Airborne Lidar Sensors - Professional Surveyor Magazine

Airborne Lidar Sensors - Professional Surveyor Magazine
Airborne Lidar
Sensors
Airborne
Lidar
Sensors
This is GIM International’s third product review on
airborne Lidar sensors. The second was published
in February 2007 and the first under the title
‘Airborne Laser-scanners’ in May 2004.
A
irborne Lidar has matured to an accurate
technology for the highly automated capturing of terrain data through xyz point
clouds.
“Mature”
This is our third
product
review onmeans
airbornethat Lidarimprovesensors.
are noin longer
major
The secondments
was published
Februaryfounded
2007 and on
the first
technological breakthroughs,
but are
incremental.
under the title ‘Airborne
Laser-scanners’
in May
2004.
Lately the steps comprise full waveform digitisation,
multiple
pulses
inhas
air, and
increased
accuracy
resultAirborne
Lidar
matured
to an accurate
technology
ing from
enhanced
GNSS positioning
and
INS
for the highly automated capturing of terrain data attitudethrough
determination.
xyz point clouds. “Mature” means that
Manufacturers
coming
twotechnological
opposite
improvements are noare
longer
foundedfrom
on major
directions: system
building
versus
service
breakthroughs, but are incremental. Lately the stepsprovision.
System
builders include
Leica
Geosystems
comprise
full waveform
digitisation,
multiple
pulses in and
air,
Optech
Inc.,
but
most conspicuous
is
Riegl.
Until late
and increased accuracy resulting from enhanced GNSS
2006,
the latter
wasattitude
a manufacturer
for manufacturpositioning
and INS
determination.
ers
only, offering
airborne
applicaManufacturers
are ‘laser
comingsensors for
from two opposite
directions:
tions
but
not
complete
airborne
Lidar systems.
But
system building versus service provision. System builders
in
the
2007
survey,
Riegl
presented
its full-fledged
include Leica Geosystems and Optech Inc., but most
systems
LMS-S560 and LMS-Q560. On the service
conspicuous is Riegl. Until late 2006, the latter was a
provision side is Fugro, listed in the 2007 survey. Like
manufacturer for manufacturers only, offering ‘laser sensors
TopEye and Terrapoint, Fugro developed its own infor airborne applications but not complete airborne Lidar
house system, Flimap. “e system has been regular and
systems,’ as our 2004 survey notes to explain the many N/As
is designed for corridor mapping using helicopters.
in the columns. But in the 2007 survey, Riegl presented its
When manufacturers cross the line, differencfull-fledged systems LMS-S560 and LMS-Q560.
es become more diffuse. German company ToOn the service provision side is Fugro, listed in the 2007
poSys combines manufacturing with self-executsurvey. Like TopEye and Terrapoint, Fugro developed its own
ed surveys and considers this dual role as a base
in-house system, Flimap. The system has been regular and is
for expertise. Product features are quite similar
designed for corridor mapping using helicopters.
to those of the Riegl systems even in name: LMSQ560 vs Harrier 56 and LMS-Q680 vs Harrier 68;
When manufacturers cross the line, differences become more
indeed, the core of the TopoSys systems are Riegl
diffuse. German company TopoSys combines manufacturing
sensors. “is is also true for German firm IGI’s airwith self-executed surveys and considers this dual role as a
borne Lidar terrain mapping system LiteMapper,
base for expertise. Product features are quite similar to those
which
was listed in the 2007 survey. TopEye, listof in
theboth
Riegl the
systems
even
in 2007
name:surveys,
LMS-Q560
vs Harrier
56
ed
2004
and
was
initially
and
LMS-Q680
vs
Harrier
68;
indeed,
the
core
of
the
both a system builder and a service provider. With
TopoSys
systems
are Rieglcompany
sensors. ThisSaab,
is alsoTopEye
true for beits
origins
in Swedish
German
firm
IGI’s
airborne
Lidar
terrain
mapping
system
came part of the Blom Group - which uses
the
LiteMapper,
which
was
listed
in
the
2007
survey.
TopEye,
technology for geodata collection - in July 2005.
listed
in bothSaab
the 2004
and 2007 surveys,
was initially
Another
development
is a system
forboth
hy- a
system
builder
and
a
service
provider.
