Broadcast Test System ¸SFU
Product brochure
Broadcast Test System ¸SFU
The all-in-one solution for broadcast and mobile TV
Main functions at a glance
◆ TV multistandard platform
◆ Realtime TV signal generation for digital and analog transmission standards
◆ Available as a production solution (non-realtime)
◆ Wide output frequency range from 100 kHz to 3 GHz
◆ Internal digital and analog interferers
◆ Realtime transmission simulations
◆ Bit error ratio (BER) measurement
◆ TS baseband generator, player, recorder
◆ ETI baseband generator
◆ I/Q arbitrary waveform generator
The Broadcast Test System ¸SFU
has been designed as a platform for different applications and for future options. It provides a number of instruments and applications in a cabinet of
only four height units and offers unrivaled RF and baseband characteristics.
Due to its modular design, the ¸SFU
can be optimally adapted to the requirements of different applications. It is an
ideal research and development tool
for making improvements to introduced
standards and for generating new standard signals. Applications that previously
required many different instruments are
now fully covered by the ¸SFU.
General characteristics
◆ DTV multistandard platform
◆ ATV signal generation
◆ Output frequency from 100 kHz to
3 GHz
◆ Generation of internal interferers
◆ Fully digital baseband signal processing
◆ Upgradeability to multifunctional
broadcast test system
◆ Easy installation of most options at
customer site
Intuitive, fast and easy operation
◆ Color display with 1024 × 768 pixels
(XVGA format)
◆ Intuitive user interface with
Windows XP Embedded
The modern, intuitive concept of the
R&S®SFU ensures fast and easy operation.
You can easily switch operating parameters (e.g. roll-off, puncturing rate, QAM
mode) and select operating parameters whose values exceed those defined
in the standard for lab applications. For
special tasks such as in DVB-T/H, modulation, individual carriers and carrier groups can be deactivated. Sweeps
across the entire RF range are possible.
Front view of the ¸SFU
Broadcast Test System ¸SFU
◆ Context-sensitive help system
◆ User-definable favorites for fast
◆ Easy software update by means of
USB and Windows
Outstanding signal quality
◆ I/Q modulator with 180 MHz RF bandwidth
◆ Very low SSB phase noise of typ. ­
–135 dBc at 1 GHz (20 kHz carrier offset, 1 Hz measurement bandwidth)
◆ High optional output power of up to
+19 dBm (PEP), overrange +26 dBm
◆ High-stability reference oscillator as
Unrivaled flexibility for research and
◆ Expandable multistandard platform
◆ Universal coder for realtime signal
◆ Transmission simulations
◆ TS baseband generator and recorder
◆ ETI baseband generator with universal coder for realtime signal generation
◆ Arbitrary waveform generator
with 128 Msample, supported by
­¸WinIQSIM™ software
◆ Variety of signal libraries with waveforms and transport streams
◆ Internal hard disk as standard for
storing waveforms and modulation
◆ Integrated power measurement with
external power sensors
Ideal for use in production
◆ Wear-free electronic attenuator of up
to 3 GHz over the full level range
◆ Minimum space requirements:
TS generator and test transmitter are
accommodated in one instrument of
only four height units
◆ Favorably priced and future-proof
non-realtime production solution,
­since it can be upgraded with software at any time
◆ Fast, flexible software option solutions for new requirements
Easy remote access
◆ Remote control via GPIB and LAN
(VXI 11)
◆ User-friendly remote operation by
VNC or Remote Desktop
◆ USB connectors for keyboard, mouse
and memory stick
Broadcast Test System ¸SFU
One-box solution
Test transmitter
RF signals for a variety of transmission standards
can be transmitted over a wide, ­user-­variable frequency range by the integrated test transmitter.
All the different standards – for terrestrial, satellite
or cable transmission – can be easily loaded into
the multistandard test transmitter via software and
generate a highly pure spectrum.
Bit error ratio meter
The integrated BER meter makes it possible to measure and evaluate errors on the transmission link.
A BER value can be determined on the transport
stream as well as via the data and clock circuits.
