a low- frequency resonance
of 5 Hz, a frequency well below the range of human
hearing. If that resonance should be excited by a
warped record, for example, the arm will move vertically up and down, magnified considerably by the resonance effect. This motion effectively increases and
decreases the tracking force in an oscillating manner
at a rate of 5 cycles per second. At the points of reduced tracking force, mistracking is more likely to oc-
MODERN RECORDING
cur than would be the case if no resonance existed. At
points of increased tracking force, record and tip wear
are accelerated.
A second problem that results from the excitation of
stylus/tone arm resonance is known as the "scrubbing" effect. With the stylus effectively moving up
and down with respect to the record surface, the vertical tracking angle alternates about its correct angle
and this causes a significant change of relative speed
between the stylus and the record groove with an attendant frequency modulation, or "wow" of the program material. A change of speed of stylus in the
groove of as little as 0.6 cm per second (not unusual
when resonance is excited) calculates out to be a pitch
change of around 1.5% and is quite audible.
Another problem which can result from the lowfrequency stylus /tone arm resonance is the creation of
high-amplitude low- frequency signals which can overload amplifiers. This is especially significant now that
so many amplifier manufacturers have extended lowfrequency response of their products down to "DC" or
at least well into the sub -sonic region. Such signals
may also produce low- frequency high- amplitude motions in loudspeakers, which will result in Doppler
distortion and possibly overload distortion in those
speakers.
Static Charges on Records
To the audiophile who regularly deals with high quality record playing equipment, static electricity
charges are a never -ending nuisance. The problems are
usually worse in the winter, when humidity is low, but
some of the effects can be felt even in mid- summer.
These effects show up principally as crackling or popping noises during record playback, brief popping
sounds during arm set -down, excess stylus force due to
electrostatic attraction of the cartridge to the record,
dust and dirt attracted to the playing surface (which
produces wear and playback noise) and, in the case of
record changers, attraction of the arm to the unplayed
stack which can interfere with setdown and even
reduce tracking force to induce mis- tracking.
A research project conducted by Shure Brothers disclosed several startling facts concerning electrostatic
charges on records. It was discovered for example that
electrified records which had been rubbed with cat fur
while on a turntable had negative charges of between
2000 and 4000 volts. The act of lifting such records off
the turntable increased the charge to as high as 30,000
volts! Replacing these records on the turntable decreased the measured charge back down to between
2000 and 4000 volts because the electrostatic field is
then concentrated between the turntable and the underside of the record. Static charges will not be
discharged by pickups having a grounded metal shield
and grounded stylus assemblies until a threshold
voltage of around 4000 to 5000 is reached. Thus,
charges below this voltage will not cause a discharge
but will exert an electrostatic force on the pickup.
When a record is charged above this threshold voltage,
JUNE 1978
a playing will discharge it down to the threshold
voltage of the pickup but not to zero. Investigations
showed that a charge of 4200 volts on the surface of a
record adds an extra 3/8 of a gram to the stylus force!
This additional tracking force will, of course, increase
record wear. And even if this added wear is not considered to be significant, it will change intended optimum tracking conditions significantly. In addition, a
natural charge on most records will not be uniformly
distributed over the surface of the disc so that cylical
"bumps" or variations in tracking force will give rise
to somewhat the same sort of "scrubbing" motion
already described in connection with the arm/cartridge
resonance effect.
Further experiments with household dust showed
that a charge voltage of as little as 1000 to 2000 volts
was enough to make fine particles adhere to the record
and resist brushing or blowing, especially out of the
bottom of grooves where ordinary bristles usually cannot reach.
Trackability Versus Tracking Force
It is well known that mis- tracking of heavily recorded grooves in a record can be partly or wholly
eliminated by increasing tracking force. Most audiophiles are reluctant to increase tracking force to the
high side of a given cartridge's tracking force range.
Intuitively, they deduce that such increased tracking
force will accelerate record wear and even reduce the
life of the diamond tip itself. Little data has been
available, however, to quantify just what the influence
of increased tracking force is on the life of the diamond
tip in a cartridge. In this connection, Shure Brothers
presented some definitive data at last. Given a stylus
tip exerting a downward tracking force of three grams,
and assigning that condition a relative life of 100 %,
reduction of the tracking force to 1.5 grams will increase the life of the tip by 20 %. A further small reduction in tracking force to one gram will, however, increase the life (relative to the 3 gram setting) by a full
70 %, while further reducing the tracking force to 0.75
grams (assuming the cartridge can continue to properly track groove modulations) will increase the life of
the tip by 120% -more than double its expected life
using a 3 gram tracking force.
As you can see from even the few studies described
here, record playing involves a good deal more than a
platter spinning at uniform speed and a stylus riding
in the grooves of a disc. As we said at the outset, we
don't propose to spell out solutions to all these problems in this brief overview of the real world of record
playing. It is clear, however, that anything you can do
to reduce the effects of the tone arm/pickup resonance
effects or to reduce the degrading effects of static
build-up on records will bring you that much closer to
the ideal record playing scheme that is often theorized
in the laboratory and in technical papers but hardly
ever realized in the real world of sound reproduction.
Ffl
PO0ODDCRNJ
fNCO(2DDIING
LAB
REPORT
NORMAN EISENBERG AND LEN FELDMAN
Tapco Model CP500M Power Amplifier
General Description: The Tapco CP500M is a two channel power amplifier rated for up to 250 watts per
channel into 4 ohms or 150 watts per channel into 8
ohms. It is of rack-mount dimensions and is fitted with
handles and a built -in cooling fan at the rear. The front
panel sports a pair of output meters calibrated in
power ratings and in decibels, plus a "PowerLock" feature by means of which the operator can set the upper
power limit furnished by the amplifier, separately on
each channel:
The power off/on switch is a separate control at the
left. Next to it is a power-on indicator. The two
PowerLock controls have four positions: out; 250
watts ( -0 dB); 125 watts ( -3 dB); 62.5 watts ( -6 dB).
Next to each of these controls is an indicator that
comes on when the upper limit selected is reached in
use. Below each PowerLock control is a gain control.
Two additional indicators show conditions of a blown
fuse and of thermal protection.
Input connectors at the rear are standard 1/4-inch
phone jacks. Each channel has two bridged inputs, 20
K unbalanced. Below these jacks is a recessed slide
switch for converting the amplifier to single -channel
operation if desired. Speaker output terminals are
standard binding posts, color -coded for polarity and
arranged so as to provide for two -channel (stereo) out -
L
64
put or single -channel (mono) output. The cooling fan is
centered on the rear panel. Completing the picture here
are a fuse- holder with a 15 -amp rating and the unit's
AC power cord which is fitted with a three-prong
(grounding) plug.
The PowerLock circuit, which may be used to limit
output power, uses output -voltage sensing which is
referred to a fixed reference voltage which in turn is a
function of the supply voltage itself, so that regardless
THD
____IMO
173N!
183w
o09
004
0.03
0.02
0 01
o
10
100.0
10.0
POWER
OUT/
CH. -WATTS
Tapco CP500M: Distortion vs. power output, into
8 -ohm loads, both channels driven.
MODERN RECORDING
of voltage fluctuations caused by external sources, the
unit simply cannot go into clipping when this circuit is
employed.
The basic amplifier circuitry itself is fairly conventional in that full complementary outputs are used.
The output stages do provide gain, however, unlike
many other complementary designs. An input differential pair feeds signals to an emitter follower and then
to a class A stage which drives the bias string. Bias
sensing is accomplished at the drivers and predrivers,
and it also is based on ambient temperatures sensed at
the output stages. Driver and output stages constitute
a Darlington configuration which has a collector loaded output. The input stages are powered from a
zener- regulated ±18 volt supply, while the output
stages operate at ± 62 volts filtered by a pair of 11,000
mFd capacitors.
Test Results:
Ruggedly built, the Tapco CP500M
performed in our tests better than its published specs
would suggest, and in general shaped up as a first -rate
powerhouse that can be recommended for demanding
professional applications. In fact, performance in
general (except of course for the audible fan noise)
rivaled that normally expected of "hi fi" amplifiers.
Tapco, with understandable pride, advised that they
precondition their amplifiers (as per FTC requirements) with 4 -ohm loads, often even using a highfrequency test signal at one -third rated power (in this
case, around 85 watts) for the test. They invited us to
do the same, and the results of our static measurements represent readings taken after one full hour of
such preconditioning. Note that the amp just missed
making its 0.05 percent rated distortion at the 20-Hz
extreme for 4 -ohm loads, but we would hardly fault the
unit for that since the difference between 0.05 percent
and 0.1 percent is rather academic from an audibility
standpoint.
THD
290W
301W
Z0 05
ó
Fcc
0.04
o
H0.03
N
0.02
001
00
1
0
10.0
POWER OUT /CH.
100.0
WATTS
Tapco CP500M: Distortion vs. power output, into
4-ohm loads, both channels driven.
JUNE 1978
_
4oLOADS,250W /CH
8RLOADS,150W /CH
o 10
o013
0.06
0.04
0 02
o
10
10K
1K
00
FREQUENCY
-- H2.
Tapco CP500M: Distortion vs. frequency at rated
output.
General Info: Dimensions:
19 by 51/4 by 17 inches.
Weight: 35 pounds. Price: $779. Also, as model CP500,
less meter and error indicators, $649.
Individual Comment by L.F.:
Since I test both
"hi fi" amplifiers and those intended strictly for "pro"
use, I usually know what differences to expect between
the performance of one type and the other. While I
recognize the need for extreme ruggedness in a professional power amp, I have never believed that the incorporation of such ruggedness and fail -safe features
necessarily meant that the pro unit had to sacrifice
performance specs that are normally expected of an
"audiophile" product. Apparently Tapco agrees with
me. No audio purist would ever tolerate the cooling fan
noise generated by the CP500M in a home listening environment, but mounted in a rack and subjected to the
kinds of environments that high power amps of this
type encounter "in performance" and in sound reinforcement applications, the presence of the constantly
running fan just adds that much more to the safety
and long lifè of this ruggedly built powerhouse.
Since the amp is a wide -range unit that may find use
with almost any speaker array, perhaps the smartest
circuitry incorporated in it is Tapco's "PowerLock"
feature, a form of precise limiter which can be preset to
62.5, 125 or 250 watts or can be turned off completely.
I can't begin to guess at the number of speaker
systems that are likely to be saved if this feature is
used correctly.
The most impressive thing about the CP500M is its
ability to deliver high orders of power output for long
periods of time without thermally cycling and with no
evidence of strain. Since I am an inveterate hi-fi buff, I
could not resist hooking up the amp as part of a component hi -fi setup and judging it as I would judge a
high -powered audiophile amp. I must confess it
sounded great, exhibiting no harshness or transient
distortion. Aside from the fan noise (which I didn't
bother to mask or eliminate by remote placement), had
I not known that its primary applications are professional, I would have been perfectly content to live with
it on a more permanent basis.
Individual Comment by N.E.: Aside from the
possible annoyance of the fan noise, there is nothing
about this amplifier to criticize adversely or even to
question. It is a sturdy, robust piece of professional
equipment and the PowerLock feature is both handy
and effective. Lab measurements and listening tests
confirm that the "listening q ualit Y " of the unit rivals
that of "home hi -fi" units, while ruggedness is definitely in the "pro class."
It is interesting to note that Tapco also has a
somewhat smaller amplifier, the model CP120 which
costs $389. The CP120 has the PowerLock feature but
it lacks the output meters. It also lacks the cooling fan
which means no kind of noise at all. We hooked this
amp into a high -quality listening system and can confirm that it provides excellent drive for monitor quality speakers in a good -size sound room.
PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTIC
MANUFACTURER'S SPEC
LAB MEASUREMENT
Continuous power per channel,
250 watts into 4 ohms
150 watts into 8 ohms
290 watts into 4 ohms
173 watts into 8 ohms
250 watts into 4 ohms
150 watts into 8 ohms
20 Hz to 20 kHz
20 Hz to 20 kHz, 0.2 dB
240 watts into 4 ohms
150 watts into 8 ohms (see text)
20 Hz to 39 kHz
8 Hz to 60 kHz,
dB
5 Hz to 110 kHz,
99.2 at 8 ohms
0.025 %, 4 ohms
0.027 %, 8 ohms
0.023 %, 4 ohms
0.015 %, 8 ohms
98 dB
1
kHz
Continuous power per channel
20 Hz to 20 kHz
Power bandwidth
Frequency response
Damping factor
5Hzto100kHz,
Rated THD
NIA
0.05%
Rated IM
0.05%
Residual hum and noise
Input sensitivity
Power consumption
-95
-3 dB
dB
+4 dBm
+4 dBm
165 watts, idle
1150 watts, max
CIRCLE
11
13dB
confirmed
ON READER SERVICE CARD
Phase Linear 6000 Audio Delay
1111b..,
General Description: Phase Linear's model 6000 is
a "bucket brigade" (analog) delay unit designed to add
controlled amounts of reverb to a stereo playback
system in conjunction with a second amplifier and two
added speaker systems for "rear channels." It is intended for interconnection between preamp outputs
and power amp inputs -it should not be used in a tape monitor loop due to incompatibility of signal levels.
