Oracle Database New Features Guide

Oracle Database New Features Guide
Oracle® Database
New Features Guide
12c Release 1 (12.1)
E17906-16
June 2013
Oracle Database New Features Guide is addressed to those of
you familiar with previous releases of Oracle Database and
who would like to become familiar with features, options,
and enhancements that are new in this release of the
database.
Oracle Database New Features Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)
E17906-16
Copyright © 2001, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Contributor: The Oracle Database 12c documentation is dedicated to Mark Townsend, who was an
inspiration to all who worked on this release.
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Contents
List of Tables
Preface ............................................................................................................................................................... xv
Audience.....................................................................................................................................................
Documentation Accessibility ...................................................................................................................
Related Documents ...................................................................................................................................
Conventions ...............................................................................................................................................
xv
xv
xv
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1 Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) New Features
1.1
Application Development .........................................................................................................
1.1.1
Enhanced Developer Productivity with Oracle Application Express..........................
1.1.1.1
Accessibility...................................................................................................................
1.1.1.2
Automatic Purging of Workspaces ............................................................................
1.1.1.3
Dynamic Actions ..........................................................................................................
1.1.1.4
End User Data Upload.................................................................................................
1.1.1.5
Error Handling..............................................................................................................
1.1.1.6
Expanded Interactive Reports ....................................................................................
1.1.1.7
Improved Charting Engine .........................................................................................
1.1.1.8
Mobile Applications .....................................................................................................
1.1.1.9
Modernized Application Builder ...............................................................................
1.1.1.10
Packaged Applications ................................................................................................
1.1.1.11
Plug-Ins ..........................................................................................................................
1.1.1.12
Tabular Forms ...............................................................................................................
1.1.1.13
Team Development ......................................................................................................
1.1.1.14
Themes and Templates ................................................................................................
1.1.1.15
Time Stamp and Time Zone Support ........................................................................
1.1.1.16
Use of ROWID...............................................................................................................
1.1.1.17
Web Services Support ..................................................................................................
1.1.1.18
Websheets ......................................................................................................................
1.1.2
Enhanced Globalization Support ......................................................................................
1.1.2.1
Expanded Database Locale Support ..........................................................................
1.1.2.2
Replacement of CSSCAN and CSALTER with DMU .............................................
1.1.2.3
Unicode 6.1 Support.....................................................................................................
1.1.2.4
Unicode Collation Algorithm Conformance ............................................................
1.1.3
General ..................................................................................................................................
1.1.3.1
Import and Export of Workspace Manager Schema ...............................................
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1.1.3.2
1.1.4
1.1.4.1
1.1.4.2
1.1.4.3
1.1.4.4
1.1.4.5
1.1.4.6
1.1.4.7
1.1.4.8
1.1.4.9
1.1.4.10
1.1.4.11
1.1.4.12
1.1.4.13
1.1.4.14
1.1.4.15
1.1.4.16
1.1.5
1.1.5.1
1.1.5.2
1.1.6
1.1.6.1
1.1.6.2
1.1.6.3
1.1.6.4
1.1.6.5
1.1.6.6
1.1.6.7
1.1.6.8
1.1.6.9
1.1.6.10
1.1.6.11
1.1.7
1.1.7.1
1.1.7.2
1.1.7.3
1.1.7.4
1.1.7.5
1.1.7.6
1.1.7.7
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Performance Improvements to Workspace Operations and Views...................... 1-7
Improved Oracle SQL and PL/SQL.................................................................................. 1-8
An Invoker's Rights Function Can Be Result Cached ............................................. 1-8
An Object of Type LIBRARY Can Be Defined Using an Object of Type
DIRECTORY 1-8
Enhanced Oracle Native LEFT OUTER JOIN Syntax ............................................. 1-8
JDBC Support for PL/SQL Data Types as Parameters ........................................... 1-9
Mechanism to Restrict the Ability to Reference a PL/SQL Unit to a White
List of Database Objects............................................................................................... 1-9
Native Client API Support for PL/SQL Package Types and Boolean Types as
Parameters ..................................................................................................................... 1-9
New PL/SQL DBMS_UTILITY.EXPAND_SQL_TEXT Procedure ....................... 1-9
New PL/SQL Package UTL_CALL_STACK............................................................ 1-9
New Predefined PL/SQL Inquiry Directives ........................................................ 1-10
New SCHEMA Parameter for DBMS_SQL.PARSE() Procedure........................ 1-10
PL/SQL Functions Defined in the SQL WITH Clause......................................... 1-10
PL/SQL-Specific Data Types Allowed Across the PL/SQL-to-SQL
Interface....................................................................................................................... 1-10
Precompilers Support for SQL Plan Management ............................................... 1-11
SQLJ Support for SQL Plan Management.............................................................. 1-11
Temporal Validity ..................................................................................................... 1-11
Temporal Validity Flashback Queries .................................................................... 1-11
OCI/OCCI Enhancements .............................................................................................. 1-12
Auto-Tuning Oracle C Client Interface (OCI) Applications ............................... 1-12
Oracle C/C++ Client (OCI/OCCI) Support for Row Count Per Iteration
for Array DML ........................................................................................................... 1-12
Reduced Cost and Complexities of Migrating to Oracle ............................................ 1-12
Default Values for Columns Based on Oracle Sequences.................................... 1-12
DEFAULT Values for Columns on Explicit NULL Insertion.............................. 1-13
IDENTITY Columns.................................................................................................. 1-13
Increased Size Limit for VARCHAR2, NVARCHAR2, and RAW Data
Types ........................................................................................................................... 1-13
JDBC Support for Sybase Applications Migration ............................................... 1-13
Implicit Result Sets .................................................................................................... 1-13
Native SQL Support for Query Row Limits and Row Offsets............................ 1-14
Oracle Database Driver for MySQL Applications ................................................ 1-14
Precompiler Support for Prefetch By Memory ..................................................... 1-14
SQL CROSS APPLY, OUTER APPLY and LATERAL ......................................... 1-14
SQL Translation Framework.................................................................................... 1-15
Support .NET and Microsoft Development Community ........................................... 1-15
Microsoft .NET Framework 4 and 4.5 Support ..................................................... 1-15
Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database.................................................................. 1-15
64-Bit ODP.NET XCopy for Windows x64 ............................................................ 1-16
Entity Framework and LINQ................................................................................... 1-16
Implicit REF CURSOR Parameter Binding ............................................................ 1-16
Oracle SQL Supports APPLY Keyword ................................................................. 1-16
Returning Row Counts ............................................................................................. 1-17
Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) Data Services and Open Data
Protocol (OData) ........................................................................................................
1.1.8
Support Java Development Community.......................................................................
1.1.8.1
JDBC Support for Monitoring Database Operations (DBOP) .............................
1.1.8.2
Database Support for JDK Upgrade .......................................................................
1.1.8.3
Database Support for Latest Java SE and Standard Utilities...............................
1.1.8.4
Enhanced Security for Java in the Database ..........................................................
1.1.8.5
JDBC Enhanced Security ..........................................................................................
1.1.8.6
JDBC Support for Database Resident Connection Pool .......................................
1.1.8.7
JDBC Support for Latest Java Standards................................................................
1.2
Business Intelligence and Data Warehousing......................................................................
1.2.1
Oracle Advanced Analytics.............................................................................................
1.2.1.1
Decision Tree Mining Text Data..............................................................................
1.2.1.2
Expectation Maximization (EM) Clustering and Density Estimation ...............
1.2.1.3
Feature Extraction Using Singular Value Decomposition...................................
1.2.1.4
Feature Selection and Creation for Generalized Linear Models (GLM)............
1.2.1.5
Native Double in Data Mining Functions..............................................................
1.2.1.6
Native SQL Support for Row Pattern Matching ...................................................
1.2.1.7
Native Text Support ..................................................................................................
1.2.1.8
On-the-Fly Models.....................................................................................................
1.2.1.9
Prediction Details and Cluster Functions ..............................................................
1.2.2
Oracle OLAP......................................................................................................................
1.2.2.1
Cube Query Performance Enhancements ..............................................................
1.2.2.2
Cube Statistics Support.............................................................................................
1.2.3
Partitioning Enhancements .............................................................................................
1.2.3.1
Asynchronous Global Index Maintenance for DROP and TRUNCATE
Partition.......................................................................................................................
1.2.3.2
Cascade Functionality for TRUNCATE and EXCHANGE Partition .................
1.2.3.3
Interval Reference Partitioning................................................................................
1.2.3.4
ONLINE Move Partition ..........................................................................................
1.2.3.5
Partial Indexes for Partitioned Tables ....................................................................
1.2.3.6
Partition Maintenance Operations on Multiple Partitions ..................................
1.2.4
Performance With Zero Effort ........................................................................................
1.2.4.1
Adaptive Query Optimization ................................................................................
1.2.4.2
Adaptive SQL Plan Management............................................................................
1.2.4.3
Automatic Column Group Detection .....................................................................
1.2.4.4
Concurrent Execution of UNION and UNION ALL Branches ..........................
1.2.4.5
Concurrent Statistics Gathering ..............................................................................
1.2.4.6
Database Smart Flash Cache Support for Multiple Flash Devices .....................
1.2.4.7
Dynamic Statistics .....................................................................................................
1.2.4.8
Enhanced Parallel Statement Queuing...................................................................
1.2.4.9
Enhancements to Incremental Statistics .................................................................
1.2.4.10
Enhancements to System Statistics .........................................................................
1.2.4.11
Improved Automatic Degree of Parallelism..........................................................
1.2.4.12
New Types of Optimizer Statistics..........................................................................
1.2.4.13
Online Statistics Gathering for Bulk Loads............................................................
1.2.4.14
Out-of-Place Materialized View Refresh................................................................
1.1.7.8
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1.2.4.15
Session-Private Statistics for Global Temporary Tables ......................................
1.2.4.16
SQL Plan Directives...................................................................................................
1.2.4.17
Synchronous Materialized View Refresh...............................................................
1.3
Compression and Archiving ..................................................................................................
1.3.1
Archiving ...........................................................................................................................
1.3.1.1
Database Hardening: Enable Flashback Data Archive (FDA) for
Security-Related Application Tables ......................................................................
1.3.1.2
Flashback Data Archive Improvements .................................................................
1.3.2
General ...............................................................................................................................
1.3.2.1
Optimization for Flashback Data Archive History Tables ..................................
1.3.3
Information Lifecycle Management ...............................................................................
1.3.3.1
Automatic Data Optimization (ADO) ....................................................................
1.3.3.2
EXECUTE_ILM Procedure.......................................................................................
1.3.3.3
Heat Map ....................................................................................................................
1.3.3.4
PL/SQL Interface for Managing ADO Policies.....................................................
1.3.3.5
Row-Level Compression Tiering ............................................................................
1.3.3.6
Segment-Level Compression Tiering .....................................................................
1.3.3.7
In-Database Archiving ..............................................................................................
1.3.4
SecureFiles Enhancements...............................................................................................
1.3.4.1
Enable PDML Operations on SecureFiles ..............................................................
1.3.4.2
Oracle Data Pump: Support SecureFiles LOB as Default ....................................
1.3.4.3
SecureFiles is the Default for LOB Storage ............................................................
1.4
Database Overall ......................................................................................................................
1.4.1
Database Consolidation ...................................................................................................
1.4.1.1
Integrate With Operating System Processor Groups ...........................................
1.4.1.2
Oracle Data Pump Support for Database Consolidation: Full
Transportable .............................................................................................................
1.4.1.3
Multitenant Architecture..........................................................................................
1.4.1.4
PDBs Backup and Recovery.....................................................................................
1.4.1.5
PDBs Point-in-Time Recovery .................................................................................
1.4.1.6
PDBs Resource Plans.................................................................................................
1.4.2
Grid Scheduler ..................................................................................................................
1.4.2.1
New Job Types ...........................................................................................................
1.4.3
Overall ................................................................................................................................
1.4.3.1
Cloning a Database....................................................................................................
1.4.4
Utilities ...............................................................................................................................
1.4.4.1
LOGTIME Parameter for Oracle Data Pump Command ....................................
1.4.4.2
Oracle Data Pump Audit Commands ....................................................................
1.4.4.3
Oracle Data Pump Change Table Compression at Import Time........................
1.4.4.4
Oracle Data Pump Enhanced Compression Options ...........................................
1.4.4.5
Oracle Data Pump Export View As a Table ..........................................................
1.4.4.6
Oracle Data Pump No Logging Option for Import ..............................................
1.4.4.7
Oracle Data Pump Security: No-Echo of Encryption Passwords on Export
and Import Commands ............................................................................................
1.4.4.8
SQL*Loader and External Tables: Use dNFS for Accessing Files on NFS
Servers .........................................................................................................................
1.4.4.9
SQL*Loader Audit Direct Path Loads ....................................................................
1.4.4.10
SQL*Loader Express Mode ......................................................................................
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1.5
High Availability .....................................................................................................................
1.5.1
Application Continuity ....................................................................................................
1.5.1.1
Application Continuity for Java ..............................................................................
1.5.1.2
Transaction Guard.....................................................................................................
1.5.2
Logical Replication ...........................................................................................................
1.5.2.1
Support for Extended VARCHAR2 in XStream....................................................
1.5.2.2
XStream New Apply Parameters ............................................................................
1.5.2.3
XStream New Capture Parameters .........................................................................
1.5.2.4
XStream Optimized Management of Large Transactions ...................................
1.5.2.5
XStream Support for Advanced LOB Deduplication...........................................
1.5.2.6
XStream Support for XML Object Relational and Binary....................................
1.5.3
Global Data Services.........................................................................................................
1.5.3.1
Global Data Services (GDS)......................................................................................
1.5.3.2
Oracle C/C++ Application High Availability Enhancements............................
1.5.4
Improved Resiliency.........................................................................................................
1.5.4.1
Oracle ASM Disk Scrubbing ....................................................................................
1.5.5
Online Operations ............................................................................................................
1.5.5.1
Editioned and Noneditioned Objects .....................................................................
1.5.5.2
Enhanced Online DDL Capabilities........................................................................
1.5.5.3
Invisible Columns......................................................................................................
1.5.5.4
Lock Timeout for FINISH_REDEF_TABLE ...........................................................
1.5.5.5
Metadata-Only DEFAULT Column Values for NULL Columns .......................
1.5.5.6
Move a Data File Online ...........................................................................................
1.5.5.7
Multiple Indexes on Same Set of Columns ............................................................
1.5.5.8
Online Redefinition of Multiple Partitions ............................................................
1.5.5.9
Single Command REDEF_TABLE to Redefine Table or Partition .....................
1.5.5.10
Support Redefinition of Tables With VPD Policies ..............................................
1.5.6
Oracle Data Guard Enhancements .................................................................................
1.5.6.1
Advanced Data Guard Broker Manageability ......................................................
1.5.6.2
Oracle Data Guard Broker Support for Cascaded Standby Databases..............
1.5.6.3
Fast Sync .....................................................................................................................
1.5.6.4
Single Command Role Transitions .........................................................................
1.5.6.5
Real-Time Apply is Default Setting for Data Guard ............................................
1.5.6.6
Resumable Switchover Operations .........................................................................
1.5.6.7
Active Data Guard Enhanced Security...................................................................
1.5.6.8
Active Data Guard Support for DML on Global Temporary Tables .................
1.5.6.9
Active Data Guard Support for Sequences............................................................
1.5.6.10
Active Data Guard Real-Time Cascade..................................................................
1.5.6.11
Active Data Guard Far Sync ....................................................................................
1.5.7
Data Guard Rolling Upgrade Enhancements ...............................................................
1.5.7.1
Data Guard Rolling Upgrade Support for Advanced Data Types.....................
1.5.7.2
Data Guard Rolling Upgrade Support for XDB Repository................................
1.5.7.3
Disaster Protection During Database Rolling Upgrade.......................................
1.5.7.4
Oracle Advanced Queuing (AQ) Support for Data Guard Database Rolling
Upgrade ......................................................................................................................
1.5.7.5
Oracle Data Guard Broker Support for Database Rolling Upgrades.................
1.5.7.6
Oracle Scheduler Support for Data Guard Database Rolling Upgrade.............
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1.5.7.7
Rolling Upgrade Using Active Data Guard...........................................................
1.5.7.8
SQL Apply Extended Data Type Support (EDS) ..................................................
1.5.7.9
SQL Apply Support for Objects, Collections, and XMLType .............................
1.5.7.10
SQL Apply Support for XMLType..........................................................................
1.5.7.11
SQL Apply Support for SecureFiles LOBs .............................................................
1.5.8
Oracle Database Advanced Queuing Enhancements..................................................
1.5.8.1
JMS Bulk Message Purging ......................................................................................
1.5.8.2
JMS Event-Driven Listener.......................................................................................
1.5.8.3
JMS Message Priorities, Exception Queues, and Expiration ...............................
1.5.8.4
JMS Transactional Nonpersistent Queues .............................................................
1.5.8.5
Message Forwarding on Oracle RAC .....................................................................
1.5.8.6
AQ Rules Engine Fast Evaluation of SYS_CONTEXT and Other Predicates ...
1.5.8.7
Rules Engine Result Cache.......................................................................................
1.5.8.8
Sharded Queues for Performance and Scalability ................................................
1.5.8.9
Simplified Metadata and Schema............................................................................
1.5.9
RMAN Enhancements .....................................................................................................
1.5.9.1
Active Database Duplication Enhancements ........................................................
1.5.9.2
Cross-Platform Backup and Restore .......................................................................
1.5.9.3
DUPLICATE Enhancements ....................................................................................
1.5.9.4
Multisection Image Copies.......................................................................................
1.5.9.5
Multisection Incremental Backups..........................................................................
1.5.9.6
Network-Enabled RESTORE ...................................................................................
1.5.9.7
RMAN Command-Line Interface Enhancements.................................................
1.5.9.8
Storage Snapshot Optimization...............................................................................
1.5.9.9
Table-Level Recovery From Backups .....................................................................
1.6
Manageability ...........................................................................................................................
1.6.1
Database Performance Tuning........................................................................................
1.6.1.1
Enterprise Manager Database Express ...................................................................
1.6.1.2
PGA Size Limit...........................................................................................................
1.6.1.3
Real-Time Database Operations Monitoring.........................................................
1.6.1.4
Resource Manager Runaway Query Management...............................................
1.6.1.5
Spot ADDM ................................................................................................................
1.6.2
Database Testing ...............................................................................................................
1.6.2.1
Mask At Source or Mask During Subset ................................................................
1.6.2.2
Self Update for Oracle Applications Masking and Subsetting Templates........
1.6.2.3
Database Replay Support for Database Consolidation........................................
1.6.2.4
Database Replay Workload Scale-Up and Characterization...............................
1.6.2.5
Enhanced Database Replay Reporting ...................................................................
1.6.3
General ...............................................................................................................................
1.6.3.1
Queryable Patch Inventory ......................................................................................
1.7
Oracle RAC and Grid Infrastructure.....................................................................................
1.7.1
Oracle ASM Enhancements.............................................................................................
1.7.1.1
Oracle Flex ASM ........................................................................................................
1.7.1.2
Oracle ASM Shared Password File in a Disk Group ............................................
1.7.1.3
Oracle ASM Rebalance Enhancements...................................................................
1.7.1.4
Oracle ASM Disk Resync Enhancements...............................................................
1.7.1.5
Oracle ASM chown, chgrp, chmod and Open Files Support..............................
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Oracle ASM Support ALTER DISKGROUP REPLACE USER ...........................
Enterprise Manager Support for Oracle ASM Features.......................................
Oracle ASM File Access Control on Windows......................................................
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Rolling Migration for One-Off Patches ...................
Oracle ACFS Enhancements............................................................................................
Oracle ACFS Support for All Oracle Database Files ............................................
Oracle ACFS and Highly Available NFS ...............................................................
Oracle ACFS Snapshots Enhancements .................................................................
Oracle ACFS Replication Integration with Oracle ACFS Security and
Encryption ..................................................................................................................
1.7.2.5
Oracle Audit Vault Support for Oracle ACFS Security and Encryption ...........
1.7.2.6
Oracle ACFS Security and Encryption Features ...................................................
1.7.2.7
Oracle ACFS File Tags for Grid Homes .................................................................
1.7.2.8
Oracle ACFS Plug-in APIs........................................................................................
1.7.2.9
Enterprise Manager Support for Oracle ACFS New Features ............................
1.7.2.10
Oracle ACFS Replication and Tagging on AIX .....................................................
1.7.2.11
Oracle ACFS Replication and Tagging on Solaris ................................................
1.7.3
Oracle Clusterware Enhancements ................................................................................
1.7.3.1
Oracle Flex Cluster ....................................................................................................
1.7.3.2
Policy-Based Cluster Management and Administration .....................................
1.7.3.3
What-If Command Evaluation ................................................................................
1.7.3.4
Oracle Cluster Registry Backup in ASM Disk Group Support...........................
1.7.3.5
Shared Grid Naming Service (GNS) .......................................................................
1.7.3.6
SRVCTL Support for Oracle Flex Cluster Implementations ...............................
1.7.3.7
Online Resource Attribute Modification................................................................
1.7.4
Other Grid Infrastructure Enhancements .....................................................................
1.7.4.1
Grid Infrastructure Script Automation for Installation and Upgrade...............
1.7.4.2
Multipurpose Cluster Installation Support ...........................................................
1.7.5
Oracle RAC Enhancements .............................................................................................
1.7.5.1
Support for IPv6 Based IP Addresses for Oracle RAC Client Connectivity .....
1.8
Performance..............................................................................................................................
1.8.1
Database Performance Enhancements...........................................................................
1.8.1.1
Advanced Network Compression ..........................................................................
1.8.1.2
Very Large Network Buffers....................................................................................
1.8.2
General ...............................................................................................................................
1.8.2.1
Asynchronous I/O Control for Direct NFS Client ...............................................
1.8.2.2
Tracking I/O Outliers ...............................................................................................
1.8.3
Hardware Optimizations.................................................................................................
1.8.3.1
Multi-Process Multi-Threaded Oracle....................................................................
1.8.4
Improve Ease of Performance Out-of-the-Box .............................................................
1.8.4.1
Ability to Specify NFS Version in Direct NFS Client ...........................................
1.9
Security ......................................................................................................................................
1.9.1
Data Encryption, Hashing and Redaction ....................................................................
1.9.1.1
Oracle Data Redaction ..............................................................................................
1.9.1.2
Support for Secure Hash Algorithm SHA-2 in Oracle Database........................
1.9.2
Database Security Enhancements...................................................................................
1.9.2.1
Auditing Enabled By Default...................................................................................
1.7.1.6
1.7.1.7
1.7.1.8
1.7.1.9
1.7.2
1.7.2.1
1.7.2.2
1.7.2.3
1.7.2.4
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1.9.2.2
Code-Based Security .................................................................................................
1.9.2.3
Data Guard Support for Separation of Duty (SoD) ..............................................
1.9.2.4
Enhanced Security of Audit Data............................................................................
1.9.2.5
Increased Security When Using SELECT ANY DICTIONARY..........................
1.9.2.6
Last Login Time Information ...................................................................................
1.9.2.7
Oracle Database Vault Mandatory Realms............................................................
1.9.2.8
Oracle Label Security Metadata Export and Import ............................................
1.9.2.9
Password Complexity Check...................................................................................
1.9.2.10
Privilege Analysis......................................................................................................
1.9.2.11
Resource Role Default Privileges ............................................................................
1.9.2.12
Separation of Duty for Audit Administration.......................................................
1.9.2.13
Separation of Duty for Database Administration .................................................
1.9.2.14
SYSBACKUP Administration Privilege .................................................................
1.9.3
Encryption Key Management Enhancements ..............................................................
1.9.3.1
Updated Key Management Framework ................................................................
1.9.4
Improve Security Manageability, Administration and Integration ..........................
1.9.4.1
Oracle Database Vault Persistent Protections .......................................................
1.9.4.2
Simplified Oracle Database Vault and Oracle Label Security Installation........
1.9.4.3
Transparent Sensitive Data Protection ...................................................................
1.9.4.4
VPD Fine-Grained Context-Sensitive Policies.......................................................
1.9.5
Protect the Database Server From Outside ...................................................................
1.9.5.1
Restricted Service Registration for Oracle RAC....................................................
1.9.6
Real Application Security ................................................................................................
1.9.6.1
Real Application Security.........................................................................................
1.9.7
Security Optimizations ....................................................................................................
1.9.7.1
Unified Context-Based Database Audit Architecture ..........................................
1.10
Spatial and Graph ....................................................................................................................
1.10.1
Oracle Spatial and Graph Enhancements......................................................................
1.10.1.1
Vector Performance Acceleration............................................................................
1.10.1.2
Spatial Routing Engine Enhancements ..................................................................
1.10.1.3
Spatial Geocoder - Improved Asian Address Support Using Zones .................
1.10.1.4
Spatial GeoRaster - Raster Algebra and Analytics ...............................................
1.10.1.5
Spatial GeoRaster - Enhanced Image Processing..................................................
1.10.1.6
Spatial GeoRaster - Java API Enhancements .........................................................
1.10.1.7
Spatial GeoRaster - New Metadata Content..........................................................
1.10.2
Network Data Model and RDF Semantic Graph Enhancements ..............................
1.10.2.1
Network Data Model Graph - Feature Modeling and Analysis .........................
1.10.2.2
Network Data Model Graph - Temporal Modeling and Analysis .....................
1.10.2.3
RDF Views on Relational Tables .............................................................................
1.10.2.4
RDF Semantic Graph Named Graph Support.......................................................
1.10.2.5
Support for Analytic Operations and Tools ..........................................................
1.10.2.6
RDF Semantic Graph Support for XML Schema, Text and Spatial Data
Types ...........................................................................................................................
1.10.2.7
RDF Semantic Graph Document Indexing Enhancements .................................
1.10.2.8
RDF Semantic Graph Support for W3C and OGC Standards, Open Source,
and Third-Party Technologies .................................................................................
1.11
Unstructured Data ...................................................................................................................
1.11.1
Oracle Multimedia Enhancements .................................................................................
x
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1.11.1.1
DICOM Protocol Support for Oracle Database.....................................................
1.11.1.2
Integrating Oracle Multimedia DICOM with Oracle WebCenter Content.......
1.11.1.3
Full Mode Database Import and Export for Oracle Multimedia........................
1.11.2
Oracle Text Enhancements ..............................................................................................
1.11.2.1
Near Real-Time Indexing .........................................................................................
1.11.2.2
Automatic Management of Near Real-Time Indexes...........................................
1.11.2.3
BIG_IO Large TOKEN_INFO Option.....................................................................
1.11.2.4
Separate Offsets .........................................................................................................
1.11.2.5
Updatable SDATA Sections .....................................................................................
1.11.2.6
Add SDATA Section to Existing Index ..................................................................
1.11.2.7
Ordering by SDATA Sections ..................................................................................
1.11.2.8
Increased Number of Field Sections .......................................................................
1.11.2.9
Document-Level Lexer..............................................................................................
1.11.2.10
Increased Number of MDATA Sections.................................................................
1.11.2.11
Language Identification............................................................................................
1.11.2.12
BIGRAM Mode for the Japanese VGRAM Lexer..................................................
1.11.2.13
Mild Not (MNOT) Operator ....................................................................................
1.11.2.14
Forward Index............................................................................................................
1.11.2.15
NEAR Operator Enhancements ..............................................................................
1.11.2.16
Pattern Stopclass ........................................................................................................
1.11.2.17
Session-Duration SQEs .............................................................................................
1.11.2.18
Query Filter Cache.....................................................................................................
1.11.2.19
Snippet Support in Result Set Interface..................................................................
1.11.3
Oracle XML Enhancements .............................................................................................
1.11.3.1
Enhanced ANYDATA Support ...............................................................................
1.11.3.2
Integrated Oracle XQuery Implementation...........................................................
1.11.3.3
Oracle XDK/J DOM Improvements .......................................................................
1.11.3.4
Domain Index Support of Hash Partitioned Tables .............................................
1.11.3.5
Oracle XSLT or XPath Engine Interoperability .....................................................
1.11.3.6
Programmatically Create and Manipulate Scalable DOM ..................................
1.11.3.7
Standalone XQuery Virtual Machine......................................................................
1.11.3.8
Support XQuery Full-Text Specification ................................................................
1.11.3.9
XDK/J Support for Fast Infoset...............................................................................
1.11.3.10
XmlDiff Support for XDK Java ................................................................................
1.11.3.11
Support for XQuery Update ....................................................................................
1.11.4
Oracle XML Repository Enhancements.........................................................................
1.11.4.1
Enable Digest Authentication with Oracle Database HTTP Listener ................
1.11.4.2
WebDAV, HTTP, and FTP Access for DBFS .........................................................
1.12
Upgrades ...................................................................................................................................
1.12.1
General ...............................................................................................................................
1.12.1.1
Enhanced Upgrade Automation .............................................................................
1.12.1.2
Parallel Upgrade ........................................................................................................
1.13
Windows ...................................................................................................................................
1.13.1
Windows Security Enhancements..................................................................................
1.13.1.1
Support for Oracle Home User on Windows ........................................................
1.13.1.2
Support of Oracle Home User for Oracle Net Services........................................
1.13.1.3
Named User Support for Oracle RAC Services on Windows.............................
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2
Oracle Database 12c Documentation
2.1
Documentation Titles and Online Documentation Structure............................................... 2-1
2.1.1
Data Mining Documentation ............................................................................................. 2-2
2.1.2
Gateways Documentation .................................................................................................. 2-2
2.1.3
Installation Documentation................................................................................................ 2-3
2.1.4
Java Development Documentation ................................................................................... 2-4
2.1.5
Oracle® Multimedia 12c Documentation......................................................................... 2-6
2.1.6
OLAP Documentation......................................................................................................... 2-7
2.1.7
Oracle Text Documentation ............................................................................................... 2-8
2.1.8
Release Notes Documentation ........................................................................................... 2-8
2.1.9
Server Documentation ........................................................................................................ 2-8
2.1.10
Spatial and Semantic Documentation............................................................................ 2-17
2.1.11
TimesTen In-Memory Database Documentation......................................................... 2-18
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List of Tables
2–1
2–2
2–3
2–4
2–5
2–6
2–7
2–8
2–9
2–10
2–11
xiv
Data Mining Documentation.................................................................................................... 2-2
Gateways Documentation ........................................................................................................ 2-2
Installation Documentation ...................................................................................................... 2-3
Java Development Documentation ......................................................................................... 2-4
Oracle® Multimedia Documentation ..................................................................................... 2-6
OLAP Documentation............................................................................................................... 2-7
Oracle Text Documentation...................................................................................................... 2-8
Release Notes Documentation ................................................................................................. 2-8
Server Documentation............................................................................................................... 2-8
Spatial and Semantic Documentation.................................................................................. 2-17
TimesTen In-Memory Database Documentation ............................................................... 2-18
Preface
This Preface contains these topics:
■
Audience
■
Documentation Accessibility
■
Related Documents
■
Conventions
Audience
Oracle Database New Features Guide is addressed to people familiar with previous
releases of Oracle Database who would like to become familiar with features, options,
and enhancements that are new in this release of the database.
Documentation Accessibility
For information about Oracle's commitment to accessibility, visit the Oracle
Accessibility Program website at
http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=docacc.
