Oracle Database Installation Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1) for Linux

Oracle Database Installation Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1) for Linux
Oracle® Database
Installation Guide
11g Release 1 (11.1) for Linux
B32002-10
November 2010
Oracle Database Installation Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1) for Linux
B32002-10
Copyright © 2010, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Primary Authors: Prakash Jashnani, Namratha Bhaktavatsalam
Contributing Authors: Kevin Flood, Clara Jaeckel, Emily Murphy, Terri Winters, Reema Khosla
Contributors: David Austin, Subhranshu Banerjee, Mark Bauer, Robert Chang, Jonathan Creighton, Sudip
Datta, Thirumaleshwara Hasandka, Joel Kallman, George Kotsovolos, Simon Law, Richard Long, Rolly Lv,
Padmanabhan Manavazhi, Sreejith Minnanghat, Krishna Mohan, Rajendra Pingte, Hanlin Qian, Janelle
Simmons, Roy Swonger, Lyju Vadassery, Douglas Williams
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Contents
Preface ................................................................................................................................................................. xi
Audience.......................................................................................................................................................
Documentation Accessibility .....................................................................................................................
Command Syntax .......................................................................................................................................
Accessing Documentation.........................................................................................................................
Related Documentation ............................................................................................................................
Conventions ...............................................................................................................................................
xi
xi
xii
xii
xiii
xiv
What’s New in Oracle Database 11g ............................................................................................... xv
New Components Available for Installation.........................................................................................
Changes in the Install Options ................................................................................................................
Database Configuration Assistant .........................................................................................................
Database Upgrade Assistant..................................................................................................................
Automatic Storage Management Fast Mirror Resync..........................................................................
SYSASM Privilege for Automatic Storage Management Administration ........................................
Automatic Maintenance Tasks Management........................................................................................
Automatic Diagnostic Repository...........................................................................................................
Enhanced Optimal Flexible Architecture...............................................................................................
Oracle Direct Network File System Client............................................................................................
Deprecated Components in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1)...................................................
xv
xvi
xvii
xviii
xx
xx
xx
xxi
xxi
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xxiii
1 Overview of Oracle Database Installation
Planning the Installation ........................................................................................................................
Installing the Linux Operating System................................................................................................
Completing a Minimal Linux Installation ......................................................................................
Completing a Default Linux Installation ........................................................................................
About the Oracle Validated Configuration RPM ..........................................................................
Installing the Oracle Validated Configuration RPM.....................................................................
New Oracle Products Installed with This Release ............................................................................
Oracle Application Express ..............................................................................................................
Oracle Warehouse Builder ................................................................................................................
Oracle Configuration Manager ........................................................................................................
Oracle Database Vault .......................................................................................................................
Oracle SQL Developer .......................................................................................................................
Installation Considerations ....................................................................................................................
1-1
1-2
1-3
1-3
1-3
1-4
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-5
1-6
1-6
1-6
iii
Hardware and Software Certification ............................................................................................. 1-7
Third-Party Database Certification for SQL Developer ........................................................ 1-7
Multiple Oracle Homes Support...................................................................................................... 1-7
Installing the Software on a System with an Existing Oracle Installation.......................... 1-7
Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services........................................................................................ 1-8
Using Network Attached Storage or NFS File Systems ............................................................... 1-8
Default Audit Policy and Initialization Parameters...................................................................... 1-9
Oracle Database Installation Methods................................................................................................. 1-9
Interactive Installation Methods ...................................................................................................... 1-9
Automated Installation Methods Using Response Files ........................................................... 1-10
Oracle Database Installation Types ................................................................................................... 1-10
Database Configuration Options ....................................................................................................... 1-11
Preconfigured Database Types ..................................................................................................... 1-11
Installation Choices that Affect Database Creation.................................................................... 1-11
Creating a Database After Installation......................................................................................... 1-12
Database Storage Options ................................................................................................................... 1-12
File System ....................................................................................................................................... 1-12
Automatic Storage Management .................................................................................................. 1-13
Raw Devices..................................................................................................................................... 1-15
Database Management Options ......................................................................................................... 1-15
Management Options for Preconfigured Databases.................................................................. 1-16
Management Options for Custom Databases ............................................................................ 1-17
Features Provided by Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control .................................... 1-17
Database Backup and Recovery Options.......................................................................................... 1-17
Enabling Automated Backups....................................................................................................... 1-18
Backup Job Default Settings ......................................................................................................... 1-18
E-mail Notification Options................................................................................................................ 1-19
Migration Consideration ..................................................................................................................... 1-19
Upgrade Considerations ...................................................................................................................... 1-19
AL24UTFFSS Character Set ........................................................................................................... 1-19
Upgrading an Oracle Database Installed on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1........................... 1-20
2 Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements
Logging In to the System as root ........................................................................................................... 2-1
Checking the Hardware Requirements................................................................................................ 2-3
Memory Requirements...................................................................................................................... 2-3
System Architecture........................................................................................................................... 2-4
Disk Space Requirements.................................................................................................................. 2-4
Recommended Hardware Requirement for SQL Developer....................................................... 2-6
Checking the Software Requirements ................................................................................................. 2-6
Operating System Requirements ..................................................................................................... 2-6
Kernel Requirements ......................................................................................................................... 2-7
Package Requirements ...................................................................................................................... 2-8
Compiler Requirements ................................................................................................................. 2-11
Additional Software Requirements .............................................................................................. 2-11
Oracle ODBC Drivers .............................................................................................................. 2-12
Oracle JDBC/OCI Drivers ...................................................................................................... 2-13
iv
Oracle Messaging Gateway ....................................................................................................
Browser Requirements ............................................................................................................
Oracle XML DB for Oracle Application Express .................................................................
PL/SQL Web Toolkit...............................................................................................................
Oracle Text ................................................................................................................................
Preinstallation Requirements for Oracle Configuration Manager..............................................
Checking the Network Setup..............................................................................................................
Configuring Name Resolution ......................................................................................................
Installing on DHCP Computers ....................................................................................................
Installing on Multihomed Computers .........................................................................................
Installing on Computers with Multiple Aliases .........................................................................
Installing on Non-Networked Computers ..................................................................................
Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users .............................................................
Creating the Oracle Inventory Group ..........................................................................................
Creating the OSDBA Group ..........................................................................................................
Creating an OSOPER Group (Optional) ......................................................................................
Creating an OSASM Group ...........................................................................................................
Creating the Oracle Software Owner User..................................................................................
Determining Whether an Oracle Software Owner User Exists .........................................
Creating an Oracle Software Owner User............................................................................
Modifying an Oracle Software Owner User ........................................................................
Configure Oracle Installation Owner Shell Limits ........................................................................
Configuring Kernel Parameters..........................................................................................................
Identifying Required Software Directories .....................................................................................
Oracle Base Directory .....................................................................................................................
Oracle Inventory Directory............................................................................................................
Oracle Home Directory ..................................................................................................................
Identifying or Creating an Oracle Base Directory ..........................................................................
Identifying an Existing Oracle Base Directory............................................................................
Creating an Oracle Base Directory................................................................................................
Choosing a Storage Option for Oracle Database and Recovery Files.........................................
Creating Directories for Oracle Database or Recovery Files ........................................................
Guidelines for Placing Oracle Database Files on a File System................................................
Creating Required Directories.......................................................................................................
Preparing Disk Groups for an Automatic Storage Management Installation ..........................
General Steps for Configuring Automatic Storage Management ............................................
Step 1: Identifying Storage Requirements for Automatic Storage Management...................
Step 2: Using an Existing Automatic Storage Management Disk Group ...............................
Step 3: Creating DAS or SAN Disk Partitions for Automatic Storage Management ............
Step 4: Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management..............................................
Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management Using the Automatic Storage
Management Library Driver (ASMLIB) 2-37
Configuring Disk Devices for Oracle Database..............................................................................
Example of Creating a Udev Permissions File for Oracle Database ........................................
Example of Configuring Block Device Storage for Oracle Database.......................................
Stopping Existing Oracle Processes...................................................................................................
Configuring the oracle User’s Environment ....................................................................................
2-13
2-13
2-13
2-14
2-14
2-14
2-14
2-15
2-15
2-15
2-16
2-16
2-17
2-19
2-19
2-20
2-20
2-20
2-21
2-21
2-22
2-22
2-22
2-25
2-25
2-26
2-27
2-27
2-28
2-29
2-30
2-30
2-30
2-31
2-32
2-32
2-33
2-35
2-37
2-37
2-41
2-41
2-42
2-43
2-44
v
3
Installing Oracle Database
Preinstallation Considerations .............................................................................................................. 3-1
Performing Multiple Oracle Database Installations in Noninteractive Mode .......................... 3-1
Reviewing Installation Guidelines....................................................................................................... 3-1
Selecting the Database Character Set .............................................................................................. 3-2
Installing the Sample Schemas ......................................................................................................... 3-3
Accessing the Installation Software ..................................................................................................... 3-4
Downloading Oracle Software from the Oracle Technology Network Web Site..................... 3-4
Downloading the Installation Archive Files ........................................................................... 3-4
Extracting the Installation Files................................................................................................. 3-5
Copying the Software to the Hard Disk ......................................................................................... 3-5
Mounting Disks........................................................................................................................... 3-5
Copying the Oracle Database Software to a Hard Disk ........................................................ 3-6
Database Security Options ..................................................................................................................... 3-7
Installing the Oracle Database Software ............................................................................................. 3-7
Running Oracle Universal Installer ................................................................................................. 3-8
Installing Automatic Storage Management ..................................................................................... 3-14
Step 1: Reviewing Automatic Storage Management Installation Considerations................. 3-15
Step 2: Installing the Automatic Storage Management Instance and configuring Disk Groups....
3-15
Step 3: Installing Oracle Database to Use Automatic Storage Management.......................... 3-18
Step 4: Testing the Automatic Storage Management Installation ............................................ 3-19
Installing Oracle Database Examples................................................................................................ 3-20
4 Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks
Required Postinstallation Tasks............................................................................................................ 4-1
Downloading and Installing Patches .............................................................................................. 4-1
Configuring Oracle Products............................................................................................................ 4-2
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks.................................................................................................. 4-3
Creating a Backup of the root.sh Script...................................................................................... 4-3
Configuring New or Upgraded Databases..................................................................................... 4-3
Setting Up User Accounts ................................................................................................................. 4-4
Setting the NLS_LANG Environment Variable............................................................................. 4-4
Generating the Client Static Library................................................................................................ 4-4
Direct NFS Client ............................................................................................................................... 4-4
Enabling Direct NFS Client ....................................................................................................... 4-5
Disabling Direct NFS Client ...................................................................................................... 4-7
Checking NFS Buffer Size Parameters ..................................................................................... 4-7
Required Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks............................................................................. 4-7
Configuring Oracle Net Services ..................................................................................................... 4-8
Configuring Oracle Label Security .................................................................................................. 4-8
Configuring Oracle Database Vault ................................................................................................ 4-9
Configuring Oracle Messaging Gateway ....................................................................................... 4-9
Modifying the listener.ora File for External Procedures ....................................................... 4-9
Modifying the tnsnames.ora File for External Procedures ................................................ 4-10
Setting Up the mgw.ora Initialization File .......................................................................... 4-10
Configuring Oracle Precompilers ................................................................................................. 4-11
vi
Configuring Pro*C/C++ ......................................................................................................... 4-11
Configuring Pro*FORTRAN .................................................................................................. 4-11
Configuring Secure Sockets Layer................................................................................................ 4-11
Installing Oracle Text Supplied Knowledge Bases .................................................................... 4-12
Postinstallation tasks for SQL Developer ........................................................................................ 4-12
Migrating User Settings from Release 1.0.................................................................................... 4-12
Migrating Information from Previous Releases ......................................................................... 4-13
Location of User-Related Information ......................................................................................... 4-13
Postinstallation Tasks for Oracle Application Express .................................................................. 4-14
Restarting Processes........................................................................................................................ 4-14
Choosing an HTTP Server ............................................................................................................. 4-14
About the Embedded PL/SQL Gateway.............................................................................. 4-15
About Oracle HTTP Server and mod_plsql ......................................................................... 4-15
About Password Security ....................................................................................................... 4-15
Configuring the Embedded PL/SQL Gateway .......................................................................... 4-15
Configuring the Embedded PL/SQL Gateway in New Installation or When Upgrading
Database 4-15
Disabling and Enabling the Oracle XML DB HTTP Server ............................................... 4-16
Copying the Images Directory ...................................................................................................... 4-17
Copying the Images Directory After an Upgrade............................................................... 4-17
Copying the Images Directory After a New Installation ................................................... 4-18
Configuring Oracle HTTP Server in a New Installation ........................................................... 4-18
Configuring Oracle HTTP Server Release 9.0.3 in a New Installation............................. 4-18
Configuring Oracle HTTP Server distributed with Oracle Database 11g or Oracle
Application Server 10g in a New Installation 4-21
Enabling Network Services in Oracle Database 11g .................................................................. 4-23
Running Oracle Application Express in Other Languages....................................................... 4-26
Installing a Translated Version of Oracle Application Express ........................................ 4-26
Managing JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES ......................................................................................... 4-27
Viewing the Number of JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES .......................................................... 4-27
Changing the Number of JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES........................................................ 4-27
Obfuscating PlsqlDatabasePassword Parameter........................................................................ 4-28
Obfuscating Passwords........................................................................................................... 4-28
Logging In to Oracle Application Express .................................................................................. 4-28
Oracle Application Express User Privileges ........................................................................ 4-28
Setting Up Your Local Environment..................................................................................... 4-28
Patching Oracle Application Express 3.0..................................................................................... 4-29
Postinstallation Database Configuration for Oracle Configuration Manager.......................... 4-29
Preparing Pre-9.2 Databases .......................................................................................................... 4-30
Instrumenting the Database for Configuration Collections...................................................... 4-30
Additional Step for E-Business Suites.......................................................................................... 4-31
Additional Step for Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control ................................................. 4-31
5
Getting Started with Oracle Database
Checking the Installed Oracle Database Contents and Directory Location ................................. 5-1
Logging In to Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control .......................................................... 5-1
Managing Automatic Storage Management ....................................................................................... 5-3
vii
Starting and Stopping Automatic Storage Management ............................................................. 5-3
Automatic Storage Management Utilities ...................................................................................... 5-3
Accessing Oracle Database with SQL*Plus ........................................................................................ 5-3
Accessing Oracle Database with SQL Developer .............................................................................. 5-4
Reviewing Accounts and Passwords .................................................................................................... 5-4
Unlocking and Resetting User Passwords........................................................................................... 5-7
Using Database Control to Unlock Accounts and Reset Passwords .......................................... 5-7
Using SQL*Plus to Unlock Accounts and Reset Passwords ........................................................ 5-8
Unlocking and Changing Passwords .............................................................................................. 5-8
Identifying Databases ............................................................................................................................. 5-9
Locating the Server Parameter File .................................................................................................... 5-10
Reviewing Tablespaces and Data Files, Redo Log Files, and Control Files .............................. 5-10
Identifying Tablespaces and Data Files ....................................................................................... 5-10
Locating Redo Log Files ................................................................................................................. 5-11
Locating Control Files..................................................................................................................... 5-12
6
Removing Oracle Software
Overview....................................................................................................................................................
Identifying All Instances ........................................................................................................................
Removing Oracle Configuration Manager..........................................................................................
Removing Oracle Application Express from the Database..............................................................
Removing an Oracle Database...............................................................................................................
Removing an Automatic Storage Management Instance .................................................................
Reconfiguring Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services.................................................................
Identifying Oracle Database 11g Oracle Homes............................................................................
Reconfiguring the Oracle CSS Daemon ..........................................................................................
Deleting the Oracle CSS Daemon Configuration ..........................................................................
Removing Oracle Software.....................................................................................................................
A
6-1
6-1
6-2
6-2
6-3
6-4
6-5
6-6
6-6
6-7
6-8
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files
How Response Files Work? ................................................................................................................... A-1
Reasons for Using Silent Mode or Noninteractive Mode............................................................ A-2
Creating a Database Using Automatic Storage Management as the Storage Option for Database
Files A-3
General Procedure for Using Response Files ................................................................................ A-3
Creating the oraInst.loc File .................................................................................................................. A-3
Preparing a Response File ..................................................................................................................... A-4
Editing a Response File Template................................................................................................... A-4
Recording a Response File ............................................................................................................... A-5
Running Oracle Universal Installer Using a Response File ........................................................... A-7
Running Net Configuration Assistant Using a Response File....................................................... A-8
Running Database Configuration Assistant Using a Response File............................................. A-9
Using Database Configuration Assistant in Noninteractive Mode ........................................... A-9
Using Database Configuration Assistant in Silent Mode............................................................ A-9
Running Database Configuration Assistant in Noninteractive or Silent Mode....................... A-9
viii
B
Cloning an Oracle Home
C
Using NAS Devices
General Configuration Guidelines for NAS Devices ......................................................................
NFS Feature Description........................................................................................................................
Choosing Mount Points .........................................................................................................................
Choosing Mount Points for Oracle Software Files .......................................................................
Choosing Mount Points for Oracle Database and Recovery Files .............................................
Creating Files on a NAS Device for Use with Automatic Storage Management........................
NFS Mount Options................................................................................................................................
D
Optimal Flexible Architecture
Overview of the Optimal Flexible Architecture Standard ..............................................................
Implementing Optimal Flexible Architecture ...................................................................................
File Systems........................................................................................................................................
Number of File Systems ............................................................................................................
Naming Conventions ................................................................................................................
Naming Directories...........................................................................................................................
Oracle Base Directory Naming Convention...........................................................................
Naming Mount Points for Very Large Databases (VLDBs).................................................
Referring to Path Names...........................................................................................................
Oracle Home Directory Naming Convention........................................................................
Naming Subdirectories .............................................................................................................
Naming Database Files.....................................................................................................................
Separating Segments with Different Requirements.....................................................................
Exploiting the Optimal Flexible Architecture Structure for Oracle Files..................................
Optimal Flexible Architecture File Mapping ................................................................................
E
D-1
D-1
D-1
D-2
D-2
D-2
D-2
D-2
D-3
D-3
D-3
D-4
D-5
D-6
D-6
Managing Oracle Database Port Numbers
About Managing Ports ...........................................................................................................................
Viewing Port Numbers and Access URLs ..........................................................................................
Port Numbers and Protocols of Oracle Components .......................................................................
Changing the Oracle Enterprise Management Agent Port..............................................................
Changing the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Console Ports ..............................................
Changing the Oracle Ultra Search Ports .............................................................................................
Changing the Oracle XML DB Ports....................................................................................................
F
C-1
C-1
C-2
C-2
C-3
C-4
C-5
E-1
E-2
E-2
E-4
E-4
E-5
E-5
Configuring Oracle Database Globalization Support
Installing and Using Oracle Components in Different Languages............................................... F-1
Configuring Oracle Components to Run in Different Languages ............................................. F-1
Determining the Operating System Locale by Using the LANG Environment Variable F-2
Configuring Locale and Character Sets by Using the NLS_LANG Environment Variable ....
F-3
Installing Translation Resources ..................................................................................................... F-3
Running Oracle Universal Installer in Different Languages ......................................................... F-4
ix
G
Troubleshooting
Verify Requirements...............................................................................................................................
X Window Display Errors ......................................................................................................................
What to Do If an Installation Error Occurs?.......................................................................................
Reviewing the Log of an Installation Session ...................................................................................
Troubleshooting Host Name Changes and CSS................................................................................
Troubleshooting Oracle Configuration Manager .............................................................................
Troubleshooting Configuration Assistants ........................................................................................
Configuration Assistant Failure......................................................................................................
Fatal Errors .........................................................................................................................................
Troubleshooting Inventory Issues .......................................................................................................
Silent-Mode Response File Error Handling.......................................................................................
Cleaning Up After a Failed Installation..............................................................................................
After Failed Upgrade Installation ........................................................................................................
Reverting to Earlier Release.............................................................................................................
After a Failed New Installation .......................................................................................................
Images Displaying Incorrectly in Oracle Application Express ......................................................
Online Help Not Working .....................................................................................................................
H
Frequently Asked Questions About Installation
Installing Oracle Database or Oracle Database.................................................................................
Installing Oracle Database Tools .........................................................................................................
Installing Oracle Database with Oracle Applications .....................................................................
Installing Oracle Database Heterogeneous Connectivity Tools (Gateways)...............................
I
G-1
G-1
G-2
G-3
G-3
G-4
G-6
G-6
G-6
G-7
G-7
G-7
G-8
G-8
G-9
G-9
G-9
H-1
H-3
H-7
H-8
Country Codes
Valid Country Codes................................................................................................................................. I-1
Glossary
Index
x
Preface
This guide provides instructions about installing and configuring Oracle Database for
Linux. This guide covers Optimal Flexible Architecture, Database Storage Options,
and Database Configuration Options. This guide also talks about installing and
configuring database using response files, globalization support, ports, and
troubleshooting.
The preface contains the following topics:
■
Audience
■
Documentation Accessibility
■
Command Syntax
■
Accessing Documentation
■
Related Documentation
■
Conventions
Audience
Oracle Database Installation Guide for Linux guide is intended for anyone responsible for
installing Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) on a single Linux x86 system.
Additional installation guides for Oracle Database, Oracle Real Application Clusters,
Oracle Clusterware, Oracle Database Examples, and Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid
Control are available on the relevant installation media.
See Also: Oracle Database Installation Guide for Linux to install Oracle
Database using the default settings
Documentation Accessibility
Our goal is to make Oracle products, services, and supporting documentation
accessible to all users, including users that are disabled. To that end, our
documentation includes features that make information available to users of assistive
technology. This documentation is available in HTML format, and contains markup to
facilitate access by the disabled community. Accessibility standards will continue to
evolve over time, and Oracle is actively engaged with other market-leading
technology vendors to address technical obstacles so that our documentation can be
accessible to all of our customers. For more information, visit the Oracle Accessibility
Program Web site at http://www.oracle.com/accessibility/.
xi
Accessibility of Code Examples in Documentation
Screen readers may not always correctly read the code examples in this document. The
conventions for writing code require that closing braces should appear on an
otherwise empty line; however, some screen readers may not always read a line of text
that consists solely of a bracket or brace.
Accessibility of Links to External Web Sites in Documentation
This documentation may contain links to Web sites of other companies or
organizations that Oracle does not own or control. Oracle neither evaluates nor makes
any representations regarding the accessibility of these Web sites.
Access to Oracle Support
Oracle customers have access to electronic support through My Oracle Support. For
information, visit http://www.oracle.com/support/contact.html or visit
http://www.oracle.com/accessibility/support.html if you are hearing
impaired.
Command Syntax
UNIX command syntax appears in monospace font. The dollar character ($), number
sign (#), or percent character (%) are UNIX command prompts. Do not enter them as
part of the command. The following command syntax conventions are used in this
guide:
Convention
Description
backslash \
A backslash is the UNIX command continuation character. It is used in
command examples that are too long to fit on a single line. Enter the
command as displayed (with a backslash) or enter it on a single line
without a backslash:
dd if=/dev/rdsk/c0t1d0s6 of=/dev/rst0 bs=10b \
count=10000
braces { }
Braces indicate required items:
.DEFINE {macro1}
brackets [ ]
Brackets indicate optional items:
cvtcrt termname [outfile]
ellipses ...
Ellipses indicate an arbitrary number of similar items:
CHKVAL fieldname value1 value2 ... valueN
italics
Italic type indicates a variable. Substitute a value for the variable:
library_name
vertical line |
A vertical line indicates a choice within braces or brackets:
FILE filesize [K|M]
Accessing Documentation
The documentation for this release includes platform-specific documentation and
generic product documentation.
xii
Platform-Specific Documentation
Platform-specific documentation includes information about installing and using
Oracle products on particular platforms.
This guide contains information required to install Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1)
on various platforms of Linux. Ensure that you review information related to the
platform on which you intend to install Oracle Database 11g.
The platform-specific documentation for this product is available in both Adobe
portable document format (PDF) and HTML format on the product media. To access
the platform-specific documentation on media, use a Web browser to open the
welcome.htm file in the top-level directory.
Product Documentation
Product documentation includes information about configuring, using, or
administering Oracle products on any platform. The product documentation for
Oracle Database 11g products is available in both HTML and PDF formats in the
following locations:
■
On the Oracle Database Documentation Library media
Use a Web browser to view or open the index.htm file in the top-level directory
on the media.
■
Online on the Oracle Technology Network (OTN) Web site:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/documentation/index.html
Related Documentation
The related documentation for Oracle Database 11g products includes the following
manuals:
■
Oracle Database Release Notes for Linux
■
Oracle Database Client Installation Guide for Linux
■
Oracle Database Examples Installation Guide
■
Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide for Linux and UNIX
■
Oracle Database Quick Installation Guide for Linux x86-64
■
Oracle Database Client Quick Installation Guide for Linux x86-64
■
Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control Installation and Basic Configuration
■
Oracle Database Administrator's Reference for Linux and UNIX
■
Oracle Database Storage Administrator's Guide
■
Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide for Linux
■
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
■
Oracle Database 2 Day DBA
For information about Oracle error messages, see Oracle Database Error Messages.
Oracle error message documentation is available only in HTML. If you only have
access to the Oracle Database 10g Release 2 (10.2) Online Documentation Library, then
you can browse the error messages by range. Once you find the specific range, use
your browser's "find in page" feature to locate the specific message. When connected to
the Internet, you can search for a specific error message using the error message search
feature of the Oracle online documentation.
xiii
Many books in the documentation set use the sample schemas of the seed database,
which is installed by default when you install Oracle. Refer to Oracle Database Sample
Schemas for information on how these schemas were created and how you can use
them yourself.
Printed documentation is available for sale in the Oracle Store at:
http://oraclestore.oracle.com/
To download free release notes, installation documentation, white papers, or other
collateral, please visit the Oracle Technology Network. You must register online before
using OTN; registration is free and can be done at:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/membership/
If you already have a user name and password for Oracle Technology Network, then
you can go directly to the documentation section of the Oracle Technology Network
Web site at:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/documentation/
Refer to Oracle Database Release Notes for Linux or important information that was not
available when this book was released. The release notes for Oracle Database 11g are
updated regularly. The most recent version is available on Oracle Technology Network
at:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/documentation/index.html
Conventions
The following text conventions are used in this document:
xiv
Convention
Meaning
boldface
Boldface type indicates graphical user interface elements associated
with an action, or terms defined in text or the glossary.
italic
Italic type indicates book titles, emphasis, or placeholder variables for
which you supply particular values.
monospace
Monospace type indicates commands within a paragraph, URLs, code
in examples, text that appears on the screen, or text that you enter.
What’s New in Oracle Database 11g
The following is a list of new features or enhancements provided with Oracle Database
11g:
■
New Components Available for Installation
■
Changes in the Install Options
■
Database Configuration Assistant
■
Database Upgrade Assistant
■
Automatic Storage Management Fast Mirror Resync
■
SYSASM Privilege for Automatic Storage Management Administration
■
Automatic Maintenance Tasks Management
■
Automatic Diagnostic Repository
■
Enhanced Optimal Flexible Architecture
■
Oracle Direct Network File System Client
■
Deprecated Components in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1)
New Components Available for Installation
The following are the new components available while installing Oracle Database 11g:
■
■
■
■
■
Oracle Application Express: This feature is installed with Oracle Database 11g. It
was previously named HTML DB, and was available as a separate Companion CD
component. Oracle Application Express is now installed by default with any
Oracle Database 11g installation.
Oracle Configuration Manager: This feature is offered during installation. It was
previously named Customer Configuration repository (CCR). It is an optional
component for database installation and can be installed with any Oracle Database
11g installation. Oracle Configuration Manager gathers and stores details relating
to the configuration of the software stored in database Oracle home directories.
Oracle Database Vault: This feature is installed with Oracle Database 11g. It is an
optional component for database installation.
Oracle Real Application Testing: This feature is installed by default with the
Enterprise Edition installation type of Oracle Database 11g.
Oracle SQL Developer: This feature is installed by default with template-based
database installations, such as General Purpose/Transaction Processing, and Data
xv
Warehousing. It is also installed with database client Administrator, Runtime, and
Custom installations.
■
Oracle Warehouse Builder: This feature is installed with Oracle Database 11g.
With Standard Edition and Enterprise Edition of Oracle
Database 11g Release 1, Oracle Warehouse Builder with basic features
is installed. However, with Enterprise Edition, you can purchase
options that extend Oracle Warehouse Builder.
Note:
See Also:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
The following sections and guides for more information:
Chapter 2, "Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements" for
information about the preinstallation requirements
Oracle Database Application Express User's Guide for more
information about Oracle Application Express
The "Preinstallation Requirements for Oracle Configuration
Manager" on page 2-14 for more information
Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide for more information
about Database Vault
Oracle Database Performance Tuning Guide for more information
about Oracle Real Application Testing
Oracle Database SQL Developer User's Guide for more information
about Oracle SQL Developer
Oracle Warehouse Builder User's Guide for more information about
Oracle Warehouse Builder
Changes in the Install Options
The following are install option changes for Oracle Database 11g:
■
■
■
Oracle Configuration Manager: Oracle Configuration Manager is integrated with
Oracle Universal Installer. However, it is an optional component for database
installation and can be installed with any Oracle Database 11g installation.
Oracle Data Mining: Enterprise Edition installation type selects Oracle Data
Mining option by default. In Oracle Database 11g, the Data Mining metadata is
created with SYS metadata when you select the Create Database option.
Oracle Database Vault: Oracle Database Vault is integrated with Oracle Universal
Installer. However, it is an optional component with database installation. To
install this product, you have to select the Custom Installation.
To install Oracle Database Vault with Enterprise Edition, complete the Enterprise
Edition installation and then perform a custom installation. Select Oracle Label
Security and Oracle Database Vault, and install these products on the same
Enterprise Edition database.
■
xvi
Oracle HTTP Server: Starting with Oracle Database 11g, Oracle HTTP Server is
available on a separate media shipped with Oracle Database. In the previous
releases, this product was available as a Companion CD component.
Note: To install Oracle HTTP Server, use the Oracle Fusion Middleware
Web Tier Utilities 11g (11.1.1.2.0) media or download.
■
■
Oracle Ultra Search: Starting Oracle Database 11g, Oracle Ultra Search is
integrated with Oracle Database. In the previous releases, this product was
available as a Companion CD component.
Oracle XML DB: Starting with Oracle Database 11g, Oracle XML DB is no longer
an optional feature. Database Configuration Assistant installs and configures it for
all database installations.
See Also:
■
■
■
■
■
■
The following sections and guides for more information:
The "Preinstallation Requirements for Oracle Configuration
Manager" on page 2-14 for more information
Oracle Data Mining Administrator's Guide for more information
about Oracle Data Mining
Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide for more information
about Oracle Database Vault
Oracle HTTP Server Administrator's Guide for more information
about Oracle HTTP Server
Oracle Ultra Search Administrator's Guide for more information
about Ultra Search
Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide for more information about
Oracle XML DB
Database Configuration Assistant
The following additions and enhancements are made to Database Configuration
Assistant:
■
Added Support to Configure New Database Options
■
Automatic Memory Management
■
Oracle Base and Diagnostic Destination Configuration
■
Oracle Data Mining
■
Secure Database Configuration
■
Switching a Database from Database Control to Grid Control Configuration
Added Support to Configure New Database Options
The following options in Oracle Database 11g can be configured using Database
Configuration Assistant:
■
Oracle Application Express
■
Oracle Database Vault
■
Oracle Warehouse Builder
Automatic Memory Management
This is a new initialization parameter in Oracle Database 11g to automate the memory
allocation. By default, Database Configuration Assistant now uses MEMORY_TARGET
xvii
instead of specifying individual values for SGA_TARGET and PGA_AGGREGATE_
TARGET. The Memory management page of Database Configuration Assistant has a
new option to select automatic memory management.
See Also: The "Using Automatic Memory Management" section of
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide
Oracle Base and Diagnostic Destination Configuration
The directory that you specify when you are prompted for ORACLE_BASE by Oracle
Universal Installer is stored in the Oracle home inventory. Database Configuration
Assistant uses this value to derive the default database locations and the
DIAGNOSTIC_DEST parameter. The diagnostic destination location contains all
Automatic Diagnostic Repository directories (diagnostic files, such as Alert logs and so
on). Starting with Oracle Database Release 11g, the initialization parameter settings for
background dump, user dump, and core dump destinations are replaced by the
Diagnostic Destination.
See Also: "Optimal Flexible Architecture" for more information
about Oracle base and diagnostic destination configuration
Oracle Data Mining
In Oracle Database 11g, Data Mining metadata is created with the SYS metadata. It is
created by the catproc.sql and other scripts that are run as the SYS user. You no
longer configure the Data Mining option through the Database Features screen of
Oracle Database Configuration Assistant.
See Also: Oracle Data Mining Administrator's Guide for more
information about Oracle Data Mining
Secure Database Configuration
Oracle Database 11g has new defaults for audit and password profiles. Database
Configuration Assistant has a new screen to enable the new security settings during
the database creation and existing database configuration.
See Also: The "Database Security Options" on page 3-7 for more
information
Switching a Database from Database Control to Grid Control Configuration
In previous releases, Database Configuration Assistant contains the functionality to
configure a database either with Database Control, or with Grid Control. You can
configure a database either while creating it or later. However, reconfiguring a
database from Database Control to Grid Control requires significant manual effort.
With Oracle Database 11g, Database Configuration Assistant provides the Enterprise
Manager Configuration plug-in, which automates the process to switch configuration
of a database from Database Control to Grid Control.
Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide for Linux
and UNIX for more information about configuring Grid Control
See Also:
Database Upgrade Assistant
The following additions and enhancements are made to Database Configuration
Assistant:
■
xviii
Command Line Option to Auto Extend System Files
■
Express Edition Upgrade
■
Integration with Oracle Database 11g Pre-upgrade Tool
■
Moving Data Files into ASM, SAN, and Other File Systems
■
Oracle Base and Diagnostic Destination Configuration
Command Line Option to Auto Extend System Files
The command line option AUTOEXTEND facilitates auto extending of the data files as a
part of the upgrade. This option automatically extends the data files during the
upgrade and turns the autoextend back to its original settings after the upgrade. This
option is useful if there is enough space on the disk, and if you do not need to add new
data files or manually increase the size of the files.
See Also: The "Altering a Bigfile Tablespace" section in Oracle
Database Administrator's Guide for more information about the
AUTOEXTEND clause
Express Edition Upgrade
For single-instance databases, Oracle Database Upgrade Assistant configuration utility
enables you to upgrade from Oracle Database Express Edition (Oracle Database XE) to
Oracle Database 11g. The XE database files reside under the path ORACLE_
BASE/oradata/XE. These files must be copied to a new location as the user may
remove the XE Home after upgrade.
Integration with Oracle Database 11g Pre-upgrade Tool
Database Upgrade Assistant uses the new pre-upgrade script for Oracle Database 11g.
This script is used to estimate disk space, initialization parameters, statistics gathering,
and providing feedback on possible problem areas.
Moving Data Files into ASM, SAN, and Other File Systems
You can move data files to ASM, OFS, or other storage devices, such as Storage Area
Networks (SAN) and Network Area Storage (NAS), as part of the upgrade. If you
move the database files during the upgrade, then you can benefit from the typical
downtime for this tablespace by rebalancing disks and moving files to a better storage
device, such as SAN, NAS, or ASM.
See Also: The Preparing Disk Groups for an Automatic Storage
Management Installation on page 2-32 for more information about
preparing disk groups for Automatic Storage Management
Oracle Base and Diagnostic Destination Configuration
The directory that you specify when you are prompted for ORACLE_BASE by Oracle
Universal Installer is stored in the Oracle home inventory. Database Upgrade Assistant
uses this value to derive the default database locations and the DIAGNOSTIC_DEST
parameter. The diagnostic destination location contains all ADR directories (diagnostic
files, such as the alert logs, trace files, and so on). This diagnostic destination directory
is required while upgrading an earlier Oracle Database release to Oracle Database 11g
release of the database. If the Oracle base directory already exists, then Oracle
Database Upgrade Assistant automatically retrieves this information and populates its
path. Starting with Oracle Database 11g Release 1, the initialization parameter settings
for background dump (BACKGROUND_DUMP_DEST), user dump (USER_DUMP_DEST),
and core dump (CORE_DUMP_DEST) destinations are replaced by the Diagnostic
Destination (DIAGNOSTIC_DEST).
xix
See Also: Appendix D, "Optimal Flexible Architecture"for more
information about Oracle base and diagnostic destination
configuration
Automatic Storage Management Fast Mirror Resync
Automatic Storage Management fast mirror resync quickly resynchronizes Automatic
Storage Management disks within a disk group after transient disk path failures, as
long as the disk drive media is not corrupted. Any failures that render a failure group
temporarily unavailable are considered transient failures. Disk path malfunctions,
such as cable disconnections, host bus adapter or controller failures, or disk power
supply interruptions, can cause transient failures. The duration of a fast mirror resync
depends on the duration of the outage. The duration of a resynchronization is typically
much shorter than the amount of time required to completely rebuild an entire
Automatic Storage Management disk group.
See Also: The "Automatic Storage Management Fast Mirror Resync"
section in Oracle Database Storage Administrator's Guide for more
information about ASM fast mirror resync
SYSASM Privilege for Automatic Storage Management Administration
Oracle Database 11g introduces an optional system privilege, SYSASM, and an optional
operating system group, OSASM, to secure privileges to perform Automatic Storage
Management administration tasks. Oracle recommends that you use SYSASM instead
of SYSDBA for Automatic Storage Management administration, to separate Automatic
Storage Management administration from database administration. In a future release,
Oracle may restrict access to Automatic Storage Management only to operating system
users that are members of the OSASM operating system group, and require the use of
SYSASM to administer Automatic Storage Management.
Note: You can create an operating system group for Automatic
Storage Management administrator, in addition to dba and oper
groups.
See Also: The "Authentication for Accessing ASM Instances" section
in Oracle Database Storage Administrator's Guide for more information
about SYSASM privilege for Automatic Storage Management
Automatic Maintenance Tasks Management
This feature provides out-of-the-box management of scheduling and resource
allocation, such as CPU time, among the various database maintenance tasks, such as
Automatic Optimizer Statistics Collection and Automatic Segment Advisor.
Maintenance tasks are regulated to the extent that end-user activity gets the necessary
resources to finish its work.
See Also: Chapter 24, "Managing Automated Database Maintenance
Tasks" of Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information
about Automatic Maintenance task management
xx
Automatic Diagnostic Repository
The Automatic Diagnostic Repository is a feature added to Oracle Database 11g. It is a
new system managed repository for storing and organizing trace files and other error
diagnostic data. The Automatic Diagnostic Repository provides a comprehensive view
of the critical errors encountered by the database. This feature also enables you to
maintain the relevant data needed for problem diagnostics and their eventual
resolution. The Automatic Diagnostic Repository reduces the time to resolve errors
and code defects. The repository is stored as a directory structure under the ADR base
directory that contains the diag directory. The default location of the ADR base
directory is set by DIAGNOSTIC_DEST. If the ORACLE_BASE variable is set, then the
default value of DIAGNOSTIC_DEST is equal to the value of the ORACLE_BASE
variable. If the value of the ORACLE_BASE variable is not set, then the default value of
DIAGNOSTIC_DEST is set to $ORACLE_HOME/log. However, this location can be
changed by using the DIAGNOSTIC_DEST parameter of the init.ora file.
See Also: The "Automatic Diagnostic Repository (ADR)" section in
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information about the
Automatic Diagnostic Repository
Enhanced Optimal Flexible Architecture
The following enhancements are made to the Optimal Flexible Architecture in Oracle
Database 11g:
■
Oracle Base and Oracle Home
■
Flash Recovery Area and Data File Location
Oracle Base and Oracle Home
In Oracle Database 11g, Oracle Universal Installer prompts you to specify the Oracle
base. You can share this Oracle base across all of the Oracle homes you create on the
system. Oracle recommends that you share an Oracle base for all of the Oracle homes
created by the same user.
Oracle Universal Installer has a list box where you can edit or select the Oracle base.
The installer derives the default Oracle home from the Oracle base location you
provide in the list box. However, you can change the default Oracle home by editing
the location.
When installing Oracle Clusterware, the Oracle Clusterware home should not be
under Oracle base. This is because the root.sh script in UNIX operating systems
changes the ownership of the parent directories up to the root file system (/) to the
root user. If you specify an Oracle Clusterware home under Oracle base, Oracle
Universal Installer displays an error.
The following are the changes made in Oracle Database 11g with respect to Oracle base
to make it Optimal Flexible Architecture compliant:
■
■
ORACLE_BASE is a recommended environment variable. However, this variable
will be made mandatory in future releases.
Oracle recommends that you create the flash recovery area and data file location
under Oracle base.
See Also: Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide for Linux for more
information about Oracle Clusterware home
xxi
Flash Recovery Area and Data File Location
In Oracle Database 10g, the default locations for the flash recovery area and data files
are one level above the Oracle home directory. However, in Oracle database 11g,
Oracle base is the starting point to set the default locations for flash recovery and data
files. However, Oracle recommends that you keep the flash recovery area and data file
location on separate disks. To mount the disks you can use the following mount points
for flash recovery area and data file location respectively:
$ORACLE_BASE/flash_recovery_area
$ORACLE_BASE/oradata
Oracle recommends you use separate disks for oradata, flash recovery, and the
Oracle home.
If you install Oracle RAC, then you must share flash recovery area and data file
location among all the nodes.
See Also: Appendix D, "Optimal Flexible Architecture" for more
information about Optimal Flexible Architecture
Oracle Direct Network File System Client
This feature is implemented as a Direct Network File System (NFS) client as a part of
Oracle RDBMS Kernel in Oracle Disk Manager library. NAS-based storage systems use
NFS to access data. In Oracle Database 10g, NAS storage devices are accessed using
the operating system provided kernel NFS driver, which require specific configuration
settings to ensure its efficient and correct usage with Oracle. The following are the
major problems that arise in correctly specifying configuration parameters:
■
■
■
■
NFS clients are very inconsistent across platforms and vary across operating
system releases.
The configuration parameters are difficult to tune. There are more than 20 NFS
parameters and they have subtle differences across platforms.
NFS client stack is designed for general purpose. Therefore, it contains features
like file attribute management that are not required for Oracle.
Oracle Direct NFS implements NFS version 3 protocol within the Oracle RDBMS
kernel.
The following are the main advantages of implementing Oracle Direct NFS client
functionality in Oracle RDBMS Kernel:
■
■
■
■
It enables complete control over input-output paths to network file servers,
resulting in predictable performance, simplified configuration management, and
superior diagnostics.
Its operations avoid the kernel NFS layer bottlenecks and resource limitations.
However, the kernel is still used for network communication modules.
It provides a common NFS interface for Oracle for potential use on all host
platforms and supported NFS servers.
It enables improved performance through load balancing across multiple
connections to NFS servers and deep pipelines of asynchronous input-output
operations with improved concurrency.
See Also: Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide for Linux for more
information in Network File System
xxii
Deprecated Components in Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1)
The following is a list of components that were part of Oracle Database 10g release 2
(10.2), and are not available for installation with Oracle Database 11g:
■
iSQL*Plus
■
Oracle Workflow
■
Oracle Data Mining Scoring Engine
■
Oracle Enterprise Manager Java console
xxiii
xxiv
1
Overview of Oracle Database Installation
1
This chapter describes the different installation types of Oracle Database for Linux and
issues to consider before you install Oracle Database:
■
Planning the Installation
■
Installing the Linux Operating System
■
New Oracle Products Installed with This Release
■
Installation Considerations
■
Oracle Database Installation Types
■
Database Configuration Options
■
Database Storage Options
■
Database Management Options
■
Database Backup and Recovery Options
■
E-mail Notification Options
Planning the Installation
The Oracle Database installation process consists of the following phases:
1.
Read the release notes: Read Oracle Database Release Notes for Linux before you
begin the installation. The release notes are available with the platform-specific
documentation. The latest version of the release notes is available on Oracle
Technology Network at:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/documentation
2.
Review the licensing information: Although the installation media in the media
pack contain many Oracle components, you are permitted to use only those
components for which you have purchased licenses.
Oracle Support Services does not provide support for components for which
licenses have not been purchased.
See Also:
3.
Oracle Database Licensing Information for more details
Plan the installation: This chapter describes the Oracle products that you can
install and issues that you must consider before starting the installation.
You can also refer to Appendix H, which covers frequently asked questions about
installing Oracle Database components, such as how to install Oracle Database if
Overview of Oracle Database Installation
1-1
Installing the Linux Operating System
the site uses Oracle applications or if you need multiple Oracle Database
connections.
Note: If you perform a Custom installation, then ensure that you
install only the components covered by your license. You cannot
install Standard Edition using Custom installation.
4.
Complete preinstallation tasks: Chapter 2 describes preinstallation tasks that you
must complete before installing the product.
5.
Install the software: Use the following sections to install Oracle Database:
■
■
Chapter 3 describes how to use Oracle Universal Installer to install Oracle
Database and Automatic Storage Management.
Appendix A provides information on performing noninteractive (silent)
installations, which you may want to use if you need to perform multiple
installations of Oracle Database.
■
Appendix B provides information on cloning Oracle home.
■
Appendix F describes globalization support information.
■
■
Appendix G provides troubleshooting advice in case you encounter problems
with the installation.
Chapter 6 describes how to remove Oracle Database.
6.
Complete postinstallation tasks: Chapter 4 describes recommended and required
postinstallation tasks.
7.
Get started using Oracle Database: Use the following sections to get started with
Oracle Database:
■
■
■
■
Chapter 5 describes how to check the contents of the installed Oracle
Database, how to start various tools, and how to locate various files.
Appendix C describes the network attached storage devices, which you can
use to store Oracle database files and Oracle software.
Appendix D describes the Optimal Flexible Architecture, which is a set of
guidelines that ensures reliable Oracle installations that requires little
maintenance.
Appendix E explains the method to manage Oracle Database port numbers.
Installing the Linux Operating System
This section provides information about installing a supported Linux distribution. It
contains the following topics:
■
Completing a Minimal Linux Installation
■
Completing a Default Linux Installation
■
About the Oracle Validated Configuration RPM
■
Installing the Oracle Validated Configuration RPM
1-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing the Linux Operating System
Completing a Minimal Linux Installation
To complete a minimal Linux installation, select a minimal install option (either a
custom installation where you select the Minimal option from Package Group
Selection, or where you deselect all packages except for the Base pack). This
installation lacks many RPMs required for installation. However, when you install the
Oracle Validated RPM for your platform, the RPM downloads the minimum number
of packages required to run Oracle Clusterware and Oracle Database.
Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN) customers can obtain the Oracle Validated RPM
by using up2date. If you are not a ULN customer, and you are running Red Hat
Enterprise Linux or Oracle Linux, then you can obtain the Oracle Validated RPM at the
following URLs:
Oracle Linux 4:
http://oss.oracle.com/el4/oracle-validated/
Oracle Linux 5:
http://oss.oracle.com/el5/oracle-validated/
If you are not a member of ULN or RHN (Red Hat support network) and you are an
Oracle support customer, then you can download instructions to configure a script that
replicates Oracle Validated RPM package downloads at the following URL:
https://support.oracle.com
Search for "minimal Linux".
The Oracle Validated RPM installs the X11 client libraries, but
does not install the X Window System server packages. To use graphic
user interfaces such as Oracle Universal Installer, configuration
assistants, and Enterprise Manager, set the display to a system with X
Window System server packages.
Note:
Completing a Default Linux Installation
If you do not install the Oracle Validated RPM, then Oracle recommends that you
install your Linux operating system with the default software packages (RPMs). This
installation includes most of the required packages and helps you limit manual checks
of package dependencies. Oracle recommends that you do not customize the RPMs
during installation.
For information about a default installation, log on to the My Oracle Support (formerly
OracleMetaLink):
https://support.oracle.com
Search for "Default RPM."
After installation, review system requirements for your distribution to ensure that you
have all required kernel packages installed, and complete all other configuration tasks
required for your distribution, and for your system configuration.
About the Oracle Validated Configuration RPM
If your Linux distribution is Oracle Linux, or Red Hat Enterprise Linux, and you are
an Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN) or Red Hat network customer, then you can
complete most preinstallation configuration tasks by using the Oracle Validated
Configurations Setup RPM, available from ULN, or from the Oracle Open Source
Overview of Oracle Database Installation
1-3
Installing the Linux Operating System
Software URLs, as described in "Completing a Minimal Linux Installation" on
page 1-3.
When it is installed, the Oracle Validated Configuration RPM sets and verifies system
parameters based on recommendations from the Oracle Validated Configurations
program, and installs any additional packages needed for installing Oracle
Clusterware and Oracle Database. It creates an oracle software owner (oracle), and
the OSDBA group (dba) and Oracle Inventory group (oinstall). It also updates
sysctl.conf settings, system startup parameters, user limits, and driver parameters
to values tested for performance.
To become a ULN customer, contact your sales representative, or purchase a license
from the Unbreakable Linux store:
http://oraclestore.oracle.com/linux
To register your server on ULN, or to find out more information about ULN, refer to
the following URL:
https://linux.oracle.com
Installing the Oracle Validated Configuration RPM
Use the following procedure to subscribe to Oracle Unbreakable Linux channels, and
to add the Oracle Software for Enterprise Linux channel that distributes the Oracle
Validated Configurations Setup RPM:
1.
Complete a default Oracle Linux workstation installation, or a default Red Hat
Enterprise Linux installation.
2.
Register your server with Unbreakable Linux Network (ULN). By default, you are
registered for the Enterprise Linux Latest channel for your operating system and
hardware.
3.
Log in to ULN at the following URL:
https://linux.oracle.com
4.
Click the Systems tab, and in the System Profiles list, select a registered server. The
System Details window opens, and displays the subscriptions for the server.
5.
From the Available Channels list, select the Oracle Software for Enterprise Linux
channel that is appropriate for your installation of Linux (for example: "Oracle
Software for Enterprise Linux 4 (x86_64)."
6.
Click Subscribe.
7.
From a terminal session, as root, enter the following command:
# up2date --nox --show-channels
You should see output indicating that you have subscribed to the Oracle Software
for Enterprise Linux channel. For example:
el4_i386_latest
el4_i386_oracle
8.
Open a terminal session as root, and install the Oracle Validated Configurations
Setup RPM with up2date, using the following command:
# up2date --install oracle-validated
9.
Repeat steps 1 through 8 on all other servers in your cluster.
1-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
New Oracle Products Installed with This Release
Check the Oracle Validated Configuration RPM log file to
review system configuration changes:
Note:
/etc/sysconfig/oracle-validated/results/orakernel.log
New Oracle Products Installed with This Release
The following products are installed by default when installing Oracle Database 11g
Release 1:
■
Oracle Application Express
■
Oracle Warehouse Builder
■
Oracle Configuration Manager
■
Oracle Database Vault
■
Oracle SQL Developer
Oracle Application Express
Oracle Application Express is a tool for development and deployment of Web
applications for an Oracle database. It improves the productivity, security, reliability,
and performance of Oracle database. With little programming or scripting and only a
Web browser, you can build reporting and data entry applications on existing tables,
views, or data imported from spreadsheets.
Oracle Warehouse Builder
Oracle Warehouse Builder is the only enterprise business intelligence integration
design tool that manages the full life-cycle of data and metadata for the Oracle
Database. It provides an easy to use graphical environment to rapidly design, deploy,
and manage business intelligence systems.
With the Standard and Enterprise Editions of Oracle Database, you can use Oracle
Warehouse Builder that enables you to integrate and transform data into high quality
information. When you install the Standard Edition or Enterprise Edition of Oracle
Database, the installation provides you with components necessary for Oracle
Warehouse Builder, including an unpopulated schema, OWB_SYS. Unlock the OWB_
SYS schema and install the Oracle Warehouse Builder software on a client computer,
as described in Oracle Warehouse Builder Installation and Administration Guide.
Oracle Configuration Manager
Oracle Configuration Manager is a utility that can be optionally configured when
installing the Oracle Database. Oracle Configuration Manager is used to collect and
upload the configuration information to the Oracle configuration repository.
The following are some of the benefits of Oracle Configuration Manager:
■
Reduces time for resolution of support issues
■
Provides pro-active problem avoidance
■
Improves access to best practices and the Oracle knowledge base
■
Improves understanding of customer’s business needs and provides consistent
responses and services
Overview of Oracle Database Installation
1-5
Installation Considerations
Oracle Configuration Manager can now be installed in two modes:
■
■
Connected Mode: This mode is recommended if your server has direct connection
to the Internet or connection through a proxy server. In this mode, configuration
data is automatically collected and uploaded to the Oracle system. Updates to
Oracle Configuration Manager occur automatically.
Disconnected Mode: This mode is recommended if your server does not have a
connection to Internet. In this mode, you can collect configuration data manually
by using the emCCR collect command. When you run this command, the collected
configuration data is stored in the $ORACLE_
HOME/ccr/state/upload/ocmconfig.jar file. You can then upload this file
to the Oracle server.
Oracle Database Vault
Oracle Database Vault enables you to secure business data in ways that were not
possible before. Database Vault uses a multifactored and multilayered approach to
implementing database security. Before you plan the upgrade process, become familiar
with the features of Oracle Database Vault. The Oracle Database Vault Administrator's
Guide discusses the basic features of Oracle Database Vault.
You cannot remove or uninstall the Database Vault. However,
you can disable Oracle Database Vault. Refer to the Disable Oracle
Database Vault section in the Oracle Database Upgrade Guide guide for
more details.
Note:
Oracle SQL Developer
Oracle SQL Developer is a graphical version of SQL*Plus that gives database
developers a convenient way to perform basic tasks. Following are the functions you
can perform with Oracle SQL Developer:
■
Browse, create, edit, and delete (drop) database objects
■
Run SQL statements and scripts
■
Create, edit, compile and debug PL/SQL code
■
Create, edit and update data
■
Import data, export data and data definition language
■
View and create reports
■
View metadata and data of Microsoft Access, Microsoft SQL Server, and MySQL
databases
Installation Considerations
This section contains information that you should consider before deciding how to
install this product. It contains the following sections:
■
Hardware and Software Certification
■
Multiple Oracle Homes Support
■
Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services
■
Using Network Attached Storage or NFS File Systems
1-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installation Considerations
■
Default Audit Policy and Initialization Parameters
Hardware and Software Certification
The platform-specific hardware and software requirements included in this guide
were current when this guide was published. However, because new platforms and
operating system software versions might be certified after this guide is published,
review the certification matrix on the My Oracle Support (formerly OracleMetaLink)
Web site for the most up-to-date list of certified hardware platforms and operating
system versions. The My Oracle Support (formerly OracleMetaLink) Web site is
available at the following URL:
https://support.oracle.com
You must register online before using the My Oracle Support (formerly
OracleMetaLink). After logging in, click Certify on the top right-hand side of the
screen. The Certifications page appears. You can choose the certification either by
product or by platform.
Other options include Oracle's Certification Matrices, Desupport Notices, and Product
Availability.
Third-Party Database Certification for SQL Developer
SQL Developer can be used to view metadata and data of several non-Oracle
databases. The following table lists the third-party database certifications.
Database
Releases
Notes
Microsoft Access
Access 97
For any Access release: no JDBC driver needed,
but you must ensure read access to the system
tables in the.mdb file.
