CORE manual - City of Oakland

CORE manual - City of Oakland

CORE I

Home and Family Preparedness

©2015

Acknowledgements

CORE is a program of the

Oakland Fire Department,

Emergency Management Services Division.

CORE Advisory Task Force:

Robert Anderson

Bill Gavelis

Gilbert Gin

James Leeper

Susan Lockwood

Jeff Morelli

Della Mundy

Ed Ono

Gary Plotner

Oakland Fire Department :

Fire Chief Teresa Deloach Reed

Deputy Chief Mark Hoffman

Battalion Chief Lisa Baker

Renee Domingo, EMSD Manager

Cathey Eide, EMSD Asst. Manager

Chris Ratto

Don Reed

Lorraine Rosenblatt

Susan Savage

Steve Steinhour

Cathi Sweeney

Chris Wagner

David Wagner

Dena Gunning, CORE Coordinator

Cynthia Chimonyo

Denise Kittell-Nwuke

Eileen Ogata

Genevieve Pastor-Cohen

The emergency preparedness community around the country has graciously shared its knowledge and information so that all of us may be better prepared to respond to emergencies.

We continue to work together and share what we have learned.

Thank you to the following agencies and individuals for contributions to this manual:

City of Oakland ADA Programs Office and the Mayor’s Commission on Persons with Disabilities

City of Oakland Equal Access Office for translation services

Fireman’s Fund Insurance Company

Linda Wong for information on Infectious Disease Outbreaks

Karen Oberdorfer for her contributions to our pet information

A special thank you to the CORE Curriculum Revision Committee members

who have generously contributed their time, talent, and creativity to the revision of

CORE I Home and Family Preparedness.

Disclaimer:

Every reasonable effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of this manual. However, the City of

Oakland, City employees and its representatives including any and all persons that contributed to the manual assume no responsibility and disclaim any liability for any injury or damage resulting from the use or effect of the information, products or procedures specified in this manual.

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CORE I - Table of Contents

Introduction

..........................................................................................................................................6

History of CORE Program................................................................................................................... 6

Home and Family Preparedness Overview........................................................................................... 7

Disasters in Oakland ........................................................................................................................... 8

Earthquake Awareness.......................................................................................................................9

Part One: Make a Family Disaster Plan

........................................................................................10

Overview ........................................................................................................................................... 11

Getting Started .................................................................................................................................. 12

Communications in a Disaster .......................................................................................................... 13

911 and Other Emergency Numbers ............................................................................................13

Emergency Information Cards .................................................................................................... 13

Out-of-Area Contact Person........................................................................................................ 14

Telephones and Cellular Phones ................................................................................................ 14

Commercial Radios and Emergency Notification Systems ......................................................... 15

Utilities .............................................................................................................................................. 16

Gas.............................................................................................................................................. 16

Electricity..................................................................................................................................... 18

Water........................................................................................................................................... 19

Sewage ....................................................................................................................................... 20

Setting up Toilet Facilities ........................................................................................................... 21

Household Waste........................................................................................................................ 22

Smoke & Carbon Monoxide Detectors.............................................................................................. 23

Develop a Home Escape Plan .......................................................................................................... 24

People with Functional Needs .......................................................................................................... 25

Vital Documents ................................................................................................................................ 32

Multi-Unit Buildings ........................................................................................................................... 33

Part Two: Minimize Hazards Around Your Home

.................................................................... 34

Home Hazards Overview .................................................................................................................. 35

Minimize Hazards Around Your Home . .......................................................................................... 36

Hot Water Heater ........................................................................................................................ 36

Large Gas and Electrical Appliances .......................................................................................... 36

Cabinets ...................................................................................................................................... 37

Electronic Equipment .................................................................................................................. 37

Hanging Plants/Lamps ................................................................................................................ 37

Heavy Breakable Objects............................................................................................................ 38

Pictures and Mirrors .................................................................................................................... 38

Tall and Heavy Furniture............................................................................................................. 38

Household Chemicals ................................................................................................................. 39

Hazards Around Your Home ............................................................................................................. 40

House and Curb Numbers .......................................................................................................... 40

Roofs and Gutters ....................................................................................................................... 40

Chimneys .................................................................................................................................... 40

Overhanging Structures with Exposed Undersides..................................................................... 40

Storm Drains ............................................................................................................................... 41

Landscaping and Vegetation Management................................................................................. 42

Standing Water ........................................................................................................................... 42

General Safety Tips .................................................................................................................... 43

Seismic (Earthquake) Safety ............................................................................................................ 44

Quiz............................................................................................................................................. 44

Earthquake Safety....................................................................................................................... 45

4

Part Three: Have Emergency Supplies

........................................................................................ 46

Emergency Supplies Overview ......................................................................................................... 47

Water ................................................................................................................................................ 48

Storage........................................................................................................................................ 48

Water Purification........................................................................................................................ 48

Boiling ......................................................................................................................................... 49

Chlorine (Bleach) ........................................................................................................................ 49

Food .................................................................................................................................................. 50

First Aid ............................................................................................................................................. 51

Tools and Supplies ........................................................................................................................... 52

Personal Items .................................................................................................................................. 53

Pet and Service Animal Items ........................................................................................................... 54

Mini Survival Kits for Car, Work and Under Bed ............................................................................... 56

Part Four: Learn What To Do During and After a Disaster

...................................................... 58

Types of Disasters ............................................................................................................................ 59

Should You Evacuate or Shelter-in-Place?....................................................................................... 60

Evacuation .................................................................................................................................. 60

Know Your Area .......................................................................................................................... 61

Shelter in Place ........................................................................................................................... 62

Earthquakes ...................................................................................................................................... 64

During an Earthquake ................................................................................................................. 64

After an Earthquake .................................................................................................................... 66

Fires .................................................................................................................................................. 67

Before a Fire ............................................................................................................................... 67

During a Fire ............................................................................................................................... 68

When A Fast-Moving Fire Threatens Your Home ....................................................................... 69

After a Fire .................................................................................................................................. 70

Winter Storms ................................................................................................................................... 71

Floods and Landslides ................................................................................................................ 71

Storm Watches and Warnings .................................................................................................... 72

After The Storm........................................................................................................................... 73

Heat Waves ...................................................................................................................................... 74

Hazardous Materials Incidents.......................................................................................................... 76

SIN .............................................................................................................................................. 76

Infectious Disease Outbreaks ........................................................................................................... 80

Protect Yourself and Reduce the Spread of Infectious Disease ................................................. 80

Isolation and Quarantine ............................................................................................................. 82

How You Can Prepare for a Pandemic ....................................................................................... 83

Resources for Pandemic Preparedness ..................................................................................... 84

Public Health Tips ....................................................................................................................... 85

Dehydration................................................................................................................................. 86

Terrorist Events................................................................................................................................. 87

CBRNE........................................................................................................................................ 88

CORE Protocols for Terrorist Events .......................................................................................... 91

What To Do During a Terrorist Event .......................................................................................... 92

Tsunamis .......................................................................................................................................... 93

What is a Tsunami? .................................................................................................................... 93

What should you do if there is a tsunami warning?..................................................................... 94

Next Steps

............................................................................................................................................ 96

5

Introduction

History of CORE Program

After the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, many spontaneous volunteers offered help to victims and firefighters, but most did not have specific rescue training and risked injury by helping.

Recognizing that citizens will probably be on their own during the early stages of a catastrophic disaster and that basic training in disaster survival and rescue skills improves the ability of the community to survive until responders or assistance arrive, the Oakland Fire Department, Emergency Management

Services Division developed Communities of Oakland Respond to Emergencies (CORE), a program to teach volunteers how to respond to disasters safely.

The mission of CORE is to promote the spirit of neighbor helping neighbor and to provide the

highest quality emergency and disaster prevention, preparedness, and response training.

Since its inception in 1990, the CORE program has provided free, community-based training to more than 20,000 Oakland residents. CORE was among the first Community Emergency Response Team

(CERT) programs developed and it set a new standard for emergency preparedness and residential hazard reduction. In 1991, CORE earned the Outstanding Services Award from the Governor’s Office of Emergency Services.

This version of the CORE program is based on the CERT concept, but retains the uniqueness of the

CORE program.

CORE training prepares communities in Oakland to:

 Prepare before a disaster.

 Know what to do during a disaster.

 Be self-sufficient for 7-10 days following a disaster.

 Provide emergency assistance to family and immediate neighbors.

 Respond as team members in the neighborhood in the event of a major disaster.

6

Introduction

Home and Family Preparedness Overview

This manual is divided into the following sections:

Part One: Make a Family Disaster Plan

Family

Disaster

Plan

 Create a family disaster plan.

 Communications in a disaster.

 Learn how and when to turn off damaged utilities.

 Plan for an Evacuation.

 Make provisions for people with functional needs.

Part Two: Minimize Hazards Around Your Home

 Minimize Potential hazards in and around your home.

 Evaluate your home for seismic safety.

Part Three: Have Emergency Supplies

 Gather and store emergency supplies.

Part Four: Learn What To Do During and After a Disaster

 Know how to respond to different kinds of disasters and emergency situations.

7

Introduction

Disasters in Oakland

Oakland is a diverse city, both in its community and its geography. We have hills with urban/wildland interface, inner city areas, shorelines, the Port of Oakland, the Oakland Airport, and Lake Merritt. The Hayward Earthquake Fault also runs through Oakland near Interstate

Highway 580 and Highway 13.

Since 1983, Oakland has experienced the following declared disasters:

 1983 Landslide

 1985 Flood

 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake

 1990 Freeze

 1991 Oakland/Berkeley Hills

 1998 La Niña

 2006 Winter Storms

 2006 Spring Storms

 2007 I-580 MacArthur Maze Fire

 2007 Cosco Busan Oil Spill

 2008 Winter Storms

 2009 H1N1 Pandemic

Firestorm

 1995 Floods

 1997 El Niño

Lives were lost, people were injured, homes were damaged or destroyed, transportation was disrupted, and financial losses have been in the billions.

Disasters can be caused by:

 Natural events such as earthquakes, fires, severe weather, tsunamis

 Human actions such as terrorism or hazardous materials spills

 Infectious Disease Outbreaks

 A combination of natural and human factors

A disaster doesn’t have to be a citywide event for you to be affected. It might be a house fire, a gas leak, or a landslide on your block. Basic preparation now will help reduce the impact of emergencies, both large and small.

Any major disaster will exceed the capacity of professional “First Responders” (Fire, Police and

Paramedics) to respond to all calls for assistance. The 911 system will be overwhelmed. You can reduce your need for outside assistance and enhance your safety by being prepared.

Complete the following steps to prepare yourself, your family, and your home in case of an emergency:

1. Make a Family Disaster Plan

2. Minimize potential hazards in and around your home

3. Assemble emergency supplies

4. Learn what to do during an emergency

8

Introduction

Earthquake Awareness

The threat of future quakes extends across the Bay Area.

The following websites are resources for earthquake information:

The USGS Earthquake Hazards Program - Northern California:

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/

ABAG Earthquake Maps and Information:

http://www.abag.ca.gov/bayarea/eqmaps/

Hayward Fault Scenario

USGS scientists have recently determined that the Hayward Fault has a significant quake on an average of every 140 years. The last large quake was in October 1868.

The Loma Prieta earthquake in 1989 was magnitude 6.9. In an earthquake of the same magnitude on the Hayward Fault, we will feel ground shaking 10 to 12 times more strongly than what was felt in the

Loma Prieta earthquake because the epicenter will be closer to Oakland.

This could easily result in:

 Fires caused by gas leaks

 80,000 to 160,000 homes and apartment units becoming uninhabitable

 1,500 to 4,500 deaths and 49,000 to 135,000 injuries

 Damaged or destroyed hospitals, schools, and businesses

 Utilities disrupted for weeks or months

 Broken utility lines crossing the Hayward Fault (water, gas, sewer)

 Damage to roads and overpasses on Hwy 13, I-580, and I-880 making them impassable

 Inoperative sewer lines for up to one month

 Disrupted transportation due to road closures and damage to bridges and BART infrastructure

 Airports being temporarily closed

 Liquefaction in landfill areas along I-880 and close to the Bay causing substantial damage

 Potential for landslides in hill areas

9

Part One: Make a Family Disaster Plan

Home and Family Preparedness

10

CORE I – Part One

Make a Family Plan

Overview

Make a plan now so you and your family members know what to do in case of an emergency.

In this section you will learn:

 How to develop a disaster plan

 Ways to communicate with one another and to get current information

 When and how to turn off damaged utilities

 Why and where you should install smoke and carbon monoxide detectors

 How to develop an escape plan for your home

 What additional provisions people with functional needs can make

 What vital documents you will need

As you develop your disaster plan, ask the following questions. They can mean the difference between

life and death.

 How will everyone in your household, including pets, safely evacuate from your home?

 Where will everyone meet?

 What route will you take out of your neighborhood if evacuation becomes necessary?

 Do you have at least one alternate route planned in case your usual route is blocked or otherwise impassable?

 What will you take with you?

 Where will you go?

 What will you need to shelter-in-place?

For every hazard that presents a high risk in your area, ask, “What will I do if this happens?”

Information specific to Multi-Unit Buildings (MUB)

 A Homeowners’ Association Board is generally the governing body of condominiums.

 A landlord or manager is the person to contact for most apartments.

 Individual apartments and condominiums in a building will be referred to as “units.”

Information specific to Multi-Unit Buildings is indicated throughout this manual by the picture of the apartment building above

11

CORE I – Part One

Make a Family Plan

Getting Started

Meet with your family or your building residents to:

 Discuss what types of disasters could occur in your area.

 Learn how to prepare and respond to each one.

 Discuss what to do if you are advised to evacuate.

 Practice what you have discussed.

Plan how your family will stay in contact if separated by disaster:

 Pick two meeting places:

O

A location that is a safe distance from your home in case of fire

O

A place outside your neighborhood in case you cannot return home

 Choose an Out-of-Area Contact Person as a “check-in contact” for everyone to call.

 Know the disaster policy of the school or daycare center your children attend. Create a pick up password for your child and add to your school emergency card. Make a plan to have someone pick up your children following an emergency if you are unable to do so. Fill out the necessary release forms now.

Complete the following additional steps:

 Create an Emergency Information Card. Keep a copy with your emergency supplies and post it in your home.

 Post emergency telephone numbers by every phone.

 Show responsible family members how and when to turn off the gas, electricity, and water at their main shutoff locations.

 Install a smoke alarm on each level of your home, in each sleeping room and in adjacent hallways. Test each of them monthly and change the batteries two times each year (when you change your clocks in Spring and Fall).

 Get to know your neighbors and coworkers. Communicate any functional needs you have if you might need help in an emergency situation.

 Arrange for people who live near you to be part of your neighborhood support system. Give someone in your support system a key to your home, and let that person know where you keep your emergency supplies. Teach members of your neighborhood support system how to operate any special equipment you use, including an adapted vehicle if you drive one.