Access to Oracle Support
Oracle customers have access to electronic support through My Oracle Support. For
information, visit http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=info or
visit http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=acc&id=trs if you are hearing
impaired.
Related Documents
For more information, see the following documents in the Oracle Database 11g Release
2 (11.2) documentation set:
■
Oracle Database Error Messages
■
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide
■
Oracle Database Concepts
■
Oracle Database Reference
Conventions
The following text conventions are used in this document:
xv
xvi
Convention
Meaning
boldface
Boldface type indicates graphical user interface elements associated
with an action, or terms defined in text or the glossary.
italic
Italic type indicates book titles, emphasis, or placeholder variables for
which you supply particular values.
monospace
Monospace type indicates commands within a paragraph, URLs, code
in examples, text that appears on the screen, or text that you enter.
1
Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) New
Features
1
This chapter contains descriptions of all of the features that are new to Oracle Database
12c Release 1 (12.1). This chapter contains the following sections:
■
Application Development
■
Business Intelligence and Data Warehousing
■
Compression and Archiving
■
Database Overall
■
High Availability
■
Manageability
■
Performance
■
Oracle RAC and Grid Infrastructure
■
Security
■
Spatial and Graph
■
Unstructured Data
■
Upgrades
■
Windows
1.1 Application Development
The following sections describe the new application development features for Oracle
Database 12c Release 1 (12.1).
1.1.1 Enhanced Developer Productivity with Oracle Application Express
The following sections describe Oracle Application Express features.
1.1.1.1 Accessibility
Improvements have been made in the area of accessibility in existing themes and
HTML templates.
By improving accessibility to applications developed in Oracle Application Express, it
becomes easier for applications to meet regulatory compliance for access by users with
disabilities.
Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) New Features
1-1
Application Development
See Also:
Oracle Application Express Application Builder User's Guide for details
1.1.1.2 Automatic Purging of Workspaces
Facilities in Oracle Application Express now monitor the activity of workspaces and
the applications in those workspaces over time. Administrators of unused workspaces
are notified by e-mail that their workspaces and applications have not been used and
are subject to being purged. After being placed in a dormant state for a period of time,
a DBA and an instance administrator can approve the list of workspaces to be cleaned
up, which results in the removal of the workspaces, applications and, optionally,
schemas and tablespaces from an Oracle Application Express instance.
For organizations with large installations of Oracle Application Express, this feature
releases unused database resources.
See Also:
Oracle Application Express Administration Guide for details
1.1.1.3 Dynamic Actions
New in this release, Oracle provides a declarative facility to incorporate JavaScript and
AJAX into an application to provide rich client-side interactivity within an Oracle
Application Express application. Replacing hand crafted JavaScript and AJAX with
declarative definitions greatly improves the quality, consistency, and manageability of
rich client-side interactivity.
This feature enables developers to declaratively define client-side behaviors without
needing to know JavaScript and AJAX.
See Also:
Oracle Application Express Application Builder User's Guide for details
1.1.1.4 End User Data Upload
With this new feature, end users can upload data into an existing table (within an
application). Developers can define into which table or tables the data can be
uploaded, including the unique keys to determine if a record is to be inserted or
updated. In addition, the developer can specify look-ups for columns so that, for
example instead of entering the DEPTNO or STATUS_ID, the end user can enter the
Department Name or Status Code.
This feature allows developers to let their end users be more self-sufficient.
See Also:
Oracle Application Express Application Builder User's Guide for details
1.1.1.5 Error Handling
Error handling and user-defined exception processing has been improved to allow
developers to present user-friendly messages to users instead of database messages.
This improvement enables developers to control the error messages that are displayed
to end users so they do not see errors such as ORA-00001: unique constraint
(<owner>.<name>) violated PK violated.
1-2 Oracle Database New Features Guide
Application Development
See Also:
Oracle Application Express Application Builder User's Guide for details
1.1.1.6 Expanded Interactive Reports
End users can now choose between report, icon or detail views for interactive reports.
Additional support has been added for compound filters, group by, e-mail
notifications, and the ability to save shared reports and download to a standalone
searchable HTML file.
These enhancements provide improved interactive reports and the ability for end
users to share their saved reports.
See Also:
Oracle Application Express Application Builder User's Guide for details
1.1.1.7 Improved Charting Engine
Integrating the AnyChart 6 charting engine for the creation of improved Flash charts
and the introduction of HTML5 charts, results in better looking charts that load faster.
Maps and Gantt charts have also been introduced into the Oracle Application Express
wizard-based chart creation. HTML5 charts are required for mobile devices that do not
support Flash.
The new reporting engine is faster with improved graphics and more declarative
features. This enhances the charting capabilities while making development easier.
See Also:
Oracle Application Express Application Builder User's Guide for details
1.1.1.8 Mobile Applications
You now have the ability to declaratively define mobile applications and mobile
application components including HTML5 charts, HTML5 item types, and mobile
calendars. This feature also allows you to facilitate applications having both desktop
and mobile user interfaces with automatic detection. The mobile applications are built
using jQuery Mobile.
This enhancement makes development of mobile applications fast and declarative.
Instead of building separate applications for different mobile operating systems (for
example, iOS, Android, Blackberry, and Windows), the same application can be run on
any mobile device by incorporating jQuery Mobile.
See Also:
Oracle Application Express Application Builder User's Guide for details
1.1.1.9 Modernized Application Builder
Numerous usability improvements have been added to Oracle Application Express
including integrated application-wide search, an advisor that inspects customer
applications for common errors and security issues, dashboards throughout the
product, and improved Administration screens.
The improvements to the Application Builder make the tool more intuitive and easier
to learn.
Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) New Features
1-3
Application Development
See Also:
Oracle Application Express Application Builder User's Guide for details
1.1.1.10 Packaged Applications
A collection of productivity applications allows users to immediately start utilizing
their database investment.
Being provided with a number of productivity and sample applications, developers
can start using Oracle Application Express as soon as it is installed to improve their
business processes. They can also unlock these applications to learn about Oracle
Application Express development best practices for developing such applications.
See Also:
Oracle Application Express Application Builder User's Guide for details
1.1.1.11 Plug-Ins
This features enables development of and the ability to share custom region types,
item types, dynamic actions, authentication, and authorizations. This dramatically
broadens the reach of Oracle Application Express applications and provides a library
of features for Oracle Application Express. When developers require functionality not
available with native components, this architecture allows them to extend their
applications in a manner that is both supported and maintained.
This feature provides a supported means by which to extend the built-in Oracle
Application Express capabilities.
See Also:
Oracle Application Express Application Builder User's Guide for details
1.1.1.12 Tabular Forms
Expanded tabular form functionality allows developers to declaratively define
validations and processes using column values. This enhancement also adds support
in tabular forms for additional display types (for example, checkboxes, popup Key
LOVs, and radio groups).
Rather than having to code custom code and use a custom item type to be able to
perform validations on tabular forms, developers can now reference columns within
validations and processes.
See Also:
Oracle Application Express Application Builder User's Guide for details
1.1.1.13 Team Development
A suite of tools natively integrated into Oracle Application Express to help developers
plan and manage their application development of Oracle Application Express
applications is now available. This also includes features to gather feedback in an
Oracle Application Express application and process it as a to-do item, a bug, or a
feature request.
This feature allows development teams to streamline their development process.
See Also:
Oracle Application Express Application Builder User's Guide for details
1-4 Oracle Database New Features Guide
Application Development
1.1.1.14 Themes and Templates
Each of the modern themes in Oracle Application Express has been revised and
modernized. This allows applications to appear more modern, make use of gradients,
provide more XHTML-conformant templates, have more enhanced browser
compatibility, and improved accessibility. Theme 25 is a new theme designed to utilize
Responsive Design so that regions and items automatically adjust based on the size of
the window. Theme 26 mirrors the theme used for the new packaged applications
introduced in Oracle Application Express 4.2. A completely new theme has been
included for mobile smartphones to allow developers to readily build applications
designed to run on any mobile device.
The revised themes allow for more modern looking applications that are easier to
customize as they are DIV based instead of being based on HTML tables.
See Also:
Oracle Application Express Application Builder User's Guide for details
1.1.1.15 Time Stamp and Time Zone Support
Support is added for TIMESTAMP, TIMESTAMP WITH TIME ZONE and TIMESTAMP WITH
LOCAL TIME ZONE data types throughout Oracle Application Express. Declarative
functionality is also added to automatically derive an end user's time zone and set it in
the Oracle Application Express session, enabling the easy creation of time
zone-sensitive applications.
The ability to utilize time stamps and time zones throughout the application is
important for any application that records dates and times. This is especially true for
applications that are accessed globally.
See Also:
Oracle Application Express Application Builder User's Guide for details
1.1.1.16 Use of ROWID
ROWID can now be used for automatic DML processing (as an alternative to identifying
the primary key columns).
Using ROWID instead of a constrained number of primary key columns allows
developers to utilize the standard wizards when defining forms and reports based on
tables with more than two primary key columns. This is particularly important in
commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) applications, such as PeopleSoft.
See Also:
Oracle Application Express Application Builder User's Guide for details
1.1.1.17 Web Services Support
Web services support has been modernized within Oracle Application Express. Some
specific features include:
■
■
■
■
Creating a PL/SQL API to interact with Web services.
Exposing report regions, DML processes as Representational State Transfer (REST)
Web services.
Support of binary data types in Web services support.
Allow the inclusion of custom Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) headers with
Web Services Description Language (WSDL) based Web services.
Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) New Features
1-5
Application Development
■
Improving the WSDL parsing engine.
■
Support of SOAP 1.2 in wizard-based Web services support.
These enhancements provide the ability to integrate Oracle Application Express with
Representational State Transfer (REST) Web services and integrate applications into a
Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) environment.
See Also:
Oracle Application Express Application Builder User's Guide for details
1.1.1.18 Websheets
Websheets are a new class of application development within Oracle Application
Express, lowering the bar even further to manage data in an Oracle database from a
Web browser. Using only a Web browser, end users can define pages, data grids and
reports. With the data grids, they can do inline editing, add lists of values, and add
validations and then select the community that can see and edit their data.
This feature allows business users to combine textual content (similar to a wiki) with
data (for example, data grids and queries against tables in their Oracle schema).
See Also:
Oracle Application Express Application Builder User's Guide for details
1.1.2 Enhanced Globalization Support
Oracle provides enhanced support for building fully globalized enterprise applications
including the latest Unicode Standard compliance, database migration to the Unicode
character set, linguistic collation support, and infrastructure for application data
multilingual support. The following sections describe the enhanced globalization
support features.
1.1.2.1 Expanded Database Locale Support
A set of new locales (approximately 10 languages and 30 territories) is now supported
in Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) to improve the overall locale coverage and
address customer requirements.
This feature improves the database locale coverage to provide behavior that meets
local users' cultural conventions.
See Also:
Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide for details
1.1.2.2 Replacement of CSSCAN and CSALTER with DMU
The Database Migration Assistant for Unicode (DMU) provides a streamlined
end-to-end solution for migrating databases from legacy character sets to the Unicode
character set. It is shipping with Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) and becomes the
officially supported method for migration to the Unicode character set. The legacy
Database Character Set Scanner (CSSCAN) and CSALTER utilities are removed from
the database installation and have been desupported. The DMU also supports
migrating selected prior database releases of 10.2, 11.1, and 11.2. More details are
available at the OTN DMU page located at:
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/globalization/dmu/overview/index.html
1-6 Oracle Database New Features Guide
Application Development
See Also:
Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide for details
1.1.2.3 Unicode 6.1 Support
The National Language Support (NLS) data files for AL32UTF8 and AL16UTF16
character sets have been updated to match version 6.1 of the Unicode Standard
character database.
With this enhancement, as of August 2012, Oracle Database conforms to the latest
version of the Unicode Standard.
See Also:
Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide for details
1.1.2.4 Unicode Collation Algorithm Conformance
Database linguistic sorting and searching support has been enhanced to conform to the
Unicode Collation Algorithm (UCA) and ISO 14651 international collation standard.
A UCA-compliant implementation achieves better multilingual sorting behavior for all
languages and increases industry compatibility.
See Also:
Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide for details
1.1.3 General
The following sections describe new general features.
1.1.3.1 Import and Export of Workspace Manager Schema
It is now possible to import and export Workspace Manager schema (all of the
schemas that contain a version-enabled table or a parent table in a referential integrity
constraint of a version-enabled table, as well as any internal Workspace Manager
metadata). In addition, full import and export of databases with Workspace Manager
enabled tables is now supported across different versions of Oracle Database.
This greatly simplifies the upgrade, management and administration of databases
with Workspace Manager enabled tables.
See Also:
Oracle Database Workspace Manager Developer's Guide for details
1.1.3.2 Performance Improvements to Workspace Operations and Views
DIFF and CONF views have been reorganized to enable Oracle Database optimizer to
generate more efficient SQL plans when working with Workspace enabled tables. In
addition, user-defined hints in Workspace Manager views may now be included.
Changes have also been made to MergeWorkspace and DML inserts to reduce
execution time.
These changes enable Workspace Manager enabled tables to scale efficiently and
support extremely large tables (up to 200 million rows) and to deliver improved query
response times.
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1.1.4 Improved Oracle SQL and PL/SQL
The following sections describe the improved Oracle SQL and PL/SQL features.
1.1.4.1 An Invoker's Rights Function Can Be Result Cached
Through Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), only definer's rights PL/SQL functions
could be result cached. Now, invoker's rights PL/SQL functions can also be result
cached. (The identity of the invoking user is implicitly added to the key of the result.)
At times, it may be appropriate to use an invoker's rights PL/SQL function to issue
one or more SELECT statements. This feature improves performance.
See Also:
Oracle Database PL/SQL Language Reference for details
1.1.4.2 An Object of Type LIBRARY Can Be Defined Using an Object of Type
DIRECTORY
In previous releases, an object of the LIBRARY type could only be defined by using an
explicit path. However, now the DIRECTORY type can be the single point of
maintenance for file system paths. Moreover, using a DIRECTORY type has security
benefits. A directory object can be defined using a DIRECTORY type.
Additionally, the definition of an object of the LIBRARY type can now include a
credential so that the designated external program can be run as a different operating
system user than the owner of the Oracle installation.
These enhancements improve security and portability of an application that uses
external procedures.
See Also:
Oracle Database Security Guide for details
1.1.4.3 Enhanced Oracle Native LEFT OUTER JOIN Syntax
In previous releases of Oracle Database, in a query that performed outer joins of more
than two pairs of tables, a single table could be the null-generated table for only one
other table. Beginning with Oracle Database 12c, a single table can be the
null-generated table for multiple tables.
Prior to Oracle Database 12c, having multiple tables on the left hand side of an outer
join was illegal and resulted in an ORA-01417 error. The only way to execute such a
query was to translate it into ANSI syntax. In Oracle Database 12c, the native syntax
for a LEFT OUTER JOIN has been expanded to allow multiple tables on the left hand
side. This expansion provides the following benefits:
■
■
■
Merging of multiple table views on the left hand side of an outer join. Such views
can originate from the user query or they may be generated during conversion
from LEFT OUTER JOIN syntax.
Merging of such views allows more join reordering and, therefore, more optimal
execution plans. These views are merged in a heuristic manner without having to
go through cost-based query transformation.
It relieves the application developers from the burden of formulating their queries
in terms of views or LEFT OUTER JOIN syntax.
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See Also:
Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for details
1.1.4.4 JDBC Support for PL/SQL Data Types as Parameters
The ability for Java and JDBC applications to bind PL/SQL package types and boolean
types as parameters is available in this release.
This feature improves ease-of-use, seamless mapping and exchange of PL/SQL types
with Java types, and increases Java developer productivity.
1.1.4.5 Mechanism to Restrict the Ability to Reference a PL/SQL Unit to a White
List of Database Objects
It is now possible to mark a schema-level function, procedure, package, or type
specification with a white list of allowed callers. The allowed caller may be of any
object type that can invoke a PL/SQL subprogram (for example, a trigger, view, table,
or index), but it must be in the same schema as the unit that has the white list. The
white list is optional but, when used, only the listed objects may reference the unit in
question. Cross-schema references to a unit with a white list are, therefore, disallowed
even when the reference is attempted from a schema owned by SYS.
This capability supports the robust implementation of a module, consisting of a main
unit and helper units, by allowing the helper units to be inaccessible from anywhere
except the unit they are intended to help.
See Also:
Oracle Database PL/SQL Language Reference for details
1.1.4.6 Native Client API Support for PL/SQL Package Types and Boolean Types as
Parameters
This feature allows database client APIs (for example, OCI and JDBC) to natively
describe and bind PL/SQL package types and boolean types. Java and C-based
applications can now easily bind and execute PL/SQL functions or procedures with
PL/SQL package types or boolean types as parameters.
This feature reduces the complexity of executing PL/SQL functions or procedures
from client-side applications.
See Also:
Oracle Database Development Guide for details
1.1.4.7 New PL/SQL DBMS_UTILITY.EXPAND_SQL_TEXT Procedure
The DBMS_UTILITY.EXPAND_SQL_TEXT procedure accepts a subquery that references
views and returns a subquery with the identical meaning that references only tables.
This functionality can help in the analysis of SQL which depends on views with the
aim of fixing application logic or resolving performance issues.
See Also:
Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for details
1.1.4.8 New PL/SQL Package UTL_CALL_STACK
The UTL_CALL_STACK package provides subprograms to return the current call stack for
a PL/SQL program.
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It is functionally similar to the existing DBMS_UTILITY.FORMAT_CALL_STACK procedure
which returns information as a human-readable essay. This new package makes this
information available in a structured representation amenable for programmatic
analysis.
See Also:
Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for details
1.1.4.9 New Predefined PL/SQL Inquiry Directives
The $$PLSQL_OWNER and $$PLSQL_TYPE predefined PL/SQL inquiry directives are now
supported in this release.
Through Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), the predefined inquiry directives,
$$PLSQL_LINE and $$PLSQL_UNIT, allowed diagnostic code to identify the current
PL/SQL statement, but with a certain ambiguity. This ambiguity is now removed.
See Also:
Oracle Database PL/SQL Language Reference for details
1.1.4.10 New SCHEMA Parameter for DBMS_SQL.PARSE() Procedure
DBMS_SQL.PARSE() procedure has a new SCHEMA parameter. It specifies the schema in
which to resolve unqualified object names.
This allows a definer's rights unit to control the name resolution for the dynamic SQL
it issues.
See Also:
Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for details
1.1.4.11 PL/SQL Functions Defined in the SQL WITH Clause
You can define a PL/SQL function in the WITH clause of a subquery and use it as an
ordinary function beginning with this release.
The procedural logic needed to support a SQL statement is encapsulated with the SQL
statement. This is particularly useful in a read-only database.
Using this construct results in better performance as compared with schema-level
functions.
See Also:
Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for details
1.1.4.12 PL/SQL-Specific Data Types Allowed Across the PL/SQL-to-SQL Interface
Through Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), when PL/SQL invoked SQL, only
values with data types supported by SQL could be bound. This restriction applied
even when the called SQL was a PL/SQL anonymous block. This restriction is
removed in Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1). For example, a PL/SQL subprogram
with a formal parameter whose data type is BOOLEAN can now be invoked dynamically
using an anonymous block.
Other restrictions are also removed. The table operator can now be used in a PL/SQL
program on a collection whose data type is declared in PL/SQL. This also allows the
data type to be a PL/SQL associative array. (In prior releases, the collection's data type
had to be declared at the schema level.)
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The removal of these restrictions increases the power of expression and the usefulness
of PL/SQL. In particular, the extended flexibility of the table operator allows code
written to run other vendors' stored procedure languages to be easily migrated to
PL/SQL.
See Also:
Oracle Database PL/SQL Language Reference for details
1.1.4.13 Precompilers Support for SQL Plan Management
There are new command-line options for the generation of plan baseline SQL
statements providing control of the name and format of generated SQL files and log
files.
This support avoids performance regression of SQL statement execution and provides
easier upgrade of precompiler applications.
See Also:
Pro*C/C++ Programmer's Guide for details
1.1.4.14 SQLJ Support for SQL Plan Management
The following are new features in this release for SQLJ support for SQL plan
management (SPM):
■
Command line and property file options for the generation of plan baseline SQL
statements.
■
Generation of a SQL file containing the statements for creating SPM plans.
■
Control in the naming of generated log files and Java files
This new support helps make the upgrade of SQLJ applications easier and helps to
avoid performance regression of SQL statement execution.
See Also:
Oracle Database SQLJ Developer's Guide for details
1.1.4.15 Temporal Validity
With Temporal Validity, you can add one or more valid time dimensions to a table
using existing columns, or using columns automatically created by the database.
Applications often indicate the validity of a fact recorded in the database with dates or
time stamps that are relevant to the underlying business they manage. Examples of
such dates include the hire date and termination date of an employee in a Human
Resources application, the effective date range of coverage for an insurance policy, or
the time duration for a stock price. Temporal Validity reduces the complexity of
application code by providing a simple declarative interface to allow applications to
manage the validity of rows.
See Also:
Oracle Database Development Guide for details
1.1.4.16 Temporal Validity Flashback Queries
Flashback Query has been extended to support queries on Temporal Validity
dimensions. Users can now execute queries with the AS OF and VERSIONS BETWEEN
clauses based on one or more valid time periods on the underlying tables. Flashback
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Queries that combine Temporal Validity and Transaction Time Temporal (tracked
using Flashback Data Archive) are called bi-temporal queries.
Users can now query data based on current values (that is, CURRENT in valid time and
transaction time), what we know now (that is, AS OF in valid time; CURRENT in
transaction time), or what we knew before (that is, AS OF in valid time and transaction
time), giving declarative access to all possible views of data based on the two time
dimensions. Bi-temporal queries in Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) provide
functionality previously available only with extensive and complex application code.
See Also:
Oracle Database Development Guide for details
1.1.5 OCI/OCCI Enhancements
The following sections describe data access features and support for SQL queries
performed through applications with a Web-based interface.
1.1.5.1 Auto-Tuning Oracle C Client Interface (OCI) Applications
Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) introduces a new client-side auto-tuning feature.
This feature provides automatic and transparent performance management.
See Also:
Oracle Call Interface Programmer's Guide for details
1.1.5.2 Oracle C/C++ Client (OCI/OCCI) Support for Row Count Per Iteration for
Array DML
This feature provides support for C and C++ interfaces for retrieving the number of
rows affected by each iteration of an array DML statement separately in an array
buffer provided by the user.
This feature improves data access (for example, reliability, quality control, and ease of
debugging) and support for SQL queries performed through applications with a
Web-based interface.
See Also:
Oracle Call Interface Programmer's Guide for details
1.1.6 Reduced Cost and Complexities of Migrating to Oracle
The following sections describe features affecting the cost and complexities of
migrating to Oracle.
1.1.6.1 Default Values for Columns Based on Oracle Sequences
Default values for columns can directly refer to Oracle sequences. Valid entries are
sequence.CURVAL and sequence.NEXTVAL.
Providing the functionality to directly refer to a sequence as a default value expression
simplifies code development.
See Also:
Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for details
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1.1.6.2 DEFAULT Values for Columns on Explicit NULL Insertion
The DEFAULT definition of a column can be extended to have the DEFAULT being applied
for explicit NULL insertion.
The DEFAULT clause has a new ON NULL clause, which instructs the database to assign a
specified default column value when an INSERT statement attempts to assign a value
that evaluates to NULL.
See Also:
Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for details
1.1.6.3 IDENTITY Columns
Table columns have been enhanced to support the American National Standards
Institute (ANSI) SQL keyword IDENTITY.
This provides a standards based approach to the declaration of automatically
incrementing columns simplifying application development and making the migration
of DDL to Oracle simpler.
See Also:
Oracle Database Migration Guide for details
1.1.6.4 Increased Size Limit for VARCHAR2, NVARCHAR2, and RAW Data Types
The maximum size of the VARCHAR2, NVARCHAR2, and RAW data types has been
increased from 4,000 to 32,767 bytes.
Increasing the allotted size for these data types allows users to store more information
in character data types before switching to large objects (LOBs). This is especially
useful for brief textual data types and the capabilities to build indexes on these types
of columns.
See Also:
Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for details
1.1.6.5 JDBC Support for Sybase Applications Migration
JDBC support for Sybase applications migration includes the following new APIs:
■
oracle.jdbc.sqlTranslationProfile
■
oracle.jdbc.sqlErrorTranslationFile
■
oracle.jdbc.OracleTranslatingConnection
Also included is the configuration file SQLErrorTranslation.xml.
These new API’s reduce the costs and complexities of migrating Sybase Java
applications to Oracle.
See Also:
Oracle Database Migration Guide for details
1.1.6.6 Implicit Result Sets
Before Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1), a SELECT statement embedded as static
SQL in a PL/SQL program, and run in the database, had to return its results into
PL/SQL variables in that program using either an INTO clause, a BULK COLLECT INTO
or BULK FETCH INTO clause, or a CURSOR FOR LOOP clause. The client then accessed
Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) New Features 1-13
Application Development
these results using suitably defined scalar or composite bind arguments. Alternatively,
the SELECT statement could be used to return a REFCURSOR to the client to allow it to
manage the fetching of the results.
Now PL/SQL adds the equivalent capability as that provided in other vendors'
environments to allow bare-bones SELECT statements to pass back their results to the
client. When code is migrated to Oracle Database from other vendors' environments,
the capability will remove the need to rewrite code that takes advantage of implicit
result set communication.
See Also:
Oracle Database Migration Guide for details
1.1.6.7 Native SQL Support for Query Row Limits and Row Offsets
The FETCH FIRST and OFFSET clauses provides native SQL language support to limit
the number of rows returned and to specify a starting row for the return set.
Many queries need to limit the number of rows returned or offset the starting row of
the results. For example, top-N queries sort their result set and then return only the
first n rows. FETCH FIRST and OFFSET simplify syntax and comply with the ANSI SQL
standard.
See Also:
Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for details
1.1.6.8 Oracle Database Driver for MySQL Applications
The Oracle Database driver for MySQL applications is a drop-in replacement for the
client library for MySQL 5.5. It enables applications and tools built using the MySQL C
API to run against an Oracle Database using the new library that implements the
MySQL C API.
The key benefits are the reuse of MySQL applications against both MySQL and Oracle
and the reduction in the costs and complexities of migrating MySQL applications to
Oracle.
See Also:
Oracle Database Migration Guide for details
1.1.6.9 Precompiler Support for Prefetch By Memory
New command-line options allow Pro*C and Pro*COBOL to limit the amount of
memory used for prefetching rows.
This feature provides resource control and reduces the costs and complexities of
migrating DB2 applications to Oracle.
See Also:
Pro*COBOL Programmer's Guide for details
1.1.6.10 SQL CROSS APPLY, OUTER APPLY and LATERAL
The APPLY SQL syntax allows a table-valued function to be invoked for each row
returned by a query's outer table expression. The table-valued function acts as the
right input; the outer table expression acts as the left input. The right input is
evaluated for each row from the left input and the rows produced are combined for
the final output. Therefore, one can pass left-correlations to the table-valued functions.
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There are two forms of APPLY - CROSS APPLY and OUTER APPLY. CROSS APPLY returns
only rows from the outer table that produce a result set from the table-valued function.
OUTER APPLY returns both rows that produce a result set, and rows that do not, with
NULL values in the columns produced by the table-valued function.
LATERAL, part of the ANSI standard, is an extension of the inline view syntax that
provides left-correlation scoping within the inline view. These new keywords provide
easier and more flexible ways to evaluate and return SQL query results.
See Also:
Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for details
1.1.6.11 SQL Translation Framework
A new mechanism is provided to allow the text of a SQL statement, submitted from a
client program using an open application programming interface (API) such as ODBC
or JDBC, to be translated by user-supplied code before it is submitted to the Oracle
Database SQL compiler. The translation code is named and installed in the database
using a PL/SQL API. It can be implemented programmatically, by look-up, or by a
suitable mixture of these. The name of the translator is specified at connect time. The
mechanism also allows Oracle error codes and American National Standards Institute
(ANSI) SQLSTATES to be translated by user-supplied code.
The motivating use case is to allow extant client-side application code, written for a
different vendor's database (and therefore for a SQL dialect other than Oracle's), to run
unchanged against an Oracle database by emulating the syntax and semantics of the
other SQL dialect thereby greatly reducing the cost of migration. Additionally, this
feature can satisfy any other use case where it is expedient to intervene between the
SQL statement that the client submits and what is actually executed.
See Also:
Oracle Database Migration Guide for details
1.1.7 Support .NET and Microsoft Development Community
The following sections describe new features for the .NET and Microsoft development
community.
For more information about new features in Oracle Developer Tools for Visual Studio
(ODT), see the ODT online help section titled "New Features for Oracle Developer
Tools for Visual Studio". This online help is installed with the product.
1.1.7.1 Microsoft .NET Framework 4 and 4.5 Support
Oracle Data Provider for .NET supports .NET Framework 4 and 4.5, including Client
Profile.
1.1.7.2 Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database
Oracle Data Provider for .NET enables fast data access for any .NET application to
Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Databases. ODP.NET support for TimesTen includes the
classes, enumerations, interfaces, delegates, and structures of the
Oracle.DataAccess.Client and Oracle.DataAccess.Types namespaces.
ODP.NET supports TimesTen Release 11.2.1.6.1 or later on Microsoft Windows 32-bit
and 64-bit platforms. TimesTen can be used with .NET Framework 2.0, 3.0, 3.5, and 4
with Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 or later.
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1.1.7.3 64-Bit ODP.NET XCopy for Windows x64
Now available for Microsoft Windows x64 systems, ODP.NET XCopy provides system
administrators with a smaller client install size than the standard ODP.NET client, and
is easier to configure.
ODP.NET XCopy simplifies embedding ODP.NET in customized deployment
packages.
1.1.7.4 Entity Framework and LINQ
Entity Framework is a framework for providing object-relational mapping and
services on data models. It tries to solve the impedance mismatch between the
database format (relational) and the client’s preferred format (object).
Language Integrated Query (LINQ) defines a set of operators that can be used to
query, project and filter data in arrays, enumerable classes, XML, relational databases,
and other data sources. One form of LINQ, LINQ to Entities, allows querying of Entity
Framework data sources.
Oracle Data Provider for .NET (ODP.NET) supports Entity Framework so that Oracle
Database can participate in object-relational modeling and LINQ to Entities queries.
Entity Framework and LINQ provide numerous productivity benefits for the .NET
developer. It abstracts the database's data model from the application's data model.
Working with object-relational data becomes easier with Entity Framework's tools.
Oracle's integration with Entity Framework and LINQ allows Oracle .NET developers
to take advantage of all these productivity benefits.
See Also:
Oracle Data Provider for .NET Developer's Guide for Microsoft Windows
for details
1.1.7.5 Implicit REF CURSOR Parameter Binding
Oracle Data Provider for .NET (ODP.NET) can bind REF CURSOR parameters for stored
procedures without binding them explicitly. To do so, the application must provide the
REF CURSOR metadata as part of the .NET configuration file.
This feature allows Entity Framework function import to call Oracle stored procedures
and return REF CURSOR result sets. ODP.NET can also update the database's data with a
data set or data table obtained through a REF CURSOR.
In Entity Framework, result set parameters are generally not declared. By supporting
the implicit REF CURSOR parameter, ODP.NET more closely integrates with typical
Entity Framework usage scenarios.