According to the instruction manual, a signal entering the 6000 "is compressed, fed through low -pass
filters, entered into bucket brigade delays, low -pass
filtered and made available to summing amplifiers
66
..." which "can pass the signal to an output expander
and frequency- contouring buffer amplifiers to the
main outputs as well as set up recirculation paths. The
reverberation circuits pick up primary delays, frequency- contour the signal, pass it through an electromechanical transducer, recontour the signal and make
it available for output summing."
In listening terms, various effects can be created, including "enlargement" of the listening space to suit
the size of the ensemble performing.
The device is dimensioned for rack mounting. Front
panel controls include four large knobs and six banks
MODERN RECORDING
While the manufacturer's avowed or main intent in
offering the model 6000 is that it can be used by audiophiles who want to "increase" the size of a listening
room to "concert hall proportions," MR's experience
with the unit suggests that it could also be used by
performers, particularly small performing groups
working in small surroundings who might like to
sound as though they were performing in a larger and
more acoustically dramatic environment.
Test Results:
Fig 1: Internal view.
of pushbuttons. The knobs handle power off/on and
the volume level of the front pair of speaker systems;
rear speaker volume; mode selection (delayed or non delayed); and frequency compensation (a filter with
positions for low -cut, high-cut; high and low cut; flat).
The first group of pushbuttons control "primary
delay" and select 15 -20 msec. or 60 -90 msec., each in
terms of a 3 -dB step (+3, 0, -3). The second group
handles the recirculation delay, selecting short or long,
also over a 6 -dB range. The third group of buttons controls the reverb sound field decay. Three buttons handle time in steps of 1, 2 and 4 seconds. Three other but-
Published specs for the model 6000
generally were confirmed or exceeded in MR's lab
tests, and the device's action confirmed as effective in
listening tests. An idea of the bandwidth of the
delayed sound in both the short and long delay modes
can be had by examining the photo of frequency
response sweep as stored on our spectrum analyzer
(Fig. 2) which shows the (short) response down by -3
dB at 2 kHz. The manufacturer does not specify dB
tons are marked "source " -of these the top two are
marked short and long, and control the rate of decay of
the reverb signals. The third button in this group,
labeled "master clock," controls the delay time on all
delay paths (primary and recirculation) in terms of
"fast" or "slow." Detailed instructions for using the
controls, as well as diagrams and hints on speaker
location and on selecting the added speakers and
amplifier are all included in the owner's manual.
The rear of the 6000 contains standard phone jacks
for signal connection, including stereo pairs for
delayed and front outputs, and another stereo pair for
hookup to the system preamp. Also at the rear are the
unit's AC line cord and a fuse holder.
Fig. 3: Phase Linear 6000: Input burst signal (upper
trace) used to produce short and long primary delay
outputs (lower trace).
Fig. 2: Phase Linear 6000: Frequency response of
delayed output using short (upper trace) or long
(lower trace) primary delay settings.
tolerances for either of these but the relative effects
are valid enough.
Fig. 3 represents our attempt to show what happens
when only a short -term delay is introduced -the upper
trace is the input tone burst while the lower trace
shows what comes out of the delayed output terminals. For Fig. 4 we let loose with all barrels, choosing
maximum delay, recirculation and reverberation effects. Some of this is clearly evident in the 'scope
photo but much of the overall "sonic event" is lost
because of superimposition of the different components upon each other, since we were using a discrete
sinusoidal frequency in the tone burst. The effect
would have looked more impressive had we been able
to photograph an actual complex musical signal on the
face of the oscilloscope.
The model 6000 is truly a "second generation"
device compared with earlier units we tested, and as
such it merits serious consideration by audiophiles and
professionals alike. Because of its extremely wide
JUNE 1978
67
Fig. 4: Phase Linear 6000: More complex delayed
signal (lower trace) is achieved by adding recirculation and reverb circuits via front panel buttons.
range of adjustment it is possible to overdo the effects,
particularly when dealing with vocal selections or the
spoken word. The key here is to adjust the unit so that
you are not conscious of the rear speakers at all.
General Info: Dimensions are
inches high;
10
19 inches wide; 5'/2
inches deep. Weight is 20 pounds.
Individual Comment by N.E.: Other than a subtle vagueness in the way the pushbuttons go in and
out, there seems nothing to fault in this unit which is
obviously well designed and crafted for its intended
uses. As to those uses -whether a device of this kind is
more suited for the sound- reinforced performing situation or for the serious listener
pass.
-I
Individual Comment by L.F.: While checking
out this handsomely styled and good performing delay
unit it occurred to me that in audio it may not always
pay to be "first." My earliest experience with audio
delay units intended for customer hi -fi systems was
with early models from Audio Pulse and Sound Concepts. At the time of their introduction they were wondrous units indeed, offering a good alternative to those
who wanted to create "concert hall ambience" in their
homes but who were not overly attracted by quadriphonic methods. As it happens, the Audio Pulse unit
used digital technology, while the Sound Concepts
model employed analog (or bucket brigade) delay.
Phase Linear's ultra -flexible 6000 went the bucketbrigade route, and the variations in control it affords
are almost without number. The front panel is a model
of good "human engineering" -what could turn out to
be confusing controls for the uninitiated are here very
clearly marked and grouped. You can introduce two
degrees of initial or first delay, selecting their
amplitudes over a 6 -dB range. In addition the overall
master control affects all delayed information, while
another control may be used to adjust the undelayed
or front -speaker signals. Pushbuttons introduce varying degrees of recirculated delayed signals, while two
or more sets of buttons handle reverb time. We tried
all the recommended settings in the manual, and they
all worked to perfection. Although the delay principle
employed here does in and of itself reduce bandwidth
(or frequency response) of the delayed signals as it
should (reflected sound in the real world of concert
halls always is restricted in bandwidth relative to the
primary sound), we found that when short delays were
used we were aware of highs from the rear speakers.
Happily, Phase Linear took that possibility into account too, and provided a high-cut filter control for
just that purpose.
PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTIC
MANUFACTURER'S SPEC
LAB MEASUREMENT
Initial delay times
15 msec. and 60 msec., adjustable by
"clock" control to 20 msec. and 90
Confirmed
Reverberation decay time
THD, direct
THD, delayed
msec.
200 msec. to 4 seconds
<0.1%
<0.5%
Confirmed
0.04% at 1 kHz
0.17% at 1 kHz;
0.6 % at 100 Hz;
0.18% at 4 kHz
Input impedance
Maximum input level, delayed
direct
Output impedance
Output level (max), delayed
direct
Output noise level, delayed
direct
Frequency response
Delayed, short
Delayed, long
Direct
47 K ohms
2.5 V
5.0 V
Confirmed
<5 K ohms, direct or delayed
Confirmed
Confirmed
Confirmed
4.0 volts
8.0 volts
< 80 microvolts
< 100 microvolts
40
40
-±
CIRCLE
68
2.3 V
5.5V
Hzto6kHz
Hzto2.5kHz
0.1 dB, 5 Hz
21
to 20 kHz
- 87 dB re 1.0 V in
- 82 dB re 1.0 V in
-3 dBat6kHz
-3dBat2kHz
Confirmed
ON READER SERVICE CARD
MODERN RECORDING
Aiwa AD -6800 Cassette Recorder
General Description: The AD -6800 is a
top- of -theline cassette recorder from Aiwa (distributed in the
U.S. by Meriton) that incorporates some unusual
features. A front -loader, it accepts the cassette on a
platform that slides automatically into a rather deep
recess. Near the front of this area is an adjustment for
azimuth alignment. Lifting this section permits access
to the heads for cleaning. The cassette area is covered
by a hinged glass -panel lid and the interior is illuminated during use.
The AD-6800 has three heads, but the "third head"
is not a play or monitor head; rather it serves as a
"test head" that is used for picking off test signals
(400 Hz and 8 kHz) which may be recorded onto a tape
by the machine as part of setting variable bias to suit
different tapes. This is called by Aiwa its "flat
response tuning system" (FRTS) and the procedure
detailed in the owner's manual -involves moving the
input selector switch to the "test" position, using the
tape selector switches to choose the general class of
tape (normal /LH; FeCr; or Cr02); adjusting the azimuth
control for a maximum reading on the right VU meter;
adjusting a "bias fine adjustment" for a matching
reading on the left VU meter.
The VU meters themselves are unusual in that they
have two pointers. One shows average VU levels; the
other shows peaks. The former pointer always is
operative, but the peak pointer comes into play only if
you switch it on via a separate button. In addition,
-
another button permits the peak pointer to "hold" at
maximum levels. On each meter the peak scale runs
from -40 to +10; the VU (average) scale runs from
-20 to +5. Some valuable hints on relating the two
scales, and how to get the benefit of each are explained
in the owner's manual.
The fast -forward button has the option of being used
with the tape in contact with the head so that some
sound can be heard in fast wind. Aiwa calls this a
"cue" feature. The rewind button has a similar option,
termed by Aiwa a "review" feature.
JUNE 1978
All controls and operating features are on the front
panel. To the left of the cassette compartment are the
power off/on switch, left- and right -channel microphone jacks and a stereo headphone output jack.
Below the cassette compartment are the transport
controls: open (the cassette door); record; rewind /review; forward (record or play); fast forward/cue; stop /eject; and pause. The pause control per-
mits setting levels before actually recording, and this
control also has a position for use with an external
timer to start the machine.
A three -digit tape counter and its reset button are to
the right of the cassette compartment, and just to
their right is a button for memory- rewind. Below the
counter is a light display; six amber LEDs that come
on successively from left to right when the tape is moving at normal speed, and which flicker steadily in fast
wind. To the right of this group are the two meters,
with a recording indicator light between them.
The bias fine adjust knobs (one each for three major
classes of tape) are located under the left meter, while
the peak indicator buttons, plus a limiter button are
grouped under the right meter.
Additional features are found near the bottom of the
front panel. There's a DIN socket which is covered by
a snap -on lid; the input selector with positions for the
test signals mentioned earlier, line /DIN and microphone. The Dolby system switch has three positions:
off, on and on with mpx filter. The main tape selectors
come next -one each for bias and EQ. The labelling
here indicates the classes of tape as well as the corresponding bias and EQ values in percentages and microseconds respectively. The output level controls are a
dual concentric pair, and the record level controls are
also dual concentric and larger.
The rear of the AD -6800 contains stereo pairs of pin jacks for line input and output, another DIN socket, a
fuse -holder, the power cord and a convenience AC
outlet unswitched and with a maximum rating of 500
watts. There's also a grounding terminal, and a
-
69
-10
-20
RECORD
LEVEL
-30
20
100
1K
10K
20K
FREQUENCY
1:
Aiwa /Meriton AD -6800:
response, using TDK AD tape.
Fig.
Record /play
"player sync" jack for connecting to a turntable that
has sync output for disc dubbing.
The AD -6800 does not have built -in mixing provisions. It does have the automatic sensing for switching to Cr02 adjustment when a Cr02 cassette with the
special groove is used. It comes with walnut sides and
four "feet."
Test Results:
Record/play frequency response was
measured using three tape samples: TDK type AD for
standard bias and 120 -msec. EQ; TDK type SA for the
high bias and the 70 -msec. EQ settings (equivalent to
Cr02); and 3M Scotch Master III for the FeCr settings
(medium bias and 70 -msec. EQ). In each instance the
machine's built -in test procedure was first utilized to
fine-tune the bias for the tape sample. Results were
plotted in Figs. 1, 2 and 3 -best results were obtained
with the FeCr sample tape, with response extending
out to 17 kHz for the -3 dB rolloff point. This easily
confirmed Aiwa's spec for FeCr tape. Our measured
response for Cr02 settings was 1 kHz shy of the 16 kHz
top spec'd, but our results with standard tape exceeded the spec by 0.5 kHz. S/N figures were very good
for all tapes, with the best showing made with FeCr
tape. Highest headroom was achieved (relative to 0 dB
readings on the meters) with the TDK -AD tape. Distortion reached 3 percent with a +9 dB record level
using this tape, while with the other tapes, only a +3
or +3.5 dB recording level was possible for three percent THD.
