Microsoft SharePoint Designer 2010 Step by Step.. - X

Microsoft SharePoint Designer 2010 Step by Step.. - X
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Microsoft SharePoint
Designer 2010
®
Step by Step
Penelope Coventry
www.it-ebooks.info
®
www.it-ebooks.info
Microsoft SharePoint
Designer 2010
®
Step by Step
Penelope Coventry
www.it-ebooks.info
®
Published with the authorization of Microsoft Corporation by:
O’Reilly Media, Inc.
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Copyright © 2010 Penelope Coventry.
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Acquisitions and Development Editors: Juliana Aldous and Kenyon Brown
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This book is dedicated to the memory of my goddaughter, Nia Kate Griffiths, who died at the age of 21.
She suffered from cystic fibrosis, and although she was relatively fit all her life, the last four years were
tough on her. No matter how ill she was or the number of visits to the hospital she had to endure, she was
always a happy person and a treasure to know.
She will be missed.
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Contents
Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv
Is This the Right SharePoint Book for You? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix
Using the Practice Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiii
Getting Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxi
Features and Conventions of This Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxiii
Part 1
1
Getting Started with
Microsoft SharePoint Designer 2010
Exploring SharePoint Designer 2010
1
Understanding SharePoint Designer 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Using SharePoint Designer to Carry Out Common Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Understanding What’s New in SharePoint Designer 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Creating Sites with SharePoint Designer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Exploring the SharePoint Designer Shell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
Using SharePoint Designer to Explore a Web Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Using Task Panes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Controlling the Use of SharePoint Designer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
2
Working with SharePoint Sites
37
Changing the Title, Description, and Theme of a Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Managing Site Users and Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Creating a Site Hierarchy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
Deleting a SharePoint Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Resetting a Site Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Exploring a SharePoint Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
What do you think of this book? We want to hear from you!
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viii Contents
Navigating a Site’s Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Saving and Using a Site Template . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Part 2
3
Working with Information
Working with Lists and Libraries
69
Creating Lists and Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Creating an Issue Tracking List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Importing Data into SharePoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Working with List Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Using Calculated Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Using Column Validation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Creating an XSLT List View Web Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Customizing an XSLT List View Web Part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Securing a List or a Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Adding Custom Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Creating Server Ribbon Custom Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Creating Site Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Using Site Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Creating Content Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Adding a Site Column to a Content Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Adding a Document Template to a Content Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Associating Content Types with Lists and Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Deleting SharePoint Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
4
Creating and Modifying Web Pages
109
Inserting Text, ScreenTips, Hyperlinks, and Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with Web Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the Home Page for a Web Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modifying a List View Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating List View Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating and Modifying a List Form Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating an ASP.NET Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inserting a Web Part Zone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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114
119
121
123
125
130
132
Contents ix
Attaching a Master Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Managing Web Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
5
Working with Data Views
143
Creating a Data View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Customizing Data Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inline Editing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Applying Conditional Formatting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Showing and Hiding Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using XSLT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Formula Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with XPath Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deploying Web Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6
Working with Data Sources
173
Using Data Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with XML Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecting to an RSS Feed XML File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecting to an RSS Feed Server-Side Script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecting to SOAP Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecting to REST Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecting to a Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Linked Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Connecting Web Parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7
Using Business Connectivity Services
174
180
183
185
188
190
192
197
202
205
207
What Is Business Connectivity Services? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Database External Data Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating External Content Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Office Application External Content Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating and Managing External Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Working with Office Application External Content Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exporting and Using the BDC Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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149
152
154
157
160
163
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168
171
208
211
216
222
225
228
230
x Contents
Creating a Profile Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Associations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Managing External Content Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Part 3
8
Using Workflow
Understanding Workflows
249
Working with Workflows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Workflows with SharePoint Designer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Actions and Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modifying a Workflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deploying Workflows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Multistep Workflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Site Workflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Visio to Map a Workflow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing a Workflow from Visio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exporting a Workflow to a Visio Drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Removing and Deleting Workflows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
233
237
242
244
Using Reusable Workflows and Workflow Forms
289
Creating and Using Reusable Workflows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Association Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using Workflow Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reusing Globally Reusable Workflows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Globally Reusable Workflows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Initiation and Association Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Retrieving Values from Initiation Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modifying an InfoPath Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Publishing an InfoPath Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modifying Initiation Form Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modifying an Association Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Association Fields to Initiation Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modifying Task Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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267
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285
287
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293
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298
301
305
308
313
316
318
319
322
324
Contents xi
Part 4
Advanced Customizations
10 Branding SharePoint Sites
327
Setting the CSS and Color Coding Page Editor Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Identifying Styles in Cascading Style Sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Identifying Styles on Content Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating and Attaching CSS Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Functioning HTML Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modifying and Deleting Styles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Style Application Group Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding SharePoint’s CSS Inheritance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using IntelliSense to add CSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using CSS Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11 Working with Master Pages 368
370
372
377
379
385
387
391
395
396
398
401
Implementing a User-Centered Design Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Establishing User and Compatibility Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Designing a Prototype . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Defining Accessible Branding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing for Usability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding Accessibility Legislation and Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maintaining Legislation Compliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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339
340
344
346
349
353
356
359
362
364
367
Understanding Master Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Default Master Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Controls Used on the Master Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Copying and Saving a Master Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Customizing a Master Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the Default Master Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Managing Content Placeholders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Web Page from a Master Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exporting Master Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resetting a Master Page to the Site Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12 Understanding Usability and Accessibility
329
333
402
404
408
411
414
418
423
427
xii Contents
13 Managing Web Content in the SharePoint Server
Environment
429
Creating a Publishing Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Understanding Web Content Management in SharePoint Server 2010 . . . . . . . . .
Understanding the Page Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Page Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Modifying a Page Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Allowing Users to Rate Web Content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Approving a Page Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Restoring an Earlier Version of a Page Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Detaching and Reattaching a Page Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14 Using Controls in Web Pages
460
464
466
468
472
475
476
479
481
Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Core Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Document Set Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
List Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Relational Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Task Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Task Behavior Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Utility Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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442
447
449
451
453
454
456
459
Working with the Ribbon and Tag Properties
Task Pane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using a Standard ASP.NET Server Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Validating User Data Entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using ASP.NET Validation Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using SharePoint Data View Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Testing an ASP.NET Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using SharePoint Server Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Key Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A SharePoint Designer Workflow Conditions and Actions
431
433
438
481
483
485
485
488
488
488
490
Contents xiii
B Creating a New Approval Process
491
C Administrative Tasks Using SharePoint 2010
503
Installing SharePoint Foundation 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating a Site Collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enabling All Site Templates on a
SharePoint Server Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Restricting the Use of SharePoint Designer 2010 at the Web-Application Level . . .
Configuring Permissions on External Content Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Configuring the External Content Type
Profile Page Host . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Enabling or Disabling User-Defined Workflows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
504
506
507
508
510
511
511
Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 515
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521
About the Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555
What do you think of this book? We want to hear from you!
M crosoft s nterested n hear ng your feedback so we can cont nua y mprove our books and earn ng resources
for you. To part c pate n a br ef on ne survey, p ease v s t:
microsoft.com/learning/booksurvey
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Acknowledgments
I want to thank my husband for his continued support while I wrote yet another book. I
don’t know why I write books. This one should have been easier; however, they are never
easy and place a considerable amount of strain on my personal and professional life. Yet
again, I ignored my husband and my dog, Poppy, but they still love me and are pleased
to see me in those odd moments when I leave my computer. I don’t understand why I’m
so lucky to have both of them in my life.
I’d like to thank Kenyon Brown (O’Reilly Media Senior Content Development Editor),
Rachel Monaghan (O’Reilly Media Senior Production Editor), John Pierce (copy editor),
Sara Windhorst (technical reviewer), Marlene Lanphier (technical reviewer), and all the
other people who kept me on track and provided such excellent suggestions.
I would like to include a special thanks to my contributing authors, Nikander and
Margriet Buggeman, Heather Waterman, and Nikki Ashington, whose knowledge added
greatly to this book.
Lastly, I would like to thank the members of the SharePoint User Group U.K. and my fellow SharePoint MVPs. I am truly honored to be part of this unique community, and I
have learned much from their blog posts, presentations, books, and discussions.
Thank you all!
—Penny Coventry
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Is This the Right SharePoint Book for You? xvii
Is This the Right SharePoint
Book for You?
This book is about Microsoft® SharePoint® Designer 2010, but before you buy it, please
read the following guidelines to learn why you should or should not be using this book.
Note SharePoint Designer 2010 is not a Web authoring tool. If you want to learn how to
create Web pages on non-SharePoint Web sites, use a different product such as Microsoft
Expression Web.
Buy This Book
This book is for you if:
● You have access to Microsoft SharePoint 2010, either Microsoft SharePoint
Foundation 2010, Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010, or both products in your
organization.
● You want to create and manage SharePoint sites and perform other tasks, such as
creating and modifying Web pages and workflows for SharePoint sites.
● You do not know how to program and have little or no experience using
SharePoint Designer.
Do Not Buy This Book
This book is NOT right for you if:
● You use Microsoft FrontPage 2003 to build or amend non-SharePoint sites.
● You’re an instructor and use FrontPage 2003 to teach Web page authoring on non-
SharePoint sites.
● You’re looking for a general introduction to SharePoint.
● You do not have access to SharePoint 2010 in your organization, school, etc.
● You use SharePoint Designer 2007 to build sites based on Windows SharePoint
Services 3.0 or Microsoft Office SharePoint Server 2007.
● You want to upgrade to SharePoint Designer 2010 to modify those sites.
Important SharePoint Designer 2010 connects only to SharePoint 2010 sites.
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Introduction
Welcome to Microsoft® SharePoint® Designer 2010 Step by Step. SharePoint Designer
2010 is a free, powerful tool that together with Microsoft products such as Microsoft
InfoPath 2010 Designer and Microsoft Visio 2010 plays a key role in building solutions
with Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010 and Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010.
● SharePoint Foundation is a free download that provides a collection of services
that you can use to build sites. It is also a platform on which you can build applications. SharePoint Server is such an application, and all the features in SharePoint
Foundation are available to SharePoint Server. SharePoint Server comes in a number of editions, all of which you can use with SharePoint Designer.
● SharePoint Server 2010 is used for intranet scenarios, in which either the Enterprise
or Standard client-access license edition can be used.
● SharePoint 2010 for Internet Sites is available in the Enterprise or Standard edition.
These editions can be used to build extranet Web sites.
● FAST Search Server 2010 for SharePoint is used to design enterprise search
solutions.
● Office 365 brings together the 2010 editions of SharePoint Online, Exchange
Online, Lync Online, and Office desktop software as a cloud serivce.
Don’t be put off by its name. SharePoint Designer is not aimed just at Web designers.
Everyone who has had some training with SharePoint Designer should be able to use it,
but it is not necessarily a tool that everyone should use. Some solutions you can develop
quickly as no-code solutions; others may take time, and you might need to modify the
underlying client-side code. For some users, the experimental and investigative aspects
of developing a solution with SharePoint Designer might be new, frustrating, and initially
unfriendly compared with tools they might be used to.
This book gives you a fundamental understanding of how SharePoint Designer works
with the SharePoint platform. It helps you understand the consequences of performing
tasks with SharePoint Designer and gives you the skills and understanding for how to
best build and modify your solutions to meet your business requirements.
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xx Introduction
How to Access Your Online Edition Hosted by Safari
The voucher bound in to the back of this book gives you access to an online edition of
the book. (You can also download the online edition of the book to your own computer;
see the next section.)
To access your online edition, do the following:
1. Locate your voucher inside the back cover, and scratch off the metallic foil to reveal
your access code.
2. Go to http://microsoftpress.oreilly.com/safarienabled.
3. Enter your 24-character access code in the Coupon Code field under Step 1:
(Please note that the access code in this image is for illustration purposes only.)
4. Click the CONFIRM COUPON button.
A message will appear to let you know that the code was entered correctly. If the
code was not entered correctly, you will be prompted to re-enter the code.
5. In this step, you’ll be asked whether you’re a new or existing user of Safari Books
Online. Proceed either with Step 5A or Step 5B.
5A. If you already have a Safari account, click the EXISTING USER – SIGN IN button under Step 2.
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Introduction xxi
5B. If you are a new user, click the NEW USER – FREE ACCOUNT button under
Step 2.
❍ You’ll be taken to the “Register a New Account” page.
❍ This will require filling out a registration form and accepting an End User
Agreement.
❍ When complete, click the CONTINUE button.
6. On the Coupon Confirmation page, click the My Safari button.
7. On the My Safari page, look at the Bookshelf area and click the title of the book
you want to access.
How to Download the Online Edition to
Your Computer
In addition to reading the online edition of this book, you can also download it to your
computer. First, follow the steps in the preceding section. After Step 7, do the following:
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xxii Introduction
1. On the page that appears after Step 7 in the previous section, click the Extras tab.
2. Find “Download the complete PDF of this book,” and click the book title:
A new browser window or tab will open, followed by the File Download dialog box:
3. Click Save.
4. Choose Desktop and click Save.
5. Locate the .zip file on your desktop. Right-click the file, click Extract All, and then
follow the instructions.
Note If you have a problem with your voucher or access code, please contact
[email protected], or call 800-889-8969, where you’ll reach O’Reilly Media,
distributor of Microsoft Press books.
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Using the Practice Files
Before you can complete the exercises in this book, you need to copy the book’s practice
files to your computer. These practice files can be downloaded from the book’s detail
page, which is located at:
www.oreilly.com/catalog/9780735627338/
Display the detail page in your Web browser, and then follow the instructions for downloading the files.
By using the practice files, you won’t waste time creating your own sample files and
sites—instead, you can jump right in and concentrate on learning how to get the most
out of SharePoint Designer 2010.
To complete the exercises, you need a copy of Microsoft SharePoint Designer 2010 installed on your computer and access to a SharePoint site. The SharePoint site can be
created using Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010. However, to complete all the exercises, Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 is required.
Tip In many of the chapters, you will use the default SharePoint sites, lists, and libraries, so
those chapters do not include any practice files. For other chapters, you need to use a site
created from the solution file SPDSBSPracticeSite Starter.wsp, which is the only solution file
for this book. You need to create a site using this solution file only once. You can then use that
site to complete all exercises for all chapters that require the solution file site. If you want to,
you can also use the solution file site for exercises in other chapters, except for those exercises
that require a publishing site.
Important You must have access to a working SharePoint site before using this book.
SharePoint Foundation 2010 and SharePoint Designer 2010 can be downloaded from
Microsoft’s download Web site at no cost.
What’s on the Web?
The following table lists the practice files and site solution that are supplied on the
book’s Web site for each chapter.
Chapter
Files and WSP Files
Chapter 1, “Exploring SharePoint Designer”
None
Chapter 2, “Working with SharePoint Sites”
None
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xxiv Using the Practice Files
Chapter 3, “Working with Lists and Libraries”
WideWorldImportsSaleData.xlsx
WideWorldImportersExpenses.docx
b NewAnn16x16.gif
b NewAnn32x32.png
b NewTask16x16.png
Chapter 4, “Creating and Modifying Web Pages”
SilverlightSPDSBS.xap
Chapter 5, “Working with Data Views”
Use solution file site
SPDSBSPracticeSite Starter.wsp
sale.png
SPDSBSC05.xsl.txt
Chapter 6, “Working with Data Sources”
Use solution file site
SPDSBSPracticeSite Starter.wsp
Shipments.xml
Chapter 7, “Using Business Connectivity Services”
None
Chapter 8, “Understanding Workflows”
Use solution file site
SPDSBSPracticeSite Starter.wsp
Chapter 9, “Reusable Workflows and Workflow Forms” WideWorldImporters.png
Chapter 10, “Branding SharePoint Sites”
bg.png
Solution folder contains the resulting
MyStyles.css and MyPage.aspx
Chapter 11, “Working with Master Pages”
Use solution file site
SPDSBSPracticeSite Starter.wsp
Chapter 12, “Understanding Usability and
Accessibility”
Index.aspx
Chapter 13, “Managing Web Content in the
SharePoint Server Environment”
None
Chapter 14, “Using Controls in Web Pages”
ADRotator.xml
LucernePublishing.png
WideWorldImporters.png
ConsolidatedMessenger.png
Minimum System Requirements
This section details the requirements for both your computer—the client computer,
where SharePoint Designer should be installed—and the requirements for a computer
running SharePoint 2010—the server computer, where either SharePoint Foundation or
SharePoint Server is installed. If you have access to an Internet service provider (ISP) that
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Using the Practice Files xxv
hosts SharePoint for you or your company, or if your company has installed SharePoint
on your corporate intranet, the details about the server requirements will be of little interest to you. Just ask your company for a SharePoint site that you can use while you are
completing the exercises in this book, preferably a top-level site in your own site collection. If you currently have no access to a SharePoint site, the server computer requirements
section that follows will help you create or get access to a SharePoint environment.
Tip You can install SharePoint Designer 2010 and SharePoint 2010 on the same computer.
However, this not usual in a production environment.
Client Computer
To use this book, your client computer should meet the following requirements:
● Processor 500 MHz processor or higher.
● Memory 256 megabytes (MB) of RAM or higher.
● Hard disk For the eBooks and downloads, 3 GB of available hard disk space is
recommended, with 2 GB on the hard disk where the operating system is installed.
● Operating system Windows 7, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2008
R2, Windows Server 2008 with Service Pack 2, Windows Vista with Service Pack 1 or
later, Windows XP with Service Pack 3.
.NET Framework 3.5 SP1 must be installed on the client machine, which is incorporated in Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008 R2 but not in other operating systems.
● Drive CD or DVD drive.
● Display Monitor with 1024×768 or higher screen resolution and 16-bit or higher
color depth. Use of graphics hardware acceleration requires DirectX 9.0c–compatible
graphics card with 64 MB or higher of video memory.
● Software Windows Internet Explorer 7 or later, or one of the supported browsers
and Microsoft Silverlight. See the article “Plan browser support (SharePoint Server
2010)” at technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc263526(office.14).aspx.
Tip Actual requirements and product functionality might vary based on your system
configuration and operating system.
Note SharePoint Designer 2010 connects only to SharePoint 2010. To connect to sites based
on Office SharePoint Server 2007 or earlier versions, you must use SharePoint Designer
2007. If you install SharePoint Designer 2007 and SharePoint Designer 2010 side by side,
you must download the 32-bit version of SharePoint Designer 2010. Also note that 64-bit
Office applications will not run if SharePoint Designer 2007 is installed; 64-bit Office 2010
applications should be used only if you are not connecting to SharePoint 2007 servers.
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xxvi Using the Practice Files
Client Software
In addition to the hardware, software, and connections required to run SharePoint Designer,
you need the following software to successfully complete the exercises in this book:
● SharePoint Designer 2010, which is available at no cost from the Microsoft Web site
office.microsoft.com/en-us/sharepointdesigner/
● Microsoft Visio Premium 2010
● Microsoft InfoPath Designer 2010
● Microsoft Outlook 2010
● Microsoft Access 2010
● 20 MB of available hard disk space for the practice files
Server Computer
To use this book, you must have access to a server running Microsoft SharePoint
Foundation 2010 or Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010. Directions for how to install either
of these products, especially for a production environment, is outside the scope of this
book. However, if you do not have access to a SharePoint site and your company cannot
provide you with one, you have two options:
● Download the 2010 Information Worker Hyper-V virtual machine that includes Office
2010, SharePoint Designer 2010, and SharePoint Server 2010 from Microsoft’s download site (www.microsoft.com/downloads). Use the search keyword 2010 IW.
● Create a temporary SharePoint environment by installing a copy of SharePoint on
your computer.
Important To create a permanent installation of either a SharePoint Server or a SharePoint
Foundation environment, refer to one of the following sources of information: Microsoft
SharePoint Server 2010 Administrator’s Companion, by Bill English, Brian Alderman, and Mark
Ferraz (Microsoft Press, 2011) or Microsoft SharePoint 2010 Administrator’s Pocket Consultant,
by Ben Curry (Microsoft Press, 2010). For online assistance, visit the SharePoint 2010 products
site on Microsoft TechNet, which can be found at technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/
ee428287(office.14).aspx.
An installation of SharePoint Foundation allows you to complete the majority of exercises in this book. Appendix C, on page 503, provides a brief set of instructions for installing
SharePoint Foundation 2010 on a single server with a built-in database. This configuration can be used as a temporary SharePoint environment. The server computer should
meet the following requirements:
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Using the Practice Files xxvii
● Operating system One of the following 64-bit operating systems: Windows
Server 2008 R2, Windows Server 2008 R2 Enterprise, Windows Server 2008 R2
Standard, or Windows Server 2008 with Service Pack 2.
● Processor 64-bit; four-cores.
● Memory 8 GB for development or evaluation use.
● Software 80 GB for installation
See Also A full list of hardware and software requirements for SharePoint Foundation 2010
can be found at technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc288751(office.14).aspx.
Tip A temporary installation of SharePoint Server 2010 on a single server with a built-in
database will allow you to complete all but a very few of the exercises in this book, but
you need to obtain access to a trial version of SharePoint Server or purchase a copy. More
information can be found at sharepoint.microsoft.com/Pages/Default.aspx. The installation of
SharePoint Server 2010 on a single server with a built-in database is similar to the installation
of SharePoint Foundation 2010 on a single server with a built-in database. You can use the
installation instructions in Appendix C as a guideline.
Using the Practice Files for the Exercises
While you work through the exercises in this book, you should have access to a
SharePoint site, preferably a top-level site in your own site collection. You should be
a site owner of this site. In the exercises, you create child sites below this site, and in
Chapters 5, 6, 8, and 11, you use a starter solutions .wsp file to create the child site.
Please refer to the instructions later in this section for how to create a practice site from
the starter solutions .wsp file.
The solution file provided on the Web site contains lists, libraries, files, and pages that
you use for the exercises. In chapters that require you to create a site based on the solutions file, a SET UP paragraph lists that requirement. The text also explains any preparations you need to take before you start working through the chapter, as shown here:
Practice Files Before you can use the practice files in this chapter, you need to copy
the book’s practice files to your computer. The practice files you’ll use to complete the
exercises in this chapter are in the Chapter08 practice file folder. A complete list of
practice files is provided in “Using the Practice Files” at the beginning of this book.
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xxviii Using the Practice Files
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you created from the
SPDSBSPracticeSite Starter.wsp practice file.
Other practice files might need to be uploaded to the Site Assets library. You can use
the browser or SharePoint Designer to upload the files to the Site Assets library. To use
SharePoint Designer, use the following steps:
1. In the Navigation pane, click Site Assets, and then on the ribbon, click Import
Files in the New group. The Import dialog box opens.
2. Click Add File to display the File Open dialog box.
3. Browse to the folder that contains the practice file. Click Open, and then click OK
to close the File Open and Import dialog boxes.
Uploading the Solution WSP File
To create a practice site for a chapter based on the solution .wsp file, you first need to
upload the solution .wsp file to the Solutions gallery by following these steps:
SET UP Verify that you have sufficient rights to upload a solutions file to the
Solutions gallery for the top-level site of the site collection you are using. Open the
top-level SharePoint site in the browser.
1. Click Site Actions, and click Site Settings to display the site settings page.
2. Under Galleries, click Solutions to display the Solutions page.
Note If you see a Go To Top Level Site Settings link under Site Collection Administration,
you are not on the top-level site administration page. A site template can only be
uploaded to the Solutions gallery on a top-level site. Click Go To Top Level Site Settings,
and then repeat the previous step.
3. On the ribbon, click the Solutions tab, and then click Upload Solution to display
the Solutions Gallery: Upload Solution dialog box.
Up oad So u ion
4. Click the Browse button to display the Choose File to Upload dialog box.
5. Navigate to the folder that contains the solution .wsp file, click SPD2010SBS
PracticeWeb StarterSite.wsp, and then click the Open button.
6. Click OK.
The Solutions Gallery—Activate Solution dialog box is displayed.
7. On the View tab, click Activate to redisplay the Solutions page.
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Using the Practice Files xxix
Creating a Site from the Solution WSP File
After you have uploaded the solution .wsp file to the Solutions gallery, you can create a
child site based on the solutions file.
SET UP In your browser, display the home page of the SharePoint site where you
want to create the child site.
1. Click Site Actions, and then click New Site.
In SharePoint Foundation, the New SharePoint Site page is displayed. In SharePoint
Server, a Create page is displayed.
2. Complete the following step depending the version of SharePoint that is installed:
a. On SharePoint Foundation, on the Custom tab of the Select a template list,
select SPD2010SBS PracticeSite Starter.
b. On SharePoint Server, in the left pane, under Filter By, click Custom, and
then select SPD2010SBS PracticeSite Starter.
Troubleshooting If you are using SharePoint Server and cannot see the Custom filter
or the name of the template you uploaded, contact your site collection administrator. If
you are the administrator for the site collection where you are trying to create this team
site, follow the procedure in Appendix C on page 503 to display the template and then
complete this exercise.
3. In the Title box, type a logical name for the new site—for example, SPDSBS
Practice Site.
4. In the URL name box, type the same name you typed in the Title box.
5. Click Create.
The home page of the new practice site is displayed.
CLEAN UP Close the browser.
Removing the Solution Files
To remove the solution .wsp file from the Solutions gallery, follow these steps:
SET UP Verify that you have sufficient rights to delete a solution from the Solutions
gallery. Open the top-level SharePoint site where you previously uploaded the
solution file.
1. Click Site Actions, and click Site Settings to display the site settings page.
2. Under Galleries, click Solutions.
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xxx Using the Practice Files
Note If you see a Go To Top Level Site Settings link under Site Collection Administration,
you are not on the top-level site administration page. A site template can only be stored
in the Solutions gallery on a top level site. Click Go To Top Level Site Settings and then
repeat the previous step.
3. Point to the site template you want to remove, click the arrow that appears, and
then click Deactivate.
The Solutions Gallery—Deactivate Solution dialog box appears.
Deac iva e
4. On the View tab, click Deactivate.
5. Point to the site template you want to remove, click the arrow that appears, and
then click Delete. You are prompted to confirm your request. Click OK to complete
the deletion and display the Solutions gallery.
6. Repeat steps 3 through 5 to remove each site template that you no longer want to
be available for creating practice sites.
CLEAN UP Close the browser.
Deleting a Practice Site
If you created a practice site that you no longer want, you can delete it. Follow these
steps to delete a practice site:
SET UP Verify that you have sufficient rights to delete a site. In the browser, open the
SharePoint site you want to delete.
1. On the Site Actions menu, click Site Settings to display the site settings page.
2. In the Site Actions section, click Delete this site to display the Delete This Site
confirmation page.
3. Click the Delete button to delete the site.
4. On the Delete This Site warning page, click Delete.
CLEAN UP Close the browser.
Important Microsoft product support services do not provide support for this book or its
practice files.
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Getting Help
Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of this book. If you run into problems, please contact the sources listed in the following sections.
Getting Help with This Book
If your question or issue concerns the content of this book, please first consult the book’s
errata page, which can be accessed at:
www.oreilly.com/catalog/errata.csp?isbn 9780735627338
This page provides information about known errors and corrections to the book. If you
do not find your answer on the errata page, send your question or comment to O’Reilly
Media Customer Service at:
[email protected]
Getting Help with Microsoft SharePoint Designer
If your question is about SharePoint Designer and not about the content of this
Microsoft Press book, please search the Microsoft Help and Support Center or the
Microsoft Knowledge Base at:
support.microsoft.com
In the United States, Microsoft software product support issues not covered by the
Microsoft Knowledge Base are addressed by Microsoft Product Support Services. The
Microsoft software support options available from Microsoft Product Support Services
are listed at:
www.microsoft.com/services/microsoftservices/srv support.mspx
Outside the United States, for support information specific to your location, please refer
to the Worldwide Support menu on the Microsoft Help And Support Web site for the
site specific to your country:
support.microsoft.com/common/international.aspx
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Features and Conventions of
This Book
This book has been designed to lead you step by step through all the tasks you are most
likely to want to perform in Microsoft SharePoint Designer 2010. Each chapter of this
book includes self-contained topics that teach you about specific program features. Most
topics conclude with a step-by-step exercise in which you practice using the program.
The following features of this book will help you locate specific information:
● Detailed table of contents Scan this list of the topics and sidebars within each
chapter.
● Chapter thumb tabs Easily locate the beginning of each chapter by looking at the
colored blocks on the odd-numbered pages.
● Topic-specific running heads Within a chapter, quickly locate the topic you want
by looking at the running head on odd-numbered pages.
● Glossary Look up the meaning of a word or the definition of a concept.
● Detailed index Look up specific tasks and features and general concepts in the in-
dex, which has been carefully crafted with the reader in mind.
You can save time when you use this book by understanding how the Step by Step series
shows special instructions, keys to press, buttons to click, and other information. These
conventions are listed in the following table.
Convention
Meaning
SET UP
This paragraph precedes a step-by-step exercise and indicates the practice files that you will use when working through the exercise. It also
indicates any requirements you should attend to or actions you should
take before beginning the exercise.
CLEAN UP
This paragraph follows a step-by-step exercise and provides instructions
for saving and closing open files or programs before you move on to
another topic. It also suggests ways to reverse any changes you made to
your computer while working through the exercise.
1
2
Blue numbered steps guide you through hands-on exercises in each
topic.
1
2
Black numbered steps guide you through procedures in sidebars and in
expository text.
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xxxiv Features and Conventions of This Book
See Also
This paragraph directs you to more information about a given topic in
this book or elsewhere.
Troubleshooting
This paragraph alerts you to a common problem and provides guidance
for fixing it.
Tip
This paragraph provides a helpful hint or shortcut that makes working
through a task easier or information about other available options.
Important
This paragraph points out information that you need to know to complete a procedure.
Keyboard shortcut This paragraph provides information about an available keyboard shortcut for the preceding task.
Ctrl+Tab
A plus sign (+) between two key names means that you must hold
down the first key while you press the second key. For example, “Press
Ctrl+Tab ” means “hold down the Ctrl key while you press the Tab key.
Black bold
In exercises that begin with SET UP information, the names of program
elements, such as buttons, commands, and dialog boxes, as well as files,
folders, or text that you interact with in the steps are shown in black
bold characters.
Blue bold
In exercises that begin with SET UP information, text that you should
type is shown in bold blue type.
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Part 1
Getting Started with
Microsoft SharePoint
Designer 2010
1 Exploring SharePoint Designer 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2 Working with SharePoint Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
xxxv
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Chapter at a G ance
Use SharePoint Designer
to explore a Web page, page 20
Use task panes,
page 26
Create a site,
page 8
Explore the
SharePoint
Designer
shell,
page 13
Control the use of
SharePoint Designer,
page 32
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1 Exploring SharePoint
Designer 2010
In this chapter, you will learn how to
✔ Understand SharePoint Designer.
✔ Use SharePoint Designer to carry out common tasks.
✔ Understand what’s new in SharePoint Designer 2010.
✔ Create a site with SharePoint Designer.
✔ Explore the SharePoint Designer shell.
✔ Use SharePoint Designer to explore a Web page.
✔ Use task panes.
✔ Control the use of SharePoint Designer.
You may be reading this book because you have Microsoft SharePoint—Microsoft
SharePoint Foundation 2010, Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010, or both—in your organization and want to do more with your SharePoint sites than you can achieve with only
the browser. You do not know how to program SharePoint, but you want to create more
complex solutions than you can achieve by using the browser and have been told that
Microsoft SharePoint Designer 2010 is a tool that you can use to do this. What you’ve
heard is true; SharePoint Designer is a powerful tool that allows you to create rich and
robust applications on top of your SharePoint sites.
SharePoint Designer is now “the preferred” tool for designing powerful, no-code solutions and applications in SharePoint 2010. It is a complex tool and is designed to help
you present and manipulate content to meet your business needs. It’s not designed for
adding static content, such as text or images to your Web pages, or for uploading documents or creating list items. You use the browser to complete those tasks. SharePoint
Designer is not a tool for general use by all users who visit or have access to a SharePoint
site.
1
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2 Chapter 1 Exploring SharePoint Designer 2010
To make the best use of this book, you should already be familiar with creating and
modifying SharePoint sites in a browser. It is likely that you are a site or site collection
owner who has little or no experience using SharePoint Designer. A few of you might be
familiar with programming SharePoint solutions in Microsoft Visual Studio 2010; however,
coding experience is not necessary to use this book, which focuses on producing nocode solutions. Regardless of your current skill level, the book assumes that every reader
wants to learn about the powerful capabilities of SharePoint Designer 2010. Whether you
are an information worker, an IT professional, or a developer, this book is for you.
Most of this book covers the mechanisms of using SharePoint Designer, but you’ll also
find advice and guidelines for creating successful solutions for other users. As you read
this book and start to learn how to use SharePoint Designer, you’ll find that you can’t do
without it.
Soon after you start SharePoint Designer 2010, you’ll notice that the user interface (UI),
known as the shell, looks quite different from SharePoint Designer 2007. SharePoint
Designer 2010 uses the Microsoft Office Fluent user interface, which was designed to
make it easier for users to use and find features within a product. It incorporates the ribbon and the companion feature—Backstage view—which can be accessed from the File
tab.
Tip If you are unfamiliar with Microsoft SharePoint 2010, read Microsoft SharePoint
Foundation 2010 Step by Step by Olga Londer and Penelope Coventry (Microsoft Press, 2011)
before you read this book.
In this chapter you will learn what SharePoint Designer is and what common tasks you
can accomplish by using it. You will create, close, and open a team site and explore the
new shell in SharePoint Designer 2010. You will also see how each site has a home page.
Important You should not complete the book’s exercises on a production site. You should
have a practice site or, ideally, your own site collection. For more information about setting up
your environment and the practice files, see “Using the Practice Files” on page xxiii.
Practice Files No practice files are required to complete the exercises in this chapter.
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Understanding SharePoint Designer 2010 3
Understanding SharePoint Designer 2010
SharePoint Designer 2010 is a free, powerful Web-editing tool with special capabilities
for building solutions with SharePoint Foundation 2010 and SharePoint Server 2010 sites.
Once you connect to a SharePoint site, you can use SharePoint Designer to administer
the site, create workflows, and customize pages.
Note Unlike with previous versions of SharePoint Designer, which could be used to create
and customize any standards-compliant site, you cannot use SharePoint Designer 2010 to
customize sites not based on SharePoint, nor can you use it to customize sites based on
previous versions of SharePoint, such as Windows SharePoint Services 3.0 or Microsoft Office
SharePoint Server 2007.
SharePoint Designer renders pages, like many other Web editing tools, in a document
window so that you can visually amend the content in a “what you see is what you get”
(WYSIWYG) environment. Also, like other Office 2010 applications and the browser when
you open a SharePoint site, SharePoint Designer uses the Office Fluent user interface,
including the ribbon, which displays all the tools you need—and only the tools you
need—to complete specific tasks. You can use the tools provided to customize and develop business solutions based on Microsoft SharePoint Products and Technologies without the need to write code.
Tip SharePoint Foundation, SharePoint Server, and SharePoint Designer are known
collectively as Microsoft SharePoint Products and Technologies.
SharePoint sites work in a different way than non-SharePoint sites you may be familiar
with. Instead of using a folder on a Web server, such as c:\inetpub\wwwroot, to store
site content, a SharePoint site stores the majority of the content in a set of Microsoft
SQL Server databases. SharePoint Designer does not have direct access to the content
that is stored in the SQL Server databases. Any modifications you make to a site using SharePoint Designer are saved in the SQL Server content databases via SharePoint
Foundation or SharePoint Server. Therefore, before you can use SharePoint Designer, you
need access to an environment in which SharePoint is already installed.
With SharePoint Designer, you never open files directly on the local drive, a shared network
drive, or a CD. You connect to a SharePoint site with SharePoint Designer using a URL that
begins with http: or https:, just as you would connect to a SharePoint site using the browser.
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4 Chapter 1 Exploring SharePoint Designer 2010
Using SharePoint Designer to Carry Out Common Tasks
Many of the most successful SharePoint sites are built by the users who use them—the
users of the site become the designers and the developers. Many of them are created just with the use of the browser; others are enhanced with the use of SharePoint
Designer. SharePoint is wonderful for producing solutions with no code. These solutions
are successful because the users know what they want to achieve; they are using a site as
they develop it; and they can sort out problems, including problems that can be found
only by using the solution. There is no need to provide feedback to others or raise incidents with your organization’s help desk.
Initially this is probably how you started building solutions, and I hope this book helps
you build more successful SharePoint sites. However, once others in your organization
learn of your success, you might be asked to build solutions for other users. Never forget, however, that the reason for the success of your SharePoint site is that you knew the
business requirements and experienced firsthand the issues of your solution. You were
also probably very passionate about your own SharePoint solution.
Part of the SharePoint technologies ethos is to allow users to easily complete tasks that
are traditionally completed by highly skilled technical users—changes to sites were the
domain of the IT department, the Web master, or a Web hosting company. This caused
what became known as the Web master bottleneck; content on sites became dated, and
the number of visitors decreased. Microsoft has provided a set of tools that you can use
to quickly and easily complete common tasks on a SharePoint site. SharePoint Designer
is one such tool. However, you must be sure that the way you use these tools does not
reinvent the Web master bottleneck, where the bottleneck now becomes you! By transferring the knowledge necessary to maintain a site to another user who does not need
to know how to use SharePoint Designer, you can remove yourself from the maintenance
cycle, leaving you with more time to develop exciting solutions with SharePoint Designer.
To organize a SharePoint site to meet the business needs of you and your coworkers,
you can customize lists, libraries, and the pages of a SharePoint site by using a browser.
With SharePoint Designer, you can carry out similar tasks, but you can also extend those
customizations. With SharePoint Designer 2010, you can now complete more tasks natively, without the need to jump back and forth between SharePoint Designer and the
browser, but you can’t do everything with SharePoint Designer. It complements your
Web browser but does not replace it. Use SharePoint Designer to produce solutions that
are easily maintainable and supportable. Typically, you can achieve 75 percent of the
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Using SharePoint Designer to Carry Out Common Tasks 5
necessary customizations of a SharePoint site by using a browser; 15 percent require the
use of SharePoint Designer, and 10 percent require a developer who is skilled in Visual
Studio 2010.
Whether you are an administrator, a developer, or an information worker, some of the
most compelling uses of SharePoint Designer are as follows:
● Using the Data View and Data Form Web Parts to create data-driven solu-
tions based on eXtensible Markup Language (XML) and eXtensible Stylesheet
Language Transformations (XSLT) technologies, including creating custom views
of data from external systems exposed by Business Connectivity Services (BCS). If
you need to use either of these Web Parts on multiple sites, you can export and
import the Web Parts or make them part of the Web Part gallery. This lets you
produce maintainable solutions, where you store the XSLT in a central document
library and point these Web Parts to it. You can then centrally manage changes to
the Web Parts you create without visiting every site that uses them.
● Connecting to other data source connections, such as XML Web services, data-
bases, and lists and libraries on other SharePoint sites, including the use of external
content types (ECT) and external lists.
● Using Web Part connections to pass data from a Web Part on one page to one or
more Web Parts on another page. With Web Part connections, you can manage the
data displayed on a page in a dynamic and interesting way. Using a Web browser,
you can connect only Web Parts that are placed on the same page.
● Creating workflows for lists or libraries, a content type, or a site by using the built-
in workflow editor—complemented by business workflow diagrams produced with
Microsoft Visio 2010 and without having to write server-side code. These workflows
can be exported and given to a developer with Visual Studio skills.
● Creating solutions to meet the needs of specific business processes or sets of tasks
in your organization, and then reusing them as a basis for future SharePoint sites.
● Prototyping a solution to justify business expenditure. Before submitting a proposal
or requesting additional resources, you can quickly create solutions with SharePoint
Designer to gather requirements and verify the business process the solution must
meet. You may need to export your solution and involve a developer or an administrator so that the final solution is easily deployed and managed. When you start
to develop a solution using SharePoint Designer, your intention might be to create
a solution that will be used immediately. However, as you work with the business,
the solution might become more complex or the business might not be able to
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6 Chapter 1 Exploring SharePoint Designer 2010
answer all of your questions, so it turns out that the solution cannot be used immediately. Essentially, you’ll find that you are using SharePoint Designer as a prototyping tool. Another example of when you will discover that you are using SharePoint
Designer as a prototyping tool is when you have customized a site and then you
receive requests to repeat the customization again and again on other SharePoint
sites. In this situation, you need to devise a solution that does not distract you from
your other tasks.
● Performing one-off site customizations.
At this early stage of the book, do not to worry if this list means little to you. By the end
of the book, you will understand what each item means and should review this list of
common tasks that you can accomplish using SharePoint Designer.
Understanding What’s New in SharePoint Designer 2010
SharePoint Designer has historically been a very powerful and useful tool. SharePoint
Designer’s modifications can have long-lasting implications, and the previous version of SharePoint Designer did not make this obvious to an untrained user, nor did
it provide an easy method of controlling the level of modifications users could make
with SharePoint Designer. Therefore, some organizations restricted the installation of
SharePoint Designer to all but a few trained business users.
Microsoft has addressed this limitation by implementing a safe-by-default approach. Site
definition pages can be customized (unghosted) only when a page is in advanced edit
mode. Also, you can limit what users can or cannot do with SharePoint Designer at the
Web-application or site-collection level by using the browser.
See Also Chapter 2, “Working with SharePoint Sites,” for more information on how site
collection administrators can control the use of SharePoint Designer, and Appendix C on page
503 for a list of steps that SharePoint farm administrators can use to restrict the use of SharePoint
Designer at the Web-application level.
Other new features in SharePoint Designer 2010 are:
● User interface (UI) The SharePoint Designer user interface (UI) is redesigned and
uses the Office Fluent UI, which was designed to make it easier for users to use
and find features within a product. It incorporates the ribbon and Backstage view,
which can be accessed from the File tab.
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Understanding What’s New in SharePoint Designer 2010 7
● Easier management of SharePoint components The new Navigation pane,
which replaces the Folder List task pane in SharePoint Designer 2007, focuses on
SharePoint artifacts and not where the artifacts are stored. You can now manipulate major SharePoint components—such as content types, site columns, and external lists—and modify site and list permissions natively within SharePoint Designer.
Using SharePoint Designer to manipulate SharePoint components is now much
faster and more efficient than using a Web browser to complete similar tasks.
● New tools to help users create better composites (solutions) Two areas of tool
improvement are:
❍ Workflows The challenge in implementing a new workflow is that the person
who creates the workflow is usually not the one who defines the requirements. SharePoint 2010 addresses this challenge by allowing people to create workflows in Visio 2010 and export them into SharePoint Designer 2010,
where business logic and additional rules are added. Workflows developed in
SharePoint Designer can be exported from one SharePoint site and imported
into another, as well as into Visual Studio 2010. This enables development and
testing of the SharePoint Designer custom workflow to take place in a trusted
environment before deployment to the production system. In the previous
version of SharePoint, this was available only with workflows created using
Visual Studio. More information on workflows can be found in Chapter 8,
“Understanding Workflows,” and Chapter 9, “Using Reusable Workflows and
Workflow Forms.”
❍ Business Connectivity Services (BCS) Originally called the Business Data
Catalog, BCS is now available in the base product, Microsoft SharePoint
Foundation 2010. SharePoint Designer is the major tool for information workers and business analysts to define how to access external systems and create
dashboards and composite applications based on data from the external systems. The BCS is detailed in Chapter 7, “Using Business Connectivity Services.”
● Performance and stability improvements Until the release of Service Pack 2,
SharePoint Designer 2007 had major performance and stability issues. Some users
also complained about the code SharePoint Designer 2007 generated. Microsoft
has invested heavily in this area.
A number of SharePoint Designer 2007 features are removed from SharePoint Designer
2010. Many of these features are not relevant to SharePoint sites, and since SharePoint
Designer 2010 can be used only with SharePoint 2010 sites, they served no purpose. The
features removed include:
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8 Chapter 1 Exploring SharePoint Designer 2010
● Contributor settings Microsoft received feedback that this feature was too com-
plicated and rarely used. Restrictions are now controlled using permissions, the
safe-by-default editing mode, and the configuration at the Web-application and
site-collection level as described earlier in this section.
● Database-related features This includes the Database Interface Wizard that cre-
ates new database-driven Web sites, the database results Web component (also
known as a WebBot), and the Database tab of the Site Settings dialog box, which
on a SharePoint site displayed the message “Database properties cannot be used
with this Web site.”
● Layout tables CSS layout features have replaced the layout tables feature. If any of
your upgraded SharePoint sites contains a layout table, SharePoint Designer 2010
displays the layout table functions correctly; however, you will not be able to install
any new layout tables.
● Publish, backup, and restore of Web sites; import and export of Web packages
(.fwp), and FTP client Many of these features were useful on non-SharePoint sites
and have been removed. Expression Web is the tool to use for these features. Also,
SharePoint Designer is not a server administrator’s tool. The Central Administration
Web site should be used to complete comparable tasks for SharePoint sites.
Tip To package and deploy SharePoint solutions, save a site as a template or use a solutions
file. You can find more information on solutions at http://social.msdn.microsoft.com/Search/
en-us?query=sharepoint+2010+solutions. There is a 20 minute learning snack on developing
solutions with Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 at www.microsoft.com/learning/en/us/
training/format-learning-snacks.aspx#SP10.
● The Reports, Navigation, and Hyperlinks options available on the Sites menu
and at the bottom of the Web Site tab The error checking features in SharePoint
Designer 2010 let you check for broken links, unused pages, cascading style sheets
usage, and master page usage.
See Also More information on changes to SharePoint Designer 2010 can be found at http://
technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc179083(office.14).aspx.
Creating Sites with SharePoint Designer
Usually, the first task when you build a solution is to create a site. When you create a
site with SharePoint, you can choose from a number of site templates that incorporate
pages, Web Parts, and other features that allow you to organize information, manage
documents, and create workflows to support your business environment.
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Creating Sites with SharePoint Designer 9
SharePoint Foundation 2010 has 10 built-in site templates. SharePoint Server includes
these 10 site templates plus a number of other site templates. These templates form a
good basis on which to create almost any SharePoint site. You should familiarize yourself
with the features that sites created from these templates offer so that you know which to
use as a blueprint.
When you create a SharePoint site from one of the built-in site templates, you refer to
pages and files stored on each Web server. The pages and files are stored in a subfolder,
named TEMPLATE, in the root directory, which in a default installation is C:\Program
Files\Common Files\Microsoft Shared\web server extensions\14. When you create a
SharePoint site, no files or pages are created. Instead, entries are created in tables in the
SQL Server content databases that point to files in the TEMPLATE folder. The files in the
TEMPLATE folder on the Web server are known as site definitions. Site definition files are
cached in memory on the server at process startup. As a result, when you request a page
that points to one of the site definitions files, it is retrieved from the server’s memory.
Therefore, a relatively small set of files can support a large number of SharePoint sites
with many pages, resulting in improved performance.
To open a SharePoint site with your browser, you type the address of your site, known
as a URL—for example, http://wideworldimporters/Human Resources or http://intranet.
wideworldimporters.com/sites/teams/IT. The first portion of the URL, such as http://wideworldimporters or http://intranet.wideworldimporters.com, is known as the Web application. A Web application can consist of one or more site collections; each site collection
always has one top-level site and, optionally, one or more subsites, also called child sites.
This hierarchy resembles the hierarchy of folders in file systems in that it is a treelike structure. Using the example mentioned earlier, http://wideworldimporters is the top-level site
of a site collection and Human Resources is a subsite of the http://wideworldimporters site
collection.
In this exercise, you create a subsite by using the Team Site template.
SET UP You need the URL of a SharePoint site where you can create the new team
site as a subsite. It is recommended that you do not complete the book’s exercises
on a production site. You should ideally have your own practice site collection. If in
doubt, check with your SharePoint administrator.
1. On the taskbar, click the Start button, point to All Programs, click SharePoint,
and then click Microsoft SharePoint Designer 2010.
S ar
The SharePoint Designer window opens, displaying Backstage view.
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10 Chapter 1 Exploring SharePoint Designer 2010
2. Under Site Templates, click Team Site.
The Team Site dialog box opens.
3. In the Specify the location of the new Web site text box, type the name of your
team site: http://<yourwebapplicationname/path>/Human Resources.
The yourwebapplicationname/path portion of the URL is the location of the site collection that you are using for the exercises in this book. (The path portion might be
empty.) Human Resources is the name of the team site.
Important For the exercises in this book, I use a fictitious SharePoint site,
wideworldimporters. Its URL is http://wideworldimporters. However, in your
environment, you will use a different URL, and therefore you need to use your site
location, http://<yourwebapplication/path> in place of http://wideworldimporters.
4. Click OK.
A number of dialog boxes open. If prompted, type your user name and password.
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Creating Sites with SharePoint Designer 11
When the last dialog box closes, the new team site is displayed in On Stage view in
SharePoint Designer.
CLEAN UP Close SharePoint Designer.
Best Practices for Naming URLs
Every SharePoint component is referenced by a URL, whether it is for a site, a list, or
a library. When you create a new SharePoint component, do not use the following
characters: \ / : * ? “ < > | # { } % & <TAB> ” ! ~ +. Both the browser and SharePoint
Designer display a warning dialog box if you use an illegal character. When you use
the browser, the message points to the illegal character you tried to use.
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12 Chapter 1 Exploring SharePoint Designer 2010
Note When Microsoft Silverlight is not installed, the error message appears in
a dialog box. Microsoft Silverlight is a Web application framework that provides
functionalities similar to those in Adobe Flash, integrating multimedia, graphics,
animations, and interactivity.
The error message displayed by SharePoint Designer does not point specifically to
the illegal character used.
See Also For more information about using these characters in URLs, see the Microsoft
Knowledge Base article at support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;905231.
Keep a URL’s name short and meaningful, and include terms that are memorable to
users and terms that they might enter as search query keywords. The name can tell
users about your Web site—its purpose and the type of content it contains—and
helps search engines rank your site for targeted keywords. Check the spelling of
words you include in the URL name and be consistent in your naming conventions;
for example, don’t call a picture library pictures in one site and images in another.
For some SharePoint components, such as the URL for a site, you cannot change
the URL later.
If your aim is to make the URL readable and the URL consists of several words,
use an underscore (“ ”) in place of a space or remove the space and capitalize the
first character in each word. For example, replace the three words Wide World
Importers, with either Wide World Importers or WideWorldImporters. The underscore is the better of these options because all popular search engines and spiders
understand it as a word separator.
See Also More information on SharePoint 2010 Search Engine Optimization (SEO) tips
can be found at http://blogs.msdn.com/b/opal/archive/2010/04/23/sharepoint-2010search-engine-optimization-seo-tips.aspx.
Although the space character is a legal URL character, there are several issues with
having one or more spaces in the URL, such as the following:
● Readability. A space in the URL name is URL-encoded as %20, so the resulting
name is difficult for people to read. A site with a URL of s p f would result in
an encoded version of s%20p%20f, six extra characters.
● URL length limitation. A URL must contain no more than 260 characters.
SharePoint refers to every site, list, library, list item, or document as a URL.
SharePoint prefixes the document name by the document library’s URL, which
is prefixed by the site’s URL, then by its parent’s site’s URL, and so on. In addition, when a user edits documents or list items, SharePoint appends the URL
of the document library or list, so that when the user clicks Save or Close, the
browser redirects them to the list or library in which the item was saved.
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Exploring the SharePoint Designer Shell 13
If the URL for the list or library contains two spaces, it contains six extra characters. Then, as the URL is appended for editing, that adds another six extra
characters, making 12 extra characters. Therefore, if you consistently use
long names, you’ll eventually have problems, which is exaggerated if you use
spaces.
● Links in e-mails. If you incorporate a URL in an e-mail message, some e-mail
programs truncate the URL at the first space when sending the clickable link
to the recipient, resulting in a broken link. When users click the link, they are
taken to an invalid location in the browser and won’t understand why they
can’t find the document.
Note You might see the use of dashes or hyphens (“-“) to separate words in a URL
name; however, hyphens are used as break points to wrap text on separate lines.
URLs that contain hyphens can cause problems similar to spaces with e-mail and text
editors.
Exploring the SharePoint Designer Shell
When you open SharePoint Designer (as in the previous exercise), you are presented with
Microsoft Office Backstage view, which gives you access to those tasks you need to perform on the whole site or in configuring SharePoint Designer. The title bar contains the
program name or the site name, if one is open.
When you open SharePoint Designer but have not yet opened a SharePoint Web site,
Backstage view is divided into five areas:
● The pane at the left includes essential management commands and product
options.
● Open SharePoint Site Allows you to open a SharePoint 2010 site and, if you have
SharePoint Server 2010 installed, customize your My Site.
● Recent Sites Displays the SharePoint sites that you recently opened with
SharePoint Designer.
● New SharePoint Site Allows you to quickly create a blank SharePoint site or a sub-
site beneath your My Site.
● Site Templates Allows you to create a site based on one of the SharePoint site
templates. By default, this area shows the Blank Site, Blog, and Team Site templates.
You can use the More Templates option to connect to a SharePoint site that provides more site templates.
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14 Chapter 1 Exploring SharePoint Designer 2010
Once a site is open, On Stage view is displayed, and as in many Microsoft Office applications, it contains a number of elements, as shown here:
Quick Access Toolbar
Breadcrumb
Workspace
Ribbon
group
Task pane
Ribbon
Navigation
pane
Mini-gallery
Status bar
Log In As
● Quick Access Toolbar This area can be customized to include favorite or frequent-
ly used commands. Commands that cannot be used with the information displayed
in the workspace are not available.
● Ribbon The ribbon was introduced in Office 2007 and has been improved in Office
2010 to include some new tools and provide more flexibility. It consists of a number
of task-oriented tabs; each tab contains a number of command buttons. The number of tabs shown depends on the information displayed in the workspace.
● Ribbon group A collection of related commands, each command has one or
more images and alternative text that appears as a ScreenTip when you hover the
mouse over it. The image displayed for the command depends on the size of the
SharePoint Designer window. As you resize the window, the ribbon resizes, and the
groups and commands expand or collapse dynamically.
● Navigation pane This lists SharePoint artifacts, such as a lists and libraries, work-
flows, and master pages. Unlike in SharePoint Designer 2007, you no longer need
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Exploring the SharePoint Designer Shell 15
to know where each artifact is stored. By using the Navigation pane, you can quickly go to the artifact you need to work with.
● Breadcrumb As with any other breadcrumb on the Web, the breadcrumb in the
shell provides a tool that makes it easy to navigate back and forward and keep
track of where you are. The SharePoint Designer breadcrumb also allows you to
navigate through related components of an artifact.
● Workspace In the workspace, you manipulate SharePoint artifacts, including Web
pages. When a site is open, a tab appears above the workspace with the name of
the site. The workspace and tab name change as you navigate between artifacts,
and new tabs open as you manipulate artifacts. A Refresh button is located at the
top left of the workspace, and the workspace can contain its own status bar when
you are editing Web pages. The workspace has three page formats, depending on
the artifact displayed:
❍ Settings page Used to configure the settings or display information for an
artifact such as the open site, lists, libraries, pages, and workflows.
❍ Gallery page Used to display a list of artifacts and helps to obtain a broad
view of the contents of the site. For example, if you click Site Columns in the
Navigation pane, you see a list of site columns.
❍ Editors Allows you to edit artifacts such as Web pages, content types, and
workflows.
● Mini-gallery A list of artifacts; it can be seen below the Navigation pane, similar to
the gallery page.
● Task panes These are helper windows that you can open and use to perform cer-
tain tasks with files, such as adding ASP.NET controls and managing cascading style
sheets. Unlike in SharePoint Designer 2007, task panes do not automatically appear
in SharePoint Designer 2010 when you open a Web page.
● Status bar The status bar contains information such as the visual aid setting, style
application settings, download statistics, rendering mode, page size, cascading
style sheet version, and code errors.
● Log In As This control allows you to sign in as a different user for testing purposes.
Tip You can switch between Backstage and On Stage view by clicking the File tab.
In this exercise, you explore the SharePoint Designer shell, open a SharePoint site, and
review the backstage and startup settings of SharePoint Designer.
SET UP Use the team site you created in the previous exercise.
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16 Chapter 1 Exploring SharePoint Designer 2010
1. On the taskbar, click the Start button, point to All Programs, click SharePoint,
and then click Microsoft SharePoint Designer 2010.
S ar
The SharePoint Designer window opens, displaying Backstage view.
2. In the left pane, click Options.
The SharePoint Designer Options dialog box opens.
3. Click Application Options.
The Application Options dialog box opens displaying the General tab, where the
Startup options are listed. You use the Configure Editors tab to associate file types
with programs (the default editors) on your computer. These programs are used to
open a file when you double-click it or when you right-click a file and click Open.
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Exploring the SharePoint Designer Shell 17
4. On the General tab, select the Open last Web site automatically when
SharePoint Designer starts check box, and then click OK twice to close the
Application Options and then the SharePoint Designer Options dialog boxes.
5. In the left pane, click Help.
Options for getting help and details about SharePoint Designer, including version
information and whether you are using the 32-bit or 64-bit version of SharePoint
Designer, are displayed.
6. In the left pane, click Sites, and then under Open SharePoint Site, click Open
Site.
The Open Site dialog box is displayed.
Tip You can use your browser to open a Web site in SharePoint Designer by clicking Site
Actions and then clicking Edit In SharePoint Designer. If you click this option and do not
have SharePoint Designer installed, you are asked whether you want to download and
install SharePoint Designer. If you choose to install SharePoint Designer 2010 yourself
and have SharePoint Designer 2007 already installed (so that you can customize earlier
versions of SharePoint), you must download the 32-bit version of SharePoint Designer
2010. Please also note that 64-bit Office applications will not run if SharePoint Designer
2007 is installed.
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18 Chapter 1 Exploring SharePoint Designer 2010
7. In the Site name box, type the URL of your team site, and then click Open. If
prompted, type your user name and password, and click OK.
Important SharePoint Designer uses Internet Explorer’s security settings to decide
whether to prompt for credentials. If you are prompted for credentials when you display
the site in the browser, you are prompted for credentials when you open the same site
using SharePoint Designer.
The On Stage view of SharePoint Designer is displayed. The workspace contains
the settings page for your team site, and the workspace tab displays the name of
your site. The workspace also displays the key information for your site, such as the
title and description, the Web address, the SharePoint version, server version, percentage of storage used (if a quota is set for this site), and users and groups that
have permissions to your site. You’ll also see a list of subsites and see whether you
have the ability to customize your home page and master page and to change the
theme. The ribbon’s Site tab contains commands to create new SharePoint artifacts
and to manage the site.
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Exploring the SharePoint Designer Shell 19
8. Click the down arrow at the right end of the Quick Access Toolbar, and then click
More Commands.
The SharePoint Designer Options dialog box opens.
9. Under Choose command from, select All Commands, and then scroll down, click
Paste Text, and click Add.
Paste Text appears in the Customize Quick Access Toolbar column.
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20 Chapter 1 Exploring SharePoint Designer 2010
10. Click the up arrow to the right of the Customize Access Toolbar column so
that the Paste Text command is below Redo, and then click OK to close the
SharePoint Designer Options dialog box.
A dimmed Paste Text icon appears on the Quick Access Toolbar. This icon becomes
activate when you have a Web page open and you place the insertion point in the
Web page.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next
exercise.
Using SharePoint Designer to Explore a Web Page
When you open a site you are presented with the site settings page in the workspace
area. You can use this page to view and manage the settings for a site, and you can use
the link in the Customization area to open the site’s home page. The home page, also
known as the site’s default page, is the page that renders in your browser if you type the
URL of a site and do not specify a specific page.
SharePoint Designer provides you with the following three views of a page:
● Design view displays the page as it would appear in a browser and provides a
WYSIWYG editing environment. To identify page elements such as borders, margins, and padding, you can use SharePoint Designer 2010 visual aids.
● Code view displays the HTML tags, client-side script (such as JavaScript), and con-
trols that SharePoint uses to display content, such as the name of the site and the
Search box. The code elements are color-coded to make it easier for you to distinguish the text that users see in their browser from the code surrounding the text.
Each line of code is numbered so that error messages can reference them and you
can quickly identify problems.
● Split view divides the workspace horizontally and displays Code view at the top
and Design view at the bottom.
Tip You can change the default colors for the code elements by using the Page Editor Options
dialog box. You can also change the default text attributes for content you add using Design
view. You will use the Page Editor Options dialog box in the next exercise.
You can use any of these three views to edit a page. When you display a page in the
workspace, it is called the editor page, and Editor appears in the workspace breadcrumb.
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Using SharePoint Designer to Explore a Web Page 21
A SharePoint site can contain a number of different types of Web pages. The types of
Web pages you might be familiar with when using a browser are Web Part pages, Wiki
pages, and, if you use SharePoint Server, publishing pages. These pages on a newly created SharePoint site are built from site definition files and point to files in the TEMPLATE
folder, as described earlier in this chapter.
See Also For more information on editing Web Part pages and Wiki pages in the browser, see
Chapter 6, “Working with Web Pages,” in Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010 Step by Step.
Publishing pages are covered later in this book in Chapter 13, “Managing Web Content in the
SharePoint Server Environment.”
The home page of a newly created team site is a Wiki page, which allows users to intermingle content with Web Parts in a rich-text editing region within the page. This region
of the page, known as PlaceHolderMain, is saved separately from the site definition
file. Therefore, when you edit the page in the browser or in SharePoint Designer in safe
mode—which is the default editing mode—you are only modifying the content within
PlaceHolderMain and not the content of the site definition files. Depending on your
permissions, as explained in the last section of this chapter, you might be able to edit
the Web page in advanced edit mode. This allows you to amend the content outside the
PlaceHolderMain region. Then, when you save the Web page, a copy of the site definition file together with your amendments are stored in the SQL Server content database.
These amended Web pages, known as customized or unghosted pages, no longer point
to the site definition files in the TEMPLATE folder on the SharePoint servers and no longer provide the same performance benefit as site definition files. Site definition files that
have not been customized are known as uncustomized or ghosted pages.
In Code view, when you are editing a page in safe mode, the code that is stored outside
PlaceHolderMain and which you cannot modify is highlighted in yellow.
In this exercise, you use the Page Editor Options dialog box to configure Design and
Code views and then explore a Web page.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open. The site’s settings page should be displayed.
1. Click the File tab, and then click Options in the left pane.
The SharePoint Designer Options dialog box opens.
2. On the General tab, click Page Editor Options.
The Page Editor Options dialog box opens with the General tab active. This tab
contains a number of settings that affect Code view. You can also change these options from the Code View toolbar. The default settings make it easy for you to work
with code and find errors.
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22 Chapter 1 Exploring SharePoint Designer 2010
3. Click the Default Fonts tab.
The default setting is to use the Unicode (UTF-8) language, which is the World
Wide Web Consortium (W3C) recommendation. Depending on the size of your
monitor, you might want to change the font size used in Code view.
Tip Do not change the Design view font. Internet Explorer and Firefox use Times New
Roman as their default font, and you want the view of a page in Design view to reflect
the rendering of the page within the browser.
4. Click OK twice to close the Page Editor Options and then the SharePoint
Designer Options dialog boxes.
The site settings page is displayed in the workspace.
5. In the Customization area, click Edit site home page.
The home page of the team site opens as a second tab in the workspace. The
Home.aspx file is stored within the Site Pages document library. SharePoint
Designer indicates this by highlighting the artifact Site Pages in orange in the
Navigation pane and displaying the Site Pages mini-gallery below the Navigation
pane.
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Using SharePoint Designer to Explore a Web Page 23
Web page URL
Views
Visual aids
status
On Object User Interface
Quick Tag Selector
Tip You can switch between tabs by pressing Ctrl+Tab or Ctrl+Shift+Tab.
The title bar of the SharePoint Designer window contains the URL of the page.
A purple border labeled PlaceHolderMain (Custom) is displayed with a small arrow floating to the top right of the border, known as the On Object User Interface
(OOUI). The Quick Tag Selector is displayed in the workspace status area to the
right of the view tabs. The SharePoint Designer window status bar identifies whether visual aids are turned on or off.
Troubleshooting If the purple border labeled PlaceHolderMain (Custom) does not
appear, place the insertion point to the left of the text Welcome to your Site!
6. On the View tab on the ribbon, click Visual Aids in the Workspace group, and
then click Show.
The status of visual aids is reversed; in other words, if they were turned on, the
SharePoint Designer window status bar now indicates Visual Aids: Off.
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24 Chapter 1 Exploring SharePoint Designer 2010
7. Move the pointer over the page to where the pointer changes to the no-entry icon.
No-En ry
A no-entry icon identifies content that is not within the EmbeddedFormField
SharePoint control. The PlaceHolderMain (Custom) region contains the
EmbeddedFormField control. You cannot click or enter text at the location where
the no-entry icon appears.
8. Within the PlaceHolderMain region, click Shared Documents.
The Web Part is highlighted in blue and labeled ­WebPartPages:XsltListViewWebPart,
and the WebPartPages:XsltListViewWebPart tag becomes the last tag on the
Quick Tag Selector. On the ribbon, four List View Tools tabs are displayed: Options,
Design, Web Part, and Table.
9. Press Esc four times.
The third time you press Esc, the table cell td, which contains the left part of
the PlaceHolderMain region, is highlighted. The final time you press Esc, the
table#layoutsTable tag contained in the PlaceHolderMain region is highlighted. The
Esc key takes you to the parent HTML tag container. On the Quick Tag Selector,
a number of unavailable tags are displayed. These tags are defined outside the
PlaceHolderMain region. On the ribbon, the List View Tools tabs disappear, and the
Table Tools, Layout tab is displayed.
Tip SharePoint sites contain a number of controls, so it can be difficult to position your
cursor exactly where you want it. Use the Esc key together with the Up Arrow, Down
Arrow, Left Arrow, and Right Arrow keys to navigate around the page.
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Using SharePoint Designer to Explore a Web Page 25
10. At the bottom of the Home.aspx document window, click Split.
The workspace splits horizontally and displays Code view in the upper pane and
Design view in the lower pane. The table is highlighted in both views. In Code view,
the code above the table tag is highlighted in yellow, indicating that you cannot
amend that code.
Tip You can switch between views by pressing Ctrl+Page Up or Ctrl+Page Down.
11. On the Home tab, click Advanced Mode in the Editing group.
Troubleshooting If the Advance Mode command is not active, you have not been given
permissions by your site collection owner or SharePoint administrator to edit pages in
advanced mode and will not be able to complete this step. See the last section in the
chapter for more information on controlling the use of SharePoint Designer.
The word Editor on the workspace breadcrumb is replaced by Advanced Editor. The
Home.aspx page refreshes, and in Code view no lines of code are highlighted in
yellow.
Tip The Advanced Mode command in the Editing group is not available and cannot be
used to toggle the page back to safe edit mode. To return the page to safe edit mode,
you need to close and reopen the page.
12. On the View tab, click Design in the Page Views group. Right-click the Home.aspx
tab, and then click Close.
The home page of the team site closes, leaving the Team Site tab displayed in the
workspace.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next exercise.
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26 Chapter 1 Exploring SharePoint Designer 2010
Using Task Panes
Task panes are helper windows that you can use to perform certain tasks with Web
pages. You can open, close, and move task panes to the sides of the SharePoint Designer
window or make them float so that they appear in the middle of the window. You can
open task panes by using the ribbon’s View tab. SharePoint Designer provides 17 task
panes, listed in the following table.
Task pane
Description
Tag Properties
Use to manipulate tag properties, such as HTML tags, ASP.NET controls,
and SharePoint Server controls.
CSS Properties
Use when working with cascading style sheets, particularly when manipulating cascading style sheet class, ID, or tag definitions. Use as an
alternative to launching the Modify Style dialog box.
Apply Styles
Use to create new cascading style sheet styles and apply existing ones to
elements within pages.
Manage Styles
Use to manage cascading style sheet styles that are added to elements
within pages.
Behaviors
Lists behaviors that you can add to pages. Behaviors allow you to add
dynamic effects and are mostly driven by JavaScript.
Layers
Use to insert and configure layers. A layer is the name given to an absolutepositioned HTML division (DIV) tag. You use the DIV tag to group elements so that you can format them with styles or create animations or
flyout menus.
Toolbox
Lists HTML tags, form controls, ASP.NET controls, and SharePoint controls that you can place on pages by dragging and dropping.
Data Source
Details
Use to display or modify contents of the data sources by using either the
Data View Web Part (DVWP) or Data Form Web Part (DFWP).
Conditional
Formatting
Use to format the data in a DVWP or DFWP depending on criteria that
you specify.
Find 1
Use to search and replace text, code, and HTML within a page. You can
find and replace text on one page, a number of pages, or the whole site.
You can also find words in the code and regular expressions.
Find 2
Displays a second search task pane. Use when you want to leave the
search results in the Find 1 task pane but need to complete another
search.
Accessibility
Use to check pages and sites against Web Content Accessibility
Guidelines (WCAG) Priority 1 and 2 and Section 508.
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Using Task Panes 27
Compatibility
Use to validate pages and sites for well-formed HTML/XTML or cascading style sheet versions. The Compatibility Checker currently supports
CSS 2.1, 2.0, 1.0 and CSS IE6.
Hyperlinks
Use to check and fix broken links.
CSS Reports
Use to check pages for cascading style sheet errors and highlight those
cascading style sheet styles that are not used.
Clip Art
Use to search for clip art.
Clipboard
Allows you to view up to 24 thumbnails of any item that can be cut or
copied by an Office program (text, graphics, photographs, and more).
In this exercise, you view and manage task panes.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used earlier in this
chapter. The settings page for the site should be displayed.
1. In the Navigation pane, click Site Pages.
The Site Pages gallery page is displayed in the workspace.
2. Click Home.aspx if it is not already selected. Then, on the Pages tab, click Edit File
in the Edit group.
Edi Fi e
The home page of the team site opens in the workspace.
3. On the View tab, click Task Panes in the Workspace group, and then click Find 1.
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28 Chapter 1 Exploring SharePoint Designer 2010
The Find 1 task pane opens, docking below the workspace.
4. In the Find 1 task pane, click the Find and Replace button.
Find and Rep ace
The Find And Replace dialog box opens.
5. In the Find what box, type MasterPageFile, and click All pages under Find
where.
6. Select the Match case and Find whole word only check boxes under Advanced.
Clear any other options that are selected under Advanced.
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Using Task Panes 29
7. Click Find All.
The Find And Replace dialog box closes. The status bars of both the SharePoint
Designer window and the Find 1 task pane indicate the progress of the search.
When the search is complete, the Find 1 task pane status bar informs you that no
occurrences of MasterPageFile were found.
Note Because the page was displayed in Design view, SharePoint Designer searched the
text that would be displayed to users when they use a browser in the search for the term
MasterPageFile. It was not searching the source code for the word.
8. In the Find 1 task pane, click the Find and Replace button.
The Find And Replace dialog box opens.
9. Under Advanced, select the Find in source code check box under Advanced and
click All pages under Find where.
10. Click Close to close the Find and Replace dialog box.
11. In the workspace status bar, click Code.
The home page is displayed in Code view in the workspace.
12. In the Find 1 task pane, click the Find and Replace button to open the Find and
Replace dialog box.
13. In the Find what box, type MasterPageFile (if necessary), select the Find in
source code check box under Advanced, and click All pages under Find where.
The Find In Source Code check box is not available but is still selected.
14. Click Find All.
The Find And Replace dialog box closes, and as before, the status bars indicate the
progress of the search process; the Find 1 task pane displays the results. In a newly
created SharePoint site, each page refers to a master page. The number of pages returned in the results depends on the site template the site is created from and whether the site is created in a SharePoint Foundation or SharePoint Server installation.
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30 Chapter 1 Exploring SharePoint Designer 2010
Nex Resu
15. In the Find 1 task pane, click the Next Result button.
The first page in the results list opens in a new tab in the workspace in Code view,
with the first instance of the text you are looking for highlighted.
Tip To continue searching the page for the next occurrence of the word, click the Next
Result button; to find the previous occurrence of the search keyword, click the Previous
Result button. When no more occurrences of the search keyword can be found on
the current page, the next page in the results list opens in a new tab if the page is not
already open. To open a specific page, double-click the page in the results list. To save
your common find-and-replace searches, in the Find And Replace dialog box, click the
Save Query button. To use a saved query, click the Open Query button.
16. On the View tab, click Task Panes.
Notice that the task panes displayed in the drop-down menu are grouped and
separated with a horizontal line. Task panes in the same group open in the same
area of the SharePoint Designer window. Task panes that open in the same area appear as tabs.
17. Use the Task Panes list to open the Clipboard, Manage Styles, and Apply Styles
task panes.
The Clipboard task pane docks to the right edge of the SharePoint Designer window, and the Apply Styles task pane opens to the left of the Clipboard task pane,
with the Manage Styles task pane represented by a tab to the right of the Apply
Styles tab. The Workspace and Find 1 task panes are reduced in size.
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Using Task Panes 31
18. In the lower-left corner of the Find 1 task pane, click the Close button.
C ose
The Find 1 task pane closes.
Tip Close task panes when you no longer need them because they reduce the space
available for the document window area.
19. In the Apply Styles task pane area, click the Manage Styles tab.
The Manage Styles task pane becomes active.
20. Move the mouse pointer over the Manage Styles task pane title bar so that the
pointer changes to a four-way arrow. Hold down the mouse button, and drag the
Manage Styles task pane below the workspace.
Note The Clip Art and Clipboard task panes cannot be moved or merged with the
other task panes and always open in a separate window docked at the right side of the
SharePoint Designer window.
21. On the ribbon’s View tab, click Task Panes, and then click Reset Workspace
Layout.
All task panes close.
22. On the View tab, click Design.
The active page is displayed in Design view.
CLEAN UP Close SharePoint Designer.
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32 Chapter 1 Exploring SharePoint Designer 2010
Controlling the Use of SharePoint Designer
SharePoint is a rich and complex tool, designed to be used by information workers, business analysts, project managers, administrators, and developers—in fact, by anyone who
needs to design, develop, or prototype SharePoint 2010 solutions. However, it is not a
tool for everyone, and IT administrators and site collection owners will want to limit its
usage at either the Web-application or site-collection level.
When a Web application is created, by default each site collection within that Web application can be modified using SharePoint Designer only by users who are members of
the Site Owners and Designers site groups. However, such users are not allowed to do
the following:
● Detach pages from site definitions; that is, they cannot edit Web pages in advanced
mode, and therefore cannot customize (unghost) Web pages.
● Customize master pages and page layouts. The Master Page option will not be
available on the Navigation pane in SharePoint Designer.
● See the hidden URL structure of their Web site. Within SharePoint Designer, users
will not see the All Files option on the Navigation pane, the All Files gallery page
in the workspace, or All Files in the mini-gallery. If this option is enabled but the
Customize Master Pages And Page Layouts option is not allowed, then site owners
and designers can see the master pages and page layouts, but they are not allowed
to amend them.
Note In SharePoint Foundation, the Designers site group is not created by default, but
it can be created by using the browser or SharePoint Designer. When you create the
Designers site group, map it to the design permission level.
Site collection administrators are not limited by these settings at the site-collection level.
However, at the Web-application level, all users, including site collection administrators,
can be prevented from using SharePoint Designer or be limited in their use of SharePoint
Designer across all site collections within the Web application.
In this exercise, you configure SharePoint Designer settings at the site-collection level.
You need to be a site collection owner to complete this exercise.
SET UP You need the URL of the top-level site of a site collection.
1. Open the root site of your site collection in the browser.
2. Click Site Actions, and then click Site Settings.
The site settings page is displayed.
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Key Points 33
3. Under Site Collection Administration, click SharePoint Designer Settings.
Troubleshooting Under Site Collection Administration, if you see only Go To The Top
Level Site Settings, you have opened a subsite in the browser. Click the link to go to the
root site’s site settings page. If you do not see the Site Collection Administration section
on the site settings page, you are not a site collection owner and cannot complete the
rest of this exercise.
The SharePoint Designer Settings page is displayed.
4. Select the check boxes that meet your business needs, and then click OK.
CLEAN UP Close the browser.
See Also Appendix C on page 503 for a list of steps that SharePoint farm administrators can use
to restrict the use of SharePoint Designer at the Web-application level.
Key Points
● SharePoint Designer is “the preferred” tool to design powerful no-code solutions
and applications in SharePoint 2010.
● Use SharePoint Designer to produce solutions that are easily maintainable and
supportable.
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34 Chapter 1 Exploring SharePoint Designer 2010
● SharePoint Designer is not a tool for general use by all those who visit or have ac-
cess to a SharePoint site. The browser should be used to complete tasks such as
adding static content (text, images, or hyperlinks) to Web pages, uploading documents, or creating and modifying list items.
● SharePoint Designer 2010 can be used only with SharePoint Foundation 2010 or
SharePoint Server 2010 sites. These are server-based products and need to be installed prior to using SharePoint Designer 2010.
● SharePoint Designer 2010 cannot be used to customize non-SharePoint Web sites,
nor can you use it to customize sites based on previous versions of SharePoint, such
as Windows SharePoint Services 3.0 or Microsoft Office SharePoint Server 2007. Use
Expression Web for non-SharePoint sites and SharePoint Designer 2007 with sites
created in previous versions of SharePoint.
● SharePoint Designer can remember the last site you worked on and open it when
you start the program. This is not the default configuration, but you can select this
setting on the General tab of the Application Options dialog box. The Application
Options dialog box can be opened by clicking Options in Backstage view.
● SharePoint Designer uses the security settings of your browser to decide whether
to prompt for credentials.
● The SharePoint Designer shell consists of Backstage view and On Stage view. On
Stage view consists of a number of elements, including the Quick Access Toolbar,
ribbon, breadcrumb, Navigation pane, mini-gallery, workspace, task panes, and
status bar.
● Web pages initially created in a SharePoint site point to files on a file system,
known as uncustomized pages; however, when pages are customized by using
SharePoint Designer, they are stored in the SQL Server databases, where they are
known as customized pages.
● In SharePoint Designer 2010, uncustomized (site definition) pages can only be cus-
tomized (unghosted) when a page is in advanced edit mode.
● A SharePoint Web application consists of one or more site collections that contain
one or more Web sites.
● When a Web application is created, by default each site collection within that Web
application can be modified using SharePoint Designer only by users who are
members of the Site Owners and Designers site groups. However, these users cannot customize site definition pages, nor can they see the hidden URL structure of a
SharePoint site.
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Chapter at a G ance
Create a
site hierarchy,
page 45
Change the title,
description, and
theme of a site,
page 38
Manage site users
and permissions,
page 41
Reset a site
template,
page 49
Explore a
SharePoint site,
page 52
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2 Working with
SharePoint Sites
In this chapter, you will learn how to
✔ Change the title, description, and theme of a site.
✔ Manage site users and permissions.
✔ Create a site hierarchy.
✔ Delete a SharePoint site.
✔ Reset a site template.
✔ Explore a SharePoint site.
✔ Navigate a site’s components.
✔ Save and use a site template.
You might be using SharePoint for your Internet, intranet, or extranet Web sites, which
are built from a series of SharePoint sites. It is within these sites that you create, store,
and manage your content and collaborate with other users in your enterprise. Each site
can have its own security settings, functionality, content, and navigation. As you saw in
Chapter 1, “Exploring SharePoint Designer 2010,” these sites can be children of other
sites and can have subsites underneath them. This hierarchal relationship can assist you
with navigation as well as security inheritance.
In this chapter, you will see how to use Microsoft SharePoint Designer 2010 to modify
a site’s title, description, and theme. You will also learn how to manage who has access
to a site and what they can do on the site, as well as how to manage your site hierarchy.
You will learn how to make a copy of your customizations by creating a site template
and how to reset your site’s pages when users have customized them with SharePoint
Designer so that they reflect the site template . You will explore the hidden URL structure of your Web site and review other site components, such as site columns and content types. Your work with site columns and content types leads nicely to Chapter 3,
“Working with Lists and Libraries,” where you use site columns and content types with
lists and libraries.
37
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38 Chapter 2 Working with SharePoint Sites
Practice Files No practice files are required to complete the exercises in this chapter.
For more information about practice files, see “Using the Practice Files” on page xxiii.
Changing the Title, Description, and Theme of a Site
Each site has a title and description. These are important properties of a site because
they appear on each page within a site and communicate to users the purpose and function of the site. They are also fundamental to making information easy to find.
SharePoint uses the text in the title and description fields to rank content items that are
returned in a search result set. Users of SharePoint Server sites can create a more focused
result set by using the advanced search page on the Enterprise Search site, where title
and description are some of the metadata properties that can be selected in the property restrict list. On SharePoint Foundation sites, where there is no enterprise search, a
user can, for example, type description:oak in the Search box to find all SharePoint components whose description property contains the word oak. As a site or content owner,
it is important that you enter meaningful and consistent names for your site and other
SharePoint components.
See Also More information on how to execute basic search queries on a SharePoint site can
be found in Chapter 16, “Finding Information on the SharePoint Site,” in Microsoft SharePoint
Foundation 2010 Step by Step by Olga Londer and Penelope Coventry (Microsoft Press, 2011).
Site owners of collaboration and team sites will want to apply their own unique look and
feel. Themes provide lightweight branding of a SharePoint site. Site owners can apply
one of 20 out-of-the-box themes to a site. Themes reuse the theme definition and format defined in the Office Open XML standard that was introduced with Microsoft Office
PowerPoint 2007 to create new themes for slide decks. No developer resource is needed;
once the .thmx file is created using an Office 2010 application, it can be loaded into the
Theme gallery at the top-level site of a site collection.
See Also To find how to create a theme using Office PowerPoint 2010, see, Chapter 3,
“Creating and Managing Sites,” in Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010 Step by Step. More
information on how to plan for themes can be found at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/
library/ee424399.aspx.
Using a browser on a SharePoint Server publishing site or on a site where the Publishing
feature is enabled, you can create your own new themes and push them down to subsites or inherit a theme from the parent site. However, you can apply a theme to only
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Changing the Title, Description, and Theme of a Site 39
one site by using the browser on SharePoint Foundation sites, on SharePoint Server sites
that do not have the Publishing feature enabled, or when you use SharePoint Designer.
Note Themes change the colors and fonts used on a site. If you want to change other design
elements, such as font size or spacing, you need to use cascading style sheets. If you want to
completely change the page structure and design of your site, you need to modify or create
your own master pages.
In this exercise, you modify a site’s title and description and apply a theme to the site.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you created and modified in
Chapter 1. The settings page should be displayed in the workspace. If you did not yet
create a team site, follow the steps in Chapter 1 before you start this exercise.
1. On the Site tab, click Rename in the Edit group.
Rename
In the Site Information area, a box appears to the right of Title, with the site name
highlighted.
2. Type Human Resources, and then press Enter.
An asterisk appears on the Team Site tab, indicating that the properties of the site
have changed but you have not saved your changes.
3. To the right of Description, click <click to enter text>, and then type Site for
Human Resources team collaboration.
Tip You can modify the URL of your site by clicking the text to the right of Folder, unless
the site is the top-level site of a site collection. If that is the case the URL of the site
cannot be modified and the Folder option is not displayed in the Site Information area.
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40 Chapter 2 Working with SharePoint Sites
4. On the Quick Access Tool bar, click Save.
Save
The site settings page is refreshed, and the tab label changes to Human Resources
with no asterisk. In the Navigation pane, the site object is labeled Human
Resources, as is the ScreenTip that appears when you hover the mouse over the site
name.
5. In the Customization area of the site settings page, click Change site theme. If
prompted, type your user name and password, and then click OK.
A browser window opens and displays the Site Theme page.
6. In the Select a Theme section, click Azure, and then click Apply.
The Processing page is momentarily displayed before the site settings page is displayed, with the Azure theme applied.
Troubleshooting Cascading style sheets used on SharePoint sites can be created so that
they do not support themes. This often occurs on company portal sites or an Internet
site where a company wants to maintain its brand on all sites within a site collection.
If the theme you choose in this exercise is not applied, check with your SharePoint
administrator.
7. Under Look and Feel, click Site theme.
The Site Theme page is displayed.
8. In the Select a Theme section, click Default (no theme), and then click Apply.
The site settings page is displayed, with no theme applied.
CLEAN UP Close the browser, but leave SharePoint Designer open if you are
continuing to the next exercise.
Publishing Features
Publishing functionality is enabled on SharePoint Server sites when the SharePoint
Server Publishing feature is activated. A feature is a concept introduced in
Windows SharePoint Services 3.0 that allows you to activate or deactivate functionality at the level of a site, site collection, Web application, or SharePoint farm. The
SharePoint Server Publishing feature depends on the activation of the SharePoint
Server Publishing Infrastructure feature at the site-collection level. Microsoft developed both these features, which are installed when SharePoint Server 2010 is
installed on each Web front end. Site owners can activate features to extend the
functionality of their sites. Therefore, you can turn a SharePoint site based on
the Team Site template into a publishing site by activating the SharePoint Server
Publishing feature.
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Managing Site Users and Permissions 41
Managing Site Users and Permissions
SharePoint Designer provides you with more than just the ability to customize a
SharePoint Foundation or SharePoint Server site. It also helps you manage and protect
your sites without the need to open the browser. When you create a site in the browser,
you can choose whether the site has its own security setting. However, when you create
a site with SharePoint Designer, your site automatically has the same security settings as
the parent site. If you are customizing a new site to meet a specific business need, or if
you want to templatize your site so that you can create many other sites based on your
customizations, you do not want other users to use your site until your customizations
are complete and tested. In this case, you need to alter the default security settings of
your site.
SharePoint permission rights, such as Manage Lists, Create Subsites, Apply Themes and
Borders, and Delete Items, are grouped into permissions levels. On a specific SharePoint
object, such as a site, a list, or a list item, you map a permissions level to a user or to a
SharePoint group.
SharePoint Foundation has five permission levels: Full Control, Design, Contribute, Read,
Limited Access, and View Only. SharePoint Server has an additional three permission
levels: Manage Hierarchy, Approve, and Restricted Read. In SharePoint Designer you cannot create a permission level or change the level of a permission rights group. However,
you can create and manage SharePoint groups, and you can map users and SharePoint
groups to permission levels for sites, lists, and libraries. To map permission levels to list
items or individual files, you need to use the browser.
See Also For more information on permissions and permission levels, see Chapter 3 and the
appendix in Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010 Step by Step.
In this exercise, you change the security settings for a subsite from inheriting permissions from its parent site to using unique permissions. You also prevent the Viewers site
group from accessing the site and then grant a user, such as Todd, access to the site so
that he can add and modify content. You then test whether that user can use SharePoint
Designer to open the site.
Important To complete this exercise, you need access to the credentials of another user
account and a team site that is inheriting its permissions from its parent site.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open. The settings page for the site should be displayed.
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42 Chapter 2 Working with SharePoint Sites
S op nheri ing
1. In the Permissions area of the workspace, click Stop Inheriting.
A Microsoft SharePoint Designer dialog box opens.
2. Click OK to confirm the change.
The dialog box closes. In the Permissions area, the Stop Inheriting button is replaced by New. A list of the SharePoint groups and users is copied from the parent
site and mapped to the same permission levels as on the parent site.
Note The Permissions column in the Permissions area references permission levels.
3. Click the icon to the left of Viewers to activate the Site Permissions tab on the
ribbon, and then click Delete in the Edit group.
4. Click OK to confirm the change.
The Viewers SharePoint group is not listed under Permissions.
5. In the Permission area, take note of the site group that is mapped to the
Contribute permission level, and then click New.
The Add Permissions dialog box opens.
6. In the Choose users or groups to add text box, type the user name or e-mail
address of the user to whom you’d like to grant permissions, such as todd.
Tip You can use the Check Names or the People Picker icon to ensure you enter a valid
user name.
7. Under Add users to a SharePoint group, click the group you noted earlier
that was mapped to the Contribute permission, such as Wide World Importers
Members.
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Managing Site Users and Permissions 43
Important Editing a site group affects the membership of all sites, lists, folders, and
items that are using that site group.
8. Click OK to close the Add Permissions dialog box.
A Microsoft SharePoint Designer dialog box opens.
9. Click Yes to view the membership of the group.
A new workspace tab opens and displays the settings page of the site group you
added the user to. In the Members area is a list of all users who are a member of
this site group, including the user you added in this exercise.
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44 Chapter 2 Working with SharePoint Sites
Log n As
10. Click the Log In As button in the status bar in the SharePoint Designer window.
11. Click OK in the Log in as another user dialog box that opens.
12. In the Windows Security dialog box that opens, type the user name and password
of the user you granted permissions to earlier in this exercise, and then click OK.
A Microsoft SharePoint Designer dialog box opens stating that you do not have
permission to open this Web site in SharePoint Designer.
Important SharePoint permissions are used when you access SharePoint resources in
SharePoint Designer. If your user name is mapped to the Contribute permission level at
the site level, you cannot open the site in SharePoint Designer. Your user name must be
mapped to the Design or Full Control permission levels to use SharePoint Designer. See
the section “Controlling the Use of SharePoint Designer,” in Chapter 1.
13. Click OK.
Backstage view is displayed.
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Creating a Site Hierarchy 45
CLEAN UP Close SharePoint Designer.
Creating a Site Hierarchy
A site collection consists of one or more sites. Each site is created by using as a template
a site definition or a customized site definition, both of which are commonly known as
site templates. A site collection can be created by using the browser or programmatically.
You cannot use SharePoint Designer to create a site collection. You can use SharePoint
Designer only to create child sites within a site collection.
See Also For a list of steps that a SharePoint administrator can use to create a site collection,
see Appendix C on page 503 and refer to Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 Administrator’s
Companion, by Bill English, Brian Alderman, and Mark Ferraz (Microsoft Press, 2011).
Site Collection
Child Site
Top-level Site
Child Site
Child Site
Child Site
Child Site
Child Site
Child Site
Child Site
Child Site
Tip The Site Content and Structure page provides a visual representation of a site collection’s
hierarchy. The Site Content and Structure page is available only on SharePoint sites created on
SharePoint Server when the SharePoint Server Publishing Infrastructure site collection feature
and the SharePoint Server Publishing site feature are activated.
Typically, in a site collection that will host a number of collaboration SharePoint sites such
as blogs, document workspaces, and meeting workspaces, the top-level site of the site
collection is based on the Team Site template. This top-level site could be the focal site
for an entire team or department. The team or department members might have only
read access to this top-level site, with a limited number of them who contribute content
to the site, and one or two who act as site collection owners. As child sites are created,
the number of team members who have access to the site decreases, and the proportion
of members who can create and update content increases.
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46 Chapter 2 Working with SharePoint Sites
The first task in developing a SharePoint-based solution when you use SharePoint
Designer is to create a subsite. The only information you need is the URL, also known as
the internal name.
Tip Use the best practices specified in the sidebar “Best Practices for Naming URLs” in Chapter
1 when you specify the URL name.
In Chapter 1 you created a subsite by using Backstage view. In this exercise, you will create two SharePoint sites, one by using the ribbon and the other by using the New button
on the site’s settings page.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise. The settings page for the site should be displayed.
1. On the Site tab on the ribbon, click Subsite.
The New dialog box opens. In the Specify The Location Of The New Web Site text
box, Subsite is highlighted. SharePoint Designer communicates with the SharePoint
site collection and retrieves a list of SharePoint site templates that you can use as
a basis for your new child site. These are displayed in the central pane of the New
dialog box, also known as the site type list. Which templates are listed depends on
whether you are using SharePoint Foundation or SharePoint Server, or whether
your organization has created any site templates. If you connect to another
SharePoint site, you might see different SharePoint templates.
2. Type team meeting over Subsite. In the central pane, click Basic Meeting
Workspace.
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Creating a Site Hierarchy 47
3. Click OK.
Warning After you use a site template to create a site, you cannot change the site
template the site is based on. If the functionality you require is not exposed through a
SharePoint feature and you choose the wrong site template, you must delete the site
and create it again.
The new site opens in a new SharePoint Designer window.
4. In the Site Information area of the workspace, click Basic Meeting Workspace to
the right of Title, and type Buyers Team Meetings.
Tip When you create a site, the site’s title is taken from the name of the site template.
To avoid confusion about which site you are modifying, always change the title of the
site as the first task after you create the site.
5. Click <click to enter text> to the right of Description, and type Site for monthly team meeting details.
An asterisk appears on the site’s workspace tab, indicating that some site information has changed but that you have not saved your changes.
6. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Save.
Save
The asterisk on the workspace tab disappears.
7. Click the File tab.
Backstage view is displayed.
8. In the left pane, click Close Site, and then click Exit.
The SharePoint Designer window displaying the Buyers Team Meeting site closes.
Tip Each site you open in SharePoint Designer is displayed in its own SharePoint
Designer window. With multiple SharePoint Designer windows open, it is very easy to
modify a site you weren’t planning to change. Try to have only one SharePoint Designer
window open at a time.
9. Switch to the SharePoint Designer window displaying the team site setting page in
the workspace. Notice that the Buyers Team Meeting site is listed in the Subsites
area.
10. In the Subsites area, click New.
The New dialog box opens. In the Specify The Location Of The New Web Site text
box, Subsite is highlighted.
11. Type GroupWork over subsite. In the central pane, click Group Work Site, and
then click OK.
The new site opens in a new SharePoint Designer window.
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48 Chapter 2 Working with SharePoint Sites
12. Close the newly opened SharePoint Designer window, and switch to the SharePoint
Designer window showing the team site setting page in the workspace. Notice that
the Subsites area lists the two newly created subsites.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next
exercise.
Deleting a SharePoint Site
If you no longer need or want a site, you can delete it. Be warned, however. When you
delete a site, it is not sent to the Recycle Bin. As you saw earlier in this chapter, when
you create a site using SharePoint Designer, the title of the site reflects the name of site
template used to create the site. You could end up with many sites named Team Site, for
example, and only by looking at each site’s URL can you see which site is which. Always
verify that you are deleting the correct site.
In this exercise, you delete the two SharePoint sites you created in the previous exercise.
To complete this exercise, you must have completed the previous exercise or have other
sites you want to delete.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open. The settings page for the site should be displayed.
1. In the Subsites area of the workspace, click the icon to the left of Group Work
Site to activate the Site Subsites tab on the ribbon.
De e e Si e
2. On the ribbon, click Delete Site in the Edit group.
3. Click OK to confirm the deletion.
4. If a new SharePoint Designer window opens, close it and return to the SharePoint
Designer window where the team site is open.
5. In the Navigation pane, click Subsites.
The Subsites gallery page is displayed in the workspace.
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Resetting a Site Template 49
6. Right-click Buyers Team Meeting, and click Delete Site.
7. Click OK to confirm the deletion.
The Buyers Team Meeting site is no longer listed on the Subsites gallery page.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next
exercise. Close any open Web pages.
Resetting a Site Template
As I described in Chapter 1, when you create a site based on one of the default site templates, you do not create and save any pages in the SQL Server content databases. The
content databases contain only pointers to the site definition files on the Web server. These
site definition pages are known as uncustomized pages. When you use SharePoint Designer
to edit an uncustomized page in advanced edit mode, a copy of the site definition file is
stored in the SQL Server content database, where your customizations can be retained.
Any customized page can be reset to the uncustomized site definition file. You can reset all customized files within a site to point to the files in the site templates defined on
the Web server, or you can reset just one customized file. Resetting a customized page
to the site template restores the page to its original condition. Any customizations you
made with SharePoint Designer in advanced edit mode are discarded, except for customizations made to content in the PlaceHolderMain region of a wiki page or to Web
Parts that are placed inside a Web Part zone in a Web Part page (as long as the Web Part
zone was defined in the original site definition page).
For example, on the Home.aspx page of a team site, if you insert an image and a Content
Editor Web Part (CEWP) in the PlaceHolderMain region and then reset the page, any changes you made outside the PlaceHolderMain region are discarded, but the image and the
Content Editor Web Part remain, along with any customizations you made to that Web Part.
In this exercise, you reset a site definition.
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50 Chapter 2 Working with SharePoint Sites
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open. The settings page for the site should be displayed.
1. On the Site tab, click Reset to Template in the Actions group.
The Reset To Site Definition dialog box is displayed.
2. Click Yes.
The Reset To Site Definition dialog box closes. A browser window opens. If prompted, type your user name and password, and then click OK. The Reset Page To Site
Definition Version page is displayed.
3. Select Reset all pages in this site to site definition version, and then click
Reset.
A Message From Webpage dialog box opens.
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Resetting a Site Template 51
4. Click OK.
CLEAN UP Close the browser. Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing
to the next exercise.
Complications of Upgrading Customized SharePoint Sites
Upgrading from the previous version of SharePoint to SharePoint 2010 is not a
trivial task, and the upgrade process needs to be planned and tested carefully. If
you are a site owner or a solutions creator of a Windows SharePoint Services 3.0 or
Microsoft Office SharePoint Server 2007 site, you might be involved in this process.
The IT department will upgrade the content so that your site runs on SharePoint
Foundation 2010 or SharePoint Server 2010. However, as the owner of the site, you
might have to decide on when to upgrade to the new look and feel and to other
customizations you or the previous owner of the site implemented.
As previously noted, SharePoint sites are different from other sites because they
use site templates during the site creation process, and these site templates point
to site definition files on the Web server. Customizing these site definition files was
easier with SharePoint Designer 2007. During the upgrade process, when Microsoft
modifies its site definitions on the Web server to include new functionality, you
might not see the new functionality, depending on the pages you customized. For
example, the ribbon is implemented as a control on the master page; therefore,
if you customized your site’s master page, the ribbon will not be available to you.
Other customizations can also affect the upgrade process, so during the upgrade
planning process you need to identify any customizations on your SharePoint sites
and test to see the effect the upgrade process might have on them.
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52 Chapter 2 Working with SharePoint Sites
If you are involved in the upgrade process, you can do one of the following with
your customized pages after your site is upgraded to SharePoint 2010:
● Leave the customized page as a customized page. If the customized page is
a master page, pages associated with that master page will always look like a
Windows SharePoint Services 3.0 or SharePoint Server 2007 page.
● Reset the customized page to the now-upgraded site definition files or pages
stored on the server file system. You lose all the customizations you made to
your page, and you can decide whether to reapply that customization by using SharePoint Designer 2010. This process can involve a great deal of time
and effort. For example, if customizing a page takes 15 minutes and you have
100 pages, you need to allow 25 hours to customize these pages.
See Also For more information on how to handle customizations, refer to http://
technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc263203(office.14).aspx.
Exploring a SharePoint Site
There is no one interface for SharePoint technologies; instead, you can access a
SharePoint site by using a Web browser or compatible programs such as Office applications, including SharePoint Designer. You can choose the interface that suits the task you
have to complete. However, depending on the program you choose, you might have a different view of the SharePoint site. If you use Microsoft Word, you see only a small portion
of the Web site and its content. If you use a Web browser, you see the lists and libraries
that support the collaborative nature of SharePoint, together with their content. When you
use SharePoint Designer—the product that understands the most about the SharePoint
infrastructure—you can see site lists and libraries that you would not see otherwise; however, you will see files but not their associated metadata, and you will not see list items.
In this exercise, you use SharePoint Designer to explore a SharePoint site.
Important To complete this exercise, you must be a site collection administrator or a
site owner or designer with permissions to see the hidden URL structure of your site. See
“Controlling the Use of SharePoint Designer,” in Chapter 1.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open. The settings page for the site should be displayed.
1. In the Navigation pane, click Lists and Libraries.
The workspace displays the gallery page displaying each list or library for your site,
and the workspace tab is labeled Lists And Libraries. The Lists And Libraries tab on
the ribbon contains commands to create new lists and libraries and to edit the list.
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Exploring a SharePoint Site 53
2. In the Navigation pane, hover over All Files, and click the Always Show pin that
A ways Show pin
appears.
In the Navigation pane, the pin remains permanently visible to the right of All Files.
The mini-gallery appears below the Navigation pane and displays the hidden URL
content of the Web site, such as subsites (if they exist), folders, lists, libraries, and
files. The icon that represents files depends on their extension.
Special folders are listed, such as catalogs, private, images, and Lists. The catalog
folder contains libraries such as those used to store Web Parts, Web site and list
templates, as well as master pages.
SharePoint has a number of other folders that start with an underscore, such as
layouts and vti, that contain images and Web pages that you can reference as
links.
Warning Do not create folders for your private use with the name layouts or
wpresources or any name that begins with vti.
3. In the mini-gallery, click the + sign to the left of Lists.
The Lists folder expands, and a SharePoint-specific subfolder appears for each list
created for your Web site.
4. In the mini-gallery, under the Lists top-level folder, click the + sign to the left of
Announcements.
The Announcements list expands, exposing an Attachments subfolder (if attachments are enabled) and a number of Web pages that correspond to views created
for the list and forms used to insert, edit, and display the properties of a list item.
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54 Chapter 2 Working with SharePoint Sites
5. In the workspace, in the Lists and Libraries gallery, under Lists, click
Announcements.
The workspace tab is now labeled Announcements, and the workspace contains
the settings page for the Announcements list. The workspace displays more information for the Announcements list than is displayed in the mini-gallery. It
contains key information such as the list name and description and the number
of Announcements list items. It also shows whether you can customize the list by
editing the columns or modifying the permissions of the list and shows views and
forms to insert, edit, and display the properties of a list item. The List Settings tab
on the ribbon contains commands to create new list objects and to manage the list.
Troubleshooting The settings page for the Announcements list is displayed only if
you click Announcements in the Lists And Libraries gallery page in the workspace. The
settings page is not displayed if you click Announcements in the mini-gallery.
6. In the breadcrumb above the workspace, click the Back arrow.
Back Arrow
The gallery page for lists and libraries is displayed.
7. In the workspace, under Document Libraries, click Shared Documents.
The workspace tab is labeled Shared Documents, and the workspace now contains
the settings page for Shared Documents, which is similar to the settings page for
the Announcements list. As with lists, you cannot see the metadata for documents
loaded into this document library. You must use the browser to see the metadata
associated with the documents.
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Exploring a SharePoint Site 55
8. In the Navigation pane, click the up arrow to the right of Site Objects so that the
Co apse Group
mini-gallery is displayed the full length of the Navigation pane. Then click the –
sign to the left of Announcements.
The Announcements list collapses.
9. In the mini-gallery, click the + sign to the left of Shared Documents.
The Shared Documents top-level folder expands and exposes a subfolder named
Forms and all the documents that users have uploaded to the library. (If this is a
newly created team site, no documents are listed.)
10. In the mini-gallery, click the + sign to the left of Forms.
The Forms folder expands, exposing Web pages that correspond to views created
for this library and forms to manipulate metadata and upload documents. A file
named template.dotx is listed in the Forms folder. This file is used when you click
New Document on the Document tab in the Web browser.
11. In the Navigation pane, click the down arrow to the right of Site Objects, and
Hide pin
then click the Hide pin to the right of All Files.
The mini-gallery closes.
CLEAN UP Close SharePoint Designer.
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56 Chapter 2 Working with SharePoint Sites
Navigating a Site’s Components
In the previous version of SharePoint Designer, the main object that you could customize
and manage was a file. In SharePoint Designer 2010, you can manage other SharePoint
objects, such as site columns, content types, external content types, and workflows.
Content types and site columns are the building block of all the default lists and libraries.
Site columns introduce the concept of global column definitions. SharePoint Foundation,
and therefore SharePoint Server, come with a set of default site columns that SharePoint
installs when you create a site collection. These site columns are then grouped into content types that share common properties and can be used to standardize the metadata
properties and use of business information across a number of lists and libraries.
Content types can include not only a group of site columns but also information policies,
workflows, and the configuration of the document information panel (DIP) settings. The
default content types defined at the root level of a site collection are used to create all
the default lists and libraries. For example, the Document content type is used to create the Shared Documents library you find in a team site. The Document content type is
based on the Item content type, which defines the Title column. In turn, the Item content
type is based on the System content type, which is at the top of the content type hierarchy. Content types and site columns can be defined at the site-collection level and at the
site level.
Note The SharePoint Server Managed Metadata Service (MMS) allows you to share a
term store, and optionally content types, across site collections and Web applications.
More information on MMS can be found at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/
ee424402(office.14).aspx.
External content types define data that is stored in external systems. Using SharePoint
Designer to work with external content types and workflows is detailed in Chapter 7,
“Using Business Connectivity Services”, Chapter 8, “Understanding Workflows,” and
Chapter 9, “Using Reusable Workflows and Workflows Forms,” later in this book.
In this exercise, you use SharePoint Designer to navigate to site components.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the root site of a site collection.
1. In the Navigation pane, click Content Types.
A new workspace page opens with a tab labeled Content Types and displays the
gallery page for content types.
2. In the workspace, click the down arrow in the Group column heading, and then
click Document Content Types.
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Navigating a Site’s Components 57
The gallery page displays only those content types that are Document content
types. The source column defines where the content types are defined. If your team
site is not the root of a site collection, the source column is likely to be the Web
address of the site collection.
3. In the Name column, under Document Content Types, click Document.
Troubleshooting If you have not opened the root site of a site collection and the site
you have opened has not created any content types of its own, a Microsoft SharePoint
Designer dialog box opens with the name of the site where the Document content type
is defined. Click OK in the dialog box, open the site in SharePoint Designer using the
steps described in the first exercise of this chapter, and then repeat the steps in this
exercise.
The workspace now contains the settings page for the Document content type. The
Content Type Settings tab on the ribbon contains commands to edit and manage
the Document content type, and the mini-gallery lists all content types.
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58 Chapter 2 Working with SharePoint Sites
4. On the ribbon, click Edit Columns in the Edit group.
The workspace contains a gallery page displaying the columns Name and Title,
which form part of the Document content type. The ribbon displays a Columns tab
with commands to create, edit, and manage columns for this content type.
5. In the mini-gallery, scroll down, and then under List Content Types, click
Announcement.
Tip To display the mini-gallery the full length of the Navigation pane, use the up arrow
to collapse the Site Objects group.
The workspace now contains the settings page for the Announcement content
type. This is the content type used to create all Announcements lists. Notice on the
ribbon that the Edit Document Template command is not available because lists
have no document template associations.
6. In the Navigation pane, click the arrow to the right of Navigation.
Co apse he
Naviga ion pane
The Navigation pane collapses, and the workspace expands.
7. On the breadcrumb, click the arrow to the right of Content Types, and then click
Basic Page.
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Navigating a Site’s Components 59
The workspace now contains the settings page for the Basic Page content type.
Notice on the ribbon that the Edit Document Template command is active. The
Basic Page content type is used to create a document library, and therefore it can
have a document template association.
8. On the breadcrumb, click the arrow to the right of your site’s name, and then click
Site Columns.
The workspace now contains the gallery page for site columns.
Troubleshooting If the Site Columns gallery page contains no site columns, the filter
you placed earlier on the Group column (in step 2) is still active. Click the arrow in the
Group column, and click All.
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60 Chapter 2 Working with SharePoint Sites
9. Click the arrow at the top of the Navigation pane to expand the pane.
CLEAN UP Close SharePoint Designer.
Saving and Using a Site Template
After customizing your site by applying themes or by adding or removing lists, libraries,
pages, and even subsites, you can package everything for additional reuse by making your
own site template. A site template is represented by one .wsp file, which is known as a solution file, and is stored in the Solutions gallery at the top-level site of a site collection.
When you create a site template, you can choose to save its content, which includes list
items, documents, pages, custom pages, master pages and configurations; however, a
number of components are not saved, such as permissions.
You can copy solutions files from one site collection to another site collection, thereby
allowing you and your users to create multiple sites based on your solution. You do not
need to have server administrator privileges to install a site template solution because
the Solutions gallery is a document library itself, and as such it is stored in the SQL Server
content database and not in a folder on the Web server. If you are a site owner or an administrator of the top-level site, you have sufficient rights to upload a site template solution to the Solutions gallery.
Warning Solution files might contain malicious code, so use site templates only from sources
you trust.
Site template solutions are based on files stored on the Web server, which means that if
you copy the site template to a site collection on another server, that server must have
those site definition files installed. For this reason, many people who design solutions use
the team site or the blank site as their basis for creating site template solutions because
these site definition files are installed with SharePoint Foundation and SharePoint Server.
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Saving and Using a Site Template 61
Similarly, if your lists or libraries use any site collection custom content types, those content types must be re-created in the destinations site collection’s Site Content Type gallery. The same is true for features that may be installed and enabled.
The .wsp file is actually a cabinet file that contains a WebTemplate\Elements file that
identifies the site definition files used. Other files in the solutions file identify features
that the site template might be dependent on. If you cannot create a site from a site
template solutions file, and you suspect that you do not have the site definition files installed on your Web server, you can integrate this file to identify the site definition files
you are missing. You might need the help of a developer to identify the cause of the
problem.
Each site definition is given a number, and so is each site configuration within a site definition. You can use this information to identify the site definition a site template is based
on. The template and configuration number for team and Meeting Workspace site definitions are listed in the following table.
Template
Configuration
1. STS
0 Team Site
1 Blank Site
2 Document Workspace
2. MPS
0 Basic Meeting Workspace
1 Blank Meeting Workspace
2 Decision Meeting Workspace
3 Social Meeting Workspace
4 Multipage Meeting Workspace
After you create a site template solution and before you allow other users to create sites
from it, you should create a site based on the template and test your solution to discover
whether customizations work successfully after being packaged in a site template. If necessary, also check that they work on other site collections and Web applications.
Note With SharePoint Server, you can limit the site templates that are visible. See Appendix C
on page 503 for a list of steps.
In this exercise, you use SharePoint Designer to create a site template, save the site template and review its contents, and then create a site from a site template and test your
solution.
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62 Chapter 2 Working with SharePoint Sites
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in previous exercises
in this chapter, if it is not already open. The settings page for the site should be
displayed.
1. On the Site tab, click Save as Template in the Manage group.
The browser opens. If prompted, type your user name and password, and click OK.
The Save As Template page is displayed.
2. In the File name box, type SPDSBS Sites, and in the Template name box, type
SBS Working with Sites.
3. In the Include Content section, select the Include Content check box, and then
click OK.
The Operation Completed Successfully page is displayed, stating that the Web site
was successfully saved to the Solutions gallery.
4. On the Operation Completed Successfully page, at the end of the second paragraph, click solutions gallery.
Tip If the Operation Completed Successfully page is not displayed, click Site Actions,
and then click Site Settings. If you are working on a child site, under Site Collection
Administration, click Go To Top Level Site Settings. On the site settings page, under
Galleries, click Solutions.
5. Click SPDSBS Sites. The Save As dialog box opens.
6. Navigate to the Desktop, and then click Save.
The Save As dialog box closes. If the Download Complete dialog box opens, click
Close.
7. On your Desktop, rename SPDSBS Sites.wsp as SPDSBS Sites.cab.
A Rename warning dialog box opens, stating that the file might become unstable.
8. Click Yes to close the Rename warning dialog box.
9. Double-click SPDSBS Sites.cab to open the cabinet file, locate Elements.xml in
the SPDSBS SitesWebTemplate path, and drag it to your desktop.
Tip You might have to change the Explorer view to Details to see the path.
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Saving and Using a Site Template 63
10. Right-click Elements.xml, and click Edit with Microsoft SharePoint Designer.
SharePoint Designer displays Elements.xml in the workspace.
The BaseTemplateID has a value of 1, the BaseTemplateName has a value of STS,
and the BaseConfigurationID has a value of 0, which means that the SPDSBS Sites
template solution was based on the team site definition.
11. In the Navigation pane, click Subsites.
A new workspace tab opens, labeled Subsites.
12. On the ribbon, click Subsite in the New group.
The New dialog box opens, and in the Specify The Location Of The New Web
Site text box, Subsite is highlighted. SharePoint Designer communicates with the
SharePoint site collection and retrieves a list of SharePoint site templates that you
can use as a basis for your new SharePoint child site. The SPDSBS Sites site template is listed in the site type list.
Note There is no visible difference between using site template solutions and site
templates stored on the Web server.
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64 Chapter 2 Working with SharePoint Sites
13. Type SiteTest over Subsite, and in the central pane, click SPDSBS Sites.
14. Click OK.
The new site opens in a new SharePoint Designer window. Notice that the Title and
Description site properties of the Human Resources site were not saved.
15. On the Site tab, click Preview in Browser in the Manage group.
Preview in
Browser
The browser opens and displays the home page of the new site.
CLEAN UP Close SharePoint Designer.
Key Points
● The SharePoint site properties Title and Description communicate to users the pur-
pose and function of a site. They are also fundamental to making information easy
to find.
● Themes can be created using PowerPoint 2010. The .thmx file is then loaded in the
Themes gallery at the top-level site of a site collection.
● Themes change the colors and fonts used on a site. If you want to change other de-
sign elements, such as font size or spacing, you need to use cascading style sheets.
● Cascading style sheets used on SharePoint sites can be created to not support
themes.
● A number of features can be activated at the site-collection level, whereas others
can be activated on a site-by-site basis.
● You can use SharePoint Designer to create and manage SharePoint groups and
map users and SharePoint groups to permission levels for sites, lists, and libraries
● You cannot change the site template used to create a SharePoint site after the site
is created. If the functionality you require is not exposed by a feature, you have to
delete and re-create the SharePoint site using a different site template.
● You can delete child sites of a site collection by using SharePoint Designer; however,
you cannot delete the top-level site of a site collection. Deleted sites are not sent to
the Recycle Bin.
● You can reset customized (unghosted) pages to be uncustomized pages that point
to site definition files on the Web server.
● Site components such as site columns and content types can be managed using
SharePoint Designer.
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Key Points 65
● The hidden URL structure of a Web site can be viewed in the All Files mini-gallery.
● You can use site template solution files to package your solutions so that you can
use them again. These files are stored in the SQL Server database and are exposed
in the Solutions gallery at the top-level site of a site collection.
● Site template solution files are cabinet files with the extension .wsp. These cabinet
files contain a number of files that describe how to create a site that includes your
customizations.
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Part 2
Working with
Information
3 Working with Lists and Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
4 Creating and Modifying Web Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
5 Working with Data Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
6 Working with Data Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
7 Using Business Connectivity Services . . . . . . . . . . . 207
67
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Chapter at a G ance
Create a list or library,
page 70
Work with list columns,
page 77
Create an
XSLT List View
Web Part,
page 83
Add custom actions,
page 89
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3 Working with Lists
and Libraries
In this chapter, you will learn how to
✔ Create lists and libraries.
✔ Import data into SharePoint.
✔ Work with list columns.
✔ Use calculated columns and column validation.
✔ Create an XSLT List View Web Part.
✔ Customize an XSLT List View Web Part.
✔ Secure a list or library.
✔ Add custom actions.
✔ Create and use site columns.
✔ Work with content types.
✔ Delete a SharePoint object.
Lists and libraries are central components in sites built on both Microsoft SharePoint
Foundation 2010 and Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010. Lists are containers for items
that have similar columns or metadata, security settings, and user interfaces for viewing
and managing the items. You can use lists to manage and display information for collaboration purposes. Libraries are specialized lists in which each list item refers to one document. Libraries have strong document management features. Lists and libraries are core
to the SharePoint infrastructure and can be used to store internal data, which enables
you to build SharePoint 2010 applications in which the internal data is needed by the
solution but can be configured to not be visible through the browser. This prevents users
from accidentally deleting the internal data or being confused by the data’s presence.
In this chapter, you will learn to identify when to use the browser and when to use
Microsoft SharePoint Designer 2010 to manipulate lists and libraries. You will consolidate
your understanding of lists and libraries, as well as reinforce the link between a list or a
69
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70 Chapter 3 Working with Lists and Libraries
library and the XSLT List View Web Part. You will also learn how to add commands to the
ribbon on list views and forms, add custom actions to list item menus, secure a list, and
use site columns and content types with lists and libraries. In Chapter 4, “Creating and
Modifying Web Pages,“ which concentrates on pages, you will learn how to create views
and how to modify the pages that allow you to display, edit, and create new list items.
Practice Files Before you can use the practice files provided for this chapter, you need
to install them from the book’s companion Web site. For more information about
practice files, see “Using the Practice Files” on page xxiii.
Creating Lists and Libraries
Just as you base a new site on a site template, you base a new list or library on a list template. When you select a list template, you refer either to files on the file systems of the
SharePoint Web servers or to a template file in the List Template gallery, which is stored
in the Microsoft SQL Server database. Each list is created using one or more content
types.
SharePoint Foundation 2010 and SharePoint Server 2010 provide a number of built-in list
definitions that you can use as a basis for SharePoint lists and libraries. When you use the
browser, the list definitions are grouped into four categories: Libraries, Communications,
Tracking, and Custom Lists. When you use SharePoint Designer 2010, the list definitions appear in the New group on the Lists And Libraries ribbon tab and are grouped as
Custom List, SharePoint List, Document Library, External List, and List From Spreadsheet.
A number of lists cannot be created by using the browser and can be seen only if you
create a site from a specific site template or activate a specific feature. For example, the
Circulations, Holidays, Time Card, Phone Call Memo, and Whereabouts list types are
available only if you create a site based on the Group Work Site template or have activated the Group Work Lists site-level feature. Similiarly, in SharePoint Server 2010, if you
create a site based on the Visio Process Repository site template, a Process Diagrams
document library is created that has six content types attached. However, nothing stops
you from creating a list template from this document library and creating your own libraries based on that list template. The group of lists created with the Group Work Site
template would be more complex to reproduce because of dependencies between the
different lists.
Tip List templates can be created by using the list settings page in the browser or with the
Save As Template command in the Manage group on the Lists And Libraries tab in SharePoint
Designer.
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Creating Lists and Libraries 71
After you create a list or library, you can perform tasks such as the following in the
browser:
● View, add, modify, or delete list items, documents, or metadata.
● Modify list-level or item-level permissions.
● Add, delete, or modify columns.
● Add, delete, or modify content types.
● Create views to allow multiple perspectives on the list’s or library’s data.
● Create a list template from a list, including its content.
See Also More information on working with lists and libraries in the browser can be found
in Chapter 4, “Working with Lists,” and Chapter 5, “Working with Libraries,” in Microsoft
SharePoint Foundation 2010 Step by Step by Olga Londer and Penelope Coventry (Microsoft
Press, 2011).
With SharePoint Designer, you cannot create or modify list items or the metadata associated with documents; however, unlike in the previous version, in SharePoint Designer
2010 you can create or modify list permissions, content types, columns, and site columns
by using the list settings page that is displayed in the workspace when you click a list or
library from the Lists or Library gallery page or the mini-gallery.
The list settings page is divided into eight areas:
● List Information Provides key information about a list, such as the name, descrip-
tion, list ID, the date that the list was last modified, and the number of items that
the list contains.
● Customization Use to edit list columns and manage the permissions of the list.
● Settings Use to set the general settings of a list, such as displaying the list in the
browser on the Quick Launch Toolbar or hiding the list from the browser so that it
does not appear on the All Site Content page.
● Content Types Use to manage the association of content types with the list or
library.
● Views Use to manage or create new list views. List views are pages that display the
contents of a list. By default, most lists and libraries contain at least one view page,
All Items, that displays all items in the list. Some lists contain a number of view
pages, such as the tasks list, which is provided with six view pages by default: Active
Tasks, All Tasks, By Assigned To, By My Groups, Due Today, and My Tasks.
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72 Chapter 3 Working with Lists and Libraries
● Forms Use to manage and create list forms. By default, most lists or libraries con-
tain at least three forms:
❍ DispForm.aspx to display the properties of a list item.
❍ EditForm.aspx to edit the properties of a list item.
❍ NewForm.aspx to create a new list item.
● Workflows Use to manage and create new list workflows.
● Custom Actions Use to create and manage custom actions you have added to the
list item menu or on the server ribbon you see on form pages when you use the
browser.
In this exercise, you create a Wiki Page library, an Issue Tracking list, and a list from an
Excel worksheet. You also change the default settings of the lists and library.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you created and modified in
earlier chapters. If you did not create a team site yet, follow the steps in Chapter 1
before you start this exercise.
1. In the Navigation pane, click Lists and Libraries.
The Lists And Libraries gallery page is displayed in the workspace.
2. On the Lists and Libraries tab, click Document Library in the New group, and
then click Wiki Page Library.
Documen
Library
The Create List Or Document Library dialog box opens.
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Creating Lists and Libraries 73
3. In the Name box, type Wiki Pages, and then click OK to close the dialog box.
The name that you type in the Name box is used to create the URL as well as the
title of the library.
See Also For information about good naming conventions, see the sidebar “Best
Practices for Naming URLs” in Chapter 1, “Exploring SharePoint Designer 2010.”
The Wiki Pages library appears under Document Libraries on the gallery page.
Tip If you want to change the URL of a list or library, in the All Files mini-gallery or
in the All Files gallery page, right-click the list or library, and then click Rename. All
references to the old URL will be replaced with the new URL. However, if users have
bookmarked or created hyperlinks to the list or library, these continue to point to the
old URL. Renaming the list or library in the Lists And Library gallery page renames the
title of the list or library but does not change the URL of the list or library.
4. Click Wiki Page.
The list settings page opens in the workspace and the Lists And Libraries mini-gallery
appears below the Navigation pane.
5. In the List Information area, click Wiki Pages to the right of Name, type
Company History, and then press Enter.
An asterisk appears on the Wiki Pages tab, indicating that the library settings have
changed but you have not saved your changes.
6. Click <click to enter text> to the right of Description, and type This wiki page
library contains a set of Wiki pages that describes the history of our company, and then press Enter.
7. In the Settings area, under Advanced Settings, select the Require content apSave
proval for submitted items check box. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Save.
The asterisk disappears from the tab, and the tab is now labeled Company History.
In the Lists And Library mini-gallery, the wiki library is listed under Document
Libraries as Company History. In the List Information area, the Web address can be
seen to include Wiki Pages.
Note This Wiki library will still be listed as Wiki Pages in the All Files gallery and
mini-gallery.
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74 Chapter 3 Working with Lists and Libraries
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next
exercise.
Creating an Issue Tracking List
SharePoint Designer provides several methods for creating lists and libraries. You can
use the SharePoint List or Document Library commands in the New group on the ribbon,
which appears when the following pages are displayed in the workspace:
● The site settings page
● The Lists And Libraries gallery page
Note When the All Files gallery page is displayed in the workspace and a list or library is
selected, the Cut, Copy, and Paste commands in the ribbon’s Clipboard group are active.
However, if you attempt to create lists or libraries by using these commands, a SharePoint
Designer dialog box appears stating you cannot copy lists or libraries. These commands are
for creating or copying files or folders.
In this exercise, you create an Issue Tracking list.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open.
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Creating an Issue Tracking List 75
1. In the Navigation pane, right-click Lists and Libraries, and then click Open in
New a Tab (Ctrl+Enter).
2. On the Lists and Libraries tab, click SharePoint List in the New group. Then, under Tracking Lists, click Issue Tracking.
SharePoin Lis
The Create List Or Document Library dialog box opens.
3. In the Name box, type Issues, and then click OK to close the dialog box.
The Issues list appears under Lists on the Lists And Libraries gallery page.
4. Right-click Issues, and then click List Settings.
The list settings page opens in the workspace, and the Lists And Libraries minigallery appears below the Navigation pane.
5. In the Settings area in the workspace, under Advanced Settings, clear the Allow
Attachments check box.
A Microsoft SharePoint Designer dialog box opens warning you that if any files are
attached to list items, disabling attachments results in their deletion.
6. Click OK.
An asterisk appears on the Issues tab, indicating that the list settings have changed
but you have not saved your changes.
Tip You can check the current settings of a list in the browser by clicking Administration
Web Page in the Manage group on the List Settings tab on the ribbon. This opens the
list settings page in the browser. You can then check the attachment settings by clicking
Advanced Settings under General Settings.
7. Right-click the Issues tab, and then click Save.
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76 Chapter 3 Working with Lists and Libraries
8. On the breadcrumb, click Lists and Libraries to display the gallery page.
The Issues list appears under Lists.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next
exercise.
Importing Data into SharePoint
In many situations you may have data in a spreadsheet and find that you need to share
the data with other members of your team. SharePoint provides the ability to import
data from a Microsoft Office Excel 2007 or Microsoft Excel 2010 worksheet into a
SharePoint list. You can choose to import all the data in a worksheet, a range of cells, a
named range, or an Excel table.
See Also Using Microsoft Office Access 2007 or Microsoft Access 2010, you can also import
data to a SharePoint list. See Chapter 14, “Using SharePoint Foundation with Excel 2010 and
Access 2010,” in Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010 Step by Step.
In this exercise, you create a list from the data in an Excel worksheet. You also change
the default settings of the lists and library.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open, and then open the Lists And Libraries gallery page.
1. On the Lists and Libraries tab, click List From Spreadsheet in the New group.
The browser opens and displays the New page.
Lis From
Spreadshee s
2. In the Name box, type Sales. In the Description box, type This list contains
Wide World Importers sales for the last year.
3. Click the Browse button.
The Choose File To Upload dialog box opens and displays your Documents folder
or the last folder that you accessed.
4. If the Documents folder is not displayed in the Choose File to Upload dialog box,
click Documents in the left pane under Libraries.
5. Navigate to the Chapter03 practice file folder, double-click
WideWorldImportsSaleData.xlsx, and then click Open.
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Working with List Columns 77
6. On the New Web page, click Import.
Troubleshooting If a Message From Webpage dialog box opens with the error message
“An unexpected error has occurred,” click OK. On the Site Actions menu, click More
Options to display the Create dialog box. Under Filter By, click Blank & Custom, select
Import Spreadsheet, click Create, and then repeat steps 2–6.
Excel 2010 opens WideWorldImportSaleData.xlsx and displays the Import To
Windows SharePoint Services List dialog box.
7. From the Range Type list, select Range of cells, and then press TAB.
8. In the spreadsheet, select the range of cells A1 to I39, and then click Import in the
dialog box.
The All Items view of the Sales list is displayed.
9. Close the browser, and then click Refresh on the SharePoint Designer Quick Access
Toolbar.
Refresh
In the workspace, in the Lists And Libraries gallery, Sales appears under Lists.
10. In the Navigation pane, click All Files, and then in the workspace click Lists.
The Lists gallery page is displayed in the workspace, and the All Files mini-gallery
opens below the Navigation pane. The Issues and Sales lists appear in the List gallery page. In the All Files mini-gallery, in the root of the SharePoint site, the library
Wiki Pages (Company History) that was created in previous exercise is listed.
11. In the Navigation pane, click Lists and Libraries, and then click Sales.
12. On the Sales list settings page, in the Settings area under Advanced Settings,
select the Display this list on the Quick Launch. On the Quick Access Toolbar,
click Save.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next
exercise.
Working with List Columns
Columns, also known as fields, determine the type of data a list or library can hold. Each
column is associated with a column data type. The value stored in a column is often refered to as metadata and is used to filter and sort the data. Metadata can be indexed by
SharePoint, which lets users quickly find information.
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78 Chapter 3 Working with Lists and Libraries
When you create a list or a library, it is provisioned with a number of site columns that
are defined by one or more content types, depending on the template chosen. The site
column is stored locally in the list or library as a list column. When you make changes to the
column, you have your own copy of the site column, and any changes you make apply only
to the column in that list or library. You enhance your list by creating your own list columns.
In this exercise, you enhance the Sales list. You change the List Price column type to
Currency and the Region column type to Choice, add a calculated column named Total,
and add column validation to the Quantity Purchased column.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open, and then open the Sales list settings page.
1. In the Customization area, click Edit list columns.
Edi Co umn
The workspace contains a list of columns for the Sales list. On the Columns tab on
the ribbon, Add To Default View is highlighted in orange. This command is a toggle
switch. When it is highlighted in orange, new columns are automatically added to
the Default view.
Tip Only those columns whose settings you can amend are listed. To see all columns for
a list or library, click Show Read-Only on the Columns tab. Columns such as Created and
Modified are displayed dimmed.
2. Under Column Name, click List Price. Then, on the Columns tab, click Column
Type in the Edit group.
3. In the List Price row, click the down arrow that appears to the right of Number (1,
1.0, 100) and click Currency. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Save.
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Working with List Columns 79
4. Click List Price, and then on the Columns tab, click Column Settings in the Edit
group.
Co umn Se ings
The Column Editor dialog box opens.
5. In the Display format list, select British Pound, if it is not already selected, and
then click OK to close the Column Editor dialog box.
6. Under Column Name, click Region and then on the Columns tab, click Column
Type in the Edit group.
7. In the Region row, click the down arrow that appears to the right of Single line of
text, and click Choice.
8. Right-click Region, and click Column Settings. The Column Editor dialog box opens.
9. In the Choices (enter each choice on a separate line) box, type the following
four lines:
East
West
Europe
Asia
10. In the Default value box, delete Choice 1, and type West. Then, in the Display as
list, select Radio buttons.
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80 Chapter 3 Working with Lists and Libraries
11. Click OK to close the Column Editor dialog box.
The list of columns for the Sales list now contains the Region column.
12. Right-click the Sales tab, and then click Save.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next
exercise.
Using Calculated Columns
In many scenarios, you need to display data that can be calculated from data already
included in the list. This is when you use a calculated column, which uses formulas similar
to those in Excel and Access. Calculated columns can contain functions, column references, operators and constants, as well as IF statements.
See Also For more information on calculated columns, see the series of blog posts titled
“Taming the Elusive Calculated Column” at www.endusersharepoint.com/2008/06/12/tamingthe-elusive-calculated-column/. For information on the maximum number of IF statements in a
column, see http://blog.pathtosharepoint.com/category/calculated-columns/.
In this exercise, you add a calculated column to the Sales list.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open, and display the list of columns for the Sales list as
described at the start of the previous exercise.
1. On the Columns tab, click Add New Column and then click Calculated (calculation Based on Other Columns).
Add New Co umn
The Column Editor dialog box opens.
2. In the Insert Column list, double-click List Price, and then double-click Quantity
Purchased.
The Formula box contains the text [List Price][Quantity Purchased].
3. In the Formula box, place the insertion point after the first closing square bracket ( ] )
and before the second opening square bracket ( [ ), and then type *.
The formula should look similar to [List Price]*[Quantity Purchased].
4. In the Data type returned list, select Currency, and in the Currency format list,
select British Pound, if it is not already selected.
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Using Column Validation 81
5. Click OK.
The Column Editor dialog box closes, and a new column named NewColumn1, of
type Calculated, appears in the workspace.
6. Click NewColumn1 to highlight the text, type Total, and then press ENTER.
The column NewColumn1 is renamed to Total.
7. Right-click the Sales tab, and then click Save.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next
exercise.
Using Column Validation
By using the correct column types and setting properites such as minimum and maxium
values, you can be sure your users enter data correctly. To further aid the integrity of
data entered in your lists and libraries, SharePoint 2010 added new funcationality for list
and column validation. When a user enters data that fails the validation check, you can
display a default validation error message or provide your own error messages. In the
previous version of SharePoint, such validation and customized error messages were only
available by customizing the data entry Web pages and using client-side scripting languages such as JavaScript or JQuery.
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82 Chapter 3 Working with Lists and Libraries
Similar to calculated columns, list and column validation uses formulas like those used in
Excel and Access. List validation can reference data in more than one column in the list.
When you configure both list and column validation, the column validation formulas are
evalutated before the list validation formulas. You can also set column-level validation on
a site column by using the Validation Settings command in the Edit group on the ribbon.
Note Not all column types support column validation. Supported column types are Single
Line of Text, Choice (single), Number, Currency, and Date and Time.
In this exercise, you add column validation to the Quantity Purchased column and then
add a new task item to test that the validation formula is correctly defined.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise, if it is not already open, and display the list of columns for the Sales list.
1. Click Quantity Purchased, and then on the Columns tab, click Column
Validation in the Edit group.
The Validation Settings dialog box opens.
2. In the Formula box, type NOT(MOD([Quantity Purchased],2)), and in the
Message box type, Enter an even number. Goods can only be purchased in
multiples of 2.
Va ida ion
Se ings
3. Click OK to close the Validation Settings dialog box.
4. Right-click the Sales tab, and then click Save.
5. Press F12, or on the Home tab, click Preview in Browser to open the Sales list in
the browser.
Tip You should make small changes and test your solution often. It is then easier to
identify errors in your solution.
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Creating an XSLT List View Web Part 83
6. Click the Items tab, and then click New Item in the New group.
The Sales – New Item window appears.
7. In the Quantity Purchased box, type 1, and then click Save.
The window remains open. Under the Quantity Purchased box, Enter an even
number. Goods can only be purchased in multiples of 2 appears.
8. Click Cancel, and then close the browser.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next
exercise.
Creating an XSLT List View Web Part
When a list or library is created, one or more pages (known as views) are created to display the contents of the list or library. You can display a list’s or library’s default view by
clicking the list or library’s link in the Quick Launch. There are at least three other pages
created, called forms. Forms allow you to view the column values of a single list item or
the metadata associated with a document, add a new list item or upload a document,
and edit existing list items or document metadata. You can also create your own Web
pages to display the contents of lists and libraries. SharePoint Foundation provides a new
Web Part to display the contents of lists and libraries, the XSLT List View (XLV) Web Part.
The XLV is also available on SharePoint Server because SharePoint Server is based on
SharePoint Foundation.
See Also For more information on working with views and forms, see Chapter 4.
In the previous version of SharePoint you used the List View Web Part (LVWP) to display the contents of lists and libraries. Both the XLV and the LVWP Web Parts are easy
to modify using the browser. The XLV can do everything that the LVWP can do, but the
LVWP is difficult to extend to produce the solutions you might need, which is why it was
often converted to a Data View Web Part (DVWP). The DVWP, also known as the Data
Form Web Part (DFWP), is highly customizable in SharePoint Designer, in both Design
and Code views, but it is difficult to customize in the browser. In fact, you can think of
the XLV as the DVWP for lists. However, you can manipulate the XLV easily in both your
browser and in SharePoint Designer.
The LVWP uses Collaboration Application Markup Language (CAML) to dynamically find
and display SharePoint data. This is a proprietary markup language specific to SharePoint
technologies, and very few tools are available to help you write CAML. In SharePoint
Designer you need to use the source code window to write CAML, and there is no
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84 Chapter 3 Working with Lists and Libraries
IntelliSense to help you. The XLV and the DFWP use Extensible Stylesheet Language for
Transformation (XSLT), which is an open standard commonly used on Web sites. Much
more documentation of XSLT exists than for CAML.
In this exercise, you create an Announcements XLV.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open.
1. In the Navigation pane, click Site Pages.
The Site Pages gallery page is displayed in the workspace.
2. On the Pages tab, click Web Part Page in the New group, and then click the Web
Part page that displays the ScreenTip Header, Left Column, Body.
Web Par Page
A new file, named Untitled 1.aspx, appears on the Site Pages gallery page, with the
name of the file highlighted.
3. Type AnnouncementPage.aspx, and press ENTER to rename the file.
4. On the Pages tab, click Edit File in the Edit group.
Edi Fi e
The Announcement page opens in edit mode, with the workspace tab labeled
AnnouncementsPage.aspx. The page has three rectangles surrounded by a lightblue border. These are Web Part zones.
Tip Web Part zones are containers for Web Parts. The use of Web Parts and Web Part
zones is discussed in Chapter 4.
5. Click in the first light-blue bordered rectangle.
The light-blue border changes to a blue border and the label Header appears
above the rectangle. A purple bordered rectangle labeled PlaceHolderMain
(Custom) surrounds the three Web Part zones.
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Creating an XSLT List View Web Part 85
6. On the Insert tab, click Data View, and then click Announcements.
Da a View
Tip The ScreenTip that is displayed when you hover the mouse pointer over
Announcements in the Data View lists indicates the physical location of the list in the
site. All lists are stored in the lists folder in the root of the Web site. This is discussed in
Chapter 2, “Working with SharePoint Sites.”
The Announcements XLV is created on the page, and the <webpartpages:XsltListView
WebPart> tag is highlighted in orange on the Quick Tag Selector in the workspace
status bar. In a newly created team site, one list item is displayed: “Get Started with
Microsoft SharePoint Foundation!” The ribbon contains the List View Tools set of
tabs: Options, Design, Web Part, and Table.
7. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Save.
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86 Chapter 3 Working with Lists and Libraries
Note The page contains the text Untitled 1, which is the title of the page. When you
renamed the page, you renamed the file name. The renaming process does not rename
the title of the page.
CLEAN UP Close any open tabs. Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are
continuing to the next exercise.
Customizing an XSLT List View Web Part
All Web Parts, including the XLV, share a common set of properties that control their
appearance, layout, and advanced characteristics, such as whether the Web Part can
move to a different Web Part zone. XLVs have other configurable settings, such as which
columns are displayed, the sort order of the list items, whether the list items are filtered,
and whether items with the same value are grouped in their own section.
In this exercise, you modify the Announcements XLV to display announcements whose
expiration dates are not set or have not expired. You also modify the Announcement XLV
to show no more than five announcements.
SETUP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise, if it is not already open, and open AnnouncementsPage.aspx in edit mode
with the XLV Web Part selected as described in the previous exercise.
1. On Options tab, click Filter in the Filter, Sort & Group group.
The Filter Criteria dialog box opens.
Fi er
2. Click the Field Name arrow, and in the list, click Expires.
3. Under Comparison, click Equals, click the arrow that appears, and from the dropdown menu, select Is Null.
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Customizing an XSLT List View Web Part 87
4. Under And/Or, click And, click the arrow that appears, and then select Or from the
drop-down menu.
5. Click Click here to add a new clause, click the arrow that appears under Field
Name, and then click Expires.
6. Under Comparison, click Equals, click the arrow that appears, and then click
Greater than or Equal.
Tip To delete a filter criterion, click the arrow to its left to select the entire criteria line,
and then press Delete.
7. Click OK to close the Filter Criteria dialog box.
The Page refreshes, and the message “Updating Data View. Click Stop to Cancel”
might briefly be displayed.
8. On the Options tab, click Paging in the Paging group, and then click Limit to 5
Items.
Paging
The Page refreshes, and the message “Updating Data View. Click Stop to Cancel”
might briefly be displayed.
9. On the Design tab, click Options, and then click Summary Toolbar.
Op ions
The page refreshes, and the Add New Announcement link is added to the bottom
of the Web Part.
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Chrome Type
10. On the Web Part tab, click Chrome Type, and then click Title Only.
11. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Save.
12. Press F12, or on the Home tab, click Preview in Browser to display the page in the
browser.
CLEAN UP Close the browser. Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing
to the next exercise.
Securing a List or a Library
In Chapter 2 you learned how to manage site users and permissions and how to apply
unique permissions to a site. Lists and libraries automatically inherit the permission settings from their site. If you want to change the security settings of a list or library (given
that lists and libraries are just SharePoint objects, as are sites), you can use the same
techniques you used in Chapter 2. You can stop inheriting the security settings from the
site, and then you can remove users or SharePoint groups from the list’s permission settings and add new users or SharePoint groups, mapping them to a permission level.
In this exercise, you change the security settings for a list. You also remap the permission
levels of the Members site group so that users in that group can only read the contents
of the list.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open.
1. In the Navigation pane, click Lists and Libraries, and then click Announcements.
2. In the Customization area, click Permissions for this list.
A browser window opens and displays the permission settings for the
Announcements list.
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Adding Custom Actions 89
3. On the Permissions Tools, Edit tab, click Stop Inheriting Permissions in the
Inheritance group.
A dialog box opens warning you that you are about to create unique permissions
for this list.
4. Click OK to close the dialog box.
The page refreshes, additional groups are displayed on the server ribbon, and the
status bar states that this list has unique permissions.
5. Select the check box to the left of the SharePoint group you want to amend, such
as WideWorldImporters Members, and then click Edit User Permissions in the
Modify group on the Edit tab.
The Edit Permissions dialog opens.
6. Clear the check box to the left of Contribute, and select the check box to the left
of Read. Click OK.
The page refreshes, and the SharePoint group you amended displays Read in the
Permission Level column.
CLEAN UP Close the browser. Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing
to the next exercise.
Adding Custom Actions
The term custom actions is used twice in SharePoint Designer. First , it refers to the ability to extend SharePoint Designer workflows by adding custom actions and custom
conditions created by a developer and installed on the Web server. Second, and new to
SharePoint Designer 2010, it refers to the ability to add new actions to the list item menu
(LIM) and the server ribbon that you see in the browser on the list views and forms. This
allows you to add content to the list item menu or server ribbon without involving a developer or the IT department.
Custom actions should be added to facilitate the tasks needed to complete a business
process. For example, if you commonly need to create a task item every time you create
an announcement item, then place a custom action on the server ribbon of list views.
Custom actions appear as buttons and can be accompanied by an image.
When you define a custom action for the list item menu or the server ribbon, you can
specify a number, known as a sequence number, that defines the order in which the action appears on the list item menu or the server ribbon.
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90 Chapter 3 Working with Lists and Libraries
For example, in the browser, when you display an Announcements list and then select
the arrow to the right of an announcement item, the list item menu contains the actions
View Item, Edit Item, Alert Me, Manage Permissions, and Delete Item. On a site created
using SharePoint Server, additional actions are displayed, such as Compliance Details.
These default actions are also associated with a sequence number. The sequence numbers for the default actions are not visible in SharePoint Designer, but with some testing
you can discover them by trying different numbers as the sequence number when you
add your own actions. For example, if you want users to quickly create a new Task item
by using the Tasks list’s NewForm.aspx page, choose a sequence number of 50 to place
the New Task Item action at the top of the item menu. A sequence number of 2,000
places the New Task Item action below the Delete Item action. To create the New Task
Item action between the Edit Item and Alert Me actions, choose a sequence number between 300 and 1,000.
When you define your custom action, you can also specify a Rights Mask that defines which users can see the custom action. The Rights Mask can contain any of the
SPBasePermission member names that are listed at http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/
library/microsoft.sharepoint.spbasepermissions.aspx. When you want the custom action to
appear for any user of the list, leave the Rights Mask empty or type EmptyMask.
Using SharePoint Designer, you cannot remove a custom action, add other forms of
actions (such as check boxes, combo boxes, drop-down lists, text boxes, and flyout anchors), or add tabs or groups. Developers can create such actions and extend the server
ribbon on pages other than the view and form pages, as well as the list item menu, by
creating a feature in Visual Studio 2010 with the SharePoint Ribbon project template,
which can be found at http://code.msdn.microsoft.com/vsixforsp. This Web site also contains a hands-on lab and a walkthrough video.
In this exercise, you upload new image files to the Site Assets library and then use those
images when you add a custom action to a list item menu.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise, if it is not already open.
1. In the Navigation pane, click Site Assets, and then click Import Files in the New
group on the ribbon.
mpor Fi es
The Import dialog box opens.
2. Click Add File to display the File Open dialog box.
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Adding Custom Actions 91
3. Navigate to the Chapter03 practice file folder and use the CRTL or SHIFT key to select
the images you want to import, such as b NewTask16x16.png, b NewAnn16x16.gif,
and b NewAnn32x32.png.
4. Click Open, and then click OK to close the File Open and Import dialog boxes.
The image files are imported.
5. In the Navigation pane, click Lists and Libraries, and then in the workspace click
Announcements to display the list settings page in the workspace.
6. In the Custom Actions area, click New.
New
Tip The Custom Actions area is at the bottom right on the list settings page. You might
need to scroll down to see it. Alternatively, collapse the Views, Forms, and Workflows
areas by clicking their titles or by clicking the up arrow to the right of the area titles.
The Create Custom Action dialog box opens.
7. In the Name box, type New Task Item, and in the Description box, type Custom
action to create a new task item.
8. Under Select the type of action, select Navigate to URL, and then click Browse.
The Insert Hyperlink dialog box opens.
9. Navigate to the Tasks list’s New form by double-clicking Lists and then Tasks. Click
NewForm.aspx.
Note You can navigate to another Web site or Internet site from this dialog box.
10. Click OK to close the Insert Hyperlink dialog box.
11. In the Create Custom Action dialog box, scroll down. Under Advanced Custom
actions options, to the right of the Button image URL (16x16) box, click Browse.
The Insert Hyperlink dialog box opens.
12. Navigate to SiteAssets by using the Up One Folder button to the right of the
Up One Fo der
Look In box. Click the image you want to use, such as b NewTask16x16, and then
click OK to close the Insert Hyperlink dialog box.
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Tip If you plan to create a site template, do not use absolute URL addresses. Instead,
use the ~site token to point to the location of the file, such as ~site/SiteAssets/b
NewTask16x16.png. Then, when you create a site from your site template, the custom
action will search for the image file in the new site’s Site Assets library.
13. In the Rights mask box, type EditListItems.
This custom action will appear only on the item menu if the user has permission to
edit list items on the Announcements list.
14. In the Sequence number (optional) box, type 2000.
15. Click OK.
The Create Custom Action dialog box closes. In the Custom Actions area, the custom action New Task Item appears as a list item menu (LIM) action with a sequence
number of 2,000.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next exercise.
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Creating Server Ribbon Custom Actions 93
Creating Server Ribbon Custom Actions
In the previous section, you used the New button in the Custom Actions workspace area
to create a list menu item custom action. To create server ribbon custom actions on
views and forms you must use the Custom Action command on the ribbon in the New
group. When you create a server ribbon custom action for a view, that custom action appears on the ribbon for all view pages you create.
When you add server ribbon custom actions to list views and forms, you can optionally
provide two images: 16×16 and 32×32 pixels. The smaller image is used when the browser size is reduced and the amount of space for the custom action is limited.
In this exercise, you create a server ribbon custom action for a list form.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise, if it is not already open.
1. On the Custom Actions tab, click Custom Action in the New group, and then
Cus om Ac ion
click Display Form Ribbon.
2. In the Name box type Add Announcement. In the Navigate to form list, select
the NewForm.aspx page for the list.
3. In the Button Image URL (16x16) box, click Browse, and then select the im-
age you want to use, such as b NewAnn16x16. Click OK. In the Button Image
URL (32x32) box, click Browse and select the image you want to use, such as
b NewAnn32x32. Click OK.
4. Click OK.
The Create Custom Action dialog box closes. In the Custom Actions area, the
Add Announcement, Display Form Ribbon action, with a sequence number of 0,
appears.
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94 Chapter 3 Working with Lists and Libraries
5. On the ribbon’s List Settings tab, click Preview in Browser.
Troubleshooting If the Preview in Browser command is inactive, click one of the
workspace area titles or Announcements in the workspace breadcrumb.
A browser window opens displaying the All Items view of the Announcements list.
6. Hover the mouse pointer over an announcements item, and then click the arrow
that appears.
The item menu appears with the New Task action as the last action in the list.
7. Click View Item.
The View dialog box opens. On the ribbon, the Add Announcements action is the
first action in the Manage group.
Note To modify or delete your custom actions, select the icon to the left of the custom
action to display the List, Custom Action ribbon tab, and then use the appropriate
command in the Edit group.
CLEAN UP Close the browser. Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing
to the next exercise.
Creating Site Columns
Although you can create a column to track data within a list or library, you might find
that you need the same type of data in multiple lists. This is when you should use a site
column. A site column can be defined at the site level or at the site-collection level. Child
sites inherit the site columns from their parent sites, so site columns can be used across
multiple sites, lists, and libraries. They enable you to define and update a column in a
single place and have it affect all lists and libraries in which the site columns are used.
Tip If you need the same site column within a different site collection, you need to create it
again in that site collection.
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Creating Site Columns 95
In this exercise you create a site column so that list and library owners can use it to
categorize their content by country or region.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open, and open the Sales list settings page.
1. In the Navigation pane, click Site Columns.
The Site Columns gallery page is displayed.
Troubleshooting If no site columns are displayed, click each of the column headings
and then click All to remove any filter that is applied to the gallery page.
2. On the Columns tab, click New Column, and then click Choice.
The Create A Site Column dialog box opens.
New Co umn
3. In the Name box, type WideWorldImporters Country/Region.
Tip Site column names must be unique within the site collection.
4. Select New group, and in the New group box, type SPD SBS.
5. Click OK.
The Create A Site Column dialog box closes, and the Column Editor dialog box
opens.
6. In the Choices (enter each choice on a separate line) box, type the following
three lines:
East
West
Europe
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96 Chapter 3 Working with Lists and Libraries
7. In the Default value box, delete Choice 1 and type East. In the Display as list, select Radio buttons.
8. Click OK to close the Column Editor dialog box.
9. Click the arrow in the Type column heading and select All. Then click the arrow in
the Group column heading and select SPD SBS.
The WideWorldImporters Country/Region site column is displayed.
10. On the Columns tab, if the Push Changes to List command in the Manage group
is not highlighted in orange, click Push Changes to Lists.
Push Changes
To Lis
Note By highlighting the Push Changes to Lists command, any changes to this site
column will be copied to lists that use this site column. When this command is not
highlighted, then only when you add this site column to a list does the list obtain the
latest copy of the site column.
11. Click Save.
CLEAN UP Close Sales. Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the
next exercise.
Using Site Columns
Once you create a site column, you need to add it to a list or library. You can subsequently change the site column’s settings and push them to the lists or libraries that
are using the site column. You can make changes to a site column at the list level. Such
changes affect only the list in which the changes are made; that is, the changes made
at the list level are not pushed up from the list to where the site column was created.
Changes to a site column that are pushed to a list override any changes made to the site
column at the list level.
In this exercise you enhance the Company History Wiki Pages library by adding a site
column so that users can categorize their wiki pages by country or region.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open, and open the Sales list settings page.
1. In the Navigation pane, click Lists and Libraries, and then under Document
Libraries, click Company History.
The Company History list settings page is displayed in the workspace.
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Using Site Columns 97
2. On the List Settings tab, click Edit Columns. Then, on the Columns tab, click Add
Edi Co umns
Add Exis ing Si e
Co umn
Existing Site Column.
The Site Column Picker opens with Enter search keywords highlighted.
3. Type wi, and then in the Select one of the Site Columns below area, click
WideWorldImporters County/Region.
4. Click OK to close the Site Columns Picker dialog box.
5. With WideWorldImporters Country/Region column name selected, on the
Columns tab, click Column Settings.
6. In the Column Editor dialog box, clear the Allow blank values? check box, and
then click OK.
The Column Editor dialog box closes, and Yes appears in the Required column on
the WideWorldImporters Country/Region row.
7. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Save.
8. In the Navigation pane, click Site Columns to display the Site Columns gallery
page. The site column WideWorldImporter Country/Region is selected.
9. On the Columns tab, check that the Push Changes to Lists command is highlighted in orange, and then click Column Settings.
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98 Chapter 3 Working with Lists and Libraries
10. In the Choices (enter each choice on a separate line) box, place the insertion
point at the right of West, press ENTER , and then type the following two lines:
Asia
Africa
The Column Editor dialog box contains five choices, and the Allow blank values?
check box is selected.
11. Click OK to close the Column Editor dialog box, and then click Save on the Quick
Access Toolbar.
12. At the top of the workspace, click the Company History tab to display the columns
editor page, and then click Refresh at the far right of the breadcrumb bar.
Refresh
The page refreshes as SharePoint Designer contacts the Web server. The Required
column for WideWorldImporters Country/Region does not contain Yes.
Note If you opened the Column Editor dialog box for the WideWorldImporters
Country/Region list column, it would contain the five choices from the site column. Your
customizations for the WideWorldImporters Country/Region list column have been
overridden by the changes you made to the site column.
CLEAN UP Close Company History. Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are
continuing to the next exercise.
Creating Content Types
A content type can group site columns, define workflows and information management
policies, and associate document templates with content of its type. After a content type
is assoicated with a list or library, it defines the attributes of a list item, a document, or a
folder. By default, both SharePoint Foundation and SharePoint Server contain a number
of content types and site columns that are defined at the site-collection level. These site
columns are the ones used to create the columns in your lists and libraries. By defining
content types and site columns at the site-collection level, you make them available to
all sites within the site collection, and they can be used to apply consistent metadata
and data management policies across all sites. You can also define content types at a site
level. These site columns and content types then become available to child sites of the
site in which they are defined.
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Creating Content Types 99
Content types and site columns cannot easily be copied from one site collection to another, or from one site to another. Therefore, in SharePoint Foundation, without the skills
of a developer, it is difficult to apply consistent data management across a number of
site collections. In SharePoint Server, you have the same restrictions. However, by using
the Managed Metadata Service (MMS), term stores and content types can be created
and shared across Web applications and site collections. It is important to plan your use
of list columns, site columns, content types, and if you have SharePoint Server, MMS;
otherwise, you might find that you are creating the same columns, site columns, and
content types for each of your solutions.
See Also More information on site columns and content types can be found in Chapter 7,
“Working with Lists Settings,” and Chapter 8, “Working with Library Settings,” in Microsoft
SharePoint Foundation 2010 Step by Step. Information on document management planning
can be found at http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc263266.aspx.
In this exercise you create a content type.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open.
1. In the Navigation pane, click Content Types, and then on the Content Types tab,
click Content Type in the New group.
Con en Types
The Create A Content Type dialog box opens.
2. In the Name box, type Expenses, and in the Description box type Use this content
type when uploading new expense claims or creating new expense claims.
3. In the Select parent content type from list, select Document Content Types. In
the Select parent content type list, select Document.
4. Select New group, and in the New group box, type SPD SBS.
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100 Chapter 3 Working with Lists and Libraries
5. Click OK to close the Create a Content Type dialog box.
The Content Types gallery page refreshes.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next exercise.
Adding a Site Column to a Content Type
The settings of a content type are similar to the settings you can add to a list or library.
Using SharePoint Designer, you can add, amend, or delete document templates, site
columns, forms, and workflows for content types. In the browser, you can also configure
information management policies and document information panel (DIP) settings. From
SharePoint Designer, you can display the browser content administration page by clicking the Administration Web Page command in the Manage group on the ribbon.
By adding multiple site columns to a content type, you can associate multiple types of
metadata with a particular type of content.
In this exercise you add a site column to a content type.
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Adding a Document Template to a Content Type 101
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise, if it is not already open, and open the Content Types gallery page as
described in the previous exercise.
1. Click the down arrow in the Group column heading, and select SPD SBS.
The Content Types gallery page refreshes and displays only those content types
categorized in the SPD SBS group. The Expenses content type should be listed on
this page.
2. Click Expenses.
The Expenses settings page is displayed.
3. In the Customization area, click Edit content type columns. Then, on the
Columns tab, click Add Existing Site Column in the New group.
Add Exis ing Si e
Co umn
The Site Columns Picker dialog box is displayed, with Enter search keywords
highlighted.
4. Type wi, and then under Select one of the Site Columns below, click
WideWorldImporters Country/Region.
5. Click OK.
The Site Columns Picker dialog box closes, and the WideWorldImporters Country/
Region site column is listed in the Expenses gallery page.
6. On the Columns tab, click Content Type Settings in the Manage group.
Con en Type
Se ings
A dialog box opens asking whether you want to save changes to the content type
Expenses.
7. Click Yes to save your changes.
The Expenses content type settings page is displayed.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next
exercise.
Adding a Document Template to a Content Type
A document content type can have a file associated with it. This file is known as a document template. Once the content type is associated with a document library, users working in the browser can click the New command on the Documents tab. When a user
clicks New, the program associated with the document template file extension opens
and a copy of the document template is displayed, ready to be modified and then saved
to the document library.
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102 Chapter 3 Working with Lists and Libraries
In this manner, a document library can contain multiple types of documents, such as
invoices and purchase orders, each with their own document templates, metadata, information management policies, and workflows.
In this exercise you add a document template to a content type.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open.
1. In the Navigation pane, click All Files.
A new tab opens, on which folders, libraries, and pages are displayed, including a
folder named cts.
Refresh
Troubleshooting If you do not see the folder name cts in the All Files mini-gallery,
but other folders, such as catalogs, are visible, then click Refresh on the SharePoint
Designer Quick Access Toolbar. If the folder name cts is still not visible, close SharePoint
Designer and reopen it. If the All Files option is not available, talk to your site collection
owner or Web application administrator and ask to be allowed to see the hidden URL
content of the Web site. (See the section “Controlling the Use of SharePoint Designer,”
in Chapter 1.) If you are not allowed to see the hidden URL content, use the browser to
upload the document template by navigating to the Site Content Types gallery from the
site settings page. Click the Expenses content type, and then click Advanced Settings in
the Settings section. In the Document Template section, click Upload A New Document
Template. Then complete the exercise in the section “Associating Content Types with
Lists and Libraries.”
2. Click cts to display the contents of the folder.
The folder should contain a folder for each content type created for this site.
3. Click Expenses, and then on the All Files tab, click Import Files in the Manage
group.
The Import dialog box opens.
4. Click Add File.
The Add File To Import List dialog box opens.
5. Browse to the folder that contains the document template you want to use, such as
the Chapter03 practice file folder, and then select the file you want to import, such
as WideWorldImportersExpenses.docx.
6. Click Open, and then click OK to close the Add File to Import and then the
Import dialog boxes.
7. In the Navigation pane, click Content Types, and then click Expenses.
The Expenses content type settings page is displayed.
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Associating Content Types with Lists and Libraries 103
8. In the Content Type Information area, to the right of Document Template, click
<click to enter text>, and type WideWorldImportersExpenses.docx.
Tip Once a document template is associated with a file name, you can use the Edit
Document Template command on the Content Type Settings tab to modify the
document template.
9. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Save.
Troubleshooting If a Microsoft SharePoint Designer warning message is displayed,
stating that the content type changes to the server could not be saved and that the
urlOfFile Parameter name: Specified value is not supported for the urlOfFile parameter,
then you have misspelled the document template name or the file name is not stored in
the cts\Expenses folder.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next exercise.
Associating Content Types with Lists and Libraries
Once you have created a content type, you need to add the content type to a list or library. By adding multiple content types to a list or library, you can store different types
of content in that list or library.
In this exercise you associate a content type with a document library.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise, if it is not already open.
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104 Chapter 3 Working with Lists and Libraries
1. In the Navigation pane, click Lists and Libraries, and then under Document
Libraries, click Shared Documents.
A new workspace tab opens displaying the Shared Document list settings page.
2. In the Settings area, under Advanced Settings, select the Allow management of
content types check box.
Tip Content types cannot be added to a list or library if the Allow Management Of
Content Types check box is cleared.
3. In the Content Types area, click Add.
Add
The Content Types Picker dialog box opens with Enter search keywords highlighted.
4. Type ex, and then under Select one of the Content Types below, click Expenses.
Click OK.
The Content Types Picker dialog box closes, and in the Content Types area
Expenses is listed, with Yes in the Show On New Menu column.
5. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Save.
6. Click the List Settings tab, and then click Preview in Browser.
The browser opens and displays the Shared Documents All Items page.
7. Click the Documents tab, and then click the New Document arrow. You should
see two types of documents that you can use as a basis for a new document:
Document and Expenses.
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Deleting SharePoint Objects 105
CLEAN UP Close the Expenses and Shared Document tabs. Leave SharePoint
Designer open if you are continuing to the next exercise.
See Also More information on content types can be found at http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/
library/ms479905.aspx.
Deleting SharePoint Objects
You can delete many SharePoint objects by using SharePoint Designer. For example, you
can delete lists, libraries, files, site columns, content types, and list columns. You cannot,
however, delete list items. Any lists, libraries, pages, files, or list items that are deleted
by using the browser or SharePoint Designer are stored in the Recycle Bin, from which
you can restore them. When you delete SharePoint objects such as list columns, custom
actions, site columns, and content types, they are not stored in the Recycle Bin, and the
process of restoring them is more complex and will involve your IT department.
In this exercise, you delete a list, a file, and a list column. You then use the Recycle Bin to
restore one of these SharePoint objects.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise, if it is not already open.
1. In the Navigation pane, click Lists and Libraries.
The Lists And Libraries gallery page is displayed in the workspace.
2. Click the icon to the left of Issues, and then on the Lists and Libraries tab, click
Delete in the Edit group.
The Confirm Delete dialog box is displayed.
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106 Chapter 3 Working with Lists and Libraries
3. Click Yes to confirm the deletion.
The Lists And Libraries gallery page is displayed again, and the Issues list does not
appear.
4. Click the icon to the left of Tasks, and then on the ribbon, click Edit Columns in
the Edit group.
The Columns Editor page is displayed in the workspace.
5. Click Task Group, and then on the Columns tab, click Delete in the Edit group.
The Columns Editor page redisplays. An asterisk appears on the tab labeled Tasks,
and the Task Group column does not appear.
6. Right-click the Tasks tab, and click Save.
7. In the Navigation pane, click Site Assets. Right-click the file you want to delete,
such as b NewTask16x16.png, and then click Delete.
Tip You can delete multiple files by selecting them with the Ctrl or Shift key and then
clicking Delete on the ribbon or the item menu.
8. Click Yes to confirm the deletion.
9. In the Navigation pane, click your site’s name, such as Human Resources, and
then on the Site tab, click Recycle Bin in the Manage group.
Recyc e Bin
A browser window opens, and the Recycle Bin page is displayed. The list and the
file you deleted should be listed on the page, but the list column you deleted does
not appear in the list.
CLEAN UP Close the browser and SharePoint Designer.
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Key Points 107
Key Points
● SharePoint Foundation and SharePoint Server provide a number of built-in list
definitions that you can use as a basis for creating lists or libraries with SharePoint
Designer.
● In SharePoint Designer, you can create or modify list columns, site columns, and
content types and create list templates. You cannot create or modify list items or
metadata associated with documents.
● Columns, also known as fields, determine the type of data that a list or library can
hold. Each column is associated with a column data type.
● Using the browser or SharePoint Designer, you can create a Web Part Page based
on one of the eight built-in Web Part Page templates.
● Use XSLT List View (XLV) Web Parts to display the contents of lists and libraries.
● XLV Web Parts share a common set of Web Part properties that control appear-
ance, layout, and advanced characteristics. They also have other configurable settings, such as which columns to display and the sort order of the list items.
● Custom actions are commands that can be added to the list item menu (LIM) and
the server ribbon that you see in the browser on the list views and forms. This allows you to add content to the menu item or server ribbon without involving a developer or the IT department.
● Site columns can be associated with a list or a content type.
● It is important to plan your list columns, site columns, content types, and, if you
have SharePoint Server, MMS; otherwise, you might find that you create the same
columns, site columns, and content types for each of your solutions.
● Any lists, libraries, pages, files, or list items that are deleted using the browser or
SharePoint Designer are stored in the Recycle Bin, from which you can restore
them. When you delete SharePoint objects such as list columns, site columns, and
content types, they are not stored in the Recycle Bin, and the restoration process is
more complex and will involve your IT department.
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Chapter at a G ance
Insert hyperlinks,
page 110
Work with
Web Parts,
page 114
Create list form
pages, page 125
Attach a master page,
page 134
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4 Creating and
Modifying Web
Pages
In this chapter, you will learn how to
✔ Insert text, ScreenTips, hyperlinks, and images.
✔ Work with Web Parts.
✔ Change the home page for a Web site.
✔ Modify and create list view and list form pages.
✔ Create an ASP.NET page and insert a Web Part zone.
✔ Attach a master page.
✔ Manage Web pages.
With Microsoft SharePoint Designer 2010, you can create a number of different file formats, some of which you might not consider to be Web pages—for example, text and
cascading style sheet files and others you might not have heard about before reading
this book. Chapter 1, “Exploring SharePoint Designer 2010,” explored one file type—the
Wiki page. You might also be familiar with Web Part pages and, if you use Microsoft
SharePoint Server, publishing pages. Publishing pages are detailed in Chapter 13,
“Managing Web Content in the SharePoint Server Environment.”
This chapter focuses on Wiki pages and Web Part pages, building on the information in
Chapter 1. You’ll learn to use the SharePoint Designer ribbon to add static content such
as text, ScreenTips, hyperlinks, and images. You’ll learn that Wiki pages and Web Part
pages are instances of Microsoft ASP.NET 2.0 content pages and that any SharePoint
content page can contain one or more Web Parts. You’ll also learn how to change the
appearance of a Web page by adding Web Part zones, the containers for Web Parts. And
you’ll learn to manage Wiki pages and Web Part pages by applying permissions, manipulating the versions of these pages, and deleting pages.
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110 Chapter 4 Creating and Modifying Web Pages
Tip You can create Web Part pages by using SharePoint Designer. Creating Wiki pages with
SharePoint Designer, although not impossible, is complex. Copying an existing Wiki page or
using the browser to create a Wiki page are the most efficient methods.
Practice Files Before you can use the practice files provided for this chapter, you need
to install them from the book’s companion Web site. For more information about
practice files, see “Using the Practice Files” on page xxiii.
Inserting Text, ScreenTips, Hyperlinks, and Images
The browser is the main Web content editing tool for SharePoint. You can complete
similar activities using SharePoint Designer in Design view. The standard Windows application shortcuts for the Copy, Cut, Paste, and Undo commands work in SharePoint
Designer as they do in any other Windows-based program. However, when you paste
contents from other programs, such as Microsoft Word, use the Paste Text command,
which you can find by clicking the arrow on the Paste command in the Clipboard group
on the ribbon, and then add your own formatting. Formatting from other programs can
be verbose and might not generate the most efficient Web code.
You can add components, such as text, images, hyperlinks, ScreenTips, and alternate text.
ScreenTips are useful because they provide information when users point to hyperlinks.
Alternate text allows you to define text that is displayed if an image does not load or if
users are unable to see images. Append a period to the end of the words you enter so
that users who listen to screen readers are able to understand your pages more easily,
especially when two alternative text tags are next to each other.
SharePoint Designer provides a number of tools to manage the graphics that you include
on pages:
● Image conversion When you insert an image that is not a GIF or JPEG, SharePoint
Designer by default converts the file to GIF or JPEG format, depending on the number of colors in the original image. After you insert an image, you can reformat it
in SharePoint Designer by using commands on the Picture Tools, Format tab and in
the Picture Properties dialog box.
● Auto thumbnail You can tell SharePoint Designer to create a small version of an
image—a thumbnail—and link it to the full-size image that it represents by rightclicking an image and then clicking Auto Thumbnail. Alternatively, select the image
and press Ctrl+T.
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Inserting Text, ScreenTips, Hyperlinks, and Images 111
Tip You can configure the settings for both these image manipulation options by using the
Picture and AutoThumbnail tabs on the Page Editor Options dialog box.
For prototyping purposes or for images on team sites, the image manipulation capabilities in SharePoint Designer should be adequate, but if you are producing a public-facing
site, you might want to obtain a third-party image-editing tool. Ideally, you should resize
image files in an image-editing program before inserting the images into pages, because when you resize an image by using HTML tag attributes, the original image file is
downloaded to the user’s computer, even though the browser renders the image file at a
smaller size. This can cause a page to take more time than necessary to load the page.
Tip If you do not have a third-party tool, you can use Microsoft PowerPoint or Microsoft
Picture Manager to resize your picture and reduce the size of the files.
In this exercise, you create a new page based on the home page of a team site. You then
add text and quickly format it by using the commands on the Home tab. After adding a
hyperlink to the text and associating a ScreenTip with the hyperlink, you will configure
the hyperlink so that a new browser window opens when a user clicks the hyperlink.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you created and modified in
earlier chapters. If you did not create a team site, follow the steps for creating the site
in Chapter 1. The site settings page should be displayed in the workspace.
1. In the Navigation pane, click Site Pages.
The Site Pages gallery page is displayed in the workspace.
2. Click the icon to the left of Home.aspx. On the Pages tab, click Copy and then
click Paste in the Clipboard group.
The file Home copy(1).aspx appears in the Site Pages gallery page.
3. On the Pages tab, click Edit File to open the page in edit mode, and then click the
arrow to the right of Navigation on the Navigation pane.
Edi Fi e
The Navigation pane collapses, providing you with more area in the workspace to
modify the page.
4. Right-click anywhere within the PlaceHolderMain region, and then click Zoom to
Contents.
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112 Chapter 4 Creating and Modifying Web Pages
Only the code that is contained within the EmbeddedFormField control is displayed.
5. Select the text Welcome to your site!, and type Wide World Importers Human
Resources team site.
An asterisk appears on the Home copy(1).aspx tab, indicating that the page has
changed but that you have not saved your changes. This type of page is commonly
referred to as a dirty page.
Bo d
Cen er
Hyper ink
6. Select the text Wide World Importers Human Resources team site. On the
Home tab, click the Bold button in the Font group, and then click the Center button in the Paragraph group.
7. Select the text Wide World Importers, and then on the Home tab, click
Hyperlink in the Paragraph group.
Tip There is also a Hyperlink command on the Insert tab in the Links group.
8. In the Insert Hyperlink dialog box, click ScreenTip.
The Set Hyperlink ScreenTip dialog box opens.
9. Under ScreenTip text, type text that describes the Web site, such as Wide World
Importers’ intranet site, and then click OK to close the Set Hyperlink ScreenTip
dialog box.
10. In the Address box in the Insert Hyperlink dialog box, type the URL of a Web site,
such as http://wideworldimporters, and then click Target Frame.
The Target Frame dialog box opens.
11. In the Common targets list box, select New Window, and then click OK.
The Target Frame dialog box closes. The Target Frame area at the bottom of the
Insert Hyperlink dialog box displays blank.
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Inserting Text, ScreenTips, Hyperlinks, and Images 113
Tip Your company might have a policy about when a new browser window should be
opened. Generally, you should open a new browser window only in scenarios in which
you display a printable version of a Web page or large images. You can find expert usability
references on this topic at www.sitepoint.com/article/beware-opening-links-new-window/
and by using the search keywords opening, new, browser, window, usability.
12. Click OK to close the Insert Hyperlink dialog box.
The Insert Hyperlink dialog box closes. The text Wide World Importers is highlighted, and on the Quick Tag Selector, the orange <a> tag appears.
Tip If the orange <a> tag does not appear on the Quick Tag Selector, click elsewhere on
the page, and then click the text Wide World Importers.
13. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Save.
Save
A Microsoft SharePoint Designer dialog box opens, warning you that SharePoint
may have removed unsafe content.
14. Click Yes to reload the page within the editor page.
The page refreshes, and no asterisk appears on the Home copy(1).aspx tab.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next
exercise.
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114 Chapter 4 Creating and Modifying Web Pages
Important Design view in SharePoint Designer is not a true representation of what you see in
a browser. Some aspects of a page might not be displayed the same or some code might not
function unless you view the page in the browser. As you make changes to a Web page, you
should constantly review the page in a browser and test the functionality of your changes.
Every browser is different, so you should also test your page in the set of browsers with
resolutions commonly used by visitors to your sites. If you have multiple browsers installed
on your computer, you can use the arrow on the Preview command to preview a page in a
specific browser at a particular resolution.
Working with Web Parts
In Chapter 3, “Working with Lists and Libraries,” you created a Web Part page, inserted
an XSLT List View (XLV) Web Part into a Web Part zone, and then customized its properties. You can add the same Web Part to a Web Part page or to a Wiki page by using the
browser.
The XLV Web Part is used to display the contents of lists and libraries. Each time the data
in the list or library changes, the changes are reflected in the XLV Web Part. You have
likely used or seen XLV Web Parts on many pages. For example, when you create a team
site, an XLV Web Part on the home page displays files stored in the Shared Documents
library. When you display the contents of a task list, the All Tasks view page contains an
XLV Web Part. However, you can use many types of Web Parts other than the XLV Web
Part.
A Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010 installation has 13 built-in Web Parts: Relevant
Documents, XML Viewer, HTML Form Web Part, Content Editor Web Part (CEWP), Image
Viewer, Page Viewer, Picture Library Slideshow Web Part, Silverlight Web Part, Site Users,
User Tasks, SQL Server Reporting Services Report Viewer, What’s New, and Whereabouts.
Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 includes more than 50 additional built-in Web Parts,
including Business Data List, Content Query Web Part (CQWP), Current User Filter, Excel
Web Access, Visio Web Access, Indicator Details, Search Box, Top Federated Results, Web
Analytics Web Part, and SQL Server Analysis Services Filter. Of course, your company
may have developed its own Web Parts or purchased third-party Web Parts. A detailed
description of all the Web Parts you can find in SharePoint Foundation and SharePoint
Server are outside the scope of this book.
See Also For more information about Web Parts, see Chapter 20, “Web Parts and Their
Functionality in SharePoint Server 2010,” in Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 Administrator’s
Companion by Bill English, Brian Alderman, and Mark Ferraz (Microsoft Press, 2011).
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Working with Web Parts 115
A common mistake made by companies new to SharePoint is to spend thousands of dollars and hours of time developing custom Web Parts when one of the built-in Web Parts
would meet their business needs. This is especially true given that SharePoint Designer
allows you to create a Data View Web Part (DVWP), also known as a Data Form Web Part
(DFWP), which is similar to the XLV Web Part and can be used to display and modify data
from data sources such as a Microsoft SQL Server database.
See Also For more information about the Data View Web Part, see Chapter 5, “Working with
Data Views.” The information in Chapter 5 is also relevant to formatting the XLV Web Part.
Web Parts are also classified by where they are located:
● Dynamic Web Parts By using SharePoint Designer or the browser, you can place
these Web Parts in the EmbeddedFormField SharePoint control on Wiki pages or in
Web Part zones on Web Part pages. Dynamic Web Parts are stored separately from
the page, and only when a user requests the page is the SQL Server content database
queried to determine the number of dynamic Web Parts, which Web Parts are being used, where to place them on a page, and, if the page contains Web Part zones,
in which Web Part zone the Web Parts should be placed.
● Static Web Parts These Web Parts are placed outside the EmbeddedFormField
SharePoint control or outside Web Part zones. Static Web Parts can be created by using SharePoint Designer in advanced edit mode, but they cannot be created by using
the browser. Static Web Parts are stored as part of the page.
In this exercise, you add, modify, and delete a Web Part.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open. Open the home page of the team site in edit
mode and zoom to view the contents by using the command on the View tab or
by right-clicking the page and selecting the command from the menu. Upload
the SilverlightSPDSBS.xap file to your team site’s Site Assets library. See “Using the
Practice Files” on page xxiii.
1. Place the insertion point on a new line under the text, Wide World Importers
Web Par
Human Resources team site, that you added to the page in the previous exercise,
and then click Web Part on the Insert tab.
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2. On the Web Part menu, click Silverlight Web Part.
The WebPartPages:SilverlightWebPart control is added to the page. On the Quick
Tag Selector, the orange WebPartPagesSilverlightWebPart tag appears.
3. Double-click the Silverlight Web Part to open the Silverlight Web Part dialog box.
Click Configure to open a second Silverlight Web Part dialog box, and in the
URL box type ~site\siteasset\silverlightSPDSBS.xap. Click OK to close the dialog
box.
4. Under Appearance in the Title box, type SPD Silverlight. Under Height, select
Yes, and type 40.
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Working with Web Parts 117
5. Click OK to close the Silverlight Web Part dialog box.
6. Click the Silverlight Web Part, and then on the Web Part Tools, Format tab, clear
the Edit in Personal View check box in the Allow group.
Troubleshooting If the Edit In Personal View check box is not displayed, click Allow, and
then clear the Edit In Personal View check box.
Note The check boxes in the Allow list are the same check boxes as in the Advanced
section of a Web Part Properties dialog box.
7. In the workspace, click Shared Documents. On the List View Tools, Design tab,
Op ions
click Options in the Toolbar group, and then click Full Toolbar.
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118 Chapter 4 Creating and Modifying Web Pages
The Shared Documents Web Part reloads and the full toolbar is displayed.
8. Right-click Shared Documents, and then click Web Part Properties.
The Shared Documents dialog box opens.
9. Expand the Layout section, and select the Close the Web Part check box. Then
click OK to close the Shared Documents dialog box.
10. Press F12, click Yes to save your changes, and then click Yes to reload your page.
Tip On some laptop computers you might need to press the Fn key with the F12 key to
preview the page in the browser.
A browser window opens and displays the Silverlight Web Part with a Web Part title
of SPD Silverlight. The Shared Documents XLV Web Part is not displayed on the page.
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Changing the Home Page for a Web Site 119
Tip Closed Web Parts can increase the time it takes for a browser to load the page. Keep
the number of closed Web Parts to a minimum and only close a Web Part when you want
to temporarily hide a Web Part and its customizations. In the browser, you can find closed
Web Parts by first placing a page in edit mode. Then, on the Editing Tools, Insert tab on
the server ribbon, click Web Part, and under Categories, click Closed Web Parts. The Closed
Web Parts category appears only if the page contains closed Web Parts. Alternatively,
append ?contents=1 to the URL of the page, such as http://wideworldimporters/SitePages/
Home.aspx?contents=1, to display the page’s maintenance page.
11. In SharePoint Designer, click the Silverlight Web Part, and then click the label
WebPartPages:SilverlightWebPart (above the Web Part) to ensure that the
WebPartPages:SilverlightWebPart tag is highlighted in orange on the Quick
Tag Selector. Press Delete.
The Silverlight Web Part is removed from the page.
12. Click the Shared Documents XLV Web Part, and then, on the List View Tools, Web
Proper ies
Part tab, click Properties to display the Shared Documents dialog box. In the
Layouts section, clear the Close the Web Part check box.
13. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Save. Click Yes to reload the page, and then click
Preview in Browser on the Home tab.
Preview in
Browser
A browser window opens, the Silverlight Web Part is not displayed, and the Shared
Documents Web Part is displayed.
CLEAN UP Close any open browser windows. Leave SharePoint Designer open if you
are continuing to the next exercise.
Changing the Home Page for a Web Site
Each site has a home page. This is the page—such as http://wideworldimporters—that is
displayed in your browser when you type the URL of a site and do not specify a particular page. On a newly created team site or enterprise Wiki site, the home page is configured
as Home.aspx. On other SharePoint sites, such as a publishing site, a Visio Process Repository
site, a Group Work Site, or a document workspace, the home page is Default.aspx. On a
publishing site, the home page is also known as the Welcome page because it’s the page
that welcomes a visitor to the site.
Once a SharePoint site is created, you can change the home page by using SharePoint
Designer or, on a site on which the Publishing feature is enabled, from the site settings
page. When you need to completely redesign your home page, you should create your new
home page by using a different page than the page that is the current home page. Once
you complete your redesign, you can then make your new page the home page of your site.
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120 Chapter 4 Creating and Modifying Web Pages
Assuming that you save your new page in the Site Pages library, there are several ways to
complete this task:
● On the Site Pages gallery page, select your new page and then, on the Pages tab,
click Set As Home Page in the Actions group.
● On the Site Pages gallery page or mini-gallery, right-click your new page and then
click Set As Home Page.
● In the All Files gallery page or mini-gallery, navigate to where your new page is
stored, right-click your new page, and then click Set As Home Page.
Note You need to have the rights to view the hidden URL structure of the Web site to
use this method of completing the task.
● On your new page’s settings page, on the Pages tab, click Set As Home Page in the
Actions group.
Important When you change your site’s home page, you should consider changing the name
of the page so that it matches the name of the file for your previous home page. When users
bookmark a site, the name of the page is part of the bookmark. If you change the home page
but don’t update the file name, your users will have bookmarks that are broken links, which
can cause a large number of calls to your company’s IT help desk, especially for the home
page of your Internet site or your company’s main portal intranet site.
In this exercise, you change the home page for a site and then test that the change is
implemented successfully. You will then reset the site’s home page.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open.
1. In the Navigation pane, click Site Pages to display the gallery page, and then click
the icon to the left of the page that you want to set as the home page, such as
Home copy(1).aspx.
2. On the Pages tab, click Set as Home Page in the Actions group.
Se as Home
Page
The icon to the left of Home copy(1).aspx displays a little house.
3. Right-click Home copy(1).aspx, and then click Preview in Browser.
A browser window opens and displays Home copy(1).aspx.
4. Under the site icon, click Home.
The Home copy(1).aspx page is displayed again.
5. In the ribbon, click the Page tab, and then click View All Pages in the Page
Library group.
The All Pages view of the Site Pages library is displayed.
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Modifying a List View Page 121
6. Under the Name column, click Home to display the Home.aspx page.
7. On the ribbon, click the Page tab, and then click Make Homepage in the Page
Actions group. A dialog box opens. Click OK to restore Home.aspx as the home
page for the site.
CLEAN UP Close the browser window. Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are
continuing to the next exercise. Close all open workspace tabs.
Modifying a List View Page
When you create a list or library, a number of views are created. These views are Web
Part pages based on files from the site’s defintion—that is, they point to files in the
TEMPLATE folder on the Web servers. These Web Part pages use an XLV Web Part to
display all or a subset of the contents of a list or library depending on criteria defined by
the metadata. These views allow you to display information in different formats without
having to enter the information more than once, thereby enabling you and other users
to find information easily. Each view page contains one Web Part zone named Main that
contains one XLV Web Part.
Note Web Part pages are pages that contain at least one Web Part zone. They are not Wiki
pages; therefore, to add static text or images to these pages, you need to add the CEWP or
image Web Part.
The pages that define views are not stored in the Site Pages library. In lists they are
stored immediately below the list container. In libraries, by using the All Files gallery
page or mini-gallery, you can see them in the Forms folder for the library. By using
SharePoint Designer or the browser, you can modify the XLV Web Part of view pages,
and you can add other Web Parts to the Main Web Part zone. SharePoint Designer provides additional customization options, such as inserting and customizing static text and
images outside the Web Part zone, but you need to display the view page in advanced
edit mode. You can add additional Web Part zones and, in advanced edit mode, add
Web Parts outside Web Part zones.
See Also For more information on list and library views and how to work with them in
the browser, see Chapter 9, “Working with List and Library Views,” in Microsoft SharePoint
Foundation 2010 Step By Step, by Olga Londer and Penelope Coventry (Microsoft Press, 2011).
In this exercise, you modify the All Items view of a tasks list.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open.
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122 Chapter 4 Creating and Modifying Web Pages
1. In the Navigation pane, click Lists and Libraries, and then click Tasks.
The tasks list settings page is displayed in the workspace. In the Views area, six view
pages are listed: Active Tasks, AllTasks, By Assigned To, By My Groups, Due Today,
and My Tasks.
2. In the Views area, click All Tasks to open the page in edit mode. The workspace
tab is labeled AllItems.aspx.
3. In the middle of the page, click Type.
A blue border with the label Main appears, within which is the label <webpartpages
:XsltListViewWebPart>. This label indicates that an XLV Web Part is contained within
the Web Part zone Main. A purple-bordered rectangle surrounds the Web Part
zones, labeled PlaceHolderMain (Custom). The ribbon contains the List View Tools
tabs.
4. On the Options tab, click Add/Remove Columns in the Fields group.
The Displayed Fields dialog box opens.
Add/Remove
Co umns
5. Under Available fields, hold down the CTRL key, and select two fields, such as the
Start Date and Task Group fields. Click Add.
The two fields, Start Date and Task Group, appear under Displayed Fields.
6. Click Start Date, and then click Move Up three times so that Start Date is above
Due Date.
7. Click OK to close the Displayed Fields dialog box.
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Creating List View Pages 123
The workspace is displayed with the Start Date and Task Group columns visible in
the Tasks XLV Web Part.
Save
C ose
8. Click Save, and then close the AllItems.aspx tab by clicking the Close icon at the
top right of the workspace. The site settings page is displayed in the workspace,
and the Close icon is now dimmed.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next
exercise.
Creating List View Pages
The built-in list views that are associated with a list or library might not meet all your
needs. In the browser, you can use the sort and filter option on a column of a list view,
but this is only a temporary solution because the next time you use the list or library,
your sort or filter selections are not applied. By using both the browser and SharePoint
Designer, however, you can create new list views and retain your selections. In addition,
when you create list views, other formatting options become available, such as the order
and visibility of columns, grouping list items in an expanded or collapsed display, or limiting the number of list items displayed.
In this exercise, you create a view for a library to display documents grouped by the person who last modified them and sorted on the modification date and file size. You then
make this view the default view.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already.
1. In the Navigation pane, click Lists and Libraries, and then under Document
Libraries, click Shared Documents.
The Shared Documents list settings page is displayed in the workspace.
2. On the List Settings tab, click List View in the New group.
Lis View
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124 Chapter 4 Creating and Modifying Web Pages
The Create New List View dialog box opens.
Tip You can also create a view by using the New button in the Views area.
3. In the Name box, type ByModified.
The name that you type for the view page forms part of the URL.
See Also For information about naming conventions, refer to the sidebar “Best Practices
for Naming URLs” in Chapter 1.
4. Click OK to close the New List View dialog box.
The ByModified view appears in the Views area.
5. Right-click ByModified, click Rename, and then type By Modified. Press ENTER.
By Modified is the name of the view you will see in the browser.
6. Click By Modified to open the page in edit mode.
The workspace tab is labeled ByModified.aspx. A blue border with the label Main
appears, within which is the label <webpartpages:XsltListViewWebPart>. This indicates
that an XLV Web Part is contained within the Web Part zone Main. A purple-bordered
rectangle surrounds the Web Part zones, labeled PlaceHolderMain (Custom). The
ribbon contains the List View Tools tabs.
7. On the Options tab, click Sort & Group in the Filter, Sort & Group group.
The Sort And Group dialog box opens.
Sor & Group
8. Under Available fields, click Modified By, and then click Add.
9. Repeat step 8 to add Modified and File Size.
10. Under Sort order, click Modified By. Then, in the Group Properties section, se-
lect the Show group header check box and click Expand group by default if this
option is not already selected.
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Creating and Modifying a List Form Page 125
11. Click Modified. In the Sort Properties section, click Descending.
12. Click OK to close the Sort and Group dialog box. On the Quick Access Toolbar,
Save
click Save, and then in the breadcrumb, click Shared Documents to open the list
settings page.
13. In the Views area, click the icon to the left of By Modified to display the Views
Se as Defau
tab on the ribbon, and then click Set as Default in the Actions group.
In the Views area, in the Default column, Yes is removed from the All Documents
row and appears in the By Modified row.
14. Close the ByModified.aspx tab by clicking the Close icon at the top right of the
C ose
workspace.
The site settings page is displayed in the workspace.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next
exercise.
Creating and Modifying a List Form Page
When lists and libraries are created, they provide a number of built-in view pages. They
also provide pages you can use to create new list items, edit and display existing list
items, upload documents, create a new document, and edit and display metadata associated with documents. These pages are known as form pages. Like view pages, form
pages consist of one Web Part zone named Main and one Web Part. These pages are
displayed as dialog boxes transposed over view pages. However, if you enter the URL of
a form page in the browser, you can modify it by using the browser.
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View pages use an XLV Web Part, whereas most of the default form pages use a Web
Part named the List Form Web Part (LFWP). In SharePoint Designer or the browser, the
LFWP customization options are very limited. Unlike the XLV Web Part on view pages,
the LFWP does not provide tabs similar to the List View tabs on the ribbon, so you cannot control the order in which fields are displayed or whether a field should appear.
To create a tailored data entry form that provides more customization options, you must
use SharePoint Designer and create a new list form page. The list form page contains
a Data Form Web Part (DFWP), which you can use to create solutions for viewing and
managing data that resides internally or externally to SharePoint sites.
See Also For information about the DFWP, see Chapter 5. For information about how to use
controls to provide additional data integrity checks for the data entry form, see Chapter 14
“Using Controls in Web Pages.”
When you create a list form, the form does not prevent users from entering list or library
data by using Datasheet view or keep users from altering metadata properties by using
Microsoft Office applications. To make any additional business logic you incorporate into
the list form available for other data entry methods, you need to customize those data
entry methods; otherwise, you need to educate your users concerning the differences.
Important When you create your own list form using the DFWP, should you add any new
columns to the list, your list form is not automatically updated with the controls to enter data
into those columns. You must manually modify your list form to include the necessary text
and Data View controls. For more information on controls, see Chapter 14.
In this exercise, you explore the LFWP and create a new list form page.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open.
1. In the Navigation pane, click Lists and Libraries, and then under Lists, click
Tasks.
The tasks list settings page is displayed in the workspace. The Forms area contains
three forms: DispForm.aspx, EditForm.aspx, and NewForm.aspx. The Type column
indicates the type of form (Display, Edit, or New) and whether the forms are the default forms for their type.
Note The default New form is displayed when you click links in the browser (such as
Add New Item) or on the ribbon (New Event in the New group). The default Edit form is
displayed when you click Edit Item on the Item menu or on the ribbon, and the default
Display form is used when View Item is clicked on the Item menu or on the ribbon.
2. In the Forms area, click NewForm.aspx to open the page in edit mode, and then
click [Preview of List Form Web Part].
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Creating and Modifying a List Form Page 127
A blue border with the label Main appears, within which is the label
<webpartpages:ListFormWebPart>. This indicates that an LFWP is contained within
the Web Part zone Main. A purple-bordered surrounds the Web Part zones, labeled
PlaceHolderMain (Custom). The ribbon contains the Web Part Format tab.
3. On the breadcrumb, click Tasks to display the settings page in the workspace.
Then, on the List Settings tab, click List Form.
Lis Form
The Create New List Form dialog box opens, in which you can change the purpose
of the form from inserting a new list item to viewing or modifying list item metadata. You can also change the list or library that this page is associated with and
create a link on the List Item menu and ribbon. The Task content type is automatically selected in the Select The Content Type To Use list.
4. In the File Name box, type NewTask.
5. Click OK.
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Troubleshooting If a Microsoft SharePoint Designer dialog box opens stating that the
list changes to the server could not be saved because the file exists, choose a different
name for the list form file name and repeat steps 4 and 5.
The Create New List Form dialog box closes. On the list settings page, in the Forms
area, NewTask.aspx is listed as a New form that is not set as the default.
6. In the Forms area, click NewTask.aspx to open the page in edit mode.
A blue border with the label Main appears, and a purple-bordered rectangle surrounds the Main Web Part zones, labeled PlaceHolderMain (Custom).
7. In the Priority row, click the Priority label above the drop-down list. In the Quick
Tag Selector, click the td.ms-formbody tag.
The table cell that contains the Priority list is selected.
8. On the Table tab, click Split Cells in the Merge group.
Sp i Ce s
The Split Cells dialog box opens.
9. In the Number of columns text box, type 3, and then click OK.
Two new cells appear to the right of the Priority list.
10. On the View tab, click the down arrow on the Visual Aids command, and then
click ASP.NET Non-visual Controls if it is not already selected.
Visua Aids
Below each data entry control the text [Field Description] is displayed. If this text is
not visible, you might need to turn visual aids off and then on.
11. In the status row, in the first column, click the text Status, and then right-click
H3.ms-standardhe, which appears above the text Status. Click Cut, and then
right-click the cell to the right of the Priority list and click Paste.
The text Status is displayed in the third cell on the priority row.
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Creating and Modifying a List Form Page 129
12. Click the Status label above the drop-down list. In the Quick Tag Selector, click the
Cu
td.ms-formbody tag. On the Home tab, click Cut, and then right-click the cell to
the right of the text Status and click Paste.
The Priority row should now contain the Priority and the Status lists, plus two text
labels and two field descriptions. The row that formerly contained the Status text
label and the list is now empty.
13. Right-click the empty row, point to Delete, and then click Delete Rows.
14. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Save, and close the NewTask.aspx tab to disSave
play the site settings page.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next exercise.
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Creating an ASP.NET Page
The page you see in your browser when you request a page from a SharePoint site is the
combination of two Microsoft ASP.NET pages: a master page and a content page.
v4.master
Master page
Master page
Content page
<SharePoint:EmbeddedFormField>
</SharePoint:EmbeddedFormField>
Home.aspx
Content page
<SharePoint:EmbeddedFormField>
</SharePoint:EmbeddedFormField>
A master page is a special ASP.NET 2.0 page that you can use to share code between
pages. It provides a site with a consistent appearance and navigation for each page within a site. You cannot view a master page in your browser, but you can view and customize a master page by using SharePoint Designer.
When you open a content page in Design view, the merged view of the two pages is
displayed. In this view, even in advanced edit mode, you can only edit the code that the
content page contains. The no-entry icon is displayed if you point to code that the master page contains. In Code view for a content page, you see only the code that the content page contains. An example of a content page is the home page of a team site, which
is named Home.aspx.
When you use a browser to request a page from a SharePoint Server publishing site, it
can be a combination of three ASP.NET pages: a master page, a page layout, and a content page. (In this scenario, the content page is referred to as a publishing page.) On the
other hand, when you request a page from, say, a team site or a document workspace,
two ASP.NET pages are combined: a master page and a content page. (In this scenario,
the content page is referred to as a nonpublishing page.) You cannot modify a publishing
content page by using SharePoint Designer; you must use the browser. However, you can
modify the master page and page layout by using SharePoint Designer.
See Also Master pages are described in Chapter 11, “Working with Master Pages,” and
customizing publishing pages in Chapter 13, “Managing Web Content in the SharePoint Server
Environment.”
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Creating an ASP.NET Page 131
If you want to create a Web page in SharePoint Designer, you could copy an existing
page, as you did earlier in this chapter. Otherwise, you need to create an ASP.NET page,
associate a master page, and then insert Web Part zones (thereby creating a Web Part
page) or insert the controls that make the page a Wiki page.
All built-in Web Part pages and Wiki pages use tables, but if you are concerned about
accessibility, you may want to use HTML <div> tags to lay out the pages you create from
scratch. Because you can insert more than one Web Part per Web Part zone, it is common practice to insert one Web Part zone to a table cell or <div> tag.
See Also For more information about page accessibility, see Chapter 12, “Understanding
Usability and Accessibility.”
In this exercise, you create an ASP.NET page.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open.
1. In the Navigation pane, click Site Pages. On the Pages tab, click Page and then
click ASPX.
A file, Untitled-1.aspx, is created and displayed in the Site Pages gallery page.
Untitled 1.aspx is selected.
2. Type OfficeFurniture.aspx, and then press Enter to rename the page.
3. On the Pages tab, click Edit File.
Edi Fi e
A dialog box opens, warning that the page does not contain any regions that are
editable in safe mode.
4. Click Yes to open OfficeFurniture.aspx page in advanced mode.
A blue-bordered rectangle with the label form#form1 is displayed in Design view.
5. On the workspace status bar, click Split.
Sp i
In Code view of the page, the HTML <head> and <body> tags are surrounded by
<html> tags. The <body> tags contain <form> tags.
Tip To see the rectangle, turn on visual aids (on the View menu, point to Visual Aids,
and click Show).
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next exercise.
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132 Chapter 4 Creating and Modifying Web Pages
Inserting a Web Part Zone
With Wiki pages or Web Part pages, users can manipulate the content of a page by using
a browser. On Wiki pages, only the content within the EmbeddedFormField SharePoint
control can be modified with a browser, and on Web Part pages, only content within Web
Part zones. As you develop solutions, you need to develop pages that allow you to provide
content owners the ability to add their own content by using the browser. Therefore, developing your own Wiki pages and Web Part pages is important for your solution.
In Chapter 3, you saw how easy it is to use SharePoint Designer to create your own Web
Part pages. You are provided with eight different layouts, but these layouts might not
meet your needs—you might need to insert, delete, or modify Web Part zones on your
Web Part pages or create your own Web Part page from an ASP.NET page. Developers
and Web designers can use Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 to define Web Part zones in
pages stored in the root directory on a Web server, or you can use SharePoint Designer
to insert a Web Part zone into a new or existing page, which is stored in the SQL Server
content databases when you save it.
You can insert only Web Parts into Web Part zones; you cannot insert text or images.
Web Part zones have properties that affect the presentation of the Web Parts they contain, and they control the actions users are allowed to perform with the browser. These
properties are detailed in the following table.
Web Part zone property Description
Zone title
Used when storing Web Part information in the SQL Server
content database. You should give each zone a meaningful
and consistent title; for example, don’t name the Web Part
zone in a left cell First on one page and Left on another.
This is particularly important if you create Web Part zones
on page layouts in publishing sites.
Frame style
The default frame style for all Web Parts in the zone. This
setting can be overridden by the Web Part Frame Style
property.
Layout of Web Parts con- Allows you to choose between Top-To-Bottom (Vertical
tained in the zone
Layout) or Side-By-Side (Horizontal Layout).
Browser settings for Web Allows you to restrict the modification of the page by
Parts contained in the
browser users. By clearing the three check boxes, you effeczone
tively remove the ability to customize any Web Parts placed
in the zone by using the browser.
In this exercise, you insert two Web Part zones.
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Inserting a Web Part Zone 133
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open. Open the page where you want to create a Web Part
zone, such as OfficeFurniture.aspx, which you created in the previous exercise.
1. Position the insertion point where you want to add a Web Part zone, such as inside
the form#form1 rectangle.
2. On the Insert tab, click Web Part Zone in the Web Parts group.
Web Par Zone
The Web Part Zone Tools, Format tab is displayed. A Web Part Zone labeled Zone
1 appears, and the tag label webpartpages:wikicontentweb appears to the top right
of the zone and in orange on the Quick Tag Selector. If the ASP.NET Non-Visual
Controls visual aid is on, you also see the SPWebPartManager SharePoint control
above the Web Part zone.
3. On the Web Part Zone Tools, Format tab, in the Zone Title box in the Web Part
Zone group, delete Zone 1 and type Main.
4. Click Zone Layout in the Layout group, click Side-by-Side (Horizontal Layout),
and then click Properties in the Web Part Zone group.
Zone Layou
The Web Part Zone Properties dialog box opens.
5. Below Browser settings for Web Parts contained in the zone, clear the three
check boxes.
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134 Chapter 4 Creating and Modifying Web Pages
6. Click OK to close the Web Part Zone Properties dialog box, and then on the
Save
Quick Access Toolbar, click Save.
Note Now that OfficeFurniture contains a Web Part zone, you do not have to open the
page in SharePoint Designer in advanced mode.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next exercise.
Attaching a Master Page
In the previous exercises, you created an ASP.NET page and added a Web Part zone to it,
but it did not contain any SharePoint site navigation nor did it inherit any look and feel
from the SharePoint site. You can envision the page you created as just the content page.
It is not associated with a master page, which is the page that defines the common user
interface and code. To attach a master page or to change a master page that a content
page is associated with, you must open the page in advanced mode.
Each site has one master page configured as the site’s master page, referred to by using
the token ~masterurl/default.master, and then all pages associated with the site’s master
page inherit the same look and feel. When a site is created, all pages created for the site
point to the site’s master page by using this token. With SharePoint Designer, you can
change the master page attached to a page. If a page is not attached to a master page,
you can attach the page to the site’s master page or attach the page to a specific master
page, such as v4.master.
See Also Changing the default master page is described in Chapter 11, “Working with Master
Pages.”
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Attaching a Master Page 135
In this exercise, you attach a page to the site’s master page.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open. Open in advanced mode the page, such as
OfficeFurniture.aspx, that you want to attach to a master page.
1. On the Style tab, click Attach in the Master Page group, and then click More
Options.
A ach
Note If your page is using the default master page, a check to the left of v4.master
indicates that v4.master is configured as the site’s master page.
The Select A Master Page dialog box opens.
2. In the Select a Master Page dialog box, select Default Master Page (~masterurl/
default.master) if the option is not already selected.
3. Click OK.
The Match Content Regions dialog box opens.
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136 Chapter 4 Creating and Modifying Web Pages
4. Click OK to accept the default setting of associating all the code within the HTML
<body> tags of the current page, OfficeFurniture.aspx, to the content region,
PlaceHolderMain on the master page.
SharePoint Designer redisplays OfficeFurniture.aspx, which now has a SharePoint
look and feel. The HTML <html>, <head>, <body>, and <form> tags are removed
from the content page because they are defined in the master page.
5. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Save, and then press F12 to review the page in
Save
the browser.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next exercise.
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Managing Web Pages 137
Managing Web Pages
As a team site owner with the default SharePoint Designer access configuration, you can
manage files on a per-file basis only in the Site Pages and Site Assets libraries. These are
the two main libraries you use when you develop SharePoint solutions. The Site Pages library contains your content pages, and the Site Assets library contains other files, such as
images, cascading style sheets, XML files, and JavaScript files. As a site collection owner,
by using the All Files option in the Navigation pane, you can access all files in all libraries.
On publishing sites, publishing pages are stored in the Pages library and not in the Site
Pages library. By default, a publishing site does not contain a Site Pages or Site Assets
library. However, if you open a publishing site with SharePoint Designer, both these libraries are created.
When you click a file on the Site Pages or Site Assets gallery page, the files settings page
is displayed, which is divided into four areas:
● File Information Provides key information about the file, such as file name, created
by, last modified by, file version, check in/check out status, and whether the file is
based on a file from the site definiton or has been customized.
● Customization Use to edit the file or manage the file properties in the browser.
● Permissions Use to manage the permission settings for the file. By default, the
file inherits its permissions from the list it is stored in, and the list commonly inherits its permissions from the site. As with the site settings page, you can use the
Permissions area on the file settings page to stop inheriting permissions, thereby
creating unique permissions for the file. Then you can add or remove users or
SharePoint groups and configure the access rights of those users and groups to the
file by using permission levels.
● Version History Use to restore and delete versions of a file. The version numbers
are hyperlinks that open the File Version Summary dialog box. Both the Site Pages
and the Pages libraries are configured with versioning enabled. The Site Pages
document library uses major versions.
Note The Pages library is configured to use major and minor (draft) versions with
content approval because publishing sites are usually used as Internet sites or company
portal intranet sites that need a business-approval mechanism.
See Also Managing publishing pages is detailed in Chapter 13.
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138 Chapter 4 Creating and Modifying Web Pages
When a file’s setting page is displayed, the Page tab is visible on the ribbon. This tab allows you to edit, delete, and rename the file; reset the file to the site definition; set the
file as the site’s home page; check in, check out, and undo the check out of the file; and
preview the file in the browser. You are also given a choice of programs in which to edit
the file. Any deleted files are stored in the Recycle Bin, from which you can restore them.
Important Although you have not done so in this book (because of page count constraints),
you should always check out a file before you edit it and then check it in after you complete
your modifications, especially when more than one person has the rights to modify the file.
In this exercise, you restore a previous version of a file, check in and check out a file, and
delete a file.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open. The exercise uses the file Home copy(1).aspx, which
was created and amended in previous exercises in this chapter. You can use another
file if you want to.
1. In the Navigation pane, click Site Pages to display the gallery page, and then click
Home copy(1).aspx.
The Home copy(1).aspx settings page is displayed. The File Information area shows
the current version of the file, and the Permissions area states that the file inherits permissions from its parent. The Version History area displays a number of versions of the
file, although the current version of the file is not listed in the Version History area.
2. On the Version History area, right-click the Modified By column heading, point
to Arrange by, and click Modified Date.
The Version History area is redisplayed and lists the file versions in modified date
order, newest to oldest.
3. Right-click the icon to the left of 1.0, and click Restore Previous Version.
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Managing Web Pages 139
A dialog box opens warning you that the file must be checked out before a previous version of the file can be restored.
4. Click OK to close the dialog box, and then on the Page tab, click Check Out in the
Manage group.
Check Ou
In the File Information area, the file version is increased, and in the Version History
area the original version of the file is displayed at the top of the list.
5. Repeat step 3, and then on the Page tab, click Check In in the Manage group.
Check n
The Check In dialog box opens.
6. In the Enter comments for this version box, type Restoring the original version of the Home copy(1).aspx page, and then click OK.
The Check In dialog box closes.
7. On the Page tab, click Preview in Browser.
Preview in
Browser
A browser window opens. The modifications you made earlier in this chapter are no
longer displayed, and the Welcome To Your Site! text is displayed.
8. Close the browser window. In SharePoint Designer, on the Page tab, click Delete
Page in the Edit group.
The Confirm Delete dialog box opens.
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140 Chapter 4 Creating and Modifying Web Pages
Important The Confirm Delete dialog box is different if you are deleting a page that is
designated as the site’s home page. When a page that is set as the home page is deleted,
no page will be assigned as the home page, and the “HTTP 404, The Web Page Cannot
Be Found” message is displayed in the browser when users navigate to the site. Before
deleting the current home page, set another page as the home page.
9. Click Yes to confirm the deletion.
If you have multiple tabs open, the workspace displays a message that SharePoint
Designer cannot display the item; otherwise the Site Pages gallery is displayed.
Tip When you are closing a tab that points to a file that no longer exists, if a dialog box
opens stating that the server cannot complete your request and the tab will not close,
click the name of your site on the breadcrumb to display the site’s setting page.
10. On the breadcrumb, click Site Pages if the Site Pages gallery is not displayed. Click
Se as Home
Page
the icon to the left of Home.aspx, and on the Pages tab, click Set as Home Page
in the Actions group.
CLEAN UP If you are not continuing with the next chapter, close SharePoint Designer.
Key Points
● On Wiki pages, only the content within the EmbeddedFormField SharePoint control
can be modified using a browser, and on Web Part pages, only content within Web
Part zones. In SharePoint Designer in advanced mode, you can modify content outside these areas.
● In the Page Editor Options dialog box, you can configure picture conversion for-
mats, auto thumbnail creation, and settings for Design and Code views.
● Web Parts can be inserted outside Web Part zones and the EmbeddedFormField
SharePoint control on content pages and on master pages by using SharePoint
Designer. These are known as static Web Parts. Web Parts inserted into Web Part
zones or the EmbeddedFormField SharePoint control are known as dynamic Web
Parts. Details of dynamic Web Parts are stored in the SQL Server database separate
from content pages and master pages.
● View pages and form pages both consist of one Web Part zone (named Main) and
one Web Part. In the case of a view page, the Web Part is an XLV. In the case of a
form page, it is an LFWP.
● You can create a custom data entry form by using a DFWP.
● A nonpublishing page is the combination of two ASP.NET pages: a master page and
a content page.
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Key Points 141
● A SharePoint Server publishing page is a combination of three ASP.NET pages: the
master page, a page layout, and a content page. You cannot modify a publishing
content page by using SharePoint Designer; you must use the browser. However,
you can modify the master page and page layout by using SharePoint Designer.
● Design view for a content page shows the merged view of the master page and the
content page, whereas Code view shows only the code of the content page.
● In SharePoint Designer, you can create an ASP.NET page and then attach a master
page to give it the look and feel of the SharePoint site.
● Any pages or files you delete in SharePoint Designer are sent to the Recycle Bin,
from which you can restore them.
● SharePoint Designer saves all pages to the SQL Server content databases. You can
reset pages to site definition pages if they originally pointed to them.
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Chapter at a G ance
Create and custom ze
Data V ews,
pages 144 and 149
Ed t n ne, page 152
Use XSLT and work w th XPath
express ons, pages 160 and 165
App y cond t ona formatt ng and
show and h de content,
pages 154 and 157
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5 Working with Data
Views
In this chapter, you will learn how to
✔ Create and customize Data Views.
✔ Edit inline.
✔ Apply conditonal formating, and show and hide content.
✔ Use XSLT.
✔ Use formula columns and work with XPath expressions.
✔ Deploy Web Parts.
In the previous chapter, you created a custom list form, which added a SharePoint control named the Data Form Web Part (DFWP) to a Web page. You saw how easy it is
to manipulate this Web Part in Microsoft SharePoint Designer 2010. The DFWP is also
known as the Data View Web Part (DVWP), or as a Data View, because the DFWP can be
configured to allow you to view data. The DFWP SharePoint control not only allows you
to view data; it can also provide you with a form for entering data into a variety of data
sources, such as Microsoft SQL Server databases, XML files, and Web services, as well as
SharePoint lists and libraries. The data from these data sources is exposed as XML data,
to which the DFWP applies an Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT)
style sheet to present the data as HTML. In SharePoint Designer, the terms Data View
Web Part, Data Views, and Data Form Web Part are all used for the same SharePoint
control.
Tip XSLT is a language for formatting the presentation of XML data. Like XML, XSLT is both
human-readable and machine-readable and is an open standard.
Using Data Views, you can display, edit, and modify list item data in a more flexible manner than when you use the List View Web Part (LVWP). You can use Data Views in many
business scenarios for which traditionally a developer created a custom Web Part. Even if
you find that the DFWP control does not meet all your business requirements, it is still a
superb prototyping tool to obtain business signoff.
143
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144 Chapter 5 Working with Data Views
The XSLT List View (XLV) Web Part you created in Chapter 3, “Working with Lists and
Libraries” is similar to a Data View. Therefore, many of the techniques described in this
chapter can be used for either the XLV Web Part or a Data View.
In this chapter, using lists and libraries as a data source, you will create and modify Data
Views. You will format the data according to specific criteria defined by the metadata
and also work with the XSLT. You will also learn how to deploy the Web Parts.
Tip The XSLT List View (XLV) Web Part is very similar to the DVWP. The details in this chapter
can be used to customize that Web Part, too.
Practice Files Before you can use the practice files provided for this chapter, you need
to install them from the book’s companion Web site. For more information about
practice files, see “Using the Practice Files” on page xxiii.
Creating a Data View
The Data View is a very flexible Web Part that you can create only by using SharePoint
Designer. Like other Web Parts, a Data View follows these rules:
● It can be placed inside and outside EmbeddedFormField controls or Web Part zones.
● It has standard properties shared by all Web Parts, such as Title, Height, Width, and
Frame State.
● Depending on the settings of the Web Part zone properties, a Data View can be
relocated to other Web Part zones by using the browser.
● Web Part properties can be accessed through the browser’s Web Part tool pane.
● When inside a Web Part zone, a Data View supports personal and shared views.
Additionally, you can edit the XSLT and the parameters passed to the XSLT without needing to open the page in SharePoint Designer.
The Data View and the XLV Web Part are very similar in their functionality. The XLV Web
Part is used to display and modify content stored in SharePoint lists and libraries and can
be created by using the browser or SharePoint Designer. The XLV Web Part is based on list
views and can easily be modified in the browser or configured to use an XSLT. Data Views
can be used to display and modify content in data sources, including lists and libraries.
Like the XLV Web Part, a Data View uses XSLT to present data and can be modified
or deleted by using the browser. However a Data View can only be created by using
SharePoint Designer, and unlike SharePoint Designer, the browser provides little help in
writing XSLT.
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Creating a Data View 145
In this exercise, you create an XLV Web Part and a Data View that display the contents of
a list.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you created from the
SPDSBSPracticeSite Starter.wsp practice file for this book. The practice file is located
in the Chapter05 practice file folder. Turn off the ASP.NET Non-Visual Controls option
if it is still on by using the Visual Aids command on the View tab.
1. In the Navigation pane, click Site Pages. Click the icon to the left of
CreateDVWP.aspx, and then on the Pages tab, click Edit File in the Edit group.
Edi Fi e
Tip You can open a page in edit mode by double-clicking the icon to the left of the file
name in the Site Pages gallery.
The CreateDVWP page opens in edit mode.
2. Click Wiki Content.
A purple border labeled PlaceHolderMain (Custom) surrounds a number of rectangles. The top rectangle contains the text Wiki Content, and the other rectangles
have faint dotted borders.
Note The CreateDVWP page is a Wiki page. The top rectangle is the area that is
contained in the EmbeddedFormField control and can be modified when you click
Edit Page in the browser. The bottom rectangle is a Web Part zone. Although Web
Parts placed in this zone can be modified by using the browser, Web Parts cannot be
added or deleted from this zone with the browser. To clearly see these two rectangles
in SharePoint Designer, add some text to the page when you create a Wiki page in the
browser.
3. Click inside the rectangle below the rectangle that contains the text Wiki Content.
The Web Part zone labeled Bottom appears.
4. On the Insert tab, click Data View in the Data Views & Forms group, and then
click SalesReport.
Da a View
Troubleshooting If the Data View command on the Insert tab is not active, you have
not clicked inside the faint dotted rectangle.
The SalesReport XLV is created on the page, and the <WebPartPages:XsltListView
WebPart> tag is highlighted in orange on the Quick Tag Selector on the workspace
status bar. Within the XsltListViewWebPart control, an HTML table appears with a
number of columns, such as Customer, Brand, and Material, together with the list
data in the body of the table as HTML rows and cells.
Note The XLV Web Part uses the default list view as a basis for displaying columns
and content. You can then use the commands on the Design tab to modify the initial
presentation of the data.
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146 Chapter 5 Working with Data Views
5. On the List View Tools, Web Part tab, in the Web Part Title box, delete
SalesReport and type Sales Report XLV Web Part.
Tip Whenever you add a Web Part to a page, always give the Web Part a unique
title that describes the purpose of the Web Part. This acts as an aide-memoire when
you or other team members modify the page and helps when you identify Web Part
connections.
6. In the top rectangle, click below the text Wiki Content so that an empty <p> tag
Da a View
appears. On the Insert tab, click Data View in the Data Views & Forms group,
and then click Empty Data View.
A Data Form Web Part control is added to the page, and the
<WebPartPages:DataFormWebPart> tag is highlighted in orange on the Quick Tag
Selector.
7. Click Click here to select a data source.
The Data Source Picker dialog box opens.
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Creating a Data View 147
8. Under Lists, click SalesReport, and then click OK.
The Data Source Details task pane opens, and to the right of Row, [1/30] denotes
that the list contains 30 list items. The 1 indicates that the value of the first item is
displayed below Row.
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148 Chapter 5 Working with Data Views
Tip Unlike when you add an XLV Web Part, when you create a Data View, no criteria
are used to display the list items. If you want your team members to easily amend the
columns and the list item criteria in the browser, use the XLV Web Part when working
with lists and libraries.
9. In the Data Source Details task pane, to the right of Row, click the Next arrow to
Nex
view the second list item’s value.
The text in the square brackets to the right of Row indicates you are now viewing
the second of 30 list items.
Tip You can use the Next and Previous arrows to review the contents of the list without
displaying the list in a browser.
10. In the Data Source Details task pane, click Customer. While holding down
the CTRL key, click the fields in the following order, Brand, ListPrice, Quantity
Purchased, and Total Purchased. Then click Insert Selected Fields as, and click
Multiple Item View.
An HTML table appears in the DataFormWebPart control with the Customer, Brand,
Quantity Purchased, ListPrice, and Total Purchased columns in the order you selected
them, displaying sets of 10 items. The ListPrice column number is underline in red,
indicating a possible spelling error. If the red underline is not displayed, click ListPrice.
Tip If you find that you added more columns than you need, click Add/Remove
Columns on the Options tab to remove them.
11. On the Options tab, click Data Source Details in the Data group.
The Data Source Details task pane closes.
12. Right-click the CreateDVWP.aspx tab, and then click Save. Click Yes to reload the
Save
page to see the results of the save operation.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next exercise.
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Customizing Data Views 149
Customizing Data Views
Data Views provide virtually limitless possibilities for formatting data. Like the XLV Web
Part, Data Views do not contain data; they point to data stored elsewhere. When you
request a page, SharePoint queries the SQL Server content database for the properties of the Data View to find the location of the data. Then the Data Retrieval Service
obtains the data as XML, and SharePoint dynamically transforms the data to HTML as
defined in the XSLT in the Data View. SharePoint Designer displays the returned XML
data in the Data Source Details task pane and in Design view. You can use Design view
as a visual XSLT editor, so you can manipulate the XML data in the Data View Web Part
by using the same editing techniques that you used for editing static HTML in Chapter 4,
“Customizing a Web Page.” As you format the data in one of the HTML cells, the effect
cascades to other cells within the same column.
Note The Data Retrieval Service can be configured on a Web-application-by-Web-application
basis using the SharePoint 2010 Central Administration Web site. To see this site, on the
Application Management page, under Databases, click Configure The Data Retrieval Service.
You can modify the DFWP in many of the same ways that you can modify the XLV Web
Part, such as specifying which fields to display; filtering, sorting, and grouping data
items; displaying data items in sets; or limiting the number of items that are displayed.
You cannot, however, use Datasheet view for DFWPs.
Using the Data View Preview command on the Display tab, you can modify the No
Matching Items template. This allows you to change the text displayed when no items
are displayed in your Data View or XLV Web Part.
In this exercise, you sort and group the data displayed in a Data View, amend the text,
and modify the functions used when grouping the data.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you used in the previous exercise
if it is not already open, and then open CreateDVWP.aspx in edit mode with the
SalesReport DFWP selected.
1. In the field heading row, right-click ListPrice, and then click List Price.
2. On the Data View Tools, Options tab, click Sort & Group in the Filter, Sort &
Group group.
Sor & Group
The Sort And Group dialog box opens.
3. In the Available fields list, scroll down, click Sales Person, and click Add. Under
Group Properties, click Show group header, and then click Show group footer.
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150 Chapter 5 Working with Data Views
4. Click Advanced Grouping. In the Advanced Grouping dialog box, select Show
column totals per group.
5. Click OK to close the Advanced Grouping dialog box.
Tip The Show Column Totals Per Group option in the Advanced Grouping dialog box
does not allow you to select which group or columns to total. It creates a formula for
each column that it detects is numeric. Once the formula is created, delete those group
totals or column totals that are not required or do not make business sense.
6. In the Available fields list, click Quarter, and click Add. Under Group Properties,
click Show group footer and Show group header.
7. In the Available fields list, click Customer, and then click Add.
8. Click OK. The Sort and Group dialog box closes.
The CreateDVWP.aspx page refreshes, and the DVWP displays the data from the
SalesReports list grouped by sales person and then by quarter. The data is ordered
by customer. Totals for the Quantity Purchased, List Price, and Total Purchased columns are displayed per quarter and per salesperson.
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Customizing Data Views 151
Note The group footer count for sales person is correct, but the quarter count is
inaccurate. The count for that group is using only the field Quarter, but to get an
accurate count, the Sales Person and Quarter fields should be used to create the group.
The NaN (Not a Number) entry for the List Price and Total Purchased fields occurs
because the values in those fields contain nonnumeric characters—the dollar sign ($)
and commas. You will correct these issues later in this chapter.
9. Double-click the first occurrence of Count, and type No. of sales in Quarter.
The text change cascades to all group-by-quarter counts.
10. Double-click Count before the next Sales Person listed, and type Sales per Year.
The text change cascades to all group-by-sales-person counts.
11. Double-click sum to the left of 1237, and type max. Then click 1237, click the
smart icon that appears, and select Max.
The value in the Quantity Purchased column contains the maximum quantity purchased in one sale.
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152 Chapter 5 Working with Data Views
12. On the Design tab, under Data View Preview, click Default Preview in the
Preview group, and select ‘No Matching Items’ Template.
The page refreshes. No content is displayed.
13. Select There are no items to show in this view of the “SalesReport” list, and
type The sales reports for this period are not available.
14. On the Design tab, under Data View Preview, click No Matching in the Preview
group, and select Default Preview.
CLEAN UP Save CreateDVWP.aspx, and then click Yes to reload the page to see the
results of saving it. Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next
exercise.
Inline Editing
In Chapter 4, you created a custom list form for tailored data entry. The Data View provides other methods of data entry. By using the Insert Selected Field As list in the Data
Source Details task pane, you can create a Data View as a single-item form, a multipleitem form, or a new item form.
Tip You might want to choose a multiple-item form if users like to quickly edit the data in
many list items at the same time. However, some users find this form confusing.
You can also configure an existing Data View in order to edit, delete, and insert data in
a list item. Unlike the single-item and multiple-item forms, which can be used only in
data entry mode, a configured Data View can be used to display, edit, insert, or delete
list items, where links are added to every row so that in the browser you can edit items
directly in place. This is known as inline editing. By using the browser or SharePoint
Designer, you can also configure the XLV Web Part for inline editing. Whichever method
you choose for data entry, you can still filter, sort, and group the data; apply conditional
formatting; or create formula columns.
When you enable inline editing for a Data View, you can customize the Edit template—
the form displayed when you click Edit—and the Insert template, which is displayed
when you click Insert by using the Data View Preview list on the Design tab.
Note The single-item and multiple-item modes are defined in the code on the SPDataSource
SharePoint control, where the DataSourceMode attribute has a value of either ListItem or
List. The Data View provides other modes, but SharePoint Designer does not expose them
through its user interface. You have to modify the code directly. See blogs.msdn.com/
sharepointdesigner/archive/2007/04/24/spdatasource-and-rollups-with-the-data-view.aspx for
more information.
In this exercise, you add editing links to an existing Data View and XLV Web Part.
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Inline Editing 153
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open, and then open CreateDVWP.aspx in edit mode with
the SalesReport DFWP selected.
1. On the Data View Tools, Options tab, click Inline Editing, and then click Show
Edit Item Links.
n ine Edi ing
An extra column containing Edit is added to the Data View.
2. Repeat step 1 twice to select Show Insert Item Link and Show Delete Item Links.
The first column in the DFWP contains Edit and Delete, and at the bottom of the
Web Part is Insert.
3. Scroll down the page, and click Sales Report XLV Web Part.
4. On the List View Tools, Options tab, click Inline Editing.
An extra column is added to the XLV Web Part.
5. Press F12, and click Yes to save your changes and preview the current version of
the page. Then click Yes to reload the page.
A browser window opens. On the Sales Report Web Part, the Edit and Delete links appear to the left of each list item, and the Insert link at the bottom of the Data View.
6. Under Sales Person: Chris Ashton, click edit to the left of Fabrikam, Inc.
The Edit and the Delete links for this list item are replaced by the Save and Cancel
links. List items whose values you can edit are shown as SharePoint form controls.
7. In the Brand list, select Elizabethan, and in the Quantity box, type 36.
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154 Chapter 5 Working with Data Views
8. Click Save.
The Sales report page is refreshed, and the Save and Cancel links for the list item
are replaced by the Edit and Delete links. The list item displays the new values.
9. Scroll down the page to the Sales Report XLV Web Part. Rest the pointer over the
first occurrence of Contoso Pharmaceuticals.
A check box and an Edit icon appear to the left of Contoso Pharmaceuticals.
10. Click the Edit icon.
The Edit icon is replaced with Save and Cancel icons. List items whose values you
can edit are shown as SharePoint form controls.
11. Click the Cancel icon.
CLEAN UP Close the browser. Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing
to the next exercise.
Applying Conditional Formatting
The Data View and XLV Web Parts offer a feature known as conditional formatting that
you can use to alter the appearance of a set of cells or rows according to criteria that you
specify. Within a Data View, you can apply conditional formatting to an HTML tag, a data
value, or a range of text. The criteria you specify do not have to be based on the field
being formatted.
In this exercise, you highlight list item data that is less than or equal to a specific value.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open, and then open Stock.aspx in edit mode with the
Furniture Price List DFWP selected.
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Applying Conditional Formatting 155
1. In the In Stock column, click the 99 data cell. On the Options tab, click
Condi iona
Forma ing
Conditional Formatting in the Filter, Sort & Group group, and then click Format
Column.
The Condition Criteria dialog box and the Conditional Formatting task pane open.
2. In the Condition Criteria dialog box, click the arrow below Field Name, and then
click In Stock.
3. Under Comparison, click Equals, click the arrow that appears, and then click Less
Than Or Equal.
4. Under Value, click 0, and then type 10.
5. Click Set Style.
The Condition Criteria dialog box closes, and the Modify Style dialog box opens.
6. Click the color arrow, and select Red.
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156 Chapter 5 Working with Data Views
The Preview section shows a sample of how the text will be displayed.
7. Click OK to close the Modify Style dialog box.
In the In Stock column, values less than or equal to 10 appear in a red font. In the
Conditional Formatting task pane, an Apply Style When condition appears, displaying the criteria and a preview of the formatting.
8. Point to Apply style when, click the arrow that appears, and then click Modify style.
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Showing and Hiding Content 157
9. Under Category in the Modify Style dialog box, click Background, click the
background-color arrow, and then click Yellow.
10. Click OK to close the Modify Style dialog box.
In the In Stock column, values 10 or less appear in a red font with a yellow background.
11. Click Save, and press F12 to review the Stock page in the browser. You might need
to scroll down to see the Web Part.
CLEAN UP Close the browser. Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing
to the next exercise.
Showing and Hiding Content
You can also use conditional formatting to show or hide content based on criteria.
However, it is more efficient to add a filter to hide an entire row than to use conditional
formatting because with filters, the data retrieval engine returns only the data you need,
thereby reducing the amount of data retrieved from the SQL Server database and the
processing required by the Web servers to render the page.
In this exercise, you show a sales icon when an item of stock has a sales price and the
number of items in stock is greater than 10.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you used in the previous exercise if
it is not already open, and then open Stock.aspx in edit mode.
1. Under Furniture Name, place the insertion point to the right of Tall unit. Then, on
the Insert tab, click Picture in the Pictures group.
Pic ure
The Picture dialog box opens.
2. In the File name box, if you are not already viewing your site, type the URL of your
site, and then press Enter.
The SharePoint objects for your site are displayed in the main portion of the dialog
box.
3. Double-click SiteAssets, and then click Sale.png.
4. Click Open.
The Picture dialog box closes, and the Accessibility Properties dialog box opens.
5. In the Alternate text box, type Sale Item, and then click OK to close the
Accessibility Properties dialog box.
A red sale image appears in all cells in the Furniture Name column.
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158 Chapter 5 Working with Data Views
6. Click a red sale image. In the Conditional Formatting task pane, click Create, and
then click Show content.
Tip If the Conditional Formatting task pane is not already open, use the Task Panes
command on the View tab and then repeat step 6. You can also click Conditional
Formatting on the Options tab and then click Show Content.
The Condition Criteria dialog box opens.
7. Click the arrow below Field Name, and then click Sale. Leave Equals under
Comparison and Yes under Value.
8. Click Click here to add a new clause. Click the arrow below Field Name, and then
click In Stock.
9. Under Comparison, click Equals, click the arrow that appears, and then click
Greater Than.
10. Under Value, click 0, and then type 10.
11. Click OK.
The Condition Criteria dialog box closes.
The red sale icon is displayed only for items that are a sale item and the number of
items in stock is greater than 10. In the Conditional Formatting task pane, a Show
Content When condition appears, displaying the criteria.
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Showing and Hiding Content 159
Tip The Hide Content condition is exactly the opposite of the Show Content condition.
For example, in this exercise you could have used the Hide Content condition with the
criteria Sale Equals ‘0’ Or In Stock Less Than Or Equal To 10. When you need to configure
multiple Hide Content or Show Content conditions in a Data View or an XLV Web Part,
use only one of these conditions to describe the criteria. Using a combination can lead
to confusion.
CLEAN UP Save Stock.aspx. Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to
the next exercise.
An XML Primer
XML is a language for defining and representing data of all kinds, where data is
stored as text rather than in binary format. XML is an open standard that many
vendors support. In contrast to HTML, XML tags describe only the data itself, not
how the data should be displayed. You can choose the tag names to use as long as
the XML data is well formed; that is, as long as it obeys the following set of rules:
● One root element contains all other elements.
● Each element must have matching opening and closing tags.
● Elements must use consistent capitalization; that is, they are case sensitive.
● Elements must be nested correctly; that is, no elements overlap.
● Element attribute values must be enclosed in quotation marks with no re-
peating attributes in an element.
The root element in the following XML data is Invoices. InvoiceNo is known as an
attribute, and Company and Net are child elements of Invoice. The content of the
Company element is Adventure Works, whereas the element Net has no content.
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160 Chapter 5 Working with Data Views
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
<Invoices xmlns="http://consolidatedmessenger.com/finance">
<Invoice InvoiceNo="143">
<Company>Adventure Works</Company>
<Net></Net>
<![CDATA[
function tax(){ window.open('TBD'); }
]]>
<Invoice>
</Invoices>
When an XML document contains data that does not follow the XML rules (for
example, if you want to include HTML or code in the XML document), you should
include the data in an XML CDATA section to indicate that it should not be parsed
as XML.
Using XSLT
Data Views use XSLT to describe how to transform the XML data that SharePoint retrieves from a data source to HTML. SharePoint first converts the XML data into an XML
tree, which represents the hierarchical structure of the XML elements and attributes,
known as nodes. The Date Source Details task pane shows this hierarchical structure in
a way similar to a folder structure on a file system, with the list or library represented as
a Rows XML element, the list item represented as a Row XML child element, and each
field represented as an XML attribute. (In XSLT, XML attributes are prefixed with the @
symbol.) The XSLT is then used to navigate the hierarchical structure, and the XML Path
Language (XPath) is used to select one or more nodes.
The XSLT instructions themselves are also represented as XML data. The xsl:template
element contains a match attribute that defines the XPath expression used to select the
set of nodes to be transformed. After a node is selected, components specify how to
manipulate the XML data. These components can include HTML formatting tags and
other XSLT elements. For example, in the following XSLT, the xsl:template element finds
the Invoice XML element, and the HTML formats the xsl:value-of element. Using the
XML data given as an example in the sidebar “An XML Primer,” this XSLT would render
Adventure Works as a new paragraph in bold font.
<xsl:template match="Invoice">
<p><strong><xsl:value-of select="Company" /></strong>
</xsl:template>
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Using XSLT 161
See Also For an excellent introduction to XSL, visit www.w3schools.com/xsl/ and the series of
blogs by Marc D. Anderson, “Unlocking the Mysteries of Data View Web Part XSL Tags,” found
at www.endusersharepoint.com/tag/xsl/. SharePoint also has some additional functions that
are documented at msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd583143(office.11).aspx.
In Design view, SharePoint Designer automatically generates this XSLT for you. It also
provides an XSLT editor, called the XPath Expression Builder, to help you develop sophisticated solutions. This editor provides IntelliSense for XPath, making it possible for you to
create XPath expressions.
In this exercise, you add a sort expression by using the XSLT editor.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you used in the previous exercise
if it is not already open, and then open CreateDVWP.aspx in edit mode with the
SalesReport DFWP selected. Close the Conditional Formatting task pane if it is open.
1. On the Data View Tools, Options tab, click Sort & Group in the Filter, Sort &
Group group.
Sor & Group
The Sort And Group dialog box opens.
2. Under Sort order, click Quarter, and then click Remove.
3. Under Available fields, scroll down, click Add Sort Expressions, and then click
Add.
The Advance Sort dialog box opens.
4. Under Select a function to insert, double-click concat.
Troubleshooting If the function concat is not displayed in the Select A Function To
Insert list, select Text/String under Select A Function Category.
5. In the list that appears, type @s, and then press Tab to select @
Sales x0020 Person.
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162 Chapter 5 Working with Data Views
6. With the insertion point after @Sales x0020 Person, type , " : " , @quar, and
then press Tab to select @Quarter.
The XPath expression should read concat(@Sales x0020 Person, " : " ,@Quarter),
and the Preview box displays the result of the expression.
7. Click OK to close the Advance Sort dialog box.
8. In the Sort and Group dialog box, under Group Properties, click Show group
header, and then click Show group footer.
9. Click OK to close the Sort and Group dialog box.
The No. Of Sales In Quarter count accurately represents the number of sales per
quarter.
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Using Formula Columns 163
10. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Save, and then click Yes to reload the page to
Save
see the results.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next exercise.
Using Formula Columns
Using the browser or SharePoint Designer, you can create a calculated column. This allows you to create a column on the basis of content contained in other columns in your
list or library. This aids in the task of maintaining data integrity. For example, when you
use a calculated column that multiples the number of items purchased by the cost per
item, the users of your solutions do not have to complete that calculation manually and
type their answer into the column. However, not all the content you reference in your
solution is stored in lists or libraries. For other data sources, you might not have the permissions or authority to add new columns to generate the content you want to display.
This is where a formula column is useful.
When using Data Views or XLV Web Parts, you can create additional columns—formula
columns—that present data from the data source you are working with as well as other
data sources. The XPath Expression Builder is used to create formula columns.
See Also Calculated columns and formula columns can not only calculate numeric values; they
can also format content and generate links to files, as long as those files follow a predictable
naming convention. More examples can be found at www.endusersharepoint.com/tag/
calculated-column/.
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164 Chapter 5 Working with Data Views
In this exercise, you create a formula column labeled Sale Price. The sale price is 25 percent of the unit price for those product lines in the sale. If a product line has 10 or fewer
items in stock, that product line cannot be in the sale. The sale price should be formatted
in dollars, with two decimal places.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you used in the previous exercise if
it is not already open, and then open Stock.aspx in edit mode with the Furniture Price
List DFWP selected.
1. On the Data View Tools, Options tab, click Add/Remove Columns in the Fields
group.
Add/Remove
Co umns
The Edit dialog box opens.
2. In the Available fields list, scroll down, click Add Formula Column, and then click
Add.
The XPath Expression Builder dialog box opens.
3. In the Select a field to insert list, double-click Unit x0020 Price.. Be sure you
choose the field that ends in a dot.
@Unit x0020 Price. is displayed in the Edit the XPath Expression box.
4. In the Exit the XPath expression box, place the insertion point to the right of Price.,
and then type * (1 - ((@Sale = 'Yes') and (@In x0020 Stock. >= 10))* 0.25).
Tip The practice file SPDSBSC05.xsl.txt contains this expression if you want to copy and
paste the expression into the XPath Expression Builder dialog box.
The Preview box displays the result of the expression.
5. Click OK twice. The Insert Formula and Edit Columns dialog boxes close.
A new column is added to the DFWP. The column label is the expression you created in step 4. Only those product lines in the sale have a sales price less than the
unit price.
6. In the column heading, click @Unit. Then click the th.ms-vh label that appears,
and type Sale Price.
7. In the Sale Price column, click 15, and then on the Options tab, click Formula.
The Insert Formula dialog box opens and displays the expression you created in
step 4. If the expression is not shown, close the Insert Formula dialog box and repeat step 7.
8. In the Select a function category, select Math / Number. In the Select a function to insert box, click format-number.
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Working with XPath Expressions 165
A brief description of the format-number function is displayed.
9. In the Edit the XPath expression box, modify the expression so that it reads
format-number(@Unit x0020 Price. * (1 - ((@Sale = 'Yes) and (@In x0020
Stock. >= 10)) * 0.25), '$#,##0.00').
10. Click OK. The Insert Formula dialog box closes, and the numbers in the Sale Price
column are prefixed with a dollar sign ($) and display two decimal places.
CLEAN UP Save Stock.aspx. Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to
the next exercise.
Working with XPath Expressions
In the previous two exercises, you used the XPath Expression Builder to create formulas
to process the XML data that is returned from SharePoint when you use the Data View or
XLV Web Parts. However, you cannot create all the formulas or expressions you need by
using the XPath Expression Builder. In some cases, to get a higher degree of flexibility and
control, you need to edit the XSLT in Code view, where IntelliSense is available to help with
this task. However, you need a deep understanding of XSLT to be able to edit it directly. An
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166 Chapter 5 Working with Data Views
example of a situation in which you need to edit the XSLT in Code view is to work with
calculated columns.
By default, SharePoint provides two columns for each numeric column. One column
provides the numeric values for a list item, and the second column provides the presentation format of that numeric value. When the numeric column represents a currency,
for example, the values in the presentation column contain commas, dots, and currency
symbols. To calculate the sum of those currency values, you use the numeric column. If
you use the presentation column to complete mathematical computations, the XPath
expression results in an error, and the acronym NaN is displayed. The numeric column
has the same name as the related presentation column but with a dot appended to the
name.
Calculated columns do not have a related numeric column. Therefore, choosing the correct column to use in your XPath expressions is not a simple task. The solution that you
use in the following exercise computes the function of the nodes first, capturing the
results in an XSL variable as a result-tree fragment, which is subsequently transformed
using the msxsl:node-set function that can then be used as input to the sum function. If
you do not want to create your own XLST code, when you configure the calculated column do not select the data type returned for the formula as Currency. Instead, create an
additional column to store the currency symbol, such as $, EUR, and £.
See Also Other XSLT sum solutions can be found in “Recipe 3.6. Computing Sums and
Products” in the XSLT Cookbook by Sal Mangano (O’Reilly), which is available at flylib.com/
books.php?ln=en&n=2&p=765&c=45&p1=1&c1=1&c2=208&view=1.
In this exercise, you use the Insert Formula dialog box and amend the XSLT code in Code
view to correct two group totals that have a value of NaN.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you used in the previous exercise
if it is not already open, and then open CreateDVWP.aspx in edit mode with the
SalesReport DFWP selected.
1. In the List Price column, click NaN, and then on the Options tab, click Formula.
Tip You may have to click NaN again to highlight it.
Formu a
The Insert Formula dialog box opens, and in the Edit The XPath Expression box, the
formula sum($nodeset/@ListPrice) is displayed. If the formula is not displayed, close
the Insert Formula dialog box and repeat step 1.
2. Place the insertion point between Price and ), and then type a period (.). Click OK.
The Insert Formula dialog box closes, and NaN is replaced by 760.
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Working with XPath Expressions 167
Tip You could use the format-number function that you used in the previous exercise to
format the List Price field as currency.
3. In the Total Purchased column, click NaN, and then on the View tab, click Split.
Tip You may have to click NaN again to highlight it.
Sp i
The document window divides horizontally and displays Code view in the
upper pane and Design view in the lower pane. In Code view, <xsl:value-of
select "sum($nodeset/@Total x0020 Purchased" /> is highlighted.
4. On the Quick Tag Selector, click the <xsl:if>.
In Code view, the code between the opening and closing <xsl:if
test "$showfootercolumn ddwrt:cf-ignore "1"> tags is highlighted.
5. In Code view, place the insertion point to the left of <xsl:if and press Enter twice.
6. On the first blank line, type <xsl:var, and then press Tab to select xsl:variable.
Press Space, type n, and then press Tab to select name.
7. Place the insertion point between the two quotation marks that appear, type
SumTotalPurchaseNodeset, and then to the right of the second quotation mark,
type >. Press Enter twice.
The code should look similar to the following:
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168 Chapter 5 Working with Data Views
<xsl:variable name="SumTotalPurchasedNodeset">
</xsl:template>
8. Using the techniques described in the previous steps, create a code segment that
reads as follows:
<xsl:variable name="SumTotalPurchasedNodeset">
<xsl:for-each select="$nodeset">
<Value>
<xsl:value-of
select="substring-after(translate(@Total_x0020_
Purchased,',',''),'$')"/>
</Value>
</xsl:for-each>
</xsl:variable>
Tip If you do not want to type the code, the practice file SPDSBSC05.xsl.txt contains the
code segments that you can copy and paste into Code view.
9. In Design view, in the Total Purchased column, click NaN. In Code view, delete
the highlighted text <xsl:value-of select="sum($nodeset/@Total x0020
Purchased" />, and type the following code:
<xsl:value-of
select="concat('$', sum(msxsl:node-set($SumTotalPurchasedNodeset)/
Value))"/>
10. In Design view, click NaN.
The page refreshes, and NaN is replaced by the value $80,619.40, which is the sum
of purchases that the sales person Chris Ashton sold to his customers.
CLEAN UP Save CreateDVWP.aspx. Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are
continuing to the next exercise.
Deploying Web Parts
As you develop Data Views and XLV Web Parts, you might want to use the same formatted and filtered Web Parts on other sites within your site collection. By using the browser
or SharePoint Designer, you can export a Web Part and reuse it. With both the browser
and SharePoint Designer, you can save the Web Part file to the file system, and from
there you can import it into a page. SharePoint Designer allows you to export a Web
Part directly to the Web Part gallery.
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Deploying Web Parts 169
When you edit Web pages on team sites, every time you save your modifications they
are immediately visible to all users who view that page. By developing your solution on
a production page, you can cause performance and rendering problems, especially if
you make mistakes. You should create a test Web page and then create and modify your
Data View and XLV Web Parts on that test page. When you have completed your modifications, export the Web Part and add it to the production Web page, deleting the test
page if necessary.
When an XLV Web Part is saved to the Site Gallery or to a file, a dialog box opens that
asks whether you want to show list data from the current Web site. If you select No,
the exported Web Part uses relative addresses when referencing the list or library,
which means that the Web Part can be used on any site that has a list or library with
the same name. For example, if you export an XLV Web Part that displays data from
the SalesReport list, the Web Part can be used on another site that has a list named
SalesReport. You can use this method to display content stored on a subsite on the toplevel site of a site collection, or you can move a Web Part from a test, prototype environment to a production environment. You cannot do the same with Data Views.
Warning Data Views reference a list by the list’s GUID and not by its name. An exported Web
Part that references a GUID results in a Web Part that will not render on another site. The
Web Page where you add the Web Part might not render as well. You might also experience
this error with other Web Parts. To remove the offending Web Part, append ?contents=1 to
the URL of the Web page to display the maintenance page. If you want to export a Data View
that exposes data from a specific list type and reuse it on a different site, where it points to
a different list of the same list type, you need to edit the DataFormWebPart control in Code
view. Replace all occurrences of ListID with List Name and all occurrences of the GUID value
with the list name.
In this exercise, you export a Data View and add it to the home page of your Web site.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open, and then open Stock.aspx in edit mode with the
Furniture Price List DFWP selected.
1. On the Web Part tab, click To Site Gallery in the Save Web Part group.
To Si e Ga ery
The Save Web Part To Site Gallery dialog box opens.
2. In the Name box, type SBSFurnitureSales, and then click OK.
The Save Web Part To Site Gallery dialog box closes.
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170 Chapter 5 Working with Data Views
3. In the Site Pages mini-gallery pane, right-click Home.aspx, and then click
Preview in Browser.
The home page of your Web site opens in the browser.
4. Click Site Actions, and then click Edit Page.
5. Place the insertion point at the bottom of the rectangle, and then on the Editing
Tools, Insert tab, click Web Part.
The Add Web Parts area opens below the ribbon.
6. Under Categories, click Miscellaneous, and under Web Parts click
SBSFurnitureSales. Then click Add.
The Add Web Parts area closes, and the Data View is added to the home page.
7. On the Page tab, click Save & Close.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next chapter.
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Key Points 171
Key Points
● Data Views allow you to view data and enter data in a variety of data sources.
● Data Views are also known by the names Data Form Web Parts (DFWP) and Data
View Web Parts (DVWP).
● Data Views follow the same rules as other Web Parts.
● The XSLT List View (XLV) Web Part is very similar to Data Views, and many of the
techniques discussed in this chapter can be used with XLV Web Parts.
● Data Views and XLV Web Parts can be configured to use inline editing. This allows
users to add or edit list items without the need to open the New or Edit form pages.
● Use conditional formatting to specify criteria that alters the appearance of a set of
cells in rows or columns or in selected content.
● Use conditional formatting to show or hide content on the basis of criteria you
define.
● Data Views and XLV Web Parts use XSLT to transform XML data into HTML.
● You can use SharePoint Designer to import and export Web Parts. When you ex-
port Web Parts, you can save them in the Web Part gallery or on the file system.
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Chapter at a G ance
Connect to a server-side script, page 185
Connect to SOAP services,
page 188
Connect to a
database, page 192
Use linked sources,
page 197
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6 Working with Data
Sources
In this chapter, you will learn how to
✔ Use data sources.
✔ Work with XML data.
✔ Connect to an RSS feed XML file.
✔ Connect to a server-side script.
✔ Connect to SOAP and REST services.
✔ Connect to a database.
✔ Use linked sources.
✔ Connect Web Parts.
When you created a Data View in Chapter 5, “Working with Data Views,” the Data
Sources Picker dialog box opened so that you could select a list or library on the current
site. Using the Data Sources Picker dialog box, you can do more than just select lists and
libraries; you can choose to access data from a variety of data sources. To create and
manage the data sources shown in the Data Sources Picker dialog box, you need to use
the Data Sources gallery page. Data connections control the amount of data retrieved
by Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010 from the data sources. After data is retrieved,
Data Views specify how to manipulate it by using XSLT and HTML tags.
Note In SharePoint Designer 2007, you create and manage data connections by using the
Data Source Library task pane. The Data Source Library task pane has been replaced by the
Data Sources gallery page. In SharePoint Designer 2007, you can also add a Data Source library
from another site so that you can share its data connections rather than re-create them. This
functionality is no longer available in SharePoint Designer 2010.
173
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174 Chapter 6 Working with Data Sources
In this chapter, you will use the Data Sources gallery page to create data connections to
a number of data sources, and you will link data sources that contain interrelated data to
one another. You will also learn how to use Web Part connections.
Practice Files Before you can use the practice files provided for this chapter, you need
to install them from the book’s companion Web site. For more information about
practice files, see “Using the Practice Files” on page xxiii.
Using Data Sources
The Data Sources gallery page is an easy-to-use interface for creating, managing, and
modifying data connections to data sources. These data connections describe a location
and provide a query that the Microsoft SharePoint Foundation Data Retrieval Service
uses to obtain data from the data sources. The Data Retrieval Service provides a layer
of abstraction so that both Microsoft SharePoint Designer 2010 and Data Views do not
need to differentiate between various methods of accessing data sources.
When you request a page by using SharePoint Designer 2010, it is the responsibility of
the Data Retrieval Service on the Web server to return the data in an XML format that
SharePoint Designer understands. SharePoint Designer interprets the XML data and
displays it in the Data Source Details task pane and in Design view when the page contains any Data Views. Similarly, when you request a page by using the browser, the Data
Retrieval Service provides the XML data, which SharePoint uses together with the XSLT
from the Data View to provide the page that the browser renders. In the browser, when
the Data View is configured to allow users to edit data, the Data Retrieval Service communicates any changes back to the data sources.
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Using Data Sources 175
SharePoint Designer
Browser
HTML,
JavaScript
Microsoft SharePoint Foundation
ASPX page
Web Part page
XML Web services
Data
View
XSLT
XML data
Data Retrieval Service
SharePoint
data
Databases
SOAP
services
REST
services
Serverside scripts
XML
files
RSS
You can connect to a variety of data sources, which are grouped according to the access
method they use, as described in the following table.
Data source
groups
Description
SharePoint lists and Every list and library that is not hidden from the browser is listed in the
libraries
Data Sources gallery page.
Database
connections
When you first open the Data Sources gallery page, no connections to
any databases are defined. You can create a connection to a variety of
databases that reside on Microsoft SQL Server 2000 or later versions,
or to any data source that uses the OLE DB protocols. You can create
multiple data connections to the same database, each using a different
table, view, or query.
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176 Chapter 6 Working with Data Sources
XML files
SharePoint Designer interrogates the root of your current site and the
Site Assets library for any XML files it finds. You can also import an XML
file into your site or refer to an XML file in another library or on another
site by using the XML File Connection command.
Server-side scripts
You can connect to server-side scripts that return XML data. For example, a Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feed may use a server-side
script. Such RSS feeds have a URL ending in .aspx or .php. When an RSS
feed has a URL ending in .xml or .ashx, use the XML file data connection method. You can connect to server-side scripts written in a variety
of languages, including Microsoft ASP, Microsoft ASP.NET, PHP, and
Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX).
SOAP services
A SOAP service is a special site that can return XML in response to a
procedural query. SharePoint itself exposes its data as a SOAP service,
enabling you to create, for example, a list of announcements from the
current site and its child sites, known as a rollup of announcements.
REST service
Similar to SOAP services, where data can be retrieved from a data
source as XML data.
External lists
Although you cannot create external lists from the Data Sources gallery
page, external lists are displayed on the page. External lists are created
from external content types (ECTs). Many organizations use ECTs in
preference to other access methods available on the Data Sources gallery page for security reasons and because an ECT is defined once in a
central location. These definitions are available for all sites and site collections. More information about external lists and ECTs can be found
in Chapter 7, “Using Business Connectivity Services.”
Linked sources
Many data sources contain related data. You can use this data source
group to combine two or more data sources into one source.
Because of the ease with which you can connect to data sources, you should consider
whether you really need all the data that your connection query returns. If you retrieve a
large number of rows and columns, it might take some time for the page to render. You
can use filters to limit the number of rows displayed; however, if all the data is not needed, you get better results by amending the data connection query to return a smaller
portion of the data than by filtering the Data View to limit the data.
When defining a data connection, you need to consider the authentication method used
to connect to the data source because this has security and infrastructure implications.
For example, when you connect to a SQL Server database, you use SQL Server authentication and specify the SQL Server user name and password in the connection query defined in the data source. The user name and password are transmitted over the network
in clear text, which could have security implications.
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Using Data Sources 177
Caution When a user does not have the right to view the data, a Data View might be affected
and the page itself might not render. As you create a solution by using data sources and Data
Views, test your solution with users who need to access the data.
Every time you open the Data Sources gallery page, SharePoint Designer dynamically
populates it with references to the site’s lists and libraries and to the XML files stored in
the site’s root or in the Site Assets library. No other data sources are defined when you
first create a site. These dynamically created definitions return all the available data. If
you want to display only a subset of the data these connections provide, you must use
Data View filtering methods. Alternatively, you can create copies of these dynamically
created data sources and then modify them to explicitly define the data you want to
retrieve.
Each data source group on the Data Sources gallery page provides a link you use to create a data connection, in which you specify the location and connection query to the
data source. When you create the first data source for a site, SharePoint Designer creates
a document library named the fpdatasources library in the catalogs folder. This document library is visible only by using SharePoint Designer and only to those users who
can see the hidden URL site structure. SharePoint Designer then creates an XML file that
contains the data connection information in Universal Data Connection (UDC) version 1
file format, and then stores the file in the fpdatasources library. You can open these XML
files in the SharePoint Designer workspace and manually modify the data connection
information, but the next time you use the Data Source Properties dialog box to modify
your data source, you lose any modifications you have already entered.
When you create a Data View, the data connection information is copied from the UDC
file to the Data View. The Data Source Details task pane then uses the data connection
information stored within the Data View to display the XML elements. Changing the UDC
file or even deleting the UDC file once you have created the Data View has no effect on
the Data View or the data presented by the Data View.
In this exercise, you use the Data Sources gallery page to create and modify a data
connection for a SharePoint list. Then, if you have permission to see the hidden URL
structure of your site, you will investigate where the information concerning data source
connections is stored.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you created from the
SBSSPDPracticeSite Starter.wsp practice file for this book. You might have created
this site if you completed the exercises in Chapter 5. Otherwise, create a site from the
practice file that is located in the Chapter06 practice file folder. For information on
how to create a site from the practice file, see “Using the Practice Files” on page xxiii.
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178 Chapter 6 Working with Data Sources
1. In the Navigation pane, click Data Sources.
The Data Sources gallery page is displayed in the workspace.
2. In the workspace, under Lists, click the icon to the left of Announcements, and
then on the Data Sources tab, click Copy and Modify in the Actions group.
Copy and Modify
The Data Source Properties dialog box opens.
3. Under Query, click Fields to open the Included Fields dialog box.
4. In the Included Fields list, hold down the Shift or Ctrl key and click all but the ID
field. Click Remove so that only ID appears in the list.
5. In the Available fields list, hold down Ctrl; click Title, Body, and Modified By;
and then click Add.
6. Click OK to close the Included Fields dialog box.
7. In the Data Source Properties dialog box, click the General tab. In the Name box,
type AnnouncementsTitleBody.
8. Click OK to close the Data Source Properties dialog box.
The AnnouncementsTitleBody data source appears under Lists on the Data Sources
gallery page.
9. If you are able to see the hidden URL structure of your site, hover the mouse
A ways Show pin
pointer over All Files in the Navigation pane, and click the Always Show pin that
appears.
In the Navigation pane, the pin remains permanently visible to the right of All Files.
The All Files mini-gallery appears below the Navigation pane and displays the hidden URL structure of the Web site.
10. In the mini-gallery, click the + sign to the left of catalogs and click the + sign to
the left of fpdatasources.
The fpdatasources library appears, containing AnnouncementsTitleBody.xml.
11. In the All Files mini-gallery, right-click AnnouncementsTitleBody.xml, click Open
With, and then click SharePoint Designer (Open as XML).
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Using Data Sources 179
The XML file opens in the workspace with the data connection location and query
information specified as XML data, all on one line.
12. Right-click within the workspace, and then click Reformat XML.
The XML data is redisplayed, indented and with each XML element on a new line.
The DataSourceControl element contains the data connection information.
CLEAN UP Close the AnnouncementsTitleBody.xml file and save it if you are
prompted to do so. Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next
exercise.
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180 Chapter 6 Working with Data Sources
Working with XML Data
Using the Data Sources gallery page, you can work with XML data stored in XML files.
If these files are located in the Site Assets library or in the root of your site, SharePoint
Designer dynamically creates a data connection for each file, and these data connections
appear on the Data Sources gallery page under XML Files. Also, if you import an XML file
into one of those locations, a corresponding connection automatically appears on the
Data Sources gallery page. As you delete or add XML files in the Site Assets library or the
root of the site, the data connections dynamically appear and disappear from the Data
Sources gallery page. When you store an XML file in any other location, you need to create an XML file data connection for that file before you can use the data in a Data View.
Note When you work with an XML file as a data source, the XML file must contain only wellformed XML; otherwise, it might cause errors. In addition, the XML file must contain and
conform to a schema, or it must contain data from which a schema can be inferred.
If you do not want to retrieve all the data from the XML file, as with lists and libraries,
you can copy and modify the data connection details. However, if you delete the XML
file, the copy of the XML file data connection remains listed on the Data Sources gallery
page. If you click Show Data in an empty Data View that uses the copy of the data connection, an error message appears in the Data Source Details task pane.
On the Data Sources gallery page you cannot delete a dynamically created data connection. You can only amend its properties or copy and modify the data connection details.
Tip Whenever you create or modify a data connection, it is good practice to check that you
configured the data connection correctly by using an empty Data View and the Data Source
Details task pane.
In this exercise, you add an XML file from your file system to the Site Assets library. You
use the Data Source Details task pane to view the contents of the XML file and explore
the dynamic creation of data connections.
SET UP Use the Shipments.xml file. This practice file is located in the Chapter06
practice file folder. Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you used in the previous
exercise, and then open the Data Sources gallery page if it is not already open.
1. Click the icon to the left of Announcements, and then on the Data Sources tab,
click XML File Connection in the New group.
XML Fi e
Connec ion
The Data Source Properties dialog box opens.
2. On the Source tab, click Browse to open the File Open dialog box.
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Working with XML Data 181
3. Navigate to the Chapter06 practice file folder, and then click Open.
A Microsoft SharePoint Designer message box opens, asking if you want to import
the file.
4. Click OK to import the file.
The Microsoft SharePoint Designer message box closes, and the Import dialog box
opens.
5. Click Modify to open the Edit URL dialog box.
6. In the File location within your web text box, type SiteAssets/Shipments.xml.
7. Click OK twice to close the Edit URL and Import dialog boxes.
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On the Data Sources gallery page, the Shipments.xml data connection appears under XML Files.
8. In the Navigation pane, click Site Pages, and then double-click the icon to the left
of DataSourceTest.aspx to open the page in edit mode.
9. In the PlaceHolderMain region, click Click here to select a data source. In the
Data Source Picker dialog box, under XML Files, click Shipments.xml, and then
click OK.
The Data Source Details task pane appears, displaying an XML root element named
Shipments, with a child element named Shipment that contains a number of item
child elements. The first five elements are selected.
10. If you are able to see the hidden URL structure of your site, in the All Files mini-
gallery, expand both catalogs, fpdatasources and the SiteAssets (Site Assets)
libraries.
The Shipments.xml file is listed in the Site Assets library. There is no corresponding
UDC XML file in the fpdatasources library.
11. In the Navigation pane, click Site Assets. Right-click Shipments.xml, and then
click Delete.
12. Click Yes to confirm the deletion, and then in the Navigation pane, click Data
Sources.
Shipments.xml disappears from both the Site Assets library and the Data Sources
gallery page.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next
exercise.
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Connecting to an RSS Feed XML File 183
Connecting to an RSS Feed XML File
You can use the XML File Connection command on the Data Sources tab to connect to
an XML file located on an external server. You do not import the XML file to your site;
instead, you link the external XML file to the site by using its URL.
One popular external XML file is the one produced by an RSS feed. (Servers that publish
their content as XML data that conforms to the RSS format are said to have an RSS feed.)
Many Internet-facing servers produce RSS-formatted XML data as either an XML file or a
server-side script that produces RSS-formatted XML data.
Note Starting with Windows SharePoint Services 3.0, lists and libraries can expose their
content by using RSS.
In this exercise, you retrieve data published by an external server by linking to an XML
file connection.
Important In this exercise, you access an RSS feed over the Internet. To complete this
exercise, you must have Internet access.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you used in the previous exercise.
Open the DataSourceTest.aspx page and Data Sources gallery page if they are not
already open.
1. Click in the Data Sources gallery page to activate the commands on the Data
Sources tab, and then click XML File Connection.
XML Fi e
Connec ion
The Data Source Properties dialog box opens.
2. On the Source tab, in the Location text box, type http://blogs.msdn.com/b/
sharepointdesigner/rss.aspx.
Warning For you to connect to a URL on the Internet, your SharePoint Server
administrator might have to configure on the SharePoint server(s) the web.config for
proxy server settings.
3. Click the General tab, and in the Name text box, type SharePoint Designer team
blog.
4. Click the Login tab, and verify that the Don’t attempt to authenticate option is
selected.
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184 Chapter 6 Working with Data Sources
5. Click OK.
The Data Source Properties dialog box closes.
The SharePoint Designer Team Blog data connection appears in the Data Sources
gallery. If you are able to see the hidden URL structure of your site, you also see in
the All Files mini-gallery a corresponding UDC XML file listed in the fpdatasources
library.
6. Click the DataSourceTest.aspx tab.
7. In the PlaceHolderMain region, click Click here to select a data source. In the
Data Source Picker dialog box, under XML Files, click SharePoint Designer
team blog, and then click OK.
The Data Source Details task pane appears if it is not already open. It displays an
XML root element named rss, with a child element named channel that contains a
number of item child elements.
Tip When connecting to data over the Internet, SharePoint Designer might appear to be
locked. This could be caused by network problems and/or the poor performance of the
server providing the XML data. To speed your design process, set the Data View to show
sample data on the Design tab, and clear the Show Data Values option at the bottom of
the Data Source Details task pane.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next
exercise.
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Connecting to an RSS Feed Server-Side Script 185
Connecting to an RSS Feed Server-Side Script
With the popularity of RSS feeds, many products support that XML data format, with the
result that many organizations are using the RSS XML data schema as a basis for exposing data not traditionally considered RSS data. These companies use server-side scripts
to produce the XML data because scripts allow more control over the data.
The XML data produced by server-side scripts can depend on parameter values. The values transmitted to the external server are either appended to the end of the URL, known
as the HTTP GET method, or provided in the body of the request, known as the HTTP
POST method. The HTTP GET method uses simple queries to retrieve (GET) data and is
the safer method as far as the external server is concerned. The HTTP POST method is
usually used to send (POST) data or instructs the external server to manipulate the data.
Whether you want to view (which in database terminology is referred to as select), insert,
update, or delete data on the external server, you use the Data Source Properties dialog
box to configure each command.
When you create data connections by using either XML files or server-side scripts, you
might need to configure the authentication method to access the XML data. The Data
Source Properties dialog box provides a choice of four options:
● Don’t Attempt To Authenticate Use this option for external servers that accept
anonymous access or if users must supply their user names and passwords.
● Save This Username And Password In The Data Connection Use this option if the
XML data is password protected and you want anyone to be able to access the data
without being prompted for a user name and password. The user name and password are transmitted over the network as clear text, so you might need to contact
your IT department to add further infrastructure security.
● Use Windows Authentication Use this option when SharePoint 2010 and the XML
file are located on the same server.
● Use Single Sign-On Authentication At the time of writing this book, this option,
although available, does not work with data sources. Use ECTs if you want to use
this authentication method. More information on external lists and ECTs can be
found in Chapter 7.
In this exercise, you retrieve XML data by using a server-side script connection.
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186 Chapter 6 Working with Data Sources
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you used in the previous exercise.
Open the DataSourceTest.aspx page and the Data Sources gallery page if they are not
already open.
1. Open your browser. In the address box, type http://technet.microsoft.com.
The Microsoft TechNet site opens.
2. In the search box, type sharepoint designer 2010, and then press Enter to display
the search results.
RSS con
3. In the Results row, right-click the RSS icon, and then click Copy Shortcut.
4. In SharePoint Designer, with the Data Sources gallery page displayed in the work-
space, click REST Service Connection in the New group on the Data Sources tab.
The Data Source Properties dialog box opens.
5. Right-click the Enter the URL to a server-side script box, and then click Paste.
6. Click the Add or Modify Parameters list box.
The parameters from the server-side script appear in the Add Or Modify
Parameters list box. The Query string has a value of sharepoint+designer+2010.
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Connecting to an RSS Feed Server-Side Script 187
7. On the General tab, in the Name box, type Microsoft TechNet Search.
8. Click OK to close the Data Source Properties dialog box.
The Microsoft TechNet Search data connection appears on the Data Sources gallery
page under RSS, REST, Server Scripts.
9. Click the DataSourceTest.aspx tab.
10. In the PlaceHolderMain region, click Click here to select a data source. In the
Data Source Picker dialog box, under RSS, REST, Server Scripts, click Microsoft
TechNet Search, and then click OK.
The Data Source Details task pane displays a number of item elements. Each item
element displays information returned by the TechNet Search site as the result of
searching for the terms sharepoint designer 2010.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next exercise.
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188 Chapter 6 Working with Data Sources
Connecting to SOAP Services
A SOAP service, also known as an XML Web service, transports XML data between computer systems by using Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) over HTTP or HTTPS.
SharePoint can act as a SOAP service requester or client—that is, it can request XML
data from a SOAP service and present the data by using a Data View. As with server-side
scripts, the requester can send XML data, instructions (known as methods), parameters,
and values to the XML Web service provider, depending on how the SOAP service is
written. The methods and parameters that a SOAP service supports are described in a
Web Service Description Language (WSDL) file. If a SOAP service supports data manipulation, you will be able to select, insert, update, or delete data on the XML Web service
provider by using the Data Source Properties dialog box to configure each command.
SharePoint also acts as a SOAP service provider, exposed as an ASP.NET Web service, to
supply XML data to other computer systems. Using SharePoint Designer, you can build
client-side applications that use ASP.NET Web services to request data that is not stored
in your team site. The SharePoint SOAP service interface query mechanism requires
the use of Collaborative Application Markup Language (CAML), which is a proprietary
markup language specific to SharePoint technologies. The retrieval of some data might
be quite complex and require the skills of a developer.
SharePoint 2010 introduces new methods of providing data to remote systems—the
client-side object model and the SharePoint Foundation REST interface. These two providers should be used in preference to the legacy ASP.NET Web services. However, the
SharePoint Foundation REST interface, which is detailed in the next section, can only
retrieve information from lists and libraries; developer skills are needed to use the clientside object model. Still, you might find the SharePoint Foundation and SharePoint Server
Web services useful as you build your solutions with SharePoint Designer.
See Also More information about SharePoint Foundation and data access for client
applications can be found at msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ff798473.aspx. Information
about SharePoint 2010 Web services can be found at msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/
ee705814.aspx.
In this exercise, you add a SOAP service connection as a data source.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you used in the previous exercise.
Open the DataSourceTest.aspx page and the Data Sources gallery page if they are not
already open.
1. Click the Data Sources gallery page to activate the commands on the Data
Sources tab, and then click SOAP Service Connection.
SOAP Service
Connec ion
The Data Source Properties dialog box opens.
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Connecting to SOAP Services 189
2. In the Service description location box, type http://<site>/ vti bin/webs.
asmx?wsdl, where <site> is the URL of the top-level site of a site collection. For
example, <site> might be wideworldimporters. Then click Connect Now.
Tip If you cannot connect to the SOAP service connection or you get an error message
that the server returned a nonspecific error or that the Web Part cannot be viewed using
the browser, check the spelling of the server name and the SOAP service vti bin/webs.
asmx?wsdl. If you forget to type ?wsdl after the name of the SOAP service, SharePoint
Designer appends it to the URL. You can connect to other SOAP services at a child-site
level, in which case the service description location becomes, for example, http://<site>/
vti bin/lists.asmx, where <site> is the child site you created using the practice .wsp file
for this chapter, such as wideworldimporters/datasources.
SharePoint Designer connects to the server hosting the SOAP service and populates the dialog box with the responses it receives from the SOAP service provider.
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190 Chapter 6 Working with Data Sources
3. Click OK to close the Data Source Properties dialog box.
The Webs On <site> data connection appears under SOAP Services on the Data
Sources gallery page.
4. Click the DataSourceTest.aspx tab.
5. In the PlaceHolderMain region, click Click here to select a data source. In the
Data Source Picker dialog box, under SOAP Services, click Webs on <site>, and
then click OK.
The Data Source Details task displays an XML root element named soap:Envelope,
which contains a number of child elements. Each Web element contains the title
and URL of a site within the site collection.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next exercise.
Connecting to REST Services
A Representational State Transfer (REST) service is similar to a SOAP service in that it
allows the transport of XML data between computer systems. However, unlike a SOAP
service, REST supports only the four basic application methods—GET, POST, PUT, and
DELETE—although a verb-tunneling technique can hide operations from HTTP and
submit PUT and DELETE requests as a POST request. This enables computer systems to
transfer XML data over networks that block HTTP verbs other than GET and POST. The
XML data is transferred through a REST service in a standardized form, known as ATOM
syndication format, whereas SOAP services use a nonstandard schema. In theory, the
REST service is more portable.
Note The term REST was introduced in 2000 by Roy Fielding, one of the principal authors of
the HTTP specification, to describe the undocumented architectural design principles of the
World Wide Web.
Just as SharePoint can act as a SOAP service provider and client, so it can act as a REST
service provider and client. This lets you use SharePoint Designer to create solutions that
consume XML data from REST services, including XML data retrieved from SharePoint REST
interfaces. The number of SharePoint REST interfaces is small compared to the number of
SharePoint SOAP service interfaces. The two SharePoint 2010 REST interfaces are as follows:
● ListData.svc Provides access to list and library data.
● ExcelRest.aspx Allows for easy discovery of and access to data and objects within a
spreadsheet. This REST interface is available only if you have the Enterprise edition
of SharePoint Server.
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Connecting to REST Services 191
See Also More information about using the SharePoint 2010 REST interface can be found at
msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ff798339.aspx. Information about the Excel Services REST
interface can be found on the Microsoft Excel product team blog site at blogs.msdn.com/b/
excel/archive/tags/REST+API/.
REST uses URL-based syntax to retrieve XML data. The syntax is predictable and therefore can be inferred by a technically savvy user. The syntax format to retrieve data
using ListData.svc is http://<site>/ vti bin/ListData.svc/<list name>(<row>)/<column
name>/<options>, where the terms to the right of ListData.svc are optional. For example,
http://wideworldimporters/ vti bin/ListData.svc/SalesReport(1)/Brand returns only the
value in the Brand column of the first row of the SalesReport list.
You can append query strings to the URLs to specify filter criteria or query logic. For
example, the following URL returns values from the Customer, Brand, and Quantity
Purchased columns from the SalesReport list for those customers whose name starts with
C: http://wideworldimporters/ vti bin/ListData.svc/SalesReport?$filter startswith(Custom
er, ‘C’)&$select Customer,Brand,QuantityPurchased
Tip A REST query is case sensitive and spaces are removed; therefore, the spelling of lists,
libraries, and column names may not be as you expect. A useful option when you are creating
a REST query for the first time is to use the $metadata parameter. This parameter allows you
to see the schema for the list data, which you can use to check your spellings. For example,
http://wideworldimporters/ vti bin/ListData.svc/$metadata.
In this exercise, you create a REST service connection.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you used in the previous exercise.
Open the DataSourceTest.aspx page and the Data Sources gallery page if they are not
already open.
1. Click the Data Sources gallery page to activate the commands on the Data
Sources tab, and then click REST Service Connection.
REST Service
Connec ion
The Data Source Properties dialog box opens.
2. In the Enter the URL to a server-side script box, type http://<site>/ vti bin/
ListData.svc, where <site> is the URL of a SharePoint site. For example, <site>
might be wideworldimporters or wideworldimporters/DataSources.
3. On the General tab, in the Name box, type Lists and Libraries on site.
4. On the Login tab, select Save this username and password in the data connection. Type a user name and password combination that has access to the site.
Important The user name and password are sent over the network as clear text, which
is a security risk.
5. Click OK to close the Data Source Properties dialog box.
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192 Chapter 6 Working with Data Sources
6. Click OK in the warning message that states that the user name and password will
be sent as clear text over the network to the computer running SQL Server.
The Lists And Libraries On Site data connection appears under RSS, REST, Server
Scripts on the Data Sources gallery page.
7. Click the DataSourceTest.aspx tab.
8. In the PlaceHolderMain region, click Click here to select a data source. In the
Data Source Picker dialog box, under RSS, REST, Server Scripts, click Lists and
Libraries on site, and then click OK.
The Data Source Details task pane displays an XML root element named service,
which contain workspace and collection child elements. The collection child element
contains the href (URL) and title of each list or library within the site, including any
hidden lists or libraries. Notice that any list or library that has spaces in its name has
those spaces removed when it’s referred to in the REST interface.
Troubleshooting If an error message is displayed in the Data Source Details task pane that
the server returned a nonspecific error, type http://<site>/ vti bin/ListData.svc in the
address box in your browser. If this results in an error message stating “‘System.Data.Services.
Providers.IDataServiceUpdateProvider’ could not be loaded from an assembly,” it is likely that
the correct version of ADO.NET Data Services is not installed. Be sure to install ADO.NET Data
Services Update for .NET 3.5 SP1, which can be found on Microsoft’s download center at www.
microsoft.com/downloads. Be sure you install the correct update for the operating system you
are running on your SharePoint server.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next exercise.
Connecting to a Database
You can create a database connection by using SharePoint Designer. After the data connection is defined, you can use it to present data from that database in Data Views. A
connection wizard steps you through creating the definition for how SharePoint should
connect to a database. The information you provide includes the name of the server
that is hosting your database and the authentication method to use to retrieve the data.
Using this wizard, you can connect to Microsoft SQL Server databases or databases that
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Connecting to a Database 193
use the OLE DB provider. Alternatively, you can create a custom connection string to make
other database providers available, such as Microsoft .NET Framework Data Providers for
ODBC and Oracle. Your SharePoint server administrator might install other providers.
See Also Information on custom connection strings can be found at www.connectionstrings.
com/sharepoint. This site also contains information about connection strings used to connect
to databases other than SQL Server databases.
When connecting to a SQL Server database you cannot use Windows authentication or
the SharePoint Server single sign-on service, named Secure Store Service (SSS). You are
limited to using a SQL Server authentication user name and password, which are sent
over the network in plain text. The user name and password are also stored in the UDC
file stored in the fpdatasources library and are saved as text within the Data View. All users who view the data using the Data View can access the database by using that user
name and password.
The Business Connectivity Service (BCS) does not have these authentication restrictions,
so most companies use the BCS to create external content types (ECTs) to connect to
databases.
Tip Use the Data Sources gallery page to create database connections when you are
prototyping your solutions, when the data is not sensitive, or when you do not need to
connect to a data source from multiple SharePoint sites. If you do deploy a solution in your
production environment that uses a data sources database connection, be sure the SQL Server
user name has minimum privileges and has access only to the database that the database
connection is related to.
In this exercise, you create a database connection to a SQL Server database.
SET UP Your database administrator needs to provide you with a SQL Server
computer name, database name, table name, and SQL Server credentials for you to
complete this exercise. By default, SQL Server is configured to use only Windows
authentication. To use SQL Server credentials, which is required for the database
data source connection to work, your database administrator needs to change
the SQL Server authentication configuration to use both SQL Server and Windows
authentication. Your database administrator might want to use the Northwind sample
database, which can be found at Microsoft’s download site, www.microsoft.com/
downloads, by using the search keywords northwind sample databases.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you used in the previous exercise.
Open the DataSourceTest.aspx page and the Data Sources gallery page if they are not
already open.
1. Click in the Data Sources gallery page to activate the commands on the Data
Sources tab, and then click Database Connection.
Da abase
Connec ion
The Data Source Properties dialog box opens.
2. On the Source tab, click Configure Database Connection.
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194 Chapter 6 Working with Data Sources
The Configure Database Connection dialog box opens.
3. In the Server Name box, type the name of the server on which the database is
located.
4. In the Provider Name list, check that the provider Microsoft .NET Framework
Data Provider for SQL Server is selected.
5. In the Authentication section, leave the default option selected, and enter the SQL
Server user name and password combination that has access to the database.
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Connecting to a Database 195
Warning On a site hosted by SharePoint Foundation 2010, the Authentication section
does not have the second option, Use Single Sign-On Authentication. On SharePoint
Server this option is available, but it is not usable. Single sign-on, now known as Secure
Store Service, can be used only with external content type data sources.
6. Click Next.
7. Click OK in the warning message that states that the user name and password will
be sent as clear text over the network to the computer running SQL Server.
Troubleshooting If the SharePoint server is unable to connect to the SQL Server
database, a Server Error dialog box is displayed, stating that an authentication error
occurred, the login information might be incorrectly entered, you might not have
permissions to access the SQL Server database, or the requested authentication
method might not be supported. Click OK to close the dialog box, and then check
the information you entered in the Configure Database Connection dialog box. If the
problem persists, you need to contact your database administrator.
The Select Database And Table, View Or Stored Procedure page of the Configure
Database Connection dialog box is displayed.
8. In the Database list, select the database that contains the data you want to access;
for example, Northwind.
The Select A Table Or View list is refreshed and displays the tables and views available in the database you selected.
9. Click the table or view that contains the data you want to retrieve; for example,
Customers.
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Tip If you choose a table or view, SharePoint will create the SQL statements to connect
to the database. You can provide our own SQL SELECT, UPDATE, INSERT INTO, and
DELETE statements or stored procedures. Using stored procedures is more secure than
using SQL statements and should be used in production environments.
10. Click Finish.
The Configure Database Connection dialog box closes. On the Source tab of the
Data Source Properties dialog box, the server name, database name, and table
name are displayed. The Query section displays a list of the fields that are returned
when you use this data connection. You can use the Query section to customize
the SQL statements.
11. Click OK.
The Data Source Properties dialog box closes. The <table> on <database name>
data connection—for example, Customers on Northwind—appears under
Database Connections on the Data Sources gallery page.
12. Click the DataSourceTest.aspx tab.
13. In the PlaceHolderMain region, click Click here to select a data source. In the
Data Source Picker dialog box, under Database Connections, click <table> on
<database name> (for example, Customers on Northwind), and then click OK.
The Data Source Details task pane displays an XML root element named ds­
QueryResponse, which contains NewDataSet and Row child elements. The Row child
element contains the column names from the table or view you selected.
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Using Linked Sources 197
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next
exercise.
Using Linked Sources
Most organizations have data sources that contain interrelated data. For example, before
customers purchase products, you might have to prepare estimates. After they place
their orders, you have to prepare invoices. And, of course, you need to know where to
send the products. The estimate, the invoice, and the customer contact information all
contain related data. In the Data Sources gallery, you can combine two or more related
data sources so that you can expose the data in one Data View.
SharePoint Designer provides you with two options for combining related data:
● Merge Use to combine data sources with the same set of fields. For example, you
might store invoice data in many locations.
● Join Use to combine data sources that have one field in common. For example, a
customer reference number might link the customer details data source and the
invoice details data source.
In this exercise, you combine two data sources into one linked data source and then display the data from the linked data source in a Data View.
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198 Chapter 6 Working with Data Sources
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you used in the previous exercise.
Open the DataSourceTest.aspx page and the Data Sources gallery page if they are not
already open.
1. On the Data Sources tab, click Linked Data Source.
The Data Source Properties dialog box opens.
Linked Da a
Source
2. Click Configure Linked Source to start the Link Data Sources Wizard.
3. In the Available Data Sources list, under SharePoint Lists, click Products, and
then click Add. Under XML Files, click Consignments.xml, and then click Add.
Note Consignments.xml is a file stored in Site Assets. This means that the data
connection for this XML file was dynamically created when you created the site from the
practice .wsp file.
4. Click Next to display the next page of the Link Data Sources Wizard.
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Using Linked Sources 199
5. Click Join the contents of the data sources by using the Data Source Details
to insert data views and joined subviews, and then click Finish.
The Link Data Sources Wizard closes. The Data Source Properties dialog box displays two data sources, Products and Consignments.xml.
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200 Chapter 6 Working with Data Sources
6. On the General tab, in the Name box, type Consignments, and then click OK to
close the Data Source Properties dialog box.
The Consignments linked data source appears in the Data Sources gallery page.
7. Click the DataSourceTest.aspx tab.
8. In the PlaceHolderMain region, click Click here to select a data source. In the
Data Source Picker dialog box, under Linked Sources, click Consignments, and
then click OK.
The Data Source Details task pane displays an XML root element named dsQuery­
Response, with two child elements, Products and Consignments. You may have to
scroll down to see the Consignments child element.
9. In the Data Source Details task pane, under the Products element, click Title.
Hold down the Ctrl key, click Description, then click Insert Selected Fields as, and
then click Multiple Item View.
The DataFormWebPart control shows data from the Products list.
10. In the DataFormWebPart control, click Description, and then on the Table tab,
click Insert Right in the Rows & Columns group.
nser Righ
11. Click a cell in the second row of the new column. In the Data Source Details
task pane, under the Shipments child element, hold down the Ctrl key and click
ConsignmentNumber, CustomerName, and CollectionDate. Click Insert
Selected Fields as, and then click Joined Subview.
The Join Subview dialog box opens.
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Using Linked Sources 201
12. Under Row, click ProductServicesID, and under Shipment, click
ProductServicesID to join the Products list items to the consignment data.
13. Click OK to close the Join Subview dialog box.
The DataFormWebPart control shows the columns from the Products list and data
from the Consignments.xml file.
CLEAN UP Close and save DataSourceTest.aspx. Close the Data Source Details task
pane. Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next exercise.
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202 Chapter 6 Working with Data Sources
Connecting Web Parts
Web Parts, including the XSLT List View (XLV) and Data View Web Parts, can exchange
data—even when different companies produce the Web Parts, and as long as they adhere to the Web Part connection interface specification. One Web Part acts as a data
provider, and the other acts as a consumer of the data. A Web Part developer can
choose to implement both the consumer and provider interfaces, one of the interfaces,
or neither interface. You can use a browser or SharePoint Designer to connect Web Parts,
but SharePoint Designer provides you with additional options.
Typically, you connect Web Parts so that when you click an item in one Web Part, the
contents in one or more other Web Parts change. The data sources that supply content
to both provider and consumer Web Parts must share a common field that you use to
link the Web Parts. When you use the browser or SharePoint Designer, you do not need
to display this common field in both Web Parts to create the Web Part connection. By
using SharePoint Designer, you can connect two Web Parts on the same page as well as
Web Parts on different pages.
Note A Web Part cannot be connected to itself, either directly or through a series of Web Part
connections.
In this exercise, you create a Web Part connection to a Web Part on another page.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you used in the previous exercise if
it is not already open.
1. In the Navigation pane, click Site Pages, and then double-click the icon to the left
of Products.aspx to open the page in edit mode.
2. In the PlaceHolderMain region, click Products to select the
XsltListViewWebPart, and then on the Web Part tab, click Add Connection in
the Connections group.
The Web Part Connections Wizard starts.
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Connecting Web Parts 203
3. Click Next to display the second page of the Web Part Connections Wizard.
Note The first option, Connect To A Web Part On This Page, is not available because no
other Web Parts are on this page.
4. Click Browse to open the Edit Hyperlink dialog box.
5. Double-click SitePages, and then click Consignments.aspx.
The Address text box now contains SitePages/Consignments.aspx.
6. Click OK to close the Edit Hyperlink dialog box.
In the Web Part Connections Wizard, the Page box contains Consignments.aspx.
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204 Chapter 6 Working with Data Sources
7. Click Next to display the third page of the Web Part Connections Wizard. Leave
Target Web Part, Consignments.xml and Target action, Get Filter Values
From selected, and then click Next to display the fourth page of the Web Part
Connections Wizard.
8. Click the last cell under Columns in Products. Click the down arrow that appears
in the cell, scroll down the list, and then click ProductServicesID.
9. Click Next to display the fifth page of the Web Part Connections Wizard, and
then click Finish to close the Web Part Connections Wizard.
Both Products.aspx and Consignments.aspx open with an asterisk on their page
tabs.
10. Save both pages.
Tip If the asterisk reappears on the tab when you try to save the pages, close the
Consignments.aspx tab and click Yes to save changes.
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Key Points 205
11. Display Products.aspx in the browser.
A two-way diagonal arrow appears to the left of each row.
12. Under Express, click the two-way diagonal arrow to the left of Express 9:00.
Two-way arrow
The Consignments.aspx page is displayed in a Multiple Item Form Data View format, showing three consignments for the Express 9:00 delivery service.
Tip To use SharePoint Designer to remove a Web Part connection, click the Web Part,
and then on the Web Part tab, click Manage Connections to display the Web Part
Connections dialog box. Select the connection you want to remove, and then click
Remove.
CLEAN UP Close any open browser windows. Close all open task panes. Leave
SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next chapter.
Key Points
● With the Data Sources gallery page, you can create and manage data connections
to a variety of data sources, including lists, libraries, XML files, RSS feeds, serverside scripts, SOAP services, REST services, and databases.
● Data connections describe a location and query that the SharePoint Data Retrieval
Service uses to obtain data from a data sources.
● The Data Retrieval Services on the Web server return data in an XML format that
SharePoint Designer and Data Views understand.
● SharePoint Designer dynamically creates a data connection for each list, library, and
XML file in the Site Assets library or at the root of the site.
● You can copy and modify a data connection, specifying a different set of fields, fil-
ters, or sort order for a specific data source.
● The fields and filters defined in a data connection control the amount of data that
is retrieved from the data source. Consider carefully your data connection configuration to minimize the load on the Web servers, the amount of data transmitted
over the network, and the time to render a page.
● Web Parts, including XLV Web Parts and Data Views, can exchange data by using
Web Part connections.
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Chapter at a G ance
Create external data sources, page 211
Create Office application
external content types, page 216
Create external lists,
page 225
Export a BDC model,
page 230
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7 Using Business
Connectivity Services
In this chapter, you will learn how to
✔ Create database external data sources.
✔ Create external content types.
✔ Create Office application external content types.
✔ Create and manage external lists.
✔ Work with Office application external content types.
✔ Export and use the BDC model.
✔ Create a profile page and use associations.
✔ Manage external content types.
Microsoft Office SharePoint Server 2007 introduced functionality that allows companies
to present data from back-end applications on Web pages and as column values in lists
and libraries. The Microsoft Business Connectivity Services (BCS), originally called the
Business Data Catalog, was one component of this functionality and is now available in
both Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010 and Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010. The
definitions that allow BCS to connect to back-end applications can also be used to reveal
external data in Microsoft Office 2010 applications, including Microsoft Outlook 2010,
Microsoft Access 2010, Microsoft SharePoint Workspace 2010, Microsoft Word 2010,
Microsoft InfoPath 2010, and Microsoft Excel 2010. Microsoft SharePoint Designer 2010
is one of the main tools you use to create these BCS connection definitions, and you can
also use it to create views and data entry forms with the Data Form Web Part (DFWP).
In this chapter you will learn what BCS is. You learn how to define external data sources
and how to create external content types from those data sources. You also learn how to
create an external content type that can work with Office 2010 applications. Using these
external content types, you will learn how to create an external list and how to export
and use the BDC model so that you can import the model into other SharePoint environments or use it with Office applications. Readers who have the Enterprise edition of
207
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208 Chapter 7 Using Business Connectivity Services
SharePoint Server 2010 will learn how to create profile pages and use associations, which
can be used with Business Data Web Parts.
Practice Files Before you can use the practice files in this chapter, you need to install
them from the book’s companion Web site. For more information about practice file
requirements, see “Using the Practice Files” on page xxiii.
What Is Business Connectivity Services?
BCS bridges the gap between various applications that a company uses and the company’s need to surface key business data from those applications into SharePoint. These
applications can include Siebel, CRM, and SAP, and the data from the applications needs
to appear in SharePoint sites, lists, search functions, and user profiles. In the context of
BCS, these applications are known as external systems. By using BCS, a company can
accomplish the following objectives:
● Reduce or eliminate the code required to access line-of-business (LOB) systems.
● Achieve deeper integration of data in places where a user works.
● Centralize deployment of connection definitions for use by both BCS and Office
applications. This capability is a major advantage of BCS over the connection methods described in Chapter 6, “Working with Data Sources,” where each site owner
needs to acquire connection details of the external system data.
● Reduce latency to access and manipulate data. Once an external system is defined
in BCS, the connection definition is available in all site collections in Web applications within the same service application group. Then, in the browser, data from the
external systems can be presented by using the XSLT List View (XLV) Web Part on
Web pages and business data columns in lists and libraries. On SharePoint Server
Enterprise edition, the Business Data Web Parts are available to present data from
the external systems. In addition, users who can use SharePoint Designer on their
sites can create a DFWP. Both an XLV Web Part and a DFWP can be used to create
views or data entry forms that can create, read, update, and display (CRUD) data
from the external systems.
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What Is Business Connectivity Services? 209
● Centralize data security and auditing.
● Perform structured data searches when a company uses SharePoint Server.
Note You cannot complete the BCS central administration of external systems by using
SharePoint Designer. Your server administrator can delegate these tasks to you, but you need
to use the SharePoint 2010 Central Administration Web site to complete these tasks. The
description of these tasks are outside the scope of this book.
See Also More information on managing BCS from a SharePoint administrator’s perspective
can be found in Microsoft SharePoint 2010 Administrator’s Companion, by Bill English, Brian
Alderman, and Mark Ferraz (Microsoft Press, 2011) and at technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/
ee661742.aspx.
The BCS is divided into three areas:
● Connectivity Before you can access data from an external system, SharePoint must
know how to connect to that external system and the authentication method to
use. Then you can define the data you want to use from the external system. The
connection information is stored in a Business Data Connectivity (BDC) model that
is used to create external content types (ECT), also known as entities.
● Presentation External data can be presented in Office 2010 applications and in
SharePoint by using external lists, business data columns, business data search,
user profile properties, and Web Parts. An external list is created from an ECT. The
connectivity layer of BCS, the BDC layer, uses the information in the ECT to connect
to the external system to display the data in the external list.
● Tools SharePoint Designer 2010 and Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 are ECT design-
ers, as are some third-party tools, such as BCS Meta Man from LightningTools,
which can be found at lightningtools.com/. The ECT is the basic building block for
using external data within SharePoint. These tools allow information workers, business analysts, and developers to define the BDC model, author the ECT, and create
dashboards and composite applications based on data from the external systems.
See Also You can learn more about external content types in the SharePoint SDK at msdn.
microsoft.com/en-us/library/ee556391(office.14).aspx and on the Microsoft Business
Connectivity Services Team blog at blogs.msdn.com/b/bcs.
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210 Chapter 7 Using Business Connectivity Services
Office 2010
SharePoint 2010
Presentation in SharePoint
External lists, Data columns,
Web Parts, search + user profiles data
Tools
Business Data
Connectivity (BDC)
Business Data Connectivity (BDC)
BDC
model file
Connectors
Connectors
External data source
The BCS components (objects)—which include external data source definitions, ECTs, and
their associated operations—are stored centrally in a BCS SQL Server database, known
as the BDC Metadata Store. Therefore, once they are created, the BCS components are
available for use by other sites. Because BCS components are not stored as part of a
site, they are not included in a site template. However, you can export the definitions
into an XML file known as the BDC model file. Then, using the SharePoint 2010 Central
Administration Web site or Windows PowerShell, the BDC model can be imported into a
SharePoint installation. You use the BDC model file when you want to connect directly to
the external system from an Office 2010 application.
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Creating Database External Data Sources 211
The easiest and most effective way to connect to an external system is to use SharePoint
Designer. The advantage of using BCS over the methods described in Chapter 6 is that
you need to define external data source connections only once as an ECT, and then
you can use that ECT on many sites. You also have the capability of using single sign-on
when the Secure Store Service (SSS) is configured on a SharePoint Server 2010 installation. The disadvantage is that you need to enlist the assistance of the server administrator, because ECTs are stored centrally in the BDC Metadata Store, and not everyone in
your organization will have permissions to create or modify ECTs. (In comparison, site
owners can create site-level data source definitions, and you do not need any special
permissions assigned to you by the server administrator.)
To connect and retrieve data from an external system, the following tasks are required:
● Create an external data source connection.
● Define the operations to retrieve, modify, and delete content stored in that data
source as appropriate to your business requirements.
● Create an ECT based on an external data source.
● Use the ECT to present the data from the external data source as an external list, an
external data column, a Web Part, or within an Office application.
Creating Database External Data Sources
To connect to external systems, you need to know the data source type, connection
properties, and the operations you want to use on the data. The following data source
types can be used:
● Databases
● Cloud-based services
● Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) endpoints
● Web services
● .NET assemblies that can gather data from multiple sources
● Custom external systems that have a nonstatic interface that changes dynamically
With SharePoint Designer you can only define external systems that use the data source
types SQL Server, .NET, and WCF Service. To define external systems using other data
source types, you must use an alternate tool.
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212 Chapter 7 Using Business Connectivity Services
See Also You might have external systems that you want to connect to using SharePoint
Designer but that do not provide an interface that you can use. One method to work
around this situation is to expose the data from your external system as a Web service. The
Microsoft Business Connectivity Services team has a two-part blog titled “Making Web
Services BCS Friendly.” The first part of the series can be found at blogs.msdn.com/b/bcs/
archive/2009/11/18/making-web-services-bcs-friendly-part-1.aspx.
The connection properties include the authentication mechanism you are going to use to
connect to the external data source. External data sources are not an integral component
of a SharePoint installation, so you need to configure the authentication method that will
be used to retrieve, modify, and delete (if appropriate) the data from an external data
source. In SharePoint Designer the following BCS authentication modes can be defined:
● User’s Identity When a user requests a SharePoint page that displays data from an
external data source, SharePoint sends the user’s credentials to the external data
source and allows the external data source to decide whether that user is allowed
access. In most installations, to use Windows authentication credentials, your server
administrator needs to configure a computer network authentication protocol
named Kerberos; otherwise, a login-failed message is displayed. Your server administrator might know this authentication mode as PassThrough.
● Impersonate Windows Identity Both this and the next authentication mode re-
quire the use of SSS and are available only on SharePoint Server.
● Impersonate Custom Identity Credentials mapped in a database are sent to the
external data source.
● BDC Identity SharePoint passes a special user name to the external data source for
authentication purposes. This user name has a high level of privileges on a SharePoint
installation. Therefore, Microsoft does not recommend the use of this authentication
mode, and it is disabled by default. BDC Identity is also known as RevertToSelf.
See Also For more information on authenticating to your external system and the BCS built-in
permissions, see the Microsoft Business Connectivity Services team blogs at blogs.msdn.com/b/
bcs/archive/2010/03/12/authenticating-to-your-external-system.aspx, blogs.msdn.com/b/bcs/
archive/2009/11/24/permissions-in-business-connectivity-services.aspx, and blogs.msdn.com/b/
ericwhite/archive/2010/06/18/consuming-a-claims-enabled-wcf-web-service-as-an-sharepoint2010-external-content-type.aspx.
You can define or modify external data sources only by using the Operations Design
view of an ECT settings page. To define external system content source definitions, ECT
operations, and ECTs in SharePoint Designer, your server administrator must give you the
Edit permission on the Metadata Store.
In this exercise, you create an external data source for a SQL Server database.
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Creating Database External Data Sources 213
SET UP Before you can complete this exercise, you must obtain from your server
administrator the name of the computer running SQL Server, the database name, and the
authentication method that you use to connect to the database. Your database administrator
might want to use the Northwind sample database, which can be found at Microsoft’s
download site (www.microsoft.com/downloads) by using the search keywords northwind
sample databases.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you created and modified in earlier
chapters. If you did not create a team site, follow the steps in Chapter 1 before you
begin this exercise.
1. In the Navigation pane, click External Content Types.
The External Content Types gallery page is displayed in the workspace. The workspace might be empty if no ECTs have been created.
2. On the External Content Types tab, click External Content Type in the New
group.
Ex erna Con en
Types
The External Content Type settings page is displayed with an asterisk on the label.
On the External Content Types tab, the Operations Design View command in the
View group is active.
3. In the External Content Type Information area, to the right of External System,
click Click here to discover external data sources and define operations.
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214 Chapter 7 Using Business Connectivity Services
The ECT Operation Designer view is displayed. On the External Content Types tab
in the Views group, the Summary View command is active and the Operations
Design View command is inactive.
Tip You can switch between the ECT Summary and Operations Design views by using
the two commands in the Views group on the External Content Types tab.
4. Click Add Connection.
The External Data Source Type Selection dialog box opens.
5. In the Data Source Type list, select SQL Server.
6. Click OK.
The SQL Server Connection dialog box opens.
7. In the Database Server box, type the name of the server computer. In the
Database Name box, type the name of your SQL Server database (such as
Northwind), and in the Name (optional) box, type SPD SBS NorthWind so that
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Creating Database External Data Sources 215
you can identify the connection. Next, select the authentication method you are
going to use to connect to the SQL Server computer.
8. Click OK to close the SQL Server Connection dialog box.
In the Operations Design view, SPD SBS NorthWind is displayed on the Data Source
Explorer tab.
Note The database is now registered centrally as an external system and can be used
by other users in other sites. In the SharePoint 2010 Central Administration Web site,
the external system is named northwind. Your server administrators might also see
an external system named SharePoint-<databasename>-<userid>-<guid>, where
<database> is the name of the SQL Server database,<userid> is the user name of the
person who created the external system, and <guid> is a randomly generated number.
For example, the full name might be SharePointDesigner-northwind-Peter-22e0dc02e54c-4084-9f04-719dbbaccf39. This entry in the BDC Metadata Store is created if a
connection definition is created prior to the external creation of the ECT.
9. Expand SPD SBS NorthWind, Tables, Orders and Columns. Then click
ShipName.
The schema of the external system is displayed, including primary keys for each
table and the properties for each field. The Data Source Explorer can be used to
explore SQL Server database views and routines.
Summary View
10. On the External Content Types tab, click Summary View in the Views group.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next
exercise.
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216 Chapter 7 Using Business Connectivity Services
Creating External Content Types
When you create an ECT, you can select the external data source (if it was previously defined) or define a new content source and the create, read, update, and display (CRUD)
operations you want to execute on that external data source. SharePoint Designer provides you with an Operations Wizard to create the access methods you want for your
solution. The Operations Wizard consists of three pages:
● Operation Properties Consists of the operation name, operation display name,
and operation type. When you create operations for a database external data
source, there is an option to create all operations by running the operations wizard
once. In this scenario, the operation properties are automatically generated, and
the operation names will be Create, Read Item, Update, Delete, and Read List.
● Parameters On this page you can select the fields, known as elements, you use in
your solution. The Properties section displays properties you can modify for each
data source element, including the identifier name, field name, and name of the
field when it is displayed in the browser. You must select at least one field to be
shown in the external item picker control. By default, all fields are shown in the external item picker. If the external data source has a large number of fields, displaying them all in the external item picker might confuse users. Therefore, it is better
to select a small set of elements that best describes an item.
● Filter Parameters Use to optimize the data that is returned from the external sys-
tem. The filter types available are Comparison, Limit, Page Number, Timestamp,
and Wildcard. For string data types, use the Wildcard filter type because this is
translated internally to a LIKE clause in queries to get the data.
Once the operations for the data source are configured, you have created a BDC model.
When you click the Save command, the BDC model is stored in the BDC Metadata Store.
In this exercise, you create operations for a data source and define the parameters the
operations use.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you used in the previous exercise
if it is not already open. Display the Summary view of the external content type you
created in the previous exercise.
1. In the External Content Type Information area, to the right of Name, click New
external content type, and type SPD SBS Orders.
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Creating External Content Types 217
2. To the right of Display Name, click New external content type.
The text SPD SBS Orders is copied to the right of Display Name.
Troubleshooting If an External Content Type Rename Confirmation dialog box is
displayed, stating that an ECT with the name SPD SBS Orders already exists, click Yes to
rename your content type to SPD SBS Orders (xx), where xx are your initials.
3. On the External Content Types tab, click Operations Design View in the Views
Opera ions
Design View
group. On the Data Source Explorer tab, expand SPD SBS NorthWind and expand Tables, if it is not already expanded.
4. Right-click a table, such as Orders, and then click the operation you want to create,
such as Create All Operations.
Note Database connections have the Create All Operations option available. The option
is not available in other data source types.
The All Operations dialog box opens. In the Errors And Warnings box is a list of errors and warnings that let you know what information still needs to be provided to
complete the operation specification.
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218 Chapter 7 Using Business Connectivity Services
5. Click Next.
The second page of the All Operations dialog box—Parameters Configuration—is
displayed.
6. Under Data Source Elements, select OrderDate, and be sure you have not
cleared the check box to the left of OrderDate.
7. Under Properties, in the Display Name box, place the insertion point between
Order and Date, and then press Space. Then select the check box to the right of
Show In Picker.
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Creating External Content Types 219
8. Repeat step 7 so that the display names of the fields OrderID, CustomerID, and
ShipName are Order ID, Customer ID and Ship Name, and that all three fields
will appear in the picker. Click Next.
The third page of the All Operations dialog box—Filter Parameters Configuration—
is displayed.
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220 Chapter 7 Using Business Connectivity Services
9. Click Add Filter Parameter.
The OrderID element is listed under Filter Parameters, and the properties of
OrderID are displayed under Properties.
10. Under Properties, to the right of Filter, click Click to Add.
The Filter Configuration dialog box opens.
11. In the New Filter box, delete Filter, and then type Top 100 Orders. Then, under
Filter Properties, in the Filter Type list, select Limit.
12. Click OK. The Filter Configuration dialog box closes.
In the All Operations dialog box, under Properties, Top 100 Orders: Limit is displayed to the right of Filter.
13. Under Properties, in the Default Value list, highlight the text <<None>>, and
type 100.
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Creating External Content Types 221
14. Click Finish.
The All Operations dialog box closes. In the External Content Type Operations area
of the Operations Design view, the five operations—Create, Read Item, Update,
Delete, and Read List—are displayed. On the External Content Types tab, the commands in the Operation group are now active.
Note The operations, data source element, and parameter information are now
registered centrally as a BDC model and can be used by other users in other sites.
In the SharePoint 2010 Central Administration Web site, the BDC model is named
SharePoint-<databasename>-<userid>-<guid>, where <database> is the name
of the SQL Server database,<userid> is the user name of the person who created
the external system, and <guid> is a randomly generated number (for example,
SharePointDesigner-northwind-Peter-22e0dc02-e54c-4084-9f04-719dbbaccf39).
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222 Chapter 7 Using Business Connectivity Services
15. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Save.
Save
A dialog box is displayed briefly, stating that SharePoint is storing the ECT to the
BDC Metadata Store.
Troubleshooting If an error dialog box is displayed stating that saving the ECT failed,
you are probably saving an ECT without connecting it to an external content source and
have not defined at least one operation on that content source. Complete the previous
two exercises, and then return to this step.
The label name changes to SPD SBS Orders, and the asterisk disappears.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next
exercise.
Creating Office Application External Content Types
Microsoft made it possible to display external data in Office applications. You can also
take the external data offline by using Microsoft Outlook and Microsoft SharePoint
Workspace. A user can connect external lists with these two Office applications. Behind
the scenes, a BDC model is packaged and deployed to the user’s computer. Microsoft
categorizes this type of a solution, in which a user clicks a button to deploy the BDC
model, as a BCS simple solution. To assist in tight integration, especially with Microsoft
Outlook and external lists, before you define the operations of an ECT, you must specify
whether a user is allowed to take the data presented in an external list offline. You also
need to configure the Office item type, of which there are four:
● Appointment
● Contact
● Task
● Post
When you define the data source operations, you map data source elements to Office
properties. The mapping of elements to Office properties can be configured only when
an operation is created. You cannot change the Office item type or the mappings after
the operations are created. Be sure you plan the current and future use of your ECTs
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Creating Office Application External Content Types 223
before you create them. Also, you can only choose to map those elements that have a
compatible Office properties data type.
In this exercise, you create a new ECT and map it to the Contact Office item type.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open.
1. In the Navigation pane, click External Content Types, and then on the External
Content Types tab, click External Content Type.
Ex erna Con en
Type
2. In the External Content Type Information area, to the right of Name, click New
external content type, and then type SPD SBS Customers.
3. To the right of Display Name, click New external content type. SPD SBS
Customers is copied to Display Name.
4. In the Office Item Type list, select Contact.
5. In the External Content Type Information area, to the right of External System,
click Click here to discover external data sources and define operations.
The Operations Design view of the ECT is displayed.
6. On the Data Source Explorer tab, right-click a table, such as Customers, and then
click the operation you want to create, such as Create All Operations.
7. In the All operations dialog box, click Next.
The Parameters Configuration page is displayed.
8. Under Data Source Elements, select CompanyName (be sure you do not clear
the check box), and then under Properties, in the Office Property list, select
Company Name (CompanyName).
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224 Chapter 7 Using Business Connectivity Services
9. Repeat the previous step to map the following data resource elements to matching
Office properties:
Data source element
Office property
Contact Name
Full Name (FullName)
Contact Title
Job Title (JobTitle)
Address
Business Address (BusinessAddress)
City
Business Address City (BusinessAddressCity)
Region
Business Address State (BusinessAddressState)
Postal Code
Business Address Postal Code (BusinessAddressPostalCode)
Country
Business Address Country/Region (BusinessAddressCountry)
Phone
Business Telephone Number (BusinessTelephoneNumber)
Fax
Business Fax Number (BusinessFaxNumber)
10. Click Next, and then click Finish.
The All Operations dialog box closes, and the five operations are listed in
Operations Design view.
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Creating and Managing External Lists 225
11. Right-click the SPD SBS Customers tab, and then click Save.
12. On the workspace breadcrumb, click External Content Types.
The External Content Types gallery page is displayed.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next
exercise.
Creating and Managing External Lists
No matter which version of SharePoint 2010 you have installed, the preferred method of
displaying data from external data sources is to use an external list. Depending on the
operations you have specified in an ECT, an external list can provide CRUD capabilities.
The external list can also be added to a SharePoint page as an XLV Web Part or a Data
View. This lets you configure additional columns, conditional formatting, and sorting and
grouping in the browser and in SharePoint Designer.
Note If you have SharePoint Server 2010 Enterprise edition, you can also use the Business
Data Web Parts.
You create external lists by using the browser, SharePoint Designer, Windows PowerShell,
or code. After you create these lists, you will find that they have similar functionally to
other SharePoint lists. However, you cannot associate RSS feeds to external lists. There
is also no Datasheet view, nor can you bind workflows to the data—because the data
is not in SharePoint, you cannot trigger workflows on data changes. However, using
SharePoint Designer, you can create a site, list, or reusable workflow that accesses one or
more external lists.
Although you might have permissions to create a BDC model, an ECT, and external lists,
you might not be able to see the data in the external list or on a page that contains an
external list XLV Web Part. Using the SharePoint 2010 Central Administration Web site,
a server administrator can set permissions on data source elements, and once you have
created an ECT, your SharePoint installation can be configured to not allow anyone to
see the data from the external data source. However, other systems or users—those using Office applications, for example—might be able to connect directly to the external system without using the BCS permissions you have configured in SharePoint. You might need
to contact your server administrator before you can progress further with your solution.
External lists can be created and managed from the Lists And Libraries gallery page, the
Data Sources gallery page, and from the ECT settings page.
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In this exercise, you create an external list and a new list view page for that external list.
You will check that you have permission to the ECT before modifying the list view.
SET UP Ask your SharePoint server administrator to give you permissions to the
two ECTs you created in the previous exercises. For a list of steps that a SharePoint
administrator follows to set permissions on an ECT, see Appendix C on page 503 and
refer to Chapter 18, “Aggregating External Data Sources,” in Microsoft SharePoint
2010 Administrator’s Companion.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you used in the previous exercise,
and then open the External Content Types gallery page if it is not already open.
1. Click the icon to the left of SPD SBS Customers, and then on the External
Content Types tab, click External List in the New group.
Ex erna Lis
The Create External List dialog box opens.
2. In the Name box, type NorthWind Customers, and in the Description box type
The data displayed in this external list is retrieved from the Customer table
in the Northwind database.
3. Click OK.
The NorthWind Customers list settings page is displayed. In the Views area, one
view is listed: SPD SBS Customers Read List. In the Forms area, three forms are
listed, DispForm.aspx, EditForm.aspx, and NewForm.aspx. The view and the three
forms use the XLV Web Part to display and update data on the external system.
4. On the List Settings tab, click List View in the New group.
The Create New List View dialog box opens.
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Creating and Managing External Lists 227
5. In the Name box, type ByCountry.
6. Click OK.
The Create New List View dialog box closes. In the Views area, ByCountry appears.
7. In the Navigation pane, click External Content Types, and then click SPD SBS
Customers.
The contents of the Permissions area should contain your name or a group of which
you are a member and show that you have at least Edit, Execute, and Selectable In
Client permissions. The External Lists area contains the name of the external list you
created in step 2.
8. In the External Lists area, click NorthWind Customers, and then on the External
Content Types tab, click Go to List in the Lists & Forms group.
Go o Lis
The NorthWind Customers list settings page is displayed.
9. In the Views area, click ByCountry.
TheByCountry.aspx page opens in edit mode.
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Note When your site is created on a SharePoint Server installation, you have the option
of replacing the existing browser forms with InfoPath forms by clicking the Design
Forms In InfoPath command on the List Settings tab.
10. In Design view, click CustomerID, and then on the List View Tools, Options tab,
click Sort & Group.
11. In the Sort and Group dialog box, under Available fields, click Country, and then
click Add. Under Group Properties, click Show group header. Click OK.
The Sort And Group dialog box closes, and the XsltListViewWebPart displays the
contents from the Northwind database grouped by country.
Note The XLV Web Part in SharePoint Designer will show only five items from the
Northwind database, even though the Customer table has more rows. When you use the
browser to request ByCountry.aspx, the rows returned are grouped in sets of 30 items.
12. Save ByCountry.aspx, and then on the Navigation pane, click Data Sources.
The Data Sources gallery page opens. NorthWind Customers is displayed under
External Lists.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next
exercise.
Working with Office Application External Content Types
Whenever you create an ECT, you must test whether your data source definitions are
correct. For an Office application ECT—one for which you selected an Office item type,
mapped elements to Office properties, and enabled offline use of the external data—
this means connecting the external data to an Office 2010 application, such as Outlook
or SharePoint Workspace. In Outlook, for example, depending on the Office item type
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Working with Office Application External Content Types 229
chosen, the external list can be shown in the Contacts, Calendar, or Tasks pane, as well as
in the SharePoint External Lists folder. If you mapped a data source element to the Office
e-mail property, you should be able to use Outlook to send an e-mail message to the
person whose e-mail address is stored in the external data source.
Note Connecting an external list to Outlook or SharePoint Workspace can only be done from
SharePoint Server 2010 with an Enterprise Client Access License. All other servers, including
SharePoint Foundation 2010, are not supported by Microsoft.
Office clients have a SQL Server Compact Edition client database installed that caches
external data and allows both online (connected) access and offline (disconnected, or
cached connection mode) access. If amendments are made while the client is offline,
they are stored in the client data cache and committed to the external data source when
the client is next online. External lists, unlike other types of lists you connect to, are not
controlled by the Outlook Send/Receive settings. External lists are synchronized by default every six hours. When you right-click an external list in Outlook, you can see the
synchronization status and when the data was last refreshed from the external system.
You can then force synchronization.
See Also The Microsoft Business Data Connectivity Services team blog “Deploying BCS
Simple Solutions,” found at blogs.msdn.com/b/bcs/archive/2010/02/25/deploying-bcs-simplesolutions.aspx, contains details on using external lists with the Connect to Outlook and Sync to
SharePoint Workspace options. The MSDN article found at msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/
ff677562.aspx details the use of Excel 2010 with BCS.
In this exercise, you connect an external data source to Outlook. You need Outlook 2010
to complete this exercise.
SET UP Using the browser, open the site you used in the previous exercise.
1. On the Quick Launch, under the Lists section, click the name of the external list,
such as NorthWind Customers.
2. On the List Tools, List tab, click Connect to Outlook in the Connect & Export
Connec o
Ou ook
group.
Troubleshooting If you do not see the Connect To Outlook option, return to the SPD
SBS Customers ECT, and in the External Content Type Information area, be sure that the
Office Sync For External List option is set to Enabled. Save your changes, and then repeat
step 1.
3. If a Microsoft Office Customization Installer dialog box is displayed, click Install
to verify the installation, and then click Close.
Outlook opens, and you might be asked to supply your user name and password. In the Outlook navigation pane, under SharePoint External Lists, the
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230 Chapter 7 Using Business Connectivity Services
<site> - <External List name> list is displayed, where <site> is the name of the site
on which the external list was created. Customer details are shown in the main pane.
Troubleshooting If the external list does not appear in the Outlook navigation pane,
press Ctrl + F9 or click the Solutions icon at the bottom of the navigation pane.
So u ion
4. In the Outlook navigation pane, select Contacts.
Under My Contacts, the <site> - <External List name> list is displayed
Note When you connect a list or library to Outlook, the list or library appears in its
respective area of the Outlook navigation pane. Calendars appear in the Calendar pane
under Other Calendars; tasks appear in the Tasks pane under Other Tasks; and Contacts
lists appear in the Contacts pane under Other Contacts. Discussion lists and libraries
appear in a folder in the Mail pane under SharePoint Lists.
CLEAN UP Close Outlook and close the browser.
Exporting and Using the BDC Model
External content types are metadata objects defined in the BDC model XML file, which
usually has the extension .bdcm. The BDC model is usually created by a business analyst,
a developer, and a database administrator (DBA). Among them, they have the knowledge of the external data source as well as how the data will be used. They might not
create the BDC model on the SharePoint installation where it is finally needed. They
might create it in a development or prototype environment. Also, even though the BDC
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Exporting and Using the BDC Model 231
model can be created using SharePoint Designer, and part of that creation process stores
the BDC model in the BDC Metadata Store, the BDC model may have been created for
use with an Office application. Therefore, you need a mechanism for exporting a BDC
model from one SharePoint system to another (default export) and to an Office application (client export).
SharePoint Designer can be used to export BDC models that it creates; however, it
cannot be used to import BDC models into SharePoint. That is a job for the server administrator and the SharePoint 2010 Central Administration Web site. Again, whatever
environment a BDC model is planned for, it must be tested.
Note Not all Office client applications can write to an external system, even though the
external system supports the operations and the operations are correctly modeled in the
BCS. For example, for Word 2010, BCS exposes read-only data in content controls that map to
external data columns in a SharePoint document library. Also, you can import a BDC model
into Access 2010 to create read-only tables.
In this exercise, you export a BDC model and then use it to create a linked table in Access
2010. You need Access 2010 to complete this exercise.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you used in previous exercises.
1. On the Navigation pane, click External Content Types.
The External Content Types gallery page is displayed.
2. Click the icon to the left of SPD SBS Customers, and then on the External
Content Types tab, click Export BDC Model in the Manage group.
Expor BDC
Mode
The Export BDC Model dialog box opens.
3. In the BDC Model Name box, type NorthWind Customers, and in the Settings
list, select Client.
4. Click OK. The File Save dialog box opens.
5. Navigate to Documents. In the File name box, remove the space between
NorthWind and Customers and change the file extension from bdcm to xml so
that the file name appears as NorthWindCustomers.xml. Click Save.
6. Open Access 2010. The Backstage view of Access is displayed.
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232 Chapter 7 Using Business Connectivity Services
7. With Blank database selected under Available Templates, in the File Name box
type SPDSBS.accdb, and then click Create.
8. Right-click the Table1 tab, and then click Close.
9. On the External Data tab, click More in the Import & Link group, and then click
More
Data Services.
The Create A Link To Data Services dialog box opens.
10. Click Install new connection.
The Select A Connection Definition File dialog box opens.
11. Navigate to Documents, select NorthWindCustomers.xml, and then click OK.
The Select A Connection Definition File dialog box closes, and under Create Link To
Data Services, SPD SBS NorthWind is listed.
12. Expand SPD SBS NorthWind, and then click SPD SBS Customers.
The column names from the Customers table are displayed.
13. Click Create Linked Table.
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Creating a Profile Page 233
The Create A Link To Data Services dialog box closes, and in the Access navigation
pane, under Tables, the linked table SPD SBS Customers is listed.
14. Double-click SPD SBS Customers.
A tab labeled SPD SBS Customers opens and lists the contents from the Northwind
database Customers table.
CLEAN UP Close Access. Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the
next exercise.
Creating a Profile Page
After you create a BDC model, you need to create a profile page for each ECT, which you
can use to view a single row of data from the external system. On the Enterprise edition
of SharePoint Server 2010, it is very easy to create a profile page by using SharePoint
Designer or the SharePoint 2010 Central Administration Web site, which also creates an
external data action named View Profile. This external action is the default action for
the ECT. If a user clicks an external data item, she is redirected to the profile page. The
profile page consists of a Business Data Item Builder and a Business Data Item Web Part.
These Web Parts are available only if you are using the Enterprise edition of SharePoint
Server 2010.
Because ECTs can be used on many sites, it is common practice for all profile pages to
be hosted at one location. On SharePoint Server, this location is configured by using
the SharePoint 2010 Central Administration Web site. For you to create and modify a
profile page in SharePoint Designer, the hosted location must be configured and you
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234 Chapter 7 Using Business Connectivity Services
must have, at minimum, the Add And Customize permission for the hosted location. For
a list of steps that a SharePoint administrator can follow to configure the hosted location, see Appendix C on page 503 and refer to Chapter 18 in Microsoft SharePoint 2010
Administrator’s Companion.
Note For users to render the profile page in the browser, they need read-only permissions on
the hosted location.
At first glance, it also seems easy to create a profile page for ECTs created on SharePoint
Foundation or the Standard edition of SharePoint Server 2010. When the settings page
for an ECT opens in SharePoint Designer, the Create Profile Page command is active.
However, when you click the command, a “Server could not complete your request”
message appears, with an empty Details dialog box. This message is not a true indication of the error. Ideally, the Create Profile Page command would be inactive for sites
created on SharePoint Foundation or the Standard edition of SharePoint Server. To simulate the Create Profile Page command, you need to create a page using Data Views and
then create custom actions as detailed in Chapter 3, “Working with Lists and Libraries.”
Alternatively, a SharePoint server administrator can create an external custom action by
using the SharePoint 2010 Central Administration Web site.
Another issue is that after you create a profile page, within SharePoint Designer it is not
obvious that one has been created or where it is hosted if one does exist. If you try to
create a profile page and one does exist, a dialog box opens asking whether you want
to overwrite the page. However, you still do not know the hosted location of the profile
page. You can ask your SharePoint server administrator where the page is located or
check the location by creating, for example, an external data column on an existing list
and then looking at the URL where the profile page is located.
An external data column allows you to add data from an ECT to a standard SharePoint
list. In SharePoint Server 2007, external data columns were referred to as business data
columns. You can create many column types in SharePoint Designer, but this does not
include external data columns. You can rename and delete external data columns in
SharePoint Designer, but you cannot create them. To check whether your profile page
was successfully created, you need to use the browser.
Note If an external data column is added to a document library, the column can be made
available as a content control in Word 2010. More information can be found at blogs.msdn.
com/b/bcs/archive/2010/02/15/surfacing-business-data-in-word-2010-using-external-datacolumns-and-the-external-item-content-control.aspx.
In this exercise, you create a profile page and test that the profile page was successfully
created.
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Creating a Profile Page 235
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer; open the site you used in previous exercises if it
is not already open.
1. On the Navigation pane, click External Content Types, and then click SPD SBS
Customers.
2. On the External Content Types tab, click Create Profile Page in the Profile Page
group.
The Profile Page Creation dialog box opens temporarily while the profile page is
created.
Troubleshooting If you receive an error that the profile page cannot be created until
the host site is defined, contact your SharePoint server administrator to configure the
hosted location.
3. Open your site in the browser, and then on the Quick Launch, click a list, such as
Tasks.
The All Tasks list view page is displayed.
4. On the List Tools, List tab, click Create Column in the Manage Views group.
The Create Column dialog box opens.
Crea e Co umn
5. In the Column name box, type Customers, and then under The type of information in this column is, select External Data.
The Create Column dialog box is displayed again.
6. In the Additional Column Settings section, in the External Content Type box,
type SPD SBS Customers, and then click the icon to the right of the box that displays the ScreenTip Check if External Content Type exits.
7. In the Select the Field to be shown on this column list, select CompanyName
and leave the check box Link this column to the Default Action of the External
Content Type selected.
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236 Chapter 7 Using Business Connectivity Services
8. At the bottom of the dialog box, click OK.
The All Tasks list view now contains a column labeled Customers.
9. Click Add new item to open the Tasks—New Item dialog box.
10. In the Title box, type Profile Page Check. In the Customers box, click the second
icon to the right of the box, which has the ScreenTip Select External Item(s).
The Choose SPD SBS Customers—Webpage Dialog dialog box opens.
11. Select the first item in the list, click OK, and then click Save.
A new task item is added to the All Tasks list view.
12. Under the Customers column, click the arrow to the left of the customer’s name,
and click View Profile.
The profile page you created in step 2 is displayed. The URL of the page will have
the format http://<host location>/ bdc/http <site>/SPD%20%SBS%20Customers.
aspx?CustomerID <value>, where <site> is the URL of the site where you created
the ECT, and <value> is the primary key to retrieve the customer details from the
Northwind database.
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Using Associations 237
CLEAN UP Close the browser. Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing
to the next exercise.
Using Associations
Associations can be created when there is a relationship between two ECTs, such as customers and orders. Each customer can have one or many orders. This is known as a oneto-many relationship. These ECTs could define data from the same external system or
two different ones. Customer details might be stored in a CRM system, and order details
in a separate external system. Defining an association in an ECT documents this relationship. You do not need to create an association in an ECT to use linked data sources when
joining or merging data and displaying the data in a Data View. (See Chapter 6 for more
information.) However, you must create an association if you want to use the Business
Data Related List Web Part to provide a relationship—a Web Part connection—between
the Business Data Related List Web Part and a Business Data List Web Part.
To create an association, at least one field must be common to both ECTs—for example,
orders can be identified with a unique customer. Usually the relationship is configured
so that the customer field in the orders ECT uses the same value that is the primary key
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238 Chapter 7 Using Business Connectivity Services
field in the customers ECT. The customer field in the orders ECT is known as a foreign
key. In the Northwind database, the primary key in the Customers table is CustomerID,
and the foreign key in the Orders table is CustomerID. It is common practice to design
tables so that the primary key and a foreign key have the same column names—this help
identify relationships between tables. You can also create cascading associations. An
example of a cascading association is when a customer has many orders and each order
consists of many products.
You can use SharePoint Designer to create one-to-many associations when the relationship is defined using foreign keys, including self-referential associations (relating
instances of the same external content type). Alternative tools can be used to create
other relationships, such as one-to-many and many-to-many relationships, when foreign keys are not used or where a primary key is made from multiple columns, known
as a composite key.
Warning In an association between two ECTs, SharePoint 2010 cannot ensure the referential
integrity between the ECTs, unlike linking two tables in a relational database, where business
logic can be used.
On database-based ECTs, you create the association on a table—the same table used to
create the other operations. For ECTs based on a Web service or WCF, you create the association on the appropriate Web method. You can add filter parameters to a databasebased ECT association but not to a WCF-based association. Reverse associations—that is,
you provide an order ID and return the customer associated with that order—cannot be
created on a database-based ECT.
See Also The Microsoft Business Connectivity Services team has released a blog post on
associations and SharePoint Designer at blogs.msdn.com/b/bcs/archive/2010/01/15/toolingassociations-in-sharepoint-designer-2010.aspx. Two short videos on associations and Web
Parts are available at www.youtube.com/watch?v=YibQVIgJQG4 and www.youtube.com/
watch?v=WWvTLXW3lw0.
In this exercise, you create an association.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open.
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Using Associations 239
1. In the Navigation pane, click External Content Types. On the gallery page, click
the ECT in which the foreign key is defined, such as SPD SBS Orders.
The SPD SBS Orders settings page is displayed.
2. On the External Content Types tab, click Operations Design View.
3. In the Data Source Explorer, expand SPD SBS NorthWind, and then expand
Opera ions
Design View
Tables. Right-click Orders, and then click New Associations.
Important Always create an association on the ECT that is on the many side of the oneto-many relationship. This is the ECT in which the foreign key is defined, also known as
the child ECT.
The Association Wizard opens.
4. In the Association Name box, type GetOrdersForCustomer, and in the
Association Display Name box, type Get Orders for Customer.
5. To the right of Related External Content Type, click Browse.
The External Content Type Selection dialog box opens.
6. Click SPD SBS Customers in the External Content Type picker, and then click OK.
The External Content Type Selection dialog box closes, and in the Operations
Design view, under Related Identifier, CustomerID appears and is automatically
mapped to the foreign key for the Orders ECT.
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240 Chapter 7 Using Business Connectivity Services
7. Click Next to display the Input Parameters page of the Association Wizard.
An error message is displayed in the Errors And Warnings box, stating that a data
source element that represents the identifier CustomerID of the external content
type needs to be selected.
8. Under Data Source Elements, click CustomerID, and then under Properties, select the option Map to Identifier.
The error message in the Errors And Warnings box disappears.
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Using Associations 241
9. Click Next twice. The Return Parameter Configuration page of the Association
Wizard is displayed.
10. Under Data Source Elements, select OrderID. Do not clear the check box. Under
Properties, select the check box for Map to Identifier, if it is not already selected.
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11. Click Finish.
The Association Wizard closes. In the External Content Type Operations area, the
GetOrdersByCustomer association is listed.
CLEAN UP Save the SPD SBS Orders ECT. Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are
continuing to the next exercise.
Managing External Content Types
In SharePoint Designer you can manage ECT data sources, remove operations and associations, and manage filters by using Summary or Operations Design view. In Summary
view, you can switch the ECT to another compatible external system and edit connection
properties such as those specific to the default or client connection, the database server
name, the database name, and the authentication method. You can also view, but not
modify, BCS permissions and field properties. In Operations Design view, by using ribbon
commands you can remove connections, edit and remove operations, create external
lists, and create list view pages as an ASPX page or, if you have the Enterprise edition
of SharePoint Server, as InfoPath forms. You can also create profile pages in Operations
Design view.
You can also manage external lists using the Lists And Libraries gallery page or the Data
Sources gallery page. You can also go to the ECT in the External Lists area, click on the
external list, and then click Go To List on the External Content Types tab. You can delete
an external list, and the list is removed from SharePoint. The data in the external system
is not deleted, however, because the external list is just presenting the data from the external systems.
In this exercise, you delete an ECT, modify connection properties, and change the filter
criteria for a Read List operation.
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Managing External Content Types 243
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you used in the previous exercise if
it is not already open, and then open the ECT gallery page.
1. Click SPD SBS Orders.
2. On the External Content Types tab, click Edit Connection Properties.
The Connection Properties dialog box opens.
Edi Connec ion
Proper ies
3. In the Other Properties section, click Specify Number of Connections, and then
click OK.
The Connection Properties dialog box closes.
4. If the Connection Property Change Confirmation dialog box opens, click Yes.
Opera ions
Design View
Otherwise, on the External Content Types tab, click Operations Design View. In
the External Content Types Operations area, in the Name column, click Read
List, and then on the External Content Types tab, click Edit Operation.
5. If the Data Source Discovery Confirmation dialog box opens, click Yes to connect to the data source metadata store.
The Operation Properties page of the Read List Wizard opens.
6. Click Next to display the Filter Parameters Configuration page of the Read List
Wizard. Under Properties, to the right of Filter, click Top 100 Orders Limit.
The Filter Configuration dialog box opens.
7. In the Filter Properties section, in the Filter Type list, select Comparison, and
then in the Operator list, select Greater Than.
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244 Chapter 7 Using Business Connectivity Services
8. Click OK. The Filter Configuration dialog box closes.
9. In the Default Values box, type 11000, and then click Finish. The Read List Wizard
closes.
10. On the External Content Types tab, click Summary View, and then on the Quick
Access Toolbar, click Save.
Summary View
In the External Content Type Information area, the version number changes from
1.0.0.0 to 1.2.0.0.
11. On the workspace breadcrumb, click External Content Types. On the gallery page,
right-click SPD SBS Orders, and then click Delete.
12. Click Yes to confirm the deletion of all versions of SPD SBS Orders from the BDC
Metadata Store.
The SPD SBS Orders ECT is removed from the External Content Types gallery page.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next exercise.
Key Points
● The Business Connectivity Service (BCS) bridges the gap between various applica-
tions that a company uses and the need to surface key business data from those
applications into SharePoint.
● SharePoint Designer 2010 and Visual Studio 2010 are external content type (ECT)
designers.
● The ECT is the basic building block for using external data within SharePoint.
● The BCS components (objects)—external data source definitions, ECTs, and their
associated operations—are stored centrally in a BCS SQL Server database known as
the BDC Metadata Store. Once created, the BCS components are available for use
by other sites.
● The mapping of data source elements to Office properties can only be configured
at operation creation; you cannot change the Office item type or the mappings
once the operations are created
● Although you might have permissions to create the BDC model, ECTs, and external
lists, you might not be able to see the data in the external list or on a page that
contains an external list XLV Web Part.
● The preferred method of displaying data from external data sources is to use exter-
nal lists.
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Key Points 245
● External lists can be created and managed from the Lists And Libraries gallery
page, the Data Sources gallery page, and from the ECT settings page.
● Depending on the operations you have specified in an ECT, the external list can
provide create, read, update, and delete (CRUD) capabilities.
● An external list can be added to a SharePoint page as an XLV Web Part or a Data
View. This lets you configure additional columns, conditional formatting, and sorting and grouping in the browser and in SharePoint Designer.
● On the Enterprise edition of SharePoint Server 2010, you can create a profile page
by using SharePoint Designer or the SharePoint 2010 Central Administration Web
site.
● An external data column allows you to add data from an ECT to a standard
SharePoint list.
● External content types are metadata objects defined in the BDC model XML file,
which usually has the extension .bdcm.
● SharePoint Designer can be used to export a BDC model from one SharePoint sys-
tem to another (default export) and to an Office application (client export).
● Create an association if you want to use the Business Data Related List Web Part
to provide a relationship—a Web Part connection—between the Business Data
Related List Web Part and a Business Data List Web Part.
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Part 3
Using Workflow
8 Understanding Workflows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
9 Using Reusable Workflows and
Workflow Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
247
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Chapter at a G ance
Create a workflow, page 253
Use conditions and actions, page 258
Create
multistep workflows,
page 273
Import workflows
from a Visio drawing,
page 281
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8 Understanding
Workflows
In this chapter, you will learn how to
✔ Work with workflows.
✔ Create workflows with SharePoint Designer.
✔ Use actions and conditions.
✔ Modify a workflow.
✔ Create a multistep workflow.
✔ Use Microsoft Visio to map a workflow.
✔ Import and export workflows from and to Visio.
✔ Remove and delete workflows.
The workflow technology included in Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010 and
Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 can help you automate new and existing business processes. With the workflow editor in SharePoint Designer 2010, you can create workflows
in a user-friendly way that is completely visual and doesn’t require advanced knowledge
about software development. Workflows created by using SharePoint Designer are
known as user-defined workflows to differentiate them from workflows that are created by a developer in Microsoft Visual Studio 2010. You can also create workflows in
Microsoft Visio Premium 2010, which you can then import in SharePoint Designer 2010.
In this chapter you will learn how to work with the workflow editor and settings pages
in SharePoint Designer, including the commands on the Workflow tab and the building
blocks of any SharePoint Designer workflow—actions and conditions. After that, I discuss
the creation of a full-blown, multistep workflow. You will learn how to deploy, modify,
and delete workflows; how to create various workflow types (list workflows, site workflows, and reusable workflows); and how to export a reusable workflow as a template
that can become a starting point for creating workflows in Visual Studio 2010. The chapter finishes with a discussion of SharePoint Designer and Visio 2010 integration points.
249
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250 Chapter 8 Understanding Workflows
Mastering the creation of workflows in SharePoint Designer may take some time, but it is
well worth the effort.
See Also This chapter assumes that you are familiar with the built-in workflows in SharePoint
2010. If you want to revise the built-in workflows by using the browser, see Chapter 11,
“Working with Workflows” in Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010 Step by Step by Olga Londer
and Penelope Coventry (Microsoft Press, 2011). You can also find information about using
workflows in SharePoint Server 2010 at technet.microsoft.com/en-us/sharepoint/ff819861.aspx.
Practice Files Before you can complete the exercises in this chapter; you need to copy
the book’s practice files to your computer. A complete list of practice files is provided in
“Using the Practice Files” at the beginning of this book.
Working with Workflows
All workflow functionality provided by SharePoint Foundation 2010 or SharePoint Server
2010 is built using the version of Windows Workflow Foundation (WF) included in the
Microsoft .NET Framework 3.5. You cannot install the 2010 versions of SharePoint products on a server without the .NET Framework 3.5 being installed first.
Warning To use SharePoint Designer to create workflows, you must have the .NET Framework
3.0 installed on your computer. Windows 7 includes this version. If you are using Windows
Vista, you might need to install the .NET Framework 3.0 before you can work with workflows
in SharePoint Designer. The .NET Framework is available from the Microsoft Download Center,
www.microsoft.com/downloads.
Workflow Foundation offers all kinds of functionality required for building enterpriselevel workflows, such as built-in support for transactions, tracking, and notifications.
Workflow Foundation does not act as a stand-alone application but always works with a
program, which in this instance is SharePoint Foundation. Because SharePoint Server is
built on SharePoint Foundation, it too has workflow capabilities.
In the same way that you can base a new site, list, or library on a template, you can base
a new workflow on a workflow template. These templates are implemented as features
that can be activated or deactivated by using the browser or programmatically. A workflow feature is available only when a workflow template is activated.
You can think of a workflow as a series of tasks that produces an outcome. SharePoint
Foundation and SharePoint Server provide a number of built-in workflow templates that
define tasks and outcomes. SharePoint Foundation ships with a single, generic list workflow template—the three-state workflow that can be used across multiple scenarios.
SharePoint Server contains in addition the following list workflow templates and site
workflow templates:
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Working with Workflows 251
● List workflow templates
❍ Approval Workflows created from this template provide an approval
mechanism for documents. Two versions of this template are included: the
Approval—SharePoint 2010 workflow template, which provides a visualization of a workflow instance’s progress in an embedded Visio 2010 image, and
the Approval workflow template, which is provided for compatibility with
lists or libraries that were upgraded from a previous version of SharePoint or
for a SharePoint 2010 installation in which the Visio service application is not
activated.
❍ Collect Feedback Workflows created from this template route documents
for review. Reviewers can provide feedback, which is compiled and sent to
the document owner when the workflow instance is complete. As with the
Approval workflow template, two versions of this template are included:
Collect Feedback—SharePoint 2010 and Collect Feedback.
❍ Collect Signatures This template provides a mechanism for collecting digital
signatures needed to complete a Microsoft Office document. Two versions
of this template are also included: Collect Signature—SharePoint 2010 and
Collect Signature.
❍ Disposition Approval Provides an expiration and retention mechanism that
allows you to decide whether to retain or delete expired documents. This
workflow can be started only by using the browser.
❍ Group Approval Similar to the Approval workflow. Available only in East
Asian versions of SharePoint Server.
❍ Translation Management Provides a mechanism for document translation
by creating copies of the documents to be translated and assigning tasks
to translators. This workflow is available only when you create a Translation
Management library.
❍ Publishing Approval Routes a page for approval.
● Site workflow templates You must have the View Web Analytics Data permission to
start workflows instances created from either of these two site-workflow templates.
❍ Schedule Web Analytics Alerts Sends e-mail messages to alert recipients
about specific analytics data changes.
❍ Schedule Web Analytics Reports Schedules selected reports to be sent via
e-mail to reviewers. You can specify reviewers, the frequency of the reports,
and additional information.
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252 Chapter 8 Understanding Workflows
See Also For more information about the built-in workflows, refer to technet.microsoft.com/
en-us/library/cc263148(office.14).aspx.
Tip When you create a site, you might find that a workflow is not available. For example,
the three-state workflow is not immediately available in a SharePoint Server installation. A
site collection administrator can activate the three-state workflow feature by using the Site
Collection Administration: Features page, which is available from the site settings page at the
top-level site of a site collection.
The browser, SharePoint Designer, and Visual Studio use the term workflow for a workflow template, a workflow process, and an instance of a workflow, which can be confusing. You must infer what you are working with according to the context. For example,
when you associate a workflow (template) with a SharePoint component, such as a site,
list, library, or content type, you create a workflow (process). A workflow (instance) is
created automatically or manually for a site, list item, or document that exists in the
SharePoint component where you create the workflow (process).
When you associate one of the built-in workflow templates with a SharePoint component such as a list, library, content type, or site, you can customize the workflow in a limited fashion by using the browser to define the exact process that needs to be executed
to meet your business needs. When the first instance of a list or library workflow runs, a
column is created, allowing you to monitor individual workflow instances as they progress through the workflow process.
See Also Workflows cannot be created on an external list. You can find more information
on using workflows with Business Connectivity Services at blogs.msdn.com/b/bcs/
archive/2010/01/20/using-sharepoint-workflows-with-business-connectivity-services-bcs.aspx
and blogs.msdn.com/b/bcs/archive/2010/01/29/using-sharepoint-workflows-with-businessconnectivity-services-bcs-sandboxed-workflow-actions.aspx.
A workflow instance starts when a workflow event is triggered. Depending on the configuration of the workflow process, an instance of a workflow can start in the following ways:
● Manually from the browser or an Office client application. Although you can see
documents in SharePoint Designer, you cannot manually start workflow instances
with SharePoint Designer. Similarly, you cannot start a workflow instance on a list
item in SharePoint Designer—for the basic reason that you cannot see list items in
SharePoint Designer.
● Automatically when you create or save a major version of a document. This method
of starting a workflow is not available on lists. It is available only for libraries that
have major and minor versioning enabled.
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Creating Workflows with SharePoint Designer 253
● Automatically when you create a new list item or document.
● Automatically whenever you change a list item or document.
Although doing so is not strictly required, most workflows use both a task and a history
list while the workflow process runs. Workflows add tasks to a task list so that users can
keep track of all the work required to complete the workflow process for a particular
workflow instance. The history list keeps track of the workflow instances that are running
or have been completed for a given list item or document.
See Also Before creating workflows in SharePoint Designer, you should carefully plan what
you want to achieve and determine whether SharePoint Designer is the correct tool. More
information on planning workflows can be found at technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/
cc288553.aspx.
Creating Workflows with SharePoint Designer
SharePoint Designer includes a workflow editor and a Workflow Settings page that you
use to create and configure workflow templates and workflows. SharePoint Designer
2010 has several improvements over the previous version:
● A number of built-in workflows templates can also be used as globally reusable
workflows, and, therefore, can serve as the starting point for workflows created
in SharePoint Designer. You can learn more about globally reusable workflows in
Chapter 9, “Using Reusable Workflows and Workflow Forms.”
● The creation of workflow templates that can be used as starting points for
workflows.
● Supports multiple and custom outcomes from a single task. Basically, rather than
having a simple approve/reject outcome, a task can have any number of outcomes.
● Workflows are now able to impersonate other users during the execution of work-
flow steps. This allows workflow designers to temporarily raise permissions to access functionality not available with limited or unknown user permissions.
● Workflows are now able to operate on document sets; that is, a single workflow can
be started for an entire group of documents.
The workflow editor, like other SharePoint Designer components, operates within the
scope of a SharePoint site, so to create a workflow you must open the SharePoint site
in which you want to create the workflow. You can then create a workflow by using the
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254 Chapter 8 Understanding Workflows
workflow editor, depending on your permission level and whether the SharePoint server
administrator has enabled user-defined workflows through the SharePoint 2010 Central
Administration site.
See Also For a list of steps that a SharePoint administrator can use to create a site collection,
see Appendix C on page 503.
You create a workflow in Backstage view or on the site settings page. Click List Workflow
or Reusable Workflow on the Site tab, or click Workflows in the Navigation pane, and
then use the ribbon.
The following type of workflows can be created by using SharePoint Designer:
● List workflow Allows you to create a workflow process that is attached to a single
list or library within the site. This is the only type of workflow you can create in
SharePoint Designer 2007, and it will still probably be the most popular type in
SharePoint Designer 2010.
● Reusable workflow Allows you to create a workflow template that can be attached
to a content type. Workflows of this type can be used in different lists or libraries.
● Site workflow Allows you to create a workflow process that operates on the site-
level context itself.
● Import Visio workflow Allows you to import and export workflow processes be-
tween Visio Premium 2010 and SharePoint Designer 2010.
In this exercise, you create a list workflow in SharePoint Designer and associate it with a
specific library.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you created from the
SBSSPDPracticeSite Starter.wsp practice file.
1. On the Site tab, click List Workflow in the New group, and then click a document
library, such as JobApplication, where you’d like to create a list workflow.
Lis Workflow
Troubleshooting If you cannot see your list or library in the drop-down list, click the
Refresh icon on the Quick Access Toolbar. If your list or library still does not appear,
check that you have opened the correct site in SharePoint Designer.
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Creating Workflows with SharePoint Designer 255
The Create List Workflow—Shared Documents dialog box opens.
2. In the Name box, type the name of your workflow, such as
JobApplicationWorkflow, and in the Description box, type A simplified job application workflow. Click OK.
Warning The name of your workflow is used to create a new column in your library. Be
sure that a column with this name does not already exist.
A Downloading Data dialog box briefly appears as information is downloaded from
the SharePoint server. A new tab labeled JobApplicationWorkflow opens, with an
asterisk indicating that the workflow has not been saved. This is the workflow editor. In the Step 1 area, an orange horizontal line flashes.
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256 Chapter 8 Understanding Workflows
The Workflow tab contains basic functions for working with SharePoint Designer
workflows, organized in the following groups:
❍ Save Contains commands to save the workflow you are modifying, publish
a workflow to a SharePoint site, and check whether the workflow contains any
errors.
❍ Modify Contains commands to view and modify the properties of the se-
lected action or condition; to move up a selected action, step, or condition;
to move down a selected action, step, or condition; and to delete a selected
action, step, or condition.
❍ Insert Contains commands to add a condition, an action, or a step to a
workflow. You also use commands in this group to add an Else-If branch to
a workflow, to add a parallel block to a workflow, and to insert a step in the
workflow that runs actions and conditions in the workflow in the context of
the user who last edited the workflow, known as the workflow associator.
Usually a workflow runs in the context of the user who starts the workflow.
Warning A change in the permissions of the last editor of the workflow might affect
the impersonation steps within the workflow. You can find more information about
impersonation steps at technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ee428324(office.14).
aspx#BKMK UserStep.
❍ Manage Contains commands to convert a workflow to a globally reusable
workflow, to export a workflow to a Visio 2010 Workflow Interchange (.vwi)
file that can be imported in Visio 2010, and to switch from the workflow editor to the Workflow Settings page.
❍ Variables Contains commands to create and manage initiation form para­
meters, local variables, and association columns. Local variables are typically
used within the workflow. Association columns allow you to automatically create columns for a list when a workflow is associated with that list.
3. On the Workflow tab, click Workflow Settings in the Manage group.
Workflow
Se ings
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Creating Workflows with SharePoint Designer 257
The Workflow Settings page is displayed. Each workflow has a collection of settings
that you can view and manage via the Workflow Settings page. The page contains
five areas:
❍ Workflow Information Use this area to change the name and description
of the workflow. This area also displays the workflow type (list, site, or reusable) and the associated item. When you view a list workflow, the associated
item is the list. When you view a reusable workflow, the associated item is the
content type the workflow is attached to, and when you view a site workflow,
there is no associated item.
❍ Customization This area contains links to the workflow editor and, depend-
ing on the type of workflow, links to the list settings page of the associated
list, task list, or history list.
❍ Settings Use this area to create a new task list or to select a list you want to
use as a task list. You also use this area to create or select a list to be used to
store the history of the workflow. The Settings area for a reusable workflow
can be used to select the language the workflow applies to. When the Show
Workflow Visualization On Status Page option is enabled, the SharePoint status page in the browser displays a Visio diagram (generated by using Visio
services).
❍ Start Options This area is used differently for each type of workflow. For a
list workflow, use it to allow a workflow to be started manually, automatically
when an item is created, or automatically when an item is changed. For a site
workflow, the list item options are not available, which makes sense because
site workflows don’t operate on the list-item level. The only option available
for a site workflow lets you specify whether to start the workflow manually.
For a reusable workflow, this area allows you to explicitly disable one or more
of the list start options.
❍ Forms This area lists forms used in the workflow.
See Also More information on workflow forms can be found in Chapter 9.
4. If your site was created on an installation that uses the Enterprise edition of
SharePoint Server 2010, in the Settings area, select the Show workflow visualization on status page check box.
5. In the Start Options area, clear the Allow this workflow to be manually started
check box, and select Start workflow automatically when an item is created.
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258 Chapter 8 Understanding Workflows
Tip To collect information from a user when he or she manually starts a workflow, you
need to specify a set of initiation parameters by clicking the Initiation Form Parameters
command, which appears on both the Workflow and the Workflow Settings tab. These
initiation parameters must have default values if the workflow is to be configured to
start automatically. You can design the data entry form that users see when they start
the process, and you can customize this form in SharePoint Designer as you would any
other page. If the site is created on an installation of the Enterprise edition of SharePoint
Server and Office Forms Server is configured, you can use an InfoPath form.
6. On the Workflow Settings tab, click Save, and then click Edit Workflow in the
Save
Edit group.
The workflow editor is displayed.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next
exercise.
Using Actions and Conditions
When you create a workflow, you define one or more workflow steps. In each step, you
define the set of workflow actions that need to be performed and a workflow condition
that triggers the workflow actions. The combination of a condition and the associated
actions is known as a workflow rule. In workflow terminology, both conditions and actions are workflow activities, where an activity is an event that needs to occur, such as
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Using Actions and Conditions 259
sending an e-mail message or writing log information. Actions and conditions are the essential building blocks for creating workflows in SharePoint Designer.
SharePoint 2010 provides you with a set of conditions and actions that you can use to
create your workflows. A condition is a kind of filter. For example, if the condition is true,
the associated action or actions are executed. The conditions available to your workflow depend on the workflow type; for example, the condition that checks the size of
a file is available only on list workflows, and specifically on lists and libraries that allow
attachments.
An action defines a set of tasks that needs to be completed. Actions can be configured
to run in serial or parallel. When you run actions in serial, an action starts only if the preceding one is complete. When you run actions in parallel, known as a parallel block, all
actions start at the same time. SharePoint Designer divides built-in actions into six action
categories:
● Core Actions Contains common activities that you use in many workflows. These
activities allow you to manipulate dates and times, build a form to collect information from users, and write information to the history list. This category has three
changes from SharePoint Designer 2007:
❍ Add a Comment A new action, Add a Comment can be used to leave infor-
mative comments for reference purposes to help users who are coauthoring
the workflow.
❍ Send Document to Repository Only available on libraries and for the
Document content type.
❍ Set Workflow Status The default options are Canceled, Approved, and
Rejected. You can also add your own.
● Document Set Actions A new action category specific to SharePoint Server 2010
sites. Document sets are groups of documents that have a specific meaning as a
group and share a specific life cycle. For instance, all documents related to a certain
legal matter can be grouped as a document set.
● List Actions Contains actions that allow you to manipulate list items, including cre-
ating, copying, and deleting list items. These actions can be applied to documents
within libraries because libraries are just special lists. This category also includes
specific document-related actions, such as undoing a check out. A number of new
actions are included in the category concerning records, permissions, deleting draft
items, and pausing the execution of a workflow while waiting for a change in a
document’s check-out status.
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260 Chapter 8 Understanding Workflows
● Relational Actions A new category for SharePoint Server 2010 sites. It contains
only one built-in action: Lookup Manager of a User. This action looks at the
SharePoint user’s profile and returns that user’s manager from the profile. The user
profile Manager property is usually populated from Active Directory after profile
synchronization has occurred. The Manager field will be empty if the relevant field
in Active Directory contains no value.
● Task Actions Contains actions that allow you to assign a task to a specific user or
to a group. This category contains three new actions that start a custom approval,
task, or feedback process. These three actions are similar to the globally reusable
workflows, such as Approval—SharePoint 2010 and Collect Feedback—SharePoint
2010. The globally reusable workflows represent a more complete solution. For example, the three new task actions do not give you the ability to reassign a task or
change request. Use a new action if the globally reusable workflows do not meet
your needs. Use the Start Custom Task Process action if you want a configuration
similar to the approval task actions but not the logic.
● Utility Actions A new category in SharePoint 2010 that contains actions that can
be used to manipulate strings and dates. The four extract substring actions replace
the SharePoint Designer 2007 Build Dynamic String core action.
See Also An overview of the default workflow conditions and actions can be found in
Appendix A on page 481.
If the set of built-in conditions and actions does not meet your business needs, you can
add new conditions or actions that are called custom activities. Custom activities can be
created only by using Visual Studio 2010 or a third-party tool.
In this exercise, you build the first step of a workflow that includes one condition, a parallel block, and one action.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open. Display the workflow editor page for the
JobApplicationWorkflow.
1. Click Step 1, type Initiate Job Interview, and then press Enter.
2. On the Workflow tab, click Condition in the Insert group. Under Common
Conditions, click If current item field equals value.
Condi ion
Tip You can have multiple conditional blocks, each with its own set of branches in each
step. Conditional blocks can occur one after another, or you can create conditional
blocks inside one of the other branches.
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Using Actions and Conditions 261
The Initiate Job Interview area contains two rectangles. The text If Field Equals
Value appears in the top rectangle, with a flashing horizontal line immediately below the text.
3. Click field to display a list of columns in the JobApplication list, and then scroll
down and click HR Employee. Click equals, and then click is not empty in the list
that appears.
Tip You do not have to specify a condition for a workflow. There might be
circumstances when you require an action to always occur. For example, you might want
to create a new list item in the history list when a workflow starts and when it finishes.
4. Click Start typing or use the Insert group in the Ribbon, and then on the
Para e B ock
Workflow tab, click Parallel Block in the Insert group.
A new rectangle is added to the step containing the text The Following Actions Will
Run In Parallel.
5. On the Workflow tab, click Action. Under Core Actions, click Send an Email.
Ac ions
Troubleshooting If at any time the Action command is not enabled, check that your
insertion point is placed where you can insert an action. The SharePoint editor displays
rectangles to help you identify steps as well as If, Else, Else-if, and parallel blocks.
The text Then Email These Users appears.
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262 Chapter 8 Understanding Workflows
6. Click these users to open the Define E-mail Message dialog box. To the right of
the To box, click the Address Book icon to display the Select Users dialog box.
Click Workflow Lookup for a User, and then click Add.
The Lookup For Person Or Group dialog box opens.
7. In the Data source list, verify that Current Item is selected, and in the Field from
source list, click E-mail Address.
8. Click OK twice.
The Lookup For Person Or Group and the Select Users dialog boxes close. In the
Define E-mail Message dialog box, the To box is unavailable and displays Current
Item:E-mail Address.
9. To the right of the Subject box, type Invitation to job interview.
Note To create a subject line that contains values from the current item and static text,
click the ellipsis button to the left of the Formula button.
10. In the box below the formatting options, type Dear and then at the bottom of the
Define E-mail Message dialog box, click the Add or Change Lookup button.
The Lookup For String dialog box opens.
11. In the Data source list, verify that Current Item is selected, and in the Field from
source list, scroll down and select Job Applicant Name. Click OK to close the
Lookup for String dialog box.
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Using Actions and Conditions 263
12. In the Define E-mail Message dialog box, place the insertion point at the end of
the line after the square bracket, press Enter twice, type On behalf of Wide World
Importers, I invite you to a job interview at , and then click Add or Change
Lookup.
13. In the Data source list, verify that Current Item is selected, and in the Field from
source list, scroll down and select Job Interview Date. Click OK to close the
Lookup for String dialog box.
14. Place the insertion point at the end of the line after the square bracket, and type If
you have any questions, please feel free to contact me. Then press Enter twice,
type Kind regards and then press Enter.
15. Click Add or Change Lookup. In the Data source list, verify that Current Item is
selected, and in the Field from source list, scroll down and select HR Employee.
Click OK to close the Lookup for String dialog box.
16. Click OK to close the Define E-mail Message dialog box.
In the workflow editor, the Actions text is replaced with Email Current Item:E-mail
Address.
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264 Chapter 8 Understanding Workflows
Note You can also configure actions and conditions by using the Advance Properties
command on the Workflow tab.
CLEAN UP Save the workflow. Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing
to the next exercise.
Modifying a Workflow
Any business process is likely to change; therefore, you will need to modify any associated workflows. You can modify a workflow by using the Workflow Settings page or the
workflow editor page .In the workflow editor, as you move the cursor over the workflow,
an orange horizontal line flashes to indicate an insertion point where you can add actions, conditions, and steps. You can also use the keyboard to move the insertion point.
Pressing Shift+End moves the insertion point to the end of an If section. Shift+Home
moves the insertion point to the first action in the If section, and Ctrl+Home or Ctrl+End
moves the insertion point to the beginning or end of the entire workflow.
In the Modify group on the Workflow tab, you can use the Move Up and Move Down
commands to rearrange the workflow logic. You can move steps or conditions, but the
movement of these components is restricted. For example, you cannot move a nested
step outside its current step. You should be sure you have the insertion point in the correct position in your workflow when you create steps and conditions.
Tip If you want to relocate steps and conditions and the Move Up and Move Down commands
are not available—for example, when a condition is the first condition in a step—you can amend
the .xoml files or explore exporting and modifying your workflow in Visio or Visual Studio.
As you modify your workflows, they can become complex and difficult to maintain.
When you modify complex workflows, they are easy to break, and the amount of time
you take to test them will increase. Troubleshooting problems can be challenging because SharePoint Designer has no debugging mechanism. Try to keep workflows as
simple as possible, and use the Add a Comment and Log to History List actions to add
comments to your workflow and help you diagnose a problem you might have.
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Modifying a Workflow 265
If you modify a workflow that is already in use, you might possibly break instances of the
workflow that are already running. Therefore, before modifying a workflow, you should
make the workflow unavailable to users. (Do not delete it.)
See Also For information about removing a workflow from a list or library, see “Removing
and Deleting Workflows” later in this chapter.
In this exercise, you modify an existing workflow.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you used in the previous exercise if
it is not already open. Display the site settings page.
1. In the Navigation pane, click Workflows. Under List Workflow, click the icon to
Edi Workflow
the left of JobApplicationWorkflow. On the Workflows tab, click Edit Workflow
in the Edit group.
The workflow editor page is displayed.
2. Click Email, and then press Shift+End. Type col, and then press Enter.
The text and Collect Data From This User (Output To Variable:collect) appears.
3. Click data to open the Custom Task Wizard, and then click Next.
4. In the Name box, type Job Interview Decision, and in the Description box, type
Please indicate whether the job applicant is to be hired or rejected.
5. Click Next, and then click Add. The Add Field dialog box opens.
6. In the Field name box, type Decision. From the Information type list, select
Choice (menu to choose from).
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266 Chapter 8 Understanding Workflows
7. Click Next. The Column Settings dialog box opens.
8. On separate lines, type Hired and Rejected, and verify that Drop-down menu is
selected in the Display as list.
9. Click Finish twice to close the Column Settings dialog box and the Custom Task
Wizard.
10. In the workflow editor, click this user. The Select Users dialog box opens.
11. Click Workflow Lookup for a User, and then click Add.
The Lookup For Person Or Group dialog box opens.
12. In the Data source list, verify that Current Item is selected. In the Field from
source list, select HR Employee, and in the Return field as list, select Login
Name.
13. Click OK twice to close the Lookup for Person or Group and the Select Users
dialog boxes.
14. In the workflow editor, click Variable:collect, and select Create a new variable.
The Edit Variable dialog box opens.
15. In the Name box, type ApplicationResultTaskID, and then click OK.
Tip When a workflow contains multiple variables, devise a naming convention that
documents the stage in the workflow when the variable is used and the data it will hold.
This helps you when you modify the workflow.
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Deploying Workflows 267
CLEAN UP Save the workflow. Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing
to the next exercise.
Deploying Workflows
As you develop your workflow—and certainly before you use a workflow in production—
you should publish and test your solution. The Workflow tab provides you with a command that checks the validity of your workflow. When you click the Check For Errors
command, either a dialog box appears to inform you that the workflow contains no errors, or asterisks (*) appear before and after the incorrect value, which is displayed in red
text. After completing the workflow validity check, you can publish the workflow. If during the publishing process, errors with the workflow are found, a Workflow Errors Found
dialog box opens, and you have the option to save the workflow in a draft state or return
to the workflow editor to correct the errors.
You might need to publish the workflow a number of times before the workflow meets
your business needs. Each time you publish a workflow, a copy of the workflow is created.
This enables workflow instances that are running with the previous version of the workflow to complete. The previous versions are renamed using a date and time stamp. You
cannot see previous versions of the workflow in SharePoint Designer, but they are visible in the browser by navigating to the Workflow Settings page. After you have sign-off
from the business that the workflow is correctly configured, you can use the browser to
remove the previous versions.
You might also need to complete other tidy-up tasks. For example, the Collect Data from
a User action creates a new content type on the tasks list that is visible in the browser on
the New Item list. You might want to configure this content type so that it is not visible
because it might confuse users of the task list.
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268 Chapter 8 Understanding Workflows
For each list, site, or reusable workflow, SharePoint creates a folder in the Workflows
library. The Workflows library is hidden from the browser and can be seen only in
SharePoint Designer by those users who can see the hidden URL site structure. Each
workflow folder contains at least one file of each of the following types:
● .aspx or .xsn These files represent forms used for data entry by users. You can con-
figure these forms as you can any other form. However, redeploying the workflow
could overwrite the files, and your customization would be lost.
● .xoml This is the main workflow markup file, which contains the Extensible
Application Markup Language (XAML) that Windows Workflow Foundation uses.
This file describes the activities included in the workflow.
● .xoml.rules This file contains details of the workflow rules.
● .xoml.wfconfig.xml This file includes the site and list or library details, as well as
the workflow start configuration settings.
Caution If you delete any of these files, the workflow might fail to deploy. For example,
if you delete the .xoml.wfconfig.xml file, the workflow loses its association with the list or
library. You might think that this is a method of associating the workflow with a list or library
different from the one you originally associated it with. However, to reassociate the workflow
with a list or library, you need to revisit all the conditions and actions and reassociate them
with columns and the values held within those columns. This is a large task if you have many
conditions and actions, and you then have to retest the workflow thoroughly to ensure that
you have not missed anything.
SharePoint 2010 contains a just-in-time compiler that uses the declarative code files in
the workflow folder to create a workflow process the first time a workflow instance is
started on an item. SharePoint 2010 retains the compiled workflow in memory until it is
called again, which speeds performance.
The hidden Workflows library does have major versioning enabled, so theoretically, you
can restore a previous version of a file. However, this library does not have any view pages, which means that you cannot use the browser to restore a file. You can, however, use
SharePoint Designer to restore previous versions if you have access to the hidden URL
structure of your site. Because the files as a group define a workflow, restoring just one
file could break your workflow. As you can with any other list or library, you can make a
copy of the workflow folder in the hidden Workflows library. Therefore, before modifying a workflow, if you have access to the hidden URL structure of your site, you can create a copy of the workflow folder. This copy does not appear in the browser or in Office
client applications unless you open it using the workflow editor and then use the Publish
command on the ribbon.
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Deploying Workflows 269
In this exercise, you validate, deploy, and test a workflow. You then remove the task content type created by the workflow from the new tab and explore the files that are created as part of the deployment process.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open. Display the workflow editor page for the
JobApplicationWorkflow.
1. On the Workflow tab, click Check for Errors in the Save group.
A message box informs you that the workflow is valid.
Check for Errors
Troubleshooting If errors are reported, check your workflow against the previous
exercise and then repeat step 1.
2. Click OK to close the message box, and then on the Workflow tab, click Publish in
the Save group.
Pub ish
A Microsoft SharePoint Designer dialog box opens, displaying the progress of the
publishing process.
When the publishing process is complete, the progress window closes.
3. On the Workflow tab, click Workflow settings, and then in the Customization
area, click Open associated list.
Workflow
Se ings
The JobApplication list settings page is displayed.
4. On the List Settings tab, click Preview in Browser.
The browser opens, and the All Items view of the list is displayed.
Preview in
Browser
5. Click Add new item. In the JobApplication—New Item dialog box, use the following data to create a new item, and then click Save.
Job Applicant
Name
Paula Bento
Description
Paula Bento is a very intelligent person with an extensive
resume.
E-mail Address
[email protected]
Job Interview Date
Choose a date in the future
HR Employee
Select a user name
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270 Chapter 8 Understanding Workflows
The All Items view of the JobApplication list is displayed with an extra column labeled JobApplicationWorkflow. Refresh your browser window if the column does
not appear.
6. In the JobApplicationWorkflow column, click In Progress to display the
Workflow Status: JobApplicationWorkflow page.
If your organization has the Enterprise edition of SharePoint Server and you choose
to show workflow visualization, a Visio representation of the workflow will be
displayed in the Workflow Visualization section, with icons indicating In Progress
or Completed. In the Tasks section one task is displayed, and in the Workflow
History section there are no workflow history events. You can use the Workflow
Visualization, Tasks, and Workflow History sections to track the progress of the
workflow instance.
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Deploying Workflows 271
7. In the Tasks section, click Job Interview Decision.
The Workflow Task dialog box is displayed.
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272 Chapter 8 Understanding Workflows
8. In the Decision list, select Hired, and then click Complete Task.
The Workflow Status: JobApplicationWorkflow page is displayed. In the Visio workflow visualization, the condition and the two actions have green check marks indicating that they are complete. In the Tasks section, in the Outcome column, the
task item has a status of Completed.
9. On the Quick Launch, under Lists, click Tasks.
The All Tasks view of the tasks list is displayed. One Job Interview Decision task is
listed.
10. Return to SharePoint Designer, where the JobApplication list settings page is displayed. In the Workflows area, click JobApplicationWorkflow.
The Workflow Settings page is displayed. The Forms area contains one file, which
is used to modify the task item that’s used to collect data from a user. In the Start
Options area, if the Allow This Workflow To Be Manually Started check box is selected, a second file appears, which is used to start an instance of this ­workflow.
If you have the Enterprise edition of SharePoint Server 2010, the files will be
InfoPath .xsn files; otherwise, they will be .aspx files.
11. In the Customization area, click Open task list.
The tasks list settings page is displayed.
12. In the Content Types area, click the icon to the left of Job Interview Decision. On
Show on New
Menu
the Lists, Content Types tab, click Show on New Menu to clear the check box for
the content type.
The Yes in the Show On New Menu column disappears.
13. If you have permission to see the hidden URL structure of your site, click All Files in
the Navigation pane. Click Workflows, and then click JobApplicationWorkflow.
The JobApplicationWorkflow gallery page is displayed. The folder contains the files
produced by the deployment process, which include the one form file, three .xoml
files, and optionally Visio (.vdw) files.
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Creating a Multistep Workflow 273
CLEAN UP Close the browser. Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing
to the next exercise.
Creating a Multistep Workflow
Most business processes need more than one step; that is, the rules defined in one step
must be completed before the rules in the second step can start. For example, a bank must
complete several financial and security checks before creating an account for a customer.
You have seen that each step has one or more conditions, and each condition has one
or more actions. A step can also consist of multiple branches, so that if condition A is
true, one set of actions is executed, and if condition B is true, another set of actions is
executed. However, a branch cannot extend from one step to another. To create multiple
conditions, you click Else-If Branch on the Workflow tab.
In this exercise, you add a second step, which contains one condition, an Else branch, and
two actions.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you used in the previous exercise if
it is not already open. Display the workflow editor page for the StarterWorkflow.
1. Place the insertion point below the Initiate Job Interview rectangle, and then on
the Workflow tab, click Step in the Insert group.
S ep
A rectangle named Step 2 appears.
2. Click Step 2, type Send Job Interview Outcome Email, press Enter, type any, and
then press Enter again.
The If Any Value Equals Value condition is selected, and the text and If Value Equals
Value appears.
3. Click the first occurrence of value, and then click the Define workflow lookup
button.
Define workflow
ookup
The Define Workflow Lookup dialog box opens.
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274 Chapter 8 Understanding Workflows
4. In the Data source list, select Association: Task List, and in the Field from
source list, select Decision.
5. In the Find the List Item section, in the Field list, select ID, and in the Value list,
Define workflow
ookup
click the Define workflow lookup button. The Lookup For Integer dialog box
opens.
6. In the Data source list, select Workflow Variables and Parameters, and in the
Field from source list, select Variable: ApplicationResultTaskID.
7.
Click OK.
The Lookup For Integer dialog box closes, and Variable: ApplicationResultTaskID
appears in the Value box.
8. Click OK. The Define Workflow Lookup dialog box closes.
The text Value is replaced with Tasks:Decision.
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Creating a Site Workflow 275
9. Click value, and select Hired. Then, on the Workflow tab, click Else-If Branch in
E se- f Branch
the Insert group.
10. Place the insertion point below the If condition, but in the same rectangle as the If
condition, type send an, and then press Enter. Repeat this step to insert a Send an
E-mail action below the Else branch.
11. Click these users in the If branch, and then use the steps in the exercise in “Using
Actions and Conditions” earlier in this chapter to create a congratulations e-mail message. Click these users in the Else branch to create a decline-to-hire e-mail message.
Pub ish
12. On the Workflow tab, click Save, and then click Publish.
CLEAN UP Close the JobApplicationWorkflow tab. Leave SharePoint Designer open if
you are continuing to the next exercise.
Creating a Site Workflow
In the previous version of SharePoint, all workflows were document-centric. Not all workflows are like that, however, and to cater to other scenarios, SharePoint 2010 now supports site workflows. Site workflows operate within the context of a SharePoint site and
are not attached to a specific list, where workflow instances operate on list items or files.
Site workflows can be started manually or programmatically, but not automatically.
There are two general conditions that initiate site-workflow actions:
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276 Chapter 8 Understanding Workflows
● Check for some value within the SharePoint site
● Check whether a user is a valid SharePoint user
These conditions are quite generic and allow for the creation of a wide range of site
workflows. For example, you could design a site workflow that creates a list of tasks the
next time a valid SharePoint user logs on. These tasks could remind the user to perform
actions such as filling in profile information, advising a user to create an alert on a list, or
requesting a user to fill in a survey. Site workflows can be created by using Visual Studio
2010 or SharePoint Designer 2010. In SharePoint Designer, the actions you can use in a
site workflow are similar to the actions you can use for a list or reusable workflow, except you cannot use actions that work on the current item, such as Set Content Approval
Status and Set Field in Current Item.
In this exercise, you create a new site workflow and then use the browser to start the site
workflow.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you used in the previous exercise if
it is not already open. Display the workflow gallery page.
1. On the Workflows tab, click Site Workflow in the New group.
The Create Site Workflow dialog box opens.
Si e Workflow
2. In the Name box, type SPD SBS Site Workflow, and then click OK.
The workflow editor opens.
3. Add conditions and actions to complete the logic of your workflow. For example,
add the action Add a Comment, and then click comment text and type Test
Workflow.
4. On the Workflow tab, click Save, and then click Publish.
5. Open your SharePoint site in the browser. Click Site Action, and then click View All
Site Content. The All Content page is displayed.
6. To the right of the Create link, click Site Workflows.
The Workflows page is displayed.
7. Under Start a New Workflow, click SPD SBS Site Workflow.
The SPD SBS Site Workflow initiation page, which contains two buttons, Start and
Cancel, is displayed.
8. Click Start.
The Workflows page is displayed. Under My Completed Workflows, SPD SBS Site
Workflow is listed as Completed.
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Using Visio to Map a Workflow 277
CLEAN UP Close the browser. Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing
with further exercises in this chapter.
Using Visio to Map a Workflow
Another improvement in workflow technology in SharePoint 2010 is the ability to work
with a workflow using Visio Premium 2010. This gives you a head start in creating a
workflow by importing a Visio 2010 diagram into SharePoint Designer, where you add
further details to make the workflow run in a SharePoint 2010 environment. Using Visio
and SharePoint Designer together can improve communications between users who
have knowledge of SharePoint 2010 and SharePoint Designer and users who are familiar
with business processes.
Business users can use Visio Premium 2010 to document a business process that they
want to create as a SharePoint workflow. However, they cannot use Visio shapes of any
type. With Visio Premium 2010, a new template is available called Microsoft SharePoint
Workflow, which allows the creation of SharePoint workflows in Visio. The conditions
and actions are listed in three separate Visio stencils: SharePoint Workflow Terminators,
SharePoint Workflow Conditions, and SharePoint Workflow Actions. Each workflow must
have one workflow Start shape and one workflow Terminate shape and a connector connected to the two workflow shapes. The Start shape must not have incoming connections, and the Terminate shape must not have outgoing connections.
Unlike SharePoint Designer, Visio cannot connect to the SharePoint site where you want
to create the workflow, and it does not retrieve dynamically a list of the available conditions and actions. Therefore, the conditions and actions in Visio might not represent
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278 Chapter 8 Understanding Workflows
the full selection of conditions and actions that are available when you use SharePoint
Designer to create and modify workflows. Visio also has no shape that represents steps.
After a workflow is documented in Visio, you cannot directly deploy the Visio workflow
diagram to a SharePoint site to create a working workflow. You need to export the diagram from Visio as a Visio Workflow Interchange (.vwi) file and then import the workflow
file into Visual Studio 2010 or SharePoint Designer to complete the configuration of a
SharePoint workflow.
The .vwi file is a ZIP file containing the .xoml files and some additional information that
is used exclusively by Visio. If you change the extension of the .vwi file to .zip, you can
open the file and find the following files inside:
● [Content Types].xml This file contains a listing of the files found in the .vwi
document.
● workflow.vdx This file contains a Visio-in-xml format snapshot of the workflow.
● workflow.xoml This file contains the workflow definition itself.
● workflow.xoml.rules This file contains workflow rule definitions.
See Also A 15-minute video is available on Microsoft’s MSDN Channel 9 that describes
how Visio and SharePoint Designer can be used to create a workflow. The video
can be found at channel9.msdn.com/learn/courses/Office2010/ClientWorkflowUnit/
VisioSharePointDesignerWorkflow/. Also, the Microsoft Visio product team has a series of
blogs on SharePoint workflow authoring in Visio Premium 2010 at blogs.msdn.com/b/visio/.
In this exercise, you create a workflow using Visio 2010 and export this workflow as a
Visio Workflow Interchange (.vwi) file.
SET UP Open Visio 2010. Backstage view should be displayed with New selected.
1. On the New tab in Backstage view, under Template Categories, click Flowchart,
and then click Microsoft SharePoint Workflow.
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Using Visio to Map a Workflow 279
2. In the right pane, click Create.
A blank template opens with three stencils in the Shapes pane: SharePoint
Workflow Actions, SharePoint Workflow Conditions, and SharePoint Workflow
Terminators.
3. In the Shapes pane, under SharePoint Workflow Terminators, click Start. Hold
down the mouse button, and drag the Start shape to the left side of the template
drawing area.
4. Repeat step 3 to add the Terminate shape to the right of the drawing area. Then,
Connec or
on the Home tab, click Connector in the Tools group, and drag a line from the
Start shape to the Terminate shape.
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280 Chapter 8 Understanding Workflows
5. In the Shapes pane, under SharePoint Workflow Conditions, click Compare
data source. Drag it to the drawing area to the right of the Start shape and place
it on the line connecting the Start shape to the Terminate shape.
The connecting line automatically connects the Start shape to the Compare Data
Source shape, which is automatically connected to the Terminate shape.
6. In the Shapes pane, under SharePoint Workflow Actions, click Send an Email,
and drag it to the drawing area to the right of the Compare data source shape.
7. Right-click the line connecting the Compare data source shape and the Send
E-mail shape, and then click Yes.
8. Click the bottom corner of the Compare data source shape, and drag a line to the
Terminate shape. Then right-click the connecting line, and click No.
9. On the Home tab, click Pointer Tool in the Tools group. Double-click Compare
data source, and type HR Employee Assigned? Then double-click Send an
E-mail, and type Send E-mail to Job Applicant with Job Interview date and HR
Employee name.
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Importing a Workflow from Visio 281
10. On the Process tab, click Check Diagram in the Diagram Validation group.
Check Diagram
A Microsoft Visio dialog box opens stating No Issues Were Found In The Current
Document.
Note If your workflow has issues, an Issues task pane opens at the bottom of the Visio
window. The component in error is highlighted. The Issues pane can be opened or
closed by using the Issues Window check box in the Diagram Validation group on the
Process tab.
11. Click OK. On the Process tab, click Export in the SharePoint Workflow group.
The Export Workflow dialog box opens.
Expor
12. Navigate to Documents. In the File name box, type JobApplicant Draft, and
then click Save.
CLEAN UP Close Visio and click Don’t Save if prompted to save the drawing.
Importing a Workflow from Visio
After you export a .vwi file from Visio, you can import it into SharePoint Designer. You
then need to configure the conditions and actions by using the workflow editor and settings pages. In real-world scenarios, this means that a business analyst sits down with the
customer and comes up with a design for a workflow by using Visio 2010. The business
analyst then passes the end result, a Visio Workflow Interchange file, to a workflow designer, who uses SharePoint Designer 2010 to add the missing configuration pieces.
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282 Chapter 8 Understanding Workflows
Note When you import a workflow from Visio and the workflow already exists in SharePoint
Designer, the workflow editor or settings pages must not be open. The Import Workflow From
Visio Drawing dialog box opens, warning you that the workflow already exists on the site and
that when you confirm the import, the existing workflow will be replaced and the operation
cannot be undone.
In this exercise, you import a Visio workflow diagram into SharePoint Designer.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you used in the previous exercise if
it is not already open.
1. In the Navigation pane, click Workflows, and then on the Workflows tab, click
Import from Visio in the Manage group.
mpor From
Visio
The Import Workflow From Visio Drawing dialog box opens.
2. Click Browse, and navigate to Documents. Click JobApplicant Draft.vwi, and
then click Open.
3. Click Next, and then in the List Workflow list, select the list or library you want to
attach the workflow to, such as JobApplication.
4. Click Finish.
The JobApplicant Draft workflow editor opens, displaying one step, one condition,
and one action.
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Exporting a Workflow to a Visio Drawing 283
Note The Visio SharePoint workflow shapes do not contain shape data, so the text you
add to conditions and actions is presented as comments in SharePoint Designer. You
cannot configure conditions and actions that were added in Visio.
CLEAN UP Save and then close the JobApplicant Draft workflow. Leave SharePoint
Designer open if you are continuing to the next exercise.
Exporting a Workflow to a Visio Drawing
In the previous two sections, a Visio drawing was exported and then imported into
SharePoint Designer. You can also create a workflow using SharePoint Designer 2010 and
export this workflow to a .vwi file. A business analyst can modify the workflow in Visio,
and then you can import it back to SharePoint Designer. However, the amendments
made by the business analyst are only comments to the conditions and actions. When
you import the Visio diagram into SharePoint Designer, the configurations of the conditions and actions might not match the comments. You need to check the configurations
of the condition and actions to be sure they match.
Warning You cannot use a .vwi file to export a workflow from one site and import it to
another site. To move workflows between sites, use Save As Template (.wsp file) to save the file
as a template instead of a Visio workflow drawing. However, only reusable workflows can be
saved as templates. If you are creating workflows that you need to use on other lists, libraries,
or sites, use a reusable workflow.
In this exercise, you export a workflow from SharePoint Designer and import it into Visio.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you used in the previous exercise if
it is not already open.
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1. In the Navigation pane, click Workflows. The Workflow gallery page is displayed.
2. Under List Workflow, click the icon to the left of JobApplicationWorkflow, and
then on the Workflows tab, click Export to Visio in the Manage group.
Expor o Visio
The Export Workflow To Visio Drawing dialog box opens.
3. Verify that the File name box contains JobApplicantWorkflow. Navigate to
Documents, and then click Save.
4. Open Visio. In Backstage view, under Template Categories, click Flowchart, and
then click Microsoft SharePoint Workflow. Click Create.
A blank template opens with three stencils in the Shapes pane: SharePoint Workflow
Actions, SharePoint Workflow Conditions, and SharePoint Workflow Terminators.
5. On the Process tab, click Import in the SharePoint Workflow group.
The Import Workflow dialog box opens.
mpor
6. Navigate to Documents, click JobApplicantWorkflow.vwi, and then click Open.
The SharePoint workflow diagram appears in the drawing area.
CLEAN UP Close Visio and click Don’t Save if prompted to save the drawing. Leave
SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next exercise.
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Removing and Deleting Workflows 285
Removing and Deleting Workflows
Business processes do not last forever, and neither will your workflows. Deleting a workflow disrupts the execution of any running workflow instance, so before you delete a
workflow in SharePoint Designer, you must first prevent the creation of new workflow
instances and then wait for workflow instances that are still in progress to complete.
SharePoint Designer does not provide a mechanism to manage workflow instances; you
must use the browser.
When all the workflow instances are complete, you can remove the workflow from the
site, list, or library with which it is associated. When you delete a list workflow, you also
delete the column that was created to monitor workflow instances as they progress
through the workflow. You do not delete any task content types that were created or any
site columns that were added when you created associated columns.
See Also Associated columns are described in Chapter 9.
Removing a workflow from a list or library does not delete it. You can still access it using
SharePoint Designer. When you next publish the list workflow in SharePoint Designer, it
is attached to the list or library again.
See Also More information on how to perform common workflow administration tasks can
be found at technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc531334.aspx.
In this exercise, you prevent the creation of new instances of a list workflow and then delete the workflow.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you used in the previous exercise if
it is not already open.
1. In the Navigation pane, click Workflows, and then under List Workflow, click the
workflow you want to delete, such as JobApplicationWorkflow.
The Workflow Settings page is displayed.
2. In the Customization area, click Open associated list.
The list settings page is displayed.
3. In the Workflow area, click the icon to the left of JobApplicationWorkflow, and
then on the List, Workflows tab, click Administration Web Page.
Adminis ra ion
Web Page
The browser opens and displays the Workflow Settings page. The page contains
a link for each workflow published from SharePoint Designer and the number of
workflow instances currently in progress for each workflow.
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286 Chapter 8 Understanding Workflows
4. Click Remove a workflow to display the Remove Workflows page.
5. To the right of JobApplicationWorkflow, click No New Instances, and then
click OK.
Tip By clicking No New Instances, you prevent the creation of any new workflow instances.
The Workflow Settings page is displayed.
6. In SharePoint Designer, with JobApplicationWorkflow still selected in the
Workflows area, on the List, Workflows tab, click Delete.
De e e
The Confirm Delete dialog box opens.
7. Click Yes to delete the workflow.
Note Using Delete on the List, Workflows tab deletes the workflow from the list. This
operation is the same as removing a workflow by using the browser. The workflow is still
available using SharePoint Designer.
8. In the Navigation pane, click Workflows.
9. Under List Workflow, click the icon to the left of workflow you want to delete,
such as JobApplicationWorkflow, and then on the Workflows tab, click Delete.
De e e
The Confirm Delete dialog box opens, stating that this operation will also remove
all workflow history data for this workflow.
10. Click Yes to delete the workflow.
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Tip Deleting a workflow from the Workflow gallery page or the Workflow Settings page
deletes the folder and the .xoml and form files from the Workflows library. Therefore,
just as with any other list or library, when you delete items from the Workflows library,
the items are moved to the Recycle Bin, from which you can restore them. To reattach a
workflow to a list (if it is a list workflow), publish the workflow.
CLEAN UP Save the workflow. Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing
to the next chapter.
Key Points
● SharePoint Foundation and SharePoint Server use the Windows Workflow
Foundation to provide workflows.
● SharePoint Foundation and SharePoint Server provide a set of built-in workflow
templates usually associated with a tasks list and a history list. SharePoint Designer
2010 can reuse some of these workflows.
● You can use three tools to create custom SharePoint 2010 workflows: SharePoint
Designer 2010, Visual Studio 2010, and Visio Premium 2010.
● You can create different types of workflows using SharePoint Designer 2010: list
workflows, reusable workflows, and site workflows.
● SharePoint Designer 2010 allows you to create workflows using an extensive set of
actions and conditions that are available out of the box.
● SharePoint 2010 workflows know how to impersonate other users with elevated
privileges during workflow execution.
● SharePoint 2010 workflows can operate on document sets.
● Try to keep workflows as simple as possible. Use the Add a Comment and Log to
History List actions to comment your workflow and to help you diagnose problems
you may have.
● SharePoint Designer 2010 allows you to create, publish, copy, modify, and delete
workflows.
● You can export SharePoint Designer 2010 workflows to Visio 2010, and also import
Visio 2010 workflow diagrams into SharePoint Designer 2010.
● You cannot change or delete a workflow without running the risk of disrupting ex-
isting instances of a workflow. Use the browser to configure the workflow to allow
the current instances of the workflow to complete and prevent the creation of new
instances.
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Chapter at a G ance
Create reusable workflows, page 290
Create association columns,
page 293
Modify initiation
form parameters,
page 316
Modify
InfoPath forms,
page 308
Publish InfoPath forms, page 313
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9 Using Reusable
Workflows and
Workflow Forms
In this chapter, you will learn how to
✔ Create and use reusable workflows.
✔ Create association columns.
✔ Use workflow templates.
✔ Reuse and create globally reusable workflows.
✔ Create initiation and association forms.
✔ Retrieve values from initiation forms.
✔ Modify and publish InfoPath forms.
✔ Modify initiation form parameters.
✔ Modify association forms.
✔ Add association fields to initiation forms.
✔ Modify task forms.
In the previous chapter, you learned about workflow-related features provided by
SharePoint 2010 and SharePoint Designer 2010 and how to create workflows in
SharePoint Designer 2010. That’s not all there is to know about working with workflows
in SharePoint Designer.
This version of SharePoint Designer has many workflow-related improvements over the
previous version, in which the biggest drawback was the lack of workflow reusability.
SharePoint Designer 2007 was mostly used for ad-hoc workflows that could only be created on lists and libraries. These workflows could not be easily transferred to other lists
or libraries, even within the same site. With SharePoint Designer 2010, you can attach
SharePoint Designer workflows to lists, libraries, content types, or sites, and you can even
export them to Microsoft Visual Studio. This makes the workflow editor and settings
289
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290 Chapter 9 Using Reusable Workflows and Workflow Forms
page in SharePoint Designer an ideal starting point for custom workflows, which might
or might not evolve into Visual Studio workflows.
In this chapter, you will learn how to create reusable workflows; how to reuse out-ofthe-box workflows; and how to create and modify initiation, association, and task forms.
You’ll also learn how workflows created by SharePoint Designer can be used in various
integration and deployment scenarios. When you finish reading this chapter, you’ll be
ready to create sophisticated workflows without writing a single line of code.
Practice Files Before you can use the practice file in this chapter, you need to copy
the book’s practice files to your computer. The practice file you’ll use to complete
the exercises in this chapter is in the Chapter09 practice file folder. A complete list of
practice files is provided in “Using the Practice Files” at the beginning of this book.
Creating and Using Reusable Workflows
The biggest problem with the previous version of SharePoint Designer was that you
could only create workflows that were attached to a specific list or library. SharePoint
Designer 2010 allows you to create reusable workflows. You can attach a reusable workflow to a specific content type, which makes the workflow available to any list or library
associated with that content type.
On the Workflow Settings page, you can specify whether you want the reusable workflow to use workflow visualization, and in the Start Options area, you can specify which
start options cannot be used when the reusable workflow is associated with a list or
library.
In this exercise, you create a reusable workflow and then use the browser to associate it
with a list.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you created and modified in
earlier chapters. If you did not yet create a team site, follow the steps in Chapter 1.
1. In the Navigation pane, click Workflows, and then on the Workflow tab, click
Reusable Workflow in the New group.
Reusab e
Workflows
The Create Reusable Workflow dialog box opens.
2. In the Name box, type SPD SBS Job Application, and in the Description box,
type Use this SPD reusable workflow to create a workflow that will log job
application information to the History Log.
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Creating and Using Reusable Workflows 291
3. In the Content Type list, select the content type that you want to associate with
this workflow, such as Document.
Warning After you save the reusable workflow, you cannot change the content type.
4. Click OK. The SPD SBS Job Application workflow editor is displayed.
5. On the Workflow tab, click Action, and then under Core Actions, select Log to
Ac ion
History List.
6. Click this message, and then click the Display builder for this parameter button
that appears.
Disp ay Bui der
The String Builder dialog box opens.
7. In the Name box, type Job Applicant resume:, and then click Add or Change
Lookup. In the Field from source list, scroll down, select Name (for use in
forms), and then click OK twice.
The Lookup For String and String Builder dialog boxes close.
8. On the Workflow tab, click Save, and then click Publish.
9. In the Navigation pane, click Lists and Libraries, click a list or library associated
Workflow
Associa ions
with the content type you selected in step 3, such as Shared Documents, and then
on the List Settings tab, click Workflow Associations in the Manage group.
A browser window opens displaying the Workflow Settings page.
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292 Chapter 9 Using Reusable Workflows and Workflow Forms
10. In the These workflows are configured to run on items of this type list, select
the content type you selected in step 3, such as Document, and then click Add a
workflow. The Add A Workflow page is displayed.
11. In the Select a workflow template list, select SPD SBS Job Application, and in
the Type a unique name for this workflow box, type JobHistory.
Tip When a workflow will be heavily used, it should have its own task list.
12. At the bottom of the page, click OK.
The Workflow Settings page is displayed and lists the JobHistory workflow.
CLEAN UP Close the browser. Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing
to the next exercise.
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Creating Association Columns 293
Creating Association Columns
When a reusable workflow is bound to a content type, the columns specified by that
content type can be used in the workflow. If you choose to bind a reusable workflow to
all content types, only those columns that are shared by all content types are available.
However, a workflow might require a number of other columns. To ensure that any list
or library with which you associate a reusable workflow has the columns the workflow
needs, you can use the Association Column command to bind those columns to the
workflow. Association columns are added automatically to a list or library and guarantee
that the columns are available so that the workflow can complete. Association columns
can be existing site columns or new site columns. The new site columns are classified under the Custom Columns group in the Site Columns gallery.
In this exercise, you create an association column.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you used in the previous exercise if
it is not already open.
1. In the Navigation pane, click Workflows. Under Reusable Workflow, click the
workflow for which you want to create an association column, such as SPD SBS Job
Application.
2. On the Workflow Settings tab, click Association Columns.
Associa ion
Co umns
A Microsoft SharePoint Designer dialog box opens, stating that changing the association columns for this workflow can cause new instances of existing associations
to fail.
3. Click OK to confirm that you want to create an association column.
The Association Columns dialog box opens.
4. Click Add New Column.
The Add Column dialog box opens.
Note You can modify new columns only by using the Association Columns dialog box.
Once the workflow is published, the new column becomes an existing column and can be
modified only by using the Site Column gallery in SharePoint Designer or in the browser.
5. In the Field name box, type Job Applicant Name, and in the Description box,
type This field should contain the name of the person who has applied for
the job.
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294 Chapter 9 Using Reusable Workflows and Workflow Forms
6. Click Next, and then click Finish.
The Association Columns dialog box contains one association column, Job
Applicant Name.
7. Click OK.
The Association Columns dialog box closes.
8. On the Workflow tab, click Save, and then click Publish.
CLEAN UP Close SharePoint Designer.
Using Workflow Templates
In this section you will learn how to create the ultimate form of a reusable workflow.
SharePoint Designer allows you to save a reusable workflow as a .wsp file, also known as
a SharePoint solution file, in the Site Assets library. Using the browser, you can download
the .wsp file and import it into Visual Studio 2010, where you can use the workflow as a
template and a starting point for further development.
See Also A walkthrough on how to import a SharePoint Designer reusable workflow into
Visual Studio can be found at msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ee231580.aspx.
You can also give the workflow template .wsp file to a site collection owner, who can upload the file to the Solutions gallery at the top of a site collection and activate it so that
it becomes visible as a site feature. Site owners can then activate that feature and use the
workflow as a list workflow template within that site.
Note The list workflow template will be available only for the content types that the reusable
workflow is associated with.
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Reusing Globally Reusable Workflows 295
In this exercise, you save a workflow as a .wsp solution file.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you used in the previous exercise if
it is not already open.
1. In the Navigation pane, click Workflows, and then under Reusable Workflow,
click the workflow you want to save as a template, such as SPD SBS Job
Application.
2. On the Workflows tab, click Save as Template in the Manage group.
Save as Temp a e
A Microsoft SharePoint Designer dialog box opens stating that the template has
been saved to the Site Assets library.
3. Click OK.
CLEAN UP Close SharePoint Designer.
Reusing Globally Reusable Workflows
Creating a workflow that already exists in SharePoint 2010 is a waste of time and could
make you look foolish, especially to your manager. Before starting to create a workflow,
you should take time to familiarize yourself with the workflows that are available out of
the box. In addition to many useful out-of-the-box workflows, SharePoint 2010 contains
a special category of workflows called globally reusable workflows. The word reusable
means that you can make a copy of a globally reusable workflow in SharePoint Designer
2010 and customize the workflow in many different ways. This lets you take a workflow
that is thoroughly tested by the Microsoft SharePoint product team and modify it so
that it suits your specific business requirements. (In real-world scenarios, you will often
find that the existing workflows approach but do not exactly match the business requirements you have.)
Reusable workflows are only reusable within the scope of the site where they are published. A globally reusable workflow is reusable throughout the entire site collection. If
you need a workflow that is reusable across multiple site collections, Web applications,
and/or SharePoint farms, you need to create a workflow template.
Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010 does not provide any preconfigured globally reusable workflows, but you can still create your own using SharePoint Designer. Microsoft
SharePoint Server 2010 ships with the following globally reusable workflows. These globally
reusable workflows are the workflow templates that you use in the browser, and they
define one action:
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296 Chapter 9 Using Reusable Workflows and Workflow Forms
● Approval workflow Uses the Start Approval process action and provides an ap-
proval mechanism for documents that allows you to assign tasks serially (one after
the other) or in parallel (at the same time). Using this workflow, you can approve,
reject, or reassign a document. You can also request a change to the document
that is the subject of the approval process.
● Collect Feedback workflow Uses the Start Feedback Process action and provides a
feedback mechanism for documents that allows you to collect review comments for
a given document.
● Collect Signatures workflow Uses the Start Custom Task process and provides a
mechanism for collecting digital signatures for completing a document. You can
use digital signatures to provide assurance of the authenticity, integrity, and origin
of the document.
Important Do not modify the out-of-the-box globally reusable workflows. Your users will
assume that these workflows run as described on Microsoft’s Web site, in end-user training
courses, and in books about SharePoint Server. When you need to modify a globally reusable
workflow, make a copy of the workflow and modify the copy.
For each globally reusable workflow, SharePoint creates a document library in the wfpub
library, which is stored in the catalogs folder in the root site of a site collection. These
libraries are hidden from the browser and can be seen only in SharePoint Designer by
users who can see the hidden URL site structure.
Warning When you modify and then save a reusable or globally reusable workflow, the
workflow is not available to be associated with a list, library, or content type until you
successfully publish the workflow.
In this exercise, you create a copy of the globally reusable Approval workflow.
Important You can complete this exercise only if you have a site created on SharePoint
Server 2010.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the root site of a site collection.
1. In the Navigation pane, click Workflows.
The Workflow gallery is displayed.
2. Under Globally Reusable Workflow, click the icon to the left of the globally re Copy & Modify
usable workflow you want to copy, such as Approval—SharePoint 2010, and then
on the Workflows tab, click Copy & Modify in the Manage group.
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Reusing Globally Reusable Workflows 297
Note You can create a copy of a globally reusable workflow at the root site of a site
collection or at a subsite.
A Microsoft SharePoint Designer dialog box might open, warning you that the
globally reusable workflow you selected is read-only.
3. Click Yes to confirm that you want to make a copy of the workflow to open or edit.
The Create Reusable Workflow dialog box opens.
4. In the Name box, type the name of the workflow, such as WideWorldImporters
Expense Approval.
5. Click OK. The Create Reusable Workflow dialog box closes. The workflow editor page opens and displays one step, which defines a configured Start Approval
Process action.
See Also More information on the Start Approval Process action can be found in
Appendix B on page 491.
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6. Press CTRL+S to save the workflow, and then on the workspace breadcrumb, click
Workflows.
The Workflows gallery page is displayed, and WideWorldImporters Expense
Approval is listed under Reusable Workflow.
Troubleshooting If the new globally reusable workflow is not listed in the gallery, click
the Refresh button.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next
exercise.
Creating Globally Reusable Workflows
In addition to reusing built-in globally reusable workflows, you can create your own. First
you create a reusable workflow, which might be a new reusable workflow or a copy of
a globally reusable workflow, such as the one you copied in the previous exercise. Then
you convert the reusable workflow to a globally reusable workflow.
Important You can create globally reusable workflows only at the root site of a site collection
and not in a subsite.
In this exercise, you create a globally reusable workflow and verify that it is available in a
child site of the site collection.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the root site of a site collection if one is not
already open, and then open the Workflow gallery. To complete this exercise, you
also need a subsite under the root of the site collection and a document library that
contains at least one document.
1. In the Workflow gallery, click the icon to the left of the reusable workflow you
Workflow
Se ings
want to convert to a globally reusable workflow, such as WideWorldImporters
Expense Approval, or use the workflow you created earlier, SPD SBS Job
Application. Then, on the Workflows tab, click Workflow Settings.
2. On the Workflow Settings tab, click Publish Globally in the Manage group.
Pub ish G oba y
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Creating Globally Reusable Workflows 299
A Microsoft SharePoint Designer dialog box opens, indicating that publishing a
workflow to the global workflows catalog will make it reusable on every site in the
site collection.
3. Click OK to confirm the global publication of the workflow.
A dialog box is displayed while the conversion process occurs.
4.
On the workspace breadcrumb, click Workflows.
The Workflows gallery is displayed. The reusable workflow you converted, such
as WideWorldImporters Expense Approval, is displayed under Globally Reusable
Workflow and Reusable Workflow.
5. Open the browser, and navigate to the child site where you want to test the globally reusable workflow you created in step 2.
6. On the Quick Launch, click Shared Documents, and then on the Library tab, click
Workflow Settings in the Settings group.
Workflow
Se ings
The Workflow Settings page is displayed.
7. Click Add a workflow.
The Add A Workflow page is displayed. In the Workflow section, under Select A
Workflow Template, the WideWorldImporters Expense Approval workflow is listed.
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300 Chapter 9 Using Reusable Workflows and Workflow Forms
8. In the Workflow section, select WideWorldImporters Expense Approval, and in
the Name section, type Expense Approval. Click Next.
The Expense Approval association form is displayed.
9. In the Approvers section, type the name of a user, and then click the Check Name
Check Name
icon to verify that the name you entered is a valid user name for your installation.
In the Request box, type Please review the expenses document, and then in the
Duration Per Task box, type 5.
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Creating Initiation and Association Forms 301
10. Click Save.
The Workflow Settings page is displayed. Under Workflow Name, Expense
Approval appears with no workflow instances in progress.
11. On the Quick Launch, click Shared Documents, point to a document, click the arrow
that appears, and then click Workflows. In the Start a New Workflow section, click
Expense Approval.
The Expense Approval initiation form is displayed.
12. Click Start.
The Shared Documents By Modified view is displayed. An extra column, labeled
Expense Approval, appears in the view, with a status of In Progress for the document you chose in step 11.
CLEAN UP Close all SharePoint Designer windows.
Creating Initiation and Association Forms
During the normal execution of a workflow created by SharePoint Designer 2010, a number of types of forms might be displayed:
● Association
● Initiation
● Task
The basic function of these types of forms is to collect data from a user. In this section,
you will take a closer look at the creation of initiation and association forms.
Content owners and site administrators are the target audience for association forms. A
workflow can have a single association form that is shown each time a user associates
that workflow to a specific list, library, or content type. This allows you, as a workflow
designer, to let users define default values or specify at workflow-association time other
information that can be used when a workflow instance is started.
Note Only reusable and globally reusable workflows have an association form. List and site
workflows are associated with a list or site as part of the workflow-creation process, so an
association form is not needed.
Association forms and initiation forms can be—but don’t have to be—identical. Association
forms are targeted toward content owners or the user who manages the list, library, or
content type, whereas initiation forms are targeted toward end users who manually start a
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workflow instance. You can use initiation forms to override default values that are specified in the association forms by content owners. You can also use initiation forms to collect information that is critical for running a workflow and known only by the end user.
When a workflow instance is automatically started, the initiation form is not displayed,
and the workflow process uses the values the administrator entered in the association
form. If additional information needs to be collected from the end user once the workflow instance has started, this is the purpose of task forms.
The ease with which you can create and enhance initiation and association forms is one
of the most remarkable improvements in SharePoint Designer 2010. The questions you
ask on initiation and association forms can be of various types:
● Single line of text
● Multiple lines of text
● Number
● Date and time
● Choice
● Yes/No
● Person or group
● Hyperlink or picture
● Assignment stages
Most of these question types are similar to list column types, with the exception of the
assignment stages type. A workflow passes through various stages, where each stage
requires actions to be performed by one or more people. When multiple people are
required to complete an action within a single stage, you need to decide whether the
people should perform the actions one at a time (serially) or all at once (parallel). You
use the assignment stages question type in this situation to collect the information you
need. An example of an assignment stages question appears in the Approvers section
of the Approval reusable workflow association or initiation form. These forms contain a
repeatable section that allows you to add Approvers sections (also known as assignment
sections) as needed. You can also remove assignment stages or add them before or after
an existing stage by clicking the arrow that appears when you hover the mouse pointer
over an assignment stage.
In this exercise, you create a workflow initiation form and verify its creation by using the
browser.
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Creating Initiation and Association Forms 303
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the SharePoint site where you created the
SPD SBS Job Application workflow. Display the workflow settings for the workflow.
1. On the Workflow Settings tab, click Initiation Form Parameters in the Variables
ni ia ion Form
Parame ers
group.
The Association And Initiation Form Parameters dialog box opens.
2. Click Add. The Add Field dialog box opens.
3. In the Field name box, type Applicant Name, and in the Description box, type
Please type the name of the person who has applied for the job.
4. Leave the default values in the Information type and Collect from parameter
during lists; that is, Single line of text and Initiation (starting the workflow).
Note When using the Association And Initiation Form Parameters dialog box for a list
or site workflow, the Add Field dialog box does not display the Collect From Parameter
During list. For list and site workflows, only initiation forms are created, so any field you
add will be an initiation form parameter.
5. Click Next. The Column Settings dialog box is displayed.
6. Leave the Default value box empty, and click Finish.
Warning If you want the workflow to start automatically instead of manually, you must
provide default values for all the initiation parameters. Otherwise, a warning dialog box
is displayed when you publish the workflow.
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7. Repeat steps 3 to 6 to add a field with a Field name of Date received job ap-
plication, an information type of Date and Time, and a default value of Today’s
date. Clear the check box for Allow blank values.
The Association And Initiation Form Parameters dialog box displays two initiation
form parameters.
Note You can change the order of the form parameters by using the Move Up and
Move Down buttons.
8. Click OK. The Association And Initiation Form Parameters dialog box closes.
In the Forms area, SPD SBS Job Application.xsn is displayed with an asterisk, indicating that the form has changed since you opened the Workflow Settings page in
the workspace. This form uses Microsoft InfoPath 2010 technology. If you are using
SharePoint Foundation, the form’s name will be SPD SBS Job Application.aspx. The
form always takes its name from the name of the workflow.
Note If this is a new workflow, the forms are not created until you publish the workflow.
9. Press CTRL+S, and then on the Workflow Settings tab, click Publish in the Save
group.
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Retrieving Values from Initiation Forms 305
10. Open the browser and navigate to the Shared Documents library with which you
associated the SPD SBS Job Application reusable workflow.
11. In the browser, point to a document, click the arrow that appears, and then click
Workflows. In the Start a New Workflow section, click JobHistory.
The initiation form is displayed.
12. Click Cancel.
CLEAN UP Leave the browser and SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to
the next exercise.
Retrieving Values from Initiation Forms
Creating initiation and association forms is meaningless unless you know how to retrieve
values specified in those forms by end users and then use those values within your
workflows.
In this exercise, you check whether a value has been typed into a field on an initiation
form. You then store the value in a column and write the value of an initiation form parameter to the workflow’s history list. Using the browser, you then verify the workflow.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you used in the previous exercise
if it is not already open. Display the workflow editor for the SPD SBS Job Application
workflow you created in a previous exercise.
1. With the insertion point in Step 1, above the log action, type if a, and press Enter.
The text If Value Equals Value appears, and the Log action is prefixed with Then.
2. Click the first value link, and then click the Define workflow lookup button that
appears.
Define workflow
ookup
The Define Workflow Lookup dialog box opens.
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306 Chapter 9 Using Reusable Workflows and Workflow Forms
3. In the Data source list, select Workflow Variables and Parameters. In the Field
from source list, select Parameter: Applicant Name.
4. Click OK to close the Define Workflow Lookup dialog box, and then click equals.
Select is not empty.
The text If Value Equals Value is replaced with If Parameter:Applicant Name Is Not
Empty.
5. Place the insertion point below If, type set f, and then press Enter.
The text Set Field To Value appears.
6. Click field, and then select Job Applicant Name. Click value, and then click the
Define workflow lookup button that appears.
Define workflow
ookup
7. Repeat steps 3 and 4. Select the data source Workflow Variables and
Parameters, and then select Parameter:Applicant Name in the Field from
source list. In the Return field as list, select As String.
8. Click Job Applicant resume:[%Current Item. The String Builder dialog box opens.
9. In the Name box, with the insertion point to the right of Name%], type and the
date received was:, and then click Add or Change Lookup. Repeat steps 3 and 4
to add Parameter: Date Received job application, formatting the return field as
Long Date. Click OK.
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Retrieving Values from Initiation Forms 307
10. Click OK to close the String Builder dialog box.
Pub ish
11. On the Workflow tab, click Publish.
Tip Publishing a workflow also saves any modifications you have made to the workflow.
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12. In the browser, display the Shared Documents All Document view, point to a
document, click the arrow that appears, and then click Workflows. In the Start a
New Workflow section, click JobHistory.
The initiation form is displayed.
13. In the Name box, type Peter Connelly, and then click Start.
A column labeled JobHistory has been added to the view, with a status of
Completed.
14. Point to the document that you used in step 12, click the arrow that appears, and
then click View Properties.
A dialog box opens and displays the properties of the document. One of the properties is named Job Applicant Name, and it has the value Peter Connelly.
15. Click Close, and then in the JobHistory column, click Completed.
The Workflow Status page is displayed. In the Workflow History section, in the
Description column, the text created by the workflow appears.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next
exercise.
Modifying an InfoPath Form
If your SharePoint site is hosted on SharePoint Server 2010, SharePoint Designer creates
the workflow forms as Web-compatible InfoPath form template .xsn files (which are basically CAB files) that store the set of files required to correctly render the forms. When
rendered in the browser, the form templates are loaded into a Form Services Web Part.
In SharePoint Designer, you do not see the .aspx page that contains the Form Services
Web Part; you see only the form templates that are created. If you look at the Address
box in the browser when you display an initiation form, you will see that the .aspx page
that is used is layouts/IniWrkflIP.aspx. For an association form, the .aspx page is layouts/
CstWrkfIP.aspx.
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Modifying an InfoPath Form 309
Note You can check the contents of an .xsn file by changing the extension to .cab, as you did
with the .wsp file in Chapter 2, “Working with SharePoint Sites.” You will see that it mostly
contains .xml, .xsl, and .xsd files, which is good from an interoperability point of view, and
makes it relatively easy for other applications to interact with InfoPath forms.
The InfoPath 2010 form templates created by SharePoint Designer do not unleash the
full power of InfoPath. You can take any InfoPath form created by SharePoint Designer—
including list views and list forms—and use InfoPath to transform the form into something that looks quite different.
Note The InfoPath user interface uses the terms form and form template interchangeably.
Don’t let this confuse you. To be precise, SharePoint Designer 2010 builds form templates.
Form services use a form template to display the form that is filled in by end users. Whenever
SharePoint Designer 2010 refers to forms, it is really referring to form templates.
InfoPath 2010 is split into two applications: Microsoft InfoPath Designer 2010 and
Microsoft InfoPath Filler 2010. To modify an InfoPath form created by SharePoint
Designer, you need a copy of InfoPath Designer 2010. InfoPath Designer makes it very
easy to change the look and feel of a form, and it also lets you add data validation rules,
functions, and external data sources. However, when you are modifying workflow forms
in InfoPath Designer, only a subset of the program’s features are available. Binding existing controls to new external data sources is overruled during workflow execution because the workflow instance will not have access to the values of new controls.
See Also For a quick review of using InfoPath 2010, see Chapter 15, “Using SharePoint
Foundation with InfoPath 2010,” in Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010 Step By Step
(Microsoft Press, 2011). To find more about developing solutions using InfoPath 2010, visit
msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ff604966.aspx.
In this exercise, you modify an InfoPath initiation form.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open. Display the workflow settings for the SPD SBS
Job Application workflow you modified in the previous exercise. To complete this
exercise, you need access to Microsoft InfoPath Designer 2010 and to the practice file
WideWorldImporters.png in the Chapter09 practice file folder.
1. In the Forms area, click the initiation form you want to modify, such as SPD SBS
Job Application.xsn.
InfoPath opens. A dialog box opens as the form is downloaded, and then the form
is displayed in Design view. In the Fields task pane, the red asterisk to the right of
Date Received Job Application indicates that this field cannot be blank.
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310 Chapter 9 Using Reusable Workflows and Workflow Forms
2. Place the insertion point above the rectangle that contains the text Applicant
Pic ure
Name, press Enter, and type Job Application Form. Then place the insertion point
on the line above Job, and on the Insert tab, click Picture in the Illustrations
group.
The Insert Picture dialog box opens.
3. Navigate to the Chapter09 practice file folder. Select WideWorldImporters.png,
and click Insert.
An image is added above the text Job Application Form.
4. Click the image, and then press CTRL+E to center the image on the form. Click the
small square attached to the top-left corner of the form to highlight the form, and
then on the Table Tools, Layout tab, click Shading in the Color group, and select
Orange.
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Modifying an InfoPath Form 311
5. On the Page Design tab, click the Themes down arrow, and select one of the
Con ro
Proper ies
themes, such as Professional Classic.
6. Click the box to the right of Applicant Name, and then on the Control Tools,
Properties tab, click Control Properties in the Properties group.
The Text Box Properties dialog box opens.
7. On the Advanced tab, in the ScreenTip box, type Enter job applicant name.
8. Click OK. The Text Box Properties dialog box closes.
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312 Chapter 9 Using Reusable Workflows and Workflow Forms
9. Click the box to the right of Date received job application, and then on the
Control Tools, Properties tab, click Manage Rules in the Rules group.
Manage Ru es
The Rules task pane opens.
10. Click New, and then select Validation.
11. In the Details for box, delete Rule 1, and type JobDateRule. Then, under
Condition, click None.
The Condition dialog box opens.
12. Click is equal to, and select is greater than. Click the third box, and select Use a
formula.
13. In the Insert Formula dialog box, type now(), and then click OK twice.
The Insert Formula And Condition dialog boxes close.
14. In the Rules task pane, in the ScreenTip box, type Enter a date not in the future.
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Publishing an InfoPath Form 313
Tip You can use the Preview command on the Home tab or on the Quick Access Toolbar
to view the form before you publish it.
CLEAN UP Leave InfoPath and SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the
next exercise.
Publishing an InfoPath Form
After you complete your form modifications in InfoPath, you need to save and publish
your changes. The easiest way to publish an InfoPath form is to use the Quick Publish
command, which is on the InfoPath Quick Access Toolbar and in Backstage view. The first
time you use the Quick Publish command for a form, you are prompted to save the form.
You can store the form in a document library, on the file system, or in a shared folder.
When SharePoint Designer creates the form template for the workflow initiation form,
it effectively publishes the form template. When you open the form template from the
publish location in InfoPath Designer, you do not need to specify the publish location.
When you modify the initiation form in InfoPath and republish it, you have not modified
the logic of the SharePoint workflow, and you do not need to republish the workflow using SharePoint Designer. When you publish the form template using InfoPath, changes
to the form take effect immediately. When you start a new workflow instance, you see
the modified form.
See Also Microsoft’s Channel 9 Web site contains a number of SharePoint 2010 and InfoPath
2010 workflow-related videos. Navigate to channel9.msdn.com/, and enter the keywords
SharePoint designer 2010 workflows InfoPath.
In this exercise, you save and publish an InfoPath initiation form. Then you verify the
modification using the browser.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you used in the previous exercise.
Display the initiation form you modified in the previous exercise using InfoPath
Designer if it is not already open.
1. Click the File tab to display Backstage view.
The Info section is highlighted, and Backstage view displays the Form Information
page. The Publish Your Form section shows the location where the form will be
published.
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314 Chapter 9 Using Reusable Workflows and Workflow Forms
2. Click Design Checker.
The On Stage view in InfoPath is displayed. The Design Checker task pane opens
and indicates that there are no errors or messages.
Tip If error messages are displayed, be sure that you complete the steps in the previous
exercise.
3. Click the File tab. In Backstage view, with the Info tab selected, click Quick Publish
under Form Information.
If you did not save the form previously, a Microsoft InfoPath dialog box opens, informing you that you must save the form template before it can be published.
4. Click OK.
The Microsoft InfoPath dialog box closes, and the Save As dialog box opens.
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Publishing an InfoPath Form 315
5. Navigate to your Documents folder. In the File name box, delete Template, and
type SPDListInitiationFormTemplate.xsn. Click Save.
A Saving dialog box is displayed while InfoPath saves the form template. Then a
Microsoft InfoPath dialog box opens, indicating that the form template was published successfully.
6. Click OK.
7. In the browser, open the site you are using for this exercise, and display the Shared
Documents All Documents view. Point to a document, click the arrow that appears, and then click Workflows. In the Start a New Workflow section, click
JobHistory.
The initiation form is displayed.
8. Move the mouse pointer over the Applicant Name box.
The text Enter Job Applicant Name appears.
9. In the Date received job application box, type a date in the future, and then
press Tab.
A red-dashed border appears around the date box, and if you move the pointer
over the date box, a ScreenTip is displayed.
10. Click Start.
A Warning dialog appears, stating that the form cannot be submitted.
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11. Click OK, and then click Cancel.
CLEAN UP Close InfoPath Designer and the browser.
Modifying Initiation Form Parameters
You can modify, delete, or add initiation form parameters by using SharePoint Designer.
However, if you have customized your initiation form—whether it is an .aspx form or
an InfoPath form template—your modifications are not automatically applied to the
customized form. You can modify the customized form to match the modification you
made to the initiation form parameters, or you can delete the customized form and let
SharePoint Designer regenerate the form when you publish the workflow.
In this exercise, you modify initiation form parameters. You then modify the InfoPath initiation form to add a new initiation form parameter.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you used in the previous exercise if
it is not already open. Display the workflow settings for the SPD SBS Job Application
workflow.
1. On the Workflow Settings tab, click Initiation Form Parameters.
ni ia ion Form
Parame ers
The Association And Initiation Form Parameters dialog box opens.
2. Under Name, click Date received job application, and then click Modify.
The Modify Field dialog box opens.
3. In the Description box, type Enter the date the job application was received.
Click Next, and then click Finish. In the Association and Initiation Form
Parameters dialog box, click Add.
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Modifying Initiation Form Parameters 317
The Add Field dialog box opens.
4. In the Field name box, type Applicant Address, and in the Information type list,
click Multiple lines of text. Click Next, and then click Finish.
5. Click OK.
The Association And Initiation Form Parameters dialog box closes.
6. On the Workflow Settings tab, click Publish.
Pub ish
The Workflow Form Update Required dialog box opens, stating that the file SPD
SBS Job Application.xsn has been customized using InfoPath and might not be
compatible with this workflow because of field changes.
Tip If you accidentally delete your workflow template in SharePoint Designer, you can
restore it by opening your saved workflow template in InfoPath Designer and then
re-publishing it. You can also use the browser to navigate to the site’s Recycle Bin and
restore the template from there.
7. Click OK to close the Workflow Form Update Required dialog box. In the Forms
area, the text (needs update) appears to the right of SPD SBS Job Application.xsn.
8. In the Forms area, click SPD SBS Job Application.xsn.
InfoPath opens and displays the form in Design view. The Update Fields dialog box
opens, stating that one or more fields in the workflow form have changed and that
InfoPath will update the set of available fields, but that you may need to modify
your form view to add or remove the updated fields.
9. Click OK.
The Fields task pane refreshes, and the field Applicant Address appears.
10. Right-click below the Date received text box, point to Insert, and then click Rows
Below.
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318 Chapter 9 Using Reusable Workflows and Workflow Forms
11. With the new row selected, in the Fields task pane, hold down the mouse button
and drag Applicant Address to the new row.
Tip If the new row is not selected when you add Applicant Address, both the title and
the text box for the Applicant Address field might appear in the second column.
In the first cell of the new row, the text Applicant Address appears, and the
Applicant Address control appears in the second cell.
12. On the Quick Access toolbar, click Save. Navigate to your Documents folder.
Save
Quick Pub ish
Accept the default file name Template, and then click Save.
13. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Quick Publish. When a dialog box opens stating
that the template was published successfully, click OK.
CLEAN UP Save the form and then close InfoPath. Leave SharePoint Designer open if
you are continuing with the next exercise.
Modifying an Association Form
When you use a globally reusable workflow or a reusable workflow, you create an association form as well as an initiation form. Each form is stored as a separate InfoPath view
within the same InfoPath form template.
In this exercise, you modify an association form.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you used in the previous exercise if
it is not already open. Display the workflow settings for the SPD SBS Job Application
workflow.
1. In the Forms area, click the form template you want to modify, such as SPD SBS
Job Application.xsn.
InfoPath opens. A dialog box opens as the form is downloaded, and then the form
is displayed in Design view.
2. On the Page Design tab, in the View list in the View group, click Start (default),
and then click Associate.
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Adding Association Fields to Initiation Forms 319
3. On the Page Design tab, click one of the themes, such as Professional Classic.
4. Press CTRL+Shift+Q to quickly publish the form template. Click OK, and then click
Save to save the form template.
5. If you have saved an InfoPath template with the same name, a Microsoft InfoPath
form opens, warning you that you are about to overwrite an existing template.
Click Overwrite.
6. When a dialog box opens stating that the template was published successfully,
click OK.
Warning If errors are found with a globally reusable or a reusable workflow during the
SharePoint Designer publishing process, the workflow is disassociated from any lists or
libraries it is associated with. This can be catastrophic for a workflow that is associated
with many lists or libraries. Knowing which lists or libraries a workflow is associated with
isn’t easy, until calls come in to your help desk support team, and users complain that they
once could start a workflow and now they cannot. You must test your changes on a copy
of the workflow prior to applying them to a live workflow. Before publishing a workflow,
determine whether there are any errors by clicking the Check For Errors command. Also, if
you have made any modifications to initiation or association form parameters, update the
InfoPath form before publishing the workflow in SharePoint Designer.
CLEAN UP Close InfoPath and SharePoint Designer.
Adding Association Fields to Initiation Forms
You can add, modify, and delete initiation form parameters, association form parameters, or both by using SharePoint Designer. Because the initiation form and the association form are views in the same InfoPath form template, all the initiation and association
form parameters can be used in either view. When SharePoint automatically generates
the two views, it adds to a view only those controls that map to the appropriate form
type. However, using InfoPath Designer, you can add one or more association fields to
an initiation form and then manipulate the association field. This is very useful when you
want to inform end users about choices content owners or site administrators made, but
you don’t want to allow end users to change those choices.
If the association field placed on the initiation form is a text box control, you can use the
display tab on the Text Box Properties dialog box to specify the control as read-only.
However, you should change the appearance of the association field so that the user interface clearly indicates that the field is read-only. Other types of controls require more manipulation on your part to prevent end users from changing the values of the association fields.
In this exercise, you add an association field to an initiation form.
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320 Chapter 9 Using Reusable Workflows and Workflow Forms
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the root site of a site collection where you
previously created a globally reusable workflow. Display the Workflows gallery.
1. Under Globally Reusable Workflow, click WideWorldImporters Expense
ni ia ion Form
Parame ers
Approval, and then on the Workflow Settings tab, click Initiation Form
Parameters.
The Association And Initiation Form Parameters dialog box opens. All but
three parameters are shown on both forms. The three parameters—End On First
Rejection, End On Document Change, and Enable Content Approval—are shown
only on the association form.
2. Click Cancel, and then in the Forms area, click WideWorldImporters Expense
Approval.xsn.
InfoPath Designer opens and displays the initiation form for the WideWorldImporters
Expense Approval workflow.
3. In the first column, click CC, and then on the Table Tools, Layout tab, click Insert
Below.
nser Be ow
4. On the Home tab, in the Controls group, scroll down and click Calculated Value.
5. Click OK to close the Insert Calculated Value dialog box.
A rectangle with a dashed-line border, is added to the left cell in the new row.
6. Click the rectangle, and then on the Control Tools, Properties tab, click Control
Con ro
Proper ies
Properties.
The Calculated Value Properties dialog box opens.
7. Select Text, and in the box, type If the document is rejected by any participant,
then the document is automatically rejected.
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Adding Association Fields to Initiation Forms 321
8. Click OK. The Calculated Value Properties dialog box closes.
9. On the Properties tab, click Manage Rules to open the Rules task pane. Click
New, and then click Formatting. Under Condition, click None.
Manage Ru es
The Condition dialog box opens.
10. Click myFields, and then click Select a field or group.
The Select A Field Or Group dialog box opens.
11. Click End of First Rejection, and then click OK.
12. In the Condition dialog box, click the third list, and click FALSE. Click OK to close
the Condition dialog box.
13. In the Rules task pane, scroll down, and then select Hide this control.
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322 Chapter 9 Using Reusable Workflows and Workflow Forms
14. Press CTRL+Shift+Q to quickly publish the form template. Click OK, and then click
Save to save the form template.
15. Click Overwrite, and when a dialog box opens stating that the template was published successfully, click OK.
16. On the Home tab, click Manage Rules to close the Rules task pane.
CLEAN UP Close InfoPath. Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to
the next exercise.
Modifying Task Forms
A type of workflow form is the task form. These forms are created when you assign tasks
in your workflows by using actions such as Assign a Form to a Group, Collect Data from a
User, and Start Approval Process. Task forms are listed in the Forms area of the Workflow
Settings page, where the workflow’s association and initiation forms are listed. Modifying
task forms is identical to modifying association forms and just as impressive.
In this exercise, you modify a workflow task form.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you used in the previous exercise
if it is not already open. Display the workflow settings for the WideWorldImporters
Expense Approval globally reusable workflow.
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Modifying Task Forms 323
1. In the Forms area, click Approval Workflow Task x0028 en-US x0029 Copy
1.xsn.
Tip The number shown on your file might be greater than one.
InfoPath Designer opens and displays the task form. This form contains a number
of different views that are used to display other forms when the Request Change or
the Reassign Task buttons is clicked.
2. On the Page Design tab, under View in the Views group, click Main (default),
and select Reassign Task.
3. On the form, click Reassign Task To, and then click the small square attached to
the top-left corner of the form that appears.
4. On the Table Tools, Layout tab, click Borders in the Color group.
Borders
The Borders And Shading dialog box opens.
Note No one command can change the theme, shading, and borders for all views. To
replicate any modifications across a number of views, you need to modify each view
separately.
5. Under Style, click the gray line. Under Presets, click Outline, and then click Inside.
6. Click OK. The Borders And Shading dialog box closes.
CLEAN UP Publish and save the form, overwriting the previous version of the file. Close
InfoPath. Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next chapter.
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324 Chapter 9 Using Reusable Workflows and Workflow Forms
Key Points
● Reusable workflows can be saved as workflow templates and can be imported
into Visual Studio 2010 for further enhancement or installed directly on other
SharePoint site collections.
● Globally reusable workflows can be copied and modified.
● Do not modify the out-of-the box globally reusable workflows.
● You can create your own globally reusable workflows that can be used throughout
a site collection.
● Initiation forms are used by end users, and association forms are used by content
owners and site administrators.
● SharePoint Designer 2010 makes it easy to create initiation, association, and task
forms.
● InfoPath Designer 2010 can be used to create compelling list views and list forms as
well as workflow initiation, association, and tasks forms.
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Part 4
Advanced
Customizations
10 Branding SharePoint Sites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
11 Working with Master Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
12 Understanding Usability and Accessibility . . . . . . . 401
13 Managing Web Content in the
SharePoint Server Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
14 Using Controls in Web Pages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 459
325
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Chapter at a G ance
Identify styles in
cascading style sheets,
page 333
Create, modify, and delete styles, pages 346 and 349
Use the Style Application group commands, page 353
Use CSS reports,
page 362
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10Branding
SharePoint Sites
In this chapter, you will learn how to
● Set the CSS and Color Coding Page Editor options.
● Identify styles in cascading style sheets.
● Identify styles on content pages.
● Create and attach CSS files.
● Create a functioning HTML page.
● Create styles.
● Modify and delete styles.
● Use the Style Application group commands.
● Understand SharePoint’s CSS inheritance.
● Use IntelliSense to add a CSS.
● Use CSS reports.
Branding a Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010 or Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010
site is more than just applying a theme or adding a logo. You can brand your site at
many different levels, but why do you want to brand your site in the first place?
The look and feel of SharePoint 2010 has improved greatly from previous versions, but
when SharePoint 2010 is initially installed, it still does not provide the look and feel
of Web sites that users see on the Internet. Organizations as well as users want their
SharePoint sites to look similar to those they work with on a public-facing site. They also
want their Internet or extranet sites to be consistent with their company’s intranet site
and other marketing collateral they produce, such as letterhead, brochures, presentations, and business cards.
327
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328 Chapter 10 Branding SharePoint Sites
Most sites also include more than text. They are designed so that users can interact
with them and to convey information in an engaging manner. This applies especially
to Internet sites and a company’s intranet or portal sites. Many companies hire an outside advertisement agency to develop their overall look and feel (brand). If you visit
SharePoint sites on the Internet, you will see that almost any look is possible. The visual
presentation of your site is one of the areas in which you need to invest time.
Note SharePoint Web sites on the Internet include www.ferrari.com and those at www.
wssdemo.com/LivePivot/.
Like most industry-standard sites, SharePoint sites use cascading style sheets (CSS).
SharePoint Designer contains one of the best cascading style sheet editors available. Microsoft Visual Studio 2010, Microsoft Visual Web Developer 2010 Express, and
Microsoft Expression Web use similar cascading style sheet editing tools. Even when you
use these tools, branding a site takes some time, especially if you are new to branding
and have never tried to change the look and feel of a SharePoint site before. It is generally recommended to complete only minimal branding and customizations on individual
sites.
In this chapter, you will explore the cascading style sheet editing options for SharePoint
Designer 2010. By using the cascading style sheet task panes and the ribbon, you will
learn how to identify, modify, and create styles. Next, you will create a style sheet and
attach it to a page. You will also look at style inheritance on SharePoint sites and use CSS
reports.
Important To complete many of the exercises in this chapter, you must have permissions to
detach pages from site definitions and customize master pages. See the section “Controlling
the Use of SharePoint Designer,” in Chapter 1, “Exploring SharePoint Designer 2010.”
Practice Files Before you can use the practice file in this chapter, you need to copy
the book’s practice files to your computer. The practice file you’ll use to complete
the exercises in this chapter is in the Chapter10 practice file folder. A complete list of
practice files is provided in “Using the Practice Files” at the beginning of this book.
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Setting the CSS and Color Coding Page Editor Options 329
Setting the CSS and Color Coding Page Editor Options
SharePoint Designer uses a set of configuration options to know how it should apply
cascading style sheet tags to your page. You can change these default settings in the
Page Editor Options dialog box. This dialog box has 12 tabs, some of which you saw in
Chapter 4, “Creating and Modifying Web Pages.” Here, you’ll explore the tabs related to
cascading style sheets.
You can choose from many options. For example, you can configure SharePoint Designer
to generate styles automatically, or you can create styles yourself. You can also limit
SharePoint Designer so that it modifies only those styles that it creates automatically
and no others. Usually, the default settings for these options work well, so you might not
need to change them. However, you should know what SharePoint Designer is doing on
your behalf, because it might not be quite what you want.
In this exercise, you explore the different tabs of the Page Editor Options dialog box that
relate to cascading style sheets.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you created and modified in
earlier chapters. If you did not yet create a team site, follow the steps in Chapter 1.
1. Click the File tab, and then in the left pane, click Options.
The SharePoint Designer Options dialog box opens.
2. Under SharePoint Designer Options, with General selected, click Page Editor
Options.
The Page Editor Options dialog box opens.
Tip When you have a page open in edit mode in the workspace, you can open the Page
Editor Options dialog box by clicking CSS 2.1 in the SharePoint Designer status bar.
3. Click the CSS tab.
This tab displays the options that SharePoint Designer uses when creating and
modifying styles on your pages.
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4. Click the Color Coding tab.
This tab displays the code coloring options that SharePoint Designer uses in the
Code and Design views of the workspace. For each display item, you can select the
foreground (text) and background colors. You can also make the text bold, italic, or
underlined.
5. Click the Authoring tab.
This tab displays document properties. In the Default Document Types section, the
Default Document Type is set to HTML, and the Default SharePoint Document Type
is set to Web Part Page. In the Doctype And Secondary Schema section, Document
Type Declaration is set to XHTML 1.0 Strict, Secondary Schema to IE 6.0, and CSS
Schema to CSS 2.1.
6. Click OK twice.
The Page Editor Options and the SharePoint Designer Options dialog boxes close.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next exercise.
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Setting the CSS and Color Coding Page Editor Options 331
What Is CSS?
CSS separates the look and feel from the content in your Web pages. Think of CSS
as a smart language that browsers use to format the font color or size of elements,
and which you can use to position elements on the page. Today, all browsers support CSS and CSS functions in the same way in SharePoint Foundation 2010 and
SharePoint Server 2010, as they do with other Web platforms.
Note In previous versions of SharePoint, a theme consisted of a CSS file(s) and
images. In SharePoint 2010, themes are defined as in other Microsoft Office
applications. More information on SharePoint themes can be found at www.
toddbaginski.com/blog/archive/2009/11/02/how-to-create-a-custom-theme-forsharepoint-2010.aspx.aspx.
Style sheets are made up of style rules that consist of a selector, followed by a
property value. The selector can be one of three types—an HTML tag (element), a
class, or an ID—and is followed by a declaration block. When a style begins with a
dot (.), it is called a class. When a style begins with a hash tag or a number sign (#),
it is called an ID. When the selector appears by itself, it is an HTML tag. The following table contains examples of declarations for the three selector types.
Type
Selector
Declaration block
HTML tag
(element)
H1
{ font: normal 1em Verdana, Arial sans-serif;}
Class
.header
{ background-color: #336699; height: 50px;}
ID
#logo
{ position: relative; float: left;
padding: 5px;}
Note IDs can be used only one time on a page, whereas classes can be used many
times on a page. Also, an ID can contain a dash or a digit, but the first character after
the # cannot be a dash or a digit.
A declaration block contains one or more style declarations that have a single
property and value pair—for example, background-color: #4c4c4c. Each declaration is separated by a semicolon. You can have multiple properties within a selector. If you have more than one value within a property and that value has more
than one word, the words should be surrounded by quotation marks—for example,
“Times New Roman”. If the words are separated with a dash, quotation marks are
not needed.
Note CSS selectors, declarations, and property and value pairs are case-insensitive.
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332 Chapter 10 Branding SharePoint Sites
You can combine selectors in different ways. For example, you could have several
CSS element declarations for the HTML H1 tag and a class declaration that applies
only to the HTML H1 tag found in a <div> tag.
<style> .header h1 { font-weight: bold; } <style>
<div class="header">
<h1>This is my text</h1>
</div>
Styles can be defined within an HTML tag using the style attribute; these are known
as inline styles. All other styles reside in the page within a <style> block or in a
separate file that can be attached to the page. Files that contain styles usually have
the extension .css.
Styles can be defined multiple times on a page or in a CSS file, and many CSS files
can be attached to a page. Each style can apply a different property value to an
element. For example, a <div> tag could have multiple class styles assigned to it,
each defining a different color.
Styles use inheritance rules, cascade order, and CSS specificity, which browsers use
to determine which style to apply. For example, a tag takes on the style of its parent, so if the color property is specified for the <body> tag but not the <p> tag,
the text within the <p> tag uses the style defined for the <body> tag. Cascade
order specifies the order in which styles are applied. Cascading style sheet files are
applied in a specific order and read sequentially, and then styles defined on the
page are applied in sequential order. In general terms, the style used by the browser to render an element’s font color is the style that last defined the color property.
CSS specificity adds a few more rules to this equation, in that each selector is given
a value: an ID selector has more power than an element or class selector. In a group
of nested selectors, these values are used to decide which style attributes to apply.
SharePoint Designer displays style information in a number of task panes. It identifies the selector types and whether a style is defined with a tag (inline) by using
color icons. Refer to the following table for examples.
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Identifying Styles in Cascading Style Sheets 333
Icon
Type
Description and examples
bis Inline
Inline
This is the simplest of styles and affects only the tag in
which it is defined. Use this style type if you do not plan to
use this styling elsewhere.
<p style "text-align: center;">
Elements
This style affects all instances of the specified element (tag)
on the page.
body { font-family: "Trebuchet MS", Verdana, Arial; }
Classes
This style is applied to those elements that reference it.
.ms-quicklaunch { background-color: #d6e8ff; }
The tag that references the style looks similar to:
<div class "ms-quickLaunch">
IDs
This style can be used only once per page. It is usually reserved for structural elements:
#page content { font-weight: 700; }
The tag that references the style looks similar to:
<div id "page content">
Style in
use
SharePoint Designer places a gray circle around the style
icon if the style is used on the page.
(Yellow)
bis Elements
(Blue)
bis Classes
(Green)
bis IDs
(red)
bis StyleInUse
See Also Learning resources on how to use cascading style sheets can be found at www.
w3schools.com/css/ and www.csszengarden.com. For more information about the order in
which styles are applied, search on the keywords CSS specificity in any search engine.
Tip The quickest way to learn more about cascading style sheets is to work in Split view as
much as you can.
Identifying Styles in Cascading Style Sheets
In Chapter 4, “Creating and Modifying Web Pages,” you saw that when you use a browser to request a page from a site, it combines two Microsoft ASP.NET pages: a master page
and a content page. Master pages provide a consistent look and feel across your site. You
can include style information in a master page, but its good practice to use a style sheet
that is linked to the master page. Both SharePoint Foundation and SharePoint Server contain a large number of style rules—the majority of which are class or ID declarations—that
are stored in cascading style sheet files. To brand SharePoint Foundation or SharePoint
Server sites, you need to get to know these files and the declarations they contain. This is
where SharePoint Designer can help you.
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334 Chapter 10 Branding SharePoint Sites
Tip Not all styles are exposed in SharePoint Designer, specifically those dynamically created
by controls. It is only when a page is rendered in the browser that you can see the styles and
the elements to which they are applied. You might find it useful to use tools that complement
those that SharePoint Designer provides. One such tool is the Internet Explorer Developer
toolbar, which in Internet Explorer 8 can be activated by pressing F12.
For most branding tasks, the style file corev4.css (which is the main cascading style sheet
file) defines most of the styles you need to customize your site. You should not amend
this file—it contains more than 7,000 lines of code—but create your own style file that
contains only those styles from the SharePoint style sheets you need to modify. You can
link this file to your master page by using the HTML <link> tag or the SharePoint control
CssRegistration. Then the browser applies your style rules before or after the browser
applies the rules defined in corev4.css. You can store a style file in the Style Library at the
root of each site collection or in your site’s Site Assets library. Developers can also create
a .wsp solution file to deploy a style file.
Tip To identity which style rules are associated with which tags, you must display the page on
which the tags are defined. Because each page you request is a combination of a master page
and a content page, this could be either the master page or the content page.
In this exercise, you identify styles used on a master page.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open. The settings page for the site should be displayed.
1. In Navigation pane, click Master Pages to display the gallery page in the
workspace.
2. Click the icon to the left of v4.master. On the Master Page tab, click Check Out in
the Manage group, and then click Edit File in the Edit group.
Check Ou
Edi Fi e
The v4.master page opens in the workspace. The controls on the page are
displayed and surrounded by a purple line. The label for the active control,
PlaceHolderMain, appears above a purple box. In the Quick Tag selector area on
the workspace status bar, the PlaceHolderMain tag is highlighed in orange.
In the Master Pages mini-gallery below the Navigation pane, a green check mark
appears to the left of v4.master, indicating that the file is checked out.
Tip If the control names do not appear, verify that Template Region Labels is selected
on the Visual Aids menu. Using visual aids can help as you build your master page, but if
you find them distracting, simply clear the options you do not want to show.
3. On the View tab, click the down arrow on the Task Panes command in the
Task Panes
Workspace group, and then click CSS Properties to open the CSS Properties task
pane. No CSS information is displayed.
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Identifying Styles in Cascading Style Sheets 335
4. Repeat the previous step to open the Manage Styles task pane, on which the style
file corev4.css appears. The style rules used on the master page are identified by a
gray circle.
Tip By default, the Manage Styles task pane lists the style rules in the order in which
they appear in their style sheet. When you have multiple style sheets, each style sheet
is listed separately. If the current page does not appear in the Manage Styles task pane,
then it currently contains no style rules. To make the page appear in the list, add a style
block (<style>…</style>) to the <head> tags for the page. When viewing style rules by
order, you can move the styles by dragging them up or down in the Manage Styles task
pane. moving a style that is defined on the page to make it a style defined in a file, and
vice versa.
5. On the View tab, click Split if the workspace is not already in Split view, and then
click in the Code view portion of the workspace.
Sp i
6. Press CTRL+F to open the Find and Replace dialog box. Under Find what, type
s4-workspace, and then click Find Next. Click Close to close the Find and
Replace dialog box.
In Code view, the s4-workspace ID tag is highlighted in the line <div id ”s4-workspace”>, and in the Quick Tag Selector area, the <div#s4-workspace> tag is highlighted in orange.
In the CSS Properties task pane, to the right of Applied Rules, a link to corev4.css
is displayed, indicating that the current master page is linked to corev4.css. Under
Applied Rules, six style rules are listed in the order in which they were applied. The
first rule applied is placed at the top of the list.
Tip You can click the corev4.css link in the CSS Properties task pane to open the style
sheet as a new tab within the workspace.
7. In the CSS Properties task pane, under Applied Rules, point to body #s4-workspace so that a ScreenTip appears with the rule’s declarations.
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336 Chapter 10 Branding SharePoint Sites
Tip You can right-click a style, and a context-sensitive list of options is displayed that
allow you to go to the code, create a new style, copy a style, or modify the style. When
you click a class or ID style, you will see additional options, such as those to rename the
class and remove an ID.
8. In the CSS Properties task pane, click the Summary button.
A summarized list of all properties appears.
9. In the Manage Styles task pane, click Options, and select Show Styles Used in
Current Page.
The Manage Styles task pane refreshes. All CSS elements (IDs) and classes are identified by a gray circle.
10. In the Manage Styles task pane, click Options, and then click Categorized by
Type.
The style types are listed in a treelike structure grouped by elements and classes.
Elements have a blue circle to the left of the element name, and classes are identified by a green circle.
11. In the Manage Styles task pane, scroll down, and under Classes, right-click .s4title, and then click Select All 1 Instance(s).
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Identifying Styles in Cascading Style Sheets 337
In the Quick Tag Selector area, the tag <div .s4-title s4-lp> is highlighted in orange. In the Code view portion of the workspace, the section of code between the
matching <div> and </div> tags is highlighted, and in the Design view portion of
the workspace, a purple rectangle appears around an area of the page that maps
to that section of code.
At the bottom of the Manage Styles task pane, the Selected Style Preview box
shows the effect of the style rule when it is applied to content.
Note The HTML <div> tag is used as a block-level container that holds a part or
section of a Web page that can contain content and more HTML tags. Many of the
HTML <table> tags used in Windows SharePoint Services are replaced in SharePoint
Foundation by <div> tags. By associating a CSS element with a block-level container,
you can apply a separate style than for the rest of the page. It allows you to manage
and manipulate that section of the page more easily than if it were defined as a set
of <table> tags, and also makes it easier for you to create pages that comply with
accessibility standards.
See Also More information on accessibility can be found in Chapter 12, “Understanding
Usability and Accessibility.“
12. In the Manage Styles task pane, point to .s4-title so that a ScreenTip appears with
the styles for the rule.
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338 Chapter 10 Branding SharePoint Sites
13. In the CSS Properties task pane, click the Show Alphabetized List and Show
Show
a phabe ized
Show se
proper ies
on op
set Properties on Top icons. Also click the Summary button if it is not already
selected.
In the CSS Properties task pane, the Applied Rules section shows the classes that
are applied to the <div> section before the .s4-title class. In the CSS Properties
section, the declarations defined in the .s4-title rule appear in blue bold text, with
multiple rules listed for the Padding property. When the properties are repeated
several times, this means they have been defined in a different style sheet or more
than once in the same style sheet. The second Padding property in the list overrides the first property—the one with a red line through it.
Tip When you click a CSS property, the style that defines the property is surrounded by
a blue rectangle in the Applied Rules section.
14. In the CSS Properties task pane, point to the padding property that has a red line
through it so that a ScreenTip appears with the name of the rule overriding this
property: .s4-title.
CLEAN UP Close v4-master; click No if you are asked to save your changes. Leave
SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next exercise.
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Identifying Styles on Content Pages 339
Identifying Styles on Content Pages
When you display a content page in SharePoint Designer, although Design view displays
a merged copy of the master page and the content page, you can only identify CSS
styles for components that are stored in the content page. To identify the components
that are stored in the content page, use the Code view for the page.
In this exercise, you identify styles used on a content page.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open. The settings page for the site should be displayed.
1. In the Navigation pane, click Site Pages, and then double-click the icon to the left
of Home.aspx to open the page.
In the workspace, the tab is labeled Home.aspx, and in the Code view portion of
the workspace, some of the code is highlighted in yellow. The page is open in safe
mode.
The CSS Properties task pane contains no rules or properties, and the Manage
Styles task pane contains element and class rules that are used on the Home.aspx
page. These rules are defined in corev4.css, wiki.css, and menu-21.css, which are
linked to the master page that is attached to the current page. The Manage Styles
task pane contains no reference to the current page, which means that no style
rules are defined in the current page.
2. On the Home tab, click Advanced Mode in the Editing group to access all the
Advanced Mode
code defined in the Home.aspx content page and to access those page elements in
Design view.
The page refreshes, and the code in the Code view portion of the workspace is no
longer highlighted.
3. In the Design view portion of the workspace, click the name of the site.
A purple rectangle surrounds the site name with the label PlaceHolderSiteName
(Master). The Quick Tag Selector area in the workspace status bar contains no tag
information, and no rules are listed in the CSS Properties task pane.
4. To the right of your site’s name, click the OOUI arrow to open the Comment
OOU
Content Tasks list.
The Common Content Task list displays a link named Create Custom Content.
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340 Chapter 10 Branding SharePoint Sites
Note The presence of (Master) in the label name and the link Create Custom Content
in the Common Content Tasks list indicate that the area surrounded by the purple
rectangle maps to a control whose content is defined on the master page. Therefore, no
CSS style information is displayed in the CSS Properties task pane.
5. Click in the Code view portion of the workspace, and then press CTRL+F to display
the Find and Replace dialog box.
6. Under Find what, type PlaceHolderMain, and then click Find Next. Click Close to
close the Find and Replace dialog box.
In Code view, PlaceHolderMain is highlighted, and in Design view, a purple rectangle surrounds the related area with the label PlaceHolderMain (Custom). In the
Quick Tag Selector area, the <asp:Content> tag is highlighted in orange.
7. In Design view, click inside the PlaceHolderMain section.
The CSS Properties tasks pane displays information in the Applied Rules and CSS
Properties sections.
Note The presence of (Custom) in the PlaceHolderMain label indicates that the area
surrounded by the purple rectangle maps to a control defined on the master page, but
on this page, the rectangle contains its own unique content, together with any CSS style
information, and not content from the master page. If you were to display the Common
Content Task list, the link would be named Default To Master’s Content.
See Also More information on master pages can be found in Chapter 11, “Working
with Master Pages.“
CLEAN UP Close all open task panes. Leaving v4.master checked out, close v4.master
and Home.aspx, and click No if you are asked to save your changes. Leave SharePoint
Designer open if you are continuing to the next exercise.
Creating and Attaching CSS Files
Different types of styles can be created: styles inline within HTML tags, styles internal
to the page, and styles external to the page. Use inline styles very sparingly. They are defined within the element you want to style—for example, <div style ”position: absolute; top
10px;”>. Using inline styles is in direct contradiction to the purpose of using a style sheet.
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Creating and Attaching CSS Files 341
Inline styles override styles defined in style sheets and mean that you cannot restyle that
part of your page without editing the page. The disadvantages of using inline styles are
that they require more maintenance, are less flexible, and increase the size of the page.
Use internal style sheets if you have a small style change for a page layout or a particular
page. The styles are placed within the <style> tags inside the <head> tags at the top
of a page. The disadvantages of using an internal style sheet are that they require more
maintenance, are less flexible, and increase the size of the page.
The preferred method of adding styles is to use an external style sheet. A CSS file is
linked to a page. The link is placed in the <head> section of the page, usually after the
CSS Link SharePoint control. An external style sheet is easier to maintain, more flexible,
and does not increase the size of your page.
Tip An alternative to using an internal style sheet is to add a <div> tag around the HTML or
section to which you want to apply a specific look and feel. Assign the <div> tag with a unique
ID, and when you create styles in your style sheet, place that ID in front of the style. The only
time the style is applied is when the browser sees a <div> tag with that ID. Using this method,
you can still have special styling for a particular page, retain ease of maintenance for the page,
and keep the file size for your page manageable.
By placing styles in a file, you can centrally manage those styles and apply the same
styles to a number of pages. Both SharePoint Foundation and SharePoint Server make
heavy use of styles that reside in files. You can create a new style sheet in the following
ways:
● By using the Assets tab when you display the Site Assets library view in the
workspace
● By using the Style tab
● In the New Style dialog box, which you can open from the Apply Styles and
Manage Styles task panes and when you select Apply Style from the Target Rule list
in the Style Application group
When you create styles in a cascading style sheet file, you need to attach the file to a
page to apply those styles to the page. Again SharePoint Designer provides you with
many ways to complete this task. For example, you can use the Attach Style command
on the Style tab, or you can use links in the Apply Styles and Manage Styles task panes.
When you attach a file, <link> tags are placed in the <head> tags.
In this exercise, you attach a cascading style sheet file to a page.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open. The settings page for the site should be displayed.
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342 Chapter 10 Branding SharePoint Sites
1. In the Navigation pane, click Site Assets to display the gallery page for the Site
Assets library.
2. On the Assets tab, in the New group, click the down arrow for the Asset command, and then click CSS.
Asse
A file named Untitled 1.css appears. The name of the file is selected.
3. Type MyStyles.css, and then press Enter to rename the file.
4. In the Navigation pane, click Site Pages. On the Pages tab, click the Page command down arrow, and then click ASPX.
Page
A file named Untitled 1.aspx appears, with the name of the file selected.
5. Type MyPage.aspx, and then press Enter to rename the file.
6. With MyPage.aspx selected, click Edit File on the Pages tab. Click Yes to confirm
that you want to open the page in advanced edit mode.
Edi Fi e
The page opens in the workspace, and the <form#form1> tag is highlighted in the
Quick Tag Selector area on the workspace status bar.
7. On the workspace status bar, click Split if it is not already selected.
8. On the Style tab, click Attach Style Sheet in the Create group.
A ach S y e
Shee
The Attach Style Sheet dialog box opens.
9. Click the Browse button to the right of the URL box.
The Select Style Sheet dialog box opens, displaying the folders, libraries, and files in
the root of your site.
Troubleshooting If your site’s contents are not displayed, expand Microsoft SharePoint
Designer at the top of the left pane, and navigate to your site.
10. In the Select Style Sheet dialog box, double-click SiteAssets, and then click
MyStyles.css.
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Creating and Attaching CSS Files 343
11. Click Open to close the Select Style Sheet dialog box.
12. Select the Link option to the right of Attach as, if it is not already selected, and
then click OK to close the Attach Style Sheet dialog box.
The page refreshes. An asterisk appears on the MyPage.aspx label. In the Code
view portion of the workspace, a new line containing a <link> tag appears. No
styles appear in the CSS Properties task pane; however, MyStyles.css is listed in the
Manage Styles task pane.
13. Right-click the MyPage.aspx tab, and then click Save.
Both MyPage.aspx and MyStyles.css are now saved, and the Save Embedded Files
dialog box closes.
CLEAN UP Close all open task panes. Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are
continuing to the next exercise.
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344 Chapter 10 Branding SharePoint Sites
Creating a Functioning HTML Page
After you have agreement on the branding for your site, you need to convert the visual
presentation of your user interface design (known as a wireframe) to a functioning HTML
page. You might first prototype your design by creating one page that contains the
components for both the master page and the content page. Create your CSS styles using that page, and then when you have sign-off, create the master page and templates
for the content pages. Creating a prototype page first means that you can fine-tune the
HTML for the master page and the CSS styles without having to wait to see the result of
merging two files. The prototype should reflect the design decisions about usability and
accessibility that you considered as part of the planning process, as well as whether you
will use tables or <div> tags for the page layout. SharePoint Designer can be used to
create the prototype, the actual master pages, and content pages.
In this exercise, you create one <div> region that contains two other <div> regions.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open. Open MyPage.aspx and display MyPage.aspx in Split
view.
1. In the Design view portion of the page, click in the form#form1 rectangle. On
HTML
the Insert tab, click the HTML down arrow in the Controls group, and then under
Tags, click <div>.
<div>
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Creating a Functioning HTML Page 345
In Code view, the tags <div> and </div> are added on separate lines between the
opening and closing <form> tags. In Design view, a rectangle with blue lines appears with the label div. On the Quick Tag Selector area in the workspace status bar,
<div> is highlighted in orange.
2. On the Quick Tag Selector area, click <div>, and then click Tag Properties.
The Tag Properties task pane opens and displays the properties for the <div> tag.
3. In the Tag Properties task pane, under Attributes, click the cell to the right of id,
type container, and then press Enter.
4. Place the insertion point in the rectangle under div#container, and press Enter.
The div#container consists of two lines, and in Code view, a <br /> tag appears.
5. Place the insertion point on the first line under div#container. On the Insert tab,
click the HTML down arrow, and click <div>. In the Tag Properties task pane, under Attributes, click the cell to the right of id, type page content, and then press
Enter.
6. Place the insertion point on the second line below div#page content. On
the Insert tab, click the HTML down arrow, and then click <div>. In the Tag
Properties task pane, under Attributes, click the cell to the right of id, type
right col, and then press Enter.
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346 Chapter 10 Branding SharePoint Sites
7. Place the insertion point on the third line in div#container, and press Delete.
The div#container should contain two <div> tags, which in Design view are displayed on separate lines.
CLEAN UP Save your changes. Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing
to the next exercise.
Creating Styles
In a previous section I showed how to identify content that is styled using cascading
style sheet (CSS) style rules and declarations. To make a change to style rules and declarations, you can use the visual tools that SharePoint Designer provides, or you can edit
the styles directly. Both methods produce the same results. If you are new to CSS and
learning how to work with style sheets, use the tools in SharePoint Designer and examine
Code view to see the CSS that SharePoint Designer generates. This will help you learn
style declarations. Start with a simple page, and as your understanding improves, you
can move to more complicated pages.
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Creating Styles 347
Tip Don’t forget to use the Preview In Multiple Browsers option. You should keep checking
your design in a variety of different browsers and screen sizes to be sure it will be displayed
correctly to visitors to your site. If your latest changes are not quite what you expect, use the
Undo button on the Quick Access Toolbar or the shortcut keystroke CTRL+Z, as you would in
Microsoft Word or Microsoft Excel when the latest edits are not to your liking.
SharePoint Designer adds new styles to the end of a style sheet. Some CSS authors organize styles within style sheets by separating them into groups according to where the
styles are located on the Web page. Others organize styles in the order in which they
were created. Your company might have naming standards and best practices for the
development of a CSS. If you are creating a style sheet that will be maintained by other
users, you might have to adhere to those standards. Microsoft has a naming standard
for styles they create for use in SharePoint. For example, most of the SharePoint classes
begin with .ms- and include WP in the name if the style applies to components related to
Web Parts.
Tip Selectors using the same declarations can be grouped in a shorthand format. This reduces
the size of your style sheet and the need for adding declarations for each selector.
In this exercise, you will create two nested regions that appear side by side.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open. Open MyPage.aspx and display MyPage.aspx in Split
view.
1. On the Style tab, click New Style in the Create group.
New S y e
The New Style dialog box opens.
2. In the Selector box, delete .newStyle1, and then type #page content. In the
Define in list, select Existing style sheet, and then click the Browse button to the
right of the URL box.
The Select Style Sheet dialog box opens.
3. Click MyStyle.css, and then click Open.
Troubleshooting If the MyStyles.css file does not appear in the Select Style Sheet dialog
box, click Microsoft SharePoint Designer in the left pane and navigate to the style sheet.
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348 Chapter 10 Branding SharePoint Sites
4. In the New Style dialog box, under Category, click Box, clear the check box to the
right of margin, and then in the right list, type 200.
The Description box contains the CSS declarations that will be created as the result
of filling in the boxes in this dialog box.
5. Click OK to close the New Style dialog box.
The MyStyles.css file opens as a tab to the right of the MyPage.aspx tab.
6. On the Style tab, click New Style to open the New Style dialog box.
7. In the Selector box, delete .newStyle1, and then type #right col.
8. If Existing style sheet is not selected in the Define list, and the URL box does not
contain MyStyle.css, repeat steps 2 and 3.
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Modifying and Deleting Styles 349
9. In the New Style dialog box, under Category, click Position. In the position list,
click absolute. In the box to the right of width, type 200. In the box to the right of
top, type 0, and in the box to the right of right, type 0.
10. Click OK to close the Select Style Sheet dialog box.
11. Using steps 6 through 10, create the new style #container with the following declarations: position: relative and width:100%.
Tip To select %, click px in the drop-down list to the right of Width and then select %.
The positioning style elements created are applied to MyPage.aspx, and in Design
view, div#container contains div#page content and div#right col, side by side on
one line. In Code view, there are no changes to the definitions of the <div> tags.
12. Click the MyStyles.css tab. The following CSS declarations were created:
#page_content {
margin-right: 200px;
}
#right_col {
position: absolute;
width: 200px;
top: 0px;
right: 0px;
}
#container {
position: relative;
width: 100%;
}
CLEAN UP Save your changes. Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing
to the next exercise.
Modifying and Deleting Styles
After you create and test your styles, you might need to manually edit the styles that
SharePoint Designer automatically generated. You might also want to include comments
to document your branding decisions—for example, /* This is the Home page
header style */.
In this exercise, you modify and delete styles.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous exercise
if it is not already open. Open MyPage.aspx, and display MyPage.aspx in Split view.
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350 Chapter 10 Branding SharePoint Sites
1. On the Styles tab, click CSS Properties in the Properties group, and click Apply
App y S y es
Styles in the Create group.
The CSS Properties and Apply Styles task panes open.
2. In Design view, place the insertion point in the div#page content region, and
then type Wide World Importers.
In the Apply Styles task pane, the three style elements are listed below MyStyles.css.
Each red icon to the left of a style element is surrounded with a gray circle, indicating
that each element is used in MyPage.aspx. The style element #page content is surrounded with a blue rectangle, indicating that this style is applied to the area of the
page where the insertion point is.
3. Select Wide World Importers, and then on the Home tab, click Bold.
Bo d
4. In the CSS Properties task pane, click the cell to the right of the background-color
CSS Proper ies
property, and then click the arrow that appears.
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Modifying and Deleting Styles 351
5. In the list, select Silver.
In the CSS Properties task pane, the background-color property is set to the hex
code (a combination of six numbers and/or letters to define a color) #C0C0C0. In
the document window, the text Wide World Importers has the background color silver, and in the Apply Styles task pane, the #page content style has the background
color silver.
6. Place the insertion point on the line below Wide World Importers (outside the
<div> tags), and then type Oak Furniture.
The text is placed inside a <p> (paragraph) tag. In Code view, you can see that the
<p> tag is created after the </form> tag.
7. Select Oak Furniture, and on the Home tab, click Center.
Cen er
SharePoint Designer creates a new class-based style in the current page, named
.style1, and associates it with the <p> tag. This new tag appears in the Apply Styles
and CSS Properties task panes. The Current Page heading is lower in the Apply
Styles task pane, indicating that the styles defined on the current page are applied
after styles in the MyStyles.css file.
Tip If a class style is not created, verify that the CSS tab of the Page Editor Options
dialog box is set to Auto Style Application.
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352 Chapter 10 Branding SharePoint Sites
8. Place the insertion point on the line below Oak Furniture (outside the <p> tag),
and then type Office Furniture.
The text is placed inside a <p> tag, and the tag is associated with the style1 class.
Tip You can remove styles from an element by selecting the element and then clicking
Clear Styles on the Apply Styles task pane.
9. Select Office Furniture, and then on the Home tab, and click Align Text Right.
A ign Tex Righ
SharePoint Designer creates a new class-based style, .style2.
Tip You can create a new style by using an existing style as its basis. In the Apply Styles
task pane, right-click the style you want to use as the basis of the new style, and then
click New Style Copy.
10. Click Office Furniture, and then in the Apply Styles task pane, click .style1 to revert the <p> tag to .style1.
The class-based style .style2 is deleted from the current page.
11. In the Apply Styles task pane, point to .style1, click the arrow that appears, and
then click Modify Style.
The Modify Style dialog box opens.
Tip Notice that the Block category is bold. Click that category, and you will see that text
alignment is set to Center.
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Using the Style Application Group Commands 353
12. Under Category, click Border. Under border-style, in the top list, click double.
Click OK to apply the style and close the Modify Style dialog box.
The two <p> tags are now surrounded by a double-line border.
13. In Code view, hold down the CTRL key and click style1.
Code view displays the .style1 rule enclosed in a <style> tag in the <head> portion
of the page.
14. Right-click the MyPage.aspx tab, and then click Save. If the Save Embedded Files
dialog box opens, click OK.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next
exercise.
Using the Style Application Group Commands
On the Style tab, the Style Application group of commands provides quick access to
components you often use. By using the Page Editor Options dialog box, you can configure SharePoint Designer to automatically create styles on your behalf (auto mode), or
you can configure SharePoint Designer to allow you to manually create styles (manual
mode). If you are comfortable working with CSS, you might find that staying in auto
mode or manual mode all the time does not suit you. In this situation, commands in the
Style Application group can come in handy.
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354 Chapter 10 Branding SharePoint Sites
Use the Mode list to switch between auto and manual mode, which provides you with
control over how styles are generated. When you are in manual mode, the other commands in the Style Application group become active.
The Target Rule list allows you to quickly apply styles you have already created. By default, the style that has the highest precedence is targeted. The Target Rule list can also
be used to modify a particular style or create a style for the selected element. You can
choose to create CSS properties on the style attribute of the selected element (Inline
Style) or allow SharePoint Designer to generate a new style class (New Auto Class).
Tip The SharePoint Designer status bar indicates whether you are editing a page in Style
Application auto or manual mode. You can change modes or open the CSS tab in the Page
Editor Options dialog box by right-clicking Style Application in the status bar.
In this exercise, you use the Style Application group of commands.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open, and display MyPage.aspx in Split view.
1. In the Design view portion of the workspace, place the insertion point on the line
below Office Furniture (outside the <p> tag), and then type Garden Furniture.
2. On the Style tab, in the Mode list, select Manual, and in the Target Rule list select
New Inline Style.
In the Style Application group, the Show Overlay button, the Target Rule list, and
the Reuse Properties button are active. The SharePoint Designer status bar displays
Manual.
3. On the Home tab, click the arrow to the right of Font Color, and click Red.
Fon Co or
In Code view, the color property, with a value of #FF0000, is added to the style
attribute on the <p> tag.
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Using the Style Application Group Commands 355
4. Press CTRL+Z to undo the last edit. On the Style tab, in the Target Rule list, select
New Auto Class. On the Home tab, click the arrow to the right of Font Color, and
click Red.
In Design view, the label for the <p> tag is p.style1 style2. In Code view, you can
see a new class, .style2, applied to the <p> tag that surrounds the text Garden
Furniture.
5. Press CTRL+Z to undo the last edit. On the Style tab, in the Target Rule list, select
Apply New Style.
The New Style dialog box opens with Font selected under Category.
6. Delete .newStyle1, and then type .red. With Font selected under Category, select
Red in the color list.
7. Click Apply, and then click OK to close the New Style dialog box.
The text Garden Furniture is colored red and justified to the left with no border.
The classes .style1 and .style 2 are no longer applied to the text. The label for the
<p> tag is p.red, and in Code view, the class value is now set to red.
8. Right-click the MyPage.aspx tab, and then click Save.
CLEAN UP Close MyPage.aspx and MyStyles.css. Leave SharePoint Designer open if
you are continuing to the next exercise.
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Understanding SharePoint’s CSS Inheritance
As with many other files you have worked with in this book, corev4.css and the other
style sheets live in the root directory on each Web server. If you modify and save them
with SharePoint Designer, you create customized pages. Child sites do not inherit styles
from a customized version of corev4.css. They will still point to the uncustomized page
in the root directory. If you customize corev4.css on a number of sites, each site will have
its own copy of the file. If the version of corev4.css in the root directory is changed and
distributed to the Web server(s), those changes do not affect your sites.
See Also For more information about the root directory, see Chapter 1.
When you need all the sites in a site collection to have the same branding, breaking
the link to the uncustomized corev4.css file can be a major problem. It’s a best practice
to not change corev4.css or any of the other built-in style sheets by using SharePoint
Designer or any other product. To use SharePoint Designer to customize one site, you
should make a copy of the styles in corev4.css that you want to amend. Then place those
styles in a master page surrounded by <style> tags, or place them in your own style
sheet. You might need to consult with a developer to obtain a greater understanding
of the inheritance structure of all the styles in all the style sheets that both SharePoint
Foundation and SharePoint Server use.
If your aim is to brand more than one site, SharePoint has a mechanism for attaching an
alternative style sheet that can be used on multiple sites. Styles defined in this file are
always applied after the styles in corev4.css, whether or not you customize corev4.css.
SharePoint Server exposes a method of assigning alternate style sheets by using the
browser. SharePoint Foundation does not. There are also other methods of applying your
custom styles. Add themes to this discussion and the ability to define additional cascading style sheets in site definitions and features, and you can understand why you might
need the skills of a developer.
In this exercise, you review the relationship that corev4.css has with the default master
page. You will also edit a style within corev4.css, resulting in a customized page that you
then revert to a file on the Web server.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise.
1. In Navigation pane, click Master Page to display the gallery page in the workspace, and then double-click the icon to the left of v4.master.
The v4.master page opens in the workspace.
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Understanding SharePoint’s CSS Inheritance 357
2. In the Apply Styles task pane, click corev4.css, and then continue to point to it
until a ScreenTip appears.
Troubleshooting If the Apply Styles task pane is not open, on the Style tab, click Apply
Styles in the Create group.
The ScreenTip points to a location in the layouts directory, which is a folder in the
root directory on the Web servers.
3. In the Design view of v4.master, on the Quick Launch, click Libraries, and then in
the CSS Properties task pane, click Summary.
Troubleshooting If the CSS Properties task pane is not open, on the Style tab, click CSS
Properties in the Properties group.
The Quick Launch Navigation control is selected, and only styles that are applied to
that control are listed in the CSS Properties task pane.
4. In the CSS Properties task pane, click the arrow to the right of font-size, and select medium.
The corev4.css file opens as a tab. Both v4.master and corev4.css have an asterisk
on their tab labels, indicating that you have changed both files.
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358 Chapter 10 Branding SharePoint Sites
Tip If the corev4.css file does not open in the workspace, you might have another
SharePoint Designer window open. Look in this window for the corev4.css file. When
working with styles, you should have only one site open in SharePoint Designer.
5. Right-click the corev4.css tab, and then click Save.
A Warning dialog box opens.
6. Click Yes to close the Warning dialog box.
The All File mini-gallery opens below the Navigation pane, and a folder is created
named styles. You might need to scroll down to see this folder.
7. In the All Files mini-gallery, expand styles.
The file corev4.css is listed with a blue information circle to its left.
8. In the workspace, click the v4.master tab. Then, in the Apply Styles task pane,
click corev4.css, leaving your pointer over it so that a ScreenTip appears.
The ScreenTip indicates that corev4.css is now stored in / styles.
9. Click the corev4.css tab, and then in the All Files mini-gallery, right-click corev4.css,
and click Reset to Site Definition. When the Site Definition Page Warning dialog box opens, click Yes.
The styles folder contains core.css and corev4 copy(1).css.
10. Click the v4.master tab, and in the Apply Styles task pane, click corev4.css, leaving your pointer over it so that a ScreenTip appears.
The ScreenTip states that corev4.css is still located in / styles.
11. Click the corev4.css tab, and in the All Files mini-gallery, right-click corev4.css
and click Delete.
The Customized Stylesheet Warning dialog box opens, stating that this action will
cause you to use a default version of the style sheet.
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Using IntelliSense to add CSS 359
12. Click OK to close the Customized Stylesheet Warning dialog box. When the
Confirm Delete dialog box opens, click Yes.
The style folder now contains only the corev4 copy(1).css file.
13. Close v4.master and corev4.css. Click No when prompted to save the file.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next
exercise.
Using IntelliSense to add CSS
Like many of Microsoft’s Web editing programs and development environments,
SharePoint Designer provides IntelliSense to help you write code quickly. When you type
in Code view, a list appears suggesting possible tags, declaration names, properties, and
values. Selecting items from the list reduces the amount of code you need to type, and
the list also acts as a reference source and learning aid.
In this exercise you add CSS rules to Code view for a master page file by using
IntelliSense. The CSS rules will change the title, also known as the banner area, of the
master page.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise. To complete this exercise you need the practice file bg.jpg in the Chapter10
practice file folder.
1. In the Navigation pane, click Site Assets, and then click Import Files in the New
group. The Import dialog box opens.
2. Click Add File. In the Add File to Import List dialog box, click the practice file,
bg.jpg.
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360 Chapter 10 Branding SharePoint Sites
3. Click Open, and then click OK.
The Add File To Import List and Import dialog boxes close.
4. In the Navigation pane, click Master Pages. Right-click v4.master, and click Copy,
and then right-click in the workspace, and click Paste.
A file named v4 copy(1).master appears.
5. With v4 copy(1).master selected, on the Master Pages tab, click Rename in the
Edit group. Type SPDSBSprototype.master, and press Enter.
6. On the Master Pages tab, click Edit File.
The SPDSBSprototype.master page is displayed.
Note It is common practice when developing a prototype to insert CSS code into a
master page to confirm that you have identified the CSS declarations and properties you
want to amend. After you have developed the code, you can move it to a CSS file.
7. On the View tab, click Split, and then in the Code view portion of the page, find
Sp i
the closing </head> tag; it should appear at about line number 35. Place the insertion point to the left of </head>, and press Enter to create a new line before the
tag.
8. On the new line, type <st, and then press Tab to select style.
9. Press the Spacebar, type ty, and then press Tab to select type=””. Press the Down
Arrow key, press Tab to select text/css, and then type >. The closing tag </style>
is automatically appended to the line. Press Enter twice to insert two new lines.
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Using IntelliSense to add CSS 361
10. On the new line between the two style tags, press Tab, and then type .s4-t. Press
Tab to select .s4-title.
11. Type {b, and then press the Down Arrow key twice to select background-color.
Type #336699; and then press Enter to place the insertion point on a new line.
12. Continue to use IntelliSense where possible, and add the following code to your
master page:
background-image: url('/SiteAssets/bg.jpg');
background-repeat: repeat-x;
background-position: left top;
min-height: 80px;}
/* Recolor header text */
.s4-titletext h1 a, .s4-title h2, .ms-socialNotif-text {color: #fff;}
Note If your site is not the root site of a site collection, replace the URL value in
the CSS property background-image code with ‘<site>/SiteAssets/bg.jpg’, where
site is the relative address of your site. For example, if your team site name is http://
wideworldimporters/sites/human resources, the CSS property should be backgroundimage: url(‘/sites/human resources/SiteAssets/bg.jpg’);.
The code on the master page should look like the following:
<SharePoint:SPHelpPageComponent Visible="false" runat="server"/>
<style type="text/css">
.s4-title {
background-color: #336699;
background-image: url('/SiteAssets/bg.jpg ');
background-repeat: repeat-x;
background-position: left top;
min-height: 80px;}
/* Recolor header text */
.s4-titletext h1 a, .s4-title h2, .ms-socialNotif-text {color: #fff};
}
</style>
</head>
13. Click in the Design view portion of the master page for the CSS coding to take
effect.
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362 Chapter 10 Branding SharePoint Sites
14. Right-click the SPDSBSprototype.master tab, and then click Save.
A Site Definition Warning dialog box opens.
Note Because the original master page is a site definition page, when you made a copy
of the master page, you also created a template page. Customizing master pages is
not best practice, but because this master page was created for prototyping purposes,
customizing this copy is a fast method of developing a branding solution.
15. Click Yes.
Tip You can change the site’s logo in the browser by using the Site Settings, Title,
Description And Icon page.
CLEAN UP Close SPDSBSprototype.master. Leave SharePoint Designer open if you
are continuing to the next exercise.
Using CSS Reports
As you can with any other customization technique, you can easily make mistakes when
developing styles or produce a solution that is hard to maintain. This is where SharePoint
Designer CSS reports can help you. CSS reports check one or more pages within your site
and produce a usage report showing you where class, ID, and HTML tag selectors are
used and on what lines. These reports can help you find errors and identify styles that
are defined but not used.
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Using CSS Reports 363
In this exercise, you use CSS Reports to determine the usage of CSS styles in the Home.
aspx page.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise. The site settings page should be displayed.
1. In the Customization area of the workspace, click Edit file, and then on the Home
tab, click Advanced Mode in the Editing group.
The Home.aspx page opens in the workspace in advanced edit mode.
2. On the View tab, click Task Panes, and then click CSS Reports to open the CSS
Reports task pane.
3. On the View tab, click Code, and then in the CSS Reports task pane, click the Play
P ay
button to open the CSS Reports dialog box.
Troubleshooting If the commands on the View tab are inactive, click in Code view in
the workspace.
4. Click the Usage tab, and verify that Current page is selected as well as the three
check boxes under Check for. Click Check.
The Check Reports task pane lists the CSS selectors that have been applied to the
current page and indicates the line on which the selector is used and the location
where the selector is defined.
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364 Chapter 10 Branding SharePoint Sites
5. In the CSS Reports task pane, double-click the first line.
In the Code view portion of the workspace, the line where the style is used is
highlighted.
6. In the CSS Reports task pane, on the first line, click the corev4.css link in the
Definition Location column.
Corev4.css opens at the line where the style is defined.
CLEAN UP Close Home.aspx, corev4.css, and the CSS Reports task pane. Leave
SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next chapter.
Key Points
● SharePoint Designer provides you with a range of tools to help you manipulate cas-
cading style sheet styles and files.
● SharePoint Designer uses a set of configuration options to decide how it should
add the cascading style sheet tags to your page.
● The main cascading style sheet for both SharePoint Foundation and SharePoint
Service is corev4.css.
● The Manage Styles and CSS Properties task panes provide useful tools to iden-
tify where styles are used and the cascade order of those styles. With the Style
Application group commands, you can switch between automatic and manual CSS
modes and quickly apply styles.
● You can save your styles in files that you can attach to pages.
● IntelliSense is Microsoft’s implementation of auto-completion and acts as a refer-
ence source and learning aid.
● Use CSS reports to check your styles and to produce CSS usage reports.
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Chapter at a G ance
Understand master pages, page 368
Custom ze a
master page,
page 379
Manage content
p aceho ders,
page 387
Create a Web page
from a master page,
page 391
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11Working with
Master Pages
In this chapter, you will learn how to
✔ Understand master pages.
✔ Copy and save a master page.
✔ Customize a master page.
✔ Change the default master page.
✔ Manage content placeholders.
✔ Create a Web page from a master page.
✔ Export a master page.
✔ Reset a master page to the site definition.
You have already worked with master pages earlier in this book. For example, in Chapter
4, “Creating and Modifying Web Pages,” you saw that when you use a browser to request a page from a site, it combines two Microsoft ASP.NET pages: a master page
and a content page. You discovered that when you open a content page in Microsoft
SharePoint Designer 2010, Design view displays the merged page (not only the content
page). You also attached a master page to a newly created page.
Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010 and Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 make
heavy use of master pages to control the general layout of pages within a SharePoint
site. The default master page, usually a file named v4.master, is the master page that
is applied to all pages in your site when you first create the site. When you install
SharePoint 2010, the default master page and other master pages are located on the
Web server. Each master page contains multiple core controls, called ContentPlaceHolder
controls that must be included to display site pages correctly. SharePoint Designer is an
excellent tool to use to customize master pages and manipulate content placeholders.
367
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368 Chapter 11 Working with Master Pages
In this chapter, you will explore the master pages provided with SharePoint 2010 and
learn about some of the new items on those master pages as well as the differences
between them. You will modify a master page, manage ContentPlaceHolder controls,
and reset a master page to its site definition. You will also create a content page from
a master page. If you worked with SharePoint Designer 2007, some of this will not be
new to you. However, if you are just starting out in SharePoint and want to change the
layout of your site, it is important to understand master pages and how they are used in
SharePoint.
Important To complete the exercises in this chapter, you must have permission to modify
master pages. By default, site owners and designers are not allowed to modify master pages;
you must be a site collection administrator. A site collection administrator or Web application
administrator can give site owners and designers permission to modify master pages. For
more information, see “Controlling the Use of SharePoint Designer” in Chapter 1, “Exploring
SharePoint Designer 2010.”
Practice Files Before you can complete the exercises in this chapter; you need to copy
the book’s practice files to your computer. A complete list of practice files is provided in
“Using the Practice Files” at the beginning of this book.
Understanding Master Pages
Master pages were included as part of ASP.NET. SharePoint Foundation 2010 is built
on top of ASP.NET and supports master pages, which help to provide a common look
and feel across entire sites. Because SharePoint Server 2010 is built using SharePoint
Foundation, it too uses ASP.NET.
The best way to plan the structure of a master page is to follow the same steps you take
to structure a regular Web site page. Create a diagram of the layout of the master page,
and indicate where you want to locate components that will remain consistent across all
pages on the site—for example, a header area, a left or right navigation area, or a footer
area. Also indicate where you want to locate components from the content pages. The
parts that contain unique content—on a page-by-page basis—are usually located in the
center of the page.
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Understanding Master Pages 369
Logo, banner mages,
Search box
Nav gat on nks can be
p aced n the header, n
a pane to the eft or
r ght, or n the footer. A
nks shou d work
throughout the s te, on
whatever content page
the master page s
assoc ated w th.
Copyr ght nformat on and
footer nks to other pages
that conta n mportant
nformat on, such as
company ocat ons, company
reg strat on deta s, and the
company s po cy on Web
access b ty.
Header
Side
Navigation
Page Content
Footer
Master pages have the same structure as typical Web pages. They contain the same tags,
such as <html>, <head>, and <body>. Their file names have the extension .master instead of .aspx or .html. They also contain most of the content and functionality of normal
pages, including JavaScript , Web Parts (including Data Views and XLV Web Parts), and
components such as the Search box and the Site Actions button. Master pages cannot
contain Web Part zones, however.
You can include style information in a master page, but it’s good practice to use a style
sheet that is linked to the master page. The key benefit of using a master page is that
any global design changes to your site can be made in one place. By using a master
page, you can design your site efficiently and quickly and avoid having to make changes
on every page in the site.
See Also Information about using SharePoint Designer with cascading style sheets is detailed
in Chapter 10, “Branding SharePoint Sites.”
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370 Chapter 11 Working with Master Pages
Default Master Pages
As with other pages, site definitions play a key role with master pages. Each site definition can contain a number of master pages, one of which can be set as the default master page for the site. However, most site definitions do not contain master pages and use
a global default master page instead. When a site is first created, a site property, referred
to by the token ~masterurl/default.master, is used to save the default master page’s location. After a site is created, you can change the value stored in this token.
Each page in a site is initially configured to use the site’s default master page. However,
you can modify which master page a content page uses. For example, you can
specify whether you want to use the default master page or a different master page.
Theoretically, each page within a site collection could use a different master page. Such
a scenario would defeat the purpose of using master pages, however, because, as stated
earlier, master pages were introduced to support a common look and feel across entire
sites.
So how many master pages does a SharePoint installation have? In a default installation
of SharePoint Foundation, only the following master pages are used:
● Global master pages There are three default master pages:
❍ default.master Provides the look and feel and controls included in a
Windows SharePoint Services 3.0 or Microsoft Office SharePoint Server 2007
installation. This means that the ribbon is not included.
❍ v4.master The primary master page for a SharePoint 2010 installation.
❍ minimal.master This is not the same minimal master page you might have
used with a Windows SharePoint Services 3.0 or SharePoint Server 2007 installation. The minimal master in SharePoint 2010 is applied to pages that use
the Office Web Applications as well as the Search Center.
● Global meeting workspace master pages All meeting workspaces use one of
the global meeting workspace master pages: mwsdefaultv4.master or mwsdefault.
master.
By using global master pages, all your team sites will look the same and all your meeting workspace sites will look the same. SharePoint Server has additional master pages,
such as mysite.master, which is used on My Sites, and DynamicView.master, which is used
with the PerformancePoint Web Parts. Other master pages can be found in the layouts
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Understanding Master Pages 371
folder on each Web server, such as application.master, applicationv4.master, simple.
master, simplev4.master, and pickerdialog.master. These master pages and a number of
content pages that also usually live in the layouts folder cannot be modified by SharePoint
Designer. These content pages (including Login.aspx, SignOut.aspx, Error.aspx, ReqAcc.aspx,
Confirmation.aspx, WebDeleted.aspx, and AccessDenied.aspx) do not use the same master pages you use for your SharePoint sites, and if you corrupt your site’s master pages,
these pages will still display. You can find instructions for how to modify these pages at
msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ee537576(v office.14).aspx, however, you should carefully consider any customizations, and developer skills will often be required.
Note In a default SharePoint Server installation, team and meeting workspace master pages
work as they do in SharePoint Foundation. Publishing sites also use the default master page
mechanism described earlier—that is, each site is configured to use a default master page.
Publishing sites, however, can use an alternate type of master pages, called custom master
pages. The site property that contains the location of a custom master page is referred to by
the token ~masterurl/custom.master.
On publishing sites, when you are working in the browser, if you click Master Page under Look
And Feel on the site settings page, the Site Master Page Settings page is displayed. Use this
page to choose a custom master page in the Site Master Page section or a default master page
in the System Master Page section. The default master page section is named System Master
Page because it is used for nonpublishing pages and for system pages, such as those used to
display the contents of lists and libraries.
If a master page is selected in both the Site Master Page and System Master Page sections,
publishing sites will use the master page selected in the Site Master Page section. In other
words, when custom master pages are set, they are used in preference to default master pages
on publishing sites.
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372 Chapter 11 Working with Master Pages
Controls Used on the Master Page
Much of the functionality of a master page is provided by components that comprise
application logic and user interface declarations in the form of ASP.NET or SharePoint
Server controls.
See Also More information on controls can be found in Chapter 14, “Using Controls in Web
Pages.”
Several controls are required for a master page. These requirements can be different if
you are creating a master page for a SharePoint Foundation installation or a SharePoint
Server installation, and they also depend on the type of functionality you want to use on
your SharePoint site. For example, when you create or modify a master page, the following controls should be placed on your page within the <head> tag (<head>…</head>):
<SharePoint:SPPageManager runat="server" />
<SharePoint:ScriptLink defer= "true" runat="server"/>
Similarly, the following ASP.NET server control should be placed in the <form> tag but
before the ribbon:
<asp:ScriptManager id="ScriptManager" runat="server" EnablePageMethods="false"
EnablePartialRendering="true" EnableScriptGlobalization="false"
EnableScriptLocalization="true" />
See Also You can find more information about upgrading an existing master page
to the SharePoint Foundation master page at msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/
ee539981(v=office.14).aspx.
The controls added to a master page can be divided into four types:
● Controls for links, menus, icons, and navigation components, such as the
SiteMapPath control that populates the global navigation breadcrumb.
● Content placeholders, such as the PlaceHolderMain control, that match areas on
the content page where you can enter information.
● Delegate controls, which define a region on the page in which content can be sub-
stituted for by another control driven by feature activation.
● Controls for scripts. These manage the communication of the page and assist with
the ribbon, toolbars, and other controls.
See Also For more information, refer to Chapter 5, “Pages and Navigation,” in Inside Microsoft
SharePoint 2010, by Ted Pattison, Andrew Connell, and Scot Hillier (Microsoft Press, 2011).
As you have seen with other types of SharePoint pages, SharePoint Designer provides
full design support for master pages. In Design view, you can manipulate the controls on
a master page in a WYSIWYG manner. In addition, you can modify any part of the page
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Understanding Master Pages 373
that is displayed and selectable. However, master pages contain many controls and tags,
and it can be a challenge to accurately modify the page in Design view. In this situation,
Code view is particularly useful.
Note In a browser, you can see only the effect of a master page merged with a content page;
you cannot view a master page itself.
SharePoint Designer displays a program window for each site you open, which allows
you to modify only one site at a time. There is no mechanism by which you can publish
your changes from one site to another. Therefore, in SharePoint Designer, master pages
are always modified at the site level.
In this exercise, you locate the default master page and explore the ASP.NET and
SharePoint controls used by that master page.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you created from the
SBSSPDPracticeSite Starter.wsp practice file.
1. In the Navigation pane, click Master Pages.
The workspace contains the gallery page that displays the master pages for your
site. This page is similar to page-settings pages you saw in Chapter 4. For example,
you can edit the master page name, change permissions, and view the version history of the master page.
Note In a top-level team site on a SharePoint Server installation or on a publishing site,
the Master Page gallery also contains other files.
2. Click v4.master.
The settings page for v4.master is displayed.
3. On the Page tab, click Check Out in the Manage group, and then click Edit File in
the Edit group.
Check Ou
The master page opens in the workspace, and on the breadcrumb the text
Advanced Editor indicates that the page is open in advanced edit mode.
Tip Using the Edit File command in the Customization area in the workspace is
equivalent to clicking the Edit File command on the ribbon.
4. Look in the status bar for the SharePoint Designer window. If Visual Aids is not
specified as On, click Visual Aids on the View tab, and then select Show.
The controls on the page are displayed and surrounded by a purple line. The label for
the active control, PlaceHolderMain, appears above a purple box. In the workspace
status bar, <asp:ContentPlaceH…#PlaceHolderMain> is highlighted in orange to identify it as the active tag. In the mini-gallery below the Navigation pane, a green check
mark appears to the left of v4.master, indicating that the file is checked out.
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374 Chapter 11 Working with Master Pages
Tip If control names do not appear, verify that Template Region Labels is selected on
the Visual Aids menu. Using visual aids can help as you build your master page, but if
you find them distracting, simply clear the options you do not want to show.
5. On the View tab, click the down arrow on the Visual Aids command, and then select ASP.NET Non-visual Controls if no orange box appears to the left of it.
Visua Aids
The master page refreshes, and hidden controls, such as ScriptManager,
SPWebPartMaster, DelegateControl, and DeveloperDashboard, appear.
6. On the workspace status bar, click Split to display the page in both Code view and
Sp i
Design view.
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Understanding Master Pages 375
7. Click in Code view, and then on the Home tab, click Find in the Editing group.
The Find And Replace dialog box opens.
Find
8. In the Find what box, type <asp:. Under Find where, select Current page (if this
option is not already selected), and clear all other check boxes.
Note Under Advanced, you will see that the Find In Source Code check box is selected,
but the option is dimmed.
9. Click Find All.
The Find And Replace dialog box closes, and the Find 1 task pane opens, docking
below the workspace. The lines returned in the results window refer to ASP.NET
controls.
10. Press CTRL+F to open the Find and Replace dialog box. Type <SharePoint:, and
then click Find All.
The Find And Replace dialog box closes, and the search results appear in the Find 1
task pane.
CLEAN UP Close the Find 1 task pane and the v4.master page, leaving v4.master
checked out. Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next
exercise.
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Creating a Master Page
Depending on your requirements, creating a master page can be easy or so difficult that you need developer assistance. You need to decide whether you need to
change just one site or a number of sites, because this requirement also affects the
decision about which tool to use.
If you want to change the master page for all the sites on a SharePoint installation,
you cannot use SharePoint Designer because SharePoint Designer lets you alter
master pages only at the site level. For typical SharePoint master pages, however,
SharePoint Designer is the perfect tool.
When you have a site that requires some heavy design customizations, take time to
understand the components of the master page and become comfortable working
in Code view or Split view. You do not have to be a developer to create a master
page, but you might need the assistance of a developer to help with particular
functional requirements.
It’s fairly simple to move components around on a master page, and you might
think that removing one will not cause harm. However, if your master page does
not contain all the necessary content placeholders, content pages based on that
master page will fail to render, and users will see an error message.
In SharePoint Designer, on the Master Pages tab, you can create a blank master
page, which will contain one content placeholder. This master page is suited to
team sites and system pages.
On the Master Pages tab on publishing sites, you can create a custom master page
by using the From Content Type, Publishing Master Page command. The new master
page includes the minimum number of content placeholders and other components required by the Publishing Framework, but the page contains no styling or
layout.
You can use the v4.master as the basis of your master page, but it’s a complicated
master page and not the easiest page to learn from. I recommend using one of
the starter master pages that come with SharePoint Server, like the Night And Day
master, or the community-created master page under Starter Master Pages for
SharePoint 2010 on the CodePlex Web site, startermasterpages.codeplex.com/.
Other people in the SharePoint community have produced sample master pages that
you can use as the basis for your own. When searching for these pages, use search
keywords such as SharePoint2010 minimal master page or starter master page.
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Copying and Saving a Master Page 377
Copying and Saving a Master Page
In SharePoint Designer, master pages can be located by using the Master Page option
on the Navigation pane. Their actual location in a site is in the catalogs folder in the
masterpage (Master Page Gallery) library, which you can navigate to by using the All Files
gallery or the mini-gallery. This master page library is hidden from the browser’s All Site
Content page, but you can display it by using the Master Page link on the site settings
page.
On publishing sites, two master page content types, Master Page and Publishing Master
Page, are added to the Master Page Gallery library so that it can contain both default
master pages and custom master pages. On nonpublishing sites, such as a team site, only
the Master Page content type is included.
On SharePoint Foundation, versioning is enabled on the Master Page Gallery library, and
all visitors to the site have read access to allow the combined master page and content
page to be displayed in the browser. On SharePoint Server sites, the master page library
has major and minor versioning enabled, content approval is enabled, and check out is
required. These settings mean that you can modify master pages and restore a previous version if you find errors in your modifications. On a SharePoint Server site, you can
make modifications to your master page and publish the master page as a major version
only when those modifications are correct.
Changes to the master page that is set as the default master page cascade down to all
pages that are associated with the site’s default master page. If you do not have your
own site and are working on a team site that other members of your team have access
to, making modifications to a site’s default master page might not be acceptable, especially if your modifications contain so many errors that no content page will render in the
browser.
The preferred method for modifying a default master page is to create a customized
master page and set it as the master page for one content page. When you have tested
your modifications by displaying that content page, you can then set your customized
master page as the site’s default page.
A customized master page can be created in several ways. You can create a new master
page by using the Blank Master Page or From Content Type command on the Master
Page tab, or you can copy a master page and customize it to meet your needs. If modifying the existing default master page seems overwhelming, you can use a starter master
page. Starting with the site’s default master page (v4.master) or using a starter master
page is the best option because these pages will already meet most of your needs.
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378 Chapter 11 Working with Master Pages
See Also For more information about creating a master page, see the sidebar “Creating a
Master Page” earlier in this chapter.
Like site definition files, master pages that are created when you install SharePoint are
stored in the root directory on the Web server. In SharePoint Designer, you can edit master pages only in advance edit mode. When you save changes, you do not alter the file
on the Web server. SharePoint takes a copy of the file, including your amendments, and
saves it in the Microsoft SQL Server content database—that is, the page becomes a customized page. If a developer subsequently changes the master page on the Web server,
your site will not reflect those changes.
See Also For more information about site definitions and the root directory, see Chapter 1.
In this exercise, you create and save a copy of the v4.master page.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open. The settings page for the site should be displayed.
1. In the Navigation pane, click Master Page to display the gallery page in the
workspace.
2. Click the icon to the left of v4.master. On the Master Pages tab, click Copy in the
Clipboard group, and then click Paste.
On the gallery page and in the mini-gallery below the Navigation pane, the file
v4 copy(1).master appears
Note You could complete this task by using the All Files mini-gallery and navigating
to the master page (Master Page Gallery) library in the catalogs folder. You could then
save your master page anywhere in your site. However, the best practice is to save the
master page in the site’s Master Page Gallery library.
3. Click the icon to the left of v4 copy(1).master, and then on the Master Pages tab,
click Check Out in the Manage group.
Check Ou
Rename
4. Click Rename in the Edit group. Type v4-test.master, and press Enter.
Important Be sure to name the file with the .master extension.
A dialog box briefly appears stating that your file is being renamed.
5. On the Master Pages tab, click Edit File in the Edit group.
The v4-test.master page opens in Split view.
Edi Fi e
Troubleshooting If your page does not open in Split view, click the Split button in the
workspace status bar.
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Customizing a Master Page 379
6. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Save. In the Site Definition Page Warning
Save
message box that opens, click Yes.
7. In mini-gallery below the Navigation pane, right-click v4-test.master, and then
click Check In.
8. Click OK to close the Check In dialog box that opens.
The green check mark to the left of v4.master is replaced with a blue information
circle, indicating that the page is customized and now saved in the SQL Server content database.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next
exercise.
Customizing a Master Page
Eventually you might find that you want to alter all the pages in your site to display a
certain piece of information or image. You could navigate through the site and modify
all the pages and add this information to any new pages. But just imagine the daunting task
of updating a typical corporate intranet site that has hundreds of pages. The most efficient
way to repeat items consistently across the site is to create or modify the master page.
Important When you customize the current default master page (v4.master or any page that
is set as the default master), changes are immediately visible on any associated content page.
In light of this, the best practice is to customize a copy of the default master page. Never
customize a master page associated with a production site.
In this exercise, you add a Data View Web Part (DVWP) at the bottom of the master
page. The DVWP will display links to pages stored in the Site Pages library that are classified as footer pages. You then add an existing CSS class to the DVWP so that the extra
code you add to the master page will not be displayed in any pop-up dialog boxes.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous exercise if it
is not already open. Check out and open v4-test.master so that it appears in the workspace in
Split view in advanced edit mode.
1. In the Code view portion of the workspace, scroll down. To the left of the last closing <div> tag, press Enter to add a new line.
Tip The last closing <div> tag will appear on or about line 625 or 654, depending on
whether you are using SharePoint Foundation or SharePoint Server. The line number
might be different if your organization modified the master page or you used a different
or modified site template to create your site.
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380 Chapter 11 Working with Master Pages
2. In Design view, click where the cursor is flashing. On the Insert tab, click Data View
in the Data Views & Forms group, and then click Empty Data View.
Da a View
Troubleshooting If the Data View tab is not active and appears dimmed, click once
anywhere in Design view, and then click to the left of the last closing <div> tag in Code
view.
A WebPartPages:DataFormWebPart control is added to the master page, and an asterisk appears on the v4-test.master tab, indicating that it contains unsaved content.
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Customizing a Master Page 381
3. In the Design view portion of the workspace, click Click here to select a data
source to open the Data Sources Picker dialog box. Click Site Pages under
Document Library, and then click OK.
The Data Sources Picker dialog box closes, and the Data Source Details task pane
appears.
4. In the Data Source Details task pane, scroll down, click URL Path, click Insert
Selected Field as, and then click Multiple Item View.
The page view refreshes, and in Design view, the DataFormWebPart control shows
the URL for all the files stored in the Site Pages document library.
Tip On a master page on which you use Web Parts or a Data View, verify that users have
permission to view the information displayed. Test your modifications by using a variety
of permissions levels.
5. In Design view, click the WebPartPages:DataFormWebPart control to display the
Data View Tools tabs on the ribbon. On the Design tab, click the More down arrow in the View Style group.
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382 Chapter 11 Working with Master Pages
An expanded drop-down list appears.
6. Under Out of Box, point to each of the styles, and click the layout that displays the
ScreenTip Horizontal list of titles.
A Microsoft SharePoint Designer message box appears, warning you that any custom formatting and provider Web Part connections will be removed.
7. Click Yes to close the message box.
The master page refreshes, showing horizontally the page names from the Site
Pages document library.
8. Click inside the WebPartPages:DataFormWebPart control, right-click any of the
page names, point to Format item as, and then click Hyperlink.
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Customizing a Master Page 383
9. Click Yes to confirm the change. The Edit Hyperlink dialog box opens.
10. In the Text to display box, delete {@FileRef}, and click the function button to the
Func ion
right of the Text to display box. In the More Fields dialog box, under Click to select a field, scroll down and click FileLeafRef.Name.
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384 Chapter 11 Working with Master Pages
11. Click OK to close the More Fields and the Edit Hyperlink dialog boxes.
The page view refreshes and displays the names of the pages. The page names are
now linked to their respective pages.
12. Right-click one of the page names, and then click Zoom to Contents.
The Design view portion of the workspace displays page names, and in the Code
view portion, <xsl:value-of select ”@FileLeafRef.Name” /> is highlighted.
Directly above this text is the comma used in the layout to separate the page
names: approximately line 691.
13. In Code view, delete the comma, press SPACE , and then type |. (Press
Shift+Backslash to type this character, which is known as the pipe character.) Click in
the Design view portion of the workspace to refresh the page and display the page
names separated by the pipe character.
14. Click any of the page names, and then on the Options tab, click Filter in the Filter,
Fi er
Sort & Group group. In the Filter Criteria dialog box, click the Field Name arrow. In
the list, click PageType, and under Value, select Footer (if it is not already selected).
Click OK.
Troubleshooting If the column name PageType does not appear in the Field Name
list, you might not have created the team site from the solutions .wsp practice file. See
“Using the Practice Files” at the beginning of this book.
The page view refreshes and shows only those pages that are classified as footer
pages. You should still be in Zoom To Content view
15. In Design view, click one of the page names. In Code view, visually search for <p
class=”ms-vb”>, which should be just above the dvt 1.body xsl:call-template
tag. Delete ms-vb, and type s4-notdlg.
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Changing the Default Master Page 385
Tip Use this CSS class when you want to hide the footer in dialog boxes that appear, for
example, when you click Edit List Item in the browser.
CLEAN UP Save, check in, and close the v4-test.master page. Leave SharePoint
Designer open if you are continuing to the next exercise.
Changing the Default Master Page
When you first create a SharePoint Foundation or SharePoint Server site, all pages but a
select few use the site’s default master page. By using SharePoint Designer, you can set a
new master page as the site’s default master page.
Note In a SharePoint Server 2010 installation, you can alter the master page associated with
a site by using the browser. To access the master page, click Master Page in the Look And Feel
list on the site settings page. On SharePoint Foundation, you have to set the default master
page through SharePoint Designer.
In this exercise, you set the default master page to use the master page you created in
the previous exercise.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open. The settings page for the site should be displayed.
1. In the Navigation pane, click Master Pages. In the workspace, click the icon to
Se as Defau
the left of v4-test.master. On the Master Pages tab, click Set as Default in the
Actions group.
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386 Chapter 11 Working with Master Pages
Tip If the Set As Default command is not available, then the master page v4-test.master
is already set as the site’s default master page.
2. In the Navigation pane, click Site Pages. In the workspace, double-click the icon
to the left of Home.aspx to open the page in edit mode.
Note In the Site Pages mini-gallery, no blue information circle appears to the left of
Home.aspx. The master page v4-test.master is a customized page, but the content page,
Home.aspx, is an uncustomized page.
3. In the lower-left area of the Home.aspx page, point to one of the page names
listed from the Site Pages library.
Tip You might need to scroll down Home.aspx to see the page names.
A no-entry symbol appears over the page name.
4. Press F12 to open the home page in the browser.
5. At the bottom of the page, click one of the page names.
The page that opens should be associated with the link you select.
6. On the Quick Launch bar, under Libraries, click Site Pages.
The All Pages view of the Site Pages library is displayed. At the bottom of the page
you should still see footer links to the page names.
7. On the Documents tab, click New Document in the New group.
The New dialog box opens. At the bottom of the dialog box no pages from the Site
Pages library are displayed. This occurs because the s4-notdlg CSS class was used in
the previous exercise.
8. In the New page name box, type Test-Page, and then click Create to close the
New dialog box.
The Test-Page opens, and a link to the new page appears at the bottom of the
page.
Troubleshooting If a link to Test-Page is not displayed at the bottom of the page, you
might have set the default value of the PageType column to a value other than Footer.
Note On a Windows SharePoint Services 3.0 or SharePoint Server 2007 installation, if
you click the Documents or List link in the Quick Launch bar, you are taken to a page in
the layouts folder. This page does not have your customized version of the master page
applied. This is not the case in SharePoint Foundation 2010. Your layouts page has the
footer links at the bottom of the page. The difference is that in SharePoint 2010, the
default master page is also used by the layouts pages.
CLEAN UP Close the v4.master page and the browser. Leave SharePoint Designer
open if you are continuing to the next exercise.
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Managing Content Placeholders 387
Tip You can attach a master page to a single page when you have a page open in advanced
edit mode by using the Attach command in the Master Page group on the Style tab. This is
very useful when you want to test a new or a modified copy of an existing master page. Once
you have completed your tests, you can use the exercise in this section to set the site’s default
master page as your new or modified master page.
Managing Content Placeholders
As I previously described, master pages are used to keep a consistent look and feel
across your site pages. However, master pages have other special features, such as
ContentPlaceHolder controls. The ContentPlaceHolder control is a key component of a
master page. These controls define the areas of the master page where unique content
on a content page appears when the content page is merged with the master page.
Master pages must contain content place holders. If they don’t, some if not all the pages
on your site might not work correctly and error pages will be displayed.
In SharePoint 2010, application pages (those pages with layouts in their URL) and content pages use the same content placeholders. Application pages also contain a new
attribute, DynamicMasterPageFile—in the @Page directive. These two improvements
mean that both sets of pages can use the same master page. This gives a consistent look
and feel across a site, which was not the case in Windows SharePoint Services 3.0 and
SharePoint Server 2007. Simply put, if you modify a site’s master page, your application
pages will share those modifications.
A master page typically has a number of content placeholders, the most important of
them being PlaceHolderMain. This is the name of the content placeholder that maps to
the region on the master page where the majority of the unique content from the content page should be placed. It usually appears in the center of the page.
See Also For a description of the default content placeholders, refer to office.microsoft.com/
en-us/sharepointdesigner/HA101651201033.aspx.
You might remember from Chapter 4 that when you attached a master page to
OfficeFurniture.aspx, SharePoint Designer opened the Match Content Regions dialog box so that you could match the content on OfficeFurniture.aspx with a content
placeholder on the master page. In this case, defining a match was easy, and you accepted SharePoint Designer’s suggestion of mapping the data in the <body> tag on
OfficeFurniture.aspx with the PlaceHolderMain control. SharePoint Designer replaced
the <body> tag in OfficeFurniture.aspx with an <asp:Content> tag with the attribute
contentplaceholderid set to PlaceHolderMain. Therefore, to plug content from a content
page into a master page, the content page must have at least one content control that
matches an ID of a content placeholder on the master page.
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388 Chapter 11 Working with Master Pages
Tip In SharePoint Designer, content placeholders are also known as content regions. If
you developed a common look and feel for a site on Windows SharePoint Services 3.0 or
SharePoint Server 2007 by using Dynamic Web Templates (DWT), the concept of content
regions will not be new to you.
When you create a new content page from a master page, all content placeholders cannot contain any unique content—that is, all content placeholders are placed
in a non­editable state. In SharePoint Designer, the text in the label above the content
placeholder will look similar to PlaceHolderNAME (Master). When you open an existing content page, such as Home.aspx, you see Custom in the placeholder name, such
as PlaceHolderNAME (Custom). This indicates that unique content can be placed within
the region defined by the content placeholder. You worked with this aspect of a content
placeholder in Chapter 4 if you completed the exercise to create a new page from a master page. All the content placeholders on that page were marked with Master. You enabled the PlaceHolderMain content region as editable, and as a result, Custom replaced
Master. You were then able to add content to your content page. Adding content to a
content placeholder on the master page allows you to specify content that is visible on
every content page associated with that master page, but it also allows you to customize
that content for each particular content page.
While working with master pages in SharePoint Designer, you manage content placeholders by using the Manage Content Regions command on the ribbon’s Style tab.
Content placeholders cannot be managed from a content page. When the Manage
Content Regions command is clicked on a content page, a warning dialog box appears,
asking if you want to save the content page as a master page.
In this exercise, you will place the DVWP you created in the previous exercise in a content
placeholder on the master page. Then, on a content page, you will override a content placeholder and revert to a content placeholder on the master page.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open. Check out and open v4-test.master so that it
appears in the workspace in Split view in advanced edit mode.
1. In the Design view portion of the workspace, scroll down if necessary and click
the DVWP you created in the previous exercise in this chapter. Select the label
(WebPartPages: DataFormWebPart) when it appears.
The DVWP code is highlighted in the Code view portion of the workspace.
2. On the Style tab, click Manage Content Regions in the Master Page group.
The Manage Content Regions dialog box opens.
Manage Con en
Regions
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Managing Content Placeholders 389
3. In the Region name box, type PlaceHolderFooter, and then click Add.
Tip When you add a new content region, it must have a unique name.
PlaceHolderFooter appears (in alphabetic order) in the Manage Content Regions
dialog box. The Add button changes to the Rename button, and the v4-test.master
page is refreshed. The new region, PlaceHolderFooter, appears, and your DVWP is
now contained in that content region.
4. Click Close to close the Manage Content Regions dialog box, and then click Save
Save
on the Quick Access Toolbar. If a dialog box opens stating that there are pending
updates, click Continue.
5. In the Navigation pane, click Site Pages, and then click the icon to the left of
Test-Page.aspx. On the Pages tab, click Check Out in the Manage group, and
then click Edit File in the Edit group.
The page opens. In the Code view portion of the workspace, the code has a yellow
background color.
Tip The yellow background indicates that the page is open in safe mode.
6. On the Home tab, click Advanced Mode in the Editing group.
The page refreshes, and the code no longer has a yellow background.
7. In the Design view portion of the workspace, scroll to the bottom of the page and
point to the DVWP that you created previously. Click On Object User Interface
(OOUI), which is represented by a small arrow floating just outside the control.
The Common Content Task list opens.
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390 Chapter 11 Working with Master Pages
8. Click Create Custom Content.
The Common Content Tasks list closes, and the label on the content placeholder
changes from PlaceHolderFooter (Master) to PlaceHolderFooter (Custom).
9. Click one of the page names in the DVWP so the WebPartPages:DataFormWebPart
label appears. Click the WebPartPages:DataFormWebPart label, and then press
Delete to delete the DVWP.
10. In the Quick Launch bar, click Recently Modified so that the
PlaceHolderLeftActions (Custom) content placeholder label appears. Click the
OOUI arrow floating just outside the control to open the Common Content Tasks
list.
11. Click Default to Master’s Content.
The Confirm dialog box opens, stating that by defaulting to the master page content, everything in this region will be removed from this page.
12. Click Yes to close the Confirm dialog box.
The content page refreshes, and the PlaceHolderLeftActions content placeholder
contains no content.
13. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Save. When the Site Definition Page Warning
Save
dialog box appears, click Yes.
14. If a Microsoft SharePoint Designer dialog box appears, asking if you want to reload
the page because the content in the EmbeddedFormField may be changed by the
server to remove unsafe content, click No.
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Creating a Web Page from a Master Page 391
15. In the breadcrumb, click Test-Page.aspx to display the page’s settings page. On
the Page tab, click Check In in the Manage group. Click OK to close the Check In
dialog box that appears.
In the Site Pages mini-gallery, a blue information circle appears to the left of TestPage.aspx.
16. Press F12 to open the page in a browser.
Test-Page.aspx opens in the browser with a message that the page has been customized from its template. The Recently Modified region in the Quick Launch bar
is not displayed, nor does the list of footer pages appear at the bottom of the page.
17. In the Quick Launch bar, click Site Pages.
The All Pages view of the Site Pages library is displayed. The Recently Modified region and the list of footer pages appear on the page.
CLEAN UP Check in v4-test.master. Close your browser and all pages open in the
document windows. If you are continuing to the next exercise, be sure to leave
SharePoint Designer open.
Creating a Web Page from a Master Page
You can use several different methods to create an ASP.NET page within SharePoint
Designer. However, because the page will be part of a SharePoint site, you will most
likely want to keep the same navigation elements and the look and feel of other pages.
You achieve this by linking the content page with a master page. Earlier in this chapter,
you created an ASP.NET page by copying an existing page (Home.aspx). This page was
associated with a master page.
When you create your own master page and want to test the master page in the browser, you must attach it to a content page and display the content page in the browser.
However, you do not want to associate all content pages within your site to your new
master page until you have completed your modifications. Creating a new content page
is a quick way of creating a content page and associating it with a master page in one
step. When you complete your new master page, you can then assign it as the site’s master page, and all pages associated with the site’s master page will inherit the same structure and look and feel.
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392 Chapter 11 Working with Master Pages
In an exercise in Chapter 4, you attached a master page to an ASP.NET page. You
then added your own customizations, such as Web Part zones and Web Parts. When
you attached a master page, this customization was stored in a content region,
PlaceHolderMain. When you create a content page from a master page, you can’t make
any changes to the content regions. To make changes to the content, you must make the
content regions editable.
In this exercise, you create a content page from a master page and then make the
PlaceHolderMain content region editable.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open.
1. In the Navigation pane, click Master Pages.
The Master Page gallery is displayed.
2. On the Master Pages tab, click Page from Master.
The Select A Master Page dialog box opens.
Pages from
Mas er
3. Select Specific Master Page, and then click Browse.
A second Select A Master Page dialog box opens and displays the contents of the
catalogs/masterpage library.
4. Click v4.master, click Open, and then click OK.
The two dialog boxes close, and the New Web Part Page dialog box opens.
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Creating a Web Page from a Master Page 393
5. In the Enter a name for this new Web Part Page box, type MyContent, and
then click OK.
The New Web Part Page dialog box closes, and a dialog box opens warning that
the page does not contain any regions that are editable in safe mode.
6. Click Yes to confirm opening the page in advanced edit mode.
The MyContent.aspx page opens in workspace as a new tab.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer and the MyContents.aspx page open if you are
continuing to the next exercise.
Upgrading Your Master Pages
If you have a Windows SharePoint Services 3.0 or a SharePoint Server 2007 installation and you created your own master pages, you have a couple of options to
move those master pages to SharePoint 2010. You can use your master pages
unchanged on a SharePoint 2010 installation, and they will have the same functionality as they had before. However, if you want to upgrade your master pages to
incorporate SharePoint 2010 functionality, you can do the following:
● Create a SharePoint 2010 master page and amend it to incorporate any elements
from the master page you created with the previous version of SharePoint.
● Modify your existing master page by adding SharePoint 2010 elements.
Change is for the better, and there are some substantial changes from the default master pages provided with Windows SharePoint Services 3.0 and Office
SharePoint Server. For example, the use of tables has diminished substantially, the
HTML <DOCTYPE> tag is now included, and navigation uses unordered lists.
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394 Chapter 11 Working with Master Pages
Another key change that you should be aware of when upgrading your master
pages is that the following controls have to be completely removed. The functionality they provide has been replaced by the functionally provided by the ribbon.
● Publishing Console <PublishingConsole:Console>
● Site Actions Menu <PublishingSiteAction:SiteActionMenu>
● Sign-in and Log-in Control; if you use a custom sign-in control, you can move
it outside the ribbon.
As in the previous version of SharePoint, when you create your own master pages,
all content placeholder controls must be included for your master pages to function correctly. Customized master pages created for publishing sites, especially
Internet sites, usually have a small number of content placeholders, but the majority of those placeholders are unique to an organization, and the content placeholder used on those sites should be carefully assessed by developers.
Briefly, when you upgrade a master page that you used on a Windows SharePoint
Services installation or a master page that was created for team sites, you
must add the two new content placeholders: PlaceHolderQuickLaunchTop and
PlaceHolderQuickLaunchBottom. The remaining placeholders that you included on
your Windows SharePoint Services master page should be included on your new
SharePoint Foundation master page, as shown in the following list.
PlaceHolderQuickLauchTop (new)
PlaceHolderQuickLaunchBottom (new)
PlaceHolderPageTitle
PlaceHolderAdditionalPageHead
PlaceHolderBodyAreaClass
SPNavigation
PlaceHolderSiteName
PlaceHolderTitleInTitleArea
PlaceHolderPageDescription
PlaceHolderSearchArea
PlaceHolderGlobalNavigation
PlaceHolderTitleBreadcrumb
PlaceHolderGlobalNavigationSiteMap
PlaceHolderTopNavBar
PlaceHolderHorizontalNav
PlaceHolderLeftNavBarDataSource
PlaceHolderCalendarNavigator
PlaceHolderLeftNavBarTop
PlaceHolderLeftNavBar
PlaceHolderLeftActions
PlaceHolderMain
PlaceHolderFormDigest
PlaceHolderUtilityContent
PlaceHolderTitleAreaClass
PlaceHolderPageImage
PlaceHolderTitleLeftBorder
PlaceHolderMiniConsole
PlaceHolderTitleRightMargin
PlaceHolderTitleAreaSeparator
PlaceHolderNavSpacer
PlaceHolderLeftNavBarBorder
PlaceHolderBodyRightMargin
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Exporting Master Pages 395
Two of these placeholders need to be in the <head> tag—that is, between <head>
and </head>. The PlaceHolderBodyAreaClass should already be present in the
header. The PlaceHolderTitleAreaClass needs to be moved to the header.
Note Now when the PlaceHolderTitleAreaClass tag is used on a page, the page will
render an error if a Content tag is used within a Web Part zone.
Another key element to be aware of is the addition of the ribbon, which is the main
toolbar you use to interact with SharePoint Foundation. The ribbon also offers new
functionality in the SharePoint Foundation user interface. The ribbon in SharePoint
2010 can be extended to include your own custom commands. SharePoint
Designer can be used to add new custom actions on pages related to lists and libraries. (See Chapter 3, “Working with Lists and Libraries,” for more information.)
To add custom commands to the ribbon on other pages or generically on every
page on a number of sites, use the information on customizing the server ribbon at
msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ee539395(v office.14).aspx.
Tip As you customize a master page, you should identify page elements that are
not relevant when a modal dialog box is displayed. For example, a modal dialog
box might appear above a list view page to display the properties of a list item, and
in a situation such as this, you might not want the left navigation area to appear.
To handle this, you can add the class s4-notdlg to the <div> container for the left
navigation area so that the elements in the <div> container on the master page no
longer load in the modal dialog box.
This sidebar only briefly describes what you should consider when you upgrade an existing master page to a SharePoint Foundation master page. Use
the steps outlined in the Microsoft article at msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/
ee539981(office.14).aspx. If you find this task overwhelming, use the starter master
pages from the CodePlex Web site referred to earlier in this chapter.
See Also More information on upgrading to SharePoint 2010 can be found on the
Upgrade Resource Center at msdn.microsoft.com/en-gb/sharepoint/ee514557.aspx.
Exporting Master Pages
After you have created and tested a master page by using SharePoint Designer, you
need to work with a developer if you want to use that master page throughout the
SharePoint farm or if you need to move it from a development environment to a systems
integration and test environment and then to a production environment. The developer
can import the master page and any associated image, JavaScript, and CSS files into a
Microsoft Visual Studio 2010 SharePoint project to create a solution package that can be
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396 Chapter 11 Working with Master Pages
deployed to the other environments. SharePoint Designer allows you to export a master
page for such a scenario.
In this exercise, you export a master page.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer; open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open.
1. In the Navigation pane, click Master Pages. In the workspace, click the icon to the
left of the master page you want to export, such as v4-test.master.
2. On the Master Pages tab, click Export File in the Manage group.
Expor Fi e
The Export Select As dialog box opens.
3. Navigate to Documents, and then click Save.
A Microsoft SharePoint Designer dialog box opens and indicates that the file was
successfully exported.
4. Click OK to close the dialog box.
Tip You can use similar steps to export pages from the Site Pages library. To export an
image, JavaScript, CSS, or other related files from other libraries, including the Site Assets
library, use the browser or the All Files site object in the Navigation pane to display the
contents of the library. You can then use the Export File command on the All Files tab.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next exercise.
Resetting a Master Page to the Site Definition
In Chapter 1, you reset a content page to its site definition. Resetting a master page
to its site definition is not any different. You lose any customizations you made to the
page, including any static text, images, controls, or Web Parts you placed on the page.
SharePoint Designer creates a copy of the page before it resets it to the site definition, so
you can recover your customizations if needed. If you choose to reset a content page to
the site definition, the any Web Parts or Data Views you added to Web Part zones on the
content page remain as long as the Web Part zones are defined in the site definition file
and have the same Web Part zone label as the customized content page.
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In this exercise, you reset a customized master page to the site definition and see that
your modifications are lost.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer; open the team site you used in the previous
exercise if it is not already open.
1. In the Navigation pane, click Master Pages. In the workspace, right-click v4-test.
master, and then click Reset to Site Definition.
Troubleshooting If the Reset To Site Definition command is not active, be sure that v4test.master is checked in.
2. When the Site Definition Page Warning dialog box opens, click Yes.
In the gallery page in the workspace, the blue information circle to the left of v4-test.
master disappears, and v4-test copy(1).master appears with a blue information circle.
3. Double-click the icon to the left of v4-test.master to open the master page in the
workspace.
4. Scroll to the bottom of the page, and notice that the Data View you added in an
earlier exercise has disappeared.
5. In the Navigation pane, click Site Pages, and then double-click Test-Page.aspx
to open it in the workspace. Click Yes to confirm that you want to open the page in
advanced edit mode.
A master page error message appears because the content placeholder,
PlaceHolderFooter, whose contents you customized in an earlier exercise, no longer
exists on the master page.
CLEAN UP Close all the open pages and document windows. If you are not
continuing to the next chapter, close SharePoint Designer.
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398 Chapter 11 Working with Master Pages
Key Points
● Master pages maintain a consistent look and feel for all the pages on your site.
They combine the layout of a master page with the content from a content page,
allowing common features to be shared among many pages on a site.
● Master pages have the same basic structure as normal pages, but their file names
use the extension .master instead of .aspx.
● Use master pages to control the general layout of pages, and use cascading style
sheets to apply common styles to elements on each page on a site.
● SharePoint Foundation provides a global default master page called v4.master.
This master page defines the base look and feel for site pages and layouts pages,
which was formerly controlled by the separate application.master.
● SharePoint 2010 includes an out-of-the-box master page called minimal.master.
This page is used for Office Web Application interaction with SharePoint and for
pages created on a site based on the Search Center site template.
● SharePoint 2010 includes a version of default.master that is based on the default
master page used on Windows SharePoint Services 3.0 and SharePoint Server 2007
installations. This page makes for an easy upgrade because the content can be upgraded separately from the new SharePoint user interface.
● Meeting workspaces have their own special master pages.
● SharePoint Server provides the same master pages as SharePoint Foundation plus a
number of custom master pages for publishing sites.
● When you save any of the built-in master pages by using SharePoint Designer, you
create customized pages.
● Much of the functionality of a master page is provided by ASP.NET or SharePoint
controls.
● Content placeholders, also known in SharePoint Designer as content regions, specify
where content from content pages should be placed on the master page. They also
define content on the master page that can be modified or deleted on content
pages.
● Modify the v4.master page if it already meets most of your needs.
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Chapter at a G ance
1
RESEARCH, CONCEPT
and PLAN
Feedback
Implement a user-centered
design methodology, page 402
4
DEVELOP,
LAUNCH
and
TEST
Feedback
Feedback
2
DESIGN
PROTOTYPE
Users
Feedback
3
DEFINE
BRANDING
Test for usability, page 414
Maintain accessibility and
other legislation compliance,
pages 418 and 423
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Define accessible branding, page 411
12Understanding
Usability and
Accessibility
In this chapter, you will learn how to
✔ Implement a user-centered design methodology.
✔ Establish user and compatibility requirements.
✔ Design a prototype.
✔ Define accessible branding.
✔ Test for usability.
✔ Understand accessibility legislation and testing.
✔ Maintain legislation compliance.
Most companies today consider usability and accessibility to be essential ingredients in a
successful SharePoint project. Of course, a chapter of this size cannot go into great depth
about either of these subject areas, but it will provide you with information about what
you need to consider. Each project and SharePoint site is different, and you will need to
research and decide on policies that suit your situation.
In this chapter, you first explore how to implement a user-centered design methodology
and learn about the benefits of implementing usability and accessibility best practices.
The rest of the chapter demonstrates how you can apply a user-centered design life
cycle to your project. You will learn how to translate and apply usability and accessibility methods to the Microsoft SharePoint environment and how Microsoft SharePoint
Designer 2010 can help you. You will learn how to establish user and compatibility requirements, design a prototype, define accessible branding, and test for usability. You
will then learn about accessibility legislation and how to test for accessibility, and finally,
you will learn how to maintain your compliance with legislation.
You should apply the methods described in this chapter throughout the lifetime of any
customizations or modifications you make to your site. Usability and accessibility are
401
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402 Chapter 12 Understanding Usability and Accessibility
very important to the success of your customizations, and conforming to accessibility
legislation could save you or the company owners from being sued.
Practice Files Before you can use the practice file in this chapter, you need to copy
the book’s practice files to your computer. The practice file you will use to complete
the exercises in this chapter is in the Chapter12 practice file folder. A complete list of
practice files is provided in “Using the Practice Files” at the beginning of this book.
Implementing a User-Centered Design Methodology
At the center of usability and accessibility considerations are people, the prospective
users. A growing number of companies now implement a user-centered design (UCD)
methodology within a SharePoint project’s life cycle to ensure that the site’s design and
development are focused on the end users throughout.
UCD methodology ensures that a site meets all user requirements by engaging users at
every stage in its life cycle. The four stages of the life cycle are:
● Researching, conceptualizing, and planning (establishing user and compatibility
requirements)
● Designing a prototype
● Defining the branding (with accessibility in mind)
● Developing, launching, and testing (testing for usability and accessibility)
The figure below shows that feedback from users should be gathered at all four stages. The
more often you obtain and integrate user feedback into your project life cycle, the better.
1
RESEARCH, CONCEPT,
and PLAN
Feedback
4
DEVELOP,
LAUNCH,
and
TEST
Feedback
Feedback
2
DESIGN
PROTOTYPE
Users
Feedback
3
DEFINE
BRANDING
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Implementing a User-Centered Design Methodology 403
There is a strong overlap between usability and accessibility, and while many of the issues that users might encounter in using and accessing your Web site efficiently and
effectively can be addressed by implementing a user-centered design methodology, legislation related to the accessibility of Web sites needs to be met and taken seriously.
In a number of court cases worldwide, companies and organizations have been sued for
producing inaccessible Web sites. One of the most prominent cases involved the Web
site for the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, Australia. A site’s conformance to relevant
accessibility guidelines is commonly deemed to be a measure of the site’s accessibility.
The message from governments worldwide, however, is that ultimately, disability legislation is in place to protect the individual. Therefore, best practice dictates that a site
should not only conform to accessibility guidelines, but also that disabled users should
be included in the site’s development life cycle and, at the very least, in the testing
processes.
Implementing usability and accessibility best practices primarily ensures that any member of your audience—regardless of disability, age, software, and device—can efficiently
and effectively use your Web site. However, provisioning usable and accessible solutions
has a wealth of additional benefits as well.
If you do not have any internal policies with regard to usability and accessibility, a number of online resources are available that can help you develop them. At a minimum, you
should start to document any procedures you carry out and then further develop your
policies over time.
Tip Two useful resources detailing the wide range of benefits to both business and society
of investing in usable and accessible technology solutions are the online report “Accessible
Information and Communication Technologies, Benefits to Business and Society,” from
the U.K.’s OneVoice for Accessible ICT Coalition (published in 2010 and available at www.
onevoiceict.org) and “Developing a Web Accessibility Business Case for Your Organization,”
from the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), at www.w3.org/WAI/bcase/.
The rest of this chapter demonstrates how SharePoint Designer 2010 can help you apply
a UCD methodology and usability and accessibility methods to your SharePoint project.
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404 Chapter 12 Understanding Usability and Accessibility
Establishing User and Compatibility Requirements
The first stage in the user-centered design life cycle is researching, conceptualizing, and
planning. In essence, this means establishing the requirements for your Web site and all
its prospective users. User requirements is a broad term, and it should initially include
research to determine any accessibility requirements and the platforms, browsers, and
devices that you want your Web site to be compatible with.
User requirements should then be established in line with business requirements so that
you can conceptualize and plan your Web site and determine the scope of its usage and
the functionality required. User-requirement documents generally involve the use of
personas, usage scenarios, or use cases.
To take one example, personas can be as detailed as you like, but generally, when creating a persona, you should look to include the following information about a user:
● Name, age, and role within a company (if applicable); for example, team leader
● Level of IT competence; for example, ten years of experience with IT/Web sites
● IT requirements; for example, uses a PC with the Internet Explorer 8 browser
● Specific requirements; for example, visually impaired and uses browser zoom
functionality
● Usage scenario(s) for the system; for example, a team site contributor who produc-
es content on a weekly basis
Tip A number of useful resources about creating personas are available on the Internet. Two
good articles can be found at www.nytimes.com/2009/07/19/automobiles/19design.html? r=2
and www.themonitor.eu/content/?p=33.
The step of producing a persona can be carried out on paper or in relevant modeling
tools, such as Microsoft Word, Microsoft Visio, or Microsoft PowerPoint. You can create
one or numerous personas. An example is shown in the following illustration.
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Establishing User and Compatibility Requirements 405
SharePoint Designer can assist you in determining which browsers your Web site should
be compatible with. It provides several tools that can give you a better understanding of
browser compatibility and the potential work involved in making your site accessible to
users on a wide range of browsers.
On the Home tab, you can click the Preview In Browser down arrow in the Preview group
at any stage in your development. SharePoint Designer provides you with a number of
options for browsers and screen resolutions in which you can preview your Web site. This
list of browsers can be expanded by clicking Edit Browser List. You can then add browsers
and screen resolutions of your choice. Ideally, throughout the life cycle of development,
you should test the compatibility of your Web site with the browsers and screen resolutions used by your target users.
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406 Chapter 12 Understanding Usability and Accessibility
The preview functionality in SharePoint Designer is a great mechanism for checking how
your Web site will look in different browsers. However, SharePoint Designer also provides
a mechanism by which you can check the compatibility of your code and/or your cascading style sheets (CSS) with the browsers, <!DOCTYPE>, or CSS standard of your choice.
Like any browser, SharePoint Designer by default uses the HTML/XHTML and cascading
style sheet (CSS) schemas defined in the <!DOCTYPE> tag on the first line of the master
page when deciding how to render a page. When you edit or modify a page, SharePoint
Designer flags code that is invalid or incompatible, depending on the schemas defined
in the <!DOCTYPE> tag. If a page doesn’t contain a <!DOCTYPE> declaration, it uses the
default schemas configured in the Page Editor Options dialog box.
When you use the compatibility checker, you can specify the same or a different schema
to produce the compatibility reports.
In this exercise, you use the SharePoint Designer Compatibility task pane to help test the
compatibility of your Web site.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you created and modified in
earlier chapters. If you did not yet create a team site, follow the steps in Chapter 1.
1. In the Navigation pane, click Site Pages. Verify that Home.aspx is selected, and
then on the Pages tab, click Edit File in the Edit group.
Edi Fi e
The home page opens in edit mode.
2. Click the View tab, click the Task Panes down arrow in the Workspace group, and
then click Compatibility.
Task Panes
The Compatibility task pane opens at the bottom of the page.
3. In the Compatibility task pane, click the Run Compatibility Checker button.
Run
Compa ibi i y
Checker
The Compatibility Checker dialog box opens.
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Establishing User and Compatibility Requirements 407
Tip The SharePoint Designer status bar displays the HTML/XHTML and cascading style
sheet schemas it uses to flag code as invalid or incompatible for a page.
4. Under Check where, click Open page(s), and then click Check.
The Compatibility Checker dialog box closes. The Compatibility task pane displays
the results of the compatibility check.
5. In the workspace, click Code to display the Home.aspx page in Code view.
In the SharePoint Designer status bar, an “incompatibility code” icon appears.
Tip The incompatibility code icon appears only if you have the page open in Split view
or Code view. If the page also contains code errors, you will see the code error icon in
the SharePoint Designer window.
CLEAN UP Close the Compatibility task pane. Leave SharePoint Designer open if you
are continuing with the other exercises in this chapter.
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408 Chapter 12 Understanding Usability and Accessibility
Designing a Prototype
Designing a prototype is the second stage in the user-centered design life cycle and
involves defining a site’s information architecture (IA). The IA defines the relationships
between individual pages—the navigation—and the relationships between internal page
elements—the user interface (UI). At this stage, you should also start to consider which
SharePoint templates to use for your content, such as a team site or a wiki page.
When organizing and structuring your Web site, consider carefully how to group the
information in a logical fashion for your users. This helps you define the navigation structure, the page structures (UI), and the metadata taxonomy you need to create so that
users can tag information. This step also assists in defining guidelines about where information should be stored and how your search center should be structured.
See Also A detailed blog about organizing your information with SharePoint can be found
at sharepoint.mindsharpblogs.com/Bill/archive/2010/04/02/Organizing-Information-inSharePoint-Server-2010.aspx.
The step of defining the relationships between individual pages (or navigation) can be
carried out on paper or by using a modeling tool such as Microsoft Visio or Microsoft
PowerPoint. You can create a navigation structure similar to the following.
Home
Home
Company
Overview
Executives
Org Charts
Press
Releases
Product 1
Product 2
Product 3
Product 4
News
Events
Press
Releases
Support
Request
Intranet
Login
Office
Hours
Products
News and
Events
Support
Blog
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Contact
Designing a Prototype 409
Tip Card sorting is a powerful technique for assessing how people group related concepts.
Card-sorting workshops are a great way to involve end users in designing the navigation for
a site. There are numerous resources on card sorting on the Internet. These sessions are also a
great way to perform housekeeping on content if your development involves migrating from
another application.
When you are defining the relationship between internal page elements (the UI), establish those elements that will appear sitewide and be contained on a master page—such
as the banner and navigation menus—and those that will occur within content areas and
be contained in the layout, such as Web Parts. This step helps determine whether you
need to customize or build any new master pages or layouts for your Web site.
You can carry out this step on paper or in tools such as Microsoft Visio or Microsoft
PowerPoint. You can create a number of screen designs, such as the wireframe example
shown here.
After the IA is established and designed, you can easily build a concept prototype. The
concept prototype might be as simple as a low-fidelity paper-based version, or you can
create a more advanced interactive version using wireframe production software or develop a version in SharePoint.
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410 Chapter 12 Understanding Usability and Accessibility
Tip Ideally, user testing should be carried out at all stages of production. You can test using
early paper-based prototypes and early developed prototypes, with feedback influencing
further design and development. It is much easier to rectify problems with the design early on
than after the site is well along in development.
Ten-Point Usability Checklist
It is a good idea to keep a ten-point usability checklist handy when you develop
early prototype designs. SharePoint inherently considers standard usability heuristics such as the following, which were defined by Jakob Nielsen. However, it is also
a good idea to bear these in mind when you are customizing your development.
1. Visibility of system status On every page, inform users of what is happening at any given point within a reasonable time. For example, include a breadcrumb to show where a user is on the site, or show a progress bar to indicate
what action is taking place.
2. Match between system and the real world Use words, phrases, and concepts that are familiar to users. For example, the terms home and sitemap
have a direct relationship to real-world concepts.
3. User control and freedom Allow users to change their mind or easily exit
any functionality they have accessed by mistake.
4. Consistency and standards Use master pages, layouts, and CSS correctly to
ensure that your Web site has a consistent look and feel and a consistent placement of elements. Be sure that words and actions always mean the same thing,
and that the site conforms to accessibility and other compliance standards.
5. Error prevention Design carefully to prevent an error from occurring in the
first place. Early user testing can establish any potential errors and point to
how to prevent them.
6. Recognition rather than recall Minimize the user’s memory load by making
as many elements, actions, and options as possible visible without cluttering the
screen. Make sure that any instructions or guidelines for use are obvious.
7. Flexibility and efficiency of use Cater to both novice and experienced users. Give experienced users the option to complete tasks more efficiently; for
example, provide them with keyboard shortcuts.
8. Aesthetic and minimalist design Keep page design clean and content uncluttered. Users tend to scan online material, and certain users (such as people with dyslexia) require paragraphs to be kept to a minimum length, with
plentiful space between lines and paragraphs.
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Defining Accessible Branding 411
9. Help users recognize, diagnose, and recover from errors Express error
messages in plain language, precisely indicate the problem, and constructively propose a solution.
10. Help and documentation Make sure any Help system and documentation
are easily available, focus on user tasks, offer steps as a solution, and are not
too lengthy. In addition to the standard SharePoint Help text and documentation, you might consider providing more contextual help on your Web site
screens.
Defining Accessible Branding
The third stage in the user-centered design life cycle is defining your branding, ensuring
that it is accessible. As mentioned in Chapter 10, “Branding SharePoint Sites,” the extent
to which you brand your SharePoint development will vary depending on the size of
your project. A simple branding exercise can take as little as two days; extensive branding to comply with accessibility and company guidelines can take months and lead to
alternative Web site versions branded specifically for dyslexics and/or for high contrast.
Regardless of the extent of your branding, there are some basic exercises you can carry
out to ensure that your branding is accessible. Primarily you need to make certain that
your branding is accessible to those with a visual impairment—be that poor vision or
color blindness. Most countries have laws similar to the U.K.’s Disability Discrimination
Act (DDA) 1995, that state that companies that provide services must make a reasonable
adjustment for people with disabilities. Companies are used to meeting these obligations
by providing correspondence in Braille, large print, or other formats. However, many forget about their Web sites. Although SharePoint Designer does not provide a mechanism
that lets you check whether branding is accessible to those with a visual impairment, the
Internet can assist with sites such as Vischeck (www.vischeck.com/vischeck/ ).
When you brand your Web site, you’ll find that certain color schemes work better together than others. Just as you would take care to color-coordinate the rooms in your
house, so you should choose colors for your Web site carefully. SharePoint Designer provides you with a color wheel similar to the one that you might have used in home decoration. Colors opposite each other on the wheel work better together than those that
are next to each other. This is known as the complementary color scheme. Similarly, colors
from points of an equilateral triangle—the triadic color scheme—are also a good choice.
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412 Chapter 12 Understanding Usability and Accessibility
However, the computer color wheel is different from the home decoration color wheel.
Web colors viewed on monitors and flat screens are defined in hexadecimal notation
combining red, green, and blue (RGB) color values. The World Wide Web Consortium
(W3C) provides 16 standard color names to refer to certain hexadecimal values.
In the past, not all browsers or screen devices produced the same color when rendering these hexadecimal values or color names. Therefore, a cross-browser color palette
with 216 colors was produced, known as the Web-safe color palette. The color wheel
you see in SharePoint Designer is based on this color palette. When you click the color
wheel in SharePoint Designer, look at the hexadecimal values it produces. You will see
hexadecimal values of only 00, 33, 66, 99, CC, and FF. In other words, you will see values
of #CCFF00, #669900, and #00FFFF—not #887722, #FD3798, and #4400FF. Technology
has improved, however, and now you can choose colors that are not from the Web-safe
color palette, which means that SharePoint Designer provides you with an alternative
method of choosing colors from the whole hexadecimal range.
In this exercise, you identify colors on the SharePoint Designer Web-safe color palette
and check the suitability of a color scheme.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you used previously in this chapter
if it is not already open. The Home.aspx page should be shown in edit mode in
Design view.
1. On the View tab, click Task Panes, and then click CSS Properties.
The CSS Properties task pane opens.
Task Panes
2. In the workspace, click some text within the PlaceHolderMain region, and in the
CSS Properties task pane, under CSS Properties, click the cell to the right of
background-color. Then click the arrow that appears, and click More Colors.
The More Colors dialog box opens, displaying a Web-safe color wheel. The color
selected for the background color is bordered in white on the wheel, and the Value
text box contains Automatic or the hex values of the background color’s red, green,
and blue color coordinates.
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Defining Accessible Branding 413
3. In the More Colors dialog box, click Custom.
The Color dialog box opens. The hue, saturation, and luminance color coordinates
are displayed, together with the red, green, and blue coordinates.
4. Click Cancel twice to close the Color and More Colors dialog boxes.
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5. Open a browser, and in the Address bar, type http://gmazzocato.altervista.org/
colorwheel/wheel.php to open the Accessibility Color Wheel page.
6. Under the Normal section, in the 1* box, type #0000ff, and in the 2* box, type
#ff33cc. Click Update.
The text and background colors of the Normal, Deuteranope, Protanope, and
Tritanope text areas change to reflect how the color scheme looks to people who
have visual impairments. The contrast ratio in each area is updated, which you can
check to see whether it meets relevant accessibility guidelines.
CLEAN UP Close the browser. Close the CSS Properties task pane. Leave SharePoint
Designer open if you are continuing to the next exercise.
Testing for Usability
Developing, launching, and testing is the fourth and final stage in the user-centered
design life cycle. At this stage you might already have a fully functioning prototype developed using SharePoint. If your prototype is a low-fidelity paper-based version or a
more advanced interactive version using wireframe production software, you will need
to translate your information architecture and branding into the SharePoint environment
of master pages, layouts, CSS files, and imagery.
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Testing for Usability 415
At this stage, this conversion should be relatively easy because you have already established the IA, including the navigation structure and the UI design for the elements to
be used (their placement within master pages and layouts). You will, however, need to
decide whether the out-of-the-box master pages, page layouts, and CSS files meet your
requirements or whether you need to customize these elements or build your own.
See Also Information on how to customize or change a master page is described in Chapter
11, “Working with Master Pages,” and information on how to brand your SharePoint site is
described in Chapter 10, “Branding SharePoint Sites.”
Once your Web site is developed and launched, it needs to be tested for usability and
accessibility. Usability testing is a key step in ensuring that your users can successfully use
your SharePoint Web site. Accessibility testing should be taken seriously given that your
company could be sued for presenting an inaccessible Web site. More information and
methods for addressing these processes are covered in detail in the next sections.
Depending on the size of your project, you can carry out usability testing in a number of
ways:
● Study users who perform tasks based on usage scenarios or use cases developed
in stage 1 of the UCD life cycle, and then document any issues the users have using
the Web site.
● Use in-house/expert testers who test sample parts of the system and document any
issues. Normally these parts are the most frequently used or are critical to the success of a project. Distribute your budget for user testing across as many small tests
as you can afford, with no more than five users per test.
● Test a representative page from each SharePoint template.
Usability testing will highlight any usability problems with your site, such as broken links;
poor navigation design; problems with rendering in different browsers, at different
screen resolutions, or with devices such as smart phones; and forced scrolling (the user
should never be forced to scroll right). Ideally, usability testing should be carried out during the life cycle of your development.
In this exercise, you use the SharePoint Designer Hyperlinks task pane to help test the
usability of your Web site. In particular, you’ll test whether the information architecture
has any broken links.
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416 Chapter 12 Understanding Usability and Accessibility
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you used in the previous exercise if
it is not already open. To complete this exercise, you need the practice file Index.aspx
in the Chapter12 practice file folder.
1. In the Navigation pane, click Site Pages, and then on the Pages tab, click Import
Files in the Manage group.
mpor Fi es
The Import dialog box opens.
2. Click Add File. In the Add File to Import List dialog box, select the practice file
Index.aspx, and click Open.
The Add File To Import List dialog box closes, and Index.aspx is listed in the Import
dialog box, with a URL of SitePages/Index.aspx.
3. Click OK. The Import dialog box closes.
4. With Index.aspx selected, on the Pages tab, click Edit File. On the View tab, click
Task Panes, and then click Hyperlinks.
Edi Fi e
The Hyperlinks task pane opens at the bottom of the page. A list of any broken
links appears in the task pane.
Tip At the bottom of the task pane you can see how many of these broken links are
internal links and how many are external links.
5. Double-click (or right-click and click Edit Hyperlink) any of the broken links listed
within the task pane, such as http://spfbroken.wideworldimporters.com in the
page SitePages/Index.aspx.
The Edit Hyperlink dialog box opens.
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Testing for Usability 417
6. In the Replace hyperlink with box, type http://www.microsoft.com. If you do
not have Internet access, type a valid internal URL for your organization.
Tip You can change the location of the hyperlink in all pages or just selected pages.
7. Click Replace. The Edit Hyperlink dialog box closes.
8. Click the red tick and link symbol in the left pane with the ScreenTip Verifies hyVerify
Hyper inks
perlinks in the current web.
The Verify Hyperlinks dialog box opens.
9. With Verify only unknown hyperlinks selected, click Start.
The Verify Hyperlinks dialog box closes. A green check mark appears to the left of
the hyperlink http://www.microsoft.com.
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418 Chapter 12 Understanding Usability and Accessibility
Tip The hyperlinks do not have to be broken for you to use the Hyperlinks task pane to
replace hyperlinks. This can be a very useful method of completing a global change of
one URL address with another.
CLEAN UP Close the Hyperlinks task pane. Close Index.aspx, and leave SharePoint
Designer open if you are continuing to the next exercise.
Understanding Accessibility Legislation and Testing
Most of the world’s countries have accessibility legislation, which you need to meet
if you publish public Web sites and/or internal Web sites, especially for government
departments and educational institutions. Two examples of such legislation are the
U.K.’s Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) 1995 and Section 508 of the United State’s
Rehabilitation Act.
In many situations, should a court case take place, the level of conformance to relevant
accessibility guidelines will be taken into consideration. Two of the most prominent
guideline documents are the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) from
the W3C (now version 2.0) and the U.S. government’s Section 508, Voluntary Product
Accessibility Templates (VPATs).
Microsoft is active in producing VPATs to show how its software products meet key regulations of Section 508 and also encourages harmonization of Section 508 with WCAG
2.0. Microsoft joins the European Commission in the view that only common accessibility
standards will ensure compatibility and interoperability of technologies.
Most importantly, SharePoint 2010 now has a prime focus on meeting European guidelines and makes it far easier than previous versions of SharePoint for you to meet WCAG
version 2.0 A, AA, and even AAA guidelines. The improvements in SharePoint 2010
include:
● A W3C XHTML <!DOCTYPE> reference.
● Use of <div> tags for page construction rather than tables.
● Correct heading hierarchy—that is, H1, H2, H3.
● The UseSimpleRendering property for the <SharePoint:AspMenu> control, which is
used in SharePoint to dynamically create the navigational elements on a page, such
as the top navigation tabs. When UseSimpleRendering is set to True, the SharePoint
navigation menu is rendered in the browser using a cleaner, unordered XHTML list.
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Understanding Accessibility Legislation and Testing 419
See Also Microsoft’s conformance statement to WCAG 2.0 for SharePoint Server 2010 can be
found at technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ff852108.aspx.
Conformance to accessibility guidelines, in turn, helps ensure that your Web site will be
compatible and interoperable with any assistive technologies that your prospective audience might use. Still, when testing for accessibility, you should ideally test against accessibility guidelines and with the assistance of disabled users.
See Also The W3C’s Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) provides a great resource for all
applicable laws and policies regarding Web accessibility for 20 or so countries. See www.
w3.org/WAI/Policy/. The W3C also provides a free online markup validation service, currently
residing at validator.w3.org.
From stage 1 of the UCD life cycle, any accessibility requirements for users should be
known. Testing against guidelines and these requirements alone is ample provided that
you are confident you have covered your target audience. For example, if your Web site
is on an intranet, you should have recognized any accessibility requirements for users in
your company. Ideally, it is individuals like these, with specific accessibility requirements,
that should be included in the user group that tests your Web site.
However, in addition to conforming to accessibility guidelines, any public Web site needs to
take into consideration the wide range of potential accessibility requirements from its prospective audience. The real test of the accessibility of your Web site will always be to have
as many people as possible test the site—those with different platforms, browsers, and devices, and those with varying disabilities using assistive technologies such as the following:
● Mouth sticks
● Specialist keyboards or the keyboard only
● Screen readers
● Voice recognition software
To better understand the experience of users making use of these assistive technologies,
you can carry out the following steps:
● Utilize SharePoint’s more-accessible mode by pressing the Tab key immediately
after placing focus on the page in a browser. More-accessible mode is particularly
beneficial for users of mouth sticks. Dynamic menus are converted to static menus
that make the links much easier to locate with the end of the stick.
● Use your Web site with the keyboard only. This highlights for you any areas that
are inaccessible, problematic, or create a keyboard trap where the user is unable to
proceed.
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420 Chapter 12 Understanding Usability and Accessibility
● Download a trial version of screen-reader software and use it with your Web site.
Freedom Scientific always offers a download of the widely utilized screen reader
JAWS in a 40-minute demo mode, and many modern platforms have screen reader
software incorporated. Turn off your monitor while using it to truly understand
how a user who is blind would use your Web site.
● Download a trial version of voice recognition software, and use it with your Web
site. One of the most popular is Dragon voice recognition software.
There are many ways you can assist disabled users in using your Web site with assistive
technologies. Good practice is to start by creating a prominent accessibility statement
on your Web site (you’ll find many examples on the Internet) that explains to users the
accessibility considerations you have made. Include the advantages of more-accessible
mode, and describe any issues you are aware of. Always provide users with contact information in case they have any problems accessing or using your site in any way.
Ten-Point Accessibility Checklist
It is a good idea to keep a ten-point accessibility checklist handy when you are
developing your Web site. The ten points below are based on W3C Web Content
Accessibility Guidelines version 2 and will go a long way in making your Web site
accessible to as many people as possible. Ideally, all checkpoints within W3C WCAG
version 2 should be met during development.
When developing your Web site be sure of the following:
1. Font sizes are set to ems in the CSS Users who need to can change the text
size in a browser. Fixed pixels and points will not allow this, but many modern
browsers allow users to take advantage of zoom functionality.
2. All images have alt text Users who have images turned off or users of
screen readers will be able to understand the image purpose and description.
3. Font size/spacing is easy to read Users want to digest information quickly
and easily. Keep sentences, line length, and paragraphs short and well spaced.
4. Adequate text to background contrast Users with different vision levels, including color blindness, and users with different monitors with varying graphics cards will be able to read your Web site easily.
5. Pages are well structured Users who turn off CSS or who use screen readers
or mobile devices will have content presented in the correct sequence.
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Understanding Accessibility Legislation and Testing 421
6. A sensible tab index and access keys Users using only the keyboard will be
able to access all functionality through a keyboard efficiently. Custom-built
access keys (such as those recommended by governments worldwide) will
greatly assist keyboard users with shortcuts to information on a page.
7. An ability to bypass blocks Out of the box, SharePoint provides users with
the ability to use Skip To Main Content, allowing keyboard or screen reader
users to bypass any navigation elements.
8. Link purpose is clearly defined Screen-reader users especially will find the
site easier to use if the purpose of each link can be determined from the link
text alone. Also, keep the number of links on the page to a minimum to further assist users working with voice recognition software.
9. Clear titles, headings, and labels All users will better understand the content structure.
10. Valid code All users will find the site more usable and accessible if the
HTML/XHTML is valid against W3C standards.
In this exercise, you use the SharePoint Designer Accessibility task pane to help test the
accessibility of your Web site.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you used in the previous exercise if
it is not already open. Open Index.aspx in edit mode. (You imported Index.aspx into
Site Pages in the previous exercise.)
1. On the View tab, click Task Panes, and then click Accessibility.
The Accessibility task pane opens at the bottom of the workspace.
2. Click the green arrow at the top of the left pane, which reads Run Accessibility
Run Accessibi i y
Checker
Checker.
The Accessibility Checker dialog box opens.
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422 Chapter 12 Understanding Usability and Accessibility
3. Under Check where, click All pages. Under Check for, ensure that WCAG Priority
1 is selected, and clear the WCAG Priority 2 check box. Under Show, leave the
Errors check box selected.
Tip You can carry out the accessibility check for all pages, open pages, or the current
page and check against WCAG Priority 1 or 2 or Access Board Section 508. You can also
choose to show errors, a warning, or a manual checklist.
4. Click Check.
The Accessibility task pane displays the results of the accessibility check.
5. In the Accessibility task pane, right-click the first line if it is not already selected,
Show Prob em
De ai s
and then click the blue circle icon in the left bar with the ScreenTip Show Problem
Details.
The Problem Details dialog box opens, stating that the image is missing a text
equivalent, with details on how to correct this error.
6. Click Close. The Problem Details dialog box closes.
7. In the Accessibility task pane, double-click the first line.
8. If Index.aspx is not displayed in Split view, press CTRL+Page Up to display the page
in both Code view and Design view.
In Design view, the offending image is selected.
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Maintaining Legislation Compliance 423
9. Right-click the offending image, and then click Picture Properties.
The Picture Properties dialog box opens.
10. Under Accessibility, select the check box, and in the Alternate Text box, type
Microsoft SharePoint Foundation logo, and then click OK.
The Picture Properties dialog box closes.
11. In the Accessibility task pane, right-click the first line, and then click Refresh
Refresh Changed
Resu s
Changed Results.
Tip You can refresh the changed results by clicking the Refresh icon on the vertical pane
to the left of the results.
The Accessibility task pane contains one fewer error.
Warning Any usability or accessibility checker will not find all errors. For example, in
the Index.aspx page there is white text displayed on a white background. This was not
highlighted in any of the reports run in this chapter.
Maintaining Legislation Compliance
Creating a usable and accessible Web site is a great start, but it will only remain so if it
is well maintained. You must always remember that the accessibility improvements in
SharePoint 2010 are focused on out-of-the-box SharePoint components. If you customize your environment, the changes you make create the possibility of accessibility errors.
Furthermore, any content that goes into SharePoint has the ability to create accessibility
errors—for example, a blog could have images missing alternative text.
You should take the following actions to maintain the accessibility of your Web site:
● Carry out periodic checks against accessibility guidelines such as WCAG version 2
or Section 508 VPATs.
● Carry out periodic disabled-user testing or use an expert who tests with a wide
range of assistive technologies.
● Provide your company’s content editors with guidelines and training about pro-
ducing accessible Web content for blogs and wikis and especially with the Content
Editor Web Part and rich text editors.
● Update your accessibility statement as the accessibility of your site improves.
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424 Chapter 12 Understanding Usability and Accessibility
In addition to complying with accessibility legislation, you may need to ensure that your
Web site always conforms to other legislation and regulations. Here are some examples:
● Copyright Most Web sites include a copyright notice to prove, if necessary, when
the material was produced. Web sites might also contain guidelines about the use
and reproduction of material exposed on their pages.
● Privacy Different countries have their own privacy laws, such as the U.K. Data
Protection Act, the European Commission Directive on Data Protection, and
Canada’s Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA).
Many of these laws can be divided into two types of privacy policies: those concerning data that is readable by humans and those that pertain to machinereadable data. The W3C has produced some guidelines in this area as part of the
Platform for Privacy Preferences (P3P) Project.
● Licensing Both SharePoint Foundation and SharePoint Server have licensing impli-
cations, which are different if you create intranet, extranet, and Internet Web sites.
And even though you do not need to purchase SharePoint Foundation, you still
need to verify that you have the correct licenses in place for Microsoft SQL Server,
Windows Server, FAST Search Server for SharePoint 2010 (if necessary), and Office
client software.
See Also More information on SharePoint 2010 licensing can be found at sharepoint.
microsoft.com/en-us/buy/Pages/Licensing-Details.aspx.
● Other You may need to consider other legislation and regulations. For example,
companies based in the U.K. must include certain regulatory information on their
Web sites and in their e-mail footers or they breach the Companies Act and risk a
fine.
See Also Microsoft InfoPath 2010 browser forms are now compliant with Web Content
Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 AA and Web Accessibility Initiative—Accessible Rich
Internet Applications (WAI-ARIA). In addition, InfoPath 2010 browser forms are now fully
XHTML 1.0 compliant. See office.microsoft.com/en-us/infopath-help/design-an-accessibleform-template-HA010381869.aspx for more information on designing an accessible form
template.
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Maintaining Legislation Compliance 425
Third-Party Accessibility and Compliance Tools
A number of organizations provide tools to assist with creating and maintaining an
accessible SharePoint Web site. For example, to assist content editors in creating
accessible content, HiSoftware and Telerik provide accessible rich-text editors to
replace the out-of-the-box editor.
See Also A useful resource for maintenance is the Web Accessibility Toolbar (WAT)
found at www.visionaustralia.org.au/ais/toolbar/.
HiSoftware is a Microsoft Gold partner that provides Compliance Sheriff, a product
that includes a workflow integrated into SharePoint, which you can use to verify
content as it goes in the system. Business decisions can be made with this workflow, such as rejecting noncompliant content or passing the content to a person in
the organization who is focused on remediating content so that compliant content
can be posted.
Compliance Sheriff also allows organizations to develop, implement, and monitor a
proactive strategy for compliance with accessibility guidelines and for preventing,
detecting, and/or managing inappropriate content, such as personally identifiable
information (PII), personal health information (PHI), and secure sensitive information (SSI or OPSEC), that flows through the system.
In addition, the company provides the Accessibility Foundation Module (AFM) to
assist with the creation and maintenance of an accessible Web site infrastructure
(including Web Parts and custom code). The most significant advantage of AFM is
the enterprise-friendly installation method that allows a SharePoint server administrator to easily apply a master configuration to multiple SharePoint applications.
AFM allows you to build a SharePoint environment that meets WCAG version 2.0
guidelines and can also be used to address Section 508 VPATs.
AFM uses techniques that are part of the Accessible Rich Internet Applications
(ARIA) specification to make SharePoint even easier to use for users of assistive
technologies. It can be integrated with Compliance Sheriff for SharePoint to allow
users to create reports before and after its application to demonstrate that content
has actually improved in compliance.
By using Compliance Sheriff in combination with AFM to evaluate SharePoint Web
sites with custom code or custom Web Parts, you have a way to assess and remediate
your SharePoint infrastructure no matter what configurations have been applied.
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426 Chapter 12 Understanding Usability and Accessibility
Creating periodic accessibility reports is a great way to keep a record of how the accessibility of your Web site has improved. SharePoint Designer can assist with monitoring and
recording the accessibility of your Web site.
In this exercise, you use the SharePoint Designer Accessibility task pane to create an accessibility report.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the site you used in the previous exercise if
it is not already open. Open Index.aspx in edit mode (You imported index.aspx into
Site Pages in a previous exercise.) Open the Accessibility task pane.
1. In the Accessibility task pane, click the Generate HTML Report button.
Genera e HTML
Repor
The Accessibility Report.htm file opens in the document window.
2. Close the Accessibility task pane, and then click Design so that the accessibility
report is displayed the full length of the document window.
3. Close Accessibility Report.htm, and if prompted to save changes, click No.
4. Right-click the index.aspx tab, and then click Save.
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Key Points 427
Key Points
● Be sure that your Web site is both usable and accessible. This not only ensures that
as many people as possible can use and access your Web site, but also may stop
your company from being sued. It also offers a wealth of other business benefits.
● Follow a user-centered design methodology for the design and development of
your Web site to best ensure that your site is usable and accessible.
● Keep handy the ten-point usability and accessibility checklists when you are de-
signing and developing your Web site.
● Generate or enhance in-house policies with regard to usability and accessibility of
any Web site you produce.
● Ensure that there is an accessibility statement on your Web site that highlights the
considerations you have made and provides tips and contact information so that
anyone who has problems accessing or using the site can get in touch with you.
● Make use of the tools available to assist you in making your site more usable and
accessible, from those that assist you with an accessible framework to those that assist you with accessible content.
● Be sure that all your content editors have guidelines and training with regard to
creating usable and accessible content.
● Maintain the usability and accessibility of your Web site by carrying out periodic
usability and accessibility tests.
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Chapter at a G ance
Images
Resources
Page
Layout
Content
Creator
Understand Web content management
in SharePoint Server 2010, page 433
Content
Creation
Step 1
End Date
Create page layouts,
page 442
Submit for Approval
Approval
Process
Archive
Published
Step 2
Step 5
Step 4
Expiration
Step 3
Start Date
Reject
Approver
Approve
Scheduled
Modify a
page layout,
page 447
Detach and reattach a
page layout, page 454
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13Managing Web
Content in the
SharePoint Server
Environment
In this chapter, you will learn how to
✔ Create a publishing site.
✔ Understand Web content management in SharePoint Server 2010.
✔ Understand the page model.
✔ Create and modify a page layout.
✔ Allow users to rate Web content.
✔ Approve a page layout.
✔ Restore an earlier version of a page layout.
✔ Detach and reattach a page layout.
Web Content Management (WCM) is just one of the features included in the SharePoint
Server Enterprise Content Management (ECM) area. The WCM feature uses documentmanagement capabilities to manage pages. This places content pages in a source control
system so that you can check pages in and out, as well as use the Approval workflow.
WCM pages are known as publishing pages, which are created from publishing templates, known as page layouts. SharePoint Server provides a number of publishing
templates.
In Microsoft Office SharePoint Server 2007, WCM was used to create public-facing
Web sites and to host companies’ internal sites, also known as portals. However, WCM
comes in many shapes, from a very structured Web site with strict governance rules to
sites whose contributors define the structure as the content grows. In SharePoint Server
429
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430 Chapter 13 Managing Web Content in the SharePoint Server Environment
2010, a new publishing site template is available: the Enterprise Wiki site. This template
is aimed at sites that do not require an approval mechanism, contain many authors, and
are lightweight publishing sites that are lightly branded.
SharePoint Server’s WCM feature provides mechanisms for authoring, branding, and
controlled publishing. These mechanisms are linked to the SharePoint Server Publishing
features, which provide a number of additional capabilities not available on team sites,
such as the use of variations to support the creation and management of multilingual
sites and additional Web Parts—for example, the Content Query Web Part (CQWP)—that
you can use to aggregate data from multiple data sources. The Content Query Web Part
is greatly improved in SharePoint Server 2010 when compared with the version of that
Web Part in SharePoint Server 2007.
One of the key constructs of publishing sites is the ability to control the strict layout of
content on a page, known as the page layout. Each Web content management page,
also known as a publishing page, is based on a page layout. Each page layout is associated with a master page so that the branding and navigation are the same on Web
content management pages as on ordinary content pages. However, on a publishing
page, you are not modifying a live page, where your changes are immediately visible to
visitors. You can restrict the content shown in different areas of the page to be only text
or to not include images. These features are available because a publishing page is associated with a page control, and it is the page control that dictates the content rules and
the look and feel in the content portion of the page.
Important In this chapter, you concentrate on how to use SharePoint Designer with the Web
Content Management feature of SharePoint Server, in particular the page layouts. If you do
not have SharePoint Server installed on your computer, you will not be able to complete the
exercises in this chapter.
In this chapter, you will explore the Web content management functionality in
SharePoint Server and the publishing page model. You will create a publishing site and a
new page layout, which you will modify and then restore to a previous version. You will
add new field controls to an existing page layout and approve a page layout. Finally, you
will detach a page from its page layout and then reattach the page layout to the page.
Practice Files You do not need any practice files to complete the exercises in this
chapter. For more information about practice file requirements, see “Using the Practice
Files” at the beginning of this book.
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Creating a Publishing Site 431
Creating a Publishing Site
A publishing site is a site that uses the SharePoint Server Web content management
functionality; that is, pages require content approval before they are generally available.
Publishing functionality is enabled on SharePoint Server sites when the SharePoint Server
Publishing feature is activated. A feature allows you to activate or deactivate functionality at the level of a site, site collection, Web application, or SharePoint farm. The
SharePoint Server Publishing feature depends on the activation of the SharePoint Server
Publishing Infrastructure feature at the site-collection level. Microsoft developed both
these features, which are installed when SharePoint Server is installed on each Web front
end. Site owners can activate features to extend the functionality of their sites. Therefore,
it is possible to turn a SharePoint site based on the team site definition into a publishing
site by activating the SharePoint Server Publishing feature.
Note The SharePoint Server Publishing Infrastructure feature adds a number of objects to the
top-level site of your site collections. These objects include the SharePoint groups Approvers,
Designers, Hierarchy Managers, Restricted Readers, and Style Resource Readers; and several
new libraries: Pages, Site Collection Documents, Style Library, and Site Collection Images.
They also include the Content And Structure Reports and Reusable Content lists. In addition,
the Publishing Infrastructure feature adds new Web Parts, site columns, content pages, and
the NightandDay.master publishing master page; replaces the top link bar with a global
navigation menu; and adds a number of new links to the site settings page.
Typically, publishing sites are created as subsites (or child sites) in a site collection in
which the site collection was created, for example, by using the Publishing Portal or
Enterprise Search Center site template. Typically, you use the Publishing Portal site template to create intranet or public-facing sites. These templates can only be used to create
the root site of a site collection and have the SharePoint Server Publishing Infrastructure
feature automatically activated. When you create a site based on the site definitions
Publishing Portal, Enterprise Wiki, Publishing Site, Publishing Site With Workflow,
Enterprise Search Center, FAST Search Center, or Business Intelligence Center, you can
create publishing pages.
Note The following publishing sites are deprecated in SharePoint Server 2010: Report
Center, Site Directory, Collaboration Portal, and Search Center With Tabs. If you want
functionality provided by the Site Directory template in SharePoint Server 2007, you can
use a community-created Site Directory template for SharePoint 2010 on the CodePlex Web
site (spsitedirectory2010.codeplex.com/ ), with a write-up on the U.K. SharePoint team blog
site at blogs.msdn.com/b/uksharepoint/archive/2010/04/05/introducing-site-directory-forsharepoint-2010.aspx.
In this exercise, you create a subsite by using the Publishing site template.
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432 Chapter 13 Managing Web Content in the SharePoint Server Environment
Important This exercise requires SharePoint Server 2010 functionality. You will not be able to
complete this exercise if you are using a SharePoint Foundation installation.
SET UP You need the URL of a SharePoint site on which you can create the new
publishing site as a subsite. Open SharePoint Designer, and display Backstage view.
1. On Backstage view, with the Sites tab selected, under Site Templates, click More
Templates.
The Site To Load Templates From dialog box opens.
2. In the Site name text box, type the URL of the SharePoint site on which you want
to create the subsite.
3. Click Open.
SharePoint Designer communicates with the SharePoint site and retrieves a list
of SharePoint site templates that can be used as a basis for the new SharePoint
subsite. These are displayed on Backstage view. The SharePoint templates listed
depend on the configuration or your site collection or whether your organization
has created any new site definitions. When you connect to another SharePoint site,
different SharePoint templates might be displayed.
4. Click Publishing Site under Site Templates.
Tip You might need to scroll down to find the template.
The New Publishing Site dialog box appears.
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Understanding Web Content Management in SharePoint Server 2010 433
5. In the Specify the location of the New Web site text box, delete subsite, and
type JobVacancies. Click OK.
The Please Wait dialog box opens.
The dialog box closes, and the publishing site settings page is displayed.
CLEAN UP Close SharePoint Designer.
Understanding Web Content Management in
SharePoint Server 2010
As with any other Web content management program, with SharePoint Server you can
create and manage Web content from its creation to live publication. The process is
iterative to account for periodic modifications. Using the Web content management
functionality in SharePoint Server, a content approval process could look similar to the
following:
Images
Resources
Page
Layout
Content
Creator
Content
Creation
Submit for Approval
Step 1
End Date
Approval
Process
Archive
Published
Step 2
Step 5
Step 4
Expiration
Step 3
Start Date
Scheduled
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Reject
Approver
Approve
434 Chapter 13 Managing Web Content in the SharePoint Server Environment
● Step 1, Content creation The content creator creates a page from a page layout,
which is the blueprint for how a page looks without any content. Pages created
from page layouts are known as publishing pages. On a live Internet site, each
page layout might have dozens or hundreds of publishing pages associated with
it. Each page layout contains a number of field controls that the content creator
can use to enter data, and the page layout can optionally contain one or more
Web Part zones. Each field control can provide a number of tools that the content
creator can use to choose fonts, links, images, and other resources to make content creation as simple as possible, including a spelling checker. Each site collection
contains a Site Collection Images library that the content creator can use to store
images that are used through the site collection. Page layouts are stored in the
Master Page gallery.
● Step 2, Approval process After a publishing page is formatted, including with any
scheduling properties, the content creator submits it for approval. The approver
can edit, reject, or approve the page.
● Step 3, Scheduled After approval, the publishing page is either published or
scheduled for publication.
● Step 4, Published The publishing page is visible to all visitors to the site.
● Step 5, Expiration When the publishing page reaches the end of its life, the con-
tent is no longer visible on the site and can be archived.
When you use the Publishing Site template or the Enterprise Wiki template, the default
content approval process contains only steps 1 and 4. The Publishing Site template does
not have content approval enabled, but the template is enabled for major and minor
versioning. As the content creator amends the page, draft copies of the page are stored
as a minor version. Only when a content creator has completed the page to his or her
liking and then clicked Publish will the page move from step 1 to step 4. The page is then
converted to a major version. The page moves from step 4 to step 1 whenever a content
creator decides to amend it.
On a site based on the Publishing Site With Workflow template, both content approval
and the Approval workflow are enabled so that a page moves from step 1 to step 2 before moving to either step 3 or step 4. Also, by configuring the page’s schedule settings,
the content creator can place the page in a scheduled state (step 3), whereby the page
will not be visible until the specified date. The content creator can also configure an end
date with the option to automatically send the page’s contact an e-mail message when
the page expires.
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Understanding Web Content Management in SharePoint Server 2010 435
To maintain a large Internet or intranet site, you need a number of people who have the
following roles:
● Site owners For a large site that contains many child sites, this might be a team
of people who determine the site structure and governance and also manage
centrally stored resources such as images. For each child site, another person or
team might decide on the list and libraries the site contains or specify the pages
required. Such a team would produce wireframe diagrams that represent how each
component on the page should be laid out.
● Page layout designer This person uses SharePoint Designer to create and maintain
page layouts. You might need a developer if the requirements are complex.
● Content creator These users create and modify publishing pages based on page
layouts. Users who are placed in the Members SharePoint group can amend items,
documents, and publishing pages. On most installations, administrators will create
an additional SharePoint group so that they can differentiate between users who
can edit and modify publishing pages and those, for example, who can upload and
approve files in other document libraries.
● Approver These users moderate, edit, and approve publishing pages. This spe-
cial SharePoint group is created automatically and, on a site created from the
Publishing Site With Workflow template, is linked to the Page Approval workflow
on the Pages library. Users in this group can approve any item or document in any
list or library that has content approval enabled.
● Visitor These users have read-only access to pages.
In this exercise, you create and explore a publishing page.
SET UP Using the browser, open the publishing site you created in the previous
exercise.
1. Click Site Actions, and then click New Page.
The New Page dialog box opens.
2. In the New page name box, type Welcome.
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436 Chapter 13 Managing Web Content in the SharePoint Server Environment
3. Click Create.
The page is displayed in edit mode with the Editing Tools tabs visible on the ribbon.
The status is Checked Out And Editable. Within the content portion of the page,
three controls are displayed: Title, Page Content, and Rollup Image, which is used in
conjunction with the Content Query Web Part.
4. On the Page tab, click Page Layout in the Page Actions group.
Under Article Page, an orange rectangle surrounds the Body Only page layout.
Page Layou
5. Scroll down, and under Welcome Page, click Summary Links.
A dialog box is briefly displayed and indicates that the page layout is changing.
The page refreshes, and within the content portion of the page, five controls are
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Understanding Web Content Management in SharePoint Server 2010 437
displayed—Title, Page Image, Page Content, Summary Links, and Summary Links 2—
as well as three Web Part zones—Top, Left Column, and Right Column.
6. Place the insertion point in the Page Content field control, and type Welcome to
the Wide World Importers internal Job Vacancies site.
7. Scroll down the page, and in the Summary Links field control, click New Link.
The New Link—Webpage Dialog dialog box opens.
8. In the Title box, type Wide World Importers Internet Site, and in the Link URL
box, type http://www.wideworldimporters.com. Click OK.
The New Link—Webpage Dialog dialog box closes, and Wide World Wide Internet
Site appears in the Summary Links field control.
Tip The Summary Links field control offers similar features to the Summary Links Web
Part and allows content creators to create a list of hyperlinks grouped as required.
9. In the Top Web Part zone, click Add a Web Part to open the Web Parts panel.
10. Under Categories, verify that Lists and Libraries is selected, and then under Web
Parts, click Pages. Click Add.
The Web Parts panel disappears, and the ribbon is displayed. The Pages XLV Web
part appears in the Top Web Part zone.
11. On the Editing Tools, Format Text tab, click Save & Close.
The page is taken out of editing mode but is still checked out to you. The field controls and Web Part zones that do not contain information are not displayed.
CLEAN UP Leave the browser open if you are continuing to the next exercise.
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Understanding the Page Model
When you create a publishing site, an ASP.NET page is created in the Pages library. On a
publishing site, even the home page, Default.aspx, is stored in this library. If you look at
the Address box in a browser when you have this page open, you will see that the URL
ends with Pages/default.aspx.
The field controls on a page map to columns within the Pages library. When a content
creator enters data in a field control—for example, in the Page Content field control on
the Welcome.aspx page—the creator is actually entering data in the Page Content column in the Pages library. Using terminology from earlier in this book, by entering data
into field controls, you associate metadata with the Welcome.aspx file.
When you look at the column types used within the Pages library, they do not look different from the column types you use to create columns on a team site. However, there
is a difference; the Pages library is associated with the Page content type, which uses
column types that are associated with field controls. Only if a column is associated with
a field control can the column data be displayed on a publishing page. When you delete
a column from the Pages library, you delete the data held in that column for all publishing pages; therefore, if page layouts reference that column, no pages display that data.
When you remove a field control from a page layout, any pages based on that page
layout do not display information from that column. However, you have not deleted any
information by removing field controls. When you place the field control back on the
page layout, the data is again displayed.
The benefit of this method is that you have all the power of saving information in a library, yet you can display the data as you would on a traditional site. You can create
page layouts to display and edit a subset of column values. Content creators then know
that by creating a page based on that page layout, the page will contain all the fields
needed and that it’s laid out for a particular purpose.
Say, for example, that you need to create a solution for maintaining job vacancy details
in one location. You create one content type for job vacancies, from which you create
multiple page layouts. Job vacancies that need to specify security levels use one page
layout, those that have no security clearance use another page layout, and both page
layouts have the job title, job description, and date posted fields. Similarly, a vehicle
manufacturer can store all of its publishing pages in one Pages library. It can use different layouts for cars and for trucks, but both layouts have the same field controls to
display information such as the model name; a picture; and the vehicle’s top speed, fuel
consumption, and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.
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Understanding the Page Model 439
Each page layout is based on a content type, which in turn specifies the field controls
(columns) the layout can use. Field controls not only have the responsibility of displaying the contents of a column, but when they are used for data entry purposes, they also
have the responsibility of writing content back to the column. Because field controls
represent the data that is held in columns in the Pages library, if you place the same field
control twice on a page, you will show the same data twice. If a user then uses both field
controls to enter data, the data is saved to the same column, and the field control that
saved its data last overrides the data of the other field control. Placing multiple copies of
a field control on a page layout is not similar to placing multiple copies of an XLV Web
Part or the Content Editor Web Part on a page. The Web Parts in the Web Part panel are
templates that you can use repeatedly, whereas field controls in the Toolbox task pane
represent a specific column in the Pages library and should be placed only once on the
page layout.
See Also For detail about content types, see Chapter 3, “Working with Lists and Libraries.”
In Chapter 4, “Customizing and Modifying Web Pages,” I detailed what happens when a
user requests the home page of a team site. When you request a publishing page, such
as Welcome.aspx, the following events occur:
● The master page, the Welcome.aspx page, and the site properties are retrieved. The
properties include the site title, permissions, and the links that should be shown on
the Quick Launch bar.
● The Welcome.aspx page properties are retrieved, including its title and the page
layout it is using.
● The page layout file and its properties are retrieved, including the field controls and
Web Part zones it contains.
● The Welcome.aspx properties associated with the page layout are retrieved, such
as the values from the columns that map to the field controls and whether the Web
Part zones contain any Web Parts.
● The Web Parts data that populates the Web Part zones is retrieved.
● The master page, the page layout, the Welcome.aspx page, the information from
the field control about how the column data should be displayed, and all the data
retrieved (taking into account the security settings of the user) are merged to form
one HTML page that is sent to the browser to be rendered.
In this exercise, you explore page layouts and the Pages library.
SET UP Open the Welcome.aspx page in the browser if it is not already open.
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440 Chapter 13 Managing Web Content in the SharePoint Server Environment
1. On the Page tab, click Edit in the Edit group, and then click Page Layout in the
Page Actions group.
Page Layou
2. Scroll down, and under Welcome Page, an orange rectangle surrounds Summary
Links. Click Splash.
Tip In the Page Layout list, the page layouts are grouped by content type. In the Create
Page Web page, the content type is displayed in brackets, and the names of the page
layouts are to the right of the bracket.
The Welcome page is displayed, with no Page Content field and the Pages XLV Web
Part in the Bottom Right Web Part zone. Web Parts are placed in the Web Part
zone that was last added to the page layout. When there are no Web Part zones on
a page layout, the Web Parts are saved in the Closed Web Part gallery.
3. On the Page tab, click Page Layout, and then under Welcome, click Summary
Links.
The Welcome page is redisplayed. The Page Content field appears with the text you
entered in the previous exercise.
4. On the Page tab, click View All Pages in the Page Library group.
View A Pages
The All Documents view of the Pages library is displayed. Two files are listed, Default
and Welcome. The Welcome page is checked out to you.
5. Click Site Actions, and then click Edit in SharePoint Designer.
The site opens in SharePoint Designer.
6. On the Navigation pane, click Lists and Libraries, and then under Document
Libraries, click Pages.
The list settings page is displayed in the workspace. In the Content Types area the
Article Page, Folder, Page, and Welcome Page content types are displayed.
7. In the Content Types area, click Page, and then on the Content Type Settings
tab, click Edit content type columns.
Edi Co umns
The Columns editor page is displayed with the following columns listed: Name,
Title, Comments, Scheduling Start Date, Scheduling End Date, Contact, Contact
E-mail Address, Contact Name, Contact Picture, Variation Group ID, Variation
Relationship Link, Rollup Image, and Target Audiences.
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Understanding the Page Model 441
8. On the workspace breadcrumb, click the arrow to the right of Content Types, and
click Welcome Page.
