Additional Literacy Support Module 2
The National
Literacy Strategy
Additional Literacy Support
Module 2
• Phonics and Spelling
• Reading (Guided and Supported)
• Writing (Shared and Supported)
Department for
Education and Employment
The National
Literacy Strategy
Additional Literacy Support
Module 2
Phonics and Spelling
Reading (Guided and Supported)
Writing (Shared and Supported)
Department for
Education and Employment
The National
Literacy Strategy
Additional Literacy
Support
MODULE 2
Phonics and Spelling
Reading (Guided and Supported)
Writing (Shared and Supported)
First published 1999
Reprinted 2000
Contents
Foreword by Professor Michael Barber
4
National Literacy Strategy:
Additional Literacy Support (ALS)
5
Phonics and Spelling
14
Phonic Games and Activities
16
Tricky Words
36
Lesson Plans
38
Photocopy Masters
55
Sentence Sheets – Story 2: The Aliens meet the family
91
Reading (Guided and Supported)
Guide Sheets
Writing (Shared and Supported)
107
110
113
Lesson Plans
114
Photocopy Masters
122
Example Lesson Scripts
137
Making a Sentence Holder
151
Appendix 1
Guidance for classroom assistants: management of group behaviour
152
Appendix 2
Assessment flowchart: placing a child on the ALS programme
153
Appendix 3
Homework activities
154
Appendix 4
Glossary of terms
155
Appendix 5
Phonemes
160
3
Foreword
The Literacy Hour is now well established and having a positive impact in primary
schools. This should ensure that all pupils receive good quality literacy teaching from
the time they start school. Pupils who are already in Key Stage 2 will not, however, have
been taught the Literacy Hour from the beginning of primary school, and many would
now benefit from further support.
The purpose of Additional Literacy Support (ALS) is to help pupils in Key Stage 2 who
have already fallen behind in literacy, but who would not otherwise receive any
additional support in this area. This pack includes a high quality teaching programme
for such pupils, to be delivered during the group work session of the Literacy Hour by
teachers and classroom assistants, working in partnership.
Classroom assistants have a key role in delivering ALS. The programme offers them
training and a set of structured teaching materials to help them make a significant
impact on standards in the classroom. The Government is funding an additional 2,000
(full-time equivalent) classroom assistants in 1999–2000 to deliver ALS in schools. This
is a first step to meeting its pledge to provide an additional 20,000 assistants by 2002.
Evaluation of ALS will inform decisions about this wider deployment of classroom
assistants.
I hope that schools find these materials useful in ensuring that we succeed in raising
standards of literacy for all pupils.
Professor Michael Barber
Head of Standards and Effectiveness Unit
4
National Literacy Strategy:
Additional Literacy Support (ALS)
Introduction to ALS
The National Literacy Strategy gives all pupils a basic entitlement to good quality literacy
teaching. In the early stages of the strategy, however, pupils in Key Stage 2 will not usually
have benefited from being taught the Literacy Hour, using the objectives in the literacy
Framework for teaching, from the beginning of primary school. Schools have been sent
guidance, supported by funding from the Standards Fund, to help teachers ensure that
Year 6 pupils in the early stages of the strategy reach their full potential in the Key Stage
2 tests. ALS is intended to help pupils in the earlier part of Key Stage 2 who have already
fallen behind in literacy.
The Government’s target of 80% of 11-year-olds achieving Level 4 in English in 2002 is
a milestone on the way to virtually all children attaining this standard. ALS reinforces this
long-term aim by helping teachers to ensure that all children get the teaching they require
to reach Level 4, not just those who can more easily be moved from Level 3 to Level 4.
Funding to support the programme has been allocated to LEAs in 1999–2000 by a formula
that takes into account pupils’ achievement in the Key Stage 1 tests. ALS thus gives extra
support to each LEA in achieving its target, recognising their different starting points.
ALS is designed to be delivered by teachers and classroom assistants, working in
partnership.
Which pupils will benefit from ALS?
A number of teachers have found it helpful to incorporate work from earlier years in the
Framework into literacy hours at Key Stage 2. But some pupils may need more than this
to ensure that they develop fully the skills they will need to master reading and writing by
age 11. Most of these pupils are likely to be Year 3 and 4 pupils who have attained Level 2C
or Level 1 in their Key Stage 1 English tests. ALS is intended to be delivered during the
group work sessions of the Literacy Hour, and the content of the teaching programme is
aligned to the objectives in the literacy Framework for teaching.
Some pupils who have fallen behind in literacy may already receive extra support. ALS
is mainly intended for pupils who would, without it, receive no additional support in literacy,
e.g. pupils assessed at level 2C and reluctant and disaffected pupils. Schools will, of course,
be best placed to make the detailed decisions, within this context, on which pupils are most
likely to benefit from the programme. It may, for example, be appropriate to use ALS to give
extra specific help to pupils who already receive some additional support, such as those
with more severe SEN, pupils who speak English as an additional language (especially if
they have only recently arrived in this country) and traveller children.
The evidence base of ALS
ALS has been informed and shaped by findings from QCA’s analysis of the Key Stage 1
and 2 English test results for 19981, and OFSTED’s evaluation of the National Literacy
Project (NLP), on which the literacy strategy is based2.
Key Stage 1 English test
QCA’s analysis of the 1998 Key Stage 1 results shows that 36% of pupils attained level 2C
or below in reading, and 51% in writing. The majority of children attaining level 2C do not
attain level 4 in Year 6.
1
Standards at Key Stage 1
– English and
mathematics and
Standards at Key Stage 2
– English, mathematics
and science. Copies
available from QCA
Publications, PO Box 99,
Sudbury, Suffolk CO10
6SN. Tel: 01787 884 444.
2
The National Literacy
Project. An HMI
evaluation. (HMSO,
November 1998). Copies
available from OFSTED
Publication Centre, PO
Box 6927, London E3
3NZ. Tel: 0171 510 0180.
5
QCA have identified the specific features of Level 2C readers and writers as follows
MODULE 2
Introduction
Reading
■ over-dependence on support from the teacher, or illustrations
■ slow reading that lacks pace and expression
■ limited ability to segment, blend and spell phonemes
■ over-reliance on prediction, word recognition and simple letter-sound
correspondences
■
■
very limited self-correction strategies
limited literal comprehension of text.
Writing
■ limited ability to spell medial vowels in regular words
■ poor understanding of simple word roots, suffixes and inflectional endings in
spellings e.g. ed, ing
poor sentence formation and use of capitals and full stops
■ difficulty in sequencing and connecting content in writing.
■
Key Stage 2 English test
QCA’s analysis of the 1998 Key Stage 2 results shows a significant difference between the
performance of girls and boys. 57% of boys attained Level 4 or above, compared to 73% of
girls. Almost 80% of girls achieved Level 4 or above in reading, compared to 64% of boys.
Overall, pupils’ writing was much weaker than their reading. Boys’ writing was particularly weak.
The characteristics of pupils who attained Level 3 have been identified in relation to the
three strands of the literacy Framework for teaching. They are as follows
Word Level
■ adequate decoding but limited inferential ability in reading
■ restricted choices for long and unstressed medial vowel sounds
■ limited grasp of spelling rules and conventions e.g. consonant doubling, affixes
■ poor understanding of the appropriate use of possessive apostrophes.
Sentence Level
■ inability to handle complex sentence construction
■ poor use of commas to mark boundaries within sentences
■ limited ability to use pronouns, verb tenses and the third person
■ difficulties in using the appropriate speech punctuation for direct and reported
speech.
Text Level
■ no use of paragraphing and other organisational devices
■ little experience and confidence in non-narrative writing
■ little evidence of planning, reviewing and editing writing for clarity, interest and
purpose.
OFSTED’s evaluation of the NLP
OFSTED’s evaluation shows that the NLP has been very effective in improving the quality
of teaching, and increasing pupils’ rates of progress in reading and writing. The report
does, however, highlight two particular concerns
■
6
the teaching of phonics and spelling remained unsatisfactory in too many lessons –
either scarcely taught, or not taught at all – despite the central importance of this
word level work in children’s acquisition of literacy skills
■
evidence that, in a small number of schools, problems of leadership and management
were preventing effective implementation of the NLP.
NLS ADDITIONAL
LITERACY SUPPORT
These concerns are also reflected in OFSTED’s preliminary observations of the implementation of the National Literacy Strategy.
Teaching and learning principles in ALS
ALS is aligned to the objectives in the literacy Framework for teaching, and maintains the
interrelation between the reading and writing process enshrined in the Framework. The
activities in ALS will help pupils to consolidate Key Stage 1 work, particularly phonics,
whilst bringing them in line with the teaching and learning expectations for their age. The
table on pages 10–11 gives an overview of the contents of ALS and includes cross-references to relevant objectives in the Framework for teaching.
Teaching
ALS is intended to be delivered during the group work session of the Literacy Hour by
teachers and classroom assistants, working in partnership. It seeks to engage pupils
actively and keep them motivated, using the range of teaching strategies outlined in the
Framework for teaching, including
■ direction
■ demonstration
■ modelling
■ scaffolding
■ explanation to clarify and discuss
■ questioning
■ initiating and guiding exploration
■ investigating ideas
■ discussing and arguing
■ listening to and responding.
Learning
The programme has been developed to promote pupils’ learning through the following
principles
■ building on what pupils already know and can do
■ using interactive activities that demonstrate how reading, writing and speaking and
listening link together
■ providing opportunities for revision, reinforcement and feedback
■ ensuring that pupils have opportunities to apply newly acquired knowledge
and skills.
Content of ALS materials
ALS has been designed to help address the problems identified by QCA and OFSTED. It
also draws on the experience of LEAs as they implement the literacy strategy, and the
materials have been trialled in a number of schools.
ALS materials include
A four separate teaching modules, with components covering
■ phonics – this will teach pupils the word level work they may not have mastered at
Key Stage 1, and will be taught by the classroom assistant, supervised by the
teacher
7
MODULE 2
Introduction
■
reading (guided and supported) – this will teach pupils to apply word level skills in
accurate and fluent reading, and will be taught by the teacher and the classroom
assistant in alternate weeks
■ writing (shared and supported) – this will teach pupils to apply word and sentence
level skills in their writing, and will be taught by the classroom assistant and the
teacher in alternate weeks
B guidance for teachers on managing ALS, including the supervision of classroom assistants
C an accompanying training video.
Timetabling ALS
Size of groups
ALS has been designed to be delivered to groups of five pupils, during the group work session of the Literacy Hour, over a period of 24 consecutive weeks. This means that if a
school begins to deliver it in September, it will be finished by the end of March.
Modules
The programme is made up of four separate modules. Each module is designed to be
delivered in eight weeks, so an individual pupil would expect to complete three of these in
the 24 weeks of ALS. They should start at either Module 1 or Module 2 depending on their
attainment when beginning ALS. The teaching materials in this pack include criteria to
help teachers decide which starting point would be appropriate for particular pupils.
Module 1 covers phonics and reading only, with a particular emphasis on helping pupils
to consolidate early phonics work. Modules 2, 3 and 4 cover phonics, reading and writing.
The table on pages 8–9 gives an overview of the contents of each module.
Weekly plans
Each week the programme will consist of
■ three 20 minute group work sessions delivered by the classroom assistant,
supervised by the teacher
■ one 20 minute group work session delivered by the teacher.
The following example weekly plans show how the programme can be timetabled in the
20 minute group work sessions of the Literacy Hour.
Module 1
Components: Phonics, Reading
Weeks 1,3,5,7
Weeks 2,4,6,8
Monday
Phonics
Classroom Assistant
Phonics
Classroom Assistant
Tuesday
Guided Reading
Teacher
Supported Reading
Classroom Assistant
Wednesday
Phonics
Classroom Assistant
Phonics
Classroom Assistant
Thursday
Phonics
Classroom Assistant
Guided Writing
Teacher
Friday
Independent Work
Independent Work
NOTE: The classroom assistant’s supported reading session uses the same text as the teacher’s guided reading session
the previous week, to reinforce what has been taught.
8
NLS ADDITIONAL
LITERACY SUPPORT
Modules 2,3,4
Components: Phonics, Reading
Weeks 1,3,5,7
Weeks 2,4,6,8
Monday
Phonics
Classroom Assistant
Phonics
Classroom Assistant
Tuesday
Guided Reading
Teacher
Guided Writing
Teacher (could be
observed by
Classroom Assistant)
Wednesday
Phonics
Classroom Assistant
Phonics
Classroom Assistant
Thursday
Supported Writing
Classroom Assistant
Supported Reading
Classroom Assistant
Friday
Independent Work
Independent Work
NOTES: The classroom assistant’s supported reading session uses the same text as the teacher’s guided reading session
the previous week, to reinforce what has been taught.
Support for ALS
The DfEE has allocated £22.15 million of Standards Fund grant to LEAs in 1999–2000 to
support ALS. This funding has been allocated on the basis of a formula that takes account
of the attainment of the LEA’s pupils in the 1998 Key Stage 1 tests. The funding is intended
to support additional classroom assistant hours for the delivery of ALS and the attendance
of teachers and classroom assistants at training sessions with literacy consultants in the
summer and autumn terms of 1999. LEAs will decide which schools receive Standards
Fund support for ALS, and the level of that support, consistent with the purposes of ALS.
The teaching programme, however, is designed to be clear and structured and suitable for
schools to use it even if they have not been able to take part in the LEA’s training sessions
9
MODULE 2
Introduction
AN OVERVIEW OF ADDITIONAL LITERACY SUPPORT (ALS)
(Description of modules includes cross-references to the relevant objectives
in Framework for teaching and other relevant references.)
Title of ALS
PHONICS
READING (GUIDED AND
WRITING (SHARED AND
component
(word level)
SUPPORTED)
(word/sentence/text level)
SUPPORTED)
(sentence level)
Each module is linked to the
phonics programme.
Over view of
MODULES 1–4
modules
Module 1 contains 20
phonics lessons of 20
MODULES 1–4
Each module contains eight
lessons of 20 minutes. The eight
minutes each. Modules
lessons are taught alternately by
2–4 contain 16 lessons of the teacher and classroom
20 minutes.
assistant. The cycle begins with
MODULES 2–4
Each module contains eight
lessons of 20 minutes. The eight
lessons are taught alternately by
the classroom assistant and
teacher. The cycle begins with
The classroom assistant
the teacher.
the classroom assistant.
teaches all lessons each
week.
The teacher’s lessons are guided
reading sessions during the
The classroom assistant’s
lessons are sessions of sentence
All sessions can be
taught during the group
work session of the
Literacy Hour.
level work. The teacher’s lessons
They are followed by a classroom
assistant’s lesson of supported
are guided writing sessions
within the Literacy Hour.
Literacy Hour.
reading in the following week.
All sessions can be taught during
All sessions can be taught during
the group work session of the
the group work session of the
Literacy Hour.
Literacy Hour.
MODULE 1
Children taught:
■ reading and spelling
CVC, CCVC,
CVCC words
Objectives: Y1, Term 1
and Term 2
Children taught:
■ to use phonological, contextual,
grammatical and graphic
knowledge to work out, predict
and check the meanings of
unfamiliar words and make
sense of what they read.
Objectives: Y1
Reading Recovery (RR) book
bands 3/4
MODULE 2
Children taught:
vowel digraphs;
■ adding ing
■ two syllable words.
■
Objectives: Y1, Term 3
Children taught:
Children taught:
as above
■ to read with sufficient
concentration, text length and
range.
■
■
■
■
Objectives: Y2
RR book bands 4/6
■
■
10
to recognise and produce
sentences
sentence boundaries
phrases and punctuation e.g.
exclamation marks, question
marks
to expand simple sentences
the use of temporal connectives.
Objectives: Y1/2
NLS ADDITIONAL
LITERACY SUPPORT
Title of ALS
PHONICS
READING (GUIDED AND
WRITING (SHARED AND
component
(cont.)
(word level) (cont.)
SUPPORTED)
(word/sentence/text level)
SUPPORTED)
(sentence level)
Each module is linked to the
(cont.)
phonics programme. (cont.)
MODULE 3
Children taught:
vowel digraphs
■ to read polysyllabic
■
■
Children taught:
■
words
to spell words ending
■
grammatical and graphic
knowledge to predict from the
sentences
■ to sequence sentences to
text, read on, leave a gap and
in ing and ed.
Objectives: Y2
Children taught:
to use phonological, contextual,
return to correct their reading.
■
to convert phrases into
make a text
to improve sentences through
openings e.g. adding adjectives,
weak to powerful verbs.
Objectives: end of Term 1, Y3
RR book bands 8/10
Objectives: Y2
MODULE 4
Children taught:
■ to spell words with
affixes
■ spelling conventions.
Objectives: Y2/3
Children taught:
Children taught:
as above, but with unfamiliar
texts
■ to read silently, sustaining
interest in longer texts
■ to solve most unfamiliar words
on the run
■ to search for and find
information from a range of
■
■
■
to use pronouns
to write direct speech,
revising the difference
between ‘speech written down’
and direct speech.
Objectives: Y2/3
non-fiction texts.
Objectives: end of Term 2 Y4
Level 3 (National Curriculum)
texts (R.A)
Overall Management of ALS
This section focuses on the role of the teacher leading the delivery of ALS in a school. It
includes advice on supervising the work of classroom assistants, who have a key role in
delivering the programme, and on liaising with other teachers and parents.
The classroom assistant in ALS
Primary schools have a strong tradition of using classroom assistants to work with teachers to support the learning needs of identified pupils. This has been particularly evident
in supporting the reading and writing development of pupils in Key Stage 1 and, more
recently, in Key Stage 2. Many schools have increased their numbers of classroom assistants over the past few years.
In 1996, the DfEE launched the Specialist Teacher Assistant scheme to provide trained
support in literacy and numeracy in Key Stage 1. Evaluations of this scheme, and of the
use of classroom assistants generally, point to the positive effect they can have on standards, but also to variations in the level of support that assistants receive both from
schools and LEAs.
11
MODULE 2
Introduction
The Government’s Green Paper, Teachers meeting the challenge of change, welcomed the
fact that classroom assistants are playing an increasingly important role in schools and
said that the Government would provide an additional 20,000 (full-time equivalent) assistants for schools by 2002. The funding for additional classroom assistants to deliver ALS
is the first step in meeting this commitment. ALS provides a structured programme, with
teaching resources and some training, to ensure that classroom assistants are well
supported as they deliver the programme. Evaluation of ALS will inform decisions about
the wider deployment of classroom assistants.
Your school should have an agreed policy on the role of classroom assistants in
supporting pupils’ learning and achievement. This should include a consideration of
assistants’ training needs, and provide for time to meet and plan with teachers.
Qualities of ALS classroom assistants
The classroom assistants selected to deliver ALS should have the necessary skills
and experience to do so effectively. They will need to
■ feel confident about working with groups of pupils in Years 3 and/or 4
■ be familiar with, and understand, the literacy Framework for teaching
■ be willing to engage, with the teacher, in ALS training
■ have the necessary skills and knowledge both to understand and to deliver the
individual ALS programmes.
Duties of ALS classroom assistants
The key responsibility of the classroom assistant is to work under the supervision
of the class teacher to deliver ALS for identified groups of pupils. The ongoing
working partnership between the teacher and the classroom assistant is crucial to
the success of ALS.
More specifically, the classroom assistant will
■ work with a group of five pupils for a total of one hour per week, divided into
three 20 minute sessions
■ prepare work and activities in advance of working with pupils
■ undertake some assessment of pupils’ progress
■ meet the class teacher to review and plan ALS.
The ALS assistant may be already working at the school, or may be a new appointment. It
is important that the school gives opportunities for assistants to observe and participate
in the Literacy Hour in Years 2, 3 and 4 before they begin working on ALS. In addition to
familiarity with the literacy Framework for teaching, assistants should have access to the
school’s National Literacy Strategy training materials.
The role of the teacher in ALS
Teachers have a vital role in teaching the guided reading and writing sessions, and
managing the delivery of ALS. School managers need to ensure that teachers are well
supported in their management role. The role of these teachers in relation to pupils,
classroom assistants, other teachers and parents in ALS builds on good practice already
established in many primary schools.
In relation to children, teachers will
■ select pupils who are suitable for ALS, e.g. those attaining Level 2C or Level 1,
basing their assessments on test results and teachers’ judgements
■ assess each pupil’s entry level in relation to the modules in ALS, using the criteria
set out in the materials
■ prepare the pupils for ALS e.g. establish expectations about how they will work with
the classroom assistants, and the activities they will do at home.
12
In relation to other teachers, teachers will
■ work with the school’s literacy co-ordinator to ensure that ALS is included in the
school’s monitoring procedures for the Literacy Hour
■ liaise with the SEN co-ordinator on assessing pupils for the programme, and on the
links between ALS and the Individual Education Plans (IEPs) of SEN pupils.
NLS ADDITIONAL
LITERACY SUPPORT
In relation to classroom assistants, teachers will
■ plan time to meet the classroom assistant to discuss pupils’ progress and plan ALS,
giving the opportunity for the classroom assistant to seek clarification of any
aspects they are unsure about
■ observe the classroom assistant when possible and provide feedback
■ maximise opportunities within a busy classroom for the classroom assistant to
communicate with the teacher e.g. through a comments sheet completed by the
assistant at the end of each ALS session and given to the teacher
■ support the classroom assistant in managing group behaviour (see Appendix 1).
In relation to parents, teachers will, with the support of the school’s senior managers
■ meet parents to discuss ALS and the support it will provide for their children
■ clarify the important role that parents can play in supporting their children’s
learning, e.g. helping their children learn to read and spell difficult words.
The role of parents and homework in ALS
OFSTED inspection findings and research evidence show that homework can make an
important contribution to pupils’ progress at school and ensure that teaching time has
maximum effect. The DfEE has published homework guidelines for schools3. These give
guidance about the purposes of homework, how much and what sort of homework should
be expected of pupils of different ages, and what both schools and parents should do to
support pupils. The guidelines state that in the primary phase, homework should focus
mainly on literacy and numeracy. At Key Stage 2, literacy homework should include reading with parents, learning spellings and practising correct punctuation.
ALS builds on these guidelines, and includes planned homework activities for pupils to
undertake between lessons. It is therefore important that the school explains to parents both
the purpose and content of ALS, and, in particular, their role within it. Schools can support
parents through informal workshops that give them opportunities to try out the homework
activities, and to discuss the many ways in which they can help their children’s learning. The
video illustrates two of these activities.
Progress in reading and spelling ‘tricky words’ (Activity 4 in each phonics lesson) is
largely dependent upon children practising outside the lesson. While this practice will
usually take place at home, where this is not possible alternative arrangements can be made
in school (e.g. reading buddies). Appendix 3 suggests homework activities that could be
used to practise ‘tricky’ words. That page may be adapted or photocopied for parents.
What happens after ALS?
Once a pupil has completed the 24 weeks of ALS, schools will need to consider what future
support the pupil will need in order to master literacy skills by the end of primary school.
If the pupil has completed Modules 1, 2 and 3 of ALS, teachers may then wish to take them
on to Module 4. Teacher assessments may also show that there are aspects of the programme that need to be revisited with particular pupils.
If pupils have satisfactorily completed the ALS modules, schools could draw on the revision guidance for Year 6 pupils4. This will help teachers to provide the necessary support
that ALS pupils will require in the later part of Key Stage 2 in order to achieve Level 4 in
their tests at age 11.
3
Homework Guidelines
for Primary and Secondary
schools (Df EE, November
1998). Copies available
from Df EE Publications,
PO Box 5050, Sudbury,
Suffolk CO10 6ZQ.
Tel: 0845 6022260.
4 National Literacy and
Numeracy Strategies –
Revision Guidance for
Year 6 Pupils (Df EE,
February 1999). Copies
available from Df EE
Publications, PO Box
5050, Sudbury, Suffolk
CO10 6ZQ.