Evidently Aiwa's 38 -pulse servo motor succeeds in
o
-10
-20
RECORD
LEVEL
-30
20
100
1K
FREQUENCY
Fig.
2:
Aiwa /Meriton
response, using
70
TDK SA
10K
--
20K
Hz
AD -6800: Record /play
tape (Cr02 setting).
holdingg wow and flutter down to
t an impressively low
0.03 percent WRMS (as against 0.05 percent claimed);
even unweighted, the wow and flutter measurement
was a very low 0.08 percent. Transport controls
worked smoothly and reliably. The novel cassette
loading system here literally takes the cassette from
your hand and positions it precisely inside the compartment. The protective door may be left open for
making the azimuth adjustment prior to adjusting
bias, and then closed when the tape is in motion.
The dual pointer arrangement on the meters is noteworthy. Aiwa has addressed itself to the old problem
of "peak factor" -the difference between average VU
readings and true peaks that occur during musical
transients. The red pointer reads in VU units while the
black pointer follows peaks (if you opt for this via the
switching) -truly a neat solution and one that can
prove effective in actual use.
General Info:
18% inches wide; 6% inches high; 13'ß,e
inches deep. Weight: 22 pounds. Price: $650.
Individual Comment by L.F.: I've lost count of
the number of times I have stressed the importance of
using the "right" cassette tape with a stereo cassette
deck. Determining which brand and type of tape that a
given manufacturer has used to calibrate his machines
is not always an easy task, since most manufacturers
(no doubt not wishing to offend any tape supplier) will
-10
-20
RECORD
LEVEL
-30
20
100
1K
10K
FREQUENCY -
Fig.
3:
Aiwa /Meriton
response, using
settings).
3M
20K
Hz
Record /play
"Scotch Master Ill" tape (FeCr
AD -6800:
usually list a host of "acceptable" brands and grades
of tape in their owner's manual. I have long felt that a
knowledgeable cassette deck user ought to be provided
with a means for easily adjusting one or more of the
recording parameters of his or her machine to suit the
tape, rather than the other way around. Evidently
Aiwa agrees with me and has come up with an elegant
(if obvious) solution. The usual three switch settings
for bias (standard, Cr02 and FeCr) are augmented by
three fine-tune adjustments, one for each bias setting,
each of which allows the user to adjust bias by a couple
of dB. The procedure, explained in the "General
Description" section of this report, makes use of that
third head. This head prompted Aiwa to call the deck a
"three head" machine -not a falsehood in itself, but an
appellation that might lead unsuspecting prospects to
MODERN RECORDING
cassette is placed manually. Moreover, here is a
mechanism which could conceivably go sour after a
time. I am reminded of the old engineering adage
about the simpler that things can be made, the better.
I also see no need for the series of lights that tell you
the tape is moving. Cosmetics like this add to a
machine's cost -and doesn't the regular tape counter
tell you the same thing? I see no need for two DIN
sockets, especially for U.S. users who probably won't
even have the occasion to make use of one such socket.
The "cue" appendage and the "review" label added
to the fast-forward and rewind functions are questionable -all they did in my sample was allow the tape to
run at fast speeds in contact with the record/play head,
so that you could hear an indistinguishable hash of
squeals. This is the kind of high- frequency garbage
that has been known to send nasty transients through
a system. I still do not understand its real use since
you cannot really distinguish actual signals this way.
On the plus side, the azimuth and fine bias adjustments are to the good, although I feel that once you
have set bias via the main selector switch, the additional tweaking via the knobs is of marginal value and
not the sort of thing that will make a really big difference between work recorded on this, versus recorded work done on another, competent machine. At that,
I had trouble making the adjustments as spelled out in
the manual; I could not always get both meters to
agree. The system seemed to work best, in my tests,
for standard /LH tape with which I was able to get
good conformation on both meters. In any case, even
without this adjustment, I found that tapes made on
the AD -6800 did sound very good, but no better than
tapes made on other similarly priced cassette decks.
The best thing I liked about the AD -6800 was its twin
pointers on the meters.
believe that the AD -6800 has record -monitoring
capability (like some other three-headed machines)
which, of course, it does not.
Nonetheless, its performance -in just about every
measured specification- rivalled that of many true
three -head machines, and several of the AD-6800's
other noteworthy features particularly appealed to me,
such as the two pointers on the meters.
Evidently, in concentrating on such excellent performance and tape transport facilities, Aiwa could not
afford to provide mic /line mixing in what already is a
fairly high -priced cassette deck. For those users who
employ a separate multi- microphone mixer and thereby would enter the deck at line levels anyway, this
should pose no serious problem. Others will have to
settle for either "live" mic or line recording from other
sources -but not both at the same time.
Particularly for readers of Modern Recording, it
seems to me that the Aiwa AD -6800 answers many of
the objections that semi -pro and pro recordists have
voiced against the cassette format. Here is a deck that
acknowledges the critical and limited dynamic range
capabilities of slow -speed, narrow -tape performance,
but which provides the needed metering and adjustment capabilities to let you get the very last available
dB out of this tape format.
Individual Comment by N.E.: Not being privy
to the economics of Aiwa's manufacturing processes, I
am in no position to state whether or not they could
have afforded to include mic/line mixing in the
AD -6800, but it seems to me that this machine has a
few flourishes that do add to its cost and which I for
one could live without. One is the automated slide -in
platform for cassette insertion. I have encountered no
difficulties in numerous other models in which the
AIWA AD -6800 CASSETTE RECORDER: Vital Statistics
PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTIC
MANUFACTURER'S SPEC
Frequency response, std
30 Hz to 15 kHz,
30 Hz to 16 kHz,
30 Hz to 17 kHz,
Cr02
FeCr
S/N
NIA
(without Dolby)
FeCr, 65 dB
S/N (with Dolby)
THD at
Std, 0.9%
0 VU
N/A
Record level for 3% THD
Line input sensitivity
Mic input sensitivity
Line output level (for 0 dB)
Headphone output level (at
Wow and flutter (WRMS)
Rewind time (C60)
-3 dB
-3 dB
-3 dB
0
dB)
50 mV
0.25 mV (200 to 10 K ohms)
775 mV
2mW /8 ohms
0.05%
90 seconds
LAB MEASUREMENT
20 Hz to 15.5 kHz,
-3dB
20Hzto15kHz, -3dB
20Hzto17kHz, -3dB
std, 54.5 dB
Cr02, 55 dB
FeCr, 57 dB
Std, 63 dB
Cr02, 64 dB
FeCr, 65 dB
Std, 0.9%
Cr0p, 1.6%
FeCr, 1.9%
Std, + 9
Cr02, + 3.5
FeCr, + 3
46 mV
0.3 mV
730 mV
1.25 mW (100 mV across
8
ohms)
0.03%
80 seconds
CIRCLE 22 ON READER SERVICE CARD
JUNE 1978
71
On Choosing a Mixer
By Jim Ford
and Brian Roth
A mixing console is at the heart of any recording or
sound reinforcement system. Consoles come in all
sizes, shapes and colors, and range in price from about
$100 for the simplest four -input microphone mixer to
over $100,000 for a recording console that will handle a
24 -track recorder and is ready for automation. Every
band that is just getting started and every small
studio that is just opening its doors for business are
faced with the problems of purchasing a mixer. Of
course everyone is looking for a "good deal" on the
price and doesn't want to buy more than he needs, but
also one must beware of spending most of his money
on a console that will not do the job that needs to be
done. Oh, what a problem! There are so many knobs
and dials and buttons and switches and meters and
plugs and transistors and transformers and flashing
lights and buzzers and bells and will this list never
end? I think I've gotten a headache!
Well, it is truly a problem so in the next few pages
we will list some of the more important points to consider when comparing mixers. The discussion that
follows will be directed at mixers that can be used for
small 2, 4 and 8 track recording and at mixers for
sound system mixing in small clubs and auditoriums.
The price range of this group will start at approximately $150 and will go to about $4,000. However,
there are some units that incorporate more professional features that can cost up to $15,000. (To keep a
good perspective on what we are talking about, a professional 16 input /out recording console with the
minimum acceptable features and audio quality should
start at $20,000 and go up from there.) Most of the
mixers that are available and that fall into our category of discussion are manufactured by the following
companies: Tascam, Yamaha, Uni -Sync Trouper,
Sound Workshop, biamp, Shure, Tangent, Soundcraft,
Tapco, Quantum, Stevenson, Dallas Music, Carvin,
Peavey, RSD, and many others not included here.
Inputs
The first item that seems to come up is "how many
mics can we plug in?" The real question is, "How many
inputs are there and what type are they?" The number
of inputs needed is determined by the number of microphones that are to be used or by the number of tracks
of a multi -track recorder that will be connected. If the
band is going to use twelve mics, then twelve inputs
are necessary. If an 8 -track recorder is going to be con-
nected, then eight inputs are required. In both cases it
is wise to have more inputs than is absolutely needed.
For example, when recording and mixing-down the
engineer may want to use a piece of special effects
72
equipment (like a digital delay unit), and at that time
an additional input would be necessary to return the
signal into the mix. Also, in case of an electronic
malfunction it would be nice to be able to switch to an
extra input and then solve the problem after the job,
when there is plenty of time and a minimum of
pressure.
The type of input should be examined next. The purchaser needs to know what is required to connect his
miss or equipment into the mixer. The standard inputs
are: a) low- impedance microphone; b) high-impedance
microphone; c) semi -pro level; d) professional line level;
and e) phono. In general the line inputs are for tape
recorders, reverb chambers, limiters /compressors,
phasors, digital delay units, etc.
As for the microphone inputs the purchaser should
know if it is high or low impedance; if it is balanced or
unbalanced; and if it is a transformer or differential input. We advise that low -impedance mics and consequently low-impedence inputs be used. High- impedance mics are lower in cost, but they should be used
with mic cables that are shorter than twenty -five feet.
This severely limits the size of the set up. Also, highimpedance mics are more susceptible to noise, C.B. and
RFI pickup. For these reasons the majority of all semipro mixers are built to be used with low-impedance
mics (and that's the way it should be).
The microphone inputs should be balanced because
unbalanced inputs are more susceptible to noise, C.B.
and RFI pickup. If the sound or recording is important, then you don't want any interference. One example case would be: You just bought a new 4 -track
recorder and mixing console, and the local church called up and asked you to come record their special Sunday service. So you did, and in the middle of this very
important recording, when the preacher is at the high
point of his sermon and he says, "The Lord said"
"Breaker, Breaker, Nineteen. Ya got a copy on me
good buddy." Well, we all laugh at the C.B. that came
-
MODERN RECORDING
in at the wrong time, but it is very embarassing to the
person doing the recording. Also, it could be very costly if it happens in the middle of an important recording
session with the hottest group in town, and it ruins the
best "take" of the day. Overall, balanced microphone
inputs will provide the best results, and for a recording
mixer we advise only the use of balanced inputs. Now,
for a P.A. mixer where the sound is at high volumes
and the voltages produced by the microphones are
high, the need for balanced inputs is not as great. In
these cases unbalanced inputs may be acceptable. Unbalanced inputs cost less money to build, and this may
be a factor to consider.
The use of transformers in audio always stirs up a
big debate. They have several weak performance areas,
and good design engineers are always trying to get
around these problems. Basically, a transformer is not
the lowest distortion, most linear device that audio
engineers have to work with. Well, why are transformers used? In the case of a mic input they offer
voltage gain which improves the signal-to -noise ratio
of the mic preamp. If the mixer is to be used for quality
recording then the inputs should have transformers. If
the mixer is used for "rock and roll" P.A. where the
volumes are high, then the signal -to-noise ratio may
not be as important and transformerless inputs may
be acceptable. Another reason design engineers attempt to eliminate transformers is their high cost
$10 to $40 each. It is easy to see that an 8 -input mixer
with transformers will probably cost $160 more than a
mixer without the transformers, and that's a lot of
-
money!
To summarize, it is best that microphone inputs are
low impedance, balanced and have transformers.
Line inputs are designed to accept a signal voltage
that has been preamplified. A microphone output
voltage goes into a mic input and is amplified up to a
line level by the mic preamp.
