X4000 User's Guide
X4000
User’s Guide
Installation and Configuration
Copyright © 2000 BinTec Communications AG, all rights reserved.
Version 1.3
Document #71000L
August 2000
X4000 User’s Guide
1
Purpose
This manual explains the installation and initial configuration of X4000 with
software release 5.1.6. For up-to-the-minute information and instructions
concerning the latest software release, you should always read our release
notes, especially when carrying out a software update to a later release level.
The latest release notes can always be found at www.bintec.de.
Liability
While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of all information in
this manual, BinTec Communications AG cannot assume liability to any party
for any loss or damage caused by errors or omissions or by statements of any
kind in this document and is only liable within the scope of its terms of sale and
delivery.
The information in this manual is subject to change without notice. Additional
information, including changes and release notes for X4000, can be found at
www.bintec.de.
As a multiprotocol router, X4000 sets up WAN connections in accordance with
the system configuration. To prevent unintentional charges accumulating, the
operation of the product should be carefully monitored. BinTec
Communications AG accepts no liability for loss of data, unintentional
connection costs and damages resulting from unsupervised operation of the
product.
Trademarks
BinTec and the BinTec logo are registered trademarks of BinTec
Communications AG.
All other product names and trademarks mentioned are the property of the
respective companies and manufacturers.
Copyright
Guidelines and
standards
All rights are reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or
transmitted in any form or by any means – graphic, electronic, or mechanical –
including photocopying, recording in any medium, taping, or storage in
information retrieval systems, without the prior written permission of BinTec
Communications AG. Adaptation and especially translation of the document is
inadmissible without the prior consent of BinTec Communications AG.
X4000 complies with the following guidelines and standards:
■ Low voltage directive 73/23/EEC according to EN60950, complies with
German equipment safety regulations
2
X4000 User’s Guide
■ Interference immunity according to EN50082 1/8.97
■ Class B interference emissions according to EN55022/8.94 +A1/1995 +A2/
1997, electromagnetic compatibility according to EU directive 89/336/EEC.
■ CE marking for all EU countries
Registration:
■ CE registration
■ German TÜV inspection/GS safety regulations
■ BAKOM (Switzerland) registration had not been completed at the time this
manual went to print. For further information on this, see the latest release
notes at www.bintec.de.
In addition to the CE directives, X4000 also meets the ISDN requirements in
France and can be connected to Euro-Numeris.
How to reach
BinTec
By …
At the telephone number or address
Telephone
+49 911 96 73 0
Fax
+49 911 688 07 25
Mail
BinTec Communications AG
Südwestpark 94
D-90449 Nürnberg
Internet
www.bintec.de
X4000 User’s Guide
3
4
X4000 User’s Guide
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Welcome!
15
General Safety Precautions
31
Hardware Description and Installation
35
Configuration Requirements
69
Man-Machine Interface (MMI) – Display with User Guide
93
Fast Configuration with the Configuration Wizard (Basic Unit)
109
Basic Configuration of Basic Unit with Setup Tool
119
Advanced Configuration of the Basic Unit with the Setup Tool
187
Configuration of Expansion and Resource Cards with the Setup Tool 277
Configuration of Security Functions and Firewall
307
Configuration Management
363
Troubleshooting
375
Technical Data
387
Important Commands
411
General Safety Precautions in 15 Different Languages
421
Glossary
469
Index
487
X4000 User’s Guide
5
Table of Contents
6
X4000 User’s Guide
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
5
Table of Contents
7
1
Welcome!
1.1
15
X4000 – The Workgroup Access Router for Present and Future
Applications
16
1.2
Scope of Supply
18
1.2.1
Basic Unit
18
1.2.2
Expansion Cards
18
1.3
BinTec Companion CD
20
1.4
Documentation from BinTec
22
1.5
System Requirements
23
1.6
Guarantee Terms
24
1.7
About this Manual
25
1.7.1
Contents
25
1.7.2
Meaning
27
1.8
Feedback
29
2
General Safety Precautions
31
3
Hardware Description and Installation
35
3.1
Basic Unit
36
3.1.1
Desktop Unit
37
3.1.2
19-Inch Built-In Unit
40
3.2
Expansion and Resource Cards
53
3.2.1
Design of Expansion Cards
53
3.2.2
Installation and Replacement of Expansion Card
55
X4000 User’s Guide
7
Table of Contents
4
5
8
3.3
Setting Up and Connecting
59
3.4
Status Messages via LEDs
63
3.4.1
Basic Unit
63
3.4.2
Expansion Cards
64
3.5
Boot Sequence
66
Configuration Requirements
69
4.1
Connection Methods
70
4.1.1
Man-Machine Interface (MMI)
71
4.1.2
Connecting Over the Serial Interface
71
4.1.3
Connecting Over a LAN
73
4.1.4
Connection Over ISDN
74
4.2
Logging In
76
4.3
Configuration Options
78
4.3.1
Methods of Configuration
78
4.3.2
Using the Setup Tool
79
4.4
Procedure for Initial Configuration
91
Man-Machine Interface (MMI) – Display with User Guide
93
5.1
Overview
94
5.2
Display and Input Keys
96
5.2.1
Using the Input Keys
96
5.2.2
Meaning of LEDs
97
5.2.3
Navigation Bars
98
5.3
Menu Architecture
5.3.1
Display Settings
100
5.3.2
IP Address and Netmask
102
5.3.3
Date and System Time
103
5.3.4
Information about X4000 Basic Unit
104
5.3.5
Information about X4000 Expansion Card
105
X4000 User’s Guide
99
Table of Contents
5.3.6
6
7
Monitoring
106
5.4
Useful Short-Cuts
107
5.4.1
Defining Default Screen
107
5.4.2
Saving the Configuration
107
5.4.3
Restarting X4000
108
Fast Configuration with the Configuration Wizard (Basic Unit) 109
6.1
In Advance of Configuration
110
6.2
Installing BRICKware
112
6.3
Basic X4000 Configuration with the Configuration Wizard
113
6.4
Configuring a PC
115
6.5
Testing your Configuration
117
Basic Configuration of Basic Unit with Setup Tool
119
7.1
Basic Router Settings
120
7.1.1
Entering License(s)
121
7.1.2
Entering System Data
123
7.1.3
Configuring the LAN Interface
126
7.1.4
Configuring X4000 as DHCP Server
129
7.1.5
Setting Filters
132
7.1.6
Where do we go from here?
136
7.2
Configuring WAN Interfaces
137
7.2.1
Configuring the ISDN BRI Interface
137
7.2.2
Configuring Serial Interfaces
148
7.2.3
Configuring the LAN Interface for Using ADSL (PPP-over-Ethernet)
155
7.3
Configuring WAN Partners
159
7.3.1
Basic Procedure
159
7.3.2
Examples
182
7.4
Saving the Configuration File
186
X4000 User’s Guide
9
Table of Contents
8
10
Advanced Configuration of the Basic Unit with the Setup Tool 187
8.1
General WAN Settings
188
8.1.1
Dynamic IP Address Server
188
8.1.2
CAPI User Concept
190
8.1.3
General PPP Settings
194
8.1.4
X.31 TEI
197
8.2
Settings Specific to WAN Partners
198
8.2.1
Delay after Connection Failure
198
8.2.2
Channel Bundling
199
8.2.3
Bandwidth on Demand (BoD)
201
8.2.4
Always On/Dynamic ISDN (AO/DI)
206
8.2.5
Layer 1 Protocol (ISDN B-Channel)
219
8.2.6
IP Transit Network
222
8.2.7
Transfer of DNS and WINS IP Addresses to WAN Partner
225
8.2.8
Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
229
8.2.9
Compression
232
8.2.10
Proxy ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)
234
8.2.11
Keepalive Monitoring
236
8.3
Basic IP Settings
242
8.3.1
System Time
242
8.3.2
Name Resolution in X4000 with DNS Proxy
246
8.3.3
Port Numbers
265
8.3.4
BOOTP Relay Agent
266
8.4
IPX Settings
268
8.4.1
General Settings
268
8.4.2
Configuring the LAN Interface
270
8.4.3
Configuring WAN Partners
271
8.5
Bridging
275
8.6
Extra License Features
276
X4000 User’s Guide
Table of Contents
9
10
Configuration of Expansion and Resource Cards with the
Setup Tool
277
9.1
WAN Interface Card for ISDN BRI
278
9.1.1
Configuration with the Setup Tool
278
9.2
WAN Interface Card for ISDN PRI and/or G.703
281
9.2.1
Configuration with the Setup Tool
282
9.3
LAN Interface Card for 10/100 Mbps
287
9.3.1
Configuration with the Setup Tool
287
9.3.2
Broadband Internet Access (ADSL) with X4000 and LAN Expansion Card
288
9.4
Resource Card with Digital Modems
295
9.4.1
X4000 with Digital Modems as Remote Access Server
295
9.5
Resource Card for Encryption and Compression
306
9.5.1
Configuration with the Setup Tool
306
Configuration of Security Functions and Firewall
307
10.1
Activity Monitoring
308
10.1.1
Syslog Messages
308
10.1.2
Monitoring Functions in the Setup Tool
313
10.1.3
Credits Based Accounting System
316
10.1.4
HTTP Status Page
320
10.1.5
Java Status Monitor
321
10.1.6
Activity Monitor
322
10.2
Access Security
325
10.2.1
Logging In
325
10.2.2
Checking the Calling Party Number
326
10.2.3
Authentication of PPP Connections with PAP, CHAP or MS-CHAP
327
10.2.4
Callback
327
10.2.5
Closed User Group
330
10.2.6
Access to Remote CAPI
330
10.2.7
NAT (Network Address Translation)
331
X4000 User’s Guide
11
Table of Contents
10.2.8
11
12
12
Filters (Access Lists)
335
10.2.9
Local Filters
348
10.2.10
Back Route Verification
352
10.2.11
TAF Client
353
10.2.12
Extended IP Routing (XIPR)
353
10.3
Line Tapping Security
354
10.3.1
Encryption
354
10.3.2
VPN (with extra license)
357
10.4
Special Features
358
10.4.1
Startup Procedure
358
10.4.2
Auto Logout
358
10.4.3
Prevention of Denial-of-Service Attacks
358
10.5
Checklist
360
Configuration Management
363
11.1
Administration of Configuration Files
364
11.2
Updating Software
371
Troubleshooting
375
12.1
Aids to Troubleshooting
376
12.1.1
Man-Machine Interface (MMI)
376
12.1.2
Local SNMP Shell Commands
376
12.1.3
External Aids
377
12.2
Typical Errors and Procedure
379
12.2.1
System Errors
379
12.2.2
ISDN Connections
380
12.2.3
IPX Routing
383
X4000 User’s Guide
Table of Contents
13
14
15
Technical Data
387
13.1
Mains Unit
388
13.2
Features of Basic Unit
389
13.2.1
Serial Console Interface
390
13.2.2
Ethernet/LAN Interface
391
13.2.3
ISDN BRI Interface
392
13.2.4
Serial WAN Interfaces:
393
13.2.5
Display Interface
405
13.3
Features of Expansion and Resource Cards
406
13.3.1
X4E-2/3BRI – WAN Interface Card for ISDN BRI (Basic Rate Interface)
406
13.3.2
X4E-1/2PRI – WAN Interface Card for ISDN PRI (Primary Rate Interface)
and/or G.703
407
13.3.3
X4E-2FE – LAN Interface Card for 10/100 Mbps
408
13.3.4
XTR-S/M/L – Resource Cards with Digital Modems
408
13.3.5
XTR-ENC – Resource Card for Encryption and Compression
409
Important Commands
411
14.1
SNMP Shell Commands
412
14.2
BRICKtools for Unix Commands
419
General Safety Precautions in 15 Different Languages
421
Glossary
469
Index
487
Document #71000L, Version1.3
497
X4000 User’s Guide
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Table of Contents
14
X4000 User’s Guide
1
1
Welcome!
Congratulations on deciding to buy the X4000 extendible multiprotocol router
from the workgroup access series of BinTec Communications AG – an efficient
and future-oriented router solution for use in small and medium-sized firms.
Figure 1-1:
X4000 - the workgroup access router for present and future applications
X4000 can provide various applications with only a basic unit:
■ Router for leased lines with ISDN backup
■ Central fax gateway for up to 30 connections
■ Router for analog and digital connections
■ VPN solution with data encryption and ISDN backup
■ Remote access server for up to 62 connections
X4000 User’s Guide
15
1
Welcome!
1.1
X4000 – The Workgroup Access Router
for Present and Future Applications
The extension capability of X4000 makes the multiprotocol router a futureoriented and flexible investment. X4000 with its RISC CPU is extremely
powerful and capable of meeting future requirements.
16
Basic unit
The basic unit is obtainable as a desktop unit or as a 19-inch built-in unit. Both
variants of the basic unit are already equipped with integrated 10/100 BT
Ethernet interface, ISDN BRI interface, serial X.21/V.35/V.36 interface for
leased lines, serial X.21bis interface and serial console interface.
Expansion cards
A slot for externally inserting an expansion card enables X4000 to grow in line
with your requirements, so that you can use the same basic unit for various
applications. A high degree of flexibility is assured by our motto: “Change the
card, not the equipment!”
Resource cards
Expansion cards with ISDN BRI or ISDN PRI interfaces can also be equipped
with powerful resource cards with digital modems. This makes extremely high
efficiency and high port or modem density possible.
Ergonomic
design
The well-proven BinTec "Setup Tool" for the router configuration interface and
the "Configuration Wizard" for fast basic configuration ensure ergonomic and
user-friendly design. The newly developed Man-Machine Interface (MMI) from
BinTec Communications AG with its LC display, input keys and intuitive user
guide – in several languages – also simplifies "getting to know" your router and
provides fast access and display of the main settings. A wide-range mains unit
without fans ensures quiet operation of X4000 in office environments.
Multiprotocol router
The flexible multiprotocol router can be used for WAN access, as well as for
remote access server, fax gateway, remote CAPI server or LAN router. X4000
supports the TCP/IP, IPX and X.25 (optional) protocols and is also suitable for
bridging other protocols based on the spanning tree method.
Remote CAPI
Using BinTec’s remote CAPI interface, applications based on the widely used
CAPI interface can be used network-wide. This means the available ISDN
connections can be used more effectively.
X4000 User’s Guide
X4000 – The Workgroup Access Router for Present and Future Applications
1
Security
The features supplied include BinTec’s well-tried security package
SAFERNETTM. This package contains security technologies such as filters,
Network Address Translation (NAT) and access passwords. The security
functions protect X4000 and the network connected to it against unauthorized
access.
The future
New technologies and developments are vital for BinTec Communications AG.
X4000’s flexible platform with an expansion slot and a powerful processor
enable the rapid use of new WAN/LAN technologies and features. This makes
X4000 a future-oriented and migration-capable device. We’ll keep working on it!
You can download BinTec’s current software from the World Wide Web.
You can find detailed information about the individual subjects in the relevant
parts of this manual and in the more detailed documentation (on the BinTec
Companion CD).
X4000 User’s Guide
17
1
Welcome!
1.2
Scope of Supply
1.2.1
Basic Unit
The X4000 basic unit is obtainable as a desktop unit or as a 19-inch built-in unit.
The X4000 basic unit is supplied with the following parts:
■ Cable sets
–
Serial cable for the console port
–
IEC AC power cord
–
ISDN cable
■ BinTec Companion CD
■ Documentation
–
User’s Guide
–
Release notes, if required
■ Additional material
–
19-inch mounting kit (only with 19-inch built-in unit)
–
License card with license information
–
Single user license for RVS-COM Lite
–
Leaflet with X4000 guarantee information
1.2.2
Expansion Cards
The following expansion cards can be purchased for X4000:
■ X4E-1/2PRI: WAN interface card for ISDN PRI and/or G.703
18
–
equipped as standard with hardware support for encryption and
compression
–
to be optionally equipped with up to two resource cards with digital
modems (XTR-S, XTR-M) or a resource card (XTR-L)
X4000 User’s Guide
1
Scope of Supply
■ X4E-2/3BRI: WAN interface card for ISDN BRI, to be optionally equipped
with
–
a resource card with digital modems (XTR-S, XTR-M) and/or
–
a resource card for encryption and compression (XTR-ENC)
■ X4E-2FE: LAN interface card for 10/100 Mbps, to be optionally equipped
with
–
a resource card for encryption and compression (XTR-ENC)
X4000 User’s Guide
19
1
Welcome!
1.3
BinTec Companion CD
You will find all the programs you need for the installation, configuration and
administration of X4000 on your BinTec Companion CD.
BRICKware
BRICKware for Windows contains the Windows utility programs:
■ DIME Tools are for monitoring and administration of your X4000.
■ The Configuration Wizard leads you step by step through the basic
configuration of X4000.
■ You gain access to X4000 via the serial interface using the terminal
program BRICK at COM1 or BRICK at COM2.
■ The Configuration Manager allows you to configure and administrate all
BinTec routers in the network via a graphic interface. Here you can view
and edit all SNMP tables and variables.
■ The Java Status Monitor allows you to request system information over an
Internet browser.
■ Remote CAPI Client:
The Remote CAPI Client allows you to use communications applications
based on the standard CAPI interface (e.g. RVS-COM Lite).
■ Token Authentication Firewall (TAF) program (optional):
This software package is required if you are using the Security Dynamics
security system.
■ The Activity Monitor enables you to monitor the utilization of X4000 at a
glance.
More detailed descriptions of all software programs can be found in our online
manual BRICKware for Windows.
RVS-COM Lite
20
In addition to BRICKware, your BinTec Companion CD contains the RVS-COM
Lite communications program that allows you to use all the usual
communications applications on your PC, such as an answering machine, fax
or file transfer.
X4000 User’s Guide
1
BinTec Companion CD
Please note: The license for RVS-COM Lite is a single user license. You can
purchase additional licenses from your dealer.
What else?
The Companion CD also contains a range of other useful directories in which
you can find the following, for example:
■ The documentation in electronic form (see chapter 1.4, page 22)
■ A copy of the router software
■ UNIX Tools (administration)
■ Adobe’s Acrobat Reader
■ Configuration examples
X4000 User’s Guide
21
1
Welcome!
1.4
Documentation from BinTec
Together with X4000, you will have received part of the documentation in
printed form and all of it in electronic form (PDF, HTML). The electronic versions
of the different documents are included on the BinTec Companion CD. In
addition to your Companion CD documentation, you can download all the very
latest BinTec documentation from our WWW server at www.bintec.de. The
following documentation is currently available:
■ User’s Guide (English)
This manual.
■ Benutzerhandbuch (German)
This manual in German.
■ Reference manuals (English, PDF/HTML).
–
Software Reference (PDF)
Online reference with detailed information on functions described here,
a reference for the internal SNMP table structures and the operation of
the SNMP shell.
–
Extended Features Reference (PDF)
Online reference for extra functions, some of which are only available
with a separate license (e.g. VPN).
–
MIB Reference
HTML document with short descriptions about all SNMP tables and
variables for X4000.
■ BRICKware for Windows (English, PDF)
User’s guide for Windows utility programs (BRICKware)
■ Release notes (English, PDF and/or printed)
Up-to-the-minute information and instructions concerning the latest
software release, description of all changes undertaken since the previous
release.
In the Logic release notes, you will find instructions to help you upgrade
BOOTmonitor and/or firmware logic.
■ Release notes for router operation in UK (English, PDF)
Instructions for the operation of BinTec routers in Great Britain.
22
X4000 User’s Guide
1
System Requirements
1.5
System Requirements
X4000 can be configured from all conventional platforms. X4000 is a standalone device that is independent of the PC or operating system to which it is
connected. The router communicates with the PC over a LAN interface (10/
100 Mbps) or a serial connection. Your router can therefore be used in many
different operating system environments, such as DOS, Windows, UNIX, AS/
400, Macintosh or Novell.
If you want to use the Configuration Wizard, however, you will require the
following:
■ PC with serial interface (V.24)
■ Windows 95 or 98 or Windows NT 4.0
■ Installed network card (10 Mbps Ethernet or 10/100 Mbps Fast Ethernet)
■ Installed Microsoft TCP/IP protocol
■ High-color monitor (more than 256 colors) for correct display of graphics.
X4000 User’s Guide
23
1
Welcome!
1.6
Guarantee Terms
2 years
X4000 is guaranteed for 2 years from the date of purchase. Please contact your
dealer for handling claims under the guarantee.
6 years
You can extend the guarantee for X4000 to 6 years by registering with BinTec
Communications AG. To register, fill out the online form provided at
www.bintec.de. You will then receive written confirmation by return. As a
registered user, you not only have the advantage of an extended guarantee, but
also receive regular information about new products, if you wish.
Please read the enclosed leaflet with detailed guarantee information for X4000.
Danger!
Live components are exposed when the equipment is open. There is a risk of
electric shock!
It is not necessary to open the housing for connecting or operating, or for
installing or removing the expansion card. If the housing is opened, this tears
the guarantee label on X4000, which invalidates the guarantee.
➤ Never open the housing!
24
X4000 User’s Guide
1
About this Manual
1.7
About this Manual
1.7.1
Contents
This manual is structured as follows:
Chapter
Contents
1: "Welcome!"
General introduction, scope of supply,
guarantee terms, information about this
manual.
2: "General Safety
Precautions"
General safety precautions.
3: "Hardware Description
and Installation"
Description of the hardware (basic unit,
expansion cards, MMI, LEDs, connections).
Instructions on how to install the 19-inch built-in
unit in the rack, how to change over the display,
how to install and remove an expansion card,
and how to connect the equipment. Description
of boot sequence.
4: "Configuration
Requirements"
Description of access and configuration
options. A basis for working with the Setup
Tool. Procedure for initial configuration.
5: "Man-Machine
Interface (MMI) – Display
with User Guide"
How to use the MMI with display and input
keys.
6: "Fast Configuration
with the Configuration
Wizard (Basic Unit)"
How to take X4000 into operation in a few
minutes using the Windows tool Configuration
Wizard and how to install and set up other
useful software.
7: "Basic Configuration of
Basic Unit with Setup
Tool"
How to take X4000 into operation with the
Setup Tool and set up a basic configuration
(including configuration of the WAN interfaces).
X4000 User’s Guide
25
1
Welcome!
Chapter
Contents
8: "Advanced
Configuration of the Basic
Unit with the Setup Tool"
How to carry out more advanced settings with
the Setup Tool.
9: "Configuration of
Expansion and Resource
Cards with the Setup
Tool"
How to configure an expansion card and any
resource card(s) equipped
10: "Configuration of
Security Functions and
Firewall"
How to configure security mechanisms using
SAFERNET, e.g. NAT (Network Address
Translation) or filters.
11: "Configuration
Management"
How to administrate configuration files and how
to perform software updates.
12: "Troubleshooting"
Important tips on fault clearance.
13: "Technical Data"
X4000 technical data.
14: "Important
Commands"
A brief overview of the most important
commands of the SNMP shell and BRICKtools
for Unix.
15: "General Safety
Precautions in 15
Different Languages"
General safety precautions in 15 different
languages.
Table 1-1: List of chapters
26
X4000 User’s Guide
1
About this Manual
1.7.2
Meaning
To help you locate and interpret information easily, this manual uses the
following visual aids:
Symbol
Meaning
Points out useful and relevant tips and tricks.
Predicts potential pitfalls and explains how to
avoid them.
Brings to your attention general and important
points.
Explains required fundamental information.
Brings your attention to important safety
precautions. Levels of danger are in
accordance with ANSI:
■ Caution (indicates possible danger that, if
unheeded, could cause material damage)
■ Warning (indicates possible danger that, if
unheeded, could cause bodily harm)
■ Danger (indicates danger that, if unheeded,
could lead to serious bodily harm or death)
Table 1-2: List of visual aids
X4000 User’s Guide
27
1
Welcome!
To help you find and interpret the information in this manual, the following
typographical elements are used:
Typographical element
Meaning
➤
Here you are requested to do something.
■
Lists including two levels.
–
–
MENU ➧ SUBMENU
Indicates menus and submenus in the Setup
Tool.
Non-proportional
(Courier), e.g.
ping 192.168.1.254
■ Indicates commands (e.g. in the SNMP
shell) that you must enter as shown.
■ Used to display the Setup Tool.
<IP address>
Indicates inputs in which you enter a value for
the term shown in the brackets. Do not enter
the pointed brackets.
bold, italics, e.g.
Indicates example terms.
BigBoss
bold, e.g.
➤➤ MIB
Indicates terms that you can find in the glossary
(for online texts, click the double arrow).
bold, e.g.
■ Indicates fields in the Setup Tool and MIB
tables and variables.
biboAdmLoginTable,
Windows Start menu
■ Indicates
italics, e.g.
Indicates values that can be entered or set in
the Setup Tool or MIB variables.
none
keys/key
Windows terms.
Table 1-3: Typographical elements
28
X4000 User’s Guide
combinations
and
1
Feedback
1.8
Feedback
As the BinTec Communications AG documentation team, we write manuals and
other documentation for your use. We aim to supply documentation that is up to
the high quality of X4000 and meets your requirements. You as the user of
BinTec products are the best person to judge whether we have succeeded with
this manual.
So please let us know what is missing in this manual, what you don’t like, what
we should do better, what you like, what you think is especially successful, etc.
Your constructive criticism is always welcome and will help us design the
documentation for BinTec products to suit your wishes and needs.
Questionnaire
The last page of this manual contains a questionnaire we have prepared for
your suggestions. Please fill out the questionnaire and return
■ by fax to: +49 911 - 9673 1498
■ by post to:
BinTec Communications AG
Keyword: Docu Feedback
Südwestpark 94
90449 Nürnberg
■ or just send us an e-mail to:
[email protected]
We look forward to receiving your feedback. Thanks for your support.
X4000 User’s Guide
29
1
30
Welcome!
X4000 User’s Guide
2
2
General Safety Precautions
The following sections contain safety precautions you are strongly advised to
heed when working with your equipment.
Transport and
storage
■ Only transport and store X4000 in its original packaging or use other
Installation and
operation
■ Read the information on the ambient conditions (see Technical Data)
appropriate packaging to protect against knocking and shaking.
before installing and operating X4000. Place the equipment on a firm flat
base.
■ Electrostatic charges may cause damage to the equipment. You should
therefore wear a grounded wrist strap or touch a grounded surface before
you touch sockets or extension cards of X4000. Only grip extension cards
at the edges and do not touch components or conductor tracks.
■ Keep the unused extension slot covered with the dummy cover to prevent
objects getting inside the equipment. Foreign bodies located in the
equipment during operation create a danger of electric shock and shortcircuits.
■ Ensure that no sharp objects can damage the window of the display
module. Protect the display module against knocks and dropping and only
connect it to the RJ11 socket provided for this purpose on X4000 to prevent
damage to X4000 and the display module.
■ Make sure the cables do not cover the ventilation slots of the equipment or
interfere with ventilation. Obstructing the ventilation of X4000 may cause
damage to the equipment. Damage caused by lack of ventilation
invalidates the guarantee.
■ Never open the basic unit or tamper with the mains unit in any way, as this
can create a lethal danger through electric shock. Don’t remove any fixing
screws on the basic unit.
■ Condensation may occur externally or internally if the equipment is moved
from a colder room to a warmer room. When moving the equipment under
such conditions, allow ample time for the equipment to reach room
X4000 User’s Guide
31
2
General Safety Precautions
temperature and to dry out completely before operating. Observe the
ambient conditions under Technical Data.
■ Make sure the local mains voltage is the same as the nominal voltages of
the mains unit. The equipment may only be operated under the following
conditions.
–
100 - 240 V AC
–
50 - 60 Hz
■ Make sure the safety mains socket in the building is freely accessible. You
must remove the mains plug to disconnect the equipment completely from
the mains.
■ Make sure you follow the correct cabling sequence, as described in the
manual. Use only the cables supplied with the equipment or cables that
meet the specifications in this manual. If you use other cables, BinTec
Communications AG cannot accept liability for any damage occurring or for
any adverse effects on operation. The equipment guarantee is invalidated
in such cases.
■ Connect the equipment as described in the manual.
■ Arrange the cables so that they are not in the way and cannot be tripped
over or damaged.
■ Do not connect, disconnect or touch the data lines during lightning storms.
Operation according to
the regulations
■ X4000 is intended for use in offices. As an ISDN multiprotocol router,
X4000 establishes WAN connections depending on the system
configuration. To avoid extra charges, you should carefully monitor the
product.
■ X4000 meets the relevant safety standards for information technology
equipment for use in offices.
■ Operation of the system according to IEC 950/EN 60950 is only
guaranteed when the top of the housing is fitted (cooling, fire protection,
RFI suppression).
■ Ambient temperature should not exceed 50 °C. Avoid exposure to direct
sunlight.
32
X4000 User’s Guide
2
■ Make sure no foreign objects (e.g. paper clips) or liquids get into the
equipment (risk of electric shock, short-circuit). Make sure the equipment is
sufficiently cooled.
■ X4000 contains no components for the user to replace or any switches or
jumpers that need to be set by the user.
■ In an emergency (e.g. damaged housing or operating element, entry of
liquid or foreign bodies), immediately disconnect the power supply and
notify customer service.
Cleaning and
repair
■ The equipment should only be opened by service centers authorized by
BinTec. Always disconnect the power cord before opening the equipment.
Unauthorized opening and improper repairs can result in serious danger for
the user (e.g. electric shock). Ensure that repairs are only carried out by
service centers authorized by BinTec. Your dealer will tell you where the
service centers are situated. Failure to observe the above instructions
invalidates the guarantee and no claims can be accepted.
■ Never use water to clean this equipment. Water spillage can result in
serious danger for the user (e.g. electric shock) and cause considerable
damage to the equipment.
■ Never use scouring or abrasive alkaline cleaning agents on this equipment.
X4000 User’s Guide
33
2
34
General Safety Precautions
X4000 User’s Guide
3
3
Hardware Description and
Installation
This chapter contains the following information, which you will need for the
installation of X4000:
■ Basic unit, chapter 3.1, page 36
–
X4000 as desktop unit, chapter 3.1.1, page 37 or 19-inch built-in unit,
chapter 3.1.2, page 40
–
"Display and Input Keys", page 37
–
"Installing in a 19-inch cabinet", page 40
–
"Removal from 19-inch cabinet", page 44
■ Expansion and resource cards, chapter 3.2, page 53
–
Design of expansion cards, chapter 3.2.1, page 53
–
Installation and replacement of expansion card, chapter 3.2.2, page 55
■ Setting up and connecting X4000, chapter 3.3, page 59
–
"Connecting X4000 to PC or terminal", page 60
–
"Connecting X4000 to LAN", page 60
–
"Connecting X4000 to WAN", page 60
–
"Connecting X4000 to power supply", page 61
–
Connecting the "Expansion card", page 61
–
Activating the "Real-time clock", page 61
■ Status messages by LEDs, chapter 3.4, page 63
–
Basic unit, chapter 3.4.1, page 63
–
Expansion cards, chapter 3.4.2, page 64
■ Boot sequence, chapter 3.5, page 66
X4000 User’s Guide
35
3
Hardware Description and Installation
3.1
Basic Unit
BinTec Communications AG offers you X4000 in two variants:
■ Desktop unit for setting up in the office
■ Built-in unit for 19-inch cabinet
The X4000 basic unit is not fitted with an expansion card in the ex works state.
The expansion slot provided for the expansion card at the rear of the equipment
is closed by a dummy cover. This dummy cover is unscrewed when the
expansion card is fitted. The slot is automatically covered by the backplane of
the expansion card when the card is fitted.
36
X4000 User’s Guide
3
Basic Unit
3.1.1
Desktop Unit
4000
1
C
OK
2
1
Display with input keys
Figure 3-1:
2
Power LED (blue)
Front view of desktop unit
Display and Input Keys
BinTec’s Man-Machine Interface (MMI), a convenient user guide with display
and input keys, guides the user through a number of basic functions of X4000.
You will find a detailed description of the MMI in chapter 5, page 93.
X4000 User’s Guide
37
3
Hardware Description and Installation
Display unit on
19-inch built-in unit
38
The display unit on the 19-inch built-in unit can be mounted on the front or back
of X4000. The instructions for changing the position are contained in "Step 2
Changing over the display", page 46.
X4000 User’s Guide
3
Basic Unit
Rear view of desktop unit:
10
11
1
10
2
3
9
4
8
5
6
7
1
Expansion card slot (with
dummy cover)
7
IEC AC socket of mains unit
2
Status LEDs (red and green)
8
X.21/V.35/V.36 interface
3
RJ11 socket for display
9
X.21bis interface
4
Mini DIN socket (console)
10
Fixing screws for expansion
card and dummy cover
5
Ethernet/LAN 10/100 Base-T
Fast Ethernet interface
11
Plastic strip for activating the
buffer battery for the real-time
clock (RTC)
6
ISDN BRI interface
Figure 3-2:
Rear view of desktop unit
X4000 User’s Guide
39
3
Hardware Description and Installation
For connecting your desktop unit, go to chapter 3.3, page 59.
3.1.2
Installing in a
19-inch cabinet
19-Inch Built-In Unit
BinTec offers X4000 as a 19-inch built-in unit for installation in a 19-inch
cabinet.
How to install your 19-inch unit in the 19-inch cabinet is described below. X4000
is flexible and can be installed as follows:
■ with its front panel towards the front and the connections towards the back
in your 19-inch cabinet (cf. "Installation with Front Panel Towards the
Front", page 41 and Figure 3-6, page 44).
■ with the connections towards the front in your 19-inch cabinet. In this case,
the display can be changed over so that it can be seen from the front (cf.
"Installation with Connections Towards the Front and Changing Over the
Display", page 45).
C
Figure 3-3:
40
X4000 User’s Guide
OK
4000
19-inch built-in unit
3
Basic Unit
Installation with Front Panel Towards the Front
Caution!
It is not necessary to open the housing for connecting or operating, or for
installing or removing the expansion card.
If the housing is opened, this tears the guarantee label on X4000, which
invalidates the guarantee.
➤ Never open the housing!
Danger!
Live components are exposed when the equipment is open. There is a risk of
electric shock!
➤ Never open the housing!
X4000 User’s Guide
41
3
Hardware Description and Installation
The following components and fixing parts are required for installation in a 19inch cabinet:
1
3
1
2
2
5
4
1
Mounting bracket
4
Cover
2
Fixing holes
5
Power LED housing
3
Display unit
Figure 3-4:
42
X4000 User’s Guide
Exploded drawing showing the main components and mounting parts for
the installation of X4000 in a 19-inch cabinet
3
Basic Unit
Proceed as follows:
Figure 3-5:
Step 1
Screwing the bracket to the fixing holes
➤ Using the two brackets and screws supplied with X4000, screw the
brackets to the front fixing holes provided on the side of X4000, see
Figure 3-5, page 43. Always use the screws supplied. Other screws may
not withstand the mechanical loads or may damage the equipment.
Step 2
➤ Connect the necessary interface cables to the sockets provided (cables
must already be installed if your cabinet is not accessible from the rear!).
Step 3
➤ Slide this preassembled unit with the two brackets screwed to it into the
cabinet and screw the preassembled unit to the longitudinal sections of the
cabinet (these screws are not supplied with X4000, but are included with
the cabinet.)
X4000 User’s Guide
43
3
Hardware Description and Installation
This is what X4000 should look like on completion of installation.
Figure 3-6:
X4000 installed in a 19-inch cabinet
For connecting your 19-inch built-in unit, go to chapter 3.3, page 59.
Removal from
19-inch cabinet
44
To remove X4000 from the 19-inch cabinet (e.g. for replacing or installing an
expansion card, installing a fan unit, etc.), carry out the steps described above
in the reverse order.
X4000 User’s Guide
3
Basic Unit
Installation with Connections Towards the Front and Changing
Over the Display
Caution!
It is not necessary to open the housing for connecting or operating, or for
installing or removing the expansion card.
If the housing is opened, this tears the guarantee label on X4000, which
invalidates the guarantee.
➤ Never open the housing!
Danger!
Live components are exposed when the equipment is open. There is a risk of
electric shock!
➤ Never open the housing!
Caution!
X4000 must be switched off before changing over the display unit. Changing
over the display unit with the equipment switched on may damage both the
display and the basic unit.
➤ Switch off X4000 before changing over the display unit!
X4000 User’s Guide
45
3
Hardware Description and Installation
Proceed as follows:
Figure 3-7:
Step 1
Removing the plastic cover
➤ Remove the plastic cover of X4000 from the metal housing.
This is done by pressing the edge of the housing on the narrow side of the
front panel (marked with a grip) slightly towards the display, see Figure 37, page 46.
This releases the plastic cover, which can be removed from the front. The
blue Power LED with the BinTec logo is still visible after removing the front
panel.
Step 2 Changing over
the display
46
➤ Disconnect the display cable from the RJ11 socket on the metal housing
(Caution: The plug is locked to the socket; make sure you free the plug).
X4000 User’s Guide
3
Basic Unit
Figure 3-8:
Step 3
Removing the display
➤ Turn the display unit by approx. 40 ° to the left and remove the display unit
to the front away from the metal housing (bayonet connection), see
Figure 3-8, page 47.
X4000 User’s Guide
47
3
Hardware Description and Installation
The following components and fixing parts are required for installation in a 19inch cabinet with the X4000 connections to the front:
3
6
1
4
1
2
5
2
1
Mounting bracket
4
Bayonet connection for fixing
the display unit
2
Fixing holes
5
Display cable
3
Display unit
6
Power supply for external fan
unit (for 19-inch built-in unit
only).
Figure 3-9:
48
4
X4000 User’s Guide
Exploded drawing showing the main components and mounting parts for
the installation of X4000 in a 19-inch cabinet
3
Basic Unit
Figure 3-10: Screwing the bracket to the fixing holes
Step 4
➤ Using the two brackets and screws supplied with the equipment, screw the
brackets to the rear fixing holes provided on the side of X4000, see
Figure 3-10, page 49. Always use the screws supplied. Other screws
cannot withstand the mechanical loads or may damage the equipment.
X4000 User’s Guide
49
3
Hardware Description and Installation
Figure 3-11: Mounting the display on a fixing bracket
Step 5
➤ Mount the display unit on one of the two fixing brackets. Make sure that the
display unit engages properly, see Figure 3-12, page 51.
50
X4000 User’s Guide
3
Basic Unit
Figure 3-12: Mounting the display on one of the side brackets
Step 6
➤ Slide this preassembled unit with the two brackets screwed to it into the
cabinet and screw the preassembled unit to the longitudinal sections of the
cabinet (these screws are not supplied with X4000, but are included with
the cabinet), see Figure 3-13, page 52.
Step 7
➤ Connect the plug of the display cable to the RJ11 socket provided.
X4000 User’s Guide
51
3
Hardware Description and Installation
This is what X4000 should look like on completion of installation.
Figure 3-13: X4000 installed with connections at the front
For connecting your 19-inch built-in unit, go to chapter 3.3, page 59.
Removal from
19-inch cabinet
52
To remove X4000 from the 19-inch cabinet (e.g. for installing a fan unit, etc.),
carry out the steps described above in the reverse order.
X4000 User’s Guide
3
Expansion and Resource Cards
3.2
Expansion and Resource Cards
You can extend your basic unit by adding an X4000 expansion card.
The following expansion cards are offered by BinTec for integration in X4000:
■ X4E-1/2PRI: WAN interface card for ISDN PRI and/or G.703
–
equipped as standard with hardware support for encryption and
compression
–
can be optionally equipped with up to two resource cards with digital
modems (XTR-S, XTR-M) or a resource card (XTR-L)
■ X4E-2/3BRI: WAN interface card for ISDN BRI, can be optionally equipped
with
–
a resource card with digital modems (XTR-S, XTR-M) and/or
–
a resource card for encryption and compression (XTR-ENC)
■ X4E-2FE: LAN interface card for 10/100 Mbps, can be optionally equipped
with
–
a resource card for encryption and compression (XTR-ENC)
For configuration of expansion and resource cards, please refer to chapter 9,
page 277. The technical data (including pin assignment of interfaces) can be
found in chapter 13.3, page 406.
3.2.1
Design of Expansion Cards
Rear views of the expansion cards with their respective interfaces and LEDs are
shown below.
The meaning of the LEDs is given in chapter 3.4.2, page 64.
If you are using an expansion card with resource card(s) in the X4000 built-in
unit, BinTec Communications AG recommends that you use the fan unit
obtainable as optional equipment.
X4000 User’s Guide
53
3
Hardware Description and Installation
BRI Expansion Card X4E-2/3BRI
2
3
1
ISDN BRI port
3
Screws
2
1
1
3
1
2
LEDs
Figure 3-14: Rear view of a BRI expansion card
PRI/G.703 Expansion Card X4E-1/2PRI
3
1
1
ISDN PRI/G.703 port with IN
and OUT socket
3
Screws
2
1
2
LEDs
Figure 3-15: Rear view of a PRI/G.703 expansion card
54
X4000 User’s Guide
3
3
Expansion and Resource Cards
Two RJ45 sockets – IN and OUT – are available per interface on the PRI/G.703
expansion card.
Connect the expansion card by connecting the cable to the IN socket. You can
connect a backup router via the OUT socket as an option, which can then take
over the function of the first router if this is switched off or fails.
By connecting a loopback plug to the OUT socket, it is also possible to prevent
the provider’s exchange disconnecting the line if the expansion card fails.
LAN Expansion Card X4E-2FE
3
1
Fast Ethernet port
3
Screws
2
1
1
2
2
3
LEDs
Figure 3-16: Rear view of a LAN expansion card
3.2.2
Installation and Replacement of Expansion
Card
Now you can find out how to equip the X4000 basic unit with an expansion card
or replace this with one of the other X4000 expansion cards. Make sure you also
follow the installation guide supplied with the expansion and resource cards.
X4000 User’s Guide
55
3
Hardware Description and Installation
Caution!
An expansion card must not be installed or replaced during operation. X4000
must always be disconnected from the power supply first, otherwise there is a
risk of damaging both X4000 and the expansion card.
➤ Always disconnect the power cord of X4000 and all connecting cables on
the expansion card before you insert or replace the expansion card.
➤ Do not connect X4000 to the power supply until the equipment is completely
closed and you have rechecked the installation.
Danger!
Do not touch any parts inside the expansion slot when installing or replacing the
expansion card. There is a risk of electric shock!
➤ Do not touch any parts inside the expansion slot of X4000!
Caution!
Electrostatic charges can damage electronic components. Please observe the
following precautions to avoid damaging components:
➤ Ground yourself before unpacking components and before carrying out
installation work on the equipment.
➤ Only grip boards at the edges and do not touch cables or components.
56
X4000 User’s Guide
3
Expansion and Resource Cards
1
2
1
2
1, 2
Hole and screw for fixing the expansion card
Figure 3-17: Installing an expansion card
Installation /
replacement
Proceed as follows to install or replace an expansion card.
➤ Undo the screws of the dummy cover or the expansion card installed in the
slot. Remove the dummy cover or withdraw the existing expansion card
from the slot.
Keep the two screws of the dummy cover, as these are used for fixing the
expansion card.
➤ Mount the resource card(s) on the expansion card, if applicable. Follow the
installation guide supplied with the resource card.
➤ Push the expansion card into the slot provided in the housing until it
engages in the slot connector. Card guides ensure that the expansion card
X4000 User’s Guide
57
3
Hardware Description and Installation
is reliably plugged in. Once the expansion card engages in the connector,
fix it to the housing with the two screws you previously unscrewed from the
dummy cover or the expansion card to be replaced (see Figure 3-17,
page 57).
If you are using an expansion card with resource card(s) in the X4000 built-in
unit, BinTec Communications AG recommends that you use the fan unit
obtainable as optional equipment.
Removal
58
To remove an expansion card, carry out the installation steps described above
in the reverse order.
X4000 User’s Guide
3
Setting Up and Connecting
3.3
Setting Up and Connecting
7
6
5
4
3
10
10
9
8
2
1
11
1
Expansion card slot (with
dummy cover)
7
IEC AC socket of mains unit
2
Status LEDs (red and green)
8
X.21/V.35/V.36 interface
3
RJ11 socket for display
9
X.21bis interface
4
Mini DIN socket (console)
10
Fixing screws for expansion
card and dummy cover
5
Ethernet/LAN 10/100 Base-T
Fast Ethernet interface
11
Plastic strip for activating the
buffer battery for the real-time
clock (RTC)
6
ISDN BRI interface
Figure 3-18: X4000 rear view
X4000 User’s Guide
59
3
Hardware Description and Installation
Caution!
Incorrect cabling of ISDN or LAN interfaces can cause your router to
malfunction!
➤ Only connect the LAN interface of X4000 to the LAN interface of the hub
and the ISDN interface of X4000 to the ISDN connection.
Make the connections in the following order:
➤ Place X4000 on a firm level surface.
Connecting X4000 to
PC or
terminal
➤ Connect the serial port of your PC (COM1 or COM2) to the console
interface of your X4000. Use only the serial cable supplied with the
equipment.
You only need to connect X4000 to the console interface (no. 4, see
Figure 3-18, page 59) if you want to carry out your initial configuration
serially via the console port, e.g. with the Configuration Wizard (cf.
chapter 6, page 109).
No serial connection is necessary if you only want to quickly assign X4000 the
IP address and netmask. You can assign the IP address quickly and easily
using the input keys and the display (cf. chapter 5, page 93).
Connecting X4000
to LAN
➤ Connect the LAN interface (no. 5, see Figure 3-18, page 59) of X4000 to
Connecting X4000
to WAN
If you want to use the ISDN BRI interface in your applications scenario:
your hub. Use only LAN cables suitable for CAT5. A poorer quality cable
can cause malfunctions of X4000.
➤ Connect the ISDN BRI interface (no. 6, see Figure 3-18, page 59) of X4000
to your ISDN connection using the cable (RJ-45) supplied with the
equipment.
If you want to use the X.21/V.35/V.36 or X.21bis interface(s) in your application
scenario:
➤ Connect the X.21/V.35/V.36 or X.21bis (no. 8 or no. 9, Figure 3-18,
page 59) of X4000 to your connection via a cable (not supplied with the
equipment).
60
X4000 User’s Guide
3
Setting Up and Connecting
We recommend you use original BinTec cables, which you can buy from your
dealer.
The use of other cables may cause damage to your equipment and invalidates
the guarantee!
Real-time clock
Finally, you must activate the buffer battery of the real-time clock:
Figure 3-19: Removing the plastic strip for activating the buffer battery
➤ Remove the plastic strip (see Figure 3-19, page 61) from the dummy cover.
Expansion card
To connect your expansion card:
➤ Plug the necessary interface cables of your expansion card into the sockets
provided.
Two RJ45 sockets – IN and OUT – are available per interface on the PRI/
G.703 expansion card.
Connect the expansion card by connecting the cable to the IN socket. You can
connect a backup router via the OUT socket as an option, which can then take
over the function of the first router if this is switched off or fails.
Connecting X4000
to power supply
➤ If you want to use the display, make sure that the display cable is connected
to the appropriate socket on the 19-inch built-in unit.
➤ Connect X4000 to a mains socket or to the power supply of the 19-inch
cabinet using the IEC AC power cord supplied with the equipment.
X4000 selftest
X4000 carries out a selftest; see chapter 3.5, page 66. If you have
connected all the cables correctly, the red LED of the C key on the display
X4000 User’s Guide
61
3
Hardware Description and Installation
and the red LED on the back of X4000 go out at the end of the selftest.
The blue Power LED lights as long as X4000 is supplied with power.
The status messages displayed by (LEDs) are described in chapter 3.4,
page 63.
Hardware
basic settings
➤ Make the necessary hardware basic settings via the keyboard and display
(a detailed description is contained in chapter 5, page 93):
– Select interactive language in the MMI.
–
62
Enter any IP address and netmask so that further configuration can be
carried out via the LAN and not via the console port.
X4000 User’s Guide
3
Status Messages via LEDs
3.4
Status Messages via LEDs
The three different types of LED used by the X4000 basic unit for indicating
status messages and the meaning of the LEDs on the expansion cards are
given below.
3.4.1
Basic Unit
Power LED
The blue Power LED inside the BinTec logo on the front of X4000 (see Figure 31, page 37) lights as soon as X4000 is supplied with power.
Illuminated
input keys
The display input keys illuminated during operation guide you through the MMI.
Key
On
Flashes
Off
C
Press this key to
leave the menu level
–
No meaningful
entry possible
Press this key to
move backwards in
the menu level
–
No meaningful
entry possible
Press this key to
move forwards in the
menu level
–
No meaningful
entry possible
Confirmation of
entry or selection is
possible
–
No meaningful
entry possible
OK
Table 3-1: Status message via input keys
LEDs on the back of
X4000
One red and one green LED on the back of the X4000 basic unit (see Figure 32, page 39) indicate the general status of each of the individual interfaces.
If the green LED flashes or lights, this always means fault-free operation. If the
red LED flashes or lights, this indicates a fault.
You can obtain more detailed status information via the display, the Setup Tool
or an SNMP Management Tool.
X4000 User’s Guide
63
3
Hardware Description and Installation
3.4.2
Expansion Cards
The expansion cards are equipped with LEDs, which respond as described
below if the cables are connected.
BRI Expansion Card X4E-2/3BRI
The BRI expansion card has six LEDs, which are assigned in pairs (red and
green) to each port.
The LEDs indicate the following status messages:
green
LED
red LED
LED
lights
LED
flashes
Meaning
X
–
1 B-channel is used
–
X
2 B-channels are used
–
–
None of the B-channels used
X
–
D-channel missing or autoconfiguration
failed
–
X
Layer 1 not stable
Table 3-2: LED status messages of a BRI expansion card
PRI/G.703 Expansion Card X4E-1/2PRI
The PRI/G.703 expansion card has two LEDs. The top LED is assigned to the
first port (Unit 0) and the bottom LED to the second port (Unit 1).
64
X4000 User’s Guide
3
Status Messages via LEDs
The LEDs indicate the following status messages:
LED
lights
LED
flashes
Meaning
–
–
Port is not activated by license
X
–
Port is in G.703 Mode (license for G.703 or PRI is
activated and G.703 is selected under ISDN Line
Framing)
–
X
Port is in PRI Mode (license for PRI is activated and
G.703 is not selected under ISDN Line Framing)
Table 3-3: LED status messages of a PRI/G.703 expansion card
LAN Expansion Card X4E-2FE
The LAN expansion card has four LEDs. The two LEDs on the left side (red and
green) are assigned to the first port (Unit 0) and the two LEDs on the right side
(red and green) to the second port (Unit 1).
The red LEDs light up if Ethernet collisions occur and the green LEDs indicate
activity on the Ethernet:
green
LED
red
LED
LED
flashes
LED
lights
Meaning
–
X
100 Mbps Mode (Fast Ethernet)
X
–
10 Mbps Mode (Ethernet)
–
–
Port is not available
–
X
Ethernet collision
–
–
No Ethernet collision
Table 3-4: Status messages of LEDs on a LAN expansion card
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Hardware Description and Installation
3.5
Boot Sequence
X4000 passes through various functional states on booting:
■ Start Mode
■ BOOTmonitor Mode
■ Normal Operation Mode
After several selftests have been performed successfully in Start Mode, X4000
changes to the BOOTmonitor Mode. The BOOTmonitor prompt is displayed if
you are connected to X4000 via a terminal program.
BOOTmonitor
Press Space within four seconds of the display of the BOOTmonitor prompt if
you want to use the BOOTmonitor functions. If you do not make an entry within
four seconds, X4000 changes back to normal operation mode.
Functions
The BOOTmonitor makes the following functions available, which you select by
entering the relevant digit (for more detailed information, refer to Software
Reference):
■ (1) Boot system:
X4000 loads the compressed boot file from the flash memory to the RAM
memory. This happens automatically when started.
■ (2) Software update via TFTP:
X4000 performs a software update via a TFTP server.
■ (3) Software update via XMODEM:
X4000 performs a software update over a serial interface with XMODEM.
■ (4) Delete configuration:
X4000 is reset to the unconfigured ex works state. All configuration files are
deleted and the BOOTmonitor settings are set to the default values.
■ (5) Default BOOTmonitor parameters:
You can change the default settings of X4000’s BOOTmonitor, e.g. the
baud rate for serial connections.
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Boot Sequence
If you change the baud rate (the preset value is 9600 baud), make sure the
terminal program used also uses this baud rate. If this is not the case, you will
not be able to establish a serial connection to X4000!
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Hardware Description and Installation
X4000 User’s Guide
4
4
Configuration Requirements
This chapter tells you how to carry out the following tasks:
■ How to access X4000 (chapter 4.1, page 70)
■ How to log in to X4000 (chapter 4.2, page 76)
■ Which methods of configuration are available to you (chapter 4.3, page 78)
■ How the ➤➤ Setup Tool is constructed (chapter 4.3.2, page 79)
■ How to carry out an initial configuration of X4000 (chapter 4.4, page 91)
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Configuration Requirements
4.1
Connection Methods
Before you can configure your X4000, you must connect X4000. There are
various ways of doing this:
■ Over the Man-Machine Interface (MMI)
■ Over the serial interface
■ Over your ➤➤ LAN
■ Over an ➤➤ ISDN connection
MMI
Serial
Connection
4000
BinTec
isdnlogin
X4000
ISDN
Figure 4-1:
LAN
4000
BinTec
Possible connections to X4000
The various connection methods are presented below, so that you can choose
the best method for your needs.
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Connection Methods
4.1.1
Initial steps
Man-Machine Interface (MMI)
The MMI with its display and input keys is a good method for establishing “initial
contact” with X4000. You should carry out the following initial steps with the
MMI:
➤ set the desired display language
➤ enter the IP address and netmask
You can then carry out further configuration steps using the Configuration
Wizard or Setup Tool.
4.1.2
Connecting Over the Serial Interface
Initial configuration
Connecting over the serial interface is very suitable if you carry out an initial
configuration on X4000 before you have entered an IP address and netmask.
To connect X4000 to your computer over the serial interface, connect the serial
interface on the basic unit of X4000 to the serial interface of your computer.
Windows
If you are using a Windows PC, you will need a terminal program, e.g.
HyperTerminal, for the serial connection. How to install this assistant and
BRICKware for Windows is described in chapter 6.2, page 112).
To do
➤ Click the Windows Start button and then Programs ➧ BRICKware ➧
BRICK at COM1 (or BRICK at COM2 if you use the COM2 port of your
PC) to start HyperTerminal.
➤ Press Return (at least once) after the HyperTerminal window opens.
A window with the login prompt appears. You are now in the SNMP shell of
X4000.
➤ Continue with chapter 4.2, page 76.
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Configuration Requirements
If the login prompt does not appear after pressing Return several times, the
connection to X4000 has not been set up successfully. Check the COM1 or
COM2 settings on your PC.
➤ Click File ➧ Properties.
➤ Click Configure.... in the Connect to tab.
The following settings are necessary:
–
Bits per second: 9600
–
Data bits: 8
–
Parity: none
–
Stop bits: 1
–
Flow control: none
➤ Enter the values and click OK.
➤ Set in the Settings tab:
–
Emulation: VT100
➤ Click OK.
The changes to the terminal program settings do not take effect until you
disconnect the connection to X4000 and set up the connection again.
You can also use any other terminal program that can be set to 9600 bps, 8N1
(8 data bits, no parity, 1 stop bit), software handshake (none) and VT100
emulation.
If you use the Configuration Wizard for configuration, you also connect to X4000
over the serial interface, but you do not access the SNMP shell. The start
window of the Configuration Wizard appears in this case (see Figure 6-1,
page 113).
Unix
If you are using a Unix PC, you cannot use HyperTerminal. You will require a
terminal program such as cu (under System V), tip (under BSD) or minicom
(under Linux). The settings for these programs are the same as listed above.
Example of a command line for using cu: cu -s 9600 -c/dev/ttyb
Example of a command line for using tip: tip -9600 /dev/ttyb
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Connection Methods
4.1.3
Connecting Over a LAN
You can reach X4000 from the LAN over the ➤➤ telnet service. Telnet is
normally available on every PC. To be able to reach your X4000 over the LAN,
it should already have an ➤➤ IP address and ➤➤ netmask. If this is not
the case and X4000 has therefore not yet been configured, you have two
options:
■ Enter the IP address and netmask via the input keys of the MMI (see
chapter 5, page 93).
■ If you are using Windows, you can assign X4000 an IP address by using the
➤➤ DIME Tools assistant. If you have not yet installed DIME Tools
together with BRICKware for Windows, proceed as explained in
chapter 6.2, page 112.
To do
Assigning IP
addresses
➤ Connect X4000 to the LAN.
To assign your X4000 an IP address (if necessary) with the DIME Tools
program, proceed as follows:
➤ Click the Windows Start button and then PROGRAMS ➧ BRICKWARE ➧
DIME Tools.