12

CORE I – Part One

Communications in a Disaster

Know how to call for help, contact your loved ones, and get up-to-date information.

911 and Other Emergency Numbers

If you must call 911, speak clearly, and do not hang up until the dispatcher has received and recorded all needed information. If necessary, say the name of your spoken language, e.g. “English,” “Spanish,” or “Cantonese.” If possible use a landline phone.

Cell phone calls to 911 go first to the California Highway Patrol in Vallejo and are then routed to the appropriate local jurisdiction, such as the City of Oakland. To avoid delay, pre-program your cell phone with the City of Oakland Fire and Police Dispatch emergency numbers listed below.

Local Emergency Contact Information:

 Oakland Fire Dispatch (emergency) ....................................................................510-444-1616

 Oakland Police Dispatch (emergency) ................................................................510-777-3211

 Oakland Fire Dispatch (non-emergency) .............................................................510-444-3322

 Oakland Police Dispatch (non-emergency) .........................................................510-777-3333

 Oakland Fire Department, Vegetation Management ...........................................510-238-7388

 Oakland Fire Department, Emergency Management Services Division .............510-238-3938

 Oakland CORE Program ......................................................................................510-238-6351

 Alameda County Emergency Management Services Division .............................925-803-7800

 Poison Control ......................................................................................................800-222-1222

 American Red Cross .............................................................................................510-595-4400

 EBMUD .................................................................................................................866-403-2683

 PG&E ....................................................................................................................800-743-5000

 National Response Center (toxic chemical/oil spills) ...........................................800-424-8802

Emergency Information Cards

Develop an Emergency Information Card that includes all critical information including your name, address, medical conditions, allergies, special needs, blood type, and who to contact if you are hurt.

Keep copies of this card with you at all times.

Individuals who have difficulty communicating for any reason—they do not speak English, have a hearing impairment, suffer from dementia/Alzheimer’s Disease, or have any other condition that limits their ability to communicate—should also carry an Emergency Information Card including their name, language spoken, address, phone number, important medical information, an emergency contact, the reason they may have difficulty communicating, and anything else that is important to relay to responders.

13

CORE I – Part One

Communications in a Disaster

Out-of-Area Contact Person

 Choose one person who lives out-of-state, or at least 200 miles away in a different geographical area, to be your

Out-of-Area Contact Person

. During a disaster it is often easier to make a long-distance call than to call a local number.

 Every person in your family should keep your Out-of-Area Contact person’s home, work and cell phone numbers with them.

 In an emergency, make a short call to your Out-of-Area Contact to report that you are okay, where you are, what your plans are, and to get information about other family members. Leave messages for each other with your Out-of-Area Contact so you can reunite your family.

Telephones and Cellular Phones

 Keep one l

andline

phone that plugs into the phone jack at your home. Cordless and digital phones require electricity and will not work if the power is out.

 After an earthquake, hang up all phones at your location by placing the phones back on their cradles.

 Know where nearby pay phones are located and have change available.

 If you do not immediately hear a dial tone,

do not hang up

. Stay on the line and wait for the operator or a dial tone. Each time you hang up, you put yourself at the end of the line. Be prepared to dial immediately when you get a dial tone.

 Cell phones will also be overwhelmed they are dependent on their tower infrastructure to work.

Each network has its own infrastructure. One company’s phones may work when others do not.

 It may be possible to send a text message on your cell phone even if you cannot send a voice message.

ICE =

In Case of Emergency

Program a phone number into your cell phone contact list with the word “ICE.”

This will be a person to contact if you are injured or need help. If you are unable to communicate, first responders may look in your cell phone contact list for the word “ICE” and call that person.

Choose a person that knows you well.

14

Communications in a Disaster

Commercial Radios & Emergency Notification Systems

To access up-to-date emergency information, keep a radio (solar, crank or battery-operated with extra batteries) at your home and at work.

The following stations are designated as Emergency Broadcast Radio Stations in the Bay Area

and will make official announcements in the event of an emergency situation.

KCBS 740 AM (primary station in the Bay Area due to transmitter range)

 KGO 810 AM

 KNBR 680 AM

Emergency Alert System (EAS)

The Emergency Alert System (EAS) is a national public warning system that requires radio, television and satellite broadcasters to provide emergency communications capability to federal, state and local authorities to deliver important emergency information targeted to specific areas.

CityWatch

CityWatch is an emergency notification system used by the City of Oakland to alert community members of emergency information via phone, text and email messages.

GovDelivery

GovDelivery is a web-based application that monitors web sites for content updates and automatically sends out e-mail or wireless alerts when changes are detected on designated web pages. Individuals must pre-register an e-mail address or electronic device with text messaging or

SMS capability in order to receive updates. When an emergency occurs, the system will send an e- mail or text message to registered devices.

To register, go to the City of Oakland web site (www.oaklandnet.com) and enter your e-mail address in the “Email Updates” box on the location bar. Click Emergency Alerts when you sign up.

For text updates to your wireless device, include your wireless phone number and service provider.

211

Eden Information and Referral, Inc., the company that operates 2-1-1 in the Bay Area, provides emergency assistance to Oakland residents during an incident. The 2-1-1 system will provide disaster victims with information and relief and recovery resources, including information regarding open mass care shelters within the city and critical social services. To access these resources, dial

2-1-1 from any standard telephone or text telephone (TTY). Services are available in nearly 250 languages.

15

CORE I – Part One

Utilities

Gas

Know how and when to turn off your utilities and those of your neighbors.

A gas leak in your home can cause a fire, an explosion or asphyxiation.

How to check for a possible gas leak:

 Do you smell gas?

 Do you hear a hissing sound?

 Do you see the dial on the gas meter spinning faster than usual?

If any of the above indicators exist, turn off the gas valve at the meter. Please note that once

you have turned off the gas, it is not safe to turn it back on.

Only PG&E or a licensed plumber is qualified to turn the gas back on safely.

If you suspect a gas leak:

 Do not light a match.

 Do not turn any electrical switches on or off.

 Do not use your cell phone.

 If it is dark, only use a waterproof/sealed flashlight or a light stick to avoid causing a spark.

Turn off the main gas valve with

a crescent wrench or special gas shutoff tool by turning the lever 1/4 turn.

The wrench handle should have brightly colored or reflective tape, colored paint or tactile roping for individuals with low vision.

Store your tool near the gas meter.

Store your wrench where it will be immediately available!

16

Utilities

Gas

(continued)

After you turn off the gas, open the windows to ventilate the building and go outside. Prolonged exposure to gas fumes can cause asphyxiation.

Once you have turned off the gas, IT IS NOT SAFE to turn it back on yourself. Remember, only

PG&E or a licensed plumber is qualified to turn the gas back on safely.

If a building has collapsed or sustained “heavy” damage:

Turn off the gas, if it is safe to do so, and report this information to the Oakland Emergency Operations

Center (EOC) through a fire station or amateur radio operator. If conditions are unsafe, call PG&E at 1-

800-743-5000 to report it and direct everyone to leave the area.

After an earthquake, if you have no indication of a gas leak, you do not have to turn off the gas.

In a major event, it may be weeks before PG&E can turn your gas back on.

Tips:

 If there are significant aftershocks, recheck for gas leaks.

 If there is a fire approaching your home, turn off the gas as you leave if you can do it safely.

 You may test the gas valve before an emergency by turning it no more than 1/8 turn. If the gas valve at your home is rusted or stuck, call PG&E for a service call.

 Seismic shutoff valves can be installed by a licensed plumber to automatically shut off the gas at a predetermined level of shaking.

Determine the location and access to gas shutoffs. Typically, it is possible to turn off the gas valve for the individual unit or the valve for the entire building.

17

CORE I – Part One

Utilities

Electricity

Electrical surges can harm appliances and computers.

To simplify turning off your electricity in an emergency, identify and label all circuits in your home.

During a power outage, turn off and unplug major appliances and other electronic equipment to prevent damage when the power is restored.

Turn off the electricity at the main control box:

 Before you attempt to touch or unplug any damaged wires, cords, broken or toppled electrical appliances.

 If your home is threatened by fire or flooding. Do not stand in water when you shut off

the electricity.

 If the building has collapsed and the shutoff is accessible.

 If arcing or burning occurs in electrical devices.

 If you smell burning insulation.

 If the area around switches or plugs is blackened and/or hot to touch.

 If the complete loss of power is accompanied by the smell of burning material.

How to shut off the electricity:

If you have fuses: Unscrew the fuses.

If you have circuit breakers: At the main panel, switch all breakers to the “off” position starting with the smaller switches. If you have any electrical sub-panels, be sure to turn off all breaker switches in all boxes.

If you live in a Multi-Unit Building, find the location of the circuit breaker or fuse box for your unit. Learn where the boxes are for the building and if you have access to them.

18

CORE I – Part One

Utilities

Electricity

(continued)

When you have checked your electrical appliances and are ready to turn the electricity on again, check that all switches are in the OFF position. To prevent power surges, first turn on the main breakers and then, one at a time, turn the individual breaker switches to the ON position.

Any time you see what looks like downed power lines or wires, assume that they are live and dangerous. Keep people and animals away from the area, at least three times as far away as the length of the downed line.

Call PG&E at 1-800-743-5000 to report the situation.

Do not attempt to rescue a person or animal if they are close to a downed power line or

in a car under a fallen line. Call 911.

Water

Broken water pipes in or around the house may cause water damage to

the property and the water may not be safe to drink.

 If water is leaking, turn off the main water valve located outside your house or at the street.

Call EBMUD at 1-866-403-2683 if your water shutoff valve at the meter doesn’t turn or to report a waterline break or hydrant problem.

Tip: Test your shutoffs at least once a year to make sure you can still turn them.

Find out where the water shutoff valves are in your unit. Turn off the one that is leaking. Learn the location of the main water shutoff for your building and find out if you have access to it.

19

CORE I – Part One

Utilities

Sewage

After an earthquake, before you flush the toilet, listen to the radio to find out whether the city sewer

lines are intact or are broken. If in doubt, do not flush.

After an earthquake, assume that sewer lines in the building are damaged or broken. Do not flush the

toilet or pour water down the drain until all sewer lines have been checked and found to be intact.

If the sewer system is intact:

 Use your toilet. If water is not running, you can flush the toilet by pouring

1 to 2 gallons of non-potable water into the bowl.

If sewer lines are damaged or broken after an earthquake:

Do not flush the toilet or pour anything down the household drains.

 Use your indoor toilet by removing the water from the bowl and lining it with two heavy-duty plastic trash bags. Periodically add powdered lime or camp toilet chemicals to control odor.

Refer to the next page for directions on how to change the plastic bags and dispose of the waste.

 Have a separate bucket for urinating because urine weakens plastic.

Setting up Alternate Toilet Facilities

If sewer lines are broken, it may become necessary to set up a toilet area outside of your home.

Choose a location that is away from work and living areas. To prevent run-off or seepage, the toilet facilities should be either at the same level or downhill from everyone’s living and work areas.

Dig a Latrine

 Dig a rectangular trench at least 2 feet long, 6 inches wide and a minimum of 2 feet deep, deeper if possible.

 Make sure the latrine is at least 200 feet from creeks or streams.

 After each use, sprinkle a small scoop of dry powdered household bleach or powdered agricultural lime (available in garden supply and hardware stores) directly over the waste and sprinkle a scoop of dirt on top.

 Wash your hands or use waterless hand cleaner each time you use the latrine.

20

CORE I – Part One

Utilities

Setting up Alternate Toilet Facilities

(continued)

Use a portable camp toilet or a sturdy bucket with a close fitting lid.

 Line the bucket with two heavy-duty plastic bags.

 Put absorbent material (kitty litter, shredded newspaper) in the inner bag to absorb waste products.

 Cover the container when not in use.

 To use, uncover the bucket, fold the bags down over the sides, and defecate directly into the inner bag.

 Sprinkle powdered household bleach or agricultural lime directly onto the feces.

 Use toilet paper sparingly. Put all used toilet paper into the same bag.

 Replace the cover, taking care not to tear the plastic bags.

Changing Bags

 Close each of the two bags in the bucket with twist ties or rubber bands, one at a time, inner bag first. Expel the air before closing the bags to avoid tearing them.

 Put the bags into a closed container such as a garbage can marked “Human

Waste/ Bio-Hazard” that has already been lined with one or two heavy-duty bags. Then put two fresh bags in the emergency toilet, one inside the other.

 Keep the containers well away from human activity until the bags can be disposed of properly. Mark the containers clearly and protect them from breaking or spilling.

Urinate into a bucket that can be tightly covered before using the emergency toilet.

 Never urinate into the bag because urine weakens plastic.

 Empty the bucket somewhere distant from your patient care/working/living areas.

 Urine is sterile, so disposal is less of a problem than solid waste, but make sure that you keep it out of and away from creeks and streams to avoid contaminating the water.

21

CORE I – Part One

Utilities

Household Waste

 Store household waste and garbage in a heavy-duty plastic trash bag.

 Store it away from your living area until it can be disposed of properly.

 Household waste may be stored in the same area as human waste until it can be picked up.

 Listen to radio broadcasts for announcements regarding waste pick-up.

22

CORE I – Part One

Smoke and Carbon Monoxide

Detectors

Smoke detectors and carbon monoxide detectors save lives by alerting you early in the

event of a fire.

 Without early warning, you can be overcome by smoke or carbon monoxide gas.

 The International Association of Fire Chiefs and National Fire Protection Association recommend that you have one smoke detector in each sleeping room, in the hallway adjacent to sleeping rooms and on every level of the dwelling.

 Individuals who are Deaf or hard of hearing can install a photoelectric audible alarm with corresponding strobe light. Additional remote strobe light receivers can be installed in your home or neighborhood facilities to provide a visual alerting system in every room. Another option is a vibration device that transmits a signal when smoke is detected within a limited area to activate a bed vibrator to warn or wake an individual. For more information about these types of alarms visit http://www.productsforthedeaf.com/smoke,-fire,-and-co-detectors or http://www.silentcall.com/ .

Remember to change the batteries in your smoke detectors twice a year

(when you change your clocks to Daylight Savings Time and Standard Time).

There are two standard kinds of smoke detector alarms. For maximum protection use

both kinds.

Ionization Alarms are the most common and are best for detecting fast-flaming fires: fires that consume combustible materials quickly, such as paper burning in a wastebasket or a grease fire in the kitchen.

Photoelectric Alarms are less common but are better at responding to slow smoldering fires: fires that smolder for hours before bursting into flame such as cigarettes burning in couches or bedding. These alarms are less prone to nuisance alarms from cooking.

Carbon monoxide detectors alert you to a buildup of carbon monoxide that can cause asphyxiation.

To prevent the buildup of carbon monoxide in your home:

 Have a qualified professional inspect and maintain your home’s heating systems, gas appliances, vents, and chimney flues annually.

 Never run your vehicle or use unvented fuel-burning equipment such as barbeques, camp stoves, or propane or kerosene heaters in an enclosed space.