Tel: 0845 6022260
13
ADDITIONAL LITERACY SUPPORT (ALS)
Phonics and Spelling
Rationale
The phonics and spelling component of ALS is based on evidence from QCA derived from
the Key Stage 1 SATs, and from OFSTED reports, empirical research and teachers’
experience. It is designed to meet the needs of children who have achieved Level 2C or 1
in the KS1 SATs. The programme starts at Y1T1 of the NLS Framework although
Module 1 revises some aspects of YR work. There is a limited handwriting element. This
consists of the letter group c, a, o, g, d. These letters are often formed incorrectly by
children who are delayed in reading and writing leading to a b/d confusion.
Each lesson consists of four activities lasting approximately five minutes each. These
activities require a pacy approach. It is essential that you have the specific equipment for
the lesson prepared and readily accessible at the start of each lesson. Sometimes it may
not be possible to finish the activity in the time allotted. Each activity is designed to give
the children practice and this will have been achieved even if only three-quarters of the
game or activity has been completed.
Preparation for each module
Almost every activity requires a set of words or letters. Some worksheets or stories need
to be enlarged for shared reading. These are all provided on A4 photocopiable masters
(PCMs). Most of the activities require word cards. These are made by photocopying
directly onto thick card and then cutting out.
Most lessons require the children to have a set of letters. Magnetic or plastic letters are
useful. However, these are not often obtainable moulded together as digraphs (e.g. ch, ai,
igh). It is important that children handle digraphs as units so photocopiable sheets of
these have been provided to be made into letter cards.
Following the instructions for a lesson and running a lesson at the same time is not
easy. There is only a handful of basic activities and games in this component of the
programme so you will soon get used to them. However, sometimes it is necessary to
move away from these to deal with a new element and this appears longwinded in the
instructions. It is advisable to photocopy certain lesson plans and annotate them to help
make it easy for you to follow. You could even tick off each activity as you carry it out.
Storage
The profusion of letters and cards required for this programme will quickly become a
nightmare if adequate storage is not obtained. Plastic boxes of drawers, from most DIY
shops are perfect for this purpose.
Materials needed for the phonics lessons
Teacher
■ large board and pen
■ set of letters (either magnetic or cards and Blu-tack)
■ materials specified for the lesson
■ module lesson notes.
Children
individual boards and pen (boards may be made from sticking PCMs 1.1 and 1.2 onto
a piece of thick A4 card and covering with transparent sticky back plastic)
■ a dry wipe pen and eraser.
■
14
Seating
Children should be sitting in an arc opposite the teacher so that no child ever sees writ-
NLS ADDITIONAL
LITERACY SUPPORT
ing upside down.
Who is ALS for?
ALS has been designed to meet the needs of children who have achieved a Level 1 or 2C
in KS1 SATs. It assumes a certain level of knowledge and skill (see below) and a child who
is not at this level will not benefit from this programme and, if included, is very likely to
hinder the progress of the group.
Profile of child entering ALS at Module 1 (probably Y3)
Module 1 assumes that children cannot either read or spell CVC words. However, it
assumes children can easily hear/identify the initial phoneme in a CVC word and be
reasonably stable in identifying the final phoneme as well. It does not assume children can
identify the medial phoneme or other consonants in words.
It assumes children have a reasonable knowledge of basic phoneme-grapheme correspondences, although it anticipates there may well be confusion amongst the vowels and
letter formation problems in the c, a, o, g, d group.
Profile of child entering ALS at Module 2 (probably Y4)
Module 2 assumes that children can read and spell CVC words (including most consonant
digraphs) and words containing initial and final consonant clusters. It does not assume
any knowledge of vowel digraphs.
The Assessment Flowchart (Appendix 2) gives guidance on placing a child on
the ALS programme.
15
MODULE 2
Phonics and Spelling
Phonic Games and Activities
Contents
1 Sliding in game
page 17
10 Word choice
page 29
2 Quickwrite
page 18
11 Reading long words demo and
reading long words worksheet
page 30
3 Full circle game
page 19
12 Phoneme spotter parts 1 and 2
page 32
4 Word sort
page 21
13 Rhyming words
page 34
5 Label games 1 and 2
page 24
14 Flashcards
page 34
6 Cube game
page 25
15 Hunt the phoneme game
page 34
7 AddING (and variations
ed, er etc.)
16 Prefix game
page 35
page 26
8 Thumbs in game
page 28
17 Dictation
page 35
9 Phoneme counting
page 29
Equipment and materials for games
All children should have a writing/playing board. These are made by sticking PCM
1.2 (the three-phoneme frame and writing lines) on one side of an A4 piece of stiff
card and PCM 1.3 (the four-phoneme frame and writing lines) on the other side. Both
sides should be covered with clear film so that dry wipe pens may be used for writing
and then conveniently erased.
■ Most of the games require letters or words.
■ Letters – plastic or magnetic letters may be used but as it is important that consonant
digraphs and trigraphs (e.g. sh or tch) and vowel digraphs and trigraphs (e.g. ai or
igh) are treated as units, it may be better to use the letters and di/trigraphs on
PCMs 1.4 and 1.5, or sellotape plastic letters together.
■ Words – the words or word strips for each game are produced on PCMs. These
should be copied on to card and then cut up.
■
The children are asked throughout this programme to say and finger count phonemes.
For each phoneme they say they should bend a finger down.
Instructions for games and activities
The object, materials and procedures for each of the games are set out below. Most of the
games have an example from one of the lessons in Modules 1–4. The tone in these lessons
is purposely positive with lots of ‘well done, aren’t you clever’ type comments. They are
16
not intended to be patronising. The children taking part may have previously experienced
several years of feeling a failure and consequently have poor self-esteem. It is therefore
vital that these sessions with you are enjoyable and successful so that children end each
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LITERACY SUPPORT
lesson feeling that they are learning and can do it.
Comments should always reinforce successful, correct responses and good tries.
Many of the games are illustrated on the accompanying video.
1 Sliding in game
Object
To practise distinguishing the sound of one phoneme from another
Materials
The children should each have the set of the letters as described in lesson instructions
and unless otherwise instructed, phoneme frames (PCM 1.2 and 1.3)
Procedure
Give the children two (occasionally three) letters which they place below the
phoneme frame, on their boards ready to slide forward.
■ Say a word and ask the children to repeat it after you.
■ Ask the children to slide forward the correct letter for that word into the right
position on the phoneme frame, saying the phoneme as they slide.
■ Check each child has got it right before saying the next word.
■
Example of Sliding in game from Module 1 Lesson 2 Activity 2
Play Sliding in game to practise identifying the middle phoneme in words using a
3-phoneme frame: i and o – shop ship hot hit pit pot lock lick tock tick lit lot
song sing.
Classroom assistant: We’re going to play the Sliding in game. Here is an i and an o for
each of you. Could you put them below your 3-phoneme frame, like this?
(Demonstrates with one of the children’s frames.) You are going to decide whether to
slide the i or the o into the middle square: shop – all say shop.
Children: shop.
Classroom assistant: Can you hear an i or an o in the middle? Listen, I’ll say it slowly –
shop.
Children: o
17
MODULE 2
Classroom assistant: Yes, o, so you slide it in, like this. (Demonstrates with one of the
children’s frames.) Now your turn, ready, with the finger of one hand on o and then
listen carefully to the word: ship – can you hear an i or an o in the middle? You
Phonics and Spelling
decide and slide in the right letter.
Repeats with the rest of the words.
2 Quickwrite
Object
To practise handwriting
To practise spelling
Materials
Writing board for each child; a dry wipe pen
Procedure
Handwriting
■ The instructions for the lesson state the letter or letters, the number of times they are
to be practised and whether they should be joined.
■ In handwriting practice always refer to letters by their names. These are indicated on
the lesson plan by capital letters C, A, G, but obviously the children write in lower■
case letters c, a, g.
Demonstrate the letter formation a couple of times before asking the children to do it.
Spelling
■ Dictate the words for the children to write. Check that they are written correctly.
■ When children are saying out loud the phonemes in the words for spelling (c-a-t)
they should obviously use the letter-sounds (phonemes). But, in the later modules,
when children are adding ed and other word endings to words, the letters within
these word endings should be referred to by their letter names.
■ Whenever the children write a word, they should read back the words they have
written. However, sometimes the instructions for the lesson state ‘two words per
child’. In this instance the assistant should whisper a different word to each child and
then, when they have all written their word, should whisper their second word to
them. When the children have finished writing their two words, they should pass their
boards round the group to be read by another child.
Example of Quickwrite from Module 2 Lesson 6 Activity 3
Play Quickwrite game
ice × 5 and dice, slice, nice, rice, spice, lice, mice, price, twice, ice (2 each)
Classroom assistant: Let’s practise writing ice, all joined up. Watch. Down the I, round
up to the start of the C, round the cool C and straight into an E. I’ll do it again. Down
the I, round up to the start of the C, round the cool C and straight into an E. Now you
do it on your boards. (Children write ice, classroom assistant checking the letters are
correct.)
Classroom assistant: And again … do five altogether … (watches the children write ice 5
times attending to correct formation).
Classroom assistant: Now let’s write some words which end with ice. How would we
write rice, what are the sounds?
Child: r – ice.
18
Classroom assistant: Yes r and then ice. (Write it on the board.) Now, I’m going to
whisper a word to each of you to write down. Are you ready, first you Matthew
(whispers) repeat the word after me, dice, Megan slice, Imran nice, Chloe rice,
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LITERACY SUPPORT
Peter spice. Write them down and then look up when you are ready for your next
word. (Classroom assistant watches as each child writes. Megan writes sice.)
Classroom assistant: Megan have a look at the beginning of your word. Listen to the
beginning as I whisper it. (Whispers, emphasising the l) slice. (Megan inserts the l)
Good, now I’ll whisper one more word each. We’ll go round a different way this time
(whispers) Peter lice, Imran mice, Chloe price, Megan twice, and Matthew, an easy
one, ice.
(Watch as children write) All finished? Now pass your board to the person sitting on
your right (indicates with hand which way to pass the boards). Read the words silently.
(Children read the words silently). Now I’ll ask each of you to read the words to the
rest of us. You start Imran.
Imran: slice, twice.
Classroom assistant: What would you like a slice of ? A slice of …
Imran: Cake.
Classroom assistant: Mmm, so would I. Good you read those very well, and who wrote
them? (Imran nudges Megan.) Yes, it was you Megan, beautifully written.
Classroom assistant continues round the group asking them to read the words, commenting
appropriately.
3 Full circle game
Object
To identify phonemes in different positions in words
Materials
Letters, as described in the lesson instructions placed in the centre of the table
Procedure
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Write the starting word on the board. This is the first word in the list in the
instructions for the lesson.
Ask the children to read the word. Tell them that this is the starter word and that you
are all going to make a chain of words and come full circle back to this word.
Make the starter word using the letters.
Read the word, say the phonemes in the word and read the word again e.g. fat, f-a-t,
fat.
Slide it to the child on your right.
Read out the next word on the list and tell him/her to change one letter to make the
word on the table into the new word.
Nominate another child to write the same word on his/her board.
Ask the two children to check they have made the same word.
When the child has made the new word, it is very important that he/she reads the
word, says the phonemes and reads the word again. This reinforces the segmentation
and blending processes required for spelling and reading.
Ask the child to slide the word onto the next child.
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MODULE 2
Phonics and Spelling
■
Say the new word for this child to make and again nominate another child to write the
same word on his/her board as a check.
■ Continue round the table.
■ Ask the children to keep a look out to see whether they are back to the starter word;
this provides an edge to the game as time may run out before you get back to the
beginning.
Example of game from Module 1 Lesson 3 Activity 3
Play Full circle game with f, t, p, c, n, a – fat, pat, cat, can, pan, fan, fat.
Classroom assistant puts letters f, t, p, c, n, a in the middle of the table.
Classroom assistant: I’m going to show you how to play a new game called Full circle
game. We’re going to make some words then change one letter each time to make a
new word. I’ll show you. This is the starter word (writes fat on the board). Can you
read that?
Children: fat.
Classroom assistant: Good. Now I’ll make it with the letters fat, f-a-t, fat. (Makes it with
the letters on the table.) You all say the word and then the phonemes fat, f-a-t, fat.
Children: fat, f-a-t, fat.
Classroom assistant: I’m going to say another word which is like fat but has one
phoneme different, pat. Where is the different phoneme?
Sean: p, at the beginning.
Classroom assistant: Yes, it’s at the beginning. (Slides the word fat round to Abdul.) Now
Abdul, can you change fat into pat? (Turns to Paula.) Paula, while he’s making it
could you write pat on your board, please? (Turns back to Abdul.) What are the
sounds in pat?
Abdul: p-a-t.
Classroom assistant: So which one do you need to change?
Abdul: The p.
Classroom assistant: And what letter do you need?
Abdul: This one (moves letter p into position).
Classroom assistant: Now, Paula could you turn your board round so everyone can see it.
Have they both written the same? What word have you written Paula?
Paula: pat.
20
Classroom assistant: And what phonemes are in it?
Paula: p-a-t.
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Classroom assistant: And read the word one last time.
Paula: pat.
Classroom assistant: And why do you think Paula’s so specially good at writing that p at
the beginning?
Steven: Because her name begins with p.
Classroom assistant: Ah, yes I should think so. Now Abdul, tell us what word you have
made, say the phonemes and read the word again.
Abdul: pat, p-a-t, pat.
Classroom assistant: Very good, now slide the word round to Carrie. Carrie, please will
you make the word cat.
Classroom assistant and group repeat this process with the words can and pan.
Classroom assistant: Remember I said this game is called Full circle. The word we
started with is on the board, fat. The game ends when we come back to that word by
continually changing one letter each time. We’re not back there yet are we? Now
Steven you change pan into fan, and Sean, please could you write fan on your board?
Both children produce the correct words.
Classroom assistant: Back to you again Abdul, can you change fan into fat?
Abdul: Fat! That’s the starter word!
Classroom assistant: Well spotted, Abdul. Full circle! That’s what you say when we get
back to the beginning. Full circle!
4 Word sort
Object
To categorise words according to their spelling pattern
This game has two distinct uses.
■ It is used to differentiate the spelling patterns used to represent the same phoneme as
in Module 1 Lesson 4 Activity 3 (e/ea) and also extensively in Modules 2 and 3.
■ It is used to categorise the different ways words have to be changed before adding
word endings e.g. ing, ed, er, est, y.
Materials
One set of word cards for the whole group; sometimes two-word strips are used e.g. sit
sitting; Post-It label or other small blank cards
Procedure 1
Object – to differentiate the spelling patterns used to represent the same
phoneme
■ Spread the cards face up on the table.
■ Ask a child to read one of the words and say the phonemes.
■ Ask him/her to write the letters which represent the vowel phoneme on a card. (A
Post-It label is useful as it can be stuck on the table and folded to stand vertical.)
■ Point to a word containing a different spelling of the vowel phoneme and ask a child
to read it.
■ Ask him/her to write the letters which represent the vowel phoneme on another card
or Post-It label.
21
MODULE 2
Phonics and Spelling
If there are other spellings of the same phoneme, proceed as before.
Continue until all the different spellings are on separate labels.
■ Put the labels in a line making column headings.
■ Ask the children to read words in turn and place them in a line in front of the correct
■
■
label.
■ The points you wish to make from this categorisation will differ with the phoneme.
Often it will be important to look at the position of the spelling pattern in the word.
For instance the spelling pattern ay occurs only at the ends of words whereas the
spelling pattern for the same phoneme ai occurs inside words.
Example of Word sort (Procedure 1) from Module 2 Lesson 8 Activity 3
Play Word sort game with the words:
kind, knight, mild, night, sighing, pine, kind, knight, rides, by, light, bright,
sky, chimes, strike, time, midnight, white, fright, child, lying, cr ying, tied,
knight, slices, knife, dries, child’s, eyes, tightly, I, myself, find, wild, tribe,
crime, right.
Classroom assistant: We found all these words in ‘The kind knight’ story with the
phoneme /ie/ in them and we have written the words and underlined the letters
which represent the /ie/ phoneme. Sean choose a word and read it.
Sean: right.
Classroom assistant: Here is a label. Please could you write the letters which represent
the /ie/ phoneme in the word right. Carrie, you choose a word in which the
phoneme /ie/ is represented in a different way.
Carrie: kind (Classroom assistant gives Carrie a label).
Classroom assistant: Good, and now you Abdul.
Abdul: cr ying (Classroom assistant gives Abdul a label).
Classroom assistant: Good, Paula?
Paula: slices (Classroom assistant gives Paula a label).
Classroom assistant: Which letters represent the /ie/ phoneme?
Paula: The /ie/ . . . and also the /ee/
Classroom assistant: Good. Steven?
Steven: eyes (Classroom assistant gives Steven a label.)
Classroom assistant: Who can see if there are any more?
Carrie: I?
Classroom assistant: In a way but look, kind is spelled with just an /ie/ too. Now have
you written on your label the letters which represent the /ie/ phoneme in your word.
Classroom assistant: Good, now stick your labels along here (points to the top edge of the
table). Now we’ll all pick up a word, read it and find which column it should go in. You
start, Paula.
Paula: crime.
Classroom assistant: Which spelling pattern does it belong in?
Paula: With slices.(puts the card in line with the word slices).
Classroom assistant: Well done, the split digraph i-e. What’s your word Abdul and where
does it go?
Abdul: Mild and it goes with kind.
Classroom assistant: Good, it certainly does.
Group continues classifying the words.
22
Procedure 2
Object – to categorise the different ways words have to be changed before adding
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word endings e.g. ing, ed, er, est, y
Spread the word cards on the table, face up.
Pick up a card and show it to the children.
■ Ask them to read the first word (e.g. pat) and then ask if they are able to read the
■
■
longer word (e.g. patting).
■ Ask them to look at the spelling of the first word and then at the spelling of the
second and tell you how they are different (in the example of pat and patting, the
children should point out not only that the second word has ing on the end but that it
also has an extra letter).
Put this word strip at the top of the table as the heading of a column.
■ Ask the children to find more words in which this happens and put them below the
■
■
heading card.
Now find a word that does not fit this pattern e.g. wish wishing and put it at the head
of a column and find more words which fit this pattern.
■ Continue until all words are categorised into columns.
■ The next stage is very important. Ask the children to look at the different spellings.
■
In this example, some words have an extra letter when ing is added and some don’t.
In this example it seems there have to be two consonants between an a, e, i, o, u,
vowel and ing. So pat has to have an extra t but wish and fuss already have two
consonants.
■ Rather than tell the children this, try to get them to derive that information from the
evidence in front of them. It is more fun; they will enjoy the discovery. You could even
refer to yourselves as the SA (Spelling Association, rather than the FA) making the
rules for spelling!
The rules are:
Words containing the vowels a, e, i, o, u (as in the Vowel rap) must have two
consonants between the vowel and the ing.
This means that words such as bat, win, hum and drum, skip, trap have a repeated
final letter before the ing – batting, winning, humming, drumming, skipping,
trapping. But words such as hunt, rest, lift and wish, mess, ring regardless of
whether they represent one or more phoneme, already end with two consonants.
Words containing vowel digraphs generally don’t require any changes when ing is
added – playing, cheating, cr ying, blowing, screwing. The exception is the split
digraph e.g. hide – hiding, wave – waving, hope – hoping where the letter e is
dropped before the ing is added. (Hop – hopping and hope – hoping illustrate why it
is necessary to double the p in hopping to avoid confusion.)
23
MODULE 2
Phonics and Spelling
5 Label Games 1 and 2
Label game 1
Object
To spell and then read words
Materials
Five pictures as described in lesson instructions; five small pieces of card; Blu-tack
Procedure
Show the five pictures to the children e.g. cap cat cup can cub, naming them.
■ Make sure the children know what each picture is.
■ Give each child a picture and ask them to write the word in his/her frame then, when
■
all have finished writing, ask the children to read their words, say the phonemes and
read them again e.g. cap, c-a-p, cap.
■ Give each child a small blank card or piece of paper and ask them to write the word
■
again on the card to make a label.
Stick the five pictures up on the white board.
Ask the children to stick their labels under the correct pictures.
Check that each word is correct by asking the children to say each phoneme and then
put them together to say the word.
Take the labels down.
Put the labels face down on the table and ask a child to choose one of them.
Ask him/her to read the word and stick it back up under the picture.
Continue until all labels are back on the board.
■
Save the labels for playing Label game 2 in the next lesson.
■
■
■
■
■
■
Example of Label Game 1 from Module 1 Lesson 5 Activity 3
Play Label game 1 with cap cat cup can cub (PCM 1.8).
Classroom assistant: Here are some pictures. What are they? What’s this one?
Steven: A cup.
Classroom assistant: And this one?
Paula: A lion.
Classroom assistant: Yes it’s a baby lion. Baby lions are called… ?
Abdul: Cubs.
Classroom assistant: Yes, good. Of course this picture is a cap, you’ve got one like this
haven’t you Abdul? And this is a can of drink, a can. Now I’m going to give you each
a picture and I’d like you to write the name of the picture in your phoneme frame.
Then when we have checked them you can write them again on labels. Here are the
pictures. (Children write in their phoneme frames.)
Classroom assistant: Carrie read your word, say the phonemes and read it again.
Carrie: cap, c-a-p, cap.
Classroom assistant: Now you Abdul.
(Each child reads his/her word.)
Classroom assistant: Here’s a label each for you to write and some Blu-tack for you to
stick them under the pictures. (Children write labels. Classroom assistant sticks the
pictures on the white board. Children stick labels under pictures.) Now let’s see if we all
agree. Let’s all read the labels together.
Children: cup, c-u-p, cup.
24
Classroom assistant: So that’s the right label there.
Children: cap, c-a-p, cap; cat, c-a-t, cat; cub, c-u-b, cub; can, c-a-n, can.
Classroom assistant: Well done! You all read the words you wrote really well, so we’ll
NLS ADDITIONAL
LITERACY SUPPORT
swap and do it again. (Takes labels down, turns them upside down and shuffles them
round on the table). Who has first pick? Abdul, I think. Choose a card and read the
letters and say the word.
Abdul: c-a-n, can. Shall I stick it up?
Classroom assistant: Yes. Now your turn, Carrie.
Group continues until all labels are back under the pictures.
Save the labels for next lesson.
Label game 2
Object
To read words
Materials
Five pictures as for Label game 1, stuck on to the white board; labels from Label
game 1; Blu-tack
Procedure
■
■
■
■
■
Put up the labels the children made in the previous lesson on the board.
Give each child a picture to match to a label.
Go through each one to check if they are right.
Take the labels down and hand a different one to each child.
Repeat.
6 Cube Game
Object
To read words
Materials
Cubes with letters written/pasted on to the faces. The number of cubes and the letters
vary according to lesson instructions. The cubes should be colour coded in some way
(be aware of children who have difficulty seeing differences between some colours) so
that the children always know which cube starts the word and so on. With three cubes,
traffic lights – red, orange, green – is a popular sequence. Small cubes obtained from a
car boot sale are ideal for this purpose; a sheet of paper with two vertical columns
headed ‘words’/ ‘not words’.
Procedure
The children play in pairs, Child A and B. (Teacher plays with 5th child.)
Child A rolls the cubes.
■ He/she puts the cubes together to make a word which they read.
■ They decide whether it is a word or not and Child B writes the word in the
appropriate column.
■ Repeat with Child B rolling the cubes and Child A writing.
■
■
25
MODULE 2
Phonics and Spelling
Example of Cube game from Module 1 Lesson 7 Activity 3
Play 3-cube game with cube 1: b × 2, s × 2, m × 2;
cube 2: a × 2 , e × 2, i × 2: cube 3: d × 2, t × 2 , ll × 2.
Preparation
For cube 1 the classroom assistant writes the letter b on two sticky labels, s on another
two and m on another two. He/she sticks these on the six faces of the cube and then
repeats with the letters indicated for the other cubes.
Classroom assistant: Today we are going to play the Cube game. Which cube has the
first letter of the word? Sean?
Sean: The red one.
Classroom assistant: And the next letter?
Steven: The orange and the last letter is the green.
Classroom assistant: Good. Paula, you roll them first. (Paula rolls the cubes.) Now put
them together in the right order. Red, yes turn it round, now…yes the orange. What
word have you got?