➤ If the ➤➤ BootP server is not started as standard, you must start it.
The BootP server window will appear after a short time if X4000 is still
unconfigured.
➤ Enter the name and IP address of your X4000 in the window under BRICK
Parameter.
➤ Click OK.
➤ Close DIME Tools.
Running telnet
Windows
Now establish a connection to X4000 with telnet:
➤ Click the Windows Start button and then Run....
➤ Type telnet <IP address of X4000>.
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➤ Click OK.
A window with the login prompt appears. You are now in the SNMP shell of
X4000. Continue with chapter 4.2, page 76.
Unix
➤ Type telnet <IP address of X4000> into a terminal.
A window with the login prompt appears. You are now in the SNMP shell of
X4000. Continue with chapter 4.2, page 76.
4.1.4
Remote configuration
Connection Over ISDN
Connection over ➤➤ ISDN with ➤➤ ISDN login is especially recommended
if X4000 is to be configured or administrated remotely (remote LAN in Figure 42, page 74). This is also possible even if X4000 has not been initially configured,
i.e. is still in the ex works state. Connection is then obtained by means of a
BinTec router that is already configured or an ISDN card in the remote LAN,
using a number of X4000’s ISDN connection in your own LAN (e.g. 1234).
It is thus possible for the administrator at a remote LAN to configure X4000 in a
home office which is hundreds of kilometers away. The X4000 in the home
office (e.g. your LAN) merely has to be connected to an ISDN line and turned
on.
isdnlogin 1234
4000
BinTec
X4000
unconfigured
( 1234
ISDN
BI
AN
CA
/B
RI
CK
-X
M
Router in the
Remote-LAN
Your LAN
Figure 4-2:
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X4000 User’s Guide
Connection over ISDN login for remote maintenance
Remote-LAN
4
Connection Methods
Access over ISDN costs money. If X4000 and the PC are in the same LAN, it is
cheaper to access X4000 over the LAN or the serial interface.
To do
➤ Connect X4000 to the ISDN.
To reach X4000 over ISDN login, proceed as follows:
➤ Log in on your BinTec router in the remote LAN in the usual way.
➤ In the SNMP shell, type in isdnlogin <number of the ISDN
connection of X4000>, e.g. isdnlogin 1234.
The login prompt will appear in the window. You are now in the SNMP shell of
X4000. Continue with chapter 4.2, page 76.
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4.2
Logging In
Regardless of how you access X4000, the ➤➤ SNMP shell of X4000 with the
login prompt always appears first. Exceptions to this rule are the Configuration
Wizard and Configuration Manager under Windows and the MMI.
In order to log in, you need to know the user name and password. In its ex works
state, X4000 is provided with the following user names and passwords:
User name
Password
Permission
admin
bintec
Read and change system variables,
save configurations, use the Setup
Tool.
write
public
Read system variables (changes are
lost when X4000 is turned off).
read
public
Read system variables.
http
bintec
Call up HTTP status page and Java
status monitor from X4000, read
system variables, no login.
Table 4-1:
User names and passwords in ex works state
As you can see, it is only possible to change and save configurations when you
log in with the user name admin.
Access information (user names and passwords) can also only be changed if
you log in with the user name admin. For security reasons, passwords are not
normally shown on the Setup Tool screen in plain language, but only as
asterisks. The user names appear in plain language. The security concept of
X4000 enables you to read all the other configuration settings with the user
name read, but not the access information. It is therefore impossible to log in
with read, read the password of the admin user and subsequently log in with
admin and make changes to the configuration.
To do
This is how you log in:
➤ Type in your user name (e.g. admin) and press Return.
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Logging In
➤ Type in your password (e.g. bintec) and press Return.
Your router then issues an input prompt, e.g. X4000:>. The login was
successful.
Caution!
To prevent unauthorized access to X4000, you should change the passwords
right away. How to change the passwords is described in "Changing the
password", page 85.
➤ Change the passwords as described in chapter 7.1.2, page 123.
Closing the SNMP shell
To leave the SNMP shell after completing the configuration, enter exit and
press Return.
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Configuration Requirements
4.3
Configuration Options
Before you set to work with the configuration, you must select a method. For this
reason, we would first like to give you an overview of the different configuration
methods and an introduction to using the Setup Tool. This manual explains how
to configure X4000 by means of the Setup Tool.
4.3.1
Methods of Configuration
Methods of configuring X4000:
■ Man-Machine Interface (MMI)
■ Configuration Wizard
■ Setup Tool
■ ➤➤ SNMP shell commands
■ Configuration Manager and other SNMP managers
MMI
The easy-to-use and intuitive Man-Machine Interface (MMI) gives you the
possibility of displaying information about X4000 on the display and entering a
number of basic settings (e.g. IP address and netmask) with the input keys. You
can do this quickly and easily without having to log in. The MMI cannot be used
to set up a comprehensive configuration. You should use the Setup Tool or
Configuration Wizard for this purpose. You can find detailed information about
the MMI and the complete menu architecture in chapter 5, page 93.
Configuration Wizard
You will learn about configuration using the Configuration Wizard in chapter 6,
page 109. It is useful for quick, basic configuration of X4000 and can be used if
you have a Windows PC. This usually covers most standard configurations.
However, if you need additional settings or wish to use other WAN interfaces of
X4000 than the ISDN BRI interface of the basic unit, you can use one of the
other configuration options stated above. You could first configure X4000 with
the Configuration Wizard and subsequently extend or change this initial
configuration with one of the other tools. In many cases, the Configuration
Wizard alone will be sufficient!
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Configuration Options
Setup Tool
The Setup Tool is a menu-driven tool for the configuration and administration of
X4000. Configuration with the Setup Tool is much easier and clearer than
configuration with SNMP commands, although not all settings can be made with
the Setup Tool. Besides the Configuration Wizard, this manual mainly explains
how to configure with the Setup Tool. The Setup Tool is independent of the
operating system of your PC. If a configuration step is only possible in isolated
cases with the help of an SNMP command, the procedure for this is also
explained.
SNMP
➤➤ SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) is a ➤➤ protocol that
defines how you can access the configuration settings. All configuration settings
are stored in the ➤➤ MIB (Management Information Base) in the form of MIB
tables and MIB variables. You can access these directly via the SNMP shell.
Configuration
Manager and
other SNMP managers
The Configuration Manager is a Windows-based SNMP manager provided by
BinTec Communications AG. You can use its interface based on Windows
Explorer to access all MIB tables and variables of X4000. You can also use
other SNMP managers, such as SNM, HP Open View or Transview, to access
and modify the MIB tables and variables. However, more detailed knowledge of
the structure and interrelations of the tables and subsystems of X4000 would be
a prerequisite for handling SNMP shell commands and SNMP managers; this
method is therefore suitable for experienced users. Handling MIB tables and
MIB variables is not described in this manual. You can find this information in
the Software Reference and MIB Reference.
4.3.2
Using the Setup Tool
You can call up the Setup Tool once you have logged in to X4000:
➤ Type setup after the input prompt and press Return.
The main menu of the Setup Tool appears.
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Configuration Requirements
Menu Line
X4000 Setup Tool
BinTec Communications AG
X4000
Licenses
LAN:
WAN:
System
CM-100BT, Fast Ethernet
CM-1BRI, ISDN S0
Module:
Serial-WAN: CM-SERIAL, Serial
Configuration Window
WAN PArtner
IP
IPX
PPP
ISDN
CAPI
Configuration Management
Monitoring and Debugging
Exit
Help Line
Press <Crtl-n>,<Ctrl-p> to scroll through menu items,<Return> to enter
Figure 4-3:
Setup Tool menu layout
To use the Setup Tool, you must log in with the user name admin! If you don’t
know the corresponding password, you cannot open the Setup Tool (see
chapter 4.2, page 76).
The Setup Tool is easy to use. After a few minutes, you will have no problem
finding your way around. Nevertheless, you should first familiarize yourself with
the facilities offered by the Setup Tool. By way of introduction, we would first like
to point out a few things you should be aware of when using the X4000 Setup
Tool.
Menu layout
Every Setup Tool menu consists of three parts (see Figure 4-3, page 80):
The menu line contains a navigation aid to show you where you currently are in
the Setup Tool menu system. The system name of X4000 is also displayed.
This is especially helpful if you are using several BinTec routers with different
system names.
The configuration window is where the actual entries are made and the
respective settings displayed. The field in which the cursor is currently located
is also marked.
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Configuration Options
The help line tells you how to move around in the menu currently displayed or
which entries you can change.
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Configuration Requirements
Menu navigation
You can use the following keys or key combinations to navigate the various
menus in the Setup Tool:
Key combination
Meaning
Tabulator
To move to the next item in a menu.
Return
To open a submenu or activate a menu
command (e.g. SAVE).
up or down
To move forwards or backwards between menu
fields (functions with VT 100 emulation when
using a terminal program).
left or right
To scroll backwards or forwards in the same
field to reveal a list of possible entries
(functions with VT 100 emulation when using a
terminal program).
Esc Esc
Esc twice in succession: To return to the
previous menu. Cancels any changes made.
Space
To toggle the delete flag for list entries that are
to be deleted. The tagged entries are marked
with D. Pressing Space again removes the tag
marking.
Ctrl - l
To redraw the screen.
Ctrl - n
To move to the next item in a menu.
Ctrl - p
To move to the previous item in a menu.
Ctrl - f
To scroll forward a page in a long list. An "="
sign at the bottom right indicates the end of the
list or a "∨" indicates more to come.
Ctrl - b
To scroll back a page in a long list. An "=" sign
at the top right indicates the start of the list or a
"∧" indicates more to come.
Ctrl - c
Leave the Setup Tool.
Table 4-2:
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Navigation in the Setup Tool
4
Configuration Options
Menu commands
When you start moving around in the Setup Tool, you will notice that some
menus have special command options, such as DELETE, SAVE and CANCEL.
There are a few slight differences between these commands that you should be
aware of.
Schaltfläche
Meaning
ADD
To create or add an item to a list. A submenu
appears for entering the desired settings.
CANCEL
To discard all changes made in the current
menu.
DELETE
To delete all entries tagged with the Space bar
for deletion from a list. These changes become
effective immediately.
OK
To confirm the changes in the current menu.
These changes do not become effective until
SAVE is pressed in the next menu.
SAVE
All variables set in the current menu and all its
submenus are saved to memory. These
changes become effective immediately.
EXIT
To leave the current menu and return to the
previous menu. Any entries made are lost.
Table 4-3:
Searching lists
Buttons in the Setup Tool
Some Setup Tool menus contain lists of items, e.g. the WAN PARTNER menu,
which lists all ➤➤ WAN partners currently configured.
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Configuration Requirements
X4000 Setup Tool
[WAN]: WAN Partners
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
Current WAN Partner Configuration
Partnername
Protocol
State
BigBoss
T_ONLINE
Partner1
Partner2
PROVIDER
ppp
ppp
ppp
ppp
ppp
dormant
dormant
dormant
dormant
dormant
ADD
DELETE
∧
|
|
|
=
EXIT
Press<Ctrl-n>,<Ctrl-p>toscroll,<Space>tag/untag DELETE,<Return>to edit
Search: p
These lists are in alphabetical order according to the contents of the first field.
An incremental search function is provided, which is very useful for searching
for an item in long lists.
Proceed as follows:
➤ Enter the first letter of the item you are looking for, with the cursor located
on an item in the list. Entries can be made in upper or lower case.
➤ As long as the search is active, you can enter more characters to refine the
search.
➤ The Backspace or Delete key can be used to edit the search string.
The cursor automatically jumps to the first match it finds in the list.
The characters entered for the search are displayed in the help line at the
bottom of the menu.
Do not enter invisible characters, such as Tabulator or Space, as they stop the
search and could lead to a function being executed.
If the search does not work, make sure that the cursor is located in a list field.
The search cannot run if the cursor is located in a command field, e.g. ADD or
DELETE.
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Configuration Options
Example:
In the WAN PARTNER menu shown above, the entries provide the following
search results:
Entry
Cursor moves to entry
p or P
Partner1
pr, Pr, pR, PR
PROVIDER
p a r t n e r 2
Partner1, on entering 2 to Partner2
Table 4-4:
Changing the
password
Search results
The procedure described below for changing the password applies to all X4000
passwords: the access passwords for the user names admin, read and write,
the HTTP password, the RADIUS password, the PPP password, the provider
password and the CAPI user passwords.
Any character may be used for entering a password. Passwords are only
displayed as asterisks, even during password changes. The number of
asterisks is the same as the number of characters in the password.
To start the X4000 Setup Tool in a mode in which the passwords are displayed
in plain language and can be changed once by editing, you must enter the
command setup -p. This option only exists if you have logged in on X4000
under the user name admin.
To change a password, proceed as follows:
In the password field, the Backspace key always deletes the complete entry
and not just one character.
➤ Select the password field and enter the new password.
The field changes to the change mode and the message Change
Password appears in the help line.
➤ Now press Return, Tabulator or a Cursor key to confirm.
The field changes to the confirm mode and Confirm
displayed in the help line.
Password is
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Configuration Requirements
➤ Now enter the new password again and confirm by pressing Return,
Tabulator or a Cursor key.
If you have entered the repeat password correctly, the password is
changed. The new password is saved on leaving the menu with the SAVE
button. If you leave the menu by pressing CANCEL or Esc Esc, the
password change is not saved.
If the two passwords you entered were not the same, the field is reset to the
old password and Password doesn’t match Try again. is displayed
in the help line.
Menu structure
The main menu of the Setup Tool looks like this:
X4000 Setup Tool
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
Licenses
System
LAN:
CM-100BT, Fast Ethernet
WAN:
CM-1BRI, ISDN S0
Serial WAN: CM-SERIAL, Serial
WAN Partner
IP
IPX
PPP
Configuration Management
Monitoring and Debugging
Exit
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X4000 User’s Guide
ISDN
CAPI
Module:
4
Configuration Options
The menu structure of the Setup Tool looks like this:
Licences
IP
Routing
System
Static Settings
External Activity Monitor
Network Adr. Translation
External Sytem Logging
Access Lists
Keepalive Monitoring
BOD
Password settings
IP adr. pool WAN (PPP)
Time and Date
LAN:
IP adr. pool LAN (DHCP)
Fast Ethernet
SNMP
Advanced Settings
WAN:
Serial-WAN:
Radius Server
ISDN S0
OSPF
Advanced Settings
Token Auth. Firewall
Incoming Call Answering
Loc. Serv. Acc. Control
Serial
IPX
Unit 0
PPP
Unit 1
ISDN
WAN Partner
Credits
PPP
CAPI
Advanced Settings
User
Compuserve Login
WAN Numbers
Advanced Settings
Config. Management
Monitoring a. Debugging
IP
ISDN Monitor
Advanced Settings
ISDN Credits
IPX
Interfaces
Bridge
Messages
TCP/IP
Figure 4-4:
Setup Tool menu structure (basic unit)
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Configuration Requirements
Figure 4-4, page 87 shows the Setup Tool menus available on X4000. When
you activate the necessary license, X4000 detects this and displays the
corresponding menus (for entering license, see chapter 7.1.1, page 121).
Summary
To help you find your bearings during configuration, the menus are briefly
explained below.
Menu
Function
LICENSES
This menu is for entering the license information printed on the license card
supplied with the equipment. This menu is also used for activating extra
licenses.
SYSTEM
In this menu, you enter the basic system settings of X4000, e.g. system
name and passwords.
FAST ETHERNET
This menu is for configuring the ➤➤ LAN interface of X4000. Here you
enter data such as the IP address and netmask of X4000.
ISDN S0
This menu is for configuring the ISDN interface of X4000. Here you enter
data such as the type of ISDN connection to which X4000 is connected.
The submenu ISDN S0 ➧ INCOMING CALL ANSWERING is for assigning the
available ISDN numbers to the desired services (e.g. PPP routing,
➤➤ CAPI, ➤➤ ISDN Login).
SERIAL
This menu is for configuring the serial WAN interfaces of X4000.
WAN PARTNER
Here you define all your WAN partners, e.g. your ➤➤ Internet Service
Provider (➤➤ ISP). All the WAN partners entered are displayed in a list
that includes the name of partner, protocol used and current status of each.
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Menu
Function
IP
Here you enter the settings for the ➤➤ IP protocol. This menu consists of
several submenus:
IP ➧ ROUTING includes X4000’s IP routing table. Here you enter routes to
your partners (e.g. default routes, network routes), which ensure that your
X4000 sends all the ➤➤ data packets to the correct addresses.
IP ➧ STATIC SETTINGS is for entering important settings, e.g. the domain
name of X4000, the IP addresses of additional ➤➤ servers (e.g. Domain
Name Server) and system time specifications.
IP ➧ NETWORK ADDRESS TRANSLATION is for configuring the interfaces to
the partners for which you want to use the Network Address Translation
function (➤➤ NAT).
IP ➧ ACCESS LISTS is for defining ➤➤ filters to allow or deny access
from or to the different hosts in the connected networks. You can thus
prevent your X4000 from establishing unintended connections to the ISDN.
IP ➧ BANDWIDTH ON DEMAND (BOD) is for defining filters for the Bandwidth
on Demand and AO/DI (Always On/Dynamic ISDN) functions.
IP ➧ IP ADDRESS POOL WAN (PPP) is for setting up a pool of IP addresses
that your X4000 as a dynamic IP address server can assign to WAN
partners, who can then dial in.
IP ➧ IP ADDRESS POOL LAN (DHCP) is for configuring X4000 as a
➤➤ DHCP server. As a DHCP server, X4000 assigns the IP addresses to
the hosts in the LAN dynamically.
IP ➧SNMP is for changing the basic ➤➤ SNMP settings.
IP ➧ RADIUS S ERVER is for configuring RADIUS servers.
IP ➧ DNS is for defining the procedure for name resolution in X4000.
IP ➧ LOCAL SERVICES ACCESS CONTROL is for controlling access to the
local UDP and TCP services in X4000.
IPX
Here you make the entries for the IPX protocol. ➤➤ IPX is used especially
in Novell networks.
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Configuration Requirements
Menu
Function
PPP
Includes generally valid ➤➤ PPP settings, e.g. authentication protocol, that
do not just refer to particular WAN partners. With these settings, the router
can perform an authentication procedure for incoming calls, even if the
calling line number cannot be identified (e.g. because the call is made from
an analog line that does not transfer the calling line number).
ISDN
Here you administrate X4000’s Credits Based Accounting System.
CAPI
Includes the settings for BinTec's ➤➤ CAPI user concept. You can use this
to assign user names and passwords to users of the X4000's CAPI
applications. This makes sure that only authorized users can receive
incoming calls and make outgoing calls via CAPI.
CONFIGURATION
MANAGEMENT
Here you can administrate X4000’s configuration files. You can save them
either locally on X4000 or on your PC, for example.
MONITORING AND
DEBUGGING
Includes submenus that enable you to locate problems in your network and
monitor activities, e.g. at X4000’s WAN interface.
EXIT
Quit the Setup Tool with Exit.
You can save the configuration file to the flash memory with Exit ➧ Save
as boot configuration and exit; this file is loaded after X4000 is restarted.
If you select Exit ➧ Exit without saving, all the settings made since X4000
was last started are lost.
Table 4-5:
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X4000 User’s Guide
Setup Tool menus
4
Procedure for Initial Configuration
4.4
Procedure for Initial Configuration
We recommend the following procedure for initial configuration of X4000:
➤ Carry out the first configuration steps using the MMI (see chapter 5,
page 93). X4000 should not yet be connected to the LAN for this work, only
the power cord must be connected:
– set the desired display language
–
enter the IP address and netmask
➤ Connect X4000 as explained in chapter 3.3, page 59.
➤ Create a basic configuration, using either the
–
Configuration Wizard (see chapter 6, page 109) or
–
Setup Tool (see chapter 7, page 119).
➤ You can then carry out the following:
–
Configure further functions with the Setup Tool (see chapter 8,
page 187.
–
Configure security functions with the Setup Tool (see chapter 10,
page 307).
–
Configure your expansion card with the Setup Tool (see chapter 9,
page 277).
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4
92
Configuration Requirements
X4000 User’s Guide
5
5
Man-Machine Interface (MMI) –
Display with User Guide
BinTec’s Man-Machine Interface (MMI) with display and input keys simplifies
"getting to know" your X4000 and provides easy access to status information.
BINTEC
X4000
C
Figure 5-1:
OK
MMI with display and input keys (logo)
This chapter contains the following information:
■ An overview of the MMI facilities (chapter 5.1, page 94)
■ A description of how to use the display and input keys (chapter 5.2,
page 96)
■ A diagram of the MMI menu architecture, which is helpful for the initial steps
(chapter 5.3, page 99)
■ Useful short-cuts (chapter 5.4, page 107)
When you have made the initial settings with the MMI, continue the
configuration of X4000 using the Configuration Wizard (see chapter 6,
page 109) or the Setup Tool (see chapter 7, page 119).
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5
Man-Machine Interface (MMI) – Display with User Guide
5.1
Overview
Getting started
You can use the MMI to enter X4000’s IP address and netmask without first
having to set up a serial connection to X4000. This simplifies the initial
configuration, as you can first assign an IP address to X4000 and then set up
the equipment and connect it in the planned location. The configuration is then
carried out from your PC via your network (e.g. using the Setup Tool).
Status information
The display of status information in the MMI enables you to monitor X4000
activities without having to log in. This provides an additional diagnostic tool,
which can display information such as the current version of the system
software or the activities of the X4000 interfaces.
User guide
Illuminated input keys and navigation bars simplify operation of the MMI and
guide you through the menu architecture so that you can make settings in each
menu without having to search for each menu individually. You can still open a
certain menu if you wish.
Logo
After switching on, X4000 first performs a few selftests and then shows the
X4000 logo on the display (see Figure 5-1, page 93). Press any input key to use
the MMI. If no more inputs are made for a long period of time, the MMI returns
to the logo. You can set this period of time in the "Display Idle Timer" menu.
X4000’s logo is normally shown on switching on X4000 or on expiry of the
display idle timer.
To use another MMI menu instead of this, show the desired menu on the
display and then press C and OK simultaneously. The corresponding menu
then appears instead of the logo when the idle timer expires.
This enables you, for example, to display a certain default interface of X4000
for monitoring purposes.
Access protection
94
The MMI is operated in Configuration Mode as the default mode and all MMI
functions can be used. In Monitoring Mode, each menu can be displayed, but
entries are only possible to a limited extent. For example, the IP address
entered can be displayed in Monitoring Mode, but not changed.
X4000 User’s Guide
5
Overview
You can change from Monitoring Mode to Configuration Mode and vice versa
in the main menu "Display Settings", see chapter 5.3.1, page 100.
X4000 User’s Guide
95
5
Man-Machine Interface (MMI) – Display with User Guide
5.2
Display and Input Keys
How to use the display and input keys of the MMI is described below.
5.2.1
Using the Input Keys
To explain the use of the input keys, Figure 5-2, page 96 shows an extract of
the menu system:
l.....
Display Settings
OK
C
Language
l.....
OK
Deutsch
English
C
OK
Display Idletimer
OK
.l....
The language
has been changed
to ENGLISH
Brightness
..l...
Figure 5-2:
Using the input keys (extract from menu system)
Navigating with
and
The arrow keys enable you to move up and down in the menu system. You
always move on one level only, e.g. changing from one main menu to another.
Selecting a menu with
OK
To select a menu item, press OK. You then change to the next lower level, in
which you can also navigate by means of
and
.
In the menu
You can execute the following actions in a menu:
■ Select a value (e.g. display brightness) with
with OK.
96
X4000 User’s Guide
and
and then confirm
5
Display and Input Keys
■ Enter numbers (e.g. IP address or PIN) with
and
and then confirm
with OK.
■ Display a value (e.g. serial number of X4000) and then leave the menu with
OK.
Leaving the menu with
C
To leave a menu and change to the next higher menu level without changing a
setting, just press C.
5.2.2
User guide
Meaning of LEDs
The four input keys of the MMI are equipped with LEDs (see Table 5-1,
page 97) to provide simple, convenient operation. Keys are only illuminated if
they can be used. Pressing keys that are not illuminated has no effect.
Key
On
Flashes
Off
C
Press this key to
leave the menu level
–
No meaningful
entry possible
Press this key to
move backwards in
the menu level
–
No meaningful
entry possible
Press this key to
move forwards in the
menu level
–
No meaningful
entry possible
Confirmation of
entry or selection is
possible
–
No meaningful
entry possible
OK
Table 5-1: Illumination of input keys
X4000 User’s Guide
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5
Man-Machine Interface (MMI) – Display with User Guide
5.2.3
Navigation bars for
guidance
Navigation Bars
The display shows two navigation bars, which indicate your present level in the
menu system.
l......
1st main menu
“Display settings”
Set the
brightness
of the display
..l...
C
OK
3rd submenu
“Brightness”
Figure 5-3:
Navigation bars (example)
The vertical navigation bar at the left edge of the display is for the main menus.
The horizontal navigation bar at the bottom edge indicates in which menu of the
second level of the corresponding main menu you are located.
The following figures of the menu architecture also show the associated
navigation bars.
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X4000 User’s Guide
5
Menu Architecture
5.3
Menu Architecture
The MMI offers the following menus at the top level (main menus):
l.....
.l....
IP Address and
Netmask
..l...
Date and
Systemtime
...l..
Information
about X4000
Basic Unit
....l.
Information
about X4000
Expansion Card
.....l
Figure 5-4:
Display Settings
Monitoring
Main menus (with navigation bars)
■ Display Settings (see chapter 5.3.1, page 100)
■ IP Address and Netmask (see chapter 5.3.2, page 102)
■ Date and System Time (see chapter 5.3.3, page 103)
■ Information about X4000 Basic Unit (see chapter 5.3.4, page 104)
■ Information about X4000 Expansion Card (see chapter 5.3.5, page 105)
■ Monitoring (see chapter 5.3.6, page 106)
The following figures show the architecture of the individual menus. Running
through these is a good opportunity to carry out your first steps with the MMI.
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5
Man-Machine Interface (MMI) – Display with User Guide
5.3.1
l.....
Display Settings
OK
Display Settings
Language
l.....
OK
OK
Display Idletimer
Deutsch
English
OK
The language
has been changed
to ENGLISH
OK
.l....
OK
Min aus 1 2 3 4 5
Brightness
OK
..l...
OK
Contrast
0
1
2
3
OK
...l..
OK
0 2 4 6 8 10
OK
Run MMI in
... mode
MMI Mode
....l.
(Config. Mode only)
OK
Change PIN for
Configuration Mode
OK
.....l
OK
MMI mode has
changed to ... mode
Enter current PIN:
0000
OK
Enter new PIN:
1234
OK
Retype new PIN:
1234
.l....
OK
IP Address and
Netmask
Figure 5-5:
100
X4000 User’s Guide
OK
PIN has been
changed
Menus for selecting the display settings (with navigation bars)
5
Menu Architecture
The main menu "Display Settings" offers the following options for modifying the
display characteristics:
■ Language
For setting the display language. English is initially preset as default.
■ Display Idle Timer
For enabling and disabling the display idle timer (1 ... 5 minutes). On expiry
of this time, the logo appears in the display if no input key has been used
for the set period of time.
■ Brightness
For setting the display brightness.
■ Contrast
For setting the display contrast.
■ MMI Mode
For changing from Configuration Mode to Monitoring Mode and vice versa.
To change to Configuration Mode, you need the set PIN.
■ Changing the PIN for Configuration Mode
Here you can change the PIN (Personal Identification Number) for
Configuration Mode.
Configuration Mode is protected by a four-digit PIN. The default setting of
the PIN is 0000 in the ex works state. When you use the MMI for the first
time, you should change the PIN to prevent entries by unauthorized users.
For technical reasons, the PIN is shown on the display in plain language.
Make sure the display is not visible to other persons when you enter the
PIN.
Users who do not know the set PIN cannot change from Monitoring Mode
to Configuration Mode.
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5
Man-Machine Interface (MMI) – Display with User Guide
5.3.2
IP Address and Netmask
The main menu "IP Address and Netmask" offers the following options:
.l....
IP Address and
Netmask
OK
l.
IP Address
OK
OK
Enter IP address:
192.168.1.254
OK
IP address has
been set to:
192.168.1.254
Netmask
OK
.l
Set netmask:
255.255.255.0
OK
..l...
Date and
Systemtime
OK
Figure 5-6:
Netmask has
been set to:
255.255.255.0
Menus for entering the IP address and netmask (with navigation bars)
■ IP Address
Enter the IP address of X4000. This is done by selecting each digit with
and
and confirming each by pressing OK. The IP address is saved after
confirming the last digit.
■ Netmask
Enter the netmask of the network in which X4000 is located. This is done
by pressing
and
as often as necessary until the correct netmask
appears. Save the netmask by confirming with OK.
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X4000 User’s Guide
5
Menu Architecture
5.3.3
Date and System Time
The main menu "Date and System Time" offers the following options:
.. .. ll .. .. ..
Date and
System time
OK
l.
System Date
OK
OK
System date:
current: 2000-03-17
set:
2000-04-17
System Time
OK
.l
.. .. .. ll .. ..
Information
about X4000
Basic Unit
OK
Figure 5-7:
System time:
current: 07:56 pm
set:
08:56 pm
Menus for entering date and system time (with navigation bars)
■ System Date
For setting the current date in X4000. This is done by selecting the day,
month and year in succession with
and
and confirming each by
pressing OK.
■ System Time
For setting the current time in X4000. This is done by selecting the hours
and minutes in succession with
and
and confirming each by
pressing OK.
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5
Man-Machine Interface (MMI) – Display with User Guide
5.3.4
Information about X4000 Basic Unit
The main menu "Information about X4000 Basic Unit" offers the following
options for displaying system information:
...l..
Information
about X4000
Basic Unit
OK
C
OK
C
OK
C
OK
C
OK
C
OK
C
OK
C
OK
C
Figure 5-8:
104
X4000 User’s Guide
Credits Based
Accounting System
l..
Available licenses
l..
Serial number
l..
System Name
.l.
Logic version
.l.
Hardware revision
.l.
Software release
..l
Interfaces onboard
..l
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
OK
Limit: ...
Last: ...
Total: ...
Serial Number: ...
Mask: ...
Key: ...
Serial number of
X4000: ...
System name of
X4000: ...
Logic version of
X4000: ...
Hardware revision of
X4000: ...
Software release of
X4000: ...
Interfaces onboard: ...
Menus for monitoring the basic unit (with navigation bars)
5
Menu Architecture
■ Credits Based Accounting System
Displays the settings for the Credits Based Accounting System (see
chapter 10.1.3, page 316).
Limit: selected limit for charges.
Last: cost of last connection.
Total: total costs charged to date.
■ Available Licenses
Displays the licenses entered in X4000 (see chapter 7.1.1, page 121).
■ Serial Number
Displays the serial number of X4000.
■ System Name
Displays the system name of X4000 (see chapter 7.1.2, page 123).
■ Logic Version
Displays the version of X4000’s firmware logic.
■ Hardware Revision
Displays the hardware version of X4000.
■ Software Release
Displays the system software version used by X4000.
■ Onboard Interfaces
Displays the status of the X4000 hardware interfaces available with the
basic unit.
5.3.5
Information about X4000 Expansion Card
Data for the interfaces on the optional expansion card can only be displayed if
the relevant card is installed. Please observe subsequent software releases
and the corresponding release notes.
X4000 User’s Guide
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5
Man-Machine Interface (MMI) – Display with User Guide
5.3.6
Monitoring
The main menu "Monitoring" offers a facility for monitoring the operating
temperature of X4000:
. . l. . . . . l
Monitoring
OK
C
Figure 5-9:
Current temperature
l.
OK
OK
Temp
Temp1
Temp2
°C 40 50 60
Menus for monitoring X4000
■ Current Temperature
Displays the current operating temperature of X4000 in °C.
The current operating temperature is always indicated by a black bar.
Temp shows the temperature measured by a sensor in the basic unit,
Temp1 and Temp2 show the temperature measured on the expansion
card. A PRI expansion card is equipped with two temperature sensors and
a BRI or LAN expansion card with one sensor (Temp1).
The current maximum permissible temperature is 60 °C and is indicated by
a continuous line on the display. The maximum permissible temperature
can be changed by editing the MIB variable sysX4ConfigTempAlarmTrap
for
the
basic
unit
(Temp)
and
the
MIB
variables
sysX4ConfigTempAlarmTrapMod1
/
sysX4ConfigTempAlarmTrapMod2 for the expansion cards (Temp1 and
Temp2). If this temperature is exceeded, X4000 generates traps, which can
be evaluated over the network.
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X4000 User’s Guide
5
Useful Short-Cuts
5.4
Useful Short-Cuts
You can carry out a number of actions using the input keys:
5.4.1
Defining Default Screen
The logo is displayed as standard on the screen when the idle timer expires. If
you want to use another screen as default screen for the MMI, proceed as
follows:
➤ Use the input keys to indicate the desired screen.
➤ Keep the C key pressed for three seconds.
New default screen
has been selected
➤ Confirm with OK.
The selected screen is shown and used as default screen.
5.4.2
Saving the Configuration
Proceed as follows to save the current configuration of X4000 using the input
keys.
➤ Keep the OK key pressed for three seconds.
Do you want
to save the current
configuration?
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107
5
Man-Machine Interface (MMI) – Display with User Guide
➤ Press OK.
Saving
configuration ...
Configuration
saved
➤ Press OK.
5.4.3
Restarting X4000
Proceed as follows to restart X4000 using the input keys:
➤ Keep the OK key and C key pressed for three seconds.
ATTENTION!
Do you really want
to reboot X4000?
➤ Press OK.
System reboot in
5 seconds!
The restart is executed after 5 seconds.
System reboot ...
Standby until
X4000 is up again!
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X4000 User’s Guide
6
6
Fast Configuration with the
Configuration Wizard (Basic Unit)
With the Configuration Wizard on your BinTec Companion CD, BinTec
Communications AG offers you a quick and convenient way to start running
your X4000. You can perform basic configuration via the serial connection of
your Windows PC. This basic configuration includes all the important settings of
the router, access to the Internet via an Internet Service Provider (ISP), as well
as connection to a WAN partner (e.g. to a corporate headquarters). As the
Configuration Wizard guides you step by step through the configuration,
detailed knowledge of networking technologies is not necessary. Graphic
illustrations and a detailed online help system you can access at any time during
the configuration give you additional support.
The Configuration Wizard is one of several possible ways of configuring your
X4000. Access to your X4000 in this case is via the serial interface. Please note
that you can only use the Configuration Wizard to configure your ISDN BRI
interface on the basic unit. For configuration of WAN connections over the X.21/
V.35/V.36 or X.21bis interface, you must use the Setup Tool. Advanced
configuration (chapter 8, page 187) and setting up the security functions
(chapter 10, page 307) are done after this using the Setup Tool.
This chapter tells you how to carry out the following tasks:
■ In advance of configuration (chapter 6.1, page 110)
■ Install Windows software:
–
Install BRICKware for Windows (chapter 6.2, page 112)
–
Configure X4000 with the Configuration Wizard (chapter 6.3,
page 113)
■ Make possible additional settings on your PC (chapter 6.4, page 115)
–
Configure the Remote CAPI interface ("Remote CAPI configuration",
page 115)
–
Install RVS-COM Lite ("RVS-COM Lite installation", page 115)
–
Set up PC for WAN access ("Internet access with X4000", page 115)
You can test your configuration at the end of the chapter.
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6
Fast Configuration with the Configuration Wizard (Basic Unit)
6.1
Router settings
In Advance of Configuration
Before you start to configure your X4000, make sure you know the following
information about your ISDN connection and your network environment. Write
down your values in the table below so that you can quickly find the necessary
information while you are performing the configuration. Examples are shown.
■ ISDN extensions: The extension numbers of your ISDN connection.
■ IP address and netmask of X4000: If you are installing a new network,
simply use the example values given.
Internet access
Corporate network
connection (LAN-LAN)
110
Access data
Example
ISDN extensions
10, 11, 12
IP address of X4000
192.168.1.254
Netmask of X4000
255.255.255.0
Your value
For access to the Internet via your Internet Service Provider (ISP), you will need
access information that should be provided by your ISP.
Access data
Example
Provider name
GoInternet
Dial-in number
1234567
User account
MyName
Password
TopSecret
Your value
For connection to a corporate network or another WAN partner, you must know
the following information about the opposite terminal.
Access data
Example
Partner’s name
BigBoss
Dial-in number
0911987654321
Local name
LittleIndian
X4000 User’s Guide
Your value
6
In Advance of Configuration
Access data
Example
Your value
Password
Secret
Partner’s network
address(es)
10.1.1.0
Partner’s netmask(s)
255.255.255.0
Agree on the data with your WAN partner: You must both use the same
password; your entry for "local name" and your partner’s entry for "partner’s
name" must be identical; your entry for "partner’s name" and your partner’s
entry for "local name" must also be identical.
TCP/IP protocol
testing and installation
➤ Make sure the TCP/IP protocol is installed on the PC before you start the
configuration.
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6
Fast Configuration with the Configuration Wizard (Basic Unit)
6.2
Installing BRICKware
BRICKware for Windows contains the Configuration Wizard and other Windows
utility programs.
➤ Place your BinTec Companion CD in the CD-ROM drive of your PC. The
Start window appears automatically after a short time. If the Start window
does not open automatically, click your CD-ROM drive in Windows Explorer
and double-click setup.exe.
➤ Click BRICKware. The setup program starts.
➤ Specify the directory in which BRICKware should be installed.
The DIME Tools, which are part of BRICKware for Windows, contain mainly
assistants for configuration, administration and diagnosis of your X4000. For
the basic operation of X4000, it is not necessary to have DIME Tools started
automatically by Windows.
➤ Start the Configuration Wizard at the end of the installation.
You will find a detailed description of the BRICKware installation and a
description of the individual components in BRICKware for Windows on
BinTec’s WWW server under "Solutions & Products" and then "Download".
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6
Basic X4000 Configuration with the Configuration Wizard
6.3
Basic X4000 Configuration with the
Configuration Wizard
Configuration of the basic settings of X4000 is quick and easy with the
Configuration Wizard. Please note: If you have already created a configuration
with the Configuration Wizard, the Wizard may assume the preset values. At the
end, the configuration is transferred to the router and saved on the PC.
You can carry out the configuration in either Quick Mode or Expert Mode. If you
are unfamiliar with networking technologies, choose Quick Mode.
If you have installed BRICKware and activate the Configuration Wizard, the
following start window appears (if not, see chapter 6.2, page 112):
Figure 6-1:
Configuration Wizard start window
You can select from the following configuration items:
■ Basic router configuration
■ Internet access
■ Corporate network connection (LAN-LAN connection).
X4000 User’s Guide
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6
Fast Configuration with the Configuration Wizard (Basic Unit)
The basic router settings are essential. They integrate X4000 in your local
network and enable the use of communications applications (CAPI).
➤ Select the desired items and follow the instructions on the screen.
Caution!
All BinTec routers are shipped with the same user names and passwords. As
long as the password remains unchanged, they are not protected against
unauthorized use.
➤ You must therefore change your system password when requested to do
so.
➤ Click Finish. You have now completed the basic configuration with the
Configuration Wizard.
If you have configured X4000 as a DHCP server with the Configuration Wizard,
the PCs must be assigned an IP address at the end of the configuration. This
happens automatically under Windows NT. Under Windows 95 or 98, the
Configuration Wizard starts the program WINIPCFG:
➤ Click Yes to start WINIPCFG. Click Renew and then OK.
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6
Configuring a PC
6.4
Configuring a PC
If you have selected communications applications (CAPI) during the
configuration, you will be asked to carry out CAPI configuration now. Among
other things, CAPI allows you to send and receive fax messages and to use an
answering machine.
Remote CAPI
configuration
➤ Click Yes to start configuration. In the Remote CAPI tab, enter the IP
RVS-COM Lite
To be able to use fax services on your PC, you must install a CAPI application
such as RVS-Com Lite. RVS-Com Lite is included on your BinTec Companion
CD.
address of your X4000 and the user name and password of users of
communications applications set up previously with the Configuration
Wizard, if these have not already been entered. Click Use these values.
Click OK.
Please note: The license for RVS-COM Lite is a single user license. You can
purchase additional licenses from your dealer.
COM port driver
If you want to use your data communications network with BinTec’s Remote
CAPI, RVS-Com Lite will provide you with the necessary COM port driver.
RVS-COM Lite
installation
➤ To install RVS-COM Lite, click RVS-Com Lite in the setup program and
Internet access with
X4000
You can set up WAN access over X4000, e.g. to the Internet, for all PCs located
in a network with X4000. In order to do this, you must enter X4000 as gateway
and as DNS for all those PCs that were not configured as DHCP clients.
Proceed as follows:
follow the instructions. An online help system is also available.
➤ In the start menu click Settings ➧ Control Panel. Double click Network.
➤ Select TCP/IP in the network components list (for Windows NT it is in the
Protocol tab) and click Properties.
➤ Enter the IP address of X4000 in the Gateway tab under New Gateway.
Click Add. (Windows NT: Click the IP Address tab and enter the IP
address of X4000 under Standard Gateway).
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6
Fast Configuration with the Configuration Wizard (Basic Unit)
➤ Click the DNS Configuration tab and enter the IP address of X4000 under
DNS Server Search Order. Click Add and then OK. Follow the instructions
on the screen.
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6
Testing your Configuration
6.5
Testing your Configuration
Once you have removed the serial cable of X4000, your configuration is
complete. Now let’s make sure everything works.
Caution!
Incorrect configuration of the devices in your LAN may result in unintended
connections and increased charges! Monitor your X4000 and make sure that the
system does not establish unwanted ISDN connections (and charges).
➤ To avoid unnecessary charges, check whether the filters set in the
Configuration Wizard are sufficient for your needs. If not, you can configure
filters with the Setup Tool (chapter 10.2.8, page 335).
➤ Watch the LEDs on your X4000 (cf. chapter 3.4, page 63), use the monitor
function of the Setup Tool (cf. chapter 10.1, page 308), call up your settings
in the display (cf. chapter 5, page 93) or check your settings with an SNMP
Management Tool.
LAN connection
testing
➤ Test the connection to your X4000. In the start menu of your PC, click Run
Testing Internet access
➤ Now test your Internet access by entering www.bintec.de in the browser.
and enter ping, followed by a space and the IP address of X4000, e.g.
ping 192.168.1.254. A window appears with the response "Reply
from...".
BinTec’s WWW site offers you the latest news, updates, and
documentation.
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6
118
Fast Configuration with the Configuration Wizard (Basic Unit)
X4000 User’s Guide
7
7
Basic Configuration of Basic Unit
with Setup Tool
This chapter tells you how to carry out the basic configuration steps for taking
your X4000 basic unit into operation using the Setup Tool.
This chapter is broken down as follows:
■ Basic router settings (chapter 7.1, page 120)
This chapter describes the steps you must always carry out for taking
X4000 into operation, irrespective of the environment or applications for
which you use X4000.
You can also carry out the steps described here using the Configuration
Wizard (see chapter 6, page 109).
■ Where do we go from here? (chapter 7.1.6, page 136)
This chapter tells you what to do next after you have completed the basic
router settings.
■ Configuring the WAN interfaces (chapter 7.2, page 137)
Description of how to configure the WAN interfaces integrated in the X4000
basic unit.
–
ISDN-BRI Interface (chapter 7.2.1, page 137), including the
distribution of incoming calls to subsystems and users ("Incoming call
answering", page 141)
–
Serial interfaces (X.21, V.35, V.36, X.21bis) (chapter 7.2.2, page 148)
–
LAN interface for using ADSL (chapter 7.2.3, page 155)
■ Configuring WAN Partners
–
Basic procedure (chapter 7.3, page 159)
–
Example configurations (chapter 7.3.2, page 182)
■ Saving the configuration (chapter 7.4, page 186)
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7.1
Basic Router Settings
The configuration of the basic router settings concerns only your X4000 and
your local network.
192.168.1.1
4000
(10, 11, 12
BinTec
192.168.1.2
WAN
Your X4000
192.168.1.254
192.168.1.3
Your Local Area Network
Figure 7-1:
Basic router settings – X4000 in the LAN
The following steps are necessary:
■ Entering a license (chapter 7.1.1, page 121)
■ Entering system data (e.g. passwords) (chapter 7.1.2, page 123)
■ Configuring the LAN interface (chapter 7.1.3, page 126)
■ Configuring X4000 as a DHCP server (optional) (chapter 7.1.4, page 129)
■ Setting NetBIOS filters (optional) (chapter 7.1.5, page 132)
The necessary preparatory measures can be found in chapter 6.1, page 110.
The work to be done on your network and PCs can be found in chapter 6.4,
page 115.
Off we go:
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7.1.1
License card
Entering License(s)
After you have logged in to your X4000 with the user name admin and called
up the Setup Tool with setup, as described in chapter 4.2, page 76, enter the
license information. This information is printed on the license card supplied.
Entering this information activates the functions of X4000.
➤ Go to LICENSES:
X4000 Setup Tool
[LICENSE]: Licenses
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
Available Licenses:
IP (builtin), STAC (valid), CAPI (valid), BRIDGE (valid)
IPX (valid)
Serialnumber
101546
ADD
Mask
55
Key
88PNUPZ
DELETE
State
ok
EXIT
Press<Ctrl-n>,<Ctrl-p>to scroll,<Space>tag/untagDELETE,<Return>to edit
Listed under Available Licenses are all subsystems available to X4000, as well
as their current state (builtin - always available, valid - activated, not_valid - not
activated).
The license entries are shown under (Serialnumber, Mask, Key).
If you have not yet entered your license data, the subsystem list will be almost
empty. Only IP, i.e. ➤➤ IP routing, is available (builtin).
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Subsystems
The following subsystems can be activated on your X4000:
Subsystems
Meaning
IP
IP routing
OSPF
Open Shortest Path First (only with extra
license)
TAF
Token Authentication Firewall (only with extra
license)
TUNNEL
Virtual Private Networking VPN (only with extra
license)
STAC
➤➤ STAC ➤➤ data compression
CAPI
➤➤ Remote CAPI interface makes
communications applications possible on your
PC, e.g. sending and receiving faxes.
BRIDGE
Bridging
X25
X.25 (only with extra license)
FRAME RELAY
Frame Relay (only with extra license)
IPX
➤➤ IPX routing
Table 7-1:
To do
Subsystems
To enter your license, proceed as follows:
➤ Add a new entry with ADD.
Another menu window opens.
➤ Enter Serial Number, Mask and Key as shown on your license card.
➤ Press SAVE.
You have returned to the LICENSES menu. The subsystems activated by
your license data are now listed. The license entered is displayed with the
state ok.
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If not ok is shown as the state, you have probably made a typing error.
➤ Try again.
7.1.2
System name, ...
Entering System Data
Now you should enter the basic system data for your X4000.
➤ Go to SYSTEM:
X4000 Setup Tool
[SYSTEM]: Change System Parameters
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
System Name
Local PPP ID (default)
Location
Contact
MyRouter
BigBoss
3rd floor
[email protected]
Syslog Output on Serial Console
Message Level for the Syslog Table
Maximum Number of Syslog Entries
no
info
20
External Activity Monitor>
External System Logging>
Keepalive Monitoring>
Password Settings>
Time and Date>
SAVE
CANCEL
Enter string, max. length = 34 chars
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The following parts of the menu are relevant for this configuration step:
Field
Meaning
System Name
Defines the system name of X4000, is also
used as PPP host name. Appears as input
prompt when logging in to X4000. If no system
name is set, a warning appears on logging in
with the user name admin.
Local PPP ID
This entry is necessary for identification of
X4000, if ➤➤ PPP authentication (e.g.
➤➤ PAP or ➤➤ CHAP) is carried out that is
not specific to a partner (see chapter 8.1.3,
page 194).
Location
Indicates where X4000 is located (optional).
Contact
States the contact person responsible
(optional). If the person is to be reached from
X4000’s HTTP status page (see
chapter 10.1.4, page 320), a valid e-mail
address must be entered here.
Table 7-2:
Passwords
Enter the passwords for X4000 in the submenu SYSTEM ➧ PASSWORD
SETTINGS:
Field
Meaning
admin Login Password
Password for user name admin.
read Login Password
Password for user name read.
write Login Password
Password for user name write.
HTTP Server Password
Password for the HTTP status page of X4000.
Table 7-3:
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7
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Caution!
All BinTec routers are shipped with the same user names and passwords. As
long as the password remains unchanged, they are not protected against
unauthorized use. How to change the passwords is described in "Changing the
password", page 85.
➤ Change the passwords to prevent unauthorized access to X4000.
The permission rights of the possible user names and passwords can be found
in chapter 4.2, page 76.
To do
Proceed as follows to enter the relevant system data and passwords:
➤ Enter System Name of X4000, e.g. MyRouter.
➤ Enter the Local PPP ID. The entry can be the same as the System Name.
➤ Enter your Location, e.g. Europe.
➤ Enter Contact, e.g. SysAdmin.
➤ Go to SYSTEM ➧ PASSWORD SETTINGS.
➤ Enter admin Login Password.
➤ Enter read Login Password.
➤ Enter write Login Password.
➤ Enter HTTP Server Password.
➤ Press SAVE.
➤ Press SAVE.
You have returned to the main menu and the entries have been saved.
Advanced
configuration
The menu SYSTEM ➧ EXTERNAL ACTIVITY M ONITOR contains the settings
necessary for monitoring X4000 with the Windows Activity Monitor Tool (see
chapter 10.1.6, page 322 and BRICKware for Windows).
The menu SYSTEM ➧ EXTERNAL SYSTEM LOGGING contains the settings for
syslog messages (see chapter 10.1.1, page 308).
The menu SYSTEM ➧ KEEPALIVE MONITORING contains the settings for the
keepalive monitoring function (see chapter 8.2.11, page 236).
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The menu SYSTEM ➧ TIME AND DATE contains the settings for manually
entering the time and date in X4000 (see chapter 8.3.1, page 242).
7.1.3
➤➤ IP address,
➤➤ netmask,
➤➤ Encapsulation
Configuring the LAN Interface
Now configure the LAN interface (10/100 Base-T Ethernet) of X4000. The LAN
interface is the physical interface to the local network. In the following menu,
enter the address where your router can be reached in the LAN. As long as your
router does not have this entry, it cannot be recognized by other hosts in the
network.
If your X4000 is connected to a LAN that consists of two subnets, you should
enter a Second Local IP Number and a Second Local Netmask for it for the
second subnet. This is explained in the following example:
X4000
4000
BinTec
Local IP-Number
192.168.42.3
192.168.42.1
Figure 7-2:
192.168.42.2
Second Local IP-Number
192.168.46.3
192.168.46.1
192.168.46.2
X4000 with two different local IP addresses
The first subnet has two hosts with the IP addresses 192.168.42.1 and
192.168.42.2 and the second subnet has two hosts with the IP addresses
192.168.46.1 and 192.168.46.2. To be able to exchange data packets with the
first subnet, X4000 uses the IP address 192.168.42.3, for example, and
192.168.46.3 for the second subnet. The netmasks for both subnets must also
be indicated.
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You have probably entered the IP address and netmask in X4000 with the MMI
before the basic configuration. Even if you have, you should still check the
entries in the following menu.
➤ Go to CM-100BT, FAST ETHERNET.
X4000 Setup Tool
[LAN]: Configure LAN Interface
IP Configuration
Local IP Number
Local Netmask
Second Local IP Number
Second Local Netmask
Encapsulation
Mode
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
192.168.1.254
255.255.255.0
Ethernet II
Auto
IPX Configuration
Local IPX Netnumber 0
Encapsulation
none
Bridging
disabled
Advanced Settings>
SAVE
CANCEL
Enter IP address (a.b.c.d or resolvable host name)
Entries are possible in this menu for IP configuration, ➤➤ IPX configuration
and ➤➤ bridging. This chapter explains only the configuration of the ➤➤ IP.
Retain the preset values under IPX Configuration and Bridging.
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The following parts of the menu are relevant for this configuration step:
Field
Meaning
Local IP Number
IP address of X4000 in the LAN.
Local Netmask
Netmask of the network in which X4000 with
Local IP Number is located.
Second Local IP
Number
Second IP address of X4000 in the LAN.
Second Local Netmask
Netmask of the network in which X4000 with
Second Local IP Number is located.
Encapsulation
Defines the kind of header added to the IP
packets that run over this LAN interface.
Possible values:
■ Ethernet II (conforms to IEEE 802.3)
■ Ethernet SNAP
You can generally retain the default value
Ethernet II. The LAN interface is called en1 for
Ethernet II and en1-snap for Ethernet SNAP.
Mode
Defines the mode in which the LAN interface is
operated. Possible values:
■ Auto (default value) Automatic detection of
the LAN parameters is activated and the
LAN interface is operated in the appropriate
mode.
■ 10 Mbps Half Duplex
■ 10 Mbps Full Duplex
■ 100 Mbps Half Duplex
■ 100 Mbps Full Duplex
You should normally leave the default value at
Auto.
Table 7-4:
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7
Basic Router Settings
To do
Proceed as follows to configure X4000’s LAN interface:
➤ Enter Local IP Number of X4000, e.g. 192.168.1.254.
➤ Enter Local Netmask, e.g. 255.255.255.0.
➤ If applicable, enter Second Local IP Number and Second Local
Netmask.
➤ Select Encapsulation, e.g. Ethernet II.
➤ Select Mode, e.g. Auto.
➤ Press SAVE.
You have returned to the main menu and the entries have been saved.
Advanced
configuration
If you wish to use the IPX ➤➤ protocol, you will find an explanation of how to
configure the LAN interface for IPX in chapter 8.4, page 268.
Information about bridging can be found in the Software Reference.
The menu CM-100BT, FAST ETHERNET ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS contains settings
for the Routing Information Protocol RIP (see chapter 8.2.8, page 229), IP
Accounting, Proxy ARP (see chapter 8.2.10, page 234) and Back Route
Verification (see chapter 10.2.10, page 352).
How to use the LAN interface for ADSL connections over the T-DSL connection
of Deutsche Telekom is described in chapter 7.2.3, page 155.
7.1.4
IP addresses in the
LAN
Configuring X4000 as DHCP Server
Each PC in your ➤➤ LAN and X4000 requires its own IP address. If you
configure X4000 as a ➤➤ DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
server, X4000 automatically assigns ➤➤ IP addresses from a defined IP
address pool to requesting PCs in the LAN. A PC sends out an ARP request
and in turn receives its IP address assigned by X4000. You do not need to
assign fixed IP addresses to PCs, which reduces the amount of configuration
work in your network. To do this, you set up a pool of IP addresses, from which
X4000 assigns IP addresses to hosts in the LAN for a defined period of time. A
DHCP server also transfers the addresses of the Domain Name Server entered
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statically or by PPP negotiation (➤➤ DNS),
(WINS) and standard ➤➤ gateway.
➤➤ NetBIOS name server
➤ Go to IP ➧ IP ADDRESS POOL LAN (DHCP) ➧ ADD:
X4000 Setup Tool
[IP][DHCP][ADD]: Add Range of IP Addresses
Interface
IP Address
Number of Consecutive Addresses
Lease Time (Minutes)
MAC Address
Gateway
NetBT Node Type
SAVE
Use <Space> to select
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BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
en1
192.168.1.1
8
120
not specified
CANCEL
7
Basic Router Settings
The menu contains the following fields:
Field
Meaning
Interface
An interface to which the next address pool is
assigned. When an address request is received
over Interface, one of the addresses in the
address pool is assigned.
IP Address
First IP address in the address pool.
Number of Consecutive
Addresses
Total number of IP addresses in the address
pool, including the first IP address (IP
Address).
Lease Time (Minutes)
Specifies the length of time an address from the
pool can be assigned to a host. After the Lease
Time (Minutes) expires, the address can be
assigned elsewhere.
MAC Address
(optional) Only for Number of Consecutive
Addresses = 1: IP Address is only assigned to
the device with MAC Address.
Gateway
Defines which IP address is assigned to the
DHCP client as gateway. If no IP address is
entered here, the IP address of X4000 is also
given.
NetBT Node Type
Defines how and in what order the assignment
of NetBIOS names to IP addresses is
attempted for the hosts of an address pool.
You can accept the default value not specified.
A detailed description of this function is given in
the Software Reference.
Table 7-5:
To do
IP ➧ IP ADDRESS POOL LAN (DHCP) ➧ ADD
Make the following entries to configure X4000 as a DHCP server:
➤ Select Interface, e.g. en1.
➤ Enter IP Address, e.g. 192.168.1.1.
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➤ Enter Number of Consecutive Addresses, e.g. 8.
➤ Enter Lease Time (Minutes), e.g. 120.