 Consider installing and maintaining an Underwriters Laboratories (UL) approved carbon monoxide detector in your home according to manufacturers’ instructions.

If you suspect carbon monoxide poisoning, turn off the suspected gas appliance if it is safe to

do so, get out of the building, and seek medical attention.

23

CORE I – Part One

Develop a Home Escape Plan

Develop an Escape Plan that provides for escape from every room in your home.

 Consider the needs of children, people with functional needs, and animals. Ask people with functional needs the best way to evacuate them with or without any mobility assistive devices or service animals.

 If your home has more than one level, have escape ladders or ropes available on upper floors and know how to use them.

 Encourage children, individuals with functional needs and others who spend time in your home to be familiar with the plan and to participate in practice drills.

Sample family escape plan with arrows showing an escape route from every room

in the home and a family meeting place outside the home:

When developing an escape plan for a multi-unit building, plan and map evacuation routes for

each floor of the building.

 Count the number of doors from your unit to all exits.

 Make sure that Exit signs are clearly posted on each floor of the building.

 Large buildings often post floor plans with marked exits near stairwells or elevators. If your cell phone has a camera, take a photo of the floor plan and keep it in your phone for future reference.

 Remember to use the stairs in an emergency, not the elevator.

Understand the construction of your building. Some concrete buildings may not need to be fully evacuated in case of fire.

24

CORE I – Part One

People With Functional Needs

The City of Oakland makes every effort to ensure that its emergency programs and facilities, including shelter sites, are accessible to people with disabilities. Functional Needs Coordinators are deployed to city-operated shelters to assist people with disabilities in requesting accommodations and replacing lost or damaged essential items.

It is important that people with functional needs are involved in community planning and response activities. Advocate for your community at state, county and city emergency preparedness planning meetings or join local disability boards and commissions. The City of Oakland Mayor’s Commission on

Persons with Disabilities (MCPD) advocate at the city level for all issues impacting the disability community. For more information about joining the MCPD or to voice your opinion at a meeting, visit the MCPD website: http://www2.oaklandnet.com/Government/o/PWA/o/EC/s/ADA/DOWD000347.

Remember: Individuals with disabilities should be involved in emergency plans and procedures, and can contribute to neighborhood response activities!

The following pages outline preparedness tips for persons with specific types of disabilities. Individuals with functional needs may also want to consider the supplementary list below when assembling

emergency supplies:

Additional Items to Include in Your Emergency Supply Go-Bag (Based on Your Needs):

Contacts to medical providers, such as:

Primary health physician

• Specialists

• Physical therapist

• Speech therapist

• Psychiatrist

• Psychologist or other therapist

• Substance abuse care professional

Recovery sponsor

Lists of Consumable Medical Supplies (CMS)

• Gauze pads

Disposable respiratory tubing

Ostomy supplies

Facial masks

• Sleep Apnea face mask

Lists of Durable Medical Equipment (DME)

Powered wheelchair or scooter

• Battery chargers for mobility device

• Manual wheelchair

• Walking cane

• White canes

• Walker

• Shower chair

Commode chair or raised toilet seat

Magnifier

Alternative Augmentative Communication

(AAC) devices

Continuous Positive Airway Pressure

(CPAP) system

Bi-level Positive Airway Pressure (BiPap) system

The Oakland Fire Department has a voluntary 911 Registry for people with functional needs to assist dispatchers responding to 911 calls. This registry is intended to help the City when responding to a standard 911 call and is not designed to be used for preferential response during a disaster.

Contact the Oakland Fire Department, Emergency M a n a g e m e n t Services Division at

510-238-3938 if you have questions or would like to get the forms to be included in the registry.

25

CORE I – Part One

People With Functional Needs

Mobility Disability

If there is an earthquake, individuals with a mobility disability should stay in their wheelchair or scooter. Move away from tall furniture or items that may come detached from the walls. Cover your head and neck with your arms and hands. If you are unable to cover your head and neck to

Individuals with mobility disabilities may use a powered or manual wheelchair, scooter, crutches, walker or walking cane for mobility assistance. They may or may not have full sensation of all of their body parts, which may affect their ability to perceive a new injury caused during an incident. protect yourself from falling debris, try to move toward a hallway where there may be fewer objects that could fly off the walls and hurt you.

If you are in bed when the shaking begins, stay there! Cover your head and neck with your pillow, blanket, or another soft item.

Stay in your wheelchair or scooter during an emergency unless escape with your mobility device is impossible. If there is smoke or fire, lean forward as far as possible in your wheelchair or scooter to get your head near the ground. If you must attempt evacuation without your mobility device and you have the ability to crawl or pull yourself on the ground, drop to the floor and make your way toward the nearest exit. Cover your mouth and nose with a shirt or other cloth if you can. Move safely toward the nearest exit.

If you use a walker, crutches, cane or other device to help you walk, drop to the floor and crawl toward the nearest exit. Drag your mobility aid behind you to ensure that you will have it once you reach a safe area.

Practice these evacuation methods and consider how you will open doors or windows from the floor.

When reporting to a shelter, individuals with a mobility disability are encouraged to bring all prescription medications, essential medical equipment and devices, and all personal items. Bring necessary items for your service animal to the shelter, including bowls, food and medications.

Keep your personal go-bag and one for your service animal near the main exit of your home. In addition to the standard go-bag items, see page 24 for more information on types of durable medical equipment

(DME) and consumable medical supplies (CMS) that you should consider including in your go-bag, and pages 53-54 for more information on making a service animal go-bag.

If you use a powered mobility device, ventilator or other powered respiratory device, keep back-up batteries available. If possible, consider purchasing a back-up power generator. Know where these items are stored and how to operate them.

26

CORE I – Part One

People With Functional Needs

Visual Disability

Auditory cues that individuals with a visual disability rely on for navigation may not be available after an emergency. Practice evacuation from your home, school or work place and navigation within those areas without using auditory cues.

If you have some vision, consider placing security lights in each room to light your path of travel.

This type of light plugs into an electrical wall outlet and automatically turns on when there is a loss of power.

People with visual disabilities may have total blindness while others have some vision. Most individuals with visual disabilities use a white cane or guide dog to navigate. During an earthquake, furniture and other items may have shifted causing obstacles in the path that were not previously there. Individuals with visual disabilities may have lost audible cues they once used to navigate familiar areas following an incident. They may become separated from their white cane or service animal. Guide dogs may also act differently due to anxiety or fright, and may be unable to perform usual tasks to assist their handler.

Mark all emergency supplies with fluorescent tape or bright-colored paint. Label items in large print

(Times New Roman 16 point font size or larger) or with Braille. Tape a thin string or rope near these items or leading you toward these locations to provide a tactile guide. Using visual and tactile cues can assist in more quickly locating items or important areas in your home such as the gas shut off valve or electrical circuit breakers.

You may want to consider creating an audio recording for yourself that contains important evacuation information, such as emergency contacts. Remember to keep extra batteries in your go-bag for your recorder.

When reporting to a shelter, bring necessary items for your service animal with you, including bowls, food and medications. You are encouraged to bring your prescription medications, essential medical equipment and devices, and all personal items to the shelter as well.

Keep your personal go-bag and one for your service animal near the main exit of your home. In addition to the standard go-bag items, see page 24 for more information on types of durable medical equipment (DME) and consumable medical supplies (CMS) that you should consider including in your go-bag, and pages 54-55 for more information on making a service animal go-bag.

27

CORE I – Part One

People With Functional Needs

Hearing Disability

Individuals with a hearing disability can equip the home with smoke detectors and carbon monoxide alarms that provide both audible and visual cues. Bed vibrators and other furniture shakers are also available.

The Deaf and people who are hard of hearing often do not receive information in an equally effective manner as do individuals without hearing disabilities. Most people who were born

Deaf or lost their hearing at an early stage use sign language to communicate. Sign language requires qualified interpretation services.

Sign up with the City of Oakland emergency alert systems. GovDelivery and City Watch now provide emergency notifications to be delivered via e-mail or text messaging directly to your mobile device. You can also dial 2-1-1 from your TTY for additional information during an emergency. See page 15 for more information.

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) provides an alerting tool through the

National Weather Radio (NWR) for the Deaf and hard of hearing communities. To learn more about it, visit http://www.nssl.noaa.gov/edu/safety/specialneeds.html

.

Keep your personal go-bag and one for your service animal near the main exit of your home. In addition to the standard go-bag items, include pre-written messages that provide information about yourself and your essential needs. Ask your family or friends to assist in preparing written messages if you require help.

Example: My name is John Smith. I am Deaf and I live alone at _. I cannot read or write

English but I can read lips. It is easiest for me to answer yes or no questions.

Example: My name is Jane Doe. I am Deaf and live with my son. He is hearing and can interpret for me. He goes to school. I can communicate basic information in written English.

Keep a whistle in your go-bag and know how to use it. Although you may or may not be able to hear its call, you can alert people in your area where you are located if you are in need of help. Remember: Three blows on the whistle is a call for help!

If you have a service animal, see pages 54-55 for more information on making a service animal go-bag.

28

CORE I – Part One

People With Functional Needs

Speech Disability

Keep your personal go-bag and one for your service animal near the main exit of your home. In addition to the standard go-bag items, keep a laminated paper-based picture board and letter board in your go-bag and include pre-written messages that provide information about yourself and your essential needs.

Individuals with speech disabilities may or may not use alternative augmentative communication (AAC) devices to communicate.

These devices may be paper-based image or word boards. The individual can point at a set of images, letters or words to communication their needs, thoughts, or feelings. Other AAC devices may be electronic with audible robotic speakers.

The individual can select a series of images or type out words on the keyboard. The device will

Example: My name is John Smith. I am not able to talk but can fully understand your speech. A picture board is in my go-bag and it is located near the front door of my home. I can point to letters and pictures to communicate more fully. Let me show you how I use it. then speak what has been chosen.

During an emergency, individuals with speech disabilities may become separated from their

AAC devices or their devices may be damaged.

It may be difficult for them to communicate their needs. It is important to remember that people with speech disabilities can comprehend your speech and body language. Treat people with

Example: My name is Jane Doe. I can speak but usually use the CA Relay

Service for assistance. We can dial 7-1-1 from the telephone to reach a trained operator. speech disabilities similar to how you would treat any other person.

If you have a service animal, see pages 54-55 for more information on making a service animal go-bag.

Learning Disability

Know the methods in which you learn best and ask people to provide information in multiple formats.

Keep pen and paper in your go-bag. Write down essential information.

Individuals with learning disabilities may have some difficulty expressing and understanding information. It is important to remember that people with learning disabilities can be highly intelligent but may need assistance in communication.

Organize your thoughts and recall events using a timeline. You may need to repeat essential information. If necessary try to minimize background noise or other distractions. Try moving your conversation to a quieter area.

29

CORE I – Part One

People With Functional Needs

Cognitive Disability

Keep pen and paper in your go-bag. Make lists with your essential information, including where your go-bags are located and contact information to family and friends. Keep these lists in multiple locations in your home and office.

You may want to consider creating an audio recording for yourself that contains important evacuation information, such as emergency contacts. Remember to keep extra batteries in your go-bag for your recorder.

Create a written plan for evacuation.

Create a written plan to drop, cover and hold on during an earthquake in each room in your house. Know where the safe locations are and how to get to them.

Create a written plan for escaping from each room of your home.

Practice drop, cover and hold on, and your evacuation plan with family, friends and neighbors multiple times.

A cognitive disability may reveal itself as challenges with a varied set of mental tasks.

Mental processing in times of emergency can be more difficult for a person with a cognitive disability. Loss of orientation may take place for some. A disaster situation may impact an individual’s attention span, expressive or receptive language abilities, verbal abilities, motor skills, abstract thinking skills, and/or the ability to make cause and effect connections.

Some individuals may become easily overwhelmed or upset or show emotions that seem incongruous with the situation. Never assume a person with a cognitive disability is unintelligent. This can cause a negative reaction and make it more difficult to assist.

When communicating with someone with a cognitive disability, use clear language and avoid the use of jargon. Avoid compound sentences. Be direct and brief. It is often challenging for an individual with a cognitive disability to recall a lot of information. If you need to provide instructions that require multiple steps, make one request and wait for that task to be completed before moving on. If you are not able to remain with the individual while they complete a series of tasks, number each step for them to reference.

30

CORE I – Part One

People With Functional Needs

Environmental Illness/Multiple Chemical Sensitivity

Your home may be the safest location for you immediately following an incident. Unless you are directed to evacuate or your home is no longer safe, attempt to shelter-in-place. Stock up on food and water. Create emergency kits to keep in your home.

Depending upon the incident, an unusual amount of dust, debris and other irritants may be in the air. Consider purchasing multiple facial masks and air purifiers for use following a disaster. Know which type of facial mask works best for you. Keep window coverings in your emergency kit to seal off areas to the outside.

Individuals with environmental illness or multiple chemical sensitivity (EI/MCS) have severe physical and/or cognitive reactions to exposure of certain chemicals. These reactions may limit the ability for an individual to care for one’s self, perform manual tasks, walk, see, hear, speak, breathe, learn or work. Motor skill and memory may be impaired during and following exposure.

Signs and symptoms may occur for a long duration even after direct exposure to the irritant is removed.

Public shelters ask all individuals to refrain from wearing or bringing scented products, but because of the nature of an emergency there are no guarantees that a public shelter will provide a safe environment for people with EI/MCS. Make arrangements with family or friends who live in neighboring counties or out of state to create a safe environment for you to stay should you need to leave your home and the public shelter is not a healthy option for you.

Mental Health Disorders

You are encouraged to bring all prescription medications, essential medical equipment and devices, and all personal items to the shelter. If possible, keep an extra supply of medication in your go-bag.

Know how and when to seek support from your family, neighbors, community organizations and medical doctors. Prepare to ask for assistance from someone that may not be within your typical support group.

Individuals with mental health disorders may require additional emotional and mental support immediately following a disaster. They may become confused, anxious or frightened by the situation or certain circumstances. Individuals who may not have diagnosed mental health disorders previous to an incident may also find themselves in a mental health crisis and unable to emotionally or mentally cope with the effects of a disaster.

31

Vital Documents

Proper documentation can help you recover from a disaster.

After a disaster, you will need to document any property loss for insurance claims, income taxes, or when applying for financial assistance. Make sure you have access to documents needed to complete application forms to reduce delay and frustration.

Take photographs or a video of your home and its contents for insurance claim documentation.

Make a written inventory of your belongings including the purchase price and date. If possible copy receipts for major purchases.

If you have access to a computer, store your inventory information, along with copies of your vital documents, on disk, CD, DVD, a flash drive, or use an online storage service.

Make two sets of your important documents. Store each in a different place

(e.g., safe deposit box, or with your Out-of-Area Contact) so if one set is damaged, a second set will be available. Consider using password protection or encryption if you distribute sensitive information.