See Also:
Oracle Data Provider for .NET Developer's Guide for Microsoft Windows
for details
1.1.7.6 Oracle SQL Supports APPLY Keyword
Language Integrated Query (LINQ) is a .NET querying language. At runtime, LINQ is
translated into native database SQL before it can query the database. In some
circumstances, LINQ uses the non-standard APPLY keyword in its SQL translation for
retrieving lateral views. Oracle Database and ODP.NET support the APPLY keyword in
Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) to more fully support LINQ.
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This feature allows the occasional LINQ query that uses SQL APPLY to work seamlessly
with ODP.NET and Oracle Database for lateral views.
See Also:
Oracle Data Provider for .NET Developer's Guide for Microsoft Windows
for details
1.1.7.7 Returning Row Counts
When using array binding to execute multiple DML statements, Oracle Data Provider
for .NET (ODP.NET) now provides an array that lists the number of rows affected for
each input value from the bound array, rather than just the total number of rows
affected. This information provides more detailed feedback for the application
developer. To retrieve the row count, ODP.NET can call the
OracleCommand.ArrayBindRowCount property.
With more detailed feedback on the array bound DML execution, the developer can
better evaluate the query's efficiency and whether the data changes were correctly
applied.
See Also:
Oracle Data Provider for .NET Developer's Guide for Microsoft Windows
for details
1.1.7.8 Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) Data Services and Open Data
Protocol (OData)
WCF Data Services enables developers to create services that use OData to expose and
consume data over the internet by using the semantics of representational state
transfer (REST). OData exposes data as resources that are addressable by universal
resource identifiers (URIs). OData uses Entity Data Model conventions to expose
resources as sets of entities that are related by associations. Through its support of
Entity Framework, ODP.NET can expose its data using OData and WCF Data Services.
WCF Data Services and OData facilitate creating flexible data services from any data
source and naturally integrating them with the Web. It allows all types of data sources,
including Oracle databases, to be used by the same data sharing standard making data
exchange more interoperable.
See Also:
Oracle Data Provider for .NET Developer's Guide for Microsoft Windows
for details
1.1.8 Support Java Development Community
The following sections describe new features for the Java development community.
For information on additional features that Java Database Connectivity (JDBC)
supports, see the following topics:
■
■
■
■
Section 1.1.4.4, "JDBC Support for PL/SQL Data Types as Parameters"
Section 1.1.4.6, "Native Client API Support for PL/SQL Package Types and
Boolean Types as Parameters"
Section 1.1.6.4, "Increased Size Limit for VARCHAR2, NVARCHAR2, and RAW
Data Types"
Section 1.5.1.1, "Application Continuity for Java"
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■
Section 1.5.1.2, "Transaction Guard"
■
Section 1.8.1.2, "Very Large Network Buffers"
1.1.8.1 JDBC Support for Monitoring Database Operations (DBOP)
Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) introduces the DBOP tag that can be associated
with a thread in the application when the application does not have explicit access to a
database. The DBOP tag is associated with a thread through the invocation of either
setClientInfo() method or Oracle Dynamic Monitoring Services (DMS) APIs,
without requiring an active database connection or a client/server roundtrip.
See Also:
Oracle Database JDBC Developer's Guide for details
1.1.8.2 Database Support for JDK Upgrade
New support in this release allows a customer to upgrade the embedded Java VM
runtime to newer Java Development Kit (JDK) releases (for example, upgrade from
JDK 1.6 to JDK 1.7 and conversely downgrade from JDK 1.7 to JDK 1.6). In addition,
customers can choose a target JDK during database installation.
Using the latest Java standards can reduce costs by improving productivity and
reusing Java classes or libraries. This feature allows compatibility with the latest Java
standards.
See Also:
Oracle Database Java Developer's Guide for details
1.1.8.3 Database Support for Latest Java SE and Standard Utilities
Oracle Database supports JDK 1.6, JDK 1.7, Java Naming and Directory Interface
(JNDI), Java Logging, and the Java SE Integration Libraries such as RMI-IIOP and
scripting.
The JDK support reduces the cost and improves productivity through reuse of Java
classes or libraries. Compatibility with the latest Java standards allows portability and
use of client-side Java classes and libraries directly in the database.
See Also:
Oracle Database Java Developer's Guide for details
1.1.8.4 Enhanced Security for Java in the Database
Oracle Database includes enhanced permission and policy management for Java
runtime. The Java policy is reloadable by the system administrator after adding
third-party encryption suites. In addition, the database administrator can change the
algorithm search order.
These enhancements provide tighter permission and policy management, as well as
flexible and advanced security support for third-party encryption libraries.
See Also:
Oracle Database Java Developer's Guide for details
1.1.8.5 JDBC Enhanced Security
Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) supports the security enhancements in Oracle
Database including Kerberos authentication and Windows Authentication (NTS).
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This feature provides advanced security for Java applications.
See Also:
Oracle Database JDBC Developer's Guide for details
1.1.8.6 JDBC Support for Database Resident Connection Pool
Database Resident Connection Pool (DRCP) is a pool of dedicated servers, enabled on
the database server and shared across client applications, programming languages,
and middle tiers. Once enabled on the database, new connection properties
oracle.jdbc.DRCP.name and oracle.jdbc.DRCP.purity allow Java and JDBC
applications to use it transparently using client-side connection pools (for example,
Universal Connection Pool). New public methods under
oracle.jdbc.pool.OraclePooledConnection are introduced to expose this feature to
client pool developers.
This feature allows large scale deployment of Java applications (typically hundreds or
thousands of middle tier connecting to the same database). Orders of magnitude
reductions of database server processes and memory are seen with this new feature.
See Also:
Oracle Database JDBC Developer's Guide for details
1.1.8.7 JDBC Support for Latest Java Standards
Now there is support for row count on each iteration for array DML, JDBC 4.1
specification, ParameterMetaData, getClientInfo, and setClientInfo API.
Full compliance with Java standards ensures portability of foreign Java applications to
Oracle or applications built with Oracle JDBC.
See Also:
Oracle Database JDBC Developer's Guide for details
1.2 Business Intelligence and Data Warehousing
The following sections describe the new business intelligence and data warehousing
features for Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1).
1.2.1 Oracle Advanced Analytics
The following sections describe new Oracle Advanced Analytics features.
1.2.1.1 Decision Tree Mining Text Data
The Decision Tree algorithm now supports nested data and can be used for text
mining.
Decision Tree is popular due to its transparency and prevalence, therefore, it is
important to enable the algorithm to handle unstructured data.
See Also:
Oracle Data Mining User's Guide for details
Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) New Features 1-19
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1.2.1.2 Expectation Maximization (EM) Clustering and Density Estimation
In Release 11g, Oracle Data Mining offered two clustering algorithms. However, these
algorithms did not easily integrate data coming from different domains (for example,
structured and unstructured data). Expectation Maximization (EM) is a probabilistic
clustering algorithm that creates a density model of the data. The density model
allows for an improved approach to combining data originating in different domains.
Each domain can be modeled by distributions appropriate for the domain. The
distribution parameters are optimized to provide the most likely joint distribution of
the data. Given EM's probabilistic nature, its cluster assignment probabilities are more
reliable than those produced by the current Oracle Data Mining algorithms. The EM
algorithm also automatically determines the optimal number of clusters needed to
model the data.
In bringing analytics to applications, Oracle Data Mining provides different types of
clustering capabilities currently being used by multiple applications. While the current
capabilities solve a range of problems, an additional method is needed that can
effectively combine data from different domains, such as sales transactions and
customer demographics, or structured and unstructured (for example, text) data, as
well as help answer queries involving range and equality predicates. Expectation
Maximization can address all of these requirements.
See Also:
Oracle Data Mining Concepts for details
1.2.1.3 Feature Extraction Using Singular Value Decomposition
Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) are
powerful feature extraction methods that use orthogonal linear projections to capture
the underlying variance of the data. This property is extremely useful for reducing the
dimensionality of high-dimensional data and for supporting meaningful data
visualization. Text mining is one of the domains where SVD projections have found
wide application.
PCA can be viewed as a special scoring method under the SVD algorithm. It produces
projections that are scaled with the data variance. Projections of this type are
sometimes preferable in feature extraction to the standard non-scaled SVD projections.
In bringing analytics to applications, Oracle Data Mining provides powerful feature
extraction capabilities that can be used in many contexts, special handling of
unstructured data, and large numerical data sets such as those from sensors (for
example, Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)) and time series.
While Oracle Data Mining already provides a basic feature extraction capability,
additional feature extraction methods capable of scaling to large data sizes (both rows
and attributes) and allowing greater compression of the data are necessary to support
many applications.
See Also:
Oracle Data Mining Concepts for details
1.2.1.4 Feature Selection and Creation for Generalized Linear Models (GLM)
Feature selection is used to reduce the number of predictors used by a model. This
allows for smaller, faster scoring, and more meaningful Generalized Linear Models
(GLM).
Feature generation allows the creation of GLM models that use non-linear terms (up to
cubic terms). This produces more powerful, transparent models.
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Business Intelligence and Data Warehousing
In bringing analytics to applications, Oracle Data Mining continuously strives to
address the competing goals of high accuracy and transparency (the ability to explain
predictions).
Some of the techniques (for example, GLM) used most often by applications provide
great transparency at the expense of lower accuracy than less transparent methods.
There is a need for a transparent, highly accurate, and scalable method capable of
handling thousands of attributes efficiently. This can be achieved by adding feature
selection and creation to GLM.
See Also:
Oracle Data Mining Concepts for details
1.2.1.5 Native Double in Data Mining Functions
Support has been added for native double types (BINARY_DOUBLE and BINARY_FLOAT) in
Oracle Data Mining functions.
Mining model deployment (scoring) performance is critical because this is run on the
majority of production data, both in batch and real time. Through C performance
analysis, Oracle has identified that the cost of scoring can be dominated by type
coercion between Oracle number and double, rather than by the model itself.
Removing this overhead leads to much faster scoring behavior.
See Also:
Oracle Data Mining User's Guide for details
1.2.1.6 Native SQL Support for Row Pattern Matching
The MATCH_RECOGNIZE clause enables native SQL queries to match specified patterns in
sequences of rows.
Row pattern matching in native SQL improves application and development
productivity and query efficiency for row sequence analysis. The syntax incorporates
regular expressions and full conditional logic, enabling precise and flexible pattern
definition. Whatever the domain (for example, financial market prices, internet clicks,
or security sensor output), applications analyzing row sequences can benefit from
MATCH_RECOGNIZE.
See Also:
Oracle Database Data Warehousing Guide for details
1.2.1.7 Native Text Support
Native support for text mining in Oracle Data Mining has been added in this release.
This change embeds some text processing in Oracle Data Mining, enabling simpler
and more performant deployment.
See Also:
Oracle Data Mining User's Guide for details
1.2.1.8 On-the-Fly Models
On-the-fly models (called predictive queries in the Oracle Data Miner GUI workflow
SQLDEV extension) are transient data mining models that are formed as part of analytic
clauses. They represent a simpler form of mining which is tightly integrated with the
Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) New Features 1-21
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SQL language and engine. Moreover, they introduce the concept of partitioned models
without the overhead of the persistence of many models.
Applications need to build models per partitioned segment, and this approach
addresses that with a transient model.
See Also:
Oracle Data Mining User's Guide for details
1.2.1.9 Prediction Details and Cluster Functions
Prediction detail support for Decision Tree algorithms has been added in this release.
Also added, cluster distance and details functions.
Applications require details explaining the reasons behind a prediction to be provided.
In addition, certain applications need to find the record closest to the cluster center
and the CLUSTER_PROBABILITY function is not capable of providing that information.
See Also:
Oracle Data Mining User's Guide for details
1.2.2 Oracle OLAP
The following sections describe new Oracle OLAP features.
1.2.2.1 Cube Query Performance Enhancements
Enhancements have been made in this release to improve query performance against
OLAP cubes. These enhancements are designed to minimize CPU and memory
consumption and reduce I/O for queries against cubes.
Oracle cubes allow SQL users to transparently access advanced analytic calculations.
Recent hardware advances, in particular in Oracle Exadata machine, present numerous
opportunities for cube query performance enhancements. This feature leverages those
hardware improvements by fully and appropriately utilizing available hardware.
See Also:
Oracle OLAP User's Guide for details
1.2.2.2 Cube Statistics Support
This feature exposes statistics of the Oracle cube in Oracle statistics and workload
repertories including Automatic Workload Repository (AWR), Active Session History
(ASH), and Automatic Database Diagnostic Monitor (ADDM).
This feature simplifies the administration of Oracle instances that include Oracle cubes
and OLAP dimensions.
See Also:
Oracle Database Reference for details
1.2.3 Partitioning Enhancements
The following sections describe partitioning features.
1-22 Oracle Database New Features Guide
Business Intelligence and Data Warehousing
1.2.3.1 Asynchronous Global Index Maintenance for DROP and TRUNCATE
Partition
Global index maintenance is decoupled from the DROP and TRUNCATE partition
maintenance operation without rendering a global index unusable. Index maintenance
is done asynchronously and can be delayed to a later point-in-time.
Delaying the global index maintenance to off-peak times without impacting the index
availability makes DROP and TRUNCATE partition and subpartition maintenance
operations faster and less resource intensive at the point-in-time of the partition
maintenance operation.
See Also:
Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide for details
1.2.3.2 Cascade Functionality for TRUNCATE and EXCHANGE Partition
TRUNCATE and EXCHANGE partition operations provide cascading functionality for
reference-partitioned tables, enabling the inheritance of the partition maintenance
operation from the parent to the child tables.
Cascading data maintenance operations for TRUNCATE and EXCHANGE partition
significantly simplifies application development and provides atomic enforcement of
logical data consistency.
See Also:
Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide for details
1.2.3.3 Interval Reference Partitioning
A reference-partitioned table leverages interval partitioning as the top partitioning
strategy.
Interval reference partitioning enhances Oracle's partitioning capabilities to model the
database scheme according to real business needs.
See Also:
Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide for details
1.2.3.4 ONLINE Move Partition
ALTER TABLE ... MOVE PARTITION becomes non-blocking online DDL while DML
operations continue to run uninterrupted on the partition that is being moved. Global
indexes are maintained during the move partition, so a manual index rebuild is no
longer required.
The online partitioning movement removes the read-only state for the actual MOVE
PARTITION command.
See Also:
Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for details
1.2.3.5 Partial Indexes for Partitioned Tables
Local and global indexes can be created on a subset of the partitions of a table.
Partial indexes provide more flexibility in index creation for partitioned tables. For
example, index segments can be omitted for the most recent partitions to ensure
Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) New Features 1-23
Business Intelligence and Data Warehousing
maximum data ingest rates without impacting the overall data model and access for
the partitioned object.
See Also:
Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide for details
1.2.3.6 Partition Maintenance Operations on Multiple Partitions
Partition maintenance operations can be performed on multiple partitions as part of a
single partition maintenance operation.
A single partition maintenance operation working on multiple partitions at the same
time simplifies application development and leads to more efficient partition
maintenance using less system resources.
See Also:
Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide for details
1.2.4 Performance With Zero Effort
The following sections describe performance features with zero effort.
1.2.4.1 Adaptive Query Optimization
It is possible for the optimizer to miscalculate some estimations during initial plan
generation. Adaptive query optimization allows these miscalculations to be corrected
in one of the following two ways:
■
■
With adaptive plans, a plan can be stopped during execution and reoptimized
based on information collected during the initial part of the execution. For
example, if the initial plan choice was to do a NESTED LOOP with an estimated
cardinality of 1, that plan is stopped after 1,000 records have been sent to the join
and restarted using a HASH JOIN instead because the initial cardinality estimate
was wrong.
Automatic reoptimization does not affect the initial execution of a statement.
Instead, the initial execution of a query is monitored and, if the actual execution
statistics vary significantly from the original plan estimates, the execution statistics
are recorded and used the next time the statement is executed to see if a new plan
will be chosen for subsequent execution.
Adaptive query optimization is a set of capabilities that enable the optimizer to make
run-time adjustments to execution plans and discover additional information that can
lead to better statistics.
See Also:
Oracle Database SQL Tuning Guide for details
1.2.4.2 Adaptive SQL Plan Management
With adaptive SQL plan management, DBAs no longer have to manually run the
verification or evolve process for non-accepted plans. When automatic SQL tuning is
in COMPREHENSIVE mode, it runs a verification or evolve process for all SQL statements
that have non-accepted plans during the nightly maintenance window. If the
non-accepted plan performs better than the existing accepted plan (or plans) in the
SQL plan baseline, then the plan is automatically accepted and becomes usable by the
optimizer. After the verification is complete, a persistent report is generated detailing
how the non-accepted plan performs compared to the accepted plan performance.
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Business Intelligence and Data Warehousing
Because the evolve process is now an AUTOTASK, DBAs can also schedule their own
evolve job at end time.
Unaccepted plans in a SQL plan baseline are automatically evolved during the nightly
maintenance window and a persistent verification report is generated which means a
DBA no longer has to manual evolve plans and they can go back days or weeks later
and review what plans were evolved during each of the nightly maintenance
windows.
See Also:
Oracle Database SQL Tuning Guide for details
1.2.4.3 Automatic Column Group Detection
Extended statistics enables the gathering of statistics on a group of columns within a
table as a whole providing the optimizer with more information about any correlation
that may exist between the columns. With the introduction of automatic column group
detection, DBAs no longer need to know which columns from each table will be used
together as a workload.
Oracle automatically determines which column groups are required for a table based
on a given workload. By monitoring a workload, the necessary column groups are
recorded and can be created by executing the DBMS_STATS.CREATE_EXTENDED_STATS
procedure.
See Also:
Oracle Database SQL Tuning Guide for details
1.2.4.4 Concurrent Execution of UNION and UNION ALL Branches
The UNION and UNION ALL statements can run several branches concurrently instead of
working on them one-by-one.
Executing multiple branches of UNION and UNION ALL statements in parallel speeds up
processing time and leads to better resource utilization.
See Also:
Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide for details
1.2.4.5 Concurrent Statistics Gathering
Concurrent statistics gathering enables users to gather statistics on multiple tables in a
schema (or database) and multiple partitions (or subpartitions) within a table
concurrently. Oracle employs Oracle Job Scheduler and Advanced Queuing
components to create and manage multiple statistics gathering jobs concurrently.
If you call the DBMS_STATS.GATHER_TABLE_STATS procedure on a partitioned table
when CONCURRENT is set to true, then Oracle creates a separate statistics gathering job
for each partition (or subpartition) in the table. Oracle Job Scheduler decides how
many of these jobs will run concurrently and how many will be queued based on
available system resources. As the currently running jobs complete, more jobs will be
dequeued and executed until all partitions (or subpartitions) have had their statistics
gathered.
Gathering statistics on multiple tables and partitions (or subpartitions) concurrently
can reduce the overall time it takes to gather statistics by enabling Oracle to fully
utilize multiprocessor environments.
Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) New Features 1-25
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See Also:
Oracle Database SQL Tuning Guide for details
1.2.4.6 Database Smart Flash Cache Support for Multiple Flash Devices
This feature allows a database instance to access and combine multiple flash devices
for Database Smart Flash Cache without the need for a volume manager.
You no longer need to incur the expense or management overhead of a logical volume
manager in order to use multiple flash devices for Database Smart Flash Cache.
See Also:
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for details
1.2.4.7 Dynamic Statistics
During the compilation of a SQL statement, the optimizer decides whether to use
dynamic statistics by considering whether the available statistics are sufficient to
generate a good execution plan. If the available statistics are not enough, then dynamic
statistics are used. Dynamic statistics are persistent and may be used by other queries.
One type of dynamic statistic is the information gathered by dynamic sampling.
Traditionally, dynamic sampling would automatically occur only if one or more of the
tables in the query did not have statistics. Dynamic sampling gathered basic statistics
on these tables before optimizing the statement. Now, the optimizer automatically
decides if dynamic statistics will be useful for all SQL statements and if dynamic
sampling is the right approach. If it is, the optimizer will also determine what dynamic
sampling level will be used. The scope of the statistics gathered by dynamic sampling
now includes the JOIN and GROUP BY clauses.
Dynamic statistics are automatically used when the optimizer deems it necessary and
the resulting statistics will be persistent in the statistics repository making them
available to other queries.
See Also:
Oracle Database SQL Tuning Guide for details
1.2.4.8 Enhanced Parallel Statement Queuing
Critical statements are enabled to bypass the parallel statement queue to reflect
business criticality and to provide more flexibility. Parallel statement queuing provides
more comprehensive monitoring information, including historical information.
Enhancing parallel statement queuing provides more flexibility to address business
requirements for mission-critical environments.
See Also:
Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide for details
1.2.4.9 Enhancements to Incremental Statistics
Gathering statistics on partitioned tables consists of gathering statistics at both the
table level and partition level. Incremental statistics allow Oracle to gather statistics
only at the partition level and accurately calculate the global-level statistics from the
partition-level statistics. Incremental statistics have been enhanced to support partition
exchange loading. Data loaded into a non-partitioned table can be exchanged with a
partition from the table and Oracle automatically and accurate computes the global
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statistics for the partition table using the statistics from the non-partitioned table and
the existing partition-level statistics.
Previously, incremental statistics considered partition-level statistics stale if any DML
occurred on the partition. Now, an incremental staleness threshold can be set to allow
incremental statistics to use partition statistics even if some DML has occurred.
Incremental statistics gathering on partitioned tables greatly reduces the time and
system resources necessary to gather accurate statistics. By supporting partition
exchange operations, incremental statistics enables customers to not only load data
into a partitioned table using a sub-second partition exchange operation but to have
immediate accurate statistics.
See Also:
Oracle Database SQL Tuning Guide for details
1.2.4.10 Enhancements to System Statistics
System statistics allow the optimizer to account for the hardware on which the
database system is running. With the introduction of smart storage, such as Exadata
storage, the optimizer needs additional system statistics in order to account for all of
the smart storage capabilities.
The introduction of the new system statistics gathering method allows the optimizer to
more accurately account for the performance characteristics of smart storage, such as
Exadata storage.
See Also:
Oracle Database SQL Tuning Guide for details
1.2.4.11 Improved Automatic Degree of Parallelism
Automatic degree of parallelism (Auto DOP) has been enhanced to take more database
and statement characteristics into account when determining the degree of parallelism
(DOP) for an individual statement.
Enhanced Auto DOP enables better overall system utilization and a more generic
applicability of Auto DOP for any kind of mainstream application.
See Also:
Oracle Database Reference for details
1.2.4.12 New Types of Optimizer Statistics
Oracle creates histograms on columns that have a data skew to improve cardinality
estimates. Two additional types of histograms have been introduced for columns
which have more than 254 distinct values to improve the cardinality estimates
generated using histograms. A top frequency histogram is created if a small number of
distinct values occupy most of the data (greater than 99% of the data). The histogram
is created using the small number of extremely popular distinct values. By ignoring
the unpopular values, which are statistically insignificant, a better quality histogram
for the highly popular values can be produced. Alternatively, a hybrid histogram can
be created which combines a height-based histogram and frequency histogram. It is a
height-based histogram where frequent values always become the endpoint values
and a value never spans more than one bucket. By recording the frequency of each end
value, we record the frequency of the frequent values.
Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) New Features 1-27
Business Intelligence and Data Warehousing
A top frequency histogram provides more accurate cardinality estimates for columns
that have more than 254 distinct values but contain a small number of extremely
popular distinct values (greater than 99% of the data has one of those values).
See Also:
Oracle Database SQL Tuning Guide for details
1.2.4.13 Online Statistics Gathering for Bulk Loads
With online statistics gathering, statistics are automatically created as part of a bulk
load operation such as a CREATE TABLE AS SELECT operation or an INSERT INTO ...
SELECT operation on an empty table. Online statistic gathering eliminates the necessity
to manually gather statistics after a bulk data load has occurred. It behaves in a similar
manner to the statistics gathering done during a CREATE INDEX or REBUILD INDEX
command.
Online statistics gathering improves both performance and manageability of bulk load
operations by eliminating user intervention to gather statistics after the load and by
removing an additional full table scan required for separate statistics gathering
operations.
See Also:
Oracle Database SQL Tuning Guide for details
1.2.4.14 Out-of-Place Materialized View Refresh
The materialized view (MV) refresh uses logically identical outside tables (and
indexes) to perform the MV refresh operations and replaces the stale MVs with the
up-to-date outside tables at the end of the refresh process. Out-of-place refresh
supports all existing types of refresh methods including COMPLETE, FAST, and PCT
refreshes under the non-atomic refresh mode.
Out-of-place refresh provides minimal refresh time and high availability for
materialized views.
See Also:
Oracle Database Data Warehousing Guide for details
1.2.4.15 Session-Private Statistics for Global Temporary Tables
Traditionally, global temporary tables had only one set of statistics that were shared
among all sessions even though the table could contain different data in different
sessions. In Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1), global temporary tables now have
session-private statistics. That is a different set of statistics for each session. Queries
issued against the global temporary table use the statistics from their own session.
Session-private statistics for global temporary tables improves the performance and
manageability of temporary tables. Users no longer need to manually set statistics for
the global temporary table on a per session bases or rely on dynamic sampling. This
reduces the possibility of errors in the cardinality estimates for global temporary tables
and ensures that the optimizer has the data to identify optimal execution plans.
See Also:
Oracle Database SQL Tuning Guide for details
1-28 Oracle Database New Features Guide
Compression and Archiving
1.2.4.16 SQL Plan Directives
Besides the statistics gathered using the PL/SQL DBMS_STATS package, the optimizer
can also gather statistics during compilation using dynamic sampling and during
execution time using adaptive execution plans. In previous releases, the compilation
and execution statistics were only stored in the cursor cache and were not persistent.
With the introduction of SQL plan directives, the compilation and execution statistics
are persisted on disk in the SYSAUX tablespace. SQL plan directives allow the optimizer
access to a larger amount of information regarding the objects being accessed when it
generates an execution plan. This information may be that dynamic sampling should
be used if tables t1 and t2 are joined in a SQL statement or if a correlation is suspected
between columns.
SQL plan directives improve execution plan accuracy by persisting both compilation
(dynamic sampling results) and execution statistics (adaptive execution plan findings)
in the SYSAUX tablespace, allowing them to be used by multiple SQL statements.
See Also:
Oracle Database SQL Tuning Guide for details
1.2.4.17 Synchronous Materialized View Refresh
Materialized views can be refreshed simultaneously with its base tables by leveraging
partitioning and the logical dependencies between tables and the corresponding
materialized views.
The amount of time a materialized view is stale (meaning its data is not up-to-date) is
minimized, increasing its availability.
See Also:
Oracle Database Data Warehousing Guide for details
1.3 Compression and Archiving
The following sections describe the new compression and archiving features for Oracle
Database 12c Release 1 (12.1).
1.3.1 Archiving
The following sections describe archiving features.
1.3.1.1 Database Hardening: Enable Flashback Data Archive (FDA) for
Security-Related Application Tables
This features extends the Flashback Data Archive (FDA) feature to provide full history
on security sensitive tables of an application. This feature provides a single command
to enable FDA on all the designated tables for an application and addresses the need
for strong auditing for these tables. This feature also allows the administrator to make
all security tables in an application read-only with a single command.
Database hardening makes it easy to track history for all security-related tables in an
application and to make those tables read-only as needed, without the need for writing
scripts to loop through all the tables or other manual operations. Extending Flashback
Data Archive support for tables grouped together by application makes it easy to track
all the changes made to those tables and to access the history using Oracle Flashback
Query.
Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) New Features 1-29
Compression and Archiving
See Also:
Oracle Database Development Guide for details
1.3.1.2 Flashback Data Archive Improvements
Several improvements have been made to Flashback Data Archive (FDA). They are:
■
User-context tracking
The metadata information for tracking transactions including the user context is
now tracked making it easier to determine which user made which changes to a
table.
■
Hybrid Columnar Compression (HCC)
FDA can now be fully utilized on HCC compressed tables on Exadata and other
Oracle storage platforms.
■
Import and export of history
Support for importing user-generated history into FDA tables has been added.
Customers who have been maintaining history using some other mechanism, such
as triggers, can now import that history into FDA.
See Also:
Oracle Database Development Guide for details
1.3.2 General
The following section describes a new Flashback Data Archive feature.
1.3.2.1 Optimization for Flashback Data Archive History Tables
When using Flashback Data Archive to track changes on tables, you can now enable
optimization of the corresponding history tables using the OPTIMIZE DATA clause when
creating a Flashback Data Archive.
Optimization of Flashback Data Archive history tables will provide better storage
efficiency and better performance for flashback queries on the change history without
additional intervention needed by the DBA.
1.3.3 Information Lifecycle Management
The following sections describe Information Lifecycle Management (ILM) features.
1.3.3.1 Automatic Data Optimization (ADO)
This feature provides declarative syntax for specifying Information Lifecycle
Management (ILM) policies at the row, segment, and table level.
Database administrators can use this feature to automate the movement of data
between different tiers of storage and between different levels of compression. This
capability depends on the Heat Map feature which tracks access at the row level
(aggregated to block-level statistics) and at the segment level.
See Also:
Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide for details
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Compression and Archiving
1.3.3.2 EXECUTE_ILM Procedure
This feature provides a PL/SQL procedure to enforce ADO policies immediately or
after a short time delay.
It is sometimes necessary to move data as quickly as possible from one tier to another,
or from one compression level to another. The EXECUTE_ILM procedure provides the
ability to do so, regardless of any previously scheduled ADO policies.
See Also:
Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide for details
1.3.3.3 Heat Map
The Heat Map tracks modifications for individual rows (aggregated to the block level)
and modifications and queries at the partition or table level.
Users can implement automated policy-driven data movement and data compression
based on the information tracked in the Heat Map using the new ADO feature or
using their own tools and scripts.
See Also:
Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide for details
1.3.3.4 PL/SQL Interface for Managing ADO Policies
This feature provides a PL/SQL interface for managing ADO policies, including
functions such as scheduling, priority and resource management.
Some customers need to implement complex Information Lifecycle Management
(ILM) scenarios, by controlling when their ADO policies are actively moving data, and
how much system resources are consumed with data movement operations. This
feature provides the ability to manage ILM activities so that they do not negatively
impact important production workloads.
See Also:
Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide for details
1.3.3.5 Row-Level Compression Tiering
This feature provides the ability to specify ADO policies to implement compression at
the row level within each table in a database. Compression is implemented when all
rows in a database block qualify based on the policy being evaluated.
In combination with automatic segment-level compression tiering, this feature
provides database administrators with fine-grained control over how the data in their
database is stored and managed.
See Also:
Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide for details
1.3.3.6 Segment-Level Compression Tiering
This feature provides the ability to specify ADO policies to implement compression at
the segment level within each table in a database.
In combination with automatic row-level compression tiering, this feature provides
database administrators with fine-grained control over how the data in their database
is stored and managed.
Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) New Features 1-31
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See Also:
Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide for details
1.3.3.7 In-Database Archiving
In-Database Archiving allows users and applications to set the archive state for
individual rows. Rows that have been marked as archived will not be visible unless
the session is enabled to see archived data.
With In-Database Archiving, more data can be stored in production databases for a
longer period of time without compromising application performance. In addition,
archived data can be aggressively compressed to help improve query and backup
performance. Updates to archived data can be deferred during application upgrades,
greatly improving the performance of upgrades.
See Also:
Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide for details
1.3.4 SecureFiles Enhancements
The following sections describe SecureFiles enhancements.