With
its
origins
in
drographic and topographic surveys. In 2002,
Swedish
company
Saab, for
TopEye
became part
theformer
Blom
Saab
sold
the rights
the system
to of
tree
Group
which
uses
the
technology
for
geodata
collection
- in
employees who launched Airborne Hydrography.
July
2005.
“e company is listed in our product overview for
the first time, with its Dragon Eye topographic LiAnother
Saaband
development
is a system
for hydrographic
and
dar sensor
Hawk Eye
II bathymetry
and totopographic
surveys.
In
2002,
Saab
sold
the
rights
for
the
pography airborne laser system.
system to tree former employees who launched Airborne
The company
is listed
our product overview
HHydrography.
ank Key is contributing
editor
of ourinsister
publicaiton,
for the first GIM
time,International.
with its Dragon Eye topographic Lidar
sensor and Hawk Eye II bathymetry and topography airborne
Professional Surveyor Magazine • May 2009
laser system.
16
N/A = Not Applicable
= No information received
Manufacturer
Airborne Hydrography AB
type/name of software
Dragon Eye - Topographic Lidar Sensor
data of introduction/last update
October 2008
Dimensions
weight [kg] & size [cm] of laser system
25kg; 45 x 45 x 25 cm
weight [kg] & size [cm] of control rack
included in laser system
power requirements
< 15 A at 28V
Laser Pulse Characteristics
wavelength [nm]
1,000 nm
pulse length [ns]
< 5 ns
beam divergence (across/along tr.) [mrad]
1 mrad (0.5 mrad optional)
first/last pulse (Y/N)
Y
multiple pulses in air (Y/N)
Y
type/class laser
Class 4
eyesafe range [m]
< 100 m
Recording Methodology
scanning method
Palmer scanner
rotation speed of mirror (scan frequency)
Typical 3000 RPM
pulse frequency (min-max) [Hz]
50,000-500,000 Hz
max. scan angle [deg]
±20 deg standard. Other as option.
max. # of recorded echoes/pulse
Typical 4 echoes/pulse
pulse sampling frequency
1,28 GHz
pulse detection method (which part of reflected pulse)
Proprietary
recording of return signal intensity [y(bits)/n]
Y (12 bits raw, 16 bits enhanced)
Positioning System
GPS system
Several options
GPS precision planimetric/height (2 sigma) [cm]
Pending on GPS option selected
INS system
Several options available
INS precision (roll/pitch/heading) [deg]
Pending on INS option selected
GPS/INS postprocessing software
Pending on GPS/INS option selected
Precision and Resolution
Pointing precision (roll/pitch/heading) [deg]
<0,01 deg
Range precision (2 sigma) [cm]
< 3 cm
Elevation precision at 1km (2 sigma) [cm]
Pending on GPS / INS option selected
Overall planimetric precision (2 sigma) [cm]
Pending on GPS / INS option selected
Max. # of points/m2
Typical 50 /m2 (at 150 m, 300 kHz, 20 m/s)
Along track point spacing [m] (flight alt. 1,000 m)
Typical 0,4 m (at 500 m, 40 m/s)
Across track point spacing [m] (typical flying speed of 150 km/h)
Typical 0,5 m (at 500 m 200 kHz)
Other System Parts
Cameras
Options 16 to 40 MPix available
Data Storage Facilities
Solid State Disc, Removable
Power equipment
110/220 V ground power supply available
Operation Characteristics
typical platform (fixed wing or helicopter)
Helicopter or Small fixed wing
flying heights (min/typical/max) [m]
100m / 500m / 1000 m
max. acquisition duration [hrs]
Carrier limited. System limit 8+ hours
air temperature (min-max) [°C]
0 to 35°C
air humidity (min-max) [%]
0 to 90%
mission planning software
Operator Console; import from other software
postprocessing software
Land Survey Studio
proven applications
Flight tests ongoing
remarks
System optimized for low altitude, high accuracy, high data
density applications. Each object on ground illuminated
from 2 sides.