Important documents include:

☐ Personal identification

☐ Bank account numbers

☐ Important telephone numbers and addresses

☐ Medical, Medicare cards

☐ Wills, insurance policies, contracts, deeds, stocks, bonds

☐ Inventory and photographs of valuable household goods

☐ Family records (e.g. birth, marriage, divorce, death certificates)

☐ Professional licenses, credentials

☐ Prescription drug information including drug name, dosage, prescribing physician information

☐ Social Security numbers

☐ Title to vehicles

☐ Family photos

☐ Passports

☐ Credit card numbers, vendor name and phone numbers

☐ Tax returns and supporting documents

(7 years)

☐ Photos of yourself with your pet or service animal (to help locate lost animals and to prove ownership)

☐ A list of the model and serial number of medical devices

32

CORE I – Part One

Multi-Unit Buildings

Apartments, Condominiums, Lofts, and Townhouses

Governance for Renters and Owners

Apartments are usually rented or leased from an owner or management company. The rules and regulations that you must follow are in your lease or rental agreement.

Condominiums are generally owned by the resident, who must abide by the Bylaws and Codes,

Covenants and Restrictions (CC and R’s) determined and administered by the Board of Directors of the

Homeowners Association.

If you wish to make changes to your unit, such as bolting furniture to the walls, check first with the property manager or read the Bylaws of your Homeowners Association.

If you have questions about the structural integrity of your building, contact the owner, manager or

Board of Directors as appropriate.

Know Your Building

 Do a “walk-through” of your entire building to familiarize yourself with where you live.

 Locate all exits and fire extinguishers.

 Does the building have emergency lighting and if so, where is it?

 Locate the shutoffs for all utilities and find out who has access to them.

 Are there maps on each floor showing all available exits?

 While it is important for each individual to have some supplies, if space is limited in your unit, look for closets or small rooms in the building that might be used to store community emergency supplies. (You will need to ask for permission.)

Write down questions to ask the owners or Board of Directors such as:

 What measures have been taken to ensure the seismic safety of this building?

 Have water heaters been strapped to the wall studs?

 May I secure bookshelves and furniture to the walls?

On the web, go to http://resilience.abag.ca.gov/residents and take a quiz to see if your apartment building or condominium might need retrofitting. The website also has links to information that can help your landlord find appropriate ways to improve the strength of your building.

33

Part Two: Minimize Potential Hazards In

& Around Your Home

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Home and Family Preparedness

34

CORE I – Part Two

Home Hazards Overview

In an earthquake, fire or other incident, many items in the home can become hazards.

Take steps now to protect yourself and minimize the amount of damage to your property.

In each room of your home, look all around you to see what potential hazards you can find. Every home is different, but you may find some of these potential hazards: o

Kitchen: cabinet contents, appliances, chemicals o

Bathroom: cabinet contents, mirrors, chemicals o

Bedroom: pictures/mirrors, breakable objects, tall and/or heavy furniture (e.g. wardrobes, bookcases), electronic equipment o

Living Room/Family Room: tall and/or heavy furniture (e.g. bookcases, entertainment centers, display cabinets), pictures, electrical equipment, breakable objects, fireplaces o

Office: tall and/or heavy furniture (e.g. bookshelves, file cabinets), electrical equipment o

Garage/Basement: hot water heater, flammable materials o

Utility Room: large appliances, chemicals

Outside of your home, check:

 House and Curb Numbers

 Chimneys

 Roofs and Gutters

 Landscaping and Vegetation

 Standing Water

Condominium owners and renters should check CC&Rs and Bylaws, or with landlords before making changes to their units (e.g. bolting furniture to wall, latches on cupboards), but there are still many things that you can do to protect yourself.

35

CORE I – Part Two

Minimize Hazards

Around Your Home

In an earthquake, unsecured objects can fall or fly across the room causing damage and injury.

Hot Water Heater

If your water heater tips over or breaks in an earthquake it can cause injury, possible explosion, or fire if the gas line breaks. You can lose a valuable source of non-potable water and cause

flooding of the home or garage.

• Strap your water heater securely to the wall studs in two places with a water heater strapping system.

Use flexible gas and water connectors.

Large Gas and Electrical Appliances

Movement during an earthquake could pull on electrical cords, fraying them and creating a

potential for fire. Broken gas lines can cause explosions and/or fire.

Check electrical cords to make sure that they are long enough to allow for movement of up to a few feet.

SHUT-OFF VALVE

All gas appliances should have flexible connectors. Have a qualified professional replace all short, non- flexible gas lines or connectors with longer, flexible connectors.

FLEXIBLE

UTILITY

PIPING

UTILITY INLET

NOTE: REQUIRES PLUMBING EXPERIENCE,

ENGINEERING MAY BE REQUIRED

FOR LARGE DIAMETER PIPING

RIGID CONNECTION TO HEATER, WATER HEATER,

STOVE, OR OTHER EQUIPMENT

36

CORE I – Part Two

Minimize Hazards

Around Your Home

Cabinets

Kitchens and bathrooms can be dangerous areas during an earthquake. Be careful when opening

cabinet doors after an earthquake because items may have shifted and could tumble out.

• Lay soft rubber shelf covering on dish and canned good shelves.

Install strong latches or bolts on kitchen, laundry room and bathroom cabinets to keep the contents from flying or spilling-out.

Electronic Equipment

Heavy items can slide off tables or desks causing breakage and/or injuries.

• Secure computers, microwave ovens, stereos, and other items with fasteners or straps such as hook-and-loop tape.

An alternative is to build a rim around table or shelf edges.

Hanging Plants/Lamps

Hanging plants and lamps might swing and break a window, mirror or picture during an earthquake.

Move hanging items away from glass.

Make sure they can swing freely without hitting anything.

37

CORE I – Part Two

Minimize Hazards

Around Your Home

Heavy Breakable Objects

Heavy breakable items can become flying objects during an earthquake and may cause injury.

Secure vases, lamps and art objects with two-sided hook fasteners or with products such as quake (museum) wax or gel which are designed to secure items to flat surfaces.

Pictures and Mirrors

The shaking of an earthquake can cause pictures to “jump” off walls

and break the glass into sharp shards.

Fasten large pictures and mirrors securely by hanging them with a wire on a closed or “maze” hook.

Use clear acrylic plastic instead of glass to cover pictures.

Avoid having glass and heavy objects around or over your bed.

Tall and Heavy Furniture

Top-heavy furniture such as bookshelves, entertainment centers or dressers can tip over during an earthquake causing injury or damage. Large pieces of furniture, such as pianos or trunks, can move

across a room or smash into a wall, especially if they are on wheels.

To keep large furniture from falling over, securely fasten bookcases, file cabinets or curio cabinets to the wall studs with metal “L” brackets, cable straps or specially designed flexible hook-and-loop straps that allow slight movement during an earthquake.

Place nonslip coaster cups under furniture “feet” where appropriate.

Check your local hardware or earthquake supply store for fasteners and instructions.

38

CORE I – Part Two

Minimize Hazards

Around Your Home

Household Chemicals

During an earthquake, containers of household chemicals can tip over and spill, causing potentially dangerous conditions. Some household chemicals are flammable or corrosive and when mixed

together, can produce toxic fumes or cause a fire.

You can protect yourself from household chemical emergencies using the acronym

L.I.E.S.:

L

imit the amount of hazardous materials in storage.

I

solate products in approved containers. Store chemicals in their original containers in a shallow pan on a low shelf or inside cupboards that can be securely latched to limit possible leaking, splashing or dripping. Protect the products from sources of ignition.

E

liminate products that you no longer need. Dispose of them properly. Household

Hazardous Waste can be dropped off in Oakland for free. Go to www.StopWaste.org or call

1-877-STOPWASTE for drop off schedules.

S

eparate incompatible materials (e.g., chlorine products and ammonia). Store incompatible materials in different locations or store in separate containers.

Read the labels on all products, and follow the safety precautions recommended by the manufacturers.

If you do have a potentially dangerous spill, open the windows and turn on fans. Evacuate if

necessary.

39

CORE I – Part Two

Minimize Hazards

Around Your Home

Make sure that first responders can find you and minimize hazards outside of your home.

House and Curb Numbers

1605

• Provide street address numbers on your building/structure that are clearly visible from the roadside both day and night.

The required minimum height is 4 inches.

• If you live in a heavily wooded area, you can paint your address on the roof so it is visible from the air.

Roofs and Gutters

Replace wood roofs and gutters with Class A fire resistant materials at the earliest opportunity.

Chimneys

Chimneys damaged by shaking from an earthquake can fall and cause injury. Buildup of residue or

cracks in a chimney can cause a house fire.

Have chimneys frequently cleaned and inspected for cracks by a qualified professional.

People who use a lot of pressed-wood fireplace logs should clean their chimneys annually.

Screen chimneys and stovepipes with a spark arrester.

For specific information about chimney and fire safety, contact the

City of Oakland Fire Prevention Bureau at 510-238-3851.

Overhanging Structures with Exposed Undersides

Heat and flames intensify under overhanging structures such as

eaves, balconies, decks, and projecting floors.

• Enclose, cover or skirt overhanging structures with fire- resistant sheathing to keep fire out from under these areas.

40

CORE I – Part Two

Minimize Hazards

Around Your Home

Storm Drains

To prevent flooding, keep storm drains cleared of debris or call the City of Oakland Public Works

Agency at 510-615-5566 to report problems. Find out how you can participate in the “Adopt-a-Drain” program by calling 238-7630 or visit www.oaklandpw.com

.

Landscaping and Vegetation Management

Heavy, overgrown brush, weeds, or dry grass around your house increases the probability that fire

could destroy your home. Unstable trees can fall in severe weather or earthquakes.

• California law requires homeowners to maintain a 30 to 100 foot defensible space around all buildings and structures, depending on property slopes and height of trees.

Clear vegetation from around your home.

Group your landscaping into distinct areas.

• Include gravel or stone walkways to make fuel breaks.

Keep landscape watered and ground cover trimmed because fire can travel up brush “ladders” to treetops or roofs.

Keep roofs and gutters free of leaves, needles and other dead/dying wood.

Eliminate highly flammable trees and shrubs, such as those with high oil or resin content or with little moisture in their leaves, needles, and branches (e.g., Scotch Broom, Eucalyptus, Acacia,

Monterey Pine, and Juniper).

Remove portions of trees that are within 10 feet of your house, chimney or stovepipe outlets.

Remove tree limbs six to ten feet from the ground depending on the size of the tree.

Trim tree branches to keep them from growing near overhead power lines.

41

CORE I – Part Two

Minimize Hazards

Around Your Home

Landscaping and Vegetation Management

(continued)

Check trees for signs of damage (e.g., root rot, freeze, pests, bark beetles, dead branches).

Remove all dead or dying vegetation from your property.

Store firewood away from your home.

Call the Oakland Fire Prevention Bureau, Vegetation Management Unit at

510-238-7388 for current guidelines.

Standing Water

Protect yourself from mosquito bites and the possibility of West Nile Virus.

Drain all sources of standing water that support mosquito breeding.

Avoid spending time outside when mosquitoes are most active.

Apply insect repellent according to label instructions.

• When outdoors, wear long pants and long sleeved shirts.

Install screens on your doors and windows.

For more information, contact the

Alameda County Mosquito Abatement District

online at www.mosquitoes.org or call 510-783 7744.

42

CORE I – Part Two

Minimize Hazards

Around Your Home

General Safety Tips

Store fireplace and barbecue ashes in a metal bucket to cool for several days. Stir the ashes to make sure they are cold before you dispose of them.

• Equip motorized garden tools with spark arresters.

• Do not store flammables such as gasoline in open or breakable containers.

• Keep all objects away from overhead power lines.

Keep fire suppression tools available, such as:

Garden hoses connected to each of the outdoor faucets around the perimeter of your property

A rake, axe, handsaw, bucket, and shovel that can be used to create firebreaks around your defensible space

43

CORE I – Part Two

Evaluate Your Home for

Seismic (Earthquake) Safety

Quiz

Take this Structural Safety Quiz for a Single Family Home or Duplex

If you live in a single-family home or duplex, the strength of your home depends on when it was built, its style of construction, and its location.

1.

When was your home built

?

Before 1960 = 5 points

1960-1978 = 3 points

1978-1996 = 1point

2.

How tall is your home?

2 or more stories with living areas above a garage = 5 points

Split-level, on a hillside or gentle slope = 6 points

3 or more steps up to the front door = 4 points

Less than 3 steps up to the front door = 1 point

3.

How hard is the ground likely to shake under your home?

All parts of Oakland = 7 points

Total Points =

If your home scores 13 or more points on the quiz, you should have a structural engineer, architect, or contractor who specializes in seismic retrofitting evaluate it. They can help you identify potential structural hazards.

The Structural Safety Quiz and illustration are courtesy of the USGS,

“Putting Down Roots in Earthquake Country.”

44

CORE I – Part Two

Evaluate Your Home for

Seismic (Earthquake) Safety

Earthquake Safety

Ask the following questions:

 Does your home have enough bolts connecting the sill plate to the foundation?

 Is there plywood (sheer wall) on the inside surface of the crawl space extending from the sill plate to the base of the floor joist above to prevent the wall studs from collapsing?

 Are there metal brackets connecting the rim joists to the top plates?

 Is the ground floor a large open space lacking interior walls (weak or “soft” story)?

 Are there large openings between the walls of the lower story, such as a garage door, that should be better braced? These weak or “soft” first stories may lean or collapse in an earthquake.

 Is your home built into a hillside and not adequately designed to withstand strong earthquake shaking?

 Are any past renovations structurally sound and are room additions securely attached?

 Are porches and balconies securely attached?

 Has the house been weakened from settling (especially crucial on sloping sites)?

 Is pest damage or wood decay undermining the structural integrity?

Select a licensed engineer or contractor with experience in seismic work. Check references and call the Contractors’ State License Board (see number below) to check the work record.

If you want to learn how to do some of the work yourself, you can obtain brochures and other

material from:

Building Education Center............................................................................. 510-525-7610

California Contractors’ State License Board ............................................... 800-321-2752

Check the ABAG (Association of Bay Area Governments) website for more information on making your home safer: http://www.abag.ca.gov/bayarea/eqmaps/fixit/fixit.html or call 510-464-790

45

Part Three: Have Emergency Supplies

Home and Family Preparedness

46

CORE I – Part Three

Emergency Supplies Overview

After a major earthquake or other disaster, it usually takes about 3 days for agencies from outside of

the affected area to begin to arrive with assistance for the most urgent life safety situations.

Plan to be self-sufficient, with enough supplies to last at least 7 to 10 days after a disaster

occurs.

Immediately after an earthquake, there may be no electricity, water, gas, home phone service, medical aid, or stores where you can buy supplies. The better prepared you are, the better you will be able to help your family and neighbors.