➤ Enter MAC Address, if applicable.
➤ Enter Gateway, if applicable.
➤ Select NetBT Node Type, e.g. not specified.
➤ Press SAVE.
You have returned to IP ➧ IP ADDRESS POOL LAN (DHCP), where the IP
address pools are listed. The entries are saved and you have defined an
address pool with 8 IP addresses: 192.168.1.1 to 192.168.1.8.
You can also create several entries to define an IP address pool of
unconnected address ranges, e.g. 192.168.1.20 - 192.168.1.29 and
192.168.1.35 - 192.168.1.40, and so on.
7.1.5
NetBIOS filters
Setting Filters
If you are working with Windows in your local network, you should set
➤➤ NetBIOS filters to save costs. This prevents establishing connections
from the network to your Internet Service Provider (➤➤ ISP), e.g. in order to
forward WINS requests from PCs in your network. This means that X4000 asks
your ISP which ➤➤ host name can be assigned an IP address. These
connections are unnecessary because the ISP cannot resolve WINS names,
but still cost money.
A more detailed explanation of
chapter 10.2.8, page 335.
To do
➤➤ filters and security can be found in
To prevent these unnecessary connections, proceed as follows:
When configuring filters, make sure not to lock yourself out.
➤ Use the serial interface or ISDN login on X4000 for filter configuration.
➤ If you still access X4000 over your LAN (e.g. telnet), before starting filter
configuration select in the menu IP ➧ ACCESS LISTS ➧ INTERFACES ➧
EDIT : First rule = none.
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Basic Router Settings
➤ Go to IP ➧ ACCESS LISTS ➧ FILTER ➧ ADD:
X4000 Setup Tool
BinTec Communications AG
[IP][ACCESS][FILTER][ADD]: Configure IP Access Filter
MyRouter
Description
Index
wrong_dns
1
Protocol
udp
Source Address
Source Mask
Source Port
Specify Port
specify
137
Destination Address
Destination Mask
Destination Port
Specify Port
specify
53
Type of Service (TOS)
00000000
SAVE
TOS Mask
00000000
CANCEL
Enter string, max. length = 48 chars
To do
Make the following entries to define a filter for WINS requests:
➤ Enter Description: wrong_dns.
➤ Select Protocol: udp.
➤ Select Source Port: specify.
➤ Enter Specify Port: 137.
➤ Select Destination Port: specify.
➤ Enter Specify Port: 53.
➤ Press SAVE.
You have returned to IP ➧ ACCESS LISTS ➧ FILTER, and the entries have
been saved.
Now define a second filter as follows:
➤ Go to IP ➧ ACCESS LISTS ➧ FILTER ➧ ADD.
➤ Enter Description: all.
➤ Select Protocol: any.
➤ Select Source Port: any.
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➤ Select Destination Port: any.
➤ Press SAVE.
You have returned to menu IP ➧ ACCESS LISTS ➧ FILTER. The entries
have been saved and both filters are now listed.
To define rules for these filters, proceed as follows:
➤ Go to IP ➧ ACCESS LISTS ➧ RULES ➧ ADD:
X4000 Setup Tool
BinTec Communications AG
[IP][ACCESS][RULE][ADD]: Configure IP Access Rules
MyRouter
Action
deny M
Filter
wrong_dns (1)
SAVE
CANCEL
Use <Space> to select
To do
Make the following entries to define a rule:
➤ Select Action: deny M.
➤ Select Filter: wrong_dns (1).
➤ Press SAVE.
You have returned to IP ➧ ACCESS LISTS ➧ RULES, and the entries have
been saved.
Now define a second rule as follows:
➤ Go to IP ➧ ACCESS LISTS ➧ RULES ➧ ADD.
➤ Select Insert Behind Rule: RI 1 FI 1 (wrong_dns).
➤ Select Action: allow M.
➤ Select Filter: all (2).
➤ Press SAVE.
You have returned to IP ➧ ACCESS LISTS ➧ RULES, and the entries have
been saved and listed.
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X4000 Setup Tool
BinTec Communications AG
[IP][ACCESS][RULE]: Configure IP Access Rules
MyRouter
Abbreviations:
RI (Rule Index) M (Action if filter matches)
FI (Filter Index)!M (Action if filter does not match)
NRI (Next Rule Index)
RI
1
2
Action Filter
deny M wrong_dns
allow M all
FI
1
2
NRI
2
0
ADD
Conditions
udp, sp 137, dp 53
DELETE
REORG
EXIT
Press<Ctrl-n>,<Ctrl-p>to scroll,<Space>tag/untag DELETE,<Return>to
edit
➤ Go to IP ➧ ACCESS LISTS ➧ INTERFACES:
X4000 Setup Tool
BinTec Communications AG
[IP][ACCESS][INTERFACES]: Configure First Rule
MyRouter
Configure first rules for interfaces
Interface
en1
en1-snap
First Rule
1
1
First Filter
1 (wrong_dns)
1 (wrong_dns)
EXIT
Press <Ctrl-n>, <Ctrl-p> to scroll, <Return> to edit/select
To do
Make the following entries:
➤ Select the LAN interface of X4000 (en1 or en1-snap) and confirm with
Return.
➤ Select First Rule: RI 1 FI 1 (wrong_dns).
➤ Press SAVE.
These entries ensure that all data traffic that passes from source ➤➤ port
137 to destination port 53 will be discarded. This means that no
unnecessary connections will be established to resolve WINS names.
➤ Leave IP ➧ ACCESS LISTS ➧ INTERFACES with EXIT.
➤ Leave IP ➧ ACCESS LISTS with EXIT.
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➤ Leave IP with EXIT.
You have returned to the main menu.
The configuration of the basic router settings is complete.
7.1.6
Where do we go from here?
After you have configured X4000 for your LAN, you can carry out the following
steps to permit WAN connections.
➤ Configure the WAN interface(s) of X4000 that you wish to use:
–
ISDN BRI interface (chapter 7.2.1, page 137)
–
X.21/V.35/V.36 interface or X.21bis interface (serial) (chapter 7.2.2,
page 148)
–
LAN interface for ADSL connections (chapter 7.2.3, page 155 and
chapter 9.3.2, page 288)
➤ Configure the WAN partners (chapter 7.3, page 159).
Configuration examples:
–
ISP T-Online ("Internet Access over T-Online", page 183)
–
ISP Compuserve ("Internet Access over Compuserve", page 184)
➤ Configure the interfaces of your expansion card, if applicable (chapter 9,
page 277)
➤ The facilities for more advanced configuration can be found in chapter 8,
page 187.
➤ The configuration of security functions and Firewall can be found in
chapter 10, page 307.
➤ If you wish to run communication applications on the hosts in the LAN with
your X4000 basic unit (e.g. RVS COM Lite), you must configure the remote
CAPI on the hosts (see chapter 6.4, page 115) and assign the extension
numbers accordingly ("Incoming call answering", page 141).
➤ When you have completed the configuration, you should save your
configuration file (chapter 7.4, page 186).
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Configuring WAN Interfaces
7.2
Configuring WAN Interfaces
The necessary steps for configuring the WAN interfaces of X4000 are described
below step by step.
The basic unit is equipped with the following WAN interfaces:
■ ISDN BRI interface (see chapter 7.2.1, page 137)
■ Two serial interfaces: X.21/V.35/V.36 interface and X.21bis interface (see
chapter 7.2.2, page 148)
ADSL
■ You can also configure the LAN interface as an interface to the WAN by
providing a connection to T-DSL, the ADSL connection of Deutsche
Telekom, using PPP-over-Ethernet (see chapter 7.2.3, page 155).
If you use a LAN expansion card, see chapter 9.3.2, page 288.
Installing an expansion card enables other WAN interfaces to be used on
X4000, if applicable (see chapter 9, page 277).
7.2.1
Configuring the ISDN BRI Interface
You can use the ISDN BRI interface of X4000 for both dialup and leased lines
over ISDN.
Proceed as follows to configure the ISDN BRI interface:
■ Entering the settings of your ISDN connection:
Here you set the most important parameters of your ISDN connection.
■ Configuring Incoming Call Answering:
Here you tell X4000 how to react to incoming calls from the WAN.
Autoconfiguration,
ISDN Switch Type, …
Firstly, enter the settings for your ISDN connection.
➤ Go to CM-1BRI, ISDN S0:
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X4000 Setup Tool
[WAN]: WAN Interface
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
Result of Autoconfiguration: Euro ISDN, point-to-multipoint
ISDN Switch Type
autodetect on bootup
D-Channel
B-Channel 1
B-Channel 2
dialup
dialup
dialup
Incoming Call Answering>
Advanced Settings>
SAVE
Use <Space> to select
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CANCEL
7
Configuring WAN Interfaces
The menu contains the following fields:
Field
Meaning
Result of
Autoconfiguration
Status of ISDN autoconfiguration. Automatic
➤➤ D-channel detection runs until a setting
is found or until the ISDN protocol is entered
manually under ISDN switch type.
ISDN Switch Type
Defines the ISDN ➤➤ protocol supplied by
your ISDN provider. The following parameters
are possible:
■ autodetect on bootup: automatic D-channel
detection (default setting)
■ Euro ISDN point-to-multipoint: Euro ISDN
for point-to-multipoint
■ Euro ISDN point-to-point: Euro ISDN for
point-to-point
■ none
■ leased line B1 channel (64S): leased line
over B-channel 1
■ leased line B1+B2 channel (64S2): leased
line over both B-channels
■ leased line D+B1+B2 channel (TS02):
leased line over D-channel and both Bchannels
■ leased line B1+B2 different endpoints
(digital 64S with dual connection): leased
line to two different endpoints
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Field
Meaning
D-Channel
D-channel configuration. The selection can only
be changed if ISDN Switch Type = leased line
D+B1+B2 (TS02). Possible values:
■ leased dte (default value)
■ leased dce
B-Channel 1
Configuration of first ➤➤ B-channel. Possible
values:
■ dialup (default setting)
■ not used
■ leased dte
■ leased dce
B-Channel 2
Configuration of second B-channel. Possible
values:
■ dialup (default setting)
■ not used
■ leased dte
■ leased dce
Table 7-6:
To do
CM-1BRI, ISDN S0
Make the following entries:
➤ Select ISDN Switch Type: autodetect on bootup.
This setting enables X4000 to use its automatic D-channel detection. As
long as the D-channel detection is running, running appears next to Result
of Autoconfiguration. Once the setting has been found, it is displayed,
e.g. Euro ISDN, point-to-multipoint.
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Configuring WAN Interfaces
If the ISDN protocol is not detected, it can be entered manually under ISDN
Switch Type. The automatic D-channel detection is then switched off.
An incorrectly set ISDN protocol prevents ISDN connections being set up!
➤ Select D-Channel, if applicable.
➤ Select B-Channel 1: e. g. dialup.
➤ Select B-Channel 2: e. g. dialup.
In most cases, you can accept the preset values for D-Channel, B-Channel 1
and B-Channel 2.
If you use an ISDN leased line and have requested a special service from your
service provider, it may be necessary to set the local side of the leased line at
this point (DTE or DCE). You must then ensure that the far end has set the
opposite value. You must also set D-channel, B-channel 1 and B-channel 2
to the same values, if you have selected several D-/B-channels under ISDN
Switch Type and the values can be changed.
➤ Press SAVE.
You have returned to the main menu. and the entries have been saved.
Incoming call
answering
If you use the ISDN BRI interface for dialup connections, you must now tell
X4000 how it should respond to incoming calls from the ISDN. X4000 distributes
the incoming calls to the appropriate internal services according to the settings
in the following menus.
X4000 supports the following services:
■ PPP (Routing):
The ➤➤ PPP service is X4000’s general routing service. This connects
incoming data calls from WAN partners’ dialup connections to your ➤➤
LAN. This enables partners outside your own local network to access hosts
within your LAN. This subsystem also enables outgoing data calls to be set
up to WAN partners outside your local network.
This PPP routing is also used for X.25 connections.
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Basic Configuration of Basic Unit with Setup Tool
■ ISDN Login:
The ➤➤ ISDN Login service allows incoming data calls access to the
➤➤ SNMP shell of your X4000. This is how X4000 is remotely configured
and administrated.
■ CAPI:
The ➤➤ CAPI service allows connection of incoming and outgoing data
and voice calls to communications applications on hosts in the LAN that
access the ➤➤ Remote-CAPI interface of X4000. This enables, for
example, hosts connected to X4000 to receive and send faxes.
To be able to use CAPI applications (e.g. RVS COM Lite) from the hosts in
the LAN with the X4000 basic unit, you must also carry out the Remote
CAPI configuration on the individual hosts (see chapter 6.4, page 115) in
addition to distributing the extension numbers as described in this chapter.
When a call is received, X4000 first checks the Called Party Number (CPN) and
the type of call (data or voice call). The CPN is the extension the partner has
dialed to reach X4000. Then the call is forwarded to the corresponding service
(see Figure 7-3, page 142).
WAN
4000
BinTec
X4000
PPP
CAPI
Login:
ISDN Login
Figure 7-3:
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X4000 User’s Guide
Distribution of incoming calls
7
Configuring WAN Interfaces
If your ISDN connection has more than three extensions, a practical allocation
could look as follows:
Called party
number
Data services
10
PPP (routing)
11
CAPI
12
ISDN Login
Table 7-7:
Voice services
CAPI
Distribution of extensions to services
If no entry is specified in the following menu, every incoming ISDN call is
accepted by the ISDN Login service. To avoid this, be sure to make the
necessary entries here.
As soon as you have made one or more entries in this menu, the matching
incoming calls are distributed to the corresponding services.
In the unconfigured ex works state, a user with the user name “default” and no
password is always entered for the CAPI subsystem. All calls to the CAPI are
offered to all CAPI applications in the LAN.
To distribute incoming calls for the CAPI subsystem to defined users with
password, you should use BinTec’s User Concept (see chapter 8.1.2,
page 190). You should then delete the user "default" without password.
All incoming calls that do not match an entry are passed on to the CAPI
service.
Now set the entries for Incoming Call Answering:
➤ Go to CM-1BRI, ISDN S0 ➧ INCOMING CALL ANSWERING:
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X4000 Setup Tool
[WAN][INCOMING]: Incoming Call Answering
Item
CAPI 1.1 EAZ 1 Mapping
CAPI 1.1 EAZ 1 Mapping
ISDN Login
PPP (routing)
ADD
Number
11
11
12
10
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
Mode
right
right
right
right
DELETE
Username
to
to
to
to
left
left
left
left
EXIT
Press<Ctrl-n>,<Ctrl-p>to scroll,<Space>tag/untagDELETE,<Return>to edit
This menu lists the previously completed assignment of systems to extension
numbers.
To make entries in the list, proceed as follows:
➤ Use ADD to add a new entry or select an existing entry. Confirm with
Return to change the entry.
Another menu window opens:
X4000 Setup Tool
[WAN][INCOMING][ADD]: Incoming Calls
Item
Number
Mode
PPP (routing)
10
right to left
Bearer
data
SAVE
Use <Space> to select
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MyRouter
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7
Configuring WAN Interfaces
The menu contains the following fields:
Field
Meaning
Item
Service which shall accept a call to the Number
below.
Possible values: see Table 7-9, page 147.
Number
Phone number under which the service (Item)
entered above can be reached.
Mode
Mode in which X4000 compares the digits of
Number with the called party number of the
incoming call:
■ right to left (default value)
■ left to right (DDI): Always select if X4000 is
connected to a point-to-point connection.
User name
(only for Item = CAPI 1.1 EAZ 0...9 Mapping)
CAPI user name. Only necessary if you want to
use the CAPI user concept (see chapter 7.1.2,
page 192).
Bearer
Type of incoming call. Possible values:
■ data: data call
■ voice: voice call
■ any: both data and voice calls
Table 7-8:
CM-1BRI, ISDN S0 ➧ INCOMING CALL ANSWERING ➧ ADD
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The Item field includes the following selection:
Possible values
Meaning
PPP (routing)
Default setting for ➤➤ PPP routing. Also
applicable for the PPP connections below.
ISDN Login
Enables logging in with ➤➤ isdnlogin.
PPP 64k
Enables 64 kbps PPP data connections.
PPP 56k
Enables 56 kbps PPP data connections.
PPP Modem
(Only available if expansion card and resource
card with digital modems are installed)
Assigns incoming analog calls to the PPP
routing service. The digital modem on the
resource card that accepts this call uses the
settings for Modem Profile 1, which were
selected in the menu MODEM ➧ PROFILE
CONFIGURATION ➧ PROFILE 1.
PPP DOVB
Data transmission Over Voice Bearer - useful in
the USA, for example, where voice connections
are sometimes cheaper than data connections.
PPP V.110
(1200...38400)
Enables PPP connections with V.110 at bit
rates of 1200 bps, 2400 bps,..., 38400 bps.
Pots
Not available in X4000.
PPP Modem Profile 1...8
(Only available if expansion card and resource
card with digital modems are installed)
Assigns incoming analog calls to the PPP
routing service. The digital modem on the
resource card that accepts this call uses the
settings for Modem Profile 1... 8, which were
selected in the menu MODEM ➧ PROFILE
CONFIGURATION ➧ PROFILE 1...8.
CAPI 1.1 EAZ 0...9
Mapping
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X4000 User’s Guide
Enables connections with Remote CAPI
applications. Required for CAPI 1.1
applications only.
7
Configuring WAN Interfaces
Possible values
Meaning
X.25 PAD
Enables data connections with X.25 PAD.
Table 7-9:
Item
Make sure you enter the right number under Number, i.e. the number that
actually arrives at X4000! For example, if X4000 is connected to a ➤➤ PABX,
only the PABX extension number arrives at X4000.
If you are not sure which number arrives at X4000, proceed as follows:
➤ Call X4000 with a conventional telephone using one of its extension
numbers.
➤ Go to MONITORING AND DEBUGGING ➧ ISDN MONITOR.
You can now see the incoming call in the menu.
➤ Place the cursor on the call and enter d (for details).
Under Local Number, you can see the part of the number that arrives at
X4000.
➤ Type in this part of the number in CM-1BRI, ISDN S0 ➧ INCOMING CALL
ANSWERING ➧ ADD under Number.
If you use a communication application on your PC that is based on Remote
CAPI 1.1 (current version: Remote CAPI 2.0), X4000 must translate the
➤➤ MSNs (= Number, multidigit) of the incoming call to ➤➤ EAZs (single
digit) (CAPI 1.1 can only detect single-digit numbers). This is why the CAPI
entry under Item is not simply called "CAPI" but "CAPI 1.1 EAZ x Mapping".
When using CAPI 1.1, you must therefore make sure you assign each CAPI
application the corresponding EAZ(s) by "mapping". For example select for
Number = 1234 the entry Item = CAPI 1.1 EAZ 0 Mapping and for Number =
5678 the entry Item = CAPI 1.1 EAZ 1 Mapping.
CAPI 2.0 evaluates the MSN directly and "translation" to EAZ is not necessary.
You can use the same CAPI 1.1 EAZ x Mapping entry for each Number i.e. a
single entry is sufficient.
You should certainly try to change your PC system to CAPI 2.0 so that you can
also use new features.
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Basic Configuration of Basic Unit with Setup Tool
To do
Make the following entries:
➤ Select the Item, e.g. PPP (routing).
➤ Enter the Number, e.g. 10.
➤ Select the Mode, e.g. right to left.
➤ Select the Bearer, e.g. data.
➤ Press SAVE.
You have returned to the menu CM-1BRI, ISDN S0 ➧ INCOMING CALL
ANSWERING. The entries are saved and displayed in the list.
You have thus assigned a service (PPP (routing)) to one of your phone
numbers (10). This means that when a data call is received by Called Party
Number 10, it is put through to the service PPP (routing).
➤ Repeat these steps until you have assigned to all phone numbers the
services to be reached under these numbers.
This concludes the configuration of Incoming Call Answering. X4000 now
distributes the incoming calls to the internal services.
Advanced
configuration
CM-1BRI, ISDN S0 ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS contains settings for X.31 TEI (see
chapter 8.1.4, page 197).
If you use a leased line, you can implement a backup solution using the
Bandwidth on Demand feature (see chapter 8.2.3, page 201). If you use this
facility, a dialup connection is set up to the connection partner if the leased line
fails.
7.2.2
Configuring Serial Interfaces
The X4000 basic unit is equipped with two serial WAN interfaces:
■ The first serial port (Setup Tool menu CM-SERIAL, SERIAL ➧ UNIT 0) can be
used as interface type
148
–
X.21/V.11
–
V.35/V.11
–
V.36/V.11
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7
Configuring WAN Interfaces
The setting in the Setup Tool Connector field (see Table 7-11, page 153)
enables the port to be changed so that X4000 can be operated in both DCE
and DTE Mode.
Making the relevant settings in the Setup Tool Connector field physically
reverses the signal direction and the pin functions.
■ The second serial port (Setup Tool menu CM-SERIAL, SERIAL ➧ UNIT 1) can
be used as interface type
– X.21bis/V.28
The change from DCE to DTE Mode and vice versa for this port can only
be made by using a DCE or DTE cable.
Port 1
Interface Type
DTE Mode
DCE Mode
X.21
Standard cable
Standard cable
V.35
Connector = dte
Connector = dce
DTE cable
DCE cable
V.36
Port 2
X.21bis
Table 7-10: Functionality of serial ports
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Basic Configuration of Basic Unit with Setup Tool
Configuration with the Setup Tool
The following menu is available for configuring the X.21/V.35/V.36 and X.21bis
interface of X4000:
X4000 Setup Tool
BinTec Communications AG
[SLOT 3 UNIT 0 SERIAL]:Configure Serial Interface
MyRouter
Interface Type
Connector
Clock mode
Speed
Layer 2 Mode
X.21
dte
auto
64000 bps
auto
Interface Leads
disabled
SAVE
Use <Space> to select
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The menu contains the following fields:
Field
Meaning
Interface Type
Defines the interface type of the port used.
Possible values:
■ none (default value): Interface is not used.
■ X.21: Use as X.21/V.11 interface
■ V.35: Use as V.35/V.11 interface
■ V.36: Use as V.36/V.11 interface
■ X.21bis: Use as X.21bis/V.28 interface
Connector
Defines the pin assignment of the port (see
chapter 13.2.4, page 393).
This setting only affects the pin assignment for
the first serial port CM-SERIAL, SERIAL ➧ U NIT 0;
a suitable DCE or DTE cable must be used for
the second serial port CM-SERIAL, SERIAL ➧
UNIT 1!
Possible values:
■ dte (default value): The pins are assigned
as DTE interface. This setting is necessary,
for example, if X4000 is connected to a
public data network (e.g. Datex-P in
Germany).
■ dce: The pins are assigned as DCE
interface. This is necessary for using a unit
configured as DTE.
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Basic Configuration of Basic Unit with Setup Tool
Field
Meaning
Clock Mode
Defines which connection partner sends the
clock signal for synchronization between
transmitter and receiver. Possible values:
■ auto (default value): The setting is based on
the Connector selected:
–
X4000 sends the clock signal if
Connector = dce.
–
X4000 receives the clock signal if
Connector = dte.
You can usually accept this setting.
■ external: X4000 receives the clock signal,
irrespective of the setting selected under
Connector.
■ internal: X4000 sends the clock signal,
irrespective of the setting selected under
Connector.
Speed
Transmission rate of connection, scalable from
2400 bps to 8 Mbps.
The value to be set depends on the quality and
length of the cable and on the connection type
(balanced/unbalanced). Up to 8 Mbps are
possible over a short distance of up to 5 m if
shielded cables are used.
Default value: 64000 bps
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Field
Meaning
Layer 2 Mode
Defines the value of the HDLC address field in
the transmitted command frames (Layer 2).
Possible values:
■ auto (default value): The selection made for
Connector is accepted.
You can usually accept this setting, e.g. for
access to a public data network such as
Datex-P.
■ dte: The address field has the value for
DTE.
■ dce: The address field has the value for
DCE.
Interface Leads
Defines whether X4000 checks the status of
the interface lines. The same value should be
set for both connection partners. Possible
values:
■ enabled: The status of the signal line (I for
X.21, CTS for V.35, V.36 and X.21bis) is
checked and transferred as L1State.
■ disabled (default value): The status is not
checked; the physical line is always up. In
this setting, you should monitor the
interface line in some other way, e.g. with
PPP Keepalive.
Table 7-11:
CM-SERIAL, SERIAL ➧ UNIT 0 or CM-SERIAL, SERIAL ➧ UNIT 1
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Basic Configuration of Basic Unit with Setup Tool
Connector = DTE
(default value)
Connector = DCE
Function
DTE
DCE
Cables
Standard cable
Pin
assignment
X.21: see "DB-15 Plug for X.21", page 395
Port
1
V.35: see "M34 Plug for V.35", page 396
V.36: see "DB-37 Plug for V.36", page 397
Function
DTE
DCE
Cables
DTE cable
DCE cable
Pin
assignment
X.21bis: see "DB-25 Plug for X.21bis", page 399
Table 7-12:
To do
2
Use of Connector in the Setup Tool
Proceed as follows to configure the serial interfaces (the example values given
are necessary if you connect X4000 to Datex-P):
➤ Go to CM-SERIAL, SERIAL ➧ UNIT 0 or CM-SERIAL, SERIAL ➧ UNIT 1
➤ Select Interface Type: e.g. X.21.
➤ Select Connector: e.g. dte.
➤ Select Clock Mode: e.g. auto.
➤ Select Speed: e.g. 64000 bps.
➤ Select Layer 2 Mode: e.g. auto.
➤ Select Interface Leads: e.g. disabled.
➤ Press SAVE.
You have returned to the main menu. and the entries have been saved.
Advanced
configuration
154
If you use a leased line, you can implement a backup solution using the
Bandwidth on Demand feature (see chapter 8.2.3, page 201). If you use this
facility, a dialup connection is set up to the connection partner if the leased line
fails.
X4000 User’s Guide
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Configuring WAN Interfaces
7.2.3
ADSL
Configuring the LAN Interface for Using ADSL
(PPP-over-Ethernet)
To be able to use ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line) with X4000, you
must configure a PPP-over-Ethernet interface over the LAN interface. This is
done by connecting X4000 to T-DSL, which is the ADSL connection of
Deutsche Telekom AG.
If you use the ADSL connection of another provider, ask the provider about any
special features of your ADSL connection that need to be observed.
T-DSL
The T-DSL package is currently offered by Deutsche Telekom AG as highspeed access to the Internet. It consists of an ISDN connection and a data line
with a bandwidth of up to 768 kbps from the Internet Service Provider to the
customer (downstream) and 128 kbps in the upstream direction.
Security risks and
restrictions
The following restrictions and security risks exist as the X4000 connection to TDSL is established only over one Ethernet interface:
■ If PPP-over-Ethernet is operated with only one Ethernet interface, there is
a risk of unauthorized accesses from the Internet to the local X4000 LAN.
Such unauthorized accesses can originate from the first node of the
Internet.
■ Users of the local network can configure a PPP-over-Ethernet client on their
PC and use the Internet unnoticed by X4000.
■ Broadcasts in the local LAN are always forwarded by the ADSL modem
(NTBBA) to the PTT exchange and are not rejected until the exchange. This
means that the maximum bandwidth of 128 kbps upstream to the PTT
may not be fully available.
The limitations and security risks described here do not apply if X4000 is
equipped with a LAN expansion card and several LAN interfaces are therefore
available (see chapter 9.3.2, page 288).
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Basic Configuration of Basic Unit with Setup Tool
The T-DSL connection (without X4000) looks like this:
T-ISDN
ADSL
T-ISDN dsl
768 kbit/s
Customer
TAE
128 kbit/s
ISDN telephone
NTBA
ADSL Splitter
(BBAE)
ISDN-NTBA
PC with network card
ADSL modem
(NTBBA)
Figure 7-4:
T-DSL connection (without X4000)
The following scenario (see Figure 7-5, page 157) is used to describe the
necessary configuration steps: The LAN interface of X4000 and the ADSL
modem (NTBBA) of Deutsche Telekom AG are connected to your hub as
described in chapter 3.3, page 59 .
If you receive a special cable from Deutsche Telekom AG or another provider
for connecting the ADSL modem, use only this cable.
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Configuring WAN Interfaces
192.168.1.1
ADSL
192.168.1.2
4000
ADSL-Modem
(NTBBA)
BinTec
Your X4000
192.168.1.254
192.168.1.3
Your Local Area Network
Figure 7-5:
Example scenario (with X4000)
The following settings are necessary (the Setup Tool menus concerned are
described elsewhere):
➤ Go to PPP (see chapter 8.1.3, page 194).
➤ Select PPPoE Ethernet Interface: en1.
➤ Press SAVE.
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD (see Table 7-13, page 163).
➤ Enter your Partner Name: e.g. t-online.
➤ Select Encapsulation: PPP
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ PPP (see Table 7-18, page 168).
➤ Enter Local PPP ID (= your user name):
e.g. 000460004256091169386#[email protected]
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Basic Configuration of Basic Unit with Setup Tool
The T-Online user name comprises the following elements:
<Anschlußkennung><T-Online-Nummer>#<Mitbenutzernummer>@t-online.de
Anschlußkennung is a 12-digit number, in this case: 000460004256.
T-Online-Nummer is the extension number, in this case: 091169386.
Mitbenutzernummer is a 4-digit number, in this case: 0001.
The T-Online-Nummer and the Mitbenutzernummer must be separated by # if
the T-Online-Nummer has less than 12 digits.
➤ Enter PPP Password (= your T-Online password).
➤ Select Keepalives: on.
➤ Confirm with OK.
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS (see chapter 8.2.5,
page 219).
➤ Select Layer 1 Protocol : PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE).
➤ Confirm with OK.
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ IP (see Table 7-21, page 174).
➤ Select IP Transit Network: dynamic client.
➤ Press SAVE.
➤ Go to IP ➧ ROUTING ➧ ADD (see "Creating a Routing Entry", page 175).
➤ Select Route Type: Default route.
➤ Select Network: WAN without transit network.
➤ Select Partner / Interface: e.g. t-online.
➤ Enter Metric: e.g. 1.
➤ Press SAVE.
➤ Go to IP ➧ NETWORK ADDRESS TRANSLATION (see "Activating Network
Address Translation (NAT)", page 181).
➤ Select the PPPoE interface, e.g. t-online, and confirm with Return.
➤ Select Network Address Translation: on.
➤ Press SAVE.
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7.3
Configuring WAN Partners
To enable X4000 to make connections to networks or hosts outside your LAN,
you must configure the partners you want to connect to as WAN partners on
your X4000. This applies to outgoing connections (X4000 dials its WAN
partner), as well as for incoming connections (a WAN partner dials the number
of your X4000) and leased lines.
Consequently, if you want to access the Internet, you must set up your Internet
Service Provider (➤➤ ISP) as a WAN partner. If you wish to establish a LANLAN connection, e.g. between your LAN (head office) and the LAN of a branch
office (corporate network connection), you have to configure the LAN of your
branch office as a WAN partner.
If you have set up one or more leased lines on configuring the WAN interface(s)
of X4000, a WAN partner for each leased line is already created automatically
in the WAN Partner menu. Edit this entry to suit your requirements.
General
The procedure for configuring or editing a WAN partner in X4000 is explained
in general form in chapter 7.3.1, page 159 below.
Examples
A number of frequently required configuration examples are shown in
chapter 7.3.2, page 182.
If you would like to configure Internet access over Compuserve, please see
"Internet Access over Compuserve", page 184.
7.3.1
Basic Procedure
Configuring a WAN partner generally involves the following steps:
■ Entering a WAN partner:
– Defining a ➤➤ protocol (encapsulation).
–
Entering extension(s).
–
Defining ➤➤ PPP settings for authentication.
–
Defining ➤➤ short hold.
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Basic Configuration of Basic Unit with Setup Tool
–
Carrying out IP configuration.
■ Creating routing entry.
■ Activating Network Address Translation (➤➤ NAT) (optional).
Off we go:
Entering a WAN Partner
WAN partner
configuration
Before you get down to it, you should collect the necessary access information
that you received from your ISP or system administrator (see chapter 6.1,
page 110). The terms used may vary slightly from provider to provider.
To enter a WAN partner, proceed as follows:
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER:
X4000 Setup Tool
[WAN]: WAN Partners
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
Current WAN Partner Configuration
Partnername
LittleIndian
ADD
Protocol
ppp
DELETE
State
dormant
EXIT
Press<Ctrl-n>,<Ctrl-p>to scroll,<Space>tag/untag DELETE,<Return>to
edit
This is where all WAN partners currently configured are listed with the
corresponding Partner name, Protocol and State.
A WAN partner interface is created automatically for leased lines. Edit the
previously created entry for a leased line in the WAN P ARTNER menu and enter
the necessary parameters.
State can have the following values:
■ up: connected
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■ dormant: not connected
■ blocked: not connected (an error occurred on establishing a connection, a
renewed attempt is only possible after a specified number of seconds)
■ down: set to down by administration
To make an entry in the list, proceed as follows:
➤ Use ADD to add a new entry or select an existing entry. Confirm with
Return to change the entry.
Another menu window opens:
X4000 Setup Tool
[WAN][ADD]: Configure WAN Partner
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
Partner Name
LittleIndian
Encapsulation
Compression
Encryption
Calling Line Identification
PPP
none
none
no
WAN Numbers >
PPP >
Advanced Settings >
IP >
IPX >
Bridge >
SAVE
CANCEL
Enter string, max. length = 25 chars
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The menu contains the following fields:
Field
Meaning
Partner Name
Enter a name for uniquely identifying the WAN
partner.
Encapsulation
➤➤ Encapsulation. Defines how the
➤➤ data packets are packed for transfer to
the WAN partner. Possible values:
■ PPP
■ Multi-Protocol LAPB Framing
■ Multi-Protocol HDLC Framing
■ Async PPP over X.75
■ Async PPP over X.75/T.70/BTX
■ X.25_PPP
■ X.25
■ HDLC Framing (IP only)
■ LAPB Framing (IP only)
■ X31 B-Channel
■ X.25 No Signaling
■ X.25 PAD
■ X.25 No Configuration
■ Frame Relay
■ X.25 No Configuration, No Signaling
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Field
Meaning
Compression
Defines the type of compression that should be
used for data traffic to the WAN partner.
Possible values:
■ STAC: only if Encapsulation = PPP
■ MS-STAC: only if Encapsulation = PPP
■ none
Encryption
Defines the type of encryption that should be
used for data traffic to the WAN partner. Only
possible if STAC compression is not activated
for the connection. Possible values:
■ MPPE 40: MPPE version 1 with 40-bit key
■ MPPE 56: MPPE version 1 with 56-bit key
■ MPPE V2 40: MPPE version 2 with 40-bit
key
■ MPPE V2 56: MPPE version 2 with 56-bit
key
■ DES 56: DES with 56-bit key
■ Blowfish 56: Blowfish with 56-bit key
■ none: No encryption
These values are only available if PPP, Async
PPP over X.75, Async PPP over X.75/T.70/
BTX or X.25_PPP has been selected under
Encapsulation.
Calling Line
Identification
Indicates whether calls from this WAN partner
should be identified by means of the calling
party number (➤➤ CLID). The value of this
field is dependent on Direction in the submenu
WAN NUMBERS and cannot be set here.
Table 7-13:
WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD
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The following table illustrates which encapsulations support procedures for
➤➤ data compression:
Protocols
Encapsulation
Compression:
STAC, MS-STAC
X
PPP
X
X
X
Async PPP over X.75
X
X
X
Async PPP over X.75/T.70/BTX
X
X
X
Multi-Protocol LAPB Framing
X
X
Multi-Protocol HDLC Framing
IP
IPX
X
X
HDLC Framing (IP only)
X
LAPB Framing (IP only)
Table 7-14:
To do
Encapsulation and compression
Make the following entries:
➤ Enter Partner Name, e.g. LittleIndian.
➤ Select Encapsulation, e.g. PPP.
➤ Select Compression, e.g. none, if applicable.
➤ Select Encryption, e.g. none, if applicable.
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ WAN NUMBERS:
Entering extension
numbers
X4000 Setup Tool
BinTec Communications AG
[WAN][ADD][WAN Numbers]: WAN Numbers (BigBoss)
MyRouter
WAN Numbers for this partner:
WAN Number
0911987654321
ADD
Direction
outgoing
DELETE
EXIT
Press<Ctrl-n>,<Ctrl-p>toscroll,<Space>tag/untag DELETE,<Return>to edit
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This is where the currently entered extensions of the WAN partners are listed.
To make an entry in the list, proceed as follows:
➤ Use ADD to add a new entry or select an existing entry. Confirm with
Return to change the entry.
Another menu window opens:
X4000 Setup Tool
BinTec Communications AG
[WAN][ADD][WANNUMBERS][ADD]:Add or Change WANNumbers(BigBoss) MyRouter
Number
Direction
0911987654321
outgoing
Advanced Settings >
SAVE
Cancel
Enter string, max. length = 40 chars
The menu contains the following fields:
Field
Meaning
Number
Extension of WAN partner.
Direction
Defines whether Number should be used for
incoming or outgoing calls or for both.
Table 7-15:
WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ WAN NUMBERS ➧ ADD
The Direction field contains the following selection options:
Possible values
Meaning
outgoing
For outgoing calls, where you dial your WAN
partner.
both (CLID)
For incoming and outgoing calls.
incoming (CLID)
For incoming calls, where your WAN partner
dials in to your X4000.
Table 7-16:
Direction
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When X4000 is connected to a PABX system for which a "0" prefix is
necessary for external line access, this "0" must be considered when entering
the access number.
Wildcards
When entering the Number, you can either enter the extension digit for digit or
you can replace single numbers or groups of numbers with wildcards. Number
can therefore be the same as various extensions.
You can use the following wildcards, which have different effects for incoming
and outgoing calls:
Meaning
Example
Wildcard
X4000 accepts
incoming calls,
e.g. with:
Outgoing calls,
i.e. X4000 sets
up a connection
to the WAN
partner with:
Incoming calls
Outgoing calls
Number
*
Matches a group
of none or more
digits.
Is ignored.
123*
123, 1234,
123789
123
?
Matches exactly
one digit.
Is replaced by 0.
123?
1234, 1238, 1231
1230
[a-b]
Defines a range
of matching
digits.
The first digit of
the specified
range is used.
123[5-9]
1235, 1237, 1239
1235
[^a-b]
Defines a range
of excluded
digits.
The first digit after
the specified
range is used.
123[^0-5]
1236, 1238, 1239
1236
{ab}
Optional
sequence to
match.
Sequence is
used.
{00}1234
00123 and 123
00123
Table 7-17:
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Wildcards for incoming and outgoing calls
7
Configuring WAN Partners
If the calling party number of an incoming call matches both a WAN partner’s
Number with wildcards and a WAN partner’s Number without wildcards, the
entry without wildcards is always used.
To do
Make the following entries:
➤ Enter the Number, e.g. 0911987654321.
➤ Select the Direction, e.g. outgoing.
➤ Press SAVE.
The entries are saved and listed.
➤ Leave WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ WAN NUMBERS with EXIT.
➤➤ PPP
authentication
Now enter the ➤➤ PPP settings of your WAN partner. These are used to
authenticate your connection partner.
When a call is received, the Calling Party Number is always sent over the ISDN
➤➤ D-channel. This number enables X4000 to identify the caller
(➤➤ CLID), provided the caller is entered as a WAN partner. After
identification with CLID, the router can additionally carry out PPP authentication
with the WAN partner before it accepts the call. The router needs the necessary
data for this, which you should enter here. First establish the type of
authentication process that should be performed, then enter a common
password and two user names. You get this information, for example, from your
Internet Service Provider (ISP) or the system administrator at your head office.
The call is only accepted if the data entered in X4000 matches the caller’s data.
If you authenticate WAN partners over a RADISU server, please see the
relevant instructions in the Extended Features Reference.
To set the PPP authentication for the WAN partner, proceed as follows:
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ PPP:
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X4000 Setup Tool
[WAN][ADD][PPP]: PPP Settings (BigBoss)
Authentication
Partner PPP ID
Local PPP ID
PPP Password
CHAP + PAP
LittleIndian
BigBoss
Secret
Keepalives
Link Quality Monitoring
off
off
OK
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
CANCEL
Use <Space> to select
The menu contains the following fields:
Field
Meaning
Authentication
Authentication protocol
Partner PPP ID
ID of WAN partner
Local PPP ID
X4000’s ID
PPP Password
Password
Keepalives
Activates keepalive packets for checking the
interface status. Possible values:
■ off
■ on
Link Quality Monitoring
Activates PPP Link Quality Monitoring as per
RFC 1989. Possible values:
■ off
■ on
Table 7-18:
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7
Configuring WAN Partners
The Authentication field contains the following selection options:
Possible values
Meaning
PAP
Only run ➤➤ PAP (PPP Password
Authentication Protocol); the password is
transferred uncoded.
CHAP
Only run ➤➤ CHAP (PPP Challenge
Handshake Authentication Protocol as per RFC
1994); the password is transferred coded.
CHAP + PAP
Run primarily CHAP, otherwise PAP.
MS-CHAP
Only run MS-CHAP (MS Challenge Handshake
Authentication Protocol).
CHAP + PAP + MSCHAP
Primarily run CHAP, on denial, the
authentication protocol required by the WAN
partner.
MS-CHAP V2
Run MS-CHAP version 2 only.
none
Run no PPP authentication protocol.
Table 7-19:
To do
Authentication
Make the following entries:
➤ Select Authentication, e.g. CHAP.
➤ Enter Partner PPP ID, e.g. LittleIndian.
➤ Enter Local PPP ID, e.g. BigBoss.
How to enter the passwords is described in "Changing the password", page 85.
➤ Enter PPP Password, e.g. Secret.
➤ Select Keepalives, e.g. off.
➤ Select Link Quality Monitoring, e.g. off.
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➤ Confirm with OK.
You have returned to WAN P ARTNER ➧ ADD.
In some cases, the caller cannot be identified with ➤➤ CLID, although
entered as a WAN partner. In this case, your X4000 does not know which
authentication protocol was set for this WAN partner. To enable the call to still
be accepted, X4000 falls back on general settings in the PPP, which you can
change as necessary (chapter 8.1.3, page 194).
Setting short hold
Now set short hold so that X4000 clears down the ISDN connection when there
is no further data exchange to save money. The short hold setting can be either
static or dynamic and tells X4000 the duration of the idle time, after which it is
to clear down the ISDN connection.
Static
The static ➤➤ short hold setting determines how much time should pass
between sending the last ➤➤ data packet and clearing the ISDN connection.
Enter a fixed period of time in seconds.
Dynamic
With the dynamic short hold setting, no fixed period of time is specified and the
length of an ISDN charging unit is considered instead. Dynamic short hold is
based on AOCD (advice of charge during the call).
When setting dynamic short hold, you specify how much time should pass after
the last exchange of data before the connection is cleared. You enter a
percentage based on the last charging unit. The value of the idle timer can
therefore change, just as the length of the charging unit changes (according to
the time of day, weekend, weekday, etc.). If you enter 50 %, for example, the
idle timer is 60 seconds if the preceding charging unit was 120 seconds, and
300 seconds if the preceding charging unit was 600 seconds. The connection
is cleared on expiry of the idle timer and shortly before the next charging unit
starts.
Please note: You can only use dynamic short hold if you receive charging
information during the connection. Ask your telephone company.
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When using dynamic Short Hold, you must also set static Short Hold so that
you do not get a permanent ➤➤ switched connection if AOCD fails.
You should make sure static Short Hold comes into operation later than
dynamic Short Hold. If not, X4000 always clears the connection based on static
short hold and never gives dynamic short hold a chance to disconnect. In this
case, enter a value for Static Short Hold (sec) that is a little more than the
expected maximum dynamic idle time.
In Germany, only Deutsche Telekom currently supports call charging
information.
Static
Short Hold
Dynamic
Short Hold
Static
Short Hold
Dynamic
Short Hold
Connected
Short Hold
= 60 s
Data
Disconnected
Connected
Disconnected
Idle Timer
= 50%
Data
Connected
Short Hold
= 60 s
Data
Disconnected
Connected
Idle Timer
= 50%
Data
$
120 s
$
0s
Figure 7-6:
Disconnected
$
240 s
$
360 s
Dynamic and static short hold
Proceed as follows:
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS:
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Basic Configuration of Basic Unit with Setup Tool
X4000 Setup Tool
BinTec Communications AG
[WAN][ADD][ADVANCED]: Advanced Settings (BigBoss)
MyRouter
Callback
Static Short Hold (sec)
Idle for Dynamic Short Hold (%)
Delay after Connection Failure (sec)
Layer 1 Protocol
no
20
0
300
ISDN 64 kbps
Channel Bundling
no
Extended Interface Settings (optional) >
OK
CANCEL
Use <Space> to select
The following parts of the menu are relevant for this configuration step:
Field
Meaning
Static Short Hold (sec)
Idle time in seconds for static short hold.
Example values for trunk connections:
60, only effective if charging pulses are
transmitted during the connection (AOCD),
20 otherwise.
Idle for Dynamic Short
Hold (%)
Idle time in % for dynamic Short Hold.
Only effective if charging pulses are transmitted
during the connection (AOCD).
Table 7-20:
To do
WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS
Make the following entries:
➤ Enter Static Short Hold (sec), e.g. 20.
➤ Enter Idle for Dynamic Short Hold (%), e.g. 0.
➤ Confirm with OK.
You have returned to WAN P ARTNER ➧ ADD.
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Tips on entering Idle for Dynamic Short Hold %:
■ For interactive connections (e.g. ➤➤ telnet), specify a high value (e.g.
80...90) to avoid clearing connections during short phases without data
exchange.
■ For Internet connections (e.g. WWW, http, etc.), specify a medium to high
value (e.g. 50...80) to avoid clearing connections while waiting.
■ For data connections (e.g. ➤➤ ftp), specify a low value (e.g. 10...40) to
avoid the unnecessary continuation of a connection after data has been
transferred.
You will find a more detailed explanation about static and dynamic short hold in
the Software Reference.
Carrying out IP
configuration
Now let’s move on to the IP configuration of your WAN partner. Here you enter
the ➤➤ IP address and ➤➤ netmask of your partner.
Proceed as follows:
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ IP:
X4000 Setup Tool
[WAN][ADD][IP]: IP Configuration (BigBoss)
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
IP Transit Network
no
Partner’s LAN IP Address
Partner’s LAN Netmask
10.1.1.0
255.255.255.0
Advanced Settings >
SAVE
CANCEL
Use <Space> to select
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The menu contains the following fields:
Field
Meaning
IP Transit Network
Defines whether X4000 sets up a transit
network to the WAN partner.
Local IP Address
IP address of X4000. You do not normally need
to make an entry here, unless you wish to
configure a transit network for one of your WAN
partners (see chapter 8.2.6, page 222).
Local ISDN IP Address
ISDN IP address of X4000 in the transit
network.
Partner’s ISDN IP
Address
ISDN IP address of WAN partner in the transit
network.
Partner’s LAN IP
Address
WAN partner’s LAN IP address.
Partner’s LAN Netmask
WAN partner’s LAN netmask. If you make no
entry, X4000 enters a default netmask for the
net class used under Partner’s LAN IP
Address.
Table 7-21:
To do
WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ IP
Make the following entries (normally sufficient for a corporate network
connection):
➤ Select IP Transit Network: e.g. no.
➤ Enter Partner’s LAN IP Address, e.g. 10.1.1.0.
➤ Enter Partner’s LAN Netmask, e.g. 255.255.255.0.
➤ Press SAVE.
➤ Press SAVE again.
You have returned to WAN P ARTNER and your entries have been saved.
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If you are setting up access to the Internet, you do not normally know the IP
address of your Internet Service Provider (ISP). Either your X4000 is assigned
its Local ISDN IP Address dynamically (for the duration of the connection) or
statically by the ISP. In such a case, make the following settings in WAN
PARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ IP:
➤ IP address is assigned dynamically:
–
Select IP Transit Network: dynamic client.
➤ IP address is assigned statically:
–
Select IP Transit Network: yes.
–
Local ISDN IP Address: X4000’s static IP address you get from your
ISP (often termed your gateway or router address).
–
Partner’s ISDN IP Address: Partner’s IP address (if known) or else
X4000’s static IP address you get from your ISP.
–
No entries for Partner’s LAN IP Address and Partner’s LAN
Netmask.
If you want to know more about what a transit network actually is, for example,
and what you need it for, see chapter 8.2.6, page 222.
To be able to use the Domain Name Server of the ISP while connected, make
A DVANCED
the following settings in WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ IP ➧
SETTINGS:
➤ Select Dynamic Name Server Negotiation: client (receive).
This setting is only necessary if you have not entered fixed IP addresses for
DNS on the PCs of your network.
Creating a Routing Entry
Routing entry
creation
You have just entered a WAN partner in your X4000. A routing entry is created
automatically in the routing table of your X4000 for every WAN partner. You can
edit existing routing entries and add new ones. For the connection to your
Internet Service Provider, you should always configure a default route.
Proceed as follows:
➤ Go to IP ➧ ROUTING:
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Basic Configuration of Basic Unit with Setup Tool
X4000 Setup Tool
[IP][ROUTING]: IP Routing
The flags are:
U (Up), D (Dormant), B (Blocked),
G (Gateway Route), I (Interface Route),
S (Subnet Route), H (Host Route), E (Extended Route)
Destination Gateway
192.168.1.1 192.168.1.254
10.1.1.0
default
ADD
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
Mask
Flags
255.255.255.0US
255.255.255.0DI
0.0.0.0
DI
ADDEXT
DELETE
Met
0
0
0
Interface
en1
BigBoss
GoInternet
Pro
loc
mgmt
mgmt
EXIT
Press<Ctrl-n>,<Ctrl-p>to scroll,<Space>tag/untag DELETE,<Return>to edit
All IP routes entered are listed here. Flags shows the current status (Up,
Dormant, Blocked) and the type of route (Gateway Route, Interface Route,
Subnet Route, Host Route, Extended Route). The protocol with which X4000
has "learned" the routing entry is displayed under Pro.
To define a route, proceed as follows:
➤ Use ADD to add a new entry or select an existing entry. Confirm with
Return to change the entry.
Another menu window opens:
To create extended IP routing entries, press the ADDEXT button to open the
relevant menu. In this case, see chapter 10.2.12, page 353.
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X4000 Setup Tool
[IP][ROUTING][ADD]: IP Routing
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
Route Type
Network
Network route
WAN without transit network
Destination IP Address
Netmask
Partner / Interface
10.1.1.0
255.255.255.0
BigBoss
Metric
1
SAVE
CANCEL
Use <Space> to select
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The menu contains the following fields:
Field
Meaning
Route Type
Type of route. Possible values:
■ Host route: Route to a single host
■ Network route: Route to a network
■ Default route: Is only used if no other
suitable route is available.
Network
Defines the type of connection (LAN, WAN),
see Table 7-23, page 179.
Destination IP Address
IP address of the destination host or LAN.
Netmask
Netmask of the partner LAN (only possible for
Route Type = Network route. If no entry is
made, the router uses a default netmask).
Partner / Interface
WAN partner (only possible for Network =
WAN without transit network).
Gateway IP Address
IP address of the host to which X4000 should
forward the IP packets.
Metric
The lower the value, the higher the priority of
the route (range of values 1...14).
Table 7-22:
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7
Configuring WAN Partners
The Network field contains the following selection options:
Possible values
Meaning
LAN
Route to a destination host or LAN that can be
reached via X4000’s LAN interface.
WAN without transit
network
Route to a destination host or LAN that can be
reached via a WAN partner without transit
network.
WAN with transit network
Route to a destination host or LAN that can be
reached via a WAN partner with transit
network.
Refuse
X4000 discards data packets using this route
and sends the sender a message saying the
destination of the packet is unreachable.
Ignore
X4000 discards data packets using this route
without sending a status message.
Table 7-23:
Network
You can only configure one default route on your X4000. If you set up access to
the Internet, you must therefore configure the route to your Internet Service
Provider (ISP) as a default route.
If, for example, you configure a corporate network connection, only enter the
route to the head office or branch office as a default route if you do not configure
Internet access over X4000.
If, for example, you configure both Internet access and a corporate network
connection, enter a default route to the ISP and a network route to the head
office.
Default route
To define a default route, proceed as follows:
➤ Select Route Type: Default route.
➤ Select Network: WAN without transit network.
➤ Select Partner / Interface: e.g. GoInternet.
➤ Enter Metric, e.g. 1.
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Basic Configuration of Basic Unit with Setup Tool
➤ Press SAVE.
You have returned to IP ➧ ROUTING. The entries have been saved and the
newly entered or modified route is listed.
The corporate network can consist of several LANs with different network IP
addresses and netmasks (➤➤ subnets). If you do not enter the access to
such a network as a default route (e.g. because you have already set up your
Internet access as a default route), then you must make a separate routing
entry for each subnet you want to reach in this network.
( 1234567
10.1.2.0
255.255.255.0
BigBoss
LittleIndian
Secret
Subnet 2 of
your Company’s
Head Office
4000
BinTec
ISDN
BI
AN
CA
/B
RI
CK
-X
M
Router of
your Company’s
Head Office
Your X4000
( 1234567
10.1.1.0
255.255.255.0
BigBoss
LittleIndian
Secret
Your Local Area Network
Figure 7-7:
Network route
Subnet 1 of
your Company’s
Head Office
Network with subnets
To establish a network route, e.g. for a corporate network connection (without
a default route), proceed as follows:
➤ Select Route Type: Network route.
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➤ Select Network: WAN without transit network.
➤ Enter Destination IP Address, e.g. 10.1.2.0.
➤ Enter Netmask, e.g. 255.255.255.0.
➤ Enter Partner / Interface, e.g. LittleIndian.
➤ Enter Metric, e.g. 1.
➤ Press SAVE.
You have returned to IP ➧ ROUTING. The entries have been saved and the
newly entered or modified route is listed.
➤ Repeat these steps if you have to enter several routes.
Activating Network Address Translation (NAT)
Activating NAT
Here you can activate Network Address Translation (➤➤ NAT) for your WAN
partner. This conceals your whole network to the outside world with just one IP
address. You should certainly do this for your connection to the Internet Service
Provider (ISP).
More information about Network Address Translation (NAT) can be found in
chapter 10.2.7, page 331.
Proceed as follows to activate NAT:
➤ Go to IP ➧ NETWORK ADDRESS TRANSLATION:
X4000 Setup Tool
[IP][NAT]: NAT Configuration
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
Select IP Interface to be configured for NAT
GoInternet
LittleIndian
en1
en1-snap
Nat
static mappings
on
off
off
off
2
EXIT
Press <Ctrl-n>, <Ctrl-p> to scroll, <Return> to edit/select
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Basic Configuration of Basic Unit with Setup Tool
➤ Mark the WAN partner for which you want to activate NAT (e.g. GoInternet)
and press Return.
Another menu window opens:
X4000 Setup Tool
BinTec Communications AG
[IP][NAT][CONFIG]: NAT Configuration (GoInternet)
MyRouter
Network Address Translation
on
Configuration for sessions requested from outside
Service
Destination
ADD
DELETE
Source Dep.
Dest. Dep.
SAVE
Port Remap
CANCEL
Use <Space> to select
To do
Make the following entries:
➤ Select Network Address Translation: on.
➤ Press SAVE.
Network Address Translation is activated for the selected interface or WAN
partner.
➤ Leave IP ➧ NETWORK ADDRESS TRANSLATION with EXIT.
➤ Leave IP with EXIT.
You have returned to the main menu and have configured a WAN partner.
In order to permit certain external connections to hosts in the LAN in spite of
activated NAT, you must define the sessions allowed exactly. How to do this is
described in chapter 10.2.7, page 331.
7.3.2
Examples
The WAN partner settings for some example configurations are shown below:
■ "Internet Access over T-Online", page 183
■ "Internet Access over Compuserve", page 184
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How to enter the passwords is described in "Changing the password", page 85.
Internet Access over T-Online
T-Online
The following settings are necessary:
■ In WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD:
Partner Name: e.g. T_ONLINE.
Encapsulation: PPP
Compression: none
Encryption: none
■ In WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ WAN NUMBERS ➧ ADD:
Number (= dial-in number): z. B. 0191011
Direction: outgoing
■ In WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ PPP:
Authentication: CHAP + PAP
Local PPP ID (= user account + T-Online number + joint user account): e.g.
123456789012081512345678#0001.
PPP Password: e.g. mycat.