Access 2000
Access 2003
Microsoft SQL
Server
MySQL
SQL Server 7
SQL Server 2005
For any Microsoft SQL Server release: JDBC
driver jtds-1.2.2.jar required. This is
included in the jtds-1.2-dist.zip file
available from sourceforge.net.
MySQL 3.x
For any MySQL release: JDBC driver required.
MySQL 4.x
For MySQL 5.x:
mysql-connector-java-5.0.4-bin.jar is
required, which is included in
mysql-connector-java-5.0.4.zip.
SQL Server 2000
MySQL 5.x
Multiple Oracle Homes Support
This product supports multiple Oracle homes, which means that you can install this
release or earlier releases of the software more than once on the same system, in
different Oracle home directories.
Installing the Software on a System with an Existing Oracle Installation
You must install this product into a new Oracle home directory. You cannot install
products from one release of Oracle Database into an Oracle home directory of a
different release. For example, you cannot install Oracle Database 11g Release 1
software into an existing Oracle9i Oracle home directory. If you attempt to install this
release into an Oracle home directory that contains software from an earlier Oracle
release, then the installation fails.
Overview of Oracle Database Installation
1-7
Installation Considerations
You can install this release more than once on the same system if each installation is
installed in a separate Oracle home directory.
Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services
The first time you install Oracle Database 11g and choose Automatic Storage
Management as the storage option on a system, the installation configures and starts a
single-node version of the Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services (CSS) daemon. The
CSS daemon is required to enable synchronization between an Automatic Storage
Management instance and the database instances that rely on it for database file
storage. By default, Oracle Universal Installer does not configure CSS. Oracle
Universal Installer configures these services only if you choose Automatic Storage
Management as a storage or recovery option. Because the daemon must be running
before any Automatic Storage Management instance or database instance starts, it is
configured to start automatically when the system boots.
For Oracle RAC installations, the CSS daemon is installed with Oracle Clusterware in a
separate Oracle home directory (also called the Clusterware home directory). For
single-node installations, the CSS daemon is installed in and runs from the same
Oracle Database home that runs Automatic Storage Management.
If you have installed CSS from the same Oracle home as Oracle Database, then use
caution when removing Oracle Database software from the system. Before you remove
an Oracle home directory that contains Oracle Database 11g, you must either delete the
CSS daemon configuration, or if necessary, reconfigure the CSS daemon to run from
another Oracle home directory.
Note: If you plan to have more than one Oracle Database 11g
installation on a single system and you want to use Automatic
Storage Management for database file storage, then Oracle
recommends that you run the CSS daemon and the Automatic
Storage Management instance from the same Oracle home directory
and use different Oracle home directories for the database
instances.
See Also:
■
■
■
"Automatic Storage Management" on page 1-13
"Reconfiguring Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services" on
page 6-5
"Removing Oracle Software" on page 6-8
Using Network Attached Storage or NFS File Systems
Oracle Database 11g must be able to verify that writes to a disk are completed
successfully. NFS file systems, including file systems on NAS devices, may not be able
to guarantee that writes to a disk are completed successfully, and this may lead to
possible data file corruption. Oracle recommends that you do not store files on NFS
mounted file systems unless the storage vendor and storage device are listed in the
Oracle Storage Compatibility Program list.
If a storage device is supported, then you can use it to store Oracle software files,
Oracle database files, or both.
1-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Oracle Database Installation Methods
Appendix C for guidelines about using NFS and NAS
devices for Oracle software or database files
See Also:
Default Audit Policy and Initialization Parameters
Oracle Database Vault installs a baseline database auditing policy. This policy covers
the access control configuration information stored in Database Vault database tables,
information stored in Oracle Catalog (rollback segments, tablespaces, and so on), the
use of system privileges, and Oracle Label Security configuration. When you install
Oracle Database Vault, the security specific database initialization parameters are
initialized with default values.
See Also: Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide for more
information on the database audit policy
Oracle Database Installation Methods
You can choose different installation methods to install Oracle Database, as follows:
■
Interactive Installation Methods
■
Automated Installation Methods Using Response Files
Interactive Installation Methods
When you use the interactive method to install Oracle Database, Oracle Universal
Installer displays a series of screens that enable you to specify all of the required
information to install the Oracle Database software and optionally create a database.
With Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) on Linux, Oracle Universal Installer provides
two interactive methods that you can use to install Oracle Database:
■
■
Basic: Select this installation method if you want to quickly install Oracle
Database. This installation method requires minimal user input. It installs the
software and optionally creates a general-purpose database using the information
that you specify on the screen. It is the default installation method.
Advanced: Select this installation method if you want to complete any of the
following tasks:
–
Upgrade an existing database
–
Select a database character set or different product languages
–
Create the EXAMPLE tablespace during the installation
–
Create a database on a different file system from the software
–
Configure Automatic Storage Management for database storage
–
Specify different passwords for administrative schemas
–
Configure automated backups or Oracle Enterprise Manager notifications
–
Configure Oracle Configuration Manager
–
Perform a custom software installation, or choose a different database
configuration
The Available Product Components installation screen automatically selects
the components most customers need in their Oracle Database installation. It
also lists several components that are not selected by default, but which you
Overview of Oracle Database Installation
1-9
Oracle Database Installation Types
may want to include. To find the listing of available components, select
Advanced, and then in the Installation Type screen, select Custom.
See Also: "Reviewing Installation Guidelines" on page 3-1 for
additional information on Oracle database installation
Automated Installation Methods Using Response Files
By creating a response file and specifying this file when you start Oracle Universal
Installer, you can automate some or all of the Oracle Database installation. These
automated installation methods are useful if you need to perform multiple
installations on similarly configured systems or if the system where you want to install
the software does not have X Window system software installed.
When you use a response file, you can run Oracle Universal Installer in the following
modes, depending on whether you specify all of the required information or not:
■
■
Silent Mode: Oracle Universal Installer runs in silent mode if you use a response
file that specifies all required information. None of the Oracle Universal Installer
screens are displayed.
Suppressed Mode: Oracle Universal Installer runs in suppressed mode if you do
not specify all required information in the response file. Oracle Universal Installer
displays only the screens that prompt for the information that you did not specify.
For more information about these modes and about how to complete an installation
using response files, refer to Appendix A.
Oracle Database Installation Types
You can choose to install the Oracle Client separately. You cannot install Oracle
Database Client during an Oracle Database Installation. You can choose one of the
following installation types when installing Oracle Database 11g:
Note: If you perform a Custom installation, then ensure that you
install only the components covered by your license. You cannot
install Standard Edition using Custom installation.
■
■
■
Enterprise Edition: Installs licensable Oracle Database options and database
configuration and management tools in addition to all of the products that are
installed during a Standard Edition installation. It also installs products most
commonly used for data warehousing and transaction processing.
Standard Edition: Installs an integrated set of management tools, full distribution,
replication, Web features, and facilities for building business-critical applications.
Custom: Enables you to select the individual components that you want to install
from the list of all available components.
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database Client Installation Guide for Linux for Oracle
Database Client installation instructions
Oracle Database Licensing Information for more information about
the features available with each Oracle Database edition and for
information about licensing
1-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Database Configuration Options
The installation process is the same for all the installation
types. Ensure that you install the licensed editions.
Note:
Database Configuration Options
During the installation, you can choose whether you want to create an Oracle database
as part of the installation. If you choose to create an Oracle database, then Oracle
Universal Installer uses Oracle Database Configuration Assistant to create it. You can
choose to create one of the preconfigured database types, which are designed for a
variety of different applications, modify one of the preconfigured database types, or
create a customized database to suit the requirements.
This section describes the following database configuration options:
■
Preconfigured Database Types
■
Installation Choices that Affect Database Creation
■
Creating a Database After Installation
Preconfigured Database Types
Oracle provides the following preconfigured database types that you can create or
customize during the installation:
■
General Purpose/Transaction Processing
■
Data Warehouse
Refer to the online help provided by either Oracle Universal Installer or Oracle
Database Configuration Assistant for a description of these preconfigured database
types.
Installation Choices that Affect Database Creation
Oracle Universal Installer runs Oracle Database Configuration Assistant in one of two
modes, depending on the choices that you make during the installation:
■
Noninteractive mode
If you choose either the Enterprise Edition or Standard Edition installation type,
then choose to create a preconfigured database type. Oracle Universal Installer
prompts you for the minimum amount of information required to create a
database of the type you choose. It then runs Oracle Database Configuration
Assistant in noninteractive mode to create the database after it installs the
software.
Oracle recommends that you use this method to create a
database if you have not previously created one.
Note:
■
Interactive mode
If you choose the Custom installation type or choose the Advanced database
configuration option, then Oracle Universal Installer does not prompt you for
database information. Instead, it installs the software and then runs Oracle
Database Configuration Assistant in interactive mode. Using the screens in Oracle
Database Configuration Assistant, you can either modify one of the preconfigured
Overview of Oracle Database Installation 1-11
Database Storage Options
database types or create a custom database and specify precisely how you want to
configure it.
Note: If you choose this method to create a database, then click
Help on any of the Oracle Database Configuration Assistant
screens for a description of the information that you must specify
on that screen.
Creating a Database After Installation
If you decide not to create a database during the installation, then you can use Oracle
Database Configuration Assistant to create one after you have installed the software.
For more information about using Oracle Database Configuration Assistant to create a
database after installation, refer to the Oracle Database 2 Day DBA manual.
Database Storage Options
If you choose to create a database during the installation, you can specify one of the
following storage options for database files:
■
File System
■
Automatic Storage Management
■
Raw Devices
File System
If you choose the file system option, then Oracle Database Configuration Assistant
creates the database files in a directory on a file system mounted on the computer.
Oracle recommends that the file system you choose be separate from the file systems
used by the operating system or the Oracle software. The file system that you choose
can be any of the following:
■
A file system on a disk that is physically attached to the system
If you are creating a database on basic disks that are not logical volumes or RAID
devices, then Oracle recommends that you follow the Optimal Flexible
Architecture (OFA) recommendations described in Appendix D and distribute the
database files over more than one disk.
■
A file system on a logical volume manager (LVM) volume or a RAID device
If you are using multiple disks in an LVM or RAID configuration, then Oracle
recommends that you use the stripe and mirror everything (SAME) methodology
to increase performance and reliability. Using this methodology, you do not need
to specify more than one file system mount point for database storage.
■
A network file system (NFS) mounted from a certified network attached storage
(NAS) device
If the NAS device is certified by Oracle, then you can store the database files on
them.
See Also: The "Using Network Attached Storage or NFS File
Systems" section on page 1-8 for more information about certified
NAS and NFS devices
1-12 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Database Storage Options
If you choose the Custom installation type or the Advanced database creation option,
then you can also choose to use the Oracle-managed files feature with the new
database. If you use this feature, then you need to specify only the database object
name instead of file names when creating or deleting database files.
See Also: Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more
information about Oracle-managed files
Automatic Storage Management
Automatic Storage Management is a high-performance storage management solution
for Oracle Database files. It simplifies the management of a dynamic database
environment, such as creating and laying out databases and managing disk space.
Automatic Storage Management can be used with single database installations,
multiple database installations, and in Oracle RAC environments. It can be used with
databases created in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1.0.3 or later). However, Oracle
Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) databases can use Automatic Storage Management from
Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1). If a site has multiple single-instance databases,
then you can use Oracle Clusterware to consolidate multiple databases into a single
clustered pool of storage managed by Automatic Storage Management. Automatic
Storage Management manages the storage of all database files, such as redo logs,
control files, and data pump export files. However, it does not manage Oracle
Database executable binary files.
At a high level, implementing Automatic Storage Management involves allocating
partitioned disks for Oracle Database with preferences for striping and mirroring.
Automatic Storage Management manages the disk space for you. This helps avoid the
need for traditional disk management tools, such as Logical Volume Managers (LVM),
file systems, and the numerous commands necessary to manage both. The
synchronization between Automatic Storage Management and the database instance is
handled by CSS.
The following are components of an Automatic Storage Management installation:
■
Automatic Storage Management Disk Groups
■
Automatic Storage Management Instance
■
General Steps for Installing Automatic Storage Management
Automatic Storage Management Disk Groups
A disk group is a set of disk devices that Automatic Storage Management manages as
a single unit. Each disk device can be an individual physical disk, a multiple disk
device, such as a RAID storage array or logical volume, or even a partition on a
physical disk. However, in most cases, disk groups consist of one or more individual
physical disks. To enable Automatic Storage Management to balance input-output
operation and storage efficiently within the disk group, you must ensure that all
devices in the disk group have similar, if not identical, storage capacity and
performance.
You can set the redundancy and striping attributes of individual file types within a
disk group by using Automatic Storage Management disk group templates. When you
create a disk group, Automatic Storage Management creates a set of default templates
for that disk group. Default template settings depend on the disk group type. For
example, the default template for control files for a normal redundancy disk group sets
three-way mirroring. All other file templates are two-way mirrored. For a high
redundancy disk group, the default mirroring cannot be changed, which implies that
all files are always three-way mirrored in a high redundancy disk group. You can
Overview of Oracle Database Installation 1-13
Database Storage Options
modify the default templates to suit your site’s needs. Refer to Oracle Database
Administrator's Guide for more information.
Automatic Storage Management spreads data evenly across all the devices in the disk
group to optimize performance and utilization. You can add or remove disk devices
from a disk group without shutting down the database. When you add or remove
disks, Automatic Storage Management rebalances the files across the disk group. You
can create multiple disk groups to handle specific tasks, such as backup and recovery
operations, in addition to regular file storage activities.
When you add a device to a disk group, you can specify a failure group for that device.
Failure groups identify disk devices that have common failure characteristics, for
example, devices that are attached to the same controller. If the controller fails, then all
devices attached to it become unavailable. By default, each device also belongs to its
own failure group. By using the failure groups you specify, Automatic Storage
Management can distribute data among the devices in the disk group to minimize the
risk of data loss caused by component failures.
Automatic Storage Management Instance
The Automatic Storage Management instance manages Automatic Storage
Management disk groups. This instance must be running before you can start a
database instance that uses Automatic Storage Management. When you choose
Automatic Storage Management as a database storage mechanism, this instance is
created and started, if necessary. For a single-instance Oracle Database installation,
you only need one Automatic Storage Management instance, regardless of the number
of database instances on the system. The Automatic Storage Management instance on
any node in a single cluster can handle any combination of disk group types.
General Steps for Installing Automatic Storage Management
To install Automatic Storage Management, you use Oracle Universal Installer. This
installation guide provides the following general steps for installing Automatic
Storage Management:
See Also:
■
■
■
■
■
"Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services" on page 1-8 for
information regarding configuration of CSS daemon on a single
node.
Oracle Database 2 Day DBA for a general overview, from a
non-platform perspective, of Automatic Storage Management
Oracle Database New Features Guide for information about new
features in this release of Automatic Storage Management
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for a more detailed
description of Automatic Storage Management
The Oracle Technology Network Web site, for additional
information on Automatic Storage Management, which you can
visit at
http://www.oracle.com/technology/products/databas
e/asm
1.
Determine the disk requirements of the site and, if necessary, create one or more
disk partitions for Automatic Storage Management.
1-14 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Database Management Options
"Preparing Disk Groups for an Automatic Storage Management Installation" on
page 2-32 provides guidelines on how to determine the disk requirements of the
site.
2.
Run Oracle Universal Installer to install and create an Automatic Storage
Management instance and to create Automatic Storage Management disk groups.
"Step 1: Reviewing Automatic Storage Management Installation Considerations"
on page 3-15 provides guidelines on where to install Automatic Storage
Management and other installation considerations.
"Step 2: Installing the Automatic Storage Management Instance and configuring
Disk Groups" on page 3-15 describes how to create an Automatic Storage
Management instance and disk groups.
After you create an Automatic Storage Management instance and its associated
disk groups, subsequent databases that you create can use Automatic Storage
Management for file storage management. If you have databases that were created
before you installed Automatic Storage Management, then you can migrate them
to Automatic Storage Management by using the Enterprise Manager Migrate
Database Wizard. This wizard is available in Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid
Control or Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control. Alternatively, you can
use Oracle Database Recovery Manager (RMAN) to perform the migration.
3.
To create an Oracle Database with Automatic Storage Management refer "Step 3:
Installing Oracle Database to Use Automatic Storage Management" on page 3-18
4.
Test the Automatic Storage Management installation.
"Step 3: Installing Oracle Database to Use Automatic Storage Management" on
page 3-18 provides a simple test you can try to check that the Automatic Storage
Management installation was successful. "Managing Automatic Storage
Management" on page 5-3 explains how to start and access Automatic Storage
Management and which Oracle Database tools you can use to manage it.
Raw Devices
Raw devices are disk partitions or logical volumes that have not been formatted with a
file system. Raw devices are not available as a storage option when creating a database
as a part of a new Oracle Database 11g installation. However, upgrading the existing
version of raw devices are supported. Raw device is available as a storage option
when you run Oracle Database Configuration Assistant from the following location:
$ORACLE_HOME/bin/dbca
When you use raw devices for database file storage, Oracle writes data directly to the
partition or volume, bypassing the operating system file system layer. However, since
raw devices can be difficult to create and administer, and because the performance
gains over modern file systems are minimal, Oracle recommends that you choose
Automatic Storage Management or file system storage in preference to raw devices.
Database Management Options
To simplify database administration, Oracle provides a Web-based management tool
called Oracle Enterprise Manager. There are two ways that you can deploy Oracle
Enterprise Manager:
■
Deploy Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g centrally in the environment
Overview of Oracle Database Installation 1-15
Database Management Options
To deploy Oracle Enterprise Manager centrally, you must install at least one Oracle
Management Repository and one Oracle Management Service within the
environment, then install an Oracle Enterprise Management Agent on every
computer that you want to manage. You can then use a single HTML interface to
manage and monitor software and hardware targets on all of those systems.
Targets can include Oracle databases, application servers, Net listeners, and
third-party software. This single interface is called Oracle Enterprise Manager
Grid Control (or simply Grid Control).
Note: Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g is available separately on
the Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control installation media.
■
Deploy Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control locally on the database
system
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control software is installed by default with
every Oracle Database installation except Custom. During a Custom installation,
you can choose not to install Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control.
However, Oracle recommends that you do install it. This local installation
provides a Web-based interface called Oracle Enterprise Manager Database
Control. The Database Control is similar in function to the Grid Control, but it can
manage only a single database. If you want to administer more than one database
on this system, then you must either configure a separate Database Control for
each database, or install Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g Grid Control.
Note: Refer to the Oracle Enterprise Manager Concepts manual and
the Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control Installation and Basic
Configuration manual for more information Oracle Enterprise
Manager 10g.
This section contains the following topics:
■
Management Options for Preconfigured Databases
■
Management Options for Custom Databases
■
Features Provided by Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
Management Options for Preconfigured Databases
When you choose to create a preconfigured database during the installation, you must
select the Oracle Enterprise Manager interface that you want to use to manage the
database. The following options are available:
■
Use Grid Control for central database management
This option is available only if an Oracle Management Agent is installed on the
system. When Oracle Universal Installer detects an Oracle Management Agent on
the system, you can choose this option and specify the Oracle Management Service
that you want to use to manage the database.
If an Oracle Management Agent is not installed, then you need to use Database
Control to manage the database. However, if Oracle Management Agent is
installed after Oracle Database, then you can use Grid Control to manage this
database.
■
Use Database Control for local database management
1-16 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Database Backup and Recovery Options
This option is selected by default if an Oracle Management Agent is not installed
on the system. However, even if a Management Agent is installed, you can still
choose to configure Database Control to manage the database.
Management Options for Custom Databases
If you choose the Advanced database configuration option or choose to create a
database during a Custom installation, then Oracle Universal Installer runs Oracle
Database Configuration Assistant in interactive mode. Using a screen in Oracle
Database Configuration Assistant, you can specify the Oracle Enterprise Manager
interface that you want to use to manage the database. Alternatively, you can also
choose not to configure the database with Enterprise Manager.
Oracle recommends that you configure the database to use Enterprise Manager during
installation. However, if you choose not to configure the database to use Enterprise
Manager during the installation, then you can use Oracle Database Configuration
Assistant after the installation to configure the database to use it.
Features Provided by Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control provides a Web-based user interface that
enables you to monitor, administer, and maintain an Oracle database. You can use it to
perform all of the database administration tasks. You can also use it to determine
information about the database, such as:
■
Instance name, database version, Oracle home location, media recovery options,
and other instance data
■
Current instance availability
■
Database alert information
■
Session and SQL-related performance information
■
Space usage matrix
In addition, it provides you with automatic notification of security alerts and it
provides the ability to download and apply patches for the software.
Database Backup and Recovery Options
If you choose to use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control during the
installation, then you can optionally enable automated database backups that use the
Oracle-suggested default backup strategy. You do not have to enable automated
backups during the installation. If you prefer, you can use Oracle Enterprise Manager
Database Control or Grid Control to configure automated backups after you install the
software and create a database.
This section contains the following topics:
■
Enabling Automated Backups
■
Backup Job Default Settings
Overview of Oracle Database Installation 1-17
Database Backup and Recovery Options
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database 2 Day DBA for information about using Oracle
Enterprise Manager Database Control to configure or customize
automated backups or to recover a backed up database
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide for more detailed
information about defining a backup strategy and backing up and
recovering Oracle databases
Enabling Automated Backups
If you enable automated backups, then Oracle Enterprise Manager schedules a daily
backup job that uses Oracle Recovery Manager (RMAN) to back up all of the database
files to an on disk storage area called the flash recovery area. The first time the backup
job runs, it creates a full backup of the database. Subsequent backup jobs perform
incremental backups, which enable you to recover the database to its state at any point
during the preceding 24 hours.
To enable automated backup jobs during installation, you must specify the following
information:
■
The location of the flash recovery area
You can choose to use either a file system directory or an Automatic Storage
Management disk group for the flash recovery area. To set the default values for
flash recovery area and data file location, use Oracle base as the starting point.
–
Default Flash recovery area: $ORACLE_BASE/flash_recovery_area
–
Default data file location: $ORACLE_BASE/oradata
The default disk quota configured for the flash recovery area is 2 GB. For
Automatic Storage Management disk groups, the required disk space depends on
the redundancy level of the disk group that you choose. Chapter 2 describes how
to choose the location of the flash recovery area and identifies its disk space
requirements.
■
An operating system user name and password for the backup job
Oracle Enterprise Manager uses the operating system credentials that you specify
when running the backup job. The user name that you specify must belong to the
UNIX group that identifies database administrators (the ORA_DBA group). This
user also must have Logon As A Batch Job privilege.
Backup Job Default Settings
If you enable automated backups after choosing one of the preconfigured databases
during the installation, then automated backup is configured with the following
default settings:
■
The backup job is scheduled to run nightly at 2 a.m.
■
The disk quota for the flash recovery area is 2 GB.
If you enable automated backups by using Oracle Database Configuration Assistant,
either during or after the installation, then you can specify a different start time for the
backup job and a different disk quota for the flash recovery area.
1-18 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Upgrade Considerations
E-mail Notification Options
If you choose to use the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control during the
installation, then you can configure Enterprise Manager to send e-mail when specific
events occur. These events can include occurrences such as disk space reaching a
critical limit (a threshold), or a database shutting down unexpectedly.
If you choose to enable e-mail notifications, then you must specify the following
information:
■
The host name of a Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) server
■
The e-mail address that should receive the alerts
The e-mail address that you specify could belong to an individual or it could be a
shared e-mail account or a distribution list.
You can use Enterprise Manager Database Control to set up, change, or customize
e-mail notifications after you have created the database.
Migration Consideration
Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) database for 32-bit Linux can be migrated to an
Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) database for 64-bit Linux. Refer to "Database
Migration from a 32-Bit Linux to 64-Bit Linux Computer" section in the Oracle Database
Administrator's Reference for Linux and UNIX for migration information.
Upgrade Considerations
For information about upgrading a earlier release of Oracle Database to Oracle
Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), refer to Oracle Database Upgrade Guide. The following
sections provide additional platform-specific upgrade information that you should
review before upgrading an existing database:
AL24UTFFSS Character Set
Note: The information in this section does not apply to an upgrade of
a eelease 1 (9.0.1) or later release of Oracle Database.
Before you upgrade an existing database that uses the AL24UTFFSS character set, you
must upgrade the database character set to UTF8. Oracle recommends that you use the
Character Set Scanner (csscan) utility for data analysis before attempting to upgrade
the existing database character set.
The Character Set Scanner utility checks all character data in the database and tests for
the effects of, and problems with, changing the character set encoding. Before running
the Character Set Scanner utility, set the shared library path environment variable for
the platform to include the $ORACLE_HOME/lib directory. The shared library path
environment path that you need to set is LD_LIBRARY_PATH.
Overview of Oracle Database Installation 1-19
Upgrade Considerations
AL32UTF8 is the Oracle Database character set that is
appropriate for XMLType data. It is equivalent to the IANA registered
standard UTF-8 encoding, which supports all valid XML characters.
Note:
Do not confuse Oracle Database database character set UTF8 (no
hyphen) with database character set AL32UTF8 or with character
encoding UTF-8. Database character set UTF8 has been superseded by
AL32UTF8. Do not use UTF8 for XML data. UTF8 supports only
Unicode version 3.0 and earlier; it does not support all valid XML
characters. AL32UTF8 has no such limitation.
Using database character set UTF8 for XML data could potentially
cause a irrecoverable error or affect security negatively. If a character
that is not supported by the database character set appears in an
input-document element name, then a replacement character (usually
"?") is substituted for it. This will terminate parsing and raise an
exception.
See Also: Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide for more
information about Character Set Support
Upgrading an Oracle Database Installed on Red Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1
If you have the 8.1.7, 9.0.1, 9.2.0, or 10.1 release of Oracle Database installed on Red
Hat Enterprise Linux 2.1, then you must first upgrade the operating system to Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 3 (update 4) before you upgrade the database. To do this, perform
any one of the following procedures:
See Also:
■
Oracle Database Upgrade Guide
Upgrade the operating system. Then, upgrade the database either manually or by
using Oracle Database Upgrade Assistant. The detailed information on preserving
database environment while upgrading the operating system is available at the
following URL:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/tech/linux/pdf/rhel_23_upgrade.pdf
■
Copy the database files. This procedure involves the following steps:
1.
Copy the database files from the computer running Red Hat Enterprise Linux
2.1 to the one running Red Hat Enterprise Linux 3.0.
2.
Re-create the control files on the computer running Red Hat Enterprise Linux
3.0.
3.
Manually upgrade the database.
You cannot use Oracle Database Upgrade Assistant if you
follow this method. However, this method lets you easily revert to the
earlier database.
Note:
■
Upgrade the database by using the Export/Import utilities.
1-20 Oracle Database Installation Guide
2
Oracle Database Preinstallation
Requirements
2
This chapter describes the tasks that you must complete before you start Oracle
Universal Installer. It includes information about the following tasks:
This guide contains information required to install Oracle
Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) on various platforms of Linux. Ensure
that you review information related to the platform on which you
intend to install Oracle Database 11g.
Note:
■
Logging In to the System as root
■
Checking the Hardware Requirements
■
Checking the Software Requirements
■
Preinstallation Requirements for Oracle Configuration Manager
■
Checking the Network Setup
■
Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users
■
Configure Oracle Installation Owner Shell Limits
■
Configuring Kernel Parameters
■
Identifying Required Software Directories
■
Identifying or Creating an Oracle Base Directory
■
Choosing a Storage Option for Oracle Database and Recovery Files
■
Creating Directories for Oracle Database or Recovery Files
■
Preparing Disk Groups for an Automatic Storage Management Installation
■
Configuring Disk Devices for Oracle Database
■
Stopping Existing Oracle Processes
■
Configuring the oracle User’s Environment
Logging In to the System as root
Before you install the Oracle software, you must complete several tasks as the root
user. To log in as the root user, complete one of the following procedures:
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements
2-1
Logging In to the System as root
Unless you intend to complete a silent-mode installation,
you must install the software from an X Window System
workstation, an X terminal, or a PC or other system with X server
software installed.
Note:
For more information about silent-mode installations, refer to
Appendix A.
■
Following are the steps for installing the software from an X Window System
workstation or X terminal:
1.
Start a local terminal session, for example, an X terminal (xterm).
2.
If you are not installing the software on the local system, then enter the
following command to enable the remote host to display X applications on the
local X server:
$ xhost fully_qualified_remote_host_name
For example:
$ xhost somehost.us.example.com
3.
If you are not installing the software on the local system, then use the ssh,
rlogin, or telnet command to connect to the system where you want to
install the software:
$ telnet fully_qualified_remote_host_name
4.
If you are not logged in as the root user, then enter the following command
to switch user to root:
$ sudo sh
password:
#
■
Following are the steps for installing the software from a PC or other system with
X server software:
If necessary, refer to the X server documentation for more
information about completing this procedure. Depending on the X
server software that you are using, you may need to complete the
tasks in a different order.
Note:
1.
Start the X server software.
2.
Configure the security settings of the X server software to permit remote hosts
to display X applications on the local system.
3.
Connect to the remote system where you want to install the software and start
a terminal session on that system, for example, an X terminal (xterm).
4.
If you are not logged in as the root user on the remote system, then enter the
following command to switch user to root:
$ sudo sh
password:
#
2-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Checking the Hardware Requirements
Checking the Hardware Requirements
The system must meet the following minimum hardware requirements:
■
Memory Requirements
■
System Architecture
■
Disk Space Requirements
■
Recommended Hardware Requirement for SQL Developer
Memory Requirements
The following are the memory requirements for installing Oracle Database 11g Release
1:
■
At least 1 GB of RAM
To determine the RAM size, enter the following command:
# grep MemTotal /proc/meminfo
If the size of the RAM is less than the required size, then you must install more
memory before continuing.
■
The following table describes the relationship between installed RAM and the
configured swap space requirement:
On Linux, the Hugepages feature allocates non-swappable
memory for large page tables using memory-mapped files. If you
enable Hugepages, then you should deduct the memory allocated to
Hugepages from the available RAM before calculating swap space.
Note:
RAM
Swap Space
Between 1 GB and 2 GB
1.5 times the size of RAM
Between 2 GB and 16 GB
Equal to the size of RAM
More than 16 GB
16 GB
To determine the size of the configured swap space, enter the following command:
# grep SwapTotal /proc/meminfo
If necessary, refer to the operating system documentation for information about
how to configure additional swap space.
To determine the available RAM and swap space, enter the following command:
# free
Oracle recommends that you take multiple values for the
available RAM and swap space before finalizing a value. This is
because the available RAM and swap space keep changing
depending on the user interactions with the computer.
Note:
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements
2-3
Checking the Hardware Requirements
Automatic Memory Management
Starting with Oracle Database 11g, the Automatic Memory Management feature
requires more shared memory (/dev/shm)and file descriptors. The size of the shared
memory should be at least the greater of MEMORY_MAX_TARGET and MEMORY_TARGET
for each Oracle instance on the computer. If MEMORY_MAX_TARGET or MEMORY_
TARGET is set to a non zero value, and an incorrect size is assigned to the shared
memory, it will result in an ORA-00845 error at startup. The number of file descriptors
for each Oracle instance should be at least 512*PROCESSES. Also, the limit of
descriptors for each process should be at least 512. If file descriptors are not sized
correctly, you will notice ORA-27123 from various Oracle processes and potentially
Linux Error EMFILE (Too many open files) errors in non-Oracle processes.
To determine the amount of shared memory available, enter the following command:
# df -k /dev/shm/
Note: MEMORY_MAX_TARGET and MEMORY_TARGET cannot be used
when LOCK_SGA is enabled or with huge pages on Linux.
On the Initialization Parameters page, note that Memory Size (SGA and PGA), which
sets the initialization parameter MEMORY_TARGET or MEMORY_MAX_TARGET. Note that
the initialization parameters cannot be greater than the shared memory file system on
the operating system. For example, if the shared memory file system allocation on
your system is 1 GB, but you set Memory Size (MEMORY_TARGET) to 2 GB, then the
following error messages are displayed during database startup:
ORA-00845: MEMORY_TARGET not supported on this system
ORA-01078: Failure in processing system parameters
In addition, if you click All Initialization Parameters and the global database name is
longer than 8 characters, then the database name value (in the DB_NAME parameter) is
truncated to the first eight characters, and the DB_UNIQUE_NAME parameter value is
set to the global name.
System Architecture
To determine whether the system architecture can run the software, enter the
following command:
# uname -m
This command displays the processor type. Verify that the processor architecture
matches the Oracle software release that you want to install. If you do not see the
expected output, then you cannot install the software on this system.
Disk Space Requirements
The following are the disk space requirements for installing Oracle Database 11g
Release 1:
■
Between 150 and 200 MB of disk space in the /tmp directory
To determine the amount of disk space available in the /tmp directory, enter the
following command:
# df -k /tmp
2-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Checking the Hardware Requirements
If there is less than 400 MB of free disk space available in the /tmp directory, then
complete one of the following steps:
■
■
■
■
Delete unnecessary files from the /tmp directory to meet the disk space
requirement.
Set the TMP and TMPDIR environment variables when setting the oracle
user’s environment (described later).
Extend the file system that contains the /tmp directory. If necessary, contact
the system administrator for information about extending file systems.
To determine the amount of free disk space on the system, enter the following
command:
# df -k
■
The following table describes the disk space requirements for software files for
each installation type on Linux 86:
Installation Type
Requirement for Software Files (GB)
Enterprise Edition
3.47
Standard Edition
3.22
Custom (maximum)
3.45
Between 3.5 GB and 5 GB of disk space for the Oracle software, depending on the
installation type
■
The following table describes the disk space requirements for each installation
type on Linux x86-64:
Installation Type
Requirement for Software Files (GB)
Enterprise Edition
4.35
Standard Edition
3.73
Custom (maximum)
4.54
Between 3.5 GB and 5 GB of disk space for the Oracle software, depending on the
installation type
■
■
The following table describes the disk space requirements for each installation
type on Linux x86:
Installation Type
Disk Space for Data Files (GB)
Enterprise Edition
1.6
Standard Edition
1.6
Custom (maximum)
1.81
The following table describes the disk space requirements for each installation
type on Linux x86-64:
Installation Type
Disk Space for Data Files (GB)
Enterprise Edition
1.68
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements
2-5
Checking the Software Requirements
Installation Type
Disk Space for Data Files (GB)
Standard Edition
1.48
Custom (maximum)
2.14
Additional disk space, either on a file system or on an Automatic Storage
Management disk group is required for the flash recovery area if you choose to
configure automated backups.
Recommended Hardware Requirement for SQL Developer
The following table lists the recommended Memory and Display requirements for SQL
Developer.
Resource
Recommended
Memory
1 GB RAM (recommended), 256 MB RAM
(min)
Display
65536 colors, set to at least 1024 X 768
resolution
Checking the Software Requirements
Depending on the products that you intend to install, verify that the following
software are installed on the system.
Note:
■
■
This guide contains information required to install Oracle
Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) on various platforms of Linux.
Ensure that you review information related to the platform on
which you intend to install Oracle Database 11g.
Oracle Universal Installer performs checks on the system to
verify that it meets the listed requirements. To ensure that these
checks pass, verify the requirements before you start Oracle
Universal Installer.
■
Operating System Requirements
■
Kernel Requirements
■
Package Requirements
■
Compiler Requirements
■
Additional Software Requirements
Operating System Requirements
The following are the operating system requirements for Oracle Database 11g Release
1:
2-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Checking the Software Requirements
Oracle Universal Installer performs checks to verify that the
system meets the listed requirements. To ensure that these checks
pass, verify the requirements before you start Oracle Universal
Installer.
Note:
On Linux x86 and Linux x86-64:
■
Asianux 2 SP2
■
Asianux 3
■
Oracle Linux 4
■
Oracle Linux 5
■
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4
■
Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5
■
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10
To determine the distribution and version of Linux installed, enter the following
command:
# cat /proc/version
Only the distributions and versions listed in the earlier list
are supported. Do not install the software on other versions of
Linux.
Note:
Kernel Requirements
The following are the Kernel requirements for Oracle Database 11g Release 1:
■
On Asianux 2, Oracle Linux 4, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4:
2.6.9 or later
■
On Asianux 3, Oracle Linux 5, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5:
2.6.18 or later
■
On SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10:
2.6.16.21 or later
To determine whether the required kernel is installed, enter the following command:
# uname -r
The following is a sample output displayed by running this command on a Red Hat
Enterprise Linux 4.0 system:
2.6.9-55.0.0.0.2.EL
In this example, the output shows the kernel version (2.6.9) and errata level
(55.0.0.0.2.EL) on the system.
If the kernel version does not meet the requirement, then contact the operating system
vendor for information about obtaining and installing kernel updates.
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements
2-7
Checking the Software Requirements
Package Requirements
The following are the list of packages required for Oracle Database 11g Release 1.
Note:
■
■
■
■
■
Oracle recommends that you install your Linux operating system
with the default software packages (RPMs), unless you
specifically intend to perform a minimal installation, and follow
the directions for performing such an installation to ensure that
you have all required packages for Oracle software.
Oracle recommends that you do not customize RPMs during a
default operating system installation. A default installation
includes most required packages, and will help you to limit
manual checks of package dependencies.
If you did not perform a default Linux installation, you intend to
use LDAP, and you want to use the scripts odisrvreg, oidca, or
schemasync, then install the Korn shell RPM for the Linux
distribution.
You must install the packages (or later versions) listed in the
following table. Also, ensure that the list of RPMs and all of the
prerequisites for these RPMs are installed.
On Linux x86:
Operating System
Requirement
Asianux 2, Oracle Linux 4, The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
and Red Hat Enterprise
binutils-2.15.92.0.2-18
Linux 4
compat-libstdc++-33.2.3-47.3
elfutils-libelf-0.97-5
elfutils-libelf-devel-0.97-5
gcc-3.4.5-2
gcc-c++-3.4.5-2
glibc-2.3.4-2.19
glibc-common-2.3.4-2.19
glibc-devel-2.3.4-2.19
glibc-headers-2.3.4-2.19
libaio-devel-0.3.105-2
libaio-0.3.105-2
libgcc-3.4.5
libstdc++-3.4.5-2
libstdc++-devel-3.4.5-2
make-3.80-5
numactl-0.6.4.i386
sysstat-5.0.5
2-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Checking the Software Requirements
Operating System
Requirement
Asianux 3, Oracle Linux 5, The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
and Red Hat Enterprise
binutils-2.17.50.0.6-2.el5
Linux 5
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3-61
elfutils-libelf-0.125-3.el5
elfutils-libelf-devel-0.125
gcc-4.1.1-52
gcc-c++-4.1.1-52
glibc-2.5-12
glibc-common-2.5-12
glibc-devel-2.5-12
glibc-headers-2.5-12
libaio-0.3.106
libaio-devel-0.3.106
libgcc-4.1.1-52
libstdc++-4.1.1
libstdc++-devel-4.1.1-52.e15
make-3.81-1.1
numactl-devel-0.9.8.i386
sysstat-7.0.0
SUSE Linux Enterprise
Server 10
The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
binutils-2.16.91.0.5
compat-libstdc++-5.0.7
gcc-4.1.0
glibc-2.4-31.2
glibc-devel-2.4-31.2
ksh-93r-12.9
libaio-0.3.104
libaio-devel-0.3.104
libelf-0.8.5
libgcc-4.1.0
libstdc++-4.1.0
libstdc++-devel-4.1.0
make-3.80
sysstat-6.0.2
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements
2-9
Checking the Software Requirements
On Linux x86-64:
Operating System
Requirement
Asianux 2, Oracle Linux 4, The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
and Red Hat Enterprise
binutils-2.15.92.0.2
Linux 4
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3 (32 bit)
elfutils-libelf-0.97
elfutils-libelf-devel-0.97
gcc-3.4.5
gcc-c++-3.4.5
glibc-2.3.4-2.19
glibc-2.3.4-2.19 (32 bit)
glibc-common-2.3.4
glibc-devel-2.3.4
glibc-devel-2.3.4 (32-bit)
libaio-0.3.105
libaio-0.3.105 (32 bit)
libaio-devel-0.3.105
libgcc-3.4.5
libgcc-3.4.5 (32-bit)
libstdc++-3.4.5
libstdc++-3.4.5 (32 bit)
libstdc++-devel 3.4.5
make-3.80
numactl-0.6.4.x86_64
sysstat-5.0.5
Asianux 3, Oracle Linux 5, The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
and Red Hat Enterprise
binutils-2.17.50.0.6
Linux 5
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3
compat-libstdc++-33-3.2.3 (32 bit)
elfutils-libelf-0.125
elfutils-libelf-devel-0.125
gcc-4.1.1
gcc-c++-4.1.1
glibc-2.5-12
glibc-2.5-12 (32 bit)
glibc-common-2.5
glibc-devel-2.5
glibc-devel-2.5-12 (32 bit)
libaio-0.3.106
libaio-0.3.106 (32 bit)
libaio-devel-0.3.106
libgcc-4.1.1
libgcc-4.1.1 (32 bit)
libstdc++-4.1.1
libstdc++-4.1.1 (32 bit)
libstdc++-devel 4.1.1
make-3.81
numactl-devel-0.9.8.x86_64
sysstat-7.0.0
2-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Checking the Software Requirements
Operating System
Requirement
SUSE Linux Enterprise
Server 10
The following packages (or later versions) must be installed:
binutils-2.16.91.0.5
compat-libstdc++-5.0.7-22.2
gcc-4.1.0
gcc-c++-4.1.0
glibc-2.4-31.2
glibc-32bit-2.4-31.2 (32 bit)
glibc-devel-2.4
glibc-devel-32bit-2.4 (32 bit)
libaio-0.3.104
libaio-32bit-0.3.104 (32 bit)
libaio-devel-0.3.104
libelf-0.8.5
libgcc-4.1.0
libstdc++-4.1.0
libstdc++-devel-4.1.0
make-3.80
numactl-0.9.6.x86_64
sysstat-6.0.2
Note: The numa package link for Linux x86-64 is /usr/lib64/ and
Linux x86 is /usr/lib/.
To determine whether the required packages are installed, enter commands similar to
the following:
# rpm -q package_name
If a package is not installed, then install it from the Linux distribution media or
download the required package version from the Linux vendor’s Web site.
Compiler Requirements
Intel C++ Compiler 9.1 or later and the version of GNU C and C++ compilers listed
under "Package Requirements" on page 8 are supported with Pro*C/C++, Oracle Call
Interface, Oracle C++ Call Interface, and Oracle XML Developer’s Kit (XDK) for Oracle
Database 11g Release 1.
Starting with Oracle Database 11g release 1 (11.1.0.7), Pro*COBOL is certified on Red
Hat Enterprise Linux 5, SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10.0, and XEN with Micro Focus
Server Express 5.0 WP4.
Note: Intel Compiler v9.1 can be used only with gcc 3.4.5 or gcc 4.0
or gcc 4.1 standard template libraries to build Oracle C++ Call
Interface (OCCI) applications.
Oracle XML Developer's Kit is supported with the same compilers as
OCCI.
Additional Software Requirements
Depending on the components you want to use, you must ensure that the following
software are installed:
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements 2-11
Checking the Software Requirements
■
Oracle ODBC Drivers
■
Oracle JDBC/OCI Drivers
■
Oracle Messaging Gateway
■
Browser Requirements
■
Oracle XML DB for Oracle Application Express
■
PL/SQL Web Toolkit
■
Oracle Text
Oracle ODBC Drivers
If you intend to use ODBC, then you should install the most recent ODBC Driver
Manager for Linux. You can download and install the Driver Manager from the
following link:
http://www.unixodbc.org
Linux RPMs are available on the site. You do not require ODBC Driver Manager to
install Oracle Database. :
■
On Linux x86
To use ODBC, you must also install the following additional 32-bit ODBC RPMs,
depending on your operating system:
–
On Asianux 2, Oracle Linux 4, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4:
unixODBC-2.2.11 (32 bit) or later
unixODBC-devel-2.2.11 (32 bit) or later
–
On Asianux 3, Oracle Linux 5, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5:
unixODBC-2.2.11 (32 bit) or later
unixODBC-devel-2.2.11 (32 bit) or later
–
On SUSE 10:
unixODBC-32bit-2.2.11 (32 bit) or later
unixODBC-devel-32bit-2.2.11 (32 bit) or later
■
On Linux x86-64
To use ODBC, you must also install the following additional 64-bit ODBC RPMs,
depending on your operating system.
–
On Asianux 2, Oracle Linux 4, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4:
unixODBC-2.2.11 (32 bit) or later
unixODBC-devel-2.2.11 (64 bit) or later
unixODBC-devel-2.2.11 (64 bit ) or later
–
On Asianux 3, Oracle Linux 5, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5:
unixODBC-2.2.11 (32 bit) or later
unixODBC-devel-2.2.11 (64 bit) or later
unixODBC-devel-2.2.11 (64 bit ) or later
–
On SUSE 10:
unixODBC-32bit-2.2.11 (32 bit) or later
unixODBC-2.2.11 (64 bit ) or later
unixODBC-devel-2.2.11 (64 bit) or later
2-12 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Checking the Software Requirements
Oracle JDBC/OCI Drivers
You can use Sun JDK 1.5.0-06 with the JNDI extension with the Oracle Java
Database Connectivity and Oracle Call Interface drivers. However, these are not
mandatory for the database installation.
Oracle Messaging Gateway
Oracle Messaging Gateway supports the integration of Oracle Streams Advanced
Queuing (AQ) with the following software:
■
IBM WebSphere MQ V6.0, client and server, with corrective service diskette 5
(CSD05) or later:
MQSeriesClient
MQSeriesServer
MQSeriesRuntime
■
TIBCO Rendezvous 7.3
If you require a CSD for WebSphere MQ, then refer to the following Web site for
download and installation information:
http://www-306.ibm.com/software/integration/wmq/support
Browser Requirements
Web browsers must support Java Script and the HTML 4.0 and CSS 1.0 standards. The
following browsers meet these requirements:
■
■
For Oracle Application Express:
■
Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 or later version
■
Firefox 1.0 or a later version
For Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control:
■
Netscape Navigator 7.2
■
Netscape Navigator 8.1
■
Mozilla version 1.7
■
Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 SP2
■
Microsoft Internet Explorer 7.0
■
Firefox 1.0.4
■
Firefox 1.5
■
Firefox 2.0
Oracle XML DB for Oracle Application Express
Oracle XML DB must be installed in the Oracle database that you want to use. If you
are using a preconfigured database created either during an installation or by Oracle
Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA), then Oracle XML DB is already installed
and configured.
See Also: Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide for more information
about manually adding Oracle XML DB to an existing database
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements 2-13
Preinstallation Requirements for Oracle Configuration Manager
PL/SQL Web Toolkit
Oracle Application Express requires the PL/SQL Web Toolkit version 10.1.2.0.6 or
later. For instructions on determining the current version of the PL/SQL Web Toolkit,
and for instructions on installing version 10.1.2.0.6, review the README.txt file
contained in the directory apex/owa.
Oracle Text
Oracle Text must be installed to use the searchable online Help in Oracle Application
Express. By default, Oracle Text is installed as a component Oracle Database.
See Also: Oracle Text Application Developer's Guide for more
information on Oracle Text
Preinstallation Requirements for Oracle Configuration Manager
During the installation, you are prompted to provide information required to enable
Oracle Configuration Manager. When you create a service request with Oracle
Support, the configuration information can help to provide a rapid resolution to the
service issue.
You can enable Oracle Configuration Manager during or after installation. To enable it
during the installation, you must have the following information available:
■
Customer Support Identification Number (CSI) that identifies your organization
■
the My Oracle Support (formerly OracleMetaLink) user account name
■
Country code associated with the service agreement
Refer to the My Oracle Support (formerly OracleMetaLink)
(https://support.oracle.com) if there is a registration failures and you are
uncertain that the correct country code has been specified. You can find the country
associated with the My Oracle Support (formerly OracleMetaLink) account in the
Profile section under the Licenses link.
See Also: Oracle Configuration Manager Installation and Administration
Guide for further information
Checking the Network Setup
Typically, the computer on which you want to install Oracle Database is connected to
the network. The computer has local storage, to store the Oracle Database installation.
It also contains a display monitor, and DVD drive. This section describes how to install
Oracle Database on computers that do not meet the typical scenario. It covers the
following cases:
■
Configuring Name Resolution
■
Installing on DHCP Computers
■
Installing on Multihomed Computers
■
Installing on Computers with Multiple Aliases
■
Installing on Non-Networked Computers
2-14 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Checking the Network Setup
Configuring Name Resolution
When you run Oracle Universal Installer, an error may occur if name resolution is not
set up. To avoid this error, before you begin installation, you must ensure that host
names are resolved through the /etc/hosts file.
To ensure that host names are resolved only through the /etc/hosts file:
1.
Verify that the /etc/hosts file is used for name resolution. You can do this by
checking the hosts file entry in the nsswitch.conf file as follows:
# cat /etc/nsswitch.conf | grep hosts
The output of this command should contain an entry for files.
2.
Verify that the host name has been set by using the hostname command as
follows:
# hostname
The output of this command should be similar to the following:
myhost.example.com
3.
Verify that the domain name has not been set dynamically by using the
domainname command as follows:
# domainname
This command should not return any results.
4.
Verify that the hosts file contains the fully qualified host name by using the
following command:
# cat /etc/hosts
The output of this command should contain an entry for the fully qualified host
name and localhost.
For example:
127.0.0.1
localhost.localdomain localhost
192.168.100.16 myhost.us.example.com myhost
If the hosts file does not contain the fully qualified host name, then open the file
and make the required changes in it.
Installing on DHCP Computers
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) assigns dynamic IP addresses on a
network. Dynamic addressing enables a computer to have a different IP address each
time it connects to the network. In some cases, the IP address can change while the
computer is still connected. You can have a mixture of static and dynamic IP
addressing in a DHCP system.
In a DHCP setup, the software tracks IP addresses, which simplifies network
administration. This lets you add a new computer to the network without having to
manually assign that computer a unique IP address.
Installing on Multihomed Computers
You can install Oracle Database on a multihomed computer. A multihomed computer
is associated with multiple IP addresses. This is typically achieved by having multiple
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements 2-15
Checking the Network Setup
network cards on the computer. Each IP address is associated with a host name. In
addition, you can set up aliases for the host name. By default, Oracle Universal
Installer uses the ORACLE_HOSTNAME environment variable setting to find the host
name. If ORACLE_HOSTNAME is not set and you are installing on a computer that has
multiple network cards, then Oracle Universal Installer determines the host name by
using the first entry in the /etc/hosts file.
Clients must be able to access the computer either by using this host name or by using
aliases for this host name. To verify this, ping the host name from the client computers
using the short name (host name only) and the full name (host name and domain
name). Both tests must be successful.
Setting the ORACLE_HOSTNAME Environment Variable
Use the following procedure to set the ORACLE_HOSTNAME environment variable. For
example, if the fully qualified host name is somehost.us.example.com, then enter
one of the following commands:
In Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ ORACLE_HOSTNAME=somehost.us.example.com
$ export ORACLE_HOSTNAME
In C shell:
% setenv ORACLE_HOSTNAME somehost.us.example.com
Installing on Computers with Multiple Aliases
A computer with multiple aliases is registered with the naming service under a single
IP but with multiple aliases. The naming service resolves any of those aliases to the
same computer. Before installing Oracle Database on such a computer, set the
ORACLE_HOSTNAME environment variable to the computer whose host name you
want to use.
Installing on Non-Networked Computers
You can install Oracle Database on a non-networked computer. If the computer, such
as a laptop, is configured for DHCP and you plan to connect the computer to the
network after the Oracle Database installation, then use the ping command on the
computer on which you want to install the database to check if the computer can
connect to itself. Perform this step by first using only the host name and then using the
fully qualified name, which should be in the /etc/hosts file.
When you run the ping command on the computer itself, the
ping command should return the IP address of the computer.
Note:
If the ping command fails, then contact the network administrator.
Connecting the Computer to the Network after Installation
If you connect the computer to a network after installation, then the Oracle Database
instance on the computer can work with other instances on the network. The computer
can use a static IP or DHCP, depending on the network to which you are connected.
2-16 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users
Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users
Depending on whether this is the first time Oracle software is being installed on this
system and on the products that you are installing, you may need to create several
operating system groups and users.
The following operating system groups and user are required if you are installing
Oracle Database:
■
The OSDBA group (dba)
You must create this group the first time you install Oracle Database software on
the system. It identifies operating system user accounts that have database
administrative privileges (the SYSDBA privilege). The default name for this group
is dba.
Oracle Universal Installer prompts you to specify this group name. If software
owner is a member of the group dba, then Oracle Universal Installer defaults the
OSDBA setting to dba. However, you can also choose a different operating system
group if required.
■
The OSOPER group (oper)
This is an optional group. Create this group if you want a separate group of
operating system users to have a limited set of database administrative privileges
(the SYSOPER privilege). By default, members of the OSDBA group also have the
SYSOPER privilege.
In this case, Oracle Universal Installer prompts you to specify the name of this
group. The usual name chosen for this group is oper.
■
The OSASM group (asmadmin)
This feature introduces a new SYSASM privilege that is specifically intended for
performing Automatic Storage Management administration tasks. Using the
SYSASM privilege instead of the SYSDBA privilege provides a clearer division of
responsibility between Automatic Storage Management administration and
database administration. OSASM is a new operating system group that is used
exclusively for Automatic Storage Management. Members of the OSASM group
can connect as SYSASM using operating system authentication and have full access
to Automatic Storage Management. The usual name chosen for this group is
asmadmin.
See Also: "Authentication for Accessing Automatic Storage
Management Instances" section in Oracle Database Storage
Administrator's Guide for more information on SYSASM privilege for
Automatic Storage Management
The following operating system group and user are required for all installations:
■
The Oracle Inventory group ( Typically, oinstall)
You must have a group whose members are given access to write to the Oracle
Central Inventory (oraInventory). The Central Inventory contains the
following:
–
A registry of the Oracle home directories ( Oracle Database, and Automatic
Storage Management) on the system.
–
Installation logs and trace files from installations of Oracle software. These
files are also copied to the respective Oracle homes for future reference.
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements 2-17
Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users
Other metadata inventory information regarding Oracle installations are stored in
the individual Oracle home inventory directories, and are separate from the
Central Inventory.
For new installations, Oracle recommends that you allow OUI to create the Central
Inventory directory. By default, if you create an Oracle path in compliance with
OFA (Optimal Flexible Architecture) structure, such as /u01/app, then the
Central Inventory is created in the path u01/app/oraInventory, using correct
permissions to allow all Oracle installation owners to write to this directory.
■
The Oracle software owner user (typically, oracle)
You must create this user the first time you install Oracle software on the system.
This user owns all of the software installed during the installation. This user must
have the Oracle Inventory group as its primary group. It must also have the
OSDBA and OSOPER groups as secondary groups.
Note:
In Oracle documentation, this user is referred to as the oracle
user.
A single Oracle Inventory group is required for all installations of Oracle software on
the system. After the first installation of Oracle software, you must use the same
Oracle Inventory group for all subsequent Oracle software installations on that system.
However, you can choose to create different Oracle software owner users, OSDBA
groups, and OSOPER groups (other than oracle, dba, and oper) for separate
installations. By using different groups for different installations, members of these
different groups have DBA privileges only on the associated databases rather than on
all databases on the system.
See Also: Oracle Database Administrator's Reference for Linux and
UNIX and Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more
information on the OSDBA and OSOPER groups and the SYSDBA
and SYSOPER privileges
The following sections describe how to create local users and
groups. As an alternative to creating local users and groups, you can
create the appropriate users and groups in a directory service, for
example, Network Information Services (NIS). For information about
using directory services, contact the system administrator or refer to
the operating system documentation.