1.3.4.1 Enable PDML Operations on SecureFiles
Limitations have been removed in this release with regard to Parallel DML (PDML)
support for SecureFiles LOBs.
This feature allows SecureFiles to leverage the performance and scalability benefits of
the PDML features of Oracle Database.
See Also:
Oracle Database SecureFiles and Large Objects Developer's Guide for
details
1.3.4.2 Oracle Data Pump: Support SecureFiles LOB as Default
The impdp command line has a new parameter (and the PL/SQL DBMS_DATAPUMP
package has a new option) that tells Oracle Data Pump to create all LOBs as
SecureFiles LOBs. By default, beginning with Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1), all
LOB columns are created as SecureFiles LOBs. However, Oracle Data Pump re-creates
tables exactly as they existed in the exported database, so if a LOB column was a
BasicFile LOB in the exported database, Oracle Data Pump attempts to re-create it as a
BasicFile LOB in the imported database.
This feature allows the user to force creation of LOBs as SecureFiles LOBs and to
migrate to the latest more performant feature.
See Also:
Oracle Database Utilities for details
1.3.4.3 SecureFiles is the Default for LOB Storage
In this release, SecureFiles is now the default for LOB storage when the compatible
initialization parameter is set to 12.1 or higher.
The SecureFiles feature provides optimal performance for storing unstructured data in
the database. Making SecureFiles the default for unstructured data helps ensure that
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Database Overall
the database is delivering the best performance possible when managing unstructured
data.
See Also:
Oracle Database SecureFiles and Large Objects Developer's Guide for
details
1.4 Database Overall
The following sections describe the new database features for Oracle Database 12c
Release 1 (12.1).
1.4.1 Database Consolidation
The following sections describe database consolidation features.
1.4.1.1 Integrate With Operating System Processor Groups
This feature allows the DBA to specify a parameter, PROCESSOR_GROUP_NAME, to bind
the database instance to a named subset of the CPUs on the server. On Linux, the
named subset of CPUs can be created using a Linux feature called control groups
(cgroups). On Solaris, the named subset of CPUs can be created using a Solaris feature
called resource pools.
This feature is primarily useful for consolidation. When consolidating on a large
server, you may want to restrict the database to a specific subset of the CPU and
memory. This feature makes it easy to enable CPU and memory restrictions for an
Oracle Database instance.
See Also:
Oracle Database Reference for details
1.4.1.2 Oracle Data Pump Support for Database Consolidation: Full Transportable
Full transportable operations include:
■
Full transportable support for multitenant container databases (CDBs):
The new Oracle Data Pump full transportable feature lets you move an entire
database from one Oracle Database occurrence to another. You can use this
functionality to move a non-CDB (Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.3) and up)
into a pluggable database (PDB).
You can use this full transportable feature to move a PDB (Oracle Database 12c
Release 1 (12.1) and up) into another PDB. You might want to do this if you are
moving across versions or to another operating system or hardware platform.
■
Full transportable support for non-CDBs:
The new Oracle Data Pump full transportable feature lets you move an entire
database from one Oracle Database instance to another.
You can use this functionality to move a non-CDB (Oracle Database 11g Release 2
(11.2.0.3) and up) into another non-CDB. You can then transport a non-CDB into a
CDB at a later date. You can also use the full transportable feature to move a PDB
into a non-CDB.
Full transportable operations can reduce the export time and especially, the import
time, because table data does not need to be unloaded and reloaded and index
Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) New Features 1-33
Database Overall
structures in user tablespaces do not need to be re-created. Full transportable is more
automated than transportable tablespaces because it moves the metadata and user
data that resides in non-transportable tablespaces than would previously have been
moved in multiple operations. This makes the full transportable feature useful for
efficiently moving a database to a new computer system or upgrading to a new release
of Oracle Database.
See Also:
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for details
1.4.1.3 Multitenant Architecture
The multitenant architecture is new in Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1). You can
have many PDBs inside a single Oracle Database occurrence. PDBs are fully
backwards compatible with an ordinary pre-12.1 database.
The benefits of PDBs are:
■
Fast provisioning of a new database or of a copy of an existing database.
■
Fast redeployment, by unplug and plug, of an existing database to a new platform.
■
■
■
Quickly patch or upgrade the Oracle Database version for many databases and for
the cost of doing it once.
Patch or upgrade by unplugging a PDB and plugging it into a different CDB in a
later version.
A machine can run more database instances in the form of PDBs than as
individual, monolithic databases.
See Also:
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for details
1.4.1.4 PDBs Backup and Recovery
A CDB consists of zero or more PDBs. Recovery Manager (RMAN) can backup the
entire CDB and single or multiple PDBs to a consistent point-in-time. In addition,
individual tablespaces or data files can be backed up from specific PDBs.
New syntax, PLUGGABLE DATABASE, is introduced to support individual pluggable
database backup and recovery.
CDB users need backup and recovery facilities for the new pluggable database model.
See Also:
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide for details
1.4.1.5 PDBs Point-in-Time Recovery
You can now recover a PDB to a specific point-in-time.
This feature is a high availability enhancement for consolidation and extends
point-in-time recovery functionality to PDBs.
See Also:
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide for details
1-34 Oracle Database New Features Guide
Database Overall
1.4.1.6 PDBs Resource Plans
Oracle Resource Manager can manage resources on the CDB level and on the PDB
level. You can create a CDB resource plan that allocates resources to the entire CDB
and to individual PDBs. You can allocate more resources to some PDBs and less to
others, or you can specify that all PDBs share resources equally.
With the advent of the multitenant architecture, allowing for the consolidation of
multiple separate databases into a single database, there is a need for resource plan
functionality to allow the CDB administrator to control the resources that each
database in a container database consumes.
See Also:
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for details
1.4.2 Grid Scheduler
The following sections describe the integration of the Database Scheduler with Oracle
Enterprise Manager to create a new, enterprise class Grid Scheduler.
1.4.2.1 New Job Types
This feature provides out-of-the-box support for Oracle Recovery Manager (RMAN)
scripts, shell scripts and SQL scripts. Currently there is a lot of setup required for these
types of jobs and it can be error prone. With this feature, the user simply specifies the
desired job type in the job definition.
This feature provides ease-of-use and reduces the complexity of creating jobs.
See Also:
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for details
1.4.3 Overall
The following section describes cloning a database.
1.4.3.1 Cloning a Database
CLONEDB provides a way to easily and quickly create copies of databases on network
attached storage (NAS), using a thin provisioning approach integrated with Oracle
Database.
Cloning a production database is a common technique used to help develop and test
changes to applications and their surrounding environments. Before a new operating
system release, storage software, or application version is installed in a production
environment, thorough testing is needed using production data. This is usually
accomplished by copying the production database to a test environment. In addition,
to the test environment, copies of the production database are also made to the
development environments where application developers are creating or modifying
applications and testing them. All of these copies require large amounts of storage to
be allocated and managed. Using thin provisioning, CLONEDB greatly reduces the
amount of storage needed for clones of production databases.
See Also:
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for details
Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) New Features 1-35
Database Overall
1.4.4 Utilities
The following sections describe new features for Oracle Database Utilities.
1.4.4.1 LOGTIME Parameter for Oracle Data Pump Command
The new LOGTIME command-line parameter available in Oracle Data Pump Export and
Import allows you to request that messages displayed during export and import
operations be timestamped. The valid values are:
■
NONE - no timestamps on status or log file messages (same as the default)
■
STATUS - timestamps on status messages only
■
LOGTIME - timestamps on log file messages only
■
ALL - timestamps on both status and log file messages
There is also a new option for the DBMS_DATAPUMP.SET_PARAMETER procedure called
LOGTIME and the valid values are the same.
You can use the timestamps to know the elapsed time between different parts of an
Oracle Data Pump operation, which can be helpful in diagnosing performance
problems and in estimating the timing of similar operations in the future.
See Also:
Oracle Database Utilities for details
1.4.4.2 Oracle Data Pump Audit Commands
Oracle Data Pump commands can now be audited. This provides more complete
auditing of operations performed against the database.
See Also:
Oracle Database Security Guide for details
1.4.4.3 Oracle Data Pump Change Table Compression at Import Time
There is a new impdp command-line option for Data Pump Import (as well as a new
option for the PL/SQL DBMS_DATAPUMP package) that allows a user to change the
compression options for a table.
This is useful when migrating to an Exadata machine where more compression
options for tables are supported which provides better database performance.
See Also:
Oracle Database Utilities for details
1.4.4.4 Oracle Data Pump Enhanced Compression Options
There is a new expdp command-line option for Oracle Data Pump Export to control the
degree of compression used for a Oracle Data Pump dump file. It also adds the same
options to the PL/SQL DBMS_DATAPUMP package. This allows the DBA to trade off time
spent compressing data against the size of the Oracle Data Pump dump file.
This feature allows the DBA to control the resources used during an export operation.
See Also:
Oracle Database Utilities for details
1-36 Oracle Database New Features Guide
Database Overall
1.4.4.5 Oracle Data Pump Export View As a Table
There is a new expdp command-line option for Oracle Data Pump Export that allows
the user to indicate that a view should be exported as a table. This means that, instead
of exporting the view definition, Oracle Data Pump exports a table definition and then
unloads all data from the view. At import time, Oracle Data Pump creates a table using
the table definition in the dump file and then inserts the data unloaded from the view
into the table. The PL/SQL DBMS_DATAPUMP package has a similar option.
This feature allows greater flexibility in what a DBA can export. A view gives the DBA
greater capability than the current WHERE parameter to specify a subset of the database
to be unloaded. In a network mode import, exporting the contents of a view can
achieve much better performance than using the impdp QUERY option.
See Also:
Oracle Database Utilities for details
1.4.4.6 Oracle Data Pump No Logging Option for Import
The new TRANSFORM option, DISABLE_ARCHIVE_LOGGING, to the impdp command line
causes Oracle Data Pump to disable redo logging when loading data into tables and
when creating indexes. It also adds the same option as part of the PL/SQL DBMS_
DATAPUMP package. With redo logging disabled, the disk space required for redo logs
during an Oracle Data Pump import will be smaller. However, to ensure recovery from
media failure, the DBA should do an RMAN backup after the import completes.
Even with this parameter specified, there is still redo logging for other operations of
Oracle Data Pump. This includes all CREATE and ALTER statements, except CREATE
INDEX, and all operations against the master table used by Oracle Data Pump during
the import.
This feature reduces the required maintenance of redo logs by DBAs.
See Also:
Oracle Database Utilities for details
1.4.4.7 Oracle Data Pump Security: No-Echo of Encryption Passwords on Export
and Import Commands
This new option adds a parameter, ENCRYPTION_PWD_PROMPT = [Y | N], to the expdp
and impdp command line that allows the user to indicate whether the Oracle Data
Pump client should prompt for passwords or whether it should retrieve the value from
the command line.
This improves security by reducing the possibility of a password being exposed to
operating system commands, and by making it unnecessary to include database
passwords in operating system scripts.
See Also:
Oracle Database Utilities for details
1.4.4.8 SQL*Loader and External Tables: Use dNFS for Accessing Files on NFS
Servers
Both external tables and SQL*Loader can be used to load files stored on Network File
Storage (NFS) servers. Oracle Direct NFS (dNFS) is an internal I/O layer that provides
faster access to large NFS files than traditional NFS clients. Both SQL*Loader and
external tables automatically use the new package for large files. However, there is a
Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) New Features 1-37
High Availability
command-line parameter for SQL*Loader and an access parameter for external tables
that can be used to disable the use of dNFS.
See Also:
Oracle Database Utilities for details
1.4.4.9 SQL*Loader Audit Direct Path Loads
This new feature adds auditing capability for direct path loads to the database. This
new capability provides complete auditing control for direct path load operations.
See Also:
Oracle Database Security Guide for details
1.4.4.10 SQL*Loader Express Mode
SQL*Loader has a new option that does not require the user to create a SQL*Loader
control file. Instead, command-line parameters are used to specify how the data file is
loaded, and SQL*Loader will automatically choose the best method with which to load
the data. Data files formatted as comma-separated values (CSV) to both SQL*Loader
and external tables are now supported.
In addition, there are new default options for SQL*Loader and external tables that help
to minimize redundant specification of options in SQL*Loader control files and in
external table access parameters. Instead of specifying the same option for every field,
the user can specify that option once and have it apply to all fields.
Creating SQL*Loader control files can be complicated. SQL*Loader will automatically
generate the control file, and will output a copy of the generated control file for
reference or for future reuse. Eliminating the need for SQL*Loader control files for
common data file formats such as CSV files makes it much easier and faster for
customers to load data.
The new default options for SQL*Loader and external tables reduce the time and
complexity of creating SQL*Loader control files or ORACLE_LOADER access parameter
lists for those customers that need to do so.
See Also:
Oracle Database Utilities for details
1.5 High Availability
The following sections describe the new high availability features for Oracle Database
12c Release 1 (12.1).
1.5.1 Application Continuity
The following sections describe Application Continuity and Transaction Guard
features.
1.5.1.1 Application Continuity for Java
Application developers were required to deal explicitly with outages of the underlying
software, hardware, and communications layers if they wanted to mask outages from
end users.
Since Oracle Database 10g, Fast Application Notification (FAN) delivered exception
conditions to applications fast. However, neither FAN nor earlier Oracle technology
1-38 Oracle Database New Features Guide
High Availability
reported the outcome of the last transaction to the application or recovered the
in-progress request from an application perspective. As a result, outages were exposed
leading to user inconvenience and lost revenue. Users could unintentionally make
duplicate purchases and submit multiple payments for the same invoice. In the
problematic cases, the administrator needed to reboot the mid-tier to deal with the
incoming problems this caused.
Application Continuity is an application-independent feature that attempts to recover
incomplete requests from an application perspective and masks many system,
communication, hardware failures, and storage outages from the end user.
The protocol ensures that end user transactions are executed no more than once. When
successful, the only time that an end user should see an interruption in service is when
there is no point in continuing. When replayed, the execution appears to the
application and client as if the request was slightly delayed. The effect is similar to a
loaded system where the database runs the request slightly slower so that the response
to the client is delayed.
Most failures should be masked. This results in fewer calls to the application’s error
handling logic. For example, less often, the application raises an error leaving the user
not knowing what happened or forces the user to reenter data. Or, more problematic,
the administrators must restart the mid-tier servers to cope with the failure.
Other benefits include:
■
Improved end user experience.
■
Higher application availability.
■
Improved application developer productivity.
See Also:
Oracle Database Development Guide for details
1.5.1.2 Transaction Guard
Transaction Guard provides a generic tool for applications to use for at-most-once
execution in case of planned and unplanned outages and repeated submissions.
Applications use a new concept called the logical transaction ID (LTXID) to determine
the outcome of the last transaction open in a database session following an outage.
Without using Transaction Guard, applications that attempt to retry operations
following outages can cause logical corruption by committing duplicate transactions.
One of the fundamental problems for recovering applications after an outage is that
the commit message that is sent back to the client is not durable. If there is a break
between the client and the server, the client sees an error message indicating that the
communication failed. This error does not inform the application whether the
submission executed any commit operations or if a procedural call ran to completion
executing all expected commits and session state changes or if it failed part way
through or, more problematic, is still running disconnected from the client.
Failing to recognize that the last submission has committed or will commit sometime
soon or has not run to completion can lead applications, that attempt to replay, to
cause duplicate transaction submissions because the software might try to reissue
already persisted changes.
Without Transaction Guard, if a transaction has been started and commit has been
issued, the commit message that is sent back to the client is not durable. The client is
left not knowing whether the transaction committed or not. The transaction cannot be
resubmitted if the non-transactional state is incorrect or if it already committed. In the
Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) New Features 1-39
High Availability
absence of knowing the commit and completion information, resubmission can lead to
transactions being applied more than once and in the incorrect state.
The benefits of Transaction Guard are:
■
First RDBMS to preserve commit outcome.
■
Known outcome for every transaction.
■
A tool for at-most-once transaction execution.
See Also:
Oracle Database Development Guide for details
1.5.2 Logical Replication
The following sections describe creation of the replication solution based on Oracle
GoldenGate and SQL Apply.
1.5.2.1 Support for Extended VARCHAR2 in XStream
XStream provides native support for the extended VARCHAR2 data type. XStream can
capture or apply changes to tables that include the extended VARCHAR2 data type.
See Also:
Oracle Database XStream Guide for details
1.5.2.2 XStream New Apply Parameters
Additional parameters are available in this release for XStream inbound servers that
control the behavior of the apply processes. New parameters include COMPUTE_LCR_ON_
ARRIVAL and OPTIMIZE_PROGRESS_TABLE. The COMPUTE_LCR_ON_ARRIVAL parameter
controls when scheduling dependencies are calculated for XStream apply processes.
The OPTIMIZE_PROGRESS_TABLE parameter minimizes the apply progress table
maintenance by using the local redo log to construct the apply progress table.
These new parameters give the database administrator more control for performance
tuning of XStream inbound servers.
See Also:
Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for details
1.5.2.3 XStream New Capture Parameters
In this release, additional parameters are available in XStream that control the
behavior of the capture process. The EXCLUDETAG parameter is used in combination
with the GETAPPLOPS and GETREPLICATES capture parameters to control the capture of
changes from the redo log files with specific redo tag values.
XStream provides additional filtering control on changes that can be captured from the
redo log files.
See Also:
Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for details
1.5.2.4 XStream Optimized Management of Large Transactions
As a performance optimization, XStream inbound servers can process large
transactions before the transaction COMMIT is received from the source. The EAGER_SIZE
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High Availability
apply parameter controls the minimum size at which this optimization begins. Large
transactions may require an additional server to apply the changes.
The MAX_PARALLELISM apply parameter controls the maximum number of apply
servers that can be used for the apply process.
Large transactions can now begin to apply as soon as the source changes are received
at the target database. This may reduce the replication latency of large transactions.
See Also:
Oracle Database XStream Guide for details
1.5.2.5 XStream Support for Advanced LOB Deduplication
XStream supports changes made to SecureFiles LOB columns stored using
deduplication. Databases using logical replication can now take advantage of
Advanced LOB Deduplication potentially improving performance and reducing
storage space.
See Also:
Oracle Database XStream Guide for details
1.5.2.6 XStream Support for XML Object Relational and Binary
XStream data type support is extended to include XMLType data stored object
relationally or as binary. Support is provided for both XStream outbound and inbound
servers. XStream capture or apply of DML changes to tables is supported with any
XMLType data storage type.
See Also:
Oracle Call Interface Programmer's Guide and Oracle Database XStream
Guide for details
1.5.3 Global Data Services
The following sections describe features that provide load balancing similar to Oracle
load balancing and failover for distributed environments of Oracle RAC and
single-instance databases that are interconnected using Oracle Active Data Guard and
Oracle GoldenGate.
1.5.3.1 Global Data Services (GDS)
Global Data Services (GDS) is a new capability of Oracle Database that extends the
concept of services, which are only available in Oracle RAC, to a globally replicated
configuration involving a combination of Oracle RAC, Active Data Guard, and Oracle
GoldenGate. This allows services to be deployed anywhere within this globally
replicated configuration, supporting load balancing, high availability, database affinity,
and so on.
Customers who have utilized the concept of services for Oracle RAC can now extend
the same benefits of automatic workload management to their Active Data Guard or
Oracle GoldenGate configurations. Similarly, single-instance Active Data Guard or
Oracle GoldenGate customers can now fully utilize the benefits of services and
automatic workload management for their replicated configurations.
Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) New Features 1-41
High Availability
See Also:
Oracle Database Global Data Services Concepts and Administration
Guide for details
1.5.3.2 Oracle C/C++ Application High Availability Enhancements
Enhancements to Oracle Call Interface (OCI) high availability infrastructure include:
■
■
■
Transparent Application Failover (TAF) support for foreground process failure.
Support for intelligent reconnect including restoration of connection objects (for
example, module, action, execution context identifier (ECID), logical transaction
identifier (LTXID), and client ID) from old session to recovered session.
Document Global Data Services (GDS) support.
These features provide high availability services for C and C++ applications
connecting to the Oracle 12c Database.
See Also:
Oracle Database Development Guide for details
1.5.4 Improved Resiliency
The following section describes improved resiliency for Oracle ASM.
1.5.4.1 Oracle ASM Disk Scrubbing
Oracle ASM disk scrubbing is a new feature that checks logical data corruptions and
repairs them automatically in normal and high redundancy disk groups. This feature
is designed so that it does not have any impact on normal I/O in production systems.
The scrubbing process repairs logical corruptions using the mirror disks. Disk
scrubbing leverages the Oracle ASM rebalancing to minimize I/O overhead.
Oracle ASM disk scrubbing improves availability and reliability by proactively
reading data that would otherwise not be read. Latent errors or corruption can be
discovered and fixed by Oracle ASM disk scrubbing while redundant data is available.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
details
1.5.5 Online Operations
The following sections describe new features for online operations.
1.5.5.1 Editioned and Noneditioned Objects
In Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), a noneditioned object could not depend upon
an editioned object. This rule caused problems when the owner of objects that needed
to become editioned owned an object of a noneditionable type that depended on an
object of an editionable type. Either the ALTER USER ENABLE EDITIONS command failed
or, if the FORCE keyword was used, violating dependants became invalid. The only
workaround was to reestablish such violating dependency parents in a new schema
and not to editions-enable its owner.
In Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1), the editioned state of an object whose type is
editionable is now controlled at the granular level of the individual object.
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Also, for materialized views, indexes, and table columns (where violations were
caused by references to an editioned view or an editioned PL/SQL function), the
dependent phenomenon can now specify the edition in which the editioned object(s)
are to be found. It is now easier to prepare an application to use edition-based
redefinition.
See Also:
Oracle Database Development Guide for details
1.5.5.2 Enhanced Online DDL Capabilities
Several schema maintenance DDL operations no longer require blocking locks, making
these operations non-intrusive and transparent for online use. The improved schema
maintenance DDL operations are:
■
DROP INDEX ONLINE
■
DROP CONSTRAINT ONLINE
■
SET UNUSED COLUMN ONLINE
■
ALTER INDEX UNUSABLE ONLINE
■
ALTER INDEX [VISIBLE | INVISIBLE]
Removing internal blocking locks enables simpler and more robust application
development, especially for application migrations. It avoids application disruptions
for many of the typical schema maintenance operations.
See Also:
Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for details
1.5.5.3 Invisible Columns
The property of whether a column is visible can be controlled by the user. Invisible
columns are not seen unless specified explicitly in the SELECT list. Any generic access
of a table (such as a SELECT * FROM table or a DESCRIBE) will not show invisible
columns.
The notion of invisible columns enables easier online application migrations as
provided by Oracle's edition-based redefinition.
See Also:
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for details
1.5.5.4 Lock Timeout for FINISH_REDEF_TABLE
Now you can specify a lock timeout in number of seconds during which time FINISH_
REDEF_TABLE attempts to acquire an exclusive lock for swapping the source and
interim tables and, if timeout expires, the operation exits.
This feature increases the flexibility of FINISH_REDEF_TABLE to exit after waiting a
user-specified number of seconds so that the user does not wait indefinitely or needs
to force exit of the online redefinition session.
See Also:
Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for details
Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) New Features 1-43
High Availability
1.5.5.5 Metadata-Only DEFAULT Column Values for NULL Columns
The default values of columns are maintained in the data dictionary for columns
specified as NULL.
Adding new columns with DEFAULT values no longer requires the default value to be
stored in all existing records. This not only enables a schema modification in
sub-seconds and independent of the existing data volume, it also does not consume
any space.
See Also:
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for details
1.5.5.6 Move a Data File Online
In this release, a data file can now be moved online while it is open and being
accessed.
Being able to move a data file online means that many maintenance operations, such
as moving data to another storage device or moving databases into Oracle Automatic
Storage Management (Oracle ASM), can be performed while users are accessing the
system. This ensures that continuity of service and service-level agreements (SLA) on
uptime can be met.
See Also:
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for details
1.5.5.7 Multiple Indexes on Same Set of Columns
Multiple indexes can be created on the same set of columns as long as some
characteristic is different. Qualifying characteristics are:
■
B-tree versus bitmap
■
Different partitioning strategies
■
Unique versus nonunique
Providing the capability to create multiple indexes on the same set of columns enables
transparent and seamless application migrations without the need to drop an existing
index and re-create it with different attributes.
See Also:
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for details
1.5.5.8 Online Redefinition of Multiple Partitions
Online redefinition supports redefinition of multiple partitions in a single redefinition
session. This feature reduces the completion time to redefine multiple partitions while
still providing access to the underlying table.
See Also:
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for details
1.5.5.9 Single Command REDEF_TABLE to Redefine Table or Partition
REDEF_TABLE is a new procedure in the DBMS_REDEFINITION package which allows a
one-step operation to easily redefine a table or partition under the following specific
set of conditions:
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High Availability
■
Tablespace changes for table or partition, index, and LOB columns.
■
Compression type changes for table or partition, index key, and LOB columns.
■
STORE AS SECUREFILE or BASICFILE for LOB columns.
See Also:
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for details
1.5.5.10 Support Redefinition of Tables With VPD Policies
Online redefinition can redefine tables that have Virtual Private Database (VPD)
policies defined on them. This feature eliminates downtime for redefining these tables.
See Also:
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for details
1.5.6 Oracle Data Guard Enhancements
The following sections describe enhancements to Oracle Data Guard.
1.5.6.1 Advanced Data Guard Broker Manageability
Management of Data Guard configurations has been enhanced to include additional
health check monitoring, error reporting, and problem diagnosis and resolution.
This feature provides simpler, more productive, and more reliable management of a
Data Guard configuration to reduce management cost and further enhance high
availability.
See Also:
Oracle Data Guard Broker for details
1.5.6.2 Oracle Data Guard Broker Support for Cascaded Standby Databases
Oracle Data Guard broker can now be used to manage configurations having cascaded
standby databases. This feature provides improved management productivity in Data
Guard configurations that include cascaded standby databases.
See Also:
Oracle Data Guard Broker for details
1.5.6.3 Fast Sync
Data Guard maximum availability supports the use of the NOAFFIRM redo transport
attribute. A standby database returns receipt acknowledgment to its primary database
as soon as redo is received in memory. The standby database does not wait for the
Remote File Server (RFS) to write to a standby redo log file.
This feature provides increased primary database performance in Data Guard
configurations using maximum availability and SYNC redo transport. Fast Sync isolates
the primary database in a maximum availability configuration from any performance
impact due to slow I/O at a standby database.
See Also:
Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration for details
Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) New Features 1-45
High Availability
1.5.6.4 Single Command Role Transitions
This feature implements single DDL commands to execute Data Guard role transitions
(switchover and failover) to replace the multiple commands required in previous
releases. This provides simpler and faster role transitions for higher availability.
See Also:
Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration for details
1.5.6.5 Real-Time Apply is Default Setting for Data Guard
In previous releases, when creating a Data Guard configuration using the SQL
command line, the default configuration was to apply redo from archived log files on
the standby database. In Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1), the default configuration
is to use real-time apply so that redo is applied directly from the standby redo log file.
Recovery time is shortened at failover given that there is no backlog of redo waiting to
be applied to the standby database if a failover is required. An active Data Guard user
also sees more current data. This enhancement eliminates additional manual
configuration (and the requirement that the administrator be aware of the default
setting) that was required in past releases. It also makes the default SQL*Plus
configuration identical to the default configuration used by the Data Guard broker.
See Also:
Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration for details
1.5.6.6 Resumable Switchover Operations
In previous releases of Oracle Data Guard broker, if an issue was encountered during a
switchover operation, there was no graceful way to resolve the issue and resume the
switchover operation from where it left off. Oracle Data Guard broker introduces the
capability for resumable switchover along with additional flexibility to facilitate
switchover operations when things do not go as expected.
Higher availability during planned maintenance is now available. Issues that may be
encountered during switchover operations can be resolved and switchover can resume
from where it left off to minimize downtime during planned maintenance operations.
See Also:
Oracle Data Guard Broker for details
1.5.6.7 Active Data Guard Enhanced Security
A new view, RO_USER_ACCOUNT, has been added to track dynamic user information in
an in-memory table of failed login attempts. This information is used to lock access to
a user and allow the DBA to reenable the account on the standby database if desired.
This feature enhances security of an Active Data Guard standby database.
See Also:
Oracle Database Reference for details
1.5.6.8 Active Data Guard Support for DML on Global Temporary Tables
This feature expands the number of read-only applications that can be off-loaded from
production databases to an Active Data Guard standby database. Even though an
Active Data Guard standby database is open in read-only mode, reporting
applications are now able to write to global temporary tables at the standby database
without any modification.
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Offloading reports to an Active Data Guard standby improves primary database
performance and increases production capacity by utilizing both primary and standby
systems at all times. This increases the return on investment in disaster recovery
systems.
See Also:
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for details
1.5.6.9 Active Data Guard Support for Sequences
This feature provides enhanced support of sequences in an Active Data Guard
environment, making it easier to offload read-only reporting to an Active Data Guard
standby database. Global sequences created by the primary database can now be
accessed from standby databases. The assigned sequence numbers are unique across
the entire Data Guard configuration.
Additionally, a new type of special sequence, called a session sequence, is provided
specifically for use with global temporary tables that have session visibility. A session
sequence returns a unique range of sequence numbers only within a session, but not
across sessions.
This new feature expands the range of reporting applications that can easily be
off-loaded from a primary database to an Active Data Guard standby to include
reports that require unique sequence numbers.
See Also:
Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration for details
1.5.6.10 Active Data Guard Real-Time Cascade
A standby database that cascades redo to other standby databases can transmit redo
directly from its standby redo log file as soon as it is received from the primary
database. Cascaded standby databases receive redo in real-time. They no longer have
to wait for standby redo log files to be archived before redo is transmitted.
This feature ensures that cascaded standby databases are up-to-date with the primary
production database. If used for disaster recovery, cascaded standby databases can
deliver nearly the same recover point objective as any other standby database.
Read-only queries and reports return up-to-date results.
See Also:
Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration for details
1.5.6.11 Active Data Guard Far Sync
Far Sync is used to extend zero data loss protection to a remote standby database and
avoid the impact to primary database performance of WAN network latency. A
primary database ships synchronously to a light-weight instance referred to as a far
sync instance (a control file and log files, no data files and no media recovery). The far
sync instance then forwards the redo asynchronously to a remote standby database
that is the failover target. Additional Far Sync features include the ability to directly
service up to 29 remote destinations, and the ability to utilize Oracle Advanced
Compression to compress redo for efficient transmission across a WAN. Far Sync is
transparent to the administrator with regards to Data Guard role transitions. The same
switchover or failover command used for any Data Guard configuration will transition
any remote standby databases served by a far sync instance to the primary production
role.
Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) New Features 1-47
High Availability
Zero data loss protection can be achieved across long distances. The far sync instance
is located within a distance of the primary database where synchronous transport does
not impact application performance. Far Sync handles all communication with remote
standby databases and is transparent when executing a zero data loss failover. Far
Sync also offloads the production database of the overhead of servicing multiple
remote destinations and redo transport compression.
See Also:
Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration for details
1.5.7 Data Guard Rolling Upgrade Enhancements
The following sections describe rolling upgrades in Oracle Database.