Keepalives: off
Link Quality Monitoring: off
■ In WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS:
Callback: no
Static Short Hold (sec): z. B. 60
Idle for Dynamic Short Hold (%): z. B. 0
Delay after Connection Failure (sec): z. B. 300
Channel Bundling: no
Layer 1 Protocol: ISDN 64 kbps
■ In WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ IP:
IP Transit Network: dynamic client
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Basic Configuration of Basic Unit with Setup Tool
■ In WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ IP ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS:
RIP Send: none
RIP Receive: none
Van Jacobson Header Compression: off
Dynamic Name Server Negotiation: client (receive)
IP Accounting: off
Back Route Verify: off
Route Announce: up or dormant
Proxy Arp: off
■ In IP ➧ ROUTING ➧ ADD:
Route Type: Default route
Network: WAN without transit network
Partner / Interface: T-Online
Metric: e.g. 1.
■ In IP ➧ NETWORK ADDRESS TRANSLATION ➧ T_Online ➧ Return:
Network Address Translation: on
Internet Access over Compuserve
Compuserve
The following settings are necessary:
■ In WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD:
Partner Name: e.g. COMPUSERVE.
Encapsulation: Async PPP over X.75
Compression: none
Encryption: none
■ In WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ WAN NUMBERS ➧ ADD:
Number (= dial-in number): z. B. 010880191919
Direction: outgoing
■ In WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ PPP:
Authentication: none
Keepalives: off
Link Quality Monitoring: off
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■ In WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS:
Callback: no
Static Short Hold (sec): e.g. 120
Idle for Dynamic Short Hold (%): e.g. 0
Delay after Connection Failure (sec): e.g. 300
Channel Bundling: no
Layer 1 Protocol: ISDN 64 kbps
■ In WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS ➧ COMPUSERVE
LOGIN:
Provider: Compuserve Network.
Host: CIS.
User ID (= your user name).
Password.
■ In WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ IP:
IP Transit Network: dynamic client
■ In WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ IP ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS:
RIP Send: none
RIP Receive: none
Van Jacobson Header Compression: off
Dynamic Name Server Negotiation: client (receive)
IP Accounting: off
Back Route Verify: off
Route Announce: up or dormant
Proxy Arp: off
■ In IP ➧ ROUTING ➧ ADD:
Route Type: Default route
Network: WAN without transit network
Partner / Interface: COMPUSERVE
Metric: e.g. 1.
■ In IP ➧ NETWORK ADDRESS TRANSLATION ➧ COMPUSERVE ➧ Return:
Network Address Translation: on
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7.4
Saving the Configuration File
After creating a working configuration on your X4000, make sure you save it:
➤ From the Setup Tool main menu, select Exit and press Return.
Another menu window opens:
X4000 Setup Tool
[EXIT]: Exit Setup
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
Back to Main Menu
Save as boot configuration and exit
Exit without saving
You have three alternatives:
➤ Select Back to Main Menu to return to the Setup Tool main menu.
➤ Select Save as boot configuration and exit to save the configuration data
as a file in the flash memory.
The SNMP shell of X4000 appears with the login prompt. All the changes
you have made with the Setup Tool are saved. The next time you start your
X4000, the configuration file you have just saved will be loaded.
➤ Select Exit without saving to quit the Setup Tool without saving the
changes made.
The SNMP shell of X4000 appears with the login prompt. All settings or
changes you have made with the Setup Tool will be lost when you turn off
your X4000.
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8
Advanced Configuration of the
Basic Unit with the Setup Tool
This chapter contains more X4000 configuration options for the advanced user.
This is the right chapter if you would like to make additional settings that are not
covered by the Configuration Wizard or in chapter 6, page 123.
The following configuration steps are described:
■ General ➤➤ WAN Settings (chapter 8.1, page 188)
■ Settings Specific to WAN Partners (chapter 8.2, page 198)
■ Basic ➤➤ IP Settings (chapter 8.3, page 242)
■ ➤➤ IPX Settings (chapter 8.4, page 268)
■ Bridging (chapter 8.5, page 275)
■ Extra License Functions (chapter 8.6, page 276)
Use the Credits Based Accounting System (see chapter 10.1.3, page 316).
This enables you to set a limit for connections to X4000 to prevent
unnecessary charges accumulating as a result of mistakes made during
configuration.
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8.1
General WAN Settings
General WAN functions:
■ X4000 as Dynamic IP Address ➤➤ Server (chapter 8.1.1, page 188)
■ CAPI User Concept (chapter 8.1.2, page 190)
■ General ➤➤ PPP Settings (chapter 8.1.3, page 194)
■ Setting of X.31 TEI value (chapter 8.1.4, page 197)
These settings are not linked to certain WAN partners, but concern all WAN
connections.
8.1.1
IP address pools
Dynamic IP Address Server
X4000 can operate as a dynamic IP address server for PPP connections. You
can use this function by providing one or more pools of ➤➤ IP addresses.
These IP addresses can be assigned to dial-in WAN partners for the duration of
the connection.
Any host routes entered always have priority over IP addresses from the
address pools. That is, when an incoming call has been authenticated, X4000
first checks whether a host route is entered in the routing table for this caller. If
not, X4000 can assign an IP address from an address pool (if available).
If address pools have more than one IP address, you cannot specify which
WAN partner receives which address. The addresses are initially assigned in
order. If a new dial-in takes place within an interval of one hour, an attempt is
made to assign the same IP address assigned to this partner the last time.
Configuration is made in:
■ IP ➧ IP ADDRESS POOL WAN (PPP)
■ WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ IP
■ WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ IP ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS
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Field
Meaning
Pool ID
Unique number for identifying the address pool.
A pool may comprise a number of address
ranges.
IP Address
First IP address in the address pool.
Number of Consecutive
Addresses
Total number of IP addresses in the address
pool, including the first IP address (IP
Address).
Table 8-1:
Field
Meaning
IP Transit Network
Defines whether a transit network is to be used
between X4000 and the WAN partner. You
must select dynamic server here if you assign
an address pool.
Table 8-2:
WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ IP
Field
Meaning
IP Address Pool
Pool ID of the address pool assigned to the
WAN partner.
Table 8-3:
To do
IP ➧ IP ADDRESS POOL WAN (PPP)
WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ IP ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS
Proceed as follows:
➤ Go to IP ➧ IP ADDRESS POOL WAN (PPP) ➧ ADD.
➤ Enter Pool ID.
➤ Enter IP Address.
➤ Enter Number of Consecutive Addresses.
➤ Press SAVE.
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➤ Go to
WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ IP to assign an address pool to a WAN
partner.
➤ Select IP Transit Network: dynamic server.
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ IP ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS.
➤ Enter IP Address Pool: Pool ID.
➤ Confirm with OK.
➤ Press SAVE.
8.1.2
CAPI User Concept
User name and
password
The CAPI user concept is used to check access to the ➤➤ CAPI service. This
ensures that only users entered with a user name and password can use
X4000‘CAPI services.
Example
This means, for example, that an incoming fax for the user Winnetou is only
passed to Winnetou and not to a user such as Old Shatterhand, who is located
in the same LAN. If the CAPI user concept is not used (see "Incoming call
answering", page 141), all incoming calls passed to the CAPI service are
offered to all CAPI applications in the LAN. The first user to respond receives
the call. So if Old Shatterhand is quicker off the mark ...
Configuration is made in:
■ CAPI ➧ USER
■ CM-1BRI, ISDN S0 ➧ INCOMING CALL ANSWERING
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General WAN Settings
Field
Meaning
Name
User name for which access to the CAPI
service is to be allowed or denied (maximum 16
characters).
Password
Password with which the user Name has to
identify to gain access to the CAPI service.
CAPI
Determines whether access to the CAPI
service is allowed or denied for the user Name.
Possible values:
■ enabled: access to CAPI allowed
■ disabled: access to CAPI denied
Table 8-4:
CAPI ➧ USER
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Field
Meaning
Item
Service which is to accept a call to the Number
below.
Number
Phone number under which the service (Item)
entered above can be reached.
Mode
Mode in which X4000 compares the digits of
Number with the called party number of the
incoming call:
right to left: default mode.
left to right (DDI): always select this mode if
X4000 is connected to a point-to-point ISDN
access (system access).
User name
Corresponds to Name in CAPI ➧ USER. User
to whom an incoming call to the CAPI service
under Number is to be passed.
Bearer
Type of incoming call. Possible values:
■ data: data call
■ voice: voice call
■ any: random call
Table 8-5:
CM-1BRI, ISDN S0 ➧ INCOMING CALL A NSWERING
When on starting X4000 in CAPI ➧ USER there is no entry, automatically a
standard entry is created without password (with Name = default and CAPI =
enabled).
To do
Proceed as follows:
➤ Go to CAPI ➧ USER.
➤ Select an existing entry and confirm it with Return or add a new entry with
ADD.
➤ Enter Name.
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➤ Enter your Password.
How to enter the passwords in the Setup Tool is described in "Changing the
password", page 85.
➤ Select CAPI.
➤ Press SAVE.
➤ Repeat these steps for every user in the LAN.
➤ Go to CM-1BRI, ISDN S0 ➧ INCOMING CALL ANSWERING.
Make an entry here for every user in the LAN who has access to the CAPI
service.
➤ Select an existing entry and confirm it with Return or add a new entry with
ADD.
➤ Select Item: CAPI.
If you use a communication application on your PC that is based on Remote
CAPI 1.1 (current version: Remote CAPI 2.0), X4000 must translate the
➤➤ MSNs (= Number, multidigit) of the incoming call to ➤➤ EAZs (single
digit) (CAPI 1.1 can only detect single-digit numbers). This is why the CAPI
entry under Item is not simply called "CAPI" but "CAPI 1.1 EAZ x Mapping".
When using CAPI 1.1, you must therefore make sure you assign each CAPI
application the corresponding EAZ(s) by "mapping". For example select for
Number = 1234 the entry Item = CAPI 1.1 EAZ 0 Mapping and for Number =
5678 the entry Item = CAPI 1.1 EAZ 1 Mapping.
CAPI 2.0 evaluates the MSN directly and "translation" to EAZ is not necessary.
You can use the same CAPI 1.1 EAZ x Mapping entry for each Number i.e. a
single entry is sufficient.
You should certainly try to change your PC system to CAPI 2.0 so that you can
also use new features.
➤ Enter Number.
➤ Select Mode.
➤ Enter User Name.
➤ Select Bearer.
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➤ Press SAVE.
➤ Repeat these steps as often as necessary until you have created an entry
for every user.
When you carry out remote CAPI configuration on the hosts, you must enter
the user name and password for each user corresponding to the entries in
X4000.
8.1.3
General PPP Settings
Authentication
You must enter the ➤➤ PPP settings for each WAN partner, e.g. the settings
needed for authentication of connection partners with ➤➤ CHAP or
➤➤ PAP (see chapter 7.3, page 159). If a call is received, X4000 then
recognizes the calling WAN partner from the calling party number with the aid
of ➤➤ CLID (Calling Line Identification) and therefore knows what
authentication negotiations it has agreed with this partner. The call is accepted
if the authentication is correct.
CLID
In some cases, it is not possible to identify an incoming call via CLID. This is the
case, for example,
■ if the call is made over an analog line (the caller dials into your router via a
➤➤ modem),
■ if the caller suppresses the CLID facility.
In both cases, X4000 receives no calling line number. The caller therefore
cannot be identified by CLID, even if the caller is entered as a WAN partner.
X4000 does not know which ➤➤ PPP authentication protocol to use to
identify the incoming call.
General
PPP settings
194
In order to answer the call in spite of the identification problem, X4000 executes
the defined general PPP authentication protocol with the caller. This protocol
does not refer to a certain WAN partner. If the data (password, partner PPP ID)
obtained by executing the authentication protocol are the same as the data of
an entered WAN partner, X4000 accepts the incoming call.
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General WAN Settings
The general PPP settings are configured in PPP:
Field
Meaning
Authentication Protocol
Defines the PPP authentication protocol offered
to the caller first. Possible values:
■ PAP: PAP only
■ CHAP: CHAP only
■ CHAP + PAP: first CHAP, then PAP
■ MS-CHAP: MS-CHAP only
■ CHAP + PAP + MS-CHAP: first CHAP, if
denied then the protocol required by the
caller
■ MS-CHAP V2: MS-CHAP version 2 only
■ none: no PPP authentication
Radius Server
Authentication
Settings for RADIUS server authentication. For
RADIUS, see Extended Features Reference.
PPP Link Quality
Monitoring
Defines whether Link Quality Monitoring is
executed for PPP connections. Possible
values:
■ no, is not executed.
■ yes, the connection statistics are stored in
the ➤➤ MIB table biboPPPLQMTable.
PPPoE Ethernet
Interface
Table 8-6:
To do
Defines the interface used by PPP-overEthernet for using an ADSL connection (see
chapter 7.2.3, page 155).
PPP
Proceed as follows to define the general PPP settings:
➤ Go to PPP.
➤ Select Authentication Protocol, e.g. CHAP + PAP + MS-CHAP.
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➤ Select Link Quality Monitoring, e.g. no.
➤ Press SAVE.
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8.1.4
X.31 TEI
The menu CM-1BRI, ISDN S0 ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS contains settings for
X.31 TEI (X.25 in the D-channel). You only need to make changes here if you
want to use the X.31 TEI value for CAPI applications.
The menu contains the following fields:
Field
Meaning
X.31 TEI Value
X.31 TEI is detected automatically in ISDN
autoconfiguration and this value set to specify.
If autoconfiguration has not detected TEI, you
can set specify manually.
Specify TEI Value
The value for X.31 TEI assigned by the
exchange.
This value is detected automatically by ISDN
autoconfiguration, but can also be entered
manually.
X.31 TEI Service
Here you select the service for which you want
to use X.31 TEI. Possible values:
■ Capi
■ Capi Default
■ Packet Switch
Capi and Capi Default are for using X.31 TEI
for CAPI applications. For CAPI, the TEI value
set in the CAPI application is used. For CAPI
Default, the value of the CAPI application is
ignored and the default value set here is always
used.
Set to Packet Switch if you want to use X.31
TEI for the X.25 router.
Table 8-7:
CM-1BRI, ISDN S0 ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS
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8.2
Settings Specific to WAN Partners
Specific functions for ➤➤ WAN partners make it possible to define the
characteristics for connections to WAN partners individually. Carry out the
configuration steps described separately for each WAN partner.
■ Delay after Connection Failure (chapter 8.2.1, page 198)
■ Channel Bundling (chapter 8.2.2, page 199)
■ Bandwidth on Demand (BoD) (chapter 8.2.3, page 201)
■ Always On/Dynamic ISDN (AO/DI) (chapter 8.2.4, page 206)
■ Layer 1 Protocol (ISDN B-Channel) (chapter 8.2.5, page 219)
■ IP Transit Network (chapter 8.2.6, page 222)
■ Transfer of DNS and WINS Server IP Addresses to WAN Partners
(chapter 8.2.7, page 225)
■ ➤➤ RIP (Routing Information Protocol) (chapter 8.2.8, page 229)
■ Compression: ➤➤ VJHC, ➤➤ STAC, MS-STAC (chapter 8.2.9,
page 232)
■ ➤➤ Proxy ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) (chapter 8.2.10,
page 234)
■ Keepalive Monitoring (chapter 8.2.11, page 236)
The configuration steps necessary in each case are explained in detail below.
8.2.1
Delay after Connection Failure
This function enables you to set the period of time X4000 is to wait after an
unsuccessful attempt to set up a call.
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This is configured in WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS:
Field
Meaning
Delay after Connection
Failure (sec)
Block timer. Indicates the wait time in seconds
before X4000 tries again after an attempt to
establish a connection has failed.
Table 8-8:
To do
WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS
Proceed as follows:
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS.
➤ Enter Delay after Connection Failure (sec).
➤ Confirm with OK.
➤ Press SAVE.
8.2.2
Channel Bundling
X4000 supports dynamic and static ➤➤ channel bundling for dialup
connections. Only one B-channel is initially opened when a connection is
established.
Dynamic
Dynamic channel bundling means that X4000 connects other ➤➤ ISDN Bchannels to increase the throughput for connections to the WAN partner, if this
is required, e.g. for large amounts of data. If the amount of data traffic drops, the
additional ➤➤ B-channels are closed again.
Static
In static channel bundling, you specify right from the start how many B-channels
X4000 uses for connections to the WAN partner, regardless of the amount of
data transferred.
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The configuration is made in WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS:
Field
Meaning
Channel Bundling
Defines whether and which type of channel
bundling is to be used for connections to the
WAN partner.
Total Number of
Channels
For dynamic channel bundling: Defines the
maximum number of B-channels that may be
opened.
For static channel bundling: Defines the
number of B channels that are open during the
complete connection.
Table 8-9:
WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS
The Channel Bundling field contains the following selection options:
Possible values
Meaning
no
No channel bundling, only one B-channel is
ever available for connections.
dynamic
Dynamic channel bundling.
static
Static channel bundling.
Table 8-10:
To do
Channel bundling
Proceed as follows:
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS.
➤ Select Channel Bundling.
➤ Enter Total Number of Channels.
➤ Confirm with OK.
➤ Press SAVE.
Refer to Bandwidth on Demand (BOD) function, see chapter 8.2.3, page 201.
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Settings Specific to WAN Partners
8.2.3
Bandwidth on Demand (BoD)
This function permits dynamic bundling of leased lines with dialup lines to cope
with large amounts of data. You have the following options:
■ BOD for leased lines, i.e. dynamic connection of one or more dialup
connection(s) to the existing leased line, if required.
■ BOD for dialup connections, i.e. dynamic connection of one or more dialup
connection(s) to the existing dialup connection, if required.
■ Backup for leased lines, i.e. establishing a dialup connection when the
leased line to the partner fails. BOD also acts if the leased line fails (i.e.
other dialup connections can be switched in); if more than 1 additional
channel was allowed in the configuration (Maximum Number of Dialup
Channels > 1).
Switching B-channels
in and out
A B-channel is switched in if the current data throughput of the relevant interface
to the connection partner is 90 % or more of the maximum permissible
throughput for at least 5 seconds.
The current throughput is not used as a basis for switching out a B-channel
already connected. This is based on the calculated (i.e. fictitious) throughput of
the channel group after switching out one B-channel. A B-channel is switched
out if the calculated value stays below 80 % of the maximum permissible
throughput of the remaining channels for 10 seconds.
Static or dynamic short hold may also cause an additional B-channel to be
switched out. If static short hold has been configured, this always has the
highest priority. If dynamic short hold has been configured, the calculated value
mentioned above must also apply.
X4000 also supports the AO/DI (Always On/Dynamic ISDN) function for using
the ISDN D-channel for data transmission (see chapter 8.2.4, page 206).
Authentication
PPP authentication is not required from the connection partner for establishing
a leased line. Authentication is, however, necessary for any dialup connections
switched in.
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Configuration is made in:
■ WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS ➧ EXTENDED INTERFACE
SETTINGS (OPTIONAL)
■ WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ WAN NUMBERS ➧ ADD (menu description in
chapter 7.3, page 159)
■ WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ PPP (menu description in chapter 7.3,
page 159)
The menu WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS ➧ EXTENDED
INTERFACE S ETTINGS (OPTIONAL) contains the following fields:
The fields described below appear only if Channel Bundling = dynamic has
previously been selected in the menu WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ ADVANCED
SETTINGS.
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Field
Meaning
Mode
Defines which mode is used for BOD. Possible
values: see Table 8-12, page 205.
Line Utilization
Weighting
Defines how the line utilization is calculated.
Possible values:
■ equal: All the measured values of
throughput in Line Utilization Sample
(sec) are weighted equally for the
calculation (default value).
■ proportional: The last measured values of
throughput are weighted more heavily for
the calculation, i.e. the calculation is most
heavily influenced by the last measured
values in Line Utilization Sample (sec).
Line Utilization Sample
(sec)
Time interval in seconds. Throughput
measurements in Line Utilization Sample
(sec) are included in the calculation of the line
utilization. Possible values: 5 to 300 (default
value: 5).
Gear Up Threshold
Utilization threshold at which another Bchannel is added for a connection.
Gear Down Threshold
B-channels are dropped until the remaining
channels have at least the percentage
utilization degree remaining here.
D-Channel Queue
Length
(only if Layer 1 Protocol = AO/DI in the menu
WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS)
Threshold value for the number of bytes
accumulated in the D-channel at which the
system is to change to the B-Channel Mode
(see chapter 8.2.4, page 206).
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Field
Meaning
Maximum Number of
Dialup Channels
Maximum permitted number of channels that
are opened for dialup connections. The value is
only displayed here; it is set under Total
Number of Channels in the menu WAN
PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ ADVANCED S ETTINGS.
Table 8-11:
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WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS ➧ EXTENDED INTERFACE
SETTINGS (OPTIONAL)
8
Settings Specific to WAN Partners
The Mode field includes the following selection options:
Possible values
Meaning
Bandwidth On Demand
Disabled
Deactivates BOD, no additional channels are
opened (default value).
Bandwidth On Demand
Enabled
(For dialup connections only)
BAP, Active Mode
(Necessary for the AO/DI (Always On/Dynamic
ISDN) function, see Table 8-17, page 214)
BAP, Passive Mode
Is currently not supported by X4000.
BAP, Active and Passive
Mode
Is currently not supported by X4000.
BAP, Client Active Mode
Is currently not supported by X4000.
Backup
(For leased lines only)
Activates BOD, additional channels can be
opened. The connection partner who initiated
the connection opens the additional channels.
Backup connection is activated if the leased
line fails. The backup connection is cleared
when the leased line is available again.
BOD is also available for this mode, if a value >
1 is used for Maximum Number of Dialup
Channels.
Bandwidth On Demand
Active
(For leased lines only)
Bandwidth On Demand
Passive
(For leased lines only)
Table 8-12:
Enables BOD and defines the active partner.
Only one of the connection partners should be
configured as active partner. This page
activates switching in and out additional Bchannels on demand.
Enables BOD and defines the passive partner.
This page does not activate switching in and
out additional channels.
Mode
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To do
Proceed as follows:
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS ➧ EXTENDED
INTERFACE SETTINGS (OPTIONAL).
➤ Select Mode and Line Utilization Weighting.
➤ Enter Line Utilization Sample (sec) and Maximum Number of Dialup
Channels.
➤ Press SAVE.
➤ Confirm with OK.
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ WAN NUMBERS ➧ ADD.
➤ Enter Number.
➤ Select Direction.
Select Direction = outgoing if you have set Mode = Bandwidth On Demand
Active.
Select Direction = incoming (CLID), if you have set Mode = Bandwidth On
Demand Passive.
➤ Press SAVE.
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ PPP.
➤ Select Authentication.
➤ Enter Partner PPP ID, Local PPP ID and PPP Password, if applicable.
➤ Confirm with OK.
➤ Press SAVE.
8.2.4
Always On/Dynamic ISDN (AO/DI)
Always On/Dynamic ISDN (AO/DI) uses the existing ISDN infrastructure to
configure a new service for the user without hardware changes: AO/DI is a
permanently available (always on) but nevertheless low-cost connection from
the end customer to the Internet Service Provider.
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Short Description
AO/DI uses X.25 data packet transmission in the D-channel (X.31) to set up a
PPP connection (PPP over X.25). 9600 bps are available for data transmission
in the D-channel (D-channel Mode). If more bandwidth is needed, one or two Bchannels are dynamically added (Dynamic ISDN). Data transmission in this
case is only in the B-channel or B-channels, i.e. the B-channels remain
reserved for bandwidth-intensive applications (B-channel Mode).
AO/DI offers the following advantages:
■ three full communication channels, which can be independent if required
■ permanent connection to the Internet at low-cost
■ transparent bandwidth control
■ in D-Channel Mode
–
high reliability and guaranteed throughput times
–
volume-oriented charges independent of distance
■ in B-Channel Mode:
–
time-dependent connection charges only for bandwidth-intensive
applications
How Does AO/DI Work?
AO/DI is implemented in X4000 via a special PPP interface. As soon as the
interface is configured and ready for operation, the initial PPP connection is set
up via X.31 (X.25 in the D-channel). This involves carrying out authentication of
the PPP connection partner and assigning a dynamic IP address and DNS
addresses, if applicable (AO/DI Client Mode).
The use of the B-channels is controlled by the data throughput or by applicationdependent bandwidth management (Bandwidth on Demand, BOD for IP-based
applications). Both Bandwidth on Demand and BOD for IP-based applications
uses the Bandwidth Allocation Control Protocol (BACP/BAP to RFC 2125) in
order to agree with the remote terminal on the circumstances under which Bchannels are to be added or dropped. The use of BACP/BAP is agreed during
the initial connection setup. As the D-channel connection is normally no longer
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ended after connection setup, it represents a permanently available (always on)
connection to the provider.
As soon as the bandwidth of the D-channel is no longer adequate for data
transmission, B-channels are added and data transmission takes place
exclusively in the B-channels (Dynamic ISDN). This is implemented in X4000
by an advanced configuration option in the IP subsystem. An interface is
assigned filters, rules and rule chains similar to the concept for IP Access Lists
(see User’s Guide, chapter 9.2.8 "Filters (Access Lists)". These rules can be
used to determine whether additional B-channels are to be set up for certain
protocols, ports or IP addresses, or whether data transfer is to take place
exclusively in the D-channel.
How is AO/DI Configured?
The following steps are necessary for configuring X4000 for AO/DI:
■ Carry out X.31 configuration, i.e. reserve the TEI (Terminal Endpoint
Identifier) value for X.25 (Packet Switch) (see "X.31 configuration",
page 209)
■ Carry out X.25 configuration (see "X.25 configuration", page 209):
–
Link configuration for Datex-P
–
Call routing
■ Configure AO/DI partner as WAN partner (see "Configuring AO/DI partner
as WAN partner", page 211)
–
Select PPP parameters
–
Define the PPP interface as AO/DI interface
–
Enter X.25 destination address for initial connection setup
–
Control Bandwidth on Demand (dynamic B-channel bundling)
–
Control BOD for IP-based applications
Please note the following when carrying out X.25 configuration:
Some of the X.25 parameters must be adapted to the X.25 network connected.
For Datex-P, the Windowsize/Packetsize Neg. field must be deactivated using
the Setup Tool.
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For X4000, the X.25 software is designed as an X.25 switch. This switch must
be appropriately configured for AO/DI (see "X.25 configuration", page 209).
You will find all the necessary steps below for configuring X4000 for AO/DI with
the Setup Tool.
X.31 configuration
Proceed as follows to assign X.31/X.25:
➤ Go to CM-1BRI, ISDN S0 ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS (the menu is described
in chapter 8.1.4, page 197).
➤ Select X.31 TEI Value: specify.
The default setting for X.31 TEI Value should bespecify. If this is not the case,
the X.31 service has not been detected by autoconfiguration and this service is
probably not supported (contact your telephone provider).
➤ Enter Specify TEI Value: 1.
➤ Select X.31 TEI Service: Packet Switch.
➤ Press SAVE.
You have returned to the CM-1BRI, ISDN S0 menu.
➤ Press SAVE.
You have returned to the main menu. The main menu now contains the
X.25 menu, which you need for the following configuration steps.
Information about the X.25 parameters can be found in the Extended
Features Reference at www.bintec.de.
X.25 configuration
Proceed as follows to make the preset link settings for X.25 configuration for
Datex-P:
➤ Go to X.25 ➧ LINK CONFIGURATION.
➤ Select the interface for which you want to configure X.25, e.g. x31d2-0-1.
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The following parts of the menu are relevant for this configuration step:
Field
Meaning
L3 Packet Size
Permissible size of data packets for this
connection on the third layer of the OSI model.
Windowsize/Packetsize
Neg.
Negotiation of the size of Windowsize and
Packetsize with the remote terminal. There is
only one meaningful setting for Datex-P: never,
i.e. negotiation is deactivated.
Highest Two-WayChannel (HTC)
Defines the highest number of virtual channels.
Table 8-13: X.25 ➧ LINK CONFIGURATION ➧ EDIT
➤ Select L3 Packet Size max: 256.
➤ Select Windowsize/Packetsize Neg. : never.
➤ Enter Highest Two-Way-Channel (HTC): 1.
➤ Press SAVE.
➤ Leave X.25 ➧ LINK CONFIGURATION with Exit.
Proceed as follows to make the preset routing settings for X.25 configuration:
➤ Go to X.25 ➧ ROUTING ➧
ADD.
The following parts of the menu are relevant for this configuration step:
Field
Meaning
Source Link
Source interface of data packets.
Destination Link
Destination interface of data packets.
Destination X.25
Address
X.25 destination address
Table 8-14: X.25 ➧ ROUTING ➧ ADD
➤ Select Source Link: local.
➤ Select Destination Link, e.g. x31d2-0-1.
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➤ Enter Destination X.25 Address, e.g. 019011.
➤ Press SAVE.
➤ Leave X.25 ➧ ROUTING ➧
ADD
with Exit.
➤ Leave X.25 ➧ ROUTING with Exit.
You have returned to the main menu.
Configuring AO/DI
partner as WAN partner
To define an AO/DI-capable PPP interface, proceed as follows:
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧
ADD.
➤ Enter Partner Name, e.g. AODI partner.
➤ Select Encapsulation: PPP.
Proceed as follows to make the PPP settings:
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧
ADD
➧ PPP.
➤ Select Authentication, e.g. CHAP.
➤ Leave out Partner PPP ID.
➤ Enter Local PPP ID, e.g. bintec_router.
➤ Enter PPP Password twice, e.g. secret.
An asterisk appears on the screen as a place marker for each letter you
enter for the password.
➤ Confirm with OK.
To activate AO/DI on the PPP interface and enter the X.25 address, proceed as
follows:
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧
ADD
➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS.
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The following part of the menu is relevant for this configuration step:
Field
Meaning
Layer 1 Protocol
Defines which Layer 1 Protocol X4000 is to
use. There is only one meaningful setting for
AO/DI: AO/DI.
Channel Bundling
Defines whether or which type of channel
bundling is to be used for connections to the
WAN partner (see manual, chapter 7.2.2). If
AO/DI is selected under Layer 1 Protocol,
dynamic is set automatically for Channel
Bundling.
Total Number of
Channels
Defines the maximum number of channels that
may be opened for dynamic channel bundling.
Remote X.25 Address
X.25 destination address. Appears only if AO/
DI is selected under Layer 1 Protocol.
Table 8-15: WAN P ARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS
➤ Select Layer 1 Protocol: AO/DI.
➤ Enter Total Number of Channels, e.g. 1.
➤ Enter Remote X.25 Address, e.g. 019011.
Proceed as follows to configure BACP/BAP for the "AO/DI client" access
(control of Bandwidth On Demand):
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧
ADD
INTERFACE SETTINGS (OPTIONAL).
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Settings Specific to WAN Partners
The following part of the menu is relevant for this configuration step:
Field
Meaning
Mode
Defines which mode is used for BOD. Only the
BAP, Active Mode setting is used for an AO/DI
client.
Line Utilization
Weighting
Weighting within the interval considered for
adding and dropping B-channels.
Line Utilization Sample
(sec)
Length of the interval over which the mean of
the measured throughput data is taken and
weighted with Line Utilization Weighting.
Gear Up Threshold
Utilization threshold at which another Bchannel is added for a connection.
Gear Down Threshold
B-channels are dropped until the remaining
channels have at least the percentage
utilization degree remaining here.
D-Channel Queue
Length
Threshold value for the number of bytes
accumulated in the D-channel at which the
system is to change to the B-Channel Mode.
Maximum Number of
Dialup Channels
Maximum number of channels that may be
opened. The value is defined in the Total
Number of Channels field under WAN
PARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS.
Table 8-16:
WAN PARTNER ➧
ADD ➧
INTERFACE SETTINGS (OPTIONAL )
ADVANCED SETTINGS ➧
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EXTENDED
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The following selection option in the Mode field is relevant for AO/DI:
Possible values
Meaning
BAP, Active Mode
The Bandwidth Allocation Protocol (BAP)
knows three different options for negotiating a
bandwidth change. It behaves as follows in
Active Mode:
■ Call
Request:
one
of
the
two
communication partners wants to add a Bchannel; adding the channel is initiated if
applicable.
■ Callback Request: the remote terminal is
requested to add a B-channel; adding the
channel is not initiated but accepted if
applicable.
■ Link Drop Request: one communication
partner wants to drop a B-channel;
dropping is initiated or accepted if
applicable.
Table 8-17: Mode = BAP, Active Mode
➤ Select Mode: BAP, Active Mode.
➤ Use the preset values for the other fields of this menu.
➤ Press SAVE.
➤ Confirm with OK.
To enter the necessary ISDN extensions for adding the B-channel, proceed as
follows:
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧
ADD
➧ WAN N UMBERS ➧ ADD.
➤ Enter the Number, e.g. 0911123456.
➤ Select Direction: outgoing.
➤ Press SAVE.
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➤ Leave WAN PARTNER ➧
ADD
➧ WAN NUMBERS ➧ ADD with Exit.
For dynamic assignment of the IP address by the Internet Service Provider,
proceed as follows:
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧
ADD
➧ IP .
➤ Select IP Transit Network: dynamic client.
➤ Press SAVE.
➤ Press SAVE.
➤ Leave WAN PARTNER with Exit.
You have returned to the main menu.
BOD for IP-Based Applications (Optional)
Filters and rules
BOD for IP-based applications is configured by filters and rules in a similar way
to Access Lists for IP packets (see chapter 10.2.8, page 335). First filters are
defined that determine which IP packets (and thus applications) are to influence
the available bandwidth. If several filters are defined, they can be interlinked
using a rule chain.
Proceed as follows to define suitable filters:
➤ Go to IP ➧ BANDWIDTH ON DEMAND (BOD) ➧ FILTER ➧ ADD.
➤ Enter Description, e.g. mail_smtp_out.
➤ Select Protocol, e.g. tcp.
➤ Enter Destination Address, e.g. 172.16.08.15.
➤ Enter Destination Mask, e.g. 255.255.255.255.
➤ Select Destination Port: e.g. specify.
➤ Enter Specify Port, e.g. 25 (port for SMTP).
➤ Press SAVE.
A list of all the previously defined filters appears.
➤ Leave IP ➧ BANDWIDTH ON DEMAND (BOD) ➧ FILTER with Exit.
A rule for BOD is defined in a similar way to a rule for IP packets (see
chapter 10.2.8, page 335). Different rules normally consist of different filters
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Advanced Configuration of the Basic Unit with the Setup Tool
and can be interlinked to form a rule chain. Each rule results in an action, but
the direction of the data packets for which it is to apply can also be stated for
each rule, i.e. for sent or received data packets.
Proceed as follows to define a rule for BOD:
➤ Go to IP ➧ BANDWIDTH ON DEMAND (BOD) ➧ RULES FOR BOD ➧ ADD.
In addition to the already familiar fields for definition of conventional rules (see
chapter 10.2.8, page 335), the menu contains the following fields:
Field
Meaning
Direction
Direction of data packets to which the rule is to
be applied. Possible values:
■ incoming: incoming data packets
■ outgoing: outgoing data packets
■ both: incoming and outgoing data packets
Number of Channels
Number of B-channels that are to be added.
Table 8-18: IP ➧ BANDWIDTH ON DEMAND (BOD) ➧ R ULES FOR BOD ➧ ADD
The Action field, which indicates how a filtered out data packet is to be handled,
contains the following selection options:
Possible values
Meaning
invoke M
B-channels are added if the rule matches.
invoke !M
B-channels are added if the rule does not
match.
deny M
B-channels are not added if the rule matches.
deny !M
B-channels are not added if the rule does not
match.
ignore
The rule is ignored or it is omitted if part of a
rule chain.
Table 8-19: Action
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➤ Select Action, e.g. invoke M.
➤ Select Direction, e.g. outgoing.
➤ Select Number of Channels, e.g. 1.
➤ Select Filter, e.g. mail_smtp_out.
➤ Press SAVE.
➤ Leave IP ➧ BANDWIDTH ON DEMAND (BOD) ➧ RULES FOR BOD with Exit.
➤ Leave IP ➧ BANDWIDTH ON DEMAND (BOD) with Exit.
You have returned to the main menu.
To apply a rule to an interface, proceed as follows:
➤ Go to IP ➧ BANDWIDTH
FOR
ON
DEMAND (BOD) ➧ CONFIGURE INTERFACES
BOD.
➤ Select the interface to which you wish to apply a rule, e.g. aodiclient, and
press Return.
➤ Select the rule you wish to apply to this interface, e.g. mail_smtp_out.
➤ Press SAVE.
➤ Leave IP ➧ BANDWIDTH ON DEMAND (BOD) ➧ CONFIGURE INTERFACES
FOR
BOD ➧ EDIT with Exit.
➤ Leave IP ➧ BANDWIDTH ON DEMAND (BOD) ➧ CONFIGURE INTERFACES
FOR
BOD with Exit.
➤ Leave IP ➧ BANDWIDTH ON DEMAND (BOD) with Exit.
You have returned to the main menu.
Configuration Examples for BOD (Bandwidth on Demand)
Two configuration examples are described below:
■ Additional Bandwidth for HTTP Connections
■ Restricting Mail Reception to D-Channel
Additional bandwidth
for HTTP connections
The following example shows a special configuration of X4000 for connection
setup of the PC with the IP address 172.16.77.11 (TCP Port 80) to the Internet.
The system should always change to B-Channel Mode with one B-channel
when an HTTP connection is set up to the Internet.
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Advanced Configuration of the Basic Unit with the Setup Tool
Proceed as follows to define the relevant filter for BOD:
➤ Go to IP ➧ BANDWIDTH ON DEMAND (BOD) ➧ FILTER ➧ ADD.
➤ Enter Description: hostxy_http_out.
➤ Select Protocol: tcp.
➤ Enter Source Address: 172.16.77.11.
➤ Enter Source Mask: 255.255.255.255.
➤ Select Destination Port: specify.
➤ Enter Specify Port: 80.
➤ Press SAVE.
A list of all the previously defined filters appears.
➤ Leave IP ➧ BANDWIDTH ON DEMAND (BOD) ➧ FILTER with Exit.
Proceed as follows to define a rule for BOD:
➤ Go to IP ➧ BANDWIDTH ON DEMAND (BOD) ➧ RULES FOR BOD ➧ ADD.
➤ Select Action: invoke M.
➤ Select Direction: outgoing.
➤ Select Number of Channels: 1.
➤ Select Filter: hostxy_http_out (1).
➤ Press SAVE.
➤ Leave IP ➧ BANDWIDTH ON DEMAND (BOD) ➧ RULES FOR BOD with Exit.
Restricting mail
reception to D-channel
In the following configuration example, mail reception is restricted to the Dchannel and there is no change to B-Channel Mode. The inquiry about whether
new mails have been received does not cause a change to B-Channel Mode
either.
Proceed as follows to define the relevant filter for BOD:
➤ Go to IP ➧ BANDWIDTH ON DEMAND (BOD) ➧ FILTER ➧ ADD.
➤ Enter Description: mail_pop3_in.
➤ Select Protocol: tcp.
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➤ Enter Destination Address: 172.16.08.15.
➤ Enter Destination Mask: 255.255.255.255.
➤ Select Destination Port: specify.
➤ Enter Specify Port: 110.
➤ Press SAVE.
A list of all the previously defined filters appears.
➤ Leave IP ➧ BANDWIDTH ON DEMAND (BOD) ➧ FILTER with Exit.
Proceed as follows to define a rule for BOD:
➤ Go to IP ➧ BANDWIDTH ON DEMAND (BOD) ➧ RULES FOR BOD ➧ ADD.
➤ Select Action: deny.
➤ Select Direction: incoming.
➤ Select Number of Channels: 1.
➤ Select Filter: mail_pop3_in (2).
➤ Press SAVE.
➤ Leave IP ➧ BANDWIDTH ON DEMAND (BOD) ➧ RULES FOR BOD with Exit.
8.2.5
ISDN B-channel
Layer 1 Protocol (ISDN B-Channel)
You can define the Layer 1 Protocol of the ISDN ➤➤ B-channel that X4000
is to use for connections to the WAN partner. The default setting is the protocol
for 64-kbps ISDN data connections, which is the default value of the B-channel.
Only change the setting if expressly required.
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Advanced Configuration of the Basic Unit with the Setup Tool
This is configured in WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS:
Field
Meaning
Layer 1 Protocol
Defines which Layer 1 Protocol X4000 is to
use. This setting applies only to outgoing calls
to the WAN partner and to incoming calls from
the WAN partner, if they have been identified
from the calling party number.
Table 8-20:
WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS
For incoming calls that cannot be identified from the calling party number,
X4000 uses the settings under Item in menu CM-1BRI, ISDN S0 ➧ INCOMING
CALL ANSWERING as the Layer 1 Protocol (see "Incoming call answering",
page 141).
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Layer 1 Protocol contains the following selection options:
Possible values
Meaning
ISDN 64 kbps
For 64-kbps ISDN data connections. This is the
default value.
ISDN 56 kbps
For 56-kbps ISDN data connections.
Modem
(Only available if expansion card and resource
card with digital modems are installed)
Assigns incoming analog calls to the PPP
routing service. The digital modem on the
resource card that accepts this call uses the
settings for Modem Profile 1, which were
selected in the menu MODEM ➧ PROFILE
CONFIGURATION ➧ PROFILE 1.
DOVB
Data transmission Over Voice Bearer - useful in
the USA, for example, where voice connections
are sometimes cheaper than data connections.
V.110 (1200 ... 38400)
For GSM connections with V.110 at bit rates of
1200 bps, 2400 bps,..., 38400 bps.
Modem Profile 1 ... 8
(Only available if expansion card and resource
card with digital modems are installed)
Assigns incoming analog calls to the PPP
routing service. The digital modem on the
resource card that accepts this call uses the
settings for Modem Profile1... 8, which were
selected in the menu MODEM ➧ PROFILE
CONFIGURATION ➧ PROFILE 1...8.
PPTP PNS
For VPN interface.
PPP over Ethernet
(PPPoE)
For connections to ADSL (see chapter 7.2.3,
page 155 and chapter 9.3.2, page 288).
AO/DI
For using Always On/Dynamic ISDN (AO/DI,
see chapter 8.2.4, page 206).
Table 8-21:
Layer 1 Protocol
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Advanced Configuration of the Basic Unit with the Setup Tool
Most of the entries for Layer 1 Protocol correspond to the entries for Item in
CM-1BRI, ISDN S0 ➧ INCOMING CALL ANSWERING (see "Incoming call
answering", page 141).
To do
Proceed as follows:
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS.
➤ Select Layer 1 Protocol.
➤ Confirm with OK.
➤ Press SAVE.
8.2.6
IP Transit Network
When you enter a WAN partner in X4000, there are various options for
indicating the IP address of the partner network:
■ You enter the ➤➤ IP address and ➤➤ netmask of the partner or
partner network. You must obviously have this information available.
■ You use an additional ISDN IP address each for X4000 and the WAN
partner. You thus set up a virtual IP network during the connection, a socalled transit network. You do not need this setting normally, only for some
special configurations.
■ You assign the WAN partner a dynamic IP address from a specified IP
address pool for the duration of the connection.
■ Get the WAN partner to assign you a dynamic IP address for the duration
of the connection.
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Partner IP
200.200.200.2
ISDN IP
200.200.200.2
ISDN IP
200.200.200.1
4000
ISDN
BinTec
BI
AN
CA
/B
RI
CK
-X
M
LAN IP
10.1.1.1
X4000D
LAN IP
192.168.1.254
Partner IP
200.200.200.1
Network of your
WAN Partner
Your Local Area Network
Figure 8-1:
LAN-LAN link with transit network
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Advanced Configuration of the Basic Unit with the Setup Tool
The configuration is made in WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ IP :
Field
Meaning
IP Transit Network
Defines whether X4000 sets up a transit
network to the WAN partner. Possible values:
see Table 8-23, page 225.
Local IP Address
LAN IP address of X4000.
Appears only for the following value of IP
Transit Network: no.
You normally do not need to make any entry
here. Exception: You set up several WAN
partners, use a transit network for one or more
WAN partners and no transit network for the
other WAN partners. Then enter the Local IP
Address (LAN IP address) for all WAN
partners without a transit network.
Local ISDN IP Address
ISDN IP address of X4000 in the transit
network.
Partner’s ISDN IP
Address
WAN partner’s ISDN IP address in the transit
network.
Partner’s LAN IP
Address
IP address of LAN of WAN partner or LAN IP
address (host).
Partner’s LAN Netmask
WAN partner’s LAN netmask. If you make no
entry, X4000 enters a default netmask for the
net class used under Partner’s LAN IP
Address.
Table 8-22:
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8
Settings Specific to WAN Partners
IP Transit Network contains the following selection options:
Possible values
Meaning
yes
A transit network is used.
dynamic client
X4000 receives its IP address from the WAN
partner for the duration of the connection.
dynamic server
X4000 assigns the ➤➤ Remote WAN partner
an IP address for the duration of the
connection. In this case, X4000 must be
configured as a dynamic IP address server, i.e.
it has an IP address pool available (see
chapter 8.1.1, page 188).
no
No transit network. This setting is adequate for
most WAN partners.
Table 8-23:
To do
IP Transit Network
Proceed as follows:
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ IP.
➤ Select IP Transit Network.
➤ Enter Local IP Address, if applicable.
➤ Enter Local ISDN IP Address.
➤ Enter Partner’s ISDN IP Address, if applicable.
➤ Enter Partner’s LAN IP Address, if applicable.
➤ Enter Partner’s LAN Netmask, if applicable.
➤ Press SAVE.
8.2.7
IP address = ?
Transfer of DNS and WINS IP Addresses to
WAN Partner
A Domain Name Server (➤➤ DNS) or Windows Internet Name Server (WINS)
is used for converting host names and ➤➤ NetBIOS names into IP addresses
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Advanced Configuration of the Basic Unit with the Setup Tool
(name resolution). Domain Name Servers form a hierarchical tree structure. As
soon as a request is sent to a Domain Name Server, it tries to execute name
resolution using its internal tables. If it cannot find the name, it asks a higherlevel DNS that it knows.
If you use the DNS Proxy function, X4000 can save previously resolved names
and IP addresses in the cache and on receipt of a request first checks if the
desired address can be answered from the cache. This keeps the costs of
setting up WAN connections to name servers outside the LAN at a low level and
optimizes performance in the LAN, as requests to frequently used addresses or
addresses already resolved are answered by X4000 itself. How to configure the
DNS Proxy function is described in chapter 8.3.2, page 246.
When you enter a WAN partner in X4000, you can define whether X4000 sends
or answers requests for WINS or DNS IP addresses.
Configuration is made in:
■ IP ➧ STATIC SETTINGS
■ WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ IP ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS
Field
Meaning
Primary Domain Name
Server
IP address of X4000’s first global Domain
Name Server (DNS).
Secondary Domain
Name Server
IP address of another global Domain Name
Server.
Primary WINS
IP address of X4000’s first global WINS
(Windows Internet Name Server) or NBNS
(NetBIOS Name Server).
Secondary WINS
IP address of another global WINS or NBNS.
Table 8-24:
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Settings Specific to WAN Partners
Field
Meaning
Dynamic Name Server
Negotiation
In the event of dynamic name server
negotiation, defines whether X4000 receives IP
addresses for Primary Domain Name Server,
Secondary Domain Name Server, Primary
WINS and Secondary WINS from the WAN
partner or sends them to the WAN partner.
Table 8-25:
WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ IP ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS
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The Dynamic Name Server Negotiation field contains the following selection
options:
Possible values
Meaning
off
X4000 does not send or answer requests for
WINS or DNS IP addresses.
yes
The response is linked to the mode for issuing/
receiving an IP address (setting in WAN
PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ IP under IP Transit
Network):
■ X4000 sends requests for name server
addresses to the WAN partner if dynamic
client is selected.
■ X4000 answers requests for name server
addresses from the WAN partner if dynamic
server is selected.
■ X4000 answers but does not send requests
for name server addresses if yes or no is
selected.
client (receive)
X4000 sends requests for name server
addresses to the WAN partner.
server (send)
X4000 answers requests from the WAN partner
for name server addresses.
Table 8-26:
WINS, DNS in the LAN
To do
Dynamic Name Server Negotiation
If you have set up a DNS or WINS in your LAN, enter its IP address.
Proceed as follows if you have not made this entry already (see chapter 8.3.2,
page 246):
➤ Go to IP ➧ STATIC SETTINGS.
➤ Enter Primary or Secondary Domain Name Server.
➤ Enter Primary or Secondary WINS.
➤ Press SAVE.
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Proceed as follows if you want X4000 to report the name server addresses
entered to the WAN partner (Server Mode) or if other name server addresses
other than those in the LAN are to be used for connections to the WAN partner
(Client Mode, e.g. for dialing in to an Internet Service Provider):
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ IP ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS.
➤ Select Dynamic Name Server Negotiation.
➤ Confirm with OK.
➤ Press SAVE.
If you do not have a Secondary DNS or WINS server, you can enter the IP
address of the Primary DNS or WINS server in the Secondary Domain Name
Server or Secondary WINS field again.
This may be necessary for connection to some data communications clients.
If you do not have a Domain Name Server in your LAN (smaller networks often
have no DNS of their own), the name resolution can be carried out, for
example, via your Internet Service Provider (Client Mode). However, this
requires ISDN connections, which involve charges.
If you work with Windows, you can also obtain name resolution without asking
for a DNS. To do this, you must adapt the LMHOSTS file on all PCs in the LAN.
8.2.8
Routing
Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
Routing can be described as follows: The➤➤ router receives ➤➤ data
packets, each of which contains data about the destination host. On the basis
of the entries in the so-called Routing Table (see "Creating a Routing Entry",
page 175), the router decides which route to use to forward the data packet to
ensure that it arrives at its destination as quickly and cheaply as possible (with
the fewest possible intermediate stations). The entries in the routing table can
be defined statically or the routing table can be updated constantly by a dynamic
exchange of routing information between several routers. This exchange is
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controlled by a so-called Routing Protocol, e.g. RIP (Routing Information
Protocol).
RIP
Routers use the ➤➤ RIP to exchange the information stored in their routing
tables by communicating with each other at regular intervals to mutually
supplement and renew their routing entries. X4000 supports both version 1 and
version 2 of RIP, either exclusively or parallel.
RIP is configured separately for LAN and WAN.
Active and passive
Routers can be defined as active or passive routers: Active routers offer their
routing entries to other routers via ➤➤ broadcasts. Passive routers accept
the information from the active routers and store it, but do not pass on their own
routing entries. X4000 can do both.
WAN partner
If you negotiate to receive and/or send RIP packets from/to your WAN partner,
X4000 can exchange routing information dynamically with the routers in the
LAN of the WAN partner.
Receiving routing tables via the RIP is a possible security loophole, as external
computers or routers can change X4000’s routing functionality.
RIP packets do not set up or hold ISDN connections.
Configuration is made in:
■ WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ IP ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS
■ CM-100BT, FAST ETHERNET ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS
Field
Meaning
RIP Send
Enables RIP packets to be sent via the
interface to the WAN partner and LAN
interface.
RIP Receive
Enables RIP packets to be received via the
interface to the WAN partner and LAN
interface.
Table 8-27:
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WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ IP ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS or
CM-100BT, FAST ETHERNET ➧ A DVANCED SETTINGS
8
Settings Specific to WAN Partners
RIP Send and RIP Receive contain the following selection options:
Possible values
Meaning
none
Not activated.
RIP V1
Enables sending and receiving of RIP packets
in version 1.
RIP V2
Enables sending and receiving of RIP packets
in version 2.
RIP V1 + V2
Enables sending and receiving of RIP packets
in both version 1 and version 2.
Table 8-28:
To do
RIP Send and RIP Receive
Proceed as follows:
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ IP ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS.
➤ Select RIP Send.
➤ Select RIP Receive.
➤ Confirm with OK.
➤ Press SAVE.
➤ Press SAVE.
➤ Go to CM-100BT, FAST ETHERNET ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS.
➤ Select RIP Send.
➤ Select RIP Receive.
➤ Press SAVE.
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8.2.9
Data compression
Compression
You can increase the data throughput and so reduce the connection costs by
using ➤➤ data compression. X4000 supports several options, depending on
the ➤➤ encapsulation selected, e.g. PPP (see chapter 7.3, page 159):
■ ➤➤ STAC:
The industry standard STAC data compression (Check Mode 3 in RFC
1974) implemented in X4000 can increase the data throughput on the PPP
ISDN connections.
■ MS-STAC:
STAC data compression for Windows ➤➤ clients (Check Mode 4 in RFC
1974). Select this if you dial into a Windows Remote Access Server.
■ Van Jacobson Header Compression (➤➤ VJHC):
Reduces the size of ➤➤ TCP/IP packets. Van Jacobson Header
Compression can be used in addition to the above-mentioned compression
algorithms.
If the far station does not support data compression or its data compression is
not activated, X4000 detects this during the ➤➤ PPP negotiation phase and
deactivates data compression for this connection.
Configuration is made in:
■ WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT
■ WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ IP ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS
Field
Meaning
Compression
Defines the type of compression for
connections to the WAN partner.
Table 8-29:
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Settings Specific to WAN Partners
The Compression field contains the following selection options:
Possible values
Meaning
none
No compression.
STAC
Enables STAC data compression (if
Encapsulation = PPP).
MS-STAC
Enables STAC data compression for dialing
into a Windows Remote Access Server (if
Encapsulation = PPP).
Table 8-30:
Field
Meaning
Van Jacobson Header
Compression
Enables VJHC.
Table 8-31:
STAC, MS-STAC
Compression
WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ IP ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS
Proceed as follows to set STAC or MS-STAC:
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT.
➤ Select Compression.
➤ Press SAVE.
VJHC
Proceed as follows to set VJHC:
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ IP ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS.
➤ Activate Van Jacobson Header Compression: on.
➤ Confirm with OK.
➤ Press SAVE.
➤ Press SAVE.
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8.2.10
ARP requests
Proxy ARP (Address Resolution Protocol)
The ➤➤ Proxy ARP function enables X4000 to answer ➤➤ ARP requests
from the LAN. That is, if a host in the LAN wants to set up a connection to
another host in the LAN or to a WAN partner but doesn’t know its hardware
address, it sends a so-called ARP request into the network as a
➤➤ broadcast. This is actually a question to all those in the network: "What
is the hardware address of host x?" If Proxy ARP is activated in X4000 and the
desired host can be reached over a defined WAN connection, X4000 answers
the ARP request with its own hardware address. This is sufficient for
establishing the connection: The ➤➤ data packets are sent to X4000, which
then forwards them to the desired host.
1
192.168.1.4
MAC = ?
4000
BinTec
ISDN
X4000D
192.168.1.254
MAC = 0:0:0:1:2:3
2
192.168.1.4
MAC=0:0:0:1:2:3
Your Local Area Network
Figure 8-2:
192.168.1.4
MAC = 0:0:0:4:5:6
Single workstation
with ISDN card
Proxy ARP
Configuration is made in:
■ WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ IP ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS
■ CM-100BT, FAST ETHERNET ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS
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Field
Meaning
Proxy Arp
Enables X4000 to answer ARP requests.
Table 8-32:
WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ IP ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS or
CM-100BT, FAST ETHERNET ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS
Proxy Arp in WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ IP ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS contains
the following selection options:
Possible values
Meaning
off
Disables Proxy ARP via the interface to the
WAN partner.
on (up or dormant)
X4000 answers an ARP request only if the
status of the connection to the WAN partner is
up (active) or dormant (idle). In the case of
dormant, X4000 only answers the ARP request;
the connection is not set up until someone
actually wants to use the route.
on (up only)
X4000 answers an ARP request only if the
status of the connection to the WAN partner is
up (active), i.e. a connection already exists to
the WAN partner.
Table 8-33:
Proxy Arp
Proxy Arp in CM-100BT, FAST ETHERNET ➧ ADVANCED S ETTINGS contains the
following selection options:
Possible values
Meaning
off
Disables Proxy ARP via the LAN interface.
on
Enables Proxy ARP via the LAN interface.
Table 8-34:
Proxy Arp
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To do
Proceed as follows:
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ IP ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS.
➤ Select Proxy Arp.
➤ Press SAVE.
➤ Press SAVE.
➤ Go to CM-100BT, FAST ETHERNET ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS.
➤ Select Proxy Arp.
➤ Press SAVE.
➤ Press SAVE.
8.2.11
LAN-LAN connection
236
Keepalive Monitoring
If you have connected two (or more) LANs over a dialup connection, e.g.
between the LAN of the head office and the LAN of a branch office as in
Figure 8-3, page 237, a central server is frequently located in the LAN at the
head office. If this central server is configured such that it regularly sets up WAN
connections to X4000 in the LAN of the branch office, e.g. for updating data,
these connections are superfluous (but unfortunately not free) if none of the
hosts in the branch office can be reached, e.g. because all PCs are switched
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Settings Specific to WAN Partners
off. As it is not possible to determine whether the hosts can be reached until the
connection is set up, costs are incurred by the calling party, i.e. the head office.