Note:
The following sections describe how to create the required operating system users and
groups:
■
Creating the Oracle Inventory Group
■
Creating the OSDBA Group
■
Creating an OSOPER Group (Optional)
■
Creating an OSASM Group
■
Creating the Oracle Software Owner User
2-18 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users
Creating the Oracle Inventory Group
Log in as root, and use the following instructions to locate or create the Oracle
Inventory group and a software owner:
■
Determining Whether the Oracle Inventory Group Exists
■
Creating the Oracle Inventory Group
Determining Whether the Oracle Inventory Group Exists
When you install Oracle software on the system for the first time, Oracle Universal
Installer creates the oraInst.loc file. This file identifies the name of the Oracle
Inventory group (typically, oinstall), and the path of the Oracle Inventory directory.
An oraInst.loc file has contents similar to the following:
inventory_loc=central_inventory_location
inst_group=group
In the preceding example, central_inventory_location is the location of the Oracle
Central Inventory, and group is the name of the group that has permissions to write to
the central inventory.
If you have an existing Oracle Inventory, then ensure that you use the same Oracle
Inventory for all Oracle software installations, and ensure that all Oracle software
users you intend to use for installation have permissions to write to this directory.
To determine whether the Oracle Inventory group exists, enter the following
command:
# more /etc/oraInst.loc
If the oraInst.loc file exists, then the output from this command is similar to the
following:
inventory_loc=/u01/app/oraInventory
inst_group=oinstall
In the previous output example:
■
■
The inventory_loc group shows the location of the Oracle Inventory
The inst_group parameter shows the name of the Oracle Inventory group (in
this example, oinstall).
Creating the Oracle Inventory Group
If the oraInst.loc file does not exist, then create the Oracle Inventory group by
entering the following command:
# /usr/sbin/groupadd oinstall
Creating the OSDBA Group
You must create an OSDBA group in the following circumstances:
■
■
An OSDBA group does not exist, for example, if this is the first installation of
Oracle Database software on the system
An OSDBA group exists, but you want to give a different group of operating
system users database administrative privileges in a new Oracle installation
To determine whether the OSDBA group exists, enter the following command:
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements 2-19
Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users
# grep OSDBA_group_name /etc/group
Note:
The default OSDBA group name is dba.
If the OSDBA group does not exist or if you require a new OSDBA group, then create it
as follows. In the following command, use the group name dba unless a group with
that name already exists.
# /usr/sbin/groupadd dba
Creating an OSOPER Group (Optional)
Create an OSOPER group only if you want to identify a group of operating system
users with a limited set of database administrative privileges (SYSOPER operator
privileges). For most installations, it is sufficient to create only the OSDBA group. If you
want to use an OSOPER group, then you must create it in the following circumstances:
■
■
If an OSOPER group does not exist, for example, if this is the first installation of
Oracle Database software on the system
If an OSOPER group exists, but you want to give a different group of operating
system users database operator privileges in a new Oracle installation
If you require a new OSOPER group, then create it as follows. In the following
command, use the group name oper unless a group with that name already exists.
# /usr/sbin/groupadd oper
Creating an OSASM Group
Create an OSASM group only if you want SYSASM as a system privilege that enables
the separation of the SYSDBA database administration privilege from the Automatic
Storage Management storage administration privilege. If you want to use an OSASM
group, then you must create it in the following circumstances:
■
■
If an OSASM group does not exist, for example, if this is the first installation of
Oracle Database software on the system
If an OSASM group exists, but you want to give a different group of operating
system users database operator privileges in a new Oracle installation
To determine whether the OSASM group exists, enter the following command:
# grep OSASM_group_name /etc/group
If the OSASM group does not exist or if you require a new OSASM group, then create
it as follows. In the following command, use the group name asadmin unless a group
with that name already exists.
# /usr/sbin/groupadd asmadmin
Creating the Oracle Software Owner User
You must create an Oracle software owner user in the following circumstances:
■
If an Oracle software owner user does not exist, for example, if this is the first
installation of Oracle software on the system
2-20 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Creating Required Operating System Groups and Users
■
If an Oracle software owner user exists, but you want to use a different operating
system user, with different group membership, to give database administrative
privileges to those groups in a new Oracle Database installation
Determining Whether an Oracle Software Owner User Exists
To determine whether an Oracle software owner user named oracle exists, enter the
following command:
# id oracle
If the oracle user exists, then the output from this command is similar to the
following:
uid=440(oracle) gid=200(oinstall) groups=201(dba),202(oper)
If the user exists, then determine whether you want to use the existing user or create
another oracle user. If you want to use the existing user, then ensure that the user’s
primary group is the Oracle Inventory group and that it is a member of the
appropriate OSDBA and OSOPER groups. Refer to one of the following sections for
more information:
If necessary, contact the system administrator before using
or modifying an existing user.
Note:
■
■
■
If you want to use an existing Oracle software owner user, and the user’s primary
group is the Oracle Inventory group, then refer to the "Determining Whether an
Oracle Software Owner User Exists" section on page 2-21.
To modify an existing user, refer to the "Modifying an Oracle Software Owner
User" section on page 2-22.
To create a user, refer to "Creating an Oracle Software Owner User" section on
page 2-21.
Creating an Oracle Software Owner User
In the following procedure, use the user name oracle unless a user with that name
already exists. If the Oracle software owner user does not exist or if you require a new
Oracle software owner user, then create it as follows:
1.
To create the oracle user, enter a command similar to the following:
# /usr/sbin/useradd -g oinstall -G dba[,oper] oracle
In this command:
■
■
2.
The -g option specifies the primary group, which must be the Oracle
Inventory group, for example oinstall
The -G option specifies the secondary groups, which must include the OSDBA
group and if required, the OSOPER group (dba or oper)
Set the password of the oracle user:
# passwd oracle
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements 2-21
Configure Oracle Installation Owner Shell Limits
Modifying an Oracle Software Owner User
If the oracle user exists, but its primary group is not oinstall or it is not a member
of the appropriate OSDBA or OSOPER groups, then enter a command similar to the
following to modify it. Specify the primary group using the -g option and any
required secondary group using the -G option:
# /usr/sbin/usermod -g oinstall -G dba[,oper] oracle
Configure Oracle Installation Owner Shell Limits
For information, review "Configuring the oracle User’s Environment" on page 2-44
To improve the performance of the software, you must increase the following shell
limits for the oracle user:
Shell Limit
Item in limits.conf
Hard Limit
Maximum number of open file descriptors
nofile
65536
Maximum number of processes available to a single
user
nproc
16384
To increase the shell limits:
Add the following lines to the /etc/security/limits.conf file:
oracle
oracle
oracle
oracle
soft
hard
soft
hard
nproc
nproc
nofile
nofile
2047
16384
1024
65536
All the shell limit changes that you make to the limits.conf
file is updated into the file, and is available the next time you log in to
the system.
Note:
Configuring Kernel Parameters
Verify that the kernel parameters shown in the following table are set to values greater
than or equal to the minimum value shown. If the current value for any parameter is
higher than the value listed in this table, then do not change the value of that
parameter. The procedure following the table describes how to verify and set the
values.
Note: The kernel parameter and shell limit values shown in the
following section are minimum values only. For production
database systems, Oracle recommends that you tune these values to
optimize the performance of the system. Refer to the operating
system documentation for more information about tuning kernel
parameters.
2-22 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Configuring Kernel Parameters
Parameter
Minimum Value
File
semmsl
250
/proc/sys/kernel/sem
semmns
32000
semopm
100
semmni
128
shmall
2097152
/proc/sys/kernel/shmall
shmmax
Minimum of the following
values:
/proc/sys/kernel/shmmax
■
■
Half the size of the
memory
4GB - 1 byte
Note: The minimum value
required for shmmax is 0.5
GB. However, Oracle
recommends that you set
the value of shmmax to 2.0
GB for optimum
performance of the system.
shmmni
4096
/proc/sys/kernel/shmmni
file-max
6815744
/proc/sys/fs/file-max
ip_local_port_
range
Minimum: 9000
/proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_local_
port_range
Maximum: 65500
Note: Ignore any Oracle
Universal Installer
warnings related to this
parameter.
rmem_default
262144
/proc/sys/net/core/rmem_
default
rmem_max
4194304
/proc/sys/net/core/rmem_max
wmem_default
262144
/proc/sys/net/core/wmem_
default
wmem_max
1048576
/proc/sys/net/core/wmem_max
aio-max-nr
Maximum: 1048576
/sbin/sysctl
Note: This value limits
concurrent outstanding
requests and should be set
to avoid I/O subsystem
failures.
To display the current value specified for these kernel parameters, and to change them
if necessary, use the following steps:
■
Enter the commands shown in the following table to display the current values of
the kernel parameters, make a note of these values and identify any values that
you must change:
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements 2-23
Configuring Kernel Parameters
Parameter
Command
semmsl, semmns,
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep sem
semopm, and semmni
This command displays the value of the semaphore parameters
in the order listed.
shmall, shmmax,
and shmmni
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep shm
file-max
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep file-max
This command displays the details of the shared memory
segment sizes.
This command displays the maximum number of file handles.
■
ip_local_port_
range
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep ip_local_port_range
rmem_default
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep rmem_default
rmem_max
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep rmem_max
wmem_default
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep wmem_default
wmem_max
# /sbin/sysctl -a | grep wmem_max
This command displays a range of port numbers.
If the value of any kernel parameter is different from the minimum value, then
complete the following procedure:
1.
Using any text editor, create or edit the /etc/sysctl.conf file, and add or
edit lines similar to the following:
Include lines only for the kernel parameter values that you
want to change. For the semaphore parameters (kernel.sem), you
must specify all four values. However, if any of the current values are
larger than the minimum value, then specify the larger value.
Note:
fs.file-max = 6815744
kernel.shmall = 2097152
kernel.shmmax = 2147483648
kernel.shmmni = 4096
kernel.sem = 250 32000 100 128
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 9000 65500
net.core.rmem_default = 262144
net.core.rmem_max = 4194304
net.core.wmem_default = 262144
net.core.wmem_max = 1048576
Note: The minimum value required for shmmax is 0.5 GB. However,
Oracle recommends that you set the value of shmmax to 2.0 GB for
optimum performance of the system.
By specifying the values in the /etc/sysctl.conf file, they persist when
you restart the system. However, on SUSE Linux Enterprise Server systems,
enter the following command to ensure that the system reads the
/etc/sysctl.conf file when it restarts:
# /sbin/chkconfig boot.sysctl on
2-24 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Identifying Required Software Directories
2.
Enter the following command to change the current values of the kernel
parameters:
# /sbin/sysctl -p
Review the output from this command to verify that the values are correct. If
the values are incorrect, edit the /etc/sysctl.conf file, then enter this
command again.
3.
Enter the command /sbin/sysctl -a to confirm that the values are set
correctly.
4.
On SUSE systems only, enter the following command to cause the system to
read the /etc/sysctl.conf file when it restarts:
# /sbin/chkconfig boot.sysctl on
5.
On SUSE systems only, you must enter the GID of the oinstall group as the
value for the parameter /proc/sys/vm/hugetlb_shm_group. Doing this
grants members of oinstall a group permission to create shared memory
segments.
For example, where the oinstall group GID is 501:
# echo 501 > /proc/sys/vm/hugetlb_shm_group
After running this command, use vi to add the following text to
/etc/sysctl.conf, and enable the boot.sysctl script to run on system
restart:
vm.hugetlb_shm_group=501
Note:
Only one group can be defined as the vm.hugetlb_shm_
group.
6.
After updating the values of kernel parameters in the /etc/sysctl.conf
file, either restart the computer, or run the command sysctl -p to make the
changes in the /etc/sysctl.conf file available in the active kernel
memory.
Refer to the "Identifying Required Software Directories" section to continue.
Identifying Required Software Directories
You must identify or create the following directories for the Oracle software:
■
Oracle Base Directory
■
Oracle Inventory Directory
■
Oracle Home Directory
Oracle Base Directory
The Oracle base directory is a top-level directory for Oracle software installations. On
Linux systems, the Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) guidelines recommend that
you use a path similar to the following for the Oracle base directory:
/mount_point/app/oracle_sw_owner
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements 2-25
Identifying Required Software Directories
In this example:
■
mount_point is the mount point directory for the file system that will contain the
Oracle software.
The examples in this guide use /u01 for the mount point directory. However, you
can choose another mount point directory, such as /oracle or /opt/oracle.
■
oracle_sw_owner is the operating system user name of the Oracle software
owner, for example oracle.
If you start a database instance using spfile with ORACLE_
BASE environment variable set, then its value is automatically stored
in spfile. If you unset ORACLE_BASE environment variable
subsequently and start the instance afresh, then database uses the
value of Oracle base stored in spfile.
Note:
You need to specify the Oracle base folder that contains all Oracle products.
If you have an existing Oracle base, then you can select it from
the Use existing list. By default, the list contains the existing value for
Oracle base preselected. Refer to "Installing the Oracle Database
Software" on page 2-6 for further information.
Note:
If you do not have an Oracle base, then you can create one by editing
the text in the list box.
You can use the same Oracle base directory for more than one installation or you can
create separate Oracle base directories for different installations. If different operating
system users install Oracle software on the same system, then each user must create a
separate Oracle base directory. The following are the example of Oracle base
directories that can exist on the same system:
/u01/app/oracle
/u01/app/orauser
/opt/oracle/app/oracle
Oracle Inventory Directory
The Oracle Inventory directory (oraInventory) stores an inventory of all software
installed on the system. It is required and shared by all Oracle software installations on
a single system. If you have an existing Oracle Inventory path, then Oracle Universal
Installer continues to use that Oracle Inventory.
The first time you install Oracle software on a system, Oracle Universal Installer
checks if you have created an OFA-compliant directory structure with the format
u[01-09]/app, such as /u01/app, and that the user running the installation has
permissions to write to that path. If this is true, then Oracle Universal Installer creates
the Oracle Inventory directory similar to /u[01-09]/app/oraInventory. For
example:
/u01/app/oraInventory
If you have set the environment variable ORACLE_BASE for the oracle user, then
Oracle Universal Installer creates the Oracle Inventory directory similar to $ORACLE_
2-26 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Identifying or Creating an Oracle Base Directory
BASE/../oraInventory. For example, if ORACLE_BASE is set to
/opt/oracle/11, then the Oracle Inventory directory is created similar to
/opt/oracle/oraInventory.
If you have neither created an OFA-compliant path nor set ORACLE_BASE, then the
Oracle Inventory directory is placed in the home directory of the user that is
performing the installation. For example:
/home/oracle/oraInventory
Oracle Universal Installer creates the directory that you specify and sets the correct
owner, group, and permissions for it. You do not need to create it.
Note:
■
■
All Oracle software installations rely on this directory. Ensure
that you back it up regularly.
Do not delete this directory unless you have completely
removed all Oracle software from the system.
Oracle Home Directory
The Oracle home directory is the directory where you choose to install the software for
a particular Oracle product. You must install different Oracle products or different
releases of the same Oracle product in separate Oracle home directories. When you
run Oracle Universal Installer, it prompts you to specify the path to this directory and
a name that identifies it. The directory that you specify must be a subdirectory of the
Oracle base directory. Oracle recommends that you specify a path similar to the
following for the Oracle home directory:
oracle_base/product/11.1.0/db_1
Oracle Universal Installer creates the directory path that you specify under the Oracle
base directory. It also sets the correct owner, group, and permissions on it. You do not
need to create this directory.
During installation, you must not specify an existing directory
that has predefined permissions applied to it as the Oracle home
directory. If you do, then you may experience installation failure due
to file and group ownership permission errors.
Note:
Identifying or Creating an Oracle Base Directory
Before starting the installation, you must either identify an existing Oracle base
directory or if required, create one. This section contains information about the
following:
■
Identifying an Existing Oracle Base Directory
■
Creating an Oracle Base Directory
Note: You can choose to create an Oracle base directory, even if
other Oracle base directories exist on the system.
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements 2-27
Identifying or Creating an Oracle Base Directory
Identifying an Existing Oracle Base Directory
Existing Oracle base directories may not have paths that comply with OFA (Optimal
Flexible Architecture) guidelines. However, if you identify an existing Oracle
Inventory directory or existing Oracle home directories, then you can usually identify
the Oracle base directories, as follows:
■
Identifying an existing Oracle Inventory directory. Refer to Creating the Oracle
Inventory Group on page 2-19 for more information.
Oracle recommends that you do not put the oraInventory
directory under Oracle base for a new installation. However, if you
have an existing installation, then you should follow the steps
suggested in this section.
Note:
■
Identifying an existing Oracle home directory
Enter the following command to display the contents of the oratab file:
# more /etc/oratab
If the oratab file exists, then it contains lines similar to the following:
*:/u03/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1:N
*:/opt/orauser/infra_904:N
*:/oracle/9.2.0:N
The directory paths specified on each line identify Oracle home directories.
Directory paths that end with the user name of the Oracle software owner that you
want to use are valid choices for an Oracle base directory. If you intend to use the
oracle user to install the software, then you can choose one of the following
directories listed in the previous example:
/u03/app/oracle
/oracle
If possible, choose a directory path similar to the first one
(/u03/app/oracle). This path complies with the OFA guidelines.
Note:
■
Identifying an existing Oracle base directory
After you have located the Oracle home directory, you can run the following
command to confirm the location of Oracle base:
cat inventory/ContentsXML/oraclehomeproperties.xml
Before deciding to use an existing Oracle base directory for this installation, ensure
that it satisfies the following conditions:
■
It should not be on the same file system as the operating system.
■
It must have sufficient free disk space, as follows:
Requirement
Free Disk Space
The Oracle base directory will contain only
software files.
Up to 3 GB
2-28 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Identifying or Creating an Oracle Base Directory
Requirement
Free Disk Space
The Oracle base directory will contain both
software and database files (not recommended for
production databases).
Up to 5.4 GB
To determine the free disk space on the file system where the Oracle base directory
is located, enter the following command:
# df -k oracle_base_path
To continue:
■
If an Oracle base directory exists and you want to use it, then refer to the
"Choosing a Storage Option for Oracle Database and Recovery Files" section on
page 2-30.
When you configure the oracle user’s environment later in this chapter, set the
ORACLE_BASE environment variable to specify the directory you chose.
■
If an Oracle base directory does not exist on the system or if you want to create an
Oracle base directory, then refer to the following section.
Creating an Oracle Base Directory
Before you create an Oracle base directory, you must identify an appropriate file
system with sufficient free disk space.
To identify an appropriate file system:
1.
To determine the free disk space on each mounted file system use the following
command:
# df -k
2.
From the display, identify a file system that has appropriate free space.
The file system that you identify can be a local file system, a cluster file system, or
an NFS file system on a certified NAS device.
3.
Note the name of the mount point directory for the file system that you identified.
To create the Oracle base directory and specify the correct owner, group, and
permissions for it:
1.
Enter commands similar to the following to create the recommended
subdirectories in the mount point directory that you identified and set the
appropriate owner, group, and permissions on them:
# mkdir -p /mount_point/app
# chown -R oracle:oinstall /mount_point/app
# chmod -R 775 /mount_point/app/
For example:
# mkdir -p /u01/app
# chown -R oracle:oinstall /u01/app
# chmod -R 775 /u01/app/
2.
When you configure the oracle user’s environment later in this chapter, set the
ORACLE_BASE environment variable to specify the Oracle base directory that you
have created.
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements 2-29
Choosing a Storage Option for Oracle Database and Recovery Files
Choosing a Storage Option for Oracle Database and Recovery Files
Oracle Database files include data files, control files, redo log files, the server
parameter file, and the password file. For all installations, you must choose the storage
option that you want to use for Oracle Database files. If you want to enable automated
backups during the installation, then you must also choose the storage option that you
want to use for recovery files (the flash recovery area). You do not have to use the
same storage option for each file type.
Database files and recovery files are supported on file systems
and Automatic Storage Management.
Note:
Use the following guidelines when choosing the storage options that you want to use
for each file type:
■
■
■
You can choose any combination of the supported storage options for each file
type.
Oracle recommends that you choose Automatic Storage Management as the
storage option for database and recovery files.
For more information about these storage options, refer to the "Database Storage
Options" section on page 1-12.
For information about how to configure disk storage before you start the installation,
refer to one of the following sections depending on your choice:
■
■
To use a file system for database or recovery file storage, refer to the "Creating
Directories for Oracle Database or Recovery Files" section on page 2-30.
To use Automatic Storage Management for database or recovery file storage, refer
to the "Preparing Disk Groups for an Automatic Storage Management Installation"
section on page 2-32.
Creating Directories for Oracle Database or Recovery Files
This section contains the following topics:
■
Guidelines for Placing Oracle Database Files on a File System
■
Creating Required Directories
Guidelines for Placing Oracle Database Files on a File System
If you choose to place the Oracle Database files on a file system, then use the following
guidelines when deciding where to place them:
■
■
The default path suggested by Oracle Universal Installer for the database file
directory is a subdirectory of the Oracle base directory.
You can choose either a single file system or more than one file system to store the
database files:
–
If you want to use a single file system, then choose a file system on a physical
device that is dedicated to the database.
For best performance and reliability, choose a RAID device or a logical volume
on more than one physical device and implement the
stripe-and-mirror-everything (SAME) methodology.
2-30 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Creating Directories for Oracle Database or Recovery Files
–
If you want to use more than one file system, then choose file systems on
separate physical devices that are dedicated to the database.
This method enables you to distribute physical input-output operations and
create separate control files on different devices for increased reliability. It also
enables you to fully implement the OFA guidelines described in Appendix D,
"Optimal Flexible Architecture". You must choose either the Advanced
database creation option or the Custom installation type during the
installation to implement this method.
■
If you intend to create a preconfigured database during the installation, then the
file system (or file systems) that you choose must have at least 1.5 GB of free disk
space.
For production databases, you must estimate the disk space requirement
depending on the use that you want to make of the database.
■
■
For optimum performance, the file systems that you choose should be on physical
devices that are used only by the database.
The oracle user must have write permissions to create the files in the path that
you specify.
Creating Required Directories
You must perform this procedure only if you want to place
the Oracle Database or recovery files on a separate file system to the
Oracle base directory.
Note:
To create directories for the Oracle database, or recovery files on separate file systems
to the Oracle base directory:
1.
Use the following to determine the free disk space on each mounted file system:
# df -k
2.
From the display, identify the file systems that you want to use:
File Type
File System Requirements
Database files
Choose either:
■
■
Recovery files
A single file system with at least 1.5 GB of free disk space
Two or more file systems with at least 1.5 GB of free disk space in
total
Choose a file system with at least 2.4 GB of free disk space
If you are using the same file system for more than one type of file, then add the
disk space requirements for each type to determine the total disk space
requirement.
3.
Note the names of the mount point directories for the file systems that you
identified.
4.
Enter commands similar to the following to create the recommended
subdirectories in each of the mount point directories and set the appropriate
owner, group, and permissions on them:
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements 2-31
Preparing Disk Groups for an Automatic Storage Management Installation
■
Database file directory:
# mkdir /mount_point/oradata
# chown oracle:oinstall /mount_point/oradata
# chmod 775 /mount_point/oradata
The default location for Database file directory is $ORACLE_BASE/oradata.
■
Recovery file directory (flash recovery area):
# mkdir /mount_point/flash_recovery_area
# chown oracle:oinstall /mount_point/flash_recovery_area
# chmod 775 /mount_point/flash_recovery_area
The default flash recovery area is $ORACLE_BASE/flash_recovery_area.
However, Oracle recommends that you keep the flash recovery area on a
separate physical disk than that of the database file directory. This will enable
you use the flash recovery area to retrieve data if the disk containing oradata
is unusable due to any reasons.
5.
If you also want to use Automatic Storage Management for storage, then refer to
the following section:
"Preparing Disk Groups for an Automatic Storage Management Installation" on
page 2-32
Otherwise, refer to the "Stopping Existing Oracle Processes" section on page 2-43.
Preparing Disk Groups for an Automatic Storage Management Installation
This section describes how to configure disks for use with Automatic Storage
Management. Before you configure the disks, you must determine the number of disks
and the amount of free disk space that you require. The following sections describe
how to identify the requirements and configure the disks on each platform:
■
General Steps for Configuring Automatic Storage Management
■
Step 1: Identifying Storage Requirements for Automatic Storage Management
■
Step 2: Using an Existing Automatic Storage Management Disk Group
■
Step 3: Creating DAS or SAN Disk Partitions for Automatic Storage Management
■
Step 4: Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management
General Steps for Configuring Automatic Storage Management
The following are the general steps to configure Automatic Storage Management:
1.
Identify the storage requirements of the site.
2.
Optionally, use an existing Automatic Storage Management disk group.
3.
If you are creating an Automatic Storage Management disk group, create
partitions for DAS or SAN disks.
4.
Use one of the following methods to complete the Automatic Storage Management
configuration:
■
If you plan to install Oracle Database using interactive mode, Oracle Universal
Installer prompts you for the Automatic Storage Management disk
configuration information during the installation.
2-32 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Preparing Disk Groups for an Automatic Storage Management Installation
■
If you plan to install Oracle Database using noninteractive mode, you should
manually configure the disks before performing the installation.
Step 1: Identifying Storage Requirements for Automatic Storage Management
To identify the storage requirements for using Automatic Storage Management, you
must determine the number of devices and the amount of free disk space that you
require. To complete this task:
1.
Determine whether you want to use Automatic Storage Management for Oracle
Database files, recovery files, or both.
You do not have to use the same storage mechanism for
data files and recovery files. You can use the file system for one file
type and Automatic Storage Management for the other. If you plan
to use Automatic Storage Management for both data files and
recovery files, then you should create separate Automatic Storage
Management disk groups for the data files and the recovery files.
Note:
If you plan to enable automated backups during the installation, then you can
choose Automatic Storage Management as the storage mechanism for recovery
files by specifying an Automatic Storage Management disk group for the flash
recovery area. Depending on how you choose to create a database during the
installation, you have the following options:
■
If you select an installation method that runs Oracle Database Configuration
Assistant in an interactive mode, by choosing the Advanced database
configuration option for example, then you can decide whether you want to
use the same Automatic Storage Management disk group for database files
and recovery files, or you can choose to use different disk groups for each file
type. Ideally, you should create separate Automatic Storage Management disk
groups for data files and for recovery files.
The same choice is available to you if you use Oracle Database Configuration
Assistant after the installation to create a database.
■
2.
If you select an installation type that runs Oracle Database Configuration
Assistant in noninteractive mode, then you must use the same Automatic
Storage Management disk group for data files and recovery files.
Choose the Automatic Storage Management redundancy level that you want to
use for each Automatic Storage Management disk group that you create.
The redundancy level that you choose for the Automatic Storage Management
disk group determines how Automatic Storage Management mirrors files in the
disk group and determines the number of disks and amount of disk space that you
require, as follows:
■
External redundancy
An external redundancy disk group requires a minimum of one disk device.
The effective disk space in an external redundancy disk group is the sum of
the disk space in all of its devices.
This option does not allow Automatic Storage Management to mirror the
contents of the disk group. Oracle recommends that you select this
redundancy level either when the disk group contains devices, such as RAID
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements 2-33
Preparing Disk Groups for an Automatic Storage Management Installation
devices, that provide their own data protection or when the database does not
require an uninterrupted access to data.
■
Normal redundancy
In a normal redundancy disk group, to increase performance and reliability,
Automatic Storage Management by default uses two-way mirroring. A normal
redundancy disk group requires a minimum of two disk devices (or two
failure groups). The effective disk space in a normal redundancy disk group is
half the sum of the disk space in all of its devices.
For most installations, Oracle recommends that you use normal redundancy
disk groups.
■
High redundancy
The contents of the disk group are three-way mirrored by default. To create a
disk group with high redundancy, you must specify at least three failure
groups (a minimum of 3 devices).
Although high-redundancy disk groups provide a high level of data
protection, you must consider the higher cost of additional storage devices
before deciding to use this redundancy level.
3.
Determine the total amount of disk space that you require for the database files
and recovery files.
If an Automatic Storage Management instance is already running on the system,
then you can use an existing disk group to meet these storage requirements. If
necessary, you can add disks to an existing disk group during the installation.
Use the following table to determine the minimum number of disks and the
minimum disk space requirements for the installation:
Redundancy
Level
Minimum Number
of Disks
Data Files
Recovery
Files
Both File
Types
External
1
1.15 GB
2.3 GB
3.45 GB
Normal
2
2.3 GB
4.6 GB
6.9 GB
High
3
3.45 GB
6.9 GB
10.35 GB
The following step describes how to identify existing disk groups and determine
the free disk space that they contain.
4.
Identify failure groups for the Automatic Storage Management disk group
devices.
Note: You need to perform this step only when you intend to use
an installation method that runs Oracle Database Configuration
Assistant in an interactive mode. For example, if you intend to
choose the Custom installation type or the Advanced database
configuration option. Other installation types do not enable you to
specify failure groups.
If you intend to use a normal or high redundancy disk group, then you can further
protect the database against hardware failure by associating a set of disk devices in
a custom failure group. By default, each device comprises its failure group.
However, if two disk devices in a normal redundancy disk group are attached to
2-34 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Preparing Disk Groups for an Automatic Storage Management Installation
the same SCSI controller, then the disk group becomes unavailable if the controller
fails. The controller in this example is a single point of failure.
To avoid failures of this type, you can use two SCSI controllers, each with two
disks, and define a failure group for the disks attached to each controller. This
configuration would enable the disk group to tolerate the failure of one SCSI
controller.
If you define custom failure groups, then you must specify
a minimum of two failure groups for normal redundancy disk
groups and three failure groups for high redundancy disk groups.
Note:
5.
If you are sure that a suitable disk group does not exist on the system, then install
or identify appropriate disk devices to add to a new disk group. Apply the
following guidelines when identifying appropriate disk devices:
■
■
■
All the devices in an Automatic Storage Management disk group should be
the same size and have the same performance characteristics.
Do not specify more than one partition on a single physical disk as a disk
group device. Automatic Storage Management expects each disk group device
to be on a separate physical disk.
Oracle does not recommend the use of logical volume as a device in an
Automatic Storage manger because the logical volume is capable of hiding the
physical disk architecture which prevents Automatic Storage Manager from
optimizing I/O across physical devices.
See Also: "Step 4: Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage
Management" on page 2-37 for information about completing this task
Step 2: Using an Existing Automatic Storage Management Disk Group
Note:
This is an optional step.
If you want to store either database or recovery files in an existing Automatic Storage
Management disk group, then you have the following choices, depending on the
installation method that you select:
■
To run Oracle Database Configuration Assistant in an interactive mode (for
example, choosing the Advanced database configuration option), you can decide
to create a disk group or use an existing one.
The same choice is available to you if you use Oracle Database Configuration
Assistant after the installation to create a database.
■
If you select an installation method that runs Oracle Database Configuration
Assistant in noninteractive mode, then you must choose an existing disk group for
the new database; you cannot create a disk group. However, you can add disk
devices to an existing disk group if it has insufficient free space for your
requirements.
The Automatic Storage Management instance that manages
the existing disk group can be running in a different Oracle home
directory.
Note:
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements 2-35
Preparing Disk Groups for an Automatic Storage Management Installation
To determine whether an existing Automatic Storage Management disk group exists,
or to determine whether there is sufficient disk space in a disk group, you can use
Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control or Database Control. Alternatively, you can
use the following procedure:
1.
View the contents of the oratab file to determine whether an Automatic Storage
Management instance is configured on the system:
# more /etc/oratab
If an Automatic Storage Management instance is configured on the system, then
the oratab file should contain a line similar to the following:
+ASM:oracle_home_path:N
In this example, +ASM is the system identifier (SID) of the Automatic Storage
Management instance and oracle_home_path is the Oracle home directory
where it is installed. By convention, the SID for an Automatic Storage
Management instance begins with a plus sign.
2.
Open a shell prompt and temporarily set the ORACLE_SID and ORACLE_HOME
environment variables to specify the appropriate values for the Automatic Storage
Management instance that you want to use.
For example, if the Automatic Storage Management SID is named
OraDB11g+ASM and is located in the asm subdirectory of the ORACLE_BASE
directory, then enter the following commands to create the required settings:
■
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$
$
$
$
■
ORACLE_SID=OraDB11g+ASM
export ORACLE_SID
ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/asm
export ORACLE_HOME
C shell:
% setenv ORACLE_SID OraDB11g+ASM
% setenv ORACLE_HOME /u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/asm
3.
By using SQL*Plus, connect to the Automatic Storage Management instance as the
SYS user with SYSASM privilege and start the instance, if necessary:
# $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus
SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSASM
Enter password: SYS_password
SQL> STARTUP
4.
Enter the following command to display the existing disk groups, their
redundancy level, and the amount of free disk space in each one:
SQL> SELECT NAME,TYPE,TOTAL_MB,FREE_MB FROM V$ASM_DISKGROUP;
5.
From the output, identify a disk group with the appropriate redundancy level and
note the free space that it contains.
6.
If necessary, install or identify the additional disk devices required to meet the
storage requirements listed in the previous section.
2-36 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Preparing Disk Groups for an Automatic Storage Management Installation
If you are adding devices to an existing disk group, then
Oracle recommends that you use devices that have the same size
and performance characteristics as the existing devices in that disk
group.
Note:
Step 3: Creating DAS or SAN Disk Partitions for Automatic Storage Management
In order to use a DAS or SAN disk in Automatic Storage Management, the disk must
have a partition table. Oracle recommends creating exactly one partition for each disk
containing the entire disk.
You can use any physical disk for Automatic Storage
Management, as long as it is partitioned.
Note:
Step 4: Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management
Oracle provides an Automatic Storage Management library driver that you can use to
simplify the configuration and management of the disk devices that you want to use
with Automatic Storage Management. A disk that is configured for Automatic Storage
Management is known as a candidate disk.
If you intend to use Automatic Storage Management for database storage, then Oracle
recommends that you install the Automatic Storage Management library driver
(ASMLIB) and associated utilities and use them to configure the devices that you want
to include in an Automatic Storage Management disk group.
If you choose to configure disks using the Automatic Storage
Management library driver, then you must change the default disk
discovery string to ORCL:*. These disks would be discovered if the
diskstring is either set to ORCL:* or is left empty ("").
Note:
Configuring Disks for Automatic Storage Management Using the Automatic Storage
Management Library Driver (ASMLIB)
To use the Automatic Storage Management library driver to configure Automatic
Storage Management devices, complete the following tasks:
■
■
■
Installing and Configuring the Automatic Storage Management Library Driver
Software
Configuring the Disk Devices to Use the Automatic Storage Management Library
Driver
Administering the Automatic Storage Management Library Driver and Disks
Installing and Configuring the Automatic Storage Management Library Driver
Software
To install and configure the Automatic Storage Management library driver software:
1.
Enter the following command to determine the kernel version and architecture of
the system:
# uname -rm
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements 2-37
Preparing Disk Groups for an Automatic Storage Management Installation
2.
If necessary, download the required Automatic Storage Management library driver
packages from the Oracle Technology Network Web site:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/tech/linux/asmlib/index.html
Automatic Storage Management library driver packages for
some kernel versions are available on the Oracle Database installation
media in the database/RPMS/asmlib directory. However, Oracle
recommends that you check the Oracle Technology Network Web site
for the most up-to-date packages.
Note:
You must install the following packages, where version is the version of the
Automatic Storage Management library driver, arch is the system architecture,
and kernel is the version of the kernel that you are using:
oracleasm-support-version.arch.rpm
oracleasm-kernel-version.arch.rpm
oracleasmlib-version.arch.rpm
3.
Enter a command similar to the following to install the packages:
# sudo rpm -Uvh oracleasm-support-version.arch.rpm \
oracleasm-kernel-version.arch.rpm \
oracleasmlib-version.arch.rpm
For example, if you are using the Red Hat Enterprise Linux AS 5.0 enterprise
kernel on an x86 system, then enter a command similar to the following:
# sudo rpm -Uvh oracleasm-support-1.0.0-1.i386.rpm \
oracleasm-2.6.9-e-enterprise-1.0.0-1.i686.rpm \
oracleasmlib-1.0.0-1.i386.rpm
4.
Enter a command similar to the following to determine the UID of the Oracle
software owner user that you are using for this installation (typically oracle) and
the GID of the OSASM group (typically asm):
# id oracle
5.
Enter the following command to run the oracleasm initialization script with the
configure option:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm configure
6.
Enter the following information in response to the prompts that the script
displays:
Prompt
Suggested Response
Default UID to own the driver interface:
Specify the UID of the Oracle software
owner user (oracle).
Default GID to own the driver interface:
Specify the GID of the OSASM group
(asm).
Start Oracle Automatic Storage Management
Library driver on start (y/n):
Enter y to start the Oracle Automatic
Storage Management library driver when
the system starts.
2-38 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Preparing Disk Groups for an Automatic Storage Management Installation
Configuring the Disk Devices to Use the Automatic Storage Management Library
Driver
To configure the disk devices that you want to use in an Automatic Storage
Management disk group:
1.
If you intend to use IDE, SCSI, or RAID devices in the Automatic Storage
Management disk group, then:
a.
If necessary, install or configure the disk devices that you intend to use for the
disk group and restart the system.
b.
To identify the device name for the disks that you want to use, enter the
following command:
# /sbin/fdisk -l
Depending on the type of disk, the device name can vary.
Disk Type
Device Name
Format
IDE disk
/dev/hdxn
In this example, x is a letter that identifies the
IDE disk and n is the partition number. For
example, /dev/hda is the first disk on the first
IDE bus.
SCSI disk
/dev/sdxn
In this example, x is a letter that identifies the
SCSI disk and n is the partition number. For
example, /dev/sda is the first disk on the first
SCSI bus.
RAID disk
/dev/rd/cxdypz
/dev/ida/cxdypz
Depending on the RAID controller, RAID
devices can have different device names. In the
examples shown, x is a number that identifies
the controller, y is a number that identifies the
disk, and z is a number that identifies the
partition. For example, /dev/ida/c0d1 is the
second logical drive on the first controller.
Description
To include devices in a disk group, you can specify either whole-drive device
names or partition device names.
Oracle recommends that you create a single whole-disk
partition on each disk that you want to use.
Note:
c.
2.
Use either fdisk or parted to create a single whole-disk partition on the
disk devices that you want to use.
Enter a command similar to the following to mark a disk as an Automatic Storage
Management disk:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm createdisk DISK1 /dev/sdb1
In this example, DISK1 is a name that you want to assign to the disk.
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements 2-39
Preparing Disk Groups for an Automatic Storage Management Installation
Note:
■
If you are using a multi-pathing disk driver with Automatic
Storage Management, then ensure that you specify the correct
logical device name for the disk.
The disk names that you specify can contain uppercase letters,
numbers, and the underscore character. They must start with
an uppercase letter.
■
To create a database during the installation using the
Automatic Storage Management library driver, you must
change the default disk discovery string to ORCL:*. These
disks would be discovered if the diskstring is either set to
ORCL:* or is left empty.
Administering the Automatic Storage Management Library Driver and Disks
To administer the Automatic Storage Management library driver and disks, use the
oracleasm initialization script with the following options:
Option
Description
configure
Use the configure option to reconfigure the Automatic Storage
Management library driver, if necessary:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm configure
enable
disable
Use the disable and enable options to change the behavior of the
Automatic Storage Management library driver when the system starts.
The enable option causes the Automatic Storage Management library
driver to load when the system starts:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm enable
start
stop
restart
Use the start, stop, and restart options to load or unload the
Automatic Storage Management library driver without restarting the
system:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm restart
createdisk
Use the createdisk option to mark a disk device for use with the
Automatic Storage Management library driver and give it a name:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm createdisk DISKNAME devicename
deletedisk
Use the deletedisk option to unmark a named disk device:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm deletedisk DISKNAME
Note: Do not use this command to unmark disks that are being used by
an Automatic Storage Management disk group. You must drop the disk
from the Automatic Storage Management disk group before you unmark
it.
querydisk
Use the querydisk option to determine whether a disk device or disk
name is being used by the Automatic Storage Management library driver:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm querydisk {DISKNAME | devicename}
2-40 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Configuring Disk Devices for Oracle Database
Option
Description
listdisks
Use the listdisks option to list the disk names of marked Automatic
Storage Management library driver disks:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm listdisks
scandisks
Use the scandisks option to enable cluster nodes to identify which
shared disks have been marked as Automatic Storage Management
library driver disks on another node:
# /etc/init.d/oracleasm scandisks
Configuring Disk Devices for Oracle Database
The O_DIRECT parameter enables direct read and writes to block devices, avoiding
kernel overhead. With Oracle Database Release 10.2 and later, Oracle Database files are
configured by default to use direct input/output.
With the 2. 6 kernel or later for Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Oracle Linux, and SUSE
Enterprise Server, you must create a permissions file to maintain permissions on
Oracle database files. If you do not create this permissions file, then permissions on
disk devices revert to their default values, root:disk, and Oracle database fails to
start. Use the following steps to set the permissions file number:
■
■
On Asianux 2, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4, and Oracle Linux 4, you must create a
permissions file number that is lower than 50.
On Asianux 3, Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5, Oracle Linux 5, or SUSE Enterprise
Linux 10, you must create a permissions file number that is higher at 50.
To configure a permissions file for disk devices, complete the following tasks:
■
Example of Creating a Udev Permissions File for Oracle Database
■
Example of Configuring Block Device Storage for Oracle Database
See Also: Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide for Linux for
information about configuring storage for Oracle database files on
shared storage devices.
Example of Creating a Udev Permissions File for Oracle Database
The procedure to create a permissions file to grant oinstall group members write
privileges to block devices is as follows:
1.
Log in as root.
2.
Change to the /etc/udev/permissions.d directory:
# cd /etc/udev/permissions.d
3.
Start a text editor, such as vi, and enter the partition information where you want
to place the data files and voting disk files, using the syntax
device[partitions]:root:oinstall:0640. Oracle recommends that you place the data files
on separate physical disks. For example, to grant oinstall members access to
SCSI disks to place data files on sda and sdb, and to grant the Oracle Database
owner permissions to place voting disks on sdF, sdG and sdE, add the following
information to the file:
Binary Files
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements 2-41
Configuring Disk Devices for Oracle Database
sdb:oracle:oinstall:0640
sdc:oracle:oinstall:0640
sda:oracle:oinstall:0640
Data Files/Flash Recovery Files
sdE:oracle:oinstall:0640
sdF:oracle:oinstall:0640
sdG:oracle:oinstall:0640
4.
Save the file as 49-oracle.permissions on a Red Hat and Oracle Linux 4
system and 51-oracle.permissions on a SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 10
system
5.
Using the following command, assign the permissions in the udev file to the
devices:
# /sbin/udevstart
Example of Configuring Block Device Storage for Oracle Database
The following is the procedure to create partitions for Oracle Database files on block
devices:
1.
Log in as root
2.
Enter the fdisk command to format a specific storage disk. For example,
/sbin/fdisk /dev/sdb
3.
Create a partition, and make the partition 280 MB in size for both data files and
voting disk partitions.
4.
Use the command similar to the following to update the kernel partition table for
the shared storage device:
/sbin/partprobe diskpath
The following is an example of how to use fdisk to create one partition on a shared
storage block disk device for a data file:
$ sudo sh
Password:
# /sbin/fdisk /dev/sdb
The number of cylinders for this disk is set to 1024.
Command (m for help): n
Command action
e
extended
P
primary partition (1-4)
p
Partition number (1-4): 1
First cylinder (1-1024, default 1):
Using default value 1
Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-4462, default 1)
Using default value 1
Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (1-1024, default 4462): using default
value 4462
Command (m for help):w
The partition table has been altered!
Calling ioctl () to re-read partition table.
Synching disks.
# exit
2-42 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Stopping Existing Oracle Processes
$ ssh remotenode
Last login Wed Feb 21 20:23:01 from localnode
$ sudo sh
Password:
# /sbin/partprobe /dev/sdb1
Stopping Existing Oracle Processes
If you are installing additional Oracle Database 11g
products in an existing Oracle home, then stop all processes
running in the Oracle home. You must complete this task to enable
Oracle Universal Installer to relink certain executables and libraries.
Note:
If you choose to create a database during the installation, then most installation types
configure and start a default Oracle Net listener using TCP/IP port 1521 and the IPC
key value EXTPROC. However, if an existing Oracle Net listener process is using the
same port or key value, Oracle Universal Installer can only configure the new listener,
it cannot start it. To ensure that the new listener process starts during the installation,
you must shut down any existing listeners before starting Oracle Universal Installer.
To determine whether an existing listener process is running and to shut it down, if
necessary:
1.
Switch user to oracle:
# su - oracle
2.
Enter the following command to determine whether a listener process is running
and to identify its name and the Oracle home directory in which it is installed:
$ ps -ef | grep tnslsnr
This command displays information about the Oracle Net listeners running on the
system:
... oracle_home1/bin/tnslsnr LISTENER -inherit
In this example, oracle_home1 is the Oracle home directory where the listener is
installed and LISTENER is the listener name.
If no Oracle Net listeners run, then refer to the "Configuring
the oracle User’s Environment" section on page 2-44 to continue.
Note:
3.
Set the ORACLE_HOME environment variable to specify the appropriate Oracle
home directory for the listener:
■
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ ORACLE_HOME=oracle_home1
$ export ORACLE_HOME
■
C or tcsh shell:
% setenv ORACLE_HOME oracle_home1
4.
Enter the following command to identify the TCP/IP port number and IPC key
value that the listener is using:
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements 2-43
Configuring the oracle User’s Environment
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/lsnrctl status listenername
If the listener uses the default name LISTENER, then you do
not have to specify the listener name in this command.
Note:
5.
Enter a command similar to the following to stop the listener process:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/lsnrctl stop listenername
6.
Repeat this procedure to stop all listeners running on this system.
Configuring the oracle User’s Environment
You run Oracle Universal Installer from the oracle account. However, before you
start Oracle Universal Installer you must configure the environment of the oracle
user. To configure the environment, you must:
■
Set the default file mode creation mask (umask) to 022 in the shell startup file.
■
Set the DISPLAY environment variable.
To set the oracle user’s environment:
1.
Start a new terminal session, for example, an X terminal (xterm).
2.
Enter the following command to ensure that X Window applications can display
on this system:
$ xhost fully_qualified_remote_host_name
For example:
$ xhost somehost.us.example.com
3.
If you are not already logged in to the system where you want to install the
software, then log in to that system as the oracle user.
4.
If you are not logged in as the oracle user, then switch user to oracle:
$ su - oracle
5.
To determine the default shell for the oracle user, enter the following command:
$ echo $SHELL
6.
To run the shell startup script, enter one of the following commands:
■
Bash shell:
$ . ./.bash_profile
■
Bourne or Korn shell:
$ . ./.profile
■
C shell:
% source ./.login
7.
If you are not installing the software on the local computer, then run the following
command on the remote computer to set the DISPLAY variable:
■
Bourne, Bash or Korn shell:
2-44 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Configuring the oracle User’s Environment
$ export DISPLAY=local_host:0.0
■
C shell:
% setenv DISPLAY local_host:0.0
In this example, local_host is the host name or IP address of the local
computer that you want to use to display Oracle Universal Installer.
Run the following command on the remote computer to check if the shell and the
DISPLAY environmental variable are set correctly:
echo $SHELL
echo $DISPLAY
Now to enable X applications, run the following commands on the local computer:
$ xhost + fully_qualified_remote_host_name
To verify that X applications display is set properly, run a X11 based program that
comes with the operating system such as xclock:
$ xclock_path
In this example, xclock_path is the directory path. For example, you can find
xclock at /usr/X11R6/bin/xclocks. If the DISPLAY variable is set properly,
then you can see xclock on your computer screen.
See Also: PC-X Server or Operating System vendor documents for
further assistance.
8.
If you determined that the /tmp directory has less than 400 MB of free disk space,
then identify a file system with at least 400 MB of free space and set the TMP and
TMPDIR environment variables to specify a temporary directory on this file
system:
a.
To determine the free disk space on each mounted file system use the
following command:
# df -k /tmp
b.
If necessary, enter commands similar to the following to create a temporary
directory on the file system that you identified, and set the appropriate
permissions on the directory:
$ sudo mkdir /mount_point/tmp
$ sudo chmod a+wr /mount_point/tmp
# exit
c.
Enter commands similar to the following to set the TMP and TMPDIR
environment variables:
*
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ TMP=/mount_point/tmp
$ TMPDIR=/mount_point/tmp
$ export TMP TMPDIR
*
C shell:
% setenv TMP /mount_point/tmp
% setenv TMPDIR /mount_point/tmp
Oracle Database Preinstallation Requirements 2-45
Configuring the oracle User’s Environment
9.
Enter commands similar to the following to set the ORACLE_BASE and ORACLE_
SID environment variables:
■
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ ORACLE_BASE=/u01/app/oracle
$ ORACLE_SID=sales
$ export ORACLE_BASE ORACLE_SID
■
C shell:
% setenv ORACLE_BASE /u01/app/oracle
% setenv ORACLE_SID sales
In these examples, /u01/app/oracle is the Oracle base directory that you
created or identified earlier and sales is the name that you want to call the
database (typically no more than five characters).
10. Enter the following commands to ensure that the ORACLE_HOME and TNS_ADMIN
environment variables are not set:
■
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ unset ORACLE_HOME
$ unset TNS_ADMIN
■
C shell:
% unsetenv ORACLE_HOME
% unsetenv TNS_ADMIN
If the ORACLE_HOME environment variable is set, then
Oracle Universal Installer uses the value that it specifies as the
default path for the Oracle home directory. However, if you set the
ORACLE_BASE environment variable, then Oracle recommends that
you unset the ORACLE_HOME environment variable and choose the
default path suggested by Oracle Universal Installer.
Note:
2-46 Oracle Database Installation Guide
3
3
Installing Oracle Database
The Oracle Database software is available on installation media or you can download
it from the Oracle Technology Network Web site. In most cases, you use the graphical
user interface (GUI) provided by Oracle Universal Installer to install the software.
However, you can also use Oracle Universal Installer to complete silent-mode
installations, without using the GUI.
■
Preinstallation Considerations
■
Reviewing Installation Guidelines
■
Accessing the Installation Software
■
Database Security Options
■
Installing the Oracle Database Software
■
Installing Automatic Storage Management
■
Installing Oracle Database Examples
See Also: Appendix A for information about silent-mode
installations
Preinstallation Considerations
After reviewing the information in Chapter 1, "Overview of Oracle Database
Installation" and completing the tasks listed in Chapter 2, "Oracle Database
Preinstallation Requirements", consider the following case:
Performing Multiple Oracle Database Installations in Noninteractive Mode
If you need to perform multiple installations of Oracle Database, you may want to use
noninteractive mode. In noninteractive mode, at each node, you run Oracle Universal
Installer from the command line using a response file. The response file is a text file
containing the settings you normally enter in the Oracle Universal Installer GUI dialog
boxes.
See Also: Appendix A for information about silent-mode
installations
Reviewing Installation Guidelines
Review the following guidelines before starting Oracle Universal Installer:
■
Oracle Universal Installer
Installing Oracle Database 3-1
Reviewing Installation Guidelines
Do not use Oracle Universal Installer from an earlier Oracle release to install
components from this release.
■
Reinstalling Oracle Software
If you reinstall Oracle software into an Oracle home directory where Oracle
Database is already installed, you must also reinstall any components, such as
Oracle Partitioning, that were installed before you begin the reinstallation.
■
Products requiring a custom installation
To install the following products, you must choose the Custom installation type:
■
Oracle Database Vault
■
Oracle Connection Manager
■
Oracle Label Security
Before you perform a custom installation, make sure all
databases in the Oracle home where you want to install Oracle
Label Security are shut down.
Note:
To configure Oracle Label Security to use Oracle Internet Directory, choose the
Oracle Internet Directory option when running Database Configuration
Assistant. If you are installing Oracle Label Security in an existing Oracle
home, then shut down each database in the Oracle home.
■
Installations on a Cluster
If Oracle Clusterware and Oracle RAC are already installed on the system, Oracle
Universal Installer displays the Specify Hardware Cluster Installation Mode
screen. You must select Local Installation on this screen, unless you want to install
Oracle RAC.
Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide for Linux
and UNIX for information on installing Oracle RAC
See Also:
Selecting the Database Character Set
Oracle Database uses the database character set for:
■
Data stored in SQL character datatypes (CHAR, VARCHAR2, CLOB, and LONG).
■
Identifiers such as table names, column names, and PL/SQL variables.
■
Stored SQL and PL/SQL source code, including text literals embedded in this
code.
Once a database is created, changing its character set is usually very expensive in
terms of time and resources. Such operation may require converting all character data
by exporting the whole database and importing it back. Therefore, it is important that
you carefully select the database character set already at installation time.
Oracle recommends Unicode AL32UTF8 as the database character set. Unicode is the
universal character set that supports most of the currently spoken languages of the
world. It also supports many historical scripts (alphabets). Unicode is the native
encoding of many technologies, including Java, XML, XHTML, ECMAScript, and
LDAP. Unicode is ideally suited for databases supporting the Internet and the global
economy.
3-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Reviewing Installation Guidelines
As AL32UTF8 is a multibyte character set, database operations on character data may
be slightly slower when compared to single-byte database character sets, such as
WE8MSWIN1252. Storage space requirements for text in most languages that use
characters outside of the ASCII repertoire are higher in AL32UTF8 compared to legacy
character sets supporting the language. Note that the increase in storage space
concerns only character data and only data that is not in English. The universality and
flexibility of Unicode usually outweighs these additional costs.
Legacy character sets should be considered when compatibility, storage requirements,
or performance of text processing is critical and the database will ever support only a
single group of languages. The database character set to be selected in such case is the
character set of most clients connecting to this database.
The default character set suggested or used by Oracle Universal Installer and Database
Configuration Assistant in this release is based on the language configuration of the
operating system.
For most languages, the default character set is one of the Microsoft Windows
character sets, for example WE8MSWIN1252, even though the database is not installed
on Windows. This results from the assumption that most clients connecting to the
database run under the Microsoft Windows operating system. As the database should
be able to store all characters coming from the clients and Microsoft Windows
character sets have richer character repertoire than the corresponding ISO 8859
character sets, the Microsoft Windows character sets are usually the better choice. For
example, the EE8MSWIN1250 character set supports the Euro currency symbol and
various smart quote characters, while the corresponding EE8ISO8859P2 character set
does not support them. In any case, Oracle converts the data between the database
character set and the client character sets, which are declared by the NLS_LANG
settings.
The list of database character sets that is presented to you for selection by Oracle
Universal Installer contains only the recommended character sets. Even though Oracle
Database supports many more character sets, they are either deprecated or they are
binary subsets of another recommended character set. For example, WE8DEC is a
deprecated character set and US7ASCII and WE8ISO8859P1 are both binary subsets of
WE8MSWIN1252.
If, for compatibility reasons, you need to create a database in one of the
non-recommended character sets, choose the Custom installation type or choose the
Advanced database configuration option. Database Configuration Assistant in the
interactive mode will give you the opportunity to select any of the database character
sets supported on Linux.
Installing the Sample Schemas
The Sample Schemas are not available in Basic Installation. There are two instances
where the Sample Schemas are available:
■
■
When a new database instance is created with the Database Configuration
Assistant, the Sample Schemas can be installed. However, do not select Custom
database. Sample Schemas are not available with a custom installation.