Channel simulator
Integrated transmission simulators for AWGN,
phase noise, impulsive noise and fading are available for simulating real and, above all, reproducible
environmental conditions in the lab.
Transport stream signal source
Video and audio applications require baseband
signals. A variety of such signals are available as
transport stream signal sources.
◆ Rohde & Schwarz libraries with ready-to-use special signals for tests and development can be replayed with the transport stream generator.
◆ Customer files can be easily loaded and replayed
with the transport stream player.
◆ The internal transport stream recorder supports
recording of customer transport streams from
any sources.
Broadcast Test System ¸SFU
I/Q signal generator
Customer I/Q waveforms or Rohde & Schwarz waveform libraries for different transmission standards
can be replayed with the arbitrary waveform generator.
Power measurement
High-precision power measurements with ­power
sensors from Rohde & Schwarz can be performed
and displayed on the R&S®SFU's large screen.
High output power
High output levels and signal amplifiers are usually
required in production. The R&S®SFU provides this
high output power with its high power option.
I/Q interface
The digital I/Q interface provides the high-quality
I/Q signals that are required in development as
­input and output signals.
Broadcast Test System ¸SFU
All coders are software-based; with the
appropriate hardware, you can activate them immediately by means of an
enabling code (see right). It is thus not
­necessary to open the instrument.
Cable standards
The DVB-C coder supports all QAM modulations defined in the EN 300429 standard. The powerful coder hardware is
­also able to cover high-order QAM modulations that have not yet been standardized.
DIRECTV (and DIRECTV legacy mode) is a
proprietary standard with conditional access that is widely used in America and
primarily in the United States. For transmission, a proprietary transport stream
protocol with 130-byte packets is generated. After conversion to 188 bytes,
­DIRECTV transport streams can be replayed with the ¸SFU-K22 TRP ­player
Terrestrial standards
J.83/B is an American cable transmission standard. The coder also supports the standard enhancement with
Satellite standards
DVB-S (EN 300421) was introduced in
1994 as a satellite transmission standard. DVB-S uses QPSK modulation.
Since its introduction, DVB-S has established itself as the world's most widely
used satellite transmission standard.
DVB-S2 is an innovative and efficient
channel coding method that is used in
combination with high-order modulation modes. The method is very robust,
offers safe reception and provides up
to 30 % higher data transmission rates
than DVB-S. The ¸SFU supports the
broadcast service mode for non-backwards-compatible broadcast services.
Broadcast Test System ¸SFU
DVB-T permits high-quality transmission
of digital broadcast signals. Its success
will continue with the conversion from
analog to digital TV.
ISDB-T is a Japanese digital standard
for terrestrial transmission of video, audio and data signals by means of 13 segments. ISDB-T with partial reception is
for mobile operation.
Developed in China, DMB-T offers highquality digital TV with excellent characteristics for mobile and portable reception.
8VSB is a terrestrial DTV standard from
the USA with vestigial sideband modulation. At a bandwidth of 6 MHz, a sideband is suppressed in the spectrum.
Based on a COFDM
transmission method,
DAB was developed for digital and highquality audio transmission to mobile
Analog standards such as PAL, NTSC
and SECAM with B/G, D/K, M/N, L and I
transmission systems are also available.
The baseband signal is already integrated, eliminating the need for an additional signal generator.
Video goes mobile
The following standards are terrestrial
transmission methods for broadcast applications with mobile receivers such as
mobile phones and PDAs.
The DVB-T/H coder provides the following functions: the newly introduced 4k
mode, use of the TPS carriers for time
slicing signaling, the additional 5 MHz
channel bandwidth and corresponding
native and in-depth symbol interleavers as well as MPE forward error correction (FEC). Hierarchical coding is also possible.
T-DMB was developed in Korea and is
based on the digital audio broadcasting
(DAB) standard known in Europe, which
was also developed for mobile reception with radios. The T-DMB/DAB coder in the ¸SFU supports both the
Korean and the European transmission
ISDB-T (partial reception)
With mobile ISDB-T in accordance with
ARIB 1.5, only one of altogether 13 available segments is used for transmission.
The ISDB-T coder supports all 13 segments used in terrestrial TV reception.
MediaFLO™ was developed and standardized by the American company
QUALCOMM. The baseband signal in this
proprietary standard is based on a transport stream with 188 bytes. MediaFLO™
is currently used in a nationwide network in the USA. QPSK and 16QAM methods are used as OFDM modulation at a
bandwidth of 5.5 MHz. The data rates
transmitted to the mobile receiver range
between 50 kbit/s and 1 Mbit/s.
DMB-TH is the Chinese DMB-T, which in
a modified version is also used for handheld reception. DMB-TH has evolved
from DMB-T.
Testing mobile broadcast applications with the ¸SFU and the ¸CMU
Broadcast Test System ¸SFU
TS generator (¸SFU-K20)
A transport stream generator in the
baseband internally provides test signals for the realtime coder. For external equipment, the test signals are made
available at an ASI output. An external
MPEG-2 generator is therefore no longer necessary. Furthermore, the number
of instruments needed for testing set-top
boxes is reduced and the costs are minimized.
The transport stream generator allows
you to generate endless and seamless
high-bit-rate MPEG-2 transport streams
for the broadcast range. The SDTV transport stream library included as standard
contains ATSC and DVB test streams.
The numerous transport streams from
Rohde & Schwarz cover a wide range of
applications and test scenarios.
¸SFU transport stream generator
Transport stream libraries
A large number of additional libraries
can be integrated. They make development faster and easier and allow new
products to be tested.
SDTV – test streams for DVB and ATSC
HDTV – tests of HDTV receivers
DVB-H – tests of mobile receivers
ISDB-T – test streams
◆ H.264 – test streams
◆ TCM – STB tests
Further libraries will soon be available.
Example from the
DVB-H transport stream library
Broadcast Test System ¸SFU
Stream generation tools
TRP player (¸SFU-K22)
Stream generation tools provide full
flexibility when generating your own
streams, which can be used with
the ¸SFU-K20 TS generator. The
R&S®DV-ASC advanced stream combiner
allows you to generate your own transport streams, also for DVB-H.
The TRP player lets you replay your own
transport streams in TRP format. The
transport streams can be copied via the
USB or LAN interface to the ¸SFU
file system and be replayed from there.
In addition, this TRP player is used to replay T-DMB and DAB streams. For this
purpose, the TRP player can replay predefined test streams for T-DMB and DAB
from an optional T-DMB/DAB library
To enable the ¸SFU-K22 TRP player option, the Additional Hard Disk
¸SFU-B6 and Memory Extension 2
¸SFU-B4 are required.
TS recorder (¸SFU-K21)
A transport stream recorder and player as an expansion of the data source is
available for the ¸SFU. It allows you
to record any externally applied transport streams at data rates between
100 kbit/s and up to 90 Mbit/s.
The available recording formats are TRP
with eight bits (8-bit data) and T10 (10-bit
data, 1-bit data valid, 1-bit packet sync).
With the 8-bit and T10 formats, the parallel SPI (LVDS) interface is used.
The amount of data that can be recorded
is limited only by the size of the hard disk.
The recorded transport streams can be
transferred to other storage media via the
USB or LAN interface. Using the TS recorder, the streams can be replayed endlessly and seamlessly with packet-exact
cutting at the end-of-file/start-of-file transition.
¸DV-ASC advanced stream combiner
To enable R&S®SFU-K21, you require the
­Additional Hard Disk R&S®SFU-B6, Memory ­Extension 2 R&S®SFU-B4 and TRP
Player R&S®SFU-K22.
Coaxial cable
¸SFU with set-top box
Recording of an external transport stream with the ¸SFU recorder function
Broadcast Test System ¸SFU
Arbitrary waveform generator
Simulation tools
Technical details
The integrated arbitrary waveform (ARB)
generator of the R&S®SFU opens up a
wide range of additional applications,
such as simulating occupied adjacent
channels, adding interferers to the useful signal and generating user-defined
RF signals (e.g. notched noise).
The R&S®SFU allows full use of
R&S®WinIQSIM™ simulation software. All waveforms generated with
R&S®WinIQSIM™ can be loaded into the ARB generator of the ¸SFU.
Other software tools that utilize
R&S®WinIQSIM™ can also be used.
As an I/Q modulation source, the ARB
generator features the following:
◆ 128 Msample memory for I and Q
◆ 100 Msample/s clock
It is thus possible to generate any externally computed complex modulation
­signals. A hardware resampler and a low
oversampling rate significantly reduce
the memory space needed to store I/Q
waveforms on the hard disk. This allows
you to store a large number of I/Q waveforms directly on the hard disk.
Externally generated I/Q waveform files
can also be loaded into the instrument
and read out via one of the computer
­interfaces such as USB or LAN, or via the
Together with the ¸SFU-K81 option,
which switches off the realtime coder
function, the ARB generator can also be
used for easy, cost-efficient production
solutions. If a wider scope of functions is
required, the realtime coders ­integrated
in the ¸SFU can subsequently be enabled by means of keycode options (see
figure at right).
Selection of T-DMB waveforms in the ARB generator
Realtime solution
Production solution
Waveform libraries
Additional waveform libraries allow
quick evaluation of new modulations. I/Q
waveform libraries are available for the
following signals:
DVB-T/H (R&S®SFU-K352)
DRM (¸SFU-K353)
Digital/MBRAI interferer
Further waveform libraries will soon be
Broadcast Test System ¸SFU
Expansion of a low-cost production solution into a high-end solution
BER measurement
The BER measurement, which operates
independently of other applications, is
used to check channel conditions. The
integrated BER tester allows you to evaluate a signal demodulated and decoded
by the DUT by means of the BER measurement. Two general methods are
available for this purpose.
A measurement with a pure pseudorandom binary sequence (PRBS) can
check the demodulation section of the
­receiver. A known PRBS-modulated data
sequence is sent to the DUT, which decodes the sequence and feeds the ­data
and the associated clock back to the
¸SFU. If the error ratio of the decoding branch must also be measured, the
MPEG-2 TS can be returned. In this case,
the test signal comprises an MPEG-2 TS
that contains a PRBS as payload. If path
measurements on a live MPEG-2 signal are to be performed, the null packets must contain a PRBS payload. The
BER tester of the ¸SFU synchronizes
to the returned, known PRBS and counts
the bit errors. The quotient obtained by
dividing the number of ­error bits by the
total number of bits is the BER.
¸SFU 1
RF Out
¸SFU 2
RF Out
Block diagram of BER measurement
Power measurement
To allow you to determine the input
power directly on the DUT, the ¸SFU
provides a power measurement function.
Software is available for controlling and
evaluating the measurement.
Power measurement with the ¸SFU and ¸NRP-Z11
Available ¸NRP power sensors:
◆ Average power sensors
◆ Thermal power sensors
Broadcast Test System ¸SFU
Signal quality
SSB phase noise / dBc (1 Hz meas. bandwidth)
2.1 GHz
850 MHz
100 MHz
SSB phase noise / dBc (1 Hz meas. bandwidth)
High signal quality and digital signal processing in the baseband make for accurate and reproducible measurements.
A new type of digital level control ensures high precision. The overall level
accuracy is less than 0.5 dB. The phase
noise of the ¸SFU synthesizer is
­typically less than –135 dBc/Hz (1 GHz,
20 kHz offset) with minimal modulation
errors in the near-carrier range.
Offset frequency / Hz
2.1 GHz
850 MHz
100 MHz
Modulation impairments
Offset frequency / Hz
You can easily switch operating parameters (e.g. roll-off, puncturing rate, QAM
mode) and select operating parameters
whose values exceed those defined in
the standard for lab applications. Nonideal behavior of the I/Q modulator can
be simulated by selectively changing
amplitude, phase and carrier leakage before the signal enters the I/Q modulator.
AWGN generator
The AWGN generator can be used if the
R&S®SFU-K40 software option has been
Useful signal with AWGN
Broadcast Test System ¸SFU
Typical phase noise
User interface for setting
modulator impairments
The digital additive white Gaussian noise
(AWGN) generator is used as a source
for generating a pure noise signal modulated onto the carrier and for influencing
the actual useful signal. Realistic noise
can be simulated in the transmission
path – via satellite, cable or ­antenna
– by generating a 96 MHz broadband
­AWGN signal with a Gaussian amplitude
distribution in the digital baseband.
Phase noise (¸SFU-K41)
The phase noise of the ¸SFU
synthesizer is typically less than
–135 dBc/Hz (1 GHz, 20 kHz offset). The
¸SFU is therefore ideal for simulating phase noise. The option allows you
to simulate phase noise in oscillators and
phase lock loops. In the setting range
from ­–10 dBc/Hz to –110 dBc/Hz, the
wanted phase noise can be loaded as a
profile. User-defined profiles can be generated with conventional simulation programs such as ­MATLAB®, ported as a file
to the ¸SFU by means of a USB stick
and stored on the hard disk. The phase
noise functionality can be used if the
¸SFU-K41 software option has been
Impulsive noise
Impulsive noise permits the pulsed addition of an AWGN signal to the useful
signal with a settable number of pulses. In addition, the statistical distribution of the pulse intervals can be selected. The pulse generator required for the
pulses is integrated in the ¸SFU. An
additional external signal generator and
the associated cabling are thus no longer necessary. The pulse times, the number of pulses and the pulse duration can
be configured very easily. The impulsive
noise functionality can be used if the
¸SFU-K42 software option has been
Phase noise simulation and phase noise with 8PSK
Multinoise use
The multinoise use functionality can be
used if the ¸SFU-K43 software option has been enabled. It permits the simultaneous use of multiple noise sources in the form of an additive noise signal
which, in turn, can be added to the useful signal.
Impulsive noise with DVB-T
Broadcast Test System ¸SFU
Fading simulator
The channel simulator (fading simulator)
of the ¸SFU is ideal for realtime simulation of multipath and mobile reception. The basic version (¸SFU-B30)
provides up to 20 paths; with the full
version (¸SFU-B31), up to 40 paths
are available.
The fading simulator supports profiles in
accordance with DVB and ATSC. Several
fading profiles per path can be selected
and simulated. You may choose from the
following profiles:
QPSK with Rayleigh profile
Pure Doppler
Constant phase
Dynamic fading profiles can be used
with the ¸SFU-K30 enhanced fading option.
You can vary all fading parameters such
as attenuation, phase, delay and Doppler speed, frequency and direction.
16QAM with Rice profile
DAB with Gaussian fading
The Gaussian fading (¸SFU-K32)
used for DAB and for the Korean T-DMB
mobile standard is included in the realtime T-DMB/DAB coder (¸SFU-K11)
and in the T-DMB/DAB waveforms option (¸SFU-K351), respectively, and
permits the corresponding channel
Fading table of the ¸SFU with a selection of fading profiles
Broadcast Test System ¸SFU
Enhanced fading
The moving propagation and birth-death
dynamic fading configurations as well
as fine delay configurations can be used
to increase the resolution of the fading path delay and to simulate dynamic
propagation conditions. These configurations are provided by the enhanced fading option.
Dynamic fading with moving propagation
The enhanced fading functionality can be
used if the R&S®SFU-K30 software option
has been enabled. It requires an installed
R&S®SFU-B30 option (or R&S®SFU-B30
and R&S®SFU-B31).
–5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0
Dynamic fading with birth-death
–5 –4 –3 –2 –1 0
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0
Diversity simulation
When testing diversity receivers, a separate RF receive signal must be provided
for each antenna of the receiver. The receive signals must have the same baseband signal and the RF signal must be
coupled. The noise and fading signals,
however, must show no correlation; this
is only possible with one ¸SFU per
¸SFU 1
Fading 1
The RF signals of the two ¸SFUs are
coupled with each other as master/slave
by means of the reference frequency.
The digital I/Q baseband signals are interconnected quickly, reliably and without loss of quality via the extended I/Q
interface between the ¸SFUs.