1
Central Server
4000
WAN
BI
AN
CA
/B
RI
CK
-X
M
Headquarter’s
Router
No Host
reachable!
BinTec
Reachable?
X4000
192.168.1.10
Group 0
2
Reachable?
LAN IP
10.1.1.1
LAN IP
192.168.1.254
Headquarters
Branch Office
1
Connection setup attempt
Figure 8-3:
Cutting costs
192.168.1.20
Group 0
2
X4000 is "busy", no
connection is possible
Keepalive Monitoring
The Keepalive Monitoring function enables you to configure X4000 in the
branch office so that unnecessary WAN connections from the head office to the
branch office are avoided. X4000 checks at regular, adjustable intervals to see
whether the hosts to be monitored in the LAN at the branch office can be
reached. If none of the hosts to be checked answers a corresponding request
after three consecutive attempts, connection setup by the central server is
prevented by X4000 deactivating the interface to the "head office" WAN partner.
The result is that the line to the branch office appears to be busy if the central
server at head office attempts to set up a connection. This means that no costs
are incurred for a connection, which would have been useless anyway.
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In some countries (e.g. Switzerland), costs may still occur for these useless
dial-in attempts in spite of using Keepalive Monitoring.
If all PCs in the LAN at the branch office were inactive, a connection to the head
office is not set up automatically as soon as one of the PCs to be monitored is
switched on. The interface to the "head office" WAN partner is not activated, i.e.
a connection cannot be set up to the head office, until X4000 has registered that
a PC can be reached. The amount of time that expires before X4000 indicates
that a PC can be reached again depends on the monitoring interval set
(Interval).
The corresponding WAN partner, i.e. the head office, should be identifiable in
X4000 via CLID (Calling Line Identification). If this is not the case, Keepalive
Monitoring may not function.
If Keepalive Monitoring is configured in X4000 for WAN partners that are
authenticated over a RADIUS server, Keepalive Monitoring does not function.
This means the relevant unnecessary connections cannot be prevented in this
way.
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Configuration is made in SYSTEM ➧ KEEPALIVE M ONITORING ➧ ADD:
Field
Meaning
Group
Defines a group of hosts, whose reachability is
to be monitored by X4000. Each host to be
monitored is assigned to a group. A total of ten
groups can be configured with up to ten hosts
each.
Possible values: 0 ... 9
IPAddress
Defines a host that is to be monitored by
X4000.
Interval
Defines the time interval in s to be used for
reachability of hosts (default value: 300).
The smallest time interval is used within a
group. That is, all the hosts in a group are
checked by X4000 at the smallest time interval
of the group.
DownAction
Defines how the status of the X4000 interfaces
selected in FirstIfIndex and Range is set if ALL
hosts in a group are not reachable. Possible
values:
■ down (default value): Interfaces are
deactivated.
■ up: Interfaces are activated.
The status of the interfaces is set to the original
value again when at least one host in a group
can be reached again.
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Field
Meaning
FirstIfIndex
Defines the first interface of an interface range
in X4000, for which the action defined under
DownAction is to be executed.
Possible values: 10001 ... 15000 (default value:
10001).
Interfaces with indices from 10001 to 15000 are
provided for dialup connections to WAN
partners. The default value 10001 designates
the interface to the first WAN partner
configured in X4000 (dialup connection). The
indices of other interfaces are given in the
Software Reference.
Range
Defines the range of interfaces in X4000, for
which the action defined under DownAction is
to be executed.
If you set FirstIfIndex = 10001 and Range = 0,
only the interface with the index 10001 is
affected.
If you set FirstIfIndex = 10001 and Range =
4999 (default value), the interfaces with indices
10001 to 15000 are affected.
Table 8-35:
SYSTEM ➧ KEEPALIVE MONITORING ➧ ADD
SYSTEM ➧ KEEPALIVE MONITORING lists all the hosts that are monitored by
Keepalive Monitoring. The reachability of the hosts is listed under State: alive,
if the host was reachable on the last check, down, if the host was not reachable.
To do
Proceed as follows to configure the example shown in Figure 8-3, page 237:
➤ Go to SYSTEM ➧ KEEPALIVE MONITORING.
➤ Press ADD to add the first host that is to be monitored by X4000 with
Keepalive Monitoring.
➤ Enter Group: 0.
➤ Enter IPAddress: 192.168.1.10.
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➤ Enter Interval, e.g. 300.
➤ Select DownAction: down.
➤ Enter FirstIfIndex: 10001.
➤ Type in Range: 4999.
➤ Press SAVE.
➤ Press ADD to add the second host.
➤ Enter Group: 0.
➤ Enter IP Address: 192.168.1.20.
➤ Enter Interval, e.g. 300.
➤ Select DownAction: down.
➤ Enter FirstIfIndex: 10001.
➤ Type in Range: 4999.
➤ Press SAVE.
These settings ensure that X4000 checks the reachability of hosts 192.168.1.10
and 192.168.1.20 at intervals of 300 s. If neither of the two hosts is reachable
after three consecutive attempts, all X4000 interfaces for dialup connections to
WAN partners are deactivated. X4000 continues to check the hosts at the time
interval of 300 s and X4000 activates the interfaces again as soon as at least
one host is reachable again.
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8.3
Basic IP Settings
Here you will find a number of basic settings you can define in X4000:
■ Deriving System Time (chapter 8.3.1, page 242)
■ Name Resolution (➤➤ DNS) in X4000 (chapter 8.3.2, page 246)
■ ➤➤ Port Numbers (chapter 8.3.3, page 265)
■ ➤➤ BOOTP Relay Agent (chapter 8.3.4, page 266)
The necessary configuration steps are explained below.
8.3.1
System time
System Time
You need the system time to obtain correct timestamps for recording connection
data (for accounting).
You can derive the system time
■ automatically, e.g. via ISDN or a time server (see "Deriving the System
Time Automatically", page 243).
■ by setting it manually in X4000 (see "Setting the System Time Manually",
page 245).
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Deriving the System Time Automatically
Configuration is made in IP ➧ STATIC S ETTINGS.
Field
Meaning
Time Protocol
Protocol used to derive the current time.
Possible values:
■ TIME/UDP
■ TIME/TCP
■ SNTP
■ ISDN
■ none
Time Offset (sec)
Number of seconds added to or subtracted
from the derived time. If you enter values
between -24 and +24, X4000 interprets the
input as the number of hours and converts it to
the corresponding number of seconds
automatically after you press SAVE. Note: If
you select ISDN as Time Protocol, you must
set the Time Offset to 0.
If you change Time Offset (sec) (turn back the
time), there should be no data flow.
Time Update Interval
(sec)
Time interval in seconds, after which the
system time is checked and updated if
necessary. If you enter values between 1 and
24, X4000 interprets the input as the number of
hours and converts it to the corresponding
number of seconds automatically after you
press SAVE.
For Time Protocol = TIME/UDP, TIME/TCP or
SNTP: Current time is checked after every
Time Update Interval in seconds.
For Time Protocol = ISDN: Current time is
checked for each first ISDN connection after
expiry of the Time Update Interval.
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Field
Meaning
Time server
IP address of the time ➤➤ server used by
X4000. Time Server is not needed if you set
ISDN as Time Protocol.
Table 8-36:
IP ➧ STATIC SETTINGS
The Time Protocol field contains the following selection options:
Possible values
Meaning
TIME/UDP
System time (RFC 868) via
➤➤ UDP.
TIME/TCP
System time (RFC 868) via
➤➤ TCP.
TIME/SNTP
System time as per SNTP (Simple Network
Time Protocol, RFC 1769) via UDP.
ISDN
System time from ISDN ➤➤ D-channel (free).
none
System time not derived.
Table 8-37:
ISDN
Time Protocol
Proceed as follows to derive the system time via ISDN:
➤ Go to IP ➧ STATIC SETTINGS.
➤ Select Time Protocol: ISDN.
➤ Enter Time Offset (sec): 0.
➤ Enter Time Update Interval (sec), e.g. 86400 (corresponds to 24 hours).
➤ Press SAVE.
After the first ISDN connection has been ended, X4000 derives the system
time from the ISDN.
Time server
Proceed as follows to derive the system time from a time server:
➤ Go to IP ➧ STATIC SETTINGS.
➤ Select Time Protocol, e.g. TIME/UDP.
➤ Enter Time Offset (sec), e.g. 0.
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➤ Enter Time Update Interval (sec), e.g. 86400 (corresponds to 24 hours).
➤ Enter IP address or host name for Time Server.
➤ Press SAVE.
X4000 now derives the system time via a time server. X4000 adjusts its
system time to the time set on the time server every 24 hours.
The ➤➤ DIME Tools contain a time server. If you enter the IP address of
your PC for Time Server, make sure the time server of DIME Tools is active
on your PC every time you start X4000.
If your computer has no fixed IP address but is assigned its IP address
dynamically via ➤➤ DHCP, you cannot use your computer as a time server.
Setting the System Time Manually
Configuration is made in SYSTEM ➧ TIME AND DATE.
Field
Meaning
Time is currently
controlled by:
Shows the settings defined under IP ➧ STATIC
SETTINGS for deriving the time automatically.
Current Time:
Shows the system time currently set in X4000
(date and time).
New Time:
For entering the new time to be used by X4000
(hours:minutes).
New Date:
For entering the new date to be used by X4000
(month/day/year).
Table 8-38:
SYSTEM ➧ TIME AND DATE
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Proceed as follows to enter the system time in X4000 manually:
If a method for deriving the time automatically is also defined in X4000, the
values obtained automatically have higher priority. That is, if X4000 receives a
relevant time signal (e.g. from a time server), any system time entered
manually is overwritten.
➤ Go to SYSTEM ➧ TIME AND DATE.
➤ Enter New Time.
➤ Enter New Date.
➤ Confirm the new system time with SET.
Current Time: shows the new system time set in X4000.
8.3.2
Name Resolution in X4000 with DNS Proxy
Why Name Resolution?
IP address = ?
Name resolution is necessary for converting host names in a LAN or on the
Internet into IP addresses. For example, if you would like to reach the host
"Goofy" in your LAN or enter the URL "http://www.bintec.de" in your Internet
browser, you need the associated IP address before you can set up the required
connection. The following options are available:
■ DNS (Domain Name Server):
A DNS stores the relevant IP addresses for host names in the form of DNS
records and resolves the names if a relevant request is received, i.e. the
name server sends a DNS record with the IP address associated with the
name to the source of the request. Name servers form a hierarchical tree
structure. If a name server cannot resolve a name, it therefore asks a
higher-order name server, etc.
■ HOSTS files:
HOSTS files are located on the PCs in the LAN. You can use these files to
create a table of host names with associated addresses. This means
connections to DNS are no longer needed to resolve these names. As the
HOSTS files must be updated on each PC, this method of name resolution
is not very practicable.
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In practice, the DNS of the Internet Service Provider is often used for name
resolution.
Advantages of Name Resolution with X4000
X4000 has the following functions and facilities for name resolution (port 53):
■ DNS Proxy, for passing DNS requests to the right DNS.
■ DNS cache, for saving the results of DNS requests.
■ Static name entries, for defining assignments of names to IP addresses.
■ Filter function, to prevent the resolution of certain names.
■ Monitoring via Setup Tool, to provide an overview of DNS requests in
X4000.
This is how it works:
DNS Proxy
DNS Proxy makes the tedious updating of HOSTS files on PCs in the LAN
unnecessary, as you can enter X4000 as DNS on the relevant PCs. DNS
requests are passed by the PC to X4000 for processing. The configuration of
the PCs in the LAN is then easy and can also be left at provider changes. This
also works if the PCs in the LAN do not have any static DNS entries, but are
assigned these dynamically by X4000 as DHCP server.
Forwarding entries enable X4000 to decide which DNS is to be used for the
resolution of certain names. If you have configured two WAN partners in X4000,
your head office and your Internet Service Provider, it is advisable to have
Internet names resolved by the DNS of your ISP, but names from within the
corporate network by the DNS of the head office. A DNS request for resolution
of an internal company address usually cannot be answered by the DNS of the
ISP and is thus superfluous, causes unnecessary costs and resolution takes
longer than necessary. A forwarding entry, which passes DNS requests for
names such as "*.intranet.de" to the WAN partner "head office", is therefore
advisable.
DNS cache
If a DNS request is passed by X4000 to a DNS and this DNS answers with a
DNS record, the resolved name is saved with the associated IP address as a
positive dynamic entry in the DNS cache of X4000. This means that once a
name has been resolved and is required again, X4000 can answer the request
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from the cache and a new request to an external name server is not necessary.
These requests can therefore be answered more quickly, bandwidth is reduced
on the WAN connections and the costs of unnecessary connections are saved.
If a DNS request cannot be answered by any of the DNS asked, this is saved in
the cache as a negative dynamic entry. As failed DNS requests (requests that
cannot be answered) are not usually saved by applications or IP stacks, these
negative dynamic entries in the cache prevent frequent unsuccessful
connection setups to external DNS.
The validity of the positive dynamic entries in the cache is given by the TTL
(Time To Live), which is contained in the DNS record. Negative entries are
assigned the value Maximum TTL for Neg Cache Entries. A dynamic entry is
deleted from the cache when the TTL expires.
Static
name entries
You use positive static entries to enter names with the associated IP addresses
in X4000. If you save frequently needed IP addresses in this way, X4000 can
answer relevant DNS requests itself and the connection to an external name
server is not necessary. This speeds up access to these addresses. For a small
network, such a name server can be configured in X4000. The installation of a
separate DNS and the tedious updating of HOSTS files on the PCs in the LAN
is not necessary.
With negative static entries, a name is not assigned an IP address, a
corresponding DNS request is answered negatively and not passed to any other
name server either.
You can easily change a dynamic entry to a static entry "at the press of a
button" in IP ➧ DNS ➧ DYNAMIC CACHE (see Table 8-43, page 258).
Filter function
By using negative static entries, you can limit name resolution in X4000 using a
filter function. This makes access to certain domains much more difficult for
users in the LAN, as it prevents the corresponding names being resolved. You
can use wildcards (*) when entering the name.
When you enter a static entry, you define how long this assignment of name and
IP address is valid by setting the TTL. This TTL is entered in each DNS record
with which X4000 answers a relevant DNS request.
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Make sure your static entries are always up to date. Names or IP addresses
can change at any time!
Monitor function
Which IP addresses are requested by hosts in the LAN and how often?
The Setup Tool permits rapid access to this and other statistical information.
You can also use the nslookup command in the command line (SNMP shell)
to check how a name or an IP address is resolved by X4000 or another name
server (see chapter 14.1, page 412). To obtain help information for the
command, enter nslookup -?.
Other Options
Global name server
In IP ➧ STATIC SETTINGS, you can also enter the IP address of preferred global
name servers that are to be asked if X4000 cannot answer requests itself or with
forwarding entries.
For local applications, the IP address of X4000 or the loopback address
(127.0.0.1) can be entered as global name server.
If necessary, X4000 can send or receive the addresses of name servers to and
from WAN partners:
Default interface
In Default Interface, you can also select a WAN partner to whom a connection
is set up as standard for name server negotiation if name resolution was not
successful using the methods already stated.
Exchanging DNS Addresses with LAN Partners
DHCP
If X4000 is configured as DHCP server, DHCP clients in the LAN can be sent
IP addresses from name servers. In this case, the addresses of the global name
servers entered in X4000 can be sent or the address of X4000 itself. In the latter
case, DNS requests from the DHCP clients are sent to X4000, which either
answers these itself or passes them on if necessary (proxy function).
Exchanging DNS Addresses with WAN Partners
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IPCP
The same applies if the dynamic negotiation of name servers is activated for the
IP configuration of a WAN partner and X4000 is operating in Server Mode
(Dynamic Name Server Negotiation = server (send)). In this case, the
addresses of the global name servers or the address of X4000 itself can also
be sent for name server negotiations via IPCP to the WAN partner, who is the
IP address client.
If X4000 is operating in Client Mode (Dynamic Name Server Negotiation =
client (receive)), name server addresses can if necessary be negotiated with the
WAN partner, who is the IP address server, and sent to X4000. These can be
entered as global name servers in X4000 and are thus available for future name
resolutions.
Strategy for Name Resolution in X4000
A DNS request is handled by X4000 as follows:
1.
2.
3.
250
Can the request be answered directly from the static or dynamic cache (IP
address or negative answer)?
–
If yes, the information is forwarded.
–
If no, see 2.
Is a matching forwarding entry available?
In this case, the relevant DNS are asked. If the connection to the WAN
partner is not active, an attempt is made to set it up.
–
If a DNS can resolve the name, the information is forwarded and a
dynamic entry created in the cache.
–
If none of the DNS asked can resolve the name or no matching
forwarding entry is available, see 3.
Are global name servers entered?
In this case, the relevant DNS are asked. If the IP address of X4000 or the
loopback address is entered for local applications, these are ignored here.
–
If a DNS can resolve the name, the information is forwarded and a
dynamic entry created in the cache.
–
If none of the DNS asked can resolve the name or no static name
servers are entered, see 4.
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4.
Is a WAN partner selected as default interface?
In this case, the associated DNS are asked. If the connection to the WAN
partner is not active, an attempt is made to set it up.
–
If a DNS can resolve the name, the information is forwarded and a
dynamic entry created in the cache.
–
If none of the DNS asked can resolve the name or no default interface
has been selected, see 5.
5.
Is overwriting the global name server addresses admissible (Overwrite
Global Nameserver = yes)?
In this case, a connection is set up to the first WAN partner, which is
configured so that addresses of DNS can be sent – provided this has not
previously been attempted. If name server negotiation is successful, these
are entered as global name servers and are therefore available for further
requests.
6.
Request is answered with server error.
If one of the DNS answers with "non-existent domain", this answer is forwarded
to the source of the request immediately and included in the cache as negative
entry.
Overview of Configuration with the Setup Tool
The configuration and monitoring of name resolution in X4000 is set in:
■ IP ➧ STATIC SETTINGS:
■ IP ➧ DNS
■ IP ➧ DNS ➧ STATIC HOSTS
■ IP ➧ DNS ➧ FORWARDED DOMAINS
■ IP ➧ DNS ➧ DYNAMIC CACHE
■ IP ➧ DNS ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS...
■ IP ➧ DNS ➧ GLOBAL STATISTICS...
■ WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ IP ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS
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IP ➧ STATIC S ETTINGS contains the following fields:
Field
Meaning
Domain Name
Defines X4000’s Domain Name.
Primary Domain Name
Server
IP address of X4000’s first global Domain
Name Server (DNS).
Secondary Domain
Name Server
IP address of another global Domain Name
Server.
Primary WINS
IP address of X4000’s first global WINS
(Windows Internet Name Server) or NBNS
(NetBIOS Name Server).
Secondary WINS
IP address of another global WINS or NBNS.
Table 8-39:
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IP ➧ DNS contains the following fields:
Field
Meaning
Positive Cache
Enables positive dynamic entries in the cache.
Possible values:
■ enabled
(default value): Successfully
resolved names and IP addresses are
saved in the cache.
■ flush: All positive dynamic entries in the
cache are deleted.
■ disabled: Successfully resolved names and
IP addresses are not saved in the cache
and existing dynamic positive entries are
deleted (static entries are not deleted).
Negative Cache
Enables negative dynamic entries in the cache.
Possible values:
■ enabled (default value): Names that could
not be resolved are saved in the cache as
negative entries.
■ flush: All negative dynamic entries in the
cache are deleted.
■ disabled: Names that could not be resolved
are not saved in the cache and existing
dynamic negative entries are deleted (static
entries are not deleted).
Overwrite Global
Nameservers
Defines whether the addresses of global name
servers in X4000 (in IP ➧ STATIC SETTINGS)
may be overwritten with name server
addresses sent by WAN partners. Possible
values:
■ yes (default value)
■ no
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Field
Meaning
Default Interface
Defines the WAN partner to which a connection
is normally set up for name server negotiation if
other name resolution attempts were not
successful.
DHCP Assignment
Defines which name server addresses are sent
to the DHCP client if X4000 is configured as
DHCP server. Possible values:
■ none: No name server address is sent.
■ self (default value): The address of X4000
is sent as name server address.
■ global: The addresses of the global name
servers entered in X4000 are sent.
IPCP Assignment
Defines which name server addresses are sent
by X4000 to a WAN partner for dynamic name
server negotiation. Possible values:
■ none: No name server address is sent.
■ self: The address of X4000 is sent as name
server address.
■ global (default value): The addresses of the
global name servers entered in X4000 are
sent.
Static Hosts
The number of static entries is displayed in
brackets.
Forwarded Domains
The number of forwarding entries is displayed
in brackets.
Dynamic Cache
The number of positive and negative dynamic
entries in the DNS cache is displayed in
brackets.
Table 8-40:
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IP ➧ DNS ➧ STATIC HOSTS ➧ ADD contains the following fields:
Field
Meaning
Default Domain:
The Domain Name of X4000 entered in IP ➧
STATIC SETTINGS is displayed.
Name
Host name, which is assigned the Address
with this static entry. May also contain
wildcards (*) (only at the start of Name, e.g.
*.bintec.de).
If an incomplete name is entered without a dot,
this is completed with ".Default Domain" after
confirming with SAVE.
Response
Defines the type of static entry. Possible
values:
■ positive (default value): A DNS request for
Name is answered with a DNS record,
which contains the associated Address.
■ ignore: A DNS request is ignored; no
answer is given (not even a negative
answer).
■ negative: A DNS request for Name is
answered with a negative answer.
Address
(Only for Response = positive)
IP address, which is assigned to Name.
TTL
Period of validity in s for the assignment of
Name to Address (only relevant for Response
= positive). This value is displayed in the TTL
field (Time To Live) if X4000 sends a
corresponding DNS record.
Default value: 86400 (= 24 h)
Table 8-41:
IP ➧ DNS ➧ STATIC HOSTS ➧ ADD
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IP ➧ DNS ➧ FORWARDED DOMAINS ➧ ADD contains the following fields:
Field
Meaning
Global Nameservers:
The global name servers entered in IP ➧
STATIC S ETTINGS are displayed.
Default Domain:
The Domain Name of X4000 entered in IP ➧
STATIC S ETTINGS is displayed.
Name
Host name that is to be resolved with this
forwarding entry. May also contain wildcards
(only at the start of Name, e.g. *.bintec.de).
If an incomplete name is entered without a dot,
this is completed with ".Default Domain" after
confirming with SAVE.
Interface
Defines the WAN partner to which a connection
is set up for the resolution of Name.
TTL
Period of validity in s for the assignment of
Name to Address.
Default value: 86400 (= 24 h)
If the request of X4000 for Name is answered
with a DNS record, this contains a TTL field (=
Time To Live in s), whose value is not normally
changed by X4000 on forwarding the DNS
record. If the TTL field received has the value 0
or exceeds Maximum TTL for Pos Cache
Entries, then TTL is also sent with the DNS
record forwarded.
Table 8-42:
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8
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IP ➧ DNS ➧ DYNAMIC CACHE contains the following fields:
Field
Meaning
Name
Host name, which is assigned the Address
with this dynamic entry in the cache.
Address
IP address, which is assigned to Name.
Resp
Defines the type of dynamic entry. Possible
values:
■ positive: A DNS request for Name is
answered with the associated IP address
from the cache.
■ negative: A DNS request for Name is
answered with a negative answer from the
cache.
TTL
Indicates how many seconds the dynamic entry
remains in the cache. The entry is deleted on
expiry of TTL.
When a positive dynamic entry is saved in the
cache, the value of the TTL field (= Time To
Live in s) contained in the DNS record is used.
If the TTL field in the DNS record is set to 0 or
exceeds Maximum TTL for Pos Cache
Entries, the value Maximum TTL for Pos
Cache Entries is used when saving the entry.
When a negative dynamic entry is saved in the
cache, Maximum TTL for Neg Cache Entries
is always assigned as this value.
Ref
Indicates how often the entry has been
referenced, i.e. how often a DNS request has
been answered with the entry from the cache.
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Field
Meaning
STATIC
A dynamic entry can be converted to a static
entry by tagging the entry with the Space bar
and confirming with STATIC. The relevant entry
then disappears from IP ➧ DNS ➧ DYNAMIC
CACHE and is listed in IP ➧ DNS ➧ STATIC
HOSTS. TTL is transferred in this operation.
Table 8-43:
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IP ➧ DNS ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS... contains the following fields:
Field
Meaning
Maximum Number of
DNS Records
Defines the maximum number of static and
dynamic entries.
Once this value is reached, an older dynamic
entry is deleted from the cache when a new
entry is added. The entry deleted is always the
dynamic entry that has not been requested for
the longest period of time.
If Maximum Number of DNS Records is
reduced by the user, dynamic entries are also
deleted, if necessary.
Static entries are not deleted; Maximum
Number of DNS Records cannot be set lower
than the current number of existing static
entries. If Maximum Number of DNS Records
corresponds to the number of static entries, no
further dynamic entries are possible!
Maximum TTL for Pos
Cache Entries
Is assigned to a positive dynamic entry in the
cache as TTL if the field of the DNS record has
the value 0 or exceeds Maximum TTL for Pos
Cache Entries.
Maximum TTL for Neg
Cache Entries
Is assigned as TTL to a negative dynamic entry
in the cache.
Table 8-44:
IP ➧ DNS ➧ A DVANCED SETTINGS...
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IP ➧ DNS ➧ GLOBAL STATISTICS... contains the following fields (the menu is
updated every second):
Field
Meaning
Received DNS Packets
Displays the number of received DNS packets,
including the answer packets for forwarded
requests.
Invalid DNS Packets
Displays the number of invalid DNS packets
received.
DNS Requests
Displays the number of correct DNS requests
received.
Cache Hits
Displays the number of requests that could be
answered with static or dynamic entries from
the cache.
Forwarded Requests
Displays the number of requests forwarded to
other name servers.
Cache Hitrate (%)
Displays the number of Cache Hits per DNS
Request in %.
Successfully Answered
Queries
Displays the number of successful requests
(positive and negative) answered.
Server Failures
Displays the number of requests that could not
be answered by any name server (either
positively or negatively).
Table 8-45:
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8
Basic IP Settings
The following part of WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ IP ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS is of
interest for this configuration step:
Field
Meaning
Dynamic Name Server
Negotiation
In the event of dynamic name server
negotiation, defines whether X4000 receives IP
addresses for Primary Domain Name Server,
Secondary Domain Name Server, Primary
WINS and Secondary WINS from the WAN
partner or sends them to the WAN partner.
Table 8-46:
WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ IP ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS
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The Dynamic Name Server Negotiation field contains the following selection
options:
Possible values
Meaning
off
X4000 does not send or answer requests for
name server addresses.
yes
The response is linked to the mode for issuing/
receiving an IP address (setting in WAN
PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ IP under IP Transit
Network):
■ X4000 sends requests for name server
addresses to the WAN partner if dynamic
client is selected.
■ X4000 answers requests for name server
addresses from the WAN partner if dynamic
server is selected.
■ X4000 answers but does not send requests
for name server addresses if yes or no is
selected.
client (receive)
X4000 sends requests for name server
addresses to the WAN partner.
server (send)
X4000 answers requests from the WAN partner
for name server addresses.
Table 8-47:
Dynamic Name Server Negotiation
Procedure for Configuration with the Setup Tool
To do
Name resolution in
X4000
Proceed as follows to configure name resolution with DNS Proxy in X4000:
If applicable, first enter the global name servers in X4000:
➤ Go to IP ➧ STATIC SETTINGS.
➤ Enter Domain Name, e.g. mycompany.com.
➤ Enter Primary or Secondary Domain Name Server, if applicable.
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➤ Enter Primary or Secondary WINS, if applicable.
If you do not have a Secondary DNS or Secondary WINS server, you can enter
the IP address of the Primary DNS or WINS server in the Secondary Domain
Name Server or Secondary WINS field again.
This may be necessary for connection to some data communications clients.
➤ Press SAVE.
Activate or deactivate the cache function and define general settings for DNS
Proxy:
➤ Go to IP ➧ DNS.
➤ Select Positive Cache and Negative Cache, e.g. enabled.
➤ Select Overwrite Global Nameservers, e.g. yes, if you do not wish to
enter any static global name servers under IP ➧ STATIC SETTINGS.
➤ Select DHCP Assignment, e.g. self.
➤ Select IPCP Assignment, e.g. global.
Define the values for the static and dynamic entries:
➤ Go to IP ➧ DNS ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS....
➤ Enter Maximum Number of DNS Records.
➤ Enter Maximum TTL for Pos Cache Entries.
➤ Enter Maximum TTL for Neg Cache Entries.
➤ Press SAVE.
How to create static entries:
➤ Go to IP ➧ DNS ➧ STATIC HOSTS.
All the existing static entries are listed here.
➤ You can create a new entry with ADD.
➤ Enter Name.
➤ Select Response.
➤ Enter Address, if applicable.
➤ Enter TTL.
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➤ Press SAVE.
How to create forwarding entries:
➤ Go to IP ➧ DNS ➧ FORWARDED DOMAINS.
All the existing forwarding entries are listed here.
➤ You can create a new entry with ADD.
➤ Enter Name.
➤ Select Interface.
➤ Enter TTL.
➤ Press SAVE.
➤ Select EXIT.
➤ Press SAVE.
X4000 <–––> WAN
partner
Proceed as follows if you would like to configure a WAN partner so that the
address of a name server is sent from X4000 to the WAN partner or from the
WAN partner to X4000, as applicable:
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ IP ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS.
➤ Select Dynamic Name Server Negotiation.
➤ Confirm with OK.
➤ Press SAVE.
Monitoring and
statistics
How to obtain a list of dynamic entries in the cache:
➤ Go to IP ➧ DNS ➧ DYNAMIC CACHE.
This menu contains a list of all the dynamic entries in the cache.
➤ To convert a dynamic entry into a static entry, tag the entry with the Space
bar and confirm with STATIC.
The entry disappears from the list of dynamic entries and is listed as a static
entry under IP ➧ DNS ➧ STATIC HOSTS.
How to obtain a list of static parameters:
➤ Go to IP ➧ DNS ➧ GLOBAL STATISTICS....
Here you will find some statistics for DNS Proxy.
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8.3.3
What is a ➤➤ port?
Port Numbers
X4000 has a number of services or applications, e.g. HTTP, ➤➤ telnet. To be
able to reach several services on the same host and as it were to enter an exact
destination for the IP packet within the host, a port is also entered in addition to
the IP address for a connection to X4000. This addresses the relevant
application. Ports are only used in the TCP and UDP protocols.
X4000 forwards incoming ➤➤ data packets to the port with the number
associated with the desired application. This addresses the relevant X4000
application and the incoming data can be processed.
You can define important port numbers in IP ➧ STATIC SETTINGS:
As the settings are normally correct, you should only make changes here if
necessary.
Field
Meaning
Remote CAPI Server
TCP Port
Port number for ➤➤ Remote CAPI
connections: 2662 (defined by IANA,
www.iana.com).
Remote TRACE Server
TCP Port
Port number for TRACE Requests. Default
value: 7000.
RIP UDP Port
Port number for ➤➤ RIP (Routing Information
Protocol). Default value: 520. The RIP can be
disabled with RIP UDP Port = 0.
HTTP TCP Port
Port number for HTTP Requests. Default value:
80. HTTP TCP Port = 0 disables access to
X4000’s HTTP status page (see
chapter 10.1.4, page 320).
Table 8-48:
IP ➧ STATIC SETTINGS
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To do
Proceed as follows to change one of the port numbers:
➤ Go to IP ➧ STATIC SETTINGS.
➤ Enter Remote CAPI Server TCP Port, Remote TRACE Server TCP Port,
RIP UDP Port and/or HTTP TCP Port.
➤ Press SAVE.
8.3.4
Bootstrap protocol
BOOTP Relay Agent
The Bootstrap Protocol (➤➤ BOOTP) defines how a host (BOOTP
➤➤ client) in a TCP/IP network receives his IP address and other
configuration information on booting. The BOOTP client sends a BOOTP
Request, a BOOTP server answers the request with a BOOTP Response and
supplies the client with the necessary information. As the server only hears
requests from the LAN in which it is located, it is sometimes advisable to set up
a BOOTP Relay Agent. The agent forwards all requests and responses
between the client and server via a WAN connection to this server.
1
IP = ?
4000
ISDN
BinTec
IP = ?
BI
AN
CA
/B
RI
CK
-X
M
X4000D
BootP Relay Agent
2
IP = 192.168.1.1
WAN Partner’s
Network
Your Local Area Network
Figure 8-4:
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BootP-Server
X4000 as BOOTP Relay Agent
8
Basic IP Settings
Configuration is made in IP ➧ STATIC S ETTINGS:
Field
Meaning
BOOTP Relay Server
IP address of the BOOTP server.
Table 8-49:
To do
IP ➧ STATIC SETTINGS
Proceed as follows:
➤ Go to IP ➧ STATIC SETTINGS.
➤ Enter BOOTP Relay Server.
➤ Press SAVE.
If a WAN connection is needed for the connection between the BOOTP server
and BOOTP client, you must configure an appropriate WAN partner
(chapter 7.3, page 159).
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8.4
IPX Settings
The ➤➤ IPX Protocol (Internet Packet Exchange Protocol) is a network
protocol that is used mainly in Novell networks. Novell ➤➤ clients and Novell
➤➤ servers can use IPX to communicate via LAN/WAN connections.
The configuration steps necessary for IPX connections are explained below:
■ General Settings
■ Configuring the LAN Interface
■ Configuring WAN Partners
8.4.1
General Settings
Here you will find the global parameters for IPX. These settings apply to all IPX
connections of X4000.
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IPX Settings
The configuration is made in IPX:
Field
Meaning
Local System Name
IPX system name of X4000 using upper case
letters, numbers and -: /.
Internal Network
Number
X4000’s internal network number. This value
must be unique among all the network numbers
and normally comprises the last four bytes of
X4000’s ➤➤ MAC address. Change this
value only if it is already used somewhere else
in the network. Internal Network Number of a
➤➤ Remote IPX router has the same value.
Enable IPX Spoofing
Enables and disables NCP session watchdog
spoofing and handling of "broadcast message
waiting" packets. Possible values:
■ yes: convenient for IPX-WAN connections
■ no
Enable SPX Spoofing
Enables and disables spoofing of SPX session
watchdog packets. Possible values:
■ yes: convenient for SPX sessions over
WAN connections
■ no
NetBIOS Broadcast
Replication
Table 8-50:
Defines how X4000 handles ➤➤ NetBIOS
packets.
IPX
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NetBIOS Broadcast Replication contains the following selection options:
Possible values
Meaning
yes
All NetBIOS hosts in the network can access
each other, even if WAN connections must be
set up frequently.
Cost-intensive!
no (default value)
on LAN only
NetBIOS hosts in the LAN can only access
each other if they do not need WAN
connections to be set up.
Low cost.
Table 8-51:
To do
NetBIOS Broadcast Replication
Proceed as follows:
➤ Go to IPX.
➤ Enter Local System Name.
➤ Enter Internal Network Number (only if necessary!).
➤ Activate Enable IPX Spoofing, if applicable.
➤ Activate Enable SPX Spoofing, if applicable.
➤ Select NetBIOS Broadcast Replication, e.g. on LAN only.
➤ Press SAVE.
8.4.2
Configuring the LAN Interface
The next step is to configure X4000’s LAN interface to the IPX network. The
LAN interface is the physical interface to the local network. In the next menu,
you tell the router the network number of the IPX LAN to which it is connected.
As long as X4000 does not have this information, it cannot actively participate
in its own IPX LAN.
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IPX Settings
The configuration is made in CM-100BT, FAST ETHERNET:
Field
Meaning
Local IPX NetNumber
The IPX network number of the LAN to which
X4000 is connected.
Encapsulation
Defines the type of header to be used for IPX
packets in the LAN connected. Possible values:
■ none
■ Ethernet II
■ Ethernet 802.2 LLC
■ Ethernet SNAP
■ Ethernet NOVELL 802.3
Table 8-52:
To do
CM-100BT, FAST ETHERNET
Proceed as follows:
➤ Go to CM-100BT, FAST ETHERNET.
➤ Enter Local IPX NetNumber.
➤ Select Encapsulation.
➤ Press SAVE.
8.4.3
Configuring WAN Partners
If the connection to one or more WAN partners is implemented with the IPX
protocol, you must define a number of IPX-specific settings for the WAN
partner.
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The configuration is made in WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ IPX :
Field
Meaning
Enable IPX
Enables IPX for the WAN partner. Possible
values:
■ yes
■ no
IPX NetNumber
IPX network number of the WAN connection.
This is required by some IPX routers.
Send RIP/SAP Updates
Defines how often ➤➤ RIP (Routing
Information Protocol) and SAP (Service
Advertising Protocol) packets are sent by
X4000 to the WAN partner.
In IPX networks, RIP and SAP packets are sent
as ➤➤ broadcasts to connected networks to
provide information about current routes and
services. The data flow caused by this is
acceptable in the LAN, but you must make a
setting here to control the data flow for
networks connected via WAN connections.
Update Time
Defines the time intervals at which periodic
updates are sent.
Age Multiplier
If routes and services entered are not renewed
during Update Time x Age Multiplier, they are
deleted. This prevents accumulation of
unnecessarily large numbers of routes and
services that are not used.
Table 8-53:
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WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ IPX
8
IPX Settings
The Send RIP/SAP Updates field contains the following selection options,
which are explained with the aid of a table:
Possible values for
Send RIP/SAP
Updates
New
connection
opened?
Update the
existing
tables?
Periodic
update?
off
never
no
no
All routes and services
must be entered
statically.
triggered + piggyback
(on changes, only if
link active)
only for
changes
yes
yes
This is the default
setting, which is
sufficient in most cases.
triggered (on changes)
only for
changes
yes
no
Less data traffic than
triggered + piggyback,
but also less reliable.
piggyback (only if link
active)
never
yes
yes
At least 1 static route
and 1 static service must
be entered for the WAN
partner.
passive triggered (on
changes only if link
active)
never
yes
no
At least 1 static route
and 1 static service must
be entered for the WAN
partner.
timed update (always)
always
yes
yes
Cost-intensive!
Table 8-54:
To do
Remarks
Send RIP/SAP Updates
Proceed as follows:
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ IP.
➤ Select Enable IPX: yes.
➤ Enter IPX NetNumber.
➤ Select Send RIP/SAP Updates.
➤ Enter Update Time, if applicable.
➤ Enter Age Multiplier, if applicable.
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➤ Confirm with OK.
➤ Press SAVE.
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Bridging
8.5
Bridging
X4000 supports the bridging function. The description of the configuration of
X4000 as a bridge can be found in the Software Reference.
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8.6
Extra License Features
This chapter briefly describes the X4000 features you can activate with extra
licenses.
The relevant extra licenses are activated by adding the information received
with the license in the Setup Tool menu LICENSES (see chapter 7.1.1,
page 121).
Extra licenses are currently obtainable for the following features:
■ X.25
■ Frame Relay
■ OSPF
■ VPN (Virtual Private Network)
■ TAF (Token Authentication Firewall)
You can find detailed information and configuration instructions (with examples)
in the Extended Features Reference.
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9
Configuration of Expansion and
Resource Cards with the Setup
Tool
This chapter tells you the configuration steps you can carry out if you have
equipped your X4000 basic unit with an expansion card and possibly resource
cards. Any expansion and resource cards equipped are automatically detected
by X4000 on startup.
To install your expansion and resource cards, please follow the installation
guide supplied with the cards and chapter 3.2, page 53.
Enter any necessary license(s) in the Setup Tool (see chapter 7.1.1, page 121)
before you start the configuration.
This chapter is broken down as follows:
■ WAN Interface Card for ISDN BRI (Basic Rate Interface) (chapter 9.1,
page 278)
■ WAN Interface Card for ISDN PRI (Primary Rate Interface) (chapter 9.2,
page 281)
■ LAN Interface Card for 10/100 Mbps (chapter 9.3, page 287)
■ Resource Cards with Digital Modems (chapter 9.4, page 295)
■ Resource Card for Encryption and Compression (chapter 9.5, page 306)
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9.1
WAN Interface Card for ISDN BRI
By installing a BRI (Basic Rate Interface) expansion card, you can equip X4000
with up to three additional ISDN BRI interfaces. You can use these interfaces
for both dialup and leased lines over ISDN.
The ISDN BRI expansion card can be equipped with a resource card with digital
modems (see chapter 9.4, page 295) and/or with a resource card for encryption
and compression (see chapter 9.5, page 306).
9.1.1
Configuration with the Setup Tool
The additional interfaces are shown in the Setup Tool main menu under
Module: as follows:
X4000 Setup Tool
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
Licenses
System
LAN:
CM-100BT,Fast Ethernet
WAN:
CM-1BRI,ISDN S0
Module: X4E-3BRI,ISDN S0
Serial WAN: CM-SERIAL,Serial
WAN Partner
IP
IPX
PPP
MODEM
ISDN
CAPI
Configuration Management
Monitoring and Debugging
Exit
The interface(s) are configured in the following menus:
■ X4E-3BRI, ISDN S0 ➧ UNIT 0 for the first additional ISDN BRI port
■ X4E-3BRI, ISDN S0 ➧ UNIT 1 for the second additional ISDN BRI port
■ X4E-3BRI, ISDN S0 ➧ UNIT 2 for the third additional ISDN BRI port
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The number of ISDN BRI ports available with the expansion card can vary,
depending on how many interfaces are activated by license. You can obtain
any necessary licenses from your dealer.
To do
Proceed as follows to configure the ISDN BRI interface(s) of the expansion
card:
➤ Go to X4E-3BRI, ISDN S0 ➧ UNIT 0 for the first interface.
This menu offers the same options as CM-1BRI, ISDN S0 for the ISDN BRI
interface of the basic unit. For a detailed description, see chapter 7.2.1,
page 137.
➤ Select ISDN Switch Type: autodetect on bootup.
This setting enables X4000 to use its automatic D-channel detection. As
long as the D-channel detection is running, running appears next to Result
of Autoconfiguration. Once the setting has been found, it is displayed,
e.g. Euro ISDN, point-to-multipoint.
➤ Select D-Channel, if applicable.
➤ Select B-Channel 1: e.g. dialup.
➤ Select B-Channel 2: e.g. dialup.
In most cases, you can accept the preset values for D-Channel, B-Channel 1
and B-Channel 2.
If you use an ISDN leased line and have requested a special service from your
service provider, it may be necessary to set the local side of the leased line at
this point (DTE or DCE). You must then ensure that the far end has set the
opposite value. You must also set D-channel, B-channel 1 and B-channel 2
to the same values, if you have selected several D-/B-channels under ISDN
Switch Type and the values can be changed.
Incoming Call
Answering
If dialup connections are to be set up over the ISDN BRI interface, first tell
X4000 how it is to respond to incoming calls over this interface (these settings
are not necessary for a leased line):
➤ Go to X4E-3BRI, ISDN S0 ➧ UNIT 0 ➧ INCOMING CALL ANSWERING.
This menu lists the services previously assigned to numbers and offers the
same options as CM-1BRI, ISDN S0 ➧ INCOMING CALL ANSWERING for the
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distribution of incoming calls over the ISDN BRI interface of the basic unit.
For a detailed description, see "Incoming call answering", page 141.
➤ Use ADD to add a new entry or select an existing entry. Confirm with
Return to change the entry.
➤ Select the Item, e.g. PPP (routing).
➤ Enter the Number, e.g. 091112330.
➤ Select the Mode, e.g. right to left.
➤ Select the Bearer, e.g. data.
➤ Press SAVE.
You have returned to menu X4E-3BRI, ISDN S0 ➧ UNIT 0 ➧ INCOMING
CALL ANSWERING. The entries are saved and displayed in the list.
You have now assigned a possible service (PPP (routing)) to one of your
numbers (0911 123 30). This means that when a data call is received for
the Called Party Number 0911 123 30, it is put through to the PPP (routing)
service.
➤ Repeat these steps until you have assigned to all phone numbers the
services to be reached under these numbers.
You have now configured Incoming Call Answering for this ISDN BRI
interface and X4000 distributes the incoming calls to the internal services.
➤ Leave X4E-3BRI, ISDN S0 ➧ UNIT 0 ➧ INCOMING CALL ANSWERING with
EXIT.
➤ Press SAVE.
➤ If applicable, go to X4E-3BRI, ISDN S0 ➧ UNIT 1 to configure the second
interface.
➤ If applicable, go to X4E-3BRI, ISDN S0 ➧ UNIT 2 to configure the third
interface.
WAN partner
280
To enable X4000 to make connections to networks or hosts outside your LAN,
you must configure the partners you want to connect to as WAN partners on
your X4000. This applies to outgoing connections, incoming connections and
leased lines. Refer to chapter 7.3, page 159.
X4000 User’s Guide
9
WAN Interface Card for ISDN PRI and/or G.703
9.2
WAN Interface Card for ISDN PRI and/or
G.703
The PRI (Primary Rate Interface) or G.703 expansion card is equipped with two
ports, each with two sockets (IN and OUT). By installing the expansion card,
you can equip X4000 with
■ one ISDN PRI and/or one G.703 interface or
■ two ISDN PRI interfaces or
■ two G.703 interfaces
The necessary licenses for activating the desired interfaces can be obtained
from your dealer.
PRI
You can connect X4000’s ISDN PRI interface to a Primary Rate Interface. This
is done by connecting the NT (Network Termination) adapter of your telephone
provider to the IN socket of a port activated by license. In Germany, this
provides you with 30 B-channels and 1 D-channel, which you can use for both
dialup and leased lines over ISDN.
G.703
With an X4000 G.703 interface, you can install a G.703 leased line to a
connection partner. This is also done by connecting the NT (Network
Termination) adapter of your telephone provider to the IN socket of a port
activated by license. A G.703 leased line is an unstructured high-speed line of
up to 2 Mbps for the transmission of data with HDLC framing. The connection
status is not checked at layer 1; if necessary, this must be done by higher
protocol layers such as the PPP.
You can use a PRI interface as both a PRI and G.703 interface.
You can only use a G.703 interface as a G.703 interface.
The PRI or G.703 expansion card is equipped as standard with hardware
support for encryption and compression (chapter 9.5, page 306) and can be
optionally equipped with up to two resource cards with digital modems
(chapter 9.4, page 295).
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9.2.1
Configuration with the Setup Tool
The additional interfaces are shown in the Setup Tool main menu under
Module: as follows:
X4000 Setup Tool
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
Licenses
System
LAN:
CM-100BT,Fast Ethernet
WAN:
CM-1BRI,ISDN S0
Module: X4E-2PRI, ISDN S2M
Serial WAN: CM-SERIAL,Serial
WAN Partner
IP
IPX
PPP
MODEM
ISDN
CAPI
Configuration Management
Monitoring and Debugging
Exit
The ISDN PRI/G.703 interface(s) is/are configured in the menus
■ X4E-2PRI, ISDN S2M ➧ UNIT 0 for the first ISDN PRI/G.703 port
■ X4E-2PRI, ISDN S2M ➧ UNIT 1 for the second ISDN PRI/G.703 port
The number of ISDN PRI or G.703 ports available with the expansion card can
vary, depending on how many and which interfaces are activated by license.
You can obtain any necessary licenses from your dealer.
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WAN Interface Card for ISDN PRI and/or G.703
The menus contain the following fields:
Field
Meaning
Result of
Autoconfiguration
Status of ISDN autoconfiguration. Automatic
➤➤ D-channel detection runs until a setting
is found or until the ISDN protocol is entered
manually under ISDN Switch Type.
ISDN Switch Type
Defines the ISDN ➤➤ protocol supplied by
your ISDN provider. Possible values:
■ autodetect on bootup: automatic D-channel
detection (default setting)
■ Euro ISDN S2M user profile (TE)
■ Euro ISDN S2M network profile (NT)
■ leased line B1..B30
■ leased line, 1 hyperchannel
■ leased line, chann. E1, 31 diff. endpoints:
This type of leased line is also called an
"aggregated kilostream" in the UK.
■ back to back
ISDN Line Framing
Possible values:
■ standard (CRC4) (default setting)
■ special (no CRC)
■ G.703: necessary if you want to configure a
G.703 leased line over the interface.
The default setting is used in most cases for a
PRI interface. In some cases in Sweden and
France, the setting special (no CRC) is
necessary if X4000 is connected to a PABX.
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Field
Meaning
Clock Mode
Defines which connection partner sends the
clock signal for synchronization between
transmitter and receiver. If the clock signal is
not generated by the (PABX) network itself, one
of the two connection partners must generate
this signal.
Possible values:
■ external (default setting): X4000 receives
the clock signal
■ internal: X4000 sends the clock signal
Table 9-1:
To do
X4E-2PRI, ISDN S2M ➧ UNIT 0 and X4E-2PRI, ISDN S2M ➧ UNIT 1
Proceed as follows:
➤ Go to X4E-2PRI, ISDN S2M ➧ UNIT 0 for the first ISDN PRI interface.
➤ Select ISDN Switch Type: autodetect on bootup.
This setting enables X4000 to use its automatic D-channel detection. As
long as the D-channel detection is running, running appears next to Result
of Autoconfiguration. The setting found is then displayed, e.g. Euro ISDN
S2M user profile (TE).
If the ISDN protocol is set incorrectly, an ISDN connection cannot be set up
and the provider’s exchange may disconnect the line if it is not used!
Make sure X4000 detects the ISDN protocol used correctly and displays it
under Result of Autoconfiguration. If not, enter it manually under ISDN
Switch Type. The automatic D-channel detection is then switched off.
➤ Select ISDN Line Framing, e.g. standard (CRC4).
➤ Select Clock Mode, e.g. external.
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WAN Interface Card for ISDN PRI and/or G.703
Incoming Call
Answering
If dialup connections are to be set up over the ISDN PRI/G.703 interface, first
tell X4000 how it is to respond to incoming calls over this interface (these
settings are not necessary for a leased line):
➤ Go to X4E-2PRI, ISDN S2M ➧ UNIT 0 ➧ INCOMING CALL ANSWERING.
This menu lists the previously completed assignment of systems to
numbers. The menu offers the same options as CM-1BRI, ISDN S0 ➧
INCOMING CALL ANSWERING for distribution of incoming calls over the ISDN
BRI interface of the basic unit. For a detailed description, see "Incoming call
answering", page 141.
➤ Use ADD to add a new entry or select an existing entry. Confirm with
Return to change the entry.
➤ Select the Item, e.g. PPP (routing).
➤ Enter the Number, e.g. 091112330.
➤ Select the Mode, e.g. right to left.
➤ Select the Bearer, e.g. data.
➤ Press SAVE.
You have returned to menu X4E-2PRI, ISDN S2M ➧ UNIT 0 ➧ INCOMING
CALL ANSWERING. The entries are saved and displayed in the list.
You have now assigned a possible service (PPP (routing)) to one of your
numbers (0911 123 30). This means that when a data call is received for
Called Party Number 0911 123 30, it is put through to the PPP (routing)
service.
➤ Repeat these steps until you have assigned to all phone numbers the
services to be reached under these numbers.
You have now configured Incoming Call Answering for this ISDN PRI
interface and X4000 distributes the incoming calls to the internal services.
➤ Leave X4E-2PRI, ISDN S2M ➧ UNIT 0 ➧ INCOMING CALL ANSWERING
with EXIT.
➤ Press SAVE.
➤ If applicable, go to X4E-2PRI, ISDN S2M ➧ UNIT 1 to configure the second
ISDN PRI/G.703 interface.
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WAN partner
286
To enable X4000 to make connections to networks or hosts outside your LAN,
you must configure the partners you want to connect to as WAN partners on
your X4000. This applies to outgoing connections, incoming connections and
leased lines. Refer to chapter 7.3, page 159.
X4000 User’s Guide
9
LAN Interface Card for 10/100 Mbps
9.3
LAN Interface Card for 10/100 Mbps
By installing a LAN expansion card, you can equip your X4000 with two
additional LAN interfaces.
You can equip the LAN expansion card with an optional resource card for
encryption and compression (see chapter 9.5, page 306).
9.3.1
Configuration with the Setup Tool
The additional interfaces are shown in the Setup Tool main menu under
Module: as follows:
X4000 Setup Tool
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
Licenses
System
LAN:
CM-100BT,Fast Ethernet
WAN:
CM-1BRI,ISDN S0
Module: X4E-100BT,FastEthernet
Serial WAN: CM-SERIAL,Serial
WAN Partner
IP
IPX
PPP
ISDN
CAPI
Configuration Management
Monitoring and Debugging
Exit
You can configure the interfaces in the following menus:
■ X4E-100BT, FAST ETHERNET ➧ UNIT 0 for the first additional LAN interface
■ X4E-100BT, FAST ETHERNET ➧ UNIT 1 for the second additional LAN
interface
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To do
Proceed as follows to configure the LAN interface(s) of the expansion card:
➤ Go to X4E-100BT, FAST ETHERNET ➧ UNIT 0 for the first interface.
This menu offers the same options as CM-1OOBT, FAST ETHERNET for the
LAN interface of the basic unit. For a detailed description, see
chapter 7.2.1, page 137.
➤ Enter Local IP Number, e.g. 192.168.1.250.
➤ Enter Local Netmask, e.g. 255.255.255.0.
➤ If applicable, enter Second Local IP Number and Second Local
Netmask.
➤ Select Encapsulation, e.g. Ethernet II.
➤ Select Mode, e.g. auto.
➤ Press SAVE.
You have returned to the main menu and the entries have been saved.
Advanced
configuration
If you wish to use the IPX ➤➤ protocol, you will find an explanation of how to
configure the LAN interface for IPX in chapter 8.4, page 268.
Information about bridging can be found in the Software Reference.
9.3.2
Broadband Internet Access (ADSL) with X4000
and LAN Expansion Card
BinTec Communications AG’s X4000 offers the PPP-over-Ethernet protocol.
This protocol is required, for example, for connecting terminals to the Internet
over the T-DSL connection of Deutsche Telekom AG to achieve increased
bandwidth.
If you use the ADSL connection of another provider, ask the provider about any
special features of your ADSL connection that need to be taken into account.
chapter 7.2.3, page 155 describes how you can use the T-DSL connection with
X4000’s basic unit with only one LAN interface. The limitations and security
risks described there do not apply if X4000 is equipped with a LAN expansion
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LAN Interface Card for 10/100 Mbps
card and several LAN interfaces are therefore available. In this case, for
example, you can use one of X4000’s LAN interfaces for your LAN and another
LAN interface for access to T-DSL.
Example Scenario
The following scenario provides an example configuration for the settings in the
Setup Tool. The LAN connection is handled over the LAN interface of X4000’s
basic unit. The ADSL modem is connected to one of the LAN interfaces of the
expansion card.
If you receive a special cable from Deutsche Telekom AG or another provider
for connecting the ADSL modem, use only this cable!
LAN interface
basic unit
192.168.1.1
LAN interface
expansion card
4000
Ethernet
Ethernet
BinTec
Your X4000
192.168.1.254
192.168.1.2
ADSL
ADSL modem
192.168.1.3
Your local network
Figure 9-1:
IP address
configuration
Example scenario
Proceed as follows to define the IP address of X4000:
➤ Go to CM-1OOBT, FAST ETHERNET.
➤ Enter your IP address in the Local IP Number field, e.g. 192.168.1.254.
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➤ Enter your netmask in the Local Netmask field, e.g. 255.255.255.0.
This address should be the default gateway for the hosts in your LAN.
➤ Press SAVE.
General PPP
settings
The general PPP settings are configured in PPP:
Here you must configure an interface on which PPP-over-Ethernet is to run. You
can leave all the other settings at the default value.
➤ Go to PPP.
The following field is relevant:
Field
Meaning
PPPoE Ethernet
Interface
Defines the interface used for ADSL.
Table 9-2:
PPP
Proceed as follows to define the necessary PPP settings:
➤ Select your PPPoE Ethernet Interface, e.g. en2.
➤ Press SAVE.
WAN partner
settings
To configure a PPP-over-Ethernet partner, proceed exactly as for configuration
of a WAN partner.
When configuring the WAN partner, make sure that Van Jacobson Header
Compression is not activated in the menu WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ IP ➧
ADVANCED SETTINGS. The IPX, Bridging and Bandwidth on Demand functions
should not be used either.
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD.
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LAN Interface Card for 10/100 Mbps
The following fields are relevant:
Field
Meaning
Partner Name
Enter a name for uniquely identifying the PPPover-Ethernet partner.
Encapsulation
Encapsulation defines how the data packets
are packed for transfer to the WAN partner.
PPP-over-Ethernet:
Only PPP should be selected here.