When a new database instance is created with the Oracle Universal Installer, select
either Enterprise Edition or Standard Edition, then select one of the two templates:
General Purpose/Transaction Processing or Data Warehouse. The Sample Schemas
can be installed. However, if you select the Advanced option on the Select
Database Configuration screen, then the Sample Schemas are not available for
installation.
Installing Oracle Database 3-3
Accessing the Installation Software
See Oracle Database Sample Schemas for information about manually installing the
Sample Schemas in an existing database.
Accessing the Installation Software
The Oracle Database software is available on installation media or you can download
it from the Oracle Technology Network Web site. To install the software from the hard
disk, you must either download it from Oracle Technology Network and unpack it, or
copy it from the installation media, if you have it.
You can access and install Oracle Database by using one of the following methods:
■
■
To copy the software to a hard disk, refer to "Copying the Software to the Hard
Disk" on page 3-5
To download the software from Oracle Technology Network, refer to
"Downloading Oracle Software from the Oracle Technology Network Web Site" on
page 3-4
Downloading Oracle Software from the Oracle Technology Network Web Site
This section describes how to download the installation archive files and extract them
on to the hard disk. It contains the following topics:
■
Downloading the Installation Archive Files
■
Extracting the Installation Files
Downloading the Installation Archive Files
To download the installation archive files from Oracle Technology Network:
1.
Use any browser to access the software download page from Oracle Technology
Network:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/software/
2.
Navigate to the download page for the product that you want to install.
3.
On the download page, identify the required disk space by adding the file sizes for
each required file.
The file sizes are listed next to the file names.
4.
Select a file system with enough free space to store and expand the archive files.
In most cases, the available disk space must be at least twice the size of all of the
archive files.
5.
On the file system that you selected in step 4, create a parent directory for each
product, for example OraDB11g, to hold the installation directories.
6.
Download all of the installation archive files to the directory that you created in
step 5.
7.
Verify that the files you downloaded are the same size as the corresponding files
on Oracle Technology Network.
8.
Extract the files in each directory that you just created.
9.
After you have extracted the required installation files, refer to "Installing the
Oracle Database Software" on page 3-7.
3-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Accessing the Installation Software
Extracting the Installation Files
To extract the installation archive files, perform the following steps:
1.
If necessary, change directory to the directory that contains the downloaded
installation archive files.
2.
If the downloaded file has the zip extension, use the following command to
extract the content:
unzip file_name.zip
If the downloaded file has the cpio.gz extension, use the following command:
$ gunzip filename.cpio.gz
This command creates files with names similar to the following:
filename.cpio
To extract the installation files, enter a command similar to the following:
$ cpio -idcmv < filename.cpio
Refer to the download page for information about the
correct options to use with the cpio command.
Note:
Some browsers uncompress files while downloading them, but
leave the .gz file extension.
For each file, this command creates a subdirectory named Diskn, where n is the
disk number identified in the file name.
When you have extracted all of the required installation files, refer to "Installing the
Oracle Database Software" on page 3-7.
Copying the Software to the Hard Disk
Before installing Oracle Database, you might want to copy the software to the hard
disk. This enables the installation process to run a bit faster. Before copying the
installation media content to the hard disk, you must mount the disk. The following
sections describe to mount disk and copy its content to the hard disk.
Mounting Disks
On most Linux systems, the disk mounts automatically when you insert it into the
installation media. If the disk does not mount automatically, then follow these steps to
mount it:
1.
If necessary, enter a command similar to one of the following to eject the currently
mounted disk, then remove it from the drive:
■
Asianux, Oracle Linux, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux:
$ sudo eject /mnt/dvd
■
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server:
# eject /media/dvd
Installing Oracle Database 3-5
Accessing the Installation Software
In these examples, /mnt/dvd and /media/dvd are the mount point directories
for the installation media.
2.
Insert the appropriate installation media into the disk drive.
3.
To verify if the disk is mounted automatically, enter one of the following
commands depending on the platform:
■
Asianux, Oracle Linux, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux:
# ls /mnt/dvd
■
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server:
# ls /media/dvd
4.
Before running the following command, ensure that the /mnt/dvd directory exists
on Red Hat Enterprise Linux. If not, create the /mnt/dvd as required, to mount
the installation media.
If this command fails to display the contents of the installation media, enter a
command similar to the following to mount it, depending on the platform:
■
Asianux, Oracle Linux, and Red Hat Enterprise Linux:
# mount -t iso9660 /dev/dvd /mnt/dvd
■
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server:
# mount -t iso9660 /dev/dvd /media/dvd
In these examples, /mnt/dvd and /media/dvd are the mount point directories
for the installation media.
5.
If Oracle Universal Installer is displaying the Disk Location dialog box, enter the
disk mount point directory path, for example:
/mnt/dvd
To continue, go to one of the following sections:
■
■
If you want to copy software to a hard disk, refer to "Copying the Oracle Database
Software to a Hard Disk" on page 3-6.
If you want to install the software from the installation media, refer to "Installing
the Oracle Database Software" on page 3-7 .
Copying the Oracle Database Software to a Hard Disk
If the system does not have a installation media, you can
copy the software from the disk to a file system on another system,
then either mount that file system using NFS, or use FTP to copy
the files to the system where you want to install the software.
Note:
To copy the contents of the installation media to a hard disk:
1.
Create a directory on the hard disk to hold the Oracle software:
$ mkdir OraDb11g
2.
Change directory to the directory you created in step 1:
$ cd OraDb11g
3-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing the Oracle Database Software
3.
Mount the disk, if it is not already mounted.
Some platforms automatically mount the disk when you insert it into the drive. If
the disk does not mount automatically, refer to "Mounting Disks" section on
page 3-5 for platform-specific information about mounting it.
4.
Copy the contents of the mounted disk to the corresponding new subdirectory as
follows:
$ cp -R /directory_path OraDb11g
In this example, /directory_path is the disk mount point directory.
5.
If necessary, mount the next disk and repeat step 4.
Database Security Options
During installation, you are prompted to select a database security configuration. The
Secure Configuration option configures the database with database auditing options,
and password policy and expiration settings.
For new database installations, the default configuration for Oracle Database 11g
Release 1 (11.1) includes the Secure Configuration option. If you want to disable these
enhanced security controls, then you can check the Disable security settings box.
Oracle Database is then installed with default options for Oracle Database 10g Release
2. After installation, you can change security settings by starting Database
Configuration Assistant and modifying security settings. You can enable or disable
auditing or password security settings, or revert to a previous security setting.
For database upgrades, the upgraded database retains your existing database security
configuration, to ensure compatibility with existing applications. After installation,
you can use Database Configuration Assistant to enable or disable the Secure
Configuration option for testing.
Note:
■
■
Oracle strongly recommends configuring your database with the
Secure Configuration option either during installation, or after
installation using Database Configuration Assistant.
Database Vault is an enhanced Security feature. If it is installed
with the database, then you cannot change the Secure
Configuration using Database Configuration Assistant option.
Installing the Oracle Database Software
In most cases, you use the graphical user interface (GUI) provided by Oracle Universal
Installer to install Oracle Database. The instructions in this section explain how to run
the Oracle Universal Installer GUI to perform most database installations.
Installing Oracle Database 3-7
Installing the Oracle Database Software
If you run Oracle Universal Installer during the time that daily
cron jobs run, then you may encounter unexplained installation
problems if your cron job is performing cleanup, and temporary files
are deleted before the installation is finished. Oracle recommends that
you complete installation before daily cron jobs are run, or disable
daily cron jobs that perform cleanup until after the installation is
completed.
Note:
See Also:
■
■
"Installing Automatic Storage Management" on page 3-14 if you
want to install Oracle Database and use Automatic Storage
Management
Appendix A if you want to install Oracle Database by using the
noninteractive installation method, without the GUI. This method
is useful if you need to perform multiple installations of Oracle
Database. This appendix covers other advanced installation topics
as well.
Running Oracle Universal Installer
This section describes the Basic Installation as a default setting. For any type of
installation process, start Oracle Universal Installer and install the software, as follows:
1.
Log on as a member of the Administrators group to the computer on which you
want to install Oracle components.
2.
If you are installing the software from installation media, mount the disk if it is not
already mounted.
If the disk does not mount automatically, refer to "Mounting Disks" section on
page 3-5 for platform-specific information about mounting it.
Some platforms automatically mount the disk when you insert the installation
media into the drive.
3.
To start Oracle Universal Installer, complete one of the following steps depending
on the location of the installation files:
Start Oracle Universal Installer from the terminal session
where you logged in as the oracle user and set the user’s
environment.
Note:
■
If the installation files are on installation media, enter commands similar to the
following, where directory_path is the path of the database directory on
the installation media:
$ /directory_path/runInstaller
■
If the installation files are on the hard disk, change directory to the database
directory and enter the following command:
$ ./runInstaller
If Oracle Universal Installer is not displayed, refer to "X Window Display Errors"
on page G-1 for information about troubleshooting.
3-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing the Oracle Database Software
4.
In the Welcome screen, the Basic Installation is selected by default. If you want to
perform an advanced installation, then select Advanced Installation, and then
answer the prompts as needed.
"Oracle Database Installation Methods" on page 1-9 for
more information on the Basic and Advanced installation methods
See Also:
The subsequent screens that appear, which are listed in the following table,
depend on the installation method you have chosen. The order in which the
screens appear depends on the options you select.
5.
Use the following guidelines to complete the installation:
■
■
Do not install Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) software into an existing
Oracle home.
Follow the instructions displayed on the Oracle Universal Installer screens. If
you need additional information, click Help.
See Also: "Reviewing Accounts and Passwords" on page 5-4 for
details on password guidelines
■
■
■
Do not modify the Java Runtime Environment (JRE) except by using a patch
provided by Oracle Support Services. Oracle Universal Installer automatically
installs the Oracle-supplied version of the JRE. This version is required to run
Oracle Universal Installer and several Oracle assistants.
If errors are displayed while installing the software, refer to Appendix G for
information about troubleshooting.
If you chose an installation type that runs Oracle Database Configuration
Assistant and Oracle Net Configuration Assistant in interactive mode, you
must provide detailed information about configuring the database and
network.
If you need assistance when using the Oracle Database Configuration
Assistant or Oracle Net Configuration Assistant in interactive mode, click
Help on any screen.
Note: If you chose a default installation, Oracle Database
Configuration Assistant and Oracle Net Configuration Assistant do
not run interactively.
6.
When the configuration assistant tasks are complete click finish, click Exit, then
click Yes to exit from Oracle Universal Installer.
7.
When Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control opens in a Web browser, enter
the user name and password you created during the installation.
You can log in as SYS, SYSTEM, or SYSMAN. If you log in as SYS, then you must
connect as SYSDBA. Enter the password you specified for the account during the
installation.
8.
When Oracle Universal Installer prompts you to run a script with root privileges,
enter a command similar to the following in a terminal where you are logged in as
the root user, then click Continue or OK:
# /script_path/script_name
Installing Oracle Database 3-9
Installing the Oracle Database Software
9.
See Chapter 4 for information about tasks that you must complete after you have
installed Oracle Database.
The following table lists the various screens displayed during database installation:
Note: If you perform a Custom installation, then ensure that you
install only the components covered by your license. You cannot
install Standard Edition using Custom installation.
Screen
Action
Select a Product to Install
This screen enables you to install any one of the following
products:
■
Oracle Database 11g
■
Oracle Client
■
Oracle Clusterware
Click Next.
Select Installation Method
Select one of the following, then click Next:
■
■
Basic Installation: This installation method is selected by
default. It lets you quickly install Oracle Database using
minimal input. It installs the software and optionally
creates a general-purpose database using the information
that you specify on this screen.
Advanced Installation: Lets you perform more complex
installations, such as creating individual passwords for
different accounts, creating specific types of starter
databases (for example, for transaction processing or
data warehouse systems), using different language
groups, specifying e-mail notifications, and so on.
Specify Inventory Directory
and Credentials
This screen is displayed only during the first installation of
Oracle products on a system. Specify the full path of the
Oracle Inventory directory. Click Next. The next screen
contains the operating system group selected by default.
Select Installation Type
Select Enterprise Edition, Standard Edition, or Custom.
You can also specify language translations to be installed by
clicking on Product Languages.
Click Next.
Note: This screen is available only with Advanced
Installation.
Install Location
The Oracle base path appears by default. You can change the
path based on your requirement.
In the Software Location section, accept the default values or
enter the Oracle home name and directory path in which you
want to install Oracle components. The directory path should
not contain spaces.
Click Next.
Note: This screen is available only with Advanced
Installation.
3-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing the Oracle Database Software
Screen
Action
Available Product Components If you selected Custom for the Installation Type, this screen is
displayed. Select the components to be installed from the list
and click Next. To learn more about each component, place
the mouse over the component name.
Note: This screen is available only with Advanced
Installation.
Product-specific Prerequisite
Checks
This screen checks that the system meets the minimum
requirements for the installation. Correct any errors that
Oracle Universal Installer may have found, and then click
Next.
Upgrade an Existing Database
This screen is displayed if you have a previous updatable
version of Oracle Database or Automatic Storage
Management installed. For in-place database installations
where Automatic Storage Management is running, Automatic
Storage Management is upgraded automatically.
Click Yes if you want to upgrade or No if not. If you click Yes,
the Summary screen is displayed.
For more information about upgrades, refer Oracle Database
Upgrade Guide.
Select Configuration Option
Select one of the following:
■
■
■
Select Automatic Storage
Management Option
Create a database: Select this option if you are creating a
database of the following types: General purpose /
Transaction processing, and Data warehousing. The
Advanced option lets you perform a custom installation.
Configure Automatic Storage Management: Select this
option to create an Automatic Storage Management
instance only. To create an Automatic Storage
Management instance, you must provide an Automatic
Storage Management SYS Password. After you provide
this password, Oracle Universal Installer lets you create
an Automatic Storage Management disk group. After
you complete this Oracle Universal Installer session, you
can run it again to install and configure one or more
Oracle databases that use Automatic Storage
Management.
Install database Software only: Select this option to
install the database software only. This option does not
create a database or configure Automatic Storage
Management.
If you selected Configure Automatic Storage Management
from the Select Configuration Option screen, and if you have
Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g Grid Control installed, then
this screen is displayed. Select Yes or No, depending on the
requirement to use Grid Control to manage Automatic
Storage Management. If you select Yes, then select from the
list of Enterprise Management agents to use.
Installing Oracle Database
3-11
Installing the Oracle Database Software
Screen
Action
Configure Automatic Storage
Management
If you selected Configure Automatic Storage Management
from the Select Configuration Option screen, this screen is
displayed. Enter the disk group name. The disk group list
shows both candidate and member disks; you can click Show
Candidates or Show All to filter their display. Then, select
the redundancy level and member disks for the disk group.
For Redundancy Level, choose one of the following options.
If you do not choose a redundancy level, the disk group
defaults to normal redundancy.
■
■
■
Select Database Configuration
High: With this option, the contents of the disk group are
three-way mirrored by default. To create a disk group
with high redundancy, you must specify at least three
failure groups (a minimum of three devices).
Normal: In a normal redundancy level, by default, the
data files of the disk group are two-way mirrored and
the control files are three-way mirrored. You can choose
to create certain files that are three-way mirrored or not
mirrored. To create a disk group with normal
redundancy, you must specify at least two failure groups
(a minimum of two devices) for two-way mirroring.
External: If you select this option, Automatic Storage
Management does not mirror the contents of the disk
group. Choose this redundancy level when the disk
group contains devices, such as RAID devices, that
provide their own data protection; or the use of the
database does not require uninterrupted access to data,
for example, in a development environment where you
have a suitable backup strategy.
Select the database configuration that best meets the
requirements: General Purpose / Transaction Processing,
Data Warehouse, or Advanced.
See the online Help provided by either Oracle Universal
Installer or Oracle Database Configuration Assistant for a
description of these preconfigured database types.
Click Next.
3-12 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing the Oracle Database Software
Screen
Action
Specify Database Configuration Specify the following information, then click Next:
Options
Database Naming
Specify the Global Database Name using the following
syntax:
database_name.domain
where:
■
■
database_name is the name of the database. It can
contain no more than 30 characters (alphanumeric,
underscore (_), dollar ($), and pound (#)).
domain is the domain used for the database. It can
contain no more than 128 characters (alphanumeric,
underscore (_), and pound (#)), inclusive of all periods.
For example:
sales.us.example.com
When you enter the Global Database Name, Oracle Universal
Installer automatically populates the SID field with the
database name, but you can change this SID to another name.
The SID can have no more than 64 characters (alphanumeric,
dollar ($), and pound (#)).
Specify Database Config
Details
Specify the following configuration details, then click Next:
Memory
Specify the amount of memory (RAM) you want to allocate in
the Percentage field.
If you install the database software only, then you can click
Show Memory Distribution to check the memory usage by
the various processes running on the system.
Character Set
Determine how character data is encoded in the database.
The default is based on the operating system language. Select
Unicode (AL32UTF8) to store multiple languages.
See Also:
■
■
"Selecting the Database Character Set"
Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide for
information on choosing a character set.
Security
To disable the default enhanced security controls, you can
check the Disable security settings box. Oracle Database is
then installed with default options for Oracle Database 10g
Release 2.
Sample Schema
You can specify if you want to create Oracle Database with or
without sample schemas.
Select Database Management
Option
Select one of the following, then click Next:
■
■
Use Grid Control for Database Management if you have
Oracle Enterprise Manager installed.
Use Database Control for Database Management.
Optionally, select Enable Email Notifications and then
enter the outgoing SMTP server and e-mail address.
Installing Oracle Database
3-13
Installing Automatic Storage Management
Screen
Action
Specify Database Storage
Option
Select one of the following, then click Next.
Specify Backup and Recovery
Options
■
File System: Specify the database file location.
■
Automatic Storage Management
Select one of the following, then click Next.
■
■
Specify Database Schema
Passwords
Do not enable Automated backups
Enable Automated Backups: Specify the recovery area
storage location and backup job credentials
Enter and confirm passwords for the privileged database
accounts, then click Next.
Note: Optionally, you can use the same password for all
accounts. However, Oracle recommends that you specify a
different password for each account. You must remember the
passwords that you specify.
Refer to "Unlocking and Changing Passwords" on page 5-8
for information on password guidelines.
Privileged Operating System
Groups
This screen is displayed only during the first installation of
Oracle products on a system. The groups are selected by
default.
Click Next.
Oracle Configuration Manager
Registration
Enter the Customer Identification Number,the My Oracle
Support (formerly OracleMetalink) User Name, Country code,
and Click Next. The new screen prompts you to accept the
license agreement. Click Accept license Agreement to accept
the agreement.
If you decline this agreement, then Oracle Configuration
Manager is installed but not configured.
Summary
Review the information displayed on this screen.
Click Install.
Install
This screen displays status information while the product is
being installed.
Configuration Assistants
This screen displays status information for the configuration
assistants that configure the software and create a database.
When the message is displayed at the end of Database
Configuration Assistant process, click OK to continue.
Execute Configuration Scripts
When prompted, read the instructions and then run the
scripts mentioned on this screen. Click OK to continue.
End of Installation
The configuration assistants configure several Web-based
applications, including Oracle Enterprise Manager Database
Control. This screen displays the URLs configured for these
applications. Make a note of the URLs used. The port
numbers used in these URLs are also recorded in the
following file:
$ORACLE_HOME/install/portlist.ini
To exit from Oracle Universal Installer, click Exit and then
click Yes.
Installing Automatic Storage Management
Follow the procedures in this section to install and configure Automatic Storage
Management, and then to install Oracle Database so that it can use Automatic Storage
3-14 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing Automatic Storage Management
Management. If you do not plan to use Automatic Storage Management, then follow
the procedure given in "Installing the Oracle Database Software" on page 3-7 to install
Oracle Database.
This section covers the following topics:
■
■
Step 1: Reviewing Automatic Storage Management Installation Considerations
Step 2: Installing the Automatic Storage Management Instance and configuring
Disk Groups
■
Step 3: Installing Oracle Database to Use Automatic Storage Management
■
Step 4: Testing the Automatic Storage Management Installation
Step 1: Reviewing Automatic Storage Management Installation Considerations
Apply these guidelines when you install Automatic Storage Management:
■
■
You must complete the steps in "Preparing Disk Groups for an Automatic Storage
Management Installation" on page 2-32 to prepare a disk partition to use for the
Automatic Storage Management disk groups.
Oracle recommends that you install Automatic Storage Management in its own
Oracle home, regardless of whether you plan to only have one or multiple
database instances. Installing Automatic Storage Management in its own Oracle
home helps ensure higher availability and manageability.
With separate Oracle homes, you can upgrade Automatic Storage Management
and databases independently, and you can remove database software without
impacting the Automatic Storage Management instance. Ensure that the
Automatic Storage Management version is the same or later than the Oracle
Database version.
If an Automatic Storage Management installation does not already exist and you
select the Oracle Universal Installer option to install and configure Automatic
Storage Management only, then Oracle Universal Installer installs Automatic
Storage Management in its own Oracle home.
■
■
Each computer that has one or more Oracle Database instances that will use
Automatic Storage Management must have one Automatic Storage Management
instance. For example, if a computer has two Oracle Database instances that use
Automatic Storage Management, you need only one Automatic Storage
Management instance for that computer, to manage the two database instances
that use Automatic Storage Management.
When you install Automatic Storage Management, Oracle Database Configuration
Assistant creates a separate server parameter file (SPFILE) and password file for
the Automatic Storage Management instance.
Step 2: Installing the Automatic Storage Management Instance and configuring Disk
Groups
The following steps explain how to create an Automatic Storage Management instance
and a disk group for storing Oracle Database files. You can create multiple disk groups
for the Automatic Storage Management instance to manage, if you want. If you plan to
use Automatic Storage Management for backup and recovery operations, then Oracle
recommends that you create a separate disk group for this purpose.
To install an Automatic Storage Management instance and configure its disk groups:
Installing Oracle Database
3-15
Installing Automatic Storage Management
1.
If you are installing the software from disk, mount the first installation media if it
is not already mounted.
Some platforms automatically mount the disk when you insert the installation
media into the drive.
2.
To start Oracle Universal Installer, complete one of the following steps depending
on the location of the installation files:
Start Oracle Universal Installer from the terminal session
where you logged in as the oracle user and set the user’s
environment (described in Chapter 2).
Note:
■
If the installation files are on installation media, enter commands similar to the
following, where directory_path is the path of the database directory on
the installation media:
$ cd /tmp
$ /directory_path/runInstaller
■
If the installation files are on the hard disk, change directory to the database
directory and enter the following command:
$ ./runInstaller
If Oracle Universal Installer does not appear, refer to the "X Window Display
Errors" section on page G-1 for information about troubleshooting.
3.
The Select a Product to Install screen enables you to install any one of the
following products:
■
Oracle Database 11g
■
Oracle Client
■
Oracle Clusterware
See Also: "Running Oracle Universal Installer" on page 3-8 for a
detailed description of the screens used in this procedure
4.
On the Select Installation Type screen, select either Enterprise Edition, Standard
Edition, or Custom, and then click Next.
5.
On the Install location screen, the Oracle base path appears by default. You can
change the path based on your requirement. In the Software Location section,
accept the default values or enter an Automatic Storage Management-specific
name and directory location for the Automatic Storage Management instance and
Click Next.
For example, you could change name to OraDB11g+ASM and the directory
location to the following:
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/asm
6.
On the Product-Specific Prerequisite Checks screen, check that the requirements
have been met and then click Next.
7.
On the Select Configuration Option screen, select Configure Automatic Storage
Management (ASM) and then specify and confirm the Automatic Storage
Management SYS password. Then, click Next.
3-16 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing Automatic Storage Management
8.
On the Configure Automatic Storage Management screen, enter the following
settings:
This screen lets you create the disk groups to use with the
Automatic Storage Management instance. You must have an available
partition in order to create disk groups.
Note:
■
■
■
9.
Disk Group Name: Enter a name for the disk group.
Redundancy: Select one of the following choices to set the redundancy level
for the disks within the disk group. If you do not specify a redundancy level,
the disk group defaults to normal redundancy.
–
High: The contents of the disk group are three-way mirrored by default.
To create a disk group with high redundancy, you must specify at least
three failure groups (a minimum of three devices).
–
Normal: By default, the data files of the disk group are two-way mirrored
and the control files are three-way mirrored. You can choose to create
certain files that are three-way mirrored or not mirrored. To create a disk
group with normal redundancy, you must specify at least two failure
groups (a minimum of two devices) for two-way mirroring.
–
External: Automatic Storage Management does not mirror the contents of
the disk group. Choose this redundancy level when 1) the disk group
contains devices, such as RAID devices, that provide their own data
protection; or 2) the use of the database does not require uninterrupted
access to data, for example, in a development environment where you
have a suitable backup strategy.
Add Disks: Enter /dev/rdsk on as the disk discovery path. You can also
click Disk Discovery Path and enter the required disk discovery path in the
dialog box and click OK.
Click Next.
10. On the Install screen, check the installed contents, and then click Install.
11. To create another disk group for this instance, run Oracle Database Control
Assistant from the $ORACLE_HOME/bin directory manually, and select the
Configure Automatic Storage Management option.
At this stage, subsequent databases that you create are able to use Automatic Storage
Management. If you have databases that were created before you installed Automatic
Storage Management, then you now can migrate them to Automatic Storage
Management by using the Enterprise Manager Migrate Database Wizard. This wizard
is available in Enterprise Manager Grid Control or Database Control. Alternatively,
you can use Oracle Database Recovery Manager (RMAN) to perform the migration.
See Also:
■
■
Enterprise Manager Migrate Database Wizard online Help
instructions on how to migrate an existing Oracle Database to
Automatic Storage Management
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide for information
about migrating an existing Oracle Database to Automatic Storage
Management using Oracle Database Recovery Manager
Installing Oracle Database
3-17
Installing Automatic Storage Management
Step 3: Installing Oracle Database to Use Automatic Storage Management
After you have created the Automatic Storage Management instance and Automatic
Storage Management disk groups, you are ready to create a database instance that can
use Automatic Storage Management.
To create a database instance to use with Automatic Storage Management:
1.
Start Oracle Universal Installer.
2.
The Select a Product to Install screen enables you to install any one of the
following products:
■
Oracle Database 11g
■
Oracle Client
■
Oracle Clusterware
3.
On the Select Installation Type screen, select one of the installation types, and then
click Next.
4.
On the Install location screen, the Oracle base path appears by default. You can
change the path based on your requirement. In the Software Location section,
accept the default values or select a different Oracle home from the home used for
Automatic Storage Management.
5.
If you selected the Custom installation type, then select from the products to
install.
6.
On the Product-Specific Prerequisite Checks screen, check that the requirements
have been met and then click Next.
7.
On the Select Configuration Option screen, select Create a Database.
8.
On the Select Database Configuration screen, select from the database types
displayed and click Next.
9.
On the Specify Database Configuration Options screen, enter the following
settings and then click Next.
■
Specify the Global Database Name using the following syntax:
database_name.domain
where:
■
–
database_name with no more than 30 characters (alphanumeric,
underscore (_), dollar ($), and pound (#)).
–
domain name with no more than 128 characters (alphanumeric,
underscore (_), and pound (#)), inclusive of all periods.
Specify the SID with less than 64 characters (alphanumeric, dollar ($), and
pound (#)).
10. On the Specify Database Config Details screen, enter the following settings, then
click Next:
■
Memory
■
Character Sets
■
Security
■
Sample Schema
3-18 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing Automatic Storage Management
See Also: "Running Oracle Universal Installer" on page 8 for further
information about these fields.
11. On the Select Database Management Option screen, select either Use Grid Control
for Database Management if you have Oracle Enterprise Manager installed, or if
you do not have Enterprise Manager, select Use Database Control for Database
Management. Optionally, select Enable Email Notifications and then enter the
outgoing SMTP server and e-mail address. Then, click Next.
After you complete the installation, you can use either of these utilities to manage
the Automatic Storage Management instance.
12. On the Specify Database Storage Option screen, select Automatic Storage
Management (ASM) and click Next.
13. On the Specify Backup and Recovery Options screen, perform the following
actions:
■
■
Enable Automated Backups: Select this option, and then select Automatic
Storage Management.
Backup Job Credentials: Enter the user name and password of the person
responsible for managing backups.
14. Click Next.
15. On the Select Automatic Storage Management Disk Group screen, select the
Automatic Storage Management disk group that you created in "Step 2: Installing
the Automatic Storage Management Instance and configuring Disk Groups" on
page 3-15 for recovery and backups.
If the Automatic Storage Management disks that you select do not provide enough
space, then the Configure Storage Management screen is displayed so that you can
select additional disks as needed. As you select the disks, the adjusted sizes are
displayed in the Required Storage Space region. Ideally, the Additional Space
Needed value should be a negative number.
16. Click Next.
17. On the Specify Database Schema Passwords screen, enter and confirm passwords
for the privileged database accounts, then click Next.
18. On the Oracle Configuration Manager screen, enter the Customer Identification
Number, Metalink User Name, Country code, and Click Next. The new screen
prompts you to accept the license agreement. Click Accept license Agreement to
accept the agreement. However, if you decline this agreement, then Oracle
Configuration Manager is installed but not configured.
19. On the Summary screen, check that the contents to be installed are correct, and
then click Install.
Step 4: Testing the Automatic Storage Management Installation
To test the Automatic Storage Management installation, try logging in by using the
asmcmd command-line utility, which lets you manage Automatic Storage Management
disk group files and directories. To do this:
1.
Open a shell window, and temporarily set the ORACLE_SID and ORACLE_HOME
environment variables to specify the appropriate values for the Automatic Storage
Management instance that you want to use.
Installing Oracle Database
3-19
Installing Oracle Database Examples
For example, if the Automatic Storage Management SID, which is named +ASM
and is located in the asm subdirectory of the ORACLE_BASE directory, then enter
the following commands to create the required settings:
■
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$
$
$
$
■
ORACLE_SID=+ASM
export ORACLE_SID
ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/asm
export ORACLE_HOME
C shell:
% setenv ORACLE_SID +ASM
% setenv ORACLE_HOME /u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/asm
2.
By using SQL*Plus, connect to the Automatic Storage Management instance as the
SYS user with SYSASM privilege and start the instance if necessary:
# $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus
SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSASM
Enter password: SYS_password
SQL> STARTUP
3.
Enter the following command to view the existing disk groups, their redundancy
level, and the amount of free disk space in each one:
SQL> SELECT NAME,TYPE,TOTAL_MB,FREE_MB FROM V$ASM_DISKGROUP;
See Also:
■
■
■
Oracle Database Utilities for more information about asmcmd
"Managing Automatic Storage Management" on page 5-3 for
information about other tools that you can use to manage
Automatic Storage Management
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for a more detailed
description of Automatic Storage Management
Installing Oracle Database Examples
If you plan to use the following products or features, then download and install the
products from the Oracle Database Examples media:
■
Oracle JDBC Development Drivers
■
Oracle Database Examples
■
Oracle Text Knowledge Base
■
Various Oracle product demonstrations
You must install the Sample Schemas in order to use Oracle Database Examples.
See Also:
■
■
■
Oracle Database Examples Installation Guide.for more information
on various Oracle product demonstrations.
"Installing the Sample Schemas" on page 3-3
3-20 Oracle Database Installation Guide
4
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks
4
This chapter describes how to complete postinstallation tasks after you have installed
the software. It includes information about the following topics:
■
Required Postinstallation Tasks
■
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
■
Required Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks
■
Postinstallation tasks for SQL Developer
■
Postinstallation Tasks for Oracle Application Express
■
Postinstallation Database Configuration for Oracle Configuration Manager
You must perform the tasks listed in the "Required Postinstallation Tasks" section.
Oracle recommends that you perform the tasks listed in the "Recommended
Postinstallation Tasks" section after all installations.
If you install and intend to use any of the products listed in the "Required
Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks" section, then you must perform the tasks listed
in the product-specific subsections.
This chapter describes basic configuration only. Refer to
Oracle Database Administrator's Reference for Linux and UNIX, Oracle
Database Administrator's Guide and product-specific administration
and tuning guides for more detailed configuration and tuning
information.
Note:
Required Postinstallation Tasks
You must perform the tasks described in the following sections after completing an
installation:
■
Downloading and Installing Patches
■
Configuring Oracle Products
Downloading and Installing Patches
Check the My Oracle Support (formerly OracleMetaLink) Web site for required patches
for the installation.
To download required patches:
1.
Use a Web browser to view My Oracle Support (formerly OracleMetaLink) Web
site:
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks 4-1
Required Postinstallation Tasks
https://support.oracle.com
2.
Log in to My Oracle Support (formerly OracleMetaLink).
If you are not an My Oracle Support (formerly
OracleMetaLink) registered user, click Register Here and follow the
registration instructions.
Note:
3.
On the main My Oracle Support (formerly OracleMetaLink) page, click Patches
and Updates.
4.
Select Simple Search.
5.
Specify the following information, then click Go:
■
In the Search By field, choose Product or Family, then specify RDBMS Server.
■
In the Release field, specify the current release number.
■
In the Patch Type field, specify Patchset/Minipack.
■
In the Platform or Language field, select your platform.
6.
Find the latest patch set for Oracle Database using OracleMetaLink.
7.
From the list of available patches, select a patch to download.
Patch sets for Oracle databases are identified as x.x.x PATCH SET FOR ORACLE
DATABASE SERVER.
8.
Review the README file before proceeding with the download.
Each patch has a README file with installation requirements and instructions.
Some patches install with Oracle Universal Installer; others require special
procedures. Oracle recommends that you always read the README file before
proceeding.
9.
Download and install the patch.
10. Find the latest patch set for Oracle Database using Oracle Support (formerly
OracleMetaLink).
11. From the list of available patches, select a patch to download.
Patch sets for Oracle databases are identified as x.x.x PATCH SET FOR ORACLE
DATABASE SERVER.
12. Review the README file before proceeding with the download.
Each patch has a README file with installation requirements and instructions.
Some patches install with Oracle Universal Installer; others require special
procedures. Oracle recommends that you always read the README file before
proceeding.
13. Download and install the patch.
Configuring Oracle Products
Many Oracle products and options must be configured before you use them for the
first time. Before using individual Oracle products or options, refer to the appropriate
manual in the product documentation library.
4-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
Oracle recommends that you perform the tasks described in the following section after
completing an installation:
■
Creating a Backup of the root.sh Script
■
Configuring New or Upgraded Databases
■
Setting Up User Accounts
■
Setting the NLS_LANG Environment Variable
■
Generating the Client Static Library
■
Direct NFS Client
Creating a Backup of the root.sh Script
Oracle recommends that you back up the root.sh script after you complete an
installation. If you install other products in the same Oracle home directory, then
Oracle Universal Installer updates the contents of the existing root.sh script during
the installation. If you require information contained in the original root.sh script,
then you can recover it from the backed up root.sh file.
Configuring New or Upgraded Databases
Oracle recommends that you run the utlrp.sql script after creating or upgrading a
database. This script recompiles all PL/SQL modules that might be in an invalid state,
including packages, procedures, and types. This is an optional step but Oracle
recommends that you do it during installation and not at a later date.
See Also: Oracle Database Upgrade Guide for more information about
database upgrade.
To run the utlrp.sql script, follow these steps:
1.
Switch user to oracle.
2.
Use the oraenv or coraenv script to set the environment for the database where
you want to run the utlrp.sql script:
■
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ . /usr/local/bin/oraenv
■
C shell:
% source /usr/local/bin/coraenv
When prompted, specify the SID for the database.
3.
Start SQL*Plus, as follows:
$ sqlplus "/ AS SYSDBA"
4.
If necessary, start the database:
SQL> STARTUP
5.
Run the utlrp.sql script:
SQL> @?/rdbms/admin/utlrp.sql
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks 4-3
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
Setting Up User Accounts
For information about setting up additional user accounts, refer to Oracle Database
Administrator's Reference for Linux and UNIX.
Setting the NLS_LANG Environment Variable
NLS_LANG is an environment variable that specifies the locale behavior for Oracle
software. This variable sets the language and territory used by the client application
and the database server. It also declares the character set of the client, which is the
character set of data entered or displayed by an Oracle client program, such as
SQL*Plus.
See Also: Appendix F, "Configuring Oracle Database
Globalization Support" for more information about the NLS_LANG
environment variable
Generating the Client Static Library
The client static library (libclntst11.a) is not generated during installation. If you
want to link the applications to the client static library, you must first generate it as
follows:
1.
Switch user to oracle.
2.
Set the ORACLE_HOME environment variable to specify the Oracle home directory
used by the Oracle Database installation. For example:
■
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1
$ export ORACLE_HOME
■
C shell:
% setenv ORACLE_HOME /u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1
3.
Enter the following command:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/genclntst
Direct NFS Client
Network-attached storage (NAS) systems use NFS to access data. You can store data
files on a supported NFS system.
With Oracle Database 11g, instead of using the operating system kernel NFS client, you
can configure Oracle Database to access NFS V3 servers directly using an Oracle
internal Direct NFS client.
If Oracle Database is unable to open an NFS server using Direct NFS, then Oracle
Database uses the platform operating system kernel NFS client. In this case, the kernel
NFS mount options must be set up as defined in "Checking NFS Buffer Size
Parameters" on page 4-7. Additionally, an informational message will be logged into
the Oracle alert and trace files indicating that Direct NFS could not be established.
The Oracle files resident on the NFS server that are served by the Direct NFS Client are
also accessible through the operating system kernel NFS client. The usual
considerations for maintaining integrity of the Oracle files apply in this situation.
Some NFS file servers require NFS clients to connect using reserved ports. If your filer
is running with reserved port checking, then you must disable it for Direct NFS to
4-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
operate. To disable reserved port checking, consult your NFS file server
documentation.
Direct NFS can use up to four network paths defined for an NFS server. The Direct
NFS client performs load balancing across all specified paths. If a specified path fails,
then Direct NFS reissues I/Os over any remaining paths.
Use the following views for Direct NFS management:
■
v$dnfs_servers: Shows a table of servers accessed using Direct NFS.
■
v$dnfs_files: Shows a table of files currently open using Direct NFS.
■
■
v$dnfs_channels: Shows a table of open network paths (or channels) to servers for
which Direct NFS is providing files.
v$dnfs_stats: Shows a table of performance statistics for Direct NFS.
The following sections elaborate on enabling, disabling, checking the buffer size for a
Direct NFS Client:
■
Enabling Direct NFS Client
■
Disabling Direct NFS Client
■
Checking NFS Buffer Size Parameters
Enabling Direct NFS Client
By default Direct NFS will attempt to serve mount entries found in
/etc/filesystems. No other configuration is required. You can use oranfstab to
specify additional Oracle specific options to Direct NFS. For example, you can use
oranfstab to specify additional paths for a mount point.
Additonally, a new Oracle specific file oranfstab can be added to either /etc or to
$ORACLE_HOME/dbs. When oranfstab is placed in $ORACLE_HOME/dbs, its entries
are specific to a single database. However, when oranfstab is placed in /etc, then it
is global to all Oracle databases, and hence can contain mount points for all Oracle
databases.
Direct NFS determines mount point settings to NFS storage devices based on the
configurations in /etc/mtab. Direct NFS looks for the mount point entries in the
following order:
1.
$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/oranfstab
2.
/etc/oranfstab
3.
/etc/mtab
It uses the first matched entry as the mount point.
In all cases, Oracle requires that mount points be mounted by the kernel NFS system
even when being served through Direct NFS. Oracle verifies kernel NFS mounts by
cross-checking entries in oranfstab with operating system NFS mount points. If a
mismatch exists, then Direct NFS logs an informational message, and does not serve
the NFS server.
Complete the following procedure to enable Direct NFS:
1.
You can optionally create an oranfstab file with the following attributes for each
NFS server to be accessed using Direct NFS:
■
Server: The NFS server name.
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks 4-5
Recommended Postinstallation Tasks
■
■
Path: Up to four network paths to the NFS server, specified either by IP
address, or by name, as displayed using the ifconfig command on the filer.
Local: Up to four local paths on the database host, specified by IP address or
by name, as displayed using the ifconfig command run on the database
host.
■
Export: The exported path from the NFS server.
■
Mount: The local mount point for the NFS server.
■
Dontroute: Specifies that outgoing messages should not be routed by the
operating system, but sent using the IP address they are bound to.
Note:
■
■
On Unix platforms, the location of the oranfstab file is
$ORACLE_HOME/dbs.
The parameters local and dontroute are available from
patchset 11.1.0.7 onwards.
The examples below show different possible NFS server entries in oranfstab. A
single oranfstab can have more than one NFS server entries.
■
The following example uses both local and path. Since they are in different
subnets, we do not have to specify dontroute:
server: MyDataServer1
local: 132.34.35.10
path: 132.34.35.12
local: 132.44.35.10
path: 132.44.35.12
export: /vol/oradata1 mount: /mnt/oradata1
■
The following example shows local and path in the same subnet. dontroute
is specified in this case:
server: MyDataServer2
local: 132.40.35.12
path: 132.40.45.12
local: 132.40.35.13
path: 132.40.45.13
dontroute
export: /vol/oradata2 mount: /mnt/oradata2
■
This example uses names instead of IP addresses. Also, note that you can have
more than one export:
server: MyDataServer3
local: LocalPath1
path: NfsPath1
local: LocalPath2
path: NfsPath2
local: LocalPath3
path: NfsPath3
local: LocalPath4
path: NfsPath4
dontroute
export: /vol/oradata3 mount: /mnt/oradata3
export: /vol/oradata4 mount: /mnt/oradata4
4-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Required Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks
export: /vol/oradata5 mount: /mnt/oradata5
export: /vol/oradata6 mount: /mnt/oradata6
2.
Oracle Database uses an ODM library, libnfsodm11.so, to enable Direct NFS. To
replace the standard ODM library, $ORACLE_HOME/lib/libodm11.so, with the
ODM NFS library, libnfsodm11.so, complete the following steps:
■
Change directory to $ORACLE_HOME/lib.
■
Enter the following commands:
cp libodm11.so libodm11.so_stub
ln -s libnfsodm11.so libodm11.so
Disabling Direct NFS Client
Use one of the following methods to disable the Direct NFS client:
■
■
■
Remove the oranfstab file.
Restore the stub libodm11.so file by reversing the process you completed in
"Enabling Direct NFS Client" on page 4-5.
Remove the specific NFS server or export paths in the oranfstab file.
If you remove an NFS path that Oracle Database is using, then
you must restart the database for the change to be effective.
Note:
Checking NFS Buffer Size Parameters
If you are using NFS, then you must set the values for the NFS buffer size parameters
rsize and wsize to at least 16384. Oracle recommends that you use the value 32768.
Direct NFS will issue writes at wtmax granularity to the NFS server. Direct NFS will
not serve an NFS server with a wtmax less than 32768.
For example, if you decide to use rsize and wsize buffer settings with the value32768,
then update the /etc/vfstab file on each node with an entry similar to the
following:
nfs_server:/vol/DATA/oradata /home/oracle/netapp nfs\
rw,bg,hard,nointr,rsize=32768,wsize=32768,tcp,actimeo=0,vers=3,timeo=600
Refer to your storage vendor documentation for additional
information about mount options.
Note:
Required Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks
The following sections describe platform-specific postinstallation tasks that you must
perform if you install and intend to use the products mentioned:
■
Configuring Oracle Net Services
■
Configuring Oracle Label Security
■
Configuring Oracle Database Vault
■
Configuring Oracle Messaging Gateway
■
Configuring Oracle Precompilers
■
Configuring Secure Sockets Layer
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks 4-7
Required Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks
■
Installing Oracle Text Supplied Knowledge Bases
Note: You need only perform postinstallation tasks for products
that you intend to use.
Configuring Oracle Net Services
If you have an earlier release of Oracle software installed on this system, you might
want to copy information from the Oracle Net tnsnames.ora and listener.ora
configuration files from the earlier release to the corresponding files for the new
release.
The following sections describe about how to configure the Oracle Net Services:
■
Modifying the listener.ora File
■
Modifying the tnsnames.ora File
The default location for the tnsnames.ora and
listener.ora files is the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/
directory. However, you can also use a central location for these
files.
Note:
Modifying the listener.ora File
If you are upgrading from a earlier release of Oracle Database, Oracle recommends
that you use the current release of Oracle Net listener instead of the listener from the
earlier release.
To use the listener from the current release, you may need to copy static service
information from the listener.ora file from the earlier release to the version of that
file used by the new release.
For any database instances earlier than release 8.0.3, add static service information to
the listener.ora file. Oracle Database releases later than release 8.0.3 do not
require static service information.
Modifying the tnsnames.ora File
Unless you are using a central tnsnames.ora file, copy Oracle Net service names
and connect descriptors from the earlier release tnsnames.ora file to the version of
that file used by the new release.
If necessary, you can also add connection information for additional database instances
to the new file.
Configuring Oracle Label Security
If you installed Oracle Label Security, you must configure it in a database before you
use it. You can configure Oracle Label Security in two ways; with Oracle Internet
Directory integration and without Oracle Internet Directory integration. If you
configure Oracle Label Security without Oracle Internet Directory integration, you
cannot configure it to use Oracle Internet Directory at a later stage.
4-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Required Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks
To configure Oracle Label Security with Oracle Internet
Directory integration, Oracle Internet Directory must be installed in
your environment and the Oracle database must be registered in
the directory.
Note:
See Also: Oracle Label Security Administrator's Guide for more
information about Oracle Label Security enabled with Oracle
Internet Directory
Configuring Oracle Database Vault
If you have installed Oracle Database Vault, then you must register it in a database.
Ensure that you create the Database Vault Owner and, optionally, Database Vault
Account Manager administrative accounts before you can use it.
See Also: Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide for more
information on registering Oracle Database Vault.
Configuring Oracle Messaging Gateway
To configure Oracle Messaging Gateway, refer to the section about Messaging
Gateway in Oracle Streams Advanced Queuing User's Guide. When following the
instructions listed in that manual, refer to this section for additional instructions about
configuring the listener.ora, tnsnames.ora, and mgw.ora files.
Modifying the listener.ora File for External Procedures
To modify the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/listener.ora file for external
procedures:
1.
Back up the listener.ora file.
2.
Ensure that the default IPC protocol address for external procedures is set as
follows:
(ADDRESS = (PROTOCOL=IPC)(KEY=EXTPROC))
3.
Add static service information for a service called mgwextproc by adding lines
similar to the following to the SID_LIST parameter for the listener in the
listener.ora file:
(SID_DESC =
(SID_NAME = mgwextproc)
(ENVS = "LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/oracle_home/jdk/jre/lib/i386:/oracle_home/jdk \
/jre/lib/i386/server:/oracle_home/lib")
(ORACLE_HOME = oracle_home)
(PROGRAM = extproc)
)
In this example:
■
The ENVS parameter defines the shared library path environment variable and
any other required environment variables.
In the settings for the shared library path environment variable, you must also
add any additional library paths required for non-Oracle messaging systems,
for example, WebSphere MQ or TIBCO Rendezvous.
■
oracle_home is the path of the Oracle home directory.
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks 4-9
Required Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks
■
extproc is the external procedure agent executable file
The following example shows a sample listener.ora file:
SID_LIST_LISTENER =
(SID_LIST =
(SID_DESC =
(SID_NAME = PLSExtProc)
(ORACLE_HOME = /u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1)
(PROGRAM = extproc)
)
(SID_DESC =
(SID_NAME = mgwextproc)
(ENVS = "LD_LIBRARY_PATH =/u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1/jdk/jre/ \
lib/i386:/u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1/jdk/jre/lib/i386/server: \
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1/lib")
(ORACLE_HOME = /u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1)
(PROGRAM = extproc)
)
)
Modifying the tnsnames.ora File for External Procedures
To modify the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin/tnsnames.ora file for external
procedures:
1.
Back up the tnsnames.ora file.
2.
In the tnsnames.ora file, add a connect descriptor with the net service name
MGW_AGENT, as follows:
MGW_AGENT =
(DESCRIPTION=
(ADDRESS_LIST= (ADDRESS= (PROTOCOL=IPC)(KEY=EXTPROC)))
(CONNECT_DATA= (SID=mgwextproc)))
In this example:
■
■
The value specified for the KEY parameter must match the value specified for
that parameter in the IPC protocol address in the listener.ora file.
The value of the SID parameter must match the service name in the
listener.ora file that you specified for the Oracle Messaging Gateway
external procedure agent in the previous section (mgwextproc).
Setting Up the mgw.ora Initialization File
To modify the $ORACLE_HOME/mgw/admin/mgw.ora file for external procedures, set
the CLASSPATH environment variable to include the classes in the following table and
any additional classes required for Oracle Messaging Gateway to access non-Oracle
messaging systems, for example WebSphere MQ or TIBCO Rendezvous classes:
Classes
Path
JRE runtime
$ORACLE_HOME/jdk/jre/lib/rt.jar
Oracle JDBC
$ORACLE_HOME/jdbc/lib/ojdbc5.jar
Oracle internationalization
$ORACLE_HOME/jlib/orai18n.jar
SQLJ
$ORACLE_HOME/sqlj/lib/runtime12.jar
JMS Interface
$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/jlib/jmscommon.jar
4-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Required Product-Specific Postinstallation Tasks
Classes
Path
Oracle JMS implementation
$ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/jlib/aqapi.jar
Java Transaction API
$ORACLE_HOME/jlib/jta.jar
All the lines in the mgw.ora file should consist of less than
1024 characters.
Note:
Configuring Oracle Precompilers
This section describes postinstallation tasks for Oracle precompilers:
■
Configuring Pro*C/C++
■
Configuring Pro*FORTRAN
All precompiler configuration files are located in the
$ORACLE_HOME/precomp/admin directory.
Note:
Configuring Pro*C/C++
Verify that the PATH environment variable setting includes the directory that contains
the C compiler executable.
Table 4–1 shows the default directories and the appropriate command to verify the
path setting of the compiler.
Table 4–1
C/C++ Compiler Directory
Path
Command
/usr/bin
$ which gcc
/opt/intel_cce_80/bin/icc
$ which icc
Configuring Pro*FORTRAN
Verify that the PATH environment variable setting includes the directory that contains
the FORTRAN compiler executable. You can verify the path setting by using the
which xlf command. The path for the FORTRAN executable is /usr/bin.
Configuring Secure Sockets Layer
Oracle highly recommends you configure and use a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) to
ensure that passwords and other sensitive data are not transmitted in clear text in
HTTP requests.
See Also:
■
■
"Using SSL" and "Enabling SSL" in Oracle Database Advanced
Security Administrator's Guide for more information on configuring
and using SSL
"SSL Usage Issues" in Oracle Database Advanced Security
Administrator's Guide for more information on SSL usage issues
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks 4-11
Postinstallation tasks for SQL Developer
Installing Oracle Text Supplied Knowledge Bases
An Oracle Text knowledge base is a hierarchical tree of concepts used for theme
indexing, ABOUT queries, and deriving themes for document services. If you plan to
use any of these Oracle Text features, then you can install two supplied knowledge
bases (English and French).
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Database Examples Installation Guide
Oracle Text Reference for information about creating and extending
knowledge bases, such as extending the supplied knowledge
bases to accommodate your requirements, or creating your own
knowledge bases in languages other than English and French
Postinstallation tasks for SQL Developer
This section describes tasks that you need to complete after you install the software:
■
Migrating User Settings from Release 1.0
■
Migrating Information from Previous Releases
■
Location of User-Related Information
Migrating User Settings from Release 1.0
The first time you start SQL Developer after installing it or after adding any
extensions, you are asked if you want to migrate your user settings from a previous
release. (This occurs regardless of whether there was a previous release on your
system.)
Migration of user settings is supported only from SQL
Developer release 1.0 to release 1.1. It is not supported for migration
from a pre-release version of 1.1 to release 1.1.
Note:
These settings refer to database connections, reports, and certain SQL Developer user
preferences that you set in a previous version by clicking Tools and then Preferences.
However, some user preferences are not saved, and you must re-specify these using
the new release.
To migrate user settings from SQL Developer release 1.0:
1.
Unzip the release 1.1 kit into an empty directory (folder). Do not delete or
overwrite the directory into which you unzipped the release 1.0 kit.
2.
When you start SQL Developer release 1.1, click Yes when asked if you want to
migrate settings from a previous release.
3.
In the dialog box that is displayed, do not accept the default location for the
settings. Instead, specify the location of your release 1.0 settings, which might be a
folder whose path ends with sqldeveloper/jdev/system.
See Also: "Migrating Information from Previous Releases" on
page 4-13 for more information
4-12 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Postinstallation tasks for SQL Developer
Migrating Information from Previous Releases
If you have used a previous release of SQL Developer or a pre-release version of the
current release, you may want to preserve database connections that you have been
using. To preserve database connections, save your existing database connections in an
XML file. To save the connections, right-click the Connections node in the Connections
Navigator and select Export Connections. After you complete the installation
described in this guide, you can use those connections by right-clicking the
Connections node in the Connections Navigator and selecting Import Connections
If you want to use any user-defined reports or the SQL history from a previous
version, see "Location of User-Related Information" on page 4-13 for information
about where these are located. If you want to use any user-defined reports or the SQL
history from release 1.0 with both releases 1.0 and 1.1, you must save them before
using release 1.1, because release 1.1 modifies the files to a format that is incompatible
with release 1.0.
SQL Developer preferences (specified by clicking Tools and then Preferences) from a
pre-release version of the current release cannot currently be saved and reused; you
must re-specify any desired preferences.
Location of User-Related Information
SQL Developer stores user-related information in several places, with the specific
location depending on the operating system and certain environment specifications.
User-related information includes user-defined reports, user-defined snippets, SQL
Worksheet history, and SQL Developer user preferences.
The user-related information is stored outside the SQL Developer installation directory
hierarchy, so that it is preserved if you delete that directory and install a new version.
This information is stored in or under the SQLDEVELOPER_USER_DIR location, if
defined; otherwise as indicated in the following table.
The table shows the typical default locations (under a directory or in a file) for specific
types of resources on different operating systems. (Note the period in the name of any
directory or folder named .sqldeveloper.)
Table 4–2
Default Locations for User-Related Information
Resource Type
Linux
User-defined reports
~/.sqldeveloper/UserReports.xml
User-defined snippets
~/.sqldeveloper/UserSnippets.xml
SQL history
~/.sqldeveloper/system/
SQL Worksheet archive files
~/.sqldeveloper/tmp/
SQL Developer user
preferences
~/.sqldeveloper/system/
SQL Worksheet archive files contain SQL statements that you have entered. These files
begin with sqldev and then have a random number (for example,
sqldev14356.sql). If you close SQL Developer with a SQL Worksheet open that
contains statements, then you will be prompted to save these files.
To specify a nondefault SQLDEVELOPER_USER_DIR location, do either of the
following:
■
Set the SQLDEVELOPER_USER_DIR environment variable to specify another
directory path.
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks 4-13
Postinstallation Tasks for Oracle Application Express
■
Edit the sqldeveloper_
install\sqldeveloper\sqldeveloper\bin\sqldeveloper.conf file and
substitute the desired directory path for SQLDEVELOPER_USER_DIR in the
following line:
SetUserHomeVariable SQLDEVELOPER_USER_DIR
If you want to prevent other users from accessing your user-specific SQL Developer
information, you must ensure that the appropriate permissions are set on the directory
where that information is stored or on a directory preceding it in the path hierarchy.
For example, you may want to ensure that the ~/.sqldeveloper directory is not
world-readable.