The functions of the digital I/Q interface can be used after the ¸SFU-K80
software option has been activated.
¸SFU 2
Fading 1
Setup for testing diversity receivers
Broadcast Test System ¸SFU
Interferers can be added to the useful ­signals at different points along the
transmission path. When adding the
­interferers, the level can be varied within
a wide range. The maximum bandwidth
to the useful signal can be ±40 MHz.
±40 MHz
Transmission simulations can be used
for the mixed signals. The R&S®SFU can
simulate the impairment of the useful
signal by interferers very compactly and
without requiring any external ­signal
In addition to the signals and signal libraries already available from
­Rohde & Schwarz (such as the multi ATV
predefined option with analog TV signals), you can define other interferers
by means of the R&S® WinIQSIM™ software and use them on the ¸SFU.
±40 MHz
Useful signal with analog (top) and digital interferer
Interferer management
The ¸SFU-K37 option permits easy
and straightforward interferer management. Level, frequency, frequency offset
and signal can be set.
External interferers can be applied via the
¸SFU‑K80 analog or digital I/Q interface while ARB sequences or analog TV
signals can be provided internally.
Interferer GUI
Broadcast Test System ¸SFU
LAN (100BaseT), GPIB and a USB connector are available as interfaces on
the instrument's rear panel. Files, firmware updates and modulation data can
be loaded fast and easily via these interfaces.
Remote operation and remote
The ¸SFU can be remote-operated
via an Ethernet connection or in a LAN
network over IP and is preconfigured
for DHCP use. The preinstalled Remote
Desktop software or the VNC software
that comes with the instrument makes
this very easy to do.
Remote control is possible by means of
control commands via the IEC/IEEE bus
(GPIB). The ¸SFU can thus be integrated into existing test programs and
USB interfaces on the front panel
Looking forward
Possible remote control variants with the ¸SFU
The ¸SFU's modular design makes it
a future-proof investment. Options can
usually be activated quickly and conveniently on-site at any time by means of
firmware update and license code.
This feature ensures fast and easy availability without time loss and is a big advantage for use in production and development. The ¸SFU can be adapted
to perfectly match current requirements,
and its configuration can be tailored to
meet customer-specific needs. It thus
saves a lot of money yet offers full flexibility and openness for new, evolving
fields of application.
Broadcast Test System ¸SFU
Overview of options
Future option
Hardware option
Software option
extended I/Q
user in/out
ETI input
high power
realtime coder enable
realtime coder disable
¸NRP-Z11,-Z21, -Z24,
-Z33, -Z51, -Z55
power sensors
power measurement
BER measurements
ARB generator
memory extension 1
interferer management
multinoise use
phase noise
DTV/MBRAI interferer
Broadcast Test System ¸SFU
impulsive noise
fad. sim. 40 paths
fad. sim. 20 paths
dyn. enhanced fading
Gaussian fading
H.264 streams
AMC (DIRECTV...) coder
Digital modulation
DVB-T/H coder
ISDB-T coder
DVB-C coder
T-DMB/DAB coder
DVB-S/-DSNG coder
ATSC/8VSB coder
J.83/B coder
DVB-S2 coder
DMB-TH coder
coder extension 1
DMB-T coder
coder extension 10
coder extension 2
memory extension 1
ATV predefined
TS generator
addit. hard disk
SDTV streams
memory extension 1
DVB-H streams
TRP player
TS recorder
HDTV streams
T-DMB/DAB streams
TCM streams
ISDB-T streams
Broadcast Test System ¸SFU
Certified Environmental System
ISO 9001
ISO 14001
For specifications, see PD 0758.1658.22
(search term: SFU)
Europe: +49 1805 12 4242, [email protected]
USA and Canada: 1-888-837-8772, [email protected]
Asia: +65 65 130 488, [email protected]
¸ is a registered trademark of Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG · Trade names are trademarks of the owners · Printed in Germany (Pe bb)
PD 0758.1658.12 · ¸SFU · Version 01.00 · April 2006 · Data without tolerance limits is not binding · Subject to change
Certified Quality System
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