Calling Line
Identification
Table 9-3:
Indicates whether calls from this WAN partner
should be identified by means of the calling
party number (CLID). The value of this field is
dependent on Direction in the submenu WAN
NUMBERS and cannot be set here.
WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD
➤ Enter your WAN partner’s name for PPP-over-Ethernet under Partner
Name, e.g. t-online.
➤ Select Encapsulation: PPP.
WAN partner PPP
settings
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ PPP.
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The following fields are relevant:
Field
Meaning
Partner PPP ID
ID of WAN partner. Remains empty.
Local PPP ID
Your T-Online user ID.
Comprises the following elements:
<Kennung><T-Online-Nr.>#<MitbenutzerNr.>@t-online.de
Kennung = the 12-digit user account (here:
000460004256)
T-Online-Nummer = telephone number (here:
091169386)
Mitbenutzer-Nr. = 4-digit co-user number (here:
0001)
The T-Online-Nr. and the Mitbenutzer-Nr. must
be separated by # if the T-Online-Nr. has less
than 12 digits.
PPP Password
Your T-Online password.
Keepalives
Activates keepalive packets.
The activated Keepalive function checks the
interface status. This permits faster detection
and signaling if the connection to the provider
fails (for example, if the LAN cable is
accidentally disconnected).
Table 9-4:
WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ PPP
➤ Make no entry under Partner PPP ID.
➤ Enter the Local PPP ID,
e.g. 000460004256091169386#[email protected]
➤ Enter the PPP Password.
➤ Select Keepalives: on.
➤ Confirm with OK.
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LAN Interface Card for 10/100 Mbps
Advanced settings
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ADVANCED SETTINGS.
The following field is relevant:
Field
Meaning
Layer 1 Protocol
Here you can define the Layer 1 Protocol of the
ISDN B-channel that X4000 is to use for
connections to the WAN partner. PPP over
Ethernet (PPPoE) must be selected here for
access to T-DSL.
Table 9-5:
WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ADVANCED SETTINGS
➤ Select Layer 1 Protocol: PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE).
➤ Confirm with OK.
IP settings
➤ Go to WAN ➧ ADD ➧ IP.
The following field is relevant:
Field
Meaning
IP Transit Network
Defines whether X4000 uses a transit network
to the WAN partner.
The IP address is assigned dynamically if
dynamic client is selected.
Table 9-6:
WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ IP
➤ Select IP Transit Network: dynamic client.
➤ Press SAVE.
➤ Press SAVE.
➤ Leave WAN PARTNER with EXIT.
Creating a default route
➤ Go to IP ➧ ROUTING ➧ ADD.
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The following field is relevant:
Field
Meaning
Partner / Interface
Your PPPoE partner.
Table 9-7:
IP ➧ ROUTING ➧ ADD
➤ Select Route Type: Default route.
➤ Select Partner / Interface, e.g. t-online.
➤ Press SAVE.
Activating Network
Address Translation
(NAT)
You can use NAT to ensure that
■ no more accesses can be made to your network from the Internet,
■ and that connections to the Internet appear only under a single dynamically
assigned IP address.
➤ Go to IP ➧ NETWORK ADDRESS TRANSLATION.
➤ Select the WAN interface on which you want to activate NAT, e.g. t-online,
and confirm with Return.
Another menu window opens:
The following field is relevant:
Field
Meaning
Network Address
Translation
Here you can activate Network Address
Translation (NAT) for your WAN partner. This
conceals your whole network to the outside
world with just one IP address.
Table 9-8:
IP ➧ NAT
➤ Select Network Address Translation: on.
➤ Press SAVE.
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Resource Card with Digital Modems
9.4
Resource Card with Digital Modems
ISDN BRI and ISDN PRI/G.703 expansion cards (see chapter 9.1, page 278
and chapter 9.2, page 281) can also be equipped with resource cards with
digital modems.
Resource cards with digital modems are available in various versions:
■ XTR-S: resource card with 8 digital modems
■ XTR-M: resource card with 12 digital modems
■ XTR-L: resource card with 30 digital modems
If your X4000 is equipped with resource card(s) with digital modems for analog
data and fax connections, it can be used as
■ Remote Access Server for ISDN and GSM connections and for analog
connections (dial-in)
■ fax gateway (please observe future software releases and release notes).
If you are using an expansion card with resource card(s) in the X4000 built-in
unit, BinTec Communications AG recommends that you use the fan unit
obtainable as optional equipment.
9.4.1
X4000 with Digital Modems as Remote Access
Server
X4000 equipped with digital modems can be used for dial-in connections, e.g.
by home office staff with analog modems or by field service staff with laptop,
mobile phone and modem.
X4000 uses the digital modems of the resource card(s) as a modem pool and
always dynamically takes the next available modem for an incoming dial-in
connection.
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WAN
incoming
analog call
allocate a
free modem
select modem
profile
Profile 1: Default Profile
Profile 2: V.90 Modem Caller
Profile 3: V.34 Modem Caller
....
preset receiving
modem using
selected profile
negotiate connection
with dial-in partner
Figure 9-2:
Dial-in to X4000 with digital modems
The modems (e.g. 30 modems with an XTR-L resource card) need not be
individually configured, as X4000 uses a flexible concept of modem profiles. Up
to eight modem profiles can be configured for X4000 in the menu MODEM ➧
PROFILE CONFIGURATION; the modem actually used then dynamically assumes
the settings of the appropriate modem profile on connection setup. A modem
profile defines the modem settings that are required for a connection to the
opposite terminal, e.g. automatic baud rate negotiation, compression and
maximum or minimum baud rate. Creating several modem profiles gives you a
tuning facility if you do not want to use just the default settings.
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Resource Card with Digital Modems
When defining the settings for Incoming Call Answering, e.g. in menu CM-3BRI,
ISDN S0, UNIT 0 ➧ INCOMING CALL ANSWERING for the first ISDN BRI interface
of a BRI expansion card (see "Incoming Call Answering", page 285), you can
explicitly define which modem profile is to be used for an incoming call. If the
party dialing in has not been assigned a modem profile or the calling party
cannot be authenticated, the modem automatically uses modem profile 1.
Modem profile 1 is therefore used as default setting and should allow maximum
selection of the settings. As all dial-in users that cannot be authenticated by
CLID etc. are assigned modem profile 1 for the connection, modem profile 1
should be able to operate all modems. You can use the remaining seven
modem profiles to define user groups, so that the dial-in connection partners
find optimum modem settings in X4000.
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Example scenario
A typical scenario, e.g. for an Internet Service Provider, could look like this:
GSM
connection
analog
connection
digital
connection
GSM
WAN
Incoming Call Answering:
4000
BinTec
X4000
Figure 9-3:
Number
Item
99
50
30
41
42
...
ISDN Login
PPP V.110
PPP (routing)
PPP Modem Profile 1
PPP Modem Profile 2
...
Scenario for dial-in
■ Dial-in users who dial in over an analog connection use the numbers 0911
123 41 to 0911 123 48 for dialing in (according to which analog modem type
they use).
■ Dial-in users who use an ISDN connection use 0911 123 30.
■ Dial-in users who dial in with a mobile phone over a GSM connection use
0911 123 50.
■ Incoming calls to the number 0911 123 99 are connected through to the
ISDN Login service.
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Resource Card with Digital Modems
Configuration with the Setup Tool
If X4000 is equipped with a resource card with digital modems, the menu
MODEM appears in the Setup Tool main menu:
X4000 Setup Tool
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
Licenses
System
LAN:
CM-100BT,Fast Ethernet
WAN:
CM-1BRI,ISDN S0
Module: X4E-3BRI,ISDN S0
Serial WAN: CM-SERIAL,Serial
WAN Partner
IP
IPX
PPP
MODEM
ISDN
CAPI
Configuration Management
Monitoring and Debugging
Exit
The modem profiles whose settings are used by the digital modems in X4000
are defined in menu MODEM.
General procedure for the configuration of dial-in connections:
1.
First define the settings for modem profile 1 in MODEM ➧ PROFILE
CONFIGURATION.
2.
Define other modem profiles 2 ... 8 as necessary in MODEM ➧ PROFILE
CONFIGURATION.
3.
Use the settings for Incoming Call Answering to control the use of the
modem profiles according to the dial-in connection partner, e.g. in X4E3BRI, ISDN S0 ➧ UNIT 0 ➧ INCOMING CALL ANSWERING.
4.
Configure a WAN partner entry for each dial-in user in WAN P ARTNER.
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Configuration of Expansion and Resource Cards with the Setup Tool
The menus MODEM ➧ PROFILE CONFIGURATION ➧ PROFILE 1 ... 8 contain the
following fields:
Field
Meaning
Name
Profile 1 ... 8 is displayed.
Description
Freely selectable description of the modem
profile.
Modulation
Defines the modem standard to be used. The
selected modem standard must be supported
by the analog modem of the opposite terminal.
V.90 and lower are supported by 56000modems, V.34 and lower by 33600-modems,
V.32bis and lower by 14400-modems.
Possible values:
■ V.90
■ V.34bis
■ V.34
■ V.32bis
■ V.32
■ V.23
■ V.22bis
■ V.22
■ V.21
Error Correction
Defines the error correction to be used.
For possible values, see Table 9-10, page 303.
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Resource Card with Digital Modems
Field
Meaning
Automode
Defines whether dynamic negotiation of
parameters for baud rates and modem
standards is allowed with the dial-in user.
Possible values:
■ on (default value): Negotiation is allowed.
■ off: The set values are always used.
Min Bps
Defines the minimum baud rate that can be
used with the modem profile. Any speed
supported by the modem standard set under
Modulation can be set here.
The connection is cleared if the only baud rates
that can be negotiated with the opposite
terminal are smaller than the value set here.
Scalable from 300 (default value) to 56000.
Max Receive Bps
Defines the maximum baud rate of incoming
data ("upstream") that can be used with the
modem profile. Any speed supported by the
modem standard set under Modulation can be
set here.
The value set under Max Transmit Bps is used
here if this value is less than the value set here.
Scalable from 300 to 56000,
default value: 33600.
Max Transmit Bps
Is only used if Modulation = V.90.
Defines the maximum baud rate of outgoing
data ("downstream") that can be used with the
modem profile.
Scalable from 300 to 56000,
default value: 33600.
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Configuration of Expansion and Resource Cards with the Setup Tool
Field
Meaning
V.42bis Compression
Defines whether V.42bis compression can be
negotiated for a connection.
Possible values:
■ auto: Negotiation is allowed.
■ off: V.42bis compression is not used.
MNP5 Compression
Defines whether MNP5 compression can be
negotiated for a connection.
Possible values:
■ auto: Negotiation is allowed.
■ off: MNP5 compression is not used.
Table 9-9:
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Menu MODEM ➧ P ROFILE C ONFIGURATION ➧ PROFILE 1 ... 8
9
Resource Card with Digital Modems
The Error Correction field contains the following selection options:
Possible values
Meaning
none
Error correction is not used.
required
First LAPM and then MNP4 is tried for error
correction. If both fail, the modem clears the
connection.
auto (default value)
First LAPM and then MNP5 is tried for error
correction. If both fail, error correction is not
used.
This setting should generally be selected,
except for dial-in users with modems that only
support obsolescent standards such as V.23,
V.22bis or V.21.
LAPM
LAPM (Link Access Protocol for Modems) is
used. If this fails, the modem clears the
connection.
MNP
MNP4 (Microcom Networking Protocol) is used.
If this fails, the modem clears the connection.
Table 9-10:
To do
Error Correction
Proceed as follows:
➤ Go to MODEM ➧ PROFILE CONFIGURATION.
➤ Select PROFILE 1 and confirm with Return.
Modem profile 1
configuration
➤ Enter Description, e.g. Default Modem Profile.
➤ Select Modulation, e.g. V.34.
➤ Select Error Correction, e.g. auto.
➤ Select Automode, e.g. on.
➤ Select Min Bps, e.g. 2400.
➤ Select Max Receive Bps, e.g. 33600.
➤ If applicable, select Max Transmit Bps, e.g. 33600.
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Configuration of Expansion and Resource Cards with the Setup Tool
➤ Select V.42bis Compression, e.g. auto.
➤ Select MNP5 Compression, e.g. auto.
➤ Press SAVE.
Modem profile 2 ... 8
configuration
Incoming Call
Answering
➤ Configure other modem profiles as necessary, see Table 9-11, page 305.
Proceed as follows to assign the defined modem profiles to the dial-in users (the
example values are taken from the scenario in Figure 9-3, page 298):
➤ Go to X4E-3BRI, ISDN S0 ➧ UNIT 0 ➧ INCOMING CALL ANSWERING if you
wish to assign an incoming dial-in connection over the first interface of an
ISDN BRI expansion card.
➤ Add a new entry with ADD.
➤ Select Item, e.g. PPP Modem Profile 2.
➤ Enter Number, e.g. 091112342.
➤ Select Mode, e.g. right to left.
➤ Select the Bearer, e.g. any.
➤ Press SAVE.
➤ Add other entries as necessary.
WAN partner
Proceed as follows to create WAN partner entries for the dial-in users:
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER, add a new entry with ADD.
You will find detailed information about configuring a WAN partner in
chapter 7.3, page 159; the following settings are essential here:
➤ Enter Partner Name, e.g. homeoffice_2.
➤ Select Encapsulation, e.g. PPP.
➤ Select authentication information in WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ PPP.
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS.
➤ Select Layer 1 Protocol, e.g. Modem Profile 2.
➤ Confirm with OK.
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ WAN NUMBERS ➧ ADD.
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Resource Card with Digital Modems
➤ Enter the number to be used by X4000 under Number, e.g. 09117890.
➤ Select Direction, e.g. outgoing.
➤ Press SAVE.
➤ Leave WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ WAN NUMBERS with EXIT.
➤ Select the necessary settings in WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ IP (see
"Carrying out IP configuration", page 173).
➤ Press SAVE.
The WAN partner entry is displayed.
➤ Proceed in a similar way to configure other WAN partners.
Table 9-11, page 305 uses a general example to show how you could
meaningfully use the modem profiles in X4000:
Profile
Modulation
Error
Correction
Automode
Min
Bps
Max
Receive
Bps
Max
Transmit
Bps
V.42bi
s
MNP5
Profile 1
V.34
auto
on
2400
33600
33600
auto
auto
Profile 2
V.90
auto
on
28800
31200
50000
auto
auto
Profile 3
V.90
auto
on
28800
31200
44000
auto
auto
Profile 4
V.90
auto
on
14400
31200
40000
auto
auto
Profile 5
V.32bis
auto
on
4800
14400
14400
auto
auto
Profile 6
V.32
auto
on
4800
9600
9600
auto
auto
Profile 7
V.23
auto
on
300
1200
1200
auto
auto
Profile 8
V.22bis
auto
on
300
2400
2400
auto
auto
Table 9-11:
Standard set of modem profiles
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9
Configuration of Expansion and Resource Cards with the Setup Tool
9.5
Resource Card for Encryption and
Compression
The ISDN PRI or G.703 expansion card is equipped as standard with hardware
support for encryption and compression. The ISDN BRI expansion card and the
LAN expansion card can be optionally equipped with an appropriate resource
card.
A resource card for encryption and compression provides hardware support for
STAC compression and symmetrical encryption processes (DES, 3DES,
CAST, Twofish, Blowfish). This enables the available bandwidth to be fully
utilized and costs cut, without affecting the performance of X4000.
If you are using an expansion card with resource card(s) in the X4000 built-in
unit, BinTec Communications AG recommends that you use the fan unit
obtainable as optional equipment.
9.5.1
Configuration with the Setup Tool
STAC compression and encryption are configured in the usual way in the Setup
Tool menu WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT (see chapter 8.2.9, page 232 and
chapter 10.3.1, page 354).
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10
10
SAFERNET
Configuration of Security
Functions and Firewall
The X4000 from BinTec Communications AG gives you a high degree of
security for your network and connections. The security functions available
(SAFERNET) offer monitoring of activities via the router and effective access
and line tapping security. The necessary configuration steps are described in
this chapter.
Some of the features can only be configured by making entries directly in the
➤➤ MIB tables and not by using the Setup Tool. The relevant tables and
variables are given in the respective section.
You can make MIB entries either by commands in the ➤➤ SNMP shell or via
external SNMP managers, e.g. the Configuration Manager. A description of the
SNMP commands is given in the Software Reference.
This chapter is broken down as follows:
■ Activity Monitoring (chapter 10.1, page 308)
■ Access Security (chapter 10.2, page 325)
■ Line Tapping Security (chapter 10.3, page 354)
■ Special Features (chapter 10.4, page 358)
■ Checklist (chapter 10.5, page 360)
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10
Configuration of Security Functions and Firewall
10.1
Activity Monitoring
A major requirement for a high degree of security is the possibility of accurately
monitoring all activities on and over the router. BinTec Communications AG
provides a variety of facilities for this purpose:
■ Syslog Messages (chapter 10.1.1, page 308)
■ Monitoring Functions in the Setup Tool (chapter 10.1.2, page 313)
■ Credits Based Accounting System (chapter 10.1.3, page 316)
■ HTTP Status Page (chapter 10.1.4, page 320)
■ Java Status Monitor (chapter 10.1.5, page 321)
■ Activity Monitor (chapter 10.1.6, page 322)
10.1.1
Syslog Messages
All major events on X4000’s various subsystems (➤➤ ISDN, ➤➤ PPP,
➤➤ CAPI, etc.) are logged in the form of syslog messages (system logging
messages).
The number of details visible depends on the level set (eight steps from critical
and information to debug). The logged data are saved by X4000 in a list of
adjustable length. All information can be and should be passed to one or more
external computers for saving and further processing, e.g. to the system
administrator’s computer. The syslog messages are lost when you restart
X4000.
Avoid forwarding syslog messages to log hosts reached over a dialup
connection. This raises your telephone bill unnecessarily.
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Activity Monitoring
Make sure you only pass syslog messages to a safe computer. Check the data
regularly and ensure that there is always enough spare capacity available on
the hard disk of your PC.
Syslog Demon
All Unix operating systems support the recording of syslog messages (for
setting up a Syslog Demon in Unix, see the Software Reference). For Windows
PCs, the Syslog Demon included in DIME Tools can record the data and
distribute to various files depending on the contents (see BRICKware for
Windows).
Settings for syslog messages are made in:
■ SYSTEM
■ SYSTEM ➧ EXTERNAL SYSTEM LOGGING
■ CM-100BT, FAST ETHERNET ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS
■ WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ IP ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS
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10
Configuration of Security Functions and Firewall
Field
Meaning
Syslog Output on Serial
Console
Enables the display of syslog messages on the
PC connected to the serial interface of X4000.
Use this setting only if you make a fault
analysis, as a very large output over the serial
console adversely affects the throughput of the
other interfaces. Possible values:
■ yes
■ no
Message Level for
Syslog Table
Specifies the priority of the syslog messages to
be recorded internally. Possible values:
■ emerg: emergency messages (highest
priority)
■ alert: alert messages
■ crit: critical messages
■ err: error messages
■ warning: warning messages
■ notice: notice messages
■ info: info messages
■ debug: debug messages (lowest priority)
Syslog messages are only recorded internally if
they have a higher or identical priority to that
indicated.
Maximum Number of
Syslog Entries
Table 10-1:
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X4000 User’s Guide
SYSTEM
Maximum number of syslog messages saved
internally in X4000 (possible values: 0 ... 100).
10
Activity Monitoring
Field
Meaning
Log Host
➤➤ IP address of the host to which syslog
messages are passed.
Level
Priority of the syslog messages to be sent to
Log Host. Corresponds to Message Level for
Syslog Table in SYSTEM.
Facility
Syslog facility at Log Host. Only required if the
Log Host is a Unix computer.
Type
Message type. Possible values:
■ all: all messages.
■ system: syslog messages
➤➤ accounting messages.
except
■ accounting: accounting messages.
Table 10-2:
SYSTEM ➧ EXTERNAL SYSTEM LOGGING
Field
Meaning
IP Accounting
For saving accounting messages for
➤➤ TCP, ➤➤ UDP and ICMP sessions.
Possible values: on, off.
Table 10-3:
CM-100BT, FAST ETHERNET ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS
Field
Meaning
IP Accounting
For saving accounting messages for
➤➤ TCP, ➤➤ UDP and ICMP sessions.
Possible values: on, off.
Table 10-4:
To do
WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ IP ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS
Make the desired settings for syslog messages as follows:
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Configuration of Security Functions and Firewall
➤ Go to SYSTEM.
➤ Select Syslog Output on Serial Console.
➤ Select Message Level for Syslog Table.
➤ Enter Maximum Number of Syslog Entries.
➤ Go to SYSTEM ➧ EXTERNAL SYSTEM LOGGING to pass syslog messages to
external hosts.
➤ Select an existing entry and confirm it with Return or add a new entry with
ADD.
➤ Enter Log Host.
➤ Select Level.
➤ Select Facility.
➤ Select Type.
IP accounting
LAN side
Proceed as follows to activate IP accounting for a LAN partner. X4000 then
generates and records accounting messages for the selected LAN partner from
TCP, UDP and ICMP sessions:
➤ Go to CM-100BT, FAST ETHERNET ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS.
➤ Activate IP Accounting with on.
IP accounting
WAN side
Proceed as follows to activate extended IP accounting. X4000 then generates
and records accounting messages for the selected WAN partner from TCP,
UDP and ICMP sessions:
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ IP ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS.
➤ Activate IP Accounting with on.
Displaying syslog
messages
Proceed as follows to display syslog messages:
➤ Go to MONITORING AND DEBUGGING ➧ MESSAGES.
This displays the syslog messages saved internally in X4000:
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Activity Monitoring
X4000 Setup Tool
[MONITOR][MESSAGE]: Syslog Messages
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
Subj
Lev Message
SNMP
SNMP
DEB sent TRAP (linkUp,0) 115 bytes to circindex 1001 Port 36880
DEB sent TRAP (linkUp,0) 115 bytes to 199.1.1.13 Port 162
EXIT
RESET
Press <Ctrl-n>, <Ctrl-p> to scroll
Deleting syslog
messages
➤ Select RESET to delete the syslog messages in X4000.
For interpretation of syslog messages, see the Software Reference.
10.1.2
Monitoring Functions in the Setup Tool
You can also use the Setup Tool to display other data in addition to syslog
messages. The current status of certain subsystems is updated periodically and
displayed. Display modules are available for the following functional areas:
■ ISDN connections
■ Credits Based Accounting System
■ Interface statistics (comparative display of several interfaces)
■ ➤➤ TCP/IP statistics
■ Syslog messages (see chapter 10.1.1, page 308)
ISDN connections
Proceed as follows to display ISDN connections:
➤ Go to MONITORING AND DEBUGGING ➧ ISDN MONITOR.
A list of the existing ISDN connections (incoming and outgoing calls) is
displayed.
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Configuration of Security Functions and Firewall
X4000 Setup Tool
[MONITOR][ISDN CALLS]: ISDN Monitor - Calls
Dir Remote Name/Number
Charge
in 2
out 3
(c)alls
Duration Stack
2910
106
(h)istory
(d)etails
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
Channel State
0
0
(s)tatistics
B1
B2
active
active
(r)elease
This menu also offers you other options:
➤ Select h to display a list of the last 20 ISDN calls (incoming and outgoing)
completed since the last system start.
➤ Place the cursor on an existing or completed ISDN connection and select
d to display detailed information about this connection.
➤ Select s to display statistics on the activity of the existing ISDN
connections.
➤ Select r to release the tagged ISDN connection.
➤ Select c to display the list of existing ISDN connections again.
Credits Based
Accounting System
Proceed as follows to display the state of the Credits Based Accounting System
(chapter 10.1.3, page 316):
➤ Go to MONITORING AND DEBUGGING ➧ ISDN CREDITS.
➤ Select a subsystem and confirm with Return.
The current status of the Credits Based Accounting System for the selected
subsystem is displayed.
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X4000 Setup Tool
BinTec Communications AG
[MONITOR][CREDITS][STAT]: Monitor isdnlogin Credits
MyRouter
Time till end of measure interval(sec)
Total
7794
Maximum % reached
86400
91
Number of Incoming Connections
Number of Outgoing Connections
0
0
2
20
0
0
Time of Incoming Connections
Time of Outgoing Connections
4
13
28800
28800
0
0
Charge
0
EXIT
Information about configuring the Credits Based Accounting System can be
found in chapter 10.1.3, page 316.
Interface statistics
Proceed as follows to display the current values and activities of X4000’s
interfaces:
➤ Go to MONITORING AND DEBUGGING ➧ INTERFACES.
The values for two interfaces are displayed side by side.
X4000 Setup Tool
[MONITOR][INTERFACE]: Interface Monitoring
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
Interface Name
Operational Status
PROVIDER
dormant
en1
up
total
per second
total
per second
Received Packets
Received Octets
Received Errors
5512
920664
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Transmit Packets
Transmit Octets
Transmit Errors
9
1193
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Active Connections
Duration
N/A
N/A
0
0
EXIT
EXTENDED
EXTENDED
Use <Space> to select
➤ Select the interface to be displayed under Interface Name.
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Configuration of Security Functions and Firewall
➤ Select EXTENDED to display additional information. You can then change
the status of the interface under Operation and confirm the entry with
START OPERATION.
TCP/IP statistics
Proceed as follows to display the statistics for connections to
ICMP, ➤➤ IP, UDP and TCP:
➤➤ protocols
➤ Go to MONITORING AND DEBUGGING ➧ TCP/IP.
The statistics for IP connections are displayed. You can find the meaning
of the MIB variables in the MIB Reference.
X4000 Setup Tool
[MONITOR][IP]: IP Statistics
InReceives
InHdrErrors
InAddrErrors
ForwDatagrams
InUnknownProtos
InDiscards
InDelivers
OutRequests
OutDiscards
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
3912
0
0
0
0
0
3321
9
0
OutNoRoutes
ReasmTimeout
ReasmReqds
ReasmOKs
ReasmFails
FragOKs
FragFails
FragCreates
RoutingDiscards
0
500
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
EXIT
I(C)MP
(I)P
(U)DP
(T)CP
➤ Select c to display statistical data for ICMP.
➤ Select i to display statistical data for IP.
➤ Select u to display statistical data for UDP.
➤ Select t to display statistical data for TCP.
10.1.3
ISDN charges
316
Credits Based Accounting System
X4000’s Credits Based Accounting System enables you to control the costs
billed for ISDN charges for data connections. This means you can keep the
effects of possible configuration errors within limits. For example, the system
enables you to define the maximum number of connections allowed in a certain
period of time. You can make settings for each subsystem (➤➤ PPP,
➤➤ CAPI, ➤➤ ISDN Login) to define the number of connections, the
connection time and the charges billed. If the defined limit is exceeded, X4000
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10
Activity Monitoring
cannot set up any more connections within the defined period of time. This
means you can detect configuration errors in good time, before your telephone
bill gets too big!
Syslog messages
Syslog messages are generated if the number of connections reaches 90 % or
100 % of the limit and if a connection is prevented by the Credits Based
Accounting System because the limit is exceeded.
The whole account is available again if you switch X4000 off and then switch it
on again (i.e. reboot).
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Configuration of Security Functions and Firewall
The configuration is made in ISDN ➧ CREDITS:
318
Field
Meaning
Surveillance
Defines whether the Credits Based Accounting
System is to be activated for the respective
subsystem. Possible values: off, on.
With on, you can define the parameters listed
below.
Measure Time (sec)
Time in seconds for which the limit applies.
Maximum Number of
Incoming Connections
Number of incoming connections allowed
during the Measure Time (sec).
If you activate this setting with on, you can
enter the desired value in the line below.
Maximum Number of
Outgoing Connections
Number of outgoing connections allowed
during the Measure Time (sec).
If you activate this setting with on, you can
enter the desired value in the line below.
Maximum Charge
Maximum charges allowed (amount, units)
during the Measure Time (sec).
If you activate this setting with on, you can
enter the desired value in the line below.
Maximum Time for
Incoming Connections
(sec)
Maximum time in seconds allowed for incoming
connections during the Measure Time (sec).
If you activate this setting with on, you can
enter the desired value in the line below.
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10
Activity Monitoring
Field
Meaning
Maximum Time for
Outgoing Connections
(sec)
Maximum time in seconds allowed for outgoing
connections during the Measure Time (sec).
If you activate this setting with on, you can
enter the desired value in the line below.
Maximum Number of
Current Incoming
Connections
Maximum number of incoming connections
allowed at any one time.
If you activate this setting with on, you can
enter the desired value in the line below.
Maximum Number of
Current Outgoing
Connections
Maximum number of outgoing connections
allowed at any one time.
If you activate this setting with on, you can
enter the desired value in the line below.
Table 10-5:
To do
ISDN ➧ CREDITS
Proceed as follows:
➤ Go to ISDN ➧ CREDITS.
➤ Select Subsystem and confirm with Return.
➤ Select Surveillance: on, if you want to use the Credits Based Accounting
System for the selected Subsystem.
➤ Enter Measure Time (sec), e.g. 86400 (= 24 hours).
➤ Activate Maximum Number of Incoming Connections, if applicable, and
enter the desired value.
➤ Activate Maximum Number of Outgoing Connections, if applicable, and
enter the desired value.
➤ Activate Maximum Charge, if applicable, and enter the desired value.
➤ Activate Maximum Time for Incoming Connections (sec), if applicable,
and enter the desired value.
➤ Activate Maximum Time for Outgoing Connections (sec), if applicable,
and enter the desired value.
➤ Activate Maximum Number of Current Incoming Connections, if
applicable, and enter the desired value.
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Configuration of Security Functions and Firewall
➤ Activate Maximum Number of Current Outgoing Connections, if
applicable, and enter the desired value.
➤ Press SAVE.
10.1.4
HTTP Status Page
Every BinTec router is equipped with an internal home page, the so-called
HTTP status page. You can use this together with an Internet browser (e.g.
Netscape Navigator, Internet Explorer) to display the status of X4000. This
enables all users of the X4000 LAN to take a look at the status of the router,
provided they know the password for the user name http.
Please note: HTTP pages are usually stored in the cache memory of the
browser. This means they can possibly be read by other users at the same
workspace and may also be visible at proxy ➤➤ servers involved.
➤ Enter the URL http://<system name> in your browser. (You can also
enter X4000’s IP address instead of the name.)
The HTTP status page of the BinTec router with the system name <System
Name> is displayed with the IP address entered.
The HTTP status page contains three tables:
■ System description:
In addition to the version of the system software, this also lists information
from the MIB table system, such as System name and Contact. If a valid
e-mail address is given under Contact, this is shown underlined.
■ Software options:
This table lists information from the MIB table biboAdmLicInfoTable and
displays the status of X4000’s subsystems.
■ Hardware interfaces:
This table displays the LAN and WAN interfaces of X4000. The third column
of the table provides information about the current status of the physical
interfaces.
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The HTTP status page contains a number of links:
■ update
Click update to update the status page.
■ login
Click login to log in to the associated BinTec router via ➤➤ telnet.
■ http://www.bintec.de
Use this link to access BinTec’s WWW server with the latest information on
products and the current system software and documentation for X4000.
■ system tables
Click system tables to display a list with all the X4000 MIB tables. Clicking
a table name lists the variables contained in the table.
If you don’t want to display X4000’s HTTP status page, enter 0 as the port
number of the http port:
➤ Go to IP ➧ STATIC SETTINGS.
➤ Enter HTTP TCP port: 0.
➤ Press SAVE.
10.1.5
Java Status Monitor
The Java status monitor offers you another facility for displaying information
about X4000 using an Internet browser. You can call up the following
information with the JAVA status monitor:
■ Static information such as the system name of the BinTec router and the
software version.
■ Data flow over the individual interfaces.
■ Connections to WAN partners.
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If you have installed the JAVA status monitor together with BRICKware (see
chapter 6.2, page 112), you can start it as follows:
➤ Select Program ➧ BRICKware ➧ Java Status Monitor in the Windows
Start menu.
The JAVA status monitor opens with your standard browser.
Further information about the JAVA status monitor can be found in BRICKware
for Windows.
10.1.6
Activity Monitor
What do you need it
for?
The Activity Monitor enables Windows users to monitor the activities of X4000.
Important information about the status of physical interfaces (e.g. ISDN line)
and virtual interfaces (e.g. WAN partner) is easily obtained with ONE tool. A
permanent overview of the utilization of X4000’s interfaces is possible.
How does it work?
A Status Demon collects information on X4000 and transfers it in the form of
UDP packets to the broadcast address of the LAN (default setting) or to an
explicitly entered IP address. One packet is sent per X4000 interface and time
interval, which can be adjusted individually to values from 1 - 60 seconds. All
physical interfaces and up to 100 virtual interfaces can be monitored, provided
the packet size of approx. 4000 bytes is not exceeded. A Windows application
on your PC receives the packets and displays the information received in
various forms. This application is obtainable with BRICKware Release 5.1.1
and higher.
Activate the Activity Monitor as follows:
■ Appropriately configure the X4000(s) to be monitored.
■ Start and use the Windows application on your PC (see BRICKware for
Windows).
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The configuration is made in SYSTEM ➧ EXTERNAL ACTIVITY M ONITOR:
Field
Meaning
Client IP Address
IP address to which X4000 sends the UDP
packets.
The default value 255.255.255.255 means that
the broadcast address of the first LAN interface
is used.
Note: If you enter the IP address of a WAN
partner that can be reached over an ISDN
dialup connection, you will get a large
telephone bill due to frequent setting up of
ISDN connections (a packet is usually sent
every 5 seconds).
Client UDP Port
Port number for Activity Monitor (default value:
2107, registered by IANA - Internet Assigned
Numbers Authority).
Type
Type of information sent in the UDP packets to
the Windows application. Possible values:
■ off: deactivates Activity Monitor (default
value)
■ physical: only information about physical
interfaces
■ physical_virt: information about physical
and virtual interfaces
Update Interval (sec)
Table 10-6:
Update interval in seconds. Possible values: 0
to 60 (default value: 5).
SYSTEM ➧ EXTERNAL ACTIVITY MONITOR
The breakdown of X4000’s interfaces into physical and virtual interfaces is
described in detail in the Software Reference.
Note: A leased line always represents a physical interface, but a group of
leased lines is displayed as both a physical and virtual interface!
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To do
Proceed as follows:
➤ Go to SYSTEM ➧ EXTERNAL ACTIVITY MONITOR.
➤ Enter Client IP Address, Client UDP Port, Type and Update Interval
(sec).
➤ Press SAVE.
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10.2
Access Security
There are several ways of restricting logging in and access to X4000 to
authorized users only:
■ Logging In (chapter 10.2.1, page 325)
■ Checking the Calling Party Number (CLID) (chapter 10.2.2, page 326)
■ Authentication of PPP Connections (chapter 10.2.3, page 327)
■ Callback (chapter 10.2.4, page 327)
■ Closed User Group (chapter 10.2.5, page 330)
■ Access to Remote CAPI (chapter 10.2.6, page 330)
■ Network Address Translation (NAT) (chapter 10.2.7, page 331)
■ Filters (chapter 10.2.8, page 335)
■ Local Filters (chapter 10.2.9, page 348)
■ Back Route Verification (chapter 10.2.10, page 352)
■ TAF (chapter 10.2.11, page 353)
■ Extended IP Routing (XIPR) (chapter 10.2.12, page 353)
10.2.1
Password
Logging In
Logging in to X4000 can be done in several ways as described in chapter 4.2,
page 76, but is always protected by a password. Every unsuccessful attempt to
log in is logged with the source of the attempt by a syslog message and creates
a corresponding SNMP trap. Pauses are inserted after several unsuccessful
attempts to make it difficult for automatic attempts to find the password.
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Caution!
All BinTec routers are shipped with the same user names and passwords. As
long as the password remains unchanged, they are not protected against
unauthorized use. How to change the passwords is described in "Changing the
password", page 85.
➤ You must change the passwords as described in chapter 4.2, page 76.
➤ Also make sure that unauthorized persons do not have access to the X4000
power supply, serial console and ➤➤ Ethernet connection.
Until you have changed the default password for the user name admin, a
warning is always given after logging in.
Auto logout
To make unauthorized access difficult, the connection to X4000 is disconnected
if no keyboard entry is made for a period of 15 minutes. You can change the
time with the command t <time in seconds> (see chapter 14.1, page 412).
If you carry out a software update (see chapter 11.2, page 371), you should
deactivate auto logout as follows: Enter t 0 in the SNMP shell.
You can create additional user accounts with the aid of SNMP commands (see
the Software Reference). A certain password and a certain action can be
assigned to a user.
10.2.2
326
Checking the Calling Party Number
CLID
X4000 uses Calling Line Identification (➤➤ CLID) to check the calling party
number of an incoming call.
Screening indicator
You can also determine whether calling party numbers have been modified by
the calling parties. With some connections, it is possible that another number
(e.g. 5678) is displayed at the called party’s terminal, instead of the calling
party’s own extension number (e.g. 1234). X4000 can detect this from the
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screening indicator in the setup message of the ISDN
screening indicator has four possible values:
➤➤ D-channel. The
■ user: The calling party number indicated originates from the far end and has
not been checked by the network.
■ user_verified: The calling party number has been checked by the exchange
and is correct.
■ user_failed: The calling party number has been checked by the exchange
and is incorrect.
■ network: The calling party number indicated originates directly from the
exchange (normal case).
If you want X4000 to check the screen indicator for incoming calls, you must
enter one of the values stated in the following MIB tables or variables (only
incoming calls with the corresponding screening indicator are accepted):
➤ For incoming PPP connections: Screening variable in biboDialTable.
➤ For incoming ISDN Login connections: Screening variable in
isdnloginAllowTable.
10.2.3
Authentication of PPP Connections with PAP,
CHAP or MS-CHAP
➤➤ PAP, ➤➤ CHAP and MS-CHAP are the common procedures used for
authentication of ➤➤ PPP connections. These use a standard procedure to
exchange a user ID and a password for checking the identity of the far end. You
can find further information in chapter 7.3, page 159 and chapter 8.1.3,
page 194.
10.2.4
Callback
Callback
The callback mechanism can be used for each WAN partner to obtain additional
security regarding the connection partner or to clearly allocate the costs of
connections. A connection is then not set up until the calling party has been
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clearly identified by calling back. X4000 can answer an incoming call with a
callback or dial into a WAN partner and then wait for a callback.
Identification can be based on the calling party number or PAP/CHAP/MSCHAP authentication. Identification is made in the first case without call
acceptance, as the calling party number is transferred over the ISDN Dchannel, and in the second case with call acceptance.
You can find a detailed description of the callback mechanism in the Software
Reference.
This is configured in WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS:
Field
Meaning
Callback
Activates the callback function.
Table 10-7:
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Callback offers the following selection options:
Possible values
Meaning
no
X4000 does not call back.
expected (awaiting
callback)
X4000 calls the WAN partner to initiate
callback.
yes (PPP negotiation)
X4000 calls back with the extension entered for
the WAN partner. If no number is entered, the
required number can be reported by the caller
in a PPP negotiation. This setting should be
avoided if possible for security reasons.
However, no alternative is currently available
for connecting Microsoft ➤➤ clients over data
transmission networks.
yes (delayed, CLID only)
X4000 calls back after approx. four seconds, if
requested to by the WAN partner.
yes (PPP negotiation,
callback optional)
Corresponds to the value yes (PPP
negotiation), but contains an abort option.
The Microsoft client has the option of aborting
callback and maintaining the initial connection
to X4000 without callback. This is done by
pressing CANCEL to close the dialog box that
appears.
Exception: This abort option cannot be used if
the WAN partner dialing in uses Windows NT
and his extension number is entered in X4000.
yes
Table 10-8:
X4000 calls back immediately, if requested to
by the WAN partner.
Callback
If yes (PPP negotiation) is used as the setting for Callback, a B-channel is
always opened, which results in costs.
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To do
Proceed as follows to activate callback for a WAN partner:
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS.
➤ Select Callback.
➤ Confirm with OK.
10.2.5
Closed User Group
X4000 supports the use of the Closed User Group service feature, which you
can request for your ISDN line from your telephone company. The external/
internal reachability is monitored and controlled by the exchanges if this feature
is selected.
To do
Proceed as follows to activate a Closed User Group for a WAN partner:
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ WAN NUMBERS ➧ EDIT ➧ ADVANCED
SETTINGS.
➤ Select Closed User Group: specify.
➤ Enter the CUG index.
➤ Confirm with OK.
10.2.6
Access to Remote CAPI
The special features offered by BinTec routers include implementation of the
➤➤ Remote CAPI and Remote TAPI programming interfaces (only for PABX
devices). This enables applications on computers in the LAN to use the
resources of the router as if these components were installed directly in the
computer.
330
User concept
By using BinTec’s user concept, you can make sure that only users
authenticated by user name and password can access X4000’s Remote CAPI
interface (see chapter 7-3, page 142).
Filters
You can also prevent unauthorized access by defining filters (see
chapter 10.2.8, page 335) and local filters (see chapter 10.2.9, page 348).
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10.2.7
NAT (Network Address Translation)
➤➤ NAT is a simple-to-operate procedure that can be used for several
purposes in the BinTec implementation:
■ Hiding the internal host addresses of a LAN by remapping to one or more
external addresses.
■ Controlling external to internal access. In the external direction, the router
forwards all ➤➤ data packets (forward NAT) and connections from
external callers are only allowed if explicitly enabled.
inside
X4000
?
BinTec
192.168.1.1
X4000D
LAN IP
192.168.1.254
Forward NAT
4000
outside
Access only
when explicitly
allowed
16.0.0.30
ISDN IP
16.0.0.30
ISDN
BI
AN
CA
/B
RI
CK
-X
M
192.168.1.2
192.168.1.3
Network of your
WAN Partner
Your Local Area Network
Figure 10-1: Forward NAT
■ Permanent monitoring of the connections via the router with indication of
the source and destination addresses and ➤➤ ports. See your syslog
messages for this purpose!
NAT always refers to an interface. X4000’s LAN side is always referred to as
"internal", the WAN partner as "external".
You will find more information on NAT in the Software Reference.
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Configuration is made in IP ➧ NETWORK ADDRESS TRANSLATION.
IP ➧ NETWORK ADDRESS TRANSLATION lists all the X4000 interfaces with a
status display for current NAT settings:
Field
Meaning
Name
Interface name
Nat
Indicates if NAT is activated for the relevant
interface. Possible values:
■ off: NAT not activated.
■ on: Forward NAT activated.
■ reverse: Reverse NAT activated
static mappings
Table 10-9:
If Nat = on or Nat = reverse, indicates the
number of entries that have been made for the
interface for enabling certain IP connections in
IP ➧ NETWORK ADDRESS TRANSLATION ➧
Return ➧ ADD.
IP ➧ NETWORK ADDRESS TRANSLATION
Activate NAT for an X4000 interface with IP ➧ NETWORK ADDRESS
TRANSLATION ➧ EDIT:
Field
Meaning
Network Address
Translation
Defines the type of NAT for the selected
interface. Possible values:
■ off: Do not execute NAT.
■ on: Execute Forward NAT.
■ reverse: Execute Reverse NAT.
Table 10-10: IP ➧ NETWORK ADDRESS TRANSLATION ➧ Return
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You can explicitly allow a NAT interface certain IP connections to a certain
internal host in IP ➧ NETWORK ADDRESS TRANSLATION ➧ EDIT ➧ ADD:
Field
Meaning
Service
Service allowed for connections to the host
defined under Destination. Possible values:
■ ftp
■ telnet
■ smtp
■ domain/udp
■ domain/tcp
■ http
■ nntp
■ user defined: If you do not use any of the
predefined services. Enter the required
values under Protocol and Port to define a
service.
Protocol
Only for Service = user defined. Defines the
protocol allowed. Possible values:
■ icmp
■ tcp
■ udp
■ gre
■ esp
■ ah
■ l2tp
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Field
Meaning
Port (-1 for any)
Only for Service = user defined. Defines the
port allowed. Entering -1 allows any port for the
protocol. If you specify the port, the entry must
agree with the port number of the destination
host in the LAN.
Destination
IP address of the host in the LAN.
Table 10-11: IP ➧ NETWORK ADDRESS TRANSLATION ➧ Return ➧ ADD
To do
Proceed as follows to activate NAT:
➤ Go to IP ➧ NETWORK ADDRESS TRANSLATION.
➤ Select the interface for which you want to activate NAT and confirm with
Return.
➤ Select Network Address Translation, e.g. on.
This activates NAT for the selected interface.
➤ Press SAVE.
An entry takes effect as soon as you confirm it here with SAVE. Never forget
this, especially if you are configuring NAT from a remote host, e.g. with telnet!
Proceed as follows to allow certain connections for a NAT interface to a certain
host in the LAN:
➤ Go to IP ➧ NETWORK ADDRESS TRANSLATION ➧ EDIT.
➤ Add an entry with ADD or select an existing entry and confirm with Return.
➤ Select Service.
➤ Select Protocol, if applicable.
➤ Enter Port (-1 for any), if applicable.
➤ Enter Destination.
➤ Press SAVE.
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➤ Repeat these steps to define several entries for the selected NAT interface.
10.2.8
Filters (Access Lists)
IP filters (➤➤ Access Lists) in X4000 are based on a concept of ➤➤ filters,
rules and so-called chains. IP filters respond to incoming data packets, which
means they can allow or deny access to X4000 for certain data.
Filters
A filter describes a certain part of the IP data traffic based on the source and/or
destination IP address, ➤➤ netmask, protocol and source and/or destination
port. If you define a filter, you are telling X4000: "Watch out for all data packets
that match the following: ...".
Rule
You use a rule to tell X4000 what to do with the data packets it has filtered out,
i.e. whether or not it should allow them to pass through. You can also define
several rules, which you arrange in the form of a chain to obtain a certain
sequence.
Chain
There are various approaches for the definition of rules and rule chains:
■ Allow all packets that are not explicitly prohibited, i.e.:
–
Deny all packets that match Filter 1.
–
Deny all packets that match Filter 2.
–
...
–
...
–
Allow the rest.
■ Allow only what is explicitly permitted, i.e.:
–
Allow all packets that match Filter 1.
–
Allow all packets that match Filter 2.
–
...
–
...
–
Deny the rest.
■ Combination of the two possibilities described above
Several rule chains can be created, either completely or partly separated
from each other. The common use of filters is possible and practicable.
Interface
You can also define a rule chain individually for each X4000 interface.
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WAN Partner 1
WAN Partner 2
Rule 1
Rule 4
Next Rule = 2
Next Rule = 2
Rule 2
Rule 5
Next Rule = 3
Next Rule = 0
Rule 3
Next Rule = 0
Rule 0 = Discard Packet
Figure 10-2: Rule chains for various interfaces
Configuration is made in:
■ IP ➧ ACCESS LISTS ➧ FILTER
■ IP ➧ ACCESS LISTS ➧ RULES
■ IP ➧ ACCESS LISTS ➧ RULES ➧ REORG
■ IP ➧ ACCESS LISTS ➧ INTERFACES
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You can define filters in IP ➧ A CCESS LISTS ➧ FILTER:
Field
Meaning
Description
Designation of the filter. Note that only the first
10 or 15 characters are visible in other menus.
Index
Cannot be changed here. X4000 automatically
issues a number to new filters defined here.
Protocol
Defines a protocol. Possible values:
any, icmp, ggp, ip, tcp, egp, igp, pup, chaos,
udp, hmp, xns_idp, rdp, rsvp, gre, esp, ah, tlsp,
skip, kryptolan, iso-ip, igrp, ospf, ipip, ipx-in-ip,
vrrp, l2tp.
any matches any protocol, tcp matches only
TCP data packets, etc.
Type
Only if Protocol = icmp. Possible values:
any, echo reply, destination unreachable,
source quench, redirect, echo, time exceeded,
param problem, timestamp, timestamp reply,
address mask, address mask reply.
See RFC 792.
Connection State
If Protocol = tcp, you can define a filter based
on the status of the TCP connection. Possible
values:
■ established: All TCP packets that would not
open any new connection on routing over
X4000 match the filter.
■ any: All TCP packets match the filter.
Source Address
Source IP address of the data packets that
matches the filter.
Source Mask
Source Netmask. The combination of Source
Address and Source Mask describes a range
of IP addresses that match the filter.
Source Port
Source port number or range of source port
numbers that matches the filter.
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Field
Meaning
Specify Port
If Source Port or Destination Port = specify or
specify range: Enter port numbers or range of
port numbers.
Destination Address
Destination IP address of the data packets that
matches the filter.
Destination Mask
Destination Netmask. The combination of
Destination Address and Destination Mask
describes a range of IP addresses that match
the filter.
Destination Port
Destination port number or range of destination
port numbers that matches the filter.
Type of Service (TOS)
Type of Service
TOS Mask
Mask for Type of Service
Table 10-12: IP ➧ ACCESS LISTS ➧ FILTER
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The fields Source Port and Destination Port offer the following selection
options:
Possible values
Meaning
any
All ➤➤ port numbers match the filter.
specify
Permits the entry of a port number under
Specify Port.
specify range
Permits the entry of a range of port numbers
under Specify Port.
priv (0..1023)
Port numbers: 0 ... 1023.
server (5000..32767)
Port numbers: 5000 ... 32767.
clients 1 (1024.0.4999)
Port numbers: 1024 ... 4999.
clients 2 (32768..65535)
Port numbers: 32768 ... 65535.
unpriv (1024..65535)
Port numbers: 1024 ... 65535.
Table 10-13: Source Port and Destination Port
Port numbers
The port numbers are distributed as follows:
0 ... 1023
1024 ... 4999
Well-known ports,
i.e. permanently
assigned.
The ports are created by
priv (0..1023)
5000 ... 32767
32768 ... 65535
➤➤ clients and
➤➤ servers dynamically and have no fixed
meaning (except for special agreements):
unpriv (1024..65535)
clients 1
(1024.0.4999)
server
(5000..32767)
clients 2
(32768..65535)
Table 10-14: Ranges of port numbers
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The following table contains a list of some frequently used port numbers with
the services assigned to them:
Service
Protocol
Port number
File Transfer Protocol (➤➤ FTP) (data)
TCP
20
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) (commands)
TCP
21
Telnet
TCP
23
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
TCP
25
Domain Name Server (➤➤ DNS)
TCP, UDP
53
Trivial File Transfer Protocol
(➤➤ TFTP)
UDP
69
HTTP
TCP
80
POP3 (e-mail inquiry)
TCP
110
Network Time Protocol
TCP, UDP
119
➤➤ NetBIOS Name (NBNAME)
UDP
137
NetBIOS Datagram (NBDATA)
UDP
138
NetBIOS Session (NBSESSION)
TCP
139
Simple Network Management Protocol
(SNMP) (Port Lists)
UDP
161
SNMP (Trap Port)
UDP
162
Syslog Service (SYSLOG)
UDP
514
Network File System (NFS)
UDP
2049
Remote CAPI
TCP
2662
Remote TAPI
TCP
2663
Table 10-15: Services and port numbers
Example
340
A simplified FTP connection is used as an example to illustrate how to use
source and destination ports: In addition to source and destination IP
addresses, the IP protocol also uses source and destination port numbers to
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uniquely identify data connections. The FTP client creates a number, e.g. xyz,
which is used as source port. As destination port, the client uses the number
under which the FTP server offers the FTP service, e.g. 21. The FTP server
then answers with IP packets that use 21 as source port and xyz as destination
port:
Src IP = 192.168.1.1
Src Port = xyz
Dest IP = 10.1.1.2
Dest Port = 21
1
4000
ISDN
BinTec
192.168.1.1
BI
AN
CA
/B
RI
CK
-X
M
X4000D
192.168.1.2
2
FTP-Server
FTP Server
10.1.1.2
Src IP = 192.168.1.1
Src Port = xyz
Dest IP = 10.1.1.2
Dest Port = 21
192.168.1.3
Your Local Area Network
Network of your
WAN Partner
Figure 10-3: Example: FTP connection
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You can define rules in IP ➧ ACCESS LISTS ➧ RULES:
Field
Meaning
Index
Cannot be changed. X4000 automatically
issues a number to new rules defined here or
displays the Index of existing rules.
Insert behind Rule
Appears only if a new rule is defined. Defines
the rule behind which the new rule is inserted.
You start a new independent chain with none.
Action
Defines the action to be taken for a filtered data
packet.
Filters
Filter used.
Next Rule
Appears only if an existing rule is edited.
Defines the next rule to be used.
Table 10-16: IP ➧ ACCESS LISTS ➧ RULES
The Action field contains the following selection options:
Possible values
Meaning
allow M
Allow packet if it matches the filter.
allow !M
Allow packet if it does not match the filter.
deny M
Deny packet if it matches the filter.
deny !M
Deny packet if it does not match the filter.
ignore
Use next rule.
Table 10-17: Action
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You can change the order of rules in a chain in the submenu IP ➧ ACCESS
LISTS ➧ RULES ➧ REORG:
Field
Meaning
Index of Rule that gets
Index 1
Defines the first rule in the chain.
Table 10-18: IP ➧ A CCESS LISTS ➧ RULES ➧ REORG
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If you reorganize such a chain, X4000 renumbers the remaining rules according
to the selection in Index of Rule that gets Index 1:
REORG
Before
After
“Rule 1 = 1st Rule of Chain”
Rule 1
Rule 1
Next Rule = 4
Next Rule = 2
Rule 4
Rule 2
Next Rule = 8
Next Rule = 3
Rule 8
Rule 3
Next Rule = 0
Next Rule = 0
Rule 0 = Discard Packet
Rule 0 = Discard Packet
Figure 10-4: Example of chain reorganization
In IP ➧ ACCESS LISTS ➧ INTERFACES, you can define which interface starts
with which rule and if and how the sender of a packet is to be informed if the
packet is denied by X4000 due to a filter violation:
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The rule with Index = 1 is normally always used as the first rule for a newly
created interface (e.g. to a WAN partner).
Field
Meaning
Interface
X4000 interface
First Rule
Defines which rule is used first for data packets
that reach X4000 via the interface. If you enter
none, you specify that no filters are used for the
Interface.
Deny Silent
Defines whether the sender of a packet is to be
informed of its denial due to a filter violation.
Possible values:
■ no: Packet is denied, sender is informed by
a corresponding ICMP error message.
■ yes: Packet is denied, sender is not
informed.
Reporting Method
Defines whether the denial of a packet due to a
filter violation creates a syslog message.
Possible values:
■ none: No syslog message.
■ info: A syslog message is generated with
the protocol number, source IP address and
source port number.
■ dump: A syslog message is generated with
the contents of the first 64 bytes of the
denied packet.
Table 10-19: IP ➧ ACCESS LISTS ➧ INTERFACES
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To do
Proceed as follows to define filters and rules:
Ensure that you don’t lock yourself out when configuring the filters. For
example, if you link the first filter to a rule that executes Action = Allow M, only
what you have expressly allowed with the filter actually gets through. It may
easily occur that your telnet access to X4000 is no longer allowed as soon as
you enter the rule and confirm with SAVE.
■ Do not use any filters on the LAN interface (First Rule = none) if you access
X4000 via telnet.
■ If you access X4000 via the serial interface or ISDN login, at least nothing
can happen to you during configuration.
Filters
➤ Go to IP ➧ ACCESS LISTS ➧ FILTERS.
➤ Add a new entry with ADD or select an existing entry and confirm with
Return to change it.
➤ Enter Description.
➤ Select Protocol.
➤ Enter Source Address, if applicable.
➤ Enter Source Mask, if applicable.
➤ Select Source Port.
➤ Enter Specify Port, if applicable.
➤ Enter Destination Address, if applicable.
➤ Enter Destination Mask, if applicable.
➤ Select Destination Port.
➤ Enter Specify Port, if applicable.
➤ Press SAVE.
➤ Repeat these steps until you have defined all the desired filters.
Do not forget to define a filter, if necessary, for enabling the remaining data
packets (Protocol = any, Source Port = any, Destination Port = any).
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➤ Leave IP ➧ ACCESS LISTS ➧ FILTERS with EXIT.
Rules
➤ Go to IP ➧ ACCESS LISTS ➧ RULES to interconnect the filters to form rule
chains.
➤ Add a new entry with ADD or select an existing entry and confirm with
Return to change it.
➤ Select Insert behind Rule if you create a new rule.
➤ Select Action.
➤ Select Filter.
➤ Select Next Rule if you change an existing rule.
➤ Press SAVE.
➤ Repeat these steps until you have defined all the desired rules.
Do not forget to define the last rule in the chain, if necessary, as a rule with a
suitable filter for enabling all the remaining data packets (Action = allow M).
You can open a new rule chain with Insert behind Rule = none.
➤ Leave IP ➧ ACCESS LISTS ➧ RULES with EXIT.
Interface
➤ Go to IP ➧ ACCESS LISTS ➧ INTERFACES.