Postinstallation Tasks for Oracle Application Express
This section describes the following tasks that you need to complete after you install
the software:
■
Restarting Processes
■
Choosing an HTTP Server
■
Configuring the Embedded PL/SQL Gateway
■
Copying the Images Directory
■
Configuring Oracle HTTP Server in a New Installation
■
Enabling Network Services in Oracle Database 11g
■
Running Oracle Application Express in Other Languages
■
Managing JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES
■
Obfuscating PlsqlDatabasePassword Parameter
■
Logging In to Oracle Application Express
■
Patching Oracle Application Express 3.0
Within the context of this document, the Oracle HTTP Server
home directory (ORACLE_HTTPSERVER_HOME) is the location where
Oracle HTTP Server is installed.
Note:
Restarting Processes
After you install Oracle Application Express, you need to restart the processes that you
stopped before you began the installation, such as listener and other processes. In
addition, restart Oracle HTTP Server.
Choosing an HTTP Server
In order to run, Oracle Application Express must have access to either the embedded
PL/SQL gateway or Oracle HTTP Server and mod_plsql.
Topics in this section include:
■
About the Embedded PL/SQL Gateway
■
About Oracle HTTP Server and mod_plsql
■
About Password Security
4-14 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Postinstallation Tasks for Oracle Application Express
About the Embedded PL/SQL Gateway
The embedded PL/SQL gateway installs with Oracle Database 11g. It provides the
Oracle database with a Web server and also the necessary infrastructure to create
dynamic applications. The embedded PL/SQL gateway runs in the Oracle XML DB
HTTP server in the Oracle database and includes the core features of mod_plsql.
See Also:
"Configuring the Embedded PL/SQL Gateway" on
page 4-15
About Oracle HTTP Server and mod_plsql
Oracle HTTP Server uses the mod_plsql plug-in to communicate to the Oracle
Application Express engine within the Oracle database. It functions as communication
broker between the Web server and the Oracle Application Express objects in the
Oracle database. More specifically, it maps browser requests into database stored
procedure calls over a SQL*Net connection.
See Also: ""Configuring Oracle HTTP Server in a New Installation"
on page 4-18
Note that this configuration consists of three tier architecture: a Web browser, Oracle
HTTP Server (Apache) with mod_plsql, and an Oracle database containing Oracle
Application Express.
About Password Security
If SSL is not used, then passwords could potentially be exposed, compromising the
security of your Oracle Application Express instance.
Refer to "Configuring Secure Sockets Layer" on page 11 for more information.
Configuring the Embedded PL/SQL Gateway
Although the embedded PL/SQL gateway installs with the Oracle database, you must
configure it before you can use it with Oracle Application Express. To accomplish, you
run a configuration file and unlock the ANONYMOUS account.
Topics in this section include:
■
■
Configuring the Embedded PL/SQL Gateway in New Installation or When
Upgrading Database
Disabling and Enabling the Oracle XML DB HTTP Server
See Also: Choosing an HTTP Server on page 4-14 and About the
Embedded PL/SQL Gateway on page 4-15
Configuring the Embedded PL/SQL Gateway in New Installation or When Upgrading
Database
This section describes how to configure the embedded PL/SQL gateway by running
the configuration script apxconf.sql. Running this script enables you to configure
the port for Oracle XML DB HTTP server and the specify a password for the Oracle
Application Express ADMIN account. Then, you unlock the ANONYMOUS account.
To configure the embedded PL/SQL gateway:
1.
Change your working directory to $ORACLE_HOME/apex.
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks 4-15
Postinstallation Tasks for Oracle Application Express
2.
Start SQL*Plus and connect to the database where Oracle Application Express is
installed as SYS. For example:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus
SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
Enter password: SYS_password
3.
Run apxconf.sql as shown in the following example:
@apxconf
4.
When prompted, enter a password for the Oracle Application Express Admin
account.
Be sure to make a note of the password you enter. You will use this password to
log in to Oracle Application Express Administration Services.
5.
When prompted, enter the port for the Oracle XML DB HTTP server. The default
port number is 8080.
6.
Enter the following statement to unlock the ANONYMOUS account:
ALTER USER ANONYMOUS ACCOUNT UNLOCK;
Disabling and Enabling the Oracle XML DB HTTP Server
The embedded PL/SQL gateway runs in the Oracle XML DB HTTP server in the
Oracle database. This section describes how to enable or disable the Oracle XML DB
HTTP server.
Topics in this section include:
■
Disabling Oracle XML DB HTTP Server
■
Enabling Oracle XML DB HTTP Server
See Also:
Configuring the Embedded PL/SQL Gateway on
page 4-15
Disabling Oracle XML DB HTTP Server
To disable Oracle XML DB HTTP server:
1.
Start SQL*Plus and connect to the database where Oracle Application Express is
installed as SYS. For example:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus
SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
Enter password: SYS_password
2.
Run the following statement:
EXEC DBMS_XDB.SETHTTPPORT(0);
COMMIT;
Enabling Oracle XML DB HTTP Server
To enable Oracle XML DB HTTP server:
1.
Start SQL*Plus and connect to the database where Oracle Application Express is
installed as SYS. For example:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus
SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
4-16 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Postinstallation Tasks for Oracle Application Express
Enter password: SYS_password
2.
Run the following statement:
EXEC DBMS_XDB.SETHTTPPORT(port);
COMMIT;
For example:
EXEC DBMS_XDB.SETHTTPPORT(8080);
COMMIT;
Port numbers less than 1024 are reserved for use by privileged
processes on many operating systems. To enable the XML DB HTTP
listener on a port less than 1024, such as 80, review the following
documentation:
Note:
■
■
Refer to chapter "Using Protocols to Access the Repository" in
Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide for more information on using
HTTP(S) and Oracle XML DB Protocol Server.
Refer to chapter "Protocol Address Configuration" in Oracle
Database Net Services Reference for more information on protocol
addressing.
Copying the Images Directory
Whether you are loading a new installation or upgrading from a previous release, you
must copy the images directory from the top level of the $ORACLE_HOME/apex
directory to the location on the file system containing the Oracle home for Oracle
HTTP Server.
This section is relevant only if you choose Oracle HTTP Server
with mod_plsql. However, if you choose Oracle XML DB HTTP Server
with the embedded PL/SQL gateway, then these steps can be ignored.
Note:
Topics in this section include:
■
Copying the Images Directory After an Upgrade
■
Copying the Images Directory After a New Installation
Copying the Images Directory After an Upgrade
During an upgrade, you must overwrite your existing images directory. Before you
begin the upgrade, to ensure that you can revert to the previous version, Oracle
recommends that you create a copy of your existing images directory for Oracle
Application Express, indicating the release number of the images (for example,
images_2_0).
To locate the images directory on the file system, review the following files for the
text alias /i/:
■
Oracle9i HTTP Server release 2, see the httpd.conf file
■
Oracle HTTP Server distributed with Oracle Database 11g, see the dads.conf file
■
Oracle Application Server 10g, see the marvel.conf file
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks 4-17
Postinstallation Tasks for Oracle Application Express
When you locate the images directory path, Oracle recommends that you copy the
existing images directory to a backup location. Doing this enables to revert to the
previous release, if that becomes necessary.
After you copy the existing images directory, use the following command syntax to
copy the apex/images directory from the 11g Oracle database home to the existing
images directory path, overwriting the existing images:
■
Oracle Application Server 10g:
cp -rf $ORACLE_HOME/apex/images ORACLE_HTTPSERVER_HOME/Apache
■
Oracle HTTP Server distributed with Oracle Database 11g:
cp -rf $ORACLE_HOME/apex/images ORACLE_HTTPSERVER_HOME/ohs
In the preceding syntax example:
■
■
ORACLE_HOME is the Oracle Database 11g Oracle home
ORACLE_HTTPSERVER_HOME is the existing Oracle Application Server or Oracle
HTTP Server Oracle home, such as /u01/app/oracle/db_2/
Copying the Images Directory After a New Installation
You can copy the apex/images directory by executing a command similar to the one
shown in the following example:
cp -rf $ORACLE_HOME/apex/images ORACLE_HTTPSERVER_HOME/ohs
In the preceding syntax example:
■
■
$ORACLE_HOME is the Oracle Database 11g Oracle home.
ORACLE_HTTPSERVER_HOME is the existing Oracle Application Server or Oracle
HTTP Server Oracle home, such as /u01/app/oracle/db_2/.
Configuring Oracle HTTP Server in a New Installation
This section describes how to configure Oracle HTTP Server with mod_plsql in a new
installation.
Topics in this section include:
■
■
Configuring Oracle HTTP Server Release 9.0.3 in a New Installation
Configuring Oracle HTTP Server distributed with Oracle Database 11g or Oracle
Application Server 10g in a New Installation
Configuring Oracle HTTP Server Release 9.0.3 in a New Installation
In Oracle HTTP Server release 9.0.3, the wdbsvr.app file contains information about
the DAD to access Oracle Application Express. A DAD is a set of values that specify
how the Oracle HTTP Server component modplsql connects to the database server to
fulfill an HTTP request.
Topics in this section include:
■
Changing the Password for the ADMIN Account
■
Changing the Password for the APEX_PUBLIC_USER Database User
■
Modifying the wdbsvr.app File in a New Installation
■
Modifying the Oracle9i httpd.conf
4-18 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Postinstallation Tasks for Oracle Application Express
Changing the Password for the ADMIN Account
To change the password for the ADMIN account:
1.
Start SQL*Plus and connect to the database where Oracle Application Express is
installed as SYS. For example:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus
SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
Enter password: SYS_password
2.
Run apxxepwd.sql. For example:
@apxxepwd.sql
When prompted enter a password for the ADMIN account.
Changing the Password for the APEX_PUBLIC_USER Database User
In order to specify the password in the DAD file, you have to change the password for
the database user APEX_PUBLIC_USER. Please use the following steps to change the
password for the APEX_PUBLIC_USER database user:
1.
Start SQL*Plus and connect to the database where Oracle Application Express is
installed as SYS. For example:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus
SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
Enter password: SYS_password
2.
Run the following command:
SQL>PASSWORD APEX_PUBLIC_USER
Changing password for APEX_PUBLIC_USER
New password: password
Retype new password: password
Modifying the wdbsvr.app File in a New Installation
To create the DAD, you modify the file wdbsvr.app and add an entry for Oracle
Application Express.
To modify the wdbsvr.app file, follow these steps:
1.
Using a text editor, open the following file:
ORACLE_HTTPSERVER_HOME/Apache/modplsql/cfg/wdbsvr.app
2.
Add an entry for Oracle Application Express using the following syntax. Only
change the settings indicated in italics.
[DAD_htmldb]
connect_string = localhost:1521:orcl
password = apex
username = apex_public_user
default_page = apex
document_table = wwv_flow_file_objects$
document_path = docs
document_proc = wwv_flow_file_mgr.process_download
reuse = Yes
enablesso = No
stateful = STATELESS_RESET
nls_lang = American_America.AL32UTF8
Where:
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks 4-19
Postinstallation Tasks for Oracle Application Express
■
connect_string refers to the host ID, port number, and Oracle9i database
where Oracle Application Express was installed. Use the format
host:port:sid.
If the Oracle9i version of Oracle HTTP Server you want to use is installed in
the same Oracle home as the database you specified for use with Oracle
Application Express, leave this parameter blank.
■
■
password is the Oracle Application Express password for the Oracle
Application ADMIN account you specified in Changing the Password for the
APEX_PUBLIC_USER Database User on page 4-22.
nls_lang determines the language setting of the DAD. The character set
portion of the nls_lang value must always be set to AL32UTF8, regardless of
whether or not the database character set is AL32UTF8.
If either the territory portion or the language portion of the NLS settings
contains a space, you must wrap the value in double quotes as shown in the
following example:
nls_lang = "ENGLISH_UNITED KINGDOM.AL32UTF8"
You can find information about the database character set by querying the
view NLS_DATABASE_PARAMETERS as shown in the following example:
SELECT value
FROM nls_database_parameters
WHERE PARAMETER = 'NLS_CHARACTERSET’;
3.
Leave the remaining settings, including the username setting, as they appear in
the previous example.
4.
Save and exit the wdbsvr.app file.
Modifying the Oracle9i httpd.conf
You need to modify the httpd.conf file to include an alias that points to the file
system path where you copied the images directory. You may also need to modify the
httpd.conf file to add two new MIME types to support SQL Workshop.
See Also: Copying the Images Directory After an Upgrade on
page 4-17
To modify httpd.conf file, follow these steps:
1.
Using a text editor, open the following file:
ORACLE_HTTPSERVER_HOME/Apache/conf/httpd.conf
2.
Add an alias entry that points to the file system path where you copied the images
directory. The example is as follows:
Alias /i/ "/home/oracle/OraHome1/Apache/Apache/images/"
3.
Next, add two new MIME types to support SQL Workshop:
Add the following lines if it does not currently exist:
AddType text/xml
AddType text/x-component
xbl
htc
If you are upgrading from Oracle HTML DB 2.0, these MIME types should already
exist.
4-20 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Postinstallation Tasks for Oracle Application Express
4.
Save and exit the httpd.conf file.
5.
To stop and restart the Oracle HTTP Server, run the following command.
ORACLE_HTTPSERVER_HOME/Apache/bin/apachectl stop
ORACLE_HTTPSERVER_HOME/Apache/bin/apachectl start
Note that if the Oracle HTTP Server is listening on a port less than 1024, then these
commands must be executed as a privileged user (such as root).
See Also:
Oracle HTTP Server Administrator's Guide
Configuring Oracle HTTP Server distributed with Oracle Database 11g or Oracle
Application Server 10g in a New Installation
Oracle Application Express must have access to Oracle HTTP Server with mod_plsql.
Note: To install Oracle HTTP Server, use the Oracle Fusion Middleware
Web Tier Utilities 11g (11.1.1.2.0) media or download.
Perform the following postinstallation steps if:
■
■
■
■
This is a new installation of Oracle Application Express (that is, you are not
upgrading from a previous release).
You run Oracle HTTP Server distributed with Oracle Database 11g or Oracle
Application Server 10g.
Oracle HTTP Server is installed in an Oracle home.
You have not previously configured Oracle HTTP Server to work with Oracle
Application Express.
These instructions do not apply if you run Oracle HTTP Server Release 9.0.3. For more
information on configuring Oracle HTTP Server Release 9.0.3, see "Configuring Oracle
HTTP Server Release 9.0.3 in a New Installation" on page 4-18.
Topics in this section include:
■
Changing the Password for the ADMIN Account
■
Unlocking the APEX_PUBLIC_USER Database User
■
Changing the Password for the APEX_PUBLIC_USER Database User
■
Edit dads.conf File
■
Stop and Restart Oracle HTTP Server
The Oracle home directory (ORACLE_HTTPSERVER_HOME) is
the location where Oracle HTTP Server is installed.
Note:
Changing the Password for the ADMIN Account
First, change the password for the Oracle Application Express ADMIN account.
To change the password for the ADMIN account:
1.
Start SQL*Plus and connect to the database where Oracle Application Express is
installed as SYS. For example:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus
SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks 4-21
Postinstallation Tasks for Oracle Application Express
Enter password: SYS_password
2.
Run apxxepwd.sql. For example:
@apxxepwd.sql
When prompted enter a password for the ADMIN account.
Unlocking the APEX_PUBLIC_USER Database User
When configuring Oracle HTTP Server for Oracle Application Express in a new
installation, the database user APEX_PUBLIC_USER must be an unlocked account. To
unlock the account for database user APEX_PUBLIC_USER, execute the following
steps:
1.
Start SQL*Plus and connect to the database where Oracle Application Express is
installed as SYS. For example:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus
SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
Enter password: SYS_password
2.
Run the following command:
SQL> ALTER USER APEX_PUBLIC_USER ACCOUNT UNLOCK
Changing the Password for the APEX_PUBLIC_USER Database User
In order to specify the password in the DAD file, you have to change the password for
the database user APEX_PUBLIC_USER. Please use the following steps to change the
password for the APEX_PUBLIC_USER database user:
1.
Start SQL*Plus and connect to the database where Oracle Application Express is
installed as SYS. For example:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus
SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
Enter password: SYS_password
2.
Run the following command:
SQL>PASSWORD APEX_PUBLIC_USER
Changing password for APEX_PUBLIC_USER
New password: password
Retype new password: password
Edit dads.conf File
If this is a new installation of Oracle Application Express, then you must edit the
dads.conf file. The dads.conf file contains the information about the DAD to
access Oracle Application Express.
To edit the dads.conf file, follow these steps:
1.
Using a text editor, edit the following file:
■
Oracle Application Server 10g:
ORACLE_HTTPSERVER_HOME/Apache/modplsql/conf/dads.conf
■
Oracle HTTP Server distributed with Oracle Database 11g:
ORACLE_HTTPSERVER_HOME/ohs/modplsql/conf/dads.conf
4-22 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Postinstallation Tasks for Oracle Application Express
2.
Copy the following into the dads.conf file. Replace ORACLE_HTTPSERVER_
HOME, host, port, service_name, and apex_public_user_password with
values appropriate for the environment. Note that apex_public_user_
password is the same password you defined in Changing the Password for the
APEX_PUBLIC_USER Database User on page 4-19.
Note that the path listed is only an example. The path in the dads.conf file
should reference the file system path described in Copying the Images Directory
on page 4-17.
Alias /i/ "ORACLE_HTTPSERVER_HOME/images/"
AddType text/xml
xbl
AddType text/x-component
htc
<Location /pls/htmldb>
Order deny,allow
PlsqlDocumentPath docs
AllowOverride None
PlsqlDocumentProcedure
PlsqlDatabaseConnectString
PlsqlNLSLanguage
PlsqlAuthenticationMode
SetHandler
PlsqlDocumentTablename
PlsqlDatabaseUsername
PlsqlDefaultPage
PlsqlDatabasePassword
Allow from all
</Location>
3.
wwv_flow_file_manager.process_download
host:port:service_name ServiceNameFormat
AMERICAN_AMERICA.AL32UTF8
Basic
pls_handler
wwv_flow_file_objects$
APEX_PUBLIC_USER
apex
apex_public_user_password
Locate the line containing PlsqlNLSLanguage.
The PlsqlNLSLanguage setting determines the language setting of the DAD.
The character set portion of the PlsqlNLSLanguage value must be set to
AL32UTF8, regardless of whether or not the database character set is AL32UTF8.
For example:
PlsqlNLSLanguage
4.
AMERICAN_AMERICA.AL32UTF8
Save and exit the dads.conf file.
Stop and Restart Oracle HTTP Server
To stop and restart Oracle HTTP Server,run the following commands:
ORACLE_HTTPSERVER_HOME/opmn/bin/opmnctl stopproc ias-component=HTTP_Server
ORACLE_HTTPSERVER_HOME/opmn/bin/opmnctl startproc ias-component=HTTP_Server
Enabling Network Services in Oracle Database 11g
By default, the ability to interact with network services is disabled in Oracle Database
11g Release 1 (11.1). Therefore, if you run Oracle Application Express with Oracle
Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), you need to use the new DBMS_NETWORK_ACL_ADMIN
package to grant connect privilege to any host for the FLOWS_030000 database user.
Failing to grant these privileges results in issues with the following:
■
Sending outbound mail in Oracle Application Express.
Users can call methods from the APEX_MAIL package, but issues arise when
sending outbound email.
■
Using Web services in Oracle Application Express.
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks 4-23
Postinstallation Tasks for Oracle Application Express
■
PDF/report printing.
■
Searching for content in online Help (that is, using the Find link).
This section contains the following topics:
■
Granting Connect Privileges
■
Troubleshooting an Invalid ACL Error
Granting Connect Privileges
The following example demonstrates how to grant connect privileges to any host for
the FLOWS_030000 database user.
In order to run the examples, the compatible initialization parameter of the database
must be set to at least 11.1.0.0.0. In a 11g database, the parameter is already set by
default. However, you will have to set this parameter in case of a database upgrade to
11g from a prior version.
See Also: "Creating and Configuring an Oracle Database" in the
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information about changing
database compatible initialization parameters.
DECLARE
ACL_PATH VARCHAR2(4000);
ACL_ID RAW(16);
BEGIN
-- Look for the ACL currently assigned to '*' and give FLOWS_030000
-- the "connect" privilege if FLOWS_030000 does not have the privilege yet.
SELECT ACL INTO ACL_PATH FROM DBA_NETWORK_ACLS
WHERE HOST = '*' AND LOWER_PORT IS NULL AND UPPER_PORT IS NULL;
-- Before checking the privilege, make sure that the ACL is valid
-- (for example, does not contain stale references to dropped users).
-- If it does, the following exception will be raised:
--- ORA-44416: Invalid ACL: Unresolved principal 'FLOWS_030000'
-- ORA-06512: at "XDB.DBMS_XDBZ", line ...
-SELECT SYS_OP_R2O(extractValue(P.RES, '/Resource/XMLRef')) INTO ACL_ID
FROM XDB.XDB$ACL A, PATH_VIEW P
WHERE extractValue(P.RES, '/Resource/XMLRef') = REF(A) AND
EQUALS_PATH(P.RES, ACL_PATH) = 1;
DBMS_XDBZ.ValidateACL(ACL_ID);
IF DBMS_NETWORK_ACL_ADMIN.CHECK_PRIVILEGE(ACL_PATH, 'FLOWS_030000', 'connect')
IS NULL THEN
DBMS_NETWORK_ACL_ADMIN.ADD_PRIVILEGE(ACL_PATH,
'FLOWS_030000', TRUE, 'connect');
END IF;
EXCEPTION
-- When no ACL has been assigned to '*'.
WHEN NO_DATA_FOUND THEN
DBMS_NETWORK_ACL_ADMIN.CREATE_ACL('power_users.xml',
'ACL that lets power users to connect to everywhere',
'FLOWS_030000', TRUE, 'connect');
DBMS_NETWORK_ACL_ADMIN.ASSIGN_ACL('power_users.xml','*');
END;
/
4-24 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Postinstallation Tasks for Oracle Application Express
COMMIT;
Troubleshooting an Invalid ACL Error
If you receive an ORA-44416: Invalid ACL error after running the previous script, use
the following query to identify the invalid ACL:
REM Show the dangling references to dropped users in the ACL that is assigned
REM to '*'.
SELECT ACL, PRINCIPAL
FROM DBA_NETWORK_ACLS NACL, XDS_ACE ACE
WHERE HOST = '*' AND LOWER_PORT IS NULL AND UPPER_PORT IS NULL AND
NACL.ACLID = ACE.ACLID AND
NOT EXISTS (SELECT NULL FROM ALL_USERS WHERE USERNAME = PRINCIPAL);
Next, run the following code to fix ACL:
DECLARE
ACL_ID
CNT
BEGIN
RAW(16);
NUMBER;
-- LOOK FOR THE OBJECT ID OF THE ACL CURRENTLY ASSIGNED TO '*'
SELECT ACLID INTO ACL_ID FROM DBA_NETWORK_ACLS
WHERE HOST = '*' AND LOWER_PORT IS NULL AND UPPER_PORT IS NULL;
-- IF JUST SOME USERS REFERENCED IN THE ACL ARE INVALID, REMOVE JUST THOSE
-- USERS IN THE ACL. OTHERWISE, DROP THE ACL COMPLETELY.
SELECT COUNT(PRINCIPAL) INTO CNT FROM XDS_ACE
WHERE ACLID = ACL_ID AND
EXISTS (SELECT NULL FROM ALL_USERS WHERE USERNAME = PRINCIPAL);
IF (CNT > 0) THEN
FOR R IN (SELECT PRINCIPAL FROM XDS_ACE
WHERE ACLID = ACL_ID AND
NOT EXISTS (SELECT NULL FROM ALL_USERS
WHERE USERNAME = PRINCIPAL)) LOOP
UPDATE XDB.XDB$ACL
SET OBJECT_VALUE =
DELETEXML(OBJECT_VALUE,
'/ACL/ACE[PRINCIPAL="'||R.PRINCIPAL||'"]')
WHERE OBJECT_ID = ACL_ID;
END LOOP;
ELSE
DELETE FROM XDB.XDB$ACL WHERE OBJECT_ID = ACL_ID;
END IF;
END;
/
REM Commit the changes.
COMMIT;
Once the ACL has been fixed, you need to run the first script in this section to apply
the ACL to the FLOWS_030000 user. See "Granting Connect Privileges" on page 4-24.
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks 4-25
Postinstallation Tasks for Oracle Application Express
Running Oracle Application Express in Other Languages
The Oracle Application Express interface is translated into German, Spanish, French,
Italian, Japanese, Korean, Brazilian Portuguese, Simplified Chinese, and Traditional
Chinese. A single instance of Oracle Application Express can be installed with one or
more of these translated versions. At runtime, each user's Web browser language
settings determine the specific language version.
The translated version of Oracle Application Express should be loaded into a database
that has a character set that can support the specific language. If you attempt to install
a translated version of Oracle Application Express into a database that does support
the character encoding of the language, the installation may fail or the translated
Oracle Application Express instance may appear corrupt when run. The database
character set AL32UTF8 supports all the translated versions of Oracle Application
Express.
You can manually install translated versions of Oracle Application Express using
SQL*Plus. The installation files are encoded in AL32UTF8.
Regardless of the target database character set, to install a
translated version of Oracle Application Express, you must set the
character set value of the NLS_LANG environment variable to
AL32UTF8 before starting SQL*Plus.
Note:
The following examples illustrate valid NLS_LANG settings for loading Oracle
Application Express translations:
American_America.AL32UTF8
Japanese_Japan.AL32UTF8
Installing a Translated Version of Oracle Application Express
Whether you are installing for the first time or upgrading from a previous release, you
must run the load_lang.sql script to run a translated version of Oracle Application
Express.
The installation scripts are located in subdirectories identified by a language code in
the unzipped distribution apex/builder. For example, the German version is
located in /apex/builder/de and the Japanese version is located in
/apex/builder/ja. Within each of these directories, there is a language loading
script identified by the language code (for example, load_de.sql or load_ja.sql).
To install a translated version of Oracle Application Express:
1.
Set the NLS_LANG environment variable, making sure that the character set is
AL32UTF8. For example:
■
Bourne or Korn shell:
$ NLS_LANG=American_America.AL32UTF8
$ export NLS_LANG
■
C shell:
% setenv NLS_LANG American_America.AL32UTF8
2.
Start SQL*Plus and connect to the target database as SYS.
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus
SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
4-26 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Postinstallation Tasks for Oracle Application Express
Enter password: SYS_password
3.
Execute the following statement:
SQL> ALTER SESSION SET CURRENT_SCHEMA = FLOWS_030000;
4.
Execute the appropriate language specific script. For example:
SQL> @load_de.sql
Where lang is the specific language (for example, load_de.sql for German or
load_ja.sql for Japanese).
Managing JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES
JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES determine the maximum number of concurrently running
jobs. In Oracle Application Express release 3.0, transactional support and SQL scripts
require jobs. If JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES is not enabled and working properly, you
cannot successfully execute a script.
Topics in this section include:
■
Viewing the Number of JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES
■
Changing the Number of JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES
Viewing the Number of JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES
There are currently three ways to view the number of JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES:
■
In the installation log file
■
On the About Application Express page in Oracle Application Express
■
From SQL*Plus
Viewing JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES in the Installation Log File
After installing or upgrading Oracle Application Express to release 3.0, you can view
the number of JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES in the installation log files.
Viewing JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES in Oracle Application Express
You can also view the number of JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES on the About Oracle
Application Express page.
To view the About Oracle Application Express page:
1.
Log in to Oracle Application Express.
2.
On the Administration list, click About Application Express.
The current number JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES displays at the bottom of the page.
Viewing JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES from SQL*Plus
You can also view the number of JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES from SQL*Plus by running
the following SQL statement:
sql> SELECT VALUE FROM v$parameter WHERE NAME = 'job_queue_processes'
Changing the Number of JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES
You can change the number of JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES by running a SQL statement
in SQL*Plus:
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks 4-27
Postinstallation Tasks for Oracle Application Express
To update the number of JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES:
1.
Log in to the database as SYSDBA using SQL*Plus.
2.
In SQL*Plus run the following SQL statement:
SQL> ALTER SYSTEM SET JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES = number
For example, running the statement ALTER SYSTEM SET JOB_QUEUE_
PROCESSES = 20 sets JOB_QUEUE_PROCESSES to 20.
Obfuscating PlsqlDatabasePassword Parameter
The PlsqlDatabasePassword parameter specifies the password for logging in to
the database. You can use the dadTool.pl utility to obfuscate passwords in the
dads.conf file.
You can find the dadTool.pl utility in the following directory:
ORACLE_HTTPSERVER_HOME/ohs/modplsql/conf
Obfuscating Passwords
To obfuscate passwords, run dadTool.pl by following the instructions in the
dadTool.README file.
Logging In to Oracle Application Express
You access the Oracle Application Express home page in a Web browser. To view or
develop Oracle Application Express applications, the Web browser must support
JavaScript and the HTML 4.0 and CSS 1.0 standards. See "Browser Requirements" on
page 2-13.
Topics in this section include:
■
Oracle Application Express User Privileges
■
Setting Up Your Local Environment
Oracle Application Express User Privileges
In the Oracle Application Express development environment, users log in to a shared
work area called a workspace. Users are divided into four primary privileges:
■
■
■
■
Workspace administrators are users who perform administrator tasks specific to a
workspace such as managing user accounts, monitoring workspace activity, and
viewing log files.
Developers are users who create and edit applications. Developers can have their
own workspace or share a workspace.
End users have no development privileges. You define end users so that they can
access applications that do not use an external authentication scheme.
Oracle Application Express administrators are superusers that manage an entire
hosted instance using the Oracle Application Express Administration Services
application.
Setting Up Your Local Environment
How you set up Oracle Application Express depends upon your user privilege. If you
are a developer accessing a hosted development environment, then an administrator
4-28 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Postinstallation Database Configuration for Oracle Configuration Manager
must grant you access to a workspace. If you are an Oracle Application Express
administrator, you must perform the following steps:
1.
Log in to Oracle Application Express Administration Services. Oracle Application
Express Administration Services is a separate application for managing an entire
Oracle Application Express instance. You log in using the ADMIN account and
password created or reset during the installation process.
2.
Specify a provisioning mode. In Oracle Application Express Administration
Services, you need to determine how the process of creating (or provisioning) a
workspace will work in your development environment.
3.
Create a Workspace. A workspace is a virtual private database allowing multiple
users to work within the same Oracle Application Express installation while
keeping their objects, data and applications private. Each workspace has a unique
ID and name. An Oracle Application Express administrator can create a
workspace manually or have users submit requests.
4.
Log in to a Workspace. Once you create a workspace in Oracle Application
Express Administration Services, return to the Oracle Application Express Login
page and log in to that workspace.
See Also: Oracle Database 2 Day + Application Express Developer's
Guide or "Quick Start" in Oracle Database Application Express User's
Guide
Patching Oracle Application Express 3.0
If you are already running Oracle Application Express 3.0, then check the Oracle
Application Express page on the Oracle Technology Network (OTN) at
(http://www.oracle.com/technology/products/database/application_
express/index.html) URL for information about patch set releases or later
versions of Oracle Application Express:
Upgrading to Oracle Database 11g will not patch an Oracle Application Express 3.0
instance to Oracle Application Express 3.0.1.
Postinstallation Database Configuration for Oracle Configuration Manager
If you have installed Oracle Configuration Manager in a home that contains a
database, you must run a script to create a database account to collect database
configuration collections. You must create this account in both Connected and
Disconnected modes. Refer to "Oracle Configuration Manager" on page 1-11 for
further information on these modes. The database account stores the PL/SQL
procedures that collect the configuration information, and the account owns the
database management system (DBMS) job that performs the collection. After the
account has been set up, as login privileges are no longer required, the account is
locked.
Note:
■
■
Because the collected configuration data is not stored in the
database, additional disk space is not required for the database.
Because database configuration collections are performed using
the database jobs, the job_queue_process initialization
parameter must have a value greater than 0 for pre-10g databases
only.
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks 4-29
Postinstallation Database Configuration for Oracle Configuration Manager
This section contains the following topics:
■
Preparing Pre-9.2 Databases
■
Instrumenting the Database for Configuration Collections
■
Additional Step for E-Business Suites
■
Additional Step for Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control
Preparing Pre-9.2 Databases
Before running the installCCRSQL.sh script to prepare the database for
configuration collection, you must perform the following steps for pre 9.2 databases:
1.
Edit the initsid.ora file where sid is the database system identifier, and set the
UTL_FILE_DIR parameter to include $ORACLE_HOME/ccr/state as one of the
directories.
If a server parameter file (spfile) is used, alter the UTL_FILE_DIR parameter
using the following SQL*Plus command:
SQL>alter system set utl_file_dir=value scope=spfile
where value is equal to $ORACLE_HOME/ccr/state
2.
Restart the database.
Instrumenting the Database for Configuration Collections
To configure the database for configuration collection, run the following script:
■
Run the following command to create the admin directory
$ORACLE_HOME/ccr/bin/setupCCR
■
Run the following script, to configure the database for configuration collection:
$ORACLE_HOME/ccr/admin/scripts/installCCRSQL.sh collectconfig -s SID -r
SYSDBA-USER -p SYSDBA-PASSWORD
However, only to configure the database for configuration collection, run the following
script:
$ORACLE_HOME/ccr/admin/scripts/installCCRSQL.sh collectconfig -s SID -r
SYSDBA-USER -p SYSDBA-PASSWORD
The installCCRSQL.sh script creates an Oracle Configuration Manager user and
loads the PL/SQL procedure into the database defined by the ORACLE_SID. You can
also specify the database SID by using the -s option in the command line as in the
following example where the SID is orcl:
$ORACLE_HOME/ccr/admin/scripts/installCCRSQL.sh collectconfig -s orcl
By default, the connection to the database is through operating system authentication,
"/as sysdba." To specify a different SYSDBA user and password, you can use these
options:
-r SYSDBA-USER: The login name of the SYSDBA user
-p SYSDBA-PASSWORD: The password for the SYSDBA user
4-30 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Postinstallation Database Configuration for Oracle Configuration Manager
Note:
■
■
■
■
If you specify the SYSDBA user without specifying the password,
you will be prompted to enter the password.
If you specify only the SYSDBA password without specifying the
user name, the user SYS is used by default.
If the Oracle Configuration Manager account already exists, when
you run the installCCRSQL.sh script, it will be dropped and
re-created.
If you are upgrading from a 9.x database version to a 10.x version,
you must run the installCCRSQL.sh script again to record the
upgraded version.
Additional Step for E-Business Suites
If the database is used as a repository for an Oracle E-Business Suite, you must also
run the following script from the ORACLE_HOME in which the E-Business database has
been hosted:
$ORACLE_HOME/ccr/admin/scripts/installCCRSQL.sh ebs_collectconfig -u Oracle_
Applications_User
The -u parameter is mandatory. If you do not specify this parameter, the application
prompts you for the Oracle Applications User. If the -u parameter is specified, you
will be prompted for the Oracle Applications Password.
If you want to automate the install, you can run the installCCRSQL.sh script with
an additional -w option to specify the Oracle Applications Password. For example:
$ORACLE_HOME/ccr/admin/scripts/installCCRSQL.sh ebs_
collectconfig -u Oracle_Applications_User -w Oracle_Applications_
Password
You can add the -s SID command to specify the SID of the Oracle Applications
Database instance.
If you are not using operating system authentication to connect to the database, you
must use the -r and -p parameters to specify the following:
-r SYSDBA-USER: The login name of the SYSDBA user
-p SYSDBA-PASSWORD: The password for the SYSDBA user
If the -r parameter is specified, the -p parameter is optional and will be prompted for.
Additional Step for Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control
If the database is used as a repository for Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control, you
must also run the following script:
$ORACLE_HOME/ccr/admin/scripts/installCCRSQL.sh collectemrep
When you run this command, then the application prompts you for the SYSMAN
password. If you want to automate the install, you can run the installCCRSQL.sh
script to specify the SYSMAN password. For example:
$ORACLE_HOME/ccr/admin/scripts/installCCRSQL.sh collectemrep -e
SYSMAN PASSWORD
Oracle Database Postinstallation Tasks 4-31
Postinstallation Database Configuration for Oracle Configuration Manager
You can add the -s SID command to specify the SID of the Oracle Enterprise
Manager Grid Control Database instance. You must run this script from the ORACLE_
HOME in which the Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control database has been hosted.
If you are not using operating system authentication to connect to the database, you
must use the -r and -p parameters to specify the following:
-r SYSDBA-USER: The login name of the SYSDBA user
-p SYSDBA-PASSWORD: The password for the SYSDBA user
If the -r parameter is specified, the -p parameter is optional and will be prompted for.
4-32 Oracle Database Installation Guide
5
Getting Started with Oracle Database
5
This chapter provides information about the default preconfigured database, including
information about Oracle database accounts, passwords, and file locations. It includes
information about the following topics:
■
Checking the Installed Oracle Database Contents and Directory Location
■
Logging In to Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
■
Managing Automatic Storage Management
■
Accessing Oracle Database with SQL*Plus
■
Accessing Oracle Database with SQL Developer
■
Reviewing Accounts and Passwords
■
Unlocking and Resetting User Passwords
■
Identifying Databases
■
Locating the Server Parameter File
■
Reviewing Tablespaces and Data Files, Redo Log Files, and Control Files
Checking the Installed Oracle Database Contents and Directory Location
You can use Oracle Universal Installer to check the contents and directory location of
an Oracle Database installation. To do this, perform the following steps:
1.
Start Oracle Universal Installer, follow the instructions in "Running Oracle
Universal Installer" on page 3-8.
2.
Click Installed Products to display the Inventory dialog box on the Welcome
screen.
3.
Select the Oracle Database product from the list to check the installed contents.
4.
Click Details to find additional information about an installed product.
5.
Click Close to close the Inventory dialog box.
6.
Click Cancel to close Oracle Universal Installer, and then click Yes to confirm.
Logging In to Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
If you configured Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control during the installation,
you can use it to manage the database. Alternatively, you can use Oracle Enterprise
Manager Grid Control to manage the database. To display the Database Control:
Getting Started with Oracle Database 5-1
Logging In to Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
1.
Use a Web browser to access the Database Control URL:
http://host:port/em
In this example:
■
host is the name of the computer on which you installed Oracle Database
■
port is the port number reserved for the Database Control during installation
If you do not know the correct port number to use, look for the following line in
the $ORACLE_HOME/install/portlist.ini file:
Enterprise Manager Console HTTP Port (db_name) = 1158
The installation reserves the first available port from the range 5500 to 5519. For
example, if you installed Oracle Database on host mgmt42, and the Database
Control uses port 1158, use the following URL:
http://mgmt42:1158/em
Oracle Enterprise Manager displays the Database Control login page.
2.
Log in to the database using the user name SYSTEM and connect as SYSDBA.
Enterprise Manager displays the Database Home page.
Use the password that you specified for the SYSTEM account during the
installation.
You can also log in to the Database Control using the
SYSTEM or SYSMAN accounts or you can grant login privileges to
other database users.
Note:
Understanding Database Control Login Privileges
When you log in to the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control using the
SYSMAN user account, you are logging in as the Oracle Enterprise Manager super user.
The SYSMAN account is automatically granted the privileges and privileges required to
access all the management features provided by the Database Control.
You can also use the SYS and SYSTEM accounts to log in to the Database Control. In
addition, you can grant login privileges to other database users, as follows:
1.
Log in to the Database Control.
See Also: The "Logging In to Oracle Enterprise Manager
Database Control" section for information about logging in to the
Database Control
2.
Click Setup at the top of the Database Control home page.
3.
Click Administrators in the left navigation bar.
4.
Click Create to create an Enterprise Manager user.
5.
In the Name field, enter the user name of an existing database user or click the
flashlight icon and select a user from the pop-up window.
6.
Enter the password for this user, and then click Review.
7.
On the properties page, click Finish.
Enterprise Manager assigns login privileges to the specified user and includes this
user in the list of Enterprise Manager users on the Setup Administrators page.
5-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Accessing Oracle Database with SQL*Plus
Managing Automatic Storage Management
This section provides information about managing an Automatic Storage Management
installation. It covers the following topics:
■
Starting and Stopping Automatic Storage Management
■
Automatic Storage Management Utilities
Starting and Stopping Automatic Storage Management
To start and stop Automatic Storage Management, refer to Oracle Database
Administrator's Reference for Linux and UNIX.
Automatic Storage Management Utilities
To manage Automatic Storage Management, you can use the following tools:
■
■
■
■
asmcmd: This command-line tool enables you to manage Automatic Storage
Management disk group files and directories.
Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control: If you have Oracle Enterprise Manager
installed, you can use Grid Control to manage Automatic Storage Management
functions, such as migrating an existing database to Automatic Storage
Management, checking the status of the Automatic Storage Management instance,
checking the performance of the Automatic Storage Management disk groups, and
creating or dropping Automatic Storage Management disk groups.
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control: This utility enables you to perform
functions similar to Grid Control.
SQL*Plus: You can run commands that are specific to Automatic Storage
Management from either of these tools. To connect to an Automatic Storage
Management instance, use the same methods that you use to connect to an Oracle
database instance.
See Also:
■
■
■
"Logging In to Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control"
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information about
managing Automatic Storage Management
Oracle Database Utilities for more information about asmcmd
Accessing Oracle Database with SQL*Plus
To run the SQL and PL/SQL commands to access the Oracle Database, you can use
SQL*Plus. This tool enables you to perform the same database management
operations, and to query, insert, update, or delete data directly in the database.
Use the following command to start SQL*Plus and log in as the SYS user, connecting
as SYSDBA:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus
SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
Enter password: SYS_password
For example, to log on as SYSTEM using the password Systempwd1, you enter:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus
SQL> CONNECT SYSTEM
Getting Started with Oracle Database 5-3
Accessing Oracle Database with SQL Developer
Enter password: Systempwd1
If you are logging on as SYS, you would need to connect as SYSDBA:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus
SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
Enter password: SYS_password
See Also:
■
SQL*Plus User's Guide and Reference
■
SQL*Plus Quick Reference
Accessing Oracle Database with SQL Developer
To run the SQL and PL/SQL commands to access Oracle Database, you can use SQL
Developer. All SQL and PL/SQL commands are supported as they are passed directly
from the SQL Worksheet to the Oracle Database.
Set Up the JDK Path For SQL Developer
Set the following environmental variables to ensure that the correct jdk is picked up:
■
$ORACLE_HOME
■
$JAVA_HOME=$ORACLE_HOME/jdk
■
$PATH=$JAVA_HOME/bin/:$PATH
To start SQL Developer on which the Sun Java SDK release 1.5 is installed, use the
following commands:
■
Change to $ORACLE_HOME/sqldeveloper.
■
Run $ ./sqldeveloper.sh.
■
Right-Click Connections. In the dialog box, enter a Connection name, username,
password, and for the host string, the name of the database to which you want to
connect and click Connect.
Once connected, you can view, create, modify, and delete the database objects using
the Connection Navigator or issue any SQL or PL/SQL command using a SQL
Worksheet (From the Tools menu, select SQL Worksheet).
SQL*Plus commands have to be interpreted by the SQL Worksheet before being
passed to the database. The SQL Worksheet currently supports a number of SQL*Plus
commands. SQL*Plus commands which are not supported by the SQL Worksheet are
ignored and are not sent to the Oracle Database.
See Also:
"SQL*Plus Statements Supported and Not Supported in SQL
Worksheet" in Oracle Database SQL Developer User's Guide
Reviewing Accounts and Passwords
All databases created by the Database Configuration Assistant (DBCA) include the
SYS, SYSTEM, SYSMAN, and DBSNMP database accounts. In addition, Oracle provides
several other administrative accounts. Before using these accounts, you must unlock
them and reset their passwords. Table 5–1 describes these accounts and lists their user
names and default passwords.
5-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Reviewing Accounts and Passwords
See Also: The "Unlocking and Resetting User Passwords" section
for information about unlocking and resetting passwords.
Use the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control to
view the complete list of database accounts.
Note:
Table 5–1
Database Accounts
User Name
Description
See Also
ANONYMOUS
Allows HTTP access to Oracle XML DB.
None
BI
The account that owns the Business
Intelligence schema included in the
Oracle Sample Schemas. It is available
only if you loaded the Sample Schemas.
Oracle Database Sample
Schemas
CTXSYS
The Oracle Text account.
Oracle Text Reference
DBSNMP
The account used by the Management
Agent component of Oracle Enterprise
Manager to monitor and manage the
database. It is created only if you
configure the database to use the
Database Control.
Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid
Control Installation and Basic
Configuration
DIP
The account used by the Directory
None
Integration Platform (DIP) to synchronize
the changes in Oracle Internet Directory
with the applications in the database.
EXFSYS
The account owns the Expression Filter
schema.
None
FLOWS_030000
The account owns the Application
Express schema and metadata.
Oracle Database Application
Express User's Guide
FLOWS_FILES
The account owns the Application
Express uploaded files.
Oracle Database Application
Express User's Guide
APEX_PUBLIC_USER
The minimally privileged account used
Oracle Database Application
for Application Express configuration
Express User's Guide
with Oracle HTTP Server and mod_plsql.
HR
The account that owns the Human
Resources schema included in the Oracle
Sample Schemas. It is available only if
you loaded the Sample Schemas.
Oracle Database Sample
Schemas
IX
The account that owns the Information
Transport schema included in the Oracle
Sample Schemas. It is available only if
you loaded the Sample Schemas.
Oracle Database Sample
Schemas
LBACSYS
The Oracle Label Security administrator
account.
Oracle Label Security
Administrator's Guide
MDDATA
The schema used by Oracle Spatial for
storing Geocoder and router data.
Oracle Spatial Developer's
Guide
MDSYS
The Oracle Spatial and Oracle
Multimedia Locator administrator
account.
Oracle Spatial Developer's
Guide
MGMT_VIEW
An account used by Oracle Enterprise
Manager Database Control.
None
Getting Started with Oracle Database 5-5
Reviewing Accounts and Passwords
Table 5–1 (Cont.) Database Accounts
User Name
Description
OE
The account that owns the Order Entry
Oracle Database Sample
schema included in the Oracle Sample
Schemas
Schemas. It is available only if you loaded
the Sample Schemas.
ORDPLUGINS
The Oracle Multimedia user. Plugins
supplied by Oracle and third-party
plugins are installed in this schema.
Oracle Multimedia Reference
ORDSYS
The Oracle Multimedia administrator
account.
Oracle Multimedia Reference
OUTLN
The account that supports plan stability.
Plan stability enables you to maintain the
same execution plans for the same SQL
statements. OUTLN acts as a privilege to
centrally manage metadata associated
with stored outlines.
Oracle Database Concepts
ORACLE_OCM
This account contains the instrumentation Oracle Configuration Manager
Installation and Administration
for configuration collection used by the
Guide
Oracle Configuration Manager.
OWBSYS
The account used by Oracle Warehouse
Oracle Warehouse Builder
Builder as its default repository. You must Installation and Administration
unlock this account subsequent to
Guide
installing the Oracle Database and before
launching the Warehouse Builder
Repository Assistant.
PM
The account that owns the Product Media Oracle Database Sample
schema included in the Oracle Sample
Schemas
Schemas. It is available only if you loaded
the Sample Schemas.
SCOTT
An account used by Oracle sample
programs and examples.
SH
Oracle Database
The account that owns the Sales History
Administrator's Guide
schema included in the Oracle Sample
Schemas. It is available only if you loaded
the Sample Schemas during an Enterprise
Edition installation.
SI_INFORMTN_SCHEMA
The account that stores the information
views for the SQL/MM Still Image
Standard.
Oracle Multimedia Reference
SYS
The account used to perform database
administration tasks.
Oracle Database
Administrator's Guide
SYSMAN
The account used to perform Oracle
Enterprise Manager database
administration tasks.It is created only if
you configure the database to use the
Database Control.
Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid
Control Installation and Basic
Configuration
SYSTEM
Another account used to perform
database administration tasks.
Oracle Database
Administrator's Guide
WMSYS
The account used to store the metadata
information for Oracle Workspace
Manager.
Oracle Database Workspace
Manager Developer's Guide
WKPROXY
The Ultra Search proxy user.
Oracle Ultra Search
Administrator's Guide
5-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
See Also
Oracle Database
Administrator's Guide
Unlocking and Resetting User Passwords
Table 5–1 (Cont.) Database Accounts
User Name
Description
See Also
WK_TEST
The default Ultra Search instance schema. Oracle Ultra Search
Administrator's Guide
WKSYS
The account used to store Ultra Search
system dictionaries and PL/SQL
packages.
Oracle Ultra Search
Administrator's Guide
XDB
The account used for storing Oracle XML
DB data and metadata.
Oracle XML DB Developer's
Guide
DVSYS
There are two privileges assciated with
this account. Database Vault owner
privilege manages the Database Vault
privileges and configurations. The
Database Vault Account Manager is used
to manage database user accounts.
Oracle Database Vault
Administrator's Guide
Note: Part of Oracle Database Vault user
interface text is stored in database tables
in the DVSYS schema. By default, only
the English language is loaded into these
tables. You can use Oracle Database Vault
Configuration Assistant to add more
languages to Oracle Database Vault. For
the necessary steps, refer to Appendix C
in Oracle Database Vault Administrator's
Guide
Unlocking and Resetting User Passwords
Passwords for all Oracle system administration accounts except SYS, SYSTEM,
SYSMAN, and DBSMP are revoked after installation. Before you use a locked account,
you must unlock it and reset its password. If you created a preconfigured database
during the installation, but you did not unlock a required account, you must unlock it,
using one of the following methods:
■
Using Database Control to Unlock Accounts and Reset Passwords
■
Using SQL*Plus to Unlock Accounts and Reset Passwords
■
Unlocking and Changing Passwords
If you are creating a database using Database Configuration
Assistant, you can unlock accounts after the database is created by
clicking Password Management before you exit from Database
Configuration Assistant.
Note:
Using Database Control to Unlock Accounts and Reset Passwords
To unlock and reset user account passwords using Oracle Enterprise Manager
Database Control:
1.
Log in to the Database Control.
See Also: The "Logging In to Oracle Enterprise Manager
Database Control" section for information about logging in to the
Database Control
2.
Click Server.
Getting Started with Oracle Database 5-7
Unlocking and Resetting User Passwords
3.
In the Security section of the Server page, click Users.
Enterprise Manager displays a table listing all database accounts. The Account
Status column indicates whether the account is locked and whether the password
is expired.
4.
Select the user account that you want to modify, then click Edit.
5.
Use the General page of the Users property sheet to unlock the account and,
optionally, to change the password.
Click Help in the Database Control window for more
information about using the Database Control.
See Also:
Using SQL*Plus to Unlock Accounts and Reset Passwords
To unlock and reset user account passwords using SQL*Plus:
1.
Start SQL*Plus and log in as the SYS user, connecting as SYSDBA:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus
SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
Enter password: SYS_password
2.
Enter a command similar to the following, where account is the user account that
you want to unlock and password is the new password:
SQL> PASSWORD account UNLOCK;
Changing password for account
New password: password
Retype new password: password
If you unlock an account but do not reset the password,
then the password remains expired. The first time someone
connects as that user, they must change the user’s password.
Note:
To permit unauthenticated access to the data through HTTP, unlock
the ANONYMOUS user account.
See Also: Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more
information about:
■
Unlocking and changing passwords after installation
■
Oracle security procedures
■
Best security practices
Unlocking and Changing Passwords
Passwords for all Oracle system administration accounts except SYS, SYSTEM,
SYSMAN, and DBSNMP are revoked after installation. Before you use a locked account,
you must unlock it and reset its password. If you created a starter database during the
installation, Oracle Database Configuration Assistant displays a screen with your
database information and the Password Management button. Use the Password
Management button to unlock only the user names you will use.
Apply the following guidelines when specifying passwords:
■
Passwords must be between 8 and 30 characters long.
5-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Identifying Databases
■
Passwords must be from the ASCII character set.
■
Passwords must not start with a numeral.
■
Passwords must not be the same as the user name.
■
Passwords must not be Oracle reserved words.
■
The SYS account password must not be change_on_install.
■
The SYSTEM account password must not be manager.
■
The SYSMAN account password must not be sysman.
■
The DBSNMP account password must not be dbsnmp.
■
■
■
■
If you choose to use the same password for all the accounts, then that password
must not be change_on_install, manager, sysman, or dbsnmp.
Passwords should have at least one alphabetic, one numeric, and one special
character.
Passwords should not be simple or obvious words, such as welcome, account,
database, and user.
Passwords should not have any consecutive repeating characters.
See Also: "Reviewing Accounts and Passwords" for more
information about accounts and passwords
Identifying Databases
The Oracle Database 11g software identifies a database by its global database name. A
global database name consists of the database name and database domain. Usually, the
database domain is the same as the network domain, but it need not be. The global
database name uniquely distinguishes a database from any other database in the same
network. You specify the global database name when you create a database during the
installation, or using the Database Configuration Assistant. For example:
sales.us.oracle.com
In this example:
■
■
sales is the name of the database. The database name portion is a string of no
more than 30 characters that can contain alphanumeric, underscore (_), dollar ($),
and pound (#) characters. The DB_NAME initialization parameter specifies the
database name.
us.oracle.com is the database domain in which the database is located. In this
example, the database domain is the same as the network domain. Together, the
database name and the database domain make the global database name unique.
The domain portion is a string of no more than 128 characters that can contain
alphanumeric, underscore (_), and pound (#) characters. The DB_DOMAIN
initialization parameter specifies the database domain name.
The DB_NAME parameter and the DB_DOMAIN name parameter combine to create the
global database name value assigned to the SERVICE_NAMES parameter in the
initialization parameter file.
The System Identifier (SID) identifies a specific database instance. The SID uniquely
distinguishes the instance from any other instance on the same computer. Each
database instance requires a unique SID and database name. In most cases, the SID is
the same as the database name portion of the global database name.
Getting Started with Oracle Database 5-9
Locating the Server Parameter File
Locating the Server Parameter File
By default, the preconfigured database uses a server parameter file named
spfilesid.ora, which is stored in the $ORACLE_HOME/dbs directory. However, if
you choose Automatic Storage Management for the database, Database Configuration
Assistant typically uses the same storage mechanism for the server parameter file.
If the server parameter file is not located in the $ORACLE_HOME/dbs directory, the
database uses the SPFILE parameter in an initialization parameter file to locate it. The
default initialization parameter file is $ORACLE_HOME/dbs/initsid.ora.
You can use the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control to view the location of
the server parameter file and list all of the initialization parameters, as follows:
1.
Log in to the Database Control.
See Also: The "Logging In to Oracle Enterprise Manager
Database Control" section for information about logging in to the
Database Control
2.
Click Server.
3.
In the Database Configuration section of the Server page, click Initialization
Parameters.
Enterprise Manager displays a table listing the current value of each initialization
parameter.
4.
Select SPFile tab.
Enterprise Manager displays a table listing the value of each initialization
parameter specified in the server parameter file. The location of the server
parameter file is displayed in the earlier table.
Reviewing Tablespaces and Data Files, Redo Log Files, and Control Files
The following sections contain information about tablespaces and data files, redo log
files, and control files:
■
Identifying Tablespaces and Data Files
■
Locating Redo Log Files
■
Locating Control Files
Identifying Tablespaces and Data Files
An Oracle database is divided into smaller logical areas of space known as tablespaces.