1.5.7.1 Data Guard Rolling Upgrade Support for Advanced Data Types
This release includes additional native redo-based replication for Data Guard SQL
Apply to support database rolling upgrades (transient logical standby). Data types
include XMLType stored as binary XML, XMLType stored in object-relational format,
objects and collections, Database File System (DBFS), XDB, Oracle Spatial and Graph,
Oracle Text, Oracle Multimedia, Label Security, and Oracle SecureFiles (deduplication
and fragment operations).
Data Guard database rolling upgrades reduce planned downtime by enabling the
upgrade to new database releases or patch sets in rolling fashion. Total database
downtime for such an upgrade is limited to the small amount of time required to
execute a Data Guard switchover.
See Also:
Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration for details
1.5.7.2 Data Guard Rolling Upgrade Support for XDB Repository
XML DB Repository supports Data Guard rolling upgrades.
XML DB Repository is no longer a restriction for Data Guard rolling upgrades. Oracle
Database can be upgraded to new patch sets and database releases in a rolling fashion,
minimizing planned downtime for a broader range of customer Oracle Database
deployments.
See Also:
Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide for details
1.5.7.3 Disaster Protection During Database Rolling Upgrade
Data protection is maintained during the Oracle Data Guard database rolling upgrade
process by enabling the standby database that is the target of the upgrade to continue
receiving primary database redo while the standby database is open in upgrade mode.
This reduces management complexity by eliminating the requirement to create and
maintain a separate archive log repository to provide the same level of data protection.
See Also:
Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration for details
1-48 Oracle Database New Features Guide
High Availability
1.5.7.4 Oracle Advanced Queuing (AQ) Support for Data Guard Database Rolling
Upgrade
Databases that use Oracle Advanced Queuing (AQ) can be upgraded to new Oracle
Database releases and patch sets in rolling fashion using Data Guard database rolling
upgrades (transient logical standby database only). Rolling upgrades are supported
beginning in Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1).
Data Guard database rolling upgrades reduce planned downtime by enabling the
upgrade to new database releases or patch sets in rolling fashion. Total database
downtime for such an upgrade is limited to the small amount of time required to
execute a Data Guard switchover.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Queuing User's Guide for details
1.5.7.5 Oracle Data Guard Broker Support for Database Rolling Upgrades
Oracle Data Guard broker now supports database rolling upgrades. With this new
feature, the Data Guard broker configuration can be preserved so that it does not have
to be rebuilt after the upgrade is complete.
See Also:
Oracle Data Guard Broker for details
1.5.7.6 Oracle Scheduler Support for Data Guard Database Rolling Upgrade
Oracle Scheduler jobs that are created at a primary database are replicated to a
transient logical standby database. This simplifies using Data Guard to upgrade to
new Oracle Database releases and patch sets in rolling fashion (transient logical
standby database only).
Data Guard database rolling upgrades reduce planned downtime by enabling the
upgrade to new database releases or patch sets in rolling fashion. Total database
downtime for such an upgrade is limited to the small amount of time required to
execute a Data Guard switchover.
See Also:
Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration for details
1.5.7.7 Rolling Upgrade Using Active Data Guard
Active Data Guard provides several new PL/SQL packages and DDL commands to
automate the previous manual steps of performing a database rolling upgrade to a
new Oracle patch set, database release, or to perform other planned maintenance. The
process starts with a primary and physical standby database at the previous version
and ends with both primary and physical standby database at the new version. The
automation includes handling the switchover of production to the new version. It also
performs extensive validation at every step of the process. If problems are encountered
users can choose to either correct the error and resume the upgrade or roll back to the
original state of the configuration.
Rolling upgrade using Active Data Guard reduces management effort and improves
the reliability of performing database rolling upgrades. Users benefit from lower
administrative cost and higher availability by reducing downtime for planned
maintenance.
Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) New Features 1-49
High Availability
See Also:
Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration for details
1.5.7.8 SQL Apply Extended Data Type Support (EDS)
Extended data type support (EDS) for SQL Apply enables replication for select data
types by SQL Apply without requiring native redo-based replication. EDS supports
SDO_GEOMETRY, XMLType stored in object-relational format, XMLType stored as binary
XML, objects, and objects with varray columns.
EDS enables users to reduce planned downtime and increase availability by using
database rolling upgrades even in cases where their database includes data types for
which SQL Apply does not yet support redo-based replication. Users are able to
seamlessly transition to redo-based replication as SQL Apply adds native support for
these data types in subsequent Oracle Database releases.
See Also:
Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration for details
1.5.7.9 SQL Apply Support for Objects, Collections, and XMLType
SQL Apply supports Oracle objects and collections, XMLType stored as binary XML,
and XMLType stored in an object-relational format. This feature provides greater
flexibility for SQL Apply to support rolling upgrades for databases with nonscalar
data types.
See Also:
Oracle Database Utilities for details
1.5.7.10 SQL Apply Support for XMLType
Replication of XMLType tables and columns for all XMLType storage models using
SQL Apply is enabled in this release.
This feature allows XML content to be replicated between database instances in a safe
and secure manner using the same proven technology that is already being used to
replicate conventional relational data. XML content and relational content can now be
replicated simultaneously without needing to perform complex and expensive
conversions of the XML components. This feature enables the use of XMLType to
manage XML content in situations that require the extreme levels of high availability
that customers expect from Oracle Database.
See Also:
Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration for details
1.5.7.11 SQL Apply Support for SecureFiles LOBs
This feature provides SQL Apply support for deduplication of SecureFiles LOB
columns. SQL Apply can be used for rolling upgrade of an Oracle Database that uses
SecureFiles LOBs without any restrictions on their use.
See Also:
Oracle Database Utilities for details
1-50 Oracle Database New Features Guide
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1.5.8 Oracle Database Advanced Queuing Enhancements
The following sections describe Oracle Database Advanced Queuing (AQ)
improvements.
1.5.8.1 JMS Bulk Message Purging
Oracle Streams Advanced Queuing (AQ) JMS uses partitioned tables beginning in
Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1). Oracle Java Message Service (JMS) messages are
purged by truncating partitions instead of row-at-a-time deletes. This feature provides
increased performance and reduced overhead.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Queuing User's Guide for details
1.5.8.2 JMS Event-Driven Listener
AQ Java Message Service (AQ JMS) listener no longer requires open connections
dedicated to listening for new JMS messages. Polling across multiple queues is not
required. This feature improves AQ JMS performance and scalability and reduces
overhead.
1.5.8.3 JMS Message Priorities, Exception Queues, and Expiration
AQ JMS supports priorities, exception queues, and message expiration differently than
in prior releases. This feature improves AQ JMS performance, reduces overhead, and
provides better standards compliance.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Queuing User's Guide for details
1.5.8.4 JMS Transactional Nonpersistent Queues
In this release, AQ JMS supports transactional nonpersistent queues instead of
emulating them with persistent queues.
This feature provides AQ JMS with better performance, scalability, reduced overhead,
and better standards compliance.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Queuing User's Guide for details
1.5.8.5 Message Forwarding on Oracle RAC
Advanced Queuing (AQ) on Oracle RAC is now sharded to avoid unnecessary
exchange of blocks between instances. Tunable message forwarding is also supported
on Oracle RAC. This feature improves AQ performance and scalability.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Queuing User's Guide for details
1.5.8.6 AQ Rules Engine Fast Evaluation of SYS_CONTEXT and Other Predicates
AQ rules engine has been enhanced to provide faster evaluation of expressions such as
BITAND, CEIL, FLOOR, LENGTH, POWER, CONCAT, LOWER, UPPER, INSTR, SYS_
CONTEXT, and UID. This feature improves AQ performance and scalability.
Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) New Features 1-51
High Availability
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Queuing User's Guide for details
1.5.8.7 Rules Engine Result Cache
The rules engine introduces a result cache to improve the performance of many
commonly used rules. The result cache bypasses the evaluation phase if an expression
with the same attributes has already been evaluated. This feature provides
performance improvement by caching the results of rule evaluations.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Queuing User's Guide for details
1.5.8.8 Sharded Queues for Performance and Scalability
Oracle Streams Advanced Queuing (AQ) now has queue tables that are partitioned.
Partitioned tables form part of the foundation to scale and increase performance of
AQ, especially on Oracle RAC or Exadata.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Queuing User's Guide for details
1.5.8.9 Simplified Metadata and Schema
AQ now has fewer tables and supports objects to support sharded queues. This feature
provides improvement in performance, scalability, and manageability.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Queuing User's Guide for details
1.5.9 RMAN Enhancements
The following sections describe improvements to Recovery Manager (RMAN).
1.5.9.1 Active Database Duplication Enhancements
Active DUPLICATE uses a network-enabled restore method that is run on the auxiliary
database to clone the source database. This is in contrast to the image copy-based
approach that was run on the source database in previous releases. Active DUPLICATE
supports the SECTION SIZE option to divide data files into subsections that are restored
in parallel across multiple channels on the auxiliary database. Active DUPLICATE
supports compression during the restore phase.
The benefits of this new feature include:
■
■
Reduce active duplicate time for databases with large data files by more evenly
spreading out the restore workload across multiple channels on the auxiliary
database.
Reduce active duplicate time by more efficiently using network bandwidth using
compression during data transfer operations.
See Also:
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide for details
1-52 Oracle Database New Features Guide
High Availability
1.5.9.2 Cross-Platform Backup and Restore
BACKUP and RESTORE commands feature new options to create a cross-platform
compatible backup and to restore the same on a different platform.
This feature reduces operational complexity using cross-platform transportable
tablespace and cross-platform transportable database methods to migrate data
between platforms.
See Also:
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide for details
1.5.9.3 DUPLICATE Enhancements
This feature disables automatic opening of a recovered clone database so that you can
perform any database setting changes before using the NOOPEN option. For example,
you may want to modify block change tracking or Flashback Database settings before
opening the clone database. This feature is also useful for upgrade scenarios where the
database must not be open with RESETLOGS prior to running upgrade scripts.
These enhancements provide additional flexibility during DUPLICATE and expand its
use for upgrade scenarios. For example, the NOOPEN option allows DUPLICATE to create
a new database as part of an upgrade procedure and leaves the database in a state
ready for opening in upgrade mode and subsequent execution of upgrade scripts.
See Also:
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide for details
1.5.9.4 Multisection Image Copies
Image copies can be taken with the SECTION SIZE option to divide data files into
subsections that can be backed up in parallel across multiple channels. This feature
reduces image copy creation time for large data files which is especially beneficial in
Exadata environments.
This can also reduce completion time for non-backup use cases. For example, copying
a file as part of a transportable tablespace procedure or creating a clone with active
duplicate.
See Also:
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Reference for details
1.5.9.5 Multisection Incremental Backups
Incremental backups can be taken with the SECTION SIZE option to divide data files
into subsections that can be backed up in parallel across multiple channels. This
reduces the incremental backup time for large data files which is especially beneficial
in Exadata and cloud environment backups.
See Also:
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide for details
1.5.9.6 Network-Enabled RESTORE
RESTORE operations can copy data files from one database to another (for example, a
physical standby database to a primary database) over the network. Network-enabled
restore also supports compression and multisection options.
Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) New Features 1-53
High Availability
The RESTORE operation reduces data file copy time from one database to another by
reducing data transfer sizes and by better parallelizing restore workload for large data
files across multiple channels.
See Also:
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide for details
1.5.9.7 RMAN Command-Line Interface Enhancements
Recovery Manager (RMAN) command-line interface has been enhanced to:
■
Run SQL as-is at the command line, no longer requiring the SQL command.
■
Support SELECT statements.
■
Support the DESCRIBE command on tables and views.
These enhancements provide better ease-of-use when running SQL in an RMAN
session.
See Also:
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide for details
1.5.9.8 Storage Snapshot Optimization
Backup mode can induce additional system and I/O overhead due to writing whole
block images into redo, in addition to increasing procedural complexity in large
database environments. A third-party storage snapshot that meets the following
requirements can be taken without requiring the database to be placed in backup
mode:
■
Database crash is consistent at the point of the snapshot.
■
Write ordering is preserved for each file within a snapshot.
■
Snapshot stores the time at which a snapshot is completed.
A new RECOVER command keyword, SNAPSHOT TIME, is introduced to recover a
snapshot to a consistent point, without any additional manual procedures for
point-in-time recovery needs.
The overhead consists of logging additional redo and performing a complete database
checkpoint.
See Also:
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide for details
1.5.9.9 Table-Level Recovery From Backups
Recovery Manager (RMAN) can restore and recover a table or set of tables from
existing backups on disk or tape with the new RECOVER TABLE option.
This option reduces time and disk space to recover a table or set of tables from an
existing backup versus manually restoring and recovering the required tablespaces to
a separate disk location, then exporting the desired tables and importing them to the
original database.
See Also:
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide for details
1-54 Oracle Database New Features Guide
Manageability
1.6 Manageability
The following sections describe the new manageability features for Oracle Database
12c Release 1 (12.1).
1.6.1 Database Performance Tuning
The following sections describe automatic performance management features.
1.6.1.1 Enterprise Manager Database Express
Enterprise Manager Database Express 12c is a web-based tool for managing Oracle
databases. It is configured out-of-the-box and ships with every database, is extremely
light weight, and does not require any special installation such as a JVM or an
application server. Enterprise Manager Database Express provides an intuitive and
interactive user interface for performing basic database administration tasks, such as
database configuration and administration, space administration, users and roles
management, and performance management.
Enterprise Manager Database Express greatly simplifies database performance
diagnostics by consolidating the relevant database performance screens into a
consolidated view called the database Performance Hub. DBAs get a single,
consolidated view of the current real-time and historical view of the database
performance across multiple dimensions such as database load, monitored SQL and
PL/SQL, and Active Session History (ASH) in a single page for the selected time
period.
See Also:
Oracle Database 2 Day DBA for details
1.6.1.2 PGA Size Limit
This feature limits the total amount of Program Global Area (PGA) that an instance
can allocate, using a parameter called PGA_AGGREGATE_LIMIT. When the instance has
allocated the PGA_AGGREGATE_LIMIT amount of PGA, sessions with the highest amount
of allocated PGA are stopped until the limit is complied with.
This feature is important for consolidation because, without a hard limit, the instance
can become unstable due to excessive paging. Excessive paging is one of the leading
causes of instance eviction in an Oracle RAC database and can cause a multitude of
performance and stability problems.
See Also:
Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide for details
1.6.1.3 Real-Time Database Operations Monitoring
Real-time database operations monitoring allows database administrators to easily
monitor and troubleshoot performance problems in long running jobs. This feature
helps make long running database operations like a batch job, an ETL (extraction,
loading, and transformation) operation, or a scheduler job, transparent so that
administrators can see exactly what the operation is doing and at what time. It does
this by tracking the SQL and PL/SQL commands that make up a database operation
along with their time lines.
As a result, DBAs can easily trace any issues with the database operation to the
problem SQL or PL/SQL for more in-depth analysis.
Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) New Features 1-55
Manageability
See Also:
Oracle Database SQL Tuning Guide for details
1.6.1.4 Resource Manager Runaway Query Management
Runaway queries are a persistent problem in databases and can adversely impact
overall performance if not managed properly. Resource Manager now provides
information about and proactively manages offending queries. There are new views
that allow a DBA to see the most recent SQL commands that have hit limits in each
consumer group. These views are persisted to the Automatic Workload Repository
(AWR) to allow post-mortem analysis. Also, there is new functionality to allow the
DBA to take preemptive action on offending SQL execution plans.
The net result is that DBAs can now proactively prevent runaway queries, before they
do any damage, rather than being reactive to queries which have already consumed
too many resources.
See Also:
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for details
1.6.1.5 Spot ADDM
Oracle Database has many automatic performance diagnostics advisors such as
Automatic Database Monitor (ADDM), real-time ADDM, and compare period ADDM
to allow DBAs to diagnose and resolve performance problems. While ADDM reports
problems found in the last hour (by default), there are times when a critical problem
occurs and DBAs need to be notified right away. Spot ADDM is a new advisor that is
automatically triggered when a database begins to encounter performance issues and
tries to identify the root cause of the problem. Some of the types of problems that
trigger spot ADDM include high CPU load or I/O bound scenarios. The results of spot
ADDM are persisted in Automatic Workload Repository (AWR) as reports.
Getting visibility into these problems enables DBAs to respond rapidly and prevent
cascading problems that could ultimately create catastrophic failures.
See Also:
Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide for details
1.6.2 Database Testing
The following sections describe database testing features.
1.6.2.1 Mask At Source or Mask During Subset
To mask confidential data for non-production use, enterprises needed to make a copy
of the production database and then mask the data before sharing it with
non-production users such as testers or developers. Masking at the source or masking
while subsetting at the source database allows enterprises to provision a secure and
reduced size test system directly from the production database without the need for a
full production database copy. Enterprises may choose to execute the masking or
subsetting operations or both to provision the test database in a single workflow.
Masking at the source or masking while subsetting at the source ensures that sensitive
production data never leaves the source database when provisioning test systems and,
therefore, complies with data privacy policies.
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Manageability
See Also:
Oracle Database Testing Guide for details
1.6.2.2 Self Update for Oracle Applications Masking and Subsetting Templates
Enterprises can mask sensitive data using data masking templates for Oracle
applications such as Fusion applications and E-Business Suite. Given the complexity of
enterprise applications such as Fusion applications or E-Business Suite, the process of
manually importing the data masking templates can be complex.
Using self update for Oracle applications masking and subsetting templates,
enterprises can directly download these templates from Oracle and import them into
their Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control 12c environment with no manual
intervention.
Enterprises can easily and seamlessly implement the best practices for protecting
sensitive data and provisioning reduced sized databases in their Oracle applications
non-production environments using the self update option for Oracle applications
masking and subsetting templates.
See Also:
Oracle Database Testing Guide for details
1.6.2.3 Database Replay Support for Database Consolidation
Database Replay now supports simultaneous execution of multiple database captures
on a single consolidated database. The consolidated database can be a CDB with
multiple PDBs or a traditional database consolidated using schema consolidation
methods. Consolidated database replay supports scheduling of the individual replays
enabling investigations of various scenarios (for example, what if all my individual
workloads hit their peak utilizations at the same time).
Consolidated replay supplies the ability to assure desired database performance for
database consolidation projects, whether consolidating onto an Oracle database
machine or other consolidated infrastructure.
See Also:
Oracle Database Testing Guide for details
1.6.2.4 Database Replay Workload Scale-Up and Characterization
Database Replay supports creation of a new workloads based on existing captured
workloads. The new workloads can be used for capacity planning and validation of
various what-if scenarios.
Workload manipulation techniques such as workload filtering by various dimensions
(such as time, services, and module) and scheduling are used to compose a new
workload. Additionally, a custom workload scenario, or scaled-up version of the
original workload, can be easily created by using a combination of workload
manipulation techniques such as filtering, sub-setting by time, and scheduling them to
run at the same time.
A database workload captured using Database Replay can be characterized by various
attributes such as request types, activity, access or transaction patterns, and
application-defined attributes. This allows division of the captured workload into
smaller, more manageable and autonomous units that can also be used to better
understand captured workload.
Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) New Features 1-57
Oracle RAC and Grid Infrastructure
Database workload scale-up and characterization capabilities allow businesses to
perform capacity planning and system testing under various what-if scenarios.
See Also:
Oracle Database Testing Guide for details
1.6.2.5 Enhanced Database Replay Reporting
Database Replay reporting has been enhanced to provide insight into the causes of
slow or fast replay. Utilizing the Active Session History (ASH) Analytics framework,
Database Replay provides additional replay reports allowing you to quickly analyze
and understand all of the performance characteristics of your database replay. In
addition, you can use ASH Analytics to produce customized reports.
Enhanced Database Replay reporting reduces the time spent by users in analyzing
replay performance.
See Also:
Oracle Database Testing Guide for details
1.6.3 General
The following section describes a new general feature.
1.6.3.1 Queryable Patch Inventory
Using DBMS_QOPATCH, Oracle Database 12c provides a PL/SQL or SQL interface to view
the database patches that are installed. The interface provides all the patch information
available as part of the OPatch lsinventory -xml command. The package accesses the
Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) patch inventory in real time to provide patch and
patch meta information.
Using this feature, users can:
■
■
■
Query what patches are installed from SQL*Plus.
Write wrapper programs to create reports and do validation checks across
multiple environments.
Check patches installed on Oracle RAC nodes from a single location instead of
having to log onto each one in turn.
See Also:
Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for details
1.7 Oracle RAC and Grid Infrastructure
The following sections describe the new Oracle RAC and Oracle Grid Infrastructure
features with Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1).
1.7.1 Oracle ASM Enhancements
The following sections describe Oracle Automatic Storage Management (Oracle ASM)
improvements.
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1.7.1.1 Oracle Flex ASM
Oracle Flex ASM decouples the Oracle ASM instance from the database servers. Oracle
Flex ASM instances may be run on separate physical servers from Oracle Database 12c
instances. Any number of Oracle Flex ASM servers can be clustered together to
support a large set of databases.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
details
1.7.1.2 Oracle ASM Shared Password File in a Disk Group
This feature implements the infrastructure needed to address the bootstrapping issues
of Oracle ASM shared password files in an Oracle ASM disk group. This approach
simplifies the administration of password files by ensuring that only a single copy
needs to be maintained.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
details
1.7.1.3 Oracle ASM Rebalance Enhancements
Oracle ASM rebalance enhancements improve scalability, performance, and reliability
of the rebalance operation. This feature extends the rebalance to operate on multiple
disk groups in a single instance. In addition, it improves support for thin provisioning,
user data validation, and improved error handling.
With this new feature, you can distribute the rebalance load for higher performance,
obtain better user validation, and control error handling and support for thin
provisioning.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
details
1.7.1.4 Oracle ASM Disk Resync Enhancements
Oracle ASM disk resync allows multiple disks to be brought online simultaneously or
to otherwise control the speed of the resync operation. Oracle ASM disk resync now
has a Resync Power Limit to control resync parallelism and, therefore, improve
performance. Disk Resync Checkpoint allows for faster recovery from instance failures
by allowing the resync to resume from where it was interrupted or stopped instead of
starting from the beginning.
This enhancement provides faster recovery from instance failure and faster resync
performance overall.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
details
1.7.1.5 Oracle ASM chown, chgrp, chmod and Open Files Support
This feature allows the ASMCMD chown, chgrp, and chmod commands to run even if
the affected files are open. In Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2), this was not
Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) New Features 1-59
Oracle RAC and Grid Infrastructure
allowed. The ALTER DISKGROUP MODIFY OWNERSHIP SQL command is also similarly
modified, as this SQL provides support for these ASMCMD commands.
This feature improves the manageability of Oracle ASM users and the files they own.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
details
1.7.1.6 Oracle ASM Support ALTER DISKGROUP REPLACE USER
This feature introduces a new SQL statement, ALTER DISKGROUP REPLACE USER, that
allows the identity of an Oracle ASM user to be changed from one operating system
user to another operating system user. This feature allows end users to change the
identity of an Oracle ASM user without having to drop and re-create the user, which
requires dropping all of the files a user may own.
This feature improves the manageability of Oracle ASM users and the files they own.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
details
1.7.1.7 Enterprise Manager Support for Oracle ASM Features
Enterprise Manager supports the following Oracle ASM features:
■
Oracle Flex ASM server
■
Disk resync improvements
■
Oracle ASM rebalance improvements
■
Enable access control for Oracle ASM files on Windows
■
Oracle ASM corrupt media recovery (scrubbing)
Customers benefit from the easy-to-use interface to monitor and manage these new
features like job scheduling, metrics collection, and so on.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
details
1.7.1.8 Oracle ASM File Access Control on Windows
Oracle ASM File Access Control restricts the access of files to specific Oracle ASM
clients that connect as SYSDBA. An Oracle ASM client is typically a database which is
identified as the user that owns the database instance home.
Beginning with Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1), Oracle supports the use of
low-privileged users on Windows instead of Local System Account to run Oracle
Database services that let you use separate users for different Oracle databases. This
release also supports Oracle ASM disk group file-level access control and privilege
separation.
The Oracle ASM File Access Control feature helps to replace the current user with a
new user and allows the user to change ownership, group membership, and
permissions of a file while the file is open by one or more Oracle ASM clients. In this
release, the low-privileged users for specific Oracle homes are restricted from directly
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accessing Oracle ASM storage devices and can be accessed through the Oracle
Database services that have sufficient privileges to run that service.
Oracle ASM disk group users now manage ASM disk group user replacement with
new ASMCMD commands and SQL statements.
See Also:
Oracle Database Platform Guide for Microsoft Windows for details
1.7.1.9 Oracle Grid Infrastructure Rolling Migration for One-Off Patches
Rolling migration framework has been enhanced to handle applying one-off patches
released for Oracle ASM in a rolling manner. It also enables migration of a database
(Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) and above) to another Oracle ASM instance to
minimize downtime during the course of the rolling migration.
This feature improves database availability by migrating the database to another
Oracle ASM instance prior to shut down and upgrade.
See Also:
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide for Linux for details
1.7.2 Oracle ACFS Enhancements
The following sections describe improvements to Oracle Automatic Storage
Management Cluster File System (Oracle ACFS).
1.7.2.1 Oracle ACFS Support for All Oracle Database Files
Oracle ACFS provides support for all database files. This feature takes advantage of
Oracle ACFS data services for database files.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
details
1.7.2.2 Oracle ACFS and Highly Available NFS
For Grid homes, Oracle ACFS exports (using NFS) include Golden Images and patch
updates applied to Oracle ACFS snapshots.
The Network File Storage (NFS) is deployed with Grid home servers in support of
Grid home client systems. Application VIP (virtual internet protocol address) and NFS
export resources are employed for Oracle ACFS and highly available NFS.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
details
1.7.2.3 Oracle ACFS Snapshots Enhancements
Oracle ACFS read/write snapshots have been enhanced to support snapshots created
from an existing snapshot in the same Oracle ACFS file system (snaps of snaps) and
snapshot conversions (read-only to read/write). These support creation of additional
sparse patch set extensions (using snapshots) to Oracle ACFS snapshot management.
This enhances snapshot functionality by providing cascading snapshots and
bi-directional conversion of read/write and read-only snapshots.
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See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
details
1.7.2.4 Oracle ACFS Replication Integration with Oracle ACFS Security and
Encryption
This feature enables integration of Oracle ACFS replication with Oracle ACFS security
and encryption. Customers can use the combination of Oracle ACFS security and
encryption with Oracle ACFS replication.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
details
1.7.2.5 Oracle Audit Vault Support for Oracle ACFS Security and Encryption
This feature enables Oracle Audit Vault support for Oracle ACFS security and
encryption. This new support is for customers who want to use the combination of
Oracle Audit Vault and Oracle ACFS security and encryption.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
details
1.7.2.6 Oracle ACFS Security and Encryption Features
Oracle ACFS security feature provides the ability to create realms to specify security
policies for users or groups for accessing file system objects. The Oracle ACFS security
feature provides a finer-grained access control on top of the access control provided by
the operating system.
Oracle ACFS encryption feature provides the ability to keep data in an Oracle ACFS
file system in encrypted format to prevent unauthorized use of data in the case of data
loss or theft.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
details
1.7.2.7 Oracle ACFS File Tags for Grid Homes
Oracle ACFS file tag operations are supported through a common operating system
independent file tag API (C library). The patch software tools can use Oracle ACFS file
tags to identify the specific patch files applied to a given Oracle ACFS snapshot image
in support of sparse file Grid home patch set transfers. Tagged files can also be used in
the display of file usage metrics.
This feature allows a programmatic interface to manage the file tag functionality in
Oracle ACFS. The Grid home tools are examples of such use cases.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
details
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1.7.2.8 Oracle ACFS Plug-in APIs
The Oracle ACFS plug-in functionality allows a user space application to collect
just-in-time Oracle ACFS file and ASM Dynamic Volume Manager (ADVM) volume
metrics from the operating system environment. Oracle and customer applications can
leverage the Oracle ACFS plug-in infrastructure to create customized solutions that
extend the general application file metric interfaces to include detailed Oracle ACFS
file system and volume data.
This feature provides a programmatic interface to collect statistics data.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
details
1.7.2.9 Enterprise Manager Support for Oracle ACFS New Features
Enterprise Manager support for Oracle ACFS features includes:
■
Oracle ACFS enhancements for Grid homes
■
Oracle ACFS tagging
■
Oracle ACFS snapshot enhancements
This support allows all Oracle ACFS file system functionality to be managed by an
easy-to-use GUI management interface.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
details
1.7.2.10 Oracle ACFS Replication and Tagging on AIX
Oracle can now port Oracle ACFS replication and tagging on AIX providing broader
operating system platform support.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
details
1.7.2.11 Oracle ACFS Replication and Tagging on Solaris
Oracle can now port Oracle ACFS replication and tagging on Solaris providing
broader operating system platform support.
See Also:
Oracle Automatic Storage Management Administrator's Guide for
details
1.7.3 Oracle Clusterware Enhancements
The following sections describe new Oracle Clusterware features.
1.7.3.1 Oracle Flex Cluster
Oracle Flex Cluster is a new Oracle Clusterware based topology utilizing two types of
cluster nodes: Hub Nodes and Leaf Nodes. Hub Nodes represent traditional nodes,
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tightly coupled using network and storage. Leaf Nodes are a new type of node that
runs a lighter weight stack and does not require direct shared storage connectivity.
Combining tightly coupled Hub Nodes and lightweight Leaf Nodes in one cluster
allows the running of a variety of workload and applications across hundreds of nodes
without additional overhead, while maintaining the ability to create dependencies
between them. Centralized, cluster-wide management and standardized resource
allocation policies further facilitate workload consolidation on Oracle Flex Cluster.
1.7.3.2 Policy-Based Cluster Management and Administration
Oracle Grid Infrastructure allows running multiple applications in one cluster. Using a
policy-based approach, the workload introduced by these applications can be allocated
across the cluster using a policy set. In addition, a policy set enables different policies
to be applied to the cluster over time as required. Policy sets can be defined using a
web-based interface or a command-line interface.
Hosting various workloads in the same cluster helps to consolidate the workloads into
a shared infrastructure that provides high availability and scalability. Using a
centralized policy-based approach allows for dynamic resource reallocation and
prioritization as the demand changes.
See Also:
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for details
1.7.3.3 What-If Command Evaluation
Oracle Clusterware now provides a set of evaluation commands to determine the
impact of a certain operation before the respective operation is actually executed.
Clusterware administrators are constantly challenged to react to changes in the cluster.
The What-If command evaluation helps clusterware administrators to determine the
impact of certain operations before they are executed in order for them to make the
most appropriate decision and, thereby, ensure smooth cluster operation.
See Also:
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for details
1.7.3.4 Oracle Cluster Registry Backup in ASM Disk Group Support
The Oracle Cluster Registry (OCR) backup mechanism enables storing the OCR
backup in an Oracle ASM disk group.
Storing the OCR backup in an Oracle ASM disk group simplifies OCR management by
permitting access to the OCR backup from any node in the cluster should an OCR
recovery become necessary.
See Also:
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for details
1.7.3.5 Shared Grid Naming Service (GNS)
In previous releases, the Grid Naming Service (GNS) was dedicated to one Oracle Grid
Infrastructure-based cluster, providing a name resolution for only those nodes that
were part of this cluster. This restriction has been lifted and one GNS can now manage
either the nodes of one cluster only or act as the naming resolution for all nodes across
all clusters in the data centers.
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Using only one GNS for all nodes that are part of an Oracle Grid Infrastructure-based
cluster in the data center not only streamlines the naming convention, but also enables
a data center cloud minimizing day-to-day administration efforts.
1.7.3.6 SRVCTL Support for Oracle Flex Cluster Implementations
Oracle Flex Cluster is a new concept, which joins together a traditional closely coupled
cluster with a modest node count with a large number of loosely coupled nodes.
In order to support various configurations that can be established using this new
concept, SRVCTL provides new commands and command options to ease the
installation and configuration.
See Also:
Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide
for details
1.7.3.7 Online Resource Attribute Modification
Oracle Clusterware manages hardware and software components for high availability
using a resource model. For example, the listener or VIPs used by an Oracle RAC
database are managed using respective listener and VIP resources. Resource attributes
are used to define how Oracle Clusterware manages those resources. For example, a
resource attribute is used to define the subnet of a VIP resource or the name of a
listener. Using online resource attribute modification, certain attributes of a resource
can be modified without the need to restart the resource for the change to take effect.
Online resource attribute modification is available using certain SRVCTL and CRSCTL
commands.
Being able to modify certain resource attributes without having to restart the resource
for the change to take effect increases resource availability, reduces the likeliness for
failures, and overall simplifies the resource management in high availability
environments.
See Also:
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for details
1.7.4 Other Grid Infrastructure Enhancements
The following sections describe new general Oracle Grid Infrastructure features.
1.7.4.1 Grid Infrastructure Script Automation for Installation and Upgrade
Using script automation for installation and upgrade eliminates the need to run scripts
manually on each node during the final steps of an Oracle Grid Infrastructure
installation or upgrade. This feature minimizes the likelihood of errors and simplifies
the installation process.
See Also:
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide for Linux for details
1.7.4.2 Multipurpose Cluster Installation Support
Earlier Oracle releases required post-installation steps to cover certain configuration
scenarios. The new Oracle Universal Installer (OUI) allows for the most commonly
used configuration to be installed during the initial installation flow.
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Integrating the most common configuration scenarios into the default installation flow
of OUI for the Oracle Grid Infrastructure makes the installation easier, less error prone,
and overall more efficient.
See Also:
Oracle Grid Infrastructure Installation Guide for Linux for details
1.7.5 Oracle RAC Enhancements
The following sections describe new features for Oracle RAC.
1.7.5.1 Support for IPv6 Based IP Addresses for Oracle RAC Client Connectivity
Cluster nodes can be configured to use either IPv4 or IPv6 based IP addresses for the
Virtual IPs (VIP) on the public network, while more than one public network can be
defined for the cluster. Database clients and applications can connect to either IPv4 or
IPv6 VIP addresses. The Single Client Access Name (SCAN) listener automatically
redirects client connects to the appropriate database listener within a given subnet
considering the IP protocol requested by the client. SCAN listeners can be defined for
each subnet in the cluster.
IPv6 based IP addresses have become the latest standard for the information
technology infrastructure in today's data centers. With this release, Oracle RAC and
Oracle Grid Infrastructure support this standard for client connectivity.
See Also:
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for details
1.8 Performance
The following sections describe the new performance features for Oracle Database 12c
Release 1 (12.1).
1.8.1 Database Performance Enhancements
The following sections describe improvements in database performance.
1.8.1.1 Advanced Network Compression
New parameters, SQLNET_COMPRESSION and SQLNET.COMPRESSION_SCHEME_LIST, allow
the compression of data transitioning over Oracle Net Services between client and
server. Compression can be enabled at the:
■
Connection level (connect string, URL)
■
Service level (tnsnames.ora, ldap.ora)
■
Database level (sqlnet.ora)
Network acceleration reduces network latency in local area network (LAN) and wide
area network (WAN) environments and increases performance.
See Also:
Oracle Database Net Services Reference for details
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1.8.1.2 Very Large Network Buffers
Support for larger packets (session data unit (SDU) sizes) in the Oracle Net layer has
been added in this release. SDU defines the size of internal buffers. In previous
releases, the default was 8K with a maximum of 64K. This release pushes the limit
beyond the current values.
The benefits of very large network buffers are increased application throughput
through optimization and better utilization of available network bandwidth.
See Also:
Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for details
1.8.2 General
The following sections describe new general features.
1.8.2.1 Asynchronous I/O Control for Direct NFS Client
The DNFS_BATCH_SIZE parameter controls the number of asynchronous I/O requests
that can be queued by an Oracle process when Direct NFS Client is enabled. In
environments where the Network File Storage (NFS) server cannot handle a large
number of outstanding asynchronous I/O requests, this parameter can be used to limit
the number of I/O requests issued by an Oracle foreground process. The
recommended setting for this parameter is to start at 128K and increase or decrease it
based on NFS server performance.
Some NFS servers do not perform well if too many asynchronous I/O requests are
delivered within a short period of time. The default Direct NFS Client setting for this
behavior is higher than some NFS servers can handle. The DNFS_BATCH_SIZE
parameter allows customers to tune the behavior of Direct NFS Client to match their
specific NFS server requirements, maximizing performance and system stability.
See Also:
Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide for details
1.8.2.2 Tracking I/O Outliers
Oracle Database maintains a V$IO_OUTLIER view that captures I/O operations that
take a long time to complete. Long delays in I/O completions can cause serious
performance degradation. DBA's can monitor the V$IO_OUTLIER view to see the health
of the I/O subsystem. Although the V$IO_OUTLIER view provides clues for overall I/O
latencies, DBA's often need to drill down further to know where in the operating
system high latencies are seen. Oracle Database now uses the dynamic tracing feature
in Solaris to gather information about the amount of time an I/O spends in each of the
key operating system subsystems it passes through on its way to the physical device.
The timing information for each component is recorded in the new V$KERNEL_IO_
OUTLIER view. This provides an operating system-based latency breakdown of I/O
taking an excessive amount of time to complete.
This is an essential tuning and debugging tool that enables faster identification and
resolution of I/O related issues.
See Also:
Oracle Database Reference for details
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1.8.3 Hardware Optimizations
The following sections describe hardware configuration and technology features.
1.8.3.1 Multi-Process Multi-Threaded Oracle
Multi-process multi-threaded Oracle uses multiple processes and multiple threads
within each process to provide a new execution model for Oracle Database. Support
for multi-process multi-threaded Oracle provides improved performance and
manageability through more efficient sharing of system and processor resources.
See Also:
Oracle Database Concepts for details
1.8.4 Improve Ease of Performance Out-of-the-Box
The following section describes improvements to out-of-the-box performance.
1.8.4.1 Ability to Specify NFS Version in Direct NFS Client
The NFS_VERSION parameter allows the user to specify the NFS protocol to be used by
Direct NFS Client. Possible values are nfsv3, nfsv4, and nfsv4.1. If no version is
specified, nfsv3 is used by default.
NFS Version 4 provides performance advantages over NFS Version 3, and the NFS_
VERSION parameter allows the user to take advantage of those capabilities when
available.
See Also:
Oracle Database Installation Guide for Linux for details
1.9 Security
The following sections describe the new database security features for Oracle Database
12c Release 1 (12.1).
1.9.1 Data Encryption, Hashing and Redaction
The following sections describe the encryption, hashing and redaction features.
1.9.1.1 Oracle Data Redaction
This new database security feature is part of Oracle Advanced Security and prevents
data columns (such as credit card numbers, U.S. Social Security numbers, and other
sensitive or regulated data) from being displayed. It is driven by declarative policies
that can take into account database session factors and information passed by
applications. Sensitive display data can be redacted at runtime on live production
systems with minimal disruption to running applications and without altering the
actual stored data. Different types of redaction are supported including full, partial,
random, and regular expression redaction. You can conceal entire data values or redact
only part of the value. The functionality is implemented inside of the database,
therefore separate installation is not required.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Guide for details
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1.9.1.2 Support for Secure Hash Algorithm SHA-2 in Oracle Database
Oracle Database 12c support for the SHA-2 algorithm builds upon the existing support
for SHA-2 in Oracle Database 11.2.0.3. The expanded support for the SHA-2 algorithm
includes the PL/SQL DBMS_CRYPTO package.
Support for the SHA-2 algorithm provides increased security assurance for Oracle
Database. In addition, it provides compliance with regulations that may now or in the
future require use of the SHA-2 algorithm for hashing of sensitive data.
See Also:
Oracle Database Security Guide for details
1.9.2 Database Security Enhancements
The following sections describe database security enhancements.
1.9.2.1 Auditing Enabled By Default
The new unified auditing architecture can be used in Oracle Database with no changes
required to the database initialization parameters. This feature enables audit policies to
be created and enabled in the database with no production database downtime,
providing flexibility and ease of administration for database auditing.
See Also:
Oracle Database Security Guide for details
1.9.2.2 Code-Based Security
Code-based security enables roles to be associated with PL/SQL packages, functions,
and procedures. Associating roles with packages, functions, and procedures provides
finer granularity for privileged grants, eliminating the need to grant these roles
directly to the runtime users.
Code-based security provides increased security for applications by enabling roles
only for the execution scope of the PL/SQL program units without granting them
directly to the user. Scoping the grants of roles reduces the database privilege grants to
users and helps enforce the security concept of least privilege.
See Also:
Oracle Database Security Guide for details
1.9.2.3 Data Guard Support for Separation of Duty (SoD)
This feature makes it possible to administer a Data Guard configuration without
requiring SYSDBA privileges. Administration of Data Guard configurations can be
delegated to a class of users who would not be granted SYSDBA privileges.
See Also:
Oracle Data Guard Concepts and Administration for details
1.9.2.4 Enhanced Security of Audit Data
The new unified context-based database audit architecture stores audit records in an
insert-only tablespace. This new audit tablespace is created as part of the Oracle
database infrastructure. The maintenance of the audit trail records are implemented
using the audit trail cleanup package that can only be used by users with the new
AUDIT_ADMIN administrator role.
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Security and compliance regulations require accurate monitoring and reporting of
Oracle database activity. The new insert-only tablespace provides increased assurance
that audit records are not modified or deleted after they have been written to the audit
trail. Maintenance of the new audit trail is limited to users who have been granted the
new AUDIT_ADMIN role. Only users with the new AUDIT_ADMIN role can manage the
retention policy of the audit data.
See Also:
Oracle Database Security Guide for details
1.9.2.5 Increased Security When Using SELECT ANY DICTIONARY
The SELECT ANY DICTIONARY privilege no longer permits access to security sensitive
data dictionary tables DEFAULT_PWD$, ENC$, LINK$, USER$, USER_HISTORY$, and
XS$VERIFIERS.
This change increases the default security of the database by not allowing access to a
subset of data dictionary tables through the SELECT ANY DICTIONARY privilege.
1.9.2.6 Last Login Time Information
The last login time for database users is recorded in the USER$ table and displayed
when connecting to the database using Oracle SQL*Plus.
Recording the last login time for database users increases database security by
providing security administrators the ability to determine when an account was last
used in the database. Displaying the last login time in the Oracle SQL*Plus connection
banner provides the SQL*Plus user information on their last account usage.
See Also:
SQL*Plus User's Guide and Reference for details
1.9.2.7 Oracle Database Vault Mandatory Realms
Oracle Database Vault mandatory realms block both DBA privileges and direct object
privilege grants, including the object owner. Traditional Oracle Database Vault realms
protect against the common DBA ANY system privileges, preventing privileged users
from accessing realm-protected objects using their SELECT ANY privilege. With the
mandatory realm, users with direct object privileges, including the object owner, are
blocked from accessing realm protected objects as well. As with traditional realms,
users who need access are authorized using the realm authorization capability of
Oracle Database Vault.
Oracle Database Vault mandatory realms provide increased protection for sensitive
application tables that exist within a larger application. Using this feature, application
tables that contain highly sensitive information can be placed in a mandatory realm
and users with direct object grants will be blocked from accessing data contained in
those tables. Mandatory realms can also be used in situations where database
administrators, support analysts, or developers need temporary access to an
application schema but access to specific application tables needs to be blocked.
See Also:
Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide for details
1.9.2.8 Oracle Label Security Metadata Export and Import
Oracle Label Security metadata in the LBACSYS schema can be included when doing a
full database export and import operation. The source database can be Oracle
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Database 11g Release 2 (11.2.0.3), or higher. The target database must be Oracle
Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) or higher.
Oracle Label Security metadata export and import provides the ability to move Oracle
Label Security policies and protected tables between databases.
See Also:
Oracle Label Security Administrator's Guide for details
1.9.2.9 Password Complexity Check
New databases created using the Oracle Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) can
optionally have a default password complexity check enabled. Password complexity
checks increase the security of Oracle databases and the overall enterprise by reducing
the potential for new databases to be created without a strong password check
enabled.
See Also:
Oracle Database Security Guide for details
1.9.2.10 Privilege Analysis
Privilege analysis, which is available with Oracle Database Vault, enables customers to
create a profile for a database user and capture the list of system and object privileges
that are being used by this user. The customer can then compare the user's list of used
privileges with the list of granted privileges and reduce the list of granted privileges to
match the used privileges.
Privilege analysis helps improve the security of applications and operations by
identifying unused or excessive privileges. Privileges required by database
administrators can easily be identified by analyzing the privileges used while
performing common administration activities. Privileges required by applications can
be easily identified by running privilege analysis during an application connection to
the database.
See Also:
Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide for details
1.9.2.11 Resource Role Default Privileges
The UNLIMITED TABLESPACE privilege is no longer the default RESOURCE role starting in
Oracle Database 12c. This change increases the default security of the database by
eliminating the potential for database users and applications that have been granted
the RESOURCE role to exceed their intended resource quotas for tablespaces.
See Also:
Oracle Database Security Guide for details
1.9.2.12 Separation of Duty for Audit Administration
The new unified context-based database audit configuration provides two new roles
for managing database auditing. The new AUDIT_ADMIN role provides the ability to
create and enable new audit policies and specify the audit record retention policy. The
new AUDIT_VIEWER role provides auditors and security administrators the ability to
view audit data in the new unified audit trail.
Separation of duty in the new unified context-based database audit architecture
provides the ability to selectively assign the users that may create, enable, and delete
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audit policies while still allowing security team members and managers to review the
audit data that has been generated. Database administration can be separated from
audit administration, increasing the security of day-to-day operations.
See Also:
Oracle Database Security Guide for details
1.9.2.13 Separation of Duty for Database Administration
Oracle Database provides new roles for database administrative activities such as
backup and recovery, high availability, and key management. Providing new roles for
common database administration tasks increases the security of the Oracle database by
eliminating the need to grant the highly privileged SYSDBA role for common
day-to-day operations.
See Also:
Oracle Database Security Guide for details
1.9.2.14 SYSBACKUP Administration Privilege
A new administration privilege, SYSBACKUP, allows Recovery Manager (RMAN) users
to connect to the target database and run RMAN commands, no longer requiring
SYSDBA.
This feature enforces the separation of duty security model, whereby backup operators
only need SYSBACKUP privilege to run RMAN commands and have separate
responsibilities from database administrators who need real SYSDBA privileges.
See Also:
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide for details
1.9.3 Encryption Key Management Enhancements
The following sections describe encryption key management enhancements.
1.9.3.1 Updated Key Management Framework
This feature updates the Oracle Advanced Security Transparent Database Encryption
(TDE) key management capabilities with a range of new functionality including:
■
■
A common layer for keystore management that enables consistent administration
of Oracle keystores for TDE (called wallets in previous releases) and third-party
Hardware Security Modules (HSMs).
New key management SQL statements (ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT) that
consolidate functionality previously provided in separate Oracle utilities.
■
New metadata for tracking important attributes of master encryption keys.
■
New built-in database views for examining keys and their attributes.
■
■
■
A SYSKM database administrative privilege for managing keystores and master
encryption keys.
Support for exporting or importing individual keys from the keystore to move
them between Oracle databases.
Support for storing TDE keystores directly on Oracle ASM managed disk groups,
with no requirement for an additional file system.
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The updated key management framework provides a more flexible, secure, and
user-friendly key management interface.
See Also:
Oracle Database Advanced Security Guide for details
1.9.4 Improve Security Manageability, Administration and Integration
The following sections describe improved security manageability, administration and
integration features.
1.9.4.1 Oracle Database Vault Persistent Protections
The security controls provided by Oracle Database Vault no longer depend on the
Oracle executable. The same Oracle software home can be used for databases with or
without Oracle Database Vault enabled.
Oracle Database Vault can be enabled much faster and easier across the enterprise. The
controls enforced by Oracle Database Vault remain enforced when the databases are
moved to a new Oracle home or to a new server, simplifying administration and
increasing security.
See Also:
Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide for details
1.9.4.2 Simplified Oracle Database Vault and Oracle Label Security Installation
The installation of Oracle Database Vault and Oracle Label Security has been
simplified. In previous releases, the software for these solutions was not installed by
default. In this release, the software is installed by default but not enabled. Enabling
Oracle Database Vault or Oracle Label Security now requires a simple command line
configuration step.
The default installation of Oracle Database Vault and Oracle Label Security simplifies
the use of these powerful security solutions, enabling additional security controls to be
configured quickly and easily on production systems, helping protect against security
threats.
See Also:
Oracle Database Installation Guide for Linux for details
1.9.4.3 Transparent Sensitive Data Protection
Transparent sensitive data protection enables you to protect sensitive data consistently
in the database based on a classification type (for example, credit card numbers whose
columns use a specific data type). This feature makes it easier to manage database
enforced protections around sensitive data as well as enforce additional protections. In
addition, you can easily export transparent sensitive data protection policies to other
databases. You can use transparent sensitive data protection with Oracle Data
Redaction policies.
Transparent sensitive data protection provides the ability to apply protection policies
across data classifications inside the Oracle database, reducing the cost and complexity
of protecting sensitive data. By applying policies across classification types, the need to
apply polices on a column-by-column basis is eliminated.
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See Also:
Oracle Database Security Guide for details
1.9.4.4 VPD Fine-Grained Context-Sensitive Policies
Fine-grained context-sensitive policies provide the ability to associate one or more
(context,attribute) pairs with a virtual private database (VPD) policy. The VPD
policy function gets evaluated only when one of the (context,attribute) pair
changes its value.
Fine-grained context sensitive policies provide improved performance for applications
using virtual private database.
See Also:
Oracle Database Security Guide for details
1.9.5 Protect the Database Server From Outside
The following section describes protecting the database server from outside.
1.9.5.1 Restricted Service Registration for Oracle RAC
Listeners managed by Oracle Grid Infrastructure can be configured to restrict clients
from accessing a database registered with this listener using various conditions, for
example, the subnet from which these clients are connecting. Restricting client access
to a database makes Oracle RAC even more secure and less vulnerable to security
threats and attacks.
See Also:
Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide
for details
1.9.6 Real Application Security
A security infrastructure is needed in the database for application security that
understands application users and roles natively along with their access rights and
ACLs so that they can be enforced in the database securely and efficiently. With
declarative and extensible security policies, customers can build secure applications
quickly.
The following sections describe improvements in Real Application Security.
1.9.6.1 Real Application Security
Real Application Security provides an Oracle database authorization solution for
end-to-end application security. It specifies, provisions, and enforces application-level
security policies at the database layer, eliminating the task of building custom
application logic to handle application users, their authorizations, and security policies
on data. A wider range of data-centric security policies and constraints on application
users’ authorization can be defined inside the Oracle database, providing a consistent
and uniform authorization model across applications.
Real Application Security strengthens overall application and data security and
ultimately reduces application development time by moving security controls from the
application layer to where the data resides in the database. Application users,
privileges, roles, grants, and security policies can be defined, provisioned, and
enforced at the database layer, enhancing security of the data and application. It
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reduces custom development of application security by providing security features,
such as privilege delegation, role-based constraints, time-based access control,
code-based security, multi-level authorization, negative grants, authorization on user
interface artifacts, access constraints on relational data, and application users auditing.
Enforcement of application security at the database layer increases security for data by
enforcing application security logic regardless of the access path to the database.
See Also:
Oracle Database Real Application Security Administrator's and
Developer's Guide for details
1.9.7 Security Optimizations
The following sections describe security optimization features.
1.9.7.1 Unified Context-Based Database Audit Architecture
The Oracle database now supports a single unified audit trail and a new policy syntax
that enables named audit policies to be created inside the Oracle database. This
powerful new audit implementation supports context-based conditions, limiting when
an audit record should be created. In addition, auditing can be specified for specific
database roles and a set of users can be listed as exempt from auditing.
Auditing is playing an increasingly important role in security. The new unified audit
trail and policy syntax simplifies management of database auditing and provides
highly granular controls over when to audit, optimized performance, and flexibility
for security and compliance.
See Also:
Oracle Database Security Guide for details
1.10 Spatial and Graph
This section describes the new Spatial and Graph features available with Oracle
Database 12c.
1.10.1 Oracle Spatial and Graph Enhancements
Oracle Spatial has been renamed Oracle Spatial and Graph. While Oracle Database has
supported native graphs as a feature since the release of Oracle Spatial 10g, this change
has been made to highlight the existing graph capabilities in Oracle Spatial and in
recognition of the increasing market demand for graph database capabilities.
Oracle Spatial and Graph includes Network Data Model (NDM) graphs used in
traditional network applications in major transportation, telecommunications, utilities,
and energy organizations. It also includes support for Resource Description
Framework (RDF) Semantic Graphs used in social networks and social interactions to
address requirements from the media, finance, research, life sciences, pharmaceutical,
and intelligence communities. These are proven, robust graph database technologies.
The following sections describe enhancements to these Oracle Spatial and Graph
capabilities.
1.10.1.1 Vector Performance Acceleration
Vector operations can be substantially improved by invoking new vector performance
acceleration capabilities in Oracle Spatial and Graph. These result in improved index
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performance, enhanced geometry engine performance, optimized secondary filter
optimizations for Spatial operators, and improved CPU and memory utilization for
many advanced vector functions. Vector performance acceleration is especially
beneficial when using Oracle Exadata Database Machine and other large-scale
systems.
Oracle Spatial and Graph vector performance acceleration builds on general
improvements available to all SDO_GEOMETRY operations in the following areas:
■
Caching of index metadata
■
Concurrent update mechanisms
■
Optimized spatial predicate selectivity and cost functions
These optimizations enable more efficient use of CPU, memory, and partitioning,
resulting in substantial query performance improvements. For example, internal test
results show up to 100 times faster query performance than with the previous release
for non-geodetic point data and a polygon query window.
See Also:
Oracle Spatial and Graph Developer's Guide for details
1.10.1.2 Spatial Routing Engine Enhancements
The Oracle Spatial and Graph routing engine supports truck-specific routing and
logical turn restrictions. It computes drive times based on truck speed limits, which
often differ from car speed limits. It also provides information on truck services such
as weigh stations and truck stops along a route. Finally, it can handle logical turn
restrictions involving more than two edges in the route geometry.
These enhancements yield more accurate results for logistics and truck routing
applications.
See Also:
Oracle Spatial and Graph Developer's Guide for details
1.10.1.3 Spatial Geocoder - Improved Asian Address Support Using Zones
The Oracle Spatial and Graph geocoder schema has been extended to provide an
efficient storage model to support non-address range geocoding. It now supports
geocoding by administrative level, or zone, in addition to the traditional method of
geocoding using address ranges on road segments.
Traditional geocoding, which uses address ranges on road segments, is an efficient
method for addresses in the United States and Western European countries. However,
in Asian countries such as China, India and Japan, where addresses are not based on
street segment ranges, a geocoding schema based on administrative levels or zones is
much more efficient. The geocoder now supports this zone concept so that results for
Asian countries are accurate at a greater granularity than the city level.
See Also:
Oracle Spatial and Graph Developer's Guide for details
1.10.1.4 Spatial GeoRaster - Raster Algebra and Analytics
Oracle Spatial and Graph GeoRaster includes a new raster algebra language providing
local algebraic function types and related raster operations. Coupled with PL/SQL, it
enables expressing complex pixel query, value-based raster editing, mathematical
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operations, classification, and cartographic modeling over large numbers of rasters
and images of unlimited size. These operations can be parallel-enabled to significantly
improve performance.
You can develop cartographic modeling applications with the server-based raster
analytic capabilities and a set of efficient I/O and cell manipulation utilities and
programming interfaces. With the growing availability of raster data, you can realize
performance and scalability benefits from moving the analytic processing to the
database, as opposed to trying to perform analysis on client tools.
See Also:
Oracle Spatial and Graph GeoRaster Developer's Guide for details
1.10.1.5 Spatial GeoRaster - Enhanced Image Processing
Oracle Spatial and Graph GeoRaster provides new image processing capabilities.
These include image rectification, orthorectification, image stretching, image
segmentation, image update and appending, advanced mosaicking, large scale virtual
mosaic, and on-the-fly spatial queries.
More image processing can now be handled in the server instead of the client, and
some of them are parallelized. This enables improved performance of image
processing on a much larger scale, with larger data sets, which are increasingly being
used in government and commercial applications as raster data becomes more
available.
See Also:
Oracle Spatial and Graph GeoRaster Developer's Guide for details
1.10.1.6 Spatial GeoRaster - Java API Enhancements
The Oracle Spatial and Graph GeoRaster Java API has been enhanced to support
features such as ground control point (GCP) storage and manipulation, GCP
georeferencing, reprojection, grid interpolations, and getCellValue. These features
were previously supported only by the PL/SQL API.
With these enhancements, Java developers have more access to Oracle Spatial and
Graph GeoRaster data management features.
See Also:
Oracle Spatial and Graph Java API Reference for details
1.10.1.7 Spatial GeoRaster - New Metadata Content
Oracle Spatial and Graph GeoRaster is enhanced to support relational raster data
tables (RDTs) and to allow users to specify default alpha channel and pyramid level in
its metadata. GeoRaster also adds a new resampling algorithm, supports resolution
unit specification and parallel processing in many operations, and adds some new
loading and exporting capabilities.
These new features improve GeoRaster data manageability, usability, security, and
performance.
See Also:
Oracle Spatial and Graph GeoRaster Developer's Guide for details
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1.10.2 Network Data Model and RDF Semantic Graph Enhancements
The following sections describe enhancements to the graph features in Oracle Spatial
and Graph.
1.10.2.1 Network Data Model Graph - Feature Modeling and Analysis
Feature modeling bridges the gap between abstract network elements and concrete
objects of interest in real world applications. Oracle Spatial and Graph network data
model now includes feature modeling and analysis. The previous release only
included interfaces at the network element level for editing and analysis. With feature
modeling, the application can make one call to a feature analysis function to get the
resulting feature representation.
Feature modeling offloads the burden for application developers of maintaining the
mapping of application objects to network elements. For example, when a utility
network application needs to find affected households when a substation experiences
a power failure, the application would have to do the mapping between the
application features (substations, power lines and transformers) and network elements
(links and nodes). With feature modeling, this relationship is maintained through
feature metadata, removing the need for the development and maintenance of
application code.
See Also:
Oracle Spatial and Graph Topology Data Model and Network Data Model
Graph Developer's Guide for details
1.10.2.2 Network Data Model Graph - Temporal Modeling and Analysis
Oracle Spatial and Graph network data model now supports modeling of networks
with the dimension of time. Users may associate time attributes with nodes and links,
and specify temporal inputs in their network analysis queries.
Most real-world networks have a dependence on time. Travel times on road segments
vary with the time of day. Utility networks experience different demand loads based
on seasonal demand and the time of day. Analytic and planning applications can
benefit from more accurate representation of real-world conditions. Oracle Spatial and
Graph network data model supports queries such as finding the fastest travel route for
a specified time of day, modeling and analysis of multimodal transportation networks,
and computing the fastest paths on multimodal transportation networks.
See Also:
Oracle Spatial and Graph Topology Data Model and Network Data Model
Graph Developer's Guide for details
1.10.2.3 RDF Views on Relational Tables
Resource Description Framework (RDF) views can be created on a set of relational
tables or views. Semantic graph queries on RDF views can integrate relational data
and RDF Semantic Graph triple data stored in Oracle Database. Oracle supports
semantic queries on these views written in the SPARQL 1.1 query language. It does
this using Oracle's Jena/Joseki SPARQL endpoint. In addition, it supports the use of
the Oracle SQL SEM_MATCH table function with embedded SPARQL 1.1 graph patterns.
Semantic graph queries provide a powerful capability to discover relationships
through pattern matching on RDF graph data. RDF views extend semantic discovery
to relational tables without requiring the conversion of relational tables to RDF triples.
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This removes the need to duplicate data and the associated storage previously
required to perform RDF graph queries on relational data sets.
Semantic graph queries and RDF views can also be used to enable data integration and
discovery within and across relational schema and RDF graphs in Oracle Database.
This simplifies semantic discovery workflows.
See Also:
Oracle Spatial and Graph RDF Semantic Graph Developer's Guide for
details
1.10.2.4 RDF Semantic Graph Named Graph Support
Oracle Spatial and Graph supports Resource Description Framework (RDF) named
graphs as defined by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). RDF triples can be
loaded into one or more named graphs using SQL INSERT and bulk load. In addition,
the Sesame and Jena Adapters for Oracle Database now support named
graph-extended inference, query, and loading APIs. Global inferencing over a group of
named graphs, along with local inferencing over a single named graph, with or
without a common ontology, is also supported.
This simplifies application development by providing a scalable mechanism for
meaningful compartmentalization of associated triples in the graph. Loading,
querying, and inferencing can now be performed at the named graph level, reducing
the cost and improving the performance of these operations compared to similar
operations across the overall semantic network.
See Also:
Oracle Spatial and Graph RDF Semantic Graph Developer's Guide for
details
1.10.2.5 Support for Analytic Operations and Tools
Oracle Spatial and Graph RDF Semantic Graph now supports SPARQL 1.1 path
expressions for simple and complex paths. RDF Semantic Graph can also be used in
conjunction with the Network Data Model Java API to provide fast in-memory graph
analytics, including shortest path, reachability, within-cost, and nearest-neighbor
analysis of RDF graphs.
Results from graph queries can be materialized as views for use with Oracle Advanced
Analytics to enable the use of Oracle Data Mining clustering, classification, regression,
anomaly detection, and decision tree algorithms as well as Oracle R Enterprise
algorithms.
In addition, user-provided inference extensions can implement aggregation, arithmetic
and advanced analytical functions.
These enhancements allow data represented in RDF graphs and triple stores to be
delivered to powerful analysis tools, enabling analysts to derive more information,
more quickly.
The built-in graph analysis functions and support for user-provided inference
extensions simplify application development and consolidate analytics on the server
instead of the client system to address extremely large data sets common to semantic
graph applications. The user-provided inference extensions also give users more
control over the functions and optimization of the inference process and the results
that are generated.
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See Also:
Oracle Spatial and Graph RDF Semantic Graph Developer's Guide for
details
1.10.2.6 RDF Semantic Graph Support for XML Schema, Text and Spatial Data
Types
Oracle Spatial and Graph RDF Semantic Graph now has support for Oracle Database
XML schema, text, and spatial data types. This includes an API to add, drop, and alter
data type indexes.
Semantic queries written in SPARQL or SQL can now be filtered using XML schema,
text, and spatial attributes. This improves the performance and selectivity of queries
based on keywords, geography and distance, and document structure.
See Also:
Oracle Spatial and Graph RDF Semantic Graph Developer's Guide for
details
1.10.2.7 RDF Semantic Graph Document Indexing Enhancements
The semantic indexing API for documents loads the output from third-party entity
extraction services into an RDF graph. This graph provides an index of the entities in
the document collection.
Enhancements include:
■
Batch indexing of documents.
■
Flexible framework for managing entity extraction engines and associated rules.
■
Local partitioned indexing.
It also provides a new operator to calculate the relevance of found documents. Finally,
documents can be inferenced individually or as a group with a domain-specific
ontology.
These enhancements to the RDF Semantic Graph feature in Oracle Spatial and Graph
provide the following benefits:
■
■
■
■
Enable more efficient processing of large document workloads by supporting
batch indexing.
Simplify the configuration and use of multiple entity extraction tools against the
same documents.
Improve the performance of indexing operations by accessing relevant partitions
when processing documents.
Speed the loading of triples from entity extraction engines by enabling parallel
operations.
See Also:
Oracle Spatial and Graph RDF Semantic Graph Developer's Guide for
details
1.10.2.8 RDF Semantic Graph Support for W3C and OGC Standards, Open Source,
and Third-Party Technologies
The RDF Semantic Graph in Oracle Spatial and Graph supports new standards, new
versions of standards, and popular open source and third-party semantic tools.
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It now conforms to W3C SPARQL 1.1 and the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC)
GeoSPARQL 1.1 language standards. The native inference engine supports the latest
W3C OWL 2 EL profile and the extensibility framework supports open source
specialty reasoners, such as TrOWL and Pellet. Enhancements to the Oracle Spatial
and Graph Jena Adapter feature include distributed querying of SPARQL endpoints
and a SPARQL Gateway that enables popular analytical tools capable of accessing
XML data sources to process SPARQL query results. The Jena Adapter also has several
unique extensions for query execution control and management, including query
timeout and abort, query optimizer hints in SPARQL syntax, property paths, results
and metadata caching, and user-defined functions.
Oracle RDF Semantic Graph conforms to the latest W3C and OGC standards, as well
as open source frameworks. It allows users to take advantage of proven relational and
XML-based tools, including Oracle Business Intelligence Enterprise Edition (OBIEE)
and Oracle Advanced Analytics (Oracle Data Mining and Oracle R Enterprise) to
analyze and visualize the results of semantic queries. The Jena Adapter now provides
up to a 45% improvement in query performance with mid-tier caching as well as
scalable querying of distributed SPARQL endpoints.
See Also:
Oracle Spatial and Graph RDF Semantic Graph Developer's Guide for
details
1.11 Unstructured Data
The following sections describe the unstructured data features for Oracle Database 12c
Release 1 (12.1).
1.11.1 Oracle Multimedia Enhancements
The following sections describe enhancements to Oracle Multimedia.
1.11.1.1 DICOM Protocol Support for Oracle Database
Oracle Multimedia has supported the management of Digital Imaging and
Communications in Medicine (DICOM) format data types since the introduction of
Oracle Database 11g. Oracle Multimedia now has support for the DICOM protocol, the
universally accepted standard for communicating DICOM images over computer
networks. This allows users to use the DICOM protocol to store and access DICOM
content in Oracle Database.
DICOM applications and devices can now easily access DICOM data in Oracle
Database, enabling Oracle Database to store and manage DICOM content as part of a
clinical workflow. Large repositories of DICOM content can be managed and secured
using Oracle Database tools, reducing management costs. The inclusion of images in
electronic health care record management systems and other applications is simplified.
See Also:
Oracle Multimedia DICOM Developer's Guide for details
1.11.1.2 Integrating Oracle Multimedia DICOM with Oracle WebCenter Content
Oracle Multimedia now enables Oracle WebCenter Content to store and access
DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) content in Oracle
Database. It includes a DICOM protocol adapter that supports access to Oracle
WebCenter Content DICOM data sources and DICOM viewers. It also has an Oracle
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WebCenter Content component that extracts DICOM metadata into the Oracle
WebCenter Content store as well as performing thumbnail generation and image
format conversion to web-friendly image formats. It includes support for both access
to the DICOM content in its original repository and transfer of the DICOM content
into Oracle WebCenter Content.
Support for DICOM content in Oracle WebCenter Content simplifies the development
and management of image-enabled patient portals, referring physician portals,
electronic medical records (EMRs), and life sciences research applications.
See Also:
Oracle Multimedia DICOM Developer's Guide for details
1.11.1.3 Full Mode Database Import and Export for Oracle Multimedia
Oracle Multimedia now supports full mode database export and import using Oracle
Data Pump. This simplifies Oracle Data Pump export and import operations of
databases using Oracle Multimedia because special handling of the Oracle Multimedia
DICOM data model is no longer required.
See Also:
Oracle Multimedia DICOM Developer's Guide for details
1.11.2 Oracle Text Enhancements
The following sections describe enhancements to Oracle Text.
1.11.2.1 Near Real-Time Indexing
Near real-time indexing allows for frequent synchronization of indexes with heavy
DML by maintaining recently changed index information in a new staging index
which is designed to remain in memory. Data can be periodically moved from the
staging index to the main index by means of a new MERGE mode for index
optimization. The new option is turned on using the STAGE_ITAB storage option.
The new staging index table will be relatively small and easy to cache in memory.
When resident in memory, there is virtually no cost to this part of the index being
fragmented. By separating the fragmented index from the unfragmented main index,
performance improves and users are allowed to synchronize their indexes frequently
without slowing down query performance. When used with the TRANSACTIONAL and
SYNC(ON COMMIT) index parameters, the index will be effectively synchronous.
See Also:
Oracle Text Application Developer's Guide for details
1.11.2.2 Automatic Management of Near Real-Time Indexes
In conjunction with near real-time indexes, automatic management allows for a
background task that avoids the need for running optimize merge to move data from
the small (normally in memory) $G table to the larger (normally on disk) $I table. The
automatic management process runs in the background when the system is not in
heavy use. Indexes must be registered with the management system if they are to be
automatically optimized.
This feature simplifies management and improves performance for near real-time
indexes and avoids the risk of a manual optimize merge slowing down the system.
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See Also:
Oracle Text Reference for details
1.11.2.3 BIG_IO Large TOKEN_INFO Option
A new word list preference, BIG_IO, specifies that TOKEN_INFO should be stored, where
possible, in a single large SecureFiles database field rather than using in-line BLOBS
limited to 4,000 bytes. This avoids the need to do many seeks when loading large
TOKEN_INFO data items from disk. Sequential I/O is generally much faster than
random I/O, thus improving performance.
See Also:
Oracle Text Reference for details
1.11.2.4 Separate Offsets
DOCID identifies the documents which contain indexed terms and OFFSET identifies the
location of those terms within each document.
A new word list preference, SEPARATE_OFFSETS, used in conjunction with BIG_IO, will
cause the DOCID and OFFSET to be stored in separate locations within the index.
The DOCID list is much shorter than the previous combined TOKEN_INFO data. It thus
reduces the I/O necessary to perform single term queries, AND queries, and other
queries where offset (that is, word position) information is not needed. Performance is
improved for such queries. Queries that do require offset information (for example,
phrase or near searches) may be slightly slower.
See Also:
Oracle Text Application Developer's Guide for details
1.11.2.5 Updatable SDATA Sections
SDATA sections may be updated using a new PL/SQL package, CTX_DDL.UPDATE_
SDATA. This package updates the value of an SDATA item without requiring reindexing
of all the data in that row. Additionally, the maximum number of SDATA sections has
been increased from 32 to 99.
This feature provides better performance for rapidly mutating metadata. For example,
if you want to include stock level in text queries, make it an SDATA section. The
associated row might include a long data sheet of information that you do not want to
reindex every time the stock level changes. With this new feature you can update only
the SDATA part of the index.
See Also:
Oracle Text Reference for details
1.11.2.6 Add SDATA Section to Existing Index
SDATA sections can be added to an existing index without needing to completely
rebuild the index. The new SDATA sections will be indexed in all documents added or
updated after this time. Previously indexed documents are not affected. Application
flexibility and uptime is improved, as indexes can be modified to reflect new business
requirements without having to rebuild the index from scratch.
See Also:
Oracle Text Reference for details
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1.11.2.7 Ordering by SDATA Sections
Query templates now support ordering by one or more SDATA sections. This allows
for more flexible application development and faster queries compared to a standard
database sort.
See Also:
Oracle Text Application Developer's Guide for details
1.11.2.8 Increased Number of Field Sections
Previously, you were allowed only 64 field sections. You can now create an almost
unlimited number (10,000+) of field sections. Field sections are more efficient than
zone sections. Previously, some applications had to use zone sections since there were
not enough field sections available. This feature improves the performance of such
applications.
See Also:
Oracle Text Reference for details
1.11.2.9 Document-Level Lexer
The document-level Lexer allows users to define different Lexer and stoplist
preferences to different documents in an index. This is an extension of the MULTI_
LEXER and MULTI_STOPLIST features, but now the Lexer choice can be independent of
language. This feature allows applications to be more flexible. Different types
documents from different sources may have Lexer or stopword requirements which
differ.
See Also:
Oracle Text Reference for details
1.11.2.10 Increased Number of MDATA Sections
The number of MDATA sections allowed is now effectively unlimited. The previous
maximum was 100. This feature provides increased application flexibility. There is no
longer a need to combine multiple MDATA fields into a single one.
See Also:
Oracle Text Reference for details
1.11.2.11 Language Identification
A new procedure called POLICY_LANGUAGES has been added to the CTX_DOC package.
The procedure allows for the identification of the language of a section of text.
Applications can identify the language of a document in order to process it in an
appropriate manner (for example, to set a LANGUAGE metadata column).
See Also:
Oracle Text Reference for details
1.11.2.12 BIGRAM Mode for the Japanese VGRAM Lexer
Currently, with Japanese VGRAM lexer, certain Japanese queries require wildcard
expansion which can be expensive. Oracle now provides a switch to Japanese VGRAM
lexer to generate BIGRAM mode only and, therefore, eliminate the need for wildcard
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queries. The benefit of this feature is faster query performance on text indexed with
the Japanese VGRAM lexer.
See Also:
Oracle Text Reference for details
1.11.2.13 Mild Not (MNOT) Operator
Mild Not (MNOT) is a new operator designed to find words which are not part of a
phrase. For example, if you want to find references to the city of York, you might want
to avoid finding it as part of the phrase New York. Excluding all documents containing
New York does not solve this problem, since some documents might reference York and
New York. The new MNOT operator makes such semantics possible. The MNOT operator
improves precision and recall of searches by allowing searches for words, but
excluding unwanted phrases containing those words.
See Also:
Oracle Text Reference for details
1.11.2.14 Forward Index
The forward index feature stores a tokenized and compressed version of the document
in the Oracle Text index. This means that features such as highlighting and snippet
generation no longer need to access, filter and tokenize the original document which is
often an expensive process.
See Also:
Oracle Text Application Developer's Guide for details
1.11.2.15 NEAR Operator Enhancements
The NEAR operator has been improved to allow for nested NEAR operators, and to allow
for OR constructs within the NEAR operator. These enhancements improve the flexibility
for application creation.
See Also:
Oracle Text Reference for details
1.11.2.16 Pattern Stopclass
The pattern stopclass allows users to specify regular expressions, and any tokens
matching those regular expressions are considered as stopwords. In other words, they
will not be indexed and will not be considered significant in queries.
Unwanted strings, for example hexadecimal numbers or identifying codes, can be
removed from the index to save space and improve performance.
See Also:
Oracle Text Reference for details
1.11.2.17 Session-Duration SQEs
Stored Query Expressions (SQE) are a way of saving frequently used query
expressions. Session-duration SQEs are not permanently saved but exist only for the
current session. This allows faster performance than permanent SQEs as they are
stored in session memory which avoids the clutter that might occur when SQEs are
frequently created for short-term use within an application.
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See Also:
Oracle Text Reference for details
1.11.2.18 Query Filter Cache
A common scenario in text searching is that a particular set of criteria are used in
many queries. For example, you might want to apply a security filter that restricts the
results to only those appropriate to a particular user. The query filter cache feature
allows you to cache the results of a particular query, or part of a query, then use those
results to filter future searches. Conceptually, this is similar to using a Stored Query
Expression (SQE) but it provides better performance.
This feature provides better performance for queries that have components shared
with other queries.
See Also:
Oracle Text Reference for details
1.11.2.19 Snippet Support in Result Set Interface
The result set interface in Oracle Database 11g was able to produce the various kinds of
data needed for a page of search results all at once, improving performance by sharing
overhead. The result set interface could also return data views which were difficult to
express in SQL, such as top n by category queries.
To present snippet information along with search results to the end user, multiple
iterations were required in Oracle Database 11g. With the approach in Oracle Database
11g, it was necessary to do a search query and iterate through the result to retrieve
snippet information on each row.
In Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1), native support of snippet information from the
result set interface resolves the Oracle Database 11g issues. The result set descriptor
only needs SNIPPET defined if it is required. If defined, the user retrieves the snippet in
the result set along with other search results.
This support provides faster, more flexible applications based on the result set
interface.
See Also:
Oracle Text Application Developer's Guide for details
1.11.3 Oracle XML Enhancements
The following sections describe enhancements to Oracle XML.
1.11.3.1 Enhanced ANYDATA Support
Restrictions have been removed from the ANYDATA implementation that prevented its
use with Abstract Data Types (ADT) that contained attributes whose data type was
LOB or XMLType. This enhancement increases the flexibility of the Oracle ANYDATA
implementation and it can now be used with database editions.
See Also:
Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for details
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1.11.3.2 Integrated Oracle XQuery Implementation
This feature unifies the Oracle and BEA XQuery engines creating a single Java-based
XQuery engine, supporting the XQuery 1.0 recommendation that can be used to
leverage the XQuery language outside of Oracle Database. It also adds support for
XQuery API for Java (XQJ) as an API which is the Java Specification Request (JSR) for
executing XQuery statements from Java programs.
This feature allows customers to leverage the benefits of the World Wide Web
Consortium (W3C) XQuery language by consolidating the existing Oracle and
WebLogic XQuery engines into a single engine that combines developer productivity
with highly scalable and performant XQuery processing.
The new XQuery engine delivers support for the latest XQuery standard modules and
XQuery update. It improves developer productivity by providing consistency with the
XQuery engine used in Oracle Database, support for XQuery debugging, and support
for XQJ.
The new engine is able to leverage other Oracle XML technology, including scalable
Document Object Model (DOM) processing and the new binary XML formats used by
Oracle Database and Oracle XML Developer's Kit. The XQuery engine is capable of
processing very large documents and very large numbers of concurrent operations.
See Also:
Oracle XML Developer's Kit Programmer's Guide for details
1.11.3.3 Oracle XDK/J DOM Improvements
This feature adds support for W3C DOM Level 3 Core API’s and reduces the memory
footprint associated with using XML schemas.
These improvements allow developer's to leverage the benefits of the latest API's used
for XML processing, as defined by the W3C, including those defined as part of the
DOM Level 3.0 Core specification. This results in improved performance and
scalability of the Oracle XDK/J DOM implementation by reducing the memory
footprint of the DOM and improved support for Oracle's Scalable DOM (SDOM).
See Also:
Oracle XML Developer's Kit Programmer's Guide for details
1.11.3.4 Domain Index Support of Hash Partitioned Tables
Applications that use domain indexes can now use hash partitioning methods. Oracle
XML DB now has support for hash partitioning. Hash partitioning is an effective
approach to balancing I/O evenly over a series of partitions.
See Also:
Oracle Database Data Cartridge Developer's Guide and Oracle XML DB
Developer's Guide for details
1.11.3.5 Oracle XSLT or XPath Engine Interoperability
This feature enables the use of non-XDK-based data models with the Oracle XDK/J,
XSLT, or XPath engine, which supports interoperability between these Oracle engines
and third-party XML processors.
Interoperability between the Oracle XDK/J, XSLT, and XPath engines and third-party
XML processors is enabled.
Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) New Features 1-87
Unstructured Data
1.11.3.6 Programmatically Create and Manipulate Scalable DOM
In previous releases, a scalable Document Object Model (DOM) could only be created
by Oracle's XML parser. This meant that a scalable DOM could only be created from an
existing XML document. This feature removes this limitation by allowing developers
to programmatically create and manipulate a new XML document, based on scalable
DOM techniques, using standard DOM API’s.
This feature allows developers to create and manipulate very large XML documents
programmatically by creating an instance of Oracle's scalable DOM, rather than a
traditional in-memory DOM. The scalable DOM can then be manipulated using the
standard DOM API’s provided by Oracle's XDK/J DOM implementation.
1.11.3.7 Standalone XQuery Virtual Machine
The full capabilities of the Oracle XQuery Virtual Machine can be accessed using a
standalone application. This allows XQuery expressions to be performed directly from
the command line without interacting with Oracle Database.
It also enhances the Oracle XQuery Virtual Machine to add support for the XQuery
Update standard as well as the emerging XQuery scripting language. The Oracle
XQuery Virtual Machine and database can also share the same native XML format,
allowing the Oracle XQuery Virtual Machine to process XML from the database
without having to incur the overhead of serializing and parsing the XML in question.
The Oracle XQuery Virtual Machine is a powerful XQuery processor currently only
available as part of Oracle Database. Enabling a standalone command-line mode
allows the Oracle XQuery Virtual Machine to be used to execute XQuery operations in
situations when running XQuery inside the database is not appropriate.
1.11.3.8 Support XQuery Full-Text Specification
This feature extends Oracle's support for the W3C XQuery specification by adding
support for the XQuery full text extension. This enables customers to perform
XML-aware full text searches on XML content stored in the database.
See Also:
Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide for details
1.11.3.9 XDK/J Support for Fast Infoset
This feature adds support for the Fast Infoset to XDK/J model, enabling developers to
use Fast Infoset techniques while working with XML content in Java.
Fast Infoset provides the following benefits in comparison with other formats:
■
■
■
It is more compact, parses faster, and serializes better than XML documents.
It parses five times faster than the Xerces parser, is three times faster at serializing,
and Fast Infoset documents are generally 20 to 60 percent smaller than the
corresponding XML documents.
It leads other binary XML formats in performance and ration of compression, and
handles small to large documents in a more balanced manner.
See Also:
Oracle XML Developer's Kit Programmer's Guide for details
1-88 Oracle Database New Features Guide
Unstructured Data
1.11.3.10 XmlDiff Support for XDK Java
This feature adds support for a Java-based XmlDiff that is format compatible with the
existing C and PL/SQL XmlDiff capabilities introduced in Oracle Database 11g Release
1 (11.1).
This feature enables mid-tier programs written in pure Java to exchange XmlDiff
output with programs written in C or programs which use Oracle Database to perform
XmlDiff operations.
See Also:
Oracle XML Developer's Kit Programmer's Guide for details
1.11.3.11 Support for XQuery Update
Support has been added for the XQuery update recommendation, allowing users to
perform fragment and node-level updates using the W3C standard query language.
This support allows users to perform fragment-level updates on XML content
managed by Oracle XML DB in a performant and standards-based manner. This
support also enables XML-based applications, that have been written using XQuery
update syntax, to be ported to Oracle Database.
This feature improves developer productivity by replacing Oracle's XPath 1.0 based
DML operators with a simpler standards-based approach that leverages the full
benefits of XQuery.
See Also:
Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide for details
1.11.4 Oracle XML Repository Enhancements
The following sections describe the Oracle XML repository enhancements.
1.11.4.1 Enable Digest Authentication with Oracle Database HTTP Listener
Digest authentication uses an industry-standard mechanism that lets the client and
server exchange authentication tokens without passwords being transmitted in plain
text. This mechanism reduces the likelihood of passwords being compromised during
transmission.
Digest authentication support of Oracle XML DB ensures that the Oracle XML DB
HTTP server remains compatible with Microsoft Web Folders WebDAV client.
This feature enhances database security by adding support for digest authentication.
Digest authentication is an industry-standard protocol commonly used with the HTTP
protocol, and is supported by most HTTP clients. Digest authentication ensures that
passwords are always transmitted in a secure manner, even when an encrypted
(HTTPS) connection is not in use. Support for digest authentication allows
organizations to deploy applications that leverage the Oracle XML DB HTTP without
having to worry about passwords being compromised.
See Also:
Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide for details
1.11.4.2 WebDAV, HTTP, and FTP Access for DBFS
This feature provides WebDAV, HTTP, and FTP access to Database File System (DBFS)
by extending Oracle XML DB support to DBFS. Files stored in a DBFS file system can
Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) New Features 1-89
Upgrades
now be edited and managed collaboratively over the World Wide Web, extending file
system-like access to DBFS file systems on non-Linux platforms.
See Also:
Oracle Database SecureFiles and Large Objects Developer's Guide for
details
1.12 Upgrades
The following sections describe the upgrade enhancements for Oracle Database 12c
Release 1 (12.1).
1.12.1 General
The following sections describe general upgrade features and enhancements.
1.12.1.1 Enhanced Upgrade Automation
Database upgrade has been enhanced for better ease-of-use by improving the amount
of automation applied to the upgrade process. Additional validation steps have been
added to the pre-upgrade phase in both the command-line pre-upgrade script and the
Database Upgrade Assistant (DBUA). In addition, the pre-upgrade validation steps
have been enhanced with the ability to generate a fix-up script to resolve most issues
that may be identified before the upgrade.
Post-upgrade steps have also been enhanced to reduce the amount of manual work
required for a database upgrade. The post-upgrade status script gives more explicit
guidance about the success of the upgrade on a component-by-component basis.
Post-upgrade fix-up scripts are also generated to automate tasks that must be
performed after the upgrade.
See Also:
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for details
1.12.1.2 Parallel Upgrade
The database upgrade scripts can now take advantage of multiple CPU cores by using
parallel processing to speed up the upgrade process. This results in less downtime due
to a database upgrade, and thus improved database availability.
See Also:
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for details
1.13 Windows
The following sections describe the new Windows features for Oracle Database 12c
Release 1 (12.1).
1.13.1 Windows Security Enhancements
The following sections describe Windows security integration for Oracle Database on
Windows.
1-90 Oracle Database New Features Guide
Windows
1.13.1.1 Support for Oracle Home User on Windows
Starting with Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1), Oracle Database supports the use of
Oracle home user, specified at the time of installation. Oracle home user is the owner
of Oracle services that run from Oracle home and cannot be changed post installation.
On a system, different Oracle homes can share the same Oracle home user or use
different Oracle home user names.
Oracle home user can be a Windows built-in account or a standard Windows user
account (not an Administrator account). This account is used for running the Windows
services for the Oracle home. For a database server installation, Oracle recommends
that you use a standard Windows user account (instead of a Windows built-in account)
as the Oracle home user for enhanced security.
For Oracle RAC Database, the Oracle home user must be a Windows domain user
account and must be an existing Windows account.
See Also:
Oracle Database Platform Guide for Microsoft Windows for details
1.13.1.2 Support of Oracle Home User for Oracle Net Services
Oracle Database 12c supports Oracle Net Services such as Oracle Net Listener, Oracle
Connection Manager Administration (CMADMIN), and Oracle Connection Manager
(CMAN) proxy listener to run under an Oracle home user account specified during
Oracle Database installation. In earlier releases, Oracle Net Services ran under the
highly privileged, built-in Local System account (LSA). This feature provides more
control over security.
See Also:
Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's Guide for details
1.13.1.3 Named User Support for Oracle RAC Services on Windows
Windows service can be run using a built-in account or a named user on Windows
operating systems. Oracle RAC supports running various Oracle RAC services as
different users, while sharing the same Oracle Grid Infrastructure environment.
Using a named user for services allows for more flexibility when creating Oracle RAC
environments. It also enables Oracle RAC based consolidation ensuring a separation of
duty as required.
See Also:
Oracle Clusterware Administration and Deployment Guide for details
Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1) New Features 1-91
Windows
1-92 Oracle Database New Features Guide
2
2
Oracle Database 12c Documentation
This chapter lists the books available online that document Oracle® Database 12c.
2.1 Documentation Titles and Online Documentation Structure
All books are available in electronic format.
The following categories of documentation are available:
■
Data Mining Documentation
■
Gateways Documentation
■
Installation Documentation
Subcategories include:
–
Database Examples
–
Linux
–
Solaris
■
Java Development Documentation
■
Oracle® Multimedia 12c Documentation
■
OLAP Documentation
■
Oracle Text Documentation
■
Release Notes Documentation
■
Server Documentation
Subcategories include:
–
Administration, Concepts, and Reference
–
Application Development
–
Application Express
–
Backup and Recovery
–
Data Warehousing
–
Language and Interface
–
Networking and Security
–
Oracle Real Application Clusters
–
R Enterprise Documentation
Oracle Database 12c Documentation
2-1
Documentation Titles and Online Documentation Structure
–
Streams and Replication
■
Spatial and Semantic Documentation
■
TimesTen In-Memory Database Documentation
2.1.1 Data Mining Documentation
Table 2–1
Data Mining Documentation
Documentation
Part
Number
Oracle Data Mining Concepts
E17692
Discusses the basic concepts underlying
Oracle Data Mining. Includes an overview of
the features of Oracle Data Mining and
information about mining functions and
algorithms.
Oracle Data Mining User's
Guide
E17693
Explains how to use the SQL interface to
Oracle Data Mining to create models and
score data. This Guide also addresses
administrative issues such as security,
import/export, and upgrade for Oracle Data
Mining.
Description
2.1.2 Gateways Documentation
Table 2–2
Gateways Documentation
Documentation
Part
Number
Description
Oracle Database Gateway
E17927
Installation and Configuration
Guide for IBM AIX on
POWER Systems (64-Bit),
Linux x86-64, Oracle Solaris
on SPARC (64-Bit), Oracle
Solaris on x86-64 (64-Bit), and
HP-UX Itanium
Describes how to install and configure
Oracle Database Gateway for Sybase,
Informix, Teradata, SQL Server, ODBC, and
DRDA on UNIX-based platforms.
Oracle Database Gateway for
E17929
APPC Installation and
Configuration Guide for IBM
AIX on POWER Systems
(64-Bit), Linux x86-64, Oracle
Solaris on SPARC (64-Bit),
and HP-UX Itanium
Provides Oracle applications with seamless
access to IBM mainframe data and services
through Remote Procedure Call (RPC)
processing.
Oracle Database Gateway for
WebSphere MQ Installation
and User's Guide
E17930
Provides access to WebSphere MQ services.
This gateway requires a system that is
capable of running 64-bit applications.
Oracle Database Gateway for
APPC User's Guide
E17931
Provides Oracle applications seamless access
to virtually any APPC-enabled system,
including IBM mainframe data and services
through Remote Procedure Call (RPC)
processing.
Oracle Database Gateway for
Sybase User's Guide
E17932
Describes the Oracle Database Gateway for
Sybase, which enables Oracle client
applications to access Sybase data through
Structured Query Language (SQL).
2-2 Oracle Database New Features Guide
Documentation Titles and Online Documentation Structure
Table 2–2 (Cont.) Gateways Documentation
Documentation
Part
Number
Description
Oracle Database Gateway for
Informix User's Guide
E17933
Describes the Oracle Database Gateway for
Informix, which enables Oracle client
applications to access Informix data through
Structured Query Language (SQL).
Oracle Database Gateway for
Teradata User's Guide
E17934
Describes the Oracle Database Gateway for
Teradata, which enables Oracle client
applications to access Teradata data through
Structured Query Language (SQL).
Oracle Database Gateway for
SQL Server User's Guide
E17935
Describes the Oracle Database Gateway for
SQL Server, which enables Oracle client
applications to access SQL Server data
through Structured Query Language (SQL).
Oracle Database Gateway for
ODBC User's Guide
E17936
Describes the Oracle Database Gateway for
ODBC, which enables Oracle client
applications to access non-Oracle systems
data through Structured Query Language
(SQL).
Oracle Database Gateway for
DRDA User's Guide
E17937
Provides users with transparent access to
DB2.
Oracle Database Migration
Guide
E22508
Describes the installation, configuration, and
administration tasks for all activities related
to migration to Oracle Database from
non-Oracle databases, such as DB2, MySQL,
and Sybase.
2.1.3 Installation Documentation
Table 2–3
Installation Documentation
Documentation
Part
Number
Description
Database Examples
Oracle Database Examples
Installation Guide
E18465
Describes how to install and configure the
products available on the Oracle Database
Examples installation media.
Oracle Database Quick
Installation Guide for Linux
x86-64
E17718
Describes how to quickly install Oracle
Database on Linux x86-64 systems.
Oracle Database Client
Installation Guide for Linux
E17719
Describes how to install and configure
Oracle Database client on Linux.
Oracle Database Installation
Guide for Linux
E17720
Provides configuration information for
network and system administrators, and
database installation information for
database administrators (DBAs) who install
and configure Oracle Database and Oracle
Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server
on Linux.
Oracle Database Client Quick
Installation Guide for Linux
x86-64
E17741
Describes how to quickly install Oracle
Database Client on Linux x86-64 systems.
Linux
Oracle Database 12c Documentation
2-3
Documentation Titles and Online Documentation Structure
Table 2–3 (Cont.) Installation Documentation
Documentation
Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Installation Guide for Linux
Part
Number
Description
E17888
Describes how to install grid infrastructure
for a cluster software, which includes Oracle
Clusterware and Oracle Automatic Storage
Management (Oracle ASM), on systems
running Linux.
Oracle Real Application
E17889
Clusters Installation Guide for
Linux and UNIX
Describes how to install and configure
Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle
RAC) on systems running Linux and UNIX.
Solaris
Oracle Database Installation
Guide for Oracle Solaris
E17752
Provides configuration information for
network and system administrators, and
database installation information for
database administrators (DBAs) who install
and configure Oracle Database, and Oracle
Grid Infrastructure for a standalone server
on Oracle Solaris.
Oracle Database Client
Installation Guide for Oracle
Solaris
E17754
Describes how to install and configure
Oracle Database Client on Oracle Solaris.
Oracle Database Quick
Installation Guide for Oracle
Solaris on SPARC (64-Bit)
E17756
Describes how to quickly install Oracle
Database on Oracle Solaris on SPARC
(64-Bit).
Oracle Database Client Quick
Installation Guide for Oracle
Solaris on SPARC (64-Bit)
E17758
Describes how to quickly install Oracle
Database Client on Oracle Solaris on SPARC
(64-Bit).
Oracle Database Quick
Installation Guide for Oracle
Solaris on x86-64 (64-Bit)
E17760
Describes how to quickly install Oracle
Database on Oracle Solaris on x86-64 (64-Bit).
Oracle Database Client Quick
Installation Guide for Oracle
Solaris on x86-64 (64-Bit)
E17762
Describes how to quickly install Oracle
Database on Oracle Solaris on x86-64 (64-Bit).
Oracle Grid Infrastructure
Installation Guide for Oracle
Solaris
E17890
Describes how to install Oracle Grid
Infrastructure for a cluster software, which
includes Oracle Clusterware and Oracle
Automatic Storage Management (Oracle
ASM), on systems running Oracle Solaris.
2.1.4 Java Development Documentation
Table 2–4
Java Development Documentation
Documentation
Part
Number
Description
Oracle Database Advanced
Queuing Java API Reference
E15980
Describes the Java APIs for application
development and integration using the
Oracle messaging system, Advanced
Queuing.
Oracle Database XML Java
API Reference
E15981
Describes Java APIs for XML.
Oracle Database JDBC
Developer's Guide
E17657
Describes how to use Oracle JDBC drivers to
develop powerful Java database
applications.
2-4 Oracle Database New Features Guide
Documentation Titles and Online Documentation Structure
Table 2–4 (Cont.) Java Development Documentation
Documentation
Part
Number
Description
Oracle Database Java
Developer's Guide
E17658
Describes how to develop, load, and run
Java applications in Oracle Database.
Oracle Universal Connection
Pool for JDBC Developer's
Guide
E17659
Provides instructions for using Oracle
Universal Connection Pooling API. The API
is JDBC driver agnostic.
Oracle Database SQLJ
Developer's Guide
E17660
Provides guidance to developers on SQLJ
programming. This document can be read by
anyone with an interest in SQLJ
programming, but assumes at least some
prior knowledge of Java, SQLJ, PL/SQL, and
Oracle database.
Oracle Database JPublisher
User's Guide
E17661
Describes the JPublisher utility useful for
Java programmers who want classes in their
applications to correspond to SQL or
PL/SQL entities or server-side Java classes.
Oracle Universal Connection
Pool for JDBC Java API
Reference
E17662
Provides Java API reference for Universal
Connection Pool for JDBC.
Oracle Database JDBC Java
API Reference
E17663
Provides Java API reference for Java
Database connectivity.
Oracle Database RAC FAN
Events Java API Reference
E17664
Provides easy access to Oracle Fast
Application Notification (FAN) events.
Oracle Database XStream Java E17774
API Reference
Describes the Java APIs for XStream.
Oracle Database 2 Day + Java
Developer's Guide
Guides application developers on how to use
Java to access and modify data in Oracle
Database.
E17944
Oracle Database 12c Documentation
2-5
Documentation Titles and Online Documentation Structure
2.1.5 Oracle® Multimedia 12c Documentation
Table 2–5
Oracle® Multimedia Documentation
Documentation
Part
Number
Oracle Multimedia Reference
E17696
Presents reference information about using
Oracle Database to store, manage, and
retrieve images, audio, video, DICOM
format medical images and other objects, or
other heterogeneous media data in an
integrated fashion with other enterprise
information. Oracle Multimedia extends
Oracle Database reliability, availability, and
data management to multimedia content in
Internet, electronic commerce, medical,
financial, and other media-rich applications.
Oracle Multimedia User's
Guide
E17697
Presents information about using Oracle
Database to store, manage, and retrieve
images, audio, video, DICOM format
medical images and other objects, or other
heterogeneous media data in an integrated
fashion with other enterprise information.
Oracle Multimedia extends Oracle Database
reliability, availability, and data management
to multimedia content in traditional,
Internet, electronic commerce, medical,
financial, and other media-rich applications.
Oracle Multimedia DICOM
Developer's Guide
E17698
Presents reference and other information
about using Oracle Database to store,
manage, and retrieve DICOM content such
as single-frame and multiframe images,
waveforms, slices of 3-D volumes, video
segments, and structured reports in an
integrated fashion with other enterprise
information. Oracle Multimedia DICOM
extends Oracle Database reliability,
availability, and data management to media
objects in medical applications. Oracle
Multimedia DICOM supports Digital
Imaging and Communications in Medicine,
the standard for medical images.
Oracle Multimedia Java API
Reference
E17699
Presents reference information about writing
Java applications using Oracle Multimedia
objects to manage multimedia content within
Oracle Database. (Oracle Multimedia was
formerly known as Oracle interMedia.)
2-6 Oracle Database New Features Guide
Description
Documentation Titles and Online Documentation Structure
Table 2–5
(Cont.) Oracle® Multimedia Documentation
Documentation
Part
Number
Description
Oracle Multimedia DICOM
Java API Reference
E17700
Presents reference information about writing
Java applications using the Oracle
Multimedia object designed to store Digital
Imaging and Communications in Medicine
(DICOM) data within Oracle Database.
(Oracle Multimedia was formerly known as
Oracle interMedia.)
Oracle Multimedia Mid-Tier
Java API Reference
E17701
Presents reference information about writing
Java applications using Oracle Multimedia to
extract Digital Imaging and Communications
in Medicine (DICOM) metadata outside of
the database, either on the client or in the
middle tier. (Oracle Multimedia was
formerly known as Oracle interMedia.)
Oracle Multimedia Servlets
and JSP Java API Reference
E28184
Presents reference information about writing
Java applications using Java servlets and
JavaServer Pages (JSP) to retrieve and
upload multimedia data from and to Oracle
Database. (Oracle Multimedia was formerly
known as Oracle interMedia.)
2.1.6 OLAP Documentation
Table 2–6
OLAP Documentation
Documentation
Part
Number
Oracle OLAP User's Guide
E17638
Explains how SQL applications can extend
their analytic processing capabilities and
manage summary data by using the OLAP
option of Oracle Database.
Oracle OLAP DML Reference
E17673
Contains a complete description of the
OLAP Data Manipulation Language (OLAP
DML) used to define and manipulate
analytic workspace objects.
Oracle OLAP Java API
Developer's Guide
E17707
Provides guidance for developing client
applications using the Oracle OLAP Java
API.
Oracle OLAP Java API
Reference
E17708
Provides reference information for the Oracle
OLAP Java API.
Oracle OLAP Customizing
Analytic Workspace Manager
E17709
Describes the Analytic Workspace Manager
XML and Java plug-in interfaces and
provides simple examples of
implementations of them.
Oracle OLAP Expression
Syntax Reference
E23382
Describes the Oracle OLAP expression
syntax used to generate information-rich
content from the data stored in dimensional
database objects such as cubes and cube
dimensions.
Description
Oracle Database 12c Documentation
2-7
Documentation Titles and Online Documentation Structure
2.1.7 Oracle Text Documentation
Table 2–7
Oracle Text Documentation
Documentation
Part
Number
Oracle Text Reference
E17747
Provides reference information for building
applications with Oracle Text.
Oracle Text Application
Developer's Guide
E17748
Provides information for building
applications with Oracle Text.
Description
2.1.8 Release Notes Documentation
Table 2–8
Release Notes Documentation
Documentation
Part
Number
Description
Oracle Database Release Notes E17734
for Linux
Contains important information not
included in the Oracle Database
documentation for Linux.
Oracle Database Release Notes E17744
for Oracle Solaris
Contains important information not
included in Oracle Database documentation
for Solaris.
Pro*COBOL Release Notes
E18407
Contains important information not
included in the Pro*COBOL Programmer's
Guide.
Pro*C/C++ Release Notes
E18409
Contains important information not
included in the Pro*C/C++ Programmer's
Guide.
2.1.9 Server Documentation
Table 2–9
Server Documentation
Documentation
Part
Number
Description
Administration, Concepts, and Reference
Oracle Database
Administrator's Reference for
Linux and UNIX-Based
Operating Systems
E10638
Explains how to configure and manage
Oracle Database on Linux and UNIX-based
operating systems.
Oracle Database Performance
Tuning Guide
E15857
Provides information about how to tune the
performance of Oracle Database using
Oracle performance tools.
Oracle Database SQL Tuning
Guide
E15858
Describes how to perform SQL tuning,
which is the iterative process of improving
SQL statement performance to meet specific,
measurable, and achievable goals.
Oracle Database XML C API
Reference
E15885
Describes Oracle XML Developer's Kits
(XDK) and Oracle XML DB APIs for the C
programming language. It primarily lists the
syntax of functions, methods, and
procedures associated with these APIs.
2-8 Oracle Database New Features Guide
Documentation Titles and Online Documentation Structure
Table 2–9 (Cont.) Server Documentation
Documentation
Part
Number
Description
Oracle Database XML C++
API Reference
E15977
Describes Oracle XML Developer's Kits
(XDK) and Oracle XML DB APIs for the C++
programming language. This manual
primarily lists the syntax of functions,
methods, and procedures associated with
these APIs.
Oracle Database Sample
Schemas
E15979
Describes the sample schemas included in
the seed database that ships with Oracle
Database. These schemas are used in
examples in Oracle documentation, in
curriculum materials, and in demos on
Oracle Technology Network.
Oracle Database SQL
Language Reference
E17209
Contains a complete description of Oracle
SQL, the language used to manage
information in Oracle Database.
Oracle Database SQL
Language Quick Reference
E17322
Contains a high-level text description of the
SQL syntax used to manage information in
Oracle Database.
Oracle Database High
Availability Overview
E17601
Introduces Oracle best practices for
deploying a highly available environment,
helps you determine your availability
requirements, and describes the database
architectures that can help your business
achieve high availability.
Oracle Database PL/SQL
Packages and Types Reference
E17602
Describes the PL/SQL packages provided
with the Oracle database server that extend
database functionality and provide PL/SQL
access to SQL features.
Oracle Database Vault
Administrator's Guide
E17608
Explains how to configure an Oracle
database to use Oracle Database Vault,
which enables users to restrict and monitor
administrative user access.
Oracle Automatic Storage
Management Administrator's
Guide
E17612
Describes Oracle Automatic Storage
Management (Oracle ASM) concepts and
provides an overview of Oracle ASM
features.
Oracle Database VLDB and
Partitioning Guide
E17613
Contains an overview of very large database
(VLDB) topics, with emphasis on
partitioning and parallel execution as a key
component of the VLDB strategy.
Oracle Database Licensing
Information
E17614
Describes Oracle Database licensing. If you
have a question about your licensing needs,
contact your Oracle sales representative, or
refer to the resources listed in "Related
Documents" for more information.
Oracle Database Reference
E17615
Provides reference information about
database initialization parameters, static data
dictionary views, and dynamic performance
views that are part of Oracle Database.
Oracle Database 12c Documentation
2-9
Documentation Titles and Online Documentation Structure
Table 2–9 (Cont.) Server Documentation
Documentation
Part
Number
Description
Oracle Database Quality of
Service Management User's
Guide
E17619
Describes the concepts of Oracle Database
Quality of Service Management (Oracle
Database QoS Management), and explains
how to configure, administer, and
troubleshoot Oracle Database QoS
Management.
Oracle Database PL/SQL
Language Reference
E17622
Presents PL/SQL, the Oracle procedural
extension of SQL, an advanced
fourth-generation programming language.
Explains the concepts behind PL/SQL and
illustrates every facet of the language.
Oracle Database Concepts
E17633
Describes Oracle Database architecture and
essential topics for database administrators
and developers.
Oracle Database 2 Day +
Performance Tuning Guide
E17635
Explains how to perform day-to-day
database performance tuning tasks using
features provided by Oracle Diagnostics
Pack, Oracle Tuning Pack, and Oracle
Enterprise Manager.
Oracle Database
Administrator's Guide
E17636
Describes how to create, configure, and
administer an Oracle database. Includes
sections on Oracle Scheduler, Oracle
Database Resource Manager, Oracle Restart,
the Oracle Multitenant option, and
distributed computing.
Oracle Database Utilities
E17639
Describes how to use Oracle Database
utilities to load data into a database, transfer
data between databases, and maintain data.
The topics discussed include Data Pump
Export, Data Pump Import, SQL*Loader,
external tables and associated access drivers,
the Automatic Diagnostic Repository
Command Interpreter (ADRCI), DBVERIFY,
DBNEWID, LogMiner, the Metadata API,
original Export, and original Import.
Oracle Data Guard Concepts
and Administration
E17640
Provides a comprehensive overview of
Oracle Data Guard concepts and describes
how to configure and implement standby
databases that can take over production
operations if your production database
becomes unusable. This guide includes
several database scenarios such as creating,
recovering, failing over, switching over,
configuring, and backing up standby and
primary databases.
Oracle Data Guard Broker
E17641
Describes the Oracle Data Guard broker, a
management and monitoring interface that
automates many of the tasks involved in
configuring and monitoring standby
databases in an Oracle Data Guard
configuration.
2-10 Oracle Database New Features Guide
Documentation Titles and Online Documentation Structure
Table 2–9 (Cont.) Server Documentation
Documentation
Part
Number
Description
Oracle Database Upgrade
Guide
E17642
Guides you through the process of planning
and performing upgrades for Oracle
Database. In addition, this book provides
information about compatibility, upgrading
applications, and changes in the new release
that affect upgrading Oracle Database.
Oracle Database 2 Day DBA
E17643
Provides a single source reference for
administering Oracle Database in a small to
midsize environment, using the graphical
user interface of Oracle Enterprise Manager
Database Express. If you are familiar with
computers, but unfamiliar with
administering Oracle Database, and your
computer has four CPUs or fewer, and you
do not expect to support more than 500
users, this book is appropriate for you.
Oracle Database Globalization
Support Guide
E17750
Describes Oracle globalization support for
the database. Explains how to set up a
globalization support environment, choose
and migrate a character set, customize locale
data, do linguistic sorting, program in a
global environment, and program with
Unicode.
Oracle Database New Features E17906
Guide
Provides an overview of features, options,
and enhancements that are new in this
release of the database.
Oracle Database
Heterogeneous Connectivity
User's Guide
E17907
Describes Oracle's approach to information
integration in a heterogeneous environment.
Describes Oracle Database Gateways and is a
user's guide for these Oracle products.
Oracle Database Readme
E17908
Describes important last-minute features and
changes not included in Oracle Database
Documentation Library.
Oracle Database Advanced
Queuing User's Guide
E17945
Describes features of application
development and integration using Oracle
Database Advanced Queuing (AQ). This
information applies to versions of the Oracle
Database server that run on all platforms,
unless otherwise specified.
SQL*Plus Release Notes
E18402
Contains important information not
included in the SQL*Plus User's Guide and
Reference.
SQL*Plus Quick Reference
E18403
Contains a complete list of SQL*Plus
command syntax.
SQL*Plus User's Guide and
Reference
E18404
Contains a complete description of the
SQL*Plus command-line interface to Oracle
Database, and a complete reference to
SQL*Plus commands and syntax.
Oracle Database Testing Guide E20852
Provides information about how to assure
the integrity of database changes and
manage test data using Oracle Real
Application Testing, data masking, and data
subsetting.
Oracle Database 12c Documentation
2-11
Documentation Titles and Online Documentation Structure
Table 2–9 (Cont.) Server Documentation
Documentation
Part
Number
Description
Oracle Database Global Data
Services Concepts and
Administration Guide
E22100
Provides dynamic load balancing, failover,
and centralized service management for a set
of replicated databases that offer common
services. The set of databases can include
Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle
RAC) and noncluster Oracle databases
interconnected through Oracle Data Guard,
or any other replication technology.
Oracle Database Error
Messages
E26079
Describes error messages that may appear
while using products that are part of Oracle
Database.
Oracle Database Migration
Assistant for Unicode Guide
E36716
Introduces you to the Oracle Database
Migration Assistant for Unicode, discusses
the database character set migration process,
and verifies that there are no character set
data problems in a current Unicode
database.
Oracle Database Data
Cartridge Developer's Guide
E15882
Describes how to implement custom
indexing and query optimization services
and how to package and use these as a
server extension called a data cartridge.
Oracle Database
Object-Relational Developer's
Guide
E16801
Explains how to use the object-relational
features of Oracle Database.
Oracle XML DB Developer's
Guide
E17603
Describes Oracle XML DB. It includes
guidelines and examples for storing,
generating, accessing, searching, validating,
transforming, evolving, and indexing XML
data in Oracle Database.
Oracle XML Developer's Kit
Programmer's Guide
E17604
Provides information to application
developers who need to use components of
the Oracle XML Developer's Kit (XDK) to
generate and store XML data in a database or
in a document outside the database.
Oracle Database SecureFiles
and Large Objects Developer's
Guide
E17605
Describes use of SecureFiles and large object
data types BLOB, CLOB, NCLOB, and BFILE
in application development. Presents APIs
for working with LOBs in supported
programmatic environments. Describes
database file systems and the Oracle
Database File System Hierarchical Store
package.
Oracle Database Development
Guide
E17620
Provides usage information for developers
(all experience levels) of databases and
database applications.
Oracle Database Workspace
Manager Developer's Guide
E17893
Provides usage and reference information
about Oracle Workspace Manager, which
enables applications to create workspaces
and group different versions of table row
values in different workspaces.
Application Development
2-12 Oracle Database New Features Guide
Documentation Titles and Online Documentation Structure
Table 2–9 (Cont.) Server Documentation
Documentation
Part
Number
Description
Oracle Database 2 Day + PHP E18554
Developer's Guide
Provides a tutorial on how to develop PHP
scripts that use the database languages SQL
and PL/SQL to access and manipulate
Oracle data.
Oracle Database 2 Day
Developer's Guide
E21814
Explains general concepts behind
development with Oracle Database,
introduces basic features of SQL and
PL/SQL, provides references to in-depth
information elsewhere in Oracle Database
library, and shows how to create a simple
application.
Oracle SQL Developer User's
Guide
E35117
Provides conceptual and usage information
about Oracle SQL Developer, a graphical tool
that enables you to browse, create, edit, and
delete (drop) database objects; run SQL
statements and scripts; edit and debug
PL/SQL code; manipulate and export data;
migrate third-party databases to Oracle;
view metadata and data in third-party
databases; and view and create reports.
Oracle Globalization
Development Kit Java API
Reference
E37513
Describes APIs for the Oracle Globalization
Development Kit.
Oracle Application Express
Release Notes
E17957
Contains important information not
included in the documentation for Oracle
Application Express.
Oracle Application Express
Installation Guide
E17958
Provides an overview of installing Oracle
Application Express and describes issues to
consider before installing.
Oracle Database 2 Day +
Application Express
Developer's Guide
E17960
Introduces you to application development
using Oracle Application Express. This
manual shows you how to set up a
development environment, or access a
hosted demonstration environment. It then
walks you through building an initial
application, modifying it, and previewing it.
Oracle Application Express
Application Builder User's
Guide
E17961
Describes how to use the Oracle Application
Express development environment to build
and deploy database-centric Web
applications.
Oracle Application Express
Application Migration Guide
E17962
Describes how to convert applications from
either Microsoft Access or Oracle Forms to
Oracle Application Express.
Oracle Application Express
API Reference
E17963
Describes the Application Programming
Interfaces, referred to as APIs, available
when programming in the Oracle
Application Express environment.
Oracle Application Express
SQL Workshop Guide
E17964
Describes how to use Oracle Application
Express SQL Workshop and utilities to load
and unload data from an Oracle database,
generate DDL, view object reports, and
restore dropped database objects.
Application Express
Oracle Database 12c Documentation
2-13
Documentation Titles and Online Documentation Structure
Table 2–9 (Cont.) Server Documentation
Documentation
Part
Number
Description
Oracle Application Express
Administration Guide
E17965
Describes how to perform administration
tasks for an Oracle Application Express
workspace, application, or an entire
development instance.
Oracle Application Express
End User Guide
E29541
Explains common Oracle Application
Express end user tasks.
Oracle Database Backup and
Recovery User's Guide
E17630
Explains how to use Recovery Manager
(RMAN) to back up, recover, and duplicate a
database, and how to use Oracle Flashback
Technology to restore all or a portion of your
data to a previous state.
Oracle Database Backup and
Recovery Reference
E17631
Provides detailed descriptions of the
Recovery Manager (RMAN) commands and
recovery catalog views.
E17749
Provides conceptual, reference, and
implementation material for using Oracle
Database in data warehousing. It covers the
full range of data warehousing activities,
from physical database design to advanced
calculation techniques.
Oracle C++ Call Interface
Programmer's Guide
E15978
Presents the Oracle C++ Call Interface, an
application program interface that enables
applications written in C++ to interact with
one or more Oracle databases. To extend the
functionality of code generated by the Object
Type Translator, programmers may want to
add code in the OTT-generated file. The OTT
can distinguish between OTT-generated code
and user-generated code by looking for some
predefined markers (tags).
Oracle Call Interface
Programmer's Guide
E17625
Describes the Oracle Call Interface (OCI)
which is an application programming
interface (API) that allows applications
written in C or C++ to interact with Oracle
Database.
Pro*COBOL Programmer's
Guide
E18406
Describes how to develop COBOL programs
that use the database languages SQL and
PL/SQL to access and manipulate Oracle
data.
Pro*C/C++ Programmer's
Guide
E18408
Describes how to develop C++ programs
that use the SQL and PL/SQL database
languages to access and manipulate Oracle
data.
Backup and Recovery
Data Warehousing
Oracle Database Data
Warehousing Guide
Language and Interface
Oracle Database Programmer's E18410
Guide to the Oracle
Precompilers
Describes how to develop applications using
the Oracle precompilers and the SQL and
PL/SQL database languages to access and
manipulate Oracle data.
2-14 Oracle Database New Features Guide
Documentation Titles and Online Documentation Structure
Table 2–9 (Cont.) Server Documentation
Documentation
Part
Number
Description
Pro*FORTRAN Supplement to E18411
the Oracle Precompilers Guide
Supplements the Oracle Database
Programmer's Guide to the Oracle
precompilers to provide additional
information on how to develop FORTRAN
programs that use the database languages
SQL and PL/SQL to access and manipulate
Oracle data.
Oracle SQL*Module for Ada
Programmer's Guide
E18412
Describes how to use SQL*Module to
develop module programs and Ada code to
access and manipulate Oracle data.
Oracle Database Real
Application Security
Administrator's and
Developer's Guide
E10479
Describes how to implement Real
Application Security on the database. Real
Application Security is a new feature in
Oracle Database 12c. Real Application
Security is a database authorization model
that enables end-to-end security for multitier
applications. It provides an integrated
solution to securing the database and
application user communities. Also, it
advances the security architecture of Oracle
Database to meet existing and emerging
demands of applications developed for the
Internet.
Oracle Database Real
Application Security Java API
Reference
E10480
Documents two Java packages:
Networking and Security
■
■
oracle.security.xs contains the APIs
for using lightweight user sessions.
oracle.security.xs.admin contains the
APIs for administering lightweight user
session.
Oracle Database Security
Guide
E17607
Explains how to configure an Oracle
database to use the default security features.
Oracle Database 2 Day +
Security Guide
E17609
Provides an introduction to securing an
Oracle database using the default security
features, such as how to secure the database
installation and configuration or manage
encryption. It includes beginning level
tutorials for creating secure application roles,
Oracle Database Vault policies, Oracle
Virtual Private Database policies, Oracle
Data Redaction policies, Oracle Label
Security policies, and unified auditing
policies.
Oracle Database Net Services
Administrator's Guide
E17610
Explains how to plan, configure, and
manage enterprise-wide connectivity with
Oracle Net Services.
Oracle Database Net Services
Reference
E17611
Contains complete listing with descriptions
of the control utility commands and
configuration file parameters available for
managing components of Oracle Net
Services.
Oracle Database 12c Documentation
2-15
Documentation Titles and Online Documentation Structure
Table 2–9 (Cont.) Server Documentation
Documentation
Part
Number
Description
Oracle Database Advanced
Security Guide
E17729
Explains how to configure and use Oracle
Database Advanced Security Transparent
Data Encryption (TDE) and Oracle Data
Redaction.
Oracle Label Security
Administrator's Guide
E17730
Explains how to configure and use Oracle
Label Security, which provides row-level
access control based on the virtual private
database technology of Oracle Database
Enterprise Edition.
Oracle Database Enterprise
E17731
User Security Administrator's
Guide
Explains how to configure and use enterprise
users, which are users defined in a directory.
The guide also covers administrative tasks
related to enterprise user security.
Oracle Real Application Clusters
Oracle Database 2 Day + Real
Application Clusters Guide
E17616
Describes how to install, configure, and
administer Oracle Clusterware and Oracle
Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) on a
two-node system using the Oracle Linux
operating system.
Oracle Clusterware
Administration and
Deployment Guide
E17886
Describes the Oracle Clusterware
architecture and provides an overview of
this product. This book also describes
administrative and deployment topics for
Oracle Clusterware.
Oracle Real Application
Clusters Administration and
Deployment Guide
E17887
Describes the Oracle Real Application
Clusters (Oracle RAC) architecture and
provides an overview of this product. This
book also describes administrative and
deployment topics for Oracle RAC.
Oracle R Enterprise User's
Guide
E35158
Describes how to install and use Oracle R
Enterprise which provides an environment
for statistical computing.
Oracle R Enterprise Release
Notes
E35159
Contains important information that was not
included in the documentation for Oracle R
Enterprise.
Oracle Database XStream
Guide
E17773
Contains conceptual information about
XStream. Also contains instructions for
configuring and using XStream.
Oracle Streams Replication
Administrator's Guide
E17909
Contains instructions for configuring and
managing an Oracle Streams replication
environment. It also includes best practices
for Oracle Streams replication environments
and instructions for migrating from
Advanced Replication to Oracle Streams
replication.
R Enterprise Documentation
Streams and Replication
2-16 Oracle Database New Features Guide
Documentation Titles and Online Documentation Structure
Table 2–9 (Cont.) Server Documentation
Documentation
Part
Number
Description
Oracle Streams Concepts and
Administration
E17910
Contains conceptual information about
Oracle Streams and information about
administering, monitoring, and
troubleshooting an Oracle Streams
environment. It also contains instructions for
using Oracle Streams to record table
changes. It also contains conceptual
information about information provisioning
and instructions for using Oracle Streams for
information provisioning. It also includes
instructions for using Oracle Streams for
database upgrades and database
maintenance operations.
Oracle Streams Extended
Examples
E17912
Contains extended examples that configure
various types of Oracle Streams
environments.
Oracle Database Advanced
Replication
E18895
Contains conceptual information about
Oracle Database Advanced Replication. It
also includes information about planning an
Advanced Replication environment and
information about troubleshooting
Advanced Replication problems.
Oracle Database Advanced
Replication Management API
Reference
E18896
Contains reference information about and
step-by-step instructions for using the
replication management API, which is a set
of PL/SQL packages for setting up and
managing an Advanced Replication
environment. It also includes reference
information about data dictionary views that
are important for Advanced Replication and
security considerations for an Advanced
Replication environment.
2.1.10 Spatial and Semantic Documentation
Table 2–10
Spatial and Semantic Documentation
Documentation
Oracle Spatial and Graph
GeoRaster Developer's Guide
Part
Number
Description
E17894
Provides usage and reference information for
the GeoRaster feature of Oracle Spatial and
Graph, which lets you store, index, query,
analyze, and deliver raster data (raster image
and gridded data and its associated
metadata).
Oracle Spatial and Graph RDF E17895
Semantic Graph Developer's
Guide
Provides usage and reference information
about Oracle Database support for semantic
technologies, including storage, inference,
and query capabilities for data and
ontologies based on Resource Description
Framework (RDF), RDF Schema (RDFS), and
Web Ontology Language (OWL).
Oracle Database 12c Documentation
2-17
Documentation Titles and Online Documentation Structure
Table 2–10 (Cont.) Spatial and Semantic Documentation
Documentation
Part
Number
Description
Oracle Spatial and Graph
Developer's Guide
E17896
Provides usage and reference information for
indexing and storing spatial data and for
developing spatial applications using Oracle
Spatial and Graph and Oracle Locator.
Oracle Spatial and Graph
Topology Data Model and
Network Data Model Graph
Developer's Guide
E17897
Provides usage and reference information
about the Topology Data Model and
Network Data Model Graph features of
Oracle Spatial and Graph.
Oracle Spatial and Graph Java
API Reference
E20856
Provides Javadoc-generated information
about interfaces and classes that support
features available with Oracle Spatial and
Graph, including GeoRaster and the
Topology Data Model and Network Data
Model Graph features, and with MapViewer,
which is packaged with Oracle Fusion
Middleware.
2.1.11 TimesTen In-Memory Database Documentation
Table 2–11
TimesTen In-Memory Database Documentation
Documentation
Part
Number
Description
Oracle TimesTen In-Memory
Database Release Notes
E21630
Provides late-breaking information for
TimesTen releases, as well as information
that is not yet part of the formal
documentation.
Oracle In-Memory Database
Cache Introduction
E21631
Describes the features of Oracle In-Memory
Database Cache and provides information to
help developers plan an IMDB Cache
application.
Oracle TimesTen In-Memory
Database Installation Guide
E21632
Provides information about installing and
upgrading the Oracle TimesTen In-Memory
Database.
Oracle TimesTen In-Memory
Database Operations Guide
E21633
Provides information about how Oracle
TimesTen In-Memory Database works. It
includes step-by-step instructions and
examples that show how to perform
commonly needed tasks.
Oracle In-Memory Database
Cache User's Guide
E21634
Provides information about designing and
configuring the Oracle In-Memory Database
Cache. It includes information about setting
up a cache grid.
Oracle TimesTen In-Memory
Database Replication Guide
E21635
Provides information about designing and
configuring TimesTen to TimesTen
replication, including information about
TimesTen integration with Oracle
Clusterware.
Oracle TimesTen In-Memory
Database Troubleshooting
Guide
E21636
Provides information about utilities and
procedures for troubleshooting problems
that may be encountered when using the
Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database.
2-18 Oracle Database New Features Guide
Documentation Titles and Online Documentation Structure
Table 2–11 (Cont.) TimesTen In-Memory Database Documentation
Documentation
Part
Number
Description
Oracle TimesTen In-Memory
Database C Developer's Guide
E21637
Provides information about developing C
applications to access the Oracle TimesTen
In-Memory Database through ODBC. It also
includes information about TimesTen
support for XLA, OCI, and the Pro*C/C++
Precompiler.
Oracle TimesTen In-Memory
Database Java Developer's
Guide
E21638
Provides information about developing Java
applications to access the Oracle TimesTen
In-Memory Database through JDBC. It also
includes information about support for
TimesTen JMS/XLA.
Oracle TimesTen In-Memory
Database PL/SQL Developer's
Guide
E21639
Provides information about using PL/SQL
with the Oracle TimesTen In-Memory
Database.
Oracle TimesTen In-Memory
Database TTClasses Guide
E21640
Describes how to use the TimesTen C++
Interface Classes (TTClasses) library.
Oracle TimesTen In-Memory
Database SQL Reference
E21642
Provides a reference for SQL statements,
expressions, and functions used with the
Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database,
including TimesTen SQL extensions. It also
describes data types.
Oracle TimesTen In-Memory
Database Reference
E21643
Provides a reference for attributes, built-in
procedures and utilities used with the Oracle
TimesTen In-Memory Database.
Oracle TimesTen In-Memory
Database System Tables and
Views Reference
E21644
Describes TimesTen system tables and
replication tables.
Oracle TimesTen In-Memory
Database PL/SQL Packages
Reference
E21645
Provides reference information for packages
provided with TimesTen PL/SQL.
Oracle TimesTen In-Memory
Database Error Messages and
SNMP Traps
E21646
Provides a reference for Oracle TimesTen
In-Memory Database error messages and
SNMP traps.
Oracle TimesTen In-Memory
Database JDBC Extensions
Java API Reference
E21647
Provides reference information for TimesTen
JDBC classes and interfaces.
Oracle TimesTen In-Memory
Database JMS/XLA Java API
Reference
E21648
Provides reference information for TimesTen
JMS/XLA classes and interfaces.
Oracle Enterprise Manager
E28645
System Monitoring Plug-in for
Oracle TimesTen In-Memory
Database User's Guide
Describes how to install the Oracle
Enterprise Manager Plug-in for Oracle
TimesTen In-Memory Database.
Oracle Enterprise Manager
E28646
System Monitoring Plug-in for
Oracle TimesTen In-Memory
Database Release Notes
Provides late-breaking information about the
Oracle Enterprise Manager Plug-in for
Oracle TimesTen In-Memory Database.
Oracle Database 12c Documentation
2-19
Documentation Titles and Online Documentation Structure
2-20 Oracle Database New Features Guide
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