Lesson 8-Video Overview Using video. How video works? Broadcast video standards. Analog video. Overview Digital video. Video recording and tape formats. Shooting and editing video. Optimizing video files for CD-ROM. Using Video Video is an excellent tool for delivering multimedia. Video places the highest performance demand on computer and its memory and storage. Digital video has replaced analog as the method of choice for making and delivering video for multimedia. Using Video Digital video device produces excellent finished products at a fraction of the cost of analog. Digital video eliminates the image-degrading analog-todigital conversion. Many digital video sources exist, but getting the rights can be difficult, time-consuming, and expensive. How Video Works Light reflected from an object through the camera’s lens is converted into electronic signal by charge-coupled device (CCD). This electronic signal contains three channels of color information and synchronization pulses (sync). Several video standards exist that deal with the amount of separation between the components of the signal. Broadcast Video Standards National Television Standards Committee (NTSC): These standards define a method for encoding information into electronic signal that creates a television picture. It has screen resolution of 525 horizontal scan lines and a scan rate of 30 frames per second. Broadcast Video Standards Phase Alternate Line (PAL) and Sequential Color and Memory (SECAM): PAL has a screen resolution of 625 horizontal lines and a scan rate of 25 frames per second. SECAM has a screen resolution of 625 horizontal lines and is a 50 Hz system. SECAM differs from NTSC and PAL color systems in its basic technology and broadcast method. Broadcast Video Standards Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) Digital Television (DTV): This digital standard provides TV stations with sufficient bandwidth to present four or five Standard Television (STV) signals or one High Definition TV (HDTV) signal. This standard allows for transmission of data to computers and for new Advanced TV (ATV) interactive services. Analog Video Overscan and the safe title area: Analog television sets remain the most widely installed platforms for delivering and viewing video. Overscan occurs when an image is larger than the standard TV screen. Analog Video Overscan and the safe title area (continued): Underscan occurs when computer monitors display a smaller image on picture tube. The safe title area is where the image will not be affected by overscanning, even in the worst conditions. Analog Video Video color: Television sets use composite input. Hence colors are less pure and less accurate than computers using RGB component. NTSC television uses a limited color palette and restricted luminance (brightness) levels and black levels. Analog Video Video color (continued): Some colors generated by a computer that display fine on a RGB monitor may be illegal for display on a NTSC TV. While producing a multimedia project, consider whether it will be played on a RGB monitor or a conventional television set. Analog Video Interlacing effects: In television, the electron beam makes two passes on the screen while drawing a single video frame. It first lays down all the odd-numbered lines, and then all the even-numbered lines, hence they are interlaced. While capturing images from a video signal, they can be filtered through a de-interlacing filter provided by image- editing applications. Analog Video Text and titles for television and taking care of analog tapes: Titles for video productions can be created with an analog character generator. Computers can create titles digitally using video and imageediting software. New tapes should always be fast-forwarded to the end and then rewound, to ensure even tape tension. Digital Video Video clip stored on any mass-storage device can be played back on a computer’s monitor without special hardware. Setting up a production environment for making digital video, requires some hardware specifications. Some specifications include computer with FireWire connection and cables, fast processor, plenty of RAM, fast and big hard disk. Digital Video Digital video architecture. Digital video compression. Digital Video Architecture Digital video architecture consists of a format for encoding and playing back video files by a computer. Architecture includes a player that can recognize and play files created for that format. Digital Video Compression Digital video compression schemes or codecs is the algorithm used to compress (code) a video for delivery. The codec then decodes the compressed video in real-time for fast playback. Streaming audio and video starts playback as soon as enough data has transferred to the user’s computer to sustain this playback. Digital Video Compression MPEG is a real-time video compression algorithm. MPEG-4 includes numerous multimedia capabilities and is a preferred standard. MPEG-7 (or Multimedia Content Description Interface) integrates information about motion video elements with their use. Video Recording and Tape Formats Composite analog video. Component analog video. Composite digital. Component digital. ATSC digital TV. Composite Analog Video Composite video combines the luminance and chroma information from the video signal. Composite video produces lowest quality video and is most susceptible to generation loss. Generation loss is the loss of quality that occurs while moving from original footage to editing master to copy. Component Analog Video Component video separates the luminance and chroma information. It improves the quality of the video and decreases generation loss. In S-video, color and luminance information are kept on two separate tracks (Y/C) to improve the picture quality. Betacam is a new portable professional video format which lays the signal on the tape in three component channels. Composite Digital Composite digital recording formats combine the luminance and chroma information. They sample the incoming waveforms and encode the information in binary (0/1) digital code. It improves color and image resolution and eliminates generation loss. Component Digital Component digital formats add the advantages of component signals to digital recording. D-1 component digital format is an uncompressed format which has a very high quality image. It uses a 19 mm (3/4-inch) tape in order to save data. Several other digital component formats are DCT, Digital Betacam, DV format, DVCPRO, and DVCAM formats. ATSC Digital TV These standards provide for digital STV and HDTV recordings that can be broadcast by digital TV transmitters to digital TV receivers. ATSC standards also provide for enhanced TV bringing the interactivity of multimedia and the Web to broadcast television. Shooting and Editing Video Import video and sound at the highest resolution and with the least amount of compression possible. Resolution should be reduced and footage must be compressed later according to the requirements. A steady shooting platform should always be used. Shooting and Editing Video Good and even lighting is extremely important. Blue screen in digital video editing applications is a popular technique for making multimedia. Wide panoramic shots and camera motion should be avoided when shooting for a small computer window on CD-ROM or the Web. Optimizing Video Files for CDROM CD-ROMs provide an excellent distribution medium for computer-based video. When preparing video for CD-ROM distribution, interleave the audio track(s) with the video track. Key frames should be used every 10 to 15 frames and the size of the video window must be kept small. The Sorenson codec is optimized for CD-ROM playback. Summary Digital video method is used for making and delivering video for multimedia. Charge-coupled device (CCD) converts the light that has been reflected from an object through the camera’s lens. Summary Various video standards are NTSC, PAL, SECAM, and ATSC DTV. Categories of video standards are composite analog, component analog, composite digital, and component digital.