Each tablespace corresponds to one or more physical data files. Data files contain the
contents of logical database structures such as tables and indexes. You can associate
each data file with only one tablespace and database.
Note: The SYSAUX and SYSTEM tablespaces must be present in all
Oracle Database 11g databases.
Table 5–2 describes the tablespaces provided by the default preconfigured database.
5-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Reviewing Tablespaces and Data Files, Redo Log Files, and Control Files
Table 5–2
Tablespaces and Data Files
Tablespace
Data File
Description
EXAMPLE
EXAMPLE01.DBF
Stores the Sample Schemas, if you included them.
SYSAUX
SYSAUX01.DBF
Serves as an auxiliary tablespace to the SYSTEM
tablespace. Some products and options that previously
used the SYSTEM tablespace now use the SYSAUX
tablespace to reduce the load on the SYSTEM tablespace.
SYSTEM
SYSTEM01.DBF
Stores the data dictionary, including definitions of tables,
views, and stored procedures needed by the Oracle
Database. Information in this area is maintained
automatically.
TEMP
TEMP01.DBF
Stores temporary tables and indexes created during the
processing of your SQL statement. If you run a SQL
statement that involves a lot of sorting, such as the
constructs GROUP BY, ORDER BY, or DISTINCT, then you
may need to expand this tablespace.
UNDOTBS
UNDOTBS01.DBF
Stores undo information. The undo tablespace contains
one or more undo segments that maintain transaction
history that is used to roll back, or undo, changes to the
database.
All starter databases are configured to run in automatic
undo management mode.
USERS
USERS01.DBF
Stores database objects created by database users.
Oracle Database Concepts and the Oracle Database
Administrator's Guide for more information about tablespaces and
data files
See Also:
To use the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control to view the list of data files
used by the database and their associated tablespaces:
1.
Log in to the Database Control.
See Also: The "Logging In to Oracle Enterprise Manager
Database Control" section for information about logging in to the
Database Control
2.
Click Server.
3.
In the Storage section of the Server page, click Datafiles.
Enterprise Manager displays a table listing each data file, and the tablespace with
which it is associated.
See Also: For more information about using the Database Control
to view, modify, and create tablespaces, click Help in the Database
Control window.
Locating Redo Log Files
The preconfigured database uses three redo log files. Redo log files record all changes
made to data in the database buffer cache. If an instance fails, then Oracle Database 11g
uses the redo log files to recover the modified data in memory.
Oracle Database uses redo log files in a cyclical fashion. For example, if three files
constitute the online redo log, Oracle Database fills the first file, then the second file,
Getting Started with Oracle Database
5-11
Reviewing Tablespaces and Data Files, Redo Log Files, and Control Files
and then the third file. In the next cycle, it reuses and fills the first file, the second file,
and so on.
See Also: Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide for
more information about redo log files
To use the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control to view or modify the redo log
files for the preconfigured database:
1.
Log in to the Database Control.
See Also: The "Logging In to Oracle Enterprise Manager
Database Control" section for information about logging in to the
Database Control
2.
Click Server.
3.
In the Storage section of the Server page, click Redo Log Groups.
Enterprise Manager displays a table listing the redo log groups used by the
database.
4.
To view the name and location of the redo log file associated with a particular
group, select that group then click View.
See Also: For more information about using the Database Control
to view, modify, and create redo log files, click Help in the Database
Control window
Locating Control Files
The preconfigured database uses three control files. Oracle recommends that you keep
at least three control files for each database and set the CONTROL_FILES initialization
parameter to specify the location of each file.
A control file is an administrative file. Oracle Database 11g requires a control file to
start and run the database. The control file defines the physical structure of the
database. For example, it defines the database name and the names and locations of
the database data files and redo log files.
To use the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control to view information about the
control files for the preconfigured database:
1.
Log in to the Database Control.
See Also: "Logging In to Oracle Enterprise Manager Database
Control" for information about logging in to the Database Control
2.
Click Server.
3.
In the Storage section of the Server page, click Control Files.
Enterprise Manager displays a table listing the control files used by the database.
5-12 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Reviewing Tablespaces and Data Files, Redo Log Files, and Control Files
See Also: For more information about using the Database Control
to view information about control files and creating backups of
these files to trace them, click Help in the Database Control
window
For more information about setting the CONTROL_FILES
initialization parameter value, refer to Oracle Database
Administrator's Guide
Getting Started with Oracle Database
5-13
Reviewing Tablespaces and Data Files, Redo Log Files, and Control Files
5-14 Oracle Database Installation Guide
6
6
Removing Oracle Software
This chapter describes how to completely remove all Oracle databases, instances, and
software from an Oracle home directory. It includes information about the following
topics:
■
Overview
■
Identifying All Instances
■
Removing Oracle Configuration Manager
■
Removing Oracle Application Express from the Database
■
Removing an Oracle Database
■
Removing an Automatic Storage Management Instance
■
Reconfiguring Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services
■
Removing Oracle Software
See Also: If you want to remove an Oracle RAC installation, refer to
Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide for Linux and Oracle Real
Application Clusters Installation Guide for Linux and UNIX for more
information
If you want to remove an individual product, refer to the
product-specific documentation for requirements and restrictions
Overview
To completely remove all Oracle databases, instances, and software from an Oracle
home directory, you must:
■
Identify all instances associated with the Oracle home.
■
Remove database and Automatic Storage Management instances.
■
Shut down processes.
■
Reconfigure the Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services Daemon, if necessary.
■
Remove the Oracle software.
Identifying All Instances
To identify all instances associated with the Oracle home that you want to remove,
enter the following command:
$ more /etc/oratab
Removing Oracle Software 6-1
Removing Oracle Configuration Manager
The output of this command contains entries similar to the following:
+ASM:/u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1:N
CUST:/u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1:N
These entries show that the +ASM Automatic Storage Manager instance and the CUST
Oracle database instance are associated with the
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1 Oracle home directory.
Removing Oracle Configuration Manager
To uninstall Oracle Configuration Manager, follow these steps:
1.
If the $ORACLE_HOME directory contains a database, remove the Oracle
Configuration Manager user and the associated objects from the database by
running the following script:
SQL> $ORACLE_HOME/ccr/admin/scripts/dropocm.sql
2.
If the database is a repository for the Oracle E-Business Suite, log in to the
database as an SYSDBA user and remove the additional objects from the database
by running the following script:
$ORACLE_HOME/ccr/admin/scripts/ebs_dropccr.sql Oracle_Applications_User
3.
If the database is a repository for Oracle Grid Control, log in to the database as the
SYSMAN user and remove the additional objects from the database by running the
following script:
$ORACLE_HOME/ccr/admin/scripts/dropemrep_collect.sql
4.
To stop the Scheduler and remove the service or the crontab entry, enter the
following command:
$ORACLE_HOME/ccr/bin/deployPackages -d $ORACLE_HOME/ccr/inventory/core.jar
5.
Delete the ccr directory by entering the following command:
$ rm -rf $ORACLE_HOME/ccr
Oracle Configuration Manager is successfully uninstalled.
Removing Oracle Application Express from the Database
This section describes how to remove the Oracle Application Express schema,
synonyms, and users from the database without deleting the database. If you are going
to delete the database, then you do not need to complete these steps.
After using Oracle Universal Installer to remove Oracle Application Express from its
Oracle home, you can remove Oracle Application Express components from the
database. Perform the following steps:
You should not follow these steps if you have upgraded your
database from a prior release, and still want to use the prior release of
Oracle Application Express.
Note:
1.
Use SQL*Plus to connect to the database as the privileged user SYS, for example:
6-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Removing an Oracle Database
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus
SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
Enter password: SYS_password
2.
Execute the following commands:
SQL>
SQL>
SQL>
SQL>
SQL>
SQL>
ALTER SESSION SET CURRENT_SCHEMA = FLOWS_030000;
EXEC wwv_flow_upgrade.drop_public_synonyms;
ALTER SESSION SET CURRENT_SCHEMA = SYS;
DROP USER FLOWS_030000 CASCADE;
DROP USER flows_files CASCADE;
DROP USER apex_public_user CASCADE;
Removing an Oracle Database
To completely remove Oracle Database software, you must remove any installed
databases. To remove an Oracle database:
Removing an Oracle database deletes all of the data in the
database. If you want to keep this data, make sure that you back up
the database before deleting it.
Note:
1.
Log in as the oracle user:
$ su - oracle
2.
Run the oraenv or coraenv script to set the environment for the database that
you want to remove, for example:
■
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ . /usr/local/bin/oraenv
■
C shell:
% source /usr/local/bin/coraenv
3.
At the prompt, specify the SID for the database that you want to remove.
4.
Start the Database Configuration Assistant:
$ dbca
The Welcome window appears.
5.
Click Next.
The Operations window appears.
6.
Select Delete a Database, then click Next.
7.
Select the database that you want to delete, then click Finish.
8.
In the window that appears, confirm that you want to delete the database.
9.
When Database Configuration Assistant removes the database, you are prompted
to choose whether you want to perform another operation. Click Yes to return to
the Operations screen or click No to exit from Database Configuration Assistant. If
you want to remove another database, click Yes and repeat steps 6 through 8.
Removing Oracle Software 6-3
Removing an Automatic Storage Management Instance
You cannot perform an Oracle database installation from the
same Oracle Universal Installer session in which you perform a
deinstallation of Oracle database. In other words, if you deinstall
Oracle database with Oracle Universal Installer and want to perform
another Oracle database installation. then you must start a new Oracle
Universal Installer session.
Note:
Removing an Automatic Storage Management Instance
To completely remove Oracle database software, you must also remove any Automatic
Storage Management instances running in the Oracle home. To remove an Automatic
Storage Management instance:
1.
If necessary, log in as the oracle user:
$ su - oracle
2.
Run the oraenv or coraenv script to set the environment for the Automatic
Storage Management instance that you want to remove, for example:
■
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ . /usr/local/bin/oraenv
■
C shell:
$ source /usr/local/bin/coraenv
3.
At the prompt, specify the SID for the Automatic Storage Management instance
that you want to remove.
4.
Connect to the Automatic Storage Management instance as a SYS user:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus
SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSASM
Enter password: SYS_password
5.
Enter the following command to determine whether any Oracle database instance
is using the Automatic Storage Management instance:
SQL> SELECT INSTANCE_NAME FROM V$ASM_CLIENT;
This command lists all of the database instances that are using this Automatic
Storage Management instance.
This command only lists database instances that run. It is
possible that other instances are associated with the Automatic
Storage Management instance, but they are not currently running.
Note:
If you removed a database from this Oracle home but the output
from the command shows that this Automatic Storage Management
instance is supporting a database instance in another Oracle home,
do not remove the Automatic Storage Management instance or the
Oracle home.
6.
If there are no database instances associated with this Automatic Storage
Management instance, drop the disk groups associated with this instance as
follows:
6-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Reconfiguring Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services
Dropping the Automatic Storage Management disk group
makes the disk device available for use with another Automatic
Storage Management instance if required. However, all data in the
disk group is lost. Make sure that no other database instance
requires any data from this disk group before you drop it.
Note:
a.
Identify the disk groups associated with the Automatic Storage Management
instance:
SQL> SELECT NAME FROM V$ASM_DISKGROUP;
b.
For each disk group that you want to delete, enter a command similar to the
following:
SQL> DROP DISKGROUP name INCLUDING CONTENTS;
7.
Enter the following command to shut down the Automatic Storage Management
instance:
SQL> SHUTDOWN
8.
Remove the entry for the Automatic Storage Management instance from the
/etc/oratab file.
Reconfiguring Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services
Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services (CSS) is a daemon process that is configured
by the root.sh script when you configure an Automatic Storage Management
instance. It is configured to start every time the system boots. This daemon process is
required to enable synchronization between Oracle Automatic Storage Management
and database instances. It must be running if an Oracle database is using Automatic
Storage Management for database file storage.
On cluster systems with Oracle RAC installations, the CSS
daemon is configured during the Oracle Clusterware installation. If
the system is running Oracle Clusterware, refer to Oracle Real
Application Clusters Installation Guide for Linux and UNIXfor
information about removing Oracle RAC or Oracle Clusterware.
Note:
Before you remove an Oracle Database 11g Oracle home, you must determine whether
the CSS daemon is running from that Oracle home and whether any other Oracle
Database 11g Oracle homes exist on the system:
■
■
If the Oracle Database 11g Oracle home that you want to remove is the only Oracle
Database 11g installation on the system, you can delete the CSS daemon
configuration.
If the CSS daemon is running from the Oracle Database 11g Oracle home that you
want to remove and other Oracle Database 11g installations exist on the system,
you must reconfigure the CSS daemon to run from another Oracle Database 11g
Oracle home.
The following sections describe how to complete these tasks:
■
Identifying Oracle Database 11g Oracle Homes
■
Reconfiguring the Oracle CSS Daemon
Removing Oracle Software 6-5
Reconfiguring Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services
■
Deleting the Oracle CSS Daemon Configuration
Identifying Oracle Database 11g Oracle Homes
To identify all of the Oracle Database 11g Oracle home directories, enter the following
command:
$ more /etc/oratab
From the output, identify any Oracle home directories where Oracle Database 11g is
installed. Oracle homes that contain Oracle Database 11g typically have paths similar
to the following. However, they might use different paths.
/mount_point/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_n
If there is only one Oracle home directory that contains Oracle Database 11g, refer to
the "Deleting the Oracle CSS Daemon Configuration" section on page 6-7 for
information about deleting the Oracle CSS daemon configuration.
If you identify more than one Oracle Database 11g Oracle home directory, refer to the
following section for information about reconfiguring the Oracle CSS daemon.
Reconfiguring the Oracle CSS Daemon
To reconfigure the Oracle CSS daemon so that it runs from an Oracle home that you
are not removing, follow these steps:
1.
In all Oracle home directories on the system, stop all Oracle Automatic Storage
Management instances and any Oracle Database instances that use Automatic
Storage Management for database file storage.
2.
Switch user to root.
3.
Enter the following command to identify the Oracle home directory being used to
run the CSS daemon:
# more /etc/oracle/ocr.loc
The output from this command is similar to the following:
ocrconfig_loc=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1/cdata/ \
localhost/local.ocr
local_only=TRUE
The ocrconfig_loc parameter specifies the location of the Oracle Cluster
Registry (OCR) used by the CSS daemon. The path up to the cdata directory is
the Oracle home directory where the CSS daemon is running
(/u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1 in this example).
Note: If the value of the local_only parameter is FALSE, Oracle
Clusterware is installed on this system.
Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide for Linux
and UNIX for information about removing Oracle Real Applications
Clusters or Oracle Clusterware
See Also:
If this Oracle home directory is not the Oracle home that you want to remove, go
to the "Removing Oracle Software" section on page 6-8.
6-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Reconfiguring Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services
4.
Change directory to the Oracle home directory for an Oracle Database 11g
installation that you are not removing.
5.
Set the ORACLE_HOME environment variable to specify the path to this Oracle
home directory:
■
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
# ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_2;
# export ORACLE_HOME
■
C shell:
# setenv ORACLE_HOME /u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_2
6.
Enter the following command to reconfigure the CSS daemon to run from this
Oracle home:
# $ORACLE_HOME/bin/localconfig reset $ORACLE_HOME
This command stops the Oracle CSS daemon, reconfigures it in the new Oracle
home, and then restarts it. When the system boots, the CSS daemon starts
automatically from the new Oracle home.
7.
To remove the original Oracle home directory, refer to "Removing Oracle Software"
section on page 6-8.
Deleting the Oracle CSS Daemon Configuration
To delete the Oracle CSS daemon configuration, follow these steps:
Delete the CSS daemon configuration only if you are certain
that no other Oracle Database 11g installation requires it.
Note:
1.
Remove any databases or Automatic Storage Management instances associated
with this Oracle home. Refer to the preceding sections for information about how
to complete these tasks.
2.
Switch user to root.
3.
Change directory to the Oracle home directory that you are removing.
4.
Set the ORACLE_HOME environment variable to specify the path to this Oracle
home directory:
■
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
# ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1
# export ORACLE_HOME
■
C shell:
# setenv ORACLE_HOME /u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1
5.
Enter the following command to delete the CSS daemon configuration from this
Oracle home:
# $ORACLE_HOME/bin/localconfig delete
The script stops the Oracle CSS daemon, then deletes its configuration. When the
system boots, the CSS daemon no longer starts.
Removing Oracle Software 6-7
Removing Oracle Software
Removing Oracle Software
The following steps describe how to use Oracle Universal Installer to remove Oracle
software from an Oracle home:
Always use Oracle Universal Installer to remove Oracle
software. Do not delete any Oracle home directories without first
using Oracle Universal Installer to remove the software.
Note:
1.
If necessary, log in as the oracle user:
$ su - oracle
2.
Set the ORACLE_HOME environment variable to specify the path of the Oracle
home directory that you want to remove:
■
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1
$ export ORACLE_HOME
■
C shell:
% setenv ORACLE_HOME /u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1
3.
Remove any databases or Automatic Storage Management instances associated
with this Oracle home and delete or reconfigure the Oracle CSS daemon.
Refer to the preceding sections for information about how to complete these tasks.
4.
5.
Stop any processes running in this Oracle home:
Process Name
Command
Database Control
$ORACLE_HOME/bin/emctl stop dbconsole
Oracle Net listener
$ORACLE_HOME/bin/lsnrctl stop
Start Oracle Universal Installer as follows:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/oui/bin/runInstaller
6.
In the Welcome window, click Deinstall Products.
The Inventory screen appears, listing all of the Oracle homes on the system.
7.
In the Inventory screen, select the Oracle home and the products that you want to
remove, then click Remove.
If you choose to remove Oracle JVM, Oracle Universal
Installer removes all installed products that depend on Oracle JVM,
including Oracle Database 11g.
Note:
Oracle Universal Installer displays a confirmation window asking you to confirm
that you want to deinstall the products and their dependent components.
8.
Click Yes.
Oracle Universal Installer displays a progress indicator as it removes the software.
6-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Removing Oracle Software
9.
Click Close on the Inventory screen.
10. When the products have been deleted, click Cancel to exit from Oracle Universal
Installer, and then click Yes.
Removing Oracle Software 6-9
Removing Oracle Software
6-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
A
A
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database
Using Response Files
This appendix describes how to install and configure Oracle products using response
files. It includes information about the following topics:
■
How Response Files Work?
■
Creating the oraInst.loc File
■
Preparing a Response File
■
Running Oracle Universal Installer Using a Response File
■
Running Net Configuration Assistant Using a Response File
■
Running Database Configuration Assistant Using a Response File
How Response Files Work?
You can automate the installation and configuration of Oracle software, either fully or
partially, by specifying a response file when you start Oracle Universal Installer. Oracle
Universal Installer uses the values contained in the response file to provide answers to
some or all of Oracle Universal Installer prompt. It includes information about the
following topics:
■
■
■
Reasons for Using Silent Mode or Noninteractive Mode
Creating a Database Using Automatic Storage Management as the Storage Option
for Database Files
General Procedure for Using Response Files
Typically, Oracle Universal Installer runs in interactive mode, which means that it
prompts you to provide information in graphical user interface (GUI) screens. When
you use response files to provide this information, you run Oracle Universal Installer
at a command prompt using either of the following modes:
■
Silent mode
If you include responses for all of the prompts in the response file and specify the
-silent option when starting Oracle Universal Installer, then Oracle Universal
Installer runs in silent mode. During a silent-mode installation, Oracle Universal
Installer does not display any screens. Instead, it displays progress information in
the terminal that you used to start it.
■
Noninteractive (or suppressed) mode
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files
A-1
How Response Files Work?
If you include responses for some or all of the prompts in the response file and
omit the -silent option, then Oracle Universal Installer runs in suppressed
mode. During a suppressed-mode installation, Oracle Universal Installer displays
only the screens for which you did not specify all required information. You can
also use variables in the response file or command-line options to suppress other
installer screens, such as the Welcome screen or Summary screen, that do not
prompt for information.
You define the settings for a silent or noninteractive installation by entering values for
the variables listed in the response file. For instance, to specify the Oracle home name,
you would supply the appropriate value for the ORACLE_HOME_NAME variable, as in
the following example:
ORACLE_HOME_NAME="OraDBHome1"
Another way of specifying the response file’s variable settings is to pass them as
command line arguments when you run Oracle Universal Installer. For example:
-silent "ORACLE_HOME_NAME=OraDBHome1" ...
In this command, directory_path is the path of the database directory on the
DVD or the path of the Disk1 directory on the hard drive.
This method is particularly useful if you do not want to embed sensitive information,
such as passwords, in the response file. For example:
-silent "s_dlgRBOPassword=binks342" ...
Ensure that you enclose the variable and its setting in quotes.
See Also: Oracle Universal Installer and OPatch User's Guide for more
information about response file formats.
Reasons for Using Silent Mode or Noninteractive Mode
The following table describes several reasons why you might want to run Oracle
Universal Installer in silent mode or suppressed mode.
Mode
Uses
Silent
Use silent mode if you want to:
■
■
■
Complete an unattended installation, which you might schedule using
operating system utilities such as at
Complete several similar installations on multiple systems without user
interaction
Install the software on a system that does not have X Window System
software installed on it
Oracle Universal Installer displays progress information in the terminal that
you used to start it, but it does not display any of Oracle Universal Installer
screens.
Suppressed
(noninteractive)
Use suppressed mode if you want to complete similar Oracle software
installations on more than one system, providing default answers to some,
but not all of Oracle Universal Installer prompts.
If you do not specify information required for a particular Installer screen in
the response file, then Oracle Universal Installer displays that screen. It
suppresses screens for which you have provided all of the required
information.
A-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Creating the oraInst.loc File
Creating a Database Using Automatic Storage Management as the Storage Option for
Database Files
Before you create a database that uses Automatic Storage Management, you must run
the root.sh script. For this reason, you cannot create a database using Automatic
Storage Management as the storage option for database files during a silent-mode
installation. Instead, you can complete a software-only installation using silent-mode,
and then run the Oracle Net Configuration Assistant and Database Configuration
Assistant configuration assistants in silent mode after you have completed the
software-only installation and you have run the root.sh script.
This limitation applies only to databases that use Automatic
Storage Management as the storage option for database files. You can
create a database that uses the file system option during a silent-mode
installation.
Note:
General Procedure for Using Response Files
The following are the general steps to install and configure Oracle products using
Oracle Universal Installer in silent or suppressed mode:
You must complete all required preinstallation tasks on a
system before running Oracle Universal Installer in silent or
suppressed mode.
Note:
1.
Create the oraInst.loc file.
2.
Prepare a response file.
3.
Run Oracle Universal Installer in silent or suppressed mode.
4.
If you completed a software-only installation, then run Net Configuration
Assistant and Database Configuration Assistant in silent or noninteractive mode if
required.
These steps are described in the following sections.
Creating the oraInst.loc File
If you plan to install Oracle products using Oracle Universal Installer in silent or
suppressed mode, then you must manually create the oraInst.loc file if it does not
already exist. This file specifies the location of the Oracle Inventory directory where
Oracle Universal Installer creates the inventory of Oracle products installed on the
system.
If Oracle software has been installed previously on the
system, the oraInst.loc file might already exist. If the file does
exist, you do not need to create a file.
Note:
To create the oraInst.loc file, follow these steps:
1.
Switch user to root:
$ su - root
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files
A-3
Preparing a Response File
2.
Create the /etc/ directory if it does not exist:
# mkdir -p /var/opt/oracle
# mkdir /etc/
3.
Change directory as follows:
# cd /etc/
4.
Use a text editor to create the oraInst.loc file, containing the following lines:
inventory_loc=$ORACLE_BASE/oraInventory
inst_group=oinstall
In this example, $ORACLE_BASE is the path of the Oracle base directory, for
example, /01/app/oracle.
5.
Enter the following commands to set the appropriate owner, group, and
permissions on the oraInst.loc file:
# chown oracle:oinstall oraInst.loc
# chmod 664 oraInst.loc
Preparing a Response File
This section describes the following methods to prepare a response file for use during
silent-mode or suppressed-mode installations:
■
Editing a Response File Template
■
Recording a Response File
Editing a Response File Template
This method is most useful for the Enterprise Edition or Standard Edition installation
types.
Oracle provides response file templates for each product and installation type, and for
each configuration tool. These files are located at database/response directory on
the installation media.
If you copied the software to a hard disk, the response files
are located in the database/response directory.
Note:
Table A–1 lists the response files provided with Oracle Database.
Table A–1
Response Files
Response File
Description
enterprise.rsp
Enterprise Edition installation of Oracle Database 11g
standard.rsp
Standard Edition installation of Oracle Database 11g
custom.rsp
Custom installation of Oracle Database 11g
dbca.rsp
Database Configuration Assistant
netca.rsp
Oracle Net Configuration Assistant
To copy and modify a response file:
A-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Preparing a Response File
1.
Copy the response file from the response file directory to a directory on your
system:
$ cp /directory_path/response/response_file.rsp local_directory
In this example, directory_path is the path to the database directory on the
installation media. If you have copied the software to a hard drive, then you can
edit the file in the response directory if you prefer.
2.
Open the response file in a text editor:
$ vi /local_dir/response_file.rsp
In addition to editing settings specific to the Oracle Database installation, check
that the FROM_LOCATION path is correct and points to the products.xml file in
the stage directory in the installation media. You may want to set this variable to
point to an absolute path, for example:
FROM_LOCATION="/directory_path/stage/products.xml"
Remember that you can specify sensitive information, such as passwords, at the
command line rather than within the response file. "How Response Files Work?"
on page A-1 explains this method.
See Also: Oracle Universal Installer and OPatch User's Guide for
detailed information on creating response files
3.
Follow the instructions in the file to edit it.
Note: Oracle Universal Installer or configuration assistant fails if
you do not correctly configure the response file. Refer to
"Silent-Mode Response File Error Handling" section on page G-7 for
more information about troubleshooting a failed silent-mode
installation.
4.
Change the permissions on the file to 700:
$ chmod 700 /local_dir/response_file.rsp
A fully specified response file for an Oracle Database
installation contains the passwords for database administrative
accounts and for a user who is a member of the OSDBA group
(required for automated backups). Ensure that only the Oracle
software owner user can view or modify response files or consider
deleting them after the installation succeeds.
Note:
Recording a Response File
You can use Oracle Universal Installer in interactive mode to record a response file,
which you can edit and then use to complete silent-mode or suppressed-mode
installations. This method is useful for custom or software-only installations.
When you record the response file, you can either complete the installation, or you can
exit from Oracle Universal Installer on the Summary page, before it starts to copy the
software to the system.
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files
A-5
Preparing a Response File
If you use record mode during a noninteractive mode installation, then Oracle
Universal Installer records the variable values that were specified in the original
source response file into the new response file.
You cannot use record mode to create a response file during an
installation that uses the Basic installation method.
Note:
To record a response file:
1.
Complete the preinstallation tasks listed in Chapter 2.
When you run Oracle Universal Installer to record a response file, it checks the
system to verify that it meets the requirements to install the software. For this
reason, Oracle recommends that you complete all of the required preinstallation
tasks and record the response file while completing an installation.
2.
If you have not installed Oracle software on this system previously, create the
oraInst.loc file, as described in the previous section.
3.
Ensure that the Oracle software owner user (typically oracle) has permissions to
create or write to the Oracle home path that you will specify when you run Oracle
Universal Installer.
4.
To record a response file, enter a command similar to the following to start Oracle
Universal Installer:
Do not specify a relative path to the response file. If you
specify a relative path, then Oracle Universal Installer fails.
Note:
$ /directory_path/runInstaller -record -destinationFile response_filename
In this command:
■
■
■
directory_path is the path of the database directory on the DVD or the
path of the Disk1 directory on the hard drive
The -record parameter specifies that you want to record the responses that
you enter in a response file
response_filename is the full path and file name of the response file that
you want to record
5.
On each Oracle Universal Installer screen, specify the required information.
6.
When Oracle Universal Installer displays the Summary screen, perform one of the
following actions:
■
■
Click Install to create the response file, then continue with the installation.
Click Cancel and then Yes to create the response file but exit from Oracle
Universal Installer without installing the software.
The response file is saved in the location that you specified using the
-destinationFile option.
7.
If you do not complete the installation, then delete the Oracle home directory that
Oracle Universal Installer created using the path you specified on the Specify File
Locations screen.
A-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Running Oracle Universal Installer Using a Response File
8.
Before using the recorded response file on another system, edit the file and make
any required changes.
Use the instructions in the file as a guide when editing it.
Running Oracle Universal Installer Using a Response File
Now, you are ready to run Oracle Universal Installer at the command line, specifying
the response file you created, to perform the installation. The Oracle Universal
Installer executable, runInstaller, provides several options. For help information
on the full set of these options, run the runInstaller command with the -help
option, for example:
$ directory_path/runInstaller -help
The help information appears in a window after some time.
To run Oracle Universal Installer using a response file:
1.
Complete the preinstallation tasks listed in Chapter 2.
2.
Log in as the Oracle software owner user (typically oracle).
3.
If you are completing a suppressed-mode installation, set the DISPLAY
environment variable.
You do not have to set the DISPLAY environment variable if
you are completing a silent-mode installation.
Note:
4.
To start Oracle Universal Installer in silent or suppressed mode, enter a command
similar to the following:
$ /directory_path/runInstaller [-silent] [-noconfig] \
-responseFile responsefilename
Do not specify a relative path to the response file. If you
specify a relative path, then Oracle Universal Installer fails.
Note:
In this example:
■
■
■
■
directory_path is the path of the database directory on the DVD or the
path of the Disk1 directory on the hard drive.
-silent indicates that you want to run Oracle Universal Installer in silent
mode.
-noconfig suppresses running the configuration assistants during
installation, and a software-only installation is performed instead.
responsefilename is the full path and file name of the installation response
file that you configured.
For more information about other options for the
runInstaller command, enter the following command:
Note:
$ /directory_path/runInstaller -help
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files
A-7
Running Net Configuration Assistant Using a Response File
5.
When the installation completes, log in as the root user and run the root.sh
script:
$ sudo sh
password:
# /oracle_home_path/root.sh
Running Net Configuration Assistant Using a Response File
You can run Net Configuration Assistant in silent mode to configure and start an
Oracle Net listener on the system, configure naming methods, and configure Oracle
Net service names. To run Net Configuration Assistant in silent mode, you must copy
and edit a response file template. Oracle provides a response file template named
netca.resp in the response directory in the database/response directory on
the DVD.
If you copied the software to a hard disk, then the response
file template is located in the database/response directory.
Note:
To run Net Configuration Assistant using a response file:
1.
Copy the netca.rsp response file template from the response file directory to a
directory on your system:
$ cp /directory_path/response/netca.rsp local_directory
In this example, directory_path is the path of the database directory on the
DVD. If you have copied the software to a hard drive, you can edit the file in the
response directory if you prefer.
2.
Open the response file in a text editor:
$ vi /local_dir/netca.rsp
3.
Follow the instructions in the file to edit it.
Net Configuration Assistant fails if you do not correctly
configure the response file.
Note:
4.
Log in as the Oracle software owner user, and set the ORACLE_HOME environment
variable to specify the correct Oracle home directory.
5.
Enter a command similar to the following to run Net Configuration Assistant in
silent mode:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/netca /silent /responsefile /local_dir/netca.rsp
In this command:
■
■
The /silent option indicates that you want to run Net Configuration
Assistant in silent mode.
local_dir is the full path of the directory where you copied the netca.rsp
response file template.
A-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Running Database Configuration Assistant Using a Response File
Running Database Configuration Assistant Using a Response File
You can run Database Configuration Assistant in noninteractive or silent mode to
configure and start an Oracle Database on the system. To run Database Configuration
Assistant in noninteractive or silent mode, you must copy and edit a response file
template. Oracle provides a response file template named dbca.rsp in the
database/response directory on the DVD.
If you copied the software to a hard disk, then the response
file template is located in the Disk1/response directory.
Note:
This section contains the following topics:
■
Using Database Configuration Assistant in Noninteractive Mode
■
Using Database Configuration Assistant in Silent Mode
■
Running Database Configuration Assistant in Noninteractive or Silent Mode
Using Database Configuration Assistant in Noninteractive Mode
Use -progressOnly flag to set the mode to noninteractive. In the noninteractive
mode, Database Configuration Assistant uses values that you specify, in the response
file or as command line options, to create a database. As it configures and starts the
database, it displays a window that contains status messages and a progress bar. The
window that it displays is the same window that is displayed when you choose to
create a preconfigured database during an Enterprise Edition or Standard Edition
installation.
To run Database Configuration Assistant in noninteractive mode, you must use a
graphical display and set the DISPLAY environment variable.
Using Database Configuration Assistant in Silent Mode
Use -silent flag to set the mode to silent. In the silent mode, Database Configuration
Assistant uses values that you specify, in the response file or as command line options,
to create a database.
Running Database Configuration Assistant in Noninteractive or Silent Mode
To run Database Configuration Assistant in noninteractive or silent mode:
As an alternative to editing the response file template, you can
also create a database by specifying all required information as
command line options when you run Database Configuration
Assistant. For information about the list of options supported, enter
the following command:
Note:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/dbca -help
1.
Copy the dbca.rsp response file template from the response file directory to a
directory on your system:
$ cp /directory_path/response/dbca.rsp local_directory
Installing and Configuring Oracle Database Using Response Files
A-9
Running Database Configuration Assistant Using a Response File
In this example, directory_path is the path of the database directory on the
DVD. If you have copied the software to a hard drive, you can edit the file in the
response directory if you prefer.
2.
Open the response file in a text editor:
$ vi /local_dir/dbca.rsp
3.
Edit the file, following the instructions in the file.
Note: Database Configuration Assistant fails if you do not
correctly configure the response file.
4.
Log in as the Oracle software owner user, and set the ORACLE_HOME environment
variable to specify the correct Oracle home directory.
5.
If you intend running Database Configuration Assistant in noninteractive mode,
set the DISPLAY environment variable.
6.
Enter a command similar to the following to run Database Configuration Assistant
in noninteractive or silent mode with a response file:
$ORACLE_HOME/bin/dbca {-progressOnly | -silent} -responseFile \
/local_dir/dbca.rsp
In this example:
■
■
■
The -silent option indicates that you want to run Database Configuration
Assistant in silent mode.
The -progressOnly option indicates that you want to run Database
Configuration Assistant in noninteractive mode.
local_dir is the full path of the directory where you copied the dbca.rsp
response file template.
A-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
B
B
Cloning an Oracle Home
Cloning an Oracle home involves creating a copy of the Oracle home and then
configuring it for a new environment. If you are performing multiple Oracle Database
installations, then you may want to use this method to create each Oracle home,
because copying files from an existing Oracle Database installation takes less time than
creating a new version of them. This method is also useful if the Oracle home that you
are cloning has had patches applied to it. When you clone this Oracle home, the new
Oracle home will have the patch updates as well.
When cloning Database Oracle homes using 11.1 Database Control, you need to
update the exclude file list. This file list specifies files that need not be included when
the source Oracle home is archived because these files are not required for the clone
operation. The following files should not be included in the archive:
■
sqlnet.ora
■
tnsnames.ora
■
listener.ora
■
oratab
In addition to cloning an Oracle home, you can clone
individual Oracle Database installations by using Enterprise Manager
Database Control. Oracle Database Administrator's Guide provides
detailed information about cloning Oracle Database installations and
Oracle homes.
Note:
To clone an Oracle home:
1.
Verify that the installation of Oracle Database that you want to clone has been
successful.
You can do this by reviewing the installActionsdate_time.log file for the
installation session, which is normally located in the /orainventory_
location/logs directory.
If you have installed patches, then you can check their status using the following:
$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/OPatch
Include $ORACLE_HOME/OPatch in $PATH
$ opatch lsinventory
2.
Stop all processes related to the Oracle home. Refer to "Removing Oracle Software"
section on page 6-8 for more information on stopping the processes for an Oracle
home.
Cloning an Oracle Home B-1
3.
Create a ZIP file with the Oracle home (but not Oracle base) directory.
For example, if the source Oracle installation is in the
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1, then you zip the db_1 directory
by using the following command:
# zip -r db_1.zip /u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1
Leave out the admin, flash_recovery_area, and oradata directories that are
in the 11.1.0 directory. These directories will be created in the target installation
later, when you create a new database there.
4.
Copy the ZIP file to the root directory of the target computer.
5.
Extract the ZIP file contents by using the following command:
# unzip -d / db_1.zip
6.
Repeat steps 4 and 5 for each computer where you want to clone the Oracle home,
unless the Oracle home is on a shared storage device.
7.
On the target computer, change directory to the unzipped Oracle home directory,
and remove all the .ora (*.ora) files present in the unzipped $ORACLE_
HOME/network/admin directory.
8.
From the $ORACLE_HOME/oui/bin directory, run Oracle Universal Installer in
clone mode for the unzipped Oracle home. Use the following syntax:
$ORACLE_HOME/oui/bin/runInstaller -silent -clone ORACLE_BASE="target_oracle_
base" ORACLE_HOME="target_oracle_home" ORACLE_HOME_NAME="unique_name_on node"
[-responseFile full_directory_path]
For example:
$ORACLE_HOME/oui/bin/runInstaller -silent -clone ORACLE_BASE=
"/u01/app/oracle/" ORACLE_HOME="/u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1" ORACLE_
HOME_NAME="db_1"
The -responseFile parameter is optional. You can supply clone-time
parameters on the command line or by using the response file named on the
command line.
Oracle Universal Installer starts, and then records the cloning actions in the
cloneActionstimestamp.log file. This log file is normally located in
/orainventory_location/logs directory.
9.
To configure connection information for the new database, run Net Configuration
Assistant.
$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/bin
$ ./netca
10. To create a new database for the newly cloned Oracle home, run Database
Configuration Assistant as follows:
$ cd $ORACLE_HOME/bin
$ ./dbca
B-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
See Also:
■
■
Oracle Universal Installer and OPatch User's Guide for detailed
information about using Oracle Universal Installer to clone an
Oracle Database home
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information about
cloning an Oracle databases, and cloning an Oracle Database
home
Use the following steps to configure Oracle Configuration Manager for a cloned Oracle
home:
1.
Run the emSnapshotEnv script from bin directory as follows:
$ORACLE_HOME/ccr/bin/emSnapshotEnv
2.
Copy the content of the core.jar into pending directory as follows:
cp ccr/inventory/core.jar $ORACLE_HOME/ccr/inventory/pending
3.
Use the following command to remove the previous state files:
rm ORACLE_HOME/ccr/state/*.ll
4.
If you have removed the state files, then you must relink the core functions with
the following command:
$ORACLE_HOME/ccr/bin/deployPackages
5.
Use the following command to rerun Oracle Configuration Manager:
$ORACLE_HOME/ccr/bin/configCCR
Cloning an Oracle Home B-3
B-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
C
C
Using NAS Devices
This appendix provides guidelines for using a NAS storage device for Oracle software
and database files. It includes information about the following:
■
General Configuration Guidelines for NAS Devices
■
NFS Feature Description
■
Choosing Mount Points
■
Creating Files on a NAS Device for Use with Automatic Storage Management
■
NFS Mount Options
General Configuration Guidelines for NAS Devices
Refer to the documentation provided with the NAS device for specific information
about how to configure it. In addition, use the following guidelines to ensure that the
performance of the Oracle software meets the requirements:
■
■
Before using the NAS device for the installation, verify that it is certified.
The performance of Oracle software and databases stored on NAS devices
depends on the performance of the network connection between the Oracle server
and the NAS device.
For this reason, Oracle recommends that you connect the server to the NAS device
using a private dedicated network connection, which should be Gigabit Ethernet
or better.
■
For single instance installations, Oracle recommends that you create a separate
Oracle home directory for each installation. Run the software in this Oracle home
directory only from the system that you used to install it.
NFS Feature Description
The following are the features of NFS:
■
Oracle Kernel handles best possible configuration to perform optimal I/O using
available resources. This enables better configuration management.
■
NFS storage is now available across different platforms like Windows.
■
ODM NFS helps standardize all the tunable configuration parameters.
■
■
ODM NFS has a stable NFS client that does not affect kernel performance. It
optimizes the I/O path when making NFS operations.This ensures higher stability.
Better diagnostics in case of errors.
Using NAS Devices C-1
Choosing Mount Points
Choosing Mount Points
This section provides guidelines on how to choose the mount points for the file
systems that you want to use for the Oracle software and database files. The guidelines
contained in the following sections comply with the Optimal Flexible Architecture
recommendations:
■
Choosing Mount Points for Oracle Software Files
■
Choosing Mount Points for Oracle Database and Recovery Files
Choosing Mount Points for Oracle Software Files
Oracle software files are stored in three different directories:
■
Oracle base directory
■
Oracle Inventory directory
■
Oracle home directory
For the first installation of Oracle software on a system, the Oracle base directory,
identified by the ORACLE_BASE environment variable, is normally the parent
directory for both the Oracle Inventory and Oracle home directories. For example, for
a first installation, the Oracle base, Oracle Inventory, and Oracle home directories
might have paths similar to the following:
Directory
Path
Oracle base ($ORACLE_BASE)
/u01/app/oracle
Oracle Inventory
$ORACLE_BASE/oraInventory
Oracle home
$ORACLE_BASE/product/11.1.0/db_1
For subsequent installations, you can choose to use either the same Oracle base
directory or a different one, but every subsequent installation uses the original Oracle
Inventory directory. For example, if you use the /u02/app/oracle directory as the
Oracle base directory for a new installation, then the Oracle Inventory directory
continues to be /u01/app/oracle/oraInventory.
To enable you to effectively maintain the Oracle software on a particular system,
Oracle recommends that you locate the Oracle Inventory directory only on a local file
system, if possible. If you must place the Oracle Inventory directory on a NAS device,
create a specific directory for each system, then to prevent more than one system from
writing to the same Inventory.
Directory-Specific Guidelines
You can use any of the following directories as mount points for NFS file systems used
to store Oracle software:
In the following examples, the paths shown are the defaults
if the ORACLE_BASE environment variable is set before you start
Oracle Universal Installer.
Note:
■
Oracle base directory or its parents (/u01/app/oracle for example)
If you use the Oracle base directory of one of its parents as a mount point, then the
default location for all Oracle software and database files will be on that file
C-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Choosing Mount Points
system. During the installation, you might consider changing the default location
of the following directories:
–
The Oracle Inventory directory (oracle_base/oraInventory)
Specify a local file system or a host-specific directory on the NFS file system,
for example:
oracle_base/hostname/oraInventory
–
The Oracle database file directory (oracle_base/oradata)
You might want to use a different file system for database files, for example, to
enable you to specify different mount options or to distribute I/O.
–
The Oracle database recovery file directory (oracle_base/flash_
recovery_area)
Oracle recommends that you use different file systems for database and
recovery files.
If you use this mount point, then all Oracle installations that use this Oracle base
directory will use the NFS file system.
■
The product directory (oracle_base/product)
By default, only software files will be located on the NFS file system. You can also
use this mount point to install software from different releases, for example:
/u01/app/oracle/product/9.2.0
/u01/app/oracle/product/10.2.0/db_1
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1
■
The release directory (oracle_base/product/11.1.0)
By default, only software files will be located on the NFS file system. You can also
use this mount point to install different products from the same release, for
example:
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/client_1
■
The Oracle home directory (oracle_base/product/11.1.0/db_1)
By default, only software files will be located on the NFS file system. This is the
most restrictive mount point. You can use it only to install a single release of one
product:
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1
Choosing Mount Points for Oracle Database and Recovery Files
To store Oracle database or recovery files on a NAS device, you can use different paths
depending on whether you want to store files from only one database or from more
than one database:
■
Use the NFS file system for files from more than one database
If you want to store the database files or recovery files from more than one
database on the same NFS file systems, then use paths or mount points similar to
the following:
Using NAS Devices C-3
Creating Files on a NAS Device for Use with Automatic Storage Management
File Type
Path or Mount Point
Database files
/u02/oradata
Recovery files
/u03/flash_recovery_area
When Oracle Universal Installer prompts you for the data file and the recovery file
directories, specify these paths. The Database Configuration Assistant and
Enterprise Manager create subdirectories in these directories using the value you
specify for the database name (DB_NAME) as the directory name, for example:
/u02/oradata/db_name1
/u03/flash_recovery_area/db_name1
■
Use the NFS file system for files from only one database
If you want to store the database files or recovery files for only one database in the
NFS file system, then you can create mount points similar to the following, where
orcl is the name that you want to use for the database:
/u02/oradata/orcl
/u03/flash_recovery_area/orcl
Specify the directory /u02/oradata when Oracle Universal Installer prompts
you for the data file directory and specify the directory /u03/flash_recovery_
area when Oracle Universal Installer prompts you for the recovery file location.
The orcl directory will be used automatically either by Database Configuration
Assistant or by Enterprise Manager.
Creating Files on a NAS Device for Use with Automatic Storage
Management
If you have a certified NAS storage device, then you can create zero-padded files in an
NFS mounted directory and use those files as disk devices in an Automatic Storage
Management disk group. To create these files, follow these steps:
To use files as disk devices in an Automatic Storage
Management disk group, the files must be on an NFS mounted file
system. You cannot use files on local file systems.
Note:
1.
If necessary, create an exported directory for the disk group files on the NAS
device.
Refer to the NAS device documentation for more information about completing
this step.
2.
Switch user to root:
$ sudo sh
password:
3.
Create a mount point directory on the local system:
# mkdir -p /mnt/oracleasm
4.
To ensure that the NFS file system is mounted when the system reboots, add an
entry for the file system in the /etc/fstab mount file.
C-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
NFS Mount Options
For more information about editing the mount file for the operating system, refer
to the man pages. For more information about recommended mount options, refer
to the "NFS Mount Options" section on page C-5.
5.
Enter a command similar to the following to mount the NFS file system on the
local system:
# mount /mnt/oracleasm
6.
Choose a name for the disk group that you want to create, for example, nfsdg.
7.
Create a directory for the files on the NFS file system, using the disk group name
as the directory name:
# mkdir /mnt/oracleasm/nfsdg
8.
Use commands similar to the following to create the required number of
zero-padded files in this directory:
# dd if=/dev/zero of=/mnt/oracleasm/nfsdg/disk1 bs=1024k count=1000
This example creates 1 GB files on the NFS file system. You must create one, two,
or three files respectively to create an external, normal, or high redundancy disk
group.
Creating multiple zero-padded files on the same NAS box
does not guard against NAS box failure. Instead, create one file for
each NAS box and mirror across them using the Automatic Storage
Management technology.
Note:
9.
Enter the following commands to change the owner, group, and permissions on
the directory and files that you created:
# chown -R oracle:dba /mnt/oracleasm
# chmod -R 660 /mnt/oracleasm
10. When you are creating the database, edit the Automatic Storage Management disk
discovery string to specify a regular expression that matches the file names you
created. For example, you might specify a disk discovery string similar to the
following:
/mnt/oracleasm/nfsdg/*
NFS Mount Options
You must mount NFS volumes used for storing database files with special mount
options on the host where the database server is running. When mounting an NFS file
system, Oracle recommends that you use the same mount point options that the NAS
vendor used when certifying the device. Refer to the device documentation or contact
the vendor for information about recommended mount-point options.
Option
Requirement
Description
hard
Mandatory
Generate a hard mount of the NFS file system. If the
connection to the server fails or is temporarily lost, then
connection attempts are made until the NAS device
responds.
bg
Optional
Try to connect in the background if connection fails.
Using NAS Devices C-5
NFS Mount Options
Option
Requirement
Description
tcp
Optional
Use the TCP protocol rather than UDP. TCP is more
reliable than UDP.
nfsvers=3
Optional
Use NFS version 3. Oracle recommends that you use NFS
version 3 where available, unless the performance of
version 2 is later.
suid
Optional
Allow clients to run executables with SUID enabled. This
option is required for Oracle software mount points.
rsize
Mandatory
The number of bytes used when reading from the NAS
device. This value should be set to the maximum database
block size supported by this platform. A value of 8192 is
often recommended for NFS version 2 and 32768 is often
recommended for NFS version 3.
wsize
Mandatory
The number of bytes used when writing to the NAS
device. This value should be set to the maximum database
block size supported by this platform. A value of 8192 is
often recommended for NFS version 2 and 32768 is often
recommended for NFS version 3.
nointr (or intr) Optional
Do not allow (or allow) keyboard interrupts to stop a
process that is hung while waiting for a response on a
hard-mounted file system.
Note: Different vendors have different recommendations
about this option. Contact the vendor for advice.
actimeo=0 or
noac
Mandatory
directio
Optional
Disable attribute caching.
Note: You must specify this option for NFS file systems
where you want to install the software. If you do not use
this option, then Oracle Universal Installer will not install
the software in the directory that you specify.
Disable attribute caching.
Note: If the systems supports directio, use this option
instead of noac to reliably disable caching.
C-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
D
D
Optimal Flexible Architecture
This appendix describes the Optimal Flexible Architecture standard. The standard is a
set of configuration guidelines created to ensure well organized Oracle installations
that are easier to maintain. It includes information about the following topics:
■
Overview of the Optimal Flexible Architecture Standard
■
Implementing Optimal Flexible Architecture
Overview of the Optimal Flexible Architecture Standard
All Oracle components on the installation media are compliant with Optimal Flexible
Architecture, which means that Oracle Universal Installer places Oracle Database
components in directory locations that follow Optimal Flexible Architecture
guidelines.
Although using Optimal Flexible Architecture is not a requirement, Oracle
recommends that you use it if the database will grow in size, or if you plan to have
multiple databases.
Implementing Optimal Flexible Architecture
This section describes the naming strategy recommended by the Optimal Flexible
Architecture standard. It contains the following sections:
■
File Systems
■
Naming Directories
■
Naming Database Files
■
Separating Segments with Different Requirements
■
Exploiting the Optimal Flexible Architecture Structure for Oracle Files
■
Optimal Flexible Architecture File Mapping
File Systems
The following sections describe the conventions for mount points:
■
Number of File Systems
■
Naming Conventions
Optimal Flexible Architecture
D-1
Implementing Optimal Flexible Architecture
Number of File Systems
To fully implement the Optimal Flexible Architecture recommendations for a database
stored on file systems that are not striped or mirrored, you require at least three file
systems located on separate physical devices.
Naming Conventions
Name all file system mount points using the syntax /pm, where p is a string constant
and m is a unique fixed-length key (typically a two-digit number) used to distinguish
each mount point. For example: /u01 and /u02, or /disk01 and /disk02.
Naming Directories
The following sections describe the naming conventions for directories that are
compliant with the Optimal Flexible Architecture standard:
■
Oracle Base Directory Naming Convention
■
Naming Mount Points for Very Large Databases (VLDBs)
■
Referring to Path Names
■
Oracle Home Directory Naming Convention
■
Naming Subdirectories
Oracle Base Directory Naming Convention
The Oracle Base directory is the top level directory that you can use to install the
various oracle software products. You can use the same Oracle base directory for more
than one installation. If different operating system users install Oracle software on the
same system, then each user must create a separate Oracle base directory.
Name Oracle base directories using the syntax /pm/s/u. Table D–1 describes the
variables used in this syntax.
Table D–1
Syntax for Naming Oracle Base Directories
Variable
Description
pm
A mount point name
s
A standard directory name
u
The name of the owner of the directory (the user running Oracle Universal
Installer)
For example, /u01/app/oracle is an Oracle base directory created by the oracle
user and /u01/app/applmgr is an Oracle base directory created by the applmgr
user.
Placing Oracle base directories at the same level in the UNIX file system is
advantageous because it enables you to refer to the collection of Oracle base directories
on different mount points using a single pattern matching string, /*/app/*.
Naming Mount Points for Very Large Databases (VLDBs)
If each disk drive contains database files from one application and there are enough
drives for each database to prevent I/O bottlenecks, use the syntax /pm/q/d for
naming mount points. Table D–2 describes the variables used in this syntax.
D-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Implementing Optimal Flexible Architecture
Table D–2
Syntax for Naming Mount Points for Very Large Databases
Variable
Description
h
Oracle base directory
q
A string denoting that Oracle data is stored in this directory, for example,
oradata
d
The value of the initialization parameter DB_NAME (typically the same as the
instance SID for single-instance databases)
For example, to allocate two drives exclusively for the test database, name the mount
points /u01/app/oracle/oradata/test and
/u02/app/oracle/oradata/test.
Referring to Path Names
Refer to explicit path names only in files designed specifically to store them, such as
the password file, /etc/passwd, and the Oracle oratab file. Refer to group
memberships only in the /etc/group file.
Oracle Home Directory Naming Convention
To help fulfill the Optimal Flexible Architecture requirement of simultaneously
running multiple versions of Oracle software, install the software in a directory
matching the pattern /pm/h/u/product/v/type_[n].
Table D–3 describes the variables used in this syntax.
Table D–3
Syntax for Naming Oracle Home Directories
Variable
Description
pm
A mount point name
s
A standard directory name
u
The name of the owner of the directory
v
The version of the software
type
The type of installation, for example Database (db), Client (client), or Oracle
Clusterware (crs)
n
An optional counter, which enables you to install the same product more than
once in the same Oracle base directory
For example:
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1 indicates the Oracle home directory
for the first installation of Oracle Database on this system.
Set the ORACLE_HOME environment variable after installation to specify the Oracle
home directory.
Naming Subdirectories
To facilitate the organization of administrative data, Oracle recommends that you store
database-specific administration files in subdirectories matching the pattern
/h/admin/d/a/, where h is the Oracle base directory, d is the database name (DB_
NAME), and a is a subdirectory for specific types of database administration files.
Table D–4 describes the database administration file subdirectories.
Optimal Flexible Architecture
D-3
Implementing Optimal Flexible Architecture
Table D–4
Subdirectories for Database Administration Files
Subdirectory
Description
adhoc
Ad hoc SQL scripts
arch
Archived redo log files
adump
Audit files
(Set the AUDIT_FILE_DEST initialization parameter to specify the adump
directory. Clean out this subdirectory periodically.)
create
Scripts used to create the database
exp
Database export files
logbook
Files recording the status and history of the database
pfile
Instance parameter files
For example, /u01/app/oracle/admin/orcl/adhoc/ is the adhoc subdirectory
associated with the database named orcl.
In Oracle Database 11g, Automatic Diagnostic Repository (ADR) directories replace
the bdump, cdump, and udump directories. The ADR diagnostic data will go into the
/h/diag/rdbms/d/i/ directory.
where
h is Oracle Base
d is the database name
i is the instance name.
From there we have the trace, alert, and incident sub-directories.
Table D–5
Locations for Diagnostic Traces
Diagnostic Data
10g Location
11g Location
Foreground Process traces
user_dump_dest
ADR_HOME/trace/
Background Process traces
background_dump_dest
ADR_HOME/trace/
Alert Log Data
background_dump_dest
ADR_HOME/alert/
Core Dump
core_dump_dest
ADR_
HOME/incident/In/
Incident Dumps
user_dump_dest or
background_dump_dest
depending on the process.
ADR_
HOME/incident/In/
Naming Database Files
The following table lists the recommended file naming conventions for database files:
Oracle Managed Files (OMF) and files stored in Automatic
Storage Management disk groups use different naming
conventions. For more information about these naming
conventions, refer to the Oracle Database Administrator's Guide.