BY MATHIAS LEMMENS, SENIOR EDITOR, GIM INTERNATIONAL PRODUCT OVERVIEW
Airborne Hydrography AB
Leica Geosystems
Optech Incorporated
Optech Incorporated
Hawk Eye II - Bathymetric and Topographic Lidar system
ALS60 Airborne Laser Scanner
ALTM Gemini
ALTM Orion
2006/2008
September 2008
October 2006
October 2008
95kg; 121 x 50 x 62 cm
38.5kg; 60 L x 37 W x 27 H cm
23.4kg; 26 x 19 x 57 cm
27kg; 34 x 34 x 26 cm
65kg; 60 x 36 x 70 cm
45.0kg; 62 D x 45 W x 36 H cm
53.2kg; 65 x 59 x 49 cm
N/A
< 1.3 kW
980 W peak at 28 VDC nominal
28 VDC 35 A (maximum)
28 VDC 15 A (maximum)
532 nm bathy , 1,064 nm topo
1064 nm
1,064 nm
1,064 nm
5 ns
5 ns
7 ns
<7 ns
11 mrad typical (Optional 2-12 mrad adjustable)
0.22 mr at 1/e^2 (0.15 mr at 1/e)
0.8, 0.25, 0.15 I/e
0.25 1/e
Y
Yes (1st, 2nd, 3rd, last)
Y
Y
N
Yes (2PiA)
Y
N
Class 4
Class 4
Class 4 (FDA 21 CFR)
Class 4 (FDA 21 CFR)
< 150 m
39 m single pulse, unaided eye at 200 kHz
80 m +
200 m, variable
2-axis gimbal 250 mm diameter mirror
oscillating mirror
Oscillating mirror
Oscillating mirror
13 Hz scan rate. 2D tracking optimization
up to 100 Hz
70 Hz
100 Hz
4,000 Hz bathymetric, 64,000 Hz topographic
20,000 - 200,000 Hz
167,000 Hz
150,000 Hz
±25 deg.
75 deg. full angle
50 deg
50 deg
Bathy full waveform, topo 4 echos per pulse
4 (1st, 2nd, 3rd, last)
4 ranges
4 ranges
1 GHz
N/A
Proprietary
Leading edge discriminator at 50% peak
Leading edge
Leading edge
Y (8 bits bathymetric)
Y (8 bits after AGC and laser output adjustment)
Y (12 bits)
Y (12 bits)
Applanix Pos AV 410 or 510
NovAtel, L1/L2+GLONASS+SBAS, 54 channels, 20 Hz update
raw
Trimble, 72 channel, dual-frequency, GPS, GNSS
Trimble, 72 channel, dual-frequency, GPS, GNSS
< 60 cm / < 10 cm (Post Processed, 2 sigma)
~10 cm, depending on constellation configuration
0.05 cm
0.05 cm
Applanix Pos Av 410 or 510
Leica IPAS20 DUS5 (200 Hz), NUS5 (500 Hz), CUS6 (200 Hz)
POS 610, 200 Hz
POS 510, 200 Hz
0,01 deg (Post processed, 2 sigma)
0.005 deg RP/0.008 deg H (DUS5/NUS5), 0.0025 deg RP/0.005
deg H (CUS6)
0.0025/0.0025/0.005 deg
0.005/0.005/0.008 deg
PosPAC
GrafNav + IPAS Pro
POSPAC MMS
POSPAC MMS
< 0,03 deg
not normally specified, ~0.006 degrees (R/P), ~0.009 degrees
(H)
0.0025/0.0025/0.005 deg
0.005/0.005/0.008 deg
Bathy < 50 cm, Topo < 30 cm (Typical conditions, 2
sigma)
not normally specified, ~3-4 cm
3 cm
2 cm
Bathy < 50 cm, Topo < 30 cm ( Typical conditions, 2
sigma)
14 - 16 cm, assuming 5 cm GPS error, 2 sigma at 1000 m AGL