The average output voltage from a microphone is
JUNE 1978
about .0025 volts (of course this varies from mic to mic
and also depends on how loud you scream into the
mic). The standard line -level voltage for most professional equipment is about 1.23 volts, and the standard
line-level voltage for most semi -professional equipment is about .25 volts. Some semi -pro equipment has
line -level voltages around .775 volts. Before any equipment is purchased, it is best to know the line -level
voltages (and impedances- we will talk about this in
the months to come), so that you are sure that all of
the equipment will connect together and operate properly. For example, a tape recorder that has a standard
operating line level of .775 volts should operate best
when an input voltage of .775 volts is supplied to it,
and its output should provide .775 volts to drive the
piece of equipment that follows the tape recorder.
Now, line -level inputs (and outputs) can be high or
low impedance, and balanced or unbalanced. Also,
they may or may not have a transformer. Due to the
high voltage at standard line levels, usually they are
unbalanced. Most inputs are high impedance and most
outputs are low impedance, Transformers are used
mainly for ground isolation. In small systems where
there are short wire runs, a minimum of wires and a
minimum of pieces of electronic equipment, most often
unbalanced operation without transformers will work
satisfactorily. In large systems or where electrical
noise and interference is a severe problem it may be
necessary to use transformers and balance the lines.
Phono inputs are not really a standard input for
most small mixers, but with the recent disco boom
they are appearing on some small pieces of equipment.
It is nice to be able to connect a turntable to a mixer
and listen to the latest disco hit. If you want to be
capable of handling a disco -type job, the built -in phono
preamp will make it much easier.
Outputs
The next important category to discuss is the number of outputs. Once again this should be determined
by the job that needs to be accomplished. If the mixer
is to be used for P.A., count up the number of mixes
that is desired. First, is the sound system mono or
stereo? (or quad ?). For mono -one main output is
needed; for stereo-two main outputs are needed, and
so forth. If there is to be a stage monitor system, then
there should be a separate mix and output for this purpose. Some of the larger sound systems (and rock
groups) have need for several stage monitor mixes. If
this is the case then there should be a separate mix and
output for each stage monitor system desired. If you
want four independent stage monitor systems, then
you need four independent outputs.
Another type of output class would be for use with
special effects equipment (limiters /compressors,
digital delay units, equalizers, reverb chambers, etc.).
Usually for P.A. one or two additional separate mixes
and outputs are satisfactory for this. In most situations the reverb is attached to one output, and the
other equipment is patched in and out of the other output. The majority of all mid -priced mixers offer these
outputs for special-effects equipment.
73
If the mixer is to be used for recording, then the
number of outputs to be used simultaneously must be
determined. First, how many tracks does the tape
recorder have? If it is a stereo recorder, then it has two
tracks and two outputs are needed. If it is a 4-track
recorder, then four outputs are necessary. Generally
this method can be continued to determine the number
of tracks and outputs, but there is another point to
consider. If the tape recorder is an 8- track, do you need
eight outputs? Well, not necessarily. Only count the
number of tracks that you want to record on at the
same time. If you can record four tracks at one time
and record the other four tracks later, then a 4-output
mixer is satisfactory. The process of recording several
tracks at different times is called overdubbing. A
smart recording engineer plans ahead and uses a minimum of outputs and tracks. Some 24 -track recording
consoles only have eight main outputs.
After the number of main outputs has been decided
upon, the next problem is getting a mix to an earphone
system so that the musicians can hear what is on the
tape when they are recording. This headphone system
is called a "cue system," and it is basically the same
thing as a stage monitor system for a "live" P.A. except that it is usually amplified through headphones.
For each cue mix desired there should be one separate
mix and output on the mixer. Most small recording
mixers provide one output for this purpose, however
some large studio consoles have four to six individual
cue mixes.
Another output that is needed on a recording mixer
is one for special effects. This output is the same as the
one described above in the P.A. special effects discussion. Usually a small recording mixer will have one
mix and output for a reverb chamber. During the
recording of the tracks the cue mix and its output will
be used for the musicians' headphone system, but during mixdown the cue mix will be used as a special
effects output.
All of the outputs in a mixer are identical electronically (or should be). A good engineer will soon be
patching different outputs into all types of equipment
in order to accomplish the job he wants done. For
example, if the mixer has four outputs, and it is connected to an 8 -track recorder, what do you do when it
is time to mixdown to a stereo recorder? Well, you
unplug two of the outputs into the 8- track, and plug
them into a 2- track.
Monitor Section
Up to now inputs and outputs have been discussed,
and for the average P.A. mixer this is all that is required. However, time after time a P.A. mixer is purchased, a 4- or 8 -track recorder is purchased and then
multi-track recording is attempted. This is where a big
problem arises and the end result is usually a very
discouraged and broke group of musicians. For simple
mono or 2 -track recording most P.A. mixers will do a
good job, but for multi-track recording the mixer
needs another set of controls called a "monitor sec-
74
tion." The monitor section is what is missing on most
low-priced mixers, and it is this group of controls that
makes multi-track recording a success or a frustrating
experience.
The monitor section is a separate stereo mixer that
is connected to the outputs of the tape recorder (sometimes to the main outputs of the mixer). The outputs
from this stereo mixer are connected to stereo headphones or monitor speakers and the engineer listens to
the tracks of the tape. Each track of the tape has a
separate volume control in the monitor section so that
the engineer may individually adjust the volume of the
instruments to get the mix and sound he wants. Because each track of the tape needs a separate volume
control, the monitor section must match the tape recorder. This means if it is a 4 -track recorder then it
must be a 4 -input monitor section. If it is an 8 -track
recorder then it must be an 8 -input monitor section.
Now, the monitor section may be larger than the tape
recorder which means an 8 -input monitor section will
work fine with a 4-track recorder. The purpose of the
mic inputs is to amplify and modify the sound of the
mics. The purpose of the main outputs is to get the
signal to the tape recorder properly. The tape recorder's job is to record and store the sound with the
lowest noise and distortion. What goes into the tape
recorder should come out. The job of the monitor section is to let the engineer and musicians hear the
tracks of the tape and achieve the proper instrument
and sound balance during the recording session.
The monitor section should also have a reverb mix
and output for the reverb chamber and a cue mix and
output for the musicians' headphone system. The cue
and reverb mixes are usually connected to the regular
cue and reverb mixes that were discussed earlier. The
monitor section may also have a "talk back" output so
that the engineer can talk to the musicians in the
studio. The stereo output that the engineer listens to is
called the "control room" output, and most often there
is an identical output that goes to the studio speakers
so the musicians can listen to tape playbacks.
To summarize the important facts, a P.A. mixer
needs enough mic inputs to handle the number of mics,
and it needs enough outputs to drive the P.A. and the
stage monitors. A recording mixer needs enough mic
inputs to handle the number of mics; enough line inputs to handle the largest multi-track recorder; enough
outputs to record on the multi-track tape recorder,
send a cue mix to the musicians and send a reverb mix
to the reverb chamber; a monitor section with enough
inputs to handle the largest multi -track recorder that
will be used.
We hope that this information will provide a foundation for choosing a mixer and that it will result in good
investments for the musician and small recording
studio. We did not discuss equalization, pre- and post cue, reverb, and monitor sends, solo buses, direct outputs, patch points, reverb returns, etc. It would require a book to discuss all the factors, but we will try
to cover some of these other important points in the
months to come.
4
MODERN RECORDING
"The Sansui AU -717 is a superb amplifier.
We like it with no ifs,ands,or buts. (Julian Hirsch)
It offers "as much circuitry sophistication
and control flexibilityas any two -piece
amplifying system:'
(Len Feldman)
Everyone says great things about
the new Sansui AU -717, but the
experts say it best.
integrated amplifier is "Sansui's
finest.... It incorporates a fully direct -coupled power
amplifier section whose frequency response varies less
than +0, -3dB from 0Hz (D.C.) to 200 kHz. The amplifier's
power rating is 85 watts per channel (min, RMS) from 20 to
20,000Hz into 8 -ohm loads, with less than 0.025 per cent
If any amplifier is free of
total harmonic distortion
Transient Intermodulation Distortion (TIM) or any other
slew -rate induced distortion, it is this one ...,The slew rate
... was the fastest we have measured on any amplifier, an
impressive 60 V /usec.
"The preamplifier section of the AU -717 .... has very
The Sansui AU -717 DC
impressive
specifications
for frequency
response,
watts
- the same value obtained for midfrequency
power -
compared with its
85 watt rating into
8
ohms....
"The
equalization
characteristic of
the preamplifier
was one of the
most precise we
have ever
Leonard Feldman,Contributing Editor Radio -Electronics measured, with
the deviation from
the standard RIAA playback curve never exceeding
more than 0.1dB
"Sansui claims that this unit has reduced transient
direct result of the DC
intermodulation distortion
design, and, indeed, the model AU -717 delivered sound
as transparent and clean as any we have heard from an
integrated amplifier....
even by those who
" ... worth serious consideration
prefer separate amplifiers and preamplifiers." [Reprinted
in part from Len Feldman's test report in
Radio- Electronics, January,1978.]
-a
equalization
accuracy, and
noise levels ... The
AU -717 has dual
power supplies,
-
including
separate power
rr
transformers, for its
Julian
D.
Hirsch. Contributing Editor Stereo Review
two channels ...
[and] exceptionally comprehensive tape -recording and
monitoring facilities .,.. Good human engineerirg ....
separates this unit from some otherwise fine products....
"The Sansui AU -717
no its, ands, or buts." [Reprinted in part from Julian Hirsch's
test report in Stereo Review, February,1978.1
"One clear advantage of DC design is apparent. Even
at the low 20Hz extreme, the amplifier delivers a full 92
is
Listen to the superb sound of the Sansui AU -717 at your
Sansui dealer today. And be sure to ask him for a
demonstration of the matching TU -717 super- tuner.
a superb amplifier. We like it with
SANSUI ELECTRONICS CORP.
Woodside, New York 11377 Gardena, California 90247 SANSUI ELECTRIC CO., LTD.. Tokyo, Japan
SANSUI AUDIO EUROPE S.A., Antwerp, Belgium In Canada: Electronic Distributors
CIRCLE 61 ON READER SERVICE CARD
Sau
sui
Reviewed by:
GROOVE VIEWS
BOOMTOWN RATS: The Boomtown
Rats. [Robert John Lange, producer;
Steve Brown, engineer; recorded at Dieter Dierks's (sic) Studio, Stommein
Koln,
Germany.]
Ensign /Mercury
SRM 1 -1188.
Performance Up & down
Recording: So -so
This group sounds like a cross between
David Bowie, Bruce Springsteen and the
typical punk rocker. The music is fairly basic, mostly chordal and nothing
new. What makes this group different
from the rest of the new wave of washups is the above average production and
the clarity of the recording.
Going beyond the basic punk lineup of guitar-bass -drum -vocal, The Rats
use acoustic piano, guitar and dual
electric guitars. One track in point is
"I Can Make It If You Can," a basic
rip -off of Springsteen's "Thunder
BOOMTOWN RATS: Pass them by
76
Road." A Fender Stratocaster guitar,
scrapped of its bottom, chums out two
chords in a stereo intro, leading into
drums and a scratching Hammond
organ playing the same two chords.
Next an acoustic piano falls into line,
followed by another electric guitar
which plays the major notes of the two
chords, only in a different octave. As
soon as the vocal comes on the scene,
mixed center stage, the organ drops out
until its re- introduction after the chorus,
which then gives way to a bad imitation
of a Clarence Cleamons sax solo. While
the orchestration of instruments is intelligent, it is hardly original. The bass
is recorded 'way in the background and
the snare given that deep, solid sound.
If you've never heard Springsteen or
Bowie, you'll think this album is great.
If you have, you'll pass this one by. G.P.
MICHAEL JOHNSON: Ain't Dis Da
Life. [Michael Johnson, producer; Steve
Wiese, engineer; recorded at Creation
Audio Recording, Blomington, Minnesota.] Sanskrit SR 0774.
Performance Pleasant
Recording: Good
This isn't half bad for a first effort at
recording, producing and running a
small, independent record company. Although he doesn't write much of his
own material, the obscure songwriters
from whom he draws turn a few good
phrases and his voice is pleasing- sounding something like a cross between
James Taylor and Kenny Rankin. Actually, all this album lacks is proper distribution, for it's much better than most
of what's being released in this vein.
Also, a second listening by a major label
may benefit all concerned.
SEDGWICK CLARK
NAT HENTOFF
JOE KLEE
GIL PODOLINSKY
STAN SOOCHER
MICHAEL JOHNSON: Quite good
"Ain't Dis Da Life," a song in the
James Taylor vein, begins with an
acoustic guitar center, giving way to the
vocal, also center, backed by bass and
drums. These instruments are joined
in the middle of the song by marimba,
which enters right. Next is a two -part
call and response vocal, left and right,
which is accented through the use of
clarinets. An ascending B -flat clarinet
is left while a descending bass clarinet
counters right, making for a perfect ragtime piece. Overall, it's a quite commendable recording.