Note:
File Type
File Naming Convention
Control files
/h/q/d/control.ctl
D-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Implementing Optimal Flexible Architecture
File Type
File Naming Convention
Redo log files
/h/q/d/redon.log
Data files
/h/q/d/tn.dbf
The following table describes this syntax:
Variable
Description
h
Oracle base directory
q
A string (typically oradata) distinguishing Oracle data from all other files
d
The value of the DB_NAME initialization parameter (typically, the same as the
instance SID for single-instance databases)
t
An Oracle tablespace name
n
A two-digit string
Note: Do not store files other than control files, redo log files, or
data files associated with database d in the path /h/q/d.
Using this convention, it is easy to determine the database to which the
/u01/app/oracle/oradata/sab/system01.dbf file belongs.
Separating Segments with Different Requirements
Separate groups of segments with different lifespans, I/O request demands, and
backup frequencies across different tablespaces.
Table D–6 describes the special tablespaces that the Database Configuration Assistant
creates for each Oracle database. If you manually create a database, you must create
the required tablespaces. These tablespaces are in addition to those required for
application segments.
See Also: Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for information
about creating databases manually
Table D–6
Special Tablespaces
Tablespace
Required
Description
EXAMPLE
No
The EXAMPLE tablespace used to store the Sample
Schemas
SYSAUX
Yes
Auxiliary tablespace to the SYSTEM tablespace
SYSTEM
Yes
Data dictionary segments
TEMP
Yes
Temporary segments
UNDOTBS1
Yes
Used by Oracle to store undo information
USERS
No
Miscellaneous user segments
Creating these special tablespaces is effective because data dictionary segments are
never dropped, and no other segments that can be dropped are allowed in the
SYSTEM tablespace.
Optimal Flexible Architecture
D-5
Implementing Optimal Flexible Architecture
Exploiting the Optimal Flexible Architecture Structure for Oracle Files
Table D–7 describes the syntax used for identifying classes of files.
Table D–7
Directory Structure Syntax for Identifying Classes of Files
Directory Structure Syntax
Description
/u[0-9][0-9]
User data directories
/*/home/*
User home directories
/*/app/*
User application software directories
/*/app/applmgr
Oracle applications software subtrees
/*/app/oracle/product
Oracle software subtrees
/*/app/oracle/product/11.1.0
Oracle software subtree for release 11g products
/*/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db* Oracle home directories for Oracle Database 11g
/*/app/crs/product/11.1.0/crs
Oracle home directory for Oracle Clusterware 11g
/*/app/oracle/admin/orcl
orcl database administrative subtrees
/*/app/oracle/admin/orcl/arch/*
orcl database archived log files
/*/app/oracle/oradata
Oracle data directories
/*/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/*
orcl database files
/*/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/*.log orcl database redo log files
Optimal Flexible Architecture File Mapping
Table D–8 shows a hierarchical file mapping of a sample Optimal Flexible
Architecture-compliant installation with two Oracle home directories and two
databases. The database files are distributed across three mount points, /u02, /u03,
and /u04.
Oracle recommends that you use ASM to provide greater
redundancy and throughput.
Note:
Table D–8
Hierarchical File Mapping for an Optimal Flexible Architecture Installation
Directory
Description
/
Root directory
/u01/
User data mount point 1
/u01/app/
Subtree for application software
/u01/app/oracle/
Oracle Base directory
/u01/app/oracle/admin/
Subtree for database administration files
/u01/app/oracle/admin/TAR
Subtree for support log files
/u01/app/oracle/admin/db_name1/
admin subtree for db_name1 database
/u01/app/oracle/admin/db_name2/
admin subtree for db_name2 database
/u01/app/oracle/doc/
Online documentation
/u01/app/oracle/flash_recovery_area/
Subtree for recovery files
/u01/app/oracle/flash_recovery_area/db_
name1
Recovery files for db_name1 database
D-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Implementing Optimal Flexible Architecture
Table D–8 (Cont.) Hierarchical File Mapping for an Optimal Flexible Architecture Installation
Directory
Description
/u01/app/oracle/flash_recovery_area/db_
name2
Recovery files for db_name2 database
/u02/app/oracle/oradata
Oracle data directory
/u03/app/oracle/oradata
/u04/app/oracle/oradata
/u01/app/oracle/product/
Distribution files
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_1
Oracle home directory for Oracle Database 11g
/u01/app/11.1.0/crs
Oracle home directory for Oracle Clusterware11g
/u01/app/kjf/
Oracle base directory for user kjf
/u01/app/edm/
Oracle base directory for user edm
Optimal Flexible Architecture
D-7
Implementing Optimal Flexible Architecture
D-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
E
E
Managing Oracle Database Port Numbers
During installation, Oracle Universal Installer assigns port numbers to components
from a set of default port numbers. This appendix lists the default port numbers and
describes how to change the assigned port after installation. It includes information
about the following topics:
■
About Managing Ports
■
Viewing Port Numbers and Access URLs
■
Port Numbers and Protocols of Oracle Components
■
Changing the Oracle Enterprise Management Agent Port
■
Changing the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Console Ports
■
Changing the Oracle Ultra Search Ports
■
Changing the Oracle XML DB Ports
About Managing Ports
During installation, Oracle Universal Installer assigns port numbers to components
from a set of default port numbers. Many Oracle Database components and services
use ports. As an administrator, it is important to know the port numbers used by these
services, and to make sure that the same port number is not used by two services on
your host.
Most port numbers are assigned during installation. Every component and service has
an allotted port range, which is the set of port numbers Oracle Database attempts to
use when assigning a port. Oracle Database starts with the lowest number in the range
and performs the following checks:
■
Is the port used by another Oracle Database installation on the host?
The installation may be up or down at the time; Oracle Database can still detect if
the port is used.
■
Is the port used by a process that is currently running?
This could be any process on the host, even a non-Oracle Database process.
■
Is the port listed in the /etc/services files?
If the answer to any of the preceding questions is yes, Oracle Database moves to the
next highest port in the allotted port range and continues checking until it finds a free
port.
Managing Oracle Database Port Numbers E-1
Viewing Port Numbers and Access URLs
Viewing Port Numbers and Access URLs
In most cases, the Oracle Database component’s port number is listed in the tool used
to configure the port. In addition, ports for some Oracle Database applications are
listed in the portlist.ini file. This file is located in the $ORACLE_HOME/install
directory.
If you change a port number, it is not updated in the portlist.ini file, so you can
only rely on this file immediately after installation. To find or change a port number,
use the methods described in this appendix.
Port Numbers and Protocols of Oracle Components
The following table lists the port numbers and protocols used by components that are
configured during the installation. By default, the first port in the range is assigned to
the component, if it is available.
Table E–1
Ports Used in Oracle Components
Component and Description
Default Port Number
Port Range
Protocol
Oracle SQL*Net Listener
1521
1521
TCP
1521 (same value as the
listener)
1521
TCP
1630
1630
TCP
3938
1830–1849
HTTP
1158
5500–5519
TCP/HTTP
5520
5520–5539
TCP
Allows Oracle client connections to the database over
Oracle's SQL*Net protocol. You can configure it during
installation. To reconfigure this port, use Net
Configuration Assistant.
Data Guard
Shares the SQL*Net port and is configured during
installation. To reconfigure this port, use Net
Configuration Assistant to reconfigure the Oracle
SQL*Net listener.
Connection Manager
Listening port for Oracle client connections to Oracle
Connection Manager. It is not configured during
installation, but can be configured using Net
Configuration Assistant.
Oracle Management Agent
HTTP port for Enterprise Management Agent. It is
configured during installation.
"Changing the Oracle Enterprise Management Agent
Port" on page E-4 explains how to modify its port
number.
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Console
HTTP port for Enterprise Manager Database Control. It is
configured during installation. "Changing the Oracle
Enterprise Manager Database Console Ports" on page E-4
explains how to modify its port number.
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Console
RMI port for Enterprise Manager Database Control. It is
configured during installation."Changing the Oracle
Enterprise Manager Database Console Ports" on page E-4
explains how to modify its port number.
E-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Port Numbers and Protocols of Oracle Components
Table E–1
(Cont.) Ports Used in Oracle Components
Component and Description
Default Port Number
Port Range
Protocol
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Console
5540
5540–5559
TCP
5620
5620–5639
TCP/HTTP
5640
5640–5659
TCP
5660
5660–5679
TCP
Dynamic
Dynamic
HTTP
Dynamic
Dynamic
FTP
Dynamic
Dynamic
UDP
49896
49896
TCP
49895
49895
TCP
JMS port for Enterprise Manager Database Control. It is
configured during installation. "Changing the Oracle
Enterprise Manager Database Console Ports" on page E-4
explains how to modify its port number.
Oracle Ultra Search
HTTP port for Oracle Ultra Search. Its port number is
assigned automatically when you install Oracle Ultra
Search, by using the Custom installation type. "Changing
the Oracle Ultra Search Ports" on page E-5 explains how
to change its port number.
Oracle Ultra Search
RMI port for Oracle Ultra Search. Its port number is
assigned automatically when you install Oracle Ultra
Search, by using the Custom installation type. "Changing
the Oracle Ultra Search Ports" on page E-5 explains how
to change its port number.
Oracle Ultra Search
JMS port for Oracle Ultra Search. Its port number is
assigned automatically when you install Oracle Ultra
Search, by using the Custom installation type. "Changing
the Oracle Ultra Search Ports" on page E-5 explains how
to change its port number.
Oracle XML DB
The Oracle XML DB HTTP port is used if Web-based
applications need to access an Oracle database from an
HTTP listener. It is configured during installation, but
you cannot view it afterward. "Changing the Oracle XML
DB Ports" on page E-5 explains how to change its port
number.
Oracle XML DB
The Oracle XML DB FTP is used when applications need
to access an Oracle database from an FTP listener. It is
configured during installation, but you cannot view it
afterward. "Changing the Oracle XML DB Ports" on
page E-5 explains how to change its port number.
Oracle RAC (UNIX)
The port number is assigned automatically during
installation. You cannot view or modify it afterward.
Oracle Clusterware
Oracle Clusterware Daemon internode connection. The
port number is assigned automatically during
installation. You cannot view or modify it afterward.
Cluster Synchronization Service (CSS)
CSS daemon internode connection for the GM layer. The
port number is assigned automatically during
installation. You cannot view or modify it afterward.
Managing Oracle Database Port Numbers E-3
Changing the Oracle Enterprise Management Agent Port
Table E–1
(Cont.) Ports Used in Oracle Components
Component and Description
Default Port Number
Port Range
Protocol
Oracle Cluster Registry
Dynamic
Dynamic
TCP
49897
49897–49898
TCP
Dynamic
Dynamic
TCP
The port number is assigned automatically during
installation. You cannot view or modify it afterward.
Oracle Event Manager
The port number is assigned automatically during
installation. You cannot view or modify it afterward.
Cluster Manager
The port number is assigned automatically during
installation. You cannot view or modify it afterward.
Changing the Oracle Enterprise Management Agent Port
To find the current setting for the Oracle Management agent port, search for EMD_URL
in the $ORACLE_HOME/host_sid/sysman/config/emd.properties file.
To change the Oracle Management Agent HTTP port, use the emca -reconfig ports
command:
emca -reconfig ports -AGENT_PORT 1831
Changing the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Console Ports
To find the current HTTP, RMI, and JMS port settings, search in the following files:
■
■
■
HTTP port: Search for REPOSITORY_URL in the $ORACLE_HOME/host_
sid/sysman/config/emd.properties file.
RMI port: Search for the port attribute in the rmi-server tag in the $ORACLE_
HOME/oc4j/j2ee/OC4J_DBConsole_host_sid/config/rmi.xml file.
JMS port: Search for the port attribute in the jms-server tag in the $ORACLE_
HOME/oc4j/j2ee/OC4J_DBConsole_host_sid/config/jms.xml file.
To change the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control ports, use the emca
-reconfig ports command:
$ORACLE_HOME/bin> emca -reconfig ports option setting
where option can be:
■
DBCONTROL_HTTP_PORT: Sets the HTTP port, for example:
emca -reconfig ports -DBCONTROL_HTTP_PORT 1820
■
RMI_PORT: Sets the RMI port, for example:
emca -reconfig ports -RMI_PORT 5520
■
JMS_PORT: Sets the JMS port, for example:
emca -reconfig ports -JMS_PORT 5521
You can enter multiple -reconfig port settings in one line, for example:
emca -reconfig ports -DBCONTROL_HTTP_PORT 1820 -AGENT_PORT 1821 -RMI_PORT 5520
E-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Changing the Oracle XML DB Ports
Changing the Oracle Ultra Search Ports
The following sections describe how to change the Oracle Ultra Search ports.
Changing the HTTP Port
To change the HTTP port, modify the port attribute of the web-site element in the
$ORACLE_HOME/oc4j/j2ee/OC4J_SEARCH/config/http-web-site.xml file:
<web-site port="5620"...>
Changing the RMI Port
To change the RMI port, modify the port attribute of the rmi-server element in the
$ORACLE_HOME/oc4j/j2ee/OC4J_SEARCH/config/rmi.xml file:
<rmi-server port="5640"...>
Changing the JMS Port
To change the JMS port, modify the port attribute of the jms-server element in the
$ORACLE_HOME/oc4j/j2ee/OC4J_SEARCH/config/jms.xml file:
<jms-server port="5660"...>
Changing the Oracle XML DB Ports
To change the Oracle XML DB FTP and HTTP ports, you need to run the
catxdbdbca.sql script, which in a default installation is located in $ORACLE_
HOME/rdbms/admin.
To change the Oracle XML DB ports:
1.
Check that the Oracle listener is running. To do so, in the Services control panel,
make sure that the Oracle TNS Listener service (for example, OracleOraDb11g_
home1TNSListener) is set to Started.
If you cannot start the listener, refer to Oracle Database Net Services Administrator's
Guide.
2.
Log into SQL*Plus as SYS or XDB using the SYSDBA privilege.
For example, to log in to SQL*Plus as SYS using the password welcome:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus
SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
Enter password: SYS_password
3.
Run the catxdbdbca.sql script.
For example, to use 2200 for the FTP port and 8200 for the HTTP port, and
assuming the Oracle home is in the following location, enter the following
command:
SQL> $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/admin/catxdbdbca.sql 2200 8200
4.
Exit SQL*Plus.
Managing Oracle Database Port Numbers E-5
Changing the Oracle XML DB Ports
E-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
F
F
Configuring Oracle Database Globalization
Support
This appendix describes the following Globalization Support topics:
■
Installing and Using Oracle Components in Different Languages
■
Running Oracle Universal Installer in Different Languages
Installing and Using Oracle Components in Different Languages
This section describes the following procedures:
■
Configuring Oracle Components to Run in Different Languages
■
Installing Translation Resources
Configuring Oracle Components to Run in Different Languages
You can specify the language and the territory, or locale, in which you want to use
Oracle components. The locale setting of a component determines the language of the
user interface of the component and the globalization behavior, such as date and
number formatting. Depending on the Oracle component, the locale of the component
is either inherited from the operating system session that started the component, or is
defined by the NLS_LANG environment variable.
The operating system locale usually influences Oracle components that are based on
Java technology. The NLS_LANG environment variable usually influences Oracle
components that use Oracle Client libraries such as OCI.
The user interface of an Oracle component will be displayed in
a selected language only if the appropriate translation is available and
has been installed. Otherwise, the user interface will be displayed in
English.
Note:
This section describes the following procedures:
■
■
Determining the Operating System Locale by Using the LANG Environment
Variable
Configuring Locale and Character Sets by Using the NLS_LANG Environment
Variable
Configuring Oracle Database Globalization Support F-1
Installing and Using Oracle Components in Different Languages
Determining the Operating System Locale by Using the LANG Environment Variable
The locale setting of your operating system session determines the language of the
user interface and the globalization behavior for components such as Oracle Universal
Installer, Oracle Net Configuration Assistant, and Oracle Database Configuration
Assistant. It also determines the globalization behavior of Oracle Database sessions
created by a user application through Oracle JDBC driver, unless overridden by the
application.
The operating system locale on Linux is determined by the value of the LANG
environment variable. Depending on your desktop environment, such as KDE,
GNOME, or telnet, you can select a default session locale on a login screen, in a
configuration panel, or in a configuration file.
Refer to the operating system documentation on how to select
a locale for the operating system session in your desktop environment.
Note:
You can modify the LANG variable in the environment of your shell to start an Oracle
component in a selected language. For example, to start Oracle Database
Configuration Assistant in German, enter one of the following commands:
■
Bourne shell (sh), or Korn shell (ksh), or Bash shell (bash):
$ LANG=de_DE.iso88591 dbca
■
C shell (csh):
% (setenv LANG de_DE.iso88591; dbca)
Note: The LC_ALL environment variable overrides the value of the
LANG environment variable. For the commands listed in the
following section to work, either ensure that the LC_ALL environment
variable is not set in the environment, or substitute LC_ALL for LANG.
To modify the operating system locale for all Oracle components started from now on
by the given shell, modify the LANG variable using one of the following commands:
■
Bourne shell (sh), or Korn shell (ksh), or Bash shell (bash):
$ LANG=de_DE.iso88591; export LANG
$ ...
■
C shell (csh):
% setenv LANG de_DE.iso88591
$ ...
The value of the LANG environment variable must be a valid operating system locale.
To see the list of valid locales, enter the following command:
$ locale -a
Refer to the operating system documentation for a mapping
between values of the LANG environment variable and the languages
and territories that they represent.
Note:
F-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing and Using Oracle Components in Different Languages
Configuring Locale and Character Sets by Using the NLS_LANG Environment
Variable
The NLS_LANG environment variable determines the language of the user interface
and the globalization behavior for components such as SQL*Plus, exp, and imp. It sets
the language and territory used by the client application and the database. It also
declares the character set for entering and displaying data by the client application.
The NLS_LANG environment variable uses the following format:
NLS_LANG=language_territory.characterset
In this format:
■
■
■
language specifies the language used for displaying Oracle messages, sorting,
day names, and month names
territory specifies the conventions for default date, monetary and numeric
formats
characterset specifies the encoding used by the client application
In most cases, this is the Oracle character set that corresponds to the character set
of the user terminal or the operating system.
The NLS_LANG environment variable is set as a local environment variable for the
shell on all UNIX-based platforms. For example, if the operating system locale setting
is en_US.UTF-8, then the corresponding value of NLS_LANG environment variable is
AMERICAN_AMERICA.AL32UTF8.
See Also: Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide for information
about the NLS_LANG parameter and Globalization Support
initialization parameters
The following examples illustrate some of the valid values for the NLS_LANG
environment variable.
Refer to the operating system documentation on how to
determine the operating system locale environment setting.
Note:
Operating System Locale
NLS_LANG Values
French (France)
FRENCH_FRANCE.WE8ISO8859P15
FRENCH_FRANCE.WE8ISO8859P1
FRENCH_FRANCE.WE8MSWIN1252
FRENCH_FRANCE.AL32UTF8
Japanese (Japan)
JAPANESE_JAPAN.JA16EUC
JAPANESE_JAPAN.JA16SJIS
JAPANESE_JAPAN.AL32UTF8
Installing Translation Resources
To view the user interface of Oracle components in different languages, you must
install the appropriate language translations along with the component.
Configuring Oracle Database Globalization Support F-3
Running Oracle Universal Installer in Different Languages
Note: Part of Oracle Database Vault user interface text is stored in
database tables in the DVSYS schema. By default, only the English
language is loaded into these tables. You can use Oracle Database
Vault Configuration Assistant to add more languages to Oracle
Database Vault. For the necessary steps, refer to Appendix C in Oracle
Database Vault Administrator's Guide.
To select the translation resources that you want to install:
1.
Start Oracle Universal Installer.
2.
On the Select Installation Method screen, select Advanced Installation and click
Next.
3.
On the Select Installation Type screen, click Product Languages.
4.
On the Language Selection screen, select the language in which you want to use
Oracle components from the Available Languages field.
The Available Languages field lists all languages supported by
Oracle globalization libraries. The set of languages for which a
translation is actually available is usually smaller and depends on a
particular component. The scope of translation for a given component
may differ between languages. For example, some translations may
include all user interface text, while others may include only error
messages and no help files.
Note:
5.
Use the > arrow to move the selected language to the Selected Languages field,
and then click OK.
Oracle Universal Installer will ignore languages in the Selected
Languages field for which no translation is available.
Note:
6.
Select the installation type you want, and then click Next.
To install additional languages for a component, you will have
to reinstall this component.
Note:
Running Oracle Universal Installer in Different Languages
Your operating system locale determines the language in which Oracle Universal
Installer runs. Oracle Universal Installer may run in one of the following languages:
■
Brazilian Portuguese (pt_BR)
■
French (fr)
■
German (de)
■
Italian (it)
■
Japanese (ja)
■
Korean (ko)
■
Simplified Chinese (zh_CN)
F-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Running Oracle Universal Installer in Different Languages
■
Spanish (es)
■
Traditional Chinese (zh_TW)
To run Oracle Universal Installer in one of the available languages, change the locale in
which your operating system session is running before you start Oracle Universal
Installer with the ./runInstaller command. If the selected language is not one of
them listed earlier, Oracle Universal Installer runs in English.
You need to ensure that the selected value for the LANG environment variable starts
with the appropriate language abbreviation. In the aforementioned list of languages, in
which Oracle Universal Installer can run, the required abbreviation appears in
parentheses beside the language name. For example, fr_FR and fr_CA are valid values
to run the Oracle Universal Installer in French.
Configuring Oracle Database Globalization Support F-5
Running Oracle Universal Installer in Different Languages
F-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
G
G
Troubleshooting
This appendix contains information about troubleshooting. It includes information
about the following topics:
■
Verify Requirements
■
X Window Display Errors
■
What to Do If an Installation Error Occurs?
■
Reviewing the Log of an Installation Session
■
Troubleshooting Host Name Changes and CSS
■
Troubleshooting Oracle Configuration Manager
■
Troubleshooting Configuration Assistants
■
Troubleshooting Inventory Issues
■
Silent-Mode Response File Error Handling
■
Cleaning Up After a Failed Installation
■
After Failed Upgrade Installation
■
Images Displaying Incorrectly in Oracle Application Express
■
Online Help Not Working
Verify Requirements
Before performing any of the troubleshooting steps in this appendix, ensure that the
system meets the requirements and that you have completed all of the preinstallation
tasks specified in Chapter 2.
Read the Release Notes
Read the release notes for the product before installing it. The release notes are
available on the Oracle Database 11g DVD. The latest version of the release notes is
also available on the Oracle Technology Network Web site:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/documentation/
X Window Display Errors
If you run Oracle Universal Installer on a remote system and you want to display
Oracle Universal Installer’s user interface on your local system, you might see error
messages similar to the following:
Troubleshooting G-1
What to Do If an Installation Error Occurs?
"Failed to connect to server"
"Connection refused by server"
"Can’t open display"
If you see one of these error messages, follow these steps:
This procedure applies only to users of UNIX workstations.
If you are using a PC or other system with X server software
installed, refer to the X server documentation for information about
how to permit remote systems to display X applications on the local
system.
Note:
1.
In a local terminal window, log in as the user that started the X Window session.
2.
Enter the following command:
$ xhost fully_qualified_remote_host_name
For example:
$ xhost somehost.us.example.com
3.
Enter the following commands, where workstation_name is the host name or IP
address of your workstation:
■
Bourne, Bash, or Korn shell:
$ DISPLAY=workstation_name:0.0
$ export DISPLAY
■
C shell:
% setenv DISPLAY workstation_name:0.0
4.
To determine whether X Window applications display correctly on the local
system, enter the following command:
$ xclock
The X clock should appear on your monitor.
5.
If the X clock appears, close the X clock and start Oracle Universal Installer again.
What to Do If an Installation Error Occurs?
If you encounter an error during installation:
■
■
■
■
■
Do not exit Oracle Universal Installer.
If you clicked Next after you entered incorrect information on one of the
installation screens, click Back to return to the screen and correct the information.
If you encounter an error while Oracle Universal Installer is copying or linking
files, refer to "Reviewing the Log of an Installation Session" section on page G-3.
If you encounter an error while a configuration assistant is running, refer to
"Troubleshooting Configuration Assistants" section on page G-6.
If you cannot resolve the problem, remove the failed installation by following the
steps listed in the "Cleaning Up After a Failed Installation" section on page G-7.
G-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Troubleshooting Host Name Changes and CSS
Reviewing the Log of an Installation Session
During an installation, Oracle Universal Installer records all of the actions that it
performs in a log file. If you encounter problems during the installation, review the log
file for information about possible causes of the problem.
If you run Oracle Universal Installer during the time that daily
cron jobs run, then you may encounter unexplained installation
problems if your cron job is performing cleanup, and temporary files
are deleted before the installation is finished. Oracle recommends that
you complete installation before daily cron jobs are run, or disable
daily cron jobs that perform cleanup until after the installation is
completed.
Note:
To view the log file, follow these steps:
1.
If necessary, enter the following command to determine the location of the
oraInventory directory:
$ cat /etc/oraInst.loc
The inventory_loc parameter in this file specifies the location of the
oraInventory directory.
2.
Enter the following command to change directory to Oracle Universal Installer log
file directory, where orainventory_location is the location of the
oraInventory directory:
$ cd /orainventory_location/logs
3.
Enter the following command to determine the name of the log file:
$ ls -ltr
This command lists the files in the order of creation, with the most recent file
shown last. Installer log files have names similar to the following, where date_
time indicates the date and time that the installation started:
installActionsdate_time.log
4.
To view the most recent entries in the log file, where information about a problem
is most likely to appear, enter a command similar to the following:
$ tail -50 installActionsdate_time.log | more
This command displays the last 50 lines in the log file.
5.
If the error displayed by Oracle Universal Installer or listed in the log file indicates
a relinking problem, refer to the following file for more information:
$ORACLE_HOME/install/make.log
Troubleshooting Host Name Changes and CSS
If you change the host name for ASM, then the Oracle CSS daemon will not start. In
order to counter this problem, please use the following steps:
■
Login as the root user
Troubleshooting G-3
Troubleshooting Oracle Configuration Manager
■
■
Run localconfig delete to deconfigure CSS. This will remove any
configuration related files on the system that referenced the old host name.
Run localconfig add to reconfigure CSS using the new host name.
For Example:
# $ORACLE_HOME/bin/localconfig [add] [delete] [ reset destination_Oracle_home ]
[-silent] [-paramfile Complete_path_of_file_specifying_parameter_values]
Troubleshooting Oracle Configuration Manager
This section lists some of the errors that may occur while using Oracle Configuration
Manager and provides tips to troubleshoot these errors.
■
Insufficient Privileges While Running installCCRSQL collectconfig
When you run the installCCRSQL.sh script, it creates the ORACLE_OCM user
and sets up a job to collect database configuration information. The ORACLE_OCM
user requires EXECUTE privileges on UTL_FILE and DBMS_SCHEDULER for
database versions 10g or later, and on the DBMS_JOB for pre-10g databases. If these
privileges are granted to PUBLIC, the ORACLE_OCM user inherits these privileges,
otherwise these privileges are explicitly granted when the installCCRSQL.sh
script is executed. If the inherited privileges are revoked, the following errors
indicating the lack of privileges will be logged in the alert_log:
ORA-12012:
ORA-04068:
ORA-04063:
ORA-06508:
error on auto execute of job 52
existing state of packages has been discarded
package body "ORACLE_OCM.package_name" has errors
PL/SQL: could not find program unit being called
To resolve these errors, you must grant the missing EXECUTE privilege to the
ORACLE_OCM user.
–
For database versions 10g and later, grant EXECUTE privileges on the UTL_
FILE and DBMS_SCHEDULER packages to the ORACLE_OCM user by entering
the following SQL*PLUS commands:
SQL>
SQL>
SQL>
SQL>
–
execute
execute
PACKAGE
PACKAGE
on UTL_FILE to oracle_ocm;
on DBMS_SCHEDULER to oracle_ocm;
oracle_ocm.MGMT_DB_LL_METRICS compile;
oracle_ocm.mgmt_config compile;
For pre-10g databases, grant EXECUTE privileges on the DBMS_JOB package to
the ORACLE_OCM user by entering the following SQL*PLUS commands:
SQL>
SQL>
SQL>
SQL>
■
grant
grant
ALTER
ALTER
grant
grant
ALTER
ALTER
execute
execute
PACKAGE
PACKAGE
on UTL_FILE to oracle_ocm;
on DBMS_JOB to oracle_ocm;
oracle_ocm.MGMT_DB_LL_METRICS compile;
oracle_ocm.mgmt_config compile;
ORA-04021 Error
There may be cases when the ORACLE_OCM user must be granted the required
privileges during installation. While granting the privileges, the following error
may occur in the $ORACLE_HOME/ccr/log/collectconfigSID.log:
ORA-04021: timeout occurred while waiting to lock object SYS.<package like UTL_
FILE>
This error may occur if another procedure is using the package for which the
privileges are being granted. To resolve this error, retry the install when the
G-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Troubleshooting Oracle Configuration Manager
package is not being used. This error may occur while granting privileges on
UTL_FILE, DBMS_SCHEDULER, or DBMS_JOB.
■
ORA-01925 Error While Running installCCRSQL
This error may occur if the value of the MAX_ENABLED_ROLES initialization
parameter has been exceeded. To resolve this error, you must increase the value of
the MAX_ENABLED_ROLES parameter and restart the database as follows:
1.
Edit the initsid.ora file where sid is the database system identifier and
increase the value of MAX_ENABLED_ROLES . If a server parameter (spfile) has
been used, alter the MAX_ENABLED_ROLES parameter by using the following
SQL*PLus command:
SQL>alter system set MAX_ENABLED_ROLES=value scope=spfile
2.
Restart the database.
Once the database has been restarted, re-run the installCCRSQL.sh script.
■
Incorrectly configured host names are displayed on the My Oracle Support
(formerly OracleMetaLink) with only the short names
To ensure that host names are displayed with their fully qualified names on the
My Oracle Support (formerly OracleMetaLink), the /etc/hosts file must contain
an entry that includes both the host name and the domain in the following format:
IP-Address
Full-HostName
Short-HostName
For example:
10.10.10.10
myhost.mydomain
myhost
If the /etc/hosts file has not been correctly configured, only the short name is
displayed on the My Oracle Support (formerly OracleMetaLink).
■
Oracle Configuration Manager Synchronization Messages: Oracle Configuration
Manager does not allow you to run multiple commands simultaneously. If you
attempt to do so, the following messages may be displayed:
–
Message: Another operation is in progress. Please wait...
Description: There are several Oracle Configuration Manager commands that
cannot run concurrently. If you try to run one of these commands while
another command is in progress, the second command will not be executed
until the first command is completed. A message indicating that another
command is in progress is displayed. The second command will automatically
be run when the first command is completed.
Commands: emCCR collect, emCCR getupdates, emCCR update_
components, and emCCR upload
Action: Initially, take no action, the second command will be executed when
the first command is completed. But if the command execution takes too long,
a timeout will occur. If a timeout occurs, ensure there is no Oracle
Configuration Manager activity by executing emCCR stop command. Delete
the ccr/state/collector.lock file and restart the Scheduler by running
the emCCR start command. If you run the command in Disconnected mode,
ensure that no collection or update is taking place and then delete the
ccr/state/collector.lock file.
–
Message: Operation blocked, waiting..
Troubleshooting G-5
Troubleshooting Configuration Assistants
Description: You cannot run the emCCR update_components command if
any other emCCR command is running. If you try to run the command, it will
be blocked. You also cannot run any emCCR command while emCCR update_
components is running as all other commands will be blocked.
Commands: configCCR and most of the emCCR commands
Action: Initially, take no action, the command will get executed when the
current command is completed. If a timeout occurs, ensure that there is no
Oracle Configuration Manager activity by executing emCCR stop. Delete the
ccr/state/semaphore.op* and ccr/state/semaphore.update* files,
and restart Oracle Configuration Manager by running emCCR start. If
running the command in Disconnected mode, ensure no collection or update
is taking place and delete the ccr/state/semaphore.op* and the
ccr/state/semaphore.update* files.
–
Message: The Scheduler is down for upgrade.
Description: While upgrading Oracle Configuration Manager, you cannot run
any of the emCCR commands.
Commands: All emCCR commands
Action: Retry the commands later.
Troubleshooting Configuration Assistants
To troubleshoot an installation error that occurs when a configuration assistant is
running:
■
■
■
Review the installation log files listed in the "Reviewing the Log of an Installation
Session" section on page G-3.
Review the specific configuration assistant log file located in the $ORACLE_
HOME/cfgtoollogs directory. Try to fix the issue that caused the error.
If you see the "Fatal Error. Reinstall" message, look for the cause of the problem by
reviewing the log files. Refer to "Fatal Errors" on page G-6 for further instructions.
Configuration Assistant Failure
Oracle configuration assistant failures are noted at the bottom of the installation
screen. The configuration assistant interface displays additional information, if
available. The configuration assistant execution status is stored in the following file:
oraInventory_location/logs/installActionsdate_time.log
The execution status codes are listed in the following table:
Status
Result Code
Configuration assistant succeeded
0
Configuration assistant failed
1
Configuration assistant canceled
-1
Fatal Errors
If you receive a irrecoverable error while a configuration assistant is running, you
must remove the current installation and reinstall the Oracle software, as follows:
G-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Cleaning Up After a Failed Installation
1.
Remove the failed installation as described in the "Cleaning Up After a Failed
Installation" section on page G-7.
2.
Correct the cause of the irrecoverable error.
3.
Reinstall the Oracle software.
Troubleshooting Inventory Issues
If you face any of the following situations for Oracle home, then run the opatch
lsinventory -detail command to list the contents of the inventory and see
section "Recovering from inventory corruption" in the Oracle Universal Installer and
OPatch User's Guide for information on fixing the issue.
■
Oracle home is cloned without completing the inventory steps.
■
There is bad inventory.
■
Inventory is not available but it is created when the Oracle Enterprise Manager
Agent is installed in a separate Oracle home.
Silent-Mode Response File Error Handling
To determine whether a silent-mode installation succeeds or fails, refer to the
following log file:
/oraInventory_location/logs/silentInstalldate_time.log
If necessary, refer to the previous section for information about determining the
location of the oraInventory directory.
A silent installation fails if:
■
You do not specify a response file
■
You specify an incorrect or incomplete response file
For example, a common problem is that while all the product-specific data is filled
out correctly, the staging area location may be incorrect. If this is the case, check
the FROM_LOCATION variable and make sure that it points to the products.xml
file in the installation media. In the installation media, this products.xml is in
response/stage.
■
Oracle Universal Installer encounters an error, such as insufficient disk space
Oracle Universal Installer or configuration assistant validates the response file at run
time. If the validation fails, the silent-mode installation or configuration process ends.
Oracle Universal Installer treats values for parameters that are of the wrong context,
format, or type as if no value was specified in the file.
Cleaning Up After a Failed Installation
If an installation fails, you must remove files that Oracle Universal Installer created
during the attempted installation and remove the Oracle home directory. Perform the
following steps to remove the files:
1.
Start Oracle Universal Installer as described in the "Installing the Oracle Database
Software" on page 3-7.
2.
Click Deinstall Products on the Welcome window or click Installed Products on
any Installer window.
Troubleshooting G-7
After Failed Upgrade Installation
The Inventory window appears, listing installed products.
3.
Select the Oracle home that contains the products that you want to remove, then
click Remove.
4.
Manually remove the Oracle home directory created during the failed installation.
5.
Reinstall the Oracle software.
To reinstall, you need to drop either one or two database schemas, depending upon
the installation type.
After Failed Upgrade Installation
In the case of a failed upgrade installation, you need to revert Oracle Application
Express to a earlier release and then remove the schemas associated with release 2.2.
This section contains the following topics:
■
Reverting to Earlier Release
■
After a Failed New Installation
Reverting to Earlier Release
To revert to a previous Oracle Application Express release:
1.
If you altered the images directory, you need to point the text alias /i/ back to
images directory for release 1.5.
2.
Run the following command in SQL*Plus:
a.
Start SQL*Plus and connect the database where Oracle Application Express is
installed as SYS. For example:
$ $ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus
SQL> CONNECT SYS as SYSDBA
Enter password: SYS_password
b.
To revert to Oracle Application Express release 1.5, execute the following:
ALTER SESSION SET CURRENT_SCHEMA = FLOWS_010500;
exec flows_010500.wwv_flow_upgrade.switch_schemas
('FLOWS_030000','FLOWS_010500');
c.
To revert to Oracle Application Express release 1.6, execute the following:
ALTER SESSION SET CURRENT_SCHEMA = FLOWS_010600;
exec flows_010600.wwv_flow_upgrade.switch_schemas
('FLOWS_030000','FLOWS_010600');
d.
To revert to Oracle Application Express release 2.0, execute the following:
ALTER SESSION SET CURRENT_SCHEMA = FLOWS_020000;
exec flows_020000.wwv_flow_upgrade.switch_schemas
('FLOWS_030000','FLOWS_020000');
To remove the release 2.2 schema:
1.
Start SQL*Plus and connect the database where Oracle Application Express is
installed as SYS.
2.
Execute the following commands:
DROP user FLOWS_030000 CASCADE;
G-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Online Help Not Working
After a Failed New Installation
To remove schemas after a failed new installation:
1.
Start SQL*Plus and connect the database where Oracle Application Express is
installed as SYS.
2.
Run the following commands:
drop user FLOWS_030000 cascade;
drop user FLOWS_FILES cascade;
Images Displaying Incorrectly in Oracle Application Express
In Configuring Oracle HTTP Server in a New Installation on page 4-18, you added an
alias entry that points to the file system path where you copied the images directory. If
images in Oracle Application Express do not display correctly, you may have more
than one definition of the /i/ alias. To address this issue:
■
■
If possible, rename the first instance of /i/ to a different alias name.
Alternatively, copy the images from the $ORACLE_HOME/marvel/images
directory to the directory defined by the first /i/ alias.
Online Help Not Working
If users are accessing Oracle Application Express through a Virtual Host, online Help
will not work. Consider the following example:
■
■
The host name of the Oracle HTTP Server where the Oracle Application Express
DAD resides is internal.server.com and the port is 7777.
Users access Oracle Application Express through a Virtual Host. In their Web
browsers, users see external.server.com and port 80.
In this example, Oracle Application Express online Help will not work if the users
cannot access internal.server.com. To resolve this issue, add the following lines
to the Oracle Application Express Database Access Descriptor (DAD) to override the
CGI environment variables SERVER_NAME and SERVER_PORT:
PlsqlCGIEnvironmentList SERVER_NAME=external.server.com
PlsqlCGIEnvironmentList SERVER_PORT=80
See Also: Oracle Application Server mod_plsql User's Guide for
information on overriding the CGI environment variables.
Troubleshooting G-9
Online Help Not Working
G-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
H
H
Frequently Asked Questions About
Installation
Use the following guidelines to decide how to install Oracle Database components:
■
Installing Oracle Database or Oracle Database
■
Installing Oracle Database Tools
■
Installing Oracle Database with Oracle Applications
■
Installing Oracle Database Heterogeneous Connectivity Tools (Gateways)
Some Oracle Database components may not be available on all
platforms. Consult your platform-specific installation guide or release
notes.
Note:
Installing Oracle Database or Oracle Database
The following are frequently asked questions with respect to installing Oracle
database:
■
■
I only need one instance of Oracle Database or I just want to install a test database
to get familiar with the product. How do I install Oracle Database for these
situations?
How can I create an Oracle database that can handle transaction-heavy or data
warehousing applications?
■
What’s the best way to install multiple Oracle databases?
■
How do I configure client connections to an Oracle database?
■
■
■
■
What is the best way to install Oracle Client if my client nodes have limited disk
space?
How do I upgrade Oracle Database?
The computers at my site have been configured to run as a cluster. How should I
install Oracle Database?
How do I migrate my non-Oracle databases to Oracle Database?
Frequently Asked Questions About Installation
H-1
Installing Oracle Database or Oracle Database
I only need one instance of Oracle Database or I just want to install a test database
to get familiar with the product. How do I install Oracle Database for these
situations?
■
If you want a quick installation using the default installation settings, then refer to
the platform-specific Oracle Database Quick Installation Guide.
■
If your site has special requirements, then refer to this guide for more information.
How can I create an Oracle database that can handle transaction-heavy or data
warehousing applications?
If you want to create a starter database designed for transaction-heavy or data
warehousing applications, then refer to this guide for more details. Select the
Advanced Installation method, and then select the database type you want on the
Select Database Configuration screen.
See Also:
Oracle Database Data Warehousing Guide after installation
Alternatively, you can install Oracle OLAP during the Oracle Database installation.
Oracle OLAP provides optimal support for database environments that must meet
OLAP requirements. To do so, select Advanced Installation, then Custom, and on the
Available Product Components screen, select Oracle OLAP.
See Also:
■
Oracle OLAP User's Guide
■
Oracle OLAP DML Reference
■
Oracle OLAP Java API Reference
What’s the best way to install multiple Oracle databases?
Use this guide to install Oracle Database using either of the following methods:
■
■
Installing with response files: This method lets you run Oracle Universal Installer
at a command line using a response file that contains settings specific to each
computer.
Cloning an existing Oracle home: Install Oracle Database in one computer using
interactive mode. Afterwards, you can clone its existing Oracle home in each
location and then create a new database from there. You can also clone databases,
which is described in Oracle Database Administrator's Guide.
How do I configure client connections to an Oracle database?
1. Install Oracle Database on a server by using this guide for more information.
2.
Use platform-specific Oracle Database Client Installation Guide to install Oracle
Client on each client node, and select the Instant Client installation type.
If you have many client nodes, consider staging the software centrally, mapping
the drive, and running Oracle Universal Installer in the noninteractive mode.
If the client nodes only require a default installation into a new Oracle home
directory, consider using this guide for more information.
What is the best way to install Oracle Client if my client nodes have limited disk
space?
1. Install Oracle Database onto a server by using this guide for more details.
H-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing Oracle Database Tools
2.
Use platform-specific Oracle Database Client Installation Guide to install Oracle
Client on each client node, and select the Instant Client installation type.
If you have many client nodes, then consider running Oracle Universal Installer in
noninteractive mode.
How do I upgrade Oracle Database?
Refer to Oracle Database Upgrade Guide.
See Also: Oracle Database Administrator's Guide if you want to use
software cloning to upgrade Oracle Database
The computers at my site have been configured to run as a cluster. How should I
install Oracle Database?
Use any of the following installation scenarios:
■
■
■
If you want to run a single-instance Oracle Database in a clustered environment,
then install Oracle Clusterware either before or after you install Oracle Database.
If you want a consolidated pool of storage for all databases in a cluster, then install
Oracle Clusterware first and use Automatic Storage Management to manage this
storage. Afterwards, install Oracle Database (which can be either single instance or
Real Application Clusters).
If you plan to use Oracle Real Application Clusters, first install Oracle
Clusterware, and then install Oracle Real Application Clusters.
Refer to platform-specific Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide and Oracle Real
Application Clusters Installation Guide for Linux and UNIX for the platform to install
Oracle Clusterware or Oracle Real Application Clusters. Oracle Clusterware is
available on the Oracle Clusterware installation media. Refer to this guide which
explains how to install Automatic Storage Management and Oracle Database.
Oracle Clusterware is a key component required by Oracle Real Application Clusters
installations. Oracle Clusterware is an integrated cluster management solution that can
bind multiple servers together to act as a single system. This is referred to as a cluster.
It performs workload management and component restart. For example, when an
instance supporting a particular service fails, Oracle Clusterware restarts the service
on the next available instance that you have configured for that service. Oracle
Clusterware can monitor non-Oracle programs, as long as they are defined within the
Oracle Clusterware environment using the High Availability API.
How do I migrate my non-Oracle databases to Oracle Database?
Use Oracle Migration Workbench to migrate your non-Oracle databases and
applications to Oracle. Oracle Migration Workbench software and documentation are
available at:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/tech/migration/index.html
Installing Oracle Database Tools
The following are frequently asked questions with respect to installing Oracle database
tools:
■
How do I install Oracle Application Server?
■
How can I administer and monitor my Oracle Database products?
■
How do I manage security for my Oracle Database products?
Frequently Asked Questions About Installation
H-3
Installing Oracle Database Tools
■
■
■
How do I use Oracle Database to manage my XML data?
Does Oracle Database provide OLAP tools so that I can analyze data such as
trends and time series in my database?
Does Oracle Database provide data mining tools that I can use to discover hidden
meaning in my data and predict likely outcomes based on my data?
■
How do I perform backup and recovery operations for Oracle Database?
■
Is Oracle Workflow included with Oracle Database 11g?
■
Is there a migration plan for customers that have built solutions using Oracle
Workflow?
How do I install Oracle Application Server?
Refer to Oracle Application Server Installation Guide. How you install Application Server
depends on whether you already have Oracle Database installed:
■
■
If you do not have Oracle Database installed or you do not want Oracle
Application Server to use any of your existing Oracle Databases, then Oracle
Universal Installer lets you install a separate Oracle Application Server instance.
This database is populated with the metadata that Oracle Application Server must
run.
If you want Oracle Application Server to use an existing Oracle Database, then do
the following:
1.
From the Oracle Application Server installation media, run Oracle Application
Server Repository Creation Assistant to populate your database with the
metadata that Application Server needs.
2.
Install the remaining Oracle Application Server components by following the
instructions in the Oracle Application Server Installation Guide.
How can I administer and monitor my Oracle Database products?
To perform regular administrative functions such as creating, configuring, or deleting
databases, or managing database templates, use one of the following methods:
To manage only the single database and listener that you are installing:
1.
Use this guide to install Oracle Database.
2.
From Oracle Database, use Database Configuration Assistant to manage your
databases.
You can also administer and monitor the database with Oracle Enterprise Manager
Grid Control, which is installed by default with Oracle Database. Oracle
Enterprise Manager Grid Control includes the Oracle Management Agent, Oracle
Management Service, and Oracle Management Repository, and Grid Control, a
browser-based central console through which administrators can perform all
monitoring, administration, and configuration tasks for the enterprise.
See Also: Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control Installation and Basic
Configuration available on the Enterprise Manager Grid Control
installation media
To perform advanced administration tasks, such as monitoring Oracle Database and
managing multiple hosts, application servers, and databases including the one that
you are installing, install Oracle Enterprise Manager as follows:
1.
Use this guide to install Oracle Database.
H-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing Oracle Database Tools
If you plan to use Oracle Real Application Clusters, then install Oracle Database
by using platform-specific Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide and Oracle Real
Application Clusters Installation Guide for Linux and UNIX.
2.
Use Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control Installation and Basic Configuration to
install and configure Oracle Enterprise Manager. For postconfiguration tasks, use
Oracle Enterprise Manager Advanced Configuration.
How do I manage security for my Oracle Database products?
Oracle provides a wide range of security solutions for your enterprise environment,
including centralized administration and security features integrated with Oracle
Internet Directory. The set of Oracle security services called Oracle Platform Security
integrates the security features built into Oracle Database, Oracle Application Server,
and the Oracle Identity Management infrastructure. Combined, these features enable
the development and deployment of secure e-business applications.
Oracle Identity Management includes Oracle Internet Directory, a centralized
repository that simplifies administration of users and applications in the Oracle
environment by means of the following components:
■
■
Oracle Internet Directory client tools, including LDAP command-line tools, the
Oracle Internet Directory SDK, and Oracle Directory Manager.
Oracle Internet Directory server components, including the directory server, the
directory replication server, the directory integration server, and various tools for
starting and stopping them.
Oracle Database includes the Oracle Internet Directory client tools, but not the Oracle
Internet Directory server components. To install the Oracle Internet Directory server
components, run Oracle Universal Installer from an Oracle 10g Application Server
installation.
See Also:
■
Oracle Application Server Installation Guide (to install Oracle
Identity Management)
■
Oracle Database Security Guide
■
Oracle Database Advanced Security Administrator's Guide
■
Oracle Database Enterprise User Security Administrator's Guide
■
Oracle Label Security Administrator's Guide
■
Oracle Application Server Security Guide
■
Oracle Technology Network topics on database security
(http://www.oracle.com/technology/deploy/security
/index.html)
How do I use Oracle Database to manage my XML data?
Use Oracle XML DB, which is installed as part of Oracle Database. Oracle XML DB
enables you to efficiently store, generate, retrieve, query, and manage XML data on
your site. Oracle XML DB provides all the advantages of a relational database, for
example, allowing you to control the referential integrity of XML data with constraints
and triggers. It works well with large amounts of XML data by storing it in a parsed,
relational form, which improves access performance.
Oracle XML DB supports XML Type, which is a native data type for XML data, for
which you can choose various storage options depending on your needs. In addition,
Frequently Asked Questions About Installation
H-5
Installing Oracle Database Tools
Oracle XML DB supports XML Schema processing, structured and unstructured
storage, a content repository that you can access by using common protocols (FTP,
HTTP(S), and WebDAV), and SQL/XML, which is a standard for SQL with XML. For
Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), Oracle XML DB introduced support for the
XQuery language for querying, transforming, and constructing XML; the ability for
users to define their own metadata for schema-based XML; a set of new SQL functions
for DML operations on XML data; and more.
You can use Oracle XML DB in conjunction with Oracle XML Developer’s Kit (XDK) to
build applications that run on either Oracle Database or Oracle Application Server.
See Also:
■
Oracle XML DB Developer's Guide
■
Oracle XML Developer's Kit Programmer's Guide
Does Oracle Database provide OLAP tools so that I can analyze data such as
trends and time series in my database?
Yes, install Oracle OLAP, which is provided in the Oracle Database installation. Oracle
OLAP provides optimal support for database environments that must meet OLAP
requirements.
Use either of the following methods in Oracle Database Installation Guide to install
Oracle OLAP:
■
When you run Oracle Universal Installer, select the Custom installation type, and
in the Available Product Components screen, select Oracle OLAP.
See Also:
■
■
Oracle OLAP User's Guide
■
Oracle OLAP DML Reference
■
Oracle OLAP Java API Reference
Select the Enterprise Edition installation type, and then on the Select Database
Configuration screen, select the Data Warehouse configuration.
See Also:
Oracle Database Data Warehousing Guide after installation
Does Oracle Database provide data mining tools that I can use to discover hidden
meaning in my data and predict likely outcomes based on my data?
Yes. Install Oracle Data Mining, which is provided in the Oracle Database installation.
With the Oracle Data Mining option, you can create and execute predictive and
descriptive data mining models that use a variety of algorithms.
Use the following method in this guide to install Oracle Data Mining:
1.
When you run Oracle Universal Installer, select the Enterprise Edition installation
type.
2.
In the Select Database Configuration screen, select the General
Purpose/Transaction Processing configuration.
H-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing Oracle Database with Oracle Applications
See Also: The following manuals after you have installed Oracle
Data Mining:
■
Oracle Data Mining Concepts
■
Oracle Data Mining Administrator's Guide
■
Oracle Data Mining Application Developer's Guide
■
Oracle Data Mining Java API Reference
■
Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference (search for
Data Mining)
How do I perform backup and recovery operations for Oracle Database?
Use Oracle Database Recovery Manager (RMAN), which is a backup and recovery tool
integrated into Oracle Database. This tool satisfies the pressing demands of
high-performance, manageable backup, and recovery. Recovery Manager is native to
the database server, automatically tracks database structure changes, and optimizes
operations accordingly. In addition, Recovery Manager is integrated with leading tape
media management products, so that Oracle database backups can be integrated with
your existing networked data protection infrastructure.
See Also:
■
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide
■
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery Reference
Is Oracle Workflow included with Oracle Database 11g?
Starting with Oracle Database 11g, Oracle Workflow is no longer released with the
database. Oracle Workflow will be available with the Oracle E-Business Suite releases.
Oracle Workflow statement of direction
(http://www.oracle.com/technology/products/ias/workf
low/workflow_sod.html)
See Also:
Is there a migration plan for customers that have built solutions using Oracle
Workflow?
Starting January 2006, customers are encouraged to re-create and implement
workflows using Oracle BPEL Process Manager. Oracle is in the process of creating a
technical migration guide that will provide detailed recommendations for migrating
Oracle Workflow processes to Oracle BPEL Process Manager.
Oracle Workflow statement of direction
(http://www.oracle.com/technology/products/ias/workf
low/workflow_sod.html)
See Also:
Installing Oracle Database with Oracle Applications
The following are frequently asked questions with respect to installing Oracle database
with Oracle applications:
■
How do I install my Oracle applications with Oracle Database?
■
How can I create Web applications that communicate with Oracle Database?
■
Which Web server can my Oracle applications use?
■
How can I migrate my non-Oracle applications to Oracle?
Frequently Asked Questions About Installation
H-7
Installing Oracle Database Heterogeneous Connectivity Tools (Gateways)
How do I install my Oracle applications with Oracle Database?
In most cases, install Oracle Database itself, then install the Oracle application. The
Oracle Universal Installer for that application prompts you for the connection
information. Check the application documentation requirements.
If you need to implement your applications with Oracle Real Applications Clusters
databases, refer to Oracle Real Application Clusters Installation Guide for Linux and UNIX
and platform-specific Oracle Clusterware Installation Guide.
How can I create Web applications that communicate with Oracle Database?
Install Oracle Application Express and a web server:
Use this guide to install Oracle Database. Oracle Application Express is automatically
installed, when you install Oracle database.
Which Web server can my Oracle applications use?
Install Oracle HTTP Server, which ships on the Oracle Fusion Middleware Web Tier
Utilities 11g (11.1.1.2.0) media in your media pack, or use the XML DB HTTP Protocol
Server and the embedded PL/SQL Gateway that installs with Oracle Database 11g
Release 1.
Use this guide to install Oracle Database.
How can I migrate my non-Oracle applications to Oracle?
Use Oracle Migration Workbench to migrate your non-Oracle applications to Oracle.
Oracle Migration Workbench software and documentation are available at:
http://www.oracle.com/technology/tech/migration/index.html
Installing Oracle Database Heterogeneous Connectivity Tools (Gateways)
The following section discusses about Gateway products:
How can my Oracle applications access data in a non-Oracle database system?
How can my Oracle applications access data in a non-Oracle database system?
You can use Oracle Database Gateway as the connectivity tool to enable Oracle
applications to access data in non-Oracle databases. The following are the functions of
Oracle Database Gateway:
■
■
Integrates a non-Oracle database into your Oracle Database environment.
Enables Oracle PL/SQL applications to integrate with APPC-enabled transactions,
or access messages in IBM Websphere MQ.
You can install the Gateway product on a computer independent of the Oracle
application, Oracle database, and non-Oracle database.
For example, suppose you have the following scenario:
■
■
■
Oracle Database is installed on an UNIX computer.
The Oracle application is installed on a Microsoft Windows computer and accesses
data from the Oracle database on the UNIX computer.
The Oracle application must join data in a DB2 database on Solaris Operating
System and an Oracle Database on UNIX.
H-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Installing Oracle Database Heterogeneous Connectivity Tools (Gateways)
You have the option of installing the Database Gateway for DRDA on the Solaris
computer where DB2 is running, on UNIX where Oracle is running, or on a third
computer.
Table H–1 lists the non-Oracle database systems that you can access from Oracle
applications, and the Gateways products that are available for those systems.
Table H–1
Oracle Gateway Products
Non-Oracle Database
Oracle Gateway Products and Documentation
IBM DB2 Universal
Database (UDB)
Oracle Database Gateway for DRDA.
IBM DB2 z/OS
Oracle Database Gateway for DRDA.
Use Oracle Database Gateway Installation and Configuration Guide for AIX 5L Based
Systems (64-Bit), HP-UX PA-RISC (64-Bit), Solaris Operating System (SPARC 64-Bit),
Linux x86, and Linux x86-64 and Oracle Database Gateway for DRDA User's Guide.