Basic supplies you should have in the event of an emergency:

Water

- Reference pages 47-48

Food

- Reference page 49

First Aid Supplies

- Reference page 50

Tools and Supplies

- Reference page 51

Personal Items

- Reference page 52

Pet & Services Animal Items

- Reference page 53-54

Mini Survival Kits

- Reference page 55

Place supplies needed for evacuation in an easy-to-carry container, or

“Go-Bag”.

These supplies are marked with an asterisk (*) on the next few pages. Each home

is unique and there is not one “best” place to keep your emergency supplies.

Store supplies in a places that are:

 Seismically safe

 Accessible

 Dry and cool

Look for closets or rooms on each floor of your building in which to store community supplies. Once you locate building common areas for storage, ask for permission.

47

CORE I – Part Three

Water

Water is the most important life-saving item you can store.

Storage

Water is safe to drink only if it is tap water that you have properly sealed and stored in airtight containers or if it is purchased, bottled water.

 Store two gallons of water per person per day. Keep a 7 – 10 day supply of water for each person in your home. Store additional water for your pets and service animals.

 Store two gallons of purchased distilled water for any person with chronic health problems, including a weakened immune system.

 Store tap water in clean, food-grade plastic or stainless steel containers. Do not store water in used plastic milk containers as these tend to leak.

 Place containers in a cool accessible location that is secure from animals. Avoid storing the water in a garage or an attic where it can get too hot.

Replace your stored tap water every six months and label the containers with the date stored. Change the water when you reset your clocks to Daylight Savings or Standard Time.

Use the old water for washing or for your plants.

 Specially sealed, airtight pouches of water may be stored up to five years.

 Check the label for the expiration date. These water pouches can be purchased where earthquake supplies are sold.

 Earthquake supply outlets have large-capacity barrels for storing water using a preservative to safely keep the water for up to 5 years.

Water Purification

It will be necessary to treat your stored water if:

 Labels show the water has been stored longer than six months

 The water has an unusual odor.

 The container is leaking.

 The seal does not appear to be airtight.

 You have any concerns about the water’s safety.

If there is sediment in

the water, first strain the water through a cheesecloth, a sheet, coffee filters or any clean porous material.

Next treat the water by boiling or use chlorine .

48

CORE I – Part Three

Water

Boiling

Boiling is the preferred method of purification. Bring water to a rolling boil for at least 3 minutes. Let it cool, then it should be safe to drink the water or use it to prepare food.

Stir the water to replace oxygen and make it taste better. If you are still not sure about the safety of the water, treat it with chlorine.

Chlorine (Bleach)

 Use only regular, unscented, liquid, household bleach to kill most bacteria in your water.

 Be sure the label states that sodium hypochlorite is the only active ingredient.

 Do not use scented bleach, color-safe bleach or bleach with added cleaners.

Use a measuring spoon or medicine dropper to add ¼ teaspoon or 16 drops of bleach to each gallon of cloudy water. Shake or stir the water and let it stand for 30 minutes. A slight chlorine taste and smell is normal, safe and expected. If you cannot taste or smell some chlorine, treat again or do not drink the water.

After using this method to purify your water, you can improve the taste by pouring the water back and forth between two clean containers or by stirring it.

Ratios for Purifying Water in Bleach

Water Quantity Bleach Added to Cloudy Water Bleach Added to Clear Water

1 quart 4 drops 2 drops

1 gallon 16 drops, or ¼ teaspoon 8 drops

5 gallons 1 teaspoon ½ teaspoon

Water Purification tablets are also available at camping stores but have a limited shelf life.

Emergency Sources of Non-Potable (Not Drinkable) Water

Water from the swimming pool or hot tub can be used with soap for washing down surfaces, cleaning tools, and washing your body.

If you run out of purified drinking water, you can use the water from your water heater by following these steps:

1. Turn off the gas or electricity to the water heater.

2. Shut off the water inlet to prevent contaminated water from entering the tank.

3. Strain the water to remove sediment by pouring it through a clean cloth, cheesecloth or coffee filters, etc.

4. If the water has been contaminated, purify the water following the directions above.

49

CORE I – Part Three

Food

Store at least a 7 - 10 day supply of non-perishable food.

Select foods that:

 Need little or no refrigeration or cooking

 Are compact and light weight

 Do not need to have water added

 You like to eat

 Have a long shelf-life

Suggested Foods

 Canned meats, fish, beans, fruits, vegetables, juices, soup, and milk (canned or powdered)

 High-energy foods such as peanut butter and jelly, crackers, granola bars, trail mix, and nuts

 Comfort foods such as cookies, hard candy, cereal, and instant coffee or tea

 Canned or jarred baby food and formula

General Tips

 Most emergency food should be stored in a cool and dry place at 40º to 60ºF.

 Store food in airtight, sealed plastic or metal containers. Take precautions to keep out insects and rodents.

 If you store cans, don’t forget to include a can opener in your supplies.

 Use a permanent marking pen to write the purchase date on each package. Rotate your supplies every 6 to 12 months to keep them fresh.

 Do not store food near gasoline, oil or petroleum products because the odor can be absorbed into the food.

 If the electricity goes out, the food in your refrigerator will stay cold for up to 24 hours with the door closed. If it is still in good condition, eat the perishable food in the refrigerator first. Eat the food from the freezer next. Frozen food is safe if it still has ice crystals in the center. Then eat the non-perishable food in the cupboard or your emergency supplies.

 Consider food storage for people with dietary needs, and for pets and service animals.

50

First Aid Supplies

Assemble a complete First Aid Kit for your home and a smaller one for each car.

Items marked with an asterisk (*) are suggested for an evacuation kit or “Go-bag.”

Items in your home’s first aid kit should include

:

Antiseptic*

☐ Sterile adhesive bandages in assorted sizes*

Sterile gauze pads (6+)

Triangular bandages (3)

☐ Cleansing agent*, soap, hydrogen peroxide

☐ Magnifier

Hypo-allergenic adhesive tape

☐ Scissors

☐ Tweezers

☐ Instant hot and cold packs

☐ Ace bandage

☐ Needle

☐ Thermometer

☐ Hand purifier

☐ First aid manual*

(see the free “First Aid and

Survival Guide” in the phone book white pages)

☐ Latex or non-latex gloves

*

(2 pairs)

☐ Sunscreen*

*

(waterless cleaner)

☐ Fluids with electrolytes

☐ Insect repellent*

☐ Assorted sizes of safety pins

☐ Moistened towelettes

☐ Prescription drugs

*

(keep copies of prescriptions, contact information for the prescribing physician and pharmacy)

☐ Sterile saline solution to wash burns

☐ Feminine napkins for bleeding wounds

If you or someone in your family requires special medication, be sure to have a 14-day supply.

In addition, keep a supply of:

 Nonprescription drugs

 Pain reliever

 Vitamins

 Anti-diarrheal medication

 Antacid for upset stomach

 Laxative

Mark medications with the date acquired and check expiration dates of all items.

51

CORE I – Part Three

Tools and Supplies

Having the right tools and supplies can be essential.

Items marked with an asterisk (*) are suggested for an evacuation kit or “Go-bag.”

Suggested items are:

☐ Battery-operated, solar or crank radio*

☐ Flashlight *

☐ Extra batteries *

☐ Light sticks *

☐ Work gloves with leather palms*

☐ Shovel

☐ Crowbar

☐ Pliers

☐ Duct tape*

☐ Plastic sheeting

☐ Signal flare

☐ Tent or tarp with clothes pins

☐ Rope

☐ Camp stove, BBQ or grill, and fuel

☐ Compass

☐ Paper cups, plates, plastic utensils *

☐ Map of area (for location of shelters and services when announced) *

☐ Plastic storage containers and zipper bags

☐ Sewing kit, needles, thread

☐ Fire extinguisher (Type A-B-C)

☐ Shutoff tools for gas and water

☐ Multipurpose knife or scissors

☐ Nonelectric can opener

☐ Matches (waterproof)

☐ Tissues, toilet paper, moist towelettes*

☐ Paper, pencils and pens*

☐ Soap, liquid detergent

☐ 5-gallon buckets with lids

☐ Garbage bags with ties*

☐ Aluminum foil

☐ CORE manuals *

☐ Medicine dropper

☐ Whistle*

☐ Cash (small bills and coins) & credit card*

☐ Identification and proof of current residence

☐ Essential consumable medical supplies

(CMS)*

☐ Essential durable medical equipment

(DME) such as wheelchairs, transfer lifts, commode and shower chairs

52

CORE I – Part Three

Personal Items

Include at least one complete change of clothing and footwear per person.

Items marked with an asterisk (*) are suggested for an evacuation kit or “Go-Bag.”

Pack the following items:

 Sturdy shoes or work boots *

 Long pants, long-sleeve shirt (natural fiber) *

 Hat, cap*

 Heavy work gloves *

 Rain gear *

 Dust mask and eye protection *

 Blankets or sleeping bags *

 Thermal Underwear

 Sunglasses *

Remember family members who may have specific needs, such as infants, older adults

or persons with disabilities.

Items marked with an asterisk (*) are suggested for an evacuation kit or “

Go-Bag

.”

Adults

☐ Prescription drugs (including a list of all medications and contact information for your prescribing doctor and pharmacy)*

☐ Dental needs, dentures*

☐ Contact lenses, supplies*

Infants and Children

☐ Disposable diapers*

☐ Powdered milk, formula*

☐ Bottles*

☐ Extra eyeglasses or the prescription*

☐ Extra cane*

☐ Hearing-aid batteries*

☐ Personal hygiene, sanitary supplies *

☐ Medications*

☐ Special foods*

☐ Toys, stuffed animals, games, comfort items, blankets*

53

CORE I – Part Three

Pet & Service Animal Items

Remember your pets and service animals have needs too.

 Always keep a collar and ID tag on all of your animals, including indoor-only pets.

 Ask your veterinarian about placing a microchip in your pet or service animal in case you are separated from him/her during a disaster. (Microchips are now required for all dogs and are recommended for all cats.) Microchips will enable swift identification and may reunite you with your service animal more quickly.

 Store a 7-10 day supply of animal food, water, dishes, litter and box in your home.

 Store a crate or carrier and make sure your animal is comfortable using it. Animals may behave differently in an emergency such as hiding, fleeing, cowering, or displaying unusual aggression. Protect your animal by controlling or confining it until its stress level diminishes.

 Create a network with your family, friends and neighbors of people who know your animal and may be able to help you take care of him/her during an emergency. Keep these individuals’ contact information with your other emergency information, and make sure they know where your animal’s go-bag is located.

Service animals are not pets.

A service animal is a dog that has been individually trained to perform tasks for the benefit of an individual with a disability. Trained miniature horses are permitted as an alternative to dogs.

 Individuals with disabilities are permitted by law to be accompanied by their service animals in public facilities. Service animals are permitted in all areas of shelters that residents are permitted to go, including sleeping, bathing, feeding and canteen areas.

 Your service animal may become confused, frightened or disoriented during an emergency. They may not be able to perform the tasks they typically do for you. Keep leashes and harnesses near the front door. Should you need to evacuate with a service animal that is not responding, keep your dog on a leash or harness.

 Be prepared to use alternative ways to navigate your environment. Practice evacuation with and without the assistance of your service animal.

54

CORE I – Part Three

Pet & Service Animal Items

Pet and Service Animal Evacuations

In the event of an evacuation, the best thing you can do to protect your pets and service animal is to take them with you. Animals left behind, even if you try to

create a safe place for them, may become injured or lost.

Prepare now in case you need to evacuate with your animals.

Get a Rescue Alert Sticker to let responders know that animals live in your home in case you are not home. Post it near the front door. The sticker can be ordered at no charge through the

ASPCA on their website http://www.aspca.org/form/free-pet-safety-pack

Assemble a portable disaster supply kit in case you need to evacuate with your animal. The portable kit should include the following: o

Water and food for 7-10 days o

Foldable bowls for food and water o

Animal treats o

Contact information for your veterinarian o

Contact information for individuals to assist you with your service animal o

Plastic bags and other sanitation items such as litter and box that fits the carrier o

Carriers or crates for all animals. A crate lets your service animal have a space of its own in a public shelter. o

Contact information labels on your carriers or animal crates o

Proof of vaccinations o

Medical record and list of any recent medical problems o

Prescription medications for your service animal o

Photos of you and your service animal with their name, gender and description on the back – photos can help prove you are the handler of your service animal if you become separated during the incident

 If you evacuate with your dog in a car, bring a leash.

Identify a safe place to take your pets. Service animals assisting persons with disabilities are generally the only animals allowed in disaster shelters.

 Alternate Animal Shelter Sites will be set up close to human shelters. Listen to radio broadcasts for information and locations.

Plan in advance for shelter alternatives that will work for both you and your pets.

Leaving without your animals should occur only in extreme cases. If it is not safe for you to stay, it is not safe for animals either. You may not be permitted to return for them for many days.

For more detailed information on preparing your animal for a disaster, contact the Emergency

Management Services Division to request a copy of the Pet Preparedness Packet, A “How-to Guide”.

Call 238-6351, email [email protected]

, or download it directly from the CORE website: www.oaklandcore.org

.

55

CORE I – Part Three

Mini Survival Kits for Car,

Work and Under Bed

You may not be at home when a disaster strikes. Keep a small emergency supply kit, or

“Go-Bag”, in your car and at your workplace to help you survive until you can get home.

Some supplies you might include are:

☐ Comfortable, flat, sturdy, closed-toe shoes

☐ Cash (small bills and coins), credit card

☐ Small First Aid Kit and manual

☐ Small tool kit

☐ Snacks

☐ Water

☐ Toilet paper, tissues, zipper bags

☐ Fire extinguisher (A-B-C type)

☐ Flares

☐ Mylar blanket

☐ Personal identification, health care card ☐ Medication

☐ Copies of important documents from page 32 ☐ Whistle

☐ Emergency contact list with phone numbers

☐ An extra set of car keys and house keys

☐ Identification numbers, records for each pet

☐ Heavy gloves

☐ Dust Mask

☐ AM/FM radio

☐ Map of the area & places you could go

☐ A back-up pair of eyeglasses

☐ Flashlight and/or light stick

☐ Paper, pen and pencils

☐ Extra batteries

☐ Trash Bags

☐ Duct Tape

Place the following items in a bag under your bed, attached to the bed frame:

☐ A pair of sturdy shoes

☐ A set of clothing

☐ A light stick or sealed flashlight

☐ A small crowbar

☐ A whistle

56

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57

Part Four: Learn What To Do During and After a Disaster

Home and Family Preparedness

58

CORE I – Part Four

Types of Disasters

Disasters and emergencies come in many different forms. Know how to respond to

each different situation.

In this section you will learn about the difference between Evacuation and Shelter-in-Place protocol, and how to safely respond to the following types of disasters:

Earthquakes

Fires

Winter Storms

Heat Waves

Hazardous Materials Incidents

Infectious Disease Outbreaks

Terrorists Events

Tsunamis

59

CORE I – Part Four

Should You Evacuate or Shelter-in-Place?

Depending on the hazard or incident, it may not be clear whether you should

evacuate or shelter-in-place (if time and location permit).

Listen for Emergency Alert announcements on the radio for instructions from

Emergency Management professionals who are evaluating the incident.

Evacuation

An earthquake, fire, landslide, flood, hazardous materials incident, or gas leak may

force you to evacuate from your neighborhood.

Plan Ahead

The best time to plan for an evacuation is now. Make sure that all people who regularly spend time in your home (e.g., childcare providers, domestic help, visitors, relatives) know your evacuation plan.

 Have emergency supplies (e.g., food, water, first aid kits, fire extinguishers, important documents, maps) easily accessible to take with you.

 Know where utility shut-off valves are located and be sure that everyone knows how to use them.

Remember to keep your gas tank at least half full.

If the power is out, gas station pumps will not work.

To escape from your home:

 Be familiar with the primary exits from each room, such as doors and windows.

 If your home has more than one level, know the location of and how to use escape ladders and ropes.

 Count the doors to all exits in case you can’t see in smoke-filled hallways.

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CORE I – Part Four

Should You Evacuate or Shelter-in-Place?

Know Your Area

Explore the neighborhood to plan evacuation routes. The most familiar route may be impassable.

To evacuate from your neighborhood:

 Create a detailed map with primary evacuation routes highlighted, especially important in the hills where roads can be difficult to find and follow.

 To evacuate by car, locate at least two primary street evacuation routes leading in different directions away from your neighborhood. Assess the routes for potential dangers and obstacles like downed trees, power lines or overpasses that could collapse.

 To evacuate by foot, plan at least two routes away from your home. Include hiking trails, bicycle paths, or routes using neighbors’ yards.

 If flooding or a landslide threatens, know the safest evacuation routes away from your home or office to higher ground.

In an emergency you may not have time to figure out what you want to save, so it is important to

consider these questions ahead of time:

1. If you have less than five minutes to evacuate, what are the most important things you would take with you?

2. Where are these things located? Make and post a list where it is easily accessible.

3. What can you use to carry these things? Pillow case, duffel bag, suitcase?

4. If you had one hour, what additional items would you want to take?

If You Are Told to Evacuate Because of a Hazardous Materials Incident:

 Take your wallet and any medicine you might need during the next 72 hours or longer.

Cover your mouth and nose with a wet dish towel or cloth.

Wear safety goggles if you have them.

 Evacuate by car if possible. Close the car windows and vents. Turn off the air conditioning.

Be aware that smoke from fires might contain hazardous materials.

61

CORE I – Part Four

Should You Evacuate or Shelter-in-Place?

Shelter-in-Place

You may hear instructions to “Shelter-in-Place” to protect yourself and your family members from toxic materials or fumes from a hazardous materials release or from a potential explosion.

Shelter:

Get household members and pets inside as quickly as possible.

Shut:

Close and lock all exterior doors and windows. Close vents, fireplace dampers, and interior doors.

Turn off air conditioners and ventilation systems.

In large buildings the person in charge of building maintenance should set all ventilation systems to 100 percent internal recirculation so that no outside air is drawn into the building. If this is not possible, ventilation systems should be turned off.

Go into a preselected safe room. Take a battery-powered radio, water, food, sanitary supplies, a flashlight, and your disaster supply kit. Store precut plastic sheeting for windows and vents, duct tape, modeling clay for sealing cracks, and a towel for under the door in this room.

Cover windows, doors, vents, exhaust fans, light switches, and electrical outlets with plastic sheeting or garbage bags with tape around all edges to form a continuous seal. Seal cracks or holes such as around pipes with modeling clay or tape.

Listen:

Listen to the Emergency Alert Radio Broadcast stations for instructions.

Siren Alert and Warning System

The City of Oakland has installed emergency sirens along the Interstate

880 corridor and along Highway 13 in the hills. These sirens will be activated to alert the public about impending hazards and emergencies.

When you hear the sirens take shelter indoors, shut all windows and ventilation; and listen to KCBS 740 AM for instructions.

The Siren Alert and Warning System is tested at noon on the first

Wednesday of each month.

62

CORE I – Part Four

Should You Evacuate or Shelter-in-Place?

Shelter-in-Place

(continued)

During a hazardous materials incident, follow these additional precautions when sheltering in place

:

Remain in the safe room listening to emergency broadcasts on the radio until authorities advise you to leave your shelter.

 If authorities warn of a possible outdoor explosion, close all drapes, curtains, and shades in

the room. Stay away from windows to prevent injury from breaking glass.

 When authorities advise people in your area that it is safe to leave their “safe rooms,” open all doors and windows and turn on air conditioning and ventilation systems. This will help flush out any chemicals that infiltrated the building.

 If you think chemical fumes have entered your home, cover your mouth and nose with a wet cloth. You may need to move to a different room or evacuate, depending on the circumstances.

Call 911 only to report life-threatening emergencies, including hazardous materials entering your home.

Be aware that the expression “shelter-in-place” is sometimes used to indicate that you can remain in your home, rather than go to a public shelter site, as long as your home is safe. After an earthquake, for example, if your home does not have serious damage you may decide to stay in your home. Whether you evacuate or shelter-in-place, you will want to have your emergency supplies available for your use.

63

CORE I – Part Four

Earthquakes

During an Earthquake

When the ground begins to shake, stay calm.

If you are inside a building when you feel an earthquake, Drop, Cover and Hold On.

DROP to the ground.

Seek COVER under a sturdy desk or table to protect yourself from falling objects.

Stay Away from:

Windows

HOLD ON so you move with the desk or table. Stay there until the shaking stops.

Bookcases

File cabinets

Alternative Methods for

Persons with Disabilities:

☐ Stay in your wheelchair or scooter other device to help you walk, drop to the floor and crawl toward the nearest exit. Drag your mobility aid behind you to ensure that you will have it once you reach a safe area.

☐ Practice these evacuation methods

Refrigerators during an emergency unless escape with your mobility device is impossible.

If you must attempt evacuation without your mobility device and you have the ability to crawl or pull yourself on the ground, drop to the floor and make your way toward the nearest exit.

If there is smoke or fire, lean forward as far as possible in your wheelchair or scooter to get your head near the ground. Cover your mouth and nose with a shirt or other cloth if you can.

Move safely toward the nearest exit.

☐ If you use a walker, crutches, cane or

Swinging doors

Heavy mirrors or pictures

Hanging plants and consider how you will open doors or windows from the floor.

☐ If there is an earthquake, stay in your

Heavy objects that could fall

Unsecured cabinets

Fireplaces

Do not run outside during an earthquake – your chance of being hit by falling objects and being

injured increases. wheelchair or scooter. Move away from tall furniture or items that may come detached from the walls. Cover your head and neck with your arms and hands. If you are unable to cover your head and neck to protect from falling debris, try to move toward a doorway or hallway to provide protection.

64

CORE I – Part Four

Earthquakes

During an Earthquake

(continued)

Tips for Specific Locations:

 If you are in a high-rise and not near a desk or table, move against an interior wall, crouch or sit down, and protect your head and neck with your arms. Do not use the elevators. Do not be surprised if the fire alarm or sprinkler system is activated.

 If you are outdoors, move to a clear area away from trees, signs, buildings, overhead or downed electrical wires and poles.

 If you are on a sidewalk near tall buildings such as in a downtown area, take shelter in a doorway or inside a building to protect yourself from falling bricks, glass, plaster or other debris.

 If you are driving, turn on your emergency flashers, pull over to the side of the road, and stop in a safe place. Avoid overpasses, power lines and other hazards. Stay inside the vehicle until the shaking stops.

 If you are in a crowded store or other public building, do not rush for the exits. Move away from glass store windows and display shelves containing objects that could fall.

 If you are in bed, stay there. Get under the covers and put a pillow over your head.

 If you are in a wheelchair, stay in it. Move to cover if possible, lock your wheels, and protect your head and neck with your arms.

 If you are in a stadium or theater, stay in your seat, lean forward and protect your head and neck with your arms. Do not try to leave until the shaking stops, and then you should leave in a calm, orderly manner.

 If no cover is available, sit with your back against an interior wall. Make yourself as small as possible and cover your head and neck with your hands and arms.

65

CORE I – Part Four

Earthquakes

After an Earthquake

Be prepared for aftershocks and plan where you will take cover when they occur.

When the Shaking Stops:

 Take a moment to collect yourself, breathe, and remember your training.

 Check yourself and the people around you for injuries. Provide Disaster First Aid if necessary.

 Do not strike a match, light a fire, turn on light switches, use a flashlight, or use a cell phone until you are sure there are no gas leaks.

 If it is dark use a light stick to look for dangerous conditions such as gas leaks or structural damage. If you need help, make as much noise as possible to attract attention. Use a whistle or bang on something with your hand or another object.

Take Care of Problems:

If you detect a gas leak, turn off the gas valve immediately. Ventilate the rooms if possible and go outside. Remember, once you turn off the gas it is never safe to turn it back on yourself. Only PG&E (1-800-743-5000) or a licensed plumber can safely turn on the gas once it has been turned off.

Locate your emergency supplies and put your disaster plan into action.

Refer to your CORE manual and the AT&T phone book White Pages “First Aid and Survival Guide.”

Listen to your battery-powered radio for emergency information and instructions on

KCBS, 740 AM, KNBR, 680 AM, or KGO, 810 AM.

Look for smoke. If it is safe to do so, extinguish small fires.

If electrical cords are severed or damaged, turn off the electricity at the fuse or circuit breaker box.

Disconnect the damaged cords, then turn the electricity back on.

If there is a water leak, turn off the water at the home’s main water shutoff valve.

Check around your building for cracks or damage to the foundation, roof and chimney. If there is obvious damage, do not enter the building until it has been checked for structural soundness.

Hang up the receiver on all phones at your location. Avoid using the telephone except to report life-threatening emergencies. If the lines are not working, try your cellular phone from the highest possible location or use a pay phone. You can also try sending a text message.

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CORE I – Part Four

Fires

Before a Fire

Small fires can grow quickly. Have a fire extinguisher and know how to use it.

 An A-B-C type extinguisher should be easily accessible on each floor of the home, in any garage or workroom and near the kitchen. Make sure everyone in the house, including childcare providers and guests, know where extinguishers are located and how to use them.

 Check the pressure gauge and inspect fire extinguishers at least twice a year (when you change your clocks at

Daylight Savings and Standard time). If the pointer is not in the green area, the extinguisher will not work properly.

Types of Fires

A:

wood, cloth, rubber, plastic

B:

oil, grease and gasoline

C

: electrical equipment

D

: combustible metals (unlikely in

most home environments)

 To prolong the useful life of your extinguisher, when you check the pressure gauge, turn the extinguisher upside-down a couple of times to mix the dry chemicals inside.

 Fire extinguishers in commercial establishments and multi-unit buildings must be inspected annually. Fire extinguishers in private residences should be recharged or replaced annually.

 If your fire extinguisher has been discharged, even for just a few seconds, it must be recharged by a qualified professional or replaced as soon as possible.

 Practice using old or partially discharged extinguishers by discharging outdoors into a box.

 Dispose of your old fire extinguishers properly by taking them to your local Hazardous Waste disposal site. Do not put them in the garbage.

 Take further CORE training to learn when and how use a fire extinguisher.

Using a fire-extinguisher

“Pass” the fire-extinguisher please!

P

- Pull out the safety pin at the top of the extinguisher

A

- Aim toward the base of the fire.

S

- Squeeze the handle of the extinguisher.

S

- Sweep from side to side until the fire goes out.

Some multi-unit buildings may have only type “A” or water extinguishers, and a fire hose in the hallways. Make sure that you have an “A-B-C” type extinguisher in your unit.

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CORE I – Part Four

Fires

Know the location of all exits (doors and windows) from each room in your home. If escape

ladders and ropes are necessary, keep them easily accessible and learn how to use them.

During a Fire

Get everyone, including your pets, out of the building quickly and safely.

Once you are outside, stay out of the building.

Remember:

Do not open any door without first testing it from bottom to top with the back of your hand to see if the door is hot. If it is hot, do not open the door. Get out another way if possible.

If the room or hallway is already filled with smoke, cover your mouth and crawl on your hands and knees under the smoke. Heat rises, so cleaner air will be near the floor.

Cover your head and shoulders with a wet towel or blanket to help protect you from smoke or flying embers.

Once outside, do not re-enter the building. Call the fire department (911) from the nearest phone. You do not need coins to call 911 from a pay phone. From your cell phone, in Oakland, call 510-444-1616.

If your clothes catch on fire, Stop, Drop and Roll until the flames are extinguished. Cover your face with your hands as you roll. Remove clothing and jewelry immediately and cool burned skin with cool water. Seek medical attention.

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CORE I – Part Four

Fires

When A Fast-Moving Fire Threatens Your Home

Prepare to evacuate:

☐ Listen to emergency broadcast radio stations KCBS, 740 AM; KNBR, 680 AM; or KGO, 810 AM for updates on the fire’s direction and the safest escape routes.

☐ Locate the map with your primary evacuation routes already highlighted. Having your map ready is especially important in areas where roads can be difficult to find and follow.

Identify several evacuation routes going in different directions away from your neighborhood. Your route might include hiking trails, bicycle paths, or gates through a neighbor’s yard.

☐ Move your car off the street so that you don’t block emergency vehicles.

☐ Park with the front of the car facing the street for a quick escape. Shut the doors and roll up the windows.

☐ Begin assembling your irreplaceable possessions (e.g., photo albums, original art, medications, address book, vital documents). Choose these items ahead of time.

☐ Confine your pets so they don’t run away and so that you can bring them with you if you need to leave quickly.

☐ Arrange temporary housing at a friend’s or relative’s home outside the threatened area.

☐ Go to one of the predetermined places near your home and wait to meet your family.

☐ If the roads out of your neighborhood become impassable due to abandoned vehicles or the approaching fire, evacuate on foot or bicycle using trails.

Before leaving your house, but only If time permits:

☐ Shut-off utilities.

☐ Close windows, vents and doors.

☐ Remove flammable window coverings and move other flammable items away from the windows into the center of the room.

☐ Open the fireplace damper, and close the screen.

☐ Let people know you are okay by hanging something white, (e.g. sheet, pillow case, shirt/blouse) that is visible from the street. Mark your Pet Alert sticker “evacuated” or “not here.”

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CORE I – Part Four

Fires

After a Fire

Whether a single structure or an entire area has burned, fire victims can protect their property

to make recovery easier and faster.

Decisions and Actions Immediately After a Fire:

To protect your property from further damage, weather and possible vandalism, attach plywood over broken windows and doors. Take valuables with you.

Contact your local disaster relief services whether you are insured or not. The Red Cross or

Salvation Army can help you arrange for temporary housing, food, eyeglasses, medication, and other essential needs.

If you can’t bring your pets with you, make sure they are sheltered in a clean, safe environment, such as at a friend’s house or a kennel.

Notify the Following Parties of Your Situation & Your Relocation Address:

Family and friends

Insurance agent

Mortgage company

Employer

Children’s school

Bank

Utility companies

Post Office (to hold or forward your mail)

Newspaper companies

Fire Department (if the fire is under investigation)

Department of Motor Vehicles

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CORE I – Part Four

Winter Storms

Floods and Landslides

If it has been raining hard for several hours or steadily for several days, be alert

to the possibility of floods, landslides or mudslides.

Floods are generally caused by heavy rains, broken pipes, levee or dam failure. Paved areas do not absorb rainfall and tend to increase water runoff.

If you live in a flood prone area:

Obtain Supplemental Flood Insurance. Homeowner’s policies do not cover flooding.

Prepare and practice a flood evacuation plan.

Keep important documents in a water-proof box.

Landslides are a rapid shift in land mass that are typically associated with periods of heavy or prolonged rainfall.

Landslides and mudslides can be caused by:

Prolonged rainfall that saturates the ground

Clogged storm drains

Drainage patterns that concentrate or block the natural flow of water

Hillside construction sites with exposed piles of soil or construction materials

Undercut hillside slopes

Inadequate retaining wall structures

Areas of uncompact fill on a hillside

Preventative measures

:

If flooding is likely, use sandbags, plywood, plastic sheeting, and lumber for emergency waterproofing.

Keep storm drains cleared or call the City of Oakland’s Public Works Agency at 510-615-5566 to report problems. Find out how you can participate in the “Adopt-a-Drain” program.

Clean out gutters and downspouts.

Cover exposed piles of soil or materials with plastic sheets or temporary covers.

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CORE I – Part Four

Winter Storms

Storm Watches and Warnings

A winter storm watch means that a storm with severe cold weather and/or heavy rain is possible. A winter storm warning means that severe cold or flooding is occurring or will occur very soon. Your local

radio and TV stations will provide current storm information.

When a “watch” for winter storm or flooding is issued:

Continue listening to your radio or TV to get more information.

Be alert to changing conditions.

Avoid unnecessary travel.

When a flood “warning” is issued:

Move your furniture and valuables to higher floors in your home.

Fill your car’s gas tank in case an evacuation notice is issued.

If you must travel in the storm, let someone know your destination, your route and when you expect to arrive. If you do not arrive, help can be sent along your predetermined route.

Use your telephone only for family emergency needs or to report dangerous conditions.

If you are not at home, go to high ground and stay away from the flooding areas.

Do not try to walk through flowing water that is above your knees. You could be swept away by strong currents.

Do not try to drive on a flooded road.

You could become stranded, trapped or swept away.

If your car stalls while you are driving in flooding areas, abandon it immediately and go to higher ground. Many people drown while trying to rescue their cars.

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CORE I – Part Four

Winter Storms

After The Storm

Although floodwaters may recede in some areas, many dangers might still exist.

Keep Listening to the Radio or TV

The media will provide news about what to do, where to go and places to avoid. The media will also provide information on assistance that may be available through local, state and federal government, as well as disaster relief organizations.

Exercise Caution if You Travel

Roads may be closed if they have been damaged or covered with water and mud.

If you see a flooded road or barricade, go another way.

If you must walk or drive in areas that have been flooded:

Stay on firm ground.

Keep away from standing water that may be electrically charged from underground or downed power lines.

Travel with care. Roads and walkways will be very slippery, especially when covered with mud.

The Cleanup Process

As soon as possible, get a free copy of the book Repairing Your Flooded Home from the local Red

Cross http://www.redcross.org/images/MEDIA_CustomProductCatalog/m4540081_repairingFloodedHome.p

df or write to: FEMA at P. O. Box 2012, Jessup, MD 20794-2012 for a hard copy.

This guidebook will tell you how to:

Enter your home safely

Check for gas or water leaks and how to have services restored

Protect your home and belongings from further damage

Record damage to support insurance claims and requests for assistance

Clean up appliances, furniture, floors, and other belongings

If you hire cleanup or repair contractors, be sure they are qualified to do the job. Check references, including a City Business License. Be wary of people who drive through the neighborhood offering to help clean up or repair your home. Many are not licensed contractors.

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CORE I – Part Four

Heat Waves

A heat wave is a prolonged period of excessive heat, often combined with high humidity and poor air

quality.

Older adults, young children and people with functional needs are at risk from extreme heat. A heat wave lasting more than two days causes a significant rise in medical emergencies such as heat cramps, heat exhaustion and heat stroke.

Call 911 for any serious heat-related medical emergency:

Heat cramps are muscular pains and spasms resulting from heavy exertion. Heat cramps are often the first signal that the body is suffering from excessive heat.

Heat exhaustion is a form of mild shock that typically occurs when people exercise heavily or work in a hot, humid place where body fluids are lost through heavy sweating. This draws blood flow away from vital organs.

Heat stroke is a life-threatening condition in which the temperature control system that produces sweating to cool the body stops working. The body temperature can rise to the extent that brain damage and death may result if the body is not cooled quickly

.

People suffering from heat-related illness may become irritable and they lose their sense of thirst. They may

need to be encouraged to drink plenty of water or fruit juice and to find ways to lower their body temperature.

Preparing for a Heat Wave:

Keep a solar or battery-powered radio, clock, flashlights, and extra batteries for power outages.

Store at least two gallons of water per person per day and remember to store extra water for your pets.

Keep easy-to-prepare, nonperishable foods available (packaged snacks, fruits, and juices).

Set up a support system in which family, friends or others can check on each other via phone or visits. Do “check-ins” before, during and after the hottest part of the day.

Keep essential medicines and prescription information available, along with a small first aid kit.

Have the names, addresses and telephone numbers of your doctors and pharmacists readily available.

A whistle or hand-held alarm can alert someone if you need help.

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CORE I – Part Four

Heat Waves

During a Heat Wave:

Avoid direct sun and heat.

Avoid strenuous activities during the hottest period of the day, 11:00 am to 3:00 pm.

Heat-related illnesses can strike quickly, especially for those who perform strenuous work during the heat of the day.

Wear lightweight, light-colored, loose-fitting clothing. Light colors reflect the sun’s rays better than dark colors, which absorb the heat. Protect your face and head by wearing a wide- brimmed hat.

Seek air conditioning. If your home does not have air conditioning or an electric fan, the following public buildings may provide refuge during the warmest part of the day:

Libraries

Senior Centers

Community Centers

Movie Theaters

Shopping Malls

Places of Worship

Grocery Stores

Drink plenty of water and other fluids throughout the day and evening. Dehydration can occur quickly and can be unnoticed or mistaken for other illnesses. Increasing fluid intake on a hot day, even if you are not thirsty, can reduce the risk of dehydration. Avoid caffeine, sugar and alcohol.

If you are on fluid-restricted diet (e.g. those with kidney disease), consult your doctor before increasing fluid intake.

Check on family members and neighbors who do not have air conditioning or who have medical problems that make them particularly susceptible to heat related illnesses.

Do not leave people, pets or service animals alone in parked cars, even for a short time.

Eat small meals. Avoid fats and proteins. Avoid cooking if possible.

Close blinds, drapes, doors, and windows to keep heat out during the day.

Open windows and doors once it is cooler outside than in.

Keep electric lights turned down or off. They generate heat.

If you have a baby, be aware of heat risks. Consider a cool (not cold) water bath.

Apply cool damp towels to your wrists and to the back of your neck. Sit in front of a fan to increase evaporation and cooling.

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CORE I – Part Four

Hazardous Materials Incidents

Hazardous materials are part of our everyday lives.

Potential sources of hazardous materials can include:

Industrial plants

Service stations which store and dispense gasoline and diesel fuel

Hospitals that store a range of radioactive and flammable materials

Hazardous materials waste sites. There are approximately 30,000 sites in the United States.

Transport vehicles including trucks, trains, ships, and aircraft

Hazardous materials incidents can range from a chemical spill on a highway to groundwater contamination by naturally occurring methane gas. Incidents can occur anywhere, including your home.

The Alert & Warning Siren System will be activated if there is a significant hazardous materials incident in your area. Listen to an emergency broadcast radio station (KCBS, 740 AM, KNBR, 680 AM, or KGO, 810 AM) to find out what to do.

Follow instructions and be prepared to “shelter in place” or evacuate.

SIN

(Safety, Isolation, Notification)

If you suspect a hazardous materials spill, remember the acronym “SIN”:

Safety:

Always assume that spilled chemicals are extremely toxic.

Do not approach a spill. Stay at a safe distance.

Mixtures of chemicals can be very dangerous

(for example: bleach mixed with ammonia creates toxic fumes).

Isolation:

Close off the contaminated area and mark the outside of the building.

Notification:

Notify 911 and/or the National Response Center at 1-800-424-8802 for toxic chemical or oil spills.

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CORE I – Part Four

Hazardous Materials Incidents

Hazardous Materials

(continued)

If you suspect a hazardous materials incident:

Leave the area immediately. Report the emergency from a safe location uphill and upwind from the emergency site.

If you witness (or smell) a hazardous materials incident, call 911, the National Response

Center (toxic chemical/oil spills) 1-800-424-8802, or the Fire Department, as soon as possible.

If you hear the warning sirens, listen to an emergency broadcast radio station

(KCBS 740 AM, KNBR 680 AM, or KGO 810 AM) for further information and follow

instructions carefully.

Stay away from the incident site to minimize the risk of contamination.

Avoid contact with spilled liquids, airborne mists or condensed solid chemical deposits. Keep your body fully covered to provide some protection. Wear gloves, socks, shoes, pants, and a long-sleeved shirt.

Do not eat food or drink water that may have been contaminated.

If you are caught outside, try to stay upstream, uphill, and upwind.

Remember that gases and mists are generally heavier than air. Hazardous materials can be quickly transported by water and wind.

If you are in a vehicle, stop and find shelter inside a building if possible. If you must remain in your car, keep car windows and vents closed, and shut off the air conditioner, heater and fan.

If you are instructed to evacuate your home, do so immediately. If authorities indicate that there is enough time, close all windows, shut vents, and turn off attic, heating and air conditioning fans to minimize contamination.

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CORE I – Part Four

Hazardous Materials Incidents

Hazardous Materials

(continued)

If you are asked to Shelter-in-Place, take the following steps:

Get household members and animals inside quickly.

Close and lock all exterior doors and windows. Close vents, fireplace dampers, and interior doors, and turn off air conditioners and ventilation systems.

Go into a preselected safe room (a room with the fewest openings to the outside). Take a battery-powered radio, water, food, sanitary supplies, a flashlight and your disaster supply kit

(which may include precut plastic sheeting for windows and vents, duct tape, modeling clay for sealing cracks, and a towel for under the door).

Cover each window, door, exhaust fan and vent in the room with plastic sheeting or garbage bags, taping around all edges to provide a continuous seal.

Fill any cracks or holes in the room, (e.g. those around pipes entering a bathroom), with modeling clay or other similar material.

In large buildings, the person in charge of the building maintenance should set all ventilation systems to 100 percent internal recirculation so that no outside air is drawn into the building. If this is not possible, ventilation systems should be turned off.

Stay in the safe room listening to emergency broadcasts on the radio until authorities advise you to leave your shelter.

If you think chemical fumes have entered your home, cover your mouth and nose with a wet cloth. You may need to move to a different room or evacuate, depending on the circumstances.

Call 911 only to report life-threatening emergencies, including hazardous materials entering your home.

When authorities advise it is safe, open all doors and windows and turn on air conditioning and ventilation systems.

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CORE I – Part Four

Hazardous Materials Incidents

Hazardous Materials

(continued)

Actions you should take after exposure to hazardous materials:

☐ If evacuated, do not return home until local authorities say

that it is safe.

Follow decontamination procedures for persons or items that have been exposed to a hazardous chemical.

☐ Listen for decontamination instructions on TV and radio.

☐ Seek medical treatment for unusual symptoms as soon as possible.

☐ Remove all of your clothing. Cut off potentially contaminated clothing rather than pulling over the head to avoid contact with your eyes, ears, nose and mouth.

☐ Depending on the chemical, you may be advised to take a thorough cool shower, or to stay away from water and follow another procedure.

☐ Change into fresh, loose clothing, and seek medical help as soon as possible.

☐ Place exposed clothing and shoes in tightly sealed containers. Do not allow them to have contact with other materials. Ask local authorities about proper disposal.

☐ Advise everyone who comes into contact with you that you may have been exposed to a toxic substance.

Find out from local authorities how to clean up your land and property.

Report any lingering vapors or other hazards to your local emergency service office.

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CORE I – Part Four

Infectious Disease Outbreaks

People and trade goods travel around the world quickly in our global economy.

Infectious diseases can “hitchhike” with people, goods or animals and can potentially spread worldwide

much faster than in the past.

A widespread outbreak of an infectious disease such as a new strain of influenza or SARS (Severe

Acute Respiratory Syndrome) is a Public Health Emergency.

A Pandemic disease is one that affects large groups of people and/or a number of countries.

A pandemic influenza occurs when a new influenza virus develops, and all of the following conditions also exist:

There is little or no immunity in the human population

It is easily passed from human to human

It is found in many countries

It causes serious illness in humans

In the case of a Public Health Emergency, always follow the most current advice of the U.S.

Department of Health and Human Services and the local Public Health Department.

Protect Yourself and Reduce the Spread of Infectious Disease

Practice Good Hygiene Habits

Make good hygiene a part of your daily life and teach it to your children by example. Take these common-sense steps to limit the spread of germs every day.

Clean your hands often by washing with soap and warm water for at least 20 seconds or by using an alcohol-based hand sanitizer.

Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Put used tissues in a wastebasket and clean your hands afterward.

If you don’t have a tissue, cough or sneeze into your upper sleeve.

Keep your hands away from your eyes, nose, and mouth to prevent germs from entering your body.

A person who is sick should:

Stay home and avoid contact with other people. Isolate yourself from other people.

Consider wearing a surgical mask when you are around others. This can help slow the spread of disease.

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CORE I – Part Four

Infectious Disease Outbreaks

Staying Healthy:

Although living a healthy lifestyle is not a guarantee against getting sick from an infectious disease, starting out healthy gives you a better chance of withstanding the effects of an epidemic.

Practice good hygiene habits.

Eat a balanced, nutritious diet.

Exercise regularly and get plenty of rest.

Seasonal flu is an infectious disease, so get a flu shot each year to help protect yourself.

A seasonal flu shot won’t protect you against pandemic influenza, but it will help protect you from the severe forms of influenza circulating that year.

Make sure that your family’s immunizations are up-to-date.

Get a pneumonia shot to prevent secondary infection if you are 65 years old or older or have a chronic illness such as diabetes or asthma. For specific guidelines, talk to your health care provider or call the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Hotline at 1-800-232-4636.

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CORE I – Part Four

Infectious Disease Outbreaks

Isolation and Quarantine

To reduce the spread of disease, public health officials may request that people isolate themselves from others. They may also quarantine people, requiring that they stay at home for an extended period of

time.

Definitions:

Isolation is the restriction of movement of persons having or suspected of having a communicable disease in order to minimize contact with susceptible persons.

Quarantine is the restriction of movement of persons known or suspected to have been in contact with contagious persons and may, therefore, become contagious in the future.

The National Association of County and City Health Officials and CDC

If isolation or quarantine is necessary, there will be widespread disruption that will potentially affect services, transportation, supplies, businesses, schools, and individuals.

Public facilities such as hospitals and other health care facilities, banks, stores, restaurants, government offices, and post offices may be shut down.

Public gatherings of all kinds may be canceled.

Services for people with functional needs may not be available.

Going to work may be difficult or impossible.

Income may be reduced or lost if you are unable to work or your place of employment is closed.

Find out what public health emergency plan your business or employer has in place. What is their payroll policy in case of work disruption?

Schools may be closed for an extended period of time. What plan does your school have in case of a public health emergency? Do you have teaching/learning materials at home in case the schools are closed?

Public transportation may be limited or nonexistent during a pandemic.

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CORE I – Part Four

Infectious Disease Outbreaks

How You Can Prepare for a Pandemic

Store at least a two-week supply of water and food.

(Some experts suggest a one-month supply.)

During a pandemic, store shelves may be empty so keep extra supplies at home.

Check your regular prescription medications to ensure that you have an adequate supply in your home. Keep copies of your prescriptions.

Keep a supply of over the counter drugs and other health

supplies including pain relievers, stomach remedies, cough and cold medicines, fluids with electrolytes, and vitamins.

Talk with family members and loved ones about how they would be cared for if they got sick and what will be needed to care for them at home.

Find out about Family Leave Policies from your employer in case you need to stay at home to care for a family member or in case you become sick.

Create a Family Emergency Health Information form and keep it with your emergency supplies. At a mass vaccination clinic, you may need to provide information about your medical history. Update your family health records regularly.

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CORE I – Part Four

Infectious Disease Outbreaks

Resources for Pandemic Preparedness

If a pandemic occurs, having accurate and reliable information will be critical.

Follow current guidelines from Public Health officials.

For more information on pandemics:

Pandemic Flu.gov

www.pandemicflu.gov

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Hotline: 1-800-CDC-INFO

(1-800-232-4636). This line is available in English and Spanish, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. TTY: 1-888-232-6348. Questions can be e-mailed to [email protected] .

.

Listen to local and national radio, watch news reports on television and read your newspaper and other sources of printed and Web-based information.

Talk to your local health care providers and public health officials.

World Health Organization website:

http://www.wpro.who.int/en/

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CORE I – Part Four

Public Health Tips

When a Household Member is Sick with a Respiratory Infectious Disease:

Many respiratory viruses are spread when contaminated droplets exit the mouth and nose of an

infected person and the virus comes in contact with others.

Tips to Protect Yourself and Other People in Your Home:

☐ Wash your hands often, particularly after contact with respiratory secretions.

☐ Keep everyone’s personal items separate. Avoid sharing computers, pens, papers, clothes, towels, sheets, blankets, food, or eating utensils.

☐ Disinfect doorknobs, switches, refrigerator handles, toys, toilet seats, and other surfaces that are commonly touched around the home.

Disinfectant

1 gallon water

¼ cup unscented bleach

Mix a fresh batch each time you use it.

Or use other EPA approved disinfectant. Some experts recommend using a viracide such as

Lysol for viruses.

☐ It is okay to wash everyone’s dishes and clothes together. Use detergent and very hot water.

Wash your hands after handling dirty laundry.

☐ Wear disposable gloves when in contact with or cleaning up body fluids.

☐ One person should be the caregiver. He or she may benefit by wearing a properly fitting N-95 mask when giving care.

☐ Caregivers should wash their hands thoroughly before and after giving care. Dry your hands thoroughly with a paper towel and use it to turn off the faucet. Shared towels spread germs.

☐ Ventilate the rooms/house.

Always follow the most current advice of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

and the local Public Health Department.

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CORE I – Part Four

Public Health Tips

Dehydration

People who are ill often become dehydrated.

Infants and toddlers should be given commercial solutions, i.e. Pedialyte or equivalent.

Add to one liter of safe water:

-

Salt ½ small spoon (3.5 grams)

-

Sugar 4 Big Spoons (40 grams)

And try to compensate for loss of potassium

(for example, eat bananas or drink green coconut water)

Reference: CDC; WHO – rehydration therapy

Check with your doctor if you have sugar or salt restrictions

.

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CORE I – Part Four

Terrorist Events

Things you can do to protect yourself from Terrorism:

Definition of Terrorism:

The U.S. Department of Justice’s definition of terrorism is:

“. . .the unlawful use of force or violence committed by a group or individual against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives.”

Both foreign and domestic individuals or groups have committed acts of terrorism. Although the United

States has not had as many incidents as some other countries, we have had several serious attacks.

The goal of these attacks is to cause disruption in our lives such as:

Inflicting mass casualties

Disrupting critical resources, vital services, and the economy

Causing individual and mass panic

Incidents can occur with or without warning and often evolve as a series of events. A secondary attack or explosion may be planned to occur after people rush to the scene to offer aid, causing additional casualties and confusion.

Accept Responsibility for Your Own Safety:

Our best defense against terrorism events is to be aware of what is around us, and to be informed. If something just doesn’t seem “right,” report it to the appropriate authorities.

Be aware of your surroundings. Notice where emergency exits are located. Think ahead about how to evacuate from a building, subway or congested public area in a hurry.

Report suspicious objects, packages, vehicles, or persons to the appropriate authorities.

Report unusual, hidden or abandoned objects or items hanging from under a car.

Take precautions when traveling. Be aware of unusual behavior. Do not accept packages from strangers. Do not leave your luggage unattended.

Report urgent threat information to 911 or the FBI Joint Terrorism Task Force at 1-415-533-7400.

Report suspicious activity to the Northern California Regional Intelligence Center at

1-866-367-8847 or www.ncric.org

.

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CORE I – Part Four

Terrorist Events

Cooperate with security procedures at your place of work and in public places.

If you are told to stay inside your home, follow the “shelter-in-place” guidelines.

Beware of mail that:

Is unexpected or comes from an unfamiliar sender

Is addressed to someone who no longer lives or works at the address

Has no return address

Is of unusual weight given its size or is lopsided or oddly shaped

Has protruding wires, strange odors or stains

Another type of terrorist weapon is deliberate, large-scale disruption of computer networks. This is known as cyberterrorism. To help guard against cyberterrorism, it is important that computer users implement appropriate security measures.

CBRNE

Five categories of potential terrorist weapons have been identified.

The acronym CBRNE will help you to remember them.

Chemical

Biological

Radiological

Nuclear

High-Yield Explosives

Biohazard

Chemical Weapons

Chemical agents are poisonous gases, liquids or solids. The ingredients used to produce chemical weapons are found in common products and petrochemicals. Terrorists can turn these common products into lethal weapons.

If a chemical attack occurs, authorities may instruct residents to either evacuate immediately or to shelter-in-place.

While this section focuses on terrorism, it is important to remember that CBRNE incidents

may occur accidentally (such as a chlorine tanker truck accident)

or naturally (such as pandemic influenza).

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Biological Agents

Biological agents are organisms or toxins. For example, they can be dispersed as airborne particles used to contaminate food or water and to have illness-producing effects.

Some agents, such as smallpox, are contagious. Others are not.

Some agents take days or weeks for symptoms to appear. This type of biological attack may remain unnoticed for some time. The agents can spread far beyond their initial point of contamination as people move about.

Most biological agents are very delicate and are easily destroyed by heat, light and other environmental factors. The agents are difficult to manufacture and to deliver.

Anyone exposed to a biological agent should consult a doctor immediately.

Radiological Weapons

Radiation cannot be seen, smelled, or otherwise detected by normal senses. High doses or prolonged exposure to radiation can cause radiation sickness and possibly death.

Radiation dispersal devices (RDDs) or “dirty bombs” are considered a moderate to high threat because radiological materials are easier to obtain than enriched nuclear materials and the technology required to detonate an RDD is similar to that for detonating conventional explosives.

Nuclear Weapons

A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from a nuclear reaction. All nuclear devices cause deadly effects when exploded, including blinding light, intense heat, initial nuclear radiation, blast, fires started by the heat pulse, secondary fires caused by the destruction, and widespread radioactive material that can contaminate the air, water, and ground surfaces for miles around.

Nuclear weapons, although potentially very destructive, are so difficult to obtain that they present a low risk.

High-yield Explosives

The most common weapon used by terrorists continues to be conventional explosives.

Explosives are easy to get, easy to hide and activate, and they can cause extensive damage.

Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) include any devices that are created in an improvised manner, incorporating explosives or other materials designed to harm people or property.

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CBRNE Indicators

Be alert for environmental changes that can be indicators of biological or chemical contamination.

These might include:

Numerous sick or dead animals, fish or birds. Wildlife are often more sensitive to chemical or biological agents than are humans.

Unscheduled spraying or abandoned spray devices.

Vapor clouds or mists that are unusual for the area or for the time of day.

The absence of crops, wildlife or insects that are common for the area, time of day or time of year. What is not there may be very important information.

Unattended or out-of-place packages, boxes or vehicles.

Leaking packages may be harmless but could also signal that someone is trying to disperse a biological or chemical agent.

Unusual materials or equipment for locations. Dispersal devices, lab equipment, or quantities of hazardous materials that are not typically located in the area could indicate an impending terrorist incident.

Small explosions that disperse liquids, mists or gases are a sign that something is wrong.

Unusual odors or tastes

You may observe unusual physical indications such as:

Multiple casualties without obvious signs of trauma. This scenario may indicate a biological or chemical attack.

Multiple victims exhibiting similar symptoms. Symptoms may range from difficulty breathing to skin discoloration or injury such as deep blisters or burns, to uncontrolled salivating, uncontrolled muscle twitching or convulsions.

Large numbers of people seeking medical attention with similar symptoms that are not characteristic of the season. The symptoms of many biological agents mimic influenza and or other common illnesses.

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CORE Protocols for Terrorist Events

 CORE members should treat possible terrorist events as a

STOP SIGN. Your safety is the first priority. CORE members are not equipped or trained to respond to terrorist events.

Size-up the whole situation from a distance. If any of the indicators of a terrorist incident are present, do not proceed with a CORE response.

See Something, Say Something

If you observe any of the indicators of a terrorist incident:

Do Not touch it!

Move away from the object or area.

Report the information to authorities immediately.

CORE volunteers and community members should always report suspected explosive devices via a landline telephone.

Do not use cellular phones or two-way radios. They may detonate explosive devices.

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What To Do During a Terrorist Event

Three factors significantly affect safety at a terrorist incident:

Time

Limit time spent in the area of an incident to reduce exposure.

Distance

Evacuate the area

Move upwind and uphill from the incident site.

Shielding

The shielding provided by a sturdy building or a wall can increase protection from contamination, radiation, or blast effects.

If you are inside a building that is not in immediate danger, listen to

Emergency Alert System (EAS) radio broadcasts on KCBS 740, KGO 810 or KNBR 680 for information about whether to evacuate or shelter-in-place.

If you believe that chemical or radiological contamination has occurred in your area put distance between you and the agent or incident immediately.

Consider that if you leave, you could possibly contaminate others you come in contact with.

Remember, your personal safety should be your primary concern.

Take measures to protect yourself first.

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Tsunamis

While rare in the Bay Area, tsunamis are possible in Northern California; You should

know what to do.

What is a Tsunami?

A tsunami is a series of sea waves most commonly caused by earthquakes beneath the sea floor. In the open ocean, tsunami waves travel at speeds up to 600 miles per hour. As the waves enter shallow water, they may rise rapidly. The first wave is often not the largest; successive waves may be spaced many minutes apart and continue arriving for a number of hours. The waves can kill and injure people and cause great property damage on shore.

If a large earthquake displaces the sea floor near the California coast, the first waves may reach the shore minutes after the ground stops shaking. This does not give authorities enough time to issue a warning. Large earthquakes in the Pacific Ocean, as far away as Alaska or Japan, may generate tsunami waves that can take many hours to reach the California coast. There may be a warning in this situation.

The Tsunami Warning Center alerts local officials, who may order an evacuation. A sudden drop or

rise in sea level is a good indication of a tsunami and impending danger. Move inland or to

higher ground immediately.

Tsunamis can occur at any time of day or night, under any and all weather conditions and in all seasons. Beaches open to the ocean, bay or tidal flats and the shores of large coastal rivers are especially vulnerable to tsunamis. If you live close to the bay, plan your evacuation routes now.

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What should you do if there is a tsunami warning?

Remember:

Never go to the coast to watch for a tsunami if you hear that a warning has been issued.

Tsunamis move faster than a person can run. Any incoming traffic in the coastal area hampers safe and timely evacuation.

Tsunamis are not surf able. They are not V-shaped or curling waves. Large tsunamis most frequently come on shore as a rapidly rising turbulent surge of water carrying large amounts of debris.

All tsunamis are potentially dangerous. Our coastlines are vulnerable. Understand the hazard and learn how to protect yourself.

If there is a tsunami warning, the best general advice available today is:

Get to higher ground as far inland as possible. Go to an area 100 feet above sea level, or go up to two miles inland. Go as high and as far as you can. Every foot inland or upwards may make a difference.

If a strong coastal earthquake occurs lasting about 20 seconds or longer and you are near the coast or the bay, you may need to evacuate. Listen to your radio for information.

Listen to your radio for information and specific evacuation instructions because traffic, damage to roads, downed power lines and other earthquake debris may block your planned evacuation route. Consider that you may have to evacuate on foot.

Return home only after local officials tell you that it is safe. Remember that a tsunami is a series of waves and can continue for hours.

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Next Steps

Thank you for participating in CORE I training!

After completing this class you should feel empowered to take the next steps toward becoming better prepared for emergencies. One of the first steps is to complete the

Disaster Plan Worksheet provided by your instructor during class. We also encourage you to register for the additional CORE training described below.

Remember:

make a plan, build a kit, get involved!

CORE II: Neighborhood Preparedness & Response

Learn how to organize a command center and create emergency response teams, (communications, damage assessment, hazard reduction, search and rescue, disaster first aid, shelter and special needs).

One class, 2.5 hours total.

CORE III: Emergency Response Hands-On Training

Learn beginning response tactics. Get classroom instruction and hands-on training in fire suppression, damage assessment, light search and rescue, disaster first aid, disaster psychology, assisting people with special needs, neighborhood emergency communications. Training includes a functional exercise (simulated earthquake).

Four classes, 15 hours total.

For more information about the CORE program,

Contact the Oakland Fire Department,

Emergency Management Services Division

Tel: 510.238.6351 ~ Fax: 510.238.7761

Web:

http://www.oaklandcore.com

Email:

[email protected]

©2015

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