Increasing efficiency in ECU function development for

Increasing efficiency in ECU function development for
DEGREE PROJECT IN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION
TECHNOLOGY,
SECOND CYCLE, 30 CREDITS
STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN 2016
Increasing efficiency in ECU
function development for Battery
Management Systems
SHIVARAM SINGH RAJPUT
KTH ROYAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY
SCHOOL OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY
Increasing efficiency in ECU function development for
Battery Management Systems
Master of Science thesis in Embedded Systems (30 ECTS credits)
at the school of Information and Communication Technology
KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Stockholm, Sweden
October 2016
by,
Shivaram Singh Rajput
Supervisors: Christian Fleischer
Advanced Battery Technology, NEVS
Yuan Yao
ESY ELEKTR. O INBYGGDA SYSTEM, KTH
Examiner:
Zhonghai Lu
ESY ELEKTR. O INBYGGDA SYSTEM, KTH
ABSTRACT
In the context of automotive industries today, the focus of ECU function development is always
on finding the best possible combinations of control algorithms and parameter. The complex
algorithms with broad implementation range requires optimal calibration of ECU parameters
to achieve the desired behaviour during the drive cycle of the vehicle.
With the growing function complexity of automotive E/E Systems, the traditional approaches
of designing the automotive embedded systems are not suitable. In order to overcome the
challenge of complexity, many of the leading automotive companies have formed a partnership
in order to develop and establish an open industry standard for automotive E/E architecture
called AUTOSAR. In this thesis, toolchain for ECU function development following
AUTOSAR standard and an efficient measurement and calibration mechanism using XCP on
CAN will be investigated and implemented. Two toolchains will be proposed in this thesis,
describing their usage in different stages of ECU function development and in calibration. Both
these toolchains will be tested to prove its working.
Keywords: AUTOSAR, XCP, Toolchain, CAN Communication, Measurement and
Calibration, TMS570LS1227
i
SAMMANFATTNING
I området utveckling av funktionalitet på elektroniska styrsystem inom bilindustrin idag, ligger
fokus på att finna den bästa kombinationen av reglermetoder och styrparametrar. Dessa
avancerade system, med breda användningsområden, kräver bästa möjliga injustering av dess
kalibrerbara parametrar, för att nå önskat beteende vid användning av fordonet.
Det ökande omfånget av funktionskraven på styrsystemen, innebär att sedvanlig metodik för
utveckling av dessa system inte är lämplig. För att kunna lösa dessa svårigheter, har de stora
inom bilindustrin ingått ett samarbete, där de tillsammans skapat och utvecklar en
industristandard för funktions- och systemutveckling av styrsystem. Standarden kallas
AUTOSAR. Denna rapport beskriver hur en kedja av utvecklingsverktyg som följer
AUTOSAR-standarden kan användas, för att undersöka och använda en metod för
systemövervakning och parameterkalibrering, genom användning av XCP över CAN.
Sökord: AUTOSAR, XCP, utvecklingsverktyg, CAN-kommunikation, Kalibrering och
övervakning, TMS570LS1227
ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I thank National Electric Vehicle Sweden and my industrial supervisor, Dr. Christian Fleischer
for giving me an opportunity to work in such an interesting and challenging topic. I thank my
examiner Dr. Zhonghai Lu for his support, guidance, and advice throughout my thesis work. It
is a great pleasure to acknowledge my deepest thanks to Björn Nyman at NEVS for always
supporting and guiding me technically whenever I ran into a trouble spot. I would also like to
thank all my colleagues at Advanced Battery Technology department, NEVS for their support
and good time we had together.
I thank ArcCore for their technical support through their web portal. I am grateful to
AUTOSAR for permitting me to use the pictures from AUTOSAR specifications in this thesis.
I would like to thank EIT Digital Master School for giving me an opportunity to study Master
of Science in Embedded Systems at TU Berlin and KTH.I am grateful to all the Professors at
AES department, TU Berlin and ICT School, KTH.
Finally, I express my deepest thanks to my parents, to my brother, and to my friends, for
supporting and encouraging me throughout my years of study. This accomplishment would not
have been possible without their support.
Shivaram Singh Rajput
Trollhättan, Sweden
September 2016
iii
ABBREVIATIONS
A2L
ASAM MCD-2 MC Language
ADC
Analog to Digital Converter
ADT
Application Data Type
API
Application Programming Interface
ARXML
AUTOSAR standard Extensible Mark-up Language
ASAM
Association for Standardisation of Automation and Measuring Systems
AUTOSAR AUTomotive Open System Architecture
BMS
Battery Management System
BSW
Basic Software
BswM
Basic Software Manager
CAN
Controller Area Network
CanIf
CAN Interface
CanSM
CAN State Manager
CCP
CAN Calibration Protocol
CMD
Command
COM
Communication
ComM
Communication Manager
CPU
Central Processing Unit
CTO
Command Transfer Objects
DAQ
Data Acquisition
DLC
Data Length Code
DTO
Data Transfer Object
E/E
Electrical and Electronics
ECU
Electronic Control Unit
EcuM
ECU Manager
ERR
Error
ETK
Ethernet Kable
EV
Event Packet
FIFO
First In First Out
GIO
General Purpose Input Output
GPL
General Public License
I/O
Input Output
ID
Identifier
IDT
Implementation Data Types
I-PDU
Interaction Layer PDU
LED
Light Emitting Diode
LIN
Local Interconnect Network
L-PDU
Data Link Layer PDU
iv
MC
Measurement and Calibration
MCAL
Micro Controller Abstraction Layer
MCD
Measurement, Calibration and Diagnostics
MCU
Micro Controller Unit
NEVS
National Electric Vehicle Sweden
NM
Network Manager
N-PDU
Network Layer PDU
NV
Non volatile
ODT
Object Description Tables
OEM
Original Equipment Manufacturer
OS
OSEK/VDX
Operating System
Offene Systeme und deren Schnittstellen für die Elektronik in Kraftfahrzeugen
/ Vehicle Distributed Executive
Open Systems and Corresponding interfaces for Automotive Electronics/
Vehicle Distributed Executive
PC
Personal Computer
PCI
Protocol Control Information
PDU
Protocol Data Unit
PduR
PDU Router
PID
Packet Identifier
PPort
Provides Port
PWM
Pulse Width Modulation
RAM
Random Access Memory
RES
Command Response Packet
RISC
Reduced Instruction Set Computing
RPort
Requires Port
RTE
Run Time Environment
RX
Reception
SCI
Serial Communication Interface
SDU
Service Data Unit
SERV
Service Request Packet
SPI
Serial Peripheral Interface
STIM
Stimulation
SWC
Software Component
SWCD
Software Component Description
SYSD
System Description
TP
Transport
TX
Transmission
USB
Universal Serial Bus
VFB
Virtual Function Bus
XCP
Universal Measurement and Calibration Protocol
XETK
Extended Ethernet Kable
v
CONTENTS
ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................................................ i
SAMMANFATTNING ............................................................................................................................... ii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ......................................................................................................................... iii
ABBREVIATIONS .................................................................................................................................... iv
CONTENTS.............................................................................................................................................. vi
1
INTRODUCTION .............................................................................................................................. 1
1.1 Company ....................................................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Background ................................................................................................................................... 1
1.3 Obejctive ....................................................................................................................................... 2
1.4 Delimitation .................................................................................................................................. 2
1.5 Outline........................................................................................................................................... 2
2
LITERATURE .................................................................................................................................... 3
2.1 AUTOSAR ....................................................................................................................................... 3
2.1.1 AUTOSAR Layered Software Architecture ............................................................................. 3
2.1.1.1 Application Layer ............................................................................................................ 4
2.1.1.1.1 Software Components ............................................................................................. 4
2.1.1.1.2 Ports ......................................................................................................................... 5
2.1.1.1.3 Port-Interfaces ......................................................................................................... 5
2.1.1.1.4 Software component communication ..................................................................... 5
2.1.2 Virtual Function Bus (VFB) and Run Time Environment (RTE) ............................................... 6
2.1.2.1 Interfaces ........................................................................................................................ 8
2.1.3 Basic Software Layer .............................................................................................................. 9
2.2 AUTOSAR Communication Cluster .............................................................................................. 10
2.2.1 Controller Area Network (CAN) ........................................................................................... 10
2.2.2 AUTOSAR Communication Stack .......................................................................................... 11
2.3 Basic Software modules .............................................................................................................. 13
2.3.1 PDU Router .......................................................................................................................... 13
2.3.1.1 PDUs .............................................................................................................................. 14
2.3.2 AUTOSAR COM ..................................................................................................................... 15
2.3.3 COM Manager (ComM) ........................................................................................................ 16
2.3.4 CAN Interface (CanIf) ........................................................................................................... 16
2.3.5 CAN Driver ............................................................................................................................ 16
2.3.6 CAN State Manager .............................................................................................................. 17
2.3.8 ECU Manager ....................................................................................................................... 19
2.3.8 Microcontroller Unit (MCU) driver ...................................................................................... 20
2.3.9 Port Driver ............................................................................................................................ 20
2.4 Universal Measurement and Calibration Protocol (XCP) ............................................................ 20
2.4.1 Communication Model ........................................................................................................ 21
2.4.2 XCP Transport Layer ............................................................................................................. 24
2.4.2.1 XCP over CAN ................................................................................................................ 24
vi
2.4.3 Online Calibration ................................................................................................................ 25
2.4.4 DAQ Lists- Data acquisition lists ........................................................................................... 25
2.4.5 Configuring DAQ lists ........................................................................................................... 27
2.4.6 Data Stimulation Lists- STIM Lists ........................................................................................ 28
2.4.7 XCP module in AUTOSAR ..................................................................................................... 28
2.4.8 ASAM MCD-2 MC ................................................................................................................. 29
2.5 AUTOSAR Methodology .............................................................................................................. 29
3
PROJECT METHODOLOGY ............................................................................................................ 31
3.1 Method ....................................................................................................................................... 31
3.2 Development tools ...................................................................................................................... 32
3.2.1 Software ............................................................................................................................... 32
3.2.1.1 Arctic Studio and Arctic Core ........................................................................................ 32
3.2.1.2 dSPACE- SystemDesk and TargetLink ............................................................................ 33
3.2.1.3 ETAS INCA...................................................................................................................... 34
3.2.1.4 MATLAB/SIMULINK ....................................................................................................... 34
3.2.1.5 Code composer studio .................................................................................................. 34
3.2.1.6 Vector CANdb++ editor ................................................................................................. 34
3.2.1.7 BUS MASTER ................................................................................................................. 34
3.2.2 Hardware ............................................................................................................................. 35
3.2.2.1 Texas Instruments – TMS570LS1227 ............................................................................ 35
3.2.2.2 PEAK Systems – PCAN USB adapter .............................................................................. 36
3.2.3.3 ETAS ECU and BUS interface module ............................................................................ 36
4
AUTOSAR FUNCTION DEVELOPMENT .......................................................................................... 37
4.1 Modeling Application layer ......................................................................................................... 37
4.1.1 SWC Model........................................................................................................................... 37
4.1.2 Modeling SWC with Arctic Studio ........................................................................................ 38
4.1.3 Modeling SWC with SystemDesk ......................................................................................... 40
4.1.4 Runnable .............................................................................................................................. 43
4.2 System modeling ......................................................................................................................... 45
4.2.1 System modeling with Arctic Studio .................................................................................... 46
4.2.2 System modeling with SystemDesk ..................................................................................... 47
4.3 Basic Software Configuration ...................................................................................................... 48
4.3.1 Microcontroller Unit ............................................................................................................ 49
4.3.2 ECU Manager ....................................................................................................................... 49
4.3.3 Port Driver ............................................................................................................................ 50
4.3.4 CAN Driver ............................................................................................................................ 52
4.3.5 CAN Interface ....................................................................................................................... 53
4.3.6 EcuC ...................................................................................................................................... 54
4.3.7 PDU Router .......................................................................................................................... 54
4.3.8 COM ..................................................................................................................................... 56
4.3.9 COM Manager ...................................................................................................................... 57
4.3.10 CAN State Manager ............................................................................................................ 57
4.3.11 Basic Software Manager .................................................................................................... 58
4.3.12 XCP ..................................................................................................................................... 58
4.3.13 Operating System ............................................................................................................... 60
4.3.14 Run time environment ....................................................................................................... 63
vii
4.4 Validation and Code generation ................................................................................................. 63
4.4.1 Executable for the MCU ....................................................................................................... 64
4.4.2 Generating A2L file............................................................................................................... 65
4.5 Measurement and Calibration System Setup ............................................................................. 65
4.6 Testing ......................................................................................................................................... 65
4.6.1 Test Setup-1 ......................................................................................................................... 66
4.6.2 Test Setup -2 ........................................................................................................................ 66
5
RESULTS ........................................................................................................................................ 67
5.1 AUTOSAR Toolchain .................................................................................................................... 67
5.2 Complete toolchain ..................................................................................................................... 68
5.3 Toolchain flow ............................................................................................................................. 69
5.4 ECU software architecture .......................................................................................................... 70
5.5 Testing ......................................................................................................................................... 70
5.5.1 Testing with setup 1 ............................................................................................................. 70
5.5.2 Testing with setup -2............................................................................................................ 72
6
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION ................................................................................................... 74
6.1 Project Method ........................................................................................................................... 74
6.2 Conclusion ................................................................................................................................... 74
6.3 Future work ................................................................................................................................. 75
BIBLIOGRAPHY...................................................................................................................................... 76
LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................................................... 79
APPENDIX ............................................................................................................................................. 81
viii
1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter gives a brief background knowledge along with the purpose of this thesis. The
delimitations set for this thesis are also discussed.
1.1 Company
This thesis was conducted at Advanced Battery Technology department, National Electric
Vehicle Sweden (NEVS) in Trollhättan. NEVS is a relatively new car manufacturer which
acquired the main assets of SAAB Automobile in 2012. The main vision of NEVS is to tackle
the global warming problem by shaping the mobility for a more sustainable future. NEVS has
dedicated itself, to design premium electric vehicles and mobility experiences that are simple,
distinctive and engaging, in-order to shape a brighter and cleaner future for all [1]. The
headquarters of NEVS is located in Trollhättan, Sweden with a manufacturing plant and global
R&D center.
1.2 Background
In the functional development of an Electronic Control Unit (ECU) software, the parameters
of the control algorithm can be only partially decided by software simulation. When the
functions algorithm is being executed in the ECU, the parameter values such as curves, maps,
characteristics and values can be obtained and tuned only on the test bench or in driving cycles.
This process of optimizing or tuning a control algorithm to get the desired behaviour from the
system is called as ECU Calibration.
Normally, software development has separate phases, code development phase where a
software developer uses a programming language to realize the algorithms and the complete
application. Then, an application engineer sets the parameter to the right values without
modifying the function itself. The calibration of parameters can either be done online or offline.
In offline calibration, the values of the parameters are changed in the binary file and by flashing
this new file into the ECU memory, the behaviour of the ECU can be changed. In online
calibration, the ECU calibration memory is accessed and the parameter is modified while the
application is running on the ECU, this is also known as “on the fly” calibration.
With the increasing complexity of Electrics/Electronics (E/E) in the automotive domain and an
increasing number of ECUs led to the establishment of an open standard to manage the growing
E/E complexity and improve development efficiency. This Standard is known as AUTOSAR
– AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture. The AUTOSAR architecture is a layered
architecture consists of whole software stack for ECU communication and system services.
This software stack is known as AUTOSAR Basic Software (BSW) which is a platform that
integrates the hardware independent SW applications [2].
A basic calibration system consists of an ECU and bus interface, a link to the host PC, and a
PC application. The physical connection between the development tool and the ECU is through
1
a measurement and calibration protocol. In this work, Universal measurement and calibration
protocol (XCP) will be used to establish the physical connection between the calibration tool
and the ECU. XCP was developed for implementing measurement and calibration via different
transmission media, for e.g. XCP on CAN, XCP on Ethernet, XCP on Flexray, etc.
AUTOSAR BSW layer contains XCP module, in this thesis, XCP module will be configured
for XCP on CAN. The initial investigation of this work will look into the AUTOSAR toolchain,
CAN communication stack configuration and later, the establishment of calibration mechanism
between the ECU and calibration tool. The hardware used in this toolchain will be Texas
instruments TMS570LS1227, a high performance automotive-grade microcontroller for safetycritical applications.
1.3 Objective
The main objective of this thesis is to establish a toolchain for ECU function development
following AUTOSAR standard and to have an optimal calibration mechanism with XCP over
CAN. This thesis will be focused on developing a simple example which gets its inputs via
CAN communication, the configuration of the communication stack of AUTOSAR BSW for
CAN communication, to configure XCP module of the BSW to achieve XCP over CAN, and
to establish the calibration mechanism between the ECU and calibration tool.
1.4 Delimitation
In this thesis, the actual ECU software for Battery Management System (BMS) will not be
integrated into the application layer, instead, a simple application will be implemented which
serves as an example for future work. Though AUTOSAR supports different communications
such as LIN, FlexRay, and Ethernet, in this thesis only CAN communication stack will be
configured as the BMS application will receive all the signals on CAN bus.
1.5 Outline
The second chapter of the report contains theoretical background of the necessary concepts for
AUTOSAR, CAN, calibration, and XCP. The third chapter covers the project methodology
and brief introduction to all hardware and software tools used in this thesis. In the fourth
chapter, the AUTOSAR development steps followed to design the system considered in this
thesis and the test setup is explained in detail. Chapter five presents the result of this thesis
work i.e. the toolchains, final ECU software architecture, and the result of testing. The last part
of the report includes the discussion, conclusion and proposal of how this thesis can be used
for future work.
2
2 LITERATURE
This chapter introduces to the theoretical pre-study necessary to work on this thesis. AUTOSAR
is a vast topic, thus, only the necessary concepts are discussed in this chapter. This chapter
also includes concepts of XCP and online calibration.
2.1 AUTOSAR
With the increase in innovative vehicle applications, the modern day automotive E/E
architecture has attained a high level of complexities, thus requires different approaches of
technology in order to handle it in an adequate manner and fulfil higher expectations of
passengers and legal requirements. Leading Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) and
Tier 1 suppliers have recognised this challenge and worked collaboratively to overcome this
challenge. An open and standardized automotive software architecture called AUTOSAR was
jointly developed by OEMs, tier-1 suppliers and tool developers in 2002 [3] [4].
The motto of AUTOSAR is “Cooperate on standards, compete on implementation”. The main
motivations of AUTOSAR include: managing complex E/E systems by providing ease of
modification; adaptation to the change in software and update options, reusing the solutions for
different variants, and improving the quality and reliability of these systems [4].
The main goals of AUTOSAR are to standardize the basic software functionalities of
automotive ECUs, define an open architecture, establish a partnership with various partners,
adapt the software to different vehicle and platform variants, ease of transfer of software
between partners, and develop highly reliable components [5].
2.1.1 AUTOSAR Layered Software Architecture
To increase the reusability of ECU software, the AUTOSAR development partnership has
defined a standardized ECU software architecture. AUTOSAR architecture provides a high
level of abstraction between the three software layers namely: Application Layer, Runtime
Environment Layer and Basic Software Layer which run on a Microcontroller, Figure 2.1
shows the three layers of software [6].
3
Figure 2.1: AUTOSAR Architecture
2.1.1.1 Application Layer
The top most layer of the AUTOSAR consists of the functional part of the ECU software such
as the controller code. It consists of Software components (SWCs) that are mapped to the ECUs
of a system. All SWCs together are also called the application layer. SWC is an architectural
element that provides and/or requires interfaces and communicate to one another through a
Virtual Function Bus (VFB) to fulfil structural requirements. [7].Each AUTOSAR SWC
encapsulates certain part of the behaviour of the application. AUTOSAR does not specify the
granularity of SWCs.
2.1.1.1.1 Software Components
SWCs can be divided into the following three categories:
 Composition SWCs
 Atomic SWCs
 Parameter SWCs
Composition SWCs contain other software components and have no functional behaviour of
their own. When a component-type (SWC, interfaces) is used within a composition is called a
“prototype”. Compositions are generally used to build up hierarchical systems which contains
different levels of hierarchies [8].
Atomic SWCs contain an SWC internal behaviour. The internal behaviour defines the
functional behaviour of the software architecture. Atomic also means that each instance of an
AUTOSAR SWC is statically assigned to one ECU. AUTOSAR defines the following types
of atomic software component types:
 Application SWC
 Sensor actuator SWC
 NV block SWC
 Complex device driver SWC
 Service SWC
4


ECU abstraction SWC
Service proxy SWC
Parameter SWCs provide the calibration parameters for the other SWCs.
2.1.1.1.2 Ports
Ports of a component are the communication points between the components. Port of an SWC
can be any of the following three types:
 PPort
 RPort
 PRPort
A PPort or a PRPort provides the elements, and an RPort or a PRPort requires the elements
defined in a port-interface. Thus, a port can always be typed by only one port-interface [8].
2.1.1.1.3 Port-Interfaces
A port of an SWC is associated with a “port-interface”. The port-interface describes the
operations and data elements that the SWC provides and requires. A port interface can be any
of the following kinds [8]:






Client Server Interface
Sender-Receiver Interface
Parameter Interface
Non-Volatile Data Interface
Trigger Interface
Mode Switch Interface
2.1.1.1.4 Software component communication
The most common communication patterns between the SWCs in AUTOSAR are SenderReceiver Communication and Client Server Communication.
In sender-receiver communication, the sender sends the data to one or more receivers. It is an
asynchronous distribution of information, where the sender is not blocked and neither expects
nor gets a response from the receivers. In sender-receiver communication, the sender sends the
information and receiver decides when to use this information. With this type of
communication between ports, the sender does not know the identity or the number of
receivers. Figure 2.2 shows a sender-receiver communication in Virtual function bus (VFB)
view [8].
5
Figure 2.2: Example of a sender-receiver communication in the VFB view
In distributed systems, the most widely used communication pattern is the client-server
communication. In client-server communication, the client starts the communication by
sending the request to the server to perform a service by giving a parameter set if necessary.
The server performs the requested service and transfers a response to the client’s request.
Figure 2.3 shows the example of a client-server interface [8].
Figure 2.3: Client - server communication in the VFB view
2.1.2 Virtual Function Bus (VFB) and Run Time Environment (RTE)
RTE and VFB are one of the vital parts of the AUTOSAR system design and aids in the
portability of SWCs, which is one of the main features of AUTOSAR. In order to attain a high
level of transparency with respect to underlying hardware infrastructure, AUTOSAR
6
introduces VFB and RTE concepts which help in achieving infrastructure independent SW
development.
VFB in a general context can be defined as a system modeling and communication mechanism.
It gives a virtual framework that is independent of any hardware infrastructure and also gives
all services necessary for a virtual interaction between AUTOSAR SWCs. VFB is a SWC
interconnection concept that abstracts application development and modeling from the
underlying hardware. [9].
Unlike VFB, RTE on the other hand, provides a real implementation of the communication
topology and interaction between SWCs. That is to say that, RTE presents an actual depiction
of the virtual concepts of the VFB for a specific ECU. A customized RTE is generated for each
ECU during the ECU configuration process of AUTOSAR methodology (see section 2.5
AUTOSAR Methodology). The SWCs that are mapped onto the same ECUs communicate
through Intra-ECU communication mechanisms while the communication between SWCs
mapped on different ECUs can be realised through Inter-ECU communication on the bus
system, e.g. CAN, FlexRay, Ethernet etc. [9].
Figure 2.4: Example of VFB to RTE Mapping
Figure 2.4 [8] illustrates how the SWCs that are connected virtually through an VFB are
mapped onto different ECUs, each having its own RTE.
7
2.1.2.1 Interfaces
The Figure 2.5 [10] shows three different categories of the AUTOSAR interfaces. Different
interfaces exists between different architectural units of AUTOSAR and the figure below
shows these interfaces with respect to RTE layer.

AUTOSAR Interface denotes SWC interfaces that can be described using the concept of
VFB ports and communication mechanism. On the application layer, application SWCs
and sensor/actuator components uses these interfaces above RTE, and the ECUAL and
Complex Device Drivers on the layer below RTE.

Standardized AUTOSAR Interfaces are similar to the AUTOSAR interfaces, however,
they are standardized such that the interface specifications of the components
communicating through such an interface is known in advance.

Standardized Interface indicates other SWC interfaces which are not described using the
specification of VFB. The components that are connected to RTE with standard interface
are not allowed to communicate with the SWCs directly, but through RTE alone. For
example, OS module which provides services such as instantiation of the prototype SWCs
or scheduling tasks are done via the RTE.
Figure 2.5: Overview of the AUTOSAR Interfaces
8
2.1.3 Basic Software Layer
AUTOSAR Basic Software (BSW) layer is further divided as follows: Services Layer, ECU
abstraction Layer, Microcontroller abstraction Layer and Complex device drivers. Figure 2.6:
Basic Software Layer [6] shows this layered structure.
Figure 2.6: Basic Software Layer
Services layer provides basic system services for every AUTOSAR application. These
services can be accessed by an AUTOSAR application through standardized AUTOSAR
interfaces. Services layer is the top most layer of BSW layer and provides OS functionality,
memory services, diagnostic services, vehicle network communication and management
services, ECU state and mode management, and logical and temporal program flow monitoring
[6].
ECU Abstraction Layer (ECUAL) abstracts higher SW layers independent of the underlying
hardware infrastructure. The upper layers with regard to ECUAL need not know any details
about the kind of controller on which it is executed. The ECUAL separates the upper layers
containing application from the hardware infrastructure by providing a software interface to
the electrical values from the ECU. [6].
Microcontroller Abstraction Layer (MCAL) is the bottom most layer of the BSW. MCAL
utilizes drivers to separate from particular controllers on the ECU. MCAL comprises of internal
drivers, which are BSW modules with direct access to the µC and internal peripherals. These
BSW modules provides interfaces to the ECUAL to activate the general functions of different
µCs of the same kind [11].
BSW layer is further divided into functional groups as shown in Figure 2.7. Each of the
functional groups can have several modules generally referred to as BSW modules. Currently,
there are over 80 BSW modules [12].
9
Figure 2.7: Overview of BSW function group and modules
The functional groups that are used in this thesis will be discussed in the following sections.
2.2 AUTOSAR Communication Cluster
AUTOSAR supports different network communication protocols such as CAN, LIN, Ethernet,
and FlexRay. This thesis concentrates on CAN communication, as it will be used widely with
respect to BMS application. This section briefly introduces CAN communication, and the
AUTOSAR Communication Stack with respect to CAN.
2.2.1 Controller Area Network (CAN)
For communication with distributed real-time control with higher requirements on security and
integrity, a serial communication protocol known as Controller Area Network is used. Any
node on a CAN bus can start transmitting a message when it is free. CAN uses Carrier sense
multiple access protocol with collision detection. If more than one node starts transmitting
messages at the same instance of time, the bus access conflict is resolved by bitwise arbitration
using IDENTIFIER. This arbitration mechanism ensures that neither the data nor time is lost.
During arbitration, every transmitting node compares the bit transmitted with the level that is
monitored on the CAN bus. As long as these levels are same, the unit will continue to send.
When a “dominant” level (logical 0-bit) and “recessive” level (logical 1-bit) is monitored, the
node transmitting the recessive level will lose the arbitration and will withdraw immediately
[13].
The structure of a CAN frame is as shown in Figure 2.8. Some of the main fields in the frame
are, the identifier field is the ID of the CAN message, length is 11 bits in a Standard CAN
frame or 29 bits in an Extended CAN format. DLC, Data Length Code indicates the number of
bytes in Data Field. The information to be transferred is contained in the Data field, it can
contain from 0 to 8 bytes.
10
Figure 2.8: CAN Frame
2.2.2 AUTOSAR Communication Stack
Figure 2.9 shows the highlighted BSW function groups that contribute to the communication
stack of the AUTOSAR.
Figure 2.9: Communication Stack related BSW Functional groups
The communication services functional group consists of modules for vehicle network
communication (CAN, LIN and FlexRay). An overall AUTOSAR communication stack and
some of the modules associated with it is as shown in Figure 2.10 [14]:
11
Figure 2.10: AUTOSAR Communication Stack
Since this work uses CAN communication, communication stack with respect to CAN will be
discussed further in this section.
The CAN communication services are comprised of modules which provides all the software
infrastructure necessary for an uninterrupted interface to the CAN network. The application
layer need not know the type of communication protocol used to transfer signals i.e. identifiers,
data lengths, bit timing and etc. are all handled by the communication stack. Figure 2.11 shows
the CAN communication stack, some of the modules such as AUTOSAR COM, COM Manager
and PDU Router are always same irrespective of the network system and these modules exist
in every ECU which is on a network bus [6].
12
Figure 2.11: CAN Communication Stack
2.3 Basic Software modules
In this section, some of the important BSW modules which will be used in the configuration of
CAN communication stack, and other modules from services layer and MCAL layer will be
discussed.
2.3.1 PDU Router
Protocol Data Unit (PDU) describes the data of a specific communication protocol. PDU
Router routes the PDUs between various abstract com controllers and upper layers.
The PDU router module mainly contains two parts:

The PDU Router routing tables, contains the static routing tables indicating the routing
attributes such as IDs, and, source and destination BSW modules for each I-PDU to be
routed.

The PDU Router Engine is the one which controls the routing actions according to the
PDU router routing tables. The router engine deals with routing the I-PDUs from source to
destination and translating the source I-PDU to the destination(e.g. PduR_Transmit to
CanIf_Transmit, PduR_CanIfTxConfiramtion to Com_TxConfirmation) [14].
13
Figure 2.12 [14] shows an example of CAN data communication through I-PDUs. The
communication starts with COM module calling the PduR_ComTransmit() function, the PduR
module will call CanIf_Transmit() with the destination ID as argument. Once the data is
receives at the CAN receiver, it sends an acknowledgement to CAN interface, which in turn
calls PduR CanIfTxConfirmation() and then PduR will call Com TxConfirmation(). All these
function calls will take the I-PDU IDs as an argument which is pre-configured in the PDU
router.
Figure 2.12: I-PDU ID example
2.3.1.1 PDUs
A PDU contains Service Data Unit (SDU) and Protocol control information (PCI). The PDUs
are identified by a unique static ID which is assigned to each PDU [14]. When a PDU is sent
to lower layers, the lower layer considers the received PDU as an SDU of its own PDU. This
is shown in Figure 2.13 [6]. Non-Transport Protocol I-PDUs should not be more than 8 bytes.
This is because of the fact that the Data field of CAN is 8 bytes long [15] [16].
Figure 2.13: PDU over different Layers
14
With respect to CAN communication, Layer N in Figure 2.13 corresponds to TP and Layer N1 to CAN IF.
The SDU contains the data sent by upper layer, it also contains the request to send this data to
the next layer. The PCI is important for passing SDU from one type of protocol layer to another
instance. For example, it contains the source and destination information. The protocol layer
attaches the PCI at transmitting node and is removed at the receiving node. This PDU is
considered as its SDU by the transmitting node, where PDU passes from the upper layer to the
lower layer [6].
To differentiate PDUs at different layers of the software architecture, different prefix is given
at each layer .Depending on the layer a PDU can be either I-PDU, L-PDU, or N-PDU. Figure
2.14 [6] shows different kinds of PDUs and the modules with which they interact.
Figure 2.14: Interaction of Layers
2.3.2 AUTOSAR COM
The COM module is located between RTE and the PDU router. Main features of COM module
are that it provides the service of signal aligned data interface to the RTE and it controls
(Start/Stop) the communication of I-PDU groups. It sends the signal similar to the signals
transmission type specified in VFB specification. One of the most important features is the
endianness conversion of all integer types along with sign extension [16]. There are two ways
of configuring the signal indication modes, after an IPDU is received and has been unpacked
[15]:
There are two ways of configuring the signal indication modes, after an IPDU is received and
has been unpacked:

Immediate: “Com Rx Indication” performs the signal indication and confirmation.

Deferred: In case of cyclic tasks for instance, the signal indication and confirmation are
deferred.
15
2.3.3 COM Manager (ComM)
ComM module performs resource management and it provides the services to control the
communication on the hardware infrastructure. The ComM module receives and coordinates
the bus communication access requests from the communication requestors. The purpose
ComM module is to facilitate the usage of the bus communication stack for the user, Coordinating the availability of the bus communication stack for multiple independent SWCs on
the same ECU, Controlling different communication bus channels of an ECU by implementing
a channel state machine for every channel (e.g. CanSM for CAN), and allocates necessary
resources for the requested communication mode.
The ComM provides three different communication modes. They are COMM FULL
COMMUNICATION, COMM SILENT COMMUNICATION, and COMM NO
COMMUNICATION. A particular user can request the ComM module for the Communication
mode. The highest communication mode is COMM FULL COMMUNICATION; in which the
ComM module allows the transmission and reception on the physical channel. The lowest
communication mode is COMM NO COMMUNICATION; in which the ComM module
prevents the transmission and reception on the physical channel. The communication mode
COMM SILENT COMMUNICATION is used only for network synchronization [32].
2.3.4 CAN Interface (CanIf)
CAN Interface module is placed between the low-level CAN device drivers and the upper
communication services layers (i.e. CAN State Manager, CAN Network Protocol, CAN
Transport Protocol, PDU Router). CanIf manages different CAN controllers and transceivers
which are on the underlying ECU, by providing a unique interface. CanIf initializes the CAN
Driver module during the start-up phase. The CAN interface module also provides main
control flow and data flow requirements of the PDU Router and upper layer communication
modules of the AUTOSAR COM stack. An abstraction is provided by CanIf to the CAN driver
and transceiver driver services, to supervise and control the CAN bus [17].
2.3.5 CAN Driver
CAN Driver is part of the lowest layer of the communication stack, performs the hardware
access and offers a hardware independent interface to the upper layer. The only upper layer
module to which CAN driver has access to; is the CanIf module. Services for initiating
transmissions and calling the callback functions of the CanIf module for notifying events,
independently from the hardware is done by CAN driver. CAN driver also provides services to
control the behaviour and state of the CAN controller that are on the same CAN hardware unit.
A single CAN module can control several CAN controllers as long as they belong to the same
CAN hardware unit [18].
16
Figure 2.15: CAN Hardware unit with two CAN controllers
Figure 2.15 shows CAN Hardware unit. A CAN driver represents a CAN Hardware, each driver
can have one or more than one CAN controllers of the same kind, and one or more RAM areas.
The CAN hardware unit is either on-chip or on an external device. Every CAN controller serves
exactly one physical channel [18].
The CAN driver stores LPDU inside the buffer in the CAN controller when an LPDU is sent
by a node. When an LPDU is received, a receive indication call-back function is called by
CAN-driver module along with the ID, Data Length Code and pointer to the LSDU. The CANdriver module has direct access to the hardware resources and translates the provided data into
a format that the hardware understands and triggers the transmission.
2.3.6 CAN State Manager
Each ECU can have different communication networks, each of these networks are identified
by a unique network handle, which is assigned during the configuration of ComM module. The
ComM module requests communication modes from the networks and in case of CAN, it uses
CanSM module.
CAN State Manager (CanSM) is a member of communication service layer and it implements
the control for CAN network. CanSM interacts with the Communication hardware abstraction
layer i.e. CanIf module and System service layer. CanSM module changes the communication
modes of the configured CAN network based on the mode requests from the ComM module.
CanIf module notifies CanSM module whenever there are any changes in the CAN Controller
modes and CAN Transceiver mode, the CanSM module then notifies ComM and BswM [31].
17
2.3.7 Operating System
AUTOSAR OS module is located in the system services layer of BSW. AUTOSAR OS is
based on the OSEK/VDX (Open systems and corresponding interfaces for automotive
electronics/ Vehicle Distributed eXecutive), which is an open automotive standard.
OS has two kinds of tasks namely basic task and extended task. Basic tasks release the
processor only if they terminate, if OS switches to a higher priority task or if the processor
switches to an interrupt service routine (ISR) caused by an interrupt. Extended tasks, unlike
basic tasks are permitted to use the wait event, which results in a waiting state. When a task
enters waiting state, the processor is released and the processor is now reassigned to a task with
lower priority without terminating the currently running extended task. The task models of
basic and extended tasks are shown in Figure 2.16 [19].
Figure 2.16: Task model: Basic and Extended Tasks
OSEK/VDX scheduling policy has been extended in the scheduling policy used for
AUTOSAR. Highest Priority First (HPF) Scheduling is used in AUTOSAR OS, if more than
one task share the same priority then the priority is based on FIFO basis. Tasks sharing same
priority are considered as a group. Normally, a task of the group automatically locates an
internal resource when it gets the processor and releases when terminated, then waits for an
event or it invokes schedule service. If a task is not in a group, general pre-emption rules are
applicable according to their priority levels. A task cannot pre-empt another task in the same
group. When two tasks accesses the same shared resources, AUTOSAR co-ordinates such
concurrent access with OSEK- Priority ceiling protocol. Each resource has its own priority,
when a task gets a resource, the tasks priority is changed to the resource priority. Hence the
tasks sharing the same resource cannot get the processor.
The OSEK timing services such as alarms and counters are also extended in AUTOSAR with
the introduction of concept of schedule tables. The counting of "ticks" from the underlying
hardware is done by an object known as Counter. Each counter is reset to 0 when it reaches its
18
maximum value. An alarm in AUTOSAR OS is linked to a counter and a task. The alarm
expires when the counter reaches a predefined value. As a result of this an action which is
statically defined is performed i.e. either a task associated with the alarm is activated or an
event related to the task is set. Schedule tables are an extension of the alarm concept, where
they are also linked to a counter but is comprised of a set of expiry points. When the counter
reaches the expiry point, one or more actions are taken [20].
2.3.8 ECU Manager
ECU Manager (EcuM) module manages common aspects of ECU states. Specifically, EcuM
module initializes and de-initializes the OS, the Schedule Manager and the Basic Software
Module as well as some basic software driver modules. When requested, EcuM configures the
ECU for SLEEP and SHUTDOWN. It also manages all wakeup events on the ECU. Wakeup
validation is used by EcuM to distinguish between ‘real’ and ‘eratic’ wakeup events [21].
There are two variants of AUTOSAR ECU management since release 4.0: flexible and fixed.
Flexible ECU management is more powerful than the fixed ECU management. In this thesis,
Fixed ECU management will be used. Detailed specification of flexible EcuM can be found in
[21].
Figure 2.17: ECU Main states
Figure 2.17 [22], ECU main states shows the main state machine provided by the ECU State
Manager Fixed module. This state machine manages the ‘life cycle’ of an ECU from OFF
through STARTUP and RUN to SLEEP or OFF.
STARTUP State initializes the BSW modules. The STARTUP state has two parts. The first
part is finished when the OS is started and second when RTE is started. The reason for splitting
19
it into two parts is to distinguish services called before the OS is started from those called
afterwards and to have a clear visualization.
The RUN state is entered after all the BSW modules including OS and RTE have been
initialized by ECU state by the ECU state manager fixed module. The RUN state indicates to
the SWCs above the RTE that BSW has been initialized and applications start operating. RUN
state also provides the mechanism for the synchronous shutdown of the application software.
The SHUTDOWN state provides the controlled shutdown of BSW modules and finally results
in the selected shutdown target for the ECU: SLEEP, OFF or Reset.
The SLEEP state is an energy saving state. No code is executed in this state but the power is
still supplied, and if configured accordingly, the ECU is wake-able in this state. SLEEP state
can be configured a few sleep modes which typically are a trade-off between power
consumption and time to restart the ECU.
The WAKEUP State is entered when the ECU comes out of the SLEEP state, due to intended
or unintended wakeup. In order to distinguish between the real and erratic wakeups protocol is
provided to support the validation.
The OFF state is the unpowered ECU; however, the ECU must be start-able (e.g., by reset
events) [22].
2.3.8 Microcontroller Unit (MCU) driver
The MCU driver BSW module accesses the microcontroller (µC) hardware directly and is
located in the MCAL. MCU services for Clock and RAM initialization are done by the MCU
driver. MCU driver provides services to enable and set the MCU clock, software triggering for
a hardware reset, activate MCU reduced power modes [33].
2.3.9 Port Driver
The Port driver provides the services for initializing the complete port structure of µC. Different
functionalities like General purpose I/O, ADC, SPI, SCI, PWM, CAN, LIN etc. can be assigned
to ports and port pins. The configuration and mode of these port pins are microcontroller and
ECU dependent [34].
2.4 Universal Measurement and Calibration Protocol (XCP)
ASAM MCD-1 XCP is a standard defined by Association for Standardization of Automation
and Measuring Systems (ASAM), the initial version of XCP was developed in 2003. It was
designed for using in automotive industries in the areas of ECU development i.e. in calibration,
and testing. XCP is based on the ASAM standard CAN Calibration Protocol (CCP). CCP had
a few disadvantages like timestamping for measurement data was not available and some
features, for example, flash reprogramming was not specified in detail [23].
XCP is a master slave communication protocol between ECUs and calibration systems which
is independent of the underlying bus system. XCP is used to change the parameters and
measure the values of the internal variables of a controller. "X" in XCP indicates that various
20
transport layer can be used with XCP. XCP standard can be seen as two parts, i.e a base
standard and a transport layer. A base standard defines the memory oriented services which are
independent of the underlying bus systems. The transport layer can be any of the following
communication protocol like CAN, FlexRay, Ethernet, SPI, SCI, and USB. Main objectives of
XCP are:

To scale down the requirements on XCP slave resources, like processor load, flash memory
or code memory, and RAM utilization.

To attain high data transfer rates over the established communication link between XPC
slave and master.
XCP finds its application in different phases of ECU development such as function
development, ECU testing, and ECU calibration. The ability of XCP to attain high data transfer
rates and faster measurement cycle times in the order of micro-seconds, makes this protocol to
be used in studying the behaviour of dynamic systems such as electro-chemical systems with
respect to automotive use cases.
The main functionality of XCP is to provide read and write access to certain memory locations
of ECU. The memory is accessed in an address oriented way, which means, the communication
between master (measurement and calibration tool) and slave (the ECU) references address in
a memory. Read access to the memory activates measurement of the variables and parameters
from the RAM. The write access activates the calibration of parameters in the RAM. The
measurement mechanism using XCP happens in a synchronous way, i.e. each measurement is
synchronous to an event in the controller [24]. This helps realise the real time behaviour of the
system. The measurement of a variable starts with the request of master to slave (i.e. Get value
of memory location 0xABCD). A parameter is also calibrated with a request to slave by master
(i.e. Set the value of memory location 0x4567 to “x”).
2.4.1 Communication Model
XCP data is exchanged in a message-oriented way between the master and the slave. The XCP
packet is contained in a message frame of the transport layer. The frame consists of 3 parts:
 XCP header
 XCP packet
 XCP tail
Figure 2.18: XCP Packet
Figure 2.18 [25] shows the XCP message containing the XCP packet. XCP header and XCP
tail length varies depending on the transport layer. Whereas, XCP packet is not dependent on
the underlying transport protocol. XCP Packet consists of three fields, namely: “Identification
21
Field” always beginning with the Packet Identifier (PID), “Timestamp Field” and “Data field”
containing the payload.
Figure 2.19: XCP Communication Model with CTO/DTO
The Figure 2.19 [25] shows the communication model of XCP with CTO/DTO, it can be seen
that the communication through XCP packet is divided into one region for commands (CTO)
and one region for sending synchronous data (DTO). The acronyms used in Figure 2.19 stand
for:
Command
CMD
RES
ERR
EV
SERV
DAQ
STIM
Packet
Command Packet
Command Response Packet
Error
Event Packet
Service Request Packet
Data AcQuisition
Stimulation
Description
Sends Command
Positive response
Negative response
Asynchronous event
Service request
Send periodically measured values
Periodic stimulation of the slave
The commands between master and slave are exchanged through CTOs. If, the master initiates
the contact to slave by sending a CMD, the slave should respond to CMD with RES or ERR.
The EV and SERV CTO messages are sent synchronously. To achieve synchronous
measurement and stimulation of the data DTOs are used.
The Figure 2.20 [26] shows the structure of a CTO packet.
22
Figure 2.20: The CTO packet
A request to slave is sent by master over CMD. The identification number of CMD is contained
in PID field. Parameters specific to different types of CTO packets are sent in the data field.
The slave sends a reaction to the master as ERR or RES.
The Figure 2.21 [26] shows the structure of a CTO packet.
Figure 2.21: The DTO Packet
As indicated in Figure 2.19 [26], the DTOs are used for exchanging data synchronously for
measurement and calibration. The Data field of the DTOs contains the data for synchronous
acquisition and stimulation.
Master receives the data from the slave by DAQ – synchronous to internal events. Data
acquisition happens in two phases: Initially, the master informs the slave regarding the data
that slave should send on different events. Then, the master commences the measurement in
the slave and the actual measurement phase starts. Now, the desired data is sent to the master
by slave and this continues only until master sends a “measurement stop” to the slave.
STIM is used by the master to send data to the slave. This communication also happens in two
phases: Initially, master informs to the slave about the data that will be sent. Then, the master
sends the data and the STIM processor saves the data. When a STIM event related to a
particular data is triggered in the slave, the data is written in to the code memory.
XCP allows different modes for transferring command and reaction between master and slave,
namely: Standard, Block and Interleaved mode. The three modes of communication are
depicted in Figure 2.22 [25].
23
Figure 2.22: Modes of XCP protocol
In the standard communication model, a slave sends a response to every request by a master.
This is the classic communication mode. To save time during large data transfer, an optional
mode, i.e. Block transfer mode, is used. However, the performance issue should be considered
in the slave (ECU). Thus, the least time between two commands (MIN_ST) should be
controlled and the number of commands should be with the maximum limit (MAX_BS).
Another mode which XCP supports is interleaved mode which is also an optional mode and is
used for performance reasons [25].
2.4.2 XCP Transport Layer
The XCP protocol was designed to be transport layer independent so that it can support various
types of transport protocol. XCP support transport layers like CAN, FlexRay, Ethernet, SxI and
USB [25]. In the following section, XCP over CAN will be discussed.
2.4.2.1 XCP over CAN
XCP is the predecessor of CCP and supports all the requirements for CAN bus. All data that
are processed in a networked CAN bus system, as well as their interrelationships, are
commonly administered in a central communication database/communication matrix. Most
commonly used communication matrix format is DBC format, AUTOSAR also has an
ARXML format of this database.
The XCP CAN frames are not entered in the can database, however, there is a link between the
CAN database and XCP. In order to use less CAN frames XCP restricts usage of only two
CAN IDs that are not used in the database for normal communication is used for XCP
communication. One ID is used to send the data/command from master to slave and another
ID to send the data/response from slave to master.
The XCP packet (DTO/CTO) size is limited to 8 bytes for XCP on CAN, because the maximum
length of data field is 8 bytes on a CAN frame. For XCP, the useful information needed to be
exchanged is the command used or the response sent. This information can be sent in the first
byte of data field in a CAN frame and the remaining seven bytes can be used to exchange the
useful data [25]. The Figure 2.23 depicts the XCP on CAN message.
24
Figure 2.23: XCP on CAN Message
2.4.3 Online Calibration
The most common approach to change the parameter during runtime, i.e. online calibration, is
to have the parameters in the available RAM location. Using flash memory for changing the
parameters through online calibration is not a practical solution, due to the reason that the flash
memory is always organised in the form of large blocks or sectors, which can be erased and
written only in whole. Flashing such large sector of memory in-order to change a single
parameter is not a practical solution because of the limited resources that are normally available
in an ECU [25].
The logical memory layout of the ECU is described by objects called memory segments.
Memory segments have attributes which describe the content and the type of access to the
parameters, for e.g. DATA+RAM or CODE+FLASH.
XCP introduces the concept of memory paging, which makes the implemented address
translations accessible for the XCP page switching service commands. If these XCP services
are available, the calibration tool is able to control the active page. If the calibration tool
switches a memory segment from a Flash page to a RAM page, a parameter in this memory
segment can be modified during the runtime of an application, also known as online calibration
[24]. Every segment in the memory has an ECU active page and an XCP active page. The
currently active page is the memory area which the XCP master can read and write to. If the
ECU allows XCP to point a same memory location as it is pointing, the changes are reflected
directly.
2.4.4 DAQ Lists- Data acquisition lists
DAQ measurement in one of the main features of XCP, this method helps in high data rate
transfer in minimum time and with low bus load. XCP achieves fast data transfer by linking
the acquisition of measured values to the events in the ECU. The bus load on XCP is less as
the measurement process happens in two phases, i.e. during the configuration phase, the slave
receives the information about the list of values that master is interested in, and the next phase
involves only sending the measured values from the slave to the master.
When the user selects certain signals which he wishes to measure, it is not necessary that each
signal uses the complete data field of the message, the message packets consists of combination
of signals from the slave. This combination of the signal into message packets are not decided
25
independently by the slave, or else the master cannot interpret the data when it receives the
messages. Thus, the master sends an instruction describing how the slave must arrange the
signal values in the message.
To describe how the arrangement of bytes in to the message has to be done by the slave, Object
Description Tables (ODTs) are used. A DAQ list consists of several such ODTs, which in turn
consists of several ODT entries as shown in Figure 2.24 [25]. As seen in Figure 2.25 [25], each
entry in the ODT list refers to a memory location in the RAM by the address and length of the
object. Each DAQ list is assigned to an ECU event.
Figure 2.24: DAQ list with 3 ODTs
Figure 2.25: ODT: Allotment of RAM addresses to DAQ-DTO
ODT describes the allotment of contents of RAM from the slave to arrange in the message that
will be transmitted on the bus as a DAQ DTO.
There are three types of DAQ lists: Static, Predefined and Dynamic.
In Static DAQ lists, though there is no information on definition of the measurement
parameters in the ODT list, both the DAQ lists and ODT lists are defined permanently. These
definitions are generally set in the A2L file and the ECU code in case of Static DAQ lists.
Predefined DAQ lists as the name indicate, in this type the DAQ lists and ODT tables are
defined permanently along with the measurement parameters. This method lacks in providing
the flexibility to the user, as a result, this type of DAQ lists are not used practically.
26
In Dynamic DAQ lists, the measurement parameter of the DAQ and ODT lists are not predefined, but only the parameters relate to memory locations is used for the DAQ lists. This type
of DAQ lists provides an advantage to the measurement tool by providing flexibility in putting
the DAQ lists together and dynamically structure the DAQ lists.
2.4.5 Configuring DAQ lists
DAQ lists can be configured either statically or dynamically. The slave can have certain fixed
limits for the number of DAQ lists, number of ODTs for each DAQ list and the number of
ODT entries of every ODT. Depending on the slave the type of configuration is also
determined, master cannot request for a particular type of configuration. The master is allowed
to configure the DAQ lists’ direction, pre-scalar, priority and to which event channel it should
be connected.
When DAQ is configure statically, the information about the structure of DAQ- lists with ODTs
and the ODTs entries are available to slave. The master get the information about, the
maximum number of DAQ lists (MAX_DAQ), maximum number of ODTs each DAQ can
have (MAX_ODT) and the maximum number of ODT entries each ODT can have (MAX
ODT_ENTRIES). The master can edit the ODT entries, i.e. it can change the address and also
the address extension that is linked to a memory space.
Dynamic configuration is the most preferred way of configuring the DAQ lists as it provides
more flexibility. Dynamic configuration is flexible but also has limits on the minimum number
of DAQ list number range; number of configurable DAQ lists; rules to be followed on the
allocation of first PID, numbering of DAQ lists and event channels.
The configuration of DAQ lists is done with the commands FREE_DAQ, ALLOC_DAQ,
ALLOC_ODT and ALLOC_ODT_ENTRY. These commands get an error response
ERR_MEMORY_OVERFLOW, if there is not enough memory to allocate the requested
objects. If such an overflow error occurs the whole DAQ list configuration is invalid. During
dynamic configuration, the master has to follow a special sequence for the use of the
commands; failing to do so, the slave returns an ERR_SEQUENCE.
Initially, the previously allocated DAQs must be cleared using the command FREE_DAQ.
Secondly, the master has to allocate DAQ lists with ALLOC_DAQ command. Thirdly, the
master has to allocate all ODTs to all DAQ lists with ALLOC_ODT commands. Finally, the
master has to allocate all ODT entries to all ODTs for all DAQ lists with
ALLOC_ODT_ENTRY commands. Failing to allocate DAQs using commands in this order,
slave returns a negative response. The table in Figure 2.26 indicates the allowed sequence for
configuring DAQ lists dynamically. These rules make sure that the slave can allocate the
different objects in a continuous way to the available memory which optimises its use and
simplifies its management [27].
Figure 2.26: Sequence of using commands for allocating DAQs dynamically
27
2.4.6 Data Stimulation Lists- STIM Lists
The memory location in the slave can be written from the master in a controlled way with the
help of STIM lists. The use of STIM lists is based on exchanging of DTO messages with the
communication that is synchronised to an event in the slave. Thus, the master knows the events
in the slave to which it can synchronise to. When master sends data to slave through STIM, the
slave must be informed in-advance about the memory location in which it can find the
calibration parameter. STIM lists execute only at specific time intervals when the program is
executing on the ECU, ensuring that none of the control parameters are modified directly online
when the control-loop is executing. Instead, STIM lists provides ECU a mechanism to assign
new parameters at different points in time in a controlled manner. STIM lists are similar to
DAQ lists in its structure, it consists of ODTs and ODT entries.
2.4.7 XCP module in AUTOSAR
XCP module in AUTOSAR is located above the bus specific interfaces in case of CAN and
FlexRay as shown in Figure 2.27 [28], and in the case of Ethernet, it is located above the Socket
Adaptor. For transmitting and receiving XCP messages, unique PDU-IDs must be used.
AUTOSAR XCP module supports the ASAM XCP Specification Version 1.1. AUTOSAR
XCP module supports all the main features specified in ASAM XCP such as Synchronous data
acquisition (measurement), Dynamic DAQ configuration, Synchronous data stimulation, onthe-fly memory calibration, Timestamped data transfer through DTOs, Block communication
mode, Bypassing, and Seed & Key [28].
Figure 2.27: AUTOSAR XCP
When XCP over CAN is used, the PDUs have to be sent and received using transmit and receive
APIs provided by the AUTOSAR CAN Interface. For transceiving XCP data via CAN, at least
two different CAN identifiers have to be configured to be used by XCP as explained in section
2.4.2.1 XCP over CAN.
28
2.4.8 ASAM MCD-2 MC
ASAM MCD-2 MC (Measurement and Calibration) specification provides the description of
the internal ECU variables used in measurement and calibration. MC systems need this
description for parameterization of scalar constants, curves, and maps of the ECU software and
for recording the response of the system through measurement variables during real time
testing. The file extension of this description file is “A2L” which is an abbreviation of ASAM
MCD-2 MC Language. The A2L file defines extensive support for look-up table of up to 5
dimensions [49].
The A2L file consists of details about memory segments, data types, record layouts, and
dimensions and memory locations of ECU variables. The details about how the values should
display in the measurement and calibration system, regardless of how the ECU-internal data
are defined. The interface information between the ECU and the measurement and calibration
system for read and write access is contained in the A2L file. For example for our system, the
A2L file must contain the information of XCP on CAN interface to have a successful
communication between the MC-system and the ECU.
2.5 AUTOSAR Methodology
AUTOSAR methodology provides certain technical approaches for some stages of
development of a system. The AUTOSAR methodology as shown in Figure 2.28 [29] describes
all the important stages of system development, from configuration at system level to the
generation of an executable which will run on the ECU. AUTOSAR doesn’t prescribe a precise
sequence in which the activities shall be carried out.
The activities involved in the AUTOSAR Methodology as shown in Figure 2.28 are described
briefly as follows:
1. System Configuration Input: Initially the system configuration input has to be defined.
The software components and the hardware have to be selected, and overall system description
has to be identified. The system level configuration involves defining the inputs by entering
the data to or editing the format that AUTOSAR provides for formal description through the
information exchange format (arxml) and the use of the following templates.
1a. Software component description: in this step, the descriptions such as data types,
interfaces, ports, etc. which are required by SWCs are given.
1b. ECU Resource description: here the specifications for each ECU regarding the processor
unit, memory, peripherals, communication interfaces etc. are described.
1c. System description: in this step the system constraints regarding the bus signals, the
network topology used, communication matrix, gateway table and mapping/clustering of
relevant SWCs.
29
Figure 2.28: AUTOSAR System Design Methodology
2. Configure system & generate extracts of ECU descriptions: Configure system involves
mapping of the SWCs to the ECUs with respect to resource and timing requirements. The
outcome of configure system is System Configuration Description. Such a description
consists of all the details of the system such as signal mapping, bus/network topology, and the
mapping of SWCs to different ECUs. Next, the information required for a specific ECU is
extracted from System configuration description.
3. Configure each ECU: This step adds all the required information to configure the core
operations of the ECU such as configuring operating system to schedule the tasks,
configuration of a communication stack, assigning SWC’s runnable entities to a task created
in operating system, etc.
4. Generate Executable: Finally, the code is generated from the configuration of the ECU
done in previous step. This involves validating and generating the code from configured BSW
modules and the RTE, and the source code written or generated for SWCs. These code files are
linked and compiled into an executable which can be flashed to an ECU.
Along with the above described steps of the system design methodology, the SWCs are
implemented according to the definitions required by the VFB. This is required to integrate the
SWCs into the complete system, e.g. generating the components API and implementing the
components functionality. However, the implementation of SWC is more or less independent
from the ECU configuration. This is a key feature of AUTOSAR methodology [30].
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3 PROJECT METHODOLOGY
In this chapter, the methodology used in this thesis will be introduced and the different
hardware and software development tools used will be briefly explained
3.1 Method
As mentioned in section 1.3 , the objective of this thesis is to identify toolchain for ECU
function development using AUTOSAR Standard and to have an optimal calibration
mechanism using XCP over CAN. The thesis started with study phase for an understanding of
AUTOSAR, CAN communication, XCP, and the stages of ECU function development. The
understanding of AUTOSAR software architecture was very important in order to decide the
toolchain and to contact the tool vendors. AUTOSAR is a consortium of OEMs, semiconductor
manufacturers, tools and service providers. The latter group was researched and few vendors
were shortlisted based on their reputation in AUTOSAR tools and location, keeping in mind
the ease of communication. Tool vendors that were shortlisted are Vector, Mentor Graphics,
dSPACE, ETAS, Electrobit and Arc Core. All these vendors were contacted asking for the
price quote and the possibility of providing the evaluation license. Table below shows the
different tool vendors and the tools that they provide.
Vendor
Origin
SWC
RTE
BSW
ArcCore
Sweden
SWC Builder
RTE Builder
BSW configurator
Elektrobit
ETAS
Finland
Germany
dSpace
Germany
Mentor Graphics
USA
VECTOR
Germany
EB tresos Autocore
ISOLAR A & ISOLAR EVE
System Desk and Targetlink
Volcano V-Star & System Architect
Davinci
Developer
MICROSAR
Arc Core was one of the first companies to respond to the query and provide an evaluation
license. All other companies replied later and eventually presented their tools at NEVS
including ArcCore. ArcCore’s Arctic Studio was an obvious choice to start working on the
thesis. Except dSPACE other tool vendors had a price on their evaluation license, hence the
other AUTOSAR tool that was used in this thesis is dSPACE SystemDesk and TargetLink.
ArcCore provides complete AUTOSAR toolchain; while dSPACE SystemDesk is limited to
design network modeling and application layer SWC modeling according to the methodology
defined by AUTOSAR.
Next step was to learn to use both the tools, Arctic Studio has a few example projects which
were used as a reference while implementing our application, on the other hand, SystemDesk
provides a step by step implementation document for a tutorial project, which was implemented
to get familiar with the tool. After understanding the working of both the tools, it was decided
that two toolchains will be tried for application layer of AUTOSAR. AUTOSAR toolchain-1
uses only Arctic Studio for complete function development for the ECU and toolchain-2 is to
develop the application layer using dSPACE SystemDesk and TargetLink, and configuring
31
BSW and generating RTE with Arctic Studio. The latter helped in realising one of the core
features of AUTOSAR i.e. abstraction between different software layers in its architecture.
The hardware used in this work is Texas instruments TMS570LS1227, as this MCU was
available at NEVS and it is an automotive-grade µC used for safety critical applications like
BMS. Among the different MCUs supported by Arctic Studio, TMS570LS1227 is one of them.
It was important to understand the features of MCU in order to do the BSW configuration of
CAN cluster, MCU, and Port drivers. To get familiarise with the hardware, simple projects
such as blinking led, establishing CAN communication between the development board and
PC were implemented using Halcogen and Code composer studio.
To check the behaviour of the designed AUTOSAR system, the system was tested by sending
CAN signals through BUS MASTER to the board and receive the output as CAN signal and
read on BUS MASTER. Once the AUTOSAR toolchain was tested, the next step was to
establish communication with the Measurement and Calibration (MC) tool. The MC tool that
is used in this thesis is INCA from ETAS, as this software was available at NEVS along with
the ECU and BUS Interface needed to connect between the MC tool and ECU. The A2L file is
necessary for communication between the ETAS ES590.1 and the TMS570LS1227, the A2L
file generate by Arctic Studio was incomplete, and as a result, A2L file was written manually
using the A2L file available on the ASAM webpage as reference.
3.2 Development tools
This section lists all the software and hardware used during the course of this thesis and its
brief introduction.
3.2.1 Software
The software tools used in AUOTSAR toolchain and in MC system are discussed in this
section. Halcogen which was used to learn programming the TMS570 is not discussed in this
section as it is not part of the final toolchain.
3.2.1.1 Arctic Studio and Arctic Core
Arctic Studio is an Eclipse-based IDE from ArcCore, which can be used to develop ECU
function according to AUTOSAR standard. AUTOSAR version 4.0.2 was used in this work.
ArcCore provides four plugins in Arctic Studio to develop a complete AUTOSAR solution,
namely SWC builder, Extract builder, BSW builder, and RTE builder.
BSW builder provides a complete tool for editing and generating BSW configuration which is
tailored to take advantage of the Arctic Core AUTOSAR platform. BSW builder allows users
to add the desired BSW modules and configure each of these modules. Validation mechanism
is built-in which points out the invalid values entered during the configuration. Use of
AUTOSAR standard XML-format (arxml) and the extension points in eclipse provides ways
for the users to integrate other tools to Arctic Studio and the BSW builder.
RTE builder is the tool used to configure the RTE and generate RTE code. RTE Configurator
allows mapping of RTE runnables to tasks and OS events, validation to ensure a runnable RTE,
and generation of RTE header and source files. Since RTE configuration needs access to the
32
information of OS configuration, RTE builder is tightly integrated with the BSW builder, this
means that the tool can access all BSW configured for the specified ECU.
SWC builder allows users to create and edit AUTOSAR SWCs, ports, interfaces, data types
and much more. The tool not only creates the SWCs, it also allows to import and modify the
existing SWCs and validation rules are included in the tool which helps to identify the missing
objects and incorrect configurations of the SWCs. SWCD language is used to create and edit
the SWCs, ports, interfaces etc.
Extract builder is used to create an AUTOSAR ECU from the SWCs created using SWC
builder or imported from a third party tool. In this tool, the ECU integrator defines the software
architecture with all the SWCs, ports and the connection between them. The integrator also
connects to the outer world i.e. System signals are connected to environment ports of the
software architecture. Extract builder is also closely integrated with the BSW builder. SYSD
language is used to create SWC prototypes, to connect SWCs to ports and to system signals
[35].
Arctic core is the name given to the AUTOSAR embedded platform by ArcCore, which
provides everything needed to build software for an automotive ECU. It includes all features
required in an automotive ECU including communication services, diagnostic services, and a
real time OS. Arctic core package supports different µC architectures like PowerPC, ARM
Cortex and Renesas architectures [36].
Arctic Studio and Arctic Core, unlike other AUTOSAR vendor tools, are open source. A
commercial license can be bought for developing products for commercial purpose which
removes the obligation of releasing the product under GPL.
3.2.1.2 dSPACE- SystemDesk and TargetLink
SystemDesk is a system architecture tool which is used for modeling AUTOSAR architectures
and systems for application software. SystemDesk provides a comprehensive graphical
modeling, this feature results in efficient and less error working during the large projects.
ARXML files can be imported and exported to and from SystemDesk. Communication
matrices in different formats such as DBC, LDF etc. can be imported to SystemDesk [37].
TargetLink is another software from dSPACE, which generates the production code (C code)
directly from the model based environment such as MATLAB/Simulink/Stateflow. TargetLink
provides a library block-set similar to the Simulink libraries which provide an extended
dialogue box for entering the implementation specific information. An optional TargetLink
AUTOSAR software helps using the TargetLink modeling, simulation and code generation
options available for designing the AUTOSAR SWCs. TargetLink contains a database known
as a data dictionary, which contains all the information that is relevant for a designing a model,
generating code and implementation details for an ECU. When generating code from the
modelled behaviour using TargetLink, AUTOSAR- compliant code can be generated [38].
TargetLink and SystemDesk work well together with the sophisticated feature of exchanging
data between the two through the SWC container exchange, where the data from TargetLink
data dictionary such as data types, units, initial values of ports and the generated code can be
mapped to respective SWCs in SystemDesk. On the other hand, the software architecture that
is modelled in SystemDesk can be imported to TargetLink to get the frame model.
33
SystemDesk and TargetLink are both licensed software and an evaluation license was provided
by dSPACE which was used in this thesis.
3.2.1.3 ETAS INCA
INCA provides a complete functionality for measurement and calibration as well as the
software tools for calibration data management, measurement data analysis and flash
programming. INCA supports ECU descriptions for MC-systems, measurement data exchange
and protocols such as CCP and XCP for communication compliant to standards such as ASAM
MCD-2, ASAP3, ASAM MCD-3 MC, CCP and XCP [39].
INCA v7 was used in this thesis work and it licensed software which was available at NEVS.
3.2.1.4 MATLAB/SIMULINK
Simulink is a software from MathWorks which has a graphical programming environment for
control system modeling, simulation and analysing multi domain systems with dynamic
behaviour. Simulink supports simulation, automatic code generation, and continuous test and
verification of embedded systems [40]. It is one of the most widely used graphical
programming environment in automotive industries for model-based design of the plant and
control model.
MATLAB/Simulink is a licensed software and the license used for this thesis was an academic
license.
3.2.1.5 Code composer studio
Code composer studio (CCS) is an IDE that supports Texas Instruments Microcontroller and
Embedded processors. CCS has a suite of tools for debugging and developing the embedded
applications. Different kinds of licenses are available for CCS depending on the purpose of use
and the features used. For this thesis, a free license was used [41].
3.2.1.6 Vector CANdb++ editor
One of the important artefacts which is needed for a distributed ECU network based on CAN
is the communication description or communication matrix. Most commonly used format of
this communication description files are DBC (Database for CAN) files. The DBC databases
contain the descriptions of CAN network, the ECUs connected to the CAN bus, and the CAN
messages and signals. To create and edit the DBC file for this work, Vector’s CANdb++ was
used [42].
CANdb++ editor is included in most of the Vector CAN tools and can be also found in the
demo software. The CANdb++ used in this thesis was from the demo software.
3.2.1.7 BUS MASTER
BUS MASTER is an open source software for design, monitoring, analysis and simulation of
CAN, LIN, and FlexRay networks. It was conceptualised, designed and developed by Robert
Bosch Engineering India (RBEI) and is currently a joint project of RBEI and ETAS Gmbh
[43]. BUS MASTER supports a number of different CAN Bus interface modules, creation, and
editing of CAN databases, logging and replay of CAN messages [44].
34
3.2.2 Hardware
The hardware components used in this thesis are discussed in this section.
3.2.2.1 Texas Instruments – TMS570LS1227
The TMS570LS1227 device is a high-performance automotive grade microcontroller family
for safety crictical systems. Battery Management System is an application which is safety
critical, this was one of the reasons to use TMS570LS1227. The safety architecture of this
device includes dual CPUs in lockstep, ECC on both the flash and the data SRAM, CPU and
memory BIST logic, parity on the peripheral I/Os. TMS570LS1227 contains ARM CortexR4F floating point CPU. It supports the big endian [BE32] format [46].
Figure 3.1: TMS50LS1227 HDK Board
35
Figure 3.2: Connectors on TMS570LS1227
The Figure 3.1 and Figure 3.2 show the TMS570LS1227 HDK board and its connectors
respectively [45]. The device has multiple communication interfaces for SPI, LIN, SCI, CAN,
I2C, Ethernet and FlexRay communications. There are 3 DCANs and it supports CAN 2.0
protocol standard and uses a serial, multi-master communication protocol and communication
rates of up to 1Mbps. The detailed description of different features of TMS570LS1227 can be
found in [46].
3.2.2.2 PEAK Systems – PCAN USB adapter
The PCAN-USB adapter establishes a simple connection to CAN networks. The optodecoupled version of the adapter provides galvanic isolation of up to 500 Volts between the
PC and CAN side. The voltage supply to the adapter is via USB. It supports bit rates from 5
Kbits up to 1 Mbits [47].
3.2.3.3 ETAS ECU and BUS interface module
The ETAS 590.1 is a compact hardware module that supports the ECU and bus interfaces
Ethernet/XETK, ETK, CAN and Serial interfaces. This device is also suitable to be used invehicle. Main features supported by this device are ECU calibration, diagnostics and flash
programming. ETAS 590.1 module has seamless integration with INCA and it can be used for
Bus monitoring, logging, and collection of time synchronous data [48].
36
4 AUTOSAR FUNCTION DEVELOPMENT
This section presents the implementation of an example application, describing the steps
involved in developing the application layer according to AUTOSAR standard with Arctic
Studio, and SystemDesk and TargetLink. Then, defining the system signals and creating ECU
extract will be discussed in the System Design section, the configuration of different BSW
modules are presented in the BSW configuration section. Finally, building the executable and
programming the MCU will be described.
4.1 Modeling Application layer
The application layer consists of SWCs. As this thesis is aimed at identifying possible
toolchains for function development with AUTOSAR, a simple application was considered.
Two tools were used to design the application layer. In this section, designing using both
SystemDesk and Arctic Studio will be discussed.
4.1.1 SWC Model
The application consists of one SWC called Power which has two RPorts and one PPort. Figure
4.1 depicts the system that will be modelled at the application layer. The two RPorts are called
RpCurrent and RpVoltage, and the PPort is called PpPower. RpCurrent, RpVoltage, and
PpPower ports are all assigned to sender-receiver interfaces if_current, if_voltage and if_power
respectively. The SWC also contains a parameter which is used for calibration called
GainFactor. The implementation of the SWC is the multiplication of the values of the signals
current, voltage and calibration parameter GainFactor. The data signals Current and Voltage
are received via CAN communication and Power is sent on the CAN signal. The calibration of
the parameter GainFactor is done through the MC tool which is discussed in section 5.5.2
Testing with setup -2.
Figure 4.1: System architecture
37
The major steps involved in designing such a system with Arctic Studio and with SystemDesk
will be discussed in the next two sections.
4.1.2 Modeling SWC with Arctic Studio
To model SWC in Arctic Studio, ARtext SWCD language is used. Modeling SWC includes:
data model development where the data types and interfaces are defined, Atomic SWCs
definition where the ports corresponding to the application are assigned, modeling the internal
behaviour of atomic SWCs, and specifying mapping sets.
Firstly, the data model development involves the definition of application data types (ADTs),
implementation datatypes (IDTs), and port interfaces. Since AUTOSAR 4, AUTOSAR
distinguishes ADT and IDT. ADTs define data in the application view as physical values,
whereas the same data is represented as internal values by IDTs and it also defines the
implementation details. ADTs are not mandatory, however, when used they need to be mapped
to the corresponding IDTs.
The interfaces defined are all sender-receiver interfaces and the data element of each of the
interface is one of the defined types. For the system shown in Figure 31, the data model is as
shown in the code below.
/*-------------------Current,Voltage,Power -------------*/
/*-------------------Application data type -------------*/
int app ACurrent
int app AVoltage
int app APower
/*----------------Implementation data type -------------*/
int impl ICurrent extends uint16
int impl IVoltage extends uint16
int impl IPower extends uint32
/*===================================================== */
/*----------------Calibration Parameter-----------------*/
int app AGainFactor
int impl IGainFactor extends uint16
/*===================================================== */
/*-------------------Interfaces------------------------*/
interface senderReceiver If_Voltage{
data AVoltage voltage_v
}
interface senderReceiver If_Current{
data ACurrent current_v
}
interface senderReceiver If_Power{
data APower power_v
}
To map IDT with ADT, a keyword dataTypeMappingSet is used and the mapping is done as
shown below.
38
/*------------Data type Mappings------------------------- */
dataTypeMappingSet DTMappings {
map ICurrent ACurrent
map IVoltage AVoltage
map IPower APower
map IGainFactor AGainFactor
}
Once the data types and interfaces are defined, Atomic SWCs can be defined. There is only
one SWC in our system and it is of the application SWC type. The code below shows the
modeling of Power SWC containing ports which are assigned to its respective interfaces.
/*------------------SWC-----------------------------------*/
component application Power{
ports{
receiver RpVoltage requires If_Voltage
receiver RpCurrent requires If_Current
sender
PpPower
provides If_Power
}
}
Next step is to design the actual implementation for the defined SWC. Every application SWC
must contain internal behaviour which describes the RTE aspects of a component that is the
calibration parameters, data type mappings, kind of access to the data access to the data
elements, runnable entities, and the events they respond to. A calibration parameter has to be
defined in the enclosing internal behaviour. Runnable entities are the smallest code fragments
that are provided by the component and are a subject for scheduling the underlying operating
system.
For the system under consideration, a calibration parameter GainFactor is defined and a
runnable Get_Power. The Get_Power runnable entity contains the information about the type
of data access to the data element of its ports and a timing event which triggers the runnable
every 0.01s.The code implementation of this is as shown below.
/*------------------internal behavior--------------------- */
internalBehavior PowerInternalBehaviour for Power{
dataTypeMappings {
DTMappings
}
instanceParam AGainFactor GainFactor "0" // Initial Value = 0
runnable Get_Power[0.0]{
// Minimum start interval = 0.0s
dataReadAccess RpVoltage.voltage_v
dataReadAccess RpCurrent.current_v
dataWriteAccess PpPower.power_v
timingEvent 0.01 as GetPower_timingEvent
paramAccess GainFactor
}
}
AUTOSAR consists of various kinds of atomic SWC, but only an application SWC possess an
implementation. The purpose of implementation is to identify application SWC that is
39
implemented, link to code (source code, object code, etc.), and optionally specify required build
environment. The implementation for PowerInternalBehaviour is as shown in the ARtext
SWCD code below.
implementation IMPL_Power for PowerInternalBehaviour {
language c
codeDescriptor "src"
}
When an SWC is defined, it should be instantiated and linked to other SWCs via ports. This is
known as composition-SWC. The role of an AUTOSAR composition is to allow encapsulation
of functionality by aggregating existing SWCs. Though the system in Figure 4.1: System
architecture contains only one SWC, a composition is necessary. This is done in SWCD code
as shown below.
composition RootSwcComposition{
prototype Power Power
}
4.1.3 Modeling SWC with SystemDesk
Unlike Arctic Studio, SWC modeling in SystemDesk is via dialog boxes and graphical
diagrams. Here the exact system which was designed using Arctic Studio will be designed. As
the modeling of SWC with system desk involves many dialog windows and views, only the
major steps will be presented in this section. There are two ways to create an SWC in
SystemDesk i.e. by adding SWCs in the folder structure in project manager view or by adding
SWCs graphically in the composition SWC. The latter method will be discussed here.
To create a new project, one can import AUTOSAR templates into the project and this results
in a folder structure as shown in Figure 4.2.
Figure 4.2: Folder Structure in SystemDesk
Firstly, a composition SWC was added under the Composition folder and a composition
diagram. In the composition diagram, an application SWC was added and named as Power. To
this SWC block, two RPorts namely RpCurrent and RpVoltage and a PPort named PpPower.
40
Figure 4.3: Application SWC with ports
Figure 4.3 shows SWC with ports without any interface assigned to it. The interfaces can be
added under the folder SharedElements > Interfaces folder seen in Figure 4.4. Figure 4.4 shows
the added sender-receiver interfaces along with their data elements. Figure 4.5 shows SWC
after assigning the interfaces to the ports at composition level and sub level.
Figure 4.4: Application Data Types and Interfaces
Figure 4.5: After assigning the interfaces to the port
41
As mentioned in the previous section, each application SWC must have its internal behaviour
and implementation. The internal behaviour, data mapping set in SystemDesk can be added to
the SWC as shown in Figure 4.6. Internal behaviour consists of runnable Get_Power.
Figure 4.6: Internal Behaviour and Data type Mapping Set
Information such as data access, calibration parameter, and events that trigger the runnable is
given in a dialogue shown below in Figure 4.7, which contains all the required tabs.
Figure 4.7: Runnable entity dialogue
Finally, the implementation of the SWC is as shown in Figure 4.8, this indicated the
implementation of the behaviour of the runnable will be in C language and will be generated
in TargetLink or hand coded. This generated code can be linked to the implementation under
the code descriptors tab.
42
Figure 4.8: SWC implementation dialogue
4.1.4 Runnable
Implementation of SWC as seen in both Arctic Studio and in SystemDesk was mentioned as
the C language. The C code can be implemented by hand code or can be a generated code from
code generator such as TargetLink. In this thesis, both hand coded and generated code were
implemented. Since the behaviour of the runnable considered is very simple, which involves
the multiplication of the current, voltage signal and parameter GainFactor. The hand coded part
of the implementation is not presented in this section, only the model-based implementation in
Simulink and the AUTOSAR compliant code generated are presented.
Once the SWC is modelled in SystemDesk, it is possible to export the information to Data
dictionary of TargetLink. With this information, a frame model can be generated as shown in
Figure 4.9.
Figure 4.9: Generated Frame model
The frame model contains subsystem with a runnable block indicating that the behaviour of
this runnable should be modelled at that level of the subsystem. Figure 4.10 shows the
43
subsystem with a runnable block for Get_Power runnable and the dialogue showing the
properties of this runnable.
Figure 4.10: Get_Power Runnable & Properties
The behaviour of the runnable Get_Power is modelled in the subsystem when its corresponding
runnable block is found. As mentioned earlier, the implementation for this runnable is simple
and is as shown in Figure 4.11.
Figure 4.11: Get_Power behaviour implementation
Next step is to generate the code from this implemented model. TargetLink has to be informed
that the code that will be generated should be AUTOSAR compliant. This can be indicated in
the TargetLink main dialogue box as shown in Figure 4.12.
44
Figure 4.12: TargetLink Main Dialogue
The AUTOSAR compliant code is generated and is as shown below. The code generated should
be AUTOSAR compliant as RTE expects, this ensures successful communication between the
SWC and RTE. According to AUTOSAR specification for RTE, RTE API includes API calls
to support data read access and data write access. The API calls Rte_IWrite and Rte_IRead
access the data copies for write and read access respectively. Rte_CData provides access to the
calibration parameter an AUTOSAR SWC defined internally [9].
FUNC(void, Power_CODE) Get_Power(void)
{
Rte_IWrite_Get_Power_PpPower_Power((uint32) (((sint16) (uint8)
(((uint8)Rte_IRead_Get_Power_RpCurrent_Current()) *
((uint8) Rte_IRead_Get_Power_RpVoltage_Voltage()))) *
((sint16) Rte_CData_Cal_GainFactor())));
}
The name of each of the functions in the above code snippet is according to AUTOSAR RTE
specification. For example, to access the data elements defined with DataWriteAccess the
format of the function should be “Rte_IWrite_<re>_<p>_<d> ([IN RTE_Instance], IN
<type>)”. Where <re> is the name of runnable entity , <p> is the port name, <d> the name of
data element, an optional field for RTE_Instance and <type> is the data type of the data element
[9].
4.2 System modeling
After implementing all the SWCs and creating a top level software composition for our
software architecture, each of the SWC must be mapped to an ECU instance. ECU extract and
System extract will be used interchangeably in this section. Along with mapping the SWC to
ECU, to complete the modelling of the system defined in Figure 4.1, the system signals and
the network topology must be specified. In this section creating the system signal, importing
network topology and creating ECU extract with both Arctic Studio and SystemDesk will be
discussed.
45
4.2.1 System modeling with Arctic Studio
In Arctic Studio, System modeling can be considered in two steps i.e. defining system signal
& its communication, and creating ECU extract or system design. For system communication
modeling in Arctic Studio, another ARtext language known as System description (SYSD)
language is used.
Firstly the system signals and the internal signals are defined and the internal signals are
mapped to the respective PDUs as shown in the code below.
//System Signals
systemSignal SCurrent
systemSignal SVoltage
systemSignal SPower
// internal
iSignal for
iSignal for
iSignal for
signal corresponding to the above definitions
SCurrent as ICurrent
SVoltage as IVoltage
SPower as IPower
// internal signals mapped to its corresponding PDU Frames
iSignalPdu BatterySignals{
iSignalIPduMapping for ICurrent as Current
iSignalIPduMapping for IVoltage as Voltage
}
iSignalPdu POWER_CALCULATED{
iSignalIPduMapping for IPower as Power
}
ECU extract or System Extract contains the composition SWC which was previously created
as root composition, implementation mappings where the implementation is mapped to the
SWC, and signal mappings where the data elements are mapped to the system signals. The
code for ECU extract is as shown in the code snippet below.
// creating an ECU/System Extract
system EcuExtract{
// Composition SWC
rootComposition RootSwcComposition
// Implementation mapped to SWC
mapping as ImplementationMapping {
implMap IMPL_Power to Power
}
// System signal to data mapping
mapping as SignalMappings{
signalMap Power.PpPower.power_v to SPower
signalMap Power.RpCurrent.current_v to SCurrent
signalMap Power.RpVoltage.voltage_v to SVoltage
}
}
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With ECU extract the system modeling with respect to application layer is complete. The ECU
extract or System extract is now exported in ARXML format and is integrated with the BSW
configurator.
4.2.2 System modeling with SystemDesk
In SystemDesk, a system is managed and configured in the system manager. A System in a
system manager can contain at most one root SW composition, an ECU instance, and a network
topology. CAN communication is used in our system and the CAN network with signals and
node was defined in a DBC file using Vector CANdb++ editor. The network contains one node
called MCU that will be TMS570LS1227 and two CAN messages namely BatterySignals
containing two signals Current and Voltage, and POWER_CALCULATED containing one
signal called Power. Figure 4.13 shows the described topology and Figure 4.14 shows the
details of the three signal.
Figure 4.13: CAN Network topology
Figure 4.14: Signals
The information about the network is imported from DBC file to SystemDesk and the System
looks as shown in Figure 4.15 containing the SW composition created previously, along with
an ECU instance and the network information.
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Figure 4.15: System
Figure 4.15 shows the mapping of SWC Power to the ECU instance. Along with SWC-to-ECU
mapping, data elements are mapped to the system signals added through DBC files as shown
in Figure 4.16. SWC to Implementation mapping, SWC-to-ECU mappings is done under other
tabs in Figure 4.16.
Figure 4.16: System - Data Mappings
Once the system is configured, the system extract or ECU extract can be exported to an
ARXML file and integrated with BSW. This artefact from SystemDesk will be used in the
Arctic Studio during BSW configuration. This is the points where the two tools converge.
4.3 Basic Software Configuration
In BSW configuration, different BSW modules used will be configured. Though there are
different modules, some of the modules are dependent on the other, thus, the order in which
the BSW modules are configured is important. For example, when configuring CAN cluster,
CAN driver needs to be configured first, then the CAN interface module in order to provide
communication to the upper modules like PDU router and COM modules. Figure 4.17 shows
the different BSW module used in this work. The following sections describe the configuration
of each module.
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Figure 4.17: Used BSW Modules
4.3.1 Microcontroller Unit
The MCU driver module accesses the microcontroller hardware directly. The frequency of the
main clock which will be used by other modules is configured here as shown in Figure 4.18.
The different mode settings of MCU i.e. NORMAL, RUN, SLEEP modes are also configured
for MCU module. This mode setting will be used by ECU manager.
Figure 4.18: MCU Clock Reference Point
4.3.2 ECU Manager
The EcuM module is an important module to be configured, as it handles the initialization,
sleep and wake-up process of the processor. EcuM used in this work is fixed EcuM, the
configuration of this is shown in Figure 4.19. Here the channel for which the ECU should call
ComM_CommunicationAllowed is configured.
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Figure 4.19: EcuM Fixed Configuration
The corresponding MCU mode for EcuM sleep mode and the reference to EcuM wake-up
source are configured as shown in Figure 4.20.
Figure 4.20: EcuM Sleep mode
4.3.3 Port Driver
To initialise required ports and configure its port direction, slew rate, and port modes, a port
driver module is used. As the aim here is to achieve CAN communication, the CAN ports on
the MCU must be configured. Apart from CAN ports GIO ports were also initialized and
connected to LEDs on the board for debugging the software and verification of the board.
Figure 4.21 and Figure 4.22 shows the configuration of the CAN port for sending and receiving
the CAN messages respectively.
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Figure 4.21: Port Configuration for CAN_TX
Here the Port direction is set as IN for receiving and OUT for sending port. Port is set to CAN
mode on initialization. It is important to enter the right Pin Id as this value will be assigned to
the symbolic name derived from the port pin container short name. The Pin Id for CAN_TX
port is 89 and CAN_RX port is 90, this information can be accessed from the datasheet of
TMS570LS1227 [46].
Figure 4.22: Port Configuration for CAN_RX
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4.3.4 CAN Driver
CAN driver module is located in the MCAL and is the bottom most module in the CAN stack.
Here the CAN controller and its baud rate, and the CAN Hardware objects for transmission
and reception are configured. CAN controller activation and baud rate are configured to
500kbps as shown in Figure 4.23.
Figure 4.23: CAN Controller Configuration
The Hardware objects for transmission and reception of the CAN message is configured by
setting the type of CAN ID i.e. Standard or Extended or Mixed mode, referencing it to
corresponding CAN controller, and the hardware object to support FIFO or message box for
the messages. Figure 4.24 shows the configuration of receive hardware object.
Figure 4.24: CAN Hardware object configuration
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4.3.5 CAN Interface
While configuring CAN communication stack, the next module to configure is the CanIf
module in hardware abstraction layer which is above the CAN driver module. The
configuration of this module involves configuring each receive and transmit CAN L-PDUs,
also the receive and transmit CAN hardware objects configured in CanIf module is linked to
the CAN hardware objects from CAN driver. Two receive PDUs and two transmit PDUs were
configured as shown in Figure 4.25.
Figure 4.25: Configured CanIfPDUs
Configuring each of the CAN L-PDUs involve setting the CAN ID, CAN ID type, and data
length code. The upper layer module to which the confirmation of successfully transmitted
CAN TX/RX PDU ID has to be routed via is set as PDUR. Figure 4.26 shows the configuration
of one of the CanIfTxPdu.
Figure 4.26: CanIfTxPdu Configuration
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4.3.6 EcuC
EcuC module is a virtual module to collect ECU configuration specific or global configuration
information such as partitions defined for the ECU, predefined variant elements containing the
definition of values for software system constants, and PDU objects that flow through the
COM-Stack. For CAN communication stack, a PDU object for each CAN message had to be
configured. The PDU objects used in this thesis are shown in Figure 4.27, and the configuration
of one such PDU object in EcuC module is shown in Figure 4.28.
Figure 4.27: ECU PDU Collection
Figure 4.28: One PDU flowing through the COM- Stack
4.3.7 PDU Router
I-PDUs through the CAN communication stack is routed by PDUR. The PDUR module has to
be configured indicating the other BSW modules with which it communicates and how the
routing takes place. For CAN cluster considered in this thesis, the PDUR communicates with
the COM and CanIf modules. The routing path for both these modules is configured as shown
in Figure 4.29.
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Figure 4.29: PDUR BSW modules
The configuration done in Figure 4.29 is important and it is also required to configure each IPDUs routing path indicating the direction in which the signal flows and referring each I-PDU
to the PDU objects configured in EcuC module. Here configuration involves indicating the
source and destination of each I-PDUs. Figure 4.30 and Figure 4.31 shows the configuration
for one of the I-PDUs.
Figure 4.30: Destination of BatterySignals w.r.t PDUR
Figure 4.31: Source of BatterySignals w.r.t PDUR
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4.3.8 COM
COM module must be configured regardless of the type of communication network
implemented. COM configuration involves configuring of different type of objects like IPDUs, I-PDU Groups, Signals and Signal Groups.
AUTOSAR uses a concept of complex data type i.e. it contains more than one data element,
this can be interpreted as a struct in C-language containing more than one primitive data type.
Signal groups are represented as complex data type. Though it contains more than one signal,
it can be considered as a single data element. RTE decomposes the complex data in single
signals and sends them to the COM module [16]. There was no necessity of such a signal group
in our case as Current and Voltage are considered as separate signals. It would have been
necessary for a scenario where there was only one RPort in our system and both Current and
Voltage signals had to be received from the same port. The COM signals used in our system
are Current, Voltage and Power. The configuration of COM signals involves the setting of bit
position, bit size, endianness and data type of the signal and reference to the
ISignalToIPduMapping. When a DBC file is imported to Arctic Studio, most of these settings
are automatically filled in. Figure 4.32 shows the configuration of a COM signal.
Figure 4.32: COM Signal Configuration
The I-PDU contains the configuration of data messages that will be received by COM module
or that will be sent from the COM module. I-PDUs, in this case, can be seen as a CAN message,
each I-PDU must be referred to the COM signal contained in it. Figure 4.33 shows the
configuration of BatterySignals I-PDU which is linked to two COM signals Current and
Voltage. Each I-PDU has to be referred to the I-PDU group, for our system two IPDU groups
were configured one for receive I-PDU and one for transmit I-PDU.
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Figure 4.33: COM IPDU Configuration
4.3.9 COM Manager
ComM module involves configuration of communication bus channels parameters that are
common to the whole communication stack. ComM channels are configured here, indicating
the type of bus and how often the communication manager main function should be called. For
our system the bus type is CAN and the ComM main function period is set to 10ms. The
scheduling of ComM should be at least as fast as the communication stack and according to
ComM specification, the time range for scheduling is 1ms to 100ms because of the schedule
longer than 100ms makes no sense for communication [32]. Figure 4.34 shows the
configuration of ComM communication channel.
Figure 4.34: ComM channel configuration
4.3.10 CAN State Manager
CanSM module is present in the communication services layer along with the ComM module.
ComM requests communication modes from the networks and in the case of CAN it uses
CanSM module. In ComM configuration, we configured a unique network handle for CAN i.e.
ComMChannel, this unique handle has to be referenced to the CanSMNetwork and also the
CAN controller managed by the CanIf has to be referred as shown in Figure 4.35.
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Figure 4.35:CanSMNetwork and CanSMController Configuration
4.3.11 Basic Software Manager
The main purpose of configuring BswM is to define rules which evaluate a logical expression,
and based on the result of evaluation execute different actions. Logical expressions are created
by chaining together different mode conditions using the usual logical operators. For our
system, BswM was configured for the communication mode switch among ComM full
communication, ComM no communication and Start communication condition. Figure 4.36
shows the configuration of mode condition for ComM full communication condition, where
the BswComMIndication is linked to the communication channel handle as shown in Figure
4.37.
Figure 4.36: BswM mode condition configuration
Figure 4.37: BswM ComM Indication
4.3.12 XCP
Configuration of XCP involves: general settings, configuring transmission and reception PDUs
and configuring the Event channel. In XCP general setting, the information regarding the
maximum CTO, DTO and minimum DAQ indicating the number of predefined DAQ lists are
configured. The type of DAQ configuration was set to Dynamic and XCP identification field
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type which is important for the slave to transfer DAQ packets to the master and the same
identification field is used by the master to transfer STIM packets to the slave, was set to
Absolute. This general XCP setting is shown in Figure 4.38.
Figure 4.38: XCP general settings
XCP PDUs for transmission and reception were configured by linking to the PDUs configured in EcuC module (section
4.3.6 EcuC). The configuration of XCP receive PDU is as shown in Figure 4.39.
Figure 4.39: XCP receive PDU
XCP event channel configuration is shown in Figure 4.40. This involves the setting of the
maximum amount of DAQ lists that are handled by this event channel, channel ID, sampling
period used for this event channel and the event channel type.
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Figure 4.40: XCP event channel configuration
4.3.13 Operating System
OS module can be considered as the heart of all BSW modules and it is closely linked to the
RTE module. OS configuration involves configuring OS Events, OS Alarms, OS Task and OS
Application.
OS Event configuration involves adding the only event in the system; GetPower_TimeEvent a
timing event which was configured during SWC modeling. This event will activate the RTE
Task. To activate the timing event, an alarm dedicated to this event has to be configured.
OsAlarm10ms was created to trigger the GetPower_TimeEvent every 10ms. Figure 4.41 shows
the configuration of OsRteTask. Figure 4.42 shows the configuration of timing event and the
alarm corresponding to it.
Figure 4.41: OsRteTask Configuration
The code for OsRteTask is auto-generated and is as shown in the code snippet.
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// RTE Task
void OsRteTask(void) {
EventMaskType Event;
do {
//Waits till the RTE Timing event is received
SYS_CALL_WaitEvent(EVENT_MASK_GetPower_TimeEvent);
SYS_CALL_GetEvent(TASK_ID_OsRteTask, &Event);
//If the right event is received
if (Event & EVENT_MASK_GetPower_TimeEvent) {
//Event is cleared for the next iteration
SYS_CALL_ClearEvent (EVENT_MASK_GetPower_TimeEvent);
// SWC Runnable is called
Rte_Power_Get_Power();
}
} while (RTE_EXTENDED_TASK_LOOP_CONDITION);
}
Figure 4.42: Os Event and Os Alarm configuration
The second task configured for our system was OsStartupTask, which runs once and initializes
some of the BSW modules. The code for OsStartupTask is as shown below. The PowerUser
configured in the EcuM configuration is set to run and some of the BSW modules which are
used in the system are initialized by the function EcuM_StartupTwo().
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void OsStartupTask( void ){
// The ECUM user PowerUser is requested to RUN
(void)EcuM_RequestRUN((EcuM_UserType)ECUM_USER_PowerUser);
// ECU drivers and BswM,RTE,ComM BSW modules are initialised
EcuM_StartupTwo();
// Polling of the CAN controller for mode transitions.
Can_MainFunction_Mode();
(void)TerminateTask();
}
The other OS task configured was OsXCPTask, which is linked to the alarm OsXcpAlarm
which triggers the OsXcpTask every 10ms. This task basically triggers the XCP event channel,
the code for OsXcpTask is as shown below.
void OsXCPTask ( void ) {
EcuM_StateType state = ECUM_STATE_OFF;
// Get current ECU state
(void)EcuM_GetState(&state);
if( state <= ECUM_STATE_STARTUP_ONE) {
(void)TerminateTask();
}
if( state <= ECUM_STATE_STARTUP_TWO) {
(void)TerminateTask();
}
// invoke scheduling of the event channel for every 10ms
Xcp_Arc_WrapperForEventChannel_XcpEventChannel();
(void)TerminateTask();
}
The OsApplication must have all the tasks and alarms linked to it in- order to use the above
configured tasks and alarms. Figure 4.43 shows the configuration of OS application.
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Figure 4.43: OS Application
4.3.14 Run time environment
The configuration of RTE is straight forward in Arctic Studio provided all the runnable, OS
tasks and OS events are configured without any errors. The main function of RTE is to give a
seamless integration between the BSW layer and the application layer. RTE is added as a BSW
module but it can be edited in BSW editor and also in RTE editor. When edited in RTE editor
it gives the option of mapping the runnable to its corresponding OS task and OS event. Figure
4.44 shows the mapping of Get_Power runnable to OsRteTask and GetPower_TimeEvent.
Figure 4.44: RTE Configuration
4.4 Validation and Code generation
Once all the required BSW modules are configured, these modules can be validated
individually or together to check whether the configuration is done correctly. The validator
indicates if there are any settings that are missing or invalid. If there are no validation errors,
then the code can be generated. The same steps are applicable for validating and generating
code for RTE, however, the option generate A2L tags has to be selected as shown in Figure
4.45.
Figure 4.45: Generate RTE with A2L Tags
Selecting the option generate A2L Tags generates the same code if this option is not selected,
however, by selecting this option the comments are added to the code related to calibration
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parameters as shown in code snippet below. When an A2L file is exported from Arctic Studio,
it scans through the code and gets the information from these comments.
/**
* @a2l_characteristic Rte_CalPrm_Rom_Power_Power_Cal_GainFactor
* @desc generated by rte
* @desc
* @min 0
* @max 65535
* @type uint16
*/
ARC_DECLARE_CALIB(uint16, Rte_CalPrm_Rom_Power_Power_Cal_GainFactor) = 2;
#define Power_STOP_SEC_CALIB_UNSPECIFIED
#include <Power_MemMap.h>
#define Power_START_SEC_VAR_NO_INIT_UNSPECIFIED
#include <Power_MemMap.h>
/**
* @a2l_characteristic Rte_CalPrm_Ram_Power_Power_Cal_GainFactor
* @desc generated by rte
* @desc
* @min 0
* @max 65535
* @type uint16
*/
uint16 Rte_CalPrm_Ram_Power_Power_Cal_GainFactor;
#define Power_STOP_SEC_VAR_NO_INIT_UNSPECIFIED
#include <Power_MemMap.h>
uint16 Rte_CData_Power_Power_Cal_GainFactor(void) {
return Rte_CalPrm_Ram_Power_Power_Cal_GainFactor;
}
4.4.1 Executable for the MCU
The Code generated from BSW configurator and RTE generator, the source code of application
containing runnable, and the Arctic core software from ArcCore to which our project is
referenced to, are linked and compiled into a binary executable file in elf format. To compile
the software successfully some of the environment variables must be configured in Arctic
Studio eclipse environment. The environment variables configured for our project are as shown
in the Figure 4.46. The environment variables set here are BDIR referring to the current project
path, BOARDDIR set to the MCU used, CROSS_COMPILE referring to the cross compiler
used and the PATH referring to eclipse home. This information is used by the makefile to
generate the executable in elf format, which is then programmed to the development board
using Code composer studio.
Figure 4.46: Environment Variables
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4.4.2 Generating A2L file
There is a provision to export A2L file for a selected project in Arctic Studio. When an A2L
file was generated for our project from Arctic Studio, it only contained the information of the
measurement variable and calibration parameters. Though the XCP on CAN configuration was
done in Arctic Studio, the A2L file did not contain the interface information for XCP on CAN
and also the information about the code and data MEMORY_SEGMENT were missing. The
A2L file generated was incomplete and the measurement and calibration tool did not recognise
this file. When contacted ArcCore, a reply was received saying that the generation of XCP
interface related information to an A2L file is not supported by Arctic Studio and such interface
information has to be added manually to the A2L file. The missing information was added to
our A2L file by using an example A2L file available on the ASAM MCD-2 MC web page as
reference.
An A2L file used for MC must contain an A2ML section which defines the description of
parameters that describe the communication between MC-System and ECU. The parameters
described in A2ML section contains the configuration of the protocol stack and are needed to
create messages for measurement and calibration objects such as MEASUREMENT and
CHARACTERISTIC. The actual values for the parameters are given in the IF_DATA block
and the contents of this block must match the syntax described in A2ML block. The IF_DATA
block in our case contained the XCP configuration information such as DAQ, EVENT, and
PROTOCOL_LAYER, and most importantly XCP_ON_CAN containing the information of
CAN IDs configured for XCP Rx and Tx.
The other important block which is necessary for an A2L file is the MOD_PAR block, which
contains the general parameters of the ECU. The data that was necessary to be added in our
A2L file under this block are the description of the organisation of the ECUs memory via the
keyword MEMORY_SEGMENT. Two memory blocks were described i.e CODE and DATA
in our A2L file. Some of the important blocks of our A2L file are shared in the APPENDIX
section of this report.
4.5 Measurement and Calibration System Setup
The MC System in our case contains ETAS INCA running on PC and the ETAS ES590.1, ECU
and BUS Interface module. The ES590.1 module is connected to TMS570 MCU board via
CAN bus and to control ES590.1, it is connected via Ethernet Cable to PC where the INCA
software in running. Next step is to create a project in INCA by adding the A2L file containing
all the required information and the corresponding data file(binary file). In our case, the binary
was in elf format (see 4.4.1 Executable for the MCU) and was converted to motorola srecord
format (s19), which is one of the formats that INCA supports. Then, this project is added to a
workspace in INCA and linked to the hardware device ES590.1 via XCP on CAN.
4.6 Testing
The main aim of the thesis was to identify a toolchain for ECU function development following
AUTOSAR standard and to have an optimal toolchain for measurement and calibration. Now
that an example application was developed using SystemDesk and Arctic Studio and the system
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extract from both were successfully integrated with the BSW of Arctic Studio, it was time to
test the whole system by programming the development board. Testing was performed in two
stages first only the AUTOSAR toolchain was tested and finally, the MC software and
hardware was included for MC.
4.6.1 Test Setup-1
The first test setup is as shown in block diagram of Figure 4.47. Here the CAN communication
and the behaviour of the application was tested by sending the desired CAN message i.e
BatterySignals containing signals Current and Voltage. Bus Master was used to configure
sending and receiving of CAN messages from the PC. The USB end of the PCAN USB
interface was connected to the PC and the other end to the TMS570LS1227 board. During this
test, the calibration parameter was kept at its initial value 2, only the signals in BatterySignals
message were changed. The output i.e POWER_CALCULATED CAN message is received
and the behaviour is verified.
Figure 4.47: Setup 1
4.6.2 Test Setup -2
The second test setup as shown in Figure 4.48 has the MC system connected to the test setup
shown in Figure 4.47. This setup is required for measurement of variables and calibration of
parameters online. Here the calibration of the parameter was done using INCA and monitor the
behaviour of the CAN messages on BUS MASTER and on INCA. Now, two more CAN
messages were expected on the CAN bus, which was configured for XCP RX and TX.
Figure 4.48: Setup-2
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5 RESULTS
This section discusses the outcome of this thesis by presenting the two toolchains for AUTOSAR
and a complete toolchain involving MC system. The toolchain flow and the results of testing
both the two toolchains are also presented in this chapter.
5.1 AUTOSAR Toolchain
Two toolchains for ECU function development following AUTOSAR standard were tried out.
The first toolchain only involves Arctic Studio and Arctic Core as it provides the complete
AUTOSAR toolchain. In this case, the SWC builder is used for modeling the application layer
and the system, extract builder to generate system extract, BSW builder for configuring the
BSW modules, and RTE builder to have a continuous interface for communication between
the BSW and the application layer. This toolchain is as presented in Figure 5.1.
Figure 5.1: Toolchain-1
The second toolchain shown in Figure 5.2 uses different tools for modeling in the application
layer. This involves SystemDesk for modeling SWC, MATLAB/Simulink for implementation
of the behaviour of SWCs, and generate the code for runnables with TargetLink. The System
extract is exported from SystemDesk to Arctic Studio for BSW configuration with BSW editor
and RTE builder.
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Figure 5.2: Toolchain-2
Tools like Vector CANdb++ editor are needed for creating a network description file which is
imported to BSW editor for communication cluster configuration.
5.2 Complete toolchain
The complete toolchain here refers to the AUTOSAR toolchain along with the MC system.
This can contain any of the two AUTOSAR toolchains presented in section 5.1 AUTOSAR
Toolchain. The complete toolchain shown in Figure 5.3 has the ETAS bus and ECU interface
and INCA tool in addition to toolchain 1.
Figure 5.3: Complete toolchain
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5.3 Toolchain flow
Figure 5.4 shows the complete flow of both the toolchains, interdependencies between different
tools, and the artefacts generated and used by the tools.
Figure 5.4: Toolchain flow and artefacts at different stages
Figure 5.5 shows table depicting the type of license used for software in both the tool chains.
Purpose
SWC Desgin
Implemet SWC runnable
Generate C Code
BSW & RTE Configuration
and Generation
Make and Build SW
Measurement and Calibration
Software
dSpace - SystemDesk
Arctic Studio - SWC builder
MATLAB/SIMULINK
Available License Type License used
Commercial
Evaluation License
GPL & Commercial
GPL
Commercial
Student license
Arctic Studio - Eclipse IDE
GPL & Commercial
GPL
dSpace - TargetLink
Arctic Studio and Arctic Core
BSW Configurator
Code Composer Studio
ETAS -INCA
Commercial
Evaluation License
GPL & Commercial
GPL
GPL & Commercial
Commercial
GPL
Commercial
Figure 5.5:License used for different Softwares
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5.4 ECU software architecture
In this thesis, the ECU software was developed to have AUTOSAR system architecture. The
final software architecture contains an SWC Power, Basic software configured for CAN
communication, and the MCAL for TMS570 microcontroller board. The final software
architecture is as shown in Figure 5.6.
Figure 5.6: ECU Software Architecture
5.5 Testing
The testing was conducted in two steps as mentioned in section 4.5 Measurement and
Calibration System Setup. In this section, the sample inputs with which the system was tested
and the output obtained will be discussed.
5.5.1 Testing with setup 1
The BatterySignals CAN message was configured in BUS MASTER and sent to the
development board where the software is running. Two CAN messages for BatterySignals
were configured to be sent at every 1700ms and 1900ms. The CAN frame sent every 1700ms
had the Current signal value set to 6A and Voltage signal to 2V and the CAN frame sent every
1900ms had the Current signal value set to 11 A (0xB) and 4V. The calibration parameter
GainFactor was unchanged at initial value 2. As expected the output CAN message
POWER_CALCULATED had the Power Signal with value 24 W and 88 W at every 1700ms
and 1900ms respectively. This ensured the working of both the application and the CAN
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communication. The Signal watch window for both the CAN messages is as shown in Figure
5.7.
Figure 5.7: CAN Signal Watch
The signal graph in Figure 5.8 shows the behaviour of signals for 10 seconds and the signal
colouring is represented in Figure 5.9.
Figure 5.8: CAN Signal Graph
Figure 5.9: Signals related to graph
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5.5.2 Testing with setup -2
The same test signals as in test setup 1 were used here, but the main aim here was to change
the value of the calibration parameter through INCA. Once the hardware is initialised, the CAN
IDs 0x3E8 and 0x3E9 which were configured for XCP to exchange CTOs and DTOs were seen
on the CAN bus. Figure 5.10 shows these CAN messages from the BUSMASTER window.
Figure 5.10: XCP CAN messages
The Calibration parameter GainFactor was added to the calibration window and when changed,
the value of the POWER_CALCULATED signal also changed. Figure 5.11 shows one such
test input, where the parameter was set to 8 and the CAN signals Current and Voltage are
unchanged from the test setup 1.
Figure 5.11: Calibration window INCA
By setting different values to GainFactor from the calibration window, the changes in the
output were seen during runtime. This is depicted in Figure 5.12, where the GainFactor was
changed from 8 to 10 to 5.
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Figure 5.12: Signal Graph - Online Calibration
The actual setup of the project is as shown in Figure 5.13. It consists of a supply to ETAS
ES590.1 module, Ethernet cable connected from ES590.1 to the PC and the CAN cable from
ES590.1 connected to the ECU and PEAK CAN USB.
Figure 5.13: Project Setup
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6 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
The discussion on overall project method will be presented in this chapter. Here, the conclusion
of this thesis will be presented along with the scope for future work.
6.1 Project Method
The overall project method suited well for this thesis. With no prior knowledge on AUTOSAR
and ECU function development, the theoretical pre-study of AUTOSAR followed by
contacting the tool vendors, and practical pre-study of using different AUTOSAR tools resulted
in a sound understanding of various concepts in AUTOSAR software architecture. AUTOSAR
architecture is complex as well as its methodology, however, the methodology was simplified
to some extent for the system considered in this thesis. Nevertheless, fourteen BSW modules
were used in the thesis and at times it was difficult to realise the sequence in which the modules
had to be configured. Initially, deciding the order of methodology steps was also a challenge,
as the AUTOSAR methodology does not specify a strict order to follow. Implementing the
application layer in both Arctic Studio and SystemDesk, helped in understanding the concepts
of SWC modelling in detail. Developing the SWC in SystemDesk and exporting the ECU
extract artefact in arxml format, and integrating this artefact with the BSW configurator of
Arctic Studio, facilitated in realizing the abstraction between different layers of AUTOSAR.
The BSW modules configuration started with configuring mandatory modules such as OS and
MCU, CAN cluster configuration, then configuring related modules in services layer, and
finally the XCP module. As Arctic Studio doesn’t come with a debugger, the project was
imported into Code composer studio for deploying the executable to the development board
and for debugging purposes. The A2L file generated from Arctic Studio did not contain the
XCP on CAN interface and the memory segment information, thus the A2L file had to be
modified manually to establish the communication between, ECU and the MC system. As there
is little information about how an A2L file has to be written, manually editing A2L file took a
considerable amount of time.
Although the project flow suited this thesis, there were a few drawbacks to it. There were no
pre-defined test mechanisms for every stage of the project, this led to move back in the
workflow when there was an error, which could have been corrected if tested in earlier stages.
The A2L file, which was important to achieve online calibration had to be edited manually as
the tools from the current toolchain did not generate the complete file.
6.2 Conclusion
The purpose of this thesis specified in chapter 1 has been fulfilled. Two toolchains are proposed
in this thesis for ECU function development with AUTOSAR. The difference between the two
is in the application layer development. Although two toolchains are proposed, a toolchain has
to be selected based on the project requirement, i.e. if the application is developed by writing
C/C++ code manually, toolchain-1 is most suitable. On the other hand, to develop complex
functionalities, graphical programming tool such as Simulink is most commonly used.
Complex functions generally are divided into many sub-functions, thus many SWCs in the
74
application layer. For such a system, toolchain-1 is not a suitable option because creating SWCs
using SWCD and SYSD language will be a challenge for a system with many SWCs.
Toolchain-2 will be the most suitable option for systems with many SWCs, because of the
graphical interface provided by SystemDesk which is easy to maintain and update SWCs.
However, toolchain-2 is most suited when the model-based function development approach is
used.
The complete toolchain containing MC system along with any of toolchain-1 or toolchain-2 is
also proposed and online calibration is tested. The MC part of the tool chain is simpler and
easy to configure, if and only if a valid A2L file and corresponding data file (binary) are
available. XCP on CAN communication is used to achieve calibration, which is more effective
in terms of data transfer and hence commonly used in automotive industry to read measurement
data and to write parameters to ECUs during development, testing and in-vehicle calibration.
This thesis work can also be used to learn the ECU function development following
AUTOSAR standard and online calibration. The overall structure of the report is kept simple
and it is well suited for future expansion.
6.3 Future work
Considering the purpose of this thesis, the application developed in this work has no practical
use in the car. Nevertheless, the framework to develop an ECU function is proposed and this
can be used in many ways. For example, the simple application layer developed in this thesis
can be replace with the Battery management system application. The CAN stack configured in
this work can serve as an example to configure CAN stack for any other ECU. The
measurement and calibration mechanism proposed can be used for calibrating any ECU. Only
XCP on CAN is configured in this thesis, which can have transmission rates up to 1Mbit/s. To
achieve higher transmission rates, other communication protocols i.e. XCP on Ethernet and
XCP on FlexRay can be configured. For example, to establish XCP on Ethernet, Ethernet port
should be added to the port BSW module and other modules such as Ethernet Interface,
Ethernet State Manager, TCP/IP, and Socket Adapter in the communication stack has to be
configured to achieve successful Ethernet communication.
75
BIBLIOGRAPHY
[1]
NEVS, "Home," 2016. [Online]. Available: https://www.nevs.com/ [Accessed 20 August 2016].
[2]
Simon Fürst, "AUTOSAR – An open standardized software architecture for the automotive
industry," in 1st AUTOSAR Open Conference & 8th AUTOSAR Premium Member Conference,
Detroit,MI,USA, 2008.
[3]
AUTOSAR, "Home," AUTOSAR, 2014. [Online]. Available: https://www.autosar.org/.
[Accessed 6 July 2016].
[4]
AUTOSAR, "Motivation & Goals," AUTOSAR, 2014. [Online]. Available:
https://www.autosar.org/about/basics/motivation-goals/. [Accessed 6 July 2016].
[5]
AUTOSAR, "Basics," 2014. [Online]. Available: https://www.autosar.org/about/basics/.
[Accessed 6 July 2016].
[6]
AUTOSAR, "Layered Software Architecture 4.2.2," AUTOSAR, 2015.
[7]
AUTOSAR, "Glossary," AUTOSAR, 2015.
[8]
AUTOSAR, "Virtual Function Bus," AUTOSAR, 2015.
[9]
AUTOSAR, "Specification of RTE," AUTOSAR, 2015.
[10] Robert Warschofsky, "AUTOSAR Software Architecture," Hasso-Plattner-Institute für
Softwaresystemtechnik, Potsdam, 2009.
[11] AUTOSAR, "List of Basic Software Modules," AUTOSAR, 2015.
[12] BOSCH, "CAN Specification Versio 2.0," Robert Bosch Gmbh, Stuttgart, 1991.
[13] AUTOSAR, "Specification of PDU Router," AUTOSAR, 2015.
[14] Nico. Naumann, "AUTOSAR Runtime Environment and Virtual Function Bus," Deapartment
for System Analysis and Modeling,Hasso-Plattner Institute für Softwaresystemtechnik,
Potsdam, 2009.
[15] Johannes. Gosda, "AUTOSAR Communication Stack," Hasso-Plattner Institute, Potsdam, 2009.
[16] AUTOSAR, "Sepcification of Communication," AUTOSAR, 2015.
[17] AUTOSAR, "Specification of CAN Interface," AUTOSAR, 2015.
[18] AUTOSAR, "Specification of CAN Driver," AUTOSAR, 2015.
[19] OSEK/VDX, "Operating System Specification," OSEK, 2005.
76
[20] Syama R and Devika K, "An Overview of AUTOSAR Multicore Operating System
Implementation," International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Enginerring and
Technology, vol. 2, no. 7, pp. 3163-3169, 2013.
[21] AUTOSAR, "Specification of ECU State Manager," AUTOSAR, 2015.
[22] AUTOSAR, "Specification of ECU State Manager with the fixed state machine," AUTOSAR,
2015.
[23] ASAM, "ASAM Connects - Standard detail," ASAM, May 2015. [Online]. Available:
http://www.asam.net/nc/home/standards/standarddetail.html?tx_rbwbmasamstandards_pi1%5BshowUid%5D=3144. [Accessed July 2016].
[24] ASAM Wiki, "ASAM MCD-1 XCP - Standards," ASAM, May 2015. [Online]. Available:
https://wiki.asam.net/display/STANDARDS/ASAM+MCD-1+XCP. [Accessed July 2016].
[25] VECTOR gmbh, "XCP - The Standard Protocol for ECU Development," Vector Informatik, 2015.
[26] ASAM, "XCP Part 2 - Protocol Layer Specification," ASAM, 2008.
[27] ASAM, "The Universal Measurement and Calibration Protocol Family - Part1 - Overview,"
ASAM, 2003.
[28] AUTOSAR, "Specification of Module XCP," AUTOSAR, 2015.
[29] Jacob. Axelsson, "AUTOSAR Overview," in FESA workshop at KTH, Stockholm, 2010.
[30] AUTOSAR, "Methodology," AUTOSAR, 2015.
[31] AUTOSAR, "Specification of CAN State Manager," AUTOSAR, 2015.
[32] AUTOSAR, "Specification of Communication Manager," AUTOSAR, 2015.
[33] AUTOSAR, "Specification of MCU Driver," AUTOSAR, 2015.
[34] AUTOSAR, "Specification of Port Driver," AUTOSAR, 2015.
[35] ArcCore, "Arctic Studio Development Tools," ArcCore, 2016. [Online]. Available:
https://www.arccore.com/products/arctic-studio. [Accessed 23 August 2016].
[36] ArcCore, "Arctic Core - the Embedded Platform," ArcCore, [Online]. Available:
https://www.arccore.com/products/arctic-core. [Accessed 23 8 2016].
[37] dSPACE, "SystemDesk," dSPACE, 2016. [Online]. Available:
https://www.dspace.com/en/inc/home/products/sw/system_architecture_software/system
desk.cfm. [Accessed 23 08 2016].
[38] dSPACE, "SystemDesk," dSPACE, 2016. [Online]. Available:
https://www.dspace.com/en/inc/home/products/sw/pcgs/targetli.cfm. [Accessed 23 08
2016].
77
[39] ETAS, "INCA Base Product," ETAS, 2016. [Online]. Available:
http://www.etas.com/en/products/inca.php. [Accessed 23 08 2016].
[40] MathWorks, "Simulink - Simulation and Model based design," MathWorks, 2016. [Online].
Available: www.mathworks.com/products/simulink/index.html. [Accessed 23 08 2016].
[41] Texas Instruments, "Code Composer Studio (CCS) Integrated Development Environment
(IDE)," 2016. [Online]. Available: http://www.ti.com/tool/ccstudio. [Accessed 23 08 2016].
[42] Vector InformatiK Gmbh, "DBC communication Database for CAN," 2016. [Online]. Available:
http://vector.com/vi_candb_en.html. [Accessed 23 08 2016].
[43] BOSCH and ETAS, "BUS MASTER," 2016. [Online]. Available: https://rbei-etas.github.io/Bus
Master/. [Accessed 23 08 2016].
[44] ETAS, "BUS MASTER," 2016. [Online]. Available:
http://www.etas.com/en/products/applications_Bus Master.php. [Accessed 23 08 2016].
[45] Texas Instruments, TMS570LS1227 HDK - Users Guide, Texas Instruments, 2013.
[46] Texas Instruments, TMS570LS1227 16 and 32-bit RISC Flash Microcontroller, Texas
Instruments, 2015.
[47] Peak System, "PCAN - USB," Peak System, 2016. [Online]. Available: http://www.peaksystem.com/PCAN-USB.199.0.html?L=1. [Accessed 23 08 2016].
[48] ETAS, "ES59X - Universal Interface Modules," ETAS, 2016. [Online]. Available:
http://www.etas.com/en/products/es59x.php. [Accessed 23 08 2016].
[49] ASAM, "ASAM MCD-2 MC," ASAM, 29 Jun 2015. [Online]. Available:
https://wiki.asam.net/display/STANDARDS/ASAM+MCD-2+MC. [Accessed 2016 August 20].
78
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1: AUTOSAR Architecture .......................................................................................................... 4
Figure 2.2: Example of a sender-receiver communication in the VFB view ........................................... 6
Figure 2.3: Client - server communication in the VFB view .................................................................... 6
Figure 2.4: Example of VFB to RTE Mapping ........................................................................................... 7
Figure 2.5: Overview of the AUTOSAR Interfaces ................................................................................... 8
Figure 2.6: Basic Software Layer ............................................................................................................. 9
Figure 2.7: Overview of BSW function group and modules .................................................................. 10
Figure 2.8: CAN Frame .......................................................................................................................... 11
Figure 2.9: Communication Stack related BSW Functional groups ...................................................... 11
Figure 2.10: AUTOSAR Communication Stack....................................................................................... 12
Figure 2.11: CAN Communication Stack ............................................................................................... 13
Figure 2.12: I-PDU ID example .............................................................................................................. 14
Figure 2.13: PDU over different Layers ................................................................................................. 14
Figure 2.14: Interaction of Layers ......................................................................................................... 15
Figure 2.15: CAN Hardware unit with two CAN controllers .................................................................. 17
Figure 2.16: Task model: Basic and Extended Tasks ............................................................................. 18
Figure 2.17: ECU Main states ................................................................................................................ 19
Figure 2.18: XCP Packet ........................................................................................................................ 21
Figure 2.19: XCP Communication Model with CTO/DTO ...................................................................... 22
Figure 2.20: The CTO packet ................................................................................................................. 23
Figure 2.21: The DTO Packet ................................................................................................................. 23
Figure 2.22: Modes of XCP protocol ..................................................................................................... 24
Figure 2.23: XCP on CAN Message ........................................................................................................ 25
Figure 2.24: DAQ list with 3 ODTs ......................................................................................................... 26
Figure 2.25: ODT: Allotment of RAM addresses to DAQ-DTO .............................................................. 26
Figure 2.26: Sequence of using commands for allocating DAQs dynamically ...................................... 27
Figure 2.27: AUTOSAR XCP ................................................................................................................... 28
Figure 2.28: AUTOSAR System Design Methodology............................................................................ 30
Figure 3.1: TMS50LS1227 HDK Board ................................................................................................... 35
Figure 3.2: Connectors on TMS570LS1227 ........................................................................................... 36
Figure 4.1: System architecture ............................................................................................................ 37
Figure 4.2: Folder Structure in SystemDesk .......................................................................................... 40
Figure 4.3: Application SWC with ports ................................................................................................ 41
Figure 4.4: Application Data Types and Interfaces ............................................................................... 41
Figure 4.5: After assigning the interfaces to the port ........................................................................... 41
Figure 4.6: Internal Behaviour and Data type Mapping Set ................................................................. 42
Figure 4.7: Runnable entity dialogue .................................................................................................... 42
Figure 4.8: SWC implementation dialogue ........................................................................................... 43
Figure 4.9: Generated Frame model ..................................................................................................... 43
Figure 4.10: Get_Power Runnable & Properties ................................................................................... 44
Figure 4.11: Get_Power behaviour implementation ............................................................................ 44
Figure 4.12: TargetLink Main Dialogue ................................................................................................ 45
Figure 4.13: CAN Network topology ..................................................................................................... 47
Figure 4.14: Signals ............................................................................................................................... 47
Figure 4.15: System ............................................................................................................................... 48
79
Figure 4.16: System - Data Mappings ................................................................................................... 48
Figure 4.17: Used BSW Modules ........................................................................................................... 49
Figure 4.18: MCU Clock Reference Point .............................................................................................. 49
Figure 4.19: EcuM Fixed Configuration ................................................................................................. 50
Figure 4.20: EcuM Sleep mode ............................................................................................................. 50
Figure 4.21: Port Configuration for CAN_TX ......................................................................................... 51
Figure 4.22: Port Configuration for CAN_RX ......................................................................................... 51
Figure 4.23: CAN Controller Configuration ........................................................................................... 52
Figure 4.24: CAN Hardware object configuration ................................................................................. 52
Figure 4.25: Configured CanIfPDUs ....................................................................................................... 53
Figure 4.26: CanIfTxPdu Configuration ................................................................................................. 53
Figure 4.27: ECU PDU Collection ........................................................................................................... 54
Figure 4.28: One PDU flowing through the COM- Stack ....................................................................... 54
Figure 4.29: PDUR BSW modules .......................................................................................................... 55
Figure 4.30: Destination of BatterySignals w.r.t PDUR ......................................................................... 55
Figure 4.31: Source of BatterySignals w.r.t PDUR ................................................................................. 55
Figure 4.32: COM Signal Configuration ................................................................................................. 56
Figure 4.33: COM IPDU Configuration .................................................................................................. 57
Figure 4.34: ComM channel configuration ........................................................................................... 57
Figure 4.35:CanSMNetwork and CanSMController Configuration ....................................................... 58
Figure 4.36: BswM mode condition configuration ............................................................................... 58
Figure 4.37: BswM ComM Indication .................................................................................................... 58
Figure 4.38: XCP general settings ......................................................................................................... 59
Figure 4.39: XCP receive PDU ............................................................................................................... 59
Figure 4.40: XCP event channel configuration ..................................................................................... 60
Figure 4.41: OsRteTask Configuration .................................................................................................. 60
Figure 4.42: Os Event and Os Alarm configuration ............................................................................... 61
Figure 4.43: OS Application ................................................................................................................... 63
Figure 4.44: RTE Configuration ............................................................................................................. 63
Figure 4.45: Generate RTE with A2L Tags ............................................................................................. 63
Figure 4.46: Environment Variables ...................................................................................................... 64
Figure 4.47: Setup 1 .............................................................................................................................. 66
Figure 4.48: Setup-2 .............................................................................................................................. 66
Figure 5.1: Toolchain-1 ......................................................................................................................... 67
Figure 5.2: Toolchain-2 ......................................................................................................................... 68
Figure 5.3: Complete toolchain ............................................................................................................. 68
Figure 5.4: Toolchain flow and artefacts at different stages ................................................................ 69
Figure 5.5:License used for different Softwares ................................................................................... 69
Figure 5.6: ECU Software Architecture ................................................................................................. 70
Figure 5.7: CAN Signal Watch................................................................................................................ 71
Figure 5.8: CAN Signal Graph ................................................................................................................ 71
Figure 5.9: Signals related to graph ...................................................................................................... 71
Figure 5.10: XCP CAN messages ............................................................................................................ 72
Figure 5.11: Calibration window INCA .................................................................................................. 72
Figure 5.12: Signal Graph - Online Calibration ...................................................................................... 73
Figure 5.13: Project Setup ..................................................................................................................... 73
80
APPENDIX
A2L File
The important blocks of the A2L file configured for this thesis is shared in this part.
MOD_PAR containing MEMORY_SEGMENT
/begin MOD_PAR
"For TMS570LS1227"
/begin MEMORY_SEGMENT _ECU_CODE
"Code Area"
CODE
/* Program type */
FLASH
/* Memory type */
INTERN
/* Memory Attribute */
0x00000000 /* Start address */
0x00010940 /* Size*/
-1 -1 -1 -1 -1 /* Offsets */
/begin IF_DATA XCP
/begin SEGMENT
0x1
/* Segment logical number */
0x1
/* number of pages */
0x0
/* address extension */
0x0
/* compression method */
0x0
/* encryption method */
/begin CHECKSUM
XCP_ADD_11
MAX_BLOCK_SIZE 0xFF
/end CHECKSUM
/begin PAGE
0x0 /* page number */
ECU_ACCESS_WITH_XCP_ONLY
XCP_READ_ACCESS_WITH_ECU_ONLY
XCP_WRITE_ACCESS_NOT_ALLOWED
/end PAGE
/end SEGMENT
/end IF_DATA
/end MEMORY_SEGMENT
/begin MEMORY_SEGMENT _ROM
"Calibrations"
DATA
FLASH
INTERN
0x00020000
0x00000004
81
-1 -1 -1 -1 -1
/begin IF_DATA XCP
/begin SEGMENT
0x0
/* Segment logical number */
0x2
/* number of pages */
0x0
/* address extension */
0x0
/* compression method */
0x0
/* encryption method */
/begin CHECKSUM
XCP_ADD_11
MAX_BLOCK_SIZE 0xFF
/end CHECKSUM
/begin PAGE
0x0
ECU_ACCESS_WITH_XCP_ONLY
XCP_READ_ACCESS_WITH_ECU_ONLY
XCP_WRITE_ACCESS_NOT_ALLOWED
/end PAGE
/begin PAGE
0x1
ECU_ACCESS_WITH_XCP_ONLY
XCP_READ_ACCESS_WITH_ECU_ONLY
XCP_WRITE_ACCESS_WITH_ECU_ONLY
/end PAGE
/begin ADDRESS_MAPPING
0x00020000
0x08000cd0
0x00000004
/end ADDRESS_MAPPING
/end SEGMENT
/end IF_DATA
/end MEMORY_SEGMENT
/end MOD_PAR
82
CHARACTERISTIC Block containing details of the Calibration Parameter.
/begin CHARACTERISTIC
/* Name
*/ Rte_CalPrm_Rom_Power_Power_Cal_GainFactor
/* LongIdentifier */ "generated by rte "
/* Type
*/ VALUE
/* Address
*/ 0x00020000
/* Deposit
*/ __UWORD_Z
/* MaxDiff
*/ 0
/* Conversion */ NO_COMPU_METHOD
/* LowerLimit */ 0
/* UpperLimit */ 65535
ECU_ADDRESS_EXTENSION 0x0
EXTENDED_LIMITS
0 65535
FORMAT
"%.15"
/begin IF_DATA CANAPE_EXT
100
DISPLAY 0 0 255
/end IF_DATA
/end CHARACTERISTIC
IF_DATA containing XCP and XCP ON CAN configuration information.
/begin IF_DATA XCP
/begin PROTOCOL_LAYER
0x100
/* XCP Protocol Layer 1.0 */
400 400 400 400 400 80 3200
0x8
/* MAX_CTO */
0x8
/* MAX_DTO */
BYTE_ORDER_MSB_FIRST
ADDRESS_GRANULARITY_BYTE
OPTIONAL_CMD GET_ID
OPTIONAL_CMD SET_REQUEST
OPTIONAL_CMD GET_SEED
OPTIONAL_CMD UNLOCK
OPTIONAL_CMD SET_MTA
OPTIONAL_CMD UPLOAD
OPTIONAL_CMD SHORT_UPLOAD
OPTIONAL_CMD BUILD_CHECKSUM
OPTIONAL_CMD DOWNLOAD
OPTIONAL_CMD SHORT_DOWNLOAD
OPTIONAL_CMD SET_CAL_PAGE
OPTIONAL_CMD GET_CAL_PAGE
OPTIONAL_CMD COPY_CAL_PAGE
OPTIONAL_CMD CLEAR_DAQ_LIST
OPTIONAL_CMD SET_DAQ_PTR
OPTIONAL_CMD WRITE_DAQ
OPTIONAL_CMD SET_DAQ_LIST_MODE
OPTIONAL_CMD START_STOP_DAQ_LIST
OPTIONAL_CMD START_STOP_SYNCH
OPTIONAL_CMD GET_DAQ_CLOCK
/end PROTOCOL_LAYER
83
/begin DAQ
DYNAMIC
/* DAQ_CONFIG_TYPE */
0x4
/* MAX_DAQ */
0x3
/* MAX_EVENT_CHANNEL */
0x0
/* MIN_DAQ */
OPTIMISATION_TYPE_ODT_TYPE_32
ADDRESS_EXTENSION_FREE
IDENTIFICATION_FIELD_TYPE_ABSOLUTE
GRANULARITY_ODT_ENTRY_SIZE_DAQ_BYTE
0x4
/* MAX_ODT_ENTRY_SIZE_DAQ */
NO_OVERLOAD_INDICATION
PRESCALER_SUPPORTED
RESUME_SUPPORTED
/begin EVENT
"XcpEventChannel"
/* name */
"XcpEvent"
/* short name */
0x0
/* Event */
DAQ_STIM
/* Type */
0x4
/* MAX_DAQ_LIST */
0xA
/* TIME_CYCLE */
0x4
/* TIME_UNIT */
0x0
/* PRIORITY */
/end EVENT
/end DAQ
/begin XCP_ON_CAN
0x100
/* XCP on CAN 1.0 */
CAN_ID_MASTER 0x3E8
/* XCP_RX ID */
CAN_ID_SLAVE 0x3E9
/* XCP_TX ID */
BAUDRATE 500000
/begin PROTOCOL_LAYER
0x100
400 400 400 400 400 80 3200
0x8
0x8
BYTE_ORDER_MSB_FIRST
ADDRESS_GRANULARITY_BYTE
OPTIONAL_CMD FREE_DAQ
OPTIONAL_CMD ALLOC_DAQ
OPTIONAL_CMD ALLOC_ODT
OPTIONAL_CMD ALLOC_ODT_ENTRY
OPTIONAL_CMD SET_MTA
OPTIONAL_CMD UPLOAD
OPTIONAL_CMD SHORT_UPLOAD
OPTIONAL_CMD BUILD_CHECKSUM
OPTIONAL_CMD DOWNLOAD
OPTIONAL_CMD SHORT_DOWNLOAD
OPTIONAL_CMD SET_CAL_PAGE
84
OPTIONAL_CMD GET_CAL_PAGE
OPTIONAL_CMD COPY_CAL_PAGE
OPTIONAL_CMD START_STOP_DAQ_LIST
OPTIONAL_CMD START_STOP_SYNCH
/end PROTOCOL_LAYER
/end XCP_ON_CAN
/end IF_DATA
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TRITA TRITA-ICT-EX-2016:155
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