G.P.
LEONARD COHEN: Death Of A Ladies
Man. [Phil Spector, producer; Larry
Levine, engineer; recorded at Whitney
Recording Studios, Gold Star Recording
Studios, Devonshire Sound Studios, Los
Angeles, Ca.] Warner Brothers BS3125.
Performance: Strained
Recording Textbook Spector
At first, the idea of combining LeonMODERN RECORDING
first
full - function
one-inch
8-track t
MOVE ON UP to the one -inch scene with the world's very
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If you've been holding back because you couldn't find a
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It's got it all. And, it sells at
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Constant tension for improved tape handling and tighter
timing, plus dynamic braking for reduced tape shock.
Full remote synchronous reproduce for overdubbing
on all eight tracks, plus record punch -in without
clicks or pops.
Automatic monitor switching matches input or tape
to proper mode: record, reproduce, or sync.
No knob -throwing or switch flipping.
30/15 ips dc capstan servo and varispeed playback,
with coarse and fine controls on transport
and remote control.
Remote tape timer with LED readout (minutes,
seconds, tenths) for precise time location.
Remote return -to -zero saves time in
mix down.
Rapid access to electronics and transport,
plus built -in oscillator for fast set up.
Improved reliability with FET switching and
rugged construction.
Write, or telephone for price, delivery, and literature.
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MANUFACTURED BY OTARI ELECTRIC CO. TOKYO, JAPAN
and Cohen, the poet, with Phil Spector,
the painter of sounds, seems like an
unusual idea, if not a complete
mismatch. After all, Cohen's work has
always been more subtle while Spector
often borders on the manic. Yet, for all
its faults, Death Of A Ladies Man is a
unique achievement because Phil Spector comes close to working his production style around that of a singer/lyricist
instead of simply adding the vocalist as
part of the overall production. For
Leonard Cohen, the experience must
have been frustrating because his voice
has to fight the arrangements to obtain
any real presence. In "True Love Leaves
No Traces," for instance, Cohen's vocal
is overshadowed by back -up singer
Ronee Blakely.
Producer Phil Spector first became
known for his massive mono mixes
that peaked with the Righteous Brothers' classics "You've Lost That Lovin'
Feeling" and "Soul and Inspiration,"
greatly influencing contemporary producers like Jon Landau (Bruce Spring steen) and Brian Wilson (Beach Boys).
On those mid -sixties Spector records
and with his earlier productions of female vocal groups like the Ronettes,
Phil managed to include the most
Spector does pay attention to the
cadences of Cohen's exploration of failing relationships between men and
women, but when the melodies are translated through Cohen's folk persona and
set against Spector's "wall of sound,"
they become flawed. Among the exceptions are the up -tempo numbers "Don't
Go Home With Your Hard On" with
LEONARD COHEN: A battle of styles
musical elements in the smallest possible space -and succeed in the process.
Working in the stereo medium on Death
Of A Ladies Man-which is foreboding
in mono as well- Spector is redefining
space where tracks overlap in the mix
and give the illusion of a larger field of
sound than seems possible. What Spector does is build from the bottom up in
layers, filling each hole, then "widening"
the presence of each instrument.
Spector also wrote the music here
for Leonard Cohen's lyrical poems.
guest vocalist Bob Dylan and "Fingerprints," a country- flavored tune corn plete with fiddle. If Cohen's vocals are
overtaken by Spector's production on
most of the songs, Cohen's lyrics are
nevertheless brilliant and biting. Perhaps
this album would be better if Spector's
production was panned to one side in
mono while Cohen's vocals were panned
to the other.
S.S.
LEVON HELM: Levon Helm and The
RCO All-Stars. [Levon Helm and the
RCO All- Stars, producers; Eddie Offord,
engineer; recorded at RCO Studios,
Woodstock, N.Y. and Shangri -La Studios, Malibu, Ca.] ABC AA1017.
Performance: Democratic; everything
but the kitchen sink
Full of little surprises
Recording:
LEVON HELM: Lacking importance
The Ice Cube." a refreshing change to a steady diet
of Fender Reverb. Delicious, multi- flavored sound...
from thin and hard to warm and sweet, with twenty tasty
times more sustain. Fine fare for professional palates at
only $19.95.
For more demanding appetites, the Super Cube
super cuisine of sustain, reverb and everything in
between. Food for thought at only $59.95.
JIID
1370 Logan Ave. Unit
F
ALOtO
Costa Mesa CA 92626
With the release of his first solo album,
drummer Levon Helm does much to
recreate the loose improvisational sense
of community that permeated most of
the Band's work. Yet, just as many of
the Beatles' solo albums prove that the
sum is sometimes more than equal to
its parts, Helm's album does not stand
up well next to Band albums like Music
From Big Pink and Cahoots. What Helm
has given us is an enjoyable, goodtime
collection of songs that lack the importance of the Band's statements-perhaps because Helm borrows tunes from
CIRCLE 55 ON READER SERVICE CARD
78
MODERN RECORDING
We've
KELSEY®
gota
8, 12
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Kelsey 8
Each mixer is created
SPECIFICATION'S:
INPUT
especially for your
personal needs
by our skilled craftsmen
OUTPUT
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= 200 Ohm transformer balanced. MAX. INPUT
IMPEDANCES: hi Z
LEVELS:
HI
Z
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5I0 K
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_ow
Z
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variable; Low Z = 12 -53dB, continuously variable. ED: High ± 15dB at 10K. shelving; Middle
± 9dB at 2K, peaking: Low ± 15dB at 100 Hz,
shelving. MONIFOR: ?re -E0, unaffected by off
switch ECHO: Post-E0, Post- fader. LEDS: Green
10 to + 21; Red lit film +15 to
ht rom
+ 21: 6dB headroom left when Rec lit. EQUIVA1'OdBm from Hi Z input:
LENT INPUT NOISE:
122dBm from Low Z Input. T.N.O.: @ 1kHz,
any level up to clippng typically less than 0.1
If you want a 24 channel console
with 4 sub -masters, we've got it!
Or just 8 channels mono with no
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16 CHANNEL
were to try to tell you about all the features and specifications of our new
- 12 - 16 Channel Mixers, we'd have to take out four -page advertisements. Sc' we're ust going to tell you that each input channel has transformer
balanced low impedance connector and high impedance _ack: gain control; two
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onroffsolo switch. And there's an additional effects charnel with all the controls of
an input channel plue. "spin ". On the outputs, 2 VUs switchable between main and
mcnitor; left and rig d faders and tone (highilow) cone- s; monitor volume; and
switchable headphones between solo, main and monitor. And check our specs:
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MAX. OUTPUT LE EL. 8.3V RMS C> 10K Ohm
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Hz. V.U. METERS: "0 VU" = + 4dBm at output
of buss amp. switchable from stereo mix to
monitor mix. FRIEINJENCY RESPONSE: Mike in to
± 1'1 30 Hz 20kHz. SIGNAL TO
line out
typically 70dB.
NOISE: Mike in tc airy output
T.H.D.: Any o1Stpct 1kHz any level up to clipping
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The Mixers have a separate power supply, a solid mahogany cabinet, and come complete in an SMF
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CIRCLE
71
ON READER SERVICE CAED
T- Shirts
many varied songwriting sources,
including himself and the RCO All Stars- making his musical personality
closer to that of the Beatles' Ringo
Starr.
That said, this album offers quite a
few interesting moments. Primarily, the
considerable talents of the notable
session players add authority to the
spontaneity of the songs. The RCO All Stars include Steve Cropper on guitar,
Booker T. Jones on keyboards and percussion, Mac Rebennack (Dr. John) on
keyboards, guitar and percussion, Duck
Dunn on bass, Fred Carter, Jr. on guitar and Howard Johnson on baritone
sax and tuba. The entire horn section
trumpets, saxophones, and trombones
is as unpredictably arranged throughout
as they were on Band songs like "Life Is
A Carnival," yet intricately enough so
that they never overwhelm the rest of
the instruments on each song's tracks.
In the same way, the nature of the mix
adds greatly to the album's fluid feel.
Apparently the producers and engineer
Offord are not from the "fix it in the
mix" school because they aren't afraid
to leave in some of the loose ends such
as the stray electric piano at the end of
"A Mood I Was In." It is Levon Helm's
work that ultimately ties the album together, though, but not necessarily for
the strength of Levon's voice because
he was not the only good singer in the
Band. Still, his overall vocal performance
is nearly as good as his performance on
the Band's classic "Rag, Mama, Rag."
Given a good bottle of whiskey and
a few close friends then, this album is
worth the price if only for the fun of
its festive atmosphere.
S.S.
so
LARRY CORYELL AND STEVE
KAHN: Two For The Road. [J. Vince
Cirrincione, Tom Paine, executive proSteve Kahn, producer; Rich
Okon, production assistant; recording
dates and places and names of engineers unlisted.] Arista AB 4156.
ducers;
Performance: Nothing less than dazzling
Recording: Nothing less than honest
-
Q
LARRY CORYELL: Tasteful variations
I first heard Steve Kahn and Larry
Coryell working more or less together
at Max's Kansas City in the old days.
Steve was playing in "Count's Rock
Band" which was alternating with
Larry's Eleventh House group. I was at
once struck by the similarities in vocabulary and frame of reference between
these two players, as well as their dif-
ferences. Steve played top volume at altimes, but Larry (remembering wha
Jelly Roll Morton once said about 'i
you start with a full glass of water yot
can't add anything more to it') varie(
his bursts of top decibel playing wit].
acoustic and nearly acoustic moment!
of gloriously subdued, unashamedly
tasteful playing. Either Steve wasn't
showing us everything he could do of
he's learned a lot since then because
there's not a jarring electric note on this
album. I suspect that it's totally
acoustic but if any electronics were
used either in performance or post production sweetening, they're used so
tastefully that they're not abrasive -and
I can't quarrel with that.
One thing I can take issue with is the
lack of recording dates and data. The
entire itinerary of the tour is listed and
several dates (in Montreaux, Switzerland and in Miami -they don't specify
whether that's Miami, Florida, or
Miami, Ohio) are listed as "live" recordings. But nowhere does it state whether
these recordings came from either or
both of these dates. While Steve Kahn's
personal impressions of the tour are a
delight to read, I do think that vital
information was overlooked to make
room for them.
It is especially interesting to me that in
this day and age of ego- tripping bands
that play only their tunes that Kahn and
Coryell feel so secure in their own abilities that they include only one of Larry's originals and one joint effort. The
rest of the tunes come from such accepted standard sources as Wayne Shorter and Chick Corea and Bobby Hutcherson with a revival of Steve Swallow's
The flew Leader in DIGITAL DELAY
For natural, unobtrusive sound reinforcement in any church, theater, or hall.
For chorus, doubling, and echo effects in recording or broadcast.
THE PROBLEM: Digital delay lines (DDLs) are the
established standard for time delay, due to their high
S /N, low distortion, long delays and wide bandwidth
at all delay lengths. But DDLs have been too
expensive for many applications.
Analog delay lines have been accepted as a
substitute because they provide some useful effects
at a modest price. But their performance and flexibility are severely limited; frequency response and
dynamic range deteriorate as delay length is
increased.
THE SOLUTION.
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No audible noise. (Dynamic range > 90 dB.)
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0.2 %, mostly
pun second harmonic.)
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=L-
DRUM
ROAD,
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Available at Quality Dealers
CIRCLE 50 ON READER SERVICE CARD
80
MODERN RECORDING
-
California Musical Instrument Co.
1019 E. Vermont Avenue
Anaheim, California 92805
714) 533-8610
the Jazz Banò Sounò:
Nom the raaflunc, paesent to Its l2oots
Fancy Music Ltd.
744 State Street
Santa Barbara, California 93101
805) 963-3505
Gospel Sound and Music Co.
585 Lighthouse Avenue
Monterey, California 93940
408) 373 -5272
Guitar City Studio
67 N. Main
Kaysville, Utah 84037
801) 376-9381
Hanich Music
235 N. Azusa
West Covina, California 91791
213) 339 -9419
By Nat
Toshiko Akiyoshi -long a crisply
swinging, melodically inventive pianist
has evolved in recent years into the leader of one of the most resilient, invigorating big bands in all of jazz. Actually, she's the co- leader, the other being
her husband Lew Tabackin, a skilled
tenor player and a much more compelling flutist. But it is Toshiko who gives
the band its distinctive identity because
practically all the writing is by her.
And her spirit-thoughtful, sometimes
jubilant, and always lyrical-pervades
the music.
Insights (RCA) is a landmark album in
the band's odyssey. Not the first side,
which combines a buoyant swinger,
a subtly colored reflective piece, and
"Sumie "-a graceful fusion of jazz and
intimations of Toshiko's Japanese roots.
This is all performed with precise but
relaxed ensemble brilliance and a series of warm, incisive soloists. And as is
characteristic of any Toshiko group,
there is unusual sensitivity to dynamics
by the entire cast. This is a band that
can swing hard, but it can do many
other things as well.
It is the second side, "Minimata " -a
work by Toshiko that lasts almost
twenty -two minutes-which insures this
set an historic place in the jazz canon.
Oddly, the liner notes, while extolling
the music, do not say a word about the
origin of the piece. This is Toshiko's
way of putting into music the horrifyingly true story of a Japanese village
invaded by industrial pollution, the
results of which led to the transmogrification of many of the inhabitants into
grotesquely misshapen witnesses to corporate criminal greed. (For the pictorial
record, see the book about Minamata by
W. Eugene Smith.) Yet this is not agitprop music. Toshiko, with the empathic
aid of her musicians, has created a pano-
-
Hentoff
rama of impressions and indeed insights
-occasionally intertwining Japanese
with jazz shadings -that stands as music.
With, by the way, effective echoes of
Duke Ellington. The recorded sound
is somewhat tighter than I like for a
big band, but the expressive power
of all comes through clearly and
climactically.
Even in "Minamata," there are exuberant shouting, even strutting sections;
and that is part of the jazz band legacy.
In New Orleans, after all, the band
keened on the way to the grave, but
marched back in jaunty celebration of
the continuum of life. And in New
Orleans, there are still such high -spirited
marching units, one of the best of them
being Dejan's Olympia Brass Band.
I have delighted in these New Orleans
phenomena for forty years and if you've
never experienced this root -force of collective jazz improvisation, Dejan's is a
set to start with. I doubt if there is any
way to keep still, or seated, while listening to the Olympia players whose
music dances in the ear. The label is
Biograph (16 River Street, Chatham,
N.Y. 12037) and copies can also be
purchased from the latter -day source of
vintage New Orleans sounds, Presentation Hall (726 St. Peter St., New Orleans,
Louisiana 70116).
The recording is bright, spacious, and
gives you a sense of being right out on
the street, testifying to the glory of
these sounds.
Hud Sound
1607A Juliesse Avenue
Sacramento, California 95815
916) 929 -0898
K & K Music
1904 W. San Carlos Street
San Jose, California 95128
408) 249-5760
K & L Audio
28 Acton Street
Watertown, Massachusetts 02172
617) 926-6100
Leo's Music
5447 Telegraph Avenue
Oakland, California 94609
415) 653 -1000
Picker's Paradise
145 South LBJ Drive
San Marcos, Texas 78666
512) 392-9467
Portland Music
520 SW 3rd
Portland, Oregon 97204
503) 226 -3719
West LA Music
11345 Santa Monica Boulevard
West Los Angeles, California 90025
213) 477-1945
Bandstand Music East
11656 NE 8th
Bellevue, Washington 98004
206) 455 -0495
Bananas at Large
802 Fourth Street
San Rafael, California 94901
415) 457 -7600
Bill Fry Music
8322 North 7th Street
Phoenix, Arizona 85020
602) 997 -6253
Ambassador Music
7461 Tidewater Drive
Norfolk, Virginia 23505
804) 583-1894
Quantum Audio
200 Park Avenue South
New York, New York 10003
212) 260 -2300
Fred Locke Pro Audio
62 Woodlawn Road
Berlin, Connecticut 06037
203) 828 -1124
Ludwig Sound and Stage
164 Washington Avenue
North Haven, Connecticut 06473
203) 239-5553
Audio By Zimet
1040 Northern Boulevard
Rosalind, New York 11576
516) 521-0138
CANADA
Kalua Music
2271 Kingston Road
TOSHIKO AKYOSHI: Insights. [HiroAsaki, producer, Grover
engineer.) RCA AF L1 -2678.
shi
HAROLD
Helsey,
DEJAN: Dejan's Olympia
Brass Band. [Nu recording informations given.] Biograph VPS-4.
Scarborough, Ontario
416) 264-2347
Richard's Music Store
6065 Sherbrooke Street West
Montreal, Quebec
514) 487-9911
Axis Music
3959 Hastings Street East
Burnaby, British Columbia
604) 299 -7521
Guitarland
538 Broadway Avenue
Winnipeg, Manitoba
204) 775 -8461
CIRCLE 49 ON READER SERVICE CARD
JUNE 1978
81
..
String Syntnesizers
C
strings...
"General Mojo's Well Laid Plan" thrown
in as a reminder of the famous Coryell/
Swallow /Gary Burton /Roy Haynes quartet. It's a delightful record. I hope
there'll be more of the same-but next
time please give us the dates and places
as well.
OR they can have:
violins/cello/piano, variable chorusing,
keyboard split, synthesizer interface,
variable sustain controls, jacks for foot
controls, dual violin/cello mixers,
separate mixable piano output, stereo
string & computer interface options.
lic7x
ñ/1inx p#
TELL ME MORE
)
Send assembly & Using Manual for
Stringz 'n Thingz ($5 enclosed)
Send FREE catalog of other P.Al.A kits,
name:
Address:
City:
State:
OEPT.2 MR
ELECTRONICS
CIRCLE
zip
1020
W.
Oklahoma City.
OK
Wilshire Blvd.
73116
480N READER SERVICE CARD
at last .. .
the first mono
equalizer-reverb
*Quiet
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*Low distortion circuitry
*Four band Center -Variable EC)
*Independent level controls for
line (dry) and reverb
*Independent routing control for
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*Input and output level controls
*Bisymmetric LED peak indicator
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*Road tested reliability
intersound
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CIRCLE 47 ON READER SERVICE CARD
82
KUSTBANDET
AND
CHARLIE
HOLMES: Star Dust. [Gosta Hagglof,
producer; Gert Palmcrantz (Stockholm),
Fred Miller (New York, engineers; recorded at Europa Film Studio, Stockholm, Sweden (1974 -75) and Downtown Sound, New York City, N.Y.
(4/10/75).] Kenneth KS 2039.
Performance
1'
from BIWA You're gonna love it !
J.K.
Enthusiastic and hotter
than..
Recording:
dence of the saxophone playing of
Charlie Holmes. Charlie was practically
in retirement at the time this recording
was made and he doesn't play at all anymore, so I doubt that we'll have another
chance to hear this giant-and he is a
giant indeed. I have never heard a more
splendid account of Hoagy Carmichael's
classic "Star Dust" than Holmes gives it.
While at this writing Kenneth Records have to be ordered by mail from
Gosta Hagglof, Ramgrand 1, 17547,
Jarfalla, Sweden, plans are under way
for distribution by a U.S. distributor
who will have Kustbandet available
either on his own label or as imports on
Kenneth Records. However you are able
to come across them, they are well
worth the trouble.
J.K.
.
transatlantic gimmick,
but one that worked
A
On paper it looked kind of hokey.
This Swedish band that plays arrangements transcribed from records of classic early jazz bands such as Fletcher
Henderson, McKinney's Cotton Pickers,
Luis Russell and Duke Ellington made
an LP's worth of tapes and left some
solo space for Luis Russell's featured
alto sax star Charlie Holmes to fill.
Holmes, here in New York, overdubbed
onto the band tapes in a session recorded by Fred Miller and supervised by Al
Volmer. It's easy to say it won't work
. but it did. Just listen to "Saratoga
Shout" or "Star Dust." Then listen to
the astounding things they do with
Ellington's "Rockin' In Rhythm" with
its wild fugue for saxophones and Doc
Vollmer shouting over the final chorus
-stay with it until the end.
Kustbandet has some flaws to be sure.
They lack the kind of dynamic soloists
in each department that made the black
bands of the '20s the powerhouse units
they were. Players like clarinetist Erik
Perrson and pianist Ake Edenstand can
get off some very impressive hot choruses but the trumpets lack a hot man
who can solo with the consistency of
an Armstrong, Rex Stewart or a Red
Allen. But what's more important
with a band like this is the enthusiasm
and excitement and drive it generates
and even that the rhythm section swings
a lot harder than most of the '20s bands
did (even though they do cheat a bit
and use a string bass as well as a tuba).
Regardless of how one feels about
Kustbandet (and I myself find them
completely charming and wonderfully
exciting) this record is important as
what may well be the last recorded evi-
CHARLIE PARKER: One Night In
Birdland. [Gary Giddins, producer; Don
Young, reissue engineer, from airchecks
recorded by Boris Rose 6/30/50.]
Columbia 34808.
CHARLIE PARKER: Bird With Strings.
[Gary Giddins, producer; Larry Hiller,
reissue engineer, from airchecks recorded by Boris Rose 1950, 1951 and 1952.1
Columbia 34832.
CHARLIE PARKER: Summit Meeting
At Birdland. [Gary Giddins, producer;
Don Young, reissue engineer; from air checks recorded by Boris Rose 3/31/51,
3/23/53 and 5/9/53.] Columbia 34831.
Performances
Still contemporary, still
masterpieces
Recording: Terrible, but it's all we have
These recordings are part of a series
Columbia calls the "contemporary masters series." I don't know just how a
musician who died in 1955 can be
considered as "contemporary," unless
it's that even two decades after his passing his influence still shows up daily in
those of his contemporaries who are still
with us and the kids who grew up listening to him and were intimidated into
imitating him. Certainly imitation is not
the innovative way for a musician to
go but a case can be made. How much
more could any saxophone player hope
to say on the changes of Cole Porter's
"Easy To Love" than Bird did? And not
only did Bird fairly exhaust the possibilities of the tune but he did it three
times (the Apollo Theatre on 8/23/50,
Carnegie Hall on 11/14/52 and Birdland
on 4/7/51), all on the Bird With Strings
MODERN RECORDING
)um. And each time he said it differ itly. As a contemporary master
iarlie Parker certainly lives up to the
finitions. The sides with strings are,
necessity, pretty well charted leaving
ily brief holes for Parker to improvise
but what Bird could do with just a
Fief hole in the arrangement! The
her airchecks show Charlie Parker
ith the famous (Dizzy Gillespie and
ud Powell) and the not so famous but
lually fine (Fats Navarro and Milt
uckner) displaying his virtuosity and
nprovisational fertility on standards of
ebop ( "Round Midnight" and "Night
.i Tunisia ") and prebop ( "Embraceable
'ou" and "Star Eyes "). Bird's ability
3 find musicality in just about anything
e picked up was one of his most
ndearing features. They're not here but
should take only a little digging to
urn up Charlie Parker's airshots of
unes like "On A Slow Boat To China"
or a lesson in the manufacture of silk
nurses from sows' ears. That's if you
iappen to be a genius.
As for the recording it was done by
i man named Boris Rose who did the
.lest he could with the primitive home
ecording equipment of the 1950s and
he wretched sound of those pre-FM
radio remote broadcasts to begin with.
-But this is history. This is the way it was
-and if we were to find a crude recording
of Beethoven conducting his Ninth
symphony or Bach improvising on the
organ, who would complain that it
J.K.
wasn't stereo, hi -fi or quad?
.
Dance of the Apprentices and Entrance
of the Meistersinger; Tristan and
Isolde: Prelude and Liebestod. Royal
Philharmonic Orchestra, Leopold Stokowski cond. [Richard Mohr, producer;
Robert Auger, engineer.] RCA ARL
1 -0498.
Performances: Succulent
Recordings: Less resonant
TCHAIKOVSKY: Aurora's Wedding
Ballet Music from The Sleeping Beau-
Leopold Stokowski cond. [Antony Hodg-
son, producer; Neville Boyling,
engineer.] Desmar DMS 1011.
Performances: Large -scale
Recording: Church acoustic
STOKOWSKI/WAGNER: Gotterdam
merung: Orchestral Highlights. London
Symphony Orchestra, Leopold Stokowski cond. [Richard Mohr, producer;
Christopher Parker, engineer.] RCA ARL
1
-1317.
WAGNER: Rienzi: Overture;
Walkure: Magic Fire Music;
JUNE 1978
Die
Die
es
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listed
34543.
BIZET: Carmen and L'Arlesienne
Suites. Same credits as Stokowski
Transcriptions disc. Columbia M 34503.