➤ Select an interface and confirm with Return if you wish to use a rule as the
first rule for this interface that is not the rule displayed.
➤ Select First Rule.
➤ Select Deny Silent.
➤ Select Reporting Method.
➤ Press SAVE.
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Reorganizing a chain
Proceed as follows to reorganize an existing chain of rules:
➤ Go to IP ➧ ACCESS LISTS ➧ RULES ➧ REORG.
➤ Select Index of Rule that gets Index 1.
➤ Confirm with REORG.
If you work with Windows PCs in your network, it is usually advisable to define
a NetBIOS filter. An example of this configuration is explained step by step in
chapter 7.1.5, page 132.
10.2.9
Local Filters
Access to the local UDP and TCP services on X4000 (telnet, ➤➤ CAPI, trace,
etc.) can be controlled via the separate Setup Tool menu IP ➧ LOCAL S ERVICES
ACCESS CONTROL. One or more restrictions can be defined here for each
service. If no entry exists for a service, there are no access restrictions for this
service, i.e. access is possible to this service over all interfaces and from any
source address, provided this is not prohibited by the use of NAT (see
chapter 10.2.7, page 331) or global filters (see chapter 10.2.8, page 335).
Strategy
As soon as at least one entry for local filters exists in X4000, incoming requests
for the corresponding local services of X4000 are only allowed if
1.
the source address is 127.0.0.1 (loopback address), or
2.
no entry exists for the corresponding service, or
3.
the incoming call is expressly allowed by at least one entry.
The existing entries are processed in the order in which they are listed in the
corresponding table in the SNMP shell (localTcpAllowTable or
localUdpAllowTable). If an entry in this sorted list does not apply, the next
entry is checked. This enables requests over several interfaces or from several
IP addresses to be admitted individually to a certain service.
If a matching entry for a request has still not been found after checking the last
entry in the list, there are two alternatives:
■ The request is forwarded to the relevant service if no entry in the list refers
to this service.
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■ The request is rejected if one or more entries for this service exist in the list,
but none of these matches the request.
Local filters therefore provide an additional tool that is different to handle than
global filters and does not adversely affect performance in normal routing either.
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Configuration is made in IP ➧ LOCAL SERVICES ACCESS CONTROL ➧ ADD:
Field
Meaning
Service
Defines the local X4000 service to which
access is to be controlled with this entry.
Possible values:
■ snmp(udp)
■ rip(udp)
■ bootps(udp)
■ dns(udp)
■ telnet(tcp)
■ trace(tcp)
■ snmp(tcp)
■ capi(tcp)
■ tapi(tcp)
■ rfc1086(tcp)
■ http(tcp)
■ nbns(udp)
■ statmon(udp)
Verify IP Address
Defines if the source IP address is to be
checked when an incoming call is received for
the service selected under Service. Possible
values:
■ verify
■ don’t verify
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Field
Meaning
IP Address
(Only if Verify IP Address = verify)
Defines an IP address or network address
(together with Mask) from which incoming
requests are allowed for the service selected
under Service. If a request has a different
source address, the next entry is checked.
Mask
(Only if Verify IP Address = verify)
Defines a netmask. A network address is thus
defined together with the IP Address from
which incoming requests are allowed to the
service selected under Service. If a request
has a different source address, the next entry is
checked.
If the value of Mask is 0.0.0.0 or
255.255.255.255, the entry is a host entry, i.e.
the IP address must match exactly.
Verify Interface
Defines if a check is to be made to determine
which X4000 interface is used for an incoming
call received for the service selected under
Service. Possible values:
■ verify
■ don’t verify
Interface
(Only if Verify Interface = verify)
Defines an interface of X4000. If X4000
receives an incoming call over this interface for
the service selected under Service, the
connection is allowed. If the incoming call
crosses another interface, the next entry is
checked.
Table 10-20: IP ➧ LOCAL SERVICES ACCESS CONTROL ➧ ADD
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Proceed as follows to restrict access to a local service:
If an entry defines both an address and an interface for checking, both criteria
must be fulfilled for an incoming call before X4000 accepts this call.
➤ Go to IP ➧ LOCAL SERVICES ACCESS CONTROL.
All the entries made until now are listed here.
➤ Press ADD to add a new entry.
➤ Select Service.
➤ Select Verify IP Address, e.g. verify.
➤ Enter IP Address, if applicable.
➤ Enter Mask, if applicable.
➤ Select Verify Interface, e.g. verify.
➤ Select Interface, if applicable.
➤ Press SAVE.
The entry is listed.
10.2.10 Back Route Verification
This term conceals a simple but very effective X4000 function. If Back Route
Verification is activated at a WAN partner, only those data packets are
transported via the interface to the WAN partner that would be routed over the
same interface on the back route. You can therefore prevent packets with fake
IP addresses being fed to your LAN – even without filters. This means you can
easily prevent known and as yet unknown Denial-of-Service and IP spoofing
attacks.
To do
Proceed as follows to activate Back Route Verification for a WAN partner:
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ IP ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS.
➤ Activate Back Route Verify with on.
➤ Confirm with OK.
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10.2.11 TAF Client
Personalized
authentication
The Token Authentication Firewall (TAF) function permits personal
authentication of IP connection partners. BinTec’s solution integrates the Token
Authentication mechanisms from Security Dynamics and does not allow data
packets to cross the router until the associated source address has been
authenticated successfully.
You can activate this function in X4000 (with extra license) and configure the
router as TAF Server or TAF Client. A detailed description of the operation and
the necessary configuration steps can be found in BRICKware for Windows.
10.2.12 Extended IP Routing (XIPR)
In addition to the normal routing table, X4000 can also make routing decisions
based on an additional table called the Extended Routing Table (Extended IP
Routing). Apart from the destination address, X4000 can also include the
protocol, source and destination port, type of service (TOS) and the status of
the destination interface in the decision. If there are entries in the Extended
Routing Table, these are treated preferentially compared with entries in the
normal routing table.
Example
XIPR is useful, for example, if two networks are connected via ISDN with a LANLAN connection, but certain services (e.g. telnet) should be routed over an X.25
link and not over an ISDN switched connection. By making entries in the
Extended Routing Table, you can allow part of the IP traffic to run over the ISDN
switched connection and part of the IP traffic (e.g. for telnet) to run over an X.25
link (see also the Software Reference).
Configuration
Configuration is made in the Setup Tool menu IP ➧ ROUTING ➧ ADDEXT and
in the MIB table ipExtRtTable.
A detailed description (including configuration using the MIB variables) can be
found in the Software Reference. For configuration with the Setup Tool, please
see the relevant additions in the next version of the User’s Guide.
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10.3
Line Tapping Security
You can use an encryption mechanism to obtain data security for critical PPP
connections over connections with critical security, provided both connection
partners support this mechanism. The following functions are possible:
■ Encryption (chapter 10.3.1, page 354)
■ VPN (with extra license) (chapter 10.3.2, page 357)
10.3.1
Encryption
X4000 supports encryption of PPP connections to WAN partners.
The ➤➤ MPPE (Microsoft Point to Point ➤➤ Encryption) version 1 and 2,
DES and Blowfish methods are used. DES and Blowfish are implemented as
BinTec proprietary solutions.
MPPE V2
The MPPE Version 2 encryption protocol, the successor to MPPE, has been
developed by Microsoft and also uses a 40-bit or 56-bit key. These are
generated on authentication.
If a larger key length is set in X4000 than in the dial-in client, the connection is
not set up.
If one connection partner is set to MPPE V1 as encryption protocol, MPPE V2
is also accepted on connection setup if the set key length is the same.
DES and Blowfish
If these proprietary encryption algorithms are used, either X4000 can generate
a key automatically or you can define an individual key statically in consultation
with the connection partner.
The DES and Blowfish encryption algorithms are only supported if a license for
VPN is entered in X4000.
Configuration is made in:
■ WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT
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■ WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS ➧ EXTENDED INTERFACE
SETTINGS (OPTIONAL)
The following field in WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT is relevant for this configuration
step:
Field
Meaning
Encryption
Defines the type of encryption. Possible values:
■ MPPE 40: MPPE version 1 with 40-bit key
■ MPPE 56: MPPE version 1 with 56-bit key
■ MPPE V2 40: MPPE version 2 with 40-bit
key
■ MPPE V2 56: MPPE version 2 with 56-bit
key
■ DES 56: DES with 56-bit key
■ Blowfish 56: Blowfish with 56-bit key
■ none: No encryption
These values are only available if PPP, Async
PPP over X.75, Async PPP over X.75/T.70/
BTX or X.25_PPP has been selected under
Encapsulation.
Table 10-21: WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT
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If DES or Blowfish are used, the key can be generated automatically with
authentication or defined statically. The following fields in the WAN PARTNER ➧
EDIT ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS ➧ EXTENDED INTERFACE SETTINGS (OPTIONAL)
menu are relevant for this purpose:
Field
Meaning
Encryption Key
Negotiation
Defines whether a key for the connection to the
WAN partner is generated automatically or
defined statically.
Possible values:
■ authentication (default value): Key is
generated automatically by X4000.
■ static: The key is defined statically and must
be entered under Encryption Key (TX) and
Encryption Key (RX).
Encryption Key (TX)
(Only for Encryption Key Negotiation = static)
Key (in hexadecimal format) for encryption of
outgoing data (must be the same as the entry
under Encryption Key (RX) at the connection
partner’s).
Encryption Key (RX)
(Only for Encryption Key Negotiation = static)
Key (in hexadecimal format) for encryption of
incoming data (must be the same as the entry
under Encryption Key (TX) at the connection
partner’s).
Table 10-22: WAN PARTNER ➧ ADD ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS ➧
EXTENDED INTERFACE SETTINGS (OPTIONAL )
To do
Proceed as follows to exchange data in encrypted form with a WAN partner:
➤ Go to WAN PARTNER.
➤ Select a WAN partner and confirm with Return to encrypt the PPP
connections to this partner.
➤ Select Encryption, e.g. DES 56.
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➤ Go to WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ ADVANCED SETTINGS ➧ EXTENDED
INTERFACE SETTINGS (OPTIONAL).
➤ Select Encryption Key Negotiation, e.g. static (if you wish to define the
key yourself).
➤ Enter Encryption Key (TX), if applicable, e.g. 1A35EFC17B56.
➤ Enter Encryption Key (RX), if applicable, e.g. 89A1288CD131.
➤ Press SAVE.
➤ Confirm with OK.
➤ Press SAVE.
10.3.2
VPN (with extra license)
X4000 can set up a VPN (Virtual Private Network) using the PPTP (Point-toPoint Tunneling Protocol). This provides safe (encrypted) transmission of data
over WAN connections, e.g. over the Internet. It can be used, for example, by
field service staff to obtain low-cost access to data in the company network via
Internet and laptop (dial-in via a local Internet Service Provider).
You can find detailed information and configuration instructions (with
examples) in the Extended Features Reference.
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10.4
Special Features
The following special features support your network security:
■ Startup Procedure (chapter 10.4.1, page 358)
■ Auto logout (chapter 10.4.2, page 358)
■ Prevention of Denial-of-Service Attacks (chapter 10.4.3, page 358)
10.4.1
Startup Procedure
X4000 does not start its routing activities until the complete configuration is
loaded, especially the defined filters. This means it is not possible to provoke a
system start to make use of an intermediate system state in which perhaps
routing takes place before the filters are active.
10.4.2
Auto Logout
Connections to X4000 via telnet, ➤➤ isdnlogin or serial interface are
disconnected automatically if no entry is made on the keyboard for a period of
15 minutes. This makes it difficult to read out or change the system
configuration on "forgotten" connections. You can change the time with the
command t <time in seconds> (see chapter 14.1, page 412).
10.4.3
Prevention of Denial-of-Service Attacks
A Denial-of-Service (DoS) attack is an attempt to flood a system or force a
restart by sending certain packets. This means the system or a certain service
can no longer be used.
Some Denial-of-Service attacks on the router itself are already prevented by the
internal coding.
For example, all X4000 interfaces for which you activate Network Address
Translation (NAT) protect the connected PCs against some DoS attacks with
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fragmented packets. The packet fragments are assembled again on passing
through NAT, before the packet can pass the router.
You can prevent some DoS attacks that operate with fake source IP addresses
by using the Back Route Verification function (see chapter 10.2.10, page 352).
You can counter DoS attacks that speculate on destroying the system by
causing the log files to overflow (syslog messages) by suitably positioning and
limiting the size of these files.
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10.5
Checklist
The following list indicates the most important critical security points that you
should observe when configuring X4000:
■ Have you changed all four passwords for system access (admin, read,
write, http)? See chapter 4.2, page 76.
■ Are the activities of your X4000 sufficiently accurately logged on at least
one external computer and do you check the syslog messages regularly?
See chapter 10.1.1, page 308.
■ Have you restricted access to the local services and resources to known
computers or networks? In particular, you should only allow access via
CAPI, SNMP, HTTP, trace and telnet to known computers.
■ Are configuration files saved by TFTP kept in a safe place?
■ Have you protected all PPP accesses with a password?
■ If applicable, have you activated Network Address Translation (NAT) for the
connection to the Internet Service Provider (ISP)? See chapter 10.2.7,
page 331.
■ Have you limited the IP data traffic at critical interfaces, if necessary with
the aid of filters, and prevented IP address spoofing? You should pay
special attention to the interfaces you have not protected with NAT! See
chapter 10.2.8, page 335.
■ Have you restricted remote maintenance access via ISDN Login? Have you
made an entry under CM1BRI, ISDN S0 ➧ INCOMING C ALL A NSWERING?
See "Incoming call answering", page 141.
You should also observe the following additional points:
■ Do you use the Microsoft callback procedure for PPP connections? Please
refer to the information in chapter 10.2.4, page 327.
■ Do you use an encryption protocol for line tapping security on connections
with critical security? See chapter 10.3.1, page 354.
■ Do you use personal authentication on connections with critical security?
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■ Do you allow the influence of routing protocols (e.g. RIP) only on
trustworthy networks? See chapter 8.2.8, page 229.
■ Do you check what computers have access to the Remote CAPI interface,
what applications are used on them and whether the connections used with
these applications are desired? Do you use BinTec’s user concept
(chapter 7-3, page 142)?
■ Are any additional user accounts created trouble-free?
■ Have you prevented the interception of connections on the Ethernet by a
suitable LAN infrastructure?
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Configuration Management
In this chapter, you will find instructions on the administration of your
configuration files and on updating the X4000 software. The following areas are
covered:
■ Administration of Configuration Files
–
Where are the configuration files?
–
What is flash and memory?
–
How do I handle configuration files?
■ Updating Software:
–
How do I keep in touch with the latest developments?
–
How do I load a new Boot Image?
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11.1
Administration of Configuration Files
Flash
X4000 reads its configuration information from configuration files. These
configuration files are stored in the flash EEPROM (electronically eraseable,
programmable read-only memory) of X4000. Several different configuration
files can be stored in the flash memory. The data also remains stored in the
flash when X4000 is switched off.
Memory
The current configuration and all changes you set during the operation of X4000
are stored in the working memory (RAM). The contents of the RAM are lost
when X4000 is switched off. So if you modify your configuration and want to
retain these changes for the next time you start X4000, you have to save the
modified configuration to the flash before switching off: Exit ➧ Save as boot
configuration and exit (see chapter 7.4, page 186). This file is then saved in
the flash as a boot configuration file under the name "boot". When X4000 is
started again, this very file, the configuration file with the name "boot", is loaded
in the RAM and becomes operative.
Operations
Imagine the flash memory as a directory of configuration files. The files in this
directory can be copied, moved, erased and newly filed. It is also possible to
transfer configuration files between X4000 and a remote host by TFTP.
Windows
In Windows, you can use the TFTP server of DIME Tools (see BRICKware for
Windows). You can then, for example, save a configuration file from X4000 on
your local PC.
The names of the files to be transferred with the TFTP server of DIME Tools
may only consist of a maximum of 8 characters (and a maximum of 3
characters as extension), e.g. b5104.x4a.
Unix
A TFTP server is part of the system in Unix; please read the instructions
included in the Software Reference.
You can perform the various operations with the help of the Setup Tool:
➤ Go to the CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT menu.
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X4000 Setup Tool
[CONFIG]:Configuration Management
BinTec Communications AG
MyRouter
Operation
get
TFTP Server IP Address
TFTP File Name
192.168.1.1
b5104.x4a
Name in Flash
boot
Type of last operation
State of last operation
get (TFTP --> FLASH)
done
START OPERATION
(TFTP --> FLASH)
EXIT
Use <Space> to select
The menu contains the following fields:
Field
Meaning
Operation
Operation you want to perform.
TFTP Server IP Address
The IP address or host name (if the host name
can be resolved) of the TFTP server which you
want to transfer a configuration file from or to.
TFTP File Name
Name of the configuration file on the TFTP
server (without path data).
Name in Flash
Name of the configuration file in the flash.
New Name in Flash
Name of the configuration file to be newly
created in the flash (with Operation = move or
copy).
Type of Last Operation
Type of previous operation (since the last
X4000 start).
State of last operation
The state of the last operation executed.
Table 11-1:
CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT
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The Operation field contains the following selection options:
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Possible values
Meaning
save
(MEMORY --> FLASH)
Save all current settings from memory to flash
as configuration file <Name in Flash>. <Name
in Flash> is overwritten or recreated.
load
(FLASH --> MEMORY)
Loading the configuration file <Name in Flash>
from flash to memory. The settings in <Name in
Flash> take immediate effect.
move
(FLASH --> FLASH)
Rename configuration file <Name in Flash> to
<New Name in Flash>.
copy (FLASH --> FLASH)
Copy configuration file <Name in Flash> as
<New Name in Flash>.
delete (FLASH)
Delete configuration file <Name in Flash>.
put (FLASH --> TFTP)
Transfer configuration file <Name in Flash>
from flash to TFTP host with the IP address
<TFTP Server IP Address>. <TFTP File Name>
is then overwritten or recreated on the TFTP
host with the contents of <Name in Flash>.
<TFTP File Name> is saved in ASCII format
and can be edited.
get (TFTP --> FLASH)
Transfer configuration file <TFTP File Name>
from TFTP host with the IP address <TFTP
Server IP Address> to flash. <Name in Flash>
is then overwritten and recreated with the
contents of <TFTP File Name>.
As the configuration file is transferred to flash
and not to memory, the file must then be loaded
(FLASH --> MEMORY), so that the settings can
take effect on X4000.
state
(MEMORY --> TFTP)
Save all current settings in the memory as
<TFTP File Name> on the TFTP host with the
IP address <TFTP Server IP Address>. <TFTP
File Name> is then overwritten or recreated.
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Possible values
Meaning
reboot
Restart X4000. All settings in the memory are
replaced by boot settings from the flash.
Table 11-2:
Operation
The State of last operation field can display the following:
Possible values
Meaning
todo
The operation has not yet been started.
running
The operation is being executed.
done
The operation has been executed successfully.
error
The operation could not be fully executed (see
syslog message).
Table 11-3:
State of last operation
If an error should occur while running get (TFTP --> FLASH) and the operation
is aborted, the file to be overwritten in the flash is deleted. So if you transfer a
"boot" file, X4000’s boot file will be deleted and X4000 cannot load a
configuration on restarting. If necessary, rename the file to be transferred!
To run put (Flash --> TFTP), get (TFTP --> Flash) and state (MEMORY -->
TFTP), you need a TFTP server on the host to or from which you can transfer a
configuration file.
If the TFTP host is a Windows PC, click Program ➧ BRICKware ➧ DIME
Tools in the Windows Start menu to open DIME Tools and activate the TFTP
server with File ➧ TFTP Server before you run the operation in question.
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If you want to use your Windows PC as a TFTP host but are not sure what the
IP address of the PC is, proceed as follows:
For Windows 95:
➤ Click Run in the Windows Start menu.
➤ Type in winipcfg.
A window opens where you can see the IP address of your PC and other
network information.
For Windows NT:
➤ Click Program ➧Command Prompt in the Windows Start menu.
➤ Enter ipconfig or ipconfig/all to request the IP address of your PC
and other network information.
Running an operation
To run an operation, proceed as follows:
➤ Select Operation.
➤ Activate a TFTP server if you have selected put, get or state as the
Operation.
➤ Select or type in the necessary settings in CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT.
➤ Select START OPERATION and press Return.
As long as the operation is being carried out, OPERATING appears in the
help line of the Setup Tool; State of last operation displays running.
When the operation has been executed successfully, the operation is
displayed under Type of last operation, State of last operation assumes
the value done.
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If error is displayed under State of last operation, check your settings:
■ Have you entered an incorrect IP address under TFTP Server IP Address?
■ Does the name of the configuration file consist of more than 8 characters
and the extension of more than 3 (when using DIME Tools)?
■ Does the host not support TFTP (did you forget to start the TFTP server of
DIME Tools before starting the operation)?
■ Is the source file not in the configured directory of the TFTP path of DIME
Tools (when Operation = get)? To change the TFTP path, refer to
BRICKware for Windows.
■ If none of these points applies, proceed as follows to find the cause of the
problem:
➤ Leave the Setup Tool.
➤ Type in the following in the SNMP shell: debug config &.
➤ Reopen the Setup Tool with setup.
➤ Carry out the desired operation in CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT.
If an error occurs, an error message with the cause of the error appears in
the help line of the Setup Tool.
➤ Solve the problem and carry out the operation again.
➤ Leave CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT with EXIT.
Example
You have created the configuration file brick.cf, e.g. with the help of the
Configuration Wizard. You have not transferred the file to X4000 over the serial
interface; brick.cf can be found in the directory C:\BRICK on your PC. Your PC
has the IP address 192.168.1.1. If you want to transfer brick.cf from your PC to
X4000, proceed as follows:
➤ For a Windows PC: Click the Windows Start button then Program ➧
BRICKware ➧ DIME Tools to start DIME Tools. The TFTP server must
be active.
➤ Activate a TFTP server under Unix: see the Software Reference.
➤ Go to CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT.
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TFTP host --> flash
➤ Select Operation: get (TFTP --> FLASH).
➤ Type in TFTP Server IP Address, e.g. 192.168.1.1.
➤ Type in TFTP File Name: brick.cf.
➤ Type in Name in Flash, e.g. boot.
➤ Select START OPERATION and press Return.
As long as the operation is being carried out, OPERATING appears in the
help line of the Setup Tool; State of last operation displays running.
When the operation has been successfully executed, get (TFTP -->
FLASH) is displayed under Type of last operation; State of last
operation assumes the value done.
The configuration file brick.cf is saved, for example, in X4000’s flash under
the name boot.
To make the settings of brick.cf take immediate effect in X4000, proceed as
follows:
Flash --> memory
➤ Reselect Operation: load (FLASH --> MEMORY).
➤ Select Name in Flash, e.g. boot.
➤ Select START OPERATION and press Return.
As long as the operation is being carried out, OPERATING appears in the
help line of the Setup Tool; State of last operation displays running.
When the operation has been successfully executed, load (FLASH -->
MEMORY) is displayed under Type of last operation; State of last
operation assumes the value done.
The configuration file boot has been loaded to X4000’s memory and the
settings have been activated.
➤ Leave CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT with EXIT.
You have returned to the main menu.
There is another way to transfer configuration files using the XMODEM
protocol over the serial interface. The procedure for this is explained in the
Software Reference.
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Updating Software
11.2
Updating Software
As BinTec Communications AG is constantly improving the software for all its
products and you certainly want to use the latest features of X4000, this chapter
tells you how to update your software.
www.bintec.de
If you want to update your software, load a new software image in X4000 (boot
image). Every boot image includes new features, better performance and any
necessary bugfixes from the previous version. The latest software images are
available free of charge from BinTec Communications AG on the World Wide
Web at http://www.bintec.de. Here you can also find current product-specific
documentation (Release Notes, handbooks, quick install guides) and general
product information (Software Reference, Extended Features Reference,
BRICKware for Windows).
If you want to update software, make sure you read the corresponding Release
Notes. The release notes describe the changes provided by the new boot
image.
update
There are various ways to update software. This chapter will show you how to
update with the help of the update command in the SNMP shell, which is
described step for step. The alternatives to this method can be found in the
Software Reference and in the Chapter: Boot Sequence chapter 3.5, page 66.
Caution!
An additional update of the module logic, BOOTmonitor and/or firmware logic is
recommended in isolated cases. If this should be the case with a new release,
this is clearly noted in the corresponding release notes. The procedure and
recommendation can then be found in the "BOOTmonitor and Firmware Logic
Update" release notes under www.bintec.de (Section: "Download").
The result of incorrect updating operations (e.g. power cut during the update)
could be that X4000 no longer boots!
➤ Update the module logic, Bootmonitor or firmware logic only if BinTec
Communications AG explicitly recommends such action!
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To do
To update the software (boot image), proceed as follows:
Do not turn X4000 off during the update!
Before starting the update, deactivate auto logout by entering t 0 in the SNMP
shell.
➤ Type in the URL www.bintec.de in your browser (e.g. Internet Explorer
or Netscape Navigator).
The BinTec home page opens.
➤ Click "Solutions and Products" and then "Download".
Here you will find the latest software and documentation for BinTec
products.
➤ Click "X4000".
Here you will find the latest software and documentation for X4000.
➤ Click the current boot image with the right mouse button, e.g. Boot Image
Rel. 5.1 Rev. 4.
➤ In the context menu, click Save link as...
➤ Type in the directory and name under which the new boot image should be
saved on your PC. The directory is normally C:\BRICK for Windows PCs
and /tftpboot for Unix workstations. You can use this name.
➤ Press SAVE.
The boot image is saved on your PC.
➤ Activate a TFTP server on your PC.
For a Windows PC: Click the Windows Start menu and then Program ➧
BRICKware ➧ DIME Tools to start DIME Tools (for installation of DIME
Tools, see chapter 6.2, page 112). Activate the TFTP server.
For a Unix computer: Follow the instructions in the Software Reference.
➤ Log in to X4000, if you have not already done so.
➤ Deactivate auto logout with t 0.
➤ In the SNMP shell, type in update <IP address> <file name>.
The <IP address> is the IP address of the TFTP server, e.g. the IP
address of your Windows PC on which the TFTP server of DIME Tools is
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running and on which you have saved the new boot image (e.g.
192.168.1.1).
<file name> is the name of the boot image you have saved on your PC.
The file <file name> is first transferred to the memory of X4000 and
checked.
The following appears in the SNMP shell: Perform update (y or n)?
➤ Enter y and confirm with Return.
The software update process is executed and the new boot image is loaded
to the flash memory.
X4000 requires a connected block of working memory that is somewhat larger
than the new software image. If insufficient memory is available on X4000,
X4000 offers an incremental update, in which the image is loaded directly in
"chunks" to the flash memory without checking. Proceed as follows:
If insufficient memory is available, a query will appear in the SNMP shell:
Do you want to perform an incremental update (y or n)?
➤ First enter n.
➤ Enter update -v <IP address> <file name>.
The image is checked, but not yet loaded.
➤ Type in update <IP address> <file name>.
The following appears in the SNMP shell: Perform update (y or n)?
➤ Enter y and confirm with Return.
X4000 performs an incremental update and the image is saved to the flash
memory. This procedure takes longer than a normal update!
The following appears in the SNMP shell: Reboot now (y or n)?
➤ Enter y and confirm with Return.
X4000 starts with the new boot image. The previous configuration is
overwritten.
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12
12
Tips
Troubleshooting
If you are having problems with X4000, the following tips should help you to
overcome some of the more usual stumbling blocks:
➤ Log in to X4000 and enter in the SNMP shell:
debug all
This makes available all the debugging information in the SNMP shell.
➤ Check the syslog messages created by X4000 (see chapter 10.1.1,
page 308). It is wise to forward syslog messages to an external host and
save them to be able to evaluate the outputs for a longer period of time.
To interpret debugging information and syslog messages, see the Software
Reference.
This chapter shows you what the causes of particular problems can be and how
to determine these causes. It is structured as follows:
■ Aids to Troubleshooting
■ Typical Errors
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Troubleshooting
12.1
Aids to Troubleshooting
Here you can find methods to help narrow down the possible causes of your
problem:
■ Input keys and display for operating the Man-Machine Interface (MMI)
■ Local SNMP Shell Commands
■ External Aids
12.1.1
Man-Machine Interface (MMI)
You can use the MMI to show information about the status of X4000 (basic unit
and expansion card) on the display, without having to log in on the equipment.
For example, you can quickly obtain the version of the current software release
or the current operating status of the interfaces.
The MMI is easy to use and the display messages are intuitive. This is explained
in detail in chapter 5, page 93.
12.1.2
Local SNMP Shell Commands
These commands are entered directly in X4000’s SNMP shell:
debug
You can use the debug command for troubleshooting in one or more
subsystems of X4000. A detailed explanation of the syntax and options can be
found in chapter 14.1, page 412.
Examples:
➤ Enter debug all to display debugging information for all subsystems.
➤ Enter debug config & for tracking down configuration management
problems (see chapter 11, page 363).
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Aids to Troubleshooting
If you add & to an SNMP shell command, the program runs in the background.
isdnlogin
You can use the isdnlogin command to verify that an ISDN connection can
be made. This is explained in chapter 14.1, page 412.
Example:
➤ Enter isdnlogin 1234 telephony to establish a connection to the
telephone in your local office with the number 1234.
If a connection is made, the telephone will ring.
trace
The trace command can be used to display and interpret data packets sent or
received over ISDN (D and B-channels) and over the LAN. An explanation of
the syntax can be found in chapter 14.1, page 412.
Examples:
➤ Enter trace -ip next to display data packets that are to run over the
next B-channel to be opened.
➤ Enter trace -x -s me -d 0:a0:f9:d:5:a 0 0 1 to output data
packets sent from X4000’s MAC address over the LAN to the host with the
MAC address 0:a0:f9:d:5:a.
12.1.3
External Aids
You can analyze connections to X4000 using the following utility programs on
a Windows PC or Unix workstation.
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Troubleshooting
DIME Tracer (Windows)
The DIME Tracer enables you to trace X4000’s ISDN and CAPI data traffic from
a Windows PC. DIME Tracer is a part of DIME Tools. A detailed explanation can
be found in BRICKware for Windows.
bricktrace (Unix)
The bricktrace program enables data sent over X4000’s ISDN channels to be
inspected at a Unix workstation. bricktrace is part of BRICKtools for UNIX on
your BinTec Companion CD. A detailed explanation can be found in
chapter 14.2, page 419.
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Typical Errors and Procedure
12.2
Typical Errors and Procedure
A compilation of typical error situations with instructions for error detection and
clearance is given below. Try to narrow down the causes of the problem. These
situations are broken down into the following categories:
■ System errors
■ ISDN connections
■ IPX routing
12.2.1
System Errors
I have forgotten my password.
You must return X4000 to the unconfigured ex works state:
➤ Connect your router over the serial interface to X4000 as explained in
chapter 3.3, page 59.
➤ Switch X4000 off and then switch it on again.
You see various selftests and then "Press <sp> for BOOTmonitor or any
other key to boot system".
➤ Now press the Space bar.
A BOOTmonitor menu is displayed.
➤ Select "(4) Delete Configuration" and press Return. Note and confirm the
following safety prompts.
The password as well as the complete configuration of X4000 are deleted.
➤ Select "(1) Boot System".
X4000 is restarted.
➤ Reconfigure X4000.
I can’t reach X4000 in the LAN.
➤ Use the MMI to check whether you have entered an IP address.
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Troubleshooting
If an IP address has been entered, try to set up a serial connection:
➤ Connect your PC to X4000 over the serial interface.
➤ Log in as the user admin with the corresponding password.
➤ Start the Setup Tool with setup.
➤ Check if a configuration error is the cause: Have you entered a filter under
IP ➧ ACCESS LISTS that is locking you out? If so, make the required
corrections.
If a serial connection does not work either:
➤ Check the settings of the terminal program (see chapter 4.1.2, page 71). If
you have changed the default settings in BOOTmonitor, adjust your
terminal settings accordingly.
➤ If this doesn’t succeed, proceed as described under "I have forgotten my
password.", page 379.
12.2.2
ISDN Connections
Here you will find possible causes of errors in ISDN connections.
Your telephone bill is unusually high.
Use the Credits Based Accounting System (see chapter 10.1.3, page 316).
This enables you to set a limit for connections to X4000 to prevent
unnecessary charges accumulating as a result of mistakes made during
configuration.
X4000 possibly has ISDN connections that remain connected or unwanted
ISDN connections are set up, which cause additional costs.
➤ Use debug all or trace to check if a PC in the LAN is using a different
netmask from the one entered on X4000.
➤ Use debug all or trace to check if a PC in the LAN is configured for
Remote CAPI with an incorrect IP address (destination port 2662).
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➤ Use SYSTEM ➧ EXTERNAL SYSTEM LOGGING to check if X4000 is
configured so that syslog messages are sent to a host outside the LAN
(destination port 514).
➤ Use IP ➧ STATIC SETTINGS to check if an IP address located outside the
LAN has been entered for X4000 under Time Server.
➤ Check the MIB table biboAdmTrapHostTable to determine if X4000 is
configured so that SNMP traps are sent to a host outside the LAN
(destination ports 161, 162).
➤ Check if the second B-channel is frequently set up and cleared for
connections with dynamic channel bundling due to fluctuating traffic.
➤ Use debug all or trace to check if a PC in the LAN is configured for the
WINS server with an incorrect IP address (destination ports 137-139). If
necessary, configure the PC properly or set the corresponding filters.
➤ Use debug all or trace to check if a PC in the LAN is configured for the
resolution of NetBIOS names with the help of DNS (it is accessed from a
client port to destination port 53). Do not try to resolve NetBIOS names with
DNS!
➤ Use debug all or trace to check if an application on a PC in the LAN is
trying to resolve names that the name server at the Internet provider does
not know (it is accessed from a client port to destination port 53). Install a
local HOSTS file in the Windows directory that can carry out name
resolution.
➤ Use debug all or trace to check if NetBIOS over IP is configured on a
PC in the LAN (it is accessed from source port 137 to destination port 53).
An attempt is thus made to resolve NetBIOS names over DNS. Disable
NetBIOS over IP or insert filters (configuration of the corresponding filters
can be found in chapter 10.2.8, page 335 or use the simple NetBIOS filter
of the Configuration Wizard, see chapter 6, page 109).
➤ Check if you have configured Callback (see chapter 10.2.4, page 327) and
in doing so entered an incorrect number (Number under WAN P ARTNER ➧
EDIT ➧ WAN NUMBERS ➧ EDIT).
➤ Check if you left a trace program running over an ISDN-PPP connection.
This would cause packets to be sent constantly over ISDN and the
connection would remain permanently open.
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Troubleshooting
Outgoing calls cannot be made.
➤ Use isdnlogin to check if outgoing calls are possible.
➤ Check MONITORING
AND D EBUGGING ➧ ISDN MONITOR to see if any
outgoing calls have been recorded at all, if the number dialed is correct and
if the call was connected.
➤ Check if ISDN syslog messages with "disconnect cause" have been
recorded.
➤ Check if Encapsulation in WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT is the same for both
connection partners.
➤ Check if Authentication in WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ PPP is the same for
both connection partners.
➤ Use trace to check what is being sent over the ISDN channels.
➤ Check in the MIB table isdnStkTable if the MIB variable Status has the
value loaded.
➤ Make sure your own number is correctly entered in CALLS ➧ ADD. This
also applies to outgoing calls.
Incoming calls cannot be made.
➤ Check MONITORING
AND DEBUGGING ➧ ISDN MONITOR to see if an
incoming call has been recorded.
➤ Check WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ WAN NUMBERS to see if a suitable
number for incoming calls has been entered.
➤ Check the MIB variables DSS1Cause and LocalCause in the MIB table
isdnCallHistoryTable. To interpret the entries, see the Software
Reference.
➤ Check CALLS to determine if you have made the necessary entries for
incoming calls.
➤ Check if Encapsulation in WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT is the same for both
connection partners.
➤ Check if Authentication in WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ PPP is the same for
both connection partners.
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Typical Errors and Procedure
12.2.3
IPX Routing
Here you will find some problems that could crop up with IPX routing together
with suggestions on how they can be solved.
➤ Use the Setup Tool or MMI to check if you have entered the right license.
➤ Use the Setup Tool to check in IPX if the entry under Internal Network
Number is unique in the LAN.
A server exists in a remote LAN (LAN-LAN connection over ISDN),
but is "invisible" for clients in the local LAN.
The server could be invisible for clients because SAP packets are not received
from the server:
➤ Check the entries in Update Time and Age Multiplier in WAN PARTNER ➧
EDIT ➧ IPX. The settings must be compatible with the settings on the
servers in X4000’s LAN.
➤ Check if a router between them filters out the SAP packets.
➤ Check with isdnlogin if an ISDN connection can be made between client
and server.
➤ Check if you have made the correct entries in Local IPX NetNumber and
Encapsulation under CM-100BT, FAST ETHERNET and if the server can
receive them.
When the client tries to reach a server in a remote network over a
PPP connection, he must wait a long time and the connection is
possibly terminated.
In some cases, the local router erroneously tells the client that a server can be
reached.
➤ Check if the server has crashed and that the aging interval has not yet
expired. If necessary, change the setting of Send RIP/SAP Updates under
WAN PARTNER ➧ EDIT ➧ IPX.
➤ Check if the server and the router in the remote network are simultaneously
inactive (e.g. because of a power cut). Briefly set the WAN interface of the
corresponding WAN partner with the command ifconfig to down and
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Troubleshooting
then back to dialup, in order to delete the routes and services learned by
the WAN partner.
I can’t change to a network drive on the client station.
➤ The file server may be "invisible" to the client. Proceed as described under
"A Server exists in a remote LAN ...".
➤ Check if all the licenses available on the server are in use.
ISDN connections are constantly reconnected.
It is not only RIP/SAP packets that cause ISDN connections to be set up.
➤ Check if there is an entry in the MIB table ipxDenyTable that is preventing
Novell serialization packets from being sent over the dialup connection.
➤ Check under IPX if you have activated enable IPX spoofing and enable
SPX spoofing with yes.
➤ Check if any RCONSOLE is running with a constantly changing screen
(e.g. MONITOR, IPXCON, TCPCON, screensaver, etc.).
➤ Check if NetBIOS over IPX is used in the LAN (Windows for Workgroups,
NT, Win 95). If necessary, select no or on LAN only under IPX for NetBIOS
Broadcast replication.
➤ Check if NDS Replica Synchronization is active (for Netware 4.1 servers
and higher).
➤ Evaluate the syslog messages (Level = debug) and, if applicable, filter out
the IPX packets indicated in the messages as causing unwanted
connections to be set up.
The MIB variable ipxAdmSpxConns shows more connections
than are actually active.
X4000 may not be receiving SPX disconnect messages from the server.
➤ Enter the command reset router on the console of the respective
server.
All inactive connections between the server and X4000 are cleared.
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Typical Errors and Procedure
➤ If the disconnect for the client is lost, SPX connections could remain until
timeout. These connections would then be displayed in ipxAdmSpxConns
until timeout.
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13
Technical Data
General product features:
Feature
Description
Dimensions:
W x H x D in mm
Desktop unit
105 x 260 x 300
19-inch built-in unit
220 x 44 x 290
Weight:
Desktop unit
2.6 kg
19-inch built-in unit
2.1 kg
Transport weight (incl.
documentation, cabling,
packaging):
Desktop unit
5.1 kg
19-inch built-in unit
4.6 kg
Ambient requirements:
Storage temperature
-20 °C to 50 °C
Operating temperature
0 °C to 40 °C
Relative humidity
20 to 90 % non-condensing in operation
5 to 95 % non-condensing in storage
Room classification
Operate only in dry rooms
Printed documentation
supplied with equipment
User’s Guide
Table 13-1:
X4000 technical data
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Technical Data
13.1
Mains Unit
Connect the IEC AC socket of the mains unit to the power supply using the
power cord supplied with the equipment.
Electrical ratings
Mains unit
Wide-range mains unit without fan
Mains voltage
100 to 240 V AC
Mains frequency
50 to 60 Hz
Max. current drawn
800 mA
Table 13-2:
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Technical data for mains unit
13
Features of Basic Unit
13.2
Features of Basic Unit
Feature
Description
Processor
Motorola MPC860T RISC CPU
Memory
16 MB SDRAM
4 MB flash ROM
Interfaces
Console interfaces
Serial, mini-DIN
Ethernet/LAN
interface
10/100 Base-T auto sensing, RJ45 socket
WAN interfaces
ISDN interface BRI S/T, RJ45 socket
2 x X.21/V.35/V.36/X.21bis, 26-pole mini Delta
ribbon socket, up to 2048 kbps
Displays
Illuminated green 122 x 132-pixel LC display
with illuminated input keys
Blue Power LED on the front panel of X4000
2 Status LEDs, green and red, on the back of
X4000
Extension capability
Table 13-3:
Slot for an X4000 expansion card
Features of basic unit
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Technical Data
13.2.1
Serial Console Interface
Pin assignment of serial console interface of basic unit
(8-pole mini-DIN socket):
6
7
3
8
4
1
5
2
1
For test purposes
5
RXD
2
For test purposes
6
NC
3
TXD
7
NC
4
GND
8
NC
Figure 13-1: Serial console interface with pin assignment
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Features of Basic Unit
13.2.2
Ethernet/LAN Interface
Pin assignment of 10/100 Base-T Ethernet/LAN interface of basic unit (RJ45
socket):
1
...
8
1
T+
5
Shield
2
T-
6
R-
3
R+
7
Shield
4
Shield
8
Shield
Figure 13-2: 10/100 Base-T Ethernet/LAN interface (RJ45 socket) of basic unit with pin
assignment
The LAN cable used must have the following technical features:
■ 100 Base-T cable CAT5 STP (Shielded Twisted Pair)
■ 8-pole RJ45 plug fully shielded at both ends
■ 4 twisted wire pairs; the following wires are twisted:
–
Pin 1+2
–
Pin 3+6
–
Pin 4+5
– Pin 7+8
Outer shielding for all four pairs.
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Technical Data
13.2.3
ISDN BRI Interface
Pin assignment of ISDN BRI interface (RJ45 socket):
1
...
8
1
NC
5
R-
2
NC
6
T-
3
T+
7
NC
4
R+
8
NC
Figure 13-3: ISDN BRI interface (RJ45 socket) of basic unit with pin assignment
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Features of Basic Unit
13.2.4
Serial WAN Interfaces:
The X4000 basic unit is equipped with two serial WAN interfaces:
■ The first serial port (Setup Tool menu CM-SERIAL, SERIAL ➧ UNIT 0) can be
used as interface type
–
X.21/V.11
–
V.35/V.11
– V.36/V.11
The setting in the Setup Tool Connector field (see Table 7-11, page 153)
enables the port to be changed so that X4000 can be operated in both DCE
and DTE Mode.
Making the relevant settings in the Setup Tool Connector field physically
reverses the signal direction and the pin functions.
■ The second serial port (Setup Tool menu CM-SERIAL, SERIAL ➧ UNIT 1) can
be used as interface type
– X.21bis/V.28
Changing this port from DCE to DTE Mode and vice versa is only possible
using a DCE or DTE cable.
The cables to be used are not supplied with X4000, but can be ordered from
your dealer.
We recommend you use original BinTec cables, which you can buy from your
dealer.
The use of other cables may cause damage to your equipment and invalidates
the guarantee!
The description below first deals with the plugs that are generally used for X.21,
V.35, V.36 and X.21bis interfaces:
■ "DB-15 Plug for X.21", page 395
■ "M34 Plug for V.35", page 396
■ "DB-37 Plug for V.36", page 397
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Technical Data
■ "DB-25 Plug for X.21bis", page 399
This is followed by a description of the two serial X4000 ports used for
implementing the stated interfaces in X4000:
■ "26-Pole Mini Delta Ribbon Socket for X.21, V.35 and V.36", page 400
■ "20-Pole Mini Delta Ribbon Socket for X.21bis", page 403
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Features of Basic Unit
DB-15 Plug for X.21
A DB-15 plug to ISO 4903 is normally used for an X.21 interface:
1
9
.....
8
.....
15
Figure 13-4: DB-15 plug (DTE)
The DB-15 plug (DTE) and socket (DCE) have the following pin assignment:
Variable Connector=DTE
ITU-T
Signal
101
PG
102
SG
103
T+
103
T-
104
R+
104
R-
105
C+
105
C-
106
I+
106
Signal direction
Pin no.
Variable Connector=DCE
Signal
ITU-T
––– 1 –––
PG
101
––– 8 –––
SG
102
9 ––––>
R+
104
2 ––––>
R-
104
<–––––11
T+
103
<––––– 4
T-
103
10 ––––>
I+
106
3 ––––>
I-
106
<–––– 12
C+
105
I-
<––––– 5
C-
105
115
S+
<–––– 13
S+
114
115
S-
<––––– 6
S-
114
Table 13-4:
Pin assignment of DB-15 plug for X.21 (ISO 4903)
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Technical Data
M34 Plug for V.35
An M34 plug to ISO 2593 is normally used for a V.35 interface:
NN JJ
DD Z
LL FF BB X
MM HH CC Y
KK EE AA W
V
R
T
U
L
N
P
S
F
J
K
M
H
B
D
E
A
C
Figure 13-5: M34 plug
The M34 plug has the following pin assignment:
Variable Connector=DTE
ITU-T
Signal
101
ChGND
102
SigGND
103
TDA
103
TDB
104
RDB
104
RDA
105
RTS
106
CTS
115
Variable Connector=DCE
Signal
ITU-T
––– A –––
ChGND
101
––– B –––
SigGND
102
P –––––>
RDA
104
S –––––>
RDB
104
<––––– R
TDB
103
<––––– T
TDA
103
CTS
106
<––––– D
RTS
105
RCA
<––––– V
TCA
114
115
RCB
<––––– X
TCB
114
108/2
DTR
DSR
107
109
DCD
<––––– F
DCD
109
107
DSR
<––––– E
DTR
108/2
114
TCB
<––––– Y
TCB
114
114
TCA
<––––– AA
TCA
114
Table 13-5:
396
Signal direction
Pin no.
X4000 User’s Guide
C –––––>
H –––––>
Pin assignment of M34 plug for V.35 (ISO 2593)
13
Features of Basic Unit
DB-37 Plug for V.36
A DB-37 plug to ISO 4902 is normally used for a V.36 interface:
1
20
5
10
25
15
30
19
37
Figure 13-6: DB-37 plug
X4000 User’s Guide
397
13
Technical Data
The DB-37 plug has the following pin assignment:
Variable Connector=DTE
ITU-T
Signal
Signal
direction
Pin no.
101
ChGND
––– 1 –––
ChGND
101
102
SigGND
––– 19 –––
SigGND
102
103
TDB
22 ––––>
RDB
104
103
TDA
4 ––––>
RDA
104
104
RDB
<–––– 24
TDB
103
104
RDA
<–––– 6
TDA
103
105
RTSB
25 ––––>
RTSB
106
105
RTSA
7 ––––>
CTSA
106
106
CTSB
<–––– 27
RTSB
105
106
CTSA
<–––– 9
RTSA
105
115
RCB
<–––– 26
TCB
114
115
RCA
<–––– 8
TCA
114
108/2
DTRB
30 ––––>
DSRB
107
108/2
DTRA
12 ––––>
DSRA
107
109
DCDB
<–––– 31
DCDB
109
109
DCDA
<–––– 13
DCDA
109
107
DSRB
<–––– 29
DTRB
108/2
107
DSRA
<–––– 11
DTRA
108/2
114
TCB
<–––– 23
TCB
114
114
TCA
<–––– 5
TCA
114
Table 13-6:
398
X4000 User’s Guide
Variable Connector=DCE
Signal
ITU-T
Pin assignment of DB-37 plug for V.36 (ISO 4902)
13
Features of Basic Unit
DB-25 Plug for X.21bis
A DB-25 plug to ISO 2110 is normally used for an X.21bis interface:
1
14
7
13
20
25
Figure 13-7: DB-25 plug
The DB-25 plug has the following pin assignment:
DTE cable
ITU-T
Signal
Signal
direction
Pin no.
101
ChGND
––––– 1 ––––
103
TD
104
RD
105
RTS
106
CTS
<––––– 5
RTS
105
107
DSR
<––––– 6
DTR
108/2
102
SigGND
SigGND
102
109
DCD
<––––– 8
DCD
109
114
TxC
<––––– 15
TxC
114
115
RxC
<––––– 17
RxC
115
108/2
DTR
20 –––>
DSR
107
113
XTC
24 –––>
RxC / TxC
114/115
VCC +5V
2 ––––>
<––––– 3
4 ––––>
––––– 7 ––––
–––– 25 –––
DCE cable
Signal
ITU-T
ChGND
101
RD
104
TD
103
CTS
106
VCC +5V
Table 13-7: Pin assignment of DB-25 plug for X.21bis (ISO 2110)
X4000 User’s Guide
399
13
Technical Data
26-Pole Mini Delta Ribbon Socket for X.21, V.35 and V.36
The serial X.21/V.35/V.36 interface of X4000 is designed as a 26-pole mini
Delta ribbon socket. The interface can be used for X.21, V.35 or V.36,
depending on the setting under Interface Type.
13
......
1
26
......
14
Figure 13-8: 26-pole mini Delta ribbon socket (first serial port, left)
400
X4000 User’s Guide
13
Features of Basic Unit
The 26-pole mini Delta ribbon socket has the following pin assignment in DTE
Mode (Connector = DTE):
ITU-T
Direction and
pin no.
X.21 pin
(DB-15)
V.35 pin
(M34)
V.36 pin
(DB-37)
101
––– 1 –––
1
PG
A
ChGND
1
ChGND
102
––– 2 –––
8
SG
B
SigGND
19
SigGND
103
3 ––––>
9
T+
S
TDB
22
TDB
103
4 ––––>
2
T-
P
TDA
4
TDA
104
<–––– 5
11
R+
T
RDB
24
RDB
104
<–––– 6
4
R-
R
RDA
6
RDA
25
RTSB
7
RTSA
27
CTSB
105
7 ––––>
10
C+
105
8 ––––>
3
C-
C
RTS
106
<–––– 9
12
I+
106
<–––– 10
5
I-
D
CTS
9
CTSA
115
<–––– 11
13
S+
X
RCB
26
RCB
115
<–––– 12
6
S-
V
RCA
8
RCA
30
DTRB
12
DTRA
31
DCDB
13
DCDA
29
DSRB
108/2
15 ––––>
108/2
16 ––––>
H
DTR
109
<–––– 17
109
<–––– 18
107
<–––– 19
107
<–––– 20
E
DSR
11
DSRA
114
<–––– 21
AA
TCB
23
TCB
114
<–––– 22
Y
TCA
5
TCA
VCC+5V
Table 13-8:
F
DCD
––– 25 –––
Pin assignment of 26-pole mini Delta ribbon socket (DTE Mode)
X4000 User’s Guide
401
13
Technical Data
The 26-pole mini Delta ribbon socket has the following pin assignment in DCE
Mode (Connector = DCE):
ITU-T
Direction and
pin no.
X.21 pin
(DB-15)
V.35 pin
(M34)
V.36 pin
(DB-37)
101
––– 1 –––
1
PG
A
ChGND
1
ChGND
102
––– 2 –––
8
SG
B
SigGND
19
SigGND
104
3 ––––>
9
R+
S
RDB
22
RDB
104
4 ––––>
2
R-
P
RDA
4
RDA
103
<–––– 5
11
T+
T
TDB
24
TDB
103
<–––– 6
4
T-
R
TDA
6
TDA
25
RTSB
7
CTSA
27
RTSB
106
7 ––––>
10
I+
106
8 ––––>
3
I-
C
CTS
105
<–––– 9
12
C+
105
<–––– 10
5
C-
D
RTS
9
RTSA
114
<–––– 11
13
S+
X
TCB
26
TCB
114
<–––– 12
6
S-
V
TCA
8
TCA
30
DSRB
12
DSRA
31
DCDB
13
DCDA
29
DTRB
107
15 ––––>
107
16 ––––>
H
DSR
109
<–––– 17
109
<–––– 18
108/2
<–––– 19
108/2
<–––– 20
E
DTR
11
DTRA
114
<–––– 21
AA
TCB
23
TCB
114
<–––– 22
Y
TCA
5
TCA
VCC+5V
F
DCD
––– 25 –––
Table 13-9: Pin assignment of 26-pole mini Delta ribbon socket (DCE Mode)
402
X4000 User’s Guide
13
Features of Basic Unit
20-Pole Mini Delta Ribbon Socket for X.21bis
The serial X.21bis interface of X4000 is a 20-pole mini Delta ribbon socket.
10
......
1
20
......
11
Figure 13-9: 20-pole mini Delta ribbon socket (second serial port, right)
X4000 User’s Guide
403
13
Technical Data
The 20-pole mini Delta ribbon socket has the following pin assignment (a DTE
cable is required for DTE Mode and a DCE cable for DCE Mode):
DTE/DCE
Signal
direction
Pin no.
Signal
101
ChGND
103
TD
104
RD
105
RTS
106
CTS
<––––– 5
5
107
DSR
<––––– 6
6
102
SigGND
109
DCD
108/2
DTR
9 ––––>
20
113
XTC
11 ––––>
24
114
TxC
<––––– 12
15
115
RxC
<––––– 13
17
VCC +5V
–––– 1 ––––
2 ––––>
<––––– 3
4 ––––>
–––– 7 ––––
<––––– 8
––––– 14 ––––
Table 13-10: Pin assignment of 26-pole mini Delta ribbon socket
404
X.21bis
(DB-25)
ITU-T
X4000 User’s Guide
1
2
3
4
7
8
13
Features of Basic Unit
13.2.5
Display Interface
The RJ11 socket for the display plug has the following pin assignment:
1...4
1
VDD: +3.3V Supply Voltage
3
SDA: I2C Serial Data
2
SCL: I2C Serial Data
4
GND
Figure 13-10: RJ11 socket for display plug with pin assignment
X4000 User’s Guide
405
13
Technical Data
13.3
Features of Expansion and Resource
Cards
13.3.1
X4E-2/3BRI – WAN Interface Card for ISDN BRI
(Basic Rate Interface)
Feature
Description
Interfaces
3 x ISDN interfaces BRI S/T
Operating temperature
0 °C to 40 °C
Relative humidity
20 to 90 % non-condensing in operation
5 to 95 % non-condensing in storage
Extensions
Slot for resource card with digital modems
Slot for resource card for encryption and
compression
Table 13-11: Features of BRI expansion card
Pin assignment
The ISDN BRI interfaces (RJ45 sockets) have the following pin assignment:
1
...
8
1
NC
5
R-
2
NC
6
T-
3
T+
7
NC
4
R+
8
NC
Figure 13-11: ISDN BRI interface (RJ45 socket) of BRI expansion card
406
X4000 User’s Guide
13
Features of Expansion and Resource Cards
13.3.2
X4E-1/2PRI – WAN Interface Card for ISDN PRI
(Primary Rate Interface) and/or G.703
Feature
Description
Interfaces
2 x interfaces for ISDN PRI/G.703 with 2
sockets each (IN and OUT)
If X4000 is switched off, the IN socket is looped
to the OUT socket.
Data compression and
encryption
Integrated hardware support for encryption and
compression
Operating temperature
0 °C to 40 °C
Relative humidity
20 to 90 % non-condensing in operation
5 to 95 % non-condensing in storage
Extensions
2 slots for resource card with digital modems
Table 13-12: Features of PRI/G.703 expansion card
Pin assignment
The ISDN PRI/G.703 interfaces have the following pin assignment:
1
...
8
1
R+
5
T-
2
R-
6
NC
3
NC
7
NC
4
T+
8
NC
Figure 13-12: ISDN PRI/G.703 interface (RJ45 socket) of PRI/G.703 expansion card
X4000 User’s Guide
407
13
Technical Data
13.3.3
X4E-2FE – LAN Interface Card for 10/100 Mbps
Feature
Description
Interfaces
2 x 10/100 Base-T auto-sensing
Operating temperature
0 °C to 40 °C
Relative humidity
20 to 90 % non-condensing in operation
5 to 95 % non-condensing in storage
Extensions
Slot for resource card for encryption and
compression
Table 13-13: Features of LAN expansion card
Pin assignment
The LAN interfaces (RJ45 sockets) have the following pin assignment:
1
...
8
1
T+
5
Shield
2
T-
6
R-
3
R+
7
Shield
4
Shield
8
Shield
Figure 13-13: LAN interface (RJ45 socket) of LAN expansion card
13.3.4
XTR-S/M/L – Resource Cards with Digital
Modems
The resource cards with digital modems are available in the following versions
for X4E-3BRI and X4E-2PRI:
■ XTR-S with 8 digital modems
408
X4000 User’s Guide
13
Features of Expansion and Resource Cards
■ XTR-M with 12 digital modems
■ XTR-L with 30 digital modems
Feature
Description
Operating temperature
0 °C to 40 °C
Relative humidity
20 to 90 % non-condensing in operation
5 to 95 % non-condensing in storage
Table 13-14: Features of resource cards with digital modems
If you are using an expansion card with resource card(s) in the X4000 built-in
unit, BinTec Communications AG recommends that you use the fan unit
obtainable as optional equipment.
13.3.5
XTR-ENC – Resource Card for Encryption and
Compression
The resource cards for encryption and compression offer hardware support for
STAC compression and symmetric encryption. Encryption processes
supported: DES, 3DES, CAST, Twofish and Blowfish.
Feature
Description
Operating temperature
0 °C to 40 °C
Relative humidity
20 to 90 % non-condensing in operation
5 to 95 % non-condensing in storage
Table 13-15: Features of resource card for encryption and
compression
The ISDN PRI or G.703 expansion card is equipped as standard with hardware
support for encryption and compression. The ISDN BRI expansion card and the
LAN expansion card can be optionally equipped with an appropriate resource
card.
X4000 User’s Guide
409
13
Technical Data
Due to export and import regulations, it is not always possible to guarantee
delivery of resource cards for encryption and compression.
If you are using an expansion card with resource card(s) in the X4000 built-in
unit, BinTec Communications AG recommends that you use the fan unit
obtainable as optional equipment.
410
X4000 User’s Guide
14
14
Important Commands
This chapter describes the following commands:
■ SNMP shell commands:
–
telnet
–
ping
–
trace
–
isdnlogin
–
debug
–
ifconfig
–
ifstat
–
netstat
–
date
–
t
–
nslookup
■ BRICKtools for Unix commands:
–
bricktrace
–
capitrace
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14
Important Commands
14.1
SNMP Shell Commands
X4000 contains several pre-installed programs that can be started directly from
the SNMP shell. A short description of the most commonly used programs and
the associated command lines for starting the respective programs in the SNMP
shell are given below.
Entering ? displays a list of the most important commands available on X4000.
Please note:
Parameters shown in the command lines inside square brackets [ ] represent
optional values. Terms inside angle brackets < > can have several values.
Do not enter any brackets!
telnet
telnet [-f] <host> [<port>]
Is used to communicate with another host.
–
-f: specifies that the telnet session should be transparent. This option
is especially useful for establishing connections to non-telnet ports
(e.g. uucp or smtp).
–
host: IP address or name of host.
–
port: port number.
ping
ping [-i] [-f <precount>] [-d <msec>] [-c <count>] <target>
[<size>]
Is used to test communication to another host.
412
–
-i: sends each packet one byte larger.
–
-f <precount>: <precount> packets are sent first. The next packet
is sent as soon as a packet has been received.
Output: a dot appears on the screen for each packet sent and a dot is
X4000 User’s Guide
14
SNMP Shell Commands
deleted for each packet received.
-f 1 without the additional parameter -d <msec> causes approx. half
the equipment’s bandwidth to be loaded by sending and receiving
packets.
–
-d <msec>: waits <msec> until the next packet is sent, default: 1000
millisecondsn
–
-c <count>: limits the number of packets sent, <count> sets the
number of packets.
–
target: IP address or name of host to which echo_request packets
are sent.
–
size: sets the length of the packets to be sent.
If you do not specify -c <count>, packets will be sent to the host until you
stop the operation, e.g. by pressing Ctrl-C.
trace
For WAN interfaces:
trace [-h23aFADtpiNxX] [-T <tei>] [-c <cref>]
[<channel> <unit> <slot> | next | <ifcname>]
For LAN interfaces:
trace [-h23iNxX1] [-d <destination MAC filter>] [-o]
[-s <source MAC filter>]0 0 <slot>
Is used to display and interpret data packets sent and received over ISDN (Dand B-channels) or the LAN.
–
-h: hexadecimal output.
–
-2: layer 2 output
–
-3: layer 3 output
–
-a: asynchronous HDLC (B-channel only)
–
-F: fax (B-channel only)
–
-A: fax and AT commands (B-channel only)
–
-D: additional time parameter (delta)
–
-t: output in ASCII text (B-channel only)
–
-p: PPP (B-channel only)
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14
Important Commands
–
-i: IP output (B-channel only)
–
-N: Novell IPX output (B-channel only)
–
-x: raw dump mode.
–
-X: asynchronous PPP over X.75 (B-channel only)
–
-T <tei>: set TEI filter (D-channel only)
–
-c <cref>: set callref filter (D-channel only)
–
channel: 0 = D-channel or X.21 interface, 1 ... 31 = Bx-channel
–
unit: 0 ... 1. selects the physical interface for modules with two
interfaces (e.g. CM-2BRI)
–
slot: 1 ... 2. indicates the slot in which the module is installed
–
next: only display information for the next B-channel opened
–
<ifcname>: name or index of the interface (see "ifstat", page 416).
–
-d <destination MAC filter>: set destination MAC address
filter (LAN only).
–
-s <source MAC filter>: set source MAC address filter (LAN
only).
–
-o: combine two or more -d filters or -s filters with a logical OR
operation.
–
specific <MAC filter>: me = X4000’s MAC address, bc = broadcast
packets.
You can combine a -d MAC filter and an -s MAC filter with a logical AND
operation by simply specifying them both.
To combine two or more -d and -s MAC filters with a logical OR operation,
specify the filters and separate them with -o.
isdnlogin
isdnlogin [-c <stknumber>] [-C] [-s <service>]
[-a <addinfo>] [-b <bits>] isdn-number [isdn-service]|
layer1-protocol]
Is used to open a remote login shell on X4000 over ISDN.
414
–
-c <stknumber>: defines the ISDN stack (if several ISDN cards are
used).
–
-C: tries to use compression (V.42bis).
X4000 User’s Guide
14
SNMP Shell Commands
–
-b <bits>: use only <bits> bits for transmission (e.g. enter -b 7 for
7-bit ASCII transmission).
–
isdn-number: isdn number of the ISDN partner you want to log in to.
–
isdn-service: the ISDN service you want to use (data, telephony,
fax g3, fax g4, btx).
–
layer1-protocol: Possible values: v110_1200, v110_2400,
v110_4800, v110_9600, v110_19200, v110_38400, modem, dovb56k,
telephony.
debug
debug [show]|[[-q] all|acct|system|<subs> [<subs> ...]]
Is used to selectively display debugging information originating from one of
X4000’s subsystems.
–
show: displays all possible subsystems that can be debugged.
–
-q: no timestamp attached before each debugging message.
–
all: displays debugging information for all subsystems.
–
acct: displays debugging information for the accounting subsystem.
–
system: displays debugging information for all subsystems except the
accounting subsystem.
–
subs: subsystem for which debugging information is to be displayed.
Several entries are possible (separated by a space).
ifconfig
ifconfig <interface> [destination <destaddrs>] [<address>]
[netmask <mask>] [up | down | dialup] [-] [metric <n>]
Assigns the IP address and the associated netmask to the interface
<interface> and configures the associated parameters. The routing table is
changed accordingly.
If you only enter ifconfig <interface>, the current interface parameters
are displayed.
–
interface: name of the interface (ifDescr).
–
destination <destaddrs>: destination IP address of a host. This
adds a host route for this host in the routing table (ipRouteDest).
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14
Important Commands
–
address: X4000’s IP address for the interface (ipRouteNextHop).
–
netmask <mask>: netmask of the interface (ipRouteMask).
–
up: sets the interface to the up status.
–
down: sets the interface to the down status.
–
dialup: sets the interface to the dialup status.
–
-: does not define its own IP address (ipRouteNextHop = 0.0.0.0).
–
metric <n>: sets route metric to n (ipRouteMetric1).
ifstat
ifstat [-lur] [<ifcname>]
Is used to display status information for the system’s interfaces, based on the
contents of the MIB table ifTable.
–
-l: displays the full length of the interface information (normally the
information is only displayed up to the twelfth character).
–
-u: only displays information on interfaces that are in the up status.
–
-r: displays the filters defined for the interface.
–
ifcname: only displays information on interfaces whose names start
with the characters entered (e.g. ifstat en1 will display information
on the interfaces en1, en1-IIc and en1-snap).
netstat
netstat [[-i | -r | -p [<interface>]] | -d <dest. IP addr.>]
Is used to display a short list of system information.
–
-i: displays a list of the interfaces.
–
-r: displays a list of routing table entries.
–
-p: displays a list of WAN partners.
–
interface: limits the information displayed to the selected interface.
–
-d <dest. IP addr.>: displays routes to the IP address entered.
date
date [YYMMDDHHMMSS]
X4000 has a software clock. Entering date displays the time set.
416
X4000 User’s Guide
14
SNMP Shell Commands
Entering date YYMMDDHHMMSS sets the clock to the corresponding value
(year, month, day, hour, minute, second).
t
t [<seconds>]
Is used to define the auto logout time for the current login session (a connection
to X4000 over telnet, isdnlogin or serial interface is normally disconnected
automatically if no entry is made on the keyboard for 15 minutes).
–
seconds: auto logout is activated after seconds. Entering t
deactivates auto logout.
0
nslookup
nslookup [-an] [-t <type>] [-w <sec>] [-r <ret>] ipaddr |
name [<server>]
Is used to check how a name or an IP address is resolved by X4000 or another
name server.
–
-a: displays all the data received.
–
-n: prevents the resolution of the indicated name server address
(without this option, an attempt is made to resolve the address of the
name server).
–
-t <type>: executes <type> requests. Possible values for type: 0, A,
NS, MD, MF, CNAME, SOA, MB, MG, MR, NULL, WKS, PTR, HINFO,
MINFO, MX, TXT, ANY or any decimal number.
–
-w <sec>: wait <sec> before sending a new request (default value: 3).
–
-r <ret>: send a request maximum <ret> times (default value: 5).
–
ipaddr: IP address to be resolved.
–
name: name to be resolved.
–
<server>: IP address of the name server that is to be asked for
(default value: 127.0.0.1). An attempt is made to have this name server
address resolved by the local DNS proxy.
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14
Important Commands
Entering -? usually provides syntax help.
The update command can be found in chapter 11.2, page 371.
Further SNMP commands can be found in the Software Reference.
418
X4000 User’s Guide
14
BRICKtools for Unix Commands
14.2
BRICKtools for Unix Commands
The bricktrace and capitrace programs are included in BRICKtools for UNIX on
the BinTec Companion CD. They are started on a Unix workstation by entering
the following commands.
bricktrace
bricktrace [-h23aeFpiNtxs] [-T <tei>] [-c <cref>]
[-r <cnt>] [-H <host>] [-P <port>] <channel> <unit> <slot>
Is used to trace and evaluate ISDN messages (D- and B-channels).
–
-h: hexadecimal output
–
-2: layer 2 output
–
-3: layer 3 output
–
-a: asynchronous HDLC (B-channel only)
–
-e: ETS300075 (Euro File Transfer) output
–
-F: fax (B-channel only)
–
-p: PPP (B-channel only)
–
-i: IP output (B-channel only)
–
-N: Novell IPX output (B-channel only)
–
-t: output in ASCII text (B-channel only)
–
-x: raw dump mode
–
-s: Check X4000 for available trace channels.
–
-T <tei>: set TEI filter (D-channel only)
–
-c <cref>: set callref filter (D-channel only)
–
-r <cnt>: only receive cnt bytes
–
-H <host>: IP address or name of IP host
–
-p <port>: specify trace TCP port (default: 7000).
–
channel: 0 = D-channel or X.21 interface, 1 ... 31 Bx-channel
–
unit: 0 ... 1. selects the physical interface for modules with two
interfaces (e.g. CM-2BRI)
–
slot: 1 ... 2. indicates the slot in which the module is installed
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Important Commands
capitrace
capitrace [-h] [-s] [-l]
Is used to trace and evaluate CAPI messages. All CAPI messages sent or
received by X4000 are displayed. The IP address of X4000 must be entered as
the environment variable CAPI_HOST.
–
-h: hexadecimal output.
–
-s: short output. Only the application ID, a connection identifier and the
name of the CAPI message are displayed at the end of the information
line.
–
-l: long output (default). A detailed interpretation is given for each
parameter in the CAPI message.
Each CAPI message is preceded by a line containing the following information:
420
–
Timestamp ("seconds.milliseconds" local time)
–
Sent/received flag (X = sent, R = received)
–
Name of the CAPI message (ASCII string)
–
Command of the CAPI message (0xABXY, AB = <subcommand> XY
= <command>)
–
Number of the tracer message (#<decimal>)
–
Length of the CAPI message ([<decimal>])
–
Application ID (ID = <decimal>)
–
Number of the CAPI message (no. (<decimal>))
–
Short output only: connection identifier (ident = 0x<hexadecimal>)
X4000 User’s Guide
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15
General Safety Precautions in 15
Different Languages
Allgemeine Sicherheitshinweise in deutsch
In den nachfolgenden Abschnitten finden Sie Sicherheitshinweise, die Sie beim
Umgang mit Ihrem Gerät unbedingt beachten müssen.
Transport und
Lagerung
■ Transportieren und lagern Sie X4000 nur in der Originalverpackung oder in
Aufstellen und in
Betrieb nehmen
■ Beachten Sie vor dem Aufstellen und Betrieb von X4000 die Hinweise für
einer anderen geeigneten Verpackung, die Schutz gegen Stoß und Schlag
gewährt.
die Umgebungsbedingungen (vgl. Technische Daten). Verwenden Sie eine
feste und ebene Unterlage.
■ Elektrostatische Aufladungen können zu Geräteschäden führen. Tragen
Sie daher eine geerdete Manschette um das Handgelenk oder berühren
Sie eine geerdete Fläche, bevor Sie Buchsen oder Erweiterungskarten von
X4000 berühren. Berühren Sie die Erweiterungskarten grundsätzlich nur
an den Rändern und fassen Sie nicht auf Bauteile oder Leiterbahnen.
■ Halten Sie den nicht benutzten Erweiterungssteckplatz mit der
Blindabdeckung verschlossen, damit keine Gegenstände ins Innere des
Gerätes gelangen können. Befinden sich während des Betriebs
Fremdgegenstände im Gerät, besteht Stromschlag- und Kurzschlußgefahr.
■ Achten Sie darauf, daß keine spitzen Gegenstände das Fenster des
Displaymoduls beschädigen. Schützen Sie das Displaymodul vor Stoß und
Fall und schließen Sie es nur an die dafür vorgesehene RJ11-Buchse von
X4000 an, um Schäden an X4000 und dem Displaymodul zu vermeiden.
■ Achten Sie bei der Verkabelung darauf, daß die Lüftungsschlitze des
Geräts nicht verdeckt werden und die Lüftung nicht behindert wird. Durch
Beeinträchtigung der Lüftung von X4000 kann es zu Schäden am Gerät
kommen. Durch mangelnde Lüftung entstandene Schäden führen zum
Garantieverlust.
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General Safety Precautions in 15 Different Languages
■ Öffnen Sie nicht das Grundgerät und nehmen Sie keinerlei Manipulationen
am Netzteil vor, da sonst Lebensgefahr durch einen Stromschlag besteht.
Entfernen Sie keine Befestigungsschrauben des Grundgerätes.
■ Wenn das Gerät aus kalter Umgebung in den Betriebsraum gebracht wird,
kann Betauung sowohl am Geräteäußeren als auch im Geräteinneren
auftreten. Warten Sie, bis Ihr Gerät temperaturangeglichen und absolut
trocken ist, bevor Sie es in Betrieb nehmen. Beachten Sie die
Umweltbedingungen in den Technischen Daten.
■ Prüfen Sie, ob die örtliche Netzspannung mit den Nennspannungen des
Netzteils übereinstimmt. Das Gerät darf unter folgenden Bedingungen
betrieben werden:
–
100 - 240 VAC
–
50 - 60 Hz
■ Stellen Sie sicher, daß die Schutzkontakt-Steckdose der Installation frei
zugänglich ist. Zur vollständigen Netztrennung muß der Netzstecker
gezogen werden.
■ Beachten Sie beim Verkabeln die Reihenfolge, wie im Handbuch
beschrieben. Verwenden Sie nur Kabel, die den Spezifikationen in diesem
Handbuch genügen oder original mitgeliefert wurden. Falls Sie andere
Kabel verwenden, übernimmt BinTec Communications AG für auftretende
Schäden oder Beeinträchtigung der Funktionalität keine Haftung. Die
Gerätegaranie erlischt in diesen Fällen.
■ Beachten Sie beim Anschluß des Geräts die Hinweise im Handbuch.
■ Verlegen Sie Leitungen so, daß sie keine Gefahrenquelle (Stolpergefahr)
bilden und nicht beschädigt werden.
■ Schließen Sie Datenübertragungsleitungen während eines Gewitters
weder an noch ziehen Sie sie ab oder berühren Sie diese.
Bestimmungsgemäße
Verwendung, Betrieb
422
■ X4000 ist für den Einsatz in einer Büroumgebung bestimmt. Als
Multiprotokoll-Router
baut
X4000
in
Abhängigkeit
von
der
Systemkonfiguration WAN-Verbindungen auf. Um ungewollte Gebühren zu
vermeiden, sollten Sie das Produkt unbedingt überwachen.
X4000 User’s Guide
15
■ X4000 entspricht den einschlägigen Sicherheitsbestimmungen für
Einrichtungen der
Büroumgebung.
Informationstechnik
für
den
Einsatz
in
einer
■ Der bestimmungsgemäße Betrieb gemäß IEC 950/EN 60950 des Systems
ist nur bei komplett montiertem Blechgehäuse gewährleistet (Kühlung,
Brandschutz, Funkentstörung).
■ Die Umgebungstemperatur darf 50 °C nicht übersteigen. Vermeiden Sie
direkte Sonneneinstrahlung.
■ Achten Sie darauf, daß keine Gegenstände (z. B. Büroklammern) oder
Flüssigkeiten ins Innere des Geräts gelangen (elektrischer Schlag,
Kurzschluß). Achten Sie auf ausreichende Kühlung.
■ X4000 enthält keine Bauteile, die vom Benutzer getauscht werden dürfen
oder Schalter/Jumper, die der Benutzer einstellen muß.
■ Unterbrechen Sie in Notfällen (z. B. beschädigtes Gehäuse oder
Bedienelement, Eindringen von Flüssigkeit oder Fremdkörpern) sofort die
Stromversorgung und verständigen Sie den Service.
Reinigung und
Reparatur
■ Das Gerät darf nur von einer BinTec-autorisierten Servicestelle geöffnet
werden. Vor Öffnen des Geräts unbedingt den Netzstecker ziehen. Durch
unbefugtes Öffnen und unsachgemäße Reparaturen können erhebliche
Gefahren für den Benutzer entstehen (z. B. Stromschlag). Lassen Sie
Reparaturen am Gerät nur von einer BinTec-autorisierten Servicestelle
durchführen. Wo sich die Servicestelle befindet, erfahren Sie von Ihrem
Händler. In allen anderen Fällen erlöschen jegliche Garantieansprüche.
■ Das Gerät darf auf keinen Fall naß gereinigt werden. Durch eindringendes
Wasser können erhebliche Gefahren für den Benutzer (z. B. Stromschlag)
und erhebliche Schäden am Gerät entstehen.
■ Niemals Scheuermittel, alkalische Reinigungsmittel, scharfe oder
scheuernde Hilfsmittel benutzen.
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General Safety Precautions in 15 Different Languages
Yleiset turvallisuusmääräykset
Seuraavista kappaleista löydät turvallisuusmääräykset, joita on ehdottomasti
noudatettava reittivalitsinta käytettäessä.
Kuljetus ja
varastointi
Asennus ja
käyttöönotto
■ Kuljeta ja varastoi X4000 vain alkuperäispakkauksessaan tai muussa
sopivassa pakkauksessa, joka suojaa töytäisyiltä ja iskuilta.
■ Tarkista ennen
X4000 -laitteen asennusta ja käyttöä, että
ympäristöolosuhteista annettuja ohjeita (kts. lukua Tekniset tiedot) on
noudatettu. Aseta laite tukevalle, tasaiselle alustalle.
■ Sähköstaattiset varaukset voivat johtaa laitteen vioittumisen. Pidä siksi
ranteen ympärillä maadoitettua ranneketta tai kosketa maadoitettua pintaa,
ennen kuin kosket X4000:n liittimiä tai laajennuskortteja. Kosketa
laajennuskortteja periaatteessa vain reunoista äläkä tartu rakenneosiin tai
johdinratoihin.
■ Pidä käyttämättömät laajennuskorttipaikat suojuksilla suljettuina, jotta mitkään esineet eivät voi joutua laitteen sisälle. Jos laitteessa on käytön aikana vieraita esineitä, siitä aiheutuu sähköisku- ja oikosulkuvaara.
■ Huolehdi siitä, että mitkään terävät esineet eivät vahingoita näyttömodulin
ikkunaa. Suojaa näytömoduli iskuja ja putoamista vastaan. Liitä se vain
X4000:n tähän tarkoitukseen varattuun RJ11-liittimeen X4000:n ja näyttömodulin vaurioitumisen välttämiseksi.
■ Huomaa kaapeloitaessa, että laitteen tuuletusraot eivät peity ja tuuletus ei
esty. X4000:n tuuletuksen estyessä laitteeseen voi syntyä vaurioita. Puutteellisesta tuuletuksesta aiheuneet vauriot johtavat takuun raukeamiseen.
■ Älä avaa peruslaitetta äläkä muuntele verkkolaitetta mitenkään, sillä siitä
aiheutuu sähköisku- ja hengenvaara. Älä poista yhtää kiinnitysruuvia
peruslaitteesta.
■ Kun laite tuodaan kylmästä ympäristöstä käyttötiloihin, sen ulko- sekä
sisäpinnoille voi syntyä kastetta. Odota, että laitteen lämpötila on asettunut
ja laite on ehdottoman kuiva, ennen kuin otat sen käyttöön. Huomioi
ympäristövaatimukset, jotka on esitetty teknisissä tiedoissa.
■ Tarkista, vastaako paikallinen verkkojännite verkkolaitteen nimellisjännitteitä. Laitetta saa käyttää seuraavissa olosuhteissa:
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X4000 User’s Guide
15
–
100 - 240 VAC
–
50 - 60 Hz
■ Varmista, että suko-pistorasia on asennusta varten vapaasti tavoitettavissa. Verkkopistoke on vedettävä pistorasiasta laitteen irrottamiseksi täydellisesti verkosta.
■ Huomaa kaapeloitaessa käsikirjassa kuvailtu järjestys. Käytä vain kaapelia, joka vastaa tämän käsikirjan spesifikaatioita tai joka toimitettiin alunperin laitteen mukana. Jos käytät toista kaapelia, BinTec Communications AG
ei ota vastuuta vahingoista tai toiminnan huonontumisesta. Tällaisissa tapauksissa laitetakuu raukeaa.
■ Noudata laitetta liittäessäsi käsikirjan ohjeita.
■ Vedä kaapelit sellaisiin paikkoihin, että ne eivät aiheuta vaaratilanteita
(kompastumisia) eivätkä vahingoitu.
■ Älä liitä, irrota tai kosketa tiedonsiirtokaapeleita ukonilman aikana.
Määräystenmukainen
käyttö, käyttö
■ X4000 on tarkoitettu käytettäväksi toimistoympäristössä. X4000 on
moniprotokollareititin,
jonka
avulla
voidaan
luoda
järjestelmäkonfiguraatiosta riippuen WAN-yhteyksiä. Jotta ei-toivotuilta
maksuilta vältytään, laitetta tulee ehdottomasti valvoa.
■ X4000 vastaa toimistotiloissa käytettäville tietotekniikan laitteistoille
asetettuja asiaankuuluvia turvallisuusmääräyksiä.
■ Järjestelmän IEC 950/EN 60950 mukainen käyttö on taattu ainoastaan, mikäli peltikotelo on asennettu täydellisesti (jäähdytys,palosuoja, kipinäsuoja).
■ Ympäristön lämpötila ei saa nousta yli 50 °C:een. Vältä suoraa
auringonpaistetta.
■ Varo, ettei mitään vieraita esineitä (esim. paperiliittimiä) tai nesteitä pääse
laitteen sisäpuolelle (sähköisku, lyhytsulku). Huolehdi siitä, että laitteen
jäähdytys on riittävä.
■ X4000 :ssa ei ole mitää rakenneosia, jotka täytyy vaihtaa. Laitteessa ei ole
myöskään kytkimiä tai jumppereita, jotka käyttäjän täytyy säätää.
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15
General Safety Precautions in 15 Different Languages
■ Keskeytä hätätilanteessa (esim. särkynyt kotelo tai käyttölaite, nesteen tai
vieraiden esineiden joutuminen laitteen sisään) virransyöttö välittömästi ja
ota yhteyttä huoltopalveluun.
Puhdistus ja
korjaus
■ Vain BinTec:in valtuuttama huoltokorjaamo saa avata laitteen.
Verkkopistoke on ehdottomasti vedettävä seinästä ennen laitteen
aukaisemista. Asiaton aukaiseminen ja asiantuntemattomat korjaukset
voivat aiheuttaa käyttäjälle huomattavia vaaroja (esim. sähköisku). Anna
vain
BinTec:in valtuuttaman huoltokorjaamon korjata laitetta.
Huoltokorjaamoa koskevia tietoja saat laitemyyjältäsi. Muissa tapauksissa
kaikkinaiset takuuvaatimukset evätään.
■ Älä missään tapauksessa puhdista laitetta runsaalla vedellä. Sen sisään
tunkeutunut vesi saattaisi aiheuttaa vakavia vaaroja (esim. sähköisku)
käyttäjälle ja vaurioittaa laitetta pahasti.
■ Älä
koskaan
käytä
puhdistamiseen
hankausaineita,
puhdistusaineita taikka syövyttäviä tai hankaavia tehoaineita.
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alkalisia
15
Consignes de sécurité générales en français
Vous trouverez, dans les paragraphes suivants, les consignes de sécurité que
vous devez absolument respecter lors de l’utilisation de votre router.
Transport et
entreposage
■ Transportez et entreposez X4000 uniquement dans son emballage
Installation et
mise en service
■ Avant de procéder à l’installation et à la mise en service de X4000, veuillez
d’origine ou un autre emballage approprié lui garantissant une bonne
protection contre les chocs et les coups.
vous référer aux indications concernant les conditions d’environnement (cf.
Caractéristiques techniques). Utilisez un support stable et plat.
■ Des charges électrostatiques peuvent endommager l'appareil. Il est donc
important que vous portiez un bracelet antistatique ou que vous touchiez
une surface mise à la terre avant de saisir des prises ou des cartes
d'extension de X4000. Il est impératif de ne saisir les cartes d'extension que
par les bords et de ne pas toucher aux composants ni aux circuits
conducteurs .
■ Refermez les emplacements des cartes d'extension non utilisées avec des
caches borgnes de manière à ce que rien ne puisse pénétrer à l'intérieur
de l'appareil. Si des objets se trouvent dans l'appareil en fonctionnement, il
y a risque d'électrocution et de court-circuit.
■ Veillez à ce qu'aucun objet pointu n'endommage la fenêtre du module d'affichage. Protégez le module d'affichage contre les chocs et les chutes ; ne
le raccordez qu'à la prise RJ11 X4000 prévue à cet effet, afin d'éviter tout
dommage du X4000 et du module d'affichage.
■ Lors du câblage, veillez à ne pas recouvrir les fentes d'aération de l'appareil
de manière à ne pas entraver la ventilaton. Le droit à la garantie est annulé
lorsque les dommages résultent d’une ventilation insuffisante.
■ N’ouvrez pas l’appareil de base et n’effectuez aucune manipulation sur le
bloc d’alimentation, sous risque de danger de mort par électrocution. Ne
retirez aucune vis de fixation sur l’appareil de base.
■ Si l'appareil est transporté dans une pièce où la température est plus
élevée que l'endroit d'où il provient, de la condensation risque de se former
à l'extérieur comme à l'intérieur de l'appareil. Avant de mettre votre appareil
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15
General Safety Precautions in 15 Different Languages
en service, attendez qu'il soit à la même température que la pièce et qu'il
soit absolument sec. Veuillez respecter les indications concernant les
conditions d'environnement (cf. Caractéristiques techniques).
■ Vérifiez si la tension secteur locale correspond aux tensions nominales du
bloc d’alimentation. L'appareil ne devra fonctionner que dans les conditions
ci-après :
–
100 - 240 Vca
–
50 - 60 Hz
■ Vérifiez si la prise de courant de sécurité pour l'installation est librement accessible. Il faut retirer la fiche de contact pour garantir la déconnexion du
secteur.
■ Lors du câblage, respectez les étapes indiquées dans le manuel. N'utilisez
que les câbles correspondants aux spécifications indiquées dans ce manuel ou les câbles d'origine joints à la livraison. Dans le cas où vous utiliseriez
d’autres câbles que ces derniers, la société BinTec Communications AG
décline toute responsabilité pour des dommages éventuels ou pour tout
défaut de fonctionnement pouvant en résulter. Dans de tels cas, la garantie
s'annule.
■ Pour le raccordement de l’appareil, respectez les indications du manuel.
■ Posez les câbles de telle sorte qu’ils ne puissent pas être à l’origine de
risques (risques de trébuchement) ou être endommagés.
■ Pendant un orage, ne connectez pas les lignes de transmission des
données, ne les débranchez pas et ne les touchez pas.
Utilisation conforme,
fonctionnement
■ X4000 est conçu pour l'utilisation dans les bureaux. En tant que router
multi-protocoles, X4000 établit les connexions WAN en fonction de la
configuration existante. Pour éviter des frais de taxation indésirables, il est
impératif de placer ce produit sous contrôle.
■ X4000 est conforme aux prescriptions de sécurité relatives aux
équipements de la technique de l’information pour l’utilisation dans les
bureaux.
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15
■ Le fonctionnement de ce système conformément aux normes CEI 950/
EN 60950 ne peut être garanti que si le boîtier métallique est monté au
complet (refroidissement, protections anti-incendie et antiparasite).
■ La température ambiante ne doit pas dépasser 50 °C. Evitez le
rayonnement direct du soleil sur l'appareil.
■ Veillez à ce qu’aucun objet (des agrafes par ex.) ni aucun liquide ne
s’introduise à l’intérieur de l’appareil (risque d'électrocution ou de courtcircuit). Veillez à ce que l’appareil ait suffisamment refroidi.
■ X4000 ne contient aucun composant devant être remplacé par l'utilisateur
et aucun commutateur/fil volant ayant besoin d'être réglé.
■ Dans les cas d’urgence extrême (si le boîtier ou des éléments de
commande sont endommagés, lorsque du liquide ou des corps étrangers
se sont introduits dans l’appareil, par ex.), déconnectez immédiatement
l’alimentation en courant et contactez le service après-vente.
Nettoyage et
réparations
■ L’appareil doit être ouvert uniquement par un point de service après-vente
agréé par BinTec. Il est impératif de retirer la fiche secteur avant d'ouvrir
l'appareil. L'ouverture non autorisée de l'appareil ainsi que des réparations
non conformes exposent l'utilisateur à des risques graves (risque
d'électrocution par ex.). Les réparations ne doivent être exécutées que un
point de service après-vente agréé par BinTec. Votre concessionnaire vous
fera part de l’adresse à laquelle vous pourrez contacter le service aprèsvente. Tout autre cas annule le droit à la garantie.
■ L’appareil ne doit être en aucun cas nettoyé à l’eau. Une pénétration d’eau
dans l’appareil pourrait entraîner des risques graves pour l’opérateur
(risque d'électrocution par ex.) et des dommages importants de l’appareil.
■ Ne jamais utiliser de produits récurants, de produits de nettoyage alcalins,
ni d'outils tranchants ou grattants.
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General Safety Precautions in 15 Different Languages
ÃåíéêÝò ïäçãßåò áóöáëåßáò óôá ÅëëçíéêÜ
Στισ ακüλουθεσ παραγράφουσ θα βρείτε τισ οδηγίεσ ασφαλείασ, τισ
οποίεσ θα πρέπει να λάβετε οπωσδήποτε υπ’ üψιν σασ κατά τη χρήση του
Router.
Μεταφορά και
αποθήκευση
■ Να µεταφέρετε και να αποθηκεύετε το X4000 µüνο στη γνήσια
Εγκατάσταση και
έναρξη τησ
λειτουργίασ
■ Πριν την εγκατάσταση και την έναρξη τησ λειτουργίασ του X4000 να
συσκευασία ή σε µία άλλη κατάλληλη συσκευασία, η οποία να
εξασφαλίζει προστασία απü τισ κρούσεισ και τα χτυπήµατα.
λάβετε υπ’ üψιν σασ τισ οδηγίεσ σχετικά µε τισ συνθήκεσ
περιβάλλοντοσ (βλέπε Τεχνικά στοιχεία). Χρησιµοποιήστε ένα
σταθερü και επίπεδο υπüβαθρο.
■ Ηλεκτροστατικά φορτία µπορούν να προκαλέσουν βλάβη στη
συσκευή. Γι αυτü, πριν έρθετε σε επαφή µε τισ υποδοχέσ ή τησ
πλατίνεσ αναβάθµισησ του X4000 θα πρέπει
να φοράτε ένα
αντιστατικü µανικέτι γύρω απü το χέρι σασ ή να αγγίζετε µία
γειωµένη επιφάνεια. Αγγίζετε τισ πλατίνεσ αναβάθµισησ µüνο στισ
άκρεσ και µη πιάνετε καλώδια η εξαρτήµατα.
■ Να διατηρείτε κλειστέσ τισ µη χρησιµοποιηµένεσ υποδοχέσ
αναβάθµισησ µε το τυφλü κάλυµµα, ώστε να µην µπορούν να
εισέλθουν αντικείµενα στο εσωτερικü τησ συσκευήσ. Αν κατά την
διάρκεια τησ λειτουργίασ υπάρχουν µέσα στην συσκευή ξένα
αντικείµενα
υπάρχει
κίνδυνοσ
ηλεκτροπληξίασ
και
βραχυκυκλώµατοσ.
■ Να προσέχετε ώστε η οθüνη τησ µονάδασ ενδείξεων να µην υποστεί
ζηµιέσ απü αιχµηρά αντικείµενα. Να προστατεύετε την µονάδα
ενδείξεων απü χτυπήµατα και πτώσεισ και να την συνδέετε µüνον
στην προβλεπüµενη υποδοχή RJ11 του X4000, για να αποφύγετε τισ
ζηµιέσ στο X4000 και στην µονάδα ενδείξεων.
■ Κατά την καλωδίωση προσέξτε ώστε να µην καλύπτονται οι σχισµέσ
εξαερισµού τησ συσκευήσ και να µην εµποδίζεται ο αερισµüσ. Απü
τον µειωµένο αερισµü του X4000 µπορούν να προκληθούν ζηµιέσ
στην συσκευή. Οι βλάβεσ που προκύπτουν απü ελλιπή αερισµü
συνεπάγονται την απώλεια τησ εγγύσησ.
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■ Μη ανοίγετε τη βασική συσκευή και µην κάνετε µετατροπέσ στον
ρευµατολήπτη, διüτι υπάρχει κίνδυνοσ θάνατοσ απο ηλεκτροπληξία.
Μη βγάζετε τησ βίδεσ στερέωσησ τησ βασικήσ συσκευήσ.
■ ¼ταν η συσκευή µεταφέρεται απü ψυχρü περιβάλλον στον χώρο
λειτουργίασ µπορεί να παρουσιασθεί τήξη τüσο στο εξωτερικü üσο
και στο εσωτερικü τησ συσκευήσ. Πριν την θέσετε σε λειτουργία
περιµένετε µέχρι που η συσκευή να αποκτήσει την ίδια θερµοκρασία
και να είναι τελείωσ στεγνή. Προσέξτε τισ συνθήκεσ περιβάλλοντοσ
στο Τεχνικά στοιχεία.
■ Εξετάστε αν η τάση του τοπικού ηλεκτρικού δικτύου συµφωνεί µε
την ονοµαστική τάση του ρευµατολήπτη. Η λειτουργία τησ συσκευήσ
επιτρέπεται µüνο µε τισ ακüλουθεσ προϋποθέσεισ:
–
100 - 240 VAC
–
50 - 60 Hz
■ Βεβαιωθείτε πωσ η πρίζα σούκο τησ εγκατάστασησ είναι προσιτή. Για
την πλήρη αποσύνδεση απü το ρεύµα πρέπει να βγάζετε το φισ απü
την πρίζα.Κατά
την καλωδίωση προσέξτε την σειρά που
περιγράφεται στο εγχειρίδιο. Να χρησιµοποιείτε µüνον καλώδια που
πληρούν τα χαρακτηριστικά στο εγχειρίδιο ή τα γνήσια που
παραλάβατε. Αν χρησιµοποιείτε άλλα καλώδια, τüτε η BinTec
Communications AG δεν αναλαµβάνει καµία ευθύνη για ζηµιέσ ή
βλάβεσ στην λειτουργικüτητα. Σε αυτέσ τισ περιπτώσεισ παύει να
ισχύει η εγγύηση τησ συσκευήσ.
■ Κατά την σύνδεση τησ συσκευή λάβετε υπüψη σασ τισ υποδείξεισ στο
εγχειρίδιο.
■ ∆ιαστρώστε τα καλώδια κατά τέτοιον τρüπο, ώστε να µην προκύψουν
σηµεία κινδύνου (κίνδυνοσ παραπατήµατοσ) και ώστε να µη µπορούν
να υποστούν ζηµιά.
■ Κατά την διάρκεια µιασ καταιγίδασ ούτε να συνδέετε ούτε να
βγάζετε τα καλώδια µεταφοράσ δεδοµένων, ούτε να τα ακουµπάτε.
Προβλεπüµενη χρήση,
λειτουργία
■ Το X4000 προορίζεται για χρήση σε περιβάλλον γραφείου. Σαν Router
πολλαπλών πρωτοκüλλων (Multi-Protokoll) το X4000 σε εξάρτηση
απü την διαµüρφωση του συστήµατοσ δηµιουργεί συνδέσεισ WAN.
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Για να αποφύγετε πρüσθετα τέλη θα πρέπει οπωσδήποτε να
επιτηρείτε την συσκευή.
■ Το X4000 ανταποκρίνεται στισ σχετικέσ διατάξεισ ασφαλείασ για
εγκαταστάσεισ τεχνολογίασ πληροφοριών κατά τη χρήση σε
περιβάλλον γραφείου.
■ Η καθορισµένη λειτουργία του συστήµατοσ σύµφωνα µε το IEC950/
EN60950 διασφαλίζεται µüνο µε εγκαταστηµένο περικάλυµµα (ψύξη,
ασφάλεια πυρκαγιάσ, εξάλειψη παρασίτων).
■ Η θερµοκρασία περιβάλλοντοσ δεν επιτρέπεται να υπερβαίνει τουσ
50 °C. Αποφύγετε την έκθεση σε άµεση ηλιακή ακτινοβολία.
■ Να προσέχετε, ώστε να µην εισέλθουν αντικείµενα (π.χ. συνδετήρεσ)
ή υγρά στο εσωτερικü τησ συσκευήσ (κίνδυνοσ ηλεκτροπληξίασ,
βραχυκυκλώµατοσ). Θα πρέπει να εξασφαλίζεται η επαρκήσ ψύξη.
■ Το X4000 δεν περιλαµβάνει εξαρτήµατα που µπορούν να
αντικατασταθούν απü τον χρήστη ούτε διακüπτεσ ή Jumper, που
πρέπει να ρυθµίσει ο χρήστησ.
■ Σε έκτακτεσ περιπτώσεισ (π.χ. üταν έχει προκληθεί βλάβη στο
κέλυφοσ ή στη µονάδα χειρισµού ή üταν έχουν εισέλθει υγρά ή
αντικείµενα) να διακüπτετε αµέσωσ την παροχή ρεύµατοσ και να
έρχεστε σε επαφή µε το κατάλληλο συνεργείο.
Καθαρισµüσ και
επισκευή
■ Η συσκευή επιτρέπεται να ανοιχτεί µüνον απü συνεργεία που έχουν
εξουσιοδοτηθεί απü την BinTec. Πριν το άνοιγµα τησ συσκευήσ θα
πρέπει οπωσδήποτε να βγάλετε τον ρευµατολήπτη. Αναρµüδιο
άνοιγµα και λανθασµένη επισκευή τησ συσκευήσ προκαλεί µεγάλο
κίνδυνο για τον χρήστη (Ηλεκτροπληξία). Συνιστάται η επισκευή τησ
συσκευήσ να γίνεται µüνο στο σέρβισ του BinTec. Που υπάρχει
σέρβισ κοντά σασ το µαθαίνετε απο τον έµπορο σασ. Σε κάθε άλλη
περίπτωση χάνεται κάθε δικαίωµα αξίωσησ αποζηµιώσεων.
■ Η συσκευή δεν επιτρέπεται σε καµία περίπτωση να καθαριστεί. Απü
την ενδεχüµενη είσοδο νερού µπορεί να προκύψουν σηµαντικοί
κίνδυνοι για το χρήστη (π.χ. ηλεκτροπληξία) και σοβαρέσ ζηµιέσ στη
συσκευή.
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■ Να µη χρησιµοποιείτε ποτέ συρµάτινα σφουγγαράκια και αιχµηρά ή
αδρά βοηθητικά µέσα καθαρισµού.
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Istruzioni generali di sicurezza
Nei seguenti paragrafi si trovano elencate le istruzioni generali di sicurezza da
osservare rigorosamente nell’uso del Router.
Trasporto e
immagazzinaggio
■ Trasportare ed immagazzinare X4000 soltanto nell’imballaggio originale o
Installazione e
azionamento
■ Prima di installare ed usare X4000 fare attenzione alle istruzioni sulle
in altro imballaggio adeguato a garantire protezione da urti e colpi.
condizioni ambientali (cfr. Dati tecnici). Utilizzare un ripiano stabile e piano.
■ Le cariche elettrostatiche possono provocare danni all’apparecchio.
Indossare quindi un polsino elettrostatico o toccare una superficie collegata
a terra prima di afferrare prese o schede di espansione di X4000. Tenere
sempre le schede di espansione soltanto per i bordi e non toccare gli
elementi costruttivi né le guide per i conduttori.
■ Proteggere lo slot per la scheda di espansione non utilizzato con la copertura, per evitare che penetrino oggetti nell’apparecchio. Se nell’apparecchio ci sono corpi estranei durante il funzionamento, sussiste pericolo di
scosse elettriche e di corto circuito.
■ Fare in modo che nessun oggetto appuntito possa danneggiare la finestra
del modulo di visualizzazione. Proteggere il modulo di visualizzazione da
urti e cadute e collegarlo soltanto all’apposito attacco RJ11 di X4000 , per
evitare danni a X4000 e al modulo stesso.
■ Durante il collegamento dei cavi occorre accertarsi che le fessure di ventilazione dell’apparecchio non vengano coperte e che la ventilazione non
sia ostacolata. L’impedimento della ventilazione di X4000 può danneggiare
l’apparecchio. Danni provocati dalla carenza di ventilazione causano la
perdita del diritto di garanzia.
■ Non aprire l’apparecchio base e non effettuare alcuna modifica
sull’alimentatore, poiché sussiste pericolo di morte causata da scosse
elettriche. Non rimuovere le viti di fissaggio dell’apparecchio base.
■ Quando l’apparecchio viene trasferito da un ambiente freddo nel locale di
esercizio, l’involucro esterno e l’interno dell’apparecchio possono
presentare tracce di condensazione. Attendere finché l’apparecchio ha
superato lo sbalzo di temperatura ed è assolutamente asciutto, prima di
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metterlo in funzione. Attenersi alle condizioni ambientali riportate nei dati
tecnici
■ Verificare se la tensione di rete locale corrisponde alle tensioni nominali
dell’alimentatore. L’apparecchio deve essere impiegato alle seguenti condizioni:
–
100 - 240 V c. a.
–
50 - 60 Hz
■ Accertarsi che la presa con contatto di terra dell’installazione sia accessibile. Per la completa separazione dell’apparecchio dalla rete di alimentazione è necessario estrarre la spina.
■ Per il cablaggio si deve seguire la sequenza descritta nel manuale. Utilizzare soltanto i cavi rispondenti alle specifiche riportate in questo manuale
o quelli originali forniti in dotazione. Se si utilizzano altri cavi, la BinTec
Communications AG non risponde dei danni o della riduzione di funzionalità che ne risultano. In questi casi decade la garanzia per l’apparecchio.
■ Per il collegamento dell’apparecchio ci si deve attenere alle istruzioni del
manuale.
■ Disporre i collegamenti in modo che non costituiscano fonte di pericolo
(pericolo d’inciampo) e che non possano essere danneggiati.
■ Non collegare né disconnettere, né toccare i cavi di trasferimento dati
durante un temporale.
Utilizzazione conforme
alla destinazione,
funzionamento
■ X4000 è concepito per l’impiego negli uffici. Come Router per reti
multiprotocollo X4000 stabilisce collegamenti WAN in rapporto alla
configurazione del sistema. Per evitare canoni indesiderati, si consiglia di
controllare assolutamente il prodotto.
■ X4000 è conforme alle relative disposizioni di sicurezza per impianti della
tecnica informatica impiegati in ambiente d’ufficio.
■ Il funzionamento regolamentare del sistema secondo le disposizioni
IEC950/EN60950 è garantito (raffreddamento, protezione antincendio,
schermatura contro radiodisturbi) solo se è completamente montato l’involucro di lamiera.
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■ La temperatura ambiente non deve superare 50 °C. Non esporre l’apparecchio all’azione diretta dei raggi solari.
■ Fare attenzione che nessun oggetto (p. es. fermagli) o liquido penetri
all’interno dell’apparecchio (scossa elettrica, corto circuito). Provvedere ad
un sufficiente raffreddamento.
■ X4000 non contiene elementi costruttivi che possono essere sostituiti
dall’utente né interruttori/ponticelli che devono essere regolati dal cliente.
■ In casi d’emergenza (p. es. danneggiamento dell’involucro o dell’elemento
di comando, infiltrazione di liquido o di corpi estranei) staccare
immediatamente la corrente ed informare il servizio assistenza.
Pulizia e
riparazione
■ L’apparecchio deve essere aperto soltanto da un centro di assistenza BinTec autorizzato. Prima di aprire l’apparecchio estrarre assolutamente la
spina di alimentazione. L’apertura da parte di personale non autorizzato e
riparazioni non corrette possono esporre l’utilizzatore a notevoli pericoli (p.
e. scossa elettrica). Affidare l’esecuzione delle riparazioni all’apparecchio
soltanto ad un centro di assistenza BinTec autorizzato. Il rivenditore di fiducia può fornire informazioni sulle sedi di questi centri. In tutti gli altri casi decade ogni diritto alla garanzia.
■ L’apparecchio non deve assolutamente essere pulito con acqua.
L’infiltrazione di acqua può causare gravi pericoli per l’utente (p. es. scossa
elettrica) nonché gravi danni all’apparecchio.
■ Non utilizzare in nessun caso abrasivi, detergenti a base alcalina, attrezzatura affilata o abrasiva.
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Algemene veiligheidsinstructies in het Nederlands
In de volgende paragrafen vindt u veiligheidsinstructies, die u bij de omgang
met uw router absoluut moet in acht nemen.
Transport en
bewaring
■ Transporteer en bewaar X4000 alleen in de originele verpakking of in een
Opstellen en
in bedrijf nemen
■ Let voor het opstellen en het bedrijf van X4000 op de instructies voor de
andere geschikte verpakking, die bescherming biedt tegen schokken en
stoten.
omgevingsvoorwaarden (vergelijk technische gegevens). Gebruik een
harde en vlakke ondergrond.
■ Elektrostatische opladingen kunnen schade aan het toestel veroorzaken.
Draag daarom een geaarde manchet rond de pols of raak een geaard oppervlak aan vooraleer u de bussen of uitbreidingskaarten van X4000 aanraakt. Raak de uitbreidingskaarten enkel aan de randen aan en neem geen
componenten of conductoren vast.
■ De uitbreidingsslots die niet gebruikt worden met de blinde afdekking gesloten houden, zodat er geen voorwerpen in het inwendige deel van het toestel terecht kunnen komen. Als er zich tijdens het gebruik vreemde voorwerpen in het toestel bevinden, dan bestaat er gevaar voor stroomstoten
en kortsluiting.
■ Zorg ervoor dat het displayvenster van de displaymodule niet door scherpe
voorwerpen beschadigd wordt. Beveilig de displaymodule tegen het stoten
en vallen en sluit de module enkel aan de daarvoor bestemde RJ11-bus
van X4000 aan om schade aan de X4000 en de displaymodule te vermijden.
■ Zorg er bij de bedrading voor dat de ventilatie-openingen van het toestel
niet afgedekt worden en de ventilatie niet gehinderd wordt. Door het hinderen van de ventilatie van de X4000 kan het toestel beschadigd worden. We
kunnen geen garantie geven voor schade die veroorzaakt werd door een
gebrekkige ventilatie.
■ Het basistoestel nooit openen en nooit manipuleren aan het netdeel omdat
er anders gevaar voor stroomstoten bestaat. Geen schroeven van de bevestiging van het basistoestel verwijderen.
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■ Als het toestel vanuit een koude omgeving in de bedrijfsruimte gebracht
wordt, kan er aan de buiten- en binnenkant van het toestel condensatie
optreden. Wacht tot uw toestel zich aan de temperatuur heeft aangepast en
helemaal droog is vooraleer u het in gebruik neemt. Neem de
milieuvoorschriften in de technische gegevens in acht.
■ Ga na of de plaatselijke netspanning overeenstemt met de nominale spanningen van het netdeel. Het toestel mag onder de volgende voorwaarden
gebruikt worden:
–
100 - 240 VAC
–
50 - 60 Hz
■ Zorg ervoor dat de veiligheidscontactdoos van de installatie vrij toegankelijk is. Om het toestel helemaal van het net te scheiden moet de netstekker
uitgetrokken worden.
■ Let bij de aansluiting van de kabels op de volgorde, zoals in het handboek
wordt beschreven. Gebruik enkel kabels die aan de specificaties in dit
handboek voldoen of die meegeleverd werden. Indien u andere kabels gebruikt, is BinTec Communications AG niet aansprakelijk voor mogelijke
schade of het slecht functioneren van het toestel. In dit geval vervalt de garantie.
■ Bij de aansluiting van het toestel de voorschriften in de handleiding in acht
nemen.
■ Leg de kabels zodanig, dat zij geen gevaarsbron (struikelgevaar) vormen
en niet worden beschadigd.
■ Tijdens een onweer de datatransmissielijnen niet aansluiten, uittrekken of
aanraken.
Doelmatig gebruik,
bedrijf
■ X4000 is enkel voor het gebruik in een bureau-omgeving geschikt. Als
multi-protocol-router bouwt X4000 afhankelijk van de systeemconfiguratie
WAN-verbindingen op. Om ongewenste kosten te vermijden, moet het
product absoluut gecontroleerd worden.
■ X4000 voldoet aan de gebruikelijke veiligheidsbepalingen voor inrichtingen
van informatietechniek voor toepassing in een kantooromgeving.
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■ De reglementaire werking volgens IEC950/EN60950 van het systeem is alleen gegarandeerd bij een volledig gemonteerde blikken omhulling (koeling, brandbeveiliging, ontstoring.
■ De omgevingstemperatuur mag niet hoger zijn dan 50 °C. Vermijd direct
zonlicht.
■ Let erop, dat er geen voorwerpen (bijv. paperclips) of vloeistoffen in het
inwendige van het apparaat geraken (elektrische schok, kortsluiting). Let
op voldoende koeling.
■ X4000 bevat geen modules die door de gebruiker vervangen mogen worden of schakelaars/jumpers die de gebruiker moet instellen.
■ Onderbreek in noodgevallen (bijv. beschadigd huis, of bedienelement,
binnendringen van vloeistof of vreemde voorwerpen) onmiddellijk de
stroomverzorging en neemt u contact op met de service-dienst.
Reiniging en
reparatie
■ Het toestel mag alleen door een door BinTec geautoriseerde servicedienst
geopend worden. Voor het openen van het toestel in elk geval de netstekker uittrekken. Door onbevoegd openen en ondeskundige reparaties kan er
groot gevaar voor de gebruiker ontstaan. (b. v. stroomstoten). Reparaties
aan het toestel enkel door een door BinTec geautoriseerde servicedienst
laten uitvoeren. Waar zich deze servicedienst bevindt, weet uw handelaar.
In alle andere gevallen vervalt de aanspraak op garantie.
■ Het apparaat mag in geen geval nat worden gereinigd. Door
binnendringend water kunnen er aanzienlijke gevaren ontstaan voor de
gebruiker (bijv. elektrische schok) en kan er aanzienlijke schade ontstaan
aan het apparaat.
■ Gebruik nooit schuurmiddelen, alkalische reinigingsmiddelen, scherpe of
schurende hulpmiddelen.
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Generelle sikkerhetshenvisninger på norsk
I de følgende avsnittene finner du sikkerhetshenvisninger som du absolutt må
ta hensyn til ved omgangen med din router.
Transport og
lagring
■ Du må kun transportere og lagre X4000 i originalemballasjen eller i en
Oppstilling og
ibruktaking
■ Før oppstilling og drift av X4000 må du ta hensyn til henvisningene når det
annen egnet emballasje som beskytter mot støt og slag.
gjelder omgivelsesbetingelsene (sml. tekniske data). Bruk et fast og jevnt
underlag.
■ Elektrostatisk oppladning kan føre til skader på apparatet. Bruk derfor en
jordet mansjett rundt håndleddet eller berør en jordet flate før du berører
kontakter eller utvidelseskort på X4000. Utvidelseskortene skal prinsipielt
kun gripes i kantene, ta ikke på komponenter eller lederbaner.
■ Hold utvidelses-stikkplassene som ikke er i bruk stengt med blinddekselet,
slik at ingen gjenstander kan komme inn i apparatets indre. Hvis det finnes
uvedkommende gjenstander i apparatet under drift, er det fare for elektrisk
støt og kortslutning.
■ Pass på at ikke spisse gjenstander forårsaker skader på displaymodulens
displayvindu. Utsett ikke displaymodulen for støt eller fall, og kople den kun
til den hertil tiltenkte RJ11-kontakt på X4000, slik at du unngår skader på
X4000 og displaymodulen.
■ Under tilkoplingen må du passe på at apparatets ventilasjonsåpninger ikke
blir tildekket og at ventilasjonen ikke blir hindret. Ved nedsatt ventilasjon av
X4000 kan det oppstå skader på apparatet. Skader som oppstår på grunn
av manglende ventilasjon fører til tap av garantien.
■ Åpne ikke basisapparatet og utfør ingen manipulasjoner på nettdelen, ettersom det i så fall er livsfare på grunn av elektrisk støt. Fjern ingen festeskruer på basisapparatet.
■ Dersom apparatet blir tatt fra en kald omgivelse og inn i rommet der det skal
brukes, kan det oppstå kondens både på utsiden og på innsiden av
apparatet. Vent til routeren har tilpasset seg temperaturen og er helt tørr før
du tar den i bruk.
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■ Kontroller at nettspenningen på stedet er identisk med nettdelens merkespenning. Apparatet kan tas i drift under følgende betingelser:
–
100 - 240 VAC
–
50 - 60 Hz
■ Kontroller at det er fri tilgang til installasjonens jordete stikkontakt. Nettstøpselet må trekkes ut for at apparatet skal være fullstendig frakoplet nettet.
■ Følg den rekkefølgen som er beskrevet i håndboken under tilkopling. Bruk
kun kabler som svarer til spesifikasjonene i denne håndboken eller som
fulgte med i original i leveringen. Hvis du bruker andre kabler, påtar seg
BinTec Communications AG intet ansvar for eventuelle skader eller nedsatt
funksjonalitet. Garantien på apparatet oppheves i slike tilfeller.
■ Følg instruksene i håndboken under tilkoplingen av apparatet.
■ Legg opp ledningene slik at de ikke kan bli skadet og at de ikke danner
farekilder (fare for å snuble).
■ I tordenvær må du verken tilkople dataoverføringsledningene eller frakople
eller berøre dem.
Forskriftsmessig bruk,
drift
■ X4000 er beregnet på bruk i et kontorlandskap. I egenskap av multiprotokoll-router bygger X4000 opp WAN-forbindelser, avhengig av
systemkonfigurasjonen. Det er tvingende nødvendig å overvåke produktet
for å unngå utilsiktede gebyrer..
■ X4000 oppfyller gjeldende sikkerhetsbestemmelser for innretninger innen
informasjonsteknikk for bruk i kