CCNP®: Cisco Internetwork Troubleshooting Study Guide

CCNP®: Cisco Internetwork Troubleshooting Study Guide
Cisco Internetwork
Study Guide
Arthur Pfund
Todd Lammle
SYBEX® Page i Tuesday, September 23, 2003 1:59 PM
Cisco Internetwork
Study Guide Page ii Tuesday, September 23, 2003 1:59 PM Page iii Tuesday, September 23, 2003 1:59 PM
Cisco Internetwork
Study Guide
Arthur Pfund
Todd Lammle
San Francisco • London Page iv Tuesday, September 23, 2003 1:59 PM
Associate Publisher: Neil Edde
Acquisitions Editor: Maureen Adams
Developmental Editor: Heather O’Connor
Production Editor: Liz Burke
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Library of Congress Card Number: 2003109124
ISBN: 0-7821-4295-8
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To Our Valued Readers:
Thank you for looking to Sybex for your CCNP certification exam prep needs. We at Sybex
are proud of the reputation we’ve established for providing certification candidates with the
practical knowledge and skills needed to succeed in the highly competitive IT marketplace.
Sybex is proud to have helped thousands of Cisco certification candidates prepare for their
exams over the years, and we are excited about the opportunity to continue to provide computer and networking professionals with the skills they’ll need to succeed in the highly competitive IT industry.
We at Sybex are proud of the reputation we’ve established for providing certification candidates with the practical knowledge and skills needed to succeed in the highly competitive IT
marketplace. It has always been Sybex’s mission to teach individuals how to utilize technologies in the real world, not to simply feed them answers to test questions. Just as Cisco is committed to establishing measurable standards for certifying those professionals who work in
the cutting-edge field of internetworking, Sybex is committed to providing those professionals
with the means of acquiring the skills and knowledge they need to meet those standards.
The author and editors have worked hard to ensure that the Study Guide you hold in your
hand is comprehensive, in-depth, and pedagogically sound. We’re confident that this book
will exceed the demanding standards of the certification marketplace and help you, the Cisco
certification candidate, succeed in your endeavors.
As always, your feedback is important to us. Please send comments, questions, or suggestions
to [email protected] At Sybex we're continually striving to meet the needs of individuals
preparing for IT certification exams.
Good luck in pursuit of your CCNP certification!
Neil Edde
Associate Publisher—Certification
Sybex, Inc. Page vi Tuesday, September 23, 2003 1:59 PM
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reselling or redistributing these files without authorization is expressly forbidden except as specifically provided for by the Owner(s) therein. Page vii Tuesday, September 23, 2003 1:59 PM
To my parents for helping me become the person I am today. Page viii Tuesday, September 23, 2003 1:59 PM
First, I would like to thank my wife Michele for her support during this effort. I would also
like to thank the rest of my family for their moral support, especially my parents and grandparents for their words of encouragement and motivation. In addition, thanks to the wonderful
group of people at Sybex that helped me get through the process. Especially, thanks to Liz Burke
and Heather O’Conner for their assistance. As always, they were a great team to work with!! Page ix Tuesday, September 23, 2003 1:59 PM
Contents at a Glance
Assessment Test
Chapter 1
Troubleshooting Methodology
Chapter 2
Network Documentation
Chapter 3
End-System Documentation and Troubleshooting
Chapter 4
Protocol Attributes
Chapter 5
Cisco Diagnostic Commands and
TCP/IP Connectivity Troubleshooting
Chapter 6
TCP/IP Routing Protocol Troubleshooting
Chapter 7
Troubleshooting Serial Line and Frame Relay Connectivity
Chapter 8
Troubleshooting ISDN
Chapter 9
Troubleshooting Switched Ethernet
Chapter 10
Applying Cisco’s Diagnostic Tools
489 Page x Tuesday, September 23, 2003 1:59 PM Page xi Tuesday, September 23, 2003 1:59 PM
Table of Contents
Assessment Test
Troubleshooting Methodology
The Complexity of Internetworks
The Problem-Solving Model
Step 1: Define the Problem
Step 2: Gather Facts
Step 3: Consider Possibilities
Steps 4 and 5: Create and Implement the Action Plan
Step 6: Observe Results
Step 7: Iterate as Needed
Document the Changes
Exam Essentials
Key Terms
Review Questions
Answers to Review Questions
Network Documentation
The Network Baseline
Network Configuration Table
Router Network Configuration Table
Switch Network Configuration Table
Network Topology Diagrams
Components of a Network Topology Diagram
Creating a Network Topology Diagram
Exam Essentials
Commands Used in This Chapter
Key Terms
Review Questions
Answers to Review Questions
End-System Documentation and Troubleshooting
End-System Network Configuration Table
Creating an End-System Network Configuration Table
55 Page xii Tuesday, September 23, 2003 1:59 PM
Table of Contents
End-System Network Topology Diagram
Creating an End-System Network Topology Diagram
Troubleshooting End-System Problems
Troubleshooting by Layer
End-System Troubleshooting Commands
Exam Essentials
Commands Used in This Chapter
Key Terms
Review Questions
Answers to Review Questions
Protocol Attributes
The OSI Reference Model
Global Protocol Classifications
Connection-Oriented Protocols
Connectionless Protocols
Layer 2: Data-Link Layer Protocols and Applications
Ethernet/IEEE 802.3
Token Ring/IEEE 802.5
Token Frame Format
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC)
Frame Structure
Frame Relay
Frame Structure
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
Frame Structure
Layers 3 and 4: IP Routed Protocols
Internet Protocol (IP)
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
Exam Essentials
Key Terms
Review Questions
Answers to Review Questions
Cisco Diagnostic Commands and
TCP/IP Connectivity Troubleshooting
Troubleshooting Commands
show Commands
debug Commands
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Table of Contents
logging Commands
Executing a Router Core Dump
ping Commands
traceroute Command
LAN Connectivity Problems
Obtaining an IP Address
Sample TCP Connection
IP Access Lists
Standard Access Lists
Extended Access Lists
Named Access Lists
Exam Essentials
Commands Used in This Chapter
Key Terms
Review Questions
Answers to Review Questions
TCP/IP Routing Protocol Troubleshooting
Default Gateways
Static and Dynamic Routing
Troubleshooting RIP
RIP-1 and RIP-2
show Commands
debug Commands
Typical RIP Problems
Troubleshooting IGRP
IGRP Features and Operation
show Commands
debug Commands
Typical IGRP Problems
Troubleshooting EIGRP
Neighbor Formation
show Commands
debug Commands
Typical EIGRP Problems
Troubleshooting OSPF
Neighbor and Adjacency Formation
OSPF Area Types
show Commands
debug Commands
Typical OSPF Problems
216 Page xiv Tuesday, September 23, 2003 1:59 PM
Table of Contents
Troubleshooting BGP
Neighbor Relationship
eBGP vs. iBGP
show Commands
debug Commands
Typical BGP Problems
Redistribution of Routing Protocols
Dealing with Routing Metrics
Distribute Lists
Route Maps
TCP/IP Symptoms and Problems: Summary Sheet
TCP/IP Symptoms and Action Plans: Summary Sheet
Exam Essentials
Commands Used in This Chapter
Key Terms
Review Questions
Answers to Review Questions
Troubleshooting Serial Line and Frame Relay
Troubleshooting Serial Lines
HDLC Encapsulation
show interface serial Command
show controllers Command
show buffers Command
debug serial interface Command
CSU/DSU Loopback Tests
Serial Line Summary
Troubleshooting Frame Relay
Frame Relay show Commands
Frame Relay debug Commands
Frame Relay Summary
Exam Essentials
Commands Used in This Chapter
Key Terms
Review Questions
Answers to Review Questions
Troubleshooting ISDN
ISDN Fundamentals
280 Page xv Tuesday, September 23, 2003 1:59 PM
Table of Contents
Common ISDN Problems
Misconfigured Routers
Physical Layer Connections
Misconfigured Phone Switches
Troubleshooting Layer 2
Troubleshooting Layer 3
Switch Types
ISDN Troubleshooting Commands
clear interface bri n
show interface bri n
show interface bri n 1 2
show controller bri
show isdn status
show dialer
show ppp multilink
Debugging ISDN
debug bri
debug isdn q921
debug dialer
debug isdn q931
debug ppp negotiation
debug ppp packet
Exam Essentials
Commands Used in This Chapter
Key Terms
Review Questions
Answers to Review Questions
Troubleshooting Switched Ethernet
Switches, Bridges, and Hubs
Catalyst Troubleshooting Tools
Catalyst Command-Line Interfaces
Hybrid Mode Catalyst CLI
Indicator Lights
Controlling Recurring Paths with Spanning Tree
Troubleshooting Spanning Tree Problems
Virtual LANs
Inter-Switch Link (ISL)
802.1Q Trunking
VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP)
352 Page xvi Tuesday, September 23, 2003 1:59 PM
Table of Contents
Cabling Issues
Cable Problems
Crossover Cables
Troubleshooting Switched Connections
The Switched Port Analyzer
The Multilayer Switch Feature Card and Catalyst Routing
VLANs across Routers and Switches
VLAN Design Issues and Troubleshooting
Hybrid/Native Command Conversion
Exam Essentials
Commands Used in This Chapter
Key Terms
Review Questions
Answers to Review Questions
Applying Cisco’s Diagnostic Tools
Identifying and Resolving Generic Router Problems
Scenario #1
Scenario #2
Scenario #3
Troubleshooting Ethernet Problems
Scenario #1
Scenario #2
Troubleshooting Token Ring Problems
Scenario #1
Opening a Case with the Technical Assistance Center
Exam Essentials
Commands Used in This Chapter
Review Questions
489 Page xvii Wednesday, September 24, 2003 2:24 PM
This book is intended to help you continue on your exciting new path toward obtaining your CCNP
certification. Before reading this book, it is important to have at least read the Sybex CCNA: Cisco
Certified Network Associate Study Guide, Fourth Edition. You can take the CCNP tests in any
order, but you should have passed the CCNA exam before pursuing your CCNP. Many questions
in the Cisco Internet Troubleshooting Support (CIT) exam are built on the CCNA material. However, we have done everything possible to make sure that you can pass the CIT exam by reading this
book and practicing with Cisco routers.
Cisco Systems’s Place in Networking
Cisco Systems has become an unrivaled worldwide leader in networking for the Internet. Its networking solutions can easily connect users who work from diverse devices on disparate networks. Cisco products make it simple for people to access and transfer information without
regard to differences in time, place, or platform.
Cisco Systems’s big picture is that it provides end-to-end networking solutions that customers can use to build an efficient, unified information infrastructure of their own or to connect
to someone else’s. This is an important piece in the Internet/networking-industry puzzle,
because a common architecture that delivers consistent network services to all users is now a
functional imperative. Because Cisco Systems offers such a broad range of networking and
Internet services and capabilities, users needing regular access to their local network or the
Internet can do so unhindered, making Cisco’s wares indispensable.
Cisco answers this need with a wide range of hardware products that are used to form information networks using the Cisco Internetworking Operating System (IOS) software. This software provides network services, paving the way for networked technical support and
professional services to maintain and optimize all network operations.
Along with the Cisco IOS, one of the services Cisco created to help support the vast amount
of hardware it has engineered is the Cisco Certified Internetworking Expert (CCIE) program,
which was designed specifically to equip people to effectively manage the vast quantity of
installed Cisco networks. The business plan is simple: If you want to sell more Cisco equipment
and have more Cisco networks installed, ensure that the networks you installed run properly.
However, having an extraordinary product line isn’t all it takes to guarantee the huge success
that Cisco enjoys—lots of companies with great products are now defunct. If you have complicated products designed to solve complicated problems, you need knowledgeable people who
are fully capable of installing, managing, and troubleshooting those products. That part isn’t
easy, so Cisco began the CCIE program to equip people to support these complicated networks.
This program, known colloquially as the Doctorate of Networking, has also been very successful, primarily due to its extreme difficulty. Cisco continually monitors the program, making the
changes needed to make sure that the program remains pertinent and accurately reflects the
demands of today’s internetworking business environments.
Building on the highly successful CCIE program, Cisco Career Certifications permit you to
become certified at various levels of technical proficiency, spanning the disciplines of network
design and support. So, whether you’re beginning a career, changing careers, securing your
present position, or seeking to refine and promote your position, this is the book for you! Page xviii Wednesday, September 24, 2003 2:24 PM
Cisco’s Certifications
Cisco has created several certification tracks that will help you become a CCIE, as well as aid
prospective employers in measuring skill levels. Before these new certifications existed, you took
only one test and were then faced with the lab, which made it difficult to succeed. With the new
certifications that add a better approach to preparing for that almighty lab, Cisco has opened
doors that few were allowed through before. So, what are these new certifications, and how do
they help you get your CCIE?
Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA)
The CCNA certification is the first certification in the new line of Cisco certifications and is a
precursor to all current Cisco certifications. With the new certification programs, Cisco has created a type of stepping-stone approach to CCIE certification. Now, you can become a Cisco
Certified Network Associate for the meager cost of the Sybex CCNA: Cisco Certified Network
Associate Study Guide, Fourth Edition, plus $125 for the test.
And you don’t have to stop there—you can choose to continue with your studies and select
a specific track to follow. The Installation and Support track will help you prepare for the CCIE
Routing and Switching certification; the Communications and Services track will help you prepare for the CCIE Communication and Services certification. It is important to note that you do
not have to attempt any of these tracks to reach the CCIE, but choosing a track is recommended
for the best success.
Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP)
The Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP) certification has opened many opportunities
for the individual wishing to become Cisco-certified but who is lacking the training, the expertise, or the bucks to pass the notorious and often-failed two-day Cisco torture lab. The new
Cisco certifications will truly provide exciting new opportunities for the CNE and MCSE who
don’t see an obvious way to advance.
So, you’re thinking, “Great, what do I do after I pass the CCNA exam?” Well, if you want
to become a CCIE in Routing and Switching (the most popular certification), understand that
there’s more than one path to the CCIE certification. One way is to continue studying and
become a Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP). That means taking four more tests in
addition to obtaining the CCNA certification.
We’ll discuss requirements for the CCIE exams later on in this introduction.
Remember that you don’t need to be a CCNP or even a CCNA to take the CCIE
lab, but to accomplish that, it’s extremely helpful if you already have these
certifications. Page xix Wednesday, September 24, 2003 2:24 PM
The CCNP program will prepare you to understand and comprehensively tackle the internetworking issues of today and beyond—not limited to the Cisco world. You will undergo
metamorphosis, vastly increasing your knowledge and skills through the process of obtaining
these certifications.
What Are the CCNP Certification Skills?
Cisco demands a certain level of proficiency for its CCNP certification. In addition to what’s
required for the CCNA, you’ll need to have the following skills:
Installing, configuring, operating, and troubleshooting complex routed LAN, routed
WAN, and switched LAN networks, and Dial Access Services.
Understanding complex networking concepts, such as IP, IGRP, Async Routing, extended
access lists, IP RIP, route redistribution, route summarization, OSPF, VLSM, BGP, Serial,
IGRP, Frame Relay, ISDN, ISL, X.25, DDR, PSTN, PPP, VLANs, Ethernet, ATM LAN
emulation, access lists, 802.10, FDDI, and transparent and translational bridging.
To meet the Cisco Certified Network Professional requirements, you must be able to perform
the following:
Install and/or configure a network to increase bandwidth, quicken network response times,
and improve reliability and quality of service.
Maximize performance through campus LANs, routed WANs, and remote access.
Improve network security.
Create a global intranet.
Provide access security to campus switches and routers.
Provide increased switching and routing bandwidth—end-to-end resiliency services.
Provide custom queuing and routed priority services.
How Do You Become a CCNP?
After becoming a CCNA, the four exams you must take to get your CCNP are as follows:
Exam 642-801: Building Scalable Cisco Internetworks (BSCI) A while back, Cisco retired
the Routing (640-603) exam and now uses this exam, 642-801, to build on the fundamentals
of the CCNA exam. BSCI focuses on large multiprotocol internetworks and how to manage
them. The BSCI exam is also a required exam for the CCIP and CCDP certifications, which will
be discussed later in this introduction.
Exam 642-811: Building Cisco Multilayer Switched Networks (BCMSN) The Building
Cisco Multilayer Switched Networks exam tests your knowledge of the 1900 and 5000 series
of Catalyst switches. You’ll also be challenged on your knowledge of switching technology,
implementation and operation, planning and design.
Exam 642-821: Building Cisco Remote Access Networks (BCRAN) The Building Cisco
Remote Access Networks (BCRAN) exam tests your knowledge of installing, configuring, monitoring, and troubleshooting Cisco ISDN and dial-up access products. You must understand
PPP, ISDN, Frame Relay, and authentication. Page xx Wednesday, September 24, 2003 2:24 PM
Exam 642-831: Cisco Internetwork Troubleshooting Support (CIT) The Cisco Internetwork
Troubleshooting Support (CIT) exam tests you on troubleshooting information. You must be
able to document a network; troubleshoot Ethernet LANS and IP networks, as well as ISDN,
PPP, and Frame Relay networks. This book covers all the topics you’ll need to pass the CIT
An Alternate Plan
If you hate tests, you can take fewer of them by signing up for the CCNA exam and the CIT
exam, and then take just one more long exam called the Foundation R/S exam (640-841). Doing
this also gives you your CCNP—but beware, it’s a really long test that fuses all the material
listed previously in this introduction into one exam. Good luck! That said, by taking this exam
you get three tests for the price of two, which saves you $125 (if you pass). Some people think
it’s easier to take the Foundation R/S exam because you can leverage your higher-scoring areas
against the areas in which you don’t do as well. There is also an option to obtain your CCNP.
This is to do three tests: the Composite Exam (642-891), which fuses the BSCI and BCMSN
exams, plus the BCRAN and CIT exams.
Remember that test objectives and tests can change at any time without notice.
Always check the Cisco website for the most up-to-date information
Sybex has a solution for each one of the CCNP exams. Each study guide listed in the following table covers all the exam objectives for their respective exams.
Exam Name
Exam #
Sybex Products
Building Scalable Cisco
CCNP: Building Scalable Cisco Internetworks
Study Guide (ISBN 0-7821-4293-1)
CCNP: Building Cisco Multilayer Switched
Networks Study Guide (0-7821-4294-X)
Remote Access
CCNP: Building Cisco Remote Access Networks
Study Guide (0-7821-4296-6)
CCNP: Cisco Internetwork Troubleshooting Study
Guide. (0-7821-4295-8)
Also available: CCNP Study Guide Kit, 3rd Ed. (0-7821-4297-4); covers all four exams.
Cisco Certified Internetwork Professional (CCIP)
After passing the CCNA, the next step in the Communications and Services track is the CCIP.
The CCIP is a professional-level certification.
The CCIP certification gives you the skills necessary to understand and tackle the complex internetworking world of the service provider. You will acquire the knowledge necessary to prepare you for moving forward toward the coveted CCIE Communications and
Services certification. Page xxi Wednesday, September 24, 2003 2:24 PM
What Are the CCIP Certification Skills?
Cisco demands a certain level of proficiency for its CCIP certification. In addition to what’s
required for the CCNA, you will need to have the following skills:
Performing complex planning, operations, installations, implementations, and troubleshooting of internetworks.
Understanding and managing complex communications networks—last mile, edge, or core.
How Do You Become a CCIP?
After becoming a CCNA, you must take two core exams and an elective. The core exams are:
Exam 642-801: Building Scalable Cisco Internetworks (BSCI) A while back, Cisco
retired the Routing (640-603) exam and now uses this exam, 642-801, to build on the fundamentals of the CCNA exam. BSCI focuses on large multiprotocol internetworks and how
to manage them.
Exam 642-641: Quality of Services (QoS) This exam tests your knowledge of Quality of Service for internetworks.
Exam 640-910: Implementing Cisco MPLS (MPLS) This exam tests your knowledge of multiprotocol label switching and its implementation. The Sybex CCIP: MPLS Study Guide (ISBN
0-7821-4096-3) covers all the exam objectives.
Exam 642-661: Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) This exam tests your knowledge of Border
Gateway Protocol (BGP). When you complete this exam you should be able to manage a large
BGP network.
Cisco’s Network Design and Installation Certifications
In addition to the Network Installation and Support track and the Communications and Services track, Cisco has created another certification track for network designers. The two certifications within this track are the Cisco Certified Design Associate (CCDA) and Cisco Certified
Design Professional (CCDP). If you’re reaching for the CCIE stars, we highly recommend the
CCNP and CCDP certifications before attempting the CCIE R/S Qualification exam.
These two certifications will give you the knowledge to design routed LAN, routed WAN,
and switched LAN.
Cisco Certified Design Associate (CCDA)
To become a CCDA, you must pass the DESGN (Designing for Cisco Internetwork Solutions)
test (640-861). To pass this test, you must understand how to do the following:
Design simple routed LAN, routed WAN, and switched LAN and ATM LANE networks.
Use network-layer addressing.
Filter with access lists.
Use and propagate VLAN.
Size networks. Page xxii Wednesday, September 24, 2003 2:24 PM
Cisco Certified Design Professional (CCDP)
If you’re already a CCNP and want to get your CCDP, you can simply take the ARCH 642-871
test. If you’re not yet a CCNP, however, you must take the CCDA, CCNA, BSCI, Switching,
Remote Access, and CID exams.
CCDP certification skills include:
Designing complex routed LAN, routed WAN, and switched LAN and ATM LANE
Technical knowledge beyond the base level of CCDA.
CCDPs must also demonstrate proficiency in the following:
Network-layer addressing in a hierarchical environment.
Traffic management with access lists.
Hierarchical network design.
VLAN use and propagation.
Performance considerations: required hardware and software; switching engines; memory,
cost, and minimization.
Cisco’s Security Certifications
Quite a few Cisco security certifications are available. All of the Cisco security certifications also
require a valid CCNA.
Cisco Certified Security Professional (CCSP)
You have to pass five exams to get your CCSP. The pivotal exam is the SECUR. Here are the
exams you must pass to call the CCSP yours:
Exam 642-501: Securing Cisco IOS Networks (SECUR) This exam tests your understanding
of such concepts as basic router security, AAA security for Cisco routers and networks, Cisco
IOS Firewall configuration and authentication, building basic and advanced IPSec VPNs, and
managing Cisco enterprise VPN routers. Sybex can help you pass the SECUR exam with the
CCSP: Securing Cisco IOS Networks Study Guide (ISBN 0-7821-4231-1).
Exam 642-521: Cisco Secure PIX Firewall Advanced (CSPFA) This exam challenges your
knowledge of the fundamentals of Cisco PIX Firewalls, as well as translations and connections,
object grouping, advanced protocol handling and authentication, authorization, and accounting, among other topics. You can tackle the CSPFA exam with the help of Sybex’s CCSP: Secure
PIX and Secure VPN Study Guide (ISBN 0-7821-4287-7).
Exam 642-511: Cisco Secure Virtual Private Networks (CSVPN) The CSVPN exam covers
the basics of Cisco VPNs; configuring various Cisco VPNs for remote access, hardware client,
backup server, and load balancing; plus IPSec over UDP and IPSec over TCP. Again, using the
Sybex CCSP: Secure PIX and Secure VPN Study Guide (ISBN 0-7821-4287-7), you’ll approach
the CSVPN exam with confidence.
Exam 642-531: Cisco Secure Intrusion Detection System (CSIDS) The CSIDS exam will
challenge your knowledge of intrusion detection technologies and solutions, and test your abilities to install and configure ISD components. You’ll also be tested on managing large-scale Page xxiii Wednesday, September 24, 2003 2:24 PM
deployments of Cisco IDS sensors using Cisco IDS management software. Prepare for the
CSIDS exam using Sybex’s CCSP: Secure Intrusion Detection and SAFE Implementation Study
Guide (ISBN 0-7821-4288-5).
Exam 9E0-131: Cisco SAFE Implementation (CSI) This exam tests such topics as security
and architecture fundamentals, SAFE Network design for small and medium corporate and
campus situations, and SAFE remote-user network implementation. You can take advantage of
Sybex’s CCSP: Secure PIX and Secure VPN Study Guide (ISBN 0-7821-4287-7) for help with
this exam.
Cisco Firewall Specialist
Cisco Security certifications focus on the growing need for knowledgeable network professionals who can implement complete security solutions. Cisco Firewall Specialists focus on securing
network access using Cisco IOS Software and Cisco PIX Firewall technologies.
The two exams you must pass to achieve the Cisco Firewall Specialist certification are Securing Cisco IOS Networks (SECUR) and Cisco Secure PIX Firewall Advanced (CSPFA).
Cisco IDS Specialist
Cisco IDS Specialists can both operate and monitor Cisco IOS Software and IDS technologies
to detect and respond to intrusion activities.
The two exams you must pass to achieve the Cisco IDS Specialist certification are Securing
Cisco IOS Networks (SECUR) and Cisco Secure Intrusion Detection System (CSIDS).
Cisco VPN Specialist
Cisco VPN Specialists can configure VPNs across shared public networks using Cisco IOS Software and Cisco VPN 3000 Series Concentrator technologies.
The exams you must pass to achieve the Cisco VPN Specialist certification are Securing Cisco
IOS Networks (SECUR) and Cisco Secure Virtual Networks (CSVPN).
Cisco Certified Internetwork Expert (CCIE)
Cool! You’ve become a CCNP, and now your sights are fixed on getting your Cisco Certified
Internetwork Expert (CCIE) certification. What do you do next? Cisco recommends a minimum
of two years on-the-job experience before taking the CCIE lab. After jumping those hurdles, you
then have to pass the written CCIE Exam Qualifications before taking the actual lab.
There are four CCIE certifications, and you must pass a written section and a lob portion for
each certification. As can be seen from below, most of the CCIE certifications require only a single test, but one requires multiple:
CCIE Communications and Services (Exams 350-020, 350-021, 350-022, 350-023) The
four CCIE Communications and Services written exams cover IP and IP routing, optical, DSL,
dial, cable, wireless, WAN switching, content networking, and voice.
CCIE Routing and Switching (Exam 350-001) The CCIE Routing and Switching exam covers IP and IP routing, non-IP desktop protocols such as IPX, and bridge- and switch-related
technologies. Page xxiv Wednesday, September 24, 2003 2:24 PM
Sybex can help you pass the CCIE Routing and Switching exam with the CCIE:
Cisco Certified Internetworking Expert Study Guide, Second Edition (ISBN 07821-4207-9).
CCIE Security (Exam 350-018) The CCIE Security exam covers IP and IP routing as well as
specific security components.
CCIE Voice (Exam 351-030) The CCIE Voice exam covers those technologies and applications that make up a Cisco Enterprise VoIP solution.
Where Do You Take the Exam?
You can take the exams at any of the Sylvan Prometric or Virtual University Enterprises (VUE)
testing centers around the world. For the location of a testing center near you, call Sylvan at
(800) 755-3926 or VUE at (877) 404-3926. Outside of the United States and Canada, contact
your local Sylvan Prometric Registration Center.
To register for a Cisco Certified Network Professional exam:
Determine the number of the exam you want to take. (The CIT exam number is 642-831.)
Register with the nearest Sylvan Prometric or VUE testing center. At this point, you will be
asked to pay in advance for the exam. At the time of this writing, the exams are $125 each
and must be taken within one year of payment. You can schedule exams up to six weeks
in advance or as soon as one working day prior to the day you wish to take it. If something
comes up and you need to cancel or reschedule your exam appointment, contact the testing
center at least 24 hours in advance. Same-day registration isn’t available for the Cisco tests.
When you schedule the exam, you’ll get instructions regarding all appointment and
cancellation procedures, the ID requirements, and information about the testing-center
Tips for Taking Your CCNP CIT Exam
The CCNP CIT test contains about 65 questions to be completed in about 90 minutes. However, understand that your test may vary somewhat from this estimate.
Many questions on the exam have answer choices that at first glance look identical—especially the syntax questions! Remember to read through the choices carefully, because “close”
doesn’t cut it. If you put commands in the wrong order or forget one measly character, your
answer will be wrong. So, to practice, do the hands-on exercises at the end of the chapters over
and over again until the solutions feel natural to you.
Unlike Microsoft or Novell tests, the exam has answer choices that are highly similar in syntax—although some syntax is dead wrong, it is usually just subtly wrong. Some other syntax
choices may be right, but they’re shown in the wrong order. Cisco does split hairs, and it is not
at all averse to giving you classic trick questions. Here’s an example:
access-list 101 deny ip any eq 23 denies Telnet access to all systems. Page xxv Wednesday, September 24, 2003 2:24 PM
This statement looks correct to most people because they refer to the port number (23) and think,
“Yes, that’s the port used for Telnet.” The catch is that you can’t filter IP on port numbers (only TCP
and UDP can be filtered in this way). Another indicator that this command is wrong is the use of an
extended access list number but with any or no destination address for the destination.
Cisco does have some simulation questions on the CIT exam. Make sure you’ve
got hands-on skills to take this test. Practice with the hands-on labs in this book,
and for further practice with routers and switches, check out the CCNP Virtual
Lab from Sybex.
Also, never forget that the right answer is the Cisco answer. In many cases,
more than one appropriate answer is presented, but the correct answer is the
one that Cisco recommends.
Here are some general tips for exam success:
Arrive early at the exam center, so you can relax and review your study materials.
Read the questions carefully. Don’t just jump to conclusions. Make sure that you’re clear
about exactly what each question asks.
Don’t leave any questions unanswered. They count against your score.
When answering multiple-choice questions that you’re not sure about, use the process of
elimination to get rid of the obviously incorrect answers first. Doing this greatly improves
your odds if you need to make an educated guess.
As of this writing, the written exams still allow you to skip ahead and then return to previous questions. However, it is always best to check the Cisco website before taking any
exam, to get the most up-to-date information.
After you complete an exam, you’ll get immediate, online notification of your pass or fail status, a printed Examination Score Report that indicates your pass or fail status, and your exam
results by section. (The test administrator will give you the printed score report.) Test scores are
automatically forwarded to Cisco within five working days after you take the test, so you don’t
need to send your score to them.
What Does This Book Cover?
This book covers everything you need to pass the CCNP CIT exam. It teaches you how to document your network, and how to troubleshoot and maintain Cisco routers and switches in a
large internetwork. Each chapter begins with a list of the topics covered, related to the CCNP
CIT test, so make sure to read the list before working through the chapter.
Chapter 1 discusses the complexity of today’s internetworks and introduces you to the
Cisco Troubleshooting Methodology. You’ll study how to apply this methodology to network problems. Page xxvi Wednesday, September 24, 2003 2:24 PM
Chapter 2 focuses on what goes into a network baseline, as well as how to create one. It also
details two of the baseline’s components: the network configuration table and the network
topology diagram.
Chapter 3 continues the discussion on documentation by explaining the end-system version
of a network configuration table and network topology diagram. This chapter also takes
you through the steps required to create these documents. In the second half of the chapter,
various troubleshooting approaches are discussed and some end-system troubleshooting
commands are reviewed.
Chapter 4 reviews the OSI reference model and then discusses connection-oriented and
connectionless protocols. Following this, the IP, ICMP, TCP, and UDP protocols are examined, and Layer 2 protocols are covered.
Chapter 5 focuses on the skills and knowledge needed to use Cisco’s built-in diagnostic
tools in a TCP/IP environment. These tools include show, debug, and logging commands
as well as a router core dump. This chapter also examines appropriate use of the ping and
traceroute utilities. LAN and WAN problems are explored, and the chapter ends with a discussion of access lists.
Chapter 6 is dedicated to covering IP routing protocols, specifically RIP, IGRP, EIGRP, OSPF,
and BGP. The benefits and drawbacks of each are included, as well as the commands used to
verify correct functionality. We also discuss the issues of redistributing these protocols.
Chapter 7 examines serial and Frame Relay connectivity. You’ll study the function of the
show and debug IOS commands needed to successfully troubleshoot problems in serial and
Frame Relay environments, as well as some common problem areas.
Chapter 8 discusses ISDN and related protocols, specifically looking at what is necessary
to set up an ISDN dial solution. In addition, time is spent looking at the debug output from
the call setup, to show how an ISDN call is established.
Chapter 9 details the functioning of Catalyst series switches. This chapter includes information on the architecture of the switch as well as the command syntax used to configure
the switch. It also discusses the use of VLANs and trunking switch ports together.
Chapter 10 is a summary chapter that takes the information from the previous chapters and
applies it to real-world examples. These examples demonstrate combining the troubleshooting methodology with the technical skills learned in this book.
The Glossary is a handy resource for Cisco vocabulary and is an excellent tool for understanding some of the more obscure terms used in this book.
Each chapter ends with review questions that are specifically designed to help you retain the
knowledge presented. To really nail down your skills, read each question carefully.
How to Use This Book
This book can provide a solid foundation for the serious effort of preparing for the CCNP CIT
exam. To best benefit from this book, use the following study method:
Take the Assessment Test immediately following this Introduction. (The answers are at the
end of the test.) Carefully read over the explanations for any question you get wrong, and
note which chapters the material comes from. This information will help you plan your
study strategy. Page xxvii Wednesday, September 24, 2003 2:24 PM
Study each chapter carefully, making sure that you fully understand the information and
the test topics listed at the beginning of each chapter. Pay extra-close attention to any chapter where you missed questions in the Assessment Test.
Note the questions that confuse you, and study those sections of the book again.
Before taking the exam, try your hand at the two bonus exams included on the CD that
comes with this book. The questions in these exams appear only on the CD. This will give
you a complete overview of what you can expect to see on the real thing.
Remember to use the products on the CD included with this book. The electronic flashcards
and the EdgeTest exam-preparation software have all been specifically picked to help you study
for and pass your exam. Study on the road with the CCNP: Cisco Internetwork Troubleshooting Study Guide eBook in PDF format, and test yourself with the electronic flashcards.
The electronic flashcards can be used on your Windows computer, Pocket PC,
or Palm device.
Make sure you review the Key Terms list at the end of each chapter. Appendix A includes
all the commands used in the book, along with an explanation for each command.
To learn all the material covered in this book, you’ll have to apply yourself regularly and
with discipline. Try to set aside the same time every day to study, and select a comfortable and
quiet place to do so. If you work hard, you’ll be surprised at how quickly you learn this material.
All the best!
What’s On the CD?
We worked hard to provide some really valuable tools to help you with your certification process. All of these tools should be loaded on your workstation when studying for the test.
The Sybex Test Engine for Cisco CIT Test Preparation
New from Sybex, this test-preparation software prepares you to successfully pass the CIT exam.
In the test engine, you’ll find all the questions from the book, plus the two additional Bonus
Exams that appear exclusively on the CD. You can take the Assessment Test, test yourself by
chapter, or take the two Bonus Exams that appear on the CD.
Electronic Flashcards for PC, Pocket PC, and Palm Devices
After you read the CCNP: Cisco Internetwork Troubleshooting Study Guide, you’ll of course
read the review questions at the end of each chapter and study the practice exams included in
the book and on the CD. But wait, there’s more! Test yourself with the flashcards included on
the CD. If you can get through these difficult questions and understand the answers, you’ll
know you’ll be ready for the CCNP CIT exam.
The flashcards include 150 questions specifically written to hit you hard and make sure you
are ready for the exam. Between the review questions, practice exam, and flashcards, you’ll be
more than prepared for the exam. Page xxviii Wednesday, September 24, 2003 2:24 PM
CCNP: Cisco Internetwork Troubleshooting Study Guide in PDF
Sybex offers this Cisco Certification book on the accompanying CD so that you can read the
book on your PC or laptop. The eBook is in Adobe Acrobat format, and Acrobat Reader is
included on the CD as well. This is extremely helpful to readers who travel and don’t want to
carry a book, as well as to readers who find it more comfortable reading from their computer.
How to Contact the Authors
You can reach Art Pfund by e-mailing him at [email protected] Page xxix Wednesday, September 24, 2003 2:24 PM
Assessment Test
Which are reasons for using a troubleshooting method? (Choose all that apply.)
A. Problem isolation and resolution will occur more quickly.
B. No documentation needs to be done when following a method.
C. Due to complex topologies and technologies, a systematic method is the most efficient
way to resolve network problems.
D. All of the above.
What are the benefits of gathering additional facts for troubleshooting? (Choose all that apply.)
A. Possible causes of problems may be identified.
B. A specific problem definition may be created.
C. Information is provided for a baseline.
D. All of the above.
Which of the following are key components of creating an action plan? (Choose all that apply.)
A. Multiple changes as long as they are documented
B. Changes that do not compromise security
C. Changes that have only brief network impact
D. Back-out plans
How many methods of problem isolation exist?
A. 2
B. 3
C. 4
D. 6
Which of the following steps are part of the Cisco troubleshooting methodology? (Choose all
that apply.)
A. Observation of results
B. Observation of changes
C. Iteration
D. Documentation
E. Problem definition
F. Problem resolution
G. Troubleshooting
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