9. On the Content Type Settings tab, click Edit content type columns.
The Columns editor page is displayed, and the same columns from the Page
content type are listed in addition to the following columns: Page Image, Page
Content, Summary Links, and Summary Links 2.
10. Return to the browser, where the All Documents view of the Pages library is disEdi Proper ies
played. Rest the mouse pointer over Welcome, and click the check box that appears. On the Documents tab, click Edit Properties in the Manage group.
The Pages - Welcome.aspx page is displayed. Toward the bottom of the page, the
Page Image, Page Content, and Summary Links fields are displayed. The contents of
Web Part zones are not displayed.
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442 Chapter 13 Managing Web Content in the SharePoint Server Environment
11. In the Page Content field, place the insertion point at the end of the sentence, after site, and type On this site, you will find information on job vacancies.
Note You cannot edit a publishing page in SharePoint Designer or modify the
properties of a publishing page. You can, however, create and modify content types and
page layouts in SharePoint Designer.
12. Click Save, and then in the All Documents view of the Pages library, click
Welcome to view the page.
CLEAN UP Close the browser. Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing
to the next exercise.
Creating a Page Layout
You can create a page layout by using a browser and SharePoint Designer. To create
a page layout, you need to specify a page layout content type, which in turn specifies
which field controls (columns) you can place on your page layout.
SharePoint comes with a set of default content types that are installed when you create a
site collection (from the Publishing Portal site template, for example). Root-level content
types are used to create all the default lists, libraries, and page layouts. SharePoint Server
comes with the following built-in page layout content types:
● Page Use this content type when you want to create your own page layout.
● Article Page This content type is based on the Page content type and is used to
create the Article Page page layouts. SharePoint Server provides four Article Page
page layouts For example, Image On The Right is used for presenting an article
(as in a magazine article) on a Web site. It contains a Page Image field control and
a Page Content field control to capture data, as well as a few other simple field
controls.
● Enterprise Wiki Page This is the default content type for the Enterprise Wiki site
template. It provides a basic content area as well as ratings and categories.
● Project Page This is a content type included with the Enterprise Wiki site. It pro-
vides some basic information to describe a project by using Project Status and
Contact Name field controls.
● Redirect Page This content type is used to create a variations page layout to direct
users to the variations home page when the variations settings are configured.
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Creating a Page Layout 443
● Welcome Page This content type is based on the Page content type and is used to
create Welcome Page page layouts. A site created from the Publishing Portal site
template contains 13 Welcome Page page layouts.
All page layouts are stored in the Master Page gallery for the top-level site of a site collection. Although the Master Page gallery has all the features of a normal document
library, because of its importance for the whole site collection, it is secured to limit the
rights of most users. As a page layout designer, you must have at least the Design permission levels or higher to work with the files in this library. Such permission levels are
automatically assigned to you if you are a member of the Designers SharePoint group.
To protect the contents of the Master Page gallery further, content approval and minor
and major versioning are enabled by default. For users to see pages based on your page
layouts, the page layouts must be published as a major version and approved. To facilitate this process, you might consider enabling the Approval workflow for the Master
Page gallery.
By using a browser, you can configure each site within a site collection to display all or
some of the page layouts. Therefore, if you create page layouts that are specifically for the
Human Resources department, you can limit the Human Resources site to use only
the Human Resources page layouts, and any child site of the Human Resources site can
be configured to inherit the preferred layouts from its parent site.
To display new data on a page layout, you must first add a site column to the content
type used to create the page layout. The site column then exposes a new field control for
you to use on your page layout. Microsoft has provided a number of column types specifically for publishing sites—that is, those that have the Formatting And Constraints For
Publishing capability and the Summary Links data field controls.
In this exercise, you create a page layout and then create a publishing page from your
page layout.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the publishing site you created earlier in
this chapter if not already open.
1. In the Navigation pane, click Page Layouts, and then on the Page Layouts tab,
click New Page Layout in the New group.
New Page Layou
The New dialog box opens.
2. In the Content Type Name list, select Welcome Page. Then, in the URL Name
box, type JobVacancies, and in the Title box, type Job Vacancies Page Layout.
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444 Chapter 13 Managing Web Content in the SharePoint Server Environment
3. Click OK to close the New dialog box.
If you were working on a subsite of a site collection, a new SharePoint Designer
window opens at the site-collection level. The JobVacancies.aspx page opens as a
new workspace tab at the site-collection level.
Troubleshooting When you open a subsite of a site collection in SharePoint Designer,
the Page Layouts gallery page might look empty. The Page Layout gallery page shows
page layouts only when you open the top-level site in a site collection. You can use the
New Page Layout command on a subsite; however, the name of your page layout must
be unique at the site-collection level. Therefore, when you save your page layout, a
Microsoft SharePoint Designer dialog box might open and indicate that the file might
already exist, even though your view of the Page Layout gallery looks empty on your
subsite.
4. On the workspace status bar, click Split. In Design view, scroll up and place the insertion point in PlaceHolderMain, if necessary.
Code view contains two content placeholders, PlaceHolderPageTitle and
PlaceHolderMain.
5. On the View tab, click Zoom to Contents, and then press Enter four times.
Zoom o
Con en s
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Creating a Page Layout 445
6. On the Insert tab, click SharePoint in the Controls group, and then click Show
SharePoin
Toolbox. In the Toolbox task pane that opens, scroll down to view the SharePoint
Controls.
The Page Fields section lists field types (columns) from the content type(s) inherited
by the associated content type, which although not shown in the task pane, is in
this case the Page content type. The Content Fields section lists field types from the
associated content type, which is the Welcome Page content type.
7. Place the insertion point on the first line inside the PlaceHolderMain control. Type
Job Title, and then in the Toolbox task pane, under Page Fields, double-click
Title.
In the Advanced Editor window, the publishing Title field control appears with the
text Title, and the Job Vacancies page layout appears.
8. Place the insertion point below the Title field control. Type Closing date:, and
then in the Toolbox task pane, under Page Fields, double-click Scheduling End
Date.
In the Advanced Editor window, the publishing Schedule End Date field control
appears.
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9. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Save, and then click the Page Layouts workspace tab.
A green check mark is displayed to the left of JobVacancies.aspx.
10. Click the icon to the left of JobVacancies.aspx, and then on the Page Layouts
Check n
tab, click Check In. When the Check In dialog box opens, click OK.
The file JobVacancies.aspx is checked in as a minor (draft) version and will be visible
only to other page layout designers.
11. In the browser, click Site Actions, All Site Content, and then on the All Site
Content page, under Document Libraries, click Pages.
12. On the Documents tab, click New Document to display the Create Page page. In
the Title box, type HR Manager EMEA, and then press TAB.
HR-Manager-EMEA appears in the URL Name box.
13. In the Page Layout section, scroll down the list, and click (Welcome Page) Job
Vacancies Page Layout. Click Create to display the All Documents view of the
Pages library.
14. Click HR-Manager-EMEA, to display the page in the browser, and then on the
Page tab, click Edit.
Two field controls are listed: Title and Scheduling End Date. The Title box does not
provide you with the ability to modify the look and feel of the text, such as the
font, font size, or color.
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Modifying a Page Layout 447
CLEAN UP Leave the browser open if you are continuing to the next exercise. Close
all SharePoint Designer windows.
Modifying a Page Layout
As with any other component you use to develop your solution, you need to modify
page layouts by adding, removing, and configuring field controls, Web Part zones, and
Web Parts. Field controls, like Web Parts, can have a number of properties. Field controls that are created from some of the basic column types might not have any properties. Others, like the Full HTML Content With Formatting And Constraint For Publishing
column type, has nearly 50 properties, as well as its own cascading style sheet. Because
a field control is an ASP.NET control, its properties can be configured by using the Tag
Properties task pane. A developer can also create additional field controls.
Tip You cannot delete a page layout if you have created publishing pages based on that page
layout.
In this exercise, you add and delete field controls for a page layout and configure the
properties of a field control.
SET UP In the browser, open the site you used in the previous exercise if it is not
already open.
1. Click Site Actions, and then click Site Settings.
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448 Chapter 13 Managing Web Content in the SharePoint Server Environment
2. When the site settings page is displayed, under Galleries, click Master pages and
page layouts.
The Master Page gallery page is displayed. Notice that you are at the top-level site
of the site collection.
3. Scroll down the page, and click to the left of JobVacancies.aspx to select
the check box that appears. On the Library Tools, Documents tab, click Edit
Document in the Open & Check Out group.
A Message From Webpage dialog box appears, asking if you want to check out the
item.
4. Click OK to check out the page layout, and then click OK in the Open Document
dialog box that appears, warning you that some files can harm your computer.
SharePoint Designer opens, and then a Microsoft SharePoint Designer dialog box
opens, stating that the page does not contain any regions that are editable in safe
mode.
5. Click Yes to open the page in advanced edit mode.
The JobVacancies.aspx page opens in the workspace.
6. On the View tab, click Design, and then click Zoom to Contents.
7. Within JobVacancies.aspx, click Scheduling End Date, and then press Delete.
Zoom o
Con en s
The Scheduling End Date field control is deleted.
8. In the Toolbox task pane, scroll down in the SharePoint Controls header section.
Under Content Fields, double-click Page Content.
The Page Content field control is added to the JobVacancies.aspx page.
9. On the View tab, click Task Panes, and then click Tag Properties.
The Tag Properties task pane opens.
Task Panes
10. In the Tag Properties task pane, under Misc, click in the cell to the right of
AllowImages, click the arrow that appears, and then click False.
11. Press CTRL+S to save the page layout.
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Allowing Users to Rate Web Content 449
12. In the browser, open the publishing page you created at the start of this chapter.
On the Quick Launch bar, click Libraries, and then on the All Site Content page,
under Document Libraries, click Pages.
The All Documents view of the Pages library is displayed.
13. Click HR-Manager-EMEA, and then on the Page tab, click Edit.
The Scheduling End Date field control is no longer on the page. The Editing Tools
tabs (Format Text and Insert) are visible.
Tip If the Editing Tools tabs are not visible, place the insertion point under Page
Content.
CLEAN UP Close the browser. Close the Tag Properties task pane. Leave SharePoint
Designer open if you are continuing to the next exercise.
Allowing Users to Rate Web Content
In SharePoint Server 2010, rating functionality has been introduced for all lists. This functionality can be used on publishing pages to allow users to rate the content on the page
by using a 0-to-5-star rating scale. To add this functionality to publishing pages, you
must enable the rating settings in the Pages library. With these settings enabled, you can
add the Rating site column to the content type that the page layout for the publishing
pages use.
In this exercise, you add a new site column to a page layout content type and then add
the corresponding field control to a page layout.
SET UP Open the top-level site of your site collection in SharePoint Designer.
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450 Chapter 13 Managing Web Content in the SharePoint Server Environment
1. In the Navigation pane, click Content Types, and then under Page Layout
Content Types, click Welcome Page.
The Welcome Page settings page is displayed.
2. On the Content Type Settings tab, click Edit Columns, and then on the Columns
tab, click Add Existing Site Column.
Add Exis ing
Si e Co umn
The Site Columns Picker dialog box opens, with Enter Search Keywords highlighted.
3. Type rat.
The Site Columns Picker dialog box displays two Ratings site columns: Number Of
Ratings and Rating (0-5).
4. Click Rating (0-5), and then click OK.
The Site Columns Picker dialog box closes, and the Rating (0-5) site column appears
at the bottom of the Welcome Page settings page.
Save
5. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Save.
6. In the Navigation pane, click Page Layouts. Click the icon to the left of
JobVacancies.aspx, and then on the Page Layouts tab, click Edit File.
In the Toolbox task pane, under Content Fields, Rating (0-5) is displayed.
Edi Fi e
7. In the Advanced Editor window, place the insertion point below the Page
Content field control. In the Toolbox task pane, under Content Fields, doubleclick Rating (0-5).
The Rating field control is added to the page layout.
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Approving a Page Layout 451
Save
8. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Save.
9. In the browser, open the publishing page you created at the start of this chapter.
On the Quick Launch bar, click Libraries, and then on the All Site Content page,
under Document Libraries, click Pages.
The All Documents view of the Pages library is displayed.
10. Click HR-Manager-EMEA.
Five rating stars appear on the page.
Troubleshooting If you hover the mouse pointer over the rating stars and they do not
change color, you need to enable rating settings on the Pages library. Navigate to the
Administration Web Page for the Pages library, and then under General Settings, click
Rating Settings. On the Rating Settings page, select Yes to allow items in this list to be
rated, and then click OK.
CLEAN UP Close the browser and SharePoint Designer.
Approving a Page Layout
For visitors to your publishing site to view pages, the page layout and the pages must
be checked in as a major version and approved. This is particularly true for the home
page, Default.aspx, which in a newly created publishing site is checked in only as a draft
version. If page layouts and pages are not checked in and approved, the Error: Access
Denied page is displayed to visitors to your site. Also, any components you use on your
page layout or page must be checked in and approved as a major version. These components include images in the Site Collection Images library or reusable content stored in
the Reusable Content list at the top-level site of a site collection.
Tip When a publishing page is approved, its content is automatically checked for spelling and
components that are not approved are surrounded with a red border.
You can check in a page layout as a major version by using SharePoint Designer.
However, you must use the browser to approve the page layout.
In this exercise, you check in a page layout as a major version and then approve it.
SET UP Open the top-level site of your site collection in SharePoint Designer.
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452 Chapter 13 Managing Web Content in the SharePoint Server Environment
1. In the Navigation pane, click Page Layouts, and then click JobVacancies.aspx.
The page settings page for JobVacancies.aspx opens.
2. On the Page tab, click Check In.
Check n
The Check In dialog box opens.
3. Click OK.
The Check In dialog box closes.
4. In the Customization area, click Manage all file properties in the browser.
The browser opens and displays the properties of the page layout. It has an approval status of Pending.
5. On the View tab, click Approve/Reject.
The Approve page is displayed.
6. In the Approval Status section, select Approved, and then click OK.
The All Master Pages view of the Master Page gallery is displayed.
CLEAN UP Close the browser and SharePoint Designer.
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Restoring an Earlier Version of a Page Layout 453
Restoring an Earlier Version of a Page Layout
All page layouts are stored in the Master Page gallery at the top-level site of a site collection. This library has versioning enabled, which means you can restore a previous
version of a page layout if you decide that your current modifications do not meet your
business needs or you want to start modifying your page layout by using a previous
version.
In this exercise, you restore an earlier version of a page layout.
SET UP In SharePoint Designer, open the publishing site you created at the start of
this chapter if it is not already open.
1. On the Navigation pane, click All Files, and then click Pages.
The All Files gallery page for the Pages library is displayed in the workspace.
2. Click the icon to the left of HR-Manager-EMEA.aspx, and on the All Files tab,
click Open in the Edit group.
Open
A Microsoft SharePoint Designer dialog box opens, stating that you cannot edit the
page in SharePoint Designer but that you can edit the corresponding page layout.
3. Click Edit Page Layout.
4. If your page layout is checked in, a Microsoft SharePoint Designer dialog box
opens stating that the file is under source control. Click Yes to check it out.
The Microsoft SharePoint Designer dialog box closes. A Microsoft SharePoint
Designer dialog box opens, stating that the page does not contain any regions that
are editable in safe mode.
5. Click Yes to open the page in advanced edit mode.
If you are working on a subsite of a site collection, a new SharePoint Designer window opens at the site-collection level. The JobVacancies.aspx page opens in a separate workspace tab.
6. In the workspace breadcrumb, click the arrow to the right of JobVacancies.aspx,
and click Version History.
The version history for JobVacancies.aspx is displayed.
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454 Chapter 13 Managing Web Content in the SharePoint Server Environment
7. Click the icon to the left of 0.1. On the Version History tab in the Manage group,
click Restore Previous Version.
Res ore
Previous
Version
Tip The page layout must be checked out before you can restore a previous version.
If your page layout is checked in, a Microsoft SharePoint Designer dialog box opens,
stating that the file must be checked out before a previous version of the file can be
restored. Clicking OK in the dialog box does not check the file out. You need to navigate
back to the page layout settings page or to the Advanced Editor window to check it out.
The workspace refreshes.
8. On the workspace breadcrumb, click the arrow to the right of JobVacancies.aspx,
and then click Editor.
A Microsoft SharePoint Designer dialog box opens, stating that the page does not
contain any regions that are editable in safe mode.
9. Click Yes to open the page in advanced edit mode.
The page layout does not contain any field controls.
Tip If you restore version 0.1, you have not gained anything more than you would by
re-creating a page layout—that is, restoring version 0.1 results in page layout with no
field controls.
CLEAN UP Close the browser and all SharePoint Designer windows.
Detaching and Reattaching a Page Layout
If you do want to edit a page associated with a page layout, you can use SharePoint
Designer to detach the page from the page layout. This turns the page into an ordinary
content page, similar to the Home.aspx page of a team site. The page is associated with a
master page and contains a PlaceHolderMain (Custom) control. With SharePoint Designer,
you can reattach the page to its original page layout. However, when you reattach the
page to the original page layout, you lose any customizations you completed on the page.
Tip You cannot attach a page layout to a page that was not originally associated with the
page layout.
The detach and reattach methods for page layouts are the reverse of one another, unlike
detaching and attaching master pages. When you detach a page from its master page,
all the controls and tags are copied from the master page to the content page. When
you then attach a master page back to the content page, the original controls from
the master page remain on the content page, with the effect that controls are applied
twice—once from the original master page that was detached and also by attaching the
master page again. You will have two Site Actions menus, two Navigation panes, two
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Detaching and Reattaching a Page Layout 455
Quick Launch bars, and other duplicates. Detaching and reattaching page layouts does
not suffer from this effect, but you should think carefully about what you are trying to
achieve, because an undo mechanism might not be readily available to you.
In this exercise, you detach and reattach a page layout.
SET UP In SharePoint Designer, open the publishing site you created at the start of
this chapter.
1. On the Navigation pane, click All Files, and then click Pages.
The All Files gallery page for the Pages library is displayed in the workspace.
2. Click the icon to the left of HR-Manager-EMEA.aspx, and then on the All Files
tab, click Detach from Page Layout in the Actions group.
De ach from
Page Layou
A Microsoft SharePoint Designer dialog box opens, warning you that detaching the
page from the page layout will copy the page layout’s markup to the page, and any
changes to the page layout will not affect the page.
3. Click Yes to close the Microsoft SharePoint Designer dialog box.
Another Microsoft SharePoint Designer dialog box opens, stating that the detachment was successful.
4. Click OK to close the Microsoft SharePoint Designer dialog box.
5. On the All Files tab, click Open in the Edit group.
Open
A Microsoft SharePoint Designer dialog box opens, stating that the page does not
contain any regions that are editable in safe mode.
6. Click Yes to open the page in advanced edit mode.
The HR-Manager-EMEA.aspx page opens in the workspace in advanced edit mode.
7. On the workspace breadcrumb, click Pages.
8. Right-click the icon to the left of HR-Manager-EMEA.aspx, and then click
Reattach to Page Layout.
A Microsoft SharePoint Designer dialog box opens, warning you that by reattaching the page, any customizations will be lost, except for changes to Web Parts in
Web Part zones.
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456 Chapter 13 Managing Web Content in the SharePoint Server Environment
9. Click Yes to close the dialog box.
The dialog box closes, and a Microsoft SharePoint Designer dialog box opens stating that the reattachment was successful.
10. Click OK to close the dialog box.
CLEAN UP Close SharePoint Designer.
Key Points
● Web content management is just one of the functions included in the ECM feature
of SharePoint Server.
● Both the Publishing Site and the Publishing Site With Workflow site definitions en-
able the SharePoint Server Publishing feature, which provides a number of features
not available on team sites.
● The key concept of publishing sites is page layouts. A master page controls the look
and feel of the branding and navigation, whereas the page layout controls the look
and feel of the content portion of the page.
● Page layouts are stored in the Master Page gallery in the top-level site of a site col-
lection. Content approval, minor versioning, and major versioning are enabled on
this library, which means that you must publish a page layout as a major version
and approve it before pages based on it can be viewed by visitors to your site.
● Page layouts are created from page layout content types and publishing pages are
created from a page layout.
● Page layouts use field controls and Web Part zones to control where content can
be placed on a publishing page.
● Content creators using a browser manage publishing pages, which are stored at the
site level in the Pages library.
● Field controls map to columns in the Pages library and are responsible for display-
ing and modifying column values.
● Microsoft has provided a number of new column types specifically for publishing
sites, such as those that have Formatting And Constraints For Publishing features.
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Chapter at a G ance
Use the ribbon to insert
standard ASP.NET controls,
page 460
Modify control properties,
page 468
Use SharePoint Data View controls,
page 472
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14Using Controls in
Web Pages
In this chapter, you will learn how to
✔ Work with the ribbon and Tag Properties task pane.
✔ Use a standard ASP.NET server control.
✔ Validate user data entry.
✔ Use ASP.NET validation and SharePoint Data View controls.
✔ Test an ASP.NET form.
✔ Use SharePoint server controls.
Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010 and Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010 are installed on top of Microsoft .NET Framework 3.5. ASP.NET is part of the .NET Framework
and enables you to separate user interface declarations from application logic. User
interface declarations are typically HTML and include other client-side scripting mechanisms, such as JavaScript, AJAX, and Silverlight. Application logic is precompiled into
dynamic-link libraries (DLLs) that reside on Web servers and are fast to load when
a Web server needs to respond to a Web page request. These DLLs contain code for
common tasks, such as displaying a calendar, and are exposed in the user interface as
controls.
Microsoft SharePoint Designer 2010 categorizes controls into four groups: HTML, ASP.NET,
SharePoint, and data source. Controls are very similar to Web Parts; you place them on a
Web page and customize their properties to meet your needs.
See Also For more information about controls, read the article at msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/
library/bb386416(VS.90).aspx and visit www.w3schools.com/aspnet/.
In this chapter, you will first insert ASP.NET and HTML controls on a Web page. You then
create Web pages that use standard ASP.NET controls, ASP.NET validation controls, a
SharePoint Data View, and data source controls. You will also review SharePoint server
controls.
459
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460 Chapter 14 Using Controls in Web Pages
Practice Files Before you can use the practice files for this chapter, you need to copy
the book’s practice files to your computer. The practice files you’ll use to complete
the exercises in this chapter are in the Chapter14 practice file folder. A complete list of
practice files is provided in “Using the Practice Files” at the beginning of this book.
Working with the Ribbon and Tag Properties Task Pane
The Controls group on the ribbon’s Insert tab and the Tag Properties task pane allow
easy access to a large number of controls and their properties. In SharePoint Designer
2007, you insert controls by using the Toolbox task pane. This method is still available in
SharePoint Designer 2010, however, the Controls group provides a quick way to insert on
a page any of the following types of controls:
● HTML This type is further categorized into Tags (such as <div>, <br>, and <hr>) for
static display and Form controls for user input.
● ASP.NET server controls SharePoint Designer 2010 includes ASP.NET controls
similar to those exposed by the Microsoft Visual Studio Toolbox task pane. In both
products, the controls are classified into the groups Standard, Data, Validation,
Navigation, and Login. The big difference is that when you use ASP.NET controls
in Visual Studio, you can write and compile code into an assembly that can be deployed on each Web server, which you cannot do with SharePoint Designer.
● SharePoint controls These controls are ASP.NET server controls specific to
SharePoint Foundation 2010 and SharePoint Server 2010 installations.
● Data source controls These controls include the connection information for data
sources such as lists, libraries, SQL Server databases, and XML files. Almost any ASP.
NET control can be bound to a data source control, thereby allowing you to create
pages to access data without needing to write code.
With SharePoint Designer, you create the presentation layer of a page. On the page,
you place HTML tags, XSLT, client-side scripts, and controls that can be interpreted by
SharePoint or the browser. You do not specify any server-side code that needs to be
compiled, such as code written in a programming language like C# (pronounced C
sharp), Visual Basic (commonly abbreviated as VB), or Visual J# (pronounced J sharp).
However, each page does have a language associated with it.
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Working with the Ribbon and Tag Properties Task Pane 461
SharePoint and ASP.NET controls are server-side controls—that is, they execute code
on the Web servers. SharePoint controls are prefixed by a set of characters that point
to DLLs, also known as assemblies. The entry points within an assembly are known as
namespaces. All similar controls are placed in the same namespace. The prefix characters
are used throughout the Web page to reference the controls in the assembly so that
using the full name of the namespace is not necessary. The controls contain a number
of attributes (such as the runat “server” attribute) that identify them as server controls.
They contain an id attribute that allows you to identify controls by name and also allows
the code on the Web servers to manipulate the controls so that the correct tags and
data are sent back to render a page correctly in the browser.
A control’s attributes are known as properties. You can alter the behavior and appearance
of a control by modifying its properties in the Tag Properties task pane or in Code view
(in which case, SharePoint Designer provides Microsoft IntelliSense to help you).
In this exercise, you insert controls using the ribbon and set control properties in the Tag
Properties task pane.
SET UP Using SharePoint Designer, open the team site you created and modified in
earlier chapters. If you did not yet create a team site, follow the steps in Chapter 1.
1. In the Navigation pane, click Site Pages. On the Site Pages tab, click Page in the
New group, and then click ASPX.
Page
A file named Untitled 1.aspx is displayed in the Site Pages gallery page.
2. Select Untitled 1, type ASPControls, and then press Enter.
A Windows dialog box is displayed, stating that the file is being renamed.
3. On the Pages tab, click the Edit File down arrow in the Edit group, and then click
Edit File in Advanced Mode.
Edi Fi e
Sp i
4. On the View tab, click Split in the Page Views group.
The workspace divides horizontally and displays Code view in the upper pane and
Design view in the lower pane. Code view reveals an @Page directive that sets the
language for the page and one <form> element containing a runat attribute with a
value of server.
5. On the Insert tab, click ASP.NET in the Controls group, and then under Standard,
click Label.
ASP.NET
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462 Chapter 14 Using Controls in Web Pages
SharePoint Designer adds the Label control inside the <form> element. The
<asp:label#Label1> tag is active on the Quick Tag Selector at the bottom of the
workspace.
6. On the View tab, click the Task Panes down arrow in the Workspace group, and
then click Tag Properties.
Task Panes
The Tag Properties task pane opens.
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Working with the Ribbon and Tag Properties Task Pane 463
7. In the Misc section of the Tag Properties task pane, click the cell to the right of ID,
and type lblWelcome. Press Enter.
In the Design portion of the workspace, the tag control is named
asp:label#lblWelcome, where lblWelcome is the ID of the ASP.NET label control. This
tag is active on the Quick Tag Selector. In the Code view portion of the window, the
ID of the label control is set to lblWelcome.
8. In the Appearance section of the Tag Properties task pane, click the cell to the
right of Text, type Welcome to the Wide World Importers Web site, and then press
ENTER .
In Code view, the Text attribute is set to Welcome to the Wild World Importers Web
site, and in Design view, the text appears within the asp:label control.
9. In the workspace, place the insertion point to the right of the word site. On the
Insert tab, click HTML in the Controls group, and then under Tags, click Break to
insert a line break.
10. On the View tab, click Design in the Page Views group, and then on the Quick
Design
Access Toolbar, click Save.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next
exercise.
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464 Chapter 14 Using Controls in Web Pages
Using a Standard ASP.NET Server Control
Although you can use HTML controls on all types of Web pages, the real power comes
when you use ASP.NET server controls. ASP.NET server controls appear as ASP.NET options in the Controls group on the Insert tab and in the Toolbox task pane in the following
groups:
● Standard Contains a standard set of controls, such as buttons, check boxes, drop-
down lists, image maps, and calendar and wizard controls.
● Data Contains two types of controls: view controls and data source controls.
❍ View controls allow you to view the content from data sources in sophisti-
cated grids and lists, very similar to XSLT List View Web Parts (XLVs) and Data
Views.
❍ Data source controls allow you to define a data source.
Before you use a view control, you must insert a data source control on the page.
You then bind the data source control to the view control. You can create a data
source control from a data source in the Data Sources library or use one of the data
source controls in the Data group.
● Validation Controls that allow you to validate data entered in a Web form.
● Navigation The Menu, SiteMapPath, and TreeView controls in this group allow you
to navigate between pages in a Web site.
● Login Controls that support form authentication and allow you to create a mem-
bership system.
In this exercise, you add one of the standard ASP.NET controls, the AdRotator control,
to a Web page. The AdRotator control displays a sequence of images chosen randomly
from a set of images specified in an XML file known as the advertisement file.
SET UP Use the site you modified in the previous exercise. Copy the practice files
in the Chapter14 practice file folder—ADRotator.xml, LucernePublishing.png,
WideWorldImporter.png, and ConsolidatedMessenger.png—to the Site Assets library.
Open the Toolbox and Tag Properties task panes and the ASPControls.aspx page in
the workspace.
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Using a Standard ASP.NET Server Control 465
1. In the Navigation pane, click Site Assets. Click the icon to the left of AdRotator.
xml, and then on the Assets tab, click Edit File in the Edit group.
Edi Fi e
The AdRotator.xml file opens in the workspace, displaying the XML data needed by
the AdRotator ASP.NET control.
2. Click the Close button, and then click the ASPControls.aspx page tab if the page
C ose
is not the active file in the workspace.
3. In the workspace, click the line of text under Welcome to the Wide World
Importers Web site.
4. Select the Insert tab on the ribbon, click ASP.NET in the Controls group, and then
under Standard, click AdRotator.
ASP.NET
The AdRotator control is added to the page inside the <form> tags. The On Object
User Interface (OOUI), which is represented by a small arrow, floats just outside the
control, and the Common AdRotator Tasks panel appears.
Note ASP.NET controls must be placed inside a form. SharePoint Designer will
automatically insert ASP.NET controls within <form> tags.
5. In the Tag Properties task pane, scroll to the Behavior section, and click the plus
E ipsis
sign (+) to expand it if necessary. Click the cell to the right of AdvertisementFile,
and then click the ellipsis button.
6. In the Select XML File dialog box, within your team site, navigate to the Site
Assets library, click AdRotator.xml, and then click Open.
Note If the Select XML File dialog box does not automatically open showing the
contents of your team site, under Microsoft SharePoint Designer, click your team site.
7. In the Tag Properties task pane, click the cell to the right of AlternateTextField,
and type Welcome Advertisements.
8. In the Tag Properties task pane, click the cell to the right of KeywordFilter, type
Shipping, and then press Enter.
Only advertisement images associated with that keyword are displayed.
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9. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Save, and then press the F12 key to preview
Save
ASPControls.aspx in your default browser.
10. Click the Refresh button several times to see the advertisement image change
from Consolidated Messenger to Wide World Importers.
Refresh
The third image specified in AdRotator.xml is not associated with the keyword
shipping and should not appear.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next
exercise. Close any open pages and browser windows.
Validating User Data Entry
You can validate the data that users type into controls by using a validation control. The
input controls can be HTML input tags or standard ASP.NET controls.
In this exercise, you create a data entry form and use the RequiredFieldValidator control
to identify to the user that input is mandatory.
SET UP Use the site you modified in the previous exercise.
1. On the Navigation pane, click Site Pages. On the Pages tab, click Page in the
New group, and then click ASPX.
Page
A file named Untitled 1.aspx is displayed in the Site Pages gallery page.
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Validating User Data Entry 467
2. On the Pages tab, click Edit File, and then click Edit File in Advanced Mode.
A Microsoft SharePoint Designer dialog box opens.
Edi Fi e
3. Click Yes to open the new page in advanced edit mode.
4. On the Insert tab, click the New Item Form down arrow in the Data Views &
Forms group, and then under XML Files, click ADRotator.xml.
New em Form
A DataFormWebPart control is added to the new page, and the Data Source Details
task pane opens.
5. Click the box to the right of ImageUrl, and then click the arrow (OOUI) that
appears.
The Common TextBox Tasks panel opens, showing that the text box is bound to the
ImageUrl data field and that the Data View XSLT will format the field as a text box.
Similarly, all the text boxes on this page are bound to elements within the XML file.
The tag name of the ImageUrl text box is <asp:textbox#ff1 new>, which means
that the ID of this control must be set to ff1 new.
Warning If you change the IDs of these ASP.NET controls, the data bindings to the
XML fields in the AdRotator.xml file will be lost, and your new form will not function
correctly.
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468 Chapter 14 Using Controls in Web Pages
6. On the Insert tab, click ASP.NET in the Controls group, and then under
Validation, click RequiredFieldValidator.
ASP.NET
The RequiredFieldValidator control appears to the right of the ImageUrl text box.
7. In the Tag Properties task pane, under Appearance, type Enter the URL of an
Advertisement image in the cell to the right of ErrorMessage.
Note If the Tag Properties task pane is not open, select the View tab on the ribbon,
click the Task Panes down arrow in the Workspace group, and then click Tag Properties.
8. In the Tag Properties task pane, under Behavior, click the cell to the right of
ControlToValidate, click the arrow that appears, and then click ff1 new.
CLEAN UP Save Untitled 1.aspx. Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are
continuing to the next exercise. Close any open browser windows.
Using ASP.NET Validation Controls
ASP.NET includes six validation controls that solve the common validation scenarios encountered in many Web development projects:
● CompareValidator Compares the data entered in one field with the data entered
in another field to see whether the data matches.
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Using ASP.NET Validation Controls 469
● CustomValidator Allows you to write your own validation code. This code could be
server-side code or client-side code, such as code written in JavaScript or Microsoft
Visual Basic Scripting Edition (VBScript). If server-side code is required, you need to
involve a developer.
● RangeValidator Ensures that the value entered by a user falls within a certain
range.
● RegularExpressionValidator Validates the data against a specific pattern.
● RequiredFieldValidator Checks that a user enters data in a field.
● ValidationSummary Displays a summary of validation errors for a page.
These server-side controls can be configured by using the EnableClientScript property
to complete the validation process on either the client or the server. The controls generating JavaScript are run on a user’s computer when the user browses to the page. The
ASP.NET controls link to a JavaScript file, WebUIValidation.js, which is sent down to the
browser when the user requests the page. By supporting client-side validation, there is
no round trip to the server to validate the user’s input: As the user tabs between input
fields, the error message is displayed. After the page is validated, it is posted back to the
server, where the validation process is repeated to guard against a security breach at the
network level.
Tip SharePoint includes validation controls based on these ASP.NET controls. They are not
visible either on the ribbon or on the Toolbox task pane, but you can use them by editing
the page in Code view. More information can be found at karinebosch.wordpress.com/
sharepoint-controls/sharepoint-validation-controls/.
In this exercise, you create a data entry form and use the validation controls to verify
data input. You then configure the validation controls to associate them with input controls and to define error messages.
SET UP Use the site you modified in the previous exercise. Open the page Untitled 1.
aspx that you created in the previous exercise.
1. On the View tab, click the Task Panes down arrow in the Workspace group, and
then click Toolbox.
The Toolbox task pane opens.
2. In the workspace, click the text box to the right of NavigateUrl.
The tag <asp:textbox#ff2 new> appears above the text box.
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470 Chapter 14 Using Controls in Web Pages
3. In the Toolbox task pane, under Validation, double-click RequiredFieldValidator,
and then double-click RegularExpressionValidator.
The two ASP.NET validation controls appear to the right of the NavigateUrl text
box.
4. To the right of the NavigateUrl text box, click RequiredFieldValidator. In the
Toolbox task pane, click the Tag Properties tab to bring the Tag Properties task
pane to the front. Under Behavior, click the cell to the right of ControlToValidate,
click the arrow that appears, and then click ff2 new.
5. To the right of the NavigateUrl text box, click RegularExpressionValidator
to show the control’s properties in the Tag Properties task pane. In the Tag
Properties task pane, under Appearance, in the cell to the right of ErrorMessage,
type Enter the valid URL for the Advertiser’s Web site.
6. Under Behavior, click the cell to the right of ControlToValidate, click the arrow
that appears, and then click ff2 new.
7. Under Behavior, click the cell to the right of ValidationExpression, and then click
E ipsis
the ellipsis button that appears. In the Regular Expression Editor dialog box, under Standard expressions, click Internet URL.
A regular expression appears in the Validation Expression text box.
Tip If the standard expressions do not meet your needs, you can enter a custom regular
expression, such as for U.S. phone numbers, as described at msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/
library/ms998267.aspx and blog.shkedy.com/2007/01/improving-on-aspnet-regularexpression.html.
8. Click OK to close the Regular Expression Editor dialog box.
9. In the workspace, click the text box to the right of Impressions.
The tag <asp:textbox#ff5 new> appears above the text box.
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Using ASP.NET Validation Controls 471
10. In the Toolbox task pane, double-click RangeValidator.
The ASP.NET validation control appears to the right of the Impressions text box.
11. Click RangeValidator to show the control’s properties in the Tag Properties task
pane. In the Tag Properties task pane, under Appearance, in the cell to the right
of ErrorMessage, type Enter a value from 1 to 100 that represents how likely it is
that this advertisement logo will display in relation to other ads.
12. Under Behavior, in the ControlToValidate list, click ff5 new. Enter 100 in the
MaximumValue cell, enter 1 in the MinimumValue cell, and then select Integer
from the Type list.
13. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Save. In the Navigation pane, under Site
Save
Pages, right-click Untitled 1.aspx, click Rename, type NewAd.aspx, and then
press Enter.
14. Press F12 to preview NewAd.aspx in the browser.
15. In the NavigateUrl text box, type www.nosite, and then click TAB.
The insertion point moves to the Keyword text box, and the message Enter the
valid URL for the Advertiser’s Web site appears.
16. In the Impressions text box, type none, and then click Save.
Two other error messages appear.
Tip The space to the left of the Enter the valid URL error message is for the error
message associated with the NavigateUrl RequiredFieldValidator control. You can hide
the space by setting the Display property of the RequiredFieldValidator control to
Dynamic.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next
exercise. Close any open pages and browser windows.
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472 Chapter 14 Using Controls in Web Pages
Using SharePoint Data View Controls
The Toolbox task pane categorizes SharePoint controls in four groups: Data View, Server
Controls, Page Fields, and Content Fields. The first two control groups can also be chosen from the SharePoint button in the Controls group on the Insert tab and require only
SharePoint Foundation or SharePoint Server. The other two control groups list controls
only if you have a SharePoint Server publishing page layout page open. In this chapter,
you will use the Data View controls and server controls.
See Also For information about Page Field and Content Field controls, see Chapter 13,
“Managing Web Content in the SharePoint Server Environment.” SharePoint controls and
their properties are described in the SharePoint Foundation and SharePoint Server Software
Development Kits.
By using SharePoint Data View controls, you can expose data from one of the data
sources you have defined. One of the best methods of data entry validation is to allow
users to choose from a set of options. In lists and libraries, when one list contains data
that you want to use in another list, you can use a lookup column. For data that is not
stored in lists or libraries, the Data View controls enable you to bind to one data source
and expose the data using check boxes, radio buttons, or drop-down lists from which
the user can choose. The selected input is then used in a different data source.
In this exercise, you insert a Data View control so that a user can choose data from one
data source as input to another data source.
SET UP Use the site you modified in the previous exercise. Open the NewAd.aspx
page in the workspace.
1. In the workspace, click the text box to the right of ImageUrl, and then press
Delete. Click Enter the URL of an Advertisement image, and then press Delete.
The td.ms-vb HTML cell should now be empty.
2. On the Insert tab, click Data Source in the Controls group, and then click Site
Assets.
Da a Source
A SPDataSource control appears to the right of ImageUrl.
Tip If the SPDataSource control is not visible on the page, click the View tab on the
ribbon, click Visual Aids, and then click ASP.NET Non-Visual Controls.
3. Click the SPDataSource control to show the control’s properties in the Tag
Properties task pane.
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Using SharePoint Data View Controls 473
Note If the Tag Properties task pane is not open, click the View tab on the ribbon, click
the Task Panes down arrow in the Workspace group, and then click Tag Properties.
4. In the Tag Properties task pane, under Misc, click the cell to the right of ID, type
SPSiteAssets, and then press ENTER.
The tag above the SPDataSource control changes to <SharePoint:SPDataSource#SP
SiteAssets>.
5. On the Insert tab, click SharePoint in the Controls group, and then click Data
View DropDownList.
In the workspace, a drop-down list control appears on the page, displaying the
OOUI, the Common DVDropDownList Tasks panel, and the tag name <sharepoint:d
vdropdownlist#DVDropDownList1> above it. The text Unbound appears within the
control.
6. In the Common DVDropDownList Tasks panel, click Data Fields.
The Change Data Bindings dialog box opens. In the Select A Data Source list,
SPSiteAssets is already selected because the page has only one data source control.
7. In the Select a data field to save values to list, click ImageUrl. In the Select a
data field for the display text list, click Title. In the Select a data field for the
value list, click URL Path.
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474 Chapter 14 Using Controls in Web Pages
8. In the Change Data Bindings dialog box, click OK.
The sharepoint:dvdropdownlist#DVDropDownList1 control contains the word
Databound.
9. Right-click the Save button, and then click Form Actions.
The Form Actions dialog box opens.
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Testing an ASP.NET Form 475
10. Under Actions List, select Navigate to page, and then click Add.
The Navigate To Page action is moved under Current Actions (Run In Order Shown).
11. With Navigate to page selected, click Settings.
The Form Actions Settings dialog box opens.
12. Click Browse, and in the Edit Hyperlink dialog box, click default.aspx. Click OK
to close the Edit Hyperlink dialog box, and then click OK twice to close the Form
Action Settings and Form Actions dialog boxes.
Save
13. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click Save.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next exercise.
Testing an ASP.NET Form
After you create your ASP.NET form and before you allow other users to enter data using
the form, you should test that it meets your business needs.
In this exercise, you test the form you created in the previous exercises.
SET UP Open SharePoint Designer if it is not already open. Open the site you
modified in the previous exercise.
1. In the Navigation pane, click Site Assets. Click the icon to the left of
Adminis ra ion
Web Page
ConsolidatedMessenger.png, and then on the Assets tab, click Administration
Web Page in the Manage group.
The Item view of the file is opened in the browser.
2. On the View tab, click Edit Item in the Manage group.
The Edit Item form opens.
3. In the Title box, type Consolidated Messenger logo, and then click Save.
The All Items view of the Site Assets library is displayed.
4. Edit the properties of the image files LucernePublishing and WideWorldImports,
and set their Title properties to Lucerne Publishing logo and Wide World
Importers logo, respectively.
5. In the Quick Launch bar, click Site Pages to display the All Pages view, and then
click NewAd.aspx to open the page in the browser.
6. In the ImageUrl list, click Wide World Importers logo.
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476 Chapter 14 Using Controls in Web Pages
7. Press TAB to move to the NavigateUrl text box, and type http://intranet.
wideworldimporters.com.
8. Click TAB three times to move to the Impressions text box, and type 30.
9. Click Save.
The page refreshes and displays the home page of your site.
10. In SharePoint Designer, in the Navigation pane, click Site Assets.
The Site Assets gallery page is displayed.
11. Click the icon to the left of AdRotator.xml, and then click Edit File in the Edit
group to display the file in the workspace.
The last Ad element in the file should contain the URL for the image file
WideWorldImporters.png, the Wide World Importers portal URL, and an
Impressions value of 30.
CLEAN UP Leave SharePoint Designer open if you are continuing to the next
exercise. Turn ASP.NET Non-Visual Controls off, and close any open pages and
browser windows.
Using SharePoint Server Controls
All controls prefixed with SharePoint or WebPartPages are part of the SharePoint framework and can be found on the Web server in the assembly Microsoft.SharePoint.dll. All
SharePoint pages contain SharePoint Server controls, some of which are shown in the
SharePoint option in the Controls group on the Insert tab and in the Toolbox task pane
as follows:
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Using SharePoint Server Controls 477
● CssLink Links to CSS files. By default, this control is placed on master pages and is
linked to a file stored on each Web server so that all pages associated with a master
page have the same look and feel. When the control is used with no file specified, it
defaults to corev4.css.
● Theme Adds a reference to the site’s current theme CSS file, if one is configured.
● ScriptLink Links to JavaScript files. This control is placed on master pages and is
linked to a file (core.js) stored on the Web server so that all pages associated with a
master page have access to the same set of JavaScript functions.
● AspMenu An ASP.NET navigation control to display sites and pages within a site
collection. By default, the control is placed on master pages so that all pages associated with the master page share the same navigation.
● RSSLink On lists and libraries that are enabled as RSS feeds, this control exposes
the URL that RSS aggregators can use to view list items.
● SPCalendarNavigation On list views, displays a calendar control that is used to
navigate to specific list items. You can find examples of pages with this control in
the All Items views of the Announcements and Calendar lists.
In this exercise, you review the SharePoint controls in the Toolbox task pane and investigate their use on pages within a site.
SET UP Use the site you modified in the previous exercise. Open the NewAd.aspx
page in the workspace.
1. On the View tab, click Task Panes in the Workspace group, and then click
Toolbox.
The Toolbox task pane opens.
2. Scroll down to SharePoint Controls, expand it if necessary, and under Server
Controls (SharePoint), point to CSSLink.
The ScreenTip that appears references the SharePoint namespace, Microsoft.
SharePoint.WebControl.CssLink, in which the code-behind logic for this control can
be found.
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478 Chapter 14 Using Controls in Web Pages
Note The controls visible on the Toolbox task pane will be different if your site was
created on a Microsoft SharePoint Foundation installation.
3. In the Toolbox task pane, expand the Page Fields and Content Fields control
groups.
No controls are displayed in these two groups.
4. On the workspace status bar, click Split, and then in the Navigation pane, click
Sp i
Master Pages.
The Master Page gallery opens.
5. Click the icon to the left of v4.master, and on the Master Pages tab, click Edit File
in the Edit group.
Edi Fi e
The page opens in the workspace. In the <head> tag are a number of SharePoint
controls, such as CssLink, Theme, ScriptLink, and CustomJSUrl.
6. Click the NewAd.aspx page tab to display the page, and in the Code view portion
of the workspace, scroll to the top of the page.
Immediately after the opening <form> tag is a WebPartPages:DataFormWebPart
control.
7. On the Style tab, click Attach in the Master Page group, and under Default
Master Page, click v4.master.
A ach
The Match Content Regions dialog box opens.
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Key Points 479
8. Click OK to close the Match Content Regions dialog box.
The NewAd.aspx page is redisplayed in the Design view portion of the workspace
and has the same look and feel and navigation as other pages on the site. In the
Code view portion of the workspace, there are no <head>, <body>, or <form> tags
because these are now provided by the master page.
9. In the Code view portion of NewAd.aspx, scroll to the top of the page so that you
see the @Page directive, and then scroll to the right until you see the masterpagefile attribute on the first line of the page.
CLEAN UP Close any open browser windows and exit SharePoint Designer.
Key Points
● With ASP.NET, you can separate user interface declarations from application logic.
● Application logic is precompiled into DLLs that reside on the Web servers.
● There are four groups of controls: HTML controls, ASP.NET controls, SharePoint
controls, and data source controls.
● Controls are similar to Web Parts. You place them on a Web page and customize
their properties to meet your needs.
● ASP.NET Data controls allow you to define data sources and view the contents of
data sources. View controls must be bound to a data source.
● ASP.NET validation controls use JavaScript by default to validate data entry on the
client, thereby reducing network traffic when an input form is processed. They can
be configured so that only server-side logic is used to validate data entry.
● SharePoint Data View controls expose data as check boxes, radio buttons, or drop-
down lists from which the user can choose. Data View controls are inserted into a
Data View Web Part and must be bound to a data source.
● All built-in SharePoint pages contain SharePoint Server controls.
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ASharePoint Designer
Workflow Conditions
and Actions
SharePoint Designer 2010 includes workflow conditions and workflow actions. Actions
occur as part of a workflow step and are associated with a condition. The actions and
conditions listed in this appendix are those you see if you are working on sites in a
SharePoint Server 2010 installation. For sites created with SharePoint Foundation 2010,
you see only a subset of these actions.
Conditions
A condition is a filter that can be used to determine which actions run. The following
table provides an overview of the default conditions you can use in SharePoint Designer.
Although actions are divided into a number of groups, there are only two relatively small
groups of conditions. Table A-1 provides an overview of the default conditions you can
use in SharePoint Designer.
Table A-1 Conditions
Condition Group
Description
Common Conditions
If Any Value Equals Value*
Creates a filter that lets you compare two values from any
data source. This condition replaces the Compare Any Data
Source condition available in SharePoint 2007.
If Current Item Field Equals
Value*
Creates a filter that lets you compare the current item’s
field value with a value from any data source. This condition
replaces the Compare [List or Library] Field condition available in SharePoint 2007.
481
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482 Appendix A SharePoint Designer Workflow Conditions and Actions
Other Conditions
Created By a Specific Person
Creates a filter that lets you specify the user who created
the list item.
Created in a Specific Date Span Creates a filter that lets you specify the start and end dates
between which the list item must be created. These dates
can also be lookup values that are retrieved from a data
source such as another list on the same SharePoint site or
from a previously created workflow variable.
If Task Outcome Equals Value** Allows you to undertake actions based on the number or
percentage of task approvals and rejections. The value in
this condition can also be a lookup value that is retrieved
from a data source such as another list on the same
SharePoint site or from a previously created workflow
variable.
Modified by a Specific Person
Creates a filter that lets you specify the user who last modified the list item.
Modified in a Specific Date
Span
Creates a filter that lets you specify the start and end dates
between which the list item must be modified. These dates
can also be lookup values that are retrieved from a data
source such as another list on the same SharePoint site or
from a previously created workflow variable.
Person Is a Valid SharePoint
User*
Creates a filter that lets you check whether or not the user is
anonymous.
The File Size in a Specific
Range Kilobytes
Creates a filter that lets you specify the minimum and
maximum file size of a list item. These file sizes can also be
lookup values that are retrieved from a data source such
as another list on the same SharePoint site or from a previously created workflow variable. This condition is available
only for libraries.
The File Type Is a Specific Type Creates a filter that lets you specify the file type of the
list item. This value can also be a lookup value that is retrieved from a data source such as another list on the same
SharePoint site or from a previously created workflow variable. This condition is available only for libraries.
Title Field Contains Keywords
Creates a filter that lets you specify a value for the Title column of the list or library the workflow is attached to.
* New n SharePo nt 2010.
** New n SharePo nt 2010 and ava ab e on y w th n Approva workflow tasks by spec fy ng the behav or of a s ng e task.
See Append x B, “Creat ng a New Approva Process,” for more nformat on.
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Core Actions 483
Core Actions
The core actions are 11 common activities that you use in many of your workflows. They
allow you to manipulate dates and times, to build a form to collect information from
users, and to write information to the history list. The default core actions are listed in
Table A-2.
Table A-2 Core Actions
Action
Description
Add a Comment*
Allows you to write a string value as an informative comment. This
value can also be a lookup value that is retrieved from a data source
such as another list on the same SharePoint site or from a previously
created workflow variable (defined by you). Comments can be viewed
in Microsoft Visio Premium 2010.
Every well-designed workflow should provide a generous number of
comments and logging information. This facilitates the maintenance
of custom workflows.
Add Time to Date
Allows you to add or subtract minutes, hours, days, months, or years
in a date value. The date is commonly a lookup value that is retrieved
from a data source such as another list on the same SharePoint site or
from a previously created workflow variable.
The output of this action can be saved to a new or existing workflow
variable. This allows you to reuse the outcome at a later stage of the
workflow’s life cycle.
Do Calculation
Allows you to add, subtract, multiply, divide, or calculate the modulus
of two numeric values. These values can also be lookup values that
are retrieved from a data source such as another list on the same
SharePoint site or from a previously created workflow variable.
The output of this action can be saved to a new or existing workflow
variable.
Log to History List
Allows you to write a string value to the workflow history list. This value can be a lookup value that is retrieved from a data source such as
another list on the same SharePoint site or from a previously created
workflow variable. Use this action to write a summary of the workflow
or information concerning a significant event or for troubleshooting
purposes.
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484 Appendix A SharePoint Designer Workflow Conditions and Actions
Pause for Duration
Allows you to specify in days, hours, and minutes the amount of time
you want to pause the execution of the workflow. These time values
can also be lookup values that are retrieved from a data source such
as another list on the same SharePoint site or from a previously created workflow variable.
Pause Until Date
Allows you to pause the execution of the workflow and specify the
date when the workflow needs to be continued. This date can also be
a lookup value that is retrieved from a data source such as another
list on the same SharePoint site or from a previously created workflow
variable.
Send an Email
Allows you to create an e-mail message containing string values, lookup values, formulas, and workflow variables. The action also allows
you to specify the To, CC, and Subject fields of the e-mail message.
Send Document to
Repository**
Allows you to copy, move, or move and leave a link referring to a
document in a record repository.
Set Time Portion of
Date/Time Field
Allows you to set a specific time in hours and minutes and add this to
a date. This date can also be a lookup value that is retrieved from a
data source such as another list on the same SharePoint site or from a
previously created workflow variable. The output of this action can be
saved to a new or existing workflow variable.
Set Workflow
Status*
Allows you to set a custom workflow status to a value other than In
Progress or Complete. The addition of this action might seem like only
a minor enhancement of the workflow framework, but this action is
extremely valuable because your customers probably don t think in
terms of In Progress and Complete, and you will find that you use this
action many times when you create workflows.
Set Workflow
Variable
Allows you to set the value of a new or existing workflow variable. This
value can also be a lookup value that is retrieved from a data source
such as another list on the same SharePoint site or from a previously
created workflow variable.
Stop Workflow
Allows you to stop the workflow. Also allows you to write a string
value to the workflow history list that is retrieved from a data source
such as another list on the same SharePoint site or from a previously
created workflow variable.
* New n SharePo nt 2010.
** New n SharePo nt 2010 and ava ab e on y on document brar es.
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Document Set Actions 485
Document Set Actions
The actions listed in the Document Set category are completely new. They work on sites
created on SharePoint Server 2010, which introduced the concept of document sets.
Document sets are groups of documents that have a specific meaning as a group and
share a specific life cycle. For instance, all documents related to a certain legal matter can be grouped as a document set. You will not find these actions on a SharePoint
Foundation installation. The default document set actions are listed in Table A-3.
Table A-3 Document Set Actions
Action
Description
Capture a Version of the
Document Set*
Allows you to capture the last major or the latest minor version of a document set.
Send Document Set to
Repository*
Allows you to copy, move, or move and leave a link referring
to a document set in a repository. The output of this action
can be saved to a new or existing workflow variable.
Set Content Approval Status
for the Document Set*
Allows you to set the current status of the document set. You
can also add comments to the document set in the form of
a string value or a lookup value that is retrieved from a data
source such as another list on the same SharePoint site or
from a previously created workflow variable.
Start Document Set Approval Allows you to start a custom approval process for an entire
Process*
document set at once.
* New n SharePo nt 2010.
List Actions
This category contains a number of new actions as well as an extensive set of actions
you might have worked with in SharePoint Designer 2007. List actions allow you to manipulate list items, including creating, copying, and deleting list items. These actions can
be applied to documents within libraries as well as to list items because libraries are just
special lists. This group also includes specific document-related actions, such as undoing
a check out. The default list actions are shown in Table A-4.
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486 Appendix A SharePoint Designer Workflow Conditions and Actions
Table A-4 List Actions
Action
Description
Add List Item Permissions** Allows you to grant additional list item permissions to a selection of SharePoint users.
Check In Item
Allows you to check in the current item or specify a column
name and value that indicate the item that must be checked in.
This action requires you to specify a check-in comment that is
either a string value or a lookup value that is retrieved from a
data source such as another list on the same SharePoint site or
from a previously created workflow variable. This action can be
used only with libraries.
Check Out Item
Complements the Check In Item action. This action allows you
to check out the current item or specify a column name and
value that indicate which item must be checked out.
Copy List Item
Allows you to copy an existing list item to another list on the
SharePoint site. The list item can be the current list item or you
can select a column and value to indicate which list item you
want to copy. There must be at least one column that is common to both lists.
Create List Item
Allows you to create a new list item in a list on the SharePoint
site. You can choose any list you want, but you must specify
values for all required fields. These values can also be lookup
values that are retrieved from a data source such as another list
on the same SharePoint site or from a previously created workflow variable.
The list item ID of this action can be saved to a new or existing
workflow variable.
Declare Record*
Allows you to declare an item as a record for records management. SharePoint records management functionality allows
organizations, using some advanced tools, to manage records
from the time the records are created up to their eventual disposal. Usually, records are managed to adhere to specific compliance regulations.
Delete Drafts*
Allows you to delete a draft version of an item. Major and minor versioning need to be enabled to use this action.
Delete Item
Allows you to delete the current item or specify a column name
and value that indicate which item must be deleted.
Delete Previous Versions
Allows you to delete all but the current version of an item.
Versioning needs to be enabled to use this action.
Discard Check Out Item
Allows you to discard the check out of the current item or
specify a column name and value that indicate for which item
the check out must be discarded.
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List Actions 487
Inherit List Item Parent
Permissions**
Allows you to specify a list item from which the current list item
will inherit permissions. Please note that you cannot use this
action to inherit from list permissions. If you want a list item
to inherit list permissions, you should not use a workflow action; you can configure this via the SharePoint list management
pages instead.
Remove List Item
Permissions**
Allows you to select the list item permissions that will be removed from the current set of permissions for a selection of
SharePoint users.
Replace List Item
Permissions**
Allows you to select a set of list item permissions that will
replace the current permission settings for a selection of
SharePoint users.
Set Content Approval
Status*
Allows you to set the current status of the list item. You can
also add comments in the form of a string value or a lookup
value that is retrieved from a data source such as another list
on the same SharePoint site or from a previously created workflow variable.
Set Field in Current Item
Allows you to specify the value of a selected column of a list
item. This value can also be a lookup value that is retrieved
from a data source such as another list on the same SharePoint
site or from a previously created workflow variable.
Undeclare Record*
Complements the Declare Record action. This action allows you
to roll back the declaration of an item as a record for record
management.
Update List Item
Allows you to update a list item in a list on the SharePoint site.
You can choose any list you want and specify the values for the
required fields. This value can also be a lookup value that is
retrieved from a data source such as another list on the same
SharePoint site or from a previously created workflow variable.
Wait for Change in
Document Check-Out
Status*
Allows you to pause the execution of the workflow until the
current document check-out status is changed.
Wait for Field Change in
Current Item
Allows you to pause the execution of the workflow until the
value of a column in the list or library the workflow is attached to is equal or not equal to the value specified in this
action. This specified value can also be a lookup value that is
retrieved from a data source such as another list on the same
SharePoint site or from a previously created workflow variable.
In SharePoint Designer 2007, this action was listed in the Core
Actions category.
* New n SharePo nt Des gner 2010.
** New n SharePo nt 2010 and ava ab e on y w th n an mpersonat on operat on.
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488 Appendix A SharePoint Designer Workflow Conditions and Actions
Relational Actions
A new category that is available on SharePoint Server 2010 installations. This group contains a single action that helps gather information about the social surroundings of a
SharePoint user. The default relational action is listed in Table A-5.
Table A-5 Relational Action
Action
Description
Lookup Manager of a User*
Allows you to look at a SharePoint user s profile and return
the user s manager specified in the profile. The output of this
action can be saved to a new or existing workflow variable.
* New n SharePo nt 2010.
Task Actions
The task actions manipulate task items. The default task actions are listed in Table A-6.
Table A-6 Task Actions
Action
Description
Assign a Form to a Group
Allows you to build a custom survey to collect information from
one or more users. The workflow is paused until all users have
completed the survey.
Assign a To-do Item
Allows you to assign a to-do item in the tasks list to one or
more users. The workflow is paused until all users have completed the to-do item.
Collect Data from a User
Allows you to create and assign a task to a specified user or
group. This task can contain custom form fields. The output of
this action can be saved to a new or existing workflow variable.
Start Approval Process*
Allows you to start a custom approval process.
Start Custom Task Process* Allows you to start a custom task process.
Start Feedback Process*
Allows you to start a custom feedback process.
* New n SharePo nt 2010.
Task Behavior Actions
This is a special group of actions that are available only within approval workflows, such as
Start Approval Process and Start Feedback Process, described in Appendix B. In such workflows, you can add task actions that let you modify the behavior of the task or task process.
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Task Behavior Actions 489
When the task action is added, a new category, called Task Behavior Actions, is visible.
The task behavior actions are listed in Table A-7. Depending on the context in a workflow, only a subset may be available at any one time.
Table A-7 Task Behavior Actions
Action
Description
Append Task**
Appends a new task and assigns it to a user.
Delegate Task**
Rescinds a task assigned to the current user and then assigns the
task to a new user, which could be a single user or a group.
End Task Process*
Allows you to end the task process from within the workflow.
Escalate Task**
Allows you to assign a task to the manager of the user who is currently assigned the task.
Forward Task**
Similar to the Delegate Task. If the new user is a group, a task is
created for each member in the group.
Insert Task**
Allows you to insert a new stage where the user specified in the
action is the only participant.
Reassign Task**
Reassigns the task to another user.
Request a Change**
Allows you to request a change and assign a new task to the current user when the change is completed.
Rescind Task**
Completes the task without an outcome.
Send a Task Notification Allows you to include the Edit Task button in the e-mail message
Email**
that is sent to specific users.
Set Content Approval
Status (as author)*
Allows you to set the approval status to Approved, Rejected, or
Pending. This action runs under the identity of the workflow author. Use this action if the person who starts the workflow instance
does not have permissions to approve a document.
Set Task Field**
Allows you to set a field within a task item to a value. This value
can also be a lookup value that is retrieved from a data source
such as another list on the same SharePoint site or from a previously created workflow variable.
Wait for Change in Task Waits for any change in the item the task process is running on.
Process Item*
Wait for Deletion in Task Waits for the deletion of the item the task process is running on.
Process Item*
* New n SharePo nt 2010.
** New n SharePo nt 2010 and ava ab e on y when custom z ng the Start Approva Process.
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490 Appendix A SharePoint Designer Workflow Conditions and Actions
Utility Actions
A new category in SharePoint 2010. It is available on sites created using SharePoint
Server and SharePoint Foundation. The extract substring actions replace the SharePoint
Designer 2007 Build Dynamic String core action. The default utility actions are listed in
Table A-8.
Table A-8 Utility Actions
Action
Description
Extract Substring from End
of String*
Allows you to retrieve a part of a string, starting at the end.
Extract Substring from Index Allows you to retrieve a part of a string, starting at a specific
of String*
position.
Extract Substring from Start
of String*
Allows you to retrieve a part of a string, starting at the
­beginning.
Extract Substring of String
from Index with Length*
Allows you to retrieve a part of a string of limited length,
starting at a specific position.
Find Interval Between Dates* Allows you to find an interval consisting of minutes, hours, or
days between two dates.
* New n SharePo nt 2010.
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B Creating a New
Approval Process
Thanks to the new Start Approval Process and Start Document Set Approval Process
actions provided with Microsoft SharePoint Server 2010, you can now create your own
approval process. These two actions are similar to the Approval workflow template that
is available out of the box with SharePoint Server 2010, and they represent generic approval workflows that can be incorporated into your own custom workflow or amended
to meet your needs. Prior to using these actions, you must be familiar with how to use
the Approval workflow template in the browser. Additionally, it is important that you understand what these actions do and how you can modify them. I’ll cover these topics in
this appendix.
These actions are subworkflows—that is, workflow logic is already defined in the actions, and they use task items that are assigned to one or more users, known as task
participants. The approval task item contains the fields Status, Due Date, Requested By,
and Consolidated Comments and also a number of task buttons that depend on the
configuration of the approval action. The form Approval.xsn is automatically created as
a Microsoft InfoPath form with four views—Main, ChangeRequest, ChangeView, and
ReassignTask.
491
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See Also For more information about customizing InfoPath forms, see Chapter 9, “Using
Reusable Workflows and Workflow Forms.”
To explore these actions in SharePoint Designer, create a new workflow (for example, a list workflow), and then add either of the aforementioned actions, such as the
Start Approval Process action, to a step in the workflow, as described in Chapter 8,
“Understanding Workflows.”
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 493
The Start Approval Process action presents three links that you can use to customize
the workflow: Approval, Current Item, and These Users. The Current Item link opens the
Choose List Item dialog box, which you use to assign an object to the approval action.
No initiation form variables are created for these actions. You need to provide the information you find on the initiation form for the Approval workflow templates you use in
the browser as configuration settings on the approval actions. Use the These Users link
to open the Select Task Process Participants dialog box. The dialog box allows you to
configure task participants, assignment stages, the task title, the duration per task, and
the due date for the task process.
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494 Appendix B Creating a New Approval Process
Tip If you want to mimic the Approval workflow templates in the browser, you need to create
your own initiation form variables and pass them to the approval action.
The approval actions create a number of local variables, such as NotificationMessage,
DueDateforAllTasks, Approvers, and CancelonChange to pass information between the
different steps. These variables can then be used by subsequent conditions or actions
that you add to the workflow.
Tip You can find a list of the local variables by clicking Local Variables on the Workflow tab.
Loca Variab es
The Approval link is quite different from other workflow action and condition links you
have seen in this book. This link does not display a dialog box, but instead displays a
page—the Approval page—that details the approval subworkflow. You can use the links
on the Approval page to customize the subworkflow. The Start Feedback Process action
can be similarly configured.
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 495
● The Approval page contains the following areas: Task Information Use to specify
the name of the new approval process, which should be descriptive of the type of
approval process you are creating and meaningful to users of this workflow. The
Task Information area also allows you to specify the owner of the task process,
which can be a user or a SharePoint group. Additional information about owners is
described in the section about the Settings area of the page later in this appendix.
● Task Form Fields Use to collect information via a task form. You can add more cus-
tom data fields by clicking New in the title bar of the Task Form Fields area or by
using the Form Fields tab and clicking New Site Column in the New group. The Add
Field dialog box opens. You use this dialog box to create a site column.
Tip Before you create a site column, check whether that site column already exists. By
avoiding duplication, you prevent confusion about having a large number of similar site
columns. When you create a site column, use a meaningful name so that other users who
are creating solutions can easily identify the purpose and use of the site column.
Add Exis ing
Si e Co umn
You can also create custom data fields from an existing site column by clicking
Choose Existing Field in the title bar of the Task Form Fields area or by using the
Form Fields tab and clicking Add Existing Site Column in the New group. The Site
Columns Picker dialog box opens.
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496 Appendix B Creating a New Approval Process
Tip To activate the Form Fields tab on the ribbon, click Column Name in the Task Form
Fields area.
● Task Outcomes Use to define the various outcomes for the approval process. By
Ou come
default, the outcomes Approved and Rejected are created. Outcomes are displayed as separate buttons on the task completion form in sequence order. You can
add more outcomes by clicking New in the title bar of the Task Outcomes area or
by using the Outcomes tab and clicking Outcome in the New group. The Outcomes
tab also allows you to rename or delete an outcome or to move an outcome up or
down to change the sequence order.
Tip To activate the Outcomes tab on the ribbon, click one of the outcomes in the Task
Outcomes area.
● Settings Contains the following three options:
❍ Only Allow Task Recipients And Process Owners To Read And Edit
New Si e Co umn
Workflow Tasks Select this option if you want only the task recipients and
the process owner specified in the Task Information area to have read and
edit access to workflow tasks.
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 497
❍ Reassignment Select this option to display an extra button on the task form
that allows the task recipient to reassign the task to somebody else.
❍ Change Request Select this option to display an extra button on the task
form that allows the task recipient to change the request itself.
● Customization area Contains four links:
❍ Return To The Workflow Use this link to display the workflow editor.
❍ Change The Completion Conditions For This Task Process Select this link
to display the Completion Conditions page. This page shows the actions that
run every time a task is completed. You can add more conditions, actions, and
steps and modify the completion conditions as needed.
❍ Change The Behavior Of A Single Task Select this link to display the Task
Behaviors page. This page contains five steps that are triggered by the following events:
The On Task Assigning event triggers the Before A Task Is Assigned step. This
step is executed before individual task items are created.
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498 Appendix B Creating a New Approval Process
The On Task Pending event triggers the When A Task Is Pending step. This
step is executed after an individual task item is created. The default configuration of this step adds history items to the workflow history list and sends task
notifications via e-mail.
The On Task Expired event triggers the When A Task Expires step. This step
runs when a task item does not have a Completed status after the task’s due
date has expired. It sends an e-mail task notification to the participant(s) the
task is assigned to.
The On Task Deleted event triggers the When A Task Is Deleted step. This step
runs when a task item is deleted. Two history log items are created, noting
who deleted the task item and that the task item was automatically rejected
because it was deleted. An e-mail notification is then sent to the participant(s)
the task is assigned to.
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 499
The On Task Completed event triggers the When A Task Completes step. This
step is run every time a task is completed. It adds history workflow items and
sets a local variable, CompletionReason, if the task item was rejected and the
approval process is configured to cancel the workflow instance if a task item
is rejected.
❍ Change The Behavior Of The Overall Task Process Select this link to display
the Task Process Behaviors page. Most of the steps on this page set values
to many of the local variables, depending on the event that is triggered. This
page contains four steps that are triggered by the following events:
On Approval Started This event runs when an approval workflow instance
starts.
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500 Appendix B Creating a New Approval Process
On Approval Running This event runs before an approval workflow instance
assigns its first task item. It consists of two nested steps that run in parallel.
On Approval Canceled This event runs when a task process is canceled.
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 501
On Approval Completed This event runs when the last individual task is
completed or when the End Task Process action is run.
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CAdministrative Tasks
Using SharePoint
2010
This appendix details tasks that you might find you need to complete. Explanations of
these tasks are outside the scope of this book, but they can be found in the following
resources:
● Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010 Step by Step, by Olga Londer and Penelope
Coventry (Microsoft Press, 2011). Print ISBN: 978-0-7356-2726-0, ISBN 10:
0-7356-2726-6.
● Microsoft SharePoint 2010 Administrator’s Companion, by Bill English, Brian
Alderman, and Mark Ferraz (Microsoft Press, 2011). Print ISBN: 978-0-7356-2720-8,
ISBN 10: 0-7356-2720-7.
● Microsoft SharePoint 2010 Administrator’s Pocket Consultant, by Ben Curry
(Microsoft Press, 2010). Print ISBN: 978-0-7356-2722-2, ISBN 10: 0-7356-2722-3.
SharePoint 2010 products on Microsoft’s TechNet site, at technet.microsoft.com/en-us/
library/ee428287(office.14).aspx.
This appendix describes the following administrative tasks:
● Downloading, installing, and configuring SharePoint Foundation 2010 on a single
server with a built-in database.
● Creating a site collection.
● Enabling all site templates on a SharePoint Server site.
● Restricting the use of SharePoint Designer 2010 at the Web-application level.
● Configuring permissions on external content types.
● Configuring the external content type profile page host.
● Enabling or disabling user-defined workflows.
503
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Installing SharePoint Foundation 2010
This section details how to download, install, and configure SharePoint Foundation
2010 on a single server with a built-in database. This server can be used as a temporary
SharePoint environment. More information about server computer requirements can be
found in “Using the Practice Files” at the beginning of this book.
See Also For more information on deploying a single server with a built-in database, see
technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc288005(office.14).aspx.
Important You need to follow these steps only if you do not already have access to a
SharePoint environment.
SET UP Open your browser on the computer where you want to install SharePoint
Foundation 2010 before beginning this exercise.
1. Browse to www.microsoft.com/downloads/ and search for SharePoint
Foundation 2010.
2. In the list of results, click the most recent copy of SharePoint Foundation 2010—
that is, the download with the title Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010 with
SPx, where x is the number of the latest service pack. If no service pack has been
released, click Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010.
Tip At the time of writing, the link that points to the most recent copy of
SharePoint Foundation 2010 is www.microsoft.com/downloads/en/details.
aspx?FamilyID=49c79a8a-4612-4e7d-a0b4-3bb429b46595.
3. Click Download. Click Save, and save the file to your computer’s Desktop.
4. Double-click the file you downloaded.
5. On the Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010 start page, below Install, click
Install software prerequisites.
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Installing SharePoint Foundation 2010 505
6. On the Welcome to the Microsoft SharePoint 2010 Products Preparation Tool
page, click Next.
7. If you agree with the Microsoft Software License Terms, select the I accept the
terms of the License Agreement(s) check box, and click Next.
The prerequisites are downloaded from the Internet and installed. This step can
take some time; please be patient.
8. On the Your system needs to restart to continue. Press Finish to restart your
system page, click Finish.
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506 Appendix C Administrative Tasks Using SharePoint 2010
9. After the computer has rebooted, log on as an administrator to complete the installation of the software prerequisites, and then on the Installation Complete
page, click Finish.
10. Double-click the file that you saved on your computer’s Desktop.
11. On the Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010 start page, below Install, click
Install SharePoint Foundation. If you agree with the Microsoft Software
License Terms, select the I accept the terms of this agreement check box, and
click Continue.
12. Click Standalone to begin the installation.
Important You should use a stand-alone installation only for a developer or evaluation
SharePoint installation.
13. On the Run Configuration Wizard page, leave the Run the SharePoint Products
Configuration Wizard now check box selected, and click Close.
The SharePoint Products Configuration Wizard launches automatically.
14. On the Welcome to SharePoint Products page, click Next. In the warning box
that appears, click Yes to acknowledge that some services need to be stopped during configuration.
SharePoint Foundation is installed and configured. This step can take some time;
please be patient.
15. On the Configuration Successful page, click Finish.
The browser will open the home page of the top level of a site collection. This toplevel site is created using the Team Site template.
Troublshooting Depending on how your server is configured, you might be prompted
to log on. Enter the administrator’s user name and password.
CLEAN UP Close the browser.
Creating a Site Collection
If you have been given total control of a SharePoint environment for the purpose of
completing the exercises in this book and need to create a site collection, complete the
following steps.
SET UP Log on with sufficient rights to use the SharePoint 2010 Central
Administration Web site.
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Enabling All Site Templates on a SharePoint Server Site 507
1. On the Windows taskbar, click the Start, point to All Programs, click Microsoft
SharePoint 2010 Products, and then click SharePoint 2010 Central
Administration.
2. If the User Account Control dialog box appears, click Yes, or if prompted, type
your user name and password, and then click OK.
3. In the Application Management section, click Create site collections.
The Create Site Collection page is displayed.
Tip In the Web Application section, if the Web application in which you want to create
the site collection is not selected, click the arrow to the right of the Web application
name, and then click Change Web Application. On the Select Web Application page,
click the Web application in which you want to create the site collection.
4. In the Title and Description section, type the title and description for the site
collection.
5. In the Web Site Address section, under URL, select the path to use for your URL
(for example, an included path such as /sites/, or the root directory, /).
6. In the Template Selection section, in the Select a template list, select the template that you want to use for the top-level site in the site collection. For the
purposes of this book, choose Team Site from the Collaboration tab if you
are working with SharePoint Foundation. Choose Publishing Portal from the
Publishing tab if you are using SharePoint Server.
7. In the Primary Site Collection Administrator section, enter the user name (in the
form DOMAIN\username) for the user who will be the site collection administrator.
8. Click OK.
CLEAN UP Close the browser.
Enabling All Site Templates on a SharePoint Server Site
In a SharePoint Server environment, when you want to create a new site, you might find
that the site template you want to use in the browser is not listed on the Create page.
Troubleshooting If you want to base the new site on one of the practice solution .wsp files,
be sure you have first uploaded the file to the Solutions gallery. See “Using the Practice Files”
section at the start of the book.
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508 Appendix C Administrative Tasks Using SharePoint 2010
To make the site template visible in the site template list, complete the following
steps. These steps can be completed only on publishing sites or on sites on which the
SharePoint Server Publishing Infrastructure site-collection feature and the SharePoint
Server Publishing site feature are enabled.
SET UP In your browser, display the home page of the SharePoint site where you
want to create the new site as a subsite. You must be logged on as a member of the
Site Owners group.
1. On the Site Actions menu, click Site Settings.
The site settings page is displayed.
2. In the Look and Feel section, click Page layouts and site templates.
The Page Layout And Site Template Settings page is displayed.
3. In the Subsite Templates section, select Subsites can use any site template, and
then click OK.
The site settings page is displayed.
CLEAN UP Close the browser.
Note These steps affect the visiblity of site templates when you are using the browser. This
procedure does not restrict the site templates available when you use SharePoint Designer.
Restricting the Use of SharePoint Designer 2010 at the
Web-Application Level
SharePoint Designer 2010 is a powerful tool that you can use to create robust, businessfocused solutions that require little if any knowledge of the code that is needed to make
them work. This does not mean that SharePoint Designer should be used by everyone in
an organization. The use of SharePoint Designer can be restricted in many ways. Perhaps
the easiest is for the site owner to give users of the site only the minimum permission
rights they need to complete their tasks. However, a SharePoint server administrator can
restrict at the Web-application level what site collection administrators can and cannot
do with SharePoint Designer.
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Restricting the Use of SharePoint Designer 2010 at the Web-Application Level 509
Note The SharePoint Designer settings at the Web-application level are the same as those
available at the site-collection level, which are detailed in Chapter 1, “Exploring SharePoint
Designer.” However, when configured at the Web-application level, these settings affect all
site collection administrators, site collections, and sites within the Web application. When they
are configured at the site-collection level, they apply only to site owners and designers and
sites within that site collection.
To apply restrictions at the Web-application level, complete the following steps.
SET UP Log on with sufficient rights to use the SharePoint 2010 Central
Administration Web site.
1. On the Windows taskbar, click Start, point to All Programs, click Microsoft
SharePoint 2010 Products, and then click SharePoint 2010 Central
Administration.
2. If the User Account Control dialog box appears, click Yes. If prompted, type your
user name and password, and then click OK.
3. In the Application Management section, click Manage web applications.
The Web Applications page is displayed.
4. Click the Web application for which you want to restrict the use of SharePoint
Designer. On the ribbon, in the Manage group on the Web Applications tab, click
General Settings, and then click SharePoint Designer.
The SharePoint Designer Settings dialog box is displayed.
5. Clear or select the check boxes as needed, and then click OK.
CLEAN UP Close the browser.
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510 Appendix C Administrative Tasks Using SharePoint 2010
Configuring Permissions on External Content Types
When an external content type (ECT) is created by SharePoint Designer, by default no
permissions are configured to allow users to see the data in external lists created from
the ECT.
To set permissions on an ECT, your SharePoint server administration needs to take the
following steps on the SharePoint 2010 Central Administration Web site.
SET UP Log on with sufficient rights to use the SharePoint 2010 Central
Administration Web site.
1. On the Windows taskbar, click Start, point to All Programs, click Microsoft
SharePoint 2010 Products, and then click SharePoint 2010 Central
Administration.
2. If the User Account Control dialog box appears, click Yes, or if prompted, type
your user name and password, and then click OK.
3. In the Application Management section, click Manage service applications.
The Service Applications page is displayed.
4. Click the name of the Business Data Connectivity service for which you want to
manage permissions.
5. On the Service Application Information page, on the Edit tab, check that
External Content Types is selected in the View group, and then select the check
box to the left of the ECT for which you want to configure permissions, such as SPD
SBS Customers.
6. On the Edit tab, click Set Object Permissions in the Permissions group.
7. In the Set Object Permissions dialog box, enter the appropriate users or groups
and assign the appropriate permissions.
CLEAN UP Close the browser.
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Configuring the External Content Type Profile Page Host 511
Configuring the External Content Type Profile Page Host
The Business Data Connectivity service profile pages are used to display the details of an
instance of an ECT. In SharePoint Foundation, you must build these profile pages yourself
and place controls or Web Parts to display the data. In SharePoint Server, once the profile page hosted location is configured, you can create profile pages with one click of a
button by using the Central Administration Web site or SharePoint Designer.
To configure the profile page host use the following steps.
1. Open a browser, and go to the SharePoint 2010 Central Administration Web site.
2. Under Application Management, click Manage Service Applications.
3. On the Service Applications page, click the name of the Business Data
Connectivity service that you want to configure.
4. On the Edit tab, click Configure in the Profile Pages group.
The Configure External Content Type Profile Page Host dialog box is displayed.
5. Select the Enable Profile Page Creation option, and type the URL of the site
where the profile page will be hosted.
6. Click OK. The Configure External Content Type Profile Page Host dialog box closes.
CLEAN UP Close the browser.
Enabling or Disabling User-Defined Workflows
At the Web-application level, SharePoint server administrators can control the ability of users to use, create, modify, and publish SharePoint 2010 declarative workflows,
such as those created using SharePoint Designer and some of the out-of-the-box workflows, such as Collect Feedback—SharePoint 2010, Approval—SharePoint 2010, Collect
Signatures—SharePoint 2010, and Publishing Approval. By default, user-defined workflows are enabled whenever a Web application is created.
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512 Appendix C Administrative Tasks Using SharePoint 2010
Tip The Disposition Approval, Three-State, Schedule Web Analytics Alert, and Schedule Web
Analytics Reports workflow templates are not user-defined workflows. When user-defined
workflows are disabled at the Web-application level, you can still create, modify, and use
workflows that have been created from these workflow templates.
When you disable user-defined workflows and then try to create a workflow in
SharePoint Designer, a dialog box opens explaining that user-defined workflows have
been disabled by the SharePoint administrator, and you will not be able to create any
new workflows.
When user-defined workflows are disabled, existing user-defined workflows are not deleted. You can modify existing user-defined workflows and save them. However, when
you try to publish a modified workflow, a Workflow Error dialog box appears, stating
that the workflow files were saved but cannot be run.
To enable or disable user-defined workflows, complete the following steps.
SET UP Log on with sufficient rights to use the SharePoint 2010 Central
Administration Web site.
1. On the Windows taskbar, click Start, point to All Programs, click Microsoft
SharePoint 2010 Products, and then click SharePoint 2010 Central
Administration.
2. If the User Account Control dialog box appears, click Yes, or if prompted, type
your user name and password, and then click OK.
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Enabling or Disabling User-Defined Workflows 513
3. In the Application Management section, click Manage web applications.
The Web Applications page is displayed.
4. Click the Web application for which you want to restrict the use of SharePoint
Designer. On the ribbon, in the Manage group, click General Settings, and then
click Workflow.
The Workflow Settings dialog box is displayed.
5. In the User-Defined Workflows section, select the Yes or No option as needed, and
then click OK.
CLEAN UP Close the browser.
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Glossary
association A relationship between two external
content types (ECTs).
BCS See Business Connectivity Services (BCS).
BDC See Business Data Connectivity (BDC).
breadcrumb A sequence of links that allows users to navigate or keep track of their location.
See global navigation breadcrumb and local
breadcrumb.
Business Connectivity Services (BCS) Enables
users to read and write data from external
systems through Web services, databases, and
Microsoft .NET Framework assemblies.
Business Data Catalog A SharePoint Server
2007 feature that provides connectivity to
back-end business systems and data sources.
Renamed Business Connectivity Services (BCS)
in SharePoint 2010.
Business Data Connectivity (BDC) The BDC provides the BCS connectivity component. It uses
the declarative model that you can create using SharePoint Designer.
cascading style sheet (CSS) A style sheet language interpreted by a browser that describes
the presentation of a Web page.
child site A site within a site collection, where
there is a hierarchy of a top-level site and one
or more child sites, also called subsites.
Code view Displays the code that a page contains, showing the HTML tags, client-side script
(such as JavaScript), and controls. The code elements are color-coded to make it easier to distinguish the text that users see in their browser
from the code surrounding the text. Each line
of code is numbered so that error messages
can reference them, and you can quickly identify problems.
column A SharePoint list or library contains columns or fields that define the kind of data that
is collected for each list item or document. The
values that each column contains are referred
to as metadata.
composite key A primary key that is made from
multiple columns.
content page An ASP.NET page that is combined
with a master page on the Web server to produce an HTML page that is sent to the client to
be rendered in the browser. An example of a
content page is the home page of a SharePoint
site, Home.aspx
content placeholder Placed on a ASP.NET master
page; it defines a region for content and renders all text, markup, and server controls from
the related content control found on a content
page.
content region An alternative name for a content
placeholder.
content types Content types define a reusable
collection of settings that can include columns,
workflows, and other attributes.
contributor settings Settings that control how
SharePoint Designer 2007 can be used to modify a SharePoint site. This feature was removed
in SharePoint Designer 2010 and replaced with
advanced edit mode and restrictions that can
be placed on SharePoint Designer 2010 at the
Web-application and site-collection levels.
controls Components that are commonly used
on Web sites. Controls are defined to display a
calendar, change a password, or validate entry
in an input form, for example.
CSS specificity Determines which CSS style is applied by a browser.
custom actions Define an extension to the user
interface, such as a command on the server
ribbon, a link on the site settings page, or a
command on the list item menu.
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516 Glossary
customized Web page A Web page that is stored
in the SQL Server content database. Previously
known as an unghosted Web page in Windows
SharePoint Services 2.0, where they caused
significant performance implications. These
performance implications have mostly been
removed from Windows SharePoint Services
3.0 and Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010
with the use of ASP.NET 2.0, master pages, and
SharePoint features. Web pages cannot be
customized using the browser, but they can be
customized by using SharePoint Designer.
custom master page This is a site property, represented by the token ~masterurl/customer.
master, that is used by publishing pages in a
publishing site.
Data Form Web Part (DFWP) A Web Part that
reads data from and writes data to a data
source in the form of XML and applies XSLT to
it. SharePoint Designer allows you to add Data
Form Web Parts to a Web Part page and has
a WYSIWYG XSLT editor, so you don’t need to
know XSLT to customize a Data Form Web Part.
Data View Web Part (DVWP) A Web Part that
allows you to view and manage data coming
from different data sources. See Data Form
Web Part (DFWP).
default master This is a site property, represented by the token ~masterurl/default.master,
that points to a master page that is used by all
pages in your site.
Design view Displays the page in the SharePoint
Designer workspace as it would appear in a
browser and provides a WYSIWYG editing
environment.
Visual Studio generates a file name with the
extension .dll.
ECT See external content type.
Extensible Application Markup Language
(XAML) A language used by the Windows
Workflow Foundation (WF) to describe
workflows.
eXtensible Markup Language (XML) A defined
markup language for documents that describes
document content and structure rather than
appearance. An XML document has to be formatted before it can be read, and the formatting is usually accomplished by using an XSL
template file.
eXtensible Stylesheet Language (XSL) A language used to create stylesheets for XML,
similar to CSS (cascading style sheets) used for
HTML. XSL Transformations (XSLT) can be used
to transform XML to HTML or to another type
of XML.
eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformation
(XSLT) A language for transforming XML documents into other XML documents.
external content type (ECT) Represents data
that is stored in an external data source, such
as a SQL Server or other relational database,
SharePoint, and Web services. ECTs are created using SharePoint Designer 2010 or Visual
Studio 2010.
external data column A column in a list or library
that stores data that originally existed outside
SharePoint.
external list Used to present data that is stored
outside SharePoint.
dirty page A page that you have changed using SharePoint Designer but have not saved.
Denoted by an asterisk on the page tab.
feature Allows you to activate/deactivate functionality in a site, site collection, Web application, or farm.
dynamic-link library (DLL) A shared program library, also known as an assembly. For example,
when you create a solution for SharePoint in
Visual Studio 2010 that includes several class
or program files and then build that solution,
field controls Used on page layouts to define
the strict layout and data entry constraints of
content. They bind to columns in the Pages
publishing library.
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Glossary 517
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Protocol used for
copying files to and from remote computer
systems on a network using TCP/IP. The mechanism cannot be used on SharePoint sites, and
the FTP client was removed from SharePoint
Designer 2010.
foreign key A column that points to the primary
key of another list or database table. This establishes a relationship between the two lists
or between two database tables.
formula column Additional columns that can be
created using the XPath Expression Builder.
ghosted Web pages The same as uncustomized
Web pages.
globally reusable workflow A workflow that
can be used as a workflow template that is
reusable for all sites within a site collection.
SharePoint Server 2010 is shipped with three
globally reusable workflows. Additional globally reusable workflows can be created using
SharePoint Designer.
global master pages Master pages defined centrally and used by most sites, no matter which
site definition the site is created from.
global meeting workspace master page A
Master page defined centrally and used by all
sites created from a meeting workspace site
definition.
global navigation breadcrumb A navigation icon
next to Site Actions that displays the ScreenTip
“Navigate Up” and shows the path from the
top-level site to the current site. See also local
breadcrumb. Users can use a combination of
the two breadcrumbs to navigate or keep track
of their location.
HTTP GET method Used to communicate with
the Web server. The information is appended
to the end of the URL. Usually used to retrieve
data from the Web server.
HTTP POST method Used to communicate with
the Web server. The information is provided in
the body of the request. Used to transmit data
to the Web server, where the data is stored,
updated, or deleted. The data could also involve ordering a product or sending an e-mail
message.
inline editing A configured page that can be
used to display, edit, insert, or delete list items,
where links are added to every row so that
in the browser you can edit items directly in
place.
layer An absolute positioned HTML division
<div> tag. You use the <div> tag to group elements so that you can format them with styles
or create animations or flyout menus.
library A specialized list that contains files and
metadata properties associated with those
files. Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010
has four types of libraries: Document, Form,
Wiki Page, and Picture. SharePoint Server 2010
contains additional libraries, such as Report,
Translation Management, Data Connection,
and Slide. See list.
list A container that stores structured tabular
data items that are related to one another
through similar values, metadata, or security
settings. Lists provide columns for storing
metadata and a user interface for viewing and
managing the items.
list template A definition of a list that you can
use as a blueprint to create a new list or library
in the browser. List templates are stored in the
SQL Server database and include information
about the columns, list views, and forms to be
created, plus general settings such as whether
versioning or content approval is enabled
when the list is created. Optionally, list templates can contain content—that is, list items
or, if the list template is for a library, documents together with their metadata.
local breadcrumb A sequence of links that shows
the path from the home page of a site to the
current page. See also global navigation breadcrumb. Users can use a combination of the two
breadcrumbs to navigate or keep track of their
location.
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518 Glossary
master page A special ASP.NET 2.0 Web page
that allows you to share code between pages.
There primary use is to provide a Web site with
a consistent look and feel and navigation for
each page within a site
metadata Data about data. For example, the
metadata for a file can include the title, subject, author, and size of the file. In a document
library, the metadata for a file is stored in the
columns of the document library.
namespace Defines an entry point within an assembly. All controls that are similar are placed
in the same namespace.
NaN Not a Number; a label displayed when you
use a presentation column in an XPath expression to complete mathematical computations.
node An XPath reference to XML elements, attributes, and content
On Object User Interface (OOUI) A small arrow
floating just outside a control that can be used
to toggle the visibility of a task panel.
page layout A page template that strictly controls
the layout of content on a page. Publishing
pages are based on a page layout.
Publishing site A Web site that uses SharePoint
Server Web content management functionality.
Contributors can work on draft versions of a
publishing page, which, once it is approved, is
made visible to readers. The approval process
is also known as publishing.
Recycle Bin You can use the Recycle Bin to restore items that have been deleted from the
Web site. It provides two-stage protection
against accidental deletions. When you delete
a document or other item from the SharePoint
site, it is deleted from the Web site and moved
to the Web site’s Recycle Bin, where it can be
restored if needed. If you then delete this item
from the Web site’s Recycle Bin, it is moved to
the site collection’s Recycle Bin. From there, the
document can be restored to its original location or permanently deleted.
Representational State Transfer (REST) Similar
to a SOAP service in that it allows the transport of XML data between computer systems.
However, unlike a SOAP service, REST supports
only the four basic application methods: GET,
POST, PUT, and DELETE.
REST See Representational State Transfer (REST).
personas Characters created to represent different user types within a targeted demographic
or with a specific attitude and/or behavior set
that might use a site, brand, or product in a
similar way.
Section 508 U.S. government accessibility
guidelines.
PlaceHolderMain A SharePoint content placeholder control that defines a region of a page
that contains unique content on a per page
basis.
Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) A protocol
for transporting XML data between computer
systems, normally using HTTP or HTTPS.
primary key A unique identifier for each row in a
database table or for each list item in a list.
Publishing Portal A site hierarchy for an Internetfacing and intranet-facing Web site. It includes
a home page and subsites. Most of these
Web sites are based on the Publishing Site
With Workflow template that uses SharePoint
Server Web content management functionality.
Typically, these Web sites have more readers
than contributors.
SharePoint farm One or more servers that are
used in a SharePoint installation and share one
SharePoint configuration database.
site collection A set of Web sites in a Web application that has the same owner and that share
administrative settings. Each Web site collection contains a top-level Web site and can contain one or more subsites, also known as child
sites. You can have multiple site collections
within each Web application.
site column A reusable column that is created at
the site collection or site level and can be used
across multiple sites, lists, and libraries.
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Glossary 519
site definition A set of files that define the capabilities of a SharePoint site. Site definition files
include .xml, .aspx, .ascx, and .master page
files, as well as document template files (for
example, .dotx and .htm) and content files (for
example, .gif and .docx). The files are located
in the \\Program Files\Common Files\Microsoft
Shared\web server extensions\14\TEMPLATE
subdirectories of Web front-end servers that
run SharePoint Foundation or SharePoint
Server.
site template A blueprint used to create a
SharePoint site, which can automatically generate lists, libraries, Web Parts, and features. This
term can refer to a site definition or to a file
that captures the configuration and customizations of a Web site at a point in time.
Split view Divides the SharePoint Designer workspace horizontally and displays Code view at
the top and Design view at the bottom.
subsite See child site.
top-level site A Web site that does not have a
parent Web site. The top-level site in a site
collection is created from the SharePoint 2010
Central Administration Web site.
uncustomized Web page A Web page that references files on the file system of a SharePoint
front-end server. In Windows SharePoint
Services 2.0, these were known as ghosted
Web pages. From a technical perspective, the
SharePoint SQL Server content database contains a row in one of its tables for each Web
page on a SharePoint site. For an uncustomized
Web page, this row contains a pointer to the
file on the file system.
unghosted Web pages The same as customized
Web pages.
Universal Data Connection (UDC) An XML file
format that contains data connection information; used when creating data sources in
SharePoint Designer.
URL An alphanumeric address that is used to locate a Web site.
variations Part of the SharePoint Web content
management functionality. Variations make
content available to specific audiences on different sites by copying content from a source
site to each target variation site. Often use to
build multilingual sites.
view A Web page that displays a subset of the
contents of a list or library based on specific
criteria defined by the metadata. Views allow
you to find information easily.
Web application Previously referred to as a virtual server, a Web application hosts SharePoint
site collections that users can access over the
HTTP or HTTPS protocol. The clients may be
browsers or other servers.
Web Content Accessibility Guidelines
(WCAG) Part of a series of Web accessibility
guidelines published by the World Wide Web
Consortium’s Web Accessibility Initiative.
Web Part A modular unit of information that
consists of a title bar, a frame, and content.
Web Parts are the basic building blocks of a
Web Part page.
Web Part zone A rectangular region on a Web
page that facilitates working with Web Parts.
Web Service Description Language (WSDL) The
description of the methods and parameters
that a SOAP service supports. The service
definition can be registered in a Universal
Description Discovery and Integration (UDDI)
registry.
workflow associator The person who associates
a workflow template with a list, library, content
type, or site.
Workflow Interchange (.vwi) file A Microsoft
Visio 2010 zip file that contains workflow
files used to import the workflow design into
SharePoint Designer.
XML See eXtensible Markup Language (XML).
XML Path Language (XPath) Provides a mechanism to manipulate and navigate through
XML data. XPath models XML data as a tree of
nodes. See node.
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520 Glossary
XML Web services Computer systems that provide services to other computer systems. The
data is transferred between computer systems
formatted as XML and is transported using
the Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP). The
computer system that requests data is called
the XML Web Service Requester or client, and
the computer system that provides XML data is
called the XML Web Service Provider.
XPath See XML Path Language (XPath).
XSL See eXtensible Stylesheet Language (XSL).
XSLT See eXtensible Stylesheet Language
Transformation (XSLT).
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Index
A
Access
creat ng nked tab es 231 234
accessibility 401
ass st ve techno og es 419
best pract ces 403
co ors 411
test ng 412 414
eg s at on 418 423
ma nta n ng comp ance 423 426
test ng 418 423
Access b ty task pane 421 423
check st 420 421
th rd party too s 425 426
UCD methodo ogy
mp ement ng 402 403
Accessibility Checker dialog box 421–422
Accessibility Foundation Module (AFM) 425
Accessibility Properties dialog box 157
Accessibility Report.htm file 426
Accessibility task pane 26
test ng access b ty 421 423
Accessible Rich Internet Applications (ARIA) 425
accessing
s tes 52
Action command 261
actions 258–264
Co ect Data from a User 267
core 259, 483 484
Add a comment 483
Add T me to Date 483
Do Ca cu at on 483
Log to H story L st 483
Pause for Durat on 484
Pause Unt Date 484
Send an Ema 484
Send Document to Repos tory 484
Set T me Port on of Date/T me F e d 484
Set Workflow Status 484
Set Workflow Var ab e 484
Stop Workflow 484
creat ng 260 262
document set 259
Capture a Vers on of the Document Set 485
Send Document Set to Repos tory 485
Set Content Approva Status for the Document
Set 485
Start Document Set Approva Process 485, 491
st 259
Add L st tem Perm ss ons 486
Check n tem 486
Check Out tem 486
Copy L st tem 486
Create L st tem 486
Dec are Record 486
De ete Drafts 486
De ete tem 486
De ete Prev ous Vers ons 486
D scard Check Out tem 486
nher t L st tem Parent Perm ss ons 487
Rep ace L st tem Perm ss ons 487
Set Content Approva Status 487
Set F e d n Current tem 487
Undec are Record 487
Update L st tem 487
Wa t for Change n Document Check Out
Status 487
Wa t for F e d Change n Current tem 487
para e b ocks 259
creat ng 260 262
re at ona 260
Lookup Manager of a User 488
ser a 259
Start Custom Task Process 260
task 260
Ass gn a Form to a Group 488
Ass gn a To do tem 488
Co ect Data from a User 488
Start Approva Process 488, 491, 493 494
Start Custom Task Process 488
Start Feedback Process 488, 494
task behav or
Append Task 489
De egate Task 489
End Task Process 489
Esca ate Task 489
Extract Substr ng from End of Str ng 490
Extract Substr ng from ndex of Str ng 490
Extract Substr ng from Start of Str ng 490
Extract Substr ng of Str ng from ndex w th
Length 490
521
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522 actions, task behavior
actions, task behavior (continued)
F nd nterva Between Dates 490
Forward Task 489
nsert Task 489
Reass gn Task 489
Request a Change 489
Resc nd Task 489
Send a Task Not ficat on Ema 489
Set Content Approva Status (as author) 489
Set Task F e d 489
Wa t for Change n Task Process tem 489
Wa t for De et on n Task Process tem 489
ut ty 260
V s o Prem um 2010 283
activities (workflows) 258
Add a comment action 483
Add a Comment category (core actions) 259
Add And Customize permission
creat ng profi e pages 234
Add A Workflow page 299
Add Column dialog box 293
Add Field dialog box 265, 303, 495
Add File To Import List dialog box 102, 360
Add List Item Permissions action 486
Add Permissions dialog box 42
Add Time to Date action 483
administrative tasks 503
configur ng SharePo nt Foundat on 2010 504 507
nsta ng SharePo nt Foundat on 2010 504 507
administrators
s te co ect ons 32
ADO.NET Data Services 192
AdRotator control 464, 465
ADRotator.xml 464
Advanced Grouping dialog box 150
Advance Mode command 25
Advance Sort dialog box 161, 162
AFM (Accessibility Foundation Module) 425
AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) 176
All Files gallery 121–123
All Files gallery page 74
All Files option 102, 137
All Items view
mod fy ng 121 123
All Operations dialog box 218, 220, 224
All Pages view
S te Pages brary 386
Announcements list 54
Announcements XLV
creat ng 84 86
Append Task action 489
Application Options dialog box 16
applications
nfoPath 2010 309
Web 9
Apply Styles task pane 26, 350, 357
Apply Themes and Borders rights 41
Approval link (Start Approval Process
action) 493–494
Approval page
creat ng approva processes 495 496
approval processes
content 433
creat ng 491 501
Approva page 495 496
Custom zat on area 497
Sett ngs area 496 497
Task Form F e ds area 495
Task Outcomes area 496
outcomes 496
Approval template 251
Approval workflow 296
content pages 429
Approval workflow template 491
var ab es 493 494
Approval.xsn 491
Approve level 41
approvers 435
Approvers sections 302
Approvers variable 494
approving
page ayouts 451 452
ARIA (Accessible Rich Internet Applications) 425
Article Page content type 442
artifacts 14
AspMenu control 477
ASP.NET
contro s
Ds 467
va dat ng user data entry 466 468
va dat on 468 470
forms
test ng 475 476
master pages 368
server contro s 460, 464 466
va dat on contro s 468 470
ASP.NET pages
attach ng master pages 134 136
creat ng 130 132
creat ng from master pages 391 395
nsert ng Web Part zones 132 135
.aspx files 268
assemblies 461
namespaces 461
Assets tab 341
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buttons 523
Assign a Form to a Group action 488
Assign a To-do Item action 488
assignment sections 302
assistive technologies 419
associating
content types 103 104
reusab e workflows w th sts 290 292
Association And Initiation Form Parameters dialog
box 304, 316, 320
Association columns
creat ng 293 294
Association Columns dialog box 293, 294
association fields
add ng to n t at on forms 319 322
association forms 301–305
mod fy ng 318 319
associations 237–242
assoc at ng workflows w th brar es 254 258
cascad ng 238
fie ds 237 238
M crosoft Bus ness Connect v ty Serv ces team 238
referent a ntegr ty 238
Association Wizard 239–243
Asynchronous JavaScript and XML (AJAX) 176
attaching
CSS fi es 340 343
page ayouts 454 456
authentication
externa data sources 212
SQL Server 176
Authentication section
SharePo nt Foundat on 2010 195
Authoring tab (Page Editor Options dialog
box) 330
Auto Thumbnail
creat ng thumbna s 110
B
Backstage view 2, 13–16
BCS 5, 7, 207
bus ness object ves 208
centra adm n strat on 209
components 210
Connect v ty area 209
Presentat on area 209
Too s area 209
Web serv ces 212
BDC (Business Data Connectivity) 209
BDC Identity authenticaton mode (BCS) 212
BDC Metadata Store 210, 231
BDC models
export ng 230 233
Behaviors task pane 26
best practices
access b ty 403
nam ng URLs 11 13
usab ty 403
Blank Master Page command 377
Blank Site, Blog template 13
Borders And Shading dialog box 323
branding sites 327
add ng CSS to Code v ew 359 362
attach ng CSS fi es 340 343
creat ng CSS fi es 340 343
creat ng HTML pages 344 345
creat ng sty es 346 349
CSS nher tance 356 360
CSS reports 362 364
de et ng sty es 349 353
des gn ng for access b ty 411 414
dent fy ng CSS sty es 333 338
dent fy ng sty es on content pages 339 342
mod fy ng sty es 349 353
Sty e App cat on group commands 353 355
text 328
breadcrumbs 15
browsers 4
access ng s tes 52
compat b ty 405 406
de et ng workflows 285 287
ed t ng Web content 110
n ne ed t ng 152 154
nternet Exp orer
secur ty sett ngs 18
brary tasks 71 75
st defin t ons 70
st sett ngs 75
st tasks 71 75
sett ngs
Web Part zones 132
start ng s te workflows 276 277
test ng pages 114
Business Connectivity Services. See BCS
Business Data Catalog. See BCS
business data columns. See external data columns
Business Data Connectivity (BDC) 209
Business Data Related List Web Part 237
assoc at ons 237
business objectives
BCS 208
business processes
custom act ons 89 95
so ut ons 5
buttons
S te Act ons
master pages 369
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524 calculated columns C
calculated columns 80–81, 163–165
XPath express ons 165 168
Calculated Value dialog box 320
Calculated Value Properties dialog box 320
CAML (Collaborative Application Markup
Language) 188–190
CancelonChange variable 494
Capture a Version of the Document Set action 485
card sorting 409
cascading associations 238
cascading style sheets. See CSS
central administration
BCS 209
Central Administration Web site 8
Change Data Bindings dialog box 473, 474
Change Request setting 497
Change The Behavior Of A Single Task link 497
Change The Behavior Of The Overall Task Process
link 499
Change The Completion Conditions For This Task
Process link 497
Channel 9 Web site 313
characters
components 11
Check For Errors command 267
Check In dialog box 139, 446, 452
checking in/out
fi es 138 140
Check In Item action 486
Check Names icon 42
Check Out Item action 486
Check Reports task pane 363
child sites 9, 431
creat ng 45 48
s te co umns 94
sty e nher tance 356
Choose File to Upload dialog box 76
classes
CSS 331
client computer
requ rements xxv
client software
censes 424
requ rements xxv
Clip Art task pane 27
Clipboard task pane 27
closed Web Parts 119
Code view 20, 21, 25
add ng CSS ru es to 359 362
configur ng w th Page Ed tor Opt ons d a og
box 21 25
XSLT 165 168
Collaborative Application Markup Language
(CAML) 188–190
Collect Data from a User action 267, 488
Collect Feedback template 251
Collect Feedback workflow 296
collections 9
adm n strators 32
content types
creat ng 98 100
creat ng 506 507
creat ng ch d s tes 45 48
owners 32 33
pub sh ng 40
Pub sh ng feature (SharePo nt Server) 431
root s tes
creat ng g oba y reusab e Approva work
flows 296 298
creat ng g oba y reusab e workflows 298 301
S te Co ect on mages brary 434
Collect Signatures template 251
Collect Signatures workflow 296
Color Coding tab (Page Editor Options dialog
box) 330
Color dialog box 413
colors
access b ty 411
test ng 412 414
hexadec ma notat on 412
themes 39
Column Editor dialog box 79, 80
columns 56
Assoc at on
creat ng 293 294
ca cu ated
XPath express ons 165 168
ca cu ated co umns 80 81
externa data 234
formu a 163 165
st co umns 77 79
de et ng 105 106
ookup 472
metadata 77
s te
add ng to page ayout content types 449 451
creat ng 94 96
s te co umns 96 98
add ng to content types 100 101
creat ng 94 96
types
Pages brary 438
pub sh ng s tes 443
va dat on 81 83
Columns Editor page 106
Column Settings dialog box 266, 303
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connections 525
combining related data
Jo n opt on 197
Merge opt on 197
commands
Act on 261
Advance Mode 25
B ank Master Page 377
Check For Errors 267
Create Profi e Page 234
Custom Act on 93
Data V ew 145
Data V ew Prev ew 149
Ed t Document Temp ate 58
From Content Type 377
Hyper nk 112
n t at on Form Parameters 258
nsert group (Workflow tab) 256
Manage group (Workflow tab) 256
Mod fy group (Workflow tab) 256
Move Down 264
Move Up 264
Qu ck Pub sh
pub sh ng nfoPath forms 313 316
Reset To S te Defin t on 397
Save group (Workflow tab) 256
Sty e App cat on group 353 355
Var ab es group (Workflow tab) 256
V sua A ds 374
XML F e Connect on 183
comments
core act ons 259
Common AdRotator Tasks panel 465
Common Content Task list 339
Common Content Tasks list 390
Common TextBox Tasks panel 467–469
Communications category 70
CompareValidator control 468
compatibility
browsers 405 406
test ng 406 407
Compatibility Checker dialog box 406
compatibility requirements
UCD methodo ogy 404 407
Compatibility task pane 27
test ng s te compat b ty 406 407
compliance
access b ty eg s at on 423 426
th rd party too s 425 426
Compliance Sheriff 425
components
BCS 210
characters 11
components, navigating 56
concat function 161
concept prototypes
creat ng 409
conditional blocks 260
conditional formatting
Data V ews 154 157
h d ng content 157 160
show ng content 157 160
XLV Web Parts 154 157
Conditional Formatting task pane 26
Condition Criteria dialog box 155–156, 158
Condition dialog box 312, 321
conditions 481–482
Created By a Spec fic Person 482
Created n a Spec fic Date Span 482
f Any Va ue Equa s Va ue 481
f Current tem F e d Equa s Va ue 481
f Task Outcome Equa s Va ue 482
Mod fied by a Spec fic Person 482
Mod fied n a Spec fic Date Span 482
Person s a Va d SharePo nt User 482
The F e S ze n a Spec fic Range K obytes 482
The F e Type s a Spec fic Type 482
T t e F e d Conta ns Keywords 482
conditions (workflows) 258–264
creat ng 260 262
steps 273
V s o Prem um 2010 283
Configuration Successful page 506
Configure Database Connection dialog box 194,
195
Configure Editors tab (Application Options dialog
box) 16
Configure External Content Type Profile Page Host
dialog box 511
configuring
Code v ew
Page Ed tor Opt ons d a og box 21 25
Des gn v ew
Page Ed tor Opt ons d a og box 21 25
perm ss ons
ECTs 510 511
sett ngs
s te co ect ons 32 33
SharePo nt Foundat on 2010 504 507
Confirm Delete dialog box 105, 286
Confirm dialog box 390
Connection Properties dialog box 243
connections
creat ng 177 180
data
externa systems 211
database 175, 192 198
data sources 5, 175 176
databases 175
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526 connections
connections (continued)
ECTs
mod fy ng 242 244
externa data sources
Out ook 229 231
mod fy ng 177 180
REST serv ces 190 192
server s de scr pts
RSS feeds 185 186
SOAP serv ces 188 190
Web Parts 5, 202 205
XML fi es
RSS feeds 183 184
Connectivity area (BCS) 209
Connect To Outlook option 229
consumers
connect ng Web Parts 202 205
Contact Office item type
mapp ng ECTs to 222 225
content
formu a co umns 163 165
h d ng 157 160
show ng 157 160
content approval processes 433
content creators 435
Content Editor Web Part (CEWP)
resett ng 49
content pages
Approva workflow 429
content p aceho ders 387 391
creat ng 130 132
dent fy ng sty es on 339 341
nk ng w th master pages 391 395
ContentPlaceHolder controls 367
manag ng 387 391
content placeholders
manag ng 387 391
master page contro s 372
P aceHo derBodyAreaC ass 395
P aceHo derQu ckLaunchBottom 394
P aceHo derQu ckLaunchTop 394
P aceHo derT t eAreaC ass 395
content types 56, 438
add ng document temp ates to 101 103
add ng s te co umns to
100 101
add ng s te co umns to page ayout 449 451
assoc at ng 103 104
creat ng 98 100
creat ng Assoc at on co umns 293 294
defau ts 56
Document 56, 57
ECTs
configur ng perm ss ons 510 511
externa 56
page ayouts 442 443
sav ng 103
Content Types gallery page 100
Content Types (list settings page) 71
Content Types Picker dialog box 104
[Content Types].xml 278
Contribute level 41
controls 24, 459
AdRotator 464, 465
ASP.NET 460, 464 466
Ds 467
va dat ng user data entry 466 468
va dat on 468 470
compared to Web Parts 459
CompareVa dator 468
ContentP aceHo der 367
manag ng 387 391
Contro s group 460 463
CustomVa dator 469
DataFormWebPart 148, 467
Data source 460, 464
Data V ew 472 475
EmbeddedFormF e d 24, 145
Data V ews 144
fie d 434, 438, 439
add ng to page ayouts 447 449
Page Content 438
propert es 447 449
HTML 460
Log n As 15
Log n group 464
master pages 372 375
content p aceho ders 372
de egate 372
cons 372
nks 372
menus 372
nav gat on components 372
scr pts 372
namespaces 461
Nav gat on group 464
P aceHo derMa n (Custom) 454
propert es 461
RangeVa dator 469
Regu arExpress onVa dator 469
Requ redF e dVa dator 466, 468, 469
server 476 479
SharePo nt 460
SPDataSource 472, 473
SPDataSource SharePo nt 152
Tag Propert es task pane 460 463
va dat ng user data entry 466 468
Va dat on group 464
Va dat onSummary 469
www.it-ebooks.info
customized files 527
V ew 464
WebPartPages:DataFormWebPart 380
Xs tL stV ewWebPart 145
Controls group
nsert ng contro s 460 463
server contro s 476 479
contros
WebPartPages:DataFormWebPart 382
converting
mages 110
copying
brar es 74
sts 74
master pages 377 379
Copy List Item action 486
copyrights
s tes 424
core actions 259, 483–484
Add a comment 483
Add T me to Date 483
Do Ca cu at on 483
Log to H story L st 483
Pause for Durat on 484
Pause Unt Date 484
Send an Ema 484
Send Document to Repos tory 484
Set T me Port on of Date/T me F e d 484
Set Workflow Status 484
Set Workflow Var ab e 484
Stop Workflow 484
corev4.css 334
CSS nher tance 356 360
custom z ng 356, 356 360
Create a Content Type dialog box 99, 100
Create A Link To Data Services dialog box 232, 233
Create All Operations option 217
Create A Site Column dialog box 95
Create Column dialog box 235
Create Custom Action dialog box 91, 93
Create Custom Content link 339
Created By a Specific Person condition 482
Created in a Specific Date Span condition 482
Create External List dialog box 226
Create List Item action 486
Create List Or Document Library dialog box 72, 75
Create List Workflow Shared Documents dialog
box 255
Create New List Form dialog box 128
Create New List View dialog box 124, 226
Create Profile Page command 234
create, read, update, and display (CRUD) 216
Create Reusable Workflow dialog box 290, 297
Create Site Collection page 507
Create Site Workflow dialog box 276–277
Create Subsites rights 41
criteria
h d ng content 157 160
show ng content 157 160
CRUD (create, read, update, and display) 216
CSS 15
add ng to Code v ew 359 362
c asses 331
dec arat on b ocks 331
fi es
attach ng 340 343
creat ng 340 343
HTML tags 331
Ds 331
nher tance 356 360
propert es 331
se ectors 331
sett ng opt ons 329 333
sty es 331, 332 333
creat ng 346 349
de et ng 349 353
dent fy ng 333 338
dent fy ng on content pages 339 341
n ne 340 341
Manage Sty es task pane 335
mod fy ng 349 353
ru es 335
test ng usab ty 415 418
themes 40
va ue pa rs 332
CssLink control 477
CSS Properties task pane 26, 339, 350, 351, 357
CSS reports 362–364
CSS Reports task pane 27, 364
CSS tab (Page Editor Options dialog box) 329
cts folder
troub eshoot ng 102
Current Item link (Start Approval Process
action) 493–494
Custom Action command 93
custom actions 89–96
L M ( st tem menu) 89, 90 93
R ghts Mask 90
sequence numbers 89 91
server r bbon 89, 93 95
up oad ng mages to S te Assets brary 90 93
Custom Actions (list settings page) 72, 91
custom activities 260
Customization area
creat ng approva process 497 499
Customization area (files settings page) 137
Customization area (Workflow Settings page) 257
Customization (list settings page) 71
customized files
resett ng 49 52
www.it-ebooks.info
528 customized pages customized pages 21
customized sites
upgrad ng 51 52
customizing. See also modifying
corev4.css 356, 356 360
Data V ews 149 152
brar es 4
sts 4
master pages 377, 379 385
s tes 3
so ut ons 6
workflows
Start Approva Process act on 493 494
XLV (XSLT L st V ew) Web Part 86 87
Custom Lists category 70
CustomValidator control 469
D
dashes
URLs (Un form Resource Locators) 13
data
comb n ng re ated data
Jo n opt on 197
Merge opt on 197
connect ng from externa systems 211
group ng n Data V ew 149 152
mport ng 76 77
nked sources 197 201
retr ev ng
from externa systems 211
sort ng n Data V ew 149 152
XML
retr ev ng w th server scr pt connect ons 185
187
database
connect ng to 192 198
connect ons 175
Database Interface Wizard 8
databases 5
externa data sources
creat ng 211 215
SQL Server
BCS components 210
creat ng externa data sources 212 215
SQL Server Compact Ed t on 229
tab es
re at onsh ps 238
data connections 174. See connections
data entry
Data V ews 152 154
va dat ng 466 468
data entry forms
creat ng 469 471
Data Form Web Part 5
DataFormWebPart control 148, 467
Data Form Web Part (DFWP) 115
creat ng st form pages 126
Data group
contro s 464
data integrity
co umn va dat on 81 83
Data Protection Act 424
data providers
connect ng Web Parts 202 205
Data Retrieval Service 149
Data source controls 460, 464
Data Source Details task pane 26, 182, 467
error messages 192
v ew ng XML fi e content 180 182
Data Source Discovery Confirmation dialog
box 243
Data Source Library task pane 173
Data Source Picker dialog box 146–147
Data Source Properties dialog box 178, 180–182,
183, 184, 185–186, 188–190, 196, 198
data sources 174–179
connect ons 5, 175 176
databases 175
Cons gnments.xm 199
creat ng 173
creat ng data connect ons 177 180
database connect ons 192 198
ECTs
manag ng 242 244
externa
authent cat on 212
connect ng to Out ook 229 231
creat ng 211 215
export ng BDC mode s 230 233
externa sts 176
brar es 175
nked sources 176, 197 201
sts 175
manag ng 173
mod fy ng data connect ons 177 180
Products 199
REST serv ces 176
connect ng to 190 192
Exce Rest.aspx 190
L stData.svc 190
server s de scr pts 176
SOAP serv ces 176
connect ng to 188 190
types 211
Web Parts
connect ng 202 205
XML fi es 176
www.it-ebooks.info
dialog boxes 529
Data Sources gallery page 173, 183–184, 186, 193,
198
creat ng data connect ons 177 180
database connect ons 193
dynam ca y created defin t ons 177
mod fy ng data connect ons 177 180
Data Sources Picker dialog box 173, 381
DataSourceTest.aspx page 183–184, 186, 193, 198
Data View command 145
Data View controls 472–475
Data View Preview command 149
Data Views 143
cond t ona formatt ng 154 157
creat ng 144 149
custom z ng 149 152
database connect ons 192 198
data entry 152 154
fi ter ng 176
formu a co umns 163 165
group ng data n 149 152
h d ng content 157 160
n ne ed t ng 152 154
nked sources 197 201
master pages 369
mod fy ng text n 149 152
reus ng 168 170
show ng content 157 160
sort ng data n 149 152
XSLT 144
Data View Web Part 5
Data View Web Part (DVWP). See also Data Views
add ng to master pages 379 385
Date Source Details task pane 160
DDA (Disability Discrimination Act) 411
declaration blocks 331
Declare Record action 486
default master pages 367, 370–371
chang ng 385 386
g oba 370 371
g oba meet ng workspace 370 371
m n ma .master 370 371
pub sh ng s tes 371
v4.master page 370 371
default page 20
defaults
content types 56
Define E-mail Message dialog box 263
Define Workflow Lookup dialog box 273, 274, 305
definition pages
resett ng 49 52
definitions (site) 9, 61
delegate controls 372
Delegate Task action 489
Delete Drafts action 486
Delete Item action 486
Delete Items rights 41
Delete Previous Versions action 486
deleting
CSS sty es 349 353
ECTs 242 244
fi es 138 140
objects 105 106
pract ce s tes xxx
s tes 48 49
Web Parts 115 119
workflows 285 287
Workflows brary fi es 268
deploying
Web Parts 168 170
workflows 267 273, 269 274
descriptions (sites)
chang ng 38 40
Design Checker task pane 314
designers 435
Designers site group 32
Design level 41
Design view 20, 25
configur ng w th Page Ed tor Opt ons d a og
box 21 25
detaching
page ayouts 454 456
DFWP (Data Form Web Part) 115
creat ng st form pages 126
dialog boxes
Access b ty Checker 421 422
Access b ty Propert es 157
Add Co umn 293
Add F e d 265, 303, 495
Add F e To mport L st 102, 360
Add Perm ss ons 42
Advanced Group ng 150
Advance Sort 161, 162
A Operat ons 218, 220, 224
App cat on Opt ons 16
Assoc at on And n t at on Form Parameters 304,
316, 320
Assoc at on Co umns 293, 294
Borders And Shad ng 323
Ca cu ated Va ue 320
Ca cu ated Va ue Propert es 320
Change Data B nd ngs 473, 474
Check n 139, 446, 452
Choose F e to Up oad 76
Choose SPD SBS Customers Webpage
D a og 236
Co or 413
Co umn Ed tor 79, 80
Co umn Sett ngs 266, 303
Compat b ty Checker 406
Cond t on 312, 321
www.it-ebooks.info
530 dialog boxes
dialog boxes (continued)
Cond t on Cr ter a 155 156, 158
Configure Database Connect on 194, 195
Configure Externa Content Type Profi e Page
Host 511
Confirm 390
Confirm De ete 105, 286
Connect on Propert es 243
Content Types P cker 104
Create a Content Type 99, 100
Create A L nk To Data Serv ces 232, 233
Create A S te Co umn 95
Create Co umn 235
Create Custom Act on 91, 93
Create Externa L st 226
Create L st Or Document L brary 72, 75
Create L st Workflow Shared Documents 255
Create New L st Form 128
Create New L st V ew 124, 226
Create Reusab e Workflow 290, 297
Create S te Workflow 276 277
Data Source D scovery Confirmat on 243
Data Source P cker 146 147
Data Source Propert es 178, 180 182, 183, 184,
185 186, 188 190, 196, 198
Data Sources P cker 173, 381
Define E ma Message 263
Define Workflow Lookup 273, 274, 305
Down oad ng Data 255
Ed t 164
Ed t Hyper nk 416, 475
Ed t URL 181 183
Ed t Var ab e 266
Export BDC Mode 231
Export Se ect As 396
Export Workflow 281
Externa Content Type Rename Confirmat on 217
Externa Content Type Se ect on 239
Externa Data Source Type Se ect on 214
F e Save 231
F ter Configurat on 220, 243
F ter Cr ter a 384
F nd And Rep ace 28, 29, 375
Form Act ons 474
Form Act ons Sett ngs 475
mport 181 183, 360, 416
mport Workflow From V s o Draw ng 282
nc uded F e ds 178
nsert Formu a 164, 165, 166 168
nsert Formu a And Cond t on 312
nsert Hyper nk 91, 113
nsert P cture 310
JobApp cat on New tem 269 270
Jo n Subv ew 201
Lookup For nteger 274
Lookup For Person Or Group 262, 266
Lookup For Str ng 262, 291
Manage Content Reg ons 388, 389
Match Content Reg ons 135 136, 478
Message From Webpage 448
M crosoft nfoPath 314
M crosoft Office Custom zat on nsta er 229
M crosoft SharePo nt Des gner 42, 43, 44, 113,
396, 453
pub sh ng process 269
M crosoft V s o 281
Mod fy F e d 316
Mod fy Sty e 155, 157, 352
More Co ors 412, 413
More F e ds 383
New 46, 63, 386
New L nk Webpage D a og 437
New L st V ew 124
New Page 435
New Pub sh ng S te 432
New Sty e 341, 347
New Web Part Page 392 396
Opt ons 19, 22
Page Ed tor Opt ons 20, 22, 111
Author ng tab 330
Co or Cod ng tab 330
configur ng Code v ew 21 25
configur ng Des gn v ew 21 25
CSS tab 329
sett ng CSS opt ons 329 333
P cture 157
P cture Propert es 423
P ease Wa t 433
Prob em Deta s 422
Profi e Page Creat on 235
Reset To S te Defin t on 50
Save As 314
Save Web Part To S te Ga ery 169
Se ect A Connect on Defin t on F e 232
Se ect A F e d Or Group 321
Se ect a Master Page 392
Se ect A Master Page 135
Se ect Sty e Sheet 342, 347
Se ect Task Process Part c pants 493
Se ect Users 262, 266
Se ect XML F e 465
Server Error 195
Set Hyper nk ScreenT p 112
Shared Documents 118
S ver ght Web Part 116
S te Co umns P cker 97, 101, 450
S te Defin t on Page Warn ng 390, 397
S te Sett ngs 8
www.it-ebooks.info
enterprise searches 531
S te To Load Temp ates From 432
So ut ons Ga ery: Up oad So ut on xxv
Sort And Group 124, 149, 161, 228
Sp t Ce s 128
SQL Server Connect on 214
Str ng Bu der 291, 306, 307
Text Box Propert es 311, 319
User Account Contro 507, 509, 510
Ver fy Hyper nks 417
V ew 94
Web Part Zone Propert es 133
W ndows 461
W ndows Secur ty 44
Workflow Error 512
Workflow Errors Found 267 273
Workflow Form Update Requ red 317
Workflow Sett ngs 513
Workflow Task 271
XPath Express on Bu der 164
DIP (document information panel) settings 56
dirty pages 112
Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) 411
disabling
user defined workflows 511 512
Discard Check Out Item action 486
DispForm.aspx 72, 126
displaying
sett ngs page 54
Disposition Approval template 251
<div> tag 337
nsert ng Web Part zones 131
<div> regions
creat ng 344 345
DLLs 461
Do Calculation action 483
Document content type 56, 57
document information panel (DIP) settings 56
document set actions 259
Capture a Vers on of the Document Set 485
Send Document Set to Repos tory 485
Set Content Approva Status for the Document
Set 485
Start Document Set Approva Process 485, 491
document templates
add ng to content types 101 103
Don’t Attempt To Authenticate option (Data
Source Properties dialog box) 185
Downloading Data dialog box 255
Dragon voice recognition software 420
drawings (Visio Premium 2010)
export ng workflows to 283 284
DVWP (Data View Web Part). See also Data Views
add ng to master pages 379 385
dynamic-link libraries. See DLLs
dynamic Web Parts 115
E
ECM. See Enterprise Content Management
ECTs 5, 56, 176
assoc at ons 237 242
referent a ntegr ty 238
configur ng perm ss ons 510 511
connect ng data 211
connect ons
mod fy ng 242 244
creat ng 216 221
M crosoft Office app cat ons 222 225
de et ng 242 244
manag ng 242 244
Office app cat ons 228 231
profi e page host, configur ng 511 512
profi e pages
creat ng 233 237
retr ev ng data 211
sav ng 222
Summary v ew 216
ECTs (external content types) 209
Edit Browser List
expand ng browsers 405
Edit dialog box 164
Edit Document Template command 58
EditForm.aspx 72, 126
Edit Hyperlink dialog box 416, 475
editing
n ne ed t ng
Data V ews 152 154
pages
safe mode 21
s te groups 43
editing links
add ng to Data V ews 152 153
editor page 20
editors 15
Edit template
n ne ed t ng 152 154
Edit URL dialog box 181–183
Edit Variable dialog box 266
Else branch (workflows) 273
e-mail
nks 13
EmbeddedFormField control 24, 145
Data V ews 144
enabling
s te temp ates on server s tes 507
user defined workflows 511 512
End Task Process action 489
Enterprise Content Management 429
Enterprise Search Center site template 431
enterprise searches 38
www.it-ebooks.info
532 Enterprise Wiki Page content type Enterprise Wiki Page content type 442
error messages
Data Source Deta s task pane 192
errors
reusab e workflows 319
Escalate Task action 489
European Commission Directive on Data
Protection 424
events
request ng pub sh ng pages 439 440
Task Process Behav ors page 499 501
Excel
creat ng sts 72 74
mport ng data to create sts 76 77
exercises
pract ce fi es xxv xxv
Expense Approval association form 300
Expense Approval initiation form 301
Expenses settings page 101
Export BDC Model dialog box 231
exporting
BDC mode s 230 233
master pages 395 396
workflows to V s o draw ngs 283 284
Export Select As dialog box 396
Export Workflow dialog box 281
expressions
XPath express ons 165 168
Expression Web 8
eXtensible Stylesheet Language Transformations.
See XSLT
External Content Type gallery page 213
External Content Type Information area 229
External Content Type Rename Confirmation
dialog box 217
external content types. See ECTs
External Content Type Selection dialog box 239
External Content Type settings page 213
External Content Types gallery page 231
creat ng externa sts 226 228
external data columns 234
external data sources
authent cat on 212
BDC mode s
export ng 230 233
connect ng to Out ook 229 231
creat ng 211 215
External Data Source Type Selection dialog
box 214
external lists 5, 176, 209
creat ng 225 228
manag ng 225 228
Out ook 229
SharePo nt Workspace 228
external systems
assoc at ons 237 242
connect ng data 211
retr ev ng data 211
Extract Substring from End of String action 490
Extract Substring from Index of String action 490
Extract Substring from Start of String action 490
Extract Substring of String from Index with Length
action 490
F
FAST Search Server
censes 424
features 431
defin t on 40
SharePo nt Server Pub sh ng 40
SharePo nt Server Pub sh ng nfrastructure 40
field controls 434, 438, 439
add ng to page ayouts 447 449
Page Content 438
propert es 447 449
fields
assoc at ons 237 238
add ng to n t at on forms 319 322
st co umns 77 79
pr mary key 237
file formats
mages 110
File Information area (files settings page) 137
files
Access b ty Report.htm 426
ADRotator.xm 464
AnnouncementsT t eBody.xm 178
.aspx 268
check ng n/out 138 140
Cons gnments.xm 198
Conso datedMessenger.png 464
[Content Types].xm 278
corev4.css 334
CreateDVWP.aspx 149, 161, 166 168
CSS
attach ng 340 343
creat ng 340 343
custom zed
resett ng 49 52
de et ng 105 106, 138 140
LucernePub sh ng.png 464
pract ce xx xx v
exerc ses xxv xxv
www.it-ebooks.info
functions 533
restor ng vers ons of 138 140
SBSSPDPract ceS te Starter.wsp 177 180, 254 258,
373
Sh pments.xm 180 182
S ver ghtSPDSBS.xap 115
SPDSBSPract ceS te Starter.wsp
creat ng Data V ews 145 149
Stock.aspx 154 155, 157 159, 164 165, 169 170
.vw 278
export ng workflows 283 284
WebU Va dat on.js 469
W deWor d mporter.png 464
workflow.vdx 278
workflow.xom 278
workflow.xom .ru es 278
.wsp 60, 61
mov ng workflows between s tes 283 284
sav ng reusab e workflows as 294 295
WSP so ut on
creat ng s tes from xx x
remov ng xx x xxx
up oad ng xxv xx x
XML 176
add ng to S te Assets brary 180 182
RSS feed connect ons 183 184
.xom 268
.xom .ru es 268
.xom .wfconfig.xm 268
.xsn 268
File Save dialog box 231
file settings page 137–138
Filter Configuration dialog box 220, 243
Filter Criteria dialog box 384
Filter Parameters page (Operations Wizard) 216
filters
Data V ews 176
Find 1 task pane 26
Find 2 task pane 26
Find And Replace dialog box 28, 29, 375
Find Interval Between Dates action 490
Folder List task pane. See Navigation pane
folders
cts
troub eshoot ng 102
sty es 358
TEMPLATE 9 10
Workflows brary 268
fonts
T mes New Roman 22
foreign key 238
Form Actions dialog box 474
Form Actions Settings dialog box 475
formatting
cond t ona
Data V ews 154 157
h d ng content 157 160
show ng content 157 160
form pages
creat ng 125 129
mod fy ng 125 129
forms
Approva .xsn 491
Approvers sect ons 302
ASP.NET
test ng 475 476
assoc at on 301 305
mod fy ng 318 319
co ect ng nformat on from users on workflow
startup 258
data entry
creat ng 469 471
Data V ews 152 154
D spForm.aspx 72, 126
Ed tForm.aspx 72, 126
Expense Approva assoc at on 300
Expense Approva n t at on 301
nfoPath 258
mod fy ng 308 312
pub sh ng 313 316
sav ng 313 316
n t at on
add ng assoc at on fie ds to 319 322
creat ng 301 305
mod fy ng parameters 316 318
quest ons 302
retr ev ng va ues from 305 308
NewForm.aspx 72, 126
task
co ect ng nformat on 495
mod fy ng 322 323
Forms area 126
Forms area (Workflow Settings page) 257, 272
Forms (list settings page) 72
formula columns 163–165
Forward Task action 489
Foundation sites
searches 38
frame styles
Web Part zones 132
From Content Type command 377
Full Control level 41
functionalities
rat ng
SharePo nt Server 2010 449 451
functions
concat 161
www.it-ebooks.info
534 galleries
G
galleries
A F es 121 123
L st Temp ate 70
Master Page 443
M n 15
Page Layout 444
S te Assets
fi e sett ngs page 137 138
S te Pages
fi e sett ngs page 137 138
Theme 38
Web Part 5
Workflows 299
Gallery page 15
General tab (Application Options dialog box) 16
globally reusable workflows 253, 295–298
Approva workflow 296
Co ect Feedback 296
Co ect S gnatures 296
creat ng 298 301
errors 319
W deWor d mporters Expense Approva
mod fy ng task forms 322 323
global master pages 370–371
global meeting workspace master pages 370–371
graphics
Web Parts
nsert ng 110 114
Group Approval template 251
grouping
data n Data V ew 149 152
groups
Contro s
nsert ng contro s 460 463
server contro s 476 479
Data
contro s 464
Des gners s te 32
ed t ng 43
Log n
contro s 464
Nav gat on
contro s 464
R bbon 14
S te Owners 32
Standard
contro s 464
Va dat on
contro s 464
V ewers s te
prevent ng access to s tes 41 43
Workflow tab 256
Group Work Site template 70
H
hexadecimal notation 412
Hide Content condition 159
hiding
content 157 160
hierarchies (sites)
creat ng 45 48
HiSoftware
access b ty/comp ance too s 425
Home.aspx page
CSS Propert es task pane 339
Manage Sty es task pane 339
home pages
mod fy ng 119 121
HTML
contro s 460
HTML pages
creat ng 344 345
HTML tags
CSS 331
CSS sty es 334
<d v> 337
<p> tag 351
Hyperlink command 112
hyperlinks
Web Parts
nsert ng 110 114
Hyperlinks option 8
Hyperlinks task pane 27
test ng usab ty 415 417
hyphens
URLs (Un form Resource Locators) 13
I
IA (information architecture)
des gn ng prototypes 408 411
test ng usab ty 415 417
icons
h d ng content 157 160
master page contro s 372
show ng content 157 160
identifying
CSS sty es 333 338
sty es on content pages 339 341
IDs
ASP.NET contro s 467
CSS 331
If Any Value Equals Value condition 481
If Current Item Field Equals Value condition 481
If Task Outcome Equals Value condition 482
illegal characters
components 11
www.it-ebooks.info
legislation 535
images
convert ng 110
thumbna s 110
up oad ng to S te Assets brary 90 93
Web Parts
nsert ng 110 114
Impersonate Custom Identity authenticaton mode
(BCS) 212
Impersonate Windows Identity authenticaton
mode (BCS) 212
impersonation steps
workflows 256
implementing
UCD (user centered des gn)
methodo ogy 402 403
Import dialog box 181–183, 360, 416
importing
data 76 77
workflows from V s o Prem um 2010 281 283
Import Visio workflows 254
Import Workflow From Visio Drawing dialog
box 282
Included Fields dialog box 178
InfoPath 2010
app cat ons 309
InfoPath Designer 2010 309
add ng assoc at on fie ds to n t at on
forms 319 322
mod fy ng nfoPath forms 309 312
InfoPath Filler 2010 309
InfoPath forms 258
mod fy ng 308 312
pub sh ng 313 316
sav ng 313 316
information architecture. See IA
inheritance
CSS 356 360
Inherit List Item Parent Permissions action 487
Initiation Form Parameters command 258
initiation forms
add ng assoc at on fie ds to 319 322
creat ng 301 305
mod fy ng parameters 316 318
quest ons 302
retr ev ng va ues from 305 308
inline editing
Data V ews 152 154
inline styles 340–341
Insert Formula And Condition dialog box 312
Insert Formula dialog box 164, 165, 166–168
Insert group (Workflow tab) 256
Insert Hyperlink dialog box 91, 113
Insert Picture dialog box 310
Insert Task action 489
installing
SharePo nt Foundat on 2010 504 507
instances
remov ng 285 287
workflows 252, 252 253
IntelliSense
add ng CSS to Code v ew 359 362
Internet Explorer
secur ty sett ngs 18
Internet Explorer Developer toolbar 334
Internet sites
themes
cascad ng sty e sheets 40
Issue Tracking list
creat ng 72 74, 74 76
J
JavaScript
master pages 369
JobApplication list settings page 269
JobApplication New Item dialog box 269–270
JobApplicationWorkflow
creat ng workflows 260 262
Join option
comb n ng re ated data 197
Join Subview dialog box 201
K
keyboards
test ng user access b ty 419
keyboard shortcuts
sw tch ng between tabs 23
L
labels
MyPage.aspx 343
P aceHo derS teName (Master) 339
Layers task pane 26
layouts
Web Part zones 132
layout tables 8
legislation
access b ty 418 423
ma nta n ng comp ance 423 426
copyr ght 424
Data Protect on Act 424
European Comm ss on D rect ve on Data
Protect on 424
cens ng 424
www.it-ebooks.info
536 legislation
legislation (continued)
Persona nformat on Protect on and E ectron c
Documents Act (P PEDA) 424
pr vacy aws 424
regu at ons 424
length
URLs (Un form Resource Locators) 12
levels (permissions)
Approve 41
Contr bute 41
Des gn 41
Fu Contro 41
Manage H erarchy 41
Read 41
Restr cted Read 41
V ew On y 41
LFWP (List Form Web Part) 126–130
libraries 4, 5, 14, 69. See also lists
assoc at ng workflows w th 254 258
ca cu ated co umns 80 81
XPath express ons 165 168
content types
add ng document temp ates to 101 103
add ng s te co umns to 100 101
assoc at ng 103 104
creat ng 98 100
copy ng 74
creat ng 70 74
W k Page brary 72 74
creat ng Assoc at on co umns 293 294
data ntegr ty
co umn va dat on 81 83
data sources 175
defau t sett ngs, chang ng 76 77
formu a co umns 163 165
Pages 137, 438, 440 443
co umn types 438
remov ng workflows 285
secur ty 88 89
S te Assets 137
add ng XML fi es to 180 182
up oad ng mages to 90 93
S te Co ect on mages 434
s te co umns 96 98
add ng to content types 100 101
creat ng 94 96
S te Pages 137
A Pages v ew 386
tasks 71 75
wfpub
g oba y reusab e workflows 296
workflows 5
Workflows 268 269
fo ders 268
XSLT L st V ew (XLV) Web Part
creat ng 83 86
Libraries category 70
licensing 424
life cycles
user centered des gn. See UCD methodo ogy 402
LIM. See list item menu
Link Data Sources Wizard 199
linked sources 176, 197–201
links
Create Custom Content 339
Custom zat on area 497 499
ed t ng
add ng to Data V ews 152 153
e ma 13
A ( nformat on arch tecture)
test ng usab ty 415 417
master page contro s 372
Start Approva Process act on 493
list actions 259
Add L st tem Perm ss ons 486
Check n tem 486
Check Out tem 486
Copy L st tem 486
Create L st tem 486
Dec are Record 486
De ete Drafts 486
De ete tem 486
De ete Prev ous Vers ons 486
D scard Check Out tem 486
nher t L st tem Parent Perm ss ons 487
Remove L st tem Perm ss ons 487
Rep ace L st tem Perm ss ons 487
Set Content Approva Status 487
Set F e d n Current tem 487
Undec are Record 487
Update L st tem 487
Wa t for Change n Document Check Out
Status 487
Wa t for F e d Change n Current tem 487
list columns 77–79
de et ng 105 106
ListData.svc 190
List Form Web Part (LFWP) 126–130
List Information (list settings page) 71
list item menu
custom act ons 89 93
lists 4, 5, 14, 69. See also libraries
assoc at ng reusab e workflows w th 290 292
ca cu ated co umns 80 81
XPath express ons 165 168
Common Content Tasks 390
content types
add ng document temp ates to 101 103
add ng s te co umns to 100 101
www.it-ebooks.info
master pages 537
assoc at ng 103 104
creat ng 98 100
copy ng 74
creat ng 70 74
mport ng data from Exce 76 77
ssue Track ng st 72 74, 74 76
creat ng Assoc at on co umns 293 294
creat ng connect ons 177 180
data ntegr ty
co umn va dat on 81 83
data sources 175
defau t sett ngs, chang ng 76 77
de et ng 105 106
externa 176, 209
creat ng 225 228
manag ng 225 228
SharePo nt Workspace 228
form pages
creat ng 125 129
mod fy ng 125 129
formu a co umns 163 165
mod fy ng connect ons 177 180
perm ss ons
remapp ng 88 89
remov ng workflows 285
secur ty 88 89
sett ngs
check ng n browsers 75
s te co umns 96 98
add ng to content types 100 101
creat ng 94 96
tasks 71 75
v ew pages
creat ng 123 125
mod fy ng 121 123
XLV Web Parts 121 123
workflows 5
XSLT L st V ew (XLV) Web Part
creat ng 83 86
Lists And Libraries gallery page 105
list settings page 71–72
Custom Act ons 91
List Template gallery 70
list templates 70–74
list view page
creat ng 226 228
list workflows 254
de et ng 285
list workflow templates 250–251
Log In As control 15
Login group
contro s 464
Log to History List action 483
lookup columns 472
Lookup For Integer dialog box 274
Lookup For Person Or Group dialog box 262, 266
Lookup For String dialog box 262, 291
Lookup Manager of a User action 488
LucernePublishing.png 464
M
Main Web Part zone 121
Manage Content Regions dialog box 388, 389
Managed Metadata Service (MMS) 56
Manage group (Workflow tab) 256
Manage Hierarchy level 41
Manage Lists rights 41
Manage Styles task pane 26, 335, 339
managing
ContentP aceHo der contro s 387 391
data sources 173
ECTs 242 244
externa sts 225 228
perm ss ons 41 44
task panes 27 31
users 41 44
Web pages 137 140
mapping
ECTs to Office tem types 222 225
workflows w th V s o Prem um 2010 277 281
Master Page gallery 443
perm ss ons 443
master pages 14, 368–376
add ng CSS to Code v ew 359 362
ASP.NET 368
attach ng 134 136
ContentP aceHo der contro s 367
manag ng 387 391
contro s 372 375
content p aceho ders 372
de egate 372
cons 372
nks 372
menus 372
nav gat on components 372
scr pts 372
copy ng 377 379
corev4.css 356 360
creat ng 130 132, 376
creat ng web pages from 391 395
custom z ng 377, 379 385
Data V ews 369
defau t 367, 370 371
chang ng 385 386
g oba meet ng workspace 370 371
m n ma .master 370 371
pub sh ng s tes 371
v4.master page 370 371
www.it-ebooks.info
538 master pages
master pages (continued)
export ng 395 396
g oba 370 371
dent fy ng CSS sty es 334 338
JavaScr pt 369
resett ng to s te defin t on 396 398
sav ng 377 379
Search box 369
S te Act ons button 369
structure 369
sty e sheets 369
tags 369
test ng usab ty 415 418
upgrad ng 393 395
v4.master 334
chang ng defau t master pages 385 386
copy ng 378 379
custom z ng 379 385
sav ng 378 379
v sua a ds 334, 374
Match Content Regions dialog box 135–136, 478
menus
master page contro s 372
Merge option
comb n ng re ated data 197
Message From Webpage dialog box 448
metadata
co umns 77
Microsoft Business Connectivity Services team
assoc at ons 238
Microsoft client software
censes 424
Microsoft Download Center
.NET Framework 250
Microsoft InfoPath dialog box 314
Microsoft Office applications
Access
creat ng nked tab es 231 234
creat ng ECTs 222 225
ECTs 228 231
Microsoft Office Customization Installer dialog
box 229
Microsoft PowerPoint
defin ng s te re at onsh ps 408 409
Microsoft SharePoint 2010 Administrator’s
Companion 503
Microsoft SharePoint 2010 Administrator’s Pocket
Consultant, 503
Microsoft SharePoint Designer dialog box 42, 43,
44, 113, 396, 453
pub sh ng process 269
Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010 start
page 506
Microsoft SharePoint Foundation 2010 Step by
Step 503
Microsoft SharePoint Foundation Data Retrieval
Service 174
Microsoft SharePoint Workflow 277–281
Microsoft Visio 5
defin ng s te re at onsh ps 408 409
Microsoft Visio dialog box 281
Mini gallery 15
minimal.master page 370–371
MMS (Managed Metadata Service) 56
Modified by a Specific Person condition 482
Modified in a Specific Date Span condition 482
Modify Field dialog box 316
Modify group (Workflow tab) 256
modifying. See also customizing
A tems v ew 121 123
CSS sty es 349 353
form pages 125 129
home pages 119 121
nfoPath forms 308 312
n t at on form parameters 316 318
st v ew pages 121 123
page ayouts 447 449
task forms 322 323
text n Data V ews 149 152
Web Parts 115 119
workflows 264 267
Modify Style dialog box 155, 157, 352
more-accessible mode 419
More Colors dialog box 412, 413
More Fields dialog box 383
Move Down command 264
Move Up command 264
multistep workflows
creat ng 273 276
N
names
URLs (Un form Resource Locators) 11 13
namespaces 461
navigation components
master page contro s 372
Navigation group
contro s 464
Navigation pane 7, 14, 52–53
navigation (site)
card sort ng 409
defin ng 408 409
.NET Framework 3.0
SharePo nt Des gner 250
New button
creat ng subs tes 46 47
New dialog box 46, 63, 386
new features 6–8
www.it-ebooks.info
pages 539
NewForm.aspx 72, 126
New group
L sts and L brar es tab 70
New Link—Webpage Dialog dialog box 437
New List View dialog box 124
New Page dialog box 435
New Publishing Site dialog box 432
New SharePoint Site 13
New Style dialog box 341, 347
New Web Part Page dialog box 392–396
Nielsen, Jakob
usab ty check st for des gn ng
prototypes 410 411
nodes 160
no-entry icon 24, 130
nonpublishing pages 130
NorthWind Customers list settings page 227
NotificationMessage variable 494
Operation Properties page (Operations
Wizard) 216
Operations Design view 212
manag ng ECTs 242 244
Operations Wizard 216
Options dialog box 19, 22
organization
s tes 4
outcomes
approva processes 496
Outlook
externa sts 229
owners 435–436
s te co ect ons 32 33
s te themes 38
O
Page Content field control 438
Page content type 442
Page Editor Options dialog box 20, 21–25, 22, 111
Author ng tab 330
Co or Cod ng tab 330
configur ng Code v ew 21 25
configur ng Des gn v ew 21 25
CSS tab 329
sett ng CSS opt ons 329 333
Page Layout And Site Template Settings page 508
Page layout designers 435
Page Layout gallery 444
page layouts 130, 430, 440–443
approv ng 451 452
content types 442 443
creat ng 442 447
detach ng 454 456
fie d contro s 434, 439
mod fy ng 447 449
reattach ng 454 456
restor ng 453 454
test ng usab ty 415 418
pages 20–25
Add A Workflow 299
A F es ga ery 74
ASP.NET
attach ng master pages 134 136
creat ng 130 132
creat ng from master pages 391 395
nsert ng Web Part zones 132 135
Co umns Ed tor 106
Configurat on Successfu 506
content
content p aceho ders 387 391
dent fy ng sty es on 339 341
nk ng w th master pages 391 395
objects
BCS 210
de et ng 105 106
Office applications
Access
creat ng nked tab es 231 234
creat ng ECTs 222 225
ECTs 228 231
Office Fluent UI 3, 6
Office Sync For External List option 229
On Approval Canceled event (Task Process
Behaviors page) 500
On Approval Completed event (Task Process
Behaviors page) 501
On Approval Running event (Task Process
Behaviors page) 500
On Approval Started event (Task Process Behaviors
page) 499
one-to-many relationships
assoc at ons 237 242
OneVoice for Accessible ICT Coalition 403–404
Only Allow Task Recipients And Process Owners To
Read And Edit Workflow Tasks setting 496
On Stage view 14–16
workspaces 18
On Task Assigning event 497
On Task Completed event 499
On Task Pending event 498
opening
Web s tes n SharePo nt Des gner 2010 17
Open SharePoint Site 13
Operation Completed Successfully page 62–65
P
www.it-ebooks.info
540 pages
pages (continued)
Content Types ga ery 100
CreateDVWP 145
Create S te Co ect on 507
custom zed 21
Data Sources ga ery 173, 183 184, 186, 193, 198
creat ng data connect ons 177 180
database connect ons 193
dynam ca y created defin t ons 177
mod fy ng data connect ons 177 180
DataSourceTest.aspx 183 184, 186, 193, 198
defau t 20
defin t on
resett ng 49 52
d rty pages 112
ed t ng
safe mode 21
ed tor 20
Expenses sett ngs 101
Externa Content Type sett ngs 213
Externa Content Types ga ery 213, 231
creat ng externa sts 226 228
fie d contro s 438
F ter Parameters (Operat ons W zard) 216
HTML
creat ng 344 345
JobApp cat on st sett ngs 269
L sts And L brar es ga ery 105
st sett ngs 71 72
Custom Act ons 91
st v ew
creat ng 226 228
manag ng task panes 27 31
master 368 376
ASP.NET 368
ContentP aceHo der contro s 367, 387 391
contro s 372 375
copy ng 377 379
corev4.css 356 360
creat ng 376
creat ng web pages from 391 395
custom z ng 377, 379 385
defau t 367, 370 371
export ng 395 396
g oba 370 371
dent fy ng CSS sty es 334 338
JavaScr pt 369
resett ng to s te defin t on 396 398
sav ng 377 379
Search box 369
S te Act ons button 369
structure 369
sty e sheets 369
tags 369
test ng usab ty 415 418
upgrad ng 393 395
v4.master 334
v sua a ds 334, 374
M crosoft SharePo nt Foundat on 2010 start 506
nonpub sh ng 130
NorthW nd Customers st sett ngs 227
Operat on Propert es (Operat ons W zard) 216
Page Ed tor Opt ons d a og box 21 25
Page Layout And S te Temp ate Sett ngs 508
Parameters Configurat on 223
Parameters (Operat ons W zard) 216
P aceHo derMa n 21
profi e
creat ng 233 237
pub sh ng 130, 430
approvers 435
rat ng funct ona ty 449 451
request ng 439 440
Remove Workflows 286
Reset Page To S te Defin t on Vers on 50
Return Parameter Configurat on 241
Run Configurat on W zard 506
Serv ce App cat ons 510
sett ngs
d sp ay ng 54
S te Assets ga ery 476
S te Content and Structure 45
S te Master Page Sett ngs 371
s te sett ngs
v ews 20
System Master Page 371
Task Process Behav ors
events 499 501
test ng 114
unghosted 21
v ew ng task panes 27 31
web
creat ng from master pages 391 395
Web Part
nsert ng Web Part zones 132 135
Web Parts 21
nsert ng hyper nks 110 114
nsert ng mages 110 114
nsert ng ScreenT ps 110 114
nsert ng text 110 114
tab es 131
We come 119 121
We come to SharePo nt Products 506
W k 21
CreateDVWP 145
tab es 131
Workflow Sett ngs 257, 290, 292, 301
creat ng workflows 253 258
www.it-ebooks.info
publishing 541
Pages library 137, 438, 440–443
co umn types 438
parallel blocks (actions) 259
creat ng 260 262
parameters
n t at on form 316 318
Parameters Configuration page 223
Parameters page (Operations Wizard) 216
parent sites
subs tes
chang ng perm ss ons 41 44
Pause for Duration action 484
Pause Until Date action 484
People Picker icon 42
permissions 8
Add And Custom ze
creat ng profi e pages 234
ECTs 510 511
eve s
Approve 41
Contr bute 41
Des gn 41
Fu Contro 41
Manage H erarchy 41
Read 41
Restr cted Read 41
V ew On y 41
sts
remapp ng 88 89
manag ng 41 44
Master Page ga ery 443
resources 44
r ghts
App y Themes and Borders 41
Create Subs tes 41
De ete tems 41
Manage L sts 41
subs tes
chang ng 41 44
workflow mpersonat on steps 256
Permissions area (files settings page) 137
Permissions column 42
personal health information (PHI) 425
Personal Information Protection and Electronic
Documents Act (PIPEDA) 424
personally identifiable information (PII) 425
personas
user requ rement documents 404 405
Person Is a Valid SharePoint User condition 482
PHI (personal health information) 425
Picture dialog box 157
Picture Properties dialog box 423
PII (personally identifiable information) 425
PIPEDA (Personal Information Protection and
Electronic Documents Act) 424
PlaceHolderBodyAreaClass content
placeholder 395
PlaceHolderMain 21
PlaceHolderMain (Custom) control 454
PlaceHolderQuickLaunchBottom content
placeholder 394
PlaceHolderQuickLaunchTop content
placeholder 394
placeholders (content)
manag ng 387 391
P aceHo derBodyAreaC ass 395
P aceHo derQu ckLaunchBottom 394
P aceHo derQu ckLaunchTop 394
P aceHo derT t eAreaC ass 395
PlaceHolderSiteName (Master) label 339
PlaceHolderTitleAreaClass content
placeholder 395
Please Wait dialog box 433
portal sites
themes
cascad ng sty e sheets 40
practice files xxiii–xxiv
exerc ses xxv xxv
practice sites
de et ng xxx
Presentation area (BCS) 209
presentation layer
creat ng 460 463
preview functionality (SharePoint Designer) 406
Preview In Multiple Browsers option 347
primary key field 237
privacy laws
s tes 424
Problem Details dialog box 422
processes
so ut ons 5
workflows 252
Products data source 199
Profile Page Creation dialog box 235
profile pages
creat ng 233 237
ECT host, configur ng 511 512
Project Page content type 442
properties
contro s 461
CSS 331
prototypes
des gn ng 408 411
check st 410 411
prototyping
so ut ons 5
<p> tag 351
publishing 40
nfoPath forms 313 316
workflows 267 273, 269 274
www.it-ebooks.info
542 Publishing Approval template Publishing Approval template 251
Publishing feature (SharePoint Server) 431
publishing pages 130, 430
approvers 435
rat ng funct ona ty 449 451
request ng 439 440
Publishing Portal site template 431
publishing sites
co umn types 443
creat ng 431 434
Page brary 137
Pages brary 438
Publishing site template
creat ng subs tes 431 433
Q
questions
n t at on forms 302
Quick Access Toolbar 14
Quick Publish command
pub sh ng nfoPath forms 313 316
Quick Tag Selector 23
R
RangeValidator control 469
ranking content (searches) 38
rating functionality
SharePo nt Server 2010 449 451
readability
URLs (Un form Resource Locators) 12
Read level 41
Read List operation
chang ng fi ter cr ter a 242 244
Read List Wizard 243
Really Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds 176
Reassignment setting 497
Reassign Task action 489
Recent Sites 13
Redirect Page content type 442
referential integrity
assoc at ons 238
RegularExpressionValidator control 469
regulations 424
relational actions 260
Lookup Manager of a User 488
relationships
one to many
assoc at ons 237 242
tab es 238
Remove List Item Permissions action 487
Remove Workflows page 286
removing
workflows 285 287
WSP so ut on fi e xx x xxx
Replace List Item Permissions action 487
reports
CSS 362 364
Reports, Navigation option 8
Representational State Transfer (REST) 190–192
Request a Change action 489
RequiredFieldValidator control 466, 468, 469
requirements
compat b ty
UCD methodo ogy 404 407
system requ rements
c ent computer xxv
c ent software xxv
server computer xxv xxv
user
personas 404 405
UCD methodo ogy 404 407
usage cases 404
usage scenar os 404
Rescind Task action 489
Reset Page To Site Definition Version page 50
Reset To Site Definition command 397
Reset To Site Definition dialog box 50
resources
perm ss ons 44
restoring
fi es 138 140
page ayouts 453 454
REST (Representational State Transfer) 190–192
Restricted Read level 41
restrictions 8
SharePo nt Des gner 2010
at Web app cat on eve 508 509
REST services 176
connect ng to 190 192
Exce Rest.aspx 190
L stData.svc 190
retrieving
data
from externa systems 211
va ues from n t at on forms 305 308
Return Parameter Configuration page 241
Return To The Workflow link 497
reusable workflows 254
assoc at ng w th sts 290 292
creat ng 290 292
creat ng Assoc at on co umns 293 294
errors 319
www.it-ebooks.info
server controls 543
g oba y reusab e workflows 295 298
Approva workflow 296
Co ect Feedback 296
Co ect S gnatures 296
creat ng 298 301
sav ng as .wsp fi es 294 295
ribbon 14
creat ng subs tes 46 47
Ribbon group 14
rights
App y Themes and Borders 41
Create Subs tes 41
De ete tems 41
Manage L sts 41
Rights Mask
custom act ons 90
root sites
creat ng g oba y reusab e Approva
workflows 296 298
creat ng g oba y reusab e workflows 298 301
RSS feeds
connect ng to XML fi es 183 184
server s de scr pts 185 187
RSSLink control 477
RSS (Really Simple Syndication) feeds 176
rules
CSS
add ng to Code v ew 359 362
CSS sty es 335
HTML tags 334
workflows 258
Rules task pane 312
Run Configuration Wizard page 506
S
safe mode 21
Save As dialog box 314
Save group (Workflow tab) 256
Save This Username And Password In The Data
Connection option (Data Source Properties
dialog box) 185
Save Web Part To Site Gallery dialog box 169
saving
content types 103
ECTs 222
nfoPath forms 313 316
master pages 377 379
reusab e workflows as .wsp fi es 294 295
s tes 8
s te temp ates 60 64
SBSSPDPracticeSite Starter.wsp 177–180, 254–258,
373
Schedule Web Analytics Alerts template 251
Schedule Web Analytics Reports template 251
screen-reader software
test ng user access b ty 420
ScreenTips
Web Parts
nsert ng 110 114
ScriptLink control 477
scripts
master page contro s 372
server s de
RSS feeds 185 187
Search box
master pages 369
searches
enterpr se 38
rank ng content 38
Section 508, Voluntary Product Accessibility
Templates (VPATs) 418
secure sensitive information (SSI) 425
Secure Store Service (SSS) 211
security
nternet Exp orer 18
brar es 88 89
sts 88 89
s tes 41
Select A Connection Definition File dialog box 232
Select A Field Or Group dialog box 321
Select a Master Page dialog box 392
Select A Master Page dialog box 135
selectors
CSS 331
Select Style Sheet dialog box 342, 347
Select Task Process Participants dialog box 493
Select Users dialog box 262, 266
Select XML File dialog box 465
Send an Email action 484
Send a Task Notification Email action 489
Send Document Set to Repository action 485
Send Document to Repository action 484
Send Document to Repository category (core
actions) 259
sequence numbers 89–91
serial actions (workflows) 259
server computer
requ rements xxv xxv
server controls 476–479
AspMenu 477
ASP.NET 460, 464 466
CssL nk 477
RSSL nk 477
Scr ptL nk 477
SPCa endarNav gat on 477
Theme 477
www.it-ebooks.info
544 Server Error dialog box Server Error dialog box 195
server ribbon custom actions 89, 93–95
server-side scripts 176
RSS feeds 185 187
server sites
enab ng s te temp ates 507
Service Applications page 510
services
REST 176
connect ng to 190 192
Exce Rest.aspx 190
L stData.svc 190
SOAP 176
connect ng to 188 190
Web
BCS 212
Set Content Approval Status action 487
Set Content Approval Status (as author) action 489
Set Content Approval Status for the Document Set
action 485
Set Field in Current Item action 487
Set Hyperlink ScreenTip dialog box 112
Set Task Field action 489
Set Time Portion of Date/Time Field action 484
Settings area
creat ng approva processes 496 497
Settings area (Workflow Settings page) 257
settings page
d sp ay ng 54
Settings page 15
Set Workflow Status action 484
Set Workflow Status category (core actions) 259
Set Workflow Variable action 484
shapes
V s o Prem um 2010 283
Shapes pane (Visio) 279
Shared Documents 54
Shared Documents dialog box 118
SharePoint 2010 Central Administration Web
site 209
creat ng profi e pages 233
SharePoint controls 460
SharePoint Designer
creat ng profi e pages 233
SharePoint Designer 2010 1
cascad ng sty e sheet task panes 328
Compat b ty task pane
test ng s te compat b ty 406 407
creat ng workflows 253 258
Hyper nks task pane
test ng usab ty 415 417
.NET Framework 3.0 250
new features 6 8
prev ew funct ona ty 406
restr ct ons at Web app cat on eve 508 509
vers ons 3
Web safe co or pa ette
test ng co or access b ty 412 414
SharePoint Designer windows 47
SharePoint Foundation
perm ss on eve s 41
vers on ng 377
SharePoint Foundation 2010 1, 7
Authent cat on sect on 195
configur ng 504 507
nsta ng 504 507
brar es 70
sts 70
SharePoint Products and Technologies 3
SharePoint Products Configuration
Wizard 506–507
SharePoint Server
perm ss on eve s 41
vers on ng 377
SharePoint Server 2010 1
creat ng profi e pages 233 237
ECM 429
brar es 70
sts 70
Pub sh ng feature 431
rat ng funct ona ty 449 451
WCM 429
Web content management 430, 433 437
creat ng pub sh ng s tes 431 434
SharePoint Server Publishing feature 40
SharePoint Server Publishing Infrastructure
feature 40
SharePoint Workflow Actions 277–281
SharePoint Workflow Conditions 277–281
SharePoint Workflow Terminators 277–281
SharePoint Workspace
externa sts 228
Shipments.xml 180–182
shortcut keys
sw tch ng between tabs 23
Show Column Totals Per Group option 150
Show Content condition 159
showing
content 157 160
SilverlightSPDSBS.xap file 115
Silverlight Web Part dialog box 116
Site Actions button
master pages 369
Site Assets gallery
fi e sett ngs page 137 138
Site Assets gallery page 476
Site Assets library 137
add ng XML fi es to 180 182
up oad ng mages to 90 93
Site Collection Administration section 33–34
Site Collection Images library 434
www.it-ebooks.info
sites 545
site collections 9
adm n strators 32
content types
creat ng 98 100
creat ng 506 507
open ng subs tes 444
owners 32 33
pub sh ng 40
Pub sh ng feature (SharePo nt Server) 431
root s tes
creat ng g oba y reusab e Approva work
flows 296 298
creat ng g oba y reusab e workflows 298 301
S te Co ect on mages brary 434
site columns 56, 96–98
add ng to content types 100 101
add ng to page ayout content types 449 451
content types
creat ng 98 100
creat ng 94 96
Site Columns Picker dialog box 97, 101, 450
Site Content and Structure page 45
site definition
resett ng master pages to 396 398
site definition pages
resett ng 49 52
Site Definition Page Warning dialog box 390, 397
site definitions 9, 61
Site Master Page Settings page 371
Site Owners group 32
Site Pages gallery
fi e sett ngs page 137 138
Site Pages library 137
A Pages v ew 386
sites
access b ty eg s at on 418 421
access ng 52
brand ng 327
add ng CSS to Code v ew 359 362
attach ng CSS fi es 340 343
creat ng CSS fi es 340 343
creat ng HTML pages 344 345
creat ng sty es 346 349
CSS nher tance 356 360
CSS reports 362 364
de et ng sty es 349 353
des gn ng for access b ty 411 414
dent fy ng CSS sty es 333 338
dent fy ng sty es on content pages 339 342
mod fy ng sty es 349 353
Sty e App cat on group commands 353 355
text 328
ch d 9, 431
s te co umns 94
sty e nher tance 356
co ect ons
creat ng ch d s tes 45 48
components
nav gat ng 56
contro s 24
copyr ghts 424
creat ng 8 12
from s te temp ates 61 64
from WSP so ut on fi e xx x
custom zed
upgrad ng 51 52
custom z ng 3
so ut ons 6
de et ng 48 49
descr pt ons 38 40
exp or ng 52 55
Foundat on
searches 38
groups
ed t ng 43
h erarch es
creat ng 45 48
home pages
mod fy ng 119 121
A ( nformat on arch tecture)
des gn ng prototypes 408 411
cens ng 424
ma nta n ng 435 436
nav gat on
card sort ng 409
defin ng 408 409
organ z ng 4
owners 435 436
themes 38
page ayouts 430, 440 443
approv ng 451 452
content types 442 443
creat ng 442 447
detach ng 454 456
mod fy ng 447 449
reattach ng 454 456
restor ng 453 454
pages 20 25
pract ce
de et ng xxx
presentat on ayer
creat ng 460 463
pr vacy aws 424
pub sh ng 40
co umn types 443
creat ng 431 434
defau t master pages 371
Pages brary 438
regu at ons 424
www.it-ebooks.info
546 sites
sites (continued)
root
creat ng g oba y reusab e Approva work
flows 296 298
creat ng g oba y reusab e workflows 298 301
sav ng 8
searches
rank ng content 38
secur ty 41
server
enab ng s te temp ates 507
SharePo nt s tes compared to non Sharepo nt
s tes 3
subs tes 9
chang ng perm ss ons 41 43
creat ng 431 434
creat ng w th Team S te temp ate 9 10
open ng n s te co ect ons 444
team. See team s tes
temp ates 8
resett ng 49 52
test ng access b ty 418 421
Access b ty task pane 421 423
check st 420 421
ma nta n ng comp ance 423 426
test ng compat b ty 406 407
themes
cascad ng sty e sheets 40
chang ng 38 40
co ors 39
fonts 39
t t es 38 40, 47
top eve 9
Team S te temp ate 45
URLs (Un form Resource Locators)
mod fy ng 39
var at ons 430
w dewor d mporters 10
Site Settings dialog box 8
site settings page
v ews 20
site templates
ceat ng 61 64
creat ng ch d s tes 45 48
enab ng on SharePo nt server s tes 507
Enterpr se Search Center 431
Pub sh ng
creat ng subs tes 431 433
Pub sh ng Porta 431
sav ng 60 64
so ut ons 60
SPDSBS S tes 63
V s o Process Repos tory 70
Site Templates 13
Site To Load Templates From dialog box 432
site workflows 254
creat ng 275 277
site workflow templates 251–252
SOAP services 176
connect ng to 188 190
solutions 4, 5
creat ng s tes 8 12
custom z ng s tes 6
prototyp ng 5
sav ng s tes 8
s te temp ates 60
.wsp fi es 60
Solutions Gallery: Upload Solution dialog
box xxviii
solution WSP file
creat ng s tes from xx x
remov ng xx x xxx
up oad ng xxv xx x
Sort And Group dialog box 124, 149, 161, 228
sort expressions
add ng 161 163
sorting
data n Data V ew 149 152
SPCalendarNavigation control 477
SPDataSource control 152, 472, 473
SPD SBS Job Application workflow
creat ng n t at on forms 303 305
mod fy ng assoc at on forms 318 319
mod fy ng n t at on form parameters 316 318
retr ev ng va ues from n t at on forms 305 308
SPDSBSPracticeSite Starter.wsp
creat ng Data V ews 145 149
SPDSBS Sites site template 63
Split Cells dialog box 128
Split view 20
SQL Server
authent cat on 176
BCS components 210
creat ng externa data sources 212 215
database connect ons 192 198
censes 424
SQL Server Compact Edition 229
SQL Server Connection dialog box 214
SSI (secure sensitive information) 425
SSS (Secure Store Service) 211
Standard group
contro s 464
Start Approval Process action 488, 491
custom z ng workflows 493 494
Start Custom Task Process action 260, 488
Start Document Set Approval Process action 485,
491
Start Feedback Process action 488, 494
Start Options area (Workflow Settings page) 257,
272
www.it-ebooks.info
task panes 547
static Web Parts 115
status bar 15, 23
statuses
v sua a ds 23
stencils
Shapes pane (V s o) 279
steps (workflows) 273
Stock.aspx 154–155, 157–159, 164–165, 169–170
Stop Workflow action 484
String Builder dialog box 291, 306, 307
Style Application group commands 353–355
styles
CSS 331, 332 333
creat ng 346 349
de et ng 349 353
dent fy ng 333 338
dent fy ng on content pages 339 341
n ne 340 341
Manage Sty es task pane 335
mod fy ng 349 353
ru es 334, 335
styles folder 358
style sheets
master pages 369
Style tab 341
subsites 9
creat ng 431 433
creat ng w th Team S te temp ate 9 10
open ng n s te co ect ons 444
perm ss ons
chang ng 41 44
Summary view
ECTs 216
manag ng ECTs 242 244
switching
between tabs 23
symbols
no entry 130
System Master Page 371
system requirements
c ent computer xxv
c ent software xxv
server computer xxv xxv
T
tables
ayout tab es 8
re at onsh ps 238
Web Part pages 131
W k pages 131
tabs
sw tch ng between 23
Tag Properties task pane 26, 468
nsert ng contro s 460 463
tags
<d v>
nsert ng Web Part zones 131
master pages 369
WebPartPagesS ver ghtWebPart 116
XML 159 160
tags (HTML)
CSS 331
HTML
CSS sty es 334
<d v> 337
<p> tag 351
task actions 260
Ass gn a Form to a Group 488
Ass gn a To do tem 488
Co ect Data from a User 488
Start Approva Process 488, 491
custom z ng workflows 493 494
Start Custom Task Process 488
Start Feedback Process 488, 494
task behavior actions
Append Task 489
De egate Task 489
End Task Process 489
Esca ate Task 489
Extract Substr ng from End of Str ng 490
Extract Substr ng from ndex of Str ng 490
Extract Substr ng from Start of Str ng 490
Extract Substr ng of Str ng from ndex w th
Length 490
F nd nterva Between Dates 490
Forward Task 489
nsert Task 489
Reass gn Task 489
Request a Change 489
Resc nd Task 489
Send a Task Not ficat on Ema 489
Set Content Approva Status (as author) 489
Set Task F e d 489
Wa t for Change n Task Process tem 489
Wa t for De et on n Task Process tem 489
Task Form Fields area
creat ng approva processes 495
task forms
co ect ng nformat on 495
mod fy ng 322 323
Task Outcomes area
creat ng approva processes 496
task panes 15, 26–31. See also individual names of
Access b ty 26
App y Sty es 26
Behav ors 26
C p Art 27
www.it-ebooks.info
548 task panes
task panes (continued)
C pboard 27
Compat b ty 27
Cond t ona Formatt ng 26
CSS Propert es 26
CSS Reports 27
Data Source Deta s 26
F nd 1 26
F nd 2 26
Hyper nks 27
Layers 26
Manage Sty es 26
manag ng 27 31
Tag Propert es 26
Too box 26
v ew ng 27 31
Task Process Behaviors page
events 499 501
tasks
workflows 253
tasks lists
A tems v ew
mod fy ng 121 123
Tasks section 270
team sites
add ng ed t ng nks to Data V ews 153 154
add ng Web Parts 115 119
attach ng master pages 135 137
chang ng home page 120 121
cond t ona formatt ng 154 155
creat ng ASP.NET pages 131 134
creat ng st form pages 126 129
creat ng st v ew pages 123 125
creat ng new pages 111 114
de et ng Web Parts 115 119
h d ng content 157 159
manag ng fi es 138 140
mod fy ng A tems v ew 121 123
mod fy ng Web Parts 115 119
show ng content 157 159
XPath express ons 166 168
Team Site template 13, 45
creat ng subs tes 9 10
Telerik
access b ty/comp ance too s 425
TEMPLATE folder 9–10
templates 8
B ank S te, B og 13
document
add ng to content types 101 103
Ed t
n ne ed t ng 152 154
Enterpr se Search Center s te 431
Group Work S te 70
st 70 74
Pub sh ng Porta 431
Pub sh ng s te
creat ng subs tes 431 433
resett ng 49 52
s te
ceat ng 61 64
creat ng ch d s tes 45 48
enab ng on SharePo nt server s tes 507
sav ng 60 64
so ut ons 60
V s o Process Repos tory 70
Team S te 13, 45
creat ng subs tes 9 10
workflow 250 252, 252, 294 295
Approva 491, 493 494
st 250 251
s te 251 252
testing
access b ty 418 423
Access b ty task pane 421 423
check st 420 421
ma nta n ng comp ance 423 426
ASP.NET forms 475 476
co or access b ty 412 414
pages 114
s te compat b ty 406 407
usab ty 414 417
workflows 269 274
text
brand ng s tes 328
mod fy ng n Data V ews 149 152
Web Parts
nsert ng 110 114
Text Box Properties dialog box 311, 319
TheByCountry.aspx page 227
The File Size in a Specific Range Kilobytes
condition 482
The File Type Is a Specific Type condition 482
Theme control 477
Theme gallery 38
themes
cascad ng sty e sheets 40
chang ng 38 40
co ors 39
fonts 39
These Users link (Start Approval Process
action) 493–494
www.it-ebooks.info
utility actions 549
third-party tools
access b ty 425 426
comp ance 425 426
thumbnails 110
Times New Roman 22
title bar 13
Title Field Contains Keywords condition 482
titles
s tes 47
Web Part zones 132
titles (sites)
chang ng 38 40
toolbars
nternet Exp orer Deve oper 334
Toolbox task pane 26
server contro s 476 479
Tools area (BCS) 209
top level sites 9
Team S te temp ate 45
Tracking category 70
Translation Management template 251
U
UCD methodology
402
access b ty eg s at on 418 421
compat b ty requ rements 404 407
des gn ng prototypes 408 411
mp ement ng 402 403
test ng access b ty 418 421
test ng usab ty 414 417
user requ rements 404 407
UDC (Universal Data Connection) 177
UIs (user interfaces)
access ng s tes 52
Office F uent 3, 6
Undeclare Record action 487
unghosted pages 21
Unicode (UTF-8) language 22
Uniform Resource Locators (URL)
mod fy ng 39
Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) 9
dashes 13
hyphens 13
ength 12
names 11 13
readab ty 12
w dewor d mporters 10
Universal Data Connection (UDC) 177
Untitled 1.aspx 461
Update List Item action 487
upgrading
custom zed s tes 51 52
master pages 393 395
uploading
WSP so ut on fi e xxv xx x
URLs (Uniform Resource Locators) 9
dashes 13
hyphens 13
ength 12
mod fy ng 39
names 11 13
readab ty 12
w dewor d mporters 10
usability 401
best pract ces 403
check st for des gn ng prototypes 410 411
test ng 414 417
UCD methodo ogy
mp ement ng 402 403
usage scenarios
user requ rement documents 404
use cases
user requ rement documents 404
User Account Control dialog box 507, 509, 510
user-centered design. See UCD methodology
user data entry
va dat ng 466 468
user-defined workflows 249
d sab ng 511 512
enab ng 511 512
user interfaces (UI)
access ng s tes 52
Office F uent 3, 6
user requirements
personas 404 405
UCD methodo ogy 404 407
usage cases
404
usage scenar os 404
users
manag ng 41 44
User’s Identity authenticaton mode (BCS) 212
Use Single Sign-On Authentication option 195
Use Single Sign-On Authentication option (Data
Source Properties dialog box) 185
Use Windows Authentication option (Data Source
Properties dialog box) 185
utility actions 260
www.it-ebooks.info
550 v4.master V
v4.master 334, 370–371
chang ng defau t master pages 385 386
copy ng 378 379
custom z ng master pages 379 385
sav ng 378 379
validating
co umns 81 83
user data entry 466 468
workflows 269 274
validation controls
ASP.NET 468 470
CompareVa dator 468
Validation group
contro s 464
ValidationSummary control 469
value pairs 332
values
retr ev ng from n t at on forms 305 308
variables
Approva workflow temp ate 493 494
Approvers 494
Cance onChange 494
DueDateforA Tasks 494
Not ficat onMessage 494
Variables group (Workflow tab) 256
variations 430
Verify Hyperlinks dialog box 417
Version History area (files settings page) 137
versioning
SharePo nt Foundat on 377
SharePo nt Server 377
versions 3
View controls 464
View dialog box 94
Viewers site group
prevent ng access to s tes 41 43
viewing
task panes 27 31
XML fi e content w th Data Source Deta s task
pane 180 182
View Only level 41
view pages
st
creat ng 123 125
mod fy ng 121 123
XLV Web Parts 121 123
views
A tems
mod fy ng 121 123
A Pages
S te Pages brary 386
Approva .xsn form 491
Code 20, 21, 25
add ng CSS ru es to 359 362
configur ng w th Page Ed tor Opt ons d a og
box 21 25
XSLT 165 168
Data 143
cond t ona formatt ng 154 157
creat ng 144 149
custom z ng 149 152
database connect ons 192 198
data entry 152 154
fi ter ng 176
formu a co umns 163 165
group ng data n 149 152
h d ng content 157 160
n ne ed t ng 152 154
master pages 369
mod fy ng text n 149 152
reus ng 168 170
show ng content 157 160
sort ng data n 149 152
XSLT 144
Des gn 20, 25
configur ng w th Page Ed tor Opt ons d a og
box 21 25
On Stage 14 16
workspaces 18
Operat ons Des gn 212
manag ng ECTs 242 244
Sp t 20
Summary
ECTs 216
manag ng ECTs 242 244
Views (list settings page) 71
Visio 2010
workflows 7
Visio Premium 2010
act ons 283
cond t ons 283
export ng workflows to draw ngs 283 284
mport ng workflows from 281 283
mapp ng workflows 277 281
shapes 283
Visio Process Repository site template 70
www.it-ebooks.info
Web Parts 551
visitors 435
visual aids 334
master pages 334, 374
status 23
Visual Aids command 374
voice recognition software
test ng user access b ty 420
VPATs (Section 508, Voluntary Product Accessibility
Templates) 418
.vwi file 278
export ng workflows 283 284
W
W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) 22, 403
co ors 412, 418
WCAG (Web Content Access b ty Gu de nes) 418
Wait for Change in Document Check-Out Status
action 487
Wait for Change in Task Process Item action 489
Wait for Deletion in Task Process Item action 489
Wait for Field Change in Current Item action 487
WCAG (Web Content Accessibility Guidelines) 418
WCM. See Web Content Management
Web applications 9
restr ct ons of SharePo nt Des gner 2010 508 509
WebBots 8
Web browsers 4
access ng s tes 52
compat b ty 405 406
de et ng workflows 285 287
ed t ng Web content 110
n ne ed t ng 152 154
nternet Exp orer
secur ty sett ngs 18
brary tasks 71 75
st defin t ons 70
st sett ngs 75
st tasks 71 75
sett ngs
Web Part zones 132
start ng s te workflows 276 277
test ng pages 114
Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG).
See WCAG
Web Content Management 430, 433–437
creat ng pub sh ng s tes 431 434
Web pages
manag ng 137 140
Web Part Connections Wizard 202
Web Part gallery 5
WebPartPages:DataFormWebPart control 380, 382
WebPartPagesSilverlightWebPart tag 116
Web Parts
Bus ness Data Re ated L st
assoc at ons 237
c osed Web Parts 119
compared to contro s 459
connect ng 5, 202 205
Content Ed tor Web Part (CEWP)
resett ng 49
creat ng pages
nsert ng Web Part zones 132 135
Data
master pages 369
Data Form 5
Data V ews 5, 143
cond t ona formatt ng 154 157
creat ng 144 149
custom z ng 149 152
database connect ons 192 198
data entry 152 154
fi ter ng 176
formu a co umns 163 165
group ng data n 149 152
h d ng content 157 160
n ne ed t ng 152 154
mod fy ng text n 149 152
reus ng 168 170
show ng content 157 160
sort ng data n 149 152
XSLT 144
de et ng 115 119
dep oy ng 168 170
DFWP (Data Form Web Part) 115
creat ng st form pages 126
DVWP (Data V ew Web Part). See also Data V ews
add ng to master pages 379 385
dynam c 115
hyper nks
nsert ng 110 114
mages
nsert ng 110 114
LFWP (L st Form Web Part) 126 130
mod fy ng 115 119
pages 21
tab es 131
ScreenT ps
nsert ng 110 114
www.it-ebooks.info
552 Web Parts
Web Parts (continued)
stat c 115
text
nsert ng 110 114
XLV 114
add ng ed t ng nks to 152 153
cond t ona formatt ng 154 157
st v ew pages 121 123
reus ng 168 170
XSLT L st V ew (XLV) 83 88
creat ng 83 86
custom z ng 86 87
zones
Data V ews 144
<d v> 131
frame sty es 132
nsert ng 132 135
nsert ng Web Parts nto 132 135
ayouts 132
Ma n 121
sett ngs 132
t t es 132
Web Part Zone Properties dialog box 133
Web safe color palette
test ng co or access b ty 412 414
Web Service Description Language (WSDL) 188
Web services
BCS 212
XML Web serv ces 5
Web sites
Centra Adm n strat on 8
Channe 9 313
open ng n SharePo nt Des gner 2010 17
SharePo nt 2010 Centra Adm n strat on 209
creat ng profi e pages 233
WebUIValidation.js 469
Welcome page 119–121
Welcome Page content type 443
Welcome to SharePoint Products page 506
wfpub library
g oba y reusab e workflows 296
WF (Windows Workflow Foundation) 250
WideWorldImporter.png 464
WideWorldImporters Expense Approval globally
reusable workflow
mod fy ng task forms 322 323
wideworldimporters site 10
Wiki Page library
creat ng 72 74
Wiki pages 21
CreateDVWP 145
tab es 131
windows
SharePo nt Des gner 47
Windows dialog box 461
Windows Security dialog box 44
Windows Server
censes 424
Windows Workflow Foundation (WF) 250
wizards
Assoc at on 239 243
Database nterface 8
L nk Data Sources 199
Operat ons 216
Read L st 243
SharePo nt Products Configurat on 506 507
Web Part Connect ons 202
workflow
SPD SBS Job App cat on
mod fy ng assoc at on forms 318 319
workflow editor 5
creat ng workflows 253 258
Workflow editor page
mod fy ng workflows 264 267
Workflow Error dialog box 512
Workflow Errors Found dialog box 267–273
Workflow Form Update Required dialog box 317
Workflow Foundation (WF) 250
Workflow History section 270
Workflow Information area (Workflow Settings
page) 257
workflows 5, 7, 14
act ons 258 264
Co ect Data from a User 267
core 259, 483 484
creat ng 260 262
Document Set Act ons 259
L st Act ons 259
para e b ocks 259, 260 262
Re at ona Act ons 260
ser a 259
Start Custom Task Process 260
Task Act ons 260
Ut ty Act ons 260
V s o Prem um 2010 283
act v t es 258
Approva
content pages 429
assoc at ng w th brar es 254 258
co ect ng nformat on from users on startup 258
cond t ons 258 264
creat ng 260 262
steps 273
V s o Prem um 2010 283
www.it-ebooks.info
WSP solution file 553
creat ng assoc at on forms 301 305
creat ng n t at on forms 301 305
creat ng w th SharePo nt Des gner 253 258
custom act ons 89 93
custom act v t es 260
custom z ng
Start Approva Process act on 493 494
de et ng 285 287
dep oy ng 267 273, 269 274
E se branch 273
export ng to V s o draw ngs 283 284
g oba y reusab e workflows 253
295 298
creat ng 298 301
mpersonat on steps 256
mport ng from V s o Prem um 2010 281 283
mport V s o 254
nstances 252, 252 253
remov ng 285 287
st 254
de et ng 285
mapp ng w th V s o Prem um 2010 277 281
mod fy ng 264 267
mu t step
creat ng 273 276
processes 252
pub sh ng 267 273, 269 274
remov ng 285 287
reusab e 254
assoc at ng w th sts 290 292
creat ng 290 292
creat ng Assoc at on co umns 293 294
errors 319
sav ng as .wsp fi es 294 295
ru es 258
shapes
V s o Prem um 2010 283
s te 254
creat ng 275 277
steps 273
tasks 253
temp ates 250 252, 252
st 250 251
s te 251 252
test ng 269 274
user defined 249
d sab ng 511 512
enab ng 511 512
va dat ng 269 274
Workflow Settings dialog box 513
Workflow Settings page 257, 290, 292, 301
creat ng workflows 253 258
Forms area 272
mod fy ng workflows 264 267
Start Opt ons area 272
Workflows gallery 299
Workflows library 268–269
fo ders 268
Workflows (list settings page) 72
Workflow tab 256
Check For Errors command 267
Workflow Task dialog box 271
workflow templates 294–295
Approva 491
var ab es 493 494
workflow.vdx 278
Workflow Visualization section 270
workflow.xoml 278
workflow.xoml.rules 278
worksheets (Excel)
creat ng sts 72 74
mport ng data to create sts 76 77
workspaces 15
Code v ew 25
Des gn v ew 25
g oba meet ng workspace master pages 370 371
On Stage v ew 18
Shared Documents 54
s te sett ngs page 20
workstations
cond t ons 481 482
Created By a Spec fic Person 482
Created n a Spec fic Date Span 482
f Any Va ue Equa s Va ue 481 482
f Current tem F e d Equa s Va ue 481
f Task Outcome Equa s Va ue 482
Mod fied by a Spec fic Person 482
Mod fied n a Spec fic Date Span 482
Person s a Va d SharePo nt User 482
The F e S ze n a Spec fic Range K obytes 482
The F e Type s a Spec fic Type 482
T t e F e d Conta ns Keywords 482
World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) 22, 403
co ors 412
Web Content Access b ty Gu de nes (WCAG) 418
WSDL (Web Service Description Language) 188
.wsp files 60, 61
mov ng workflows between s tes 283 284
sav ng reusab e workflows as 294 295
WSP solution file
creat ng s tes from xx x
remov ng xx x xxx
up oad ng xxv xx x
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554 XLV Web Parts X
XLV Web Parts 83–88, 114
add ng ed t ng nks to 152 153
cond t ona formatt ng 154 157
creat ng 83 86
custom z ng 86 87
st v ew pages 121 123
reus ng 168 170
XML 159–160
data
retr ev ng w th server scr pt connect ons 185
187
fi es 176
RSS feed connect ons 183 184
tags 159 160
XSLT 160 163
XML File Connection command 183
XML files
add ng to S te Assets brary 180 182
XML Path Language (XPath) 160
XML Web services 5
connect ng to SOAP serv ces 188 190
.xoml file 268
.xoml.rules file 268
.xoml.wfconfig.xml file 268
XPath Expression Builder
formu a co umns 163 165
XPath Expression Builder dialog box 164
XPath expressions 165–168
XPath (XML Path Language) 160
XSLT 143, 160–163
add ng sort express ons 161 163
Code v ew 165 168
Data V ews 144
XML 160 163
XSLT editor
add ng sort express ons 161 163
XsltListViewWebPart control 145
XSLT List View (XLV) Web Part 83–88
creat ng 83 86
custom z ng 86 87
.xsn 268
Z
zones (Web Parts)
browser sett ngs 132
Data V ews 144
<d v> 131
frame sty es
132
nsert ng 132 135
nsert ng Web Parts nto 132 135
ayouts 132
Ma n 121
t t es 132
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About the Author
Penelope Coventry is a Microsoft Most Valuable Professional (MVP) for Microsoft
SharePoint Server and an independent consultant based in the United Kingdom, with
more than 30 years of industry experience. She currently focuses on the design, implementation, and development of SharePoint technology–based solutions. She has worked
with SharePoint since 2001. Most recently, she has worked for the international financial
services group Aviva PLC, the U.K. Parliament, and the ATLAS U.K. defense consortium,
as well as provided consultancy services to Microsoft Gold partners ICS Solutions and
Combined Knowledge. She has produced SharePoint-related courseware for Mindsharp
since 2002.
Penny has authored and coauthored a number of books. They include both editions
of Microsoft Office SharePoint Designer 2007 Step by Step, Microsoft SharePoint 2010
Administrator’s Companion, Microsoft Office SharePoint Server 2007 Administrator’s
Companion, Microsoft SharePoint Products and Technologies Resources Kit, Microsoft
SharePoint Foundation 2010 Step by Step, and both editions of Microsoft Windows
SharePoint Services Step by Step. Penny is frequently seen at TechEd and IT Forum, either as a technical learning guide or on the SharePoint Ask-the-Experts panels. She also
speaks at the SharePoint Best Practices conferences, the European SharePoint Evolution
Conference, Swedish SharePoint and Exchange Forums, SharePoint User Group U.K.
meetings, and U.K. SharePoint Saturdays.
Penny lives in Hinckley, Leicestershire, England, with her husband, Peter, and dog, Poppy.
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