< 10 cm
<10 cm
Bathy < 5 m, Topo < 1m (Typical conditions, 2 sigma)
20 - 26 cm, assuming 5 cm GPS error, 2 sigma at 1000 m AGL
1/11000
1/5500
Bathymetric 1 point/m2, topographic 10 points/m2
91 points/m2 at 150 km/h, 200 m AGL, 15 degree FOV
Bathy 1,9 m / Topo 0,5 m (at 300m, 75 m/s)
0.21 m at nadir at 150 km/h, depending on FOV
0.36 m
0.42 m
Bathy 1,9 m / Topo 0,5 m (at 300m, 75 m/s)
0.29 at15 deg FOV, 0.62 m at 63 deg FOV, both at 150 km/h
and 1000 m AGL, square point spacing at nadir
0.30 m
0.43 m
Optional 2 or 16 Mpix
Intenal 1280 x 1024 webcam standard, external 39 MP RCD105 Applanix DSS 439, 422; Rollei AIC 39 Mpixel
optional
Applanix DSS 439, 422; Rollei AIC 39 Mpixel
Raided harddrives, removable
removable 500 GB drive
External removable hard disk, min 146 Gb
Fixed internal and/or optional external removable
hard disk, min 146 Gb
110 / 220 V ground power supply available
PS56 ground power supply
Internal
Internal; optional external
Fixed wing
both
Twin engine fixed-wing, helicopter
UAV, fixed wing, helicopter
250 to 500 m
200 to 5000 m AGL
80m / 2000 m / 4000m
200m / 1000m / 2500m
Carrier limited. System limit 8+ hours
18 hours at maximum pulse rate
Unlimited
Unlimited
0 to 35°C
0 to 40°C cabin-side temperature
-10°C to +35°C
-10° C to +40°C
0 to 90%
0 to 95%, non-condensing
0 to 95%, non-condensing
0 to 95%, non-condensing
Operator Console; import from other software
Leica AeroPlan (system setup planning), Leica FPES (flight
planning)
ALTM NAV
ALTM NAV
Coastal Survey Studio
Leica ALS Post Processor (point cloud generation), Leica LCam
Viewer (webcam image viewer)
DASHMap
DASHMap
Many surveys around the world
mapping of flood plains, territories, power lines, pipelines, railways Corridor mapping, wide-area survey, urban mapping, etc.
and roads; city modelling; foresty; hydrology; biomass determination
Corridor mapping, wide-area survey, urban
mapping, etc.
Bathymetry (down to 50m) and topography simultaneausly. Roll, pitch, yaw and off-track scanning
compensation.
Available also in Corridor Mapper model. All specifications
identical, except maximum flying height limited to 1000 m AGL
World’s smallest full-system Lidar sensor (1.0 cu ft.;
0.03m3). High density and accuracy independent of pulse
rate. Global 24/7 technical support.
Continuous Multipulse technology with complete coverage
throughout entire operating range (i.e. no blind zones or range
gates to avoid). Global 24/7 technical support.
Professional Surveyor Magazine • May 2009
N/A = Not Applicable
= No information received
Manufacturer
RIEGL
RIEGL
RIEGL
TopoSys GmbH
type/name of software
RIEGL VQ-480
RIEGL LMS-Q560
RIEGL LMS-Q680
Harrier 56/G4
data of introduction/last update
October 2008
last update January 2008
introduction Q1 2009
February 2008 / June 2008
weight [kg] & size [cm] of laser system
11.5 kg; 34.5 x dia. 18 cm
16kg; 42 x 21.2 x 22.8 cm
17.5kg; 48 x 21.2 x 23 cm
42kg; 64 x 30 x 48 cm
weight [kg] & size [cm] of control rack
N/A
N/A
N/A
42kg; 54 x 50 x 44 cm
power requirements
65 W
120 W
170 W
28 V DC, 20 A max.
wavelength [nm]
1,550 nm
1,550 nm
1,550 nm
1,550 nm
pulse length [ns]
< 4ns
< 4ns
< 4 ns
< 4ns
beam divergence (across/along tr.) [mrad]
0.3 mrad
0.3 mrad
0.4 mrad
0.3 mrad
first/last pulse (Y/N)
Y
Y
Y
Y
multiple pulses in air (Y/N)
N
N
Y
N
type/class laser
Class 1
Class 1
Class 3R
Class 1
eyesafe range [m]
0m
0m
50 m
0m
scanning method
Rotating multi-facet mirror
Rotating multi-facet mirror
Rotating multi-facet mirror
Rotating multi-facet mirror
rotation speed of mirror (scan frequency)
10 - 100 Hz
10 - 160 Hz
10 - 200 Hz
10 - 160 Hz
pulse frequency (min-max) [Hz]
50,000 - 200,000 Hz
50,000 - 240,000 Hz
80,000 - 240,000 Hz
50,000 - 240,000 Hz
max. scan angle [deg]
60 deg
60 deg
60 deg
60 deg
max. # of recorded echoes/pulse
practically unlimited
practically unlimited
practically unlimited
Practically unlimited
1 GHz
1 GHz
1 GHz
Full Waveform processing
Full Waveform processing
Full Waveform processing
Y (16 bits)
Y (16 bits)
Y (16 bits)
Dimensions
Laser Pulse Characteristics
Recording Methodology
pulse sampling frequency
pulse detection method (which part of
reflected pulse)
Online waveform analysis
recording of return signal intensity [y(bits)/n] Y (16 bits)
Positioning System
GPS system
Interface to any GPS receiver, e.g. Novatel,
Trimble, Javad, 12 channels, dual frequency
Interface to any GPS receiver, e.g. Novatel, Interface to any GPS receiver, e.g. Novatel, Applanix POS/AV 410
Trimble, Javad, 12 channels, dual frequency Trimble, Javad, 12 channels, dual
frequency
GPS precision planimetric/height (2 sigma) [cm] 5 - 30 cm rms
5 - 30 cm rms
5 - 30 cm rms
5 - 30 cm rms
INS system
AEROcontrol | POS AV 410, 510
256 Hz
|
200 Hz
AEROcontrol | POS AV 510
256 Hz
|
200 Hz
AEROcontrol | POS AV 510
256 Hz
|
200 Hz
Applanix POS/AV 410
INS precision (roll/pitch/heading) [deg]
0.004 / 0.004 / 0.01 | 0.005 / 0.005 / 0.008
0.004 / 0.004 / 0.01 | 0.005 / 0.005 /
0.008
0.004 / 0.004 / 0.01 | 0.005 / 0.005 /
0.008
0.005 / 0.005 / 0.008
GPS/INS postprocessing software
AEROoffice
AEROoffice
AEROoffice
POSPac MMS 5.10
|
POSPac
|
POSPac
|
POSPac
Precision and Resolution
Pointing precision (roll/pitch/heading) [deg]
limited by INS/GPS accuracy
limited by INS/GPS accuracy
limited by INS/GPS accuracy
Limited by INS/GPS accuracy
Range precision (2 sigma) [cm]
5 cm
2 cm
4 cm
2 cm
Elevation precision at 1km (2 sigma) [cm]
< 15 cm, depending on DGPS accuracy
< 15 cm, depending on DGPS accuracy
< 15 cm, depending on DGPS accuracy
< 15 cm, depending on DGPS
accuracy
Overall planimetric precision (2 sigma) [cm]
< 10 cm, depending on DGPS accuracy
< 10 cm, depending on DGPS accuracy
< 10 cm, depending on DGPS accuracy
< 10 cm, depending on DGPS
accuracy
Max. # of points/m2
50 at 50 km/h / 150 m / 60° (helicopter)
4 at 200 km/h / 500 m / 60° (fixed-wing)
66 at 50 km/h / 150 m / 60° (helicopter)
5 at 200 km/h / 500 m / 60° (fixed-wing)
4 at 200 km/h / 500 m / 60° (fixedwing)
66 at 50 km/h / 150 m / 60°
(helicopter)
Along track point spacing [m] (flight alt. 1,000m) 0.42 m at 10 scans/s and 50 kHz PF
0.16 m at 10 scans/s and 100 kHz PF
0.07 m at 10 scans/s and 240 kHz PF
0.16 m at 10 scans/s and 100 kHz PF
Across track point spacing [m] (typical flying
speed op 150 km/h)
0.42 m at 100 scans/s
0.26 m at 160 scans/s
0.2 m at 200 scans/s
0.26 m at 160 scans/s
Cameras
DigiCAM /Applanix DSS or similar
DigiCAM /Applanix DSS or similar
DigiCAM /Applanix DSS or similar
Integrated medium format frame
camera (Rollei or DSS). Optional
line scanner camera
Data Storage Facilities
N/A
Removable hard-disks, 2 x 500 Gbytes
Removable hard-disks, 2 x 500 Gbytes
Removable hard-disks, 2 x 500 Gb
Power equipment
N/A
N/A
N/A
UPS
typical platform (fixed wing or helicopter)
helicopter
both
both
both
flying heights (min/typical/max) [m]
10m / 450m / 800m AGL
30m / 800m / 1500m AGL
50m / 1600m / 2500m AGL
30m / 800m / 1500m AGL
max. acquisition duration [hrs]
N/A
8 hours
8 hours
8 hours, although HDDs are
changeable during flight time
air temperature (min-max) [°C]
-10 to 40°C
0 to 40°C
0 to 40°C
0 to 40°C
air humidity (min-max) [%]
80% (at or below 31°C)
80% (at or below 31°C)
80% (at or below 31°C)
80% (at or below 31°C)
mission planning software
e.g. WinMP, TrackAir or similar
e.g. WinMP, TrackAir or similar
e.g. WinMP, TrackAir or similar
Track’Air
postprocessing software
RiPROCESS , RiWorld
RiAnalyse, RiPROCESS , RiWorld
RiAnalyse, RiPROCESS , RiWorld
RiAnalyze, TopPIT full laser and
imagery suite
proven applications
Corridor mapping, UAV surveying
All typical airborne Lidar projects
All typical airborne Lidar projects
All typical airborne Lidar projects
remarks
Echo digitization and online waveform analysis;
compact and lightweight
Access to detailed target parameters by full Access to detailed target parameters by
waveform processing
full waveform processing. High operating
altitudes
Other System Parts
Operation Characteristics
18 | F E BR U A RY 2 0 0 9 |
Full waveform processing. Fully
tight complete integrated system
INTERNATIONAL
Professional Surveyor Magazine • May 2009
PRODUCT OVERVIEW
TopoSys GmbH
TopoSys GmbH
Harrier 68/G1
Falcon II
Q1 2009
2000 / 2008 (Falcon Iid)
N/A at the moment
41kg; 39 x 47.5 x 45 cm
N/A at the moment
54kg; 47 x 48 x 58 cm
28 V DC, 22 A max.
28 V DC, 15 A max.
1,550 nm
1,560 nm
< 4 ns
5 ns
0.4 mrad
1 mrad
Y
Y
Y
N
Class 3R
Class 4
50 m
> 0.5 m
Rotating multi-facet mirror
Fibre Laser Scanner
10 - 200 Hz
648 Hz
80,000 - 240,000 Hz
83,000 Hz
60 deg
214.6 deg
Practically unlimited
9 return echoes
1 GHz
Full Waveform processing
Y (16 bits)
Y (12 bits)
Applanix POS/AV 410
Applanix POS/AV 410
5 - 30 cm rms
5 - 30 cm rms
Applanix POS/AV 410
Applanix POS/AV 410
0.005 / 0.005 / 0.008
0.005 / 0.005 / 0.008
POSPac MMS 5.10
POSPac MMS 5.10
Limited by INS/GPS accuracy
Limited by INS/GPS accuracy
4 cm
< 1 cm
< 15 cm, depending on DGPS accuracy
< 15 cm, depending on DGPS accuracy
< 10 cm, depending on DGPS accuracy
< 10 cm, depending on DGPS accuracy
5 at 200 km/h / 500 m / 60° (fixed-wing)
12 at 200 km/h / 500 m / 14.3° (fixedwing)
0.07 m at 10 scans/s and 240 kHz PF
0.06 m
0.2 m at 200 scans/s
1.96 m
Integrated medium format frame camera
Integrated line scanner camera
(Rollei or DSS). Optional line scanner camera
Removable hard-disks, 2 x 500 Gb
Removable hard-disks
UPS
UPS
both
both
50m / 1600m / 2500m AGL
30m / 900m / 1600m
8 hours, although HDDs are changeable
during flight time
HDDs are changeable during flight time
0 to 40°C
0 to 40°C
80% (at or below 31°C)
90%
Track’Air
Track’Air
RiAnalyze, TopPIT full laser and imagery
suite
TopPIT full laser and imagery suite
All typical airborne Lidar projects
All typical airborne Lidar projects
Full waveform processing. Fully tight
Fully tight complete integrated; line
complete integrated system. High operating scanner camera.
altitudes.
F E B R U A RY 2 0 0 9 |
Professional Surveyor Magazine • May 2009
INTERNATIONAL | 19
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