Paula: s-e-t, set.
Classroom assistant: What does everyone else think? Look at the letters.
Children: set.
Carrie: Can I write it?
Classroom assistant: Yes, which column? Words or not words. Set.
Abdul: Words. A set of felt tips.
Classroom assistant: Yes, set is a word, thanks Carrie, you write this one…Paula do you
want to roll? Let’s see how many words we can find today.
The group repeats the process.
7 AddING game
Object
To practise the various rules which apply to spelling verbs ending in ing
Materials
A set of verb cards; an ing card for each child; additional letters are indicated in lesson
instructions for some of the games
Procedure
■
26
Place the words face down in a pile in the middle of the table.
■
Give each child an ing card and also extra letters if stipulated in the instructions for
the lesson.
■ The children play in pairs. (Teacher plays with 5th child.)
■ One child in each pair takes a card from the pile, reads it and together they decide
NLS ADDITIONAL
LITERACY SUPPORT
how they will add the ing.
■ In all games there is a choice between just placing the ing beside the word card, or
modifying the word card in some way either by adding an extra letter (e.g. running)
or by covering the e in the word with the ing card (making).
■ The second child writes the word on his/her board, then puts the word card back at
■
the bottom of the pile and takes another card from the top.
He/she then discusses with his/her partner how to add ing. His partner writes down
the new word.
Allow four minutes for this activity.
■ When all the children have made and written their words they show them to the
■
group to see who can read them (one minute).
AddED
This is played in exactly the same way as the AddING game. The rules for adding ed are
the same as for adding ing. Where ed is added to a word ending in a split digraph e.g.
hide, the e is removed and ed is added. So the ed card should be laid over the e in the
same way as it is covers the e when ing is added.
Adding y, er, est, games follow the same procedure
Example of AddING from Module 1 Lesson 11 Activity 1
Play AddING game 1 with chat, bat, tap, fit, sing, hiss, fish, shop, hug, wish,
rock, beg, chop, hop, whip, mash, miss, fill, huff, lick, ring.
Classroom assistant writes the words pat and patting on the board.
Classroom assistant: Do you remember when we did the Word sort game? What happens
to words like pat when we add ing?
Carrie: pat is an aeiou word so it has another t before the ing.
Classroom assistant: Absolutely right. It has another t. (Classroom assistant writes wish
and wishing on the board ). Wish-wishing. Wish is an aeiou word. But there is
nothing added here before the ing. Why not?
Steven: It’s got two letters already.
27
MODULE 2
Phonics and Spelling
Classroom assistant: Yes, because it already has two consonants at the end. We will make
some more words with ing with these cards. (Classroom assistant gives each child an
ing card and the letters t, g and p. Puts the pile of words face down in the middle of the
table.) I will do the first one. I take a word from the pile, read the letters, h-o-p, hop.
Now I’m going to make hopping. But before I put the ing on the end I must put
another p after the p in hop and then add the ing – hopping. All together…
Children: hopping.
Classroom assistant: Now I shall do one without talking. (Classroom assistant repeats but
without describing what she is doing.) Now what word have I made?
Abdul: whipping.
Classroom assistant: Now your turn in pairs. One of you take a card and read it very
quietly to your partner. Now, between you, decide what you have to do to add the ing.
When you’ve decided, the other person write it down. Then you put the card back at
the bottom of the pile. Abdul you are going to play with Carrie; Steven with Sean.
Paula we will play together.
The three pairs play simultaneously and stop after four minutes.
Classroom assistant: Stop now. How many words have you written Abdul and Carrie?
Carrie: Eight.
Classroom assistant: Good. Hold them up and we’ll see if we can read your words.
Children: singing, fishing, hugging, begging, wishing, rocking, hissing, shopping.
Classroom assistant: Which ones did you have to put an extra letter in?
Abdul: Hugging, begging, hissing, shopping.
Carrie: Not hissing. It had two ss already.
Classroom assistant: No that’s right. Paula show our words. Can you all read them?
Children continue to read the words of the remaining pairs.
8 Thumbs in game
Object
To recognise words from very similar looking and sounding words read by the
classroom assistant
Materials
One word strip for each child; counters
28
Procedure
■
Place a word strip, face up, in front of each child.
■
Without giving away which word strip you are reading from, read a word from one of
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LITERACY SUPPORT
them.
The child who has that word puts his/her thumb into the centre of the table.
■ Ask him/her to read the word, and then to say the phonemes in the word and read it
■
again e.g. man, m-a-n, man.
Give the child a counter to cover up the word read.
■ Say a word from another child’s strip and the game continues.
■
9 Phoneme counting
Object
To reinforce the correspondence between two letters and one sound
Materials
Number cards 2–6; word cards as indicated in lesson instructions
Procedure
Put numbers 2–6 on the table, spaced out in a line.
Shuffle the word cards and put them in a pile, face down, in the centre of the table.
■ The children take a card from the pile in turn, read the word and then finger count
the number of phonemes and put the card in the correct column 2–6.
■ If the child has problems, repeat with the group helping.
■ Do the first two for them as examples e.g. add a-d = two phonemes; spent s-p-e-n-t
five phonemes. Wherever a phoneme is represented by two or more letters, such as in
add or scratch, draw the children’s attention to it. Compare words such as itch and
in, both containing the same number of phonemes but one has twice as many letters
■
■
as the other (tch is a trigraph).
When they have finished, read the words column by column, pointing to each
phoneme and blending where necessary.
■ Ask the children to move any words which are in the wrong column.
■
10 Word choice
Object
To practise reading words
Materials
Word cards; Blu-tack
Procedure
■
Place the word cards (e.g. using Blu-tack) in rows on the white board and write
numbers across the top and letters down the side to provide grid references.
29
MODULE 2
Phonics and Spelling
■
■
Ask the children to choose a word to read.
The child responds by saying the grid reference e.g. D1, reading the word, saying the
phonemes and the word again – thump, th-u-m-p, thump.
If it is correct, give the word to the child and the next child has a turn.
■ The children carry on taking turns until the words or time run out.
■
Example of Word choice from Module 1 Lesson 20 Activity 2
Play Word choice game using jumping, resting, lifting, milking, winking,
hunting, lisping, risking, cracking, springing, smashing, belting, switching,
landing, spending, melting, trusting, checking, missing, drilling, whisking,
scratching.
Classroom assistant puts the word grid on the board.
Classroom assistant: Here’s the grid of words. Do you remember how to do it? Find a
word you want to read, then look to the left hand side and find the letter and look to
the top to find the number and then we will know which word you’ve chosen. I’ll do
the first one. (Classroom assistant points to the word he/she wants to read, traces
his/her finger along to the letter on the left and then up to the number at the top.) C3.
I’m going to ignore the ing for a minute and read the first part: s-w-i-tch – switch,
now add the ing – switch – switching. Now your turn, Steven. Find a word you want
to read, don’t worry about the ing bit, do the beginning. Have you chosen? Good,
where is it?
Steven: Er… A…. 4
Classroom assistant: A4. This one (points to drilling and covers up the ing). Ignore the
end for the moment, read the first part.
Steven: drill – drilling.
Classroom assistant: Good, here you are (hands Steven the word). Your turn Paula.
Game continues as before.
long words (demo) and reading long words
11 Reading
(worksheet)
Object
To practise finding ways in to reading words longer than one syllable
Materials
Worksheet for each child
Procedure
Reading long words (demo)
■ Write a word on the board e.g. bedroom.
■ Suggest to the children that a good way to read long words is to look for the vowel in
each part of the word.
■ Underline the vowel in each part of the word. This may be represented by one letter
as in bed or two as in room – bedroom; it might be three as in night or four as in
sleigh.
■ Now cover up the second part of the word and say the phonemes represented by the
letters in the first half of the word and say this syllable and then do the same with the
second part of the word. Then say the whole word.
■ Repeat this with a couple more words.
30
Worksheet
■
Give out the worksheets. Ask the children to underline the vowels in the words and in
■
a quiet voice to work out how to read the words.
Listen in to the children as they are doing this, checking, in particular, that they are
NLS ADDITIONAL
LITERACY SUPPORT
not reading adjacent letters as separate vowels e.g. reading the e and a separately in
beat.
■ This activity is always followed by Word choice.
Example of Reading long words from Module 2 Lesson 16 Activities 2
and 3
Play Reading long words (demo): mainline, pancake, snowman, milkshake, unload,
disgrace, maiden, haystack, railway.
Play Reading long words (worksheet): haystack, railway, goalpost, handmade,
caveman, postman, unfold, hostess, mistrust, gravestone, away.
Classroom assistant writes the word mainline on the board.
Classroom assistant: When you have to read a word you’ve never seen before you can
have a go at it by reading the consonants round the vowels. I’ll show you what I mean.
Take this word. (Points to the word mainline on the board) Let’s find the vowels.
What are they?
Carrie: ai (points).
Classroom assistant: Yes /ai/ (underlines the letters ai) in the first part of the word. Any
more?
Steven: /i/, no /ie/ (points).
Classroom assistant: Yes, a split digraph /i-e/ (underlines the i and the e). So now we
have two vowels in the word which shows us we have two parts to the word. We’ll put
a circle round each part:
main
line
So now we can read the first part of the word by reading the consonants round the
vowels – m-ai-n, main and now the second, line. Put the two parts together, what do
you have?
Steven: Mainline.
Classroom assistant: Yes, a mainline train. What about this word? (writes pancake on
board) Paula, come and underline the vowels. (Paula underlines pancake.)
Classroom assistant: Can you now see the two parts of the word? Put circles round them
like I did. (Paula puts circles round ):
pan
cake
Classroom assistant: What is the first word in a circle?
Paula: pan.
Classroom assistant: Good, and Sean, the next circle?
Sean: cake.
Classroom assistant: And the whole word is… ?
Children: Pancake.
(Classroom assistant continues to write words on the board and the children take it in turns
to underline vowels and circle the parts of the word.)
31
MODULE 2
Classroom assistant: Now you can do it on your own. Here are the Long word
Phonics and Spelling
worksheets, one each. First underline the vowels in the word. Then circle each part of
the word and read it. Finally read the whole word. I’ll be watching you as you do it
and might help you if I think you need it. Remember to look for an E at the end of the
word. It usually means there is a split digraph. You may even find a split digraph in
the first part of the word.
12 Phoneme spotter parts 1 and 2
Object
To practise listening for the vowel sounds in words and attributing different spelling
patterns to the same sound
Materials
Enlarged version of the story; child-size versions of the story for each child; pencils
Procedure for Part 1
■
■
■
■
■
■
Display the enlarged version of the story.
Read the story through once.
Ask the children if they noticed the focus vowel sound in lots of the words.
Remove the story from view.
Read the story again, sentence by sentence. As you read a word containing the focus
vowel phoneme the children should raise their hands and say the vowel phoneme.
Display the story again and give out individual copies of the story to each child.
Read the title. Ask which word(s) contain the focus phoneme and underline the whole
word on the enlarged text. Children do the same on theirs.
■ Read the story slowly; ask the children to follow word-by-word, underlining on their
copies each word which contains the focus phoneme. There is no need to continue
■
doing this on the enlarged version.
Carry on through the story as far as you can get in the time available.
■ Keep the children’s sheets for Phoneme spotter part 2.
■
32
Example of Phoneme Spotter 1 from Module 2 Lesson 8
Classroom assistant puts up the enlarged version of the story ‘The Kind Knight’.
NLS ADDITIONAL
LITERACY SUPPORT
Classroom assistant: You remember the story about the football match, ‘The Dream
Team’. There were lots of words with the phoneme /ee/ in it. Here’s another story
like that with lots of a particular phoneme. I’ll read it; you can join in if you like, but
listen out for the same phoneme cropping up again and again.
Classroom assistant reads the story.
Classroom assistant: Who spotted a common phoneme? ...you, Imran?
Imran: /ie/
Classroom assistant: Yes, /ie/. You have it even in the title – The Kind Knight.
Classroom assistant takes down enlarged text.
Classroom assistant: Now I’ll read it again, and you say /ie/ and put up your hands
whenever you hear that phoneme. You can do the title easily.
The Classroom assistant reads the story and the children say /ie/ whenever they hear it. Then
he/she puts the enlarged text back up and gives the children individual copies of the text.
Classroom assistant: I’ll show you what we are going to do next and then we can all have
a go together. I’ll read the story again and this time we will underline all those words
with an /ie/ phoneme in them. I’ll do the first bit on the enlarged text. The Kind
Knight. Which words have the /ie/ sound in them?
Sean: Kind and knight.
Classroom assistant: Yes, kind (underlines it) and knight (underlines it). OK let’s carry
on. It is a mild night.
Carrie: Mild and night.
Classroom assistant: Good. (Classroom assistant underlines them). Now you underline
mild and knight on your copies. The wind ...
Sean: Wind.
Carrie: Not wind ...
Classroom assistant: Why not wind? Why did you say wind, Sean?
Sean: Because it has an I in it.
Classroom assistant: If it had an /ie/ phoneme in, it would say ‘wind’, like when I wind
up the string. You’re right, it has the letter which is called I, but in wind that letter
represents the /i/ phoneme not the /ie/ phoneme. So we don’t underline it. The wind
is sighing (underlines it) in the pine (underlines it) trees. You underline sighing and
pine, and then you can carry on without me doing it first.
Classroom assistant reads as much of the story as there is time for and the children
underline the words containing the /ie/ phoneme on their own copies.
Procedure for part 2
■
■
■
■
■
Prepare the children’s workbook or sheet of paper by drawing a line down the middle
to make two columns.
The children also need their versions of the story.
The children should write a word from the story which contains the focus phoneme
(an underlined word) in the left column and just the letters which represent the
phoneme in the right column e.g. kneels, ee; field, ie etc.
Continue until one minute from the allotted time and ask the children what they notice
about the different spelling patterns representing the phoneme.
This game is always followed by Word sort.
33
MODULE 2
Phonics and Spelling
13 Rhyming words
Object
To generate a group of words which can be used to illustrate the variety of spelling
patterns representing the same phoneme
Materials
Large board and pen
Procedure
■
Ask the children whether they can think of any words which rhyme with the given
word. (A list of possible words is given in the lesson instructions and six words are
asked for. If the children can’t think of many words, prompt them.)
■ Write the words as they say them. (The rhyming part of the word will be spelled in
different ways in different words. You can mention this, or the children will point it
out but no action needs to be taken as this is explored in their next activity which will
be Word sort.)
14 Flashcards
Object
To practise the vowel digraphs
Materials
A set of letter cards as indicated in the lesson instructions
Procedure
Hold up the word cards one at a time for the children to see.
Either ask a specific child to say what phoneme the letter/s represent or ask all the
children to give the answer as quickly as they can.
■ This activity occurs very frequently in the programme and is intended to be brief
practice lasting no more than 45 secs.
■
■
15 Hunt the phoneme game
Object
To practise the vowel digraphs
Materials
Word cards as indicated in the lesson instructions
Procedure
Spread out the word cards on the table except for the header words.
Give each child one of the header words and ask them to read them.
■ Ask them to place their header words along the top edge of the table as column
headers.
■ Ask them to look for five more words which contain the same vowel phoneme,
remembering that the spelling might be different.
■
■
34
■
■
As they find the words they should place them in a column below the header word.
When the columns are full, the ask the children to quickly read down each column
NLS ADDITIONAL
LITERACY SUPPORT
together, exaggerating the vowel phoneme.
16 Prefix game
Object
To read words containing prefixes
Materials
Word cards; prefix cards as indicated in the lesson instructions
Procedure
Write the prefixes used in the game on the board as shown.
■ Put the prefix cards in piles face up on the table.
■ Place the words in a pile on the table, face down.
■ In turn, the children take a word from the pile and place it after each prefix on the
■
■
board, reading each word created and deciding which one is a meaningful word.
When the child has decided, he/she collects the relevant prefix and makes the word
on the table.
17 Dictation
Object
To practise spelling words in context.
Materials
Writing boards and pens
Procedure
■
■
■
■
■
■
Read the dictation story to the children.
Tell them that you are going to read a little bit at a time and that you want them to
write it down.
Tell them that when they come to a word they may never have written before they are
to break the word up and write down the phonemes they hear.
Read about four words at a time, break the sentences into meaningful chunks. This
makes it easier to remember for writing.
Watch the children as they write. Prompt them if they make a mistake. Such prompts
include:
– Look at that letter again.
– Did you mean to write that letter round that way?
– What sound can you hear there?
– Is that how to write that sound?
– Remember that word from last week’s tricky words – what sentence was it in? How do
we remember that word?
When the children have finished writing, ask them to read it to you altogether.
35
MODULE 2
Phonics and Spelling
Tricky Words
Object
To learn to read and spell the most frequently-used words
Materials
The words from last lesson’s sentence on individual cards; new sentence sheet
(PCMs 2.36–2.50) for each child
Procedure
The last activity (activity 4) of each lesson teaches children to read and spell the most
frequently used words in English, many of which have irregular spellings. This activity
follows exactly the same procedure every lesson: testing the children’s reading of the
sentence given at the last lesson and the two words for spelling, and then giving them the
new sentence sheet to learn to read and teaching them how to spell the two focus words.
There is a slight variation in the procedure in the first and last lessons of each module. In
Lesson 1 there are no words to be tested and in Lesson 16, and in the last lesson no new
words to be learned.
The children are expected to practise the reading of these sentences and the spelling of
the two underlined words at home. The sentence sheet is for the children to take home –
see page 13 for instructions for parents.
Use the words on the bottom half of the sentence sheet for the following sequence of
activities:
1 Spread out the words from last lesson’s sentence.
2 Ask the children to put them back into the sentence.
3 Ask four of the children to close their eyes and ask the fifth child to remove an
underlined word and close up the gap in the sentence.
4 Ask the children to open their eyes and say which word is missing.
5 Ask the fifth child to place the word face down on the table, then all the children
write this word on boards.
6 Turn the remaining underlined word over and ask the children to write this word
also.
Check accuracy of spelling for each child.
Give out the new sentence sheets.
Help the children to read the sentence.
Write one of the underlined words on the board.
Pick out the tricky part of the word, as indicated on the lesson instructions, and
rehearse it with the children (and see below, Teaching spelling).
12 Repeat with the other underlined word.
13 Remind the children of the activities to do at home which will help them to learn to
read all the words in the sentence and spell the two underlined words.
7
8
9
10
11
Teaching spelling
Children learn to spell by examining words. There are lots of ways of doing this including:
■ recognising where there is a relationship between the way the word is pronounced
and the way it is spelled
■ looking for words within words – there = the, he, here, her
■ looking for letter strings common to different words – home, come, some
■ looking for known endings (e.g. ed, ing, er), suffixes (e.g. ment, tion), or prefixes
(e.g. re, dis)
■ looking for common roots (e.g. sign, signal).
36
Sometimes there is nothing meaningful by which to remember the tricky bit of the word
and it is sensible to resort to a mnemonic. Children should be encouraged to make these
up for themselves but some are offered in the lesson instructions in case they are required
(because = big elephants can always understand small elephants; what = w – hat).
NLS ADDITIONAL
LITERACY SUPPORT
Multi-sensor y strategy (MS)
When children have picked out the tricky bit of a word and concocted a method for
helping them to remember it, it is often a good idea to reinforce that with writing the word.
Words where this is a particularly desirable strategy have been indicated by the initials
MS (multi-sensory).
Procedure
Write the word with the letters joined up (where appropriate) on the board.
■ As you do this, say the letter names or any other mnemonic.
■ Repeat while the children watch very carefully.
■ Ask the children to do that on their own boards without looking up to your version. It
■
is very important that they do not copy letter-by-letter.
Ask them to repeat a few times.
■ Watch their letter formation as they write.
■
Note to Schools – Information in Appendix 3 must be passed to parents.
37
MODULE 2
Phonics and spelling
LESSON PLANS
LESSON
CONTENTS
1
Reading two-syllable words
Adding ing to words ending in one or two consonants
2
Adding ing to verbs
Revising 2/3 letters = 1 phoneme
3
Revising the vowel digraph representing the phoneme e
Investigating the spelling pattern wa
Reading two-syllable words
38
4
Exploring the spelling choices ee, ea, e, ie
5
Exploring the spelling choices ee, ea, e, ie
Spelling some common ee and ea words
6
Exploring the spelling choices y, ie, igh, i-e
7
Reading and writing words containing the split digraph i-e
8
Exploring the spelling choices y, ie, i-e, igh
9
Practising vowel digraphs
Practising two-syllable words
10
Adding ing to words containing ee, ea, ie, y, igh, i-e
11
Exploring the spelling choices ay, a-e
12
Exploring the spelling choices ay, ai, a-e
13
Exploring the spelling choices ow, oe, o-e
14
Exploring the spelling choices ow, oe, oa, o, o-e
Reading o phoneme words
15
Exploring the spelling choices ow, oe, oa, o, o-e
16
Revising vowel digraphs
Reading two-syllable words
MODULE 2
Phonics and spelling
L E S S ON 1
Aim
Materials
To practise reading two-syllable words
Worksheet (PCM 2.2);
To practise adding ing to words ending in one or two
consonants
Word cards (PCM 2.3) for Word choice;
Word strips (PCM 1.20) for Word sort;
Sentence sheet (PCM 2.36)
ACTIVITY
INSTRUCTIONS
1
Teach the vowel rap to children starting the course with Module 2; say it through a couple
Reading two-
of times with children who have completed Module 1. Write a e i o u on the board saying
syllable words
them as you write. These are very important vowels but this term we are going to learn how
all the other vowel sounds are written. You can now read any short word you come across
using these vowels. Words like bring. Which vowel can you hear in the middle of bring? …
Yes, i, (point to it). What about shop? … and hedge?
Time: 4 mins
Do Reading long words (demo): tiptop, flipflop, milkman.
2
Reading twosyllable words
Do Reading long words (worksheet): milkman, wigwam, backpack, catnap, tenpin,
cannot, sunset, laptop, lipstick, grandad, handbag, shellfish, logjam, hamstring,
matchbox, Patrick.
Time: 5 mins
Play Word choice (same words as on the worksheet).
3
Play Word sort: bump – bumping; clip – clipping; pat – patting; lift – lifting; skip –
skipping; hiss – hissing; rest – resting; milk – milking; win – winning; stop –
stopping; clap – clapping; wink – winking; cram – cramming; trip – tripping; rip –
Adding ing
Time: 6 mins
ripping; rock – rocking; slip – slipping; beg – begging; mend – mending; run –
running; mix – mixing; scratch – scratching; spring – springing; spill – spilling.
4
Tricky words to be learned: lived, girl.
Learning to
read and spell
tricky words
Time: 5 mins
lived – live + ed; drop final e if you add an ending beginning with a vowel.
girl – letter string ir; MS strategy – see page 37; teach with bird, birthday; ‘It was the first
birthday of the girl.’
39
MODULE 2
Phonics and spelling
L E S S ON 2
Aim
Materials
To consolidate understanding of effect of
Word cards (PCM 2.4) for AddING game + ing cards
adding ing to words
To revise 2/3 letters = 1 phoneme
and letters n and t for each child;
Letters s, c, r, m, b, w, p, ng, a, i, tch, ck (PCMs 1.4 and
1.5) for Full circle game;
Words for Phoneme counting game (PCM 2.5) and
numbers 2–6;
Sentence sheets (PCMs 2.36 and 2.37)
ACTIVITY
INSTRUCTIONS
1
Say the vowel rap a couple of times (See Module 1 Lesson 8 Activity 3).
Adding ing to
verbs
Play AddING game – making words using ing cards and spare letters n and t. Words: pin,
pinch, grit, plan, risk, fish, crunch, win, catch, wet, bring, wink, bend.
Time: 5 mins
2
Revision of
consonant
Play Full circle game with letters s, c, r, m, b, w, p, tch, ck, ng, a, i. Words: scratch,
scram, cram, crack, crick, brick, bring, ring, sing, swing, switch, pitch, patch, catch,
scratch.
clusters and
digraphs
Time: 5 mins
3
Revision of
phonemes and
40
Play Phoneme counting game using words containing consonant digraphs, trigraphs and
silent letters: gnat, knack, knot, knock, knit, knob, wrong, wreck, wren, scrunch,
bring, bridge, badge, batch, thatch, itch, off, wink, slink, thrush, tenth. When you
digraphs,
trigraphs and
clusters
Time: 5 mins
make thatch and bridge, emphasise the trigraphs tch and dge.
4
Tricky words to be tested: lived, girl.
Learning to
read and spell
tricky words
Time: 5 mins
house – emphasise ou surrounded by h – se; letter string ouse, mention mouse.
Tricky words to be learned: house, meet.
meet – letter string ee; teach with see, bee: ‘I see a bee in the tree.’
MODULE 2
Phonics and spelling
L E S S ON 3
Aim
Materials
To revise the vowel digraph representing the
Word cards (PCM 2.6) for Word sort;
phoneme e
To investigate the spelling pattern wa
Word cards (PCM 2.7) for W special;
Reading long words (worksheet) (PCM 2.8);
To practise reading two-syllable words
Word cards (PCM 2.9) for Word choice;
Sentence sheets (PCMs 2.37 and 2.38)
ACTIVITY
INSTRUCTIONS
1
Play Rhyming words. Generate words rhyming with bed. Possible words: bread, bled,
Alternative
dead, dread, fed, head, lead, read, said, tread, wed, shed, stead, thread.
spelling pattern
ea
Play Word sort. Almost all words ending ead are pronounced like this. Read can be
Time: 5 mins
2
Alternative
spelling
pronounced two ways: ‘Yesterday I read a book. Today I will read it again.’
Let’s start a list of words with the letters ea in the middle which are pronounced e. We can
put all these ead words on and I know a couple more: deaf and health. As you find them in
your reading, ask your teacher to put them up on this list on the wall.
Listen to these words as I read them. Show and read the word want. What are the phonemes
you hear? ... Yes, w – o – n – t. But what letter is used for the o sound in the middle? ...
Yes, the letter a. Repeat with was. Now I’ll read the other words. Look how an a is used each
pattern: wa
time for the phoneme o – watch, wash, what. And even when we put an s at the front the o
sound, it is still spelled with an a – swan, swamp, swap. We call this the W special.
Time: 5 mins
Do Quickwrite: write wa joined up five times and was, wash, watch.
3
Reading twosyllable words
Do Reading long words (worksheet): tactic, suntan, flapjack, kidnap, slapstick,
bedhead, swapping, watchstrap, washstand, wanting, swamping, breadbin,
treadmill, dreading, rapid, subject, object, injecting.
Time: 5 mins
Play Word choice.
4
Tricky words to be tested: house, meet.
Learning to
read and spell
tricky words
Time: 5 mins
Tricky words to be learned: having, brown.
having – teach have + ing; letter string ing.
brown – letter string ow; teach with now, cow, how.
41
MODULE 2
Phonics and spelling
L E S S ON 4
To explore the spelling choices ee, ea, e, ie
Three-phoneme frame (PCM 1.2);
Letters i, t, s, n, p, l ( PCM 1.4) and ee (PCM 2.1) for
Materials
Large-format version of story ‘The dream team’
Letters i (PCM 1.4) and ee (PCM 2.1) for Sliding in
(PCM 2.10);
Five child-size versions of ‘The dream team’
Aim
Full circle game;
game;
(PCM 2.11);
Sentence sheets (PCMs 2.38 and 2.39)
ACTIVITY
INSTRUCTIONS
1
What are the phonemes in the word ship? You say them; I’ll write them on the board. How
Introducing
many phonemes? … Yes, three. How many letters for each phoneme? … Yes, two for sh and
principle of
vowel
one each for i and p. Repeat with word sheep. Discuss the similarities and differences in
ship and sheep.
phonemes
Play Sliding in game to practise identifying the middle phoneme in words using a threephoneme frame with i and ee – ship, teeth, keep, been, tip, seen, lick, spill, street, hit,
represented by
two letters
Time: 5 mins
2
Segmenting and
blending CVC
list, queen.
Play Full circle game with letters: i, ee, t, s, n, p, l – teen, tin, sin, seen, seep, sip, steep,
sleep, slip, sip, tip, tin, teen. Reiterate the two letters in the digraph ee.
words
Time: 5 mins
42
3
Play Phoneme spotter, part 1.
Spelling choices
The dream team
The crowd screams as Owen comes out on to the green pitch. He nudges the ball behind
him with his heel. It is picked up on the feet of number three who speeds up the field
towards the goal. He pushes a weak pass to his right. The opposition steals the ball and
passes it out to the wing. Owen sees his chance, reaches across, leaps over the ball and
sends it streaking to Shearer who is free on the left. A late tackle brings him to the ground.
Blood streams down his cheek. The chief trainer briefly kneels beside him. “Keep still,
please,” he says as he cleans him up and slaps on some cream. The bleeding stops. “It’ll
heal!” Owen doesn’t speak. He’s keen to get back to the team.
Time: 5 mins
Write the word read on the board and ask the children to read it. Tell them that it can also
be pronounced read as in ‘Yesterday I read a good book’. Remind them that they have
come across this before and that when they see ead at the end of a word it is usually
pronounced ead as in bread, dead, head, spread, thread. But in almost every other
word ea is pronounced ee as in mean.
4
Tricky words to be tested: having, brown.
Learning to
read and spell
tricky words
Time: 5 mins
Tricky words to be learned: with, sister.
with – stress th not f sound; use mirror to check pronunciation.
sister – chunk sis/ter; note is in sister; er is a common word ending.
MODULE 2
Phonics and spelling
L E S S ON 5
Five child-size versions of ‘The dream team’
Aim
(PCM 2.11) from previous lesson;
To explore the spelling choices ee, ea, e, ie
To practise spelling some common ee and ea words
Word cards (PCMs 2.12 and 2.13) for Word sort;
Sentence sheet ee or ea (PCM 2.13);
Materials
Sentence sheets (PCMs 2.39 and 2.40)
Large-format version of story ‘The dream team’
(PCM 2.10);
ACTIVITY
INSTRUCTIONS
1
Play Phoneme spotter, part 2.
Spelling choices
Time: 5 mins
2
Spelling choices
Time: 5 mins
3
Fixing correct
spelling
Play Word sort: dream, team, scream, green, behind, heel, feet, speeds, field, weak,
sees, reaches, leaps, streaking, Shearer, free, streams, cheek, chief, briefly, kneels,
beside, keep, please, cleans, bleeding, heal, speak, he’s, keen.
Ask the children to read these sentences over again until they know them off by heart.
It will help them to remember which common words are written with ea and which with
double ee.
I don’t eat meat at meals, e-a.*
The dream team – a real deal, e-a.*
I see the sea.
We meet in the street, double e.*
Time: 5 mins
* Use letter names here.
I’ve been to see the queen, double e.*
4
Tricky words to be tested: with, sister.
Learning to
read and spell
tricky words
there – look for the little words within: there, there, there, there.
Time: 5 mins
Tricky words to be learned: there, were.
were – sounds like wur; part of verb ‘to be’; letter string ere as in here, where, there; MS
strategy.
43
MODULE 2
Phonics and spelling
L E S S ON 6
Aim
Materials
To explore the spelling choices y, ie, igh, i-e
Word cards (PCM 2.14) for Word sort;
Sentence sheets (PCMs 2.40 and 2.41)
ACTIVITY
INSTRUCTIONS
1
Rhyming words. Generate six rhyming words from the word sky. Possible words: by, cr y,
Spelling choices
die, dr y, fr y, fly, lie, my, pie, sty, spy, sigh, tie, why.
Time: 3 mins
2
Play Word sort using the set of y, ie, igh cards: by, cr y, dr y, fr y, fly, lie, my, pie, sty, spy,
Spelling choices
sigh, tie, why.
Time: 5 mins
all four words ending in ie.
3
Digraph splitting. Write the word tie on the board. What is this word again? … Yes, tie. Tell
me the phonemes? Yes, t-ie (point as you say them). Now listen to this word – time. What
are the phonemes in time? … Yes, t-ie-m (write as you say them). Does this look right? …
Ask the children to learn ‘With pie on my tie I will lie till I die’ so that they can remember
Introducing i-e
No. We have to split the ie sound and put the m in the middle. It’s called a split digraph.
(Write time.) That’s how to write time. Let’s do some more. Let’s start with pie. (Write it on
the board.) How should I write pine? … Yes, split the digraph with the n … And die (write
it). How can we write dice?
Do Quickwrite: ice × 5; dice, slice, nice, rice, spice, lice, mice, price, twice,
Time: 7 mins
ice (× 2 each).
4
Tricky words to be tested: there, were.
Learning to
read and spell
tricky words
Tricky words to be learned: who, are.
Time: 5 mins
44
who – question word – refer to what, why, when, where; emphasise wh at beginning; only
one o as in no, so, do, family.
are – not just letter r; part of verb ‘to be’; MS strategy – see page 37.
MODULE 2
Phonics and spelling
L E S S ON 7
Aim
Materials
To practise reading and writing words containing the
Letters m, l, n, w, h, l, c, f, d, p, k (PCM 1.4) for Full
split digraph i-e
circle game;
Two cubes for Cube game: cube 1 = w, r, l, m, n, p;
cube 2 = ipe, ice, ine;
Word strips (PCM 2.15) for Thumbs in game;
Counters;
Sentence sheets (PCMs 2.41 and 2.42)
ACTIVITY
INSTRUCTIONS
1
Play Full circle game with letters m, l, n, w, h, c, f, d, p, k, i, e – mice, mine, line, life,
Reading and
wife, wine, wipe, wide, hide, hike, mike, mice. Point out the split digraphs in all of
spelling i-e
words
Time: 5 mins
these words.
2
Play Cube game: Cube 1: w, r, l, m, n, p + Cube 2: ipe, ice, ine.
Reading and
spelling i-e
words
Time: 5 mins
3
Play Thumbs in game:
Reading y, ie, i-e,
igh words
wipe, white, while, wife
life, like, bike, bite
mine, mind, mile, might
Time: 5 mins
hide, ride, ripe, write
smile, strike, side, slime.
4
Tricky words to be tested: who, are.
Learning to
read and spell
tricky words
Tricky words to be learned: here, friend.
Time: 5 mins
here – look for the words within: here, here; a place word – link with there and where.
friend – ‘Put your friend in before the end’(draw face in dot over i); look at beginning of
word: fri, Friday; make a sentence with Friday and friend.
45
MODULE 2
Phonics and spelling
L E S S ON 8
Aim
Materials
To explore the spelling choices y, ie, i-e, igh
Enlarged version of ‘The kind knight’ (PCM 2.16);
5 child-size versions of ‘The kind knight’ (PCM 2.17);
Word cards (PCM 2.18) for Word sort;
Sentence sheets (PCMs 2.42 and 2.43)
ACTIVITY
INSTRUCTIONS
1
Play Phoneme Spotter, part 1.
Spelling choices
Time: 3 mins
The kind knight
It is a mild night. The wind is sighing in the pine trees as the kind knight rides by the light
of the bright stars in the sky. The twelve chimes of the clock strike the time – midnight.
Suddenly his white horse rears in fright. There is a child lying in the path, crying softly. He
is tied up. The wise knight slices the rope with his knife, dries the child’s eyes and hugs
him tightly. “Sh, I myself will find the wild tribe who did this crime.”
2
Play Phoneme Spotter, part 2.
Spelling choices
Time: 7 mins
3
Spelling choices
Play Word sort: kind, knight, mild, night, sighing, pine, kind, knight, rides, by, light,
bright, sky, chimes, strike, time, midnight, white, fright, child, lying, cr ying, tied,
knight, slices, knife, dries, child’s, eyes, tightly, I, myself, find, wild, tribe, crime.
Write the word chief on the board and ask the children to read it. Ask them to say the
middle phoneme. Tell them that sometimes both /ee/ and /ie/ are represented by the
letters i and e together. They should try the word out one way and then the other to hear
Time: 5 mins
which is a word. Write thief on the board – ask them if this is thife or theef. Repeat with
tried, field and then cries.
4
Tricky words to be tested: here, friend.
Learning to
read and spell
tricky words
Tricky words to be learned: see, where.
Time: 5 mins
46
see – letter string ee (s + ee); teach with tree, bee. ‘I see a bee in the tree’; ee in word looks
like eyes.
where – question word; refer to why, who, what, when; place word; relate to there and
here; note he, here, her within the word.
MODULE 2
Phonics and spelling
L E S S ON 9
Aim
Materials
To practise vowel digraphs
Flashcards ee, ea, ie, y, i-e, igh (PCM 2.1);
To practise two-syllable words
Word strips for Thumbs in game (PCM 2.19);
Counters;
Reading long words (worksheet) (PCM 2.20);
Word cards (PCM 2.21) for Word choice;
Sentence sheets (PCMs 2.43 and 2.44)
ACTIVITY
INSTRUCTIONS
1
Practise Flashcards ee, ea, ie, y, i-e, igh.
Revision of e
Play Thumbs in game:
and i digraphs
sheet, shine, street, sheep, shy
please, line, piece, pile, pies
clean, cream, keen, kind, kite
wheat, white, wipe, wheel, weed
Time: 5 mins
light, leek, leaf, like, life.
2
Do Reading long words (demo): teatime, meanwhile, midnight, bedside, beside,
unwind, nineteen.
Reading twosyllable words
Time: 4 mins
3
Reading twosyllable words
Do Reading long words (worksheet): unwind, nineteen, inside, unkind, offside,
combine, myself, sunlight, invite, peanut, untied, outside.
Play Word choice.
Time: 6 mins
4
Tricky words to be tested: see, where.
Learning to
read and spell
tricky words
Tricky words to be learned: them, something.
Time: 5 mins
them – the + m; reinforce other the stem words.
something – chunk some/thing; relate to come (letter string ome); thing (letter string
ing); stress th not f sound; use mirror to check pronunciation.
47
MODULE 2
Phonics and spelling
L E S S ON 1 0
Aim
Materials
To learn how to add ing to words containing ee, ea,
Word strips (PCM 2.22) for Word sort;
Word cards (PCM 2.23) for AddING game and ing
cards for each child;
ie, y, igh, i-e
Word cards (PCM 2.24) for Word choice;
Sentence sheets (PCMs 2.44 and 2.45)
ACTIVITY
INSTRUCTIONS
1
Play Word sort, sorting by how words change when ing is added (e.g. dropping e,
Adding ing for
doubling final letter): sigh – sighing; hide – hiding; speak – speaking; cr y – cr ying;
spelling
fight – fighting; drive – driving; kneel – kneeling; find – finding; like – liking; tr y –
tr ying; bite – biting; scream – screaming; sleep – sleeping; clean – cleaning; smile –
Time: 7 mins
smiling; dine – dining; dr y – dr ying; creep – creeping.
2
Play AddING game: spy, dream, slide, light, meet, grind, file, read, wipe, like, cr y.
Spelling ing
words
Time: 4 mins
3
Reading words
containing ing
Play Word choice: bleating, riding, making, fighting, finding, filing, piping, cheating,
dreaming.
Time: 4 mins
4
Tricky words to be tested: them, something.
Learning to
read and spell
Tricky words to be learned: came, from.
tricky words
Time: 5 mins
48
came – letter string ame as in ‘I came to play the same game’.
from – phonically regular.
MODULE 2
Phonics and spelling
L E S S ON 1 1
Aim
Materials
To explore the spelling choices ay, a-e
Flashcards ee, ea, y, ie, i-e, igh (PCM 2.1);
Letters m, d, l, p, n, c, f, g, r, a, e (PCM 1.4) for Full
Circle game;
Two cubes for Cube game: cube 1 = f, l, sh, w, t, s;
cube 2 = ake, ame, ave;
Sentence sheets (PCMs 2.45 and 2.46)
ACTIVITY
INSTRUCTIONS
1
Practise Flashcards ee, ea, y, ie, i-e, igh.
Spelling choices
Rhyming words. Generate six rhyming words from the word day. The children can write
Time: 5 mins
lay, pay, pray, play, ray, say, stay, stray, spray, way, they*.
2
Ask children which phoneme has to be added to make day into date (t). Write it.
Spelling choices
Time: 5 mins
Play Full circle game with letters m, d, l, p, n, c, f, g, r, a, e – made, male, pale, pane,
lane, lace, face, page, rage, cage, cane, mane, made.
3
Play Cube game: Cube 1: f, l, sh, w, t, s + Cube 2: ake, ame, ave.
them as there are almost no spelling variations*. Possible words: bay, clay, day, gay, hay,
Spelling choices
Time: 5 mins
4
Tricky words to be tested: came, from.
Learning to
read and spell
Tricky words to be learned: liked, because.
tricky words
Time: 5 mins
liked – like + ed.
because – mnemonic: ‘Big elephants can always understand small elephants’; look for the
words within the word: because, because, because.
49
MODULE 2
Phonics and spelling
L E S S ON 1 2
Aim
Materials
To explore the spelling choices ay, ai, a-e
Large-format version of ‘Whale for sale’ (PCM 2.25);
Five child-size versions of ‘Whale for sale’ (PCM 2.26);
Word cards (PCM 2.27) for Word sort;
Sentence sheets (PCMs 2.46 and 2.47)
ACTIVITY
INSTRUCTIONS
1
Play Phoneme spotter, part 1.
Spelling choices
Whale for sale
A great whale lay in a cage
Under the water.
Time: 5 mins
He could not stray;
No place to play; he had to stay.
Eight chains enslave him.
Shame!
Brave Dave saves his wages to pay for the whale.
He came with Jake to take him away.
They pay.
They have to break the chains.
The whale is in pain;
It is a race against time.
In his rage Jake uses all his weight.
The cage opens.
Slowly the tail sways.
The whale sails away through the waves.
2
Play Phoneme spotter, part 2.
Spelling choices
Time: 5 mins
3
50
Spelling choices
Time: 5 mins
Play Word sort: whale, sale, great, lay, cage, stray, play, stay, chains, enslaved, shame,
brave, Dave, saves, wages, pay, came, Jake, take, away, they, pay, break, pain, race,
against, rage, Jake, weight, cage, tail, sways, sails, away, waves.
4
Tricky words to be tested: liked, because.
Learning to
read and spell
tricky words
Time: 5 mins
Tricky words to be learned: his, so.
his – h + is; sounds like hiz; few words end in z; emphasise s.
so – rhymes with go and no.
MODULE 2
Phonics and spelling
L E S S ON 1 3
Aim
Materials
To explore the spelling choices ow, oe, o-e
Word cards (PCM 2.28) for Word sort;
Sentence sheets (PCMs 2.47 and 2.48)
ACTIVITY
INSTRUCTIONS
1
Rhyming words. Generate six rhyming words from the word show. Possible words: bow,
Spelling choices
blow, crow, dough, flow, go, grow, glow, hoe, Joe, low, mow, no, row, slow, stow,
Time: 3 mins
snow, sow, toe, though, show, woe.
2
Play Word sort: bow, blow, crow, dough, flow, go, grow, glow, hoe, Joe, low, mow,
Spelling choices
no, row, slow, stow, snow, sow, toe, though, show, woe.
Time: 5 mins
3
Digraph splitting. Write the word Joe on the board. What is this word again? … Yes, Joe.
Reading and
writing words
Tell me the phonemes? … Yes, J-oe (point as you say them). Now listen to this word – joke.
What are the phonemes in joke? … Yes, j-oe-k (write as you say them.) Does this look right?
ending in oke
… No. We have to split the oe sound and put the k in the middle. Write joke. That’s how to
write joke.
Do Quickwrite: oke × 5; and coke, bloke, choke, poke, stoke, stroke, smoke, spoke,
Time: 7 mins
woke, broke (× 2 each).
4
Tricky words to be tested: his, so.
Learning to
read and spell
Tricky words to be learned: have, water.
tricky words
Time: 5 mins
have – stress final e; highlight this letter; no English words end in v; MS strategy.
water – letter string wa; include such words as was, want, wash; ‘I wash in water.’; MS
strategy.
51
MODULE 2
Phonics and spelling
L E S S ON 1 4
Aim
Materials
To explore the spelling choices ow, oe, oa, o, o-e
Letters (PCM 1.4) for Full circle game; h, p, P, s, t, c,
r, d, l, n, k, m, o, e;
Word strips (PCM 2.29) for Thumbs in game;
Counters;
Sentence sheets (PCMs 2.48 and 2.49)
ACTIVITY
INSTRUCTIONS
1
Play Full circle game with letters h, p, P, s, t, c, r, d, l, n, k, m, o, e – hope, Pope, pole,
Reading and
stole, stone, strode, stroke, stoke, stole, dole, dome, home, hope.
spelling o-e
words
Time: 5 mins
2
Reading and
spelling oe and
Do Quickwrite: oa and loan, coat, toast, foal, boat, toad, coal, moat, road,
oa words
Time: 7 mins
coast (× 2 each).
3
Play Thumbs in game:
Reading o
phoneme words
coal, cold, coast, code, coke
goal, gold, goat, ghost, groan
mole, moan, moat, most, mode
Time: 3 mins
strode, stroll, stole, stroke, stone
toad, told, toll, toast, tone.
4
Tricky words to be tested: have, water.
Learning to
read and spell
tricky words
Tricky words to be learned: why, did.
Time: 5 mins
52
Rhyming words. Generate six rhyming words from the word note. Possible words: note,
throat, boat, wrote, coat, quote, float, goat, moat.
why – question word; refer group to when, what, where, who; also in family with my, by,
tr y; English words never end in i.
did – use phonics; stress correct formation of d to eliminate b/d confusion; belonging to
c–o–a–d–q family.
MODULE 2
Phonics and spelling
L E S S ON 1 5
Aim
Materials
To explore the spelling choices ow, oe, o, o-e, oa
Large-format version of ‘The troll and the toad’
(PCM 2.30);
Five child-size versions of ‘The troll and the toad’
(PCM 2.31);
Word cards (PCM 2.32) for Word sort;
Sentence sheets (PCMs 2.49 and 2.50)
ACTIVITY
INSTRUCTIONS
1
Play Phoneme spotter, part 1.
Reading and
The troll and the toad
spelling words
containing: ow,
The troll strode home in the snow, his cloak flowing over his shoulder. A toad sat in the
Time: 3 mins
road under a stone. He croaked. He was old and cold. His throat was sore. He was all
alone. He moaned and groaned. The bold troll rolled the stone with his toe. He saw the
soaked toad. “Oh no,” choked the toad. “Don’t poke me.”
2
Play Phoneme spotter, part 2.
oe, o, o-e, oa
Reading and
spelling words
containing: ow,
oe, o, o-e, oa
Time: 7 mins
3
Reading and
spelling words
Play Word sort: troll, strode, home, snow, cloak, flowing, over, shoulder, toad, road,
croaked, old, cold, throat, alone, moaned, groaned, bold, rolled, stone, toe, soaked,
oh, no, choked, don’t, poke.
containing: ow,
oe, o, o-e, oa
Time: 5 mins
4
Tricky words to be tested: why, did.
Learning to
read and spell
tricky words
Tricky words to be learned: here, us.
Time: 5 mins
here – look for the words within the word: here, here; place word, relate to there and
where.
us – use phonics; us as in bus, octopus; ‘There was no room for us on the bus because of
the octopus.’
53
MODULE 2
Phonics and spelling
L E S S ON 1 6
Aim
Materials
To revise vowel digraphs
Flashcards ay, ai, a-e, ow, oa, oe, o, o-e (PCM 2.1);
To practise reading two-syllable words
Word strips (PCM 2.33) for Thumbs in game;
Counters;
Reading long words Worksheet (PCM 2.34);
Word cards (PCM 2.35) for word choice;
Sentence sheet (PCM 2.50)
ACTIVITY
INSTRUCTIONS
1
Practise Flashcards ay, ai, a-e, ow, oa, oe, o, o-e.
Revision of a
Play Thumbs in game:
and o digraphs
may, most, make, mole, moan
spray, spoke, Spain, sprain, sprite
pole, pail, paint, paste, post
drain, drone, day, date, drake
Time: 5 mins
laid, lake, loaf, load, lane.
2
Do Reading long words (demo): mainline, pancake, snowman, milkshake, unload,
disgrace, maiden, haystack, railway.
Reading twosyllable words
Time: 5 mins
3
Reading twosyllable words
Do Reading long words (worksheet): haystack, railway, goalpost, handmade, caveman,
postman, unfold, hostess, mistrust, gravestone, away.
Play Word choice.
Time: 5 mins
4
Learning to
read and spell
tricky words
Time: 5 mins
54
Tricky words to be tested: here, us.
Dictation: We liked them because they were good fun. We went to meet their sister
who lived in a small house in the next street.
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 LESSONS 4, 9, 11, 16 Flashcards
2.1
✄
ee
e
i-e
a-e
oe
PCM
ea ie
y igh
ay ai
ow oa
o-e o
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
55
PCM
2.2
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 LESSON 1 Worksheet
mil‡man
wigwam
bac‡pac‡
catnap
tenpin
cannot
sunset
laptop
lipstic‡
grandad
handbag
shell‰ish
logjam
hamstring
matchbox
Patric‡
56
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 LESSON 1 Word sort cards
PCM
2.3
✄
mil‡man
wigwam
bac‡pac‡
catnap
tenpin
cannot
sunset
laptop
grandad
handbag
shell‰ish
logjam
hamstring
matchbox
Patric‡
lipstic‡
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
57
PCM
✄
2.4
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 LESSON 2 Word cards
bring
win‡
bend
pin
pinch
grit
plan
ris‡
‰ish
crunch
win
catch
wet
ing
ing
ing
ing
ing
n n n n n
58
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
t
t
t
t
t
PCM
2.5
✄
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 LESSON 2 Word cards
gnat
‡nac‡
‡not
‡noc‡
‡nit
‡nob
wrong
wrec‡
wren
scrunch
bring
bridge
badge
batch
thatch
itch
o‰‰
win‡
slin‡
thrush
tenth
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
59
PCM
✄
2.6
60
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 LESSON 3 Word cards
bread
bled
dead
dread
‰ed
head
lead
read
said
tread
wed
shed
stead
thread
bed
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
PCM
2.7
✄
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 LESSON 3 Word cards
want
was
watch
wash
what
swan
swamp
swap
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
61
PCM
2.8
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 LESSON 3 Worksheet
tactic
suntan
‰lapjac‡
‡idnap
slapstic‡
bedhead
swapping
watchstrap
washstand
wanting
swamping
breadbin
treadmill
dreading
rapid
subject
object
injecting
62
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
PCM
2.9
✄
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 LESSON 3 Word cards
tactic
suntan
‰lapjac‡
‡idnap
slapstic‡
bedhead
swapping watchstrap washstand
wanting
swamping
breadbin
treadmill
dreading
rapid
subject
object
injecting
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
63
PCM
2.10
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 LESSON 4 Story
The dream team
The crowd screams as Owen comes
out on to the green pitch. He nudges
the ball behind him with his heel. It is
pic‡ed up on the ‰eet o‰ number three
who speeds up the ‰ield towards the
goal. He pushes a wea‡ pass to his
right. The opposition steals the ball
and passes it out to the wing. Owen
sees his chance, reaches across, leaps
over the ball and sends it strea‡ing to
Shearer who is ‰ree on the le‰t. A late
tac‡le brings him to the ground. Blood
streams down his chee‡. The chie‰
trainer brie‰ly ‡neels beside him. “Keep
still, please,” he says as he cleans him
up and slaps on some cream. The
bleeding stops. “It’ll heal!” Owen
doesn’t spea‡. He’s ‡een to get bac‡
to the team.
64
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 LESSON 5 Story
PCM
2.11
The dream team
The crowd screams as Owen comes out on to the
green pitch. He nudges the ball behind him with
his heel. It is pic‡ed up on the ‰eet o‰ number three
who speeds up the ‰ield towards the goal. He
pushes a wea‡ pass to his right. The opposition
steals the ball and passes it out to the wing. Owen
sees his chance, reaches across, leaps over the ball
and sends it strea‡ing to Shearer who is ‰ree on
the le‰t. A late tac‡le brings him to the ground.
Blood streams down his chee‡. The chie‰ trainer
brie‰ly ‡neels beside him. “Keep still, please,” he
says as he cleans him up and slaps on some cream.
The bleeding stops. “It’ll heal!” Owen doesn’t
spea‡. He’s ‡een to get bac‡ to the team.
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
65
PCM
✄
2.12
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 LESSON 5 Word cards
heal
‡eep
please
‡neels
brie‰ly
chie‰
‡een
he’s
Shearer
spea‡
cleans
bleeding
reaches
sees
beside
wea‡
‰ield
chee‡
green
speeds
streams
66
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 LESSON 5 Sentence sheet
I don’t eat meat at meals, e-a.
The dream team – a real deal, e-a.
I see the sea.
We meet in the street, double e.
I’ve been to see the queen, double e.
2.13
✄
ee or ea
PCM
scream
‰eet
ee or ea
I don’t eat meat at meals, e-a.
The dream team – a real deal, e-a.
I see the sea.
We meet in the street, double e.
I’ve been to see the queen, double e.
‰ree
team
ee or ea
I don’t eat meat at meals, e-a.
The dream team – a real deal, e-a.
I see the sea.
We meet in the street, double e.
I’ve been to see the queen, double e.
heel
strea‡ing
ee or ea
I don’t eat meat at meals, e-a.
The dream team – a real deal, e-a.
I see the sea.
We meet in the street, double e.
I’ve been to see the queen, double e.
dream
behind
ee or ea
I don’t eat meat at meals, e-a.
The dream team – a real deal, e-a.
I see the sea.
We meet in the street, double e.
I’ve been to see the queen, double e.
leaps
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PCM
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2.14
68
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 LESSON 6 Word cards
by
cry
dry
‰ry
‰ly
lie
my
pie
sty
spy
sigh
tie
why
die
s‡y
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 LESSON 7 Word cards
PCM
2.15
slime
stri‡e
smile
side
write
ride
hide
ripe
might
mile
mind
mine
bite
li‡e
li‰e
bi‡e
white
wipe
while
wi‰e
✄
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69
PCM
2.16
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 LESSON 8 Story
The ‡ind ‡night
It is a mild night. The wind is
sighing in the pine trees as the
‡ind ‡night rides by the light o‰
the bright stars in the s‡y. The
twelve chimes o‰ the cloc‡ stri‡e
the time – midnight. Suddenly his
white horse rears in ‰right. There is
a child lying in the path, crying
so‰tly. He is tied up. The wise
‡night slices the rope with his
‡ni‰e, dries the child’s eyes and
hugs him tightly. “Sh, I mysel‰ will
‰ind the wild tribe who did this
crime.”
70
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 LESSON 8 Story
PCM
2.17
The ‡ind ‡night
It is a mild night. The wind is sighing in the pine
trees as the ‡ind ‡night rides by the light o‰ the
bright stars in the s‡y. The twelve chimes o‰ the
cloc‡ stri‡e the time – midnight. Suddenly his
white horse rears in ‰right. There is a child lying in
the path, crying so‰tly. He is tied up. The wise
‡night slices the rope with his ‡ni‰e, dries the
child’s eyes and hugs him tightly. “Sh, I mysel‰ will
‰ind the wild tribe who did this crime.”
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PCM
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2.18A
72
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 LESSON 8 Word cards
‡ind
‡night
mild
night
sighing
pine
‡ind
‡night
rides
by
light
bright
s‡y
chimes
stri‡e
time
midnight
white
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
PCM
2.18B
✄
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 LESSON 8 Word cards (continued)
‰right
child
lying
crying
tied
‡night
slices
‡ni‰e
dries
child’s
eyes
tightly
I
mysel‰
‰ind
wild
tribe
crime
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73
li‰e
li‡e
white
lee‡
wheat
light
lea‰
weed
wheel
cream
clean
wipe
‡ind
pies
pile
piece
line
please
shy
sheep
street
shine
sheet
74
‡een
✄
2.19
‡ite
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 LESSON 9 Word strips
PCM
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 LESSON 9 Worksheet
PCM
1.8
2.20
inside
bedside
un‡ind
o‰‰side
combine
mysel‰
sunlight
invite
peanut
untied
outside
nineteen
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PCM
✄
2.21
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 LESSON 9 Word cards
unwind
nineteen
inside
un‡ind
o‰‰side
combine
mysel‰
sunlight
invite
peanut
untied
outside
76
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 LESSON 10 Word strips
2.22
✄
sigh
hide
spea‡
cry
‰ight
drive
‡neel
‰ind
li‡e
try
bite
scream
sleep
clean
smile
dine
dry
creep
PCM
sighing
hiding
spea‡ing
crying
‰ighting
driving
‡neeling
‰inding
li‡ing
trying
biting
screaming
sleeping
cleaning
smiling
dining
drying
creeping
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PCM
✄
2.23
78
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 LESSON 10 Word cards
spy
dream
slide
light
meet
grind
‰ile
read
wipe
li‡e
cry
ing
ing
ing
ing
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
PCM
2.24
✄
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 LESSON 10 Word cards
bleating
riding
ma‡ing
‰ighting
‰inding
‰iling
piping
cheating
dreaming
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
79
PCM
2.25
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 LESSON 12 Poem
Whale ‰or sale
A great whale lay in a cage
Under the water
He could not stray;
No place to play; he had to stay.
Eight chains enslave him.
Shame!
Brave Dave saves his wages to pay ‰or the whale.
He came with Ja‡e to ta‡e him away.
They pay.
They have to brea‡ the chains.
The whale is in pain;
It is a race against time.
In his rage Ja‡e uses all his weight.
The cage opens.
Slowly the tail sways.
The whale sails away through the waves.
80
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 LESSON 12 Poem
PCM
2.26
Whale ‰or sale
A great whale lay in a cage
Under the water
He could not stray;
No place to play; he had to stay.
Eight chains enslave him.
Shame!
Brave Dave saves his wages to pay ‰or the whale.
He came with Ja‡e to ta‡e him away.
They pay.
They have to brea‡ the chains.
The whale is in pain;
It is a race against time.
In his rage Ja‡e uses all his weight.
The cage opens.
Slowly the tail sways.
The whale sails away through the waves.
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
81
PCM
2.27
✄
82
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 LESSON 12 Word cards
whale
sale
great
lay
cage
stray
play
stay
chains
enslaved
shame
brave
Dave
saves
wages
pay
came
Ja‡e
ta‡e
away
they
pay
brea‡
pain
race
against
rage
Ja‡e
weight
cage
tail
sways
sails
away
waves
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
PCM
2.28
✄
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 LESSON 13 Word cards
bow
blow
crow
dough
‰low
go
grow
glow
hoe
Joe
low
mow
no
row
slow
stow
snow
sow
tow
though
show
woe
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
83
tone
toast
stroll
told
strode
toad
toll
stone
stro‡e
moan
mole
stole
most
groan
ghost
goat
gold
goal
co‡e
code
coast
cold
coal
84
moat
✄
2.29
mode
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 LESSON 14 Word strips
PCM
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 LESSON 15 Story
PCM
2.30
The troll and the toad
The troll strode home in the snow, his
cloa‡ ‰lowing over his shoulder. A
toad sat in the road under a stone. He
croa‡ed. He was old and cold. His
throat was sore. He was all alone. He
moaned and groaned. The bold troll
rolled the stone with his toe. He saw
the soa‡ed toad. “Oh no,” cho‡ed the
toad. “Don’t po‡e me.”
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
85
PCM
2.31
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 LESSON 15 Story
The troll and the toad
The troll strode home in the snow, his cloa‡
‰lowing over his shoulder. A toad sat in the road
under a stone. He croa‡ed. He was old and cold.
His throat was sore. He was all alone. He moaned
and groaned. The bold troll rolled the stone with
his toe. He saw the soa‡ed toad. “Oh no,” cho‡ed
the toad. “Don’t po‡e me.”
86
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
PCM
2.32
✄
he National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 LESSON 15 Word cards
troll
strode
home
snow
cloa‡
‰lowing
over
shoulder
toad
road
croa‡ed
old
cold
throat
alone
moaned
groaned
bold
rolled
stone
toe
soa‡ed
oh
no
cho‡ed
don’t
po‡e
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
87
lane
load
drone
la‡e
drain
laid
loa‰
dra‡e
date
pail
pole
day
paste
sprite
sprain
Spain
spo‡e
spray
moan
mole
ma‡e
most
may
88
paint
✄
2.33
post
he National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 LESSON 16 Word strips
PCM
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 LESSON 16 Worksheet
PCM
2.34
haystac‡
railway
goalpost
handmade
caveman
postman
un‰old
hostess
mistrust
gravestone
away
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89
PCM
✄
2.35
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 LESSON 16 Word cards
haystac‡
railway
goalpost
handmade
caveman
postman
un‰old
hostess
mistrust
gravestone
90
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
away
Dad
Mum
Christopher
Phoebe
The small dog lived with a little girl
and boy.
The
small
dog
lived
with
a
little
girl
and
boy.
✄
PCM
2.36
Sentence sheets
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
91
He too‡ the aliens into the house to meet
them.
He
too‡
the
aliens
into
the
house
to
meet
them.
✄
92
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
Sentence sheets
PCM
2.37
Brown bread –
great!
Dad was at home having some brown
bread.
Dad
was
at
home
having
some
brown
bread.
✄
PCM
2.38
Sentence sheets
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
93
Aliens land in car par‡.
Christopher was watching television with
his sister.
Christopher
was
watching
television
with
his
sister.
✄
94
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
Sentence sheets
PCM
2.39
They saw there were two aliens by the
door.
They
saw
there
were
two
aliens
by
the
door.
✄
PCM
2.40
Sentence sheets
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
95
Who are you?
“Who are you?” said the children.
“Who
are
the
children.
you?”
said
✄
96
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
Sentence sheets
PCM
2.41
These are my ‰riends.
“Here is my ‰riend and his
baby brother,” said Kneejer‡.
“Here
is
my
and
his
said
Kneejer‡.
‰riend
baby brother,”
✄
PCM
2.42
Sentence sheets
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
97
Zap? Zap?
Zowee?
“They just want to see where we live,”
said the dog.
“They
just
want
to
see
where
we
live,”
said
the
dog.
98
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
Sentence sheets
PCM
2.43
Do you eat sweets?
“Can we give them something
to eat and drin‡?” said Phoebe.
“Can
we
something
and
drin‡?”
give
them
to
eat
said
Phoebe.
✄
PCM
2.44
Sentence sheets
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
99
No, don’t eat the
boo‡, Zap!
Zap came bac‡ ‰rom the table
with a boo‡.
Zap
came
bac‡
‰rom
the
table
with
a
boo‡.
✄
100
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
Sentence sheets
PCM
2.45
Where has my
boo‡ gone?
Zap li‡ed the boo‡ because it tasted
good!
Zap
li‡ed
the
boo‡
because
it
tasted
good!
✄
PCM
2.46
Sentence sheets
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
101
Zowee, zowee
zap zap?
His brother wanted a drin‡ so he was not
watching.
His
drin‡
not
brother wanted
so
he
a
was
watching.
✄
102
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
Sentence sheets
PCM
2.47
Oh no, my roses!
He could not wait to have water
in a cup.
He
could
not
wait
to
have
water
in
a
cup.
✄
PCM
2.48
Sentence sheets
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
103
???
???
Why did Mum and Dad get so upset?
Why
did
Mum
and
Dad
get
so
upset?
✄
104
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
Sentence sheets
PCM
2.49
Now loo‡ here
you two ...
“Do you want to stay
here with us?” said Dad.
“Do
you
want
to
stay
here
with
us?”
said
Dad.
✄
PCM
2.50
Sentence sheets
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
105
ADDITIONAL LITERACY SUPPORT (ALS)
Reading (Guided and Supported)
Introduction
In a guided reading session, or ‘mini lesson’, pupils are taught in groups according to
reading ability. The teacher works with each group on a text carefully selected to offer
an appropriate level of challenge to the group.
■
Guided reading sessions have a similar format
the teacher introduces the text and sets the purpose for reading, for example,
reminding pupils of strategies and cues which will be useful, or asking them to gather
particular information
■ pupils read independently, problem-solving their way through the text. More fluent
readers will read silently. The teacher is available to offer help when it is needed and
then guides the pupils to appropriate cues, for example, use of syntax, picture cues,
■
initial letter
the teacher discusses the text with the pupils, drawing attention to successful
strategies and focusing on comprehension, referring back to the initial focus.
Supported reading is designed to complement guided reading, which is led by the class
teacher. Working with the same group of pupils and using the same text introduced
during the teacher-led guided reading, supported reading will provide extra opportunities
for pupils to respond to text and extend their independent reading skills. Each supported
reading session will follow a common structure with the adult prompting pupils to:
summarise, locate key events and characters, identify effective problem-solving
strategies and develop extended responses to texts. Twenty-minute supported reading
sessions will be delivered by trained classroom assistants.
The staff delivering supported reading work closely with the class teacher to provide an
extra opportunity for pupils to re-visit texts for further work and analysis. During the
Additional Literacy Support programme each group works with a range of texts linked to
the Framework of teaching objectives. Each group will receive either one session of guided
reading delivered by the teacher or one session of supported reading delivered by classroom assistants once every week.
Extra opportunities to re-visit the selected texts, practise and apply new skills will be
provided through
1 shared reading during the Literacy Hour
4 independent reading time in school
2 independent work in the Literacy Hour
5 homework activities.
3 reading texts across the curriculum
Guided and supported reading are planned to develop independent reading as quickly as
possible. The teaching materials are designed to promote accelerated learning and provide the pupils with the skills they need to access the curriculum planned for their class.
Module outline
Each of the four modules is designed for eight weeks, during which the pupils receive four
guided reading sessions led by the class teacher and four supported reading sessions led
by a trained classroom assistant.
Each module includes:
an entry profile
a brief description of what pupils should be able to do before beginning the module
■ the teaching objectives (taken from the Framework of teaching objectives)
■ the recommended text type for each week of the module.
■
■
107
MODULE 2
Reading
Guide sheets for teachers delivering guided reading and for classroom assistants
providing supported reading are included. The guide sheets include the structure of each
session and suggested teaching prompts. Teachers and classroom assistants will not use
all of the prompts in any single session. Careful selection will be necessary to meet the
objectives for the session and the opportunities provided by the selected text.
Module 2
Ensure that children can
■
discriminate, segment and blend phonemes to read CVC words
■
read at least 100 high frequency words on sight from Appendix List 1 in the
■
Framework of teaching objectives
use a variety of cues to predict, check and self-correct when reading.
Summar y module objective
Children should be taught to
■ use phonemic, contextual, grammatical and graphic knowledge to work out, predict
■
and check the meanings of unfamiliar words and make sense of what they read
read, with sufficient concentration, text of increasing length and range.
Word recognition, graphic and phonic knowledge
■
identify and blend long and short vowel phonemes when reading
read words containing common consonant digraphs
read and understand new words of personal interest
■ read on sight high-frequency words appropriate to the graded texts
■ recognise the critical features of words, for example, common prefixes and suffixes.
■
■
Grammatical and contextual knowledge
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
retell stories, comparing and evaluating the impact of setting on events and behaviour
discuss characters referring to words and phrases from the text to support personal
views
use the blurb, title and illustration to predict the content of an unknown text
read poems, attending to patterns of rhythm, rhyme and other features of sound
locate examples of words and phrases that link sentences
re-read to check predictions using grammatical and contextual knowledge
recognise and use speech marks and exclamation marks when reading.
Text type
Module 2 texts are selected from appropriate level texts, such as those in Reading
Recovery (RR) book bands 4/6 (published by the Reading Recovery National Network,
Institute of Education, 20 Bedford Way, London, WC1H 0AL).
Week 1–2 Riddles, tongue-twisters and humorous verse
108
Week 3–4
Non-fiction – instructions
Week 5–6
Extended traditional stories
Week 7–8
Non-fiction – non-chronological reports
NB: In Weeks 1 and 2 please choose a text which includes consonant clusters at the ends
of words.
For Weeks 3 and 4 choose texts containing vowel digraphs ‘ee’, and ‘ea’. If possible,
include one or more words ending in ead, e.g. head, bread, read, and instead.
NLS ADDITIONAL
LITERACY SUPPORT
In Weeks 5 and 6 choose texts containing vowel digraphs/trigraphs for the /igh/
phoneme, e.g. ‘y’, ‘ie’, ‘igh’, ‘i-e’, and ‘i’. If possible, choose a text which includes one or
more words containing the letter string ie to emphasise the different pronunciations, as
in thief and cried.
In Week 7 choose texts containing digraphs for the /ay/ phoneme, e.g. ‘ai’, ‘ay’, ‘a-e’.
In Week 8 choose texts containing digraphs for the /oa/ phoneme, e.g. ‘oa’, ‘o-e’, ‘ow’.
109
MODULE 2
Reading
Module 2
Guided Reading
PHASE OF GUIDED READING
TEACHING PROMPTS
Book introduction
Today we are going to read a … (name text type) and we are
Identify teaching objective
going to learn (teaching objective).
Establish text type
Encourage reader to make links to existing
What is the title? Read the blurb and tell me what the book is
about. Name another book like this one.
knowledge and experience
Look through the book – what is happening?
Recall recently introduced reading strategies
Identify points of potential difficulty
There are some new words in this book. Can you find…? Which
letters can you see at the beginning/end?
Prompt for integrated use of a broad and
inclusive range of reading strategies
Generate questions to motivate independent
What other ways are there of working out new words?
reading
Name characters
place/identify a main character.
Independent reading
Read pages …
Sample reading, provide appropriate prompts
Is there a part of that word you know?
Show me the hard part of the word.
Re-read that sentence – is there something wrong?
and specific praise
Generate questions to monitor understanding
Returning to text
Answer posed questions
Summarise
Praise use of reading strategies
Generate questions to identify successful
problem solving strategies
Question to develop understanding at the
word/sentence/text levels
Teacher demonstration of effective reading
Responding to text
Prompt for personal response to text
Return to teaching objectives
Targets for supported reading
110
Read the first … pages and find out where the story takes
Who can tell me the … so far?
I liked the way you were reading this part (name a specific
example).
Who had difficulty with a word? How did you read it?
Can you find a word on page … that links two sentences?
Where would I look in the contents/index/glossary to find … ?
Look on page … Can you find any rhyming words?
Where and when did this … take place? How do you know?
Listen to me read this section. What do you notice?
Tell me about … (name character). Find a part of the book
which tells us about him/her.
Which character did you like best? (extend responses)
Which part of the poem is funny? Why?
I want you to think about (name a specific reading strategy or
behaviour) next time you read.
What have we learnt today?
Module 2
Supported Reading (Fiction)
PHASE OF SUPPORTED READING
TEACHING PROMPTS
Summar y
You read this book with your teacher last week.
Identify text type
Identify setting
Tell me about it.
What kind of text is it?
NLS ADDITIONAL
LITERACY SUPPORT
Where was the story set?
Recalling key features
Where was the story set?
Discuss characters, referring to words and
Think of a character. How did the author describe him/her?
Think of a place. How did the author describe it?
phrases from the text to support
personal views
Strategy check
Look at page … Can you find …?
Prompting children to integrate all cue
sources
How did you work the word out?
Independent reading
Read pages …
(Re- reading the text)
Is there a part of that word you know?
Show me the hard part of the word.
Give purpose for reading
Support individual reader using a range
of prompts
Do you know another way?
Praise use of problem-solving including
self-correction
Re-read that sentence. Is there something wrong?
Emphasise use of speech marks and
exclamation marks when reading
Read that again and use all the punctuation to make your
reading more exciting.
Returning to text
Tell me something more about the place where the story is set.
Answer questions posed earlier
What more have you found out by re-reading the book?
Question to develop understanding at the
word/sentence/text levels
Discuss characters, referring to words and
phrases from the text to support personal
views
Discuss development of character and setting
Emphasise value of new words of personal
interest
Identify preferences and give reasons
Has your view of any of the characters changed? If so, why?
Think of a character. How did the author describe him/her?
Think of a place. How did the author describe it?
What new and interesting words have you read today? What do
they mean?
Feedback to teacher
111
MODULE 2
Reading
Module 2
Supported Reading (Non-fiction)
PHASE OF SUPPORTED READING
TEACHING PROMPTS
Summar y
You read this book/section with your teacher last week.
Identify text type
What kind of text is it?
What is it about?
Recalling key features
How can I find out about … in this book?
Locating parts of text that give particular
information
Tell me another way of finding out about …?
Question generation prior to reading
How do the headings help us find information?
Think of a new question about … that you can try and answer
today.
Strategy check
Look at page. Can you find …?
Prompting pupils to integrate all cue
sources
How did you work the word out?
Do you know another way?
Re-reading the text
Prompting when pupils miscue on the text
Read pages … (Support individual reader using a range of
prompts):
Is there a part of that word you know?
Show me the hard part of the word.
Re-read that sentence. Is there something wrong?
Returning to the text
To read and understand new words of
personal interest
What important and interesting words have you learned from
this text?
Can you tell me something about this kind of text?
Final summary
Feedback to teacher
112
What more have you found out by re-reading the book?
ADDITIONAL LITERACY SUPPORT (ALS)
Writing (Shared and Supported)
Contents
Lesson 1
What is a sentence? (Classroom assistant)
■
To ensure pupils can identify a sentence, i.e. it begins with a capital letter, ends with a
full stop, and makes complete sense.
Lesson 2
Sentences and meaning (Teacher)
■
■
Lesson 3
To develop recognition of sentence boundaries within a short simple text.
To show how sentence punctuation helps readers make sense of texts.
Phrases, sentences and questions (Classroom assistant)
■
To establish that question marks are also full stops, and that they mark sentences
which should be read in a particular tone of voice.
■ To establish the difference between a phrase and a sentence.
■ To show how to turn a phrase into a sentence.
Lesson 4
Making sentences, making meaning (Teacher)
■
■
Lesson 5
To practise splitting text into sentences, and changing phrases into sentences.
To establish that exclamation marks are also full stops, marking sentences which
should be read in a particular tone of voice.
Adding words to a sentence (Classroom assistant)
To demonstrate that a simple sentence may be expanded by adding descriptive words
and phrases.
■ To show that expanding a sentence in this way can make it more informative and
interesting.
■
Lesson 6
Adding words to text (Teacher)
■
Lesson 7
Deleting ‘and then’ – making sentences (Classroom assistant)
■
■
Lesson 8
To show how text can be made more informative and interesting by adding
descriptive words and phrases.
To alert children to the overuse of ‘and then’ in narrative text.
To practise splitting text into sentences.
Deleting ‘and then’ – making links (Teacher)
To alert children to the over-use of ‘and then’ in non-fiction text.
■ To introduce alternative linking words.
■
113
MODULE 2
Writing
L E S S ON 1
What is a sentence? (Classroom assistant)
Aims
enlarged; Container for paper strips; Scissors;
To ensure children can identify a sentence.
■ It begins with a capital letter.
■ It ends with a full stop.
■ It makes complete sense.
Board/flip chart and pens
Preparation
Cut up the strips on PCM 2.51. Retain strips from
Materials
Section A.
Put strips from Section B into a container.
Reading book; PCM 2.51 copied on to card; PCM 2.52
Read through the Example Lesson Script (see page
137), relating it to this lesson plan and PCMs.
Introduction:
What is a
sentence?
Today we’re going to look at sentences. Do you know what a sentence is? Can you show me a
sentence in your reading book?
Discuss, covering all three main points listed in Aims above.
Time: 2.5 mins
Activity 1: Is
this a sentence?
Take the three strips from PCM 2.51 Section A. Read each, relate it to the picture on
PCM 2.52. When children have spotted the character each time, return to the strip and
ask: Is this a sentence? How do you know?
Cut the strips as shown:
Nodrog
is a little monster with big ‰eet.
The big ‰urry monster
TBN
is called Foz.
is a robot who helps them.
Ask children to hold up and read aloud each new strip. Is this a sentence? How can you tell?
Time: 5 mins
Ask children to put the sentences back together.
Activity 2: Spot
the Sentences
I’m going to take a paper strip out of this box. It will have a group of words on it.
Feel around for a strip (make a meal of it, as if choosing a raffle ticket). Read the strip
without showing it to the children.
Is it a sentence? Does it make complete sense?
When they have responded, say: Let’s check to see if it has a capital letter and a full stop.
Show them the words, let them read. Decide whether it’s a sentence or not.
Time: 5 mins
Do the same for all the strips. Sort into two piles: sentences and not sentences.
Activity 3:
Making
sentences
Can you match up the ‘not sentence strips’ to make two more sentences?
Time: 5 mins
Conclusion
Time: 2.5 mins
114
Choose reader(s) to read all seven sentences.
If time: Let’s make up some more complete sentences about the characters in the picture.
Give cues if necessary, e.g. How many aerials does the TBN have? Which monster is
wearing a skirt? What other creatures can you see? Where are they?
Scribe sentences for the children, ensuring that each makes complete sense.
Encourage them to mention capital letters/full stops.
Next week you will be doing Sentence Level work with your teacher. It’s your job to make sure
he/she knows exactly what we’ve covered today. There are three important points about
sentences for you to tell him/her – what are they?
Ask for examples of (a) a complete sentence, (b) words which aren’t a sentence.
MODULE 2
Writing
L E S S ON 2
Sentences and meaning (Teacher)
Aims
Materials
To revise the three-part definition of a sentence.
Copies of PCMs 2.53, 2.54, 2.55 for each child;
To develop recognition of sentence boundaries within
a short simple text.
PCMs 2.54, 2.55 enlarged;
Highlighter pens (at least two colours)
To show how sentence punctuation helps readers
make sense of texts.
Introduction:
Sentences and
meaning
Ask children to recap the main points of last week’s lesson: What is a sentence? Ensure
they remember that it begins with a capital letter, ends with a full stop, makes complete
sense.
When people write stories or non-fiction texts, they write in sentences. This helps readers make
Time: 2 mins
Activity 1:
Reading
sentences
sense of what they’ve written. Sentences help make your meaning clear.
Give out copies of PCM 2.53. Guided reading of first section. Give help as necessary and
pay particular attention to punctuation to help make meaning clear.
What is the first sentence? How do you know?
How many sentences are there in the text we just read?
Ask children to highlight complete sentences in different (or alternate) colours. (First
section only.)
We split text into sentences to help make its meaning clear.
Now you have different colours to show where each sentence begins and ends, let’s read the bit
of text again. Use your voice to show how it’s split into sentences.
Time: 5 mins
Activity 2:
Making sense
of a text –
fiction
If time: Ask children to highlight the sentences in the second section in the same way,
and use highlighting to help read for meaning.
Display the enlarged copy of PCM 2.54.
This text has not been split into sentences. Let’s read it and see where the full stops and
capitals should go to make it make sense.
Help the children read and make sense of the first section. Add capital letters and full stops
to divide the text into sentences.
Choose reader(s) to read your edited text.
Remove the enlarged text. Hand out individual copies of PCM 2.54.
Try splitting the same text into sentences yourself.
Time: 5 mins
Give help as required. Children who cope easily can go on to the second section.
Activity 3:
non-fiction
Time: 5 mins
Stop work now. Let’s look at a different sort of text.
Conclusion
Next week you will be doing Sentence Level work with the classroom assistant. Can you tell
him/her what we’ve covered today?
■ Why do writers split texts into sentences?
■ How do sentences help you make sense of what you read?
■ How do you know where one sentence ends and another begins?
Time: 3 mins
Give out copies of PCM 2.55.
Proceed as for Activity 2.
115
MODULE 2
Writing
Phrases, sentences and questions (Classroom assistant)
L E S S ON 3
Aims
Materials
To revise the three-part definition of a sentence, and
PCM 2.56 enlarged for shared reading;
the difference between sentences and nonsentences.
To establish that question marks are also full stops;
that they mark sentences which should be read in a
particular tone of voice.
To establish the difference between a phrase and a
sentence, and how to turn a phrase into a sentence.
Introduction:
Questions and
sentences
Sheet of paper large enough to cover the questions on
each ‘quiz sheet’, leaving the answers visible;
Board/flip chart and pens
Preparation
Read through the Example Lesson Script (see page
140), relating it to this lesson plan and PCMs.
Ask children to recap the main points of last week’s lesson. Ensure they remember that
writers split text into sentences to make their meaning clear.
Revise the three-part definition of a sentence (capital/full stop/complete sense).
Display the enlarged copy of PCM 2.56. Point to the first question mark.
What is this called? What is it for?
If I took the squiggly bit away from the top what would be left?
Read the first question. Is this a sentence?
Establish that questions are sentences, and question marks are a type of full stop.
What’s the difference between a question and an ordinary sentence?
Time: 3 mins
Activity 1:
Questions and
phrases
Establish that our tone of voice changes in asking a question. The question mark alerts the
reader to the need to change tone.
Display PCM 2.56. Help the children to read Quiz A. Are all the questions sentences?
(Check for capitals, full stops, complete sense).
Cover the questions with a sheet of paper. Are the answers sentences? Why not?
Establish that they do not make sense unless you know the question.
Time: 5 mins
Activity 2:
Phrases into
sentences
Time: 5 mins
Activity 3:
Making
sentences
Time: 5 mins
Conclusion
Time: 2 mins
116
These are not sentences. They are phrases.
Let’s see what they look like when we turn them into sentences.
Help the children read the final text.
Help the children read Quiz B.
Now let’s change these phrases into proper sentences.
Use Foz’s text as a model. Scribe for the children to write a similar text about Nodrog.
Draw attention to the ways in which you turn phrases into sentences.
This is an oral activity.
Now answer the quiz questions for yourselves – first as a phrase, then as a sentence.
Ask children one question at a time, e.g. What is your name? Ian Bloggs. My name is Ian
Bloggs. Betty Davies. My name is Betty Davies.
Next week you will be doing Sentence Level work with your teacher. What have we covered
today that you’ll have to tell him/her about?
Which punctuation mark is a ‘special full stop’? What does a question mark tell the reader?
Give me an example of a question.
Give me an example of a phrase. Turn the phrase into a sentence.
MODULE 2
Writing
Making sentences, making meaning (Teacher)
L E S S ON 4
Aims
Materials
To practise creating grammatical sentences orally.
PCM 2.57;
To use sentence punctuation to help make sense of
text.
Copies of PCM 2.58 for each child;
Highlighter pens (at least two colours)
To split text into sentences.
To establish that exclamation marks are also full stops
and that they mark sentences which should be read
Preparation
Cut out the question strips from PCM 2.57 and place
in a particular tone of voice.
Introduction:
Questions,
sentences and
phrases
in a container for use in Activity 1.
Ask children to recap the main points of last week’s lesson. Ensure they remember that
questions are a type of sentence, and the question mark is a specialised full stop
(indicating tone of voice).
Revise the three-part definition of a sentence (capital/full stop/complete sense).
Ask the question: What is your name?
Draw attention to the difference between a phrase (e.g. Joe Bloggs) and a sentence
Time: 2.5 mins
(e.g. My Name is Joe Bloggs).
Activity 1:
Answer in a
This is an oral activity. The aim is to encourage children to generate questions and
grammatical sentences.
sentence!
Appoint one child to be ‘It’.
The rest of the group take the question strips from PCM 2.57 out of the container. They
take it in turn to ask ‘It’ a question.
‘It’ must answer in a complete sentence.
Count the number of questions ‘It’ answers successfully. If ‘It’ answers with a phrase, ‘It’ is
out and the questioner becomes ‘It’.
Time: 10 mins
Activity 2:
Sentences and
meaning
Once children have run out of question strips, they can make up their own questions. Keep
them going with questions of your own if necessary.
Give out copies of PCM 2.58. Read the complete text to the children.
Ask them to highlight complete sentences in different (or alternate) colours.
Ask children to read the text, one sentence each, round the group.
Can you find any questions in this text?
Can you find any other special full stop?
Time: 5 mins
Conclusion
Draw attention to the final exclamation mark, and establish its name. Establish that again it
is a special sort of full stop, alerting the reader to the tone of voice to be used.
Next week you will be doing Sentence Level work with the classroom assistant. What have we
covered today that you will have to tell her about?
There are two punctuation marks that are ‘special full stops’. What are they?
What does a question mark tell the reader? Give me an example of a question.
What does an exclamation mark tell the reader?
Give me an example of a phrase.
Time: 2.5 mins
NB: Retain one copy of PCM 2.58 for use next week.
117
MODULE 2
Writing
Adding words to a sentence (Classroom assistant)
L E S S ON 5
Aims
Sentence holders (see page 151);
To revise previous sentence work.
PCM 2.60 (on thin card), enlarged for shared reading;
To demonstrate how a simple sentence may be
expanded by adding descriptive words and phrases.
Board/flip chart and pens
To show that expanding a sentence in this way makes
it more informative and interesting.
Preparation
Make two sentence holders (see page 151).
Cut out the sentence and word strips from PCM 2.60.
Write the following on the board: ‘The monster was in
Materials
the garden.’
PCM 2.58 from last week’s lesson; Copies of PCM 2.59
Read through the Example Lesson Script, relating it to
this lesson plan and PCMs.
for each child;
Introduction:
Sentences and
meaning
Time: 1.5 mins
Activity 1:
Revision of
dividing text
into sentences
Cover the following questions:
Why do we split text into sentences? How do we show the start of a new sentence?
How do we show the end of a sentence? What are the two ‘special full stops’?
As well as showing the ends of sentences, how else do question marks and exclamation marks
help the reader to read the text as the author intended?
You highlighted some sentences in a non-fiction text last week. Can you remember what it was
about? Read PCM 2.58 to the children. Do not display the text.
Hand out PCM 2.59. This is the same text with the punctuation missing. Split it into sentences
by putting in capital letters and full stops. Sometimes you may need to use a question mark
or an exclamation mark.
Time: 7 mins
Children can check their work against PCM 2.58.
Activity 2:
Which monster?
Place the sentence strip from PCM 2.60 (The monster was in the garden) on the sentence
holder. Look at this sentence. It’s definitely a sentence – how do we know?
But does it tell us much? Encourage children to note that we have no details on the monster
in question. Which monster?
Show picture from PCM 2.60. Say: It was the small monster here. Which of these could we
add to the sentence to show it was this monster? Display the words and phrases.
Help children select little, bald, with big feet.
Where would the words fit in? Discuss, then cut the sentence into three:
The
monster
was in the garden.
Help children add in the words and read the new sentence.
Show them the sentence on the board. Discuss how words can be added in here.
Demonstrate how to use arrows to make:
little bald
Time: 5 mins
Activity 3:
Which monster?
But what if it were the other monster in the picture?
Help children select alternative words and phrases – big, furry, with a little skirt.
Time: 5 mins
Place these in the correct positions on the sentence holder. Ask children to add these to
the sentence at the top of PCM 2.60, using your work on the board as a model.
Conclusion
Time: 1.5 mins
118
with big feet
The monster was in the garden.
What happened when we added describing words to the sentence? Encourage children to note
that the expanded sentences were (a) more informative (b) more interesting.
Help them also see that the same sentence could be expanded in different ways.
MODULE 2
Writing
L E S S ON 6
Adding words to text (Teacher)
Aims
Materials
To revise how words and phrases can be added to a
PCM 2.61 enlarged for shared reading;
sentence.
To show how text can be made more informative and
Copies of PCMs 2.61 and 2.62, for each pair of
children;
interesting by adding descriptive words and phrases.
Board/flip chart and pens
Preparation
Fold copies of PCM 2.62 in half to make small booklets.
Introduction:
Ask children to recap what they did in last week’s lesson. Ensure they remember that
Adding words
to a sentence
descriptive words and phrases make text more informative (clearer, less open to
mistakes), and more interesting.
On the board, write the sentence:
The monster was in the garden.
Time: 2.5 mins
Scribe for the children, adding words or phrases to answer the question Which monster?
Activity 1:
Adding words
Display enlarged copy of PCM 2.61.
to a text
This text is part of a story about the little bald monster called Nodrog. He’s been playing
football on his own and the ball has gone over the wall into a strange house. Foz and the
TBN aren’t there to help him get it back, so he decides to go and ask for it himself.
(Ensure children know that this is a silly thing to do. Monsters are unfortunately not as
bright as they are!)
Guided reading of PCM 2.61.
Does this piece of text tell us much about the place and the woman who opened the door?
What do the class want the place to be – nice or scary?
(Probably scary!)
Give out PCM 2.62 to each pair and explain how to use it.
Discuss suitable words and phrases to describe:
– the path
– the house – the door – the woman – her eyes, nose and mouth.
Scribe for the children to add the chosen words and phrases to the text.
Time: 10 mins
Read and discuss the finished product together, focusing on how it is now more
informative and interesting.
Activity 2:
Adding words
to a text
Time: 5 mins
Give each pair of children a copy of PCM 2.61.
Can they use PCM 2.62 to add words and phrases which make the text tell the opposite
story (e.g. a nice house)? Give help as necessary.
Conclusion
Choose a successful version (write one yourself if necessary!) to read, discuss and compare
with the version you wrote in Activity 1.
Time: 2.5 mins
How do these descriptive words and phrases improve the text?
119
MODULE 2
Writing
Deleting ‘and then’ – making sentences
(Classroom assistant)
L E S S ON 7
Aims
Spare copy of above, in case of accidents! (It has to be
To revise adding words and phrases to a sentence.
passed on to be used in next week’s lesson);
Pens, including a thick black marker for deleting text
To practise splitting text into sentences.
To alert children to the over-use of ‘and then’ in
narrative text.
Preparation
Read through the Example Lesson Script (see page
147), relating it to this lesson plan and PCMs
Materials
PCM 2.63 enlarged for shared reading;
Introduction:
Ask children to recap what they did in last week’s lesson. Ensure they remember that
Adding words
to a text
descriptive words and phrases make text more informative (clearer, less open to
mistakes) and more interesting.
Here is a version of the story you worked on last week. Shared reading of PCM 2.63,
Time: 5 mins
Activity 1: And
then and then
and then
Section A. Discuss the effects of adding descriptive words and phrases.
Another way of making text sound better is to get rid of the words ‘and then’.
Some people use ‘and then’ far too often. On the whole, it is usually better to start another
sentence. Shared reading of PCM 2.63, Section B. Draw attention to the breathless length
of the two sentences, and the boring repetition of ‘and then’.
Ask one child to delete every ‘and then’ in the passage.
Time: 7.5 mins
Ask other children to put full stops and capital letters to make each resultant chunk of text
into a sentence. Guided reading of the finished text.
Activity 2:
Adding words
The story sounds better without all those ‘and thens’, but the sentences are still not interesting
enough. How can we make them more interesting?
to text
Put arrows as shown:
Nodrog loo‡ed at the woman and then he loo‡ed at
the house and then he wished he hadn’t come and
then she as‡ed him to come inside and then Nodrog
turned and ran away down the path. And then he
could hear the woman shouting a‰ter him and then
he nearly ‰ell over a root and then his legs were
sha‡ing li‡e jelly.
Help children choose words to add detail and interest to the story.
Add further words or phrases if suggested, e.g. In a low, squeaky voice, she asked him to
come inside.
Time: 5 mins
120
Read the revised version of the story together. If time, re-read Sections A and B together,
and discuss how effective they are in creating a scary atmosphere.
Conclusion
I’ll pass this improved text on to the teacher.
Next week you’ll have to explain to him/her how you improved it. What exactly did you do?
Ensure children are aware that they: removed the ‘and thens’; made each remaining chunk
of text into a sentence; improved the sentences by adding descriptive words and
phrases.
Time: 2.5 mins
NB: Keep amended version of PCM 2.63 for next week’s lesson.
MODULE 2
Writing
L E S S ON 8
Deleting ‘and then’ – making links (Teacher)
Aims
Materials
To practise splitting text into sentences.
Amended copy of PCM 2.63 from last week’s lesson;
To alert children to the over-use of ‘and then’ in nonfiction text.
PCMs 2.64 and 2.65 enlarged for shared reading;
Copies of PCM 2.65 for each pair of children; (teacher
To introduce alternative linking words.
shares with 5th child)
Board/flip chart and pens
Introduction:
Display amended copy of PCM 2.63.
Deleting ‘and
then’ – making
Ask children to recap what they did in last week’s lesson. Ensure they remember
removing ‘and thens’, making remaining chunks of text into sentences, and improving
sentences
the sentences by adding descriptive words and phrases.
Time: 2.5 mins
Activity 1:
Display PCM 2.64.
Deleting ‘and
Use the diagram at the top to revise the fact that the Earth is one of many planets going
then’ in nonfiction
round the sun. Check that children remember/can read the other names.
Ask a child to read the sentence below the diagram.
What do you think is wrong with the way this sentence has been written?
Invite a child to delete the ‘and thens’.
Invite another to add full stops and capital letters, turning the resultant chunks into four
sentences.
Read the text again. What do the children think?
This time, deleting ‘and thens’ has made the text meaningless. The ‘and thens’ were holding it
together, showing what came next.
How can we make it make sense?
Display PCM 2.65. Ask a child to read Section A. Identify the sentence openings which
now hold the text together.
Time: 5 mins
Underline them and then write them on the board:
The next planet ...
The planet after that is ...
Beyond Earth comes ...
Activity 2:
Deleting ‘and
then’, adding
connectives
Shared reading of Section B of PCM 2.65.
Ensure children understand the text and the following diagram, and that they know the
names of the planets.
Time: 10 mins
Children in pairs work on improving Section C of PCM 2.65.
Conclusion
Choose a successful version to read and discuss.
Have any children thought of original sentence openings?
e.g. The last planet of all is Pluto.
Time: 2.5 mins
Shared reading and discussion of the final piece of text (Section C).
What do you think is wrong with it? How would you put it right?
In discussion, guide them towards
■ deleting the ‘and thens’
■ making the chunks into sentences
■ adding alternative sentence openings (point out the models on the board).
121
PCM
2.51
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 Writing LESSON 1
✄
Section A
Cut out the strips below.
Nodrog is a little monster with big ‰eet.
The big ‰urry monster is called Foz.
The TBN is a robot which helps them.
✄
Section B
Cut out the strips below.
Put strips in a box for Spot the Sentence game.
Nodrog and Foz
are jumping
up and down.
There is
a cat in the tree.
The TBN is under the tree.
It is a lovely sunny day.
122
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 Writing LESSON 1
PCM
1.8
2.52
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
123
PCM
2.53
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 Writing LESSON 2
The TBN is a robot. It can wal‡ about but it is not
alive. Sometimes it wal‡s on short little legs near
to the ground. Sometimes its legs get longer so it
can reach up tall.
The TBN belongs to Foz and Nodrog. They have a
control box to ma‡e it wor‡. I‰ they press a button
on the control box the robot will wal‡. I‰ they
press another button its legs will get longer. They
press the control box to tell it which way to go.
124
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The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 Writing LESSON 2
PCM
2.54
Foz and Nodrog are two
monsters Foz is bigger and
more ‰urry than Nodrog
Nodrog has the biggest
‰eet they are best ‰riends
every morning Foz calls ‰or
Nodrog they play ‰ootball
together all day they have
a robot called TBN
sometimes Foz and Nodrog ‡ic‡ the ‰ootball over
the wall their robot can help get it bac‡ it has
arms that can get longer and
longer it can reach over the
wall and pic‡ up the ball
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
125
PCM
2.55
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 Writing LESSON 2
Sun
Earth
We live on Planet Earth Earth is one o‰ the planets
that go round the sun the sun is a burning ball o‰
gas
Venus
Mars
Sun
Mercury
Earth
there are nine planets going round the sun the
planet nearest to the sun is called Mercury it is
much smaller than Earth the next planet is called
Venus Earth is the third planet ‰rom the sun
126
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The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 Writing LESSON 3
PCM
2.56
Quiz A
What is your name?
Foz
Are you a boy or a girl?
girl
How old are you?
9 years old
What activity do you like best?
playing football
What is your favourite food?
beans on toast
Who is your best friend?
Nodrog
The big monster’s name is Foz. She is a girl.
She is nine years old. The activity she li‡es
best is playing ‰ootball. Her ‰avourite ‰ood is
beans on toast. Her best ‰riend is Nodrog.
Quiz B
What is your name?
Nodrog
Are you a boy or a girl?
boy
How old are you?
10 years old
What activity do you like best?
watching TV
What is your favourite food?
fish and chips
Who is your best friend?
Foz
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
127
PCM
✄
2.57
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 Writing LESSON 4
Cut out the question strips below.
Put strips in a container.
What is your name?
Who is your best ‰riend?
Are you a girl or a boy?
How many days are there
in a wee‡?
How old are you?
What is your favourite
‰ood?
What colour are your eyes?
What planet do we live
on?
What colour is the sun?
What colour is the sea?
What colour is grass?
What day is it?
What colour is your hair?
What is your ‰avourite
‰ruit?
Which school do you go to?
Which country do you live
in?
How many brothers do you
have?
What is your ‰avourite TV
programme?
How many sisters do you
have?
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The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 Writing LESSON 4
PCM
2.58
Do you ‡now what a star
is? It is an enormous ball
o‰ burning gas. Stars loo‡
small in the s‡y but they
are really very big indeed.
They are all much bigger
than Planet Earth.
Our sun is a star. Do you thin‡ it’s a big star or a
small one? In ‰act it’s quite small. It loo‡s bigger
than the stars at night because it is much closer to
Earth than they are.
The sun loo‡s smaller than Earth but really it’s
enormous. It loo‡s bigger than the other stars but
really it’s smaller than most o‰ them. Sometimes
you just can’t believe your eyes!
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129
PCM
2.59
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 Writing LESSON 5
do you ‡now what a star
is it is an enormous ball o‰
burning gas stars loo‡
small in the s‡y but they
are really very big indeed
they are all much bigger
than Planet Earth
our sun is a star do you thin‡ it’s a big star or a
small one in ‰act it’s quite small it loo‡s bigger
than the stars at night because it is much closer to
Earth than they are
the sun loo‡s smaller than Earth but really it’s
enormous it loo‡s bigger than the other stars but
really it’s smaller than most of them sometimes you
just can’t believe your eyes
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The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 Writing LESSON 5
Cut out the strips below.
PCM
2.60
✄
The monster was in the garden.
little
big
‰urry
bald
‰ierce
scaly
with big ‰eet
with sharp teeth
with a little s‡irt
with bulging eyes
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
131
PCM
2.61
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 Writing LESSON 6
Nodrog went down the path. At the end he saw
a house. He went to the door and rang the bell.
A woman opened the door. She had eyes, a nose
and a mouth.
132
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
PCM
2.63
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 Writing LESSON 7
Section A
Nodrog went down the long winding path. At the
end he saw an eerie old house with blac‡ shadowy
windows and ‰our tall towers. He went to the huge
wooden door and rang the ancient bell. A strange
old woman opened the door. She had tiny sinister
eyes, a long croo‡ed nose and a twisted mouth.
Section B
Nodrog loo‡ed at the woman and then he loo‡ed
at the house and then he wished he hadn’t come
and then she as‡ed him to come inside and then
Nodrog turned and ran away down the path. And
then he could hear the woman shouting a‰ter him
and then he nearly ‰ell over a root and then his
legs were sha‡ing li‡e jelly.
134
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 Writing LESSON 8
Venus
PCM
2.64
Mars
Sun
Mercury
Earth
The nearest planet to the sun is Mercury and then
it is Venus and then it is Earth and then it is Mars.
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
135
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
MODULE 2 Writing LESSON 8
PCM
2.65
Section A
The nearest planet to the sun is Mercury. The next
planet is Venus. The planet a‰ter that is Earth.
Beyond Earth is Mars.
Section B
A‰ter Mars there is a band o‰ asteroids. These are
millions o‰ lumps o‰ roc‡, ‰rom little tiny ones to
lumps nearly as big as a planet. I‰ you went past
the asteroids, you would ‰ind ‰ive more planets
some o‰ them giants.
Uranus
Mars
Asteroids
Saturn
Jupiter
Neptune
Pluto
Section C
The ‰irst planet a‰ter the asteroids is Jupiter and
then it is Saturn and then it is Uranus and then it
is Neptune and then it is Pluto.
136
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
Example Lesson Scripts
NLS ADDITIONAL
LITERACY SUPPORT
These Example Scripts are provided for the lessons given by the classroom
assistant. They are not meant to be followed in the lesson. They are provided to
give a feel of the lesson beforehand – the sort of vocabular y to use, the sort of
encouragement to give the children – a general over view of how a “perfect
lesson” might go.
Lesson 1: What is a sentence?
Introduction: What is a sentence? (3 mins)
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Today we’re going to start to find out about sentences. Who can
tell me something they already know about a sentence?
CHILD A :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
A sentence begins with a capital letter.
Well done. Yes, a sentence does begin with a capital letter. Can
anyone else tell me something more about a sentence?
CHILD B :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
A sentence ends with a full stop.
Excellent. Yes, a sentence ends with a full stop. I’m really pleased
that you already seem to know so much about sentences. Now I’m
going to tell you something else about a sentence. A sentence
makes complete sense all on its own. Now, all of you show me the
beginning of a sentence in your books. And now, the end of the
sentence. Yes, that’s right, the sentence ends at the full stop.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Well done everyone, that’s right. Let’s repeat together the three
important things that we’ve found out about a sentence.
ALL TOGETHER : ■
A sentence begins with a capital letter.
■
A sentence ends with a full stop.
■
A sentence makes complete sense.
Activity 1: Is this a sentence? (5 mins)
Produce the three cut out strips from PCM 2.51 Section A.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Let’s read these three sentences together.
Now show the children the picture on PCM 2.52.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Can you point to Nodrog in the picture?
Children point to Nodrog.
Hold up the strip showing the sentence about Nodrog.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD A :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD B :
Do the words on this strip make a sentence?
Yes.
How do you know?
Because it begins with a capital letter and has a full stop at the
end.
Well done, that’s right. Is there another reason?
Yes, it’s a sentence because it makes complete sense.
Hold up the other two strips.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Now find Foz and TBN.
137
The children point to each character in turn.
MODULE 2
Writing
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Well done. Do the words on these two strips make sentences?
Yes, because they begin with capital letters and end with full stops.
Who can give us the third reason that tells us that these strips all
contain sentences?
CHILD :
Because each one makes complete sense.
Now cut up the sentences.
Nodrog
is a little monster with big ‰eet.
The big ‰urry monster
TBN
is called Foz.
is a robot who helps them.
Hold up one of the strips.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Read this strip. Is this a sentence?
No.
Why isn’t it a sentence?
CHILD A :
It’s not a sentence because it doesn’t make sense on its own.
CHILD B :
It doesn’t begin with a capital letter/end with a full stop.
Hold up each strip in turn and repeat this process.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Now let’s put the sentences back together. Well done everyone.
Activity 2: Spot the sentences (5 mins)
Now use the strips from Section B. Feel around in the box for a
strip – make a meal of it, as if choosing a raffle ticket. Don’t
show it to the children.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
This strip has a group of words on it. I’m going to read it to you,
so listen carefully: ‘are jumping’. Is it a sentence?
No.
Why not?
Because it doesn’t make complete sense.
That’s right. Good.
Show the strip to the children.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD A :
Now that you can see the strip, can you give me any more clues
that tell you that the group of words don’t make a sentence.
Yes, it hasn’t got a capital letter at the beginning or a full stop at
the end.
Now pull out another strip.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
138
Listen carefully again while I read the group of words on this
strip to you: ‘It is a lovely sunny day.’ Do you think this is a
sentence?
Yes.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Why do you think it’s a sentence?
CHILD :
Because it makes complete sense.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Yes, well done, that’s right. It is a sentence. Now look at it and
tell me two more reasons why you can see that it’s a sentence.
CHILD :
NLS ADDITIONAL
LITERACY SUPPORT
Because it begins with a capital letter and ends with a full stop.
Pull out each strip in turn and repeat this process.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
How many sentences have we got?
Two.
Are you sure? Let’s check. We’ll make two piles – one for sentences
and one for groups of words that aren’t sentences. I’m going to
give each one of you a strip and I want you to place yours in the
correct pile.
Distribute the strips around the group. Get the children to
place their strips in the correct pile. Give support in a positive
way if it is required.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Well done, everyone. You really seem to be remembering the three
things that tell you whether or not a group of words make a
sentence.
Activity 3: Making sentences ( 5 mins)
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Now we’re going to make the five strips in the ‘not sentences’ pile
into sentences. How many sentences are we going to be able to
make?
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Two.
Brilliant. How did you know that?
Because there are two full stops.
Excellent. Now we can identify the two sentence endings.
CHILD A :
One is: ‘up and down.’
CHILD B :
The other is: ‘a cat in the tree.’
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Well done. Now, what about the beginnings?
CHILD A :
Nodrog and Foz …’
CHILD B :
‘There is …’
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Now, can we match the beginnings with the endings?
‘There is a cat in the tree.’
Yes. There’s a group of words we haven’t used yet. What does this
strip say?
‘… are jumping’. They don’t begin with a capital or end with a
full stop.
No they don’t. Where do they fit?
I know. They belong in the middle of this sentence: ‘Nodrog and
Foz are jumping up and down.’
Well done, everyone. Let’s read all of the sentences together.
If time:
Make up some more complete sentences about the characters
in the picture. If the children find this difficult, give them some
clues to help them, e.g. How many aerials does the TBN have?
139
Which monster is wearing a skirt? What other creatures can you
MODULE 2
Writing
see? Where are they?
Scribe the sentences for the children, ensuring that each
makes complete sense. Encourage them to mention the capital
letters and full stops.
Conclusion ( 2.5 mins)
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Next week you will be doing Sentence Level work with your
teacher. I want you to be able show him/her how hard we’ve all
worked today by being able to tell him/her exactly what you’ve
learned. You’ll be asked about sentences. So, tell me now, what
are the three things that you’ve learned about a sentence?
CHILD A :
A sentence has to begin with a capital letter.
CHILD B :
A sentence has to end with a full stop.
CHILD C :
A sentence has to make complete sense.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
ALL CHILDREN :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
ALL CHILDREN :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
That’s excellent. Can someone give me an example of a complete
sentence?
The TBN is under the tree.
Is he right?
Yes.
Now tell me a group of words that isn’t a sentence.
‘up and down’
Is she right?
Yes.
That’s great. Now let’s repeat together the three things you need to
make a sentence.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT ■
AND
A sentence begins with a capital letter.
CHILDREN : ■ A sentence ends with a full stop.
■ A sentence makes complete sense.
Lesson 3: Phrases, sentences and questions
Introduction: Questions and sentences (3 mins)
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
You learned some more about sentences with your teacher last
week. Why do writers split up text into sentences?
To make it easier to understand.
Yes, to make the meaning clear. So, what do writers use to show
where one sentence ends and another begins?
Capital letters and full stops.
Good, a full stop at the end of a sentence and a capital letter at
the beginning of the next sentence. You also noticed last week that
when you are reading aloud your voice changes a bit; it usually
goes down at the end of the sentence.
Display the shared copy of PCM 2.56. Point to the first question
mark.
140
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
What is this called?
NLS ADDITIONAL
LITERACY SUPPORT
A question mark.
Good, what is it for?
A question.
Yes, it shows that the sentence is asking a question. If I took the
squiggly bit away from the top what would be left?
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
A dot.
Yes, just a full stop.
Read the first question on PCM 2.56.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
‘What is your name?’ Is this a sentence?
No, it’s a question.
It is a question – you’re right – but it is also a sentence. It makes
sense and has a capital letter and full stop. But the full stop has
an extra squiggly bit on top that shows it is also a question. When
you speak, what’s the difference between a question-sentence and
an ordinary sentence? Listen:(in a questioning voice) ‘Where do
you live?’ (in an answering voice) ‘I live in London.’
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Your voice goes up at the end when you ask a question.
Yes, that’s right.
Activity 1: Questions and phrases (5 mins)
Display PCM 2.56
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Now let’s read these questions in Quiz A altogether. Read the six
questions only.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Are all the questions sentences?
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
I don’t know. Not really.
Let’s look at them. What should a sentence have?
A capital letter and a full stop.
‘What is your name?’ Does that have a capital letter and a full
stop?
CHILD :
It has a capital letter.
CHILD :
And it has a special sort of full stop with a squiggly bit.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Yes, and what is the special sort of full stop called?
A question mark.
Does a question make complete sense? Read it and see. Points to
first question.
‘What is your name?’ Yes.
Yes, they all have capital letters, special full stops called question
marks, and they make complete sense.
Cover the questions with a sheet of paper.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
Now let’s look at the answers. Are the answers sentences?
No.
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Writing
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CHILD B :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
No. Why not?
They don’t have full stops.
Some of them have capital letters.
The capital letters are for names, aren’t they. Do the phrases
make sense?
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Yes.
Yes, they make sense, but only because they are next to the
question. If you just said ‘9 years old’ on its own would that tell
you anything? You wouldn’t know who it was about. It could be
about anyone or anything that is 9 years old. A group of words
that doesn’t make complete sense isn’t a sentence. It’s a phrase.
Let’s see what these phrases look like when we turn them into
sentences. Let’s read this together.
Read the paragraph about Foz together.
Activity 2: Turning phrases into sentences (5 mins)
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Now let’s read these questions in Quiz B together. Read the six
questions only. Point to the answers.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Now let’s change these phrases into proper sentences about
Nodrog. I’ll write it down; you tell me what to say. What’s the first
question? ‘What is your name? Nodrog.’ How do we make that
into a sentence? Let’s look at the paragraph about Foz. ‘The big
monster’s name is Foz.’ Now we are talking about Nodrog, so we
start: ‘The little ... ?’
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
The little monster’s name is Nodrog.
Yes good. Write on the board while saying, ‘The little monster’s
name is Nodrog.’ ‘Are you a boy or a girl?’ What’s the answer?
What is he?
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
142
A boy.
Now make that into a sentence: ‘He …?
He is a boy.
Write on the board and say ‘He is a boy.’ ‘How old are you?’
He is ten years old.
Very good. Write ‘He is ten years old.’ What’s next?
The activity he likes best is watching TV.
Yes. Write ‘The activity he likes best is watching TV.’ What’s his
favourite food?
Fish and chips
Is that a sentence?
He likes fish and chips.
Write ‘He likes fish and chips.’ And his best friend?
His best friend is Foz.
Write ‘His best friend is Foz.’
Activity 3: Making sentences (5 mins)
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
NLS ADDITIONAL
LITERACY SUPPORT
Now you answer the quiz questions about yourselves. We won’t
write them down, just say the answers. Give me each answer first
as a phrase, then as a sentence. To Child A. What is your name?
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
Ian Bloggs.
Now change that into a full sentence.
My name is Ian Bloggs.
Yes, that’s right. To Child B. What is your name?
Jane Smith. My name is Jane Smith.
To Child C. Are you a boy or a girl?
A girl. I am a girl.
Continue to ask questions until time runs out.
Conclusion (2 mins)
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Next week you will be doing Sentence Level work with your
teacher. What have we covered today that you’ll have to tell
him/her about? Which punctuation mark is a ‘special full stop’?
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
A question mark.
What does a question mark tell the reader?
That it’s a question.
Give me an example of a question.
How old are you?
Good, now give me an example of a phrase.
8 years old.
Now, turn that into a sentence.
I am 8 years old.
Lesson 5: Adding words to a sentence
Introduction: Sentences and meaning (2.5 mins)
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
You learned even more things about sentences with your teacher
last week, so I’m sure you’ll be able answer these questions. Why
do writers split text up into sentences?
To make it easier to understand.
Well done, that’s right. Now another question. How do writers
show where one sentence ends and another begins?
Capital letters and full stops.
Yes, of course. A capital letter to begin a sentence, and a full stop
to end it. Since that was so easy, here’s a slightly more difficult
question. What are the two ‘special full stops’ that writers
sometimes use?
One of them is a question mark.
Good. Tell me when we use question marks.
It shows that a question has been asked.
143
MODULE 2
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Writing
When you speak, how do you show the difference between an
ordinary sentence and a question-sentence?
CHILD :
Your voice goes up at the end when you ask a question, and down
a little bit when it’s an ordinary sentence.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Well done. Now what about that other ‘special full stop’?
The exclamation mark.
Yes. What does an exclamation mark look like and when do we
use it?
CHILD A :
It looks like a line with a full stop at the bottom.
CHILD B :
We use it when we want to make something loud.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Yes, it gives the reader a signal about how the writer wants us to
read that sentence. It shows the writer wants us to emphasise that
sentence. Good, everyone, well remembered.
Activity 1: Revision of dividing text into sentences (5 mins)
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Last week we highlighted some sentences in a non-fiction text.
Can you remember what it was about?
Read PCM 2.58 to the children without showing them the text.
Distribute PCM 2.59.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
What do you notice about this piece of text?
It says the same as the piece you’ve just read.
Yes, that’s right. But do you notice anything else about it?
There’re no full stops or capital letters.
Yes, the text has not been split up into sentences. I want you to
split the text into sentences by adding the capital letters and full
stops in the right places. Write directly onto the sheets I have
given you. Can you think of any other marks that you might need
to make?
CHILD A :
Question marks.
CHILD B :
Exclamation marks.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
That’s right. Now begin, working on your own quietly.
The children work individually.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Now let’s check how you’ve done. This is how the author split it
into sentences. How close have you got?
Place PCM 2.58 on the table so that all of the children can see
it. Run through each sentence in turn, commenting positively
on the work of each member of the group.
Activity 2: Which monster? (5 mins)
Place the sentence strip from PCM 2.60 on the sentence holder
(see page 151) so that all of the children can see it.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD A :
144
Look at this sentence. Point to ‘The monster was in the garden.’
How do we know that this group of words is a sentence?
Because it begins with a capital letter.
CHILD B :
Because it ends with a full stop.
CHILD C :
Because it makes complete sense.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
NLS ADDITIONAL
LITERACY SUPPORT
Yes, well done. This group of words includes the three things that
tell us it is a proper sentence. Do you think that it is a good
sentence? Does it tell us very much?
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
It only tells us that there is a monster in the garden.
Yes, that’s right. What other things do you think it could tell us
about?
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
It might tell us what the monster was like.
Yes, it could give us some more details about the monster. What
does it look like? Is it good or evil? What is it doing? We also
need to know more about the garden.
Show the children the picture on PCM 2.60.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Let’s look at the small monster in this picture.
Display the words and phrases.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Which of these words would be useful if we were describing the
small monster?
‘little’
Good, I think we’d definitely need that one. Any others?
‘… with big feet …’
Good, yes, his feet are enormous, aren’t they? And one more,
perhaps. It’s quite difficult to read, so I’ll tell you. ‘Bald’. Yes, I
think that’s all.
Display these strips and cut up the sentence like this:
The
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
monster was
in the garden.
Where would we put these words in our sentence?
As the children make suggestions, get them to move the words
around.
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT
AND CHILDREN :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILDREN :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
We could put ‘little’ in front of monster.
Yes, let’s read it together like that.
‘The little monster was in the garden.’
Does that sound all right?
Yes.
What about ‘with big feet’? Where might that go?
We could put those words after ‘monster’.
All right, let’s try it together.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT
AND CHILDREN :
‘The little monster with big feet was in the garden.’
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
What about that now? Does it still seem all right?
CHILDREN :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Yes.
Now the last word ‘bald’. Where should we put that?
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Writing
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
I think that ‘bald’ could also go in front of ‘monster’.
Do you mean like this: ‘The bald, little monster with big feet was
in the garden.’ Or like this: ‘The little, bald monster with big feet
was in the garden.’ Which do you like best? Does it make any
difference?
CHILD A :
I like: ‘The little, bald monster with big feet was in the garden.’
CHILD B :
I like: ‘The bald, little monster with big feet was in the garden.’
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
What about the rest of you? What do you think? Let’s take a vote.
Who likes ‘The little, bald monster with big feet was in the
garden.’ best? Three of you. What about ‘The bald, little monster
with big feet was in the garden.’ Two. Well the first version wins.
Write the sentence on the board.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Let me show you how to add words into a piece of text. To add
words or phrases, draw an arrow underneath, and between the
words where the addition is to be placed. Then, write the actual
words to be added, above the text. Look, watch me while I do it
with ‘little’ and ‘bald’. Now, I’d like one of you to draw in the
arrow in the right place so that we can add the words ‘with big
feet’.
Child adds the arrow.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Well done, that’s right. Now can someone show us where we
would write the actual words?
Another child points to the place and then writes in the words.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Very good. That’s not easy to do.
Activity 3: Which monster? (5 mins)
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Now let’s look at the other monster in the picture. Which words
from the list would we use to describe him?
Children look at the strips again.
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
I think that we’d need the word ‘big’ for the other monster.
Yes, I think you’re right. What else?
CHILD A :
What about ‘ furry’?
CHILD B :
We could also use ‘with a little skirt’.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
All right. I think that’s enough for now. Show me where you’d put
these words in the sentence. I’d like Shane and Natalie to move
them around in the sentence holder until they’re happy with the
order. The rest of you can watch what they’re doing.
The two children work together, moving the words around,
reading them aloud and discussing the order until they come to
some agreement.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Are you happy with the order now? Read it to me altogether.
CHILDREN :
‘The big, furry monster with a little skirt was in the garden.’
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
146
Well done. That sounds very good. Much better that the original
sentence. It tells us so much more. Now I want you all to add
these words to the same sentence at the bottom of your sheet.
Remember how we did it before? Put the arrows in the right place
below the sentence, and the words above the sentence. Look at
mine on the board to help you.
NLS ADDITIONAL
LITERACY SUPPORT
The children write on their own sheets.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Well done, everyone.
Conclusion (2.5 mins)
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
What have we been doing?
We’ve been adding words to sentences.
Yes, we have. Words and phrases. What effect did this have on the
sentences?
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
It told us more about the monster.
Yes, that’s right. It gave us more information. Anything else?
It made the sentences better.
Yes, it also made the sentences more interesting. Do you think
that we could have used different words from the ones we chose?
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Yes, I think so. We could choose any words we wanted.
I think you’re right. We can change the meaning of sentences by
choosing different words. The monster could have been sad or
happy. He could have been huge or small. It is important to
choose words that describe the type of monster that we want. So,
what have you learned today?
CHILD A :
How to make sentences more interesting.
CHILD B :
How to make sentences give us more information.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Good, and the words you choose are very important because they
can change the meaning of a piece of text.
Lesson 7: Deleting ‘and then’ – making sentences
Introduction: Adding words to a text (5 mins)
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
What did you do in last week’s session? Can anyone tell me?
We practised how to add words to a text.
I see. What kind of words?
Descriptive words.
Who can tell us how we improve a text by adding descriptive
words and phrases?
We make it clearer.
Yes, by adding specific details a text becomes more informative.
Anything else?
We also make it more interesting.
Yes, adding descriptive words and phrases also makes a text more
interesting.
Show the children PCM 2.63.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Can you remember the story you worked on last week? Here is
one version of it.
147
Shared reading of PCM 2.63, Section A, with the whole group.
MODULE 2
Writing
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
What happened to the story when you added descriptive words
and phrases?
CHILD A :
The story become more interesting.
CHILD B :
And we made it clearer because we added more information.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Yes, that’s right. The quality of the writing was improved because
you added descriptive words and phrases.
Activity 1: And then and then and then (7.5 mins)
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
We can improve texts in other ways. Quite often when people
write, they join the text together by using the phrase ‘and then’
over and over again. This can make it sound boring. If you find
yourself writing the phrase ‘and then’, it is probably best to start
another sentence instead. Let’s read Section B together so you
understand what I mean.
Shared reading of PCM 2.63, Section B, demonstrating that
there are no indications of where to stop for breath.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
What happened when we were reading this text?
It was difficult to read all at once because there weren’t enough
places to stop and take a breath.
Yes, I think we all found that. Do you know why couldn’t we take
a breath?
Because there weren’t enough full stops.
That’s right. The whole piece was written in two very long
sentences. The text should have been broken up into shorter
sentences. Did anyone notice anything else that wasn’t very good
about the text?
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
The words ‘and then’ were used too many times.
Yes, I thought that the repetition of the words ‘and then’ became
boring. It would have been better to find some different ways of
joining the text together. Let’s see what happens if we change these
two things. Gopal, I want you to cross out every ‘and then’.
Gopal deletes every ‘and then’ .
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
What else did I say we could do to improve the text?
We could make the sentences shorter. So we can breathe.
Right, I’d like Anna to add capital letters and full stops in all the
places where Gopal took out the ‘and then’ phrases.
Anna adds the capital letters and full stops.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Now let’s read the new version of the text. I want each one of you
to read it on your own.
Support the children – as in guided reading – as they read the
revised text.
148
Activity 2: Adding words to text (5 mins)
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILDREN :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Do you think the text sounds better now?
NLS ADDITIONAL
LITERACY SUPPORT
Yes.
Can you think of any ways in which we could make it even
better?
CHILD :
We could make it more interesting by adding some descriptive
words and phrases like we did before.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
That’s an excellent idea. We could mark the text with arrows in
places where we think we could add some details. Who would like
to start?
CHILD :
We could add something in front of ‘woman’ to describe what she
looked like.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Come on then, show us how to mark that place on the text.
The child marks an arrow on the text.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Now what could we add there?
What about ‘old’?
That would do for a start. Has anyone got any other ideas?
What about ‘weird, old woman’.
Yes, that’s even better because it adds more detail and makes the
text sound even more interesting. I’m going to add some more
arrows to the text while you think of words and phrases to add to
those places.
Nodrog loo‡ed at the woman and then he loo‡ed at
the house and then he wished he hadn’t come and
then she as‡ed him to come inside and then Nodrog
turned and ran away down the path. And then he
could hear the woman shouting a‰ter him and then
he nearly ‰ell over a root and then his legs were
sha‡ing li‡e jelly.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Let’s look at each arrow in turn and see if we can come up with
some words and phrases to make it more interesting.
Work together to add suggestions to the text, writing them
onto the large copy. Read each sentence as extra words are
added.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
Now let’s read our improved version of this story together.
Shared reading of the text.
If time:
Re-read Sections A and B together. Discuss how effective each
piece of text is in creating a scary atmosphere. Ask questions
such as: Which words help to make the text scary? Do you think
Section A or B is the most scary? Why?
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Conclusion (2.5 mins)
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
I’ll give this improved text to your teacher. Next week you’ll have
to explain to him/her what you did to improve it. So, what did
you do?
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
CHILD :
First of all we got rid of all the ‘and thens’.
That’s right. Why did we do that?
Because they made the text boring.
Good. What did we do next?
We added capital letters and full stops.
Yes. Why did we have to do that?
We did that to make the text into complete sentences.
What was the last thing that we did?
We added words and phrases to make the sentences more
interesting.
CLASSROOM ASSISTANT :
That’s right. Well done. We added descriptive words and phrases
to make the text more interesting and more informative.
Keep the amended version of PCM 2.63 for use in the next
session.
150
Making Sentence Holders
Sentence holders for use in Writing Lesson 5 (page 118) may be made from folded
A4-size cards.
NLS ADDITIONAL
LITERACY SUPPORT
1 Fold the cards thus:
2 Put two or more folded cards end to end so that the sentence holder will be long
enough for the activity:
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Appendix 1
Guidance for classroom assistants: management of group
behaviour
Always maintain high expectations of children’s behaviour. Smile and use your own body
language to create a friendly, but brisk and purposeful atmosphere.
Trust the activities to work. Start the first game as soon as most children are assembled
– don’t wait for every child’s attention before you begin. This will usually gain children’s
attention.
If anyone is still not participating, after the first minute, praise those children who are
joining in. If this does not work, then speak to the child concerned politely and firmly,
stating clearly what you want her/him to do (e.g. “Marcia, please come and join us now,”
will be more effective than “Marcia, what do you think you are doing?”)
If the child still refuses to participate after two or three requests, calmly state what the
sanction will be (and follow it up later!)
Use praise generously and genuinely. Every session, make a point of praising all
children in the group, noting effort and good behaviour as well as correct answers. When
you praise, try to state what you are praising, e.g. “Nazraa, I really like the way you’re waiting for your turn,” or “Well done, Ben, you’ve remembered what we said last week about
phrases and sentences.”
Try to avoid confrontations. Ignore minor disruptions and carry on with the activity. If
the situation is more serious, remember to stay calm and polite. Tell the child(ren) what
you want her/him to do. Make sure the consequences of refusing are clear, but give the
child a choice.
Ensure children know that you work as a team with the class teacher. Make sure:
■ you know the class rules, rewards and sanctions – use them regularly and
consistently
■ you know when and how you should intervene in response to difficult behaviour, e.g.
what rewards and sanctions should you use?
■ you know which kinds of incident you should deal with and which you should refer to
the class teacher
■ the children see that you communicate frequently and work as a team.
152
croo‡ed
evil
glaring
glinting
hoo‡ed
sharp
sinister
snarling
twisted
beauti‰ul
charming
‰riendly
gentle
grace‰ul
‡ind
motherly
sweet
well-dressed
cheer‰ul
com‰orting
dainty
happy
laughing
smiling
spar‡ling
twin‡ling
PCM
dread‰ul
‰ierce
grim
mad
nasty
strange
terri‰ying
ugly
withered
bright
clean
delight‰ul
open
polished
shiny
light
The National Literacy Strategy Additional Literacy Support
homely
pleasant
pretty
smooth
welcoming
well-‡ept
1.8
2.62
ancient
blea‡
dusty
eerie
gloomy
old
shadowy
towering
MODULE 2 Writing LESSON 6
© Crown copyright 1999 NLS Additional Literacy Support
bro‡en
crac‡ed
dar‡
long
narrow
overgrown
untidy
winding
133
Appendix 2
NLS ADDITIONAL
LITERACY SUPPORT
Assessment flowchart
Placing a child on the ALS programme
Can child read these words: sliding, cloudburst,
investigate, unbearable, prehistoric?
Can child spell these words: window, coldframe,
begging, marked, playground, wetter, delighted?
Yes
No
Child has no
need of ALS.
Can child spell these words:
lend, prod, wink, sprint?
Can child read these words:
dent, grin, blink, scrunch?
Yes
No
Child could start
ALS Module 2.
Can child write initial and final
phonemes of these words:
leg, hem, yet, red, web?
Yes
No
Child could start
ALS Module 1.
Can child tell you final
phoneme in fuss, hum,
pet, drop?
Yes
No
Teach child to
recognise letters.
Teach child to identify
final phoneme in words.
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Appendix 3
Homework activities that could be used to practise ‘tricky words’
At each phonics lesson children will be given a page from the story about the two aliens.
It would be helpful first for parents to discuss with their child the story so far. They can
then read the new page of the story together a few times until the child is very good at
reading it on their own.
Reading games
There are a number of reading games that parents could play with their child using a page
from the story. To prepare, the child can cut across the line that is at the centre of each
page of the story and then cut out the individual words to form individual word cards.
Sentence Maker
Parents can ask their child to make the sentence with the word cards and then read the
sentence aloud. At first, the child may need to a copy of the complete sentence on the page.
Word Thief
Once the child has made the sentence with the word cards, they close their eyes while the
Word Thief (parent, brother, sister, etc.) removes one word. The child then opens their eyes
and reads the sentence aloud, shouting “STOP [missing word] THIEF” when they reach
the missing word. Their parent can then give the missing word card to the child, ask them
to check if they were correct and put the word back in the correct place. The game can be
played again with the child as the Word Thief.
Word Thief – gap closed
This game is played exactly like Word Thief except that when the word is removed, the rest
of the words in the sentence are moved together to fill the gap.
Scruffy Sentences
Parents can put the word cards face up on the table but in the wrong order. When they say
“Go”, their child can try and put them in the right order as quickly as possible and then
read the sentence aloud.
Silly Sentences
Children can try and make other sentences using all or most of the word cards. Most of
them will turn out to be very ‘silly’.
Spelling
In school, children will have looked carefully at the two underlined words in each sentence.
Parents can ask their child how they are going to remember each word and then ask them
to write down the words from memory.
Tips for parents
The following points can help parents to ensure that the time they spend reading and playing with their children is most productive:
■ there is no need to drill the words in – the games suggested here will do the job in a
relaxed, light-hearted way;
■ if their child cannot recognise a word, parents should pause for a moment and give
them time to think before telling them the word;
■ different members of the family can join in the games; and
■ parents should report back to their child’s teacher, their child’s successes and any
concerns they may have.
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Appendix 4
NLS ADDITIONAL
LITERACY SUPPORT
Glossary of terms used in Additional Literacy Support (ALS)
This glossary lists and explains selected terms used in ALS, using definitions from the full
Glossary in the NLS Framework for teaching.
adjective a word or phrase which is added or linked to a noun to describe or modify it.
It may come before or after the noun:
the red dress/the dress was red. There are different sorts of adjective:
number six, three, hundreds
quantity more, all, some, half, more than enough
quality relates to colour, size, smell, etc: lime green
possessive my, his, theirs, your
interrogative which, whose, what
demonstrative
this, that, these, those
Adjectives have different degrees of intensity:
nominative
names the quality (tall)
comparative describes degrees of a quality: more/less + adjective or adjective + er
(more tall = taller). This form should be used when comparing two examples: she is
the taller of the two
superlative describes limit of a quality: most/least + adjective or adjective + -est
(most tall = tallest)
Many adjectives can be transformed into adverbs by addition of -ly: true – truly;
serious – seriously
adverb a word or phrase which describes or modifies a verb. Many adverbs have the
suffix -ly : happily, quickly, angrily. There are some additional categories of adverb:
manner happily, lazily, angrily, slowly, truthfully
time later, soon, now, hourly
place here, near, far, there
degree modifies another adverb: very, rather
affix a morpheme which is not in itself a word, but is attached to a word. See: prefix,
suffix.
apostrophe (’) a punctuation mark indicating:
contraction two words are shortened into one. An apostrophe is placed where
letters have been dropped. The contraction is usually less formal than the full form.
With the auxiliary verbs to be and to have, the contraction links subject and
auxiliary verb: it’s; I’m; we’ve (This can sound like of : should’ve).
In negative forms, the verb is linked to not: didn’t. New nouns may be contracted.
If the short form becomes more common, the apostrophe may be dropped: ’phone.
Also used with missing figures: 1997/’97; the ’60s.
possession Originally, the possessive form was shown by a noun and the word his:
Andrew his bath. This became contracted; the apostrophe marks the missing hi.
The rule came to be applied to all possessives marked by s, except its. With a single
noun or collective noun, the apostrophe is added before the s: the cat’s tail; the girl’s
frock; child’s book; children’s work; the people’s princess. When a plural is marked by
s, the apostrophe is added after the s: cats’ tails; the girls’ toilets.
ascender In written or typed script, many letters have the same height: a, c, e, m, n, o,
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r, s, u, v, w, x, z, (although in some scripts, z has a descender). Some letters have
parts which extend beyond this: b, d, f, h, i, k, l, t: These parts are called ascenders.
blend the process of combining phonemes into larger elements such as clusters,
syllables and words. Also refers to a combination of two or more phonemes,
particularly at the beginning and end of words, st, str, nt, cl, ng.
character an individual in a story, play or poem whose personality can be inferred
from their actions and dialogue. Writers may also use physical description of the
individual to give readers clues about a character.
colon (:) a punctuation mark used to introduce: a list, a quotation or a second clause
which expands or illustrates the first: he was very cold: the temperature was below zero.
See also: semi-colon. Also used in numerical notation.
comma (,) punctuation mark marking the relationship between parts of a sentence, or
used to separate items in a list.
compound word a word made up of two other words: football, headrest, broomstick.
comprehension the level of understanding of a text.
literal the reader has access to the surface details of the text, and can recall details
which have been directly related.
inferential the reader can read meanings which are not directly explained. For
example, the reader would be able to make inferences about the time of year from
information given about temperature, weather, etc. and from characters’ behaviour
and dialogue.
evaluative the reader can offer an opinion on the effectiveness of the text for its
purpose.
consonant a sound which is produced when the speaker uses lips, tongue and teeth to
cause some sort of friction, or burst of air. All letters of the alphabet except a, e, i, o, u
form consonants. The letter y can act as a vowel or a consonant.
Contrast with vowel sounds, which are formed by changing the shape of the mouth
and airway.
cue a source of information. In reading, children may use contextual, grammatical,
graphic and phonological cues to work out unfamiliar words. Fluent readers
orchestrate different cues and cross-check.
descender In written or typed script, many letters have the same height: a, c, e, m, n,
o, r, s, u, v, w, x, z. Some letters have parts which extend below this: f, g, j, p, q, y.
These parts are called descenders. (In some fonts, z has a descender.)
dialogue a conversation between two parties. May be spoken or written.
digraph two letters representing one phoneme: bath; train; ch/ur/ch.
exclamation mark punctuation mark used at the end of a sentence to indicate great
emotion, such as joy, anger, surprise, humour, pain, shock. Also used with
interjections.
fiction text which is invented by a writer or speaker. Characters, settings and events
are created by the originator. In some cases, one of these elements may be factual: for
example, the setting may be a named city or area; the text may be based on an
historical event.
156
flowchart
a diagrammatic representation of either:
a) events in a story;
b) a process;
NLS ADDITIONAL
LITERACY SUPPORT
c) an activity.
A flowchart illustrates sequences of events and explores possible consequences of
decisions.
grapheme written representation of a sound; may consist of one or more letters.
grammar the conventions which govern the relationships between words in any
language. Includes the study of word order and changes in words: use of inflections,
etc. Study of grammar is important, as it enhances both reading and writing skills; it
supports effective communication.
guided reading a classroom activity in which pupils are taught in groups according to
reading ability. The teacher works with each group on a text carefully selected to offer
an appropriate level of challenge to the group. Usefully thought of as a ‘mini lesson’.
Challenge may be in terms of reading cues and strategies, language and vocabulary,
or sophisticated aspects of grammar, inference, skimming and scanning.
Guided reading sessions have a similar format:
a) the teacher introduces the text, and sets the purpose for reading, for example
reminding pupils of strategies and cues which will be useful, or asking them to
gather particular information;
b) pupils read independently, problem-solving their way through the text. More fluent
readers will read silently. The teacher is available to offer help when it is needed.
S/he then guides pupils to appropriate cues, for example use of syntax, picture
cues, initial letter;
c) the teacher discusses the text with the pupils, drawing attention to successful
strategies and focusing on comprehension, referring back to the initial focus.
guided writing a classroom activity in which pupils are grouped by writing ability.
The teacher works with each group on a task carefully selected to offer an appropriate
level of challenge to the group. Usefully thought of as a ‘mini lesson’. Challenge may
be in terms of spelling, letter formation, simple punctuation, language and vocabulary,
or sophisticated aspects of generic structure, planning and editing, use of imagery
and so on.
intonation the tone of voice selected by a speaker or reader to convey further
information to the listener. Intonation adds to the actual words chosen by the
speaker/writer. In the case of reading, different readers may use different intonation.
letter string a group of letters which together represent a phoneme or morpheme.
mnemonic a device to aid memory, for instance to learn particular spelling patterns
or spellings: I Go Home Tonight; There is a rat in separate.
modelling in literacy, this refers to demonstration of an aspect of reading or writing by
an expert for learners. This would support direct instruction.
morpheme the smallest unit of meaning. A word may consist of one morpheme
(house), two morphemes (house/s; hous/ing) or three or more morphemes
(house/keep/ing; un/happi/ness).
Suffixes and prefixes are morphemes.
noun a noun is a word that names a thing or feeling. Nouns can be singular (only one)
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or plural (more than one).
There are four main types of nouns:
proper a specifically named person or thing: John, London, France, April. Proper
nouns start with capital letters.
common a non-specific reference to a thing: man, dog, shop.
collective names a group of people or things: army, flock, crowd, gaggle. Treated as
singular nouns.
abstract
names a concept or idea: love, justice, sympathy.
paragraph a section of a piece of writing. A new paragraph marks a change of focus, a
change of time, a change of place or a change of speaker in a passage of dialogue.
A new paragraph begins on a new line, usually with a one-line gap separating it
from the previous paragraph. Some writers also indent the first line of a new
paragraph.
Paragraphing helps writers to organise their thoughts, and helps readers to follow
the story line, argument or dialogue.
phoneme the smallest unit of sound in a word. There are approximately 44 phonemes
in English. A phoneme may be represented by one, two, three or four letters: to, shoe,
through.
poem a text which uses features such as rhythm, rhyme or syntax and vocabulary to
convey ideas in an intense way. Poets may also use alliteration, figurative language
and other techniques. Prose may sometimes be poetic in effect.
portmanteau a word made up from blending two others: swurse = swear + curse;
picture + dictionary = pictionary;
smoke + fog = smog; breakfast + lunch = brunch.
prefix
a morpheme which can be added to the beginning of a word, to change its
meaning: in-finite; in-conclusive; in-edible.
punctuation a way of marking written text to help readers’ understanding. The most
commonly used marks in English are: apostrophe, capital letter, colon, comma,
dash, ellipsis, exclamation mark, full stop, hyphen, question mark, semi-colon,
speech mark.
May also refer to ways of marking texts: use of italics, emboldened print,
capitalisation, layout, etc.
question mark (?) punctuation mark used at the end of a sentence to denote a
question.
rap a form of oral poetry which has a very strong rhythm and rapid pace. Associated
with Caribbean and Afro-Caribbean cultures, has now been assimilated into other
literary traditions. Rap is often used in modern music.
rhyme words containing the same rime in their final syllable are said to rhyme:
acrobat, chat; down; clown.
root word a word to which prefixes and suffixes may be added to make other words;
for example in unclear, clearly, cleared, the root word is clear.
segment to break a word or part of a word down into its component phonemes, for
example: c-a-t; ch-a-t; ch-ar-t; g-r-ou-n-d; s-k-i-n.
158
semi-colon (;) a punctuation mark used to separate phrases or clauses in a sentence.
It is stronger than a comma, but not as strong as a full stop. Semi-colons may be used
more flexibly than colons. The semi-colon can be used to separate two clauses, when
NLS ADDITIONAL
LITERACY SUPPORT
they are of equal weight; in these cases it acts as a connective: I love Indian food; John
prefers Chinese.
It can also be used to separate items in a list, particularly if the items are phrases
or clauses rather than words: I need large, juicy Italian tomatoes; half a pound of
unsalted butter; a kilo of fresh pasta, preferably tagliatelli; a jar of black olives.
sentence a sentence is a unit of written language which makes sense on its own.
There are four types of sentence:
declarative
interrogative
I am happy.
Are you happy?
imperative Cheer up!
exclamator y You look happy today!
In writing, a sentence begins with a capital letter and ends with a full stop, question
mark or exclamation mark. Most sentences have a subject and predicate. However,
sentences with different structures have come to be accepted in literature.
Sentences may have a range of constructions:
simple sentences with only one clause: Fluffy bit him.
compound a sentence made up of simple sentences joined by conjunctions. Each
sentence makes a clause, and the clauses are equal in weight. A compound
sentence is easy to divide into short sentences: Fluffy bit him and then she ran
away.
complex a sentence containing a main clause and subordinate clause or clauses:
Fluffy bit him because he pulled her tail again; Fluffy will bite him, if he pulls her tail
again.
shared reading in shared reading the teacher, as an expert reader, models the
reading process by reading the text to the learners. The text chosen may be at a level
which would be too difficult for the readers to read independently. The teacher
demonstrates use of cues and strategies such as syntax, initial letter, re-reading.
Learners have opportunities to join in with the reading – singly or chorally, and are
later encouraged to re-read part or all of the text.
shared writing a classroom process where the teacher models the writing process for
children: free from the physical difficulties of writing, children can observe, and
subsequently be involved in, planning, composition, redrafting, editing and publishing
through the medium of the teacher. Shared writing is interactive in nature and is
appropriate for teaching all forms and genres.
suffix a morpheme which is added to the end of a word. There are two main
categories:
inflectional changes the tense or status of the word: from present to past (talk-ed);
from singular to plural (clown-s) and so on.
derivational changes the class of word: verb to noun (walk-er); noun to adjective
(logic-al) and so on.
syllable each beat in a word is a syllable. Words with only one beat (cat, fright, jail)
are called monosyllabic; words with more than one beat (super, coward, superficiality)
are polysyllabic.
syntax
the grammatical relationships between words, phases and clauses.
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text language organised to communicate. Includes written, spoken and electronic
forms.
text type this term describes texts which share a purpose: to
inform/persuade/describe. Whole texts or parts of texts with specific features –
patterns of language, structure, vocabulary – which help them achieve this purpose
may be described as belonging to a particular text type. These attributes are not
obligatory, but are useful in discussing text and in supporting development of a range
of writing skills.
Texts may consist of mixed genres: for example, a guide-book may contain
procedural text (the path or route) and report (information about exhibits).
trigraph three letters representing one phoneme: high; fudge.
verb word/group of words which names an action or state of being. Verbs may be in
different tenses:
past
I ate, I have eaten
present I am eating, I eat, I do eat
future I will eat, I will be eating
Verbs can be expressed in the first person (I eat), the second person (you eat) or
third person (she, he, it eats).
Verbs can be active or passive:
active The dog bit Ben.
passive Ben was bitten by the dog.
auxiliar y verb a verb which changes the voice or mood of another verb in a verb
phrase. They are: to be, to have, to do, can, could, may, might, must, ought, shall,
will, would, to need, to dare and used. An auxiliary verb indicates things that might
happen: can/may, etc. or tell us that things happen or happened: have/did/was.
The auxiliary verb takes a participle or infinitive to make a verb phrase: We might
go home later; we have been eating more fresh fruit.
vowel a phoneme produced without audible friction or closure. Every syllable contains
a vowel. A vowel phoneme may be represented by one or more letters. These may be
vowels (maid or a combination of vowels and consonants (start; could).
Appendix 5
Phonemes
160
Consonants
/b/
/d/
/f/
/g/
/h/
/j/
/k/
/l/
/m/
Representative words
baby
dog
field, photo
game
hat
judge, giant, barge
cook, quick, mix, Chris
lamb
monkey, comb
Consonants
/n/
/p/
/r/
/s/
/t/
/v/
/w/
/wh/
/y/
Representative words
nut, knife, gnat
paper
rabbit, wrong
sun, mouse, city, science
tap
van
was
where (regional)
yes
Consonants
/z/
/th/
/th/
/ch/
/sh/
/zh/
/ng/
Representative words
zebra, please, is
then
thin
chip, watch
ship, mission, chef
treasure
ring, sink
Vowels
/a/
/e/
/i/
/o/
/u/
/ae/
/ee/
Representative words
cat
peg, bread
pig, wanted
log, want
plug, love
pain, day, gate, station
sweet, heat, thief, these
Vowels
/ie/
Representative words
tried, light, my, shine,
mind
road, blow, bone, cold
blue, moon, grew, tune
look, would, put
cart, fast (regional)
burn, first, term, heard,
work
Vowels
/or/
Representative words
torn, door, warn
/oe/
/ue/
/oo/
/ar/
/ur/
(regional)
/au/
/er/
/ow/
/oi/
/air/
/ear/
haul, law, call
wooden, circus, sister
down, shout
coin, boy
stairs, bear, hare
fear, beer, here
Department for Education and Employment
Sanctuary Buildings
Great Smith Street
London SW1P 3BT
© Crown copyright 1999
ISBN 0 19 312223 5
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