Child Passenger Safety Glossary of Terms
Child Passenger Safety Glossary of Terms Active Protection: Protection features that require action by the occupant. These features include lap belts, lap and shoulder belts, and child restraint systems. Anchor: A common short alternative for anchorage; often used to refer specifically to the hardware installed at the anchorage, either factory-installed or in a retrofit shoulder-belt or tether kit. Add-on school bus specific CSRS: A CSRS designed to be used exclusively on a school bus. It incorporates a seat base, back and a five point harness system. It is secured to the school bus seat with a cam wrap or portable seat mount. Allowable alternate vehicle: A vehicle designed for carrying eleven or more people, including the driver, that meets all the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards applicable to school buses except 49 CFR 571.108 and 571.131. (See also Multifunction School Activity Bus.) Anchorages: See anchor. Belt cutter: See Seat belt cutter Belt-positioning booster seat (BPB): A crash-tested device that raises the child so that the required lap and shoulder belts fit correctly. All BPBs act as pre-crash positioning devices and must be used with lap and shoulder belts. BPB models may have high backs, or be backless. Belt sensitive: Refers to a type of emergency locking retractor, which locks when the belt is pulled quickly. Belt path: The path that the manufacturer is required to create so that the seat belt passes around or through the CSRS. Some seats have multiple belt paths. For example, convertible car seats have one belt path for rear-facing use and a separate one for forward-facing use. Best practice: Suggested options that represent most acceptable ways to travel for a child of certain age, size, physical development, and behavioral needs. Best practice may vary given real world circumstances. Booster seat: See belt-positioning booster seat. Buckle: The locking mechanism of the vehicle belt or child safety seat. The latchplate fits (clicks) into the buckle. Caregiver: A person responsible for a child’s well-being and safety. CPS: Child passenger safety. Cam wrap: A seat-mounted system for attaching a safety vest to a school bus seat. (See Portable seat mount) Car seat: See Child Restraint Child restraint (CR), child restraint system (CRS), child restraint device (CRD) child safety restraint system (CSRS): A crash-tested device or system that is specially designed to provide infant/child crash protection. General term for systems including child safety seats, safety vests or car beds that meet FMVSS 213. Children with special transportation needs: Children whose physical or behavioral conditions makes the use of particular, often specially designed, restraint systems necessary. Combination seat: A type of forward-facing child restraint that is used with an internal harness system to secure a child. With removal of the internal harness, it is used as a belt-positioning booster (BPB) seat. Compartmentalization: Refers to the type of passive occupant protection seen in school buses. CR: See Child Restraint Convertible child safety seat: A child restraint that “converts” from rear-facing for infants and smaller children to forward-facing for children. Crash Dummies: Full-scale replicas of human beings, weighted and articulated to simulate the behavior of a human body in a vehicle mishap, and instrumented to record as much data as possible on numerous variables during a collision. Detachable Base: A separate base for a child restraint system that can be installed in the vehicle. The restraint (car seat) portion can be removed from the base, and used as an infant carrier. Emergency locking retractor (ELR): A retractor on a seat belt system that locks in response to rapid deceleration of the vehicle. ELRs respond to rapid movement of the belt or the sudden deceleration of the vehicle or both. Evacuation device: Specially designed device with handles to effectively drag a person or CSRS to an exit and away from the bus. Fire blanket: Chemically treated blanket used to cut off the oxygen supply to a fire and could also be used to keep a child warm in the case of injury or shock. Forward-facing-only child safety seat: A child restraint system that is intended for use only in the forward-facing position for a child that has outgrown his/her rear facing seat. Harness: A system of straps that keep the child within the shell, distributes crash forces, and helps the child “ride down” the crash. Harness retainer clip or Chest Clip: A clasp that holds the shoulder straps together over the child’s chest at armpit level. Pre-crash positioning device intended to keep harness straps in position on the shoulders. Harness adjuster: Used to tighten or loosen the harness the internal harness of a child restraint system. Harness slots: Slots in the child restraint through which shoulder straps are routed. See Shoulder Harness Slots. Head excursion: The distance from a reference point that the occupant’s head travels forward during a frontal impact. A performance measure regulated by FMVSS 213. High Back Booster Seats: see Belt Positioning Booster. IEP: Individualized Education Program, for children 3-21 years. The IEP is the blueprint for the education and related services that the local education agency (LEA) provides for a child with a disability, together with the goals, academic assessment procedures, and placement of the child. IFSP: Individualized Family Services Plan. For children 0-3 years and their family an IFSP is developed in coordination with his/her teacher, day care center, school, or school district to provide for a particular child’s special needs. Because infants and toddlers are served in a variety of locations (including the home), Part C of IDEIA services (see appendix) are to be provided in “natural environments in which children without disabilities participate” to the maximum extent appropriate. Infant-only safety seat: A child restraint designed for use only by a young child in a semireclined rear-facing position. Also referred to as rear-facing only car seat. Integrated child seat: A child-sized forward-facing restraint with a full harness built into a school bus seat. Labels: These are located on the seat, and indicate the following: 1) NHTSA certification of conformation to all applicable FMVSS 2) Weight and height guidelines for the specific seat 3) Basic outline of the installation procedures 4) Manufacturing data, including data of manufacture, the manufacturers name and address, and a model number 5) Air bag warning and 6) FAA certification for use in an aircraft. LATCH: Lower Anchors and Tethers for CHildren. Latch plate: The part of the buckle mechanism that locks or connects into the buckle. May be the part that adjusts the length of the lap portion of the belt webbing. Level Indicator: Helps to identify the manufacturer’s recommended correct angle for rear-facing restraints. Lock-off: A built-in belt-locking feature on the child restraint system that works with certain types of seat belts in a similar fashion as locking clips. Locking clip: A flat H-shaped metal item intended to clip lap and shoulder belt webbing together at a free-sliding latch plate in order to prevent the webbing from sliding through. A locking clip is a pre-crash positioning device only. It is not to be used as a belt shortening clip. Lower anchorage attachments: A piece of belt webbing that anchors to the lower anchorage on the vehicle structure. It secures the CSRS to the vehicle. These attachments are used in place of the vehicle seat belt. Multifunction School Activity Bus (MFSAB): “A school bus whose purposes do not include transporting students to and from home or school bus stops,” as defined in 49 CFR 571.3. This subcategory of school bus meets all FMVSS for school buses except the traffic control requirements (alternately flashing signal and stop arm). Non-regulated (aftermarket) products: As the name implies there are no federal standards for these products. Some examples are infant head positioning pads, shoulder belt positioning pads and shoulder belt positioning devices. Manufacturer–tested and approved accessories for their own CSRS are acceptable. Ossification: The natural process of bone formation. Passive occupant protection: Features of the vehicle that lessen the injury to the occupant without any action taken by the occupant. Portable seat mount: A long wide strip of webbing that wraps around the vehicle seat back and is fastened around the vehicle seat. Used with safety vests or school bus specific CSRS. Rear-facing only seat: A child restraint designed for use only by a young child in a semireclined rear-facing position. Also referred to as infant only car seat. Rebound: Reactive motion in the opposite direction after initial impact has occurred. Recalls: Voluntary or required actions taken to correct problems or deficiencies once products have been distributed or sold. Manufacturers must offer free repairs or replacement for products recalled for violations of safety standards. Recline Adjustor: Allows convertible restraints to be reclined for rear-facing and semi-reclined or upright for forward-facing use. Registration card: A postage-paid return card that comes with every child restraint; should be returned to the manufacturer so owners can be notified of any recalls. Retractor: A mechanism that rolls up the webbing of the seat belt when it is not in use and takes up slack around the user. Retrofitted: Installing, fitting, or adapting a device or system. An example of this would be to retrofit seat belts on a school bus. Ride Down: The length of time when the forces are felt by the occupant during a crash. Seat belt: The buckle, retractor, anchor, webbing and latch plate system that restrains the occupant in the vehicle. Also known as a seat belt. Seat belt cutter: A device used to cut webbing. Safety vest: A combination pelvic and upper torso child restraint system that consists primarily of flexible material, such as straps, webbing or similar material, and that does not include a rigid seating structure for the child. A cam wrap must be used for installation on a school bus seat. School bus: A bus owned, leased, contracted to or operated by a school or school district and regularly used to transport students to and from school or school-related activities, but not including a charter bus or transit bus. A school bus must meet all applicable FMVSSs and is readily identified by alternately flashing lamps, National School Bus Yellow paint, and the legend “School Bus,” except as may be provided for the multifunction school activity bus. School bus specific CSRS: A CSRS designed to be used exclusively on a school bus. It incorporates a seat base, back and a five point harness system. It is secured to the school bus seat with a cam wrap or portable seat mount. School bus specific lap belt add-on CSRS: A CSRS used in conjunction with a lap belt meeting all applicable FMVSS’s which meets FMVSS 213 and is designed to be used exclusively on a school bus. It incorporates harness and crotch straps and is secured to the bus seat with a cam wrap or portable seat mount. Seat Belt Syndrome: Separation of the lumbar vertebrae and associated paralysis, due to the effects of a crash where only a lap belt was used. Seat bight: The intersection between the bottom vehicle seat cushion and the back cushion. The seat crack. Seat padding: The cushioning attached to a child restraint, on which the child sits. Shell: The molded plastic structure of the CSRS. In some models, the shell is attached to or reinforced by a metal frame. Splitter plate: Metal plate that connects the two ends of the shoulder harnesses to a single piece of webbing used for adjustment. Submarining: When the hips and legs slide forward out of the harness and the upper body remains restrained. Technician: A person who successfully completes the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s (NHTSA) standardized child passenger safety certification program. Tether: See Tether Strap Tether anchor: The kit or installed hardware bracket used to secure the tether hook and strap at the designated anchor point in the vehicle. The tether strap and hook attach directly to the anchor bracket. Tether strap: A piece of belt webbing that anchors the top of the CSRS to the vehicle structure. It keeps the restraint from tipping forward on impact and can provide an extra margin of protection. Can be optional or factory installed. Webbing: The fabric of the seat belt that holds the occupant or a CSRS in place.
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