Performances: Romantic
Recordings: Hugely resonant
career spanned over 70 years -60 of
them in the recording studio, where he
was the leading experimenter with
nearly every new technique developed
in this field. Active to the end, the 95year-old maestro had been scheduled
to record Rachmaninoff's Second Symphony the day following his death on
September 13, 1977.
Nowadays it is de rigeur for musicians to familiarize themselves with
the studio, but Stokowski's concern
with the quality of sound led him to be
more active in the recording process
than any of his contemporaries. He
recorded the music with The Philadelphia Orchestra for Disney's Fantasia
(1940) in six-channel stereo long before
the invention of the stereo disc; still in
the days of mono, he experimented
with mixing separately miked choirs of
the orchestra in the studio to achieve
greater clarity; his Vanguard recording of Stravinsky's L'Histoire du
Soldat was the first American recording to utilize the Dolby System; and,
"I
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SIBELIUS: Symphony No. 1; Swan of
Tuonela. Same credits as Aurora's
Wedding, except no producers listed.
Columbia M 34548.
as the only engineer. Columbia M
CD
B1aKsa,e
cc UDXL 35
STOKOWSKI: Great Transcriptions for
Orchestra. Same credits as Aurora's
Wedding, except that Robert Auger is
a
at W
N
ty. National Philharmonic Orchestra,
Leopold Stokowski. [Paul Myers and Roy
Emerson, producers; Robert Auger and
Mike Ross -Trevor, engineers.] Columbia
M 34560
Leopold Stokowski's conducting
VAUGHAN WILLIAMS: Fantasia on a
Theme by Tallis; DVORAK: Serenade
for Strings, Op. 22; PURCELL: Dido's
Lament. Royal Philharmonic Orchestra,
AMPEX
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Meistersinger: Prelude to Act Ill,
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Music World
33 Park Row. N.Y.C. 10038 Dept. MR
(212) 732 -8600
MAIL
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money
on personal chews Pease add $2 50 per order tin
shipping 8, handling. N Y S Residents add tax NO
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CIRCLE 46 CN READER SERVICE CARD
By Popular Demand!
THE
HISTORY
OFECORDING
By Robert
Angus
The entire six -part series from
Modern Recording Magazine.
Reprinted as a specially bound
book for only
$3.50
...
Send for this edition today!
Send check or money order to:
Modern Recording Magazine
14 Vanderventer Ave.
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N.Y.
83
Speçs
Price.
not surprisingly, four -channel technc
ogy found one of its earliest enthus
asts in the ever -adventurous Leopol
Stokowski. "But remember," he cat
tioned in an interview given in 1967, "
recording can give you nothing but th
illusion of a performance."
The records listed above are all chat
acteristic of the famous "Stokowsli
Sound " -sensuous, organ -like richnes
of texture, with a seemingly endles
variety of tone color -and they al
receive interpretations of invigorating
romantic warmth and sweep. As usua
with this most imaginative and willfu
of conductors, there are details that
one might criticize. And, as always, ht
can't resist personalizing and height
ening the drama of the music wits
alterations of scoring, dynamics anc
tempos. Yet the final impression re
mains of an infinitely lively musica
mind, deeply committed to his art.
"The love of music is a continuous life
of enjoying beauty and sound," Stokowski stated in an interview with
Robert Jacobson. "It has been a continual effort to make music more alive,
so that it is not a mechanical reproduction of what is on a piece of paper -but
a real expression as it always was with
the greatest artists."
The Desmar release has an interesting background. The company made
its debut two years ago with proclamations of high quality, but founder Marcos Klorman soon discovered how easily things go awry. After exasperating
attempts to achieve those chosen standards in American pressing plants,
Desmar records are now pressed by
Telefunken in West Germany. This
particular recording waited over a
year- and -a -half for its release while
Klorman rejected over a dozen separately mastered test pressings. It was
worth the wait. Stokowski's performances of the Vaughan Williams'
Tallis Fantasia, the short arrangement
of Dido's Lament from Purcell's opera
Dido and Aeneas and Dvorak's String
Serenade are unique for their passion
and large -scale extroversion. While
one may prefer more intimate accounts
of the Williams and Dvorak works (especially the latter in a superb version
by The Czech Chamber Orchestra, conducted by Josef Vlach, formerly on
Crossroads in the U.S. and presently
available on a Supraphon import), the
multi -hued richness and Brahms -like
heft conjured up by Stokowski is interpretively valid. Incredibly, the Dvorak
recording was apparently the first
time he had ever conducted the work!
.
The Tangent Model 3216 Professional Recording Console. Take a
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These are typical specifications
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in the "Hands -On Report ", October
1977. The unit reviewed was a
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5,580
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MODERN RECORDING
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DATE_
/_ i-
exciting demonstration piece.
Tchaikovsky's "Aurora's We
Advertiser's Index
Reader Service #
Advertiser
51
ADS
65
Amanita
Aries
Sam Ash
Ashly
Audio Arts
Audio Marketing
67
No #
66
64
75
Page #
28
12
18
as
26
28
5
ding," consisting of music taken mo:
ly from the third act of Sleeping Bea
ty, represents the best playing of TI
National Philharmonic, a London pic
up band of the finest players from tl
city's five major orchestras. Uncle
standably, the conductor's contr
diminished with age, and lapses
ensemble that he never would have tc
erated in earlier years had to stand
order to conserve his energy for cor
pletion of the sessions. Minor imprec
sions apart, the Bizet disc is wholl
recommendable for its unabashed e;
hilaration. Stokowski has judicious]
selected the best -known numbers fro'
the pair of suites for each wort
Sonically, the Carmen side seem
slightly more intimate in perspectiv
than the L'Arlesienne excerpts, whit
have a bit more depth and vibrancy
The Transcriptions disc is enjoyabl,
light listening, and the sound is up t
the best on these Columbia releases.
Highlights are the conductor's set
tings of Rimsky -Korsakov's Flight o
the Bumblebee and Albeniz's Fete
Dieu a Seville.
Listeners attuned to Colin Davis
classical approach to Sibelius (MR.
Oct. 1977) are apt to find their eye
brows converging with their hairlinE
over Stokowski's ideas about the Fin
nish composer's Symphony No. 1.
Always best in music where structura
considerations did not interfere witl
his ever -active imagination, the age.
less maestro not only emphasizes
Sibelius' debt to Tchaikovsky but contributes many individual touches cothis own. This symphony does not lend
itself to the "showpiece" route, however, and the cavernous sound sweeps
all sorts of inner detail (and, one
suspects, considerable sloppy playing',
under the rug. Still, Stokowski's love
of the music conquers most of the objections (not, however, the crass playing and recording of the timpani), and
the Swan of Tuonela which completes
the disc is evocatively rendered with
all the mystery and sensitivity one
.
52
BGW
80
Carvin
86
Community Light
Crown
93
8
&
Sound
51
7
72
Dallas
dbx
Delta Labs
DiMarzio
Dynacord
62
Electro Voice
81
Hammond
70
Ibanez
17
47
Intersound
82
55
46
JHD
J&R
83
89
Keas/Ross
42
No #
LT Sound
30
96
Maxell
91
MXR
68
Neptune
18
No #
Otari
77
48
94
76
PAIA
Peavey
Phase Linear
82
55
88
Quilter
43
92
RIA
87
77
Russound
12
69
SAE
Sansui
20
14
79
Sennheiser
Showco
85
Sony
83
Soundcratt
Sound Workshop
Speck
Spectra Acoustics
Studio Master
Studio Master
Sunn
Superscope
71
58
50
97
61
78
No #
59
90
49
84
82
98
79
80
Cvr. 2
15
24, 25
6
78
19
Cvr 4
31
75
10
44, 45
11
57
22
40
81
1
9
Cvr
3
Tandberg
Tangent
Tapco
TascamiTeac
TDK
Technics
29
57
Unisync
27
45
Whirlwind
White
30
43
87
LEOPOLD STOKOWSKI: Inspiring
23
54
95
No #
73
53
63
86
61
84
2
21
13
59
Recorded in a very resonant acoustic,
the spacious sonics may seem to diffuse when played in rooms with high
ceilings, but focus is quite satisfactory
in more modest settings. Surfaces and
processing are excellent.
The two Wagner discs on RCA receive much tighter sound- presumably due more to a markedly smaller
recording venue than to closer miking.
Instrumental lines and textures are
thus clearer, complemented by excellent playing from the respective orchestras. Indeed, the disc containing
excerpts from Rienzi, Tristan and
Meistersinger, displays some of the
finest playing on a Stokowski record in
recent years: The Royal Philharmonic
is truly playing for him, sensitive to
every tempo change and rubato, and
especially impressive in the propulsive
Tristan Prelude and Liebestod, where
rarely a bar goes by without some tempo adjustment or caressing of a detail.
The Gotterdamerung disc is one of the
conductor's "symphonic synthesis"
reworkings of opera, the music
patched together and rewritten with
solo instruments substituting for the
vocal lines. Mastering is fine, but surfaces were an occasional distraction.
The four Columbia releases apparently emanate from the same production team (no producer is listed for the
Sibelius disc, the least sonically successful of the four). Like much of engineer Robert Auger's work, the sound
has plenty of impact within a huge
acoustical perspective; the result is
quite different from his work on the
second Wagner disc for RCA, however,
reflecting the final decision by the producers in each case. Obviously after a
big effect, their success is admirable.
The Farandole which concludes the
L'Arlesienne excerpts is a particularly
.
could wish.
Still in the Columbia can are recordings of Brahms' Symphony No. 2,
Mendelssohn's "Italian" Symphony
and the Bizet Symphony in C. It is difficult to believe that we must content
ourselves in the future with reissues of
recordings made by the most youthful
and inquiring of musicians.
S.C.
-77
MODERN RECORDING
RECORDING INSTITUTE OF AMERICA, INC.
MONtREAI
L
X
nTTAaA
TORONTO
When today's music conscious society made recording the new art of self- expression, the RIA,
created the nationally acclaimed ten week course, entitled Modern Recording Techniques, in the
art of multi -track recording. All classes are conducted on location at 16 and 24 track recording
facilities. Under the guidance of professional recording engineers as instructors, the students see,
hear, and apply the techniques of recording utilizing modern state of the art equipment. The course
includes: mono, stereo, multi -track (4, 8, 16 track) magnetic tape recorders -theory and operation:
microphones -basic theory and operation; control console- function and operation; overdubbing
principles, echo techniques, equalization and limiting principles, multi -track "mixdown" principles
(16 track to 2 track stereo); and tape editing techniques. The course concludes with live recording
sessions so that the student may apply the techniques learned. The RIA is the largest and most
respected network of studios offering musicians and creative audio enthusiasts the chance to
experience the new world of creative recording.
FOR
INFORMATION ON RIA'S MODERN RECORDING TECHNIQUES COURSE,
CALL OUR LOCAL REPRESENTATIVE IN THE FOLLOWING CITIES:
AMES, IOWA
A & R Recording Studio
1515) 232 -2991
CLEVELAND. OHIO
INDIANAPOLIS. IND.
PADUCAH, KY
Agency Recording
(216) 621-0810
Ta pe Mas te rs
Audio Creations
(502) 898-6746
ATLANTA. GA
Axis Sound Studios
(404) 355 -8680
COLUMBUS. OHIO
Mus -I -Col Rec'g
(614) 267.3133
KNOXVILLE, TN.
BALTIMORE. MD.
Sheffield Rec -s Ltd.. Inc
(301) 252 -2226
DALLAS. TEXAS
Sound One
L.A.i ORANGE COUNTY, CA.
United Audio
1714) 547 -5466
(214) 742-2341
(317) 849-0905
Thunderhead Sound
1615! 546 -8006
PHILADELPHIA. PA.
Starr Recordings
(215) 925-5265
PHEONIX
Et
TUCSON. ARIZ
Lee Furr Studios
(602) 792 -3470
PITTSBURG. PA.
BIRMINGHAM, AL.
DENVER. COLO.
Solid Rock Sound
Apptewood Studios
(303) 279-2500
1205)
8544160
NEW HAVEN. CT.
Trod Nossel Productions
Audio Innovators
(412) 391 -6220
(203) 269 -4465
NEW YORK. N.V.
RIA
CHARLOTTE N.C.
DETROIT. MICH
Reflection Studio
(704) 377.4596
RIA. Detroit
(313) 779-1380
CHICAGO, ILL.
Universal Recording Studios
(312) 642 -6465
HOUSTON. TEXAS
NORTHERN N.V. STATE
Welts Sound Studios
(713) 688-8067
Michele Audio
(315) 769 -2448
TULSA & OKLA CITY, OKLA
Ford Audio and Acoustics
(405) 525 -3343
HAWAII
Audissey Sound
(8081 521 -6791
CANADIAN
REPRESENTATIVES
CALGARY, ALBERTA
Sound West Recording Studio
(403) 277 -0189
MONTREAL. ONT.
RIA
RICHMOND, VA.
Alpha Audio
(804) 358-3852
(212) 582 -0400
SEATTLE. WASH.
Holden. Hamilton
& Roberts Recording
(206) 632-8300
CIRCLE 92 ON READER SERVICE CARD
(212) 582 -0400
OTTAWA. ONT.
MARC Productions
(613) 741 -9851
TORONTO, ONT.
Phase One Recording Studio
(416) 291-9553
('I.ASSIFIIiI) AUS
Professional components and custom
assembly, carrying Teac /Tascam, JBL, Phase
Linear, SAE, Sennheiser and more. Spectrum
Audio, 621 So. Gammon Rd., Madison, WI.
53719. (608) 274 -2500.
FOR SALE: Neotek 12 in 4 out recording
board, 4 directs, 3 band EQ, all outputs &22
dbm, peak lights and meters, packed with
features and in great shape. year free service, $3450. Acme Recording Studios, 3821 N.
Southport, Chicago, III. 60612. (312)
477 -7333.
1
ROADSHOW EQUIPMENT. Clearing wide
range new & used items incl. mixers (from
$350 -$3500), bass & treble bins (with &
without speakers $125 & up), lenses, horns,
etc., Limited quantity -be first (516)
538 -2220, ENTERTAINMENT SOUND SERVICES, 78 N. Franklin St., Hempstead, N.Y.
11550.
Speck SP800 -C 16 X 8 console, yr. old, gone
24 track. $5300.00. Also, 24 tracks dbx, six
157 rack mount units, sell all or groups of 8, 3
months old. Upgrading to pro dbx. (312)
495 -2241.
1
RECORD PRESSING. Custom album jacket
design, printing. Tapes, 45s. From your tape
to finished product. Deal direct. Nashville
Album Pressing, 617 7th Ave. S., Nasville, TN.
37202.(615)256-0121.
WISCONSIN'S PRO AUDIO CENTER featuring equipment from Tascam, Klark -Teknik,
dbx, Tapco, Crown, AKG, Revox, Beyer, EV,
Shure, and many more! Complete professional consulting available. Large display instore. In stock for immediate delivery,
TASCAM SERIES 701/2" 4 -track with 701
electronics and sync module, $1995 -new,
factory sealed. FLANNER & HAFSOOS, 2500
N. Mayfair Rd., Milwaukee, WI 53226. Call
(414) 476 -9590, ask for Terry DeRouin, Tom
Luell or John Loeper.
NOW NEW YORK'S
MUSICAL DEPT STORE
JUST A FREE CALL AWAY!
You can buy at NYC prices direct
from SAM ASH MUSIC STORES'
6 huge stores and warehouse. All
musical instruments, amplifiers,
electronic keyboards, discos, PA's.
Call for prices or mail your list of
questions. NYC area residents,
please visit us in person. NY state
phone 212 347 -7757. Since 1924.
800 -645 -3518
SAM ASH MUSIC STORES
301 Peninsula Blvd
Hempstead, NY 11550
88
Recording Sound Company has your musical
and audio needs; all at great savings. Teac,
Tascam, Biamp, Shure, Sennheiser, BGW,
Atlas, Anvil, Kramer Guitars, Lab Series,
Altair, Sunn, Pearl and much more. 1871
Seminole Trail, Charlottesville, Va. 22901.
(804) 977 -1110.
Tascam, Teac, Sound Workshop, Nakamic
Otari, dbx, MXR, Dynaco, ADS, Eventide, E
Shure, Maxell, Ampex, AKG Pro, Beyer, UR
Stax, Sennheiser, Tapco, Crown, Orban /Pa
sound and more! Send for price quote
ZIMET PRO AUDIO, Dept. MR, 1038 Northe
Blvd., Roslyn, N.Y. 11576.
NEW PROFESSIONAL PRODUCTS- Microphone snakes & cables, splitters, direct
boxes, speaker systems, transducers,
enclosures. Also bulk cable & connectors
available! Write or phone for FREE CATALOG
& prices. CONCERTAUDIO MANUFACTURING & RESEARCH CORP., 80 George St.,
Paterson, N.J. (201) 279 -2600.
A 140 -page comprehensive directory listil
REVOX MODIFICATION, variable pitch for
A-77, In -Sync for A-77 or A -700, Programmer
for A -77, rack mounts, slow speed 1 7/8, full
track, auto rewind, high speed 15 ips for A -77,
slidematic for A-77. Machines available with
or without mods at low cost (A -77 from $695).
All mods professionally performed by Revox
trained technicians. Entertainment Sound
Services, Inc., 78 N. Franklin St., Hempstead,
N.Y. 11550. (516) 538 -2220.
Intensive summer workshop in recording
techniques, electronics, electronic music,
jazz improvisation, instrumental master
classes. Write Frank Stachow, Lebanon
Valley College, Annville, Pa. 17003.
UREI cooper time cube delay unit $600 or
best offer. UREI 527 and 529 one third octave
equalizers. Will equalize system with White
140 realtrue analyzer in Atlanta area. Also
distributor for White. Have 140 and 150
analyzers for demonstration by appointment.
(404) 253 -6419 after 5PM and weekends., H.F.
Royal, Newnan, Ga. 30264.
FOR SALE: Stevenson Interface mixer 16 inputs, expandable to 24. Also, 3M, M64, 410
series 2 -track recorder. (212) 641 -5432.
Synthe -Sound Musical Products announces
the release of their Pressure-Cooker guitar
and accessory cables, complete with heavy
duty Belden Cable and military 1/4 " jacks.
Also includes a lifetime warranty. 2' -5.20,
3' -5.45, 5' -5.95, 10' -9.50, 15'- 12.50,
20'- 15.50, 25'- 18.95. Send check or money
order
Synthe Sound Musical Products,
P.O. Box 55, Limerick, Pa. 19468. Dealer in-
to-
quiries invited.
1976 AMPEX A440 -c 8 track. Mint condition,
includes $200.00 test tape and 4 reels of 206.
Please call (617) 661 -7627 or (617) 492 -8649.
WANTED: Recording equipment of all ages
and varieties. Neumann mics; EMT; etc. Dan
Alexander, 6026 Bernhard, Richmond, Ca.
94805, 415-232 -7933.
names, addresses, and phone numbers
every major record company, publisher
booking agents, managers and independe
record producers. Also, sample contra
forms for each. All for $4.95. R.I.A., 15 Colur
bus Circle, New York, N.Y. 10023.
CASSETTE DUBBING -High quality one
one dubs. For free price sheet write Fanta;
Fidelity, P.O. Box 2594, Dallas Tx. 75204.
Otari, Technics, Revox Reel to Reel Profa
sional feature recorders. 2, 4 & 8 track, 1/4 t
1 inch tape models from $695. Ex- stock, wit
all other equipment (including Lamb Labor(
tories and Trident Fleximixers) to complet
mini -studio systems. Visit our demonstratio
showroom or write for details. Entertainmer
Sound Services Inc., 78 N. Franklin St
Hempstead, N.Y. 11550. (516) 538 -2220.
8 track -one inch 300 transport
354 electronics -71/2 & 15 ips metal console
$3000.00. Thomson C.S.F. Volumax 4111
new $1000.00. (203) 232 -9785.
Ampex 300
If you have an 8 or 16 track studio, and are in
terested in becoming a licensed represen
tative for R.I.A.'s Modern Recording Tech
niques courses, call or write: Mr. P. Gallo
R.I.A., 15 Columbus Circle, New York, N.Y
10023 (212) 582 -3680. A Large profit poten
tial with low operating costs.
LEARN SPECIAL EFFECTS THROUGH CAS
SETTES AND BOOKLET: Includes demon
strations of SPECIAL EFFECTS; instruction(
on utilizing these SPECIAL EFFECTS in your
music production; and a self-explanator)
booklet. Send $16.00 to HRSIOA, 2518 Nortf
Lafayette, Bremerton, Washington 98310.
PRO AUDIO WITH THE EDGE; Aslily Audio,
Biamp, Gallien- Krueger, Wasatch, MXR, Car-
roll Sound, Lexicon, Shure, Sennheiser, AKG,
Otari, BGW, Caseworks, Switchcraft, Belden,
Piezo, and much more. Write for low price
quotes. EDGE SOUND, 839 Merkle Ave.,
Marion, Ohio 44302.
MINI- STUDIO PACKAGE SYSTEMS FROM
$2599. Using pro- recording equipment from
Revox, Otari, Lamb Labs, Beyer, Trident.
Write for full details of offers to ENTERTAINMENT SOUND SERVICES, Inc., 78 N. Franklin St., Hempstead, N.Y. 11550. (516)
538 -2220.
MODERN RECORDINC
Ultiinatdy It's Manintz.
Goforit.
Motor System. The steadiest, most accurate tape transport method. Speed
accuracy is superb, with
Wow and Flutter below
Now, professional
3 -head
monitoring
in a cassette deck.
Up to now you had to
choose between a cassette
deck for convenience. Or,
reel -to -reel for professional recording features.
Now have it both ways in
the Marantz 5030 cassette
deck.
Here's how:
The Marantz 5030 has
separate record and playback heads ... the same as
reel -to -reel. This gives you
an instant check of the
quality of your recording
as you record. And, like some of the most expensive reel -to -reel decks, the record and playback
heads on the Model 5030 are super -hard permalloy
long -lasting metal alloy that gives
better frequency response and signal to noise
ratio than Ferrite material.
For precise azimuth alignment, both the
playback /monitoring and record heads are
set side -by -side within a single metal enclosure. They can't go out of tracking
-a
alignment.
Complementing this outstanding "head technology" is Full- Process Dolby* Noise Reduction Circuitry. It not only functions during
record and playback... but during monitoring
as well.
What drives the tape past the heads is every
bit as important as the heads themselves. For
this reason the Model 5030 has a DC -Servo
0.05% (WRMS).
adapt the Model 5030
to any of the three most
popular tape formulations,
press one of the three buttons marked "Tape EQ and
BIAS:' There are settings
for standard Ferric -Oxide,
Chromium Dioxide (Cr02)
or Ferri- Chrome (FeCr)
To
tape.
With Mic/Line Mixing,
two sources can be recorded at the same time,
combining line and microphone inputs. The
Master Gain Control lets you increase or decrease the overall volume of the total mix.
What else could we pack into a front load
cassette deck?
More features. Like a 3 -digit tape counter
with memory function. Viscous Damped Vertical -load Cassette Door. Switchable Peak Limiter.
Fast -response LED Peak Indicators. 3" Extended range Professional VU Meters. Locking Pause
Control for momentary shut -off in record or
play... and Total Shut -off in all modes when
the tape ends.
And, of course, the unbeatable Marantz 5030
is front loading. Easy to stack or fit on a shelf.
The styling is clean and bold. The sound is the
truest recreation of what was put on tape. If you
want the best -then do what you really want to
do -go for it. Go for Marantz.
*TM Dolby Labs, Inc. © 1978 Marantz Co., Inc., a subsidiary of Superscope, Inc., 20525 Nordhoff St., Chatsworth, CA 91311.
Prices and models subject to change without notice. Consult the Yellow Pages for your nearest Marantz dealer.
CIRCLE 98 ON READER SERVICE CARD
www.americanradiohistory.com
WHAT'S NEW,
THEN SEE WHAT'S BETTER
SEE
You've seen what's new
what's louder, slicker, bigger, shinier ... but lave you
seen what's better' Th MXR
Phase 90 maKes a small claim
on new with its new lower
price and new grabs, but
even better is ti-at we've
.
.
.
added a toLch ol --...çeneration for more intersitv without sacrificing tha- cassic Phase 9C sound. What
this amounts to is ha* the phaser that set the industry standard is now even more versatile in its performance %hie mairtaining the NM standard of
quality and reliabity.
The Phase 90 is cr?, member of our family of phase
shifters, which inc'..xtbs the Phase 1DO, our top-ofthe-line phase shifr, and our Phase 45, which offers
(ItAxo)
Th
the same MXR quality at an
even lower price.
So, go out and see what's
new. Then see what's slightly
new
and better. .. from
.
.
.
MXR.
For more information see
your MXR dealer. MXR Innovations, Inc., 247 N. Goodman Street, Rochester, New
ark 14607. (716e 442-5320. DistribL ted in Canada
Yorkville Sound Ltd., 80 Midwest Road, Scarorough. Cntaric.
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