Use Oracle Database Gateway Installation and Configuration Guide for AIX 5L Based
Systems (64-Bit), HP-UX PA-RISC (64-Bit), Solaris Operating System (SPARC 64-Bit),
Linux x86, and Linux x86-64 and Oracle Database Gateway for DRDA User's Guide.
IBM DB2/400
Oracle Database Gateway for DRDA.
Use Oracle Database Gateway Installation and Configuration Guide for AIX 5L Based
Systems (64-Bit), HP-UX PA-RISC (64-Bit), Solaris Operating System (SPARC 64-Bit),
Linux x86, and Linux x86-64 and Oracle Database Gateway for DRDA User's Guide.
WebSphere MQ
Oracle Database Gateway for WebSphere MQ.
Oracle Database Gateway for WebSphere MQ Installation and User's Guide.
CICS/TS
Oracle Database Gateway for APPC.
IMSTM
Use Oracle Database Gateway for APPC Installation and Configuration Guide for AIX 5L
Based Systems (64-Bit), HP-UX PA-RISC (64-Bit), Solaris Operating System (SPARC
64-Bit), and Linux x86.
SQL Server
Oracle Database Gateway for SQL Server.
Use Oracle Database Gateway Installation and Configuration Guide for AIX 5L Based
Systems (64-Bit), HP-UX PA-RISC (64-Bit), Solaris Operating System (SPARC 64-Bit),
Linux x86, and Linux x86-64 and Oracle Database Gateway for SQL Server User's Guide.
Sybase Adaptive Server
Oracle Database Gateway for Sybase.
Use Oracle Database Gateway Installation and Configuration Guide for AIX 5L Based
Systems (64-Bit), HP-UX PA-RISC (64-Bit), Solaris Operating System (SPARC 64-Bit),
Linux x86, and Linux x86-64 and Oracle Database Gateway for Sybase User's Guide.
Teradata
Oracle Database Gateway for Teradata.
Use Oracle Database Gateway Installation and Configuration Guide for AIX 5L Based
Systems (64-Bit), HP-UX PA-RISC (64-Bit), Solaris Operating System (SPARC 64-Bit),
Linux x86, and Linux x86-64 and Oracle Database Gateway for Teradata User's Guide.
Informix Server
Oracle Database Gateway for Informix.
Use Oracle Database Gateway Installation and Configuration Guide for AIX 5L Based
Systems (64-Bit), HP-UX PA-RISC (64-Bit), Solaris Operating System (SPARC 64-Bit),
Linux x86, and Linux x86-64 and Oracle Database Gateway for Informix User's Guide.
Frequently Asked Questions About Installation
H-9
Installing Oracle Database Heterogeneous Connectivity Tools (Gateways)
Table H–1 (Cont.) Oracle Gateway Products
Non-Oracle Database
Oracle Gateway Products and Documentation
IMS
Oracle Database Gateway for IMS.
Use Oracle Database Gateway for IMS, VSAM, and Adabas Installation and Configuration
Guide for AIX 5L Based Systems (64-Bit), HP-UX PA-RISC (64-Bit), Solaris Operating
System (SPARC 64-Bit), Linux x86, and Linux x86-64, Oracle Database Gateway for IMS
User's Guide and Oracle Connect for IMS, VSAM, and Adabas Gateways Installation and
Configuration Guide for IBM z/OS
VSAM
Oracle Database Gateway for VSAM.
Use Oracle Database Gateway for IMS, VSAM, and Adabas Installation and Configuration
Guide for AIX 5L Based Systems (64-Bit), HP-UX PA-RISC (64-Bit), Solaris Operating
System (SPARC 64-Bit), Linux x86, and Linux x86-64, Oracle Database Gateway for VSAM
User's Guide and Oracle Connect for IMS, VSAM, and Adabas Gateways Installation and
Configuration Guide for IBM z/OS.
Adabas
Oracle Database Gateway for Adabas.
Use Oracle Database Gateway for IMS, VSAM, and Adabas Installation and Configuration
Guide for AIX 5L Based Systems (64-Bit), HP-UX PA-RISC (64-Bit), Solaris Operating
System (SPARC 64-Bit), Linux x86, and Linux x86-64, Oracle Database Gateway for Adabas
User's Guide and Oracle Connect for IMS, VSAM, and Adabas Gateways Installation and
Configuration Guide for IBM z/OS.
H-10 Oracle Database Installation Guide
I
I
Country Codes
This appendix contains a list of valid country codes that can be used while installing
Oracle Configuration Manager.
Valid Country Codes
Table I–1 contains a list of countries and their short names (codes.)
Table I–1
Country Codes
Country
Short Name (Code)
African Other
AA
Andorra
AD
United Arab Emirates
AE
Afghanistan
AS
Antigua and Barbuda
AM
Anguilla
AI
Albania
AL
Armenia
AM
Netherlands Antilles
AN
Angola
AO
Antarctica
AQ
Argentina
AR
American Samoa
AS
Austria
AT
Australia
AU
Aruba
AW
Azerbaijan
AZ
Bosnia-Herzegovina
BA
Barbados
BB
Bangladesh
BD
Belgium
BE
Burkina Faso
BF
Country Codes I-1
Valid Country Codes
Table I–1 (Cont.) Country Codes
Country
Short Name (Code)
Bulgaria
BG
Bahrain
BH
Burundi
BI
Benin
BJ
Bermuda
BM
Brunei Darussalam
BN
Bolivia
BO
Brazil
BR
Bahamas
BS
Bhutan
BT
Bouvet Island
BV
Botswana
BW
Belarus
BY
Belize
BZ
Canada
CA
Cocos (Keeling) Islands
CC
Central African Republic
CF
Congo
CG
Switzerland
CH
Cote D’Ivoire
CI
Cook Islands
CK
Chile
CL
Cameroon
CM
China
CN
Columbia
CO
Costa Rica
CR
Cuba
CU
Cape Verde
CV
Christmas Island
CX
Cyprus
CY
Czech Republic
CZ
Germany
DE
Djibouti
DJ
Denmark and Iceland
DK
Dominica
DM
Dominican Republic
DO
Algeria
DZ
I-2 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Valid Country Codes
Table I–1 (Cont.) Country Codes
Country
Short Name (Code)
Ecuador
EC
Estonia
EE
Egypt
EG
Western Sahara
EH
Eritrea
ER
Spain
ES
Ethiopia
ET
Finland
FI
Fiji
FJ
Falkland Islands (Malvinas)
FK
Micronesia (Federated States Of)
FM
Faroe Islands
FO
France
FR
France - Overseas Territories
FX
Gabon
GA
United Kingdom
GB
Grenada
GD
Georgia
GE
French Guiana
GF
Ghana
GH
Gibraltar
GI
Greenland
GL
Gambia
GM
Guinea
GN
Guadeloupe
GP
Equatorial Guinea
GQ
Greece
GR
South Georgia and South Sandwich Island
GS
Guatemala
GT
Guam
GU
Guinea - Bissau
GW
Guyana
GY
Hong Kong
HK
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
HM
Honduras
HN
Croatia
HR
Haiti
HT
Country Codes I-3
Valid Country Codes
Table I–1 (Cont.) Country Codes
Country
Short Name (Code)
Hungary
HU
Indonesia
ID
Ireland
IE
Israel
IL
India
IN
British Indian Ocean Territory
IO
Iraq
IQ
Iran (Islamic Republic of)
IR
Iceland
IS
Italy
IT
Jamaica
JM
Jordan
JO
Japan
JP
Kenya
KE
Kyrgyzstan
KG
Cambodia
KH
Kiribati
KI
Comoros
KM
Saint Kitts and Nevis
KN
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
KP
Republic of Korea
KR
Kuwait
KW
Cayman Islands
KY
Kazakhstan
KZ
Lao People’s Democratic Republic
LA
Lebanon
LB
Saint Lucia
LC
Liechtenstein
LI
Sri Lanka
LK
Liberia
LR
Lesotho
LS
Lithuania
LT
Luxembourg
LU
Latvia
LV
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
LY
Morocco
MA
Monaco
MC
I-4 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Valid Country Codes
Table I–1 (Cont.) Country Codes
Country
Short Name (Code)
Republic of Moldova
MD
Madagascar
MG
Marshall Islands
MH
Macedonia
MK
Mali
ML
Myanmar
MM
Mongolia
MM
Macau
MO
Northern Mariana Islands
MP
Martinique
MQ
Mauritania
MR
Montserrat
MS
Malta
MT
Mauritius
MU
Malawi
MW
Mexico
MX
Malyasia
MY
Mozambique
MZ
Namibia
NA
New Caledonia
NC
Niger
NE
Norfolk Island
NF
Nigeria
NG
Nicaragua
NI
Netherlands
NL
Norway
NO
Nepal
NP
Narau
NR
Niue
NU
New Zealand
NZ
Oman
OM
Panama
PA
Peru
PE
French Polynesia
PF
Papua New Guinea
PG
Philippines
PH
Pakistan
PK
Country Codes I-5
Valid Country Codes
Table I–1 (Cont.) Country Codes
Country
Short Name (Code)
Poland
PL
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
PM
Pitcairn
PN
Puerto Rico
PR
Portugal
PT
Palau
PW
Paraguay
PY
Qatar
QA
Reunion
RE
Romania
RO
CIS-Comm. of Indep. States
RU
Rwanda
RW
Saudi Arabia
SA
Solomon Islands
SB
Seychelles
SC
Sudan
SD
Sweden
SE
Singapore
SG
Saint Helena
SH
Slovenia
SI
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands
SJ
Slovakia
SK
Sierra Leone
SL
San Marino
SM
Senegal
SN
Somalia
SO
Suriname
SR
Sao Tome and Principe
ST
El Salvador
SV
South Asia Growth Economies
SX
Syrian Arab Republic
SY
Swaziland
SZ
Turks and Caicos Islands
TC
Chad
TD
French Southern Territories
TF
Togo
TG
Thailand
TH
I-6 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Valid Country Codes
Table I–1 (Cont.) Country Codes
Country
Short Name (Code)
Tajikistan
TJ
Tokelau
TK
Turkmenistan
TM
Tunisia
TN
Tonga
TO
East Timor
TP
Turkey
TR
Trinidad and Tobago
TT
Tuvalu
TV
Taiwan - Republic of China
TW
United Republic of Tanzania
TZ
Ukraine
UA
Uganda
UG
United States Minor Outlying Islands
UM
United States
US
Uruguay
UY
Uzbekistan
UZ
Vatican City State (Holy See)
VA
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
VC
Venezuala
VE
Virgin Islands (British)
VI
Vietnam
VN
Vanuatu
VU
Wallis and Futuna Islands
WF
Samoa
WS
Yemen
YE
Mayotte
YT
Serbia and Montenegro
YU
South Africa
ZA
Zambia
ZM
Zaire
ZR
Zimbabwe
ZW
Country Codes I-7
Valid Country Codes
I-8 Oracle Database Installation Guide
Glossary
Automatic Storage Management disk group
A set of disk devices that Automatic Storage Management manages as a single unit.
Each disk device can be an individual physical disk, a multiple disk device such as a
RAID storage array or logical volume, or even a partition on a physical disk. You can
create the Automatic Storage Management disk group when you create the Automatic
Storage Management instance, or with Oracle Database Configuration Assistant.
Automatic Storage Management instance
The Oracle instance that manages Automatic Storage Management disk groups
Automatic Storage Management disk groups. It is created automatically when you
install and configure Automatic Storage Management. See also Oracle system
identifier (SID).
Automatic Storage Management
Enables creation of a single disk group from a collection of individual disk devices. It
balances I/O to the disk group across all of the devices in the disk group. It also
implements striping and mirroring to improve I/O performance and data reliability.
automatic undo management mode
A mode of Oracle Database in which undo data is stored in a dedicated undo
tablespace. Unlike in manual undo management mode, the only undo management
that you must perform is the creation of the undo tablespace. All other undo
management is performed automatically.
connect descriptor
A specially formatted description of the destination for a network connection. A
connect descriptor contains destination service and network route information.
The destination service is indicated by using its service name for the Oracle Database
or its Oracle system identifier (SID) for Oracle release 11.1 databases. The network
route provides, at a minimum, the location of the listener through use of a network
address.
connect identifier
A name, net service name, or service name that resolves to a connect descriptor. Users
initiate a connect request by passing a user name and password along with a connect
identifier in a connect string for the service to which they want to connect, for
example:
SQL> CONNECT [email protected]_identifier
Enter password: password
Glossary-1
control files
control files
Files that record the physical structure of a database and contain the database name,
the names and locations of associated databases and online undo tablespace, the time
stamp of the database creation, the current log sequence number, and checkpoint
information.
default domain
The network domain within which most client requests take place. It can be the
domain where the client resides, or a domain from which the client often requests
network services. The default domain is also the client configuration parameter that
determines what domain to append to unqualified network name requests. A name
request is unqualified if it does not have a "." character within it.
directory naming
A naming method that specifies a directory server to resolve a net service name into a
connect descriptor. The net service name is stored centrally in a directory server.
directory server
A Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)-compliant directory server. A
directory can provide centralized storage and retrieval of database network
components, user and corporate policies preferences, user authentication, and security
information, replacing client-side and server-side localized files.
external procedures
Procedure or function written in the C programming language and stored in a shared
library. An Oracle server can call external procedures or functions using PL/SQL
routines. For Oracle Database to connect to external procedures, the server must be
configured with a net service name and the listener must be configured with protocol
address and service information.
global database name
The full database name that uniquely distinguishes it from any other database in your
network domain.
For example:
sales.us.example.com
where sales is the name you want to call your database and us.example.com is the
network domain in which the database is located.
initialization parameter file
An ASCII text file that contains information needed to initialize a database and
instance.
instance
Process associated with a running Oracle Database instance. When a database is
started on a database server (regardless of the type of computer), Oracle Database
allocates a memory area called the System Global Area and starts one or more Oracle
Database processes. This combination of the System Global Area and Oracle Database
processes is called an instance. The memory and processes of an instance manage the
associated database's data efficiently and serve the users of the database.
Glossary-2
net service name
installation type
A predefined component set that automatically selects which components to install.
See "Oracle Database Installation Types" on page 1-10 for a list of installation types
available with each top-level component.
Interprocess Communication (IPC)
A protocol that client applications use that resides on the same node as the listener to
communicate with the database. IPC can provide a faster local connection than
TCP/IP.
listener
A process that resides on the server and whose responsibility is to listen for incoming
client connection requests and manage the traffic to the server.
When a client requests a network session with a database server, a listener receives the
actual request. If the client information matches the listener information, then the
listener grants a connection to the database server.
listener.ora file
A configuration file for the listener that identifies the:
■
Listener name
■
Protocol addresses on which it is accepting connection requests
■
Services for which it is listening
The listener.ora file resides in the $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin directory.
An Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) does not require identification of the database
service because of service registration. However, static service configuration is
required for an Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) if you plan to use Oracle
Enterprise Manager.
local naming
A naming method that resolves a net service name into a connect descriptor. This
name is configured and stored in the tnsnames.ora file on each individual client.
manual undo management mode
A mode of the database in which undo blocks are stored in user-managed rollback
segments.
naming method
A resolution method used by a client application to resolve a connect identifier to a
network address when attempting to connect to a database service. Oracle Net
Services supports the following naming methods:
■
Local naming
■
Directory naming
■
Host naming
■
External naming
net service name
A simple name for a service that resolves to a connect descriptor. Users initiate a
connect request by passing a user name and password along with a net service name
in a connect string for the service to which they want to connect:
Glossary-3
OPS$
SQL> CONNECT [email protected]_service_name
Enter password: password
Depending on your needs, net service names can be stored in a variety of places,
including:
■
Local configuration file, tnsnames.ora, on each client
■
Directory server
■
External naming service, such as Network Information Service (NIS) or Cell
Directory Service (CDS)
OPS$
Acronym for operating system specific. The initialization file parameter OS_
AUTHENT_PREFIX enables users to specify a prefix that Oracle uses to authenticate
users attempting to connect to the database. Oracle concatenates the value of this
parameter to the beginning of the user's operating system account name and
password. When a connection request is attempted, Oracle compares the prefixed user
name with Oracle user names in the database.
The default value of this parameter is "" (a null string), thereby eliminating the
addition of any prefix to operating system account names. In earlier releases, OPS$
was the default setting.
ORACLE_BASE
ORACLE_BASE is the root of the Oracle Database directory tree. The Oracle Base
directory is the top level directory that you can use to install the various oracle
software products. You can use the same Oracle base directory for more than one
installation. For example, /u01/app/oracle is an Oracle base directory created by
the oracle user.
ORACLE_HOME
Corresponds to the environment in which Oracle Database products run. If you install
an OFA-compliant database, using Oracle Universal Installer defaults, Oracle home
(known as $ORACLE_HOME in this guide) is located beneath $ORACLE_BASE. The
default Oracle home is db_n where n is the Oracle home number. It contains
subdirectories for Oracle Database software executables and network files. See also
Oracle home.
Oracle home
The directory path in which to install Oracle components (for example,
/u01/app/oracle/product/11.1.0/db_n). You are prompted to enter an Oracle
home in the Path field of the Specify File Locations window. See also ORACLE_
HOME, Oracle home name.
Oracle home name
The name of the current Oracle home, for example, Db_1. Each Oracle home has a
home name that distinguishes it from all other Oracle homes on your computer.
During installation, you are prompted to enter an Oracle home name in the Name field
on the Specify File Locations window.
Oracle schema
A set of rules that determine what can be stored in an LDAP-compliant directory
server. Oracle has its own schema that is applied to many types of Oracle entries,
Glossary-4
service registration
including Oracle Net Services entries. The Oracle schema for Oracle Net Services
entries includes the attributes the entries may contain.
Oracle Documentation Library
The media in your kit that includes the Oracle Database documentation. The Oracle
Documentation Library is separate from the installation media.
The Oracle Documentation Library does not include this installation guide or Oracle
Database Release Notes for Linux. These documents are included on the media labeled
Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) and are available on Oracle Technology Network
(OTN).
Oracle Net foundation layer
A networking communication layer that establishes and maintains the connection
between the client application and server, and exchanging messages between them.
protocol address
An address that identifies the network address of a network object.
When a connection is made, the client and the receiver of the request, such as the
listener, or Oracle Connection Manager, are configured with identical protocol
addresses. The client uses this address to send the connection request to a particular
network object location, and the recipient "listens" for requests on this address. It is
important to install the same protocols for the client and the connection recipient, and
to configure the same addresses.
raw partitions
Portions of a physical disk that are accessed at the lowest possible disk (block) level.
redo log files
Files that contain a record of all changes made to data in the database buffer cache. If
an instance failure occurs, then an administrator can use the redo log files to recover
the modified data that was in memory.
repository
A set of tables located in any Oracle database accessible to the Oracle Management
Server. Oracle Management Server uses a repository to store all system data and
application data, information about the state of managed nodes distributed
throughout the environment, and information about the separately licensable
management packs.
service registration
A feature by which the PMON process (an instance background process) automatically
registers information with a listener. Because this information is registered with the
listener, the listener.ora file does not need to be configured with this static
information.
Service registration provides the listener with the following information:
■
Service name(s) for each running instance of the database
■
Instance name(s) of the database
■
Service handlers (dispatchers and dedicated servers) available for each instance
This allows the listener to direct a client's request appropriately.
■
Dispatcher, instance, and node load information
Glossary-5
SID
This allows the listener to determine which dispatcher can best handle a client
connection's request. If all dispatchers are blocked, the listener can spawn a
dedicated server for the connection.
This information allows the listener to determine how best to service a client
connection request.
SID
The Oracle system identifier that distinguishes the database from all other databases
on your computer. The SID automatically defaults to the database name portion of the
global database name (sales in the example sales.us.example.com) until you
reach eight characters or enter a period. You can accept or change the default value.
The SID can also refer to an Automatic Storage Management instance SID, available
when you install Automatic Storage Management.
sqlnet.ora file
A configuration file for the client or server that specifies the:
■
Client domain to append to unqualified service names or net service names
■
Order of naming methods for the client to use when resolving a name
■
Logging and tracing features to use
■
Route of connections
■
External naming parameters
■
Oracle Advanced Security parameters
The sqlnet.ora file resides in $ORACLE_HOME/network/admin.
Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
An industry standard protocol designed by Netscape Communications Corporation
for securing network connections. SSL provides authentication, encryption, and data
integrity using public key infrastructure (PKI).
SSL
See Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).
System Global Area
A group of shared memory structures that contain data and control information for an
Oracle Database instance.
system identifier
See SID.
tablespace
A logical storage unit within a database. Tablespaces are divided into logical units of
storage called segments, which are further divided into extents.
tnsnames.ora file
A configuration file that contains net service names mapped to connect descriptors.
This file is used for the local naming method. The tnsnames.ora file resides in
$ORACLE_BASE/network/admin.
Glossary-6
unqualified name
undo tablespace
An tablespace that contains one or more undo segments. The creation of any other
types of segment (for example, tables, indexes) in undo tablespaces is not allowed.
In the automatic mode, each Oracle instance is assigned one and only one undo
tablespace. Each undo tablespace is composed of a set of undo files. Undo blocks are
grouped in extents. At any point in time, an extent is either allocated to (and used by)
a transaction table, or is free.
Blocks in undo tablespaces are grouped into the following categories:
■
■
■
File control blocks, bitmap blocks, and so forth used for space management
Undo segments containing transaction table blocks, undo blocks, and extent-map
blocks used for transaction management
Free blocks that are unallocated to file control or undo segments
unqualified name
A net service name that does not contain a network domain.
Glossary-7
unqualified name
Glossary-8
Index
Symbols
/, G-3
A
accounts
reviewing, 5-4
unauthenticated access to, 5-8
ADMIN account
changing password for Oracle HTTP Server
9.0.3, 4-19
aio-max-nr file, 2-23
aliases, multiple on computers, 2-16
ANONYMOUS user
unauthenticated account access with, 5-8
APPC-enabled databases, H-9
Application Express
getting started, 4-28
logging in to, 4-28
setting up, 4-28
user roles, 4-28
Application Express Administration Services, 4-29
Application Express administrator, 4-28
Application Express user roles
Application Express administrator, 4-28
developer, 4-28
end user, 4-28
workspace administrator, 4-28
applications, migrating non-Oracle applications to
Oracle, H-8
ASM See Automatic Storage Management
asmcmd utility, 3-19
Automatic Storage Management
asmcmd utility, 3-19
block device names, 2-39
characteristics of failure groups, 2-34
checking disk availability, 2-39
configuring disks, 2-32 to ??, 2-37
configuring disks for Automatic Storage
Management, 2-37
considerations before installing, 3-15
DAS disks, 2-37
database creation for, 3-18
disk devices, 1-13
disk groups, 2-33
disks, supported, 2-37
displaying attached disks, 2-39
Enterprise Manager Migrate Database
wizard, 3-17
failure groups
examples, 2-34
identifying, 2-34
identifying available disks, 2-39
identifying disks, 2-39
installation, testing, 3-19
installing, 3-14 to ??
managing, 5-3
migrating existing databases to, 3-17
mirroring, 2-33
Optimal Flexible Architecture file naming
conventions, D-4
Oracle Clusterware, 1-13
Oracle home location for new installation, 3-15
partition creation, 2-37
password file, 3-15
recommendations for disk groups, 2-33
redundancy levels, 2-33
removing, 6-4
response files, A-3
running multiple databases on a single
server, 3-15
SAN disks, 2-37
space required for preconfigured database, 2-34
SPFILE server parameter file, 3-15
starting and stopping, 5-3
upgrade advantages with separate Oracle
homes, 3-15
Automatic Storage Management (ASM)
ASM disk group templates, 1-13
templates, 1-13
upgrading, 3-11
Automatic Storage Management disk groups
about, 1-13
creating, 3-15
managing, 5-3
Automatic Storage Management failure groups
about, 1-14
Automatic Storage Management instance
about, 1-14
creating, 3-15
Index-1
B
backups of database
Oracle Database Recovery Manager,
base directory
See Oracle base directory
Basic installation type
noninteractive installations, A-6
block device
device name, 2-39
H-7
C
certification, hardware and software, 1-7
Character Set Scanner, 1-19
checking distribution of the operating system, 2-7
checking version of the operating system, 2-7
chmod command, 2-29, 2-31
chown command, 2-29, 2-31
CLASSPATH environment variable, 4-10
client static library, generating, 4-4
cloning
Oracle home, B-1
Cluster Manager
ports, ranges and protocol, E-4
Cluster Ready Services (CSS). See Oracle Clusterware
Cluster Synchronization Services (CSS)
Automatic Storage Management, 1-13
ports, ranges and protocol, E-3
clusters
installation guidelines, 3-2
See also Oracle Clusterware, Oracle Real
Application Clusters
Clusterware
installed before Oracle Database, 3-2
Clusterware. See Oracle Clusterware
computers with multiple aliases, 2-16
computers, non-networked, 2-16
configuration assistants
failure, G-6
troubleshooting, G-6
configuring
kernel parameters, 2-22
Oracle Application Server 11g (new), 4-21
Oracle HTTP Server (new), 4-18
Oracle HTTP Server 11g (new), 4-21
configuring disks for Automatic Storage
Management, 2-32 to ??, 2-37
Connection Manager
ports, ranges and protocol, E-2
control files
locating, 5-12
naming, D-4
reviewing, 5-10
using Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
with, 5-12
CONTROL_FILES initialization parameter, 5-12
country codes, I-1
CSD
download location for WebSphere MQ, 2-13
requirements
Index-2
on Linux, 2-13
custom database
failure groups for Automatic Storage
Management, 2-34
requirements when using Automatic Storage
Management, 2-34
custom.rsp file, A-4
D
dadTool.pl utility, 4-28
DAS (direct attached storage) disks, 2-37
data files
creating separate directories for, 2-31
defined, 5-10
managing with Automatic Storage
Management, 1-13
minimum disk space for, 2-31
naming, D-4
options for placing on file system, 2-30
recommendations for file system, 2-30
reviewing, 5-10
setting permissions on data file directories, 2-31
setting up, 5-10
Data Guard
ports, ranges and protocol, E-2
data loss
minimizing with Automatic Storage
Management, 2-34
data mining tools
Oracle Data Mining, H-6
Data Vault, 1-6
data warehousing tool
Oracle OLAP, H-6
Database Configuration Assistant
running in silent mode, A-9
troubleshooting, G-6
database configuration collections, 4-29
databases
Automatic Storage Management
requirements, 2-34
files, 5-10
identifying, 5-9
initialization parameter file, 5-10
naming, 3-13, 3-18
non-Oracle
APPC-enabled, H-9
non-Oracle, listed, H-9
OLAP support (Oracle OLAP), H-6
Optimal Flexible Architecture file naming
conventions, D-4
recovery with Oracle Backup and Recovery, H-7
redo log files, 5-11
removing, 6-3
removing Oracle HTML DB, 6-2
security management, H-5
tablespaces, 5-10
upgrading, 3-11
DB_DOMAIN initialization parameter, 5-9
DB_NAME initialization parameter, 5-9
DB2 database, H-9
DB2 z/OS database, H-9
DB2/400 database, H-9
dba group
and SYSDBA privilege, 2-17
creating, 2-19, 2-20
description, 2-17
dbca.rsp file, A-4
default data files, 5-11
default file mode creation mask
setting, 2-44
default Linux installation
recommendation for, 1-3
default tablespaces, 5-11
deprecated and desupported components, xxiii
developer, 4-28
device names
IDE disks, 2-39
RAID, 2-39
SCSI disks, 2-39
DHCP computers, installing on, 2-15
directory
creating separate data file directories, 2-31
database file directory, 2-30
Oracle base directory, 2-25
Oracle home directory, 2-27
Oracle Inventory directory, 2-26
oraInventory, 2-26
permission for data file directories, 2-31
disc
mounting, 3-5
disk devices
in Automatic Storage Management, 1-13
managing with Automatic Storage
Management, 1-13
disk space
checking, 2-5
requirement for Oracle base directory, 2-28
requirements for preconfigured database in
Automatic Storage Management, 2-34
disks
checking availability for Automatic Storage
Management, 2-39
configuring for Automatic Storage
Management, 2-32 to ??, 2-37
displaying attached disks, 2-39
supported for Automatic Storage
Management, 2-37
DISPLAY environment variable
setting, 2-44
DOMAIN_NAME initialization parameter, 5-9
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. See DHCP
E
embedded PL/SQL gateway
about, 4-15
disabling, 4-16
enabling, 4-16
end user, 4-28
enterprise.rsp file, A-4
environment
configuring for oracle user, 2-44
environment variables
DISPLAY, 2-44
NLS_LANG, F-3
ORACLE_BASE, 2-29, 2-44
ORACLE_HOME, 2-43, 2-44, 2-46
ORACLE_HOSTNAME, 2-16
ORACLE_SID, 2-44
PATH, 2-44
SHELL, 2-44
TMP and TMPDIR, 2-5, 2-45
TNS_ADMIN, 2-46
errata
Linux kernel errata, 2-7
errors
configuration assistants, G-6
installation, G-2, G-3, G-6
noninteractive installation, G-7
silent mode, G-7
X Window, G-1
X Window display errors, G-1
/etc/security/limits.so file, 2-22
/etc/sysctl.conf file, 2-24
EXAMPLE tablespace
description, 5-11
example01.DBF data file, 5-11
example01.DBF data file, 5-11
examples
Automatic Storage Management failure
groups, 2-34
Oracle base directories, 2-26
external redundancy
Automatic Storage Management redundancy
level, 2-33
F
failure group
examples of Automatic Storage Management
failure groups, 2-34
failure groups
characteristics of Automatic Storage Management
failure group, 2-34
examples in Automatic Storage
Management, 2-34
in Automatic Storage Management, 1-14
fatal errors, G-6
fdisk command, 2-39
features
deprecated, xxiii
file mode creation mask
setting, 2-44
file sets, 2-6
file system
appropriate for Oracle base directory, 2-29
data file and recovery file placement
options, 2-30
NFS, 1-8
Index-3
requirements for Oracle base directory, 2-29
using for data files, 2-30
writing to, 1-8
file-max file, 2-23
file-max parameter
recommended value on Linux x86, 2-23
files, D-4
$ORACLE_HOME/dbs/initsid.ora, 5-10
$ORACLE_HOME/install/portlist.ini, 5-2
contol, D-4
control, 5-12
custom.rsp, A-4
data files, D-4
dbca.rsp, A-4
enterprise.rsp, A-4
/etc/group, D-3
/etc/passwd, D-3
/etc/security/limits.so, 2-22
/etc/sysctl.conf, 2-24
listener.ora, 4-8
mgw.ora, 4-10
oraInst.loc, 2-19
oraInst.loc file, A-3
oratab, 2-28
/proc/sys/fs/file-max, 2-23
/proc/sys/kernel/sem, 2-23
/proc/sys/kernel/shmall, 2-23
/proc/sys/kernel/shmmax, 2-23
shmmax file, 2-23
/proc/sys/kernel/shmmni, 2-23
/proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_local_port_range, 2-23
redo log, 5-11
response files, A-4
standard.rsp, A-4
tnsnames.ora, 4-8
For, 2-30
free
UNIX command, 2-3
G
Gateways products FAQ, H-8
getting started
Application Express, 4-28
Global Database Name
about, 3-13, 3-18
global database name, 5-9
globalization support, F-1
Grid Control. See Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid
Control
group file, D-3
groups
checking for existing oinstall group, 2-19
creating the dba group, 2-19, 2-20
creating the oinstall group, 2-19
H
hardware certification, 1-7
hardware requirements, 2-3
Index-4
high redundancy
Automatic Storage Management redundancy
level, 2-33
home directory
See Oracle home directory
host name, setting before installation, 2-16
HTTP Server
choosing, 4-14
httpd.conf
modifications if running Oracle9i, 4-20
I
IBM DB2 database, H-9
IBM DB2 z/OS database, H-9
IBM DB2/400 database, H-9
IBM WebSphere MQ
requirement on Linux, 2-13
IBM WebSphere MQ Series databases, H-9
IDE disks
device names, 2-39
Informix Server database, H-9
initialization parameter
job_queue_process, 4-29
initialization parameter file
description, 5-10
in databases, 5-10
initsid.ora, 5-10
initialization parameters
DB_NAME, 5-9
DOMAIN_NAME, 5-9
SERVICE_NAMES, 5-9
initsid.ora file, 5-10
initsid.ora initialization parameter file, 5-10
installation
accessing installation software, 3-4
Automatic Storage Management
requirements, 2-34
available products, 1-10
cleaning up after a failed installation, G-7
clusters, installation guidelines, 3-2
component-specific guidelines, 3-1
computer aliases, multiple, 2-16
considerations, 1-6
errors, G-3, G-6
silent mode, G-7
laptops, 2-16
log files, G-2
noninteractive
error handling, G-7
oraInst.loc file, A-3
overview, 1-1 to 1-19
reinstalling Oracle software, 3-2
response files, A-1, A-4
preparing, A-4, A-5
silent mode, G-7
templates, A-4
silent mode, A-6, A-7
upgrading, H-3
installation errors
steps to resolve, G-2
installation guidelines, 3-9
Oracle Label Security, 3-2
installation overview, 1-1
installation software
copying to a hard disk, 3-6
extracting, 3-5
installation software, accessing, 3-4
installCCRSQL.sh, 4-30, G-4
installing
other languages, 4-26
instance
instance identifier (SID), 2-44
IP addresses, multiple, 2-15
ip_local_port_range file, 2-23
ip_local_port_range parameter
recommended value on Linux x86, 2-23
IPC protocol address
Oracle Messaging Gateway setting, 4-9
J
JDK
internationalization class, 4-10
run-time class, 4-10
JDK requirements, 2-6
K
kernel
Linux errata, 2-7
kernel parameters
changing, 2-24
configuring, 2-22
L
languages
installing Oracle components in different
languages, F-4
using Oracle components in different
languages, F-3
laptops, installing Oracle Database on, 2-16
License
Custom installation, 1-2, 1-10, 3-10
limits.so file, 2-22
Linux
kernel errata, 2-7
setting shell limits, 2-22
listener
identifying Oracle home for, 2-43
lsnrctl command, 2-44
stopping, 2-43, 2-44
stopping existing listener process, 2-43
listener.ora file, 4-8
modifying for external procedures, 4-9
local device
using for data files, 2-31
log files, G-2
troubleshooting, G-3
logical volume manager
See LVM
loopback adapters
non-networked computers, 2-16
lsdev command, 2-39
lsnrctl command, 2-44
LVM
recommendations for Automatic Storage
Management, 2-33
M
mask
setting default file mode creation mask, 2-44
memory requirements, 2-3
MGW_AGENT service name, 4-10
mgwextproc service
adding static service information, 4-9
mgw.ora file
modifying, 4-10
Microsoft SQL Server database, H-9
migrating
See upgrading
migrating applications to Oracle, H-8
migrating non-Oracle databases to Oracle, H-3
minimal Linux installation
recommendation for, 1-3
mirroring Automatic Storage Management disk
groups, 2-33
mkdir command, 2-29, 2-31
Mode
Connected, 4-29
Disconnected, 4-29
mode
setting default file mode creation mask, 2-44
mount point
for Oracle base directory, 2-26
mount point directories, 3-7
mount point directory
choosing, C-2
mount points
Optimal Flexible Architecture conventions for
creating, D-1
MQSeries
class, 4-10
multihomed computers, installing on, 2-15
multiple aliases, computers with, 2-16
multiple Oracle homes, 1-7
N
naming subdirectories, D-3
NAS devices
creating files on for use with Automatic Storage
Management, C-4
guidelines for configuration, C-1
Net Configuration Assistant
troubleshooting, G-6
Net Configuration Assistant (NetCA)
response files, A-8
running at command prompt, A-8
Index-5
netca.rsp file, A-4
network adapters
computers with multiple aliases, 2-16
non-networked computers, 2-16
primary, on computers with multiple
aliases, 2-16
See also loopback adapters, primary network
adapters
network cards, multiple, 2-15
Network File System See NFS
network setup
about, 2-14
computers with multiple aliases, 2-16
network topics
DHCP computers, 2-15
laptops, 2-16
multiple network cards, 2-15
non-networked computers, 2-16
new installation
adding entry for Application Express, 4-19
adding new MIME types, 4-20
configuring Oracle Application Server 10g, 4-21
configuring Oracle HTTP Server, 4-18
configuring Oracle HTTP Server 9.0.3, 4-18
modifications to support SQL Workshop, 4-20
modifying httpd.conf, 4-20
modifying marvel.conf, 4-21
modifying wdbsvr.app, 4-19
NFS
mount options, C-5
using for installation, 1-8
NLS_LANG environment variable, F-3
nofile
shell limit on Linux x86, 2-22
noninteractive installation
oraInst.loc file, A-3
response files
preparing, A-4, A-5
templates, A-4
silent mode, A-6, A-7
errors, G-7
noninteractive mode
about, A-1
reasons for using, A-2
See also response files, silent mode, A-1
non-networked computers, 2-16
non-Oracle databases, listed, H-9
normal redundancy, Automatic Storage Management
redundancy level, 2-33
nproc
shell limit on Linux x86, 2-22
O
obfuscate
password, 4-28
OEM
See Oracle Enterprise Manager
oinstall group
checking for existing, 2-19
Index-6
creating, 2-19
description, 2-17
OLAP tools
about, H-6
Oracle OLAP, H-6
OLS
See Oracle Label Security
OMF
See Oracle Managed Files
online help
not working, G-9
oper group
and SYSOPER privilege, 2-17
creating, 2-20
description, 2-17
operating system
checking distribution and version, 2-7
operating system groups
creating the dba group, 2-20
creating the oinstall group, 2-19
oinstall, 2-17
OSDBA, 2-17
OSOPER, 2-17
osoper, 2-17
requirements, 2-17
operating system requirements, 2-6
operating system users
creating the oracle user, 2-20
oracle, 2-18
requirements, 2-17
root user, 3-9
Optimal Flexible Architecture
Automatic Storage Management, D-4
conventions for creating mount points, D-1
file identification, D-6
file mapping, D-6
files systems, D-2
naming, D-1
database files, D-4
Oracle base directory, D-2
subdirectories, D-3
very large databases, D-2
Oracle Managed Files, D-4
pathnames, D-3
recommendations for Oracle base directory, 2-25
recommended path for Oracle base
directory, 2-25
recommended path for Oracle home
directory, 2-27
recommended path for Oracle Inventory
directory, 2-26
special tablespaces, D-5
standard, D-1
using seperate segments, D-5
Oracle Application Server, H-4
Oracle applications
installing with Oracle Database, H-8
Oracle base directory
creating, 2-29
creating new, 2-29
description, 2-25
determining disk space on, 2-29
disk space requirements, 2-28
equivalent directory on Microsoft Windows,
examples, 2-26
identifying appropriate file system, 2-29
identifying existing, 2-28
mount point for, 2-26
naming conventions, D-2
recommended path, 2-25
relationship with Oracle software owner
user, 2-26
requirement for, 2-25
requirements for existing directory, 2-28
requirements on file system, 2-29
Oracle Cluster Registry
See OCR
Oracle Cluster Registry port, E-4
Oracle Clusterware
about, H-3
ports, E-3
ports, ranges and protocol, E-3
used with Automatic Storage Management,
used with Oracle Real Application Clusters,
Oracle components
using in different languages, F-3
Oracle CSS Daemon
configuration, deleting, 6-7
Oracle Data Mining
about, H-6
installing, H-6
Oracle Database
administering and monitoring, H-4
creating data file directories, 2-31
Custom installation, 1-10
Enterprise Edition installation, 1-10
getting started using
accessing, 5-3, 5-4
starting and stopping database, 5-3, 5-4
installing with Oracle applications, H-8
minimum disk space requirements, 2-31
multiple databases on a single server with
Automatic Storage Management, 3-15
naming, 3-13, 3-18
privileged groups, 2-17
requirements with Automatic Storage
Management, 2-34
security management, H-5
setting ORACLE_SID environment variable,
Standard Edition installation, 1-10
upgrading, H-3
Web servers, H-8
Oracle Database Client
configuring connections, H-2
Oracle Database components
administering and monitoring, H-4
connectivity FAQ, H-8
FAQ on installing, H-2 to H-3
installing with Oracle applications, H-8
installing with Oracle Database tools, H-4
2-25
1-13
H-3
2-44
Oracle Database Configuration Assistant
response file, A-4
Oracle Database Recovery Manager (RMAN)
about, H-7
Automatic Storage Management, 1-15, 3-17
Oracle Database SID
about, 3-13
naming rules, 3-13
Oracle Database Vault
postinstallation task, 4-9
Oracle E-Business Suite, 4-31, 6-2
Oracle Enterprise Management Agent
HTTP port, changing, E-4
ports
ranges and protocol, E-2
Oracle Enterprise Manager, 1-15
Database Control
logging into, 5-1
port number, 5-1
using to modify control files, 5-12
using to modify redo log files, 5-12
using to view control files, 5-12
using to view redo log files, 5-12
database migration to Automatic Storage
Management, 3-17
login privileges, 5-2
Migrate Wizard, 3-17
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Console
ports, ranges and protocol, E-2
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
ports, changing, E-4
Oracle Enterprise Manager Migrate Database
wizard, 3-17
Oracle Event Manager
ports, ranges and protocol, E-4
Oracle home
cloning, B-1
Oracle home directory
Automatic Storage Management
considerations, 3-15
description, 2-27
identifying for listener, 2-43
multiple homes, network considerations, 2-15
recommended path, 2-27
requirement for, 2-27
requirements, 2-27
using to identify Oracle base directory, 2-28
Oracle home name, 2-27
Oracle host name, setting before installation, 2-16
Oracle HTML DB
removing from the database, 6-2
Oracle HTTP Server
about, 4-15
Oracle HTTP Server 9.0.3
changing ADMIN password, 4-19
configuring (new), 4-18
Oracle internationalization class, 4-10
Oracle Internet Directory, H-5
Oracle Inventory
description, 2-26
Index-7
pointer file, 2-19
Oracle Inventory directory
description, 2-26
recommended path, 2-26
Oracle Inventory group
checking for existing, 2-19
creating, 2-19
description, 2-17
Oracle JDBC class, 4-10
Oracle Label Security
installation guidelines, 3-2
post-installation tasks, 4-8
Oracle Managed Files
Optimal Flexible Architecture naming
conventions, D-4
Oracle Messaging Gateway
CSD requirements
on Linux, 2-13
postinstallation tasks, 4-9
requirements on Linux, 2-13
Oracle Messaging Gateway class, 4-10
Oracle Migration Workbench
migrating non-Oracle applications to Oracle, H-8
migrating non-Oracle databases to Oracle, H-3
Oracle Net
configuration file directory, 4-8
identifying Oracle home for listener, 2-43
lsnrctl command, 2-44
stopping existing listener, 2-43
stopping listener, 2-43
stopping the listener, 2-44
Oracle Net Configuration Assistant
response file, A-4
Oracle Net Services
post-installation tasks, 4-8
Oracle OLAP
about, H-6
Oracle Precompilers
postinstallation tasks, 4-11
Oracle Procedural Gateway
listed products, H-9
Oracle Real Application Clusters (RAC)
installed before Oracle Database, 3-2
installing with Oracle Enterprise Manager, H-5
Oracle Clusterware
about, H-3
Oracle Schemas, xiv
Oracle software
removing, 6-8
Oracle Software Owner user
creating, 2-21
Oracle software owner user
configuring environment for, 2-44
creating, 2-20
description, 2-18
determining default shell, 2-44
relationship with Oracle base directory, 2-26
Oracle SQL Developer
accessing, 5-4
Oracle SQL*Net Listener
Index-8
ports, ranges and protocol, E-2
Oracle Technology Network (OTN)
downloading documentation from, xiv
Oracle Text knowledge base, 4-12
Oracle Transparent Gateway
listed products, H-9
Oracle Ultra Search
ports, changing, E-5
ports, ranges and protocol, E-3
Oracle Universal Installer
Automatic Storage Management behavior, 3-15
guidelines for using, 3-1
installation guidelines, 3-1
response files, A-1
list of, A-4
running, 3-8
running in different languages, F-4
oracle user
configuring environment for, 2-44
creating, 2-20, 2-21
description, 2-18
determining default shell, 2-44
relationship with Oracle base directory, 2-26
Oracle Validated Configuration RPM
about, 1-3
installing, 1-4
Oracle XML DB
about, H-5
ports, E-5
ports, changing, E-5
ports, ranges and protocol, E-3
ORACLE_BASE environment variable, 2-29
setting, 2-44
ORACLE_HOME environment variable
setting, 2-43
unsetting, 2-46
ORACLE_HOSTNAME environment variable
about, 2-16
computers with multiple aliases, 2-16
multihomed computers, 2-16
setting before installation, 2-16
ORACLE_SID environment variable
setting, 2-44
Oracle9i
modifying wdbsvr.app, 4-19
oraInst.loc file
location, 2-19
location of, 2-19
oraInventory directory
See Oracle Inventory directory
oratab file, 2-28
formats, 2-28
location of, 2-28
OSDBA group
and SYSDBA privilege, 2-17
creating, 2-19, 2-20
description, 2-17
OSOPER group
and SYSOPER privilege, 2-17
description, 2-17
OTN Web site
downloading installation software from, 3-4
OUI
See Oracle Universal Installer
P
packages, checking, 2-11
partition
using with Automatic Storage Management, 2-33
partitions
creation for Automatic Storage Management
disks, 2-37
passwd command, 2-21
passwd file, D-3
password
obfuscating, 4-28
password file for Automatic Storage
Management, 3-15
passwords
resetting, 5-7
with Database Control, 5-7
with SQL*Plus, 5-8
reviewing, 5-4
specifying for response files, A-2
unlocking, 5-7
with Database Control, 5-7
with SQL*Plus, 5-8
See alsosecurity
PATH environment variable
setting, 2-44
pathnames
Optimal Flexible Architecture, D-3
permissions
for data file directories, 2-31
for Oracle base directory, 2-29
port numbers
managing, E-1
portlist.ini file, 5-2, E-2
ports
access URLs, E-2
Cluster Manager, ranges and protocol, E-4
Cluster Synchronization Services, ranges and
protocol, E-3
configured for applications, E-2
Connection Manager, ranges and protocol, E-2
Data Guard, ranges and protocol, E-2
default ranges, E-1
Oracle Cluster Registry, E-4
Oracle Clusterware, E-3
Oracle Clusterware, ranges and protocol, E-3
Oracle Enterprise Management Agent HTTP,
changing, E-4
Oracle Enterprise Management Agent, ranges and
protocol, E-2
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Console,
ranges and protocol, E-2
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control,
changing, E-4
Oracle Event Manager, ranges and protocol, E-4
Oracle SQL*Net Listener, ranges and
protocol, E-2
Oracle Ultra Search, changing, E-5
Oracle Ultra Search, ranges and protocol, E-3
Oracle XML DB, E-5
Oracle XML DB, changing, E-5
Oracle XML DB, ranges and protocol, E-3
post-installation
recommended tasks
user accounts, setting up, 4-4
required tasks, 4-1
Oracle Label Security, configuring, 4-8
Oracle Net Services, configuring, 4-8
patches, installing and downloading, 4-1
postinstallation
recommended tasks
client static library, generating, 4-4
root.sh script, backing up, 4-3
required tasks
configuring Oracle Messaging Gateway, 4-9
Oracle Precompilers, 4-11
post-installation tasks
configuring embedded PL/SQL gateway, 4-15
configuring Oracle Application Server 11g, 4-21
configuring Oracle HTTP Server (new), 4-18
configuring Oracle HTTP Server 9.0.3, 4-18
installing other languages, 4-26
logging in to Application Express, 4-28
obfuscating passwords, 4-28
postinstallation tasks
Oracle Text knowledge base, 4-12
preconfigured database
Automatic Storage Management disk space
requirements, 2-34
requirements when using Automatic Storage
Management, 2-34
privilege, 2-17
privileged groups
for Oracle Database, 2-17
Pro*C/C++
configuring, 4-11
See also C compiler
process
stopping existing, 2-43
stopping existing listener process, 2-43
stopping listener process, 2-43
/proc/sys/fs/file-max file, 2-23
/proc/sys/kernel/sem file, 2-23
/proc/sys/kernel/shmall file, 2-23
/proc/sys/kernel/shmmni file, 2-23
/proc/sys/net/core/rmem_default file, 2-23
/proc/sys/net/core/rmem_max file, 2-23
/proc/sys/net/core/wmem_default file, 2-23
/proc/sys/net/core/wmem_max file, 2-23
/proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_local_port_range file, 2-23
ps command, 2-43
R
RAID
Index-9
device names, 2-39
using for Oracle data files, 2-30
RAM requirements, 2-3
readme.txt file, E-2
reconfiguring CSS, 6-5
recovery files
options for placing on file system, 2-30
recovery of databases
Oracle Backup and Recovery, H-7
Red Hat Package Manager
See RPM
redo log, D-4
redo log files
in starter database, 5-11
locating, 5-11
naming, D-4
reviewing, 5-10
using Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control
with, 5-12
redundancy level
and space requirements for preconfigured
database, 2-34
for Automatic Storage Management, 2-33
redundant array of independent disks
See RAID
reinstalling Oracle software, 3-2
removing
Oracle HTML DB from the database, 6-2
Rendezvous
requirement on Linux, 2-13
requirements
hardware, 2-3
response files
about, A-1
Automatic Storage Management, A-3
creating with template, A-4
custom.rsp, A-4
dbca.rsp, A-4
enterprise.rsp, A-4
general procedure, A-3
Net Configuration Assistant, A-8
netca.rsp, A-4
passing values at command line, A-2
passwords, A-2
security, A-2
specifying with Oracle Universal Installer, A-7
standard.rsp, A-4
See also silent mode, noninteractive mode, A-1
response files installation
about, A-1
rmem_default file, 2-23
rmem_default parameter
recommended value on Linux, 2-23
rmem_max file, 2-23
rmem_max parameter
recommended value on Linux, 2-23
root user, 3-9
logging in as, 2-1
root.sh script
backing up, 4-3
Index-10
RPM
checking, 2-11
rpm command, 2-11
S
Sample Schemas
tablespaces and data files, 5-11
SAN (storage area network) disks, 2-37
schemas
database schema passwords, 3-14
Oracle HTML DB schema removal, 6-2
Oracle Schemas, about, xiv
Sample Schemas tablespaces and data files, 5-11
SCSI disks
device names, 2-39
security
management tools, H-5
See alsopasswords
sem file, 2-23
semmni parameter
recommended value on Linux x86, 2-23
semmns parameter
recommended value on Linux x86, 2-23
semmsl parameter
recommended value on Linux x86, 2-23
semopm parameter
recommended value on Linux x86, 2-23
server parameter file (SPFILE), 3-15
SERVICE_NAMES initialization parameter, 5-9
shell
determining default shell for oracle user, 2-44
SHELL environment variable
checking value of, 2-44
shell limits
setting on Linux x86, 2-22
shmall file, 2-23
shmall parameter
recommended value on Linux x86, 2-23
shmmax parameter
recommended value on Linux x86, 2-23
shmmni file, 2-23
shmmni parameter
recommended value on Linux x86, 2-23
SID, 5-9
setting ORACLE_SID environment variable, 2-44
SID. See Oracle Database SID
silent mode
about, A-1
reasons for using, A-2
See also noninteractive mode, response files, A-1
silent mode installation, A-6, A-7
software certification, 1-7
software requirements, 2-6
SPFILE server parameter file, 3-15
SQL Developer
accessing, 5-4
SQL Server database, H-9
SQL*Plus
accessing, 5-3
SQLJ class, 4-10
standard.rsp files, A-4
static service information
adding for mgwextproc service, 4-9
storage area network disks, 2-37
storage management See Automatic Storage
Management
suppressed mode
reasons for using, A-2
suppressed mode. See noninteractive mode
swap space
checking, 2-3
requirements, 2-3
Sybase Adapter Server database, H-9
SYS, 4-31
sysctl command, 2-23
sysctl.conf file, 2-24
SYSDBA, 4-31
SYSDBA privilege
associated operating system group, 2-17
SYSOPER privilege
associated operating system group, 2-17
SYSTEM
tablespace, description, 5-11
System Identifier, 5-9
See SID
system01.dbf data file, 5-11
T
tablespaces, 5-11
defined, 5-10
in databases, 5-10
reviewing, 5-10
setting up, 5-10
expanding for large sorts, 5-11
Optimal Flexible Architecture
special tablespaces, D-5
SYSTEM, 5-11
TEMP, 5-11
UNDOTBS, 5-11
USERS, 5-11
TEMP
tablespace (temp01.dbf), 5-11
temp01.dbf data file, 5-11
temporary disk space
requirements, 2-3
Teradata database, H-9
TIBCO Rendezvous
requirement on Linux, 2-13
TMP environment variable, 2-5
setting, 2-45
TMPDIR environment variable, 2-5
setting, 2-45
TNS_ADMIN environment variable
unsetting, 2-46
tnsnames.ora file, 4-8
adding a connect descriptor, 4-10
MGW_AGENT service name, 4-10
modifying for external procedures, 4-10
translated version
installing, 4-26
troubleshooting, G-1
fatal errors, G-6
images, G-9
online help not working, G-9
U
umask command, 2-44
UNDOTBS
tablespace (undotbs01.dbf), 5-11
Uninstall, 6-2, 6-3, 6-4
uninstall, 6-2, 6-3, 6-4
UNIX commands
chmod, 2-29, 2-31
chown, 2-29, 2-31
fdisk, 2-39
free, 2-3
lsdev, 2-39
mkdir, 2-29, 2-31
passwd, 2-21
ps, 2-43
rpm, 2-11
sysctl, 2-23
umask, 2-44
unset, 2-46
unsetenv, 2-46
useradd, 2-21
xhost, 2-1
xterm, 2-2
UNIX groups
checking for existing oinstall group, 2-19
creating the dba group, 2-19
UNIX users
creating the oracle user, 2-21
UNIX workstation
installing from, 2-1
unset command, 2-46
unsetenv command, 2-46
upgraded databases
configuring, 4-3
upgrading, 1-19
advantages with separate Oracle homes, 3-15
Automatic Storage Management, 3-11
databases, 3-11
obfuscating password, 4-28
user roles
Application Express administrator, 4-28
developer, 4-28
end user, 4-28
workspace administrator, 4-28
useradd command, 2-21
USERS
tablespace (users01.dbf), 5-11
users
creating the oracle user, 2-20, 2-21
Oracle software owner user, 2-18
UTLRP.SQL
recompiling invalid SQL modules, 4-3
Index-11
V
very large databases
Optimal Flexible Architecture naming mount
points, D-2
W
wdbsvr.app
modifications if running Oracle9i, 4-19
Web servers (Oracle HTTP Server), H-8
WebSphere MQ
CSD download location, 2-13
CSDs required
on Linux, 2-13
requirement on Linux, 2-13
WebSphere MQ class, 4-10
WebSphere MQ Series database, H-9
Windows
analogy for Oracle base directory, 2-25
wmem_default file, 2-23
wmem_default parameter
recommended value on Linux, 2-23
wmem_max file, 2-23
wmem_max parameter
recommended value on Linux, 2-23
workspace administrator, 4-28
X
X Window
display errors, G-1
X Window system
enabling remote hosts,
xhost command, 2-1
XML data, H-5
XML DB HTTP server
disabling, 4-16
enabling, 4-16
xterm command, 2-2
Index-12
2-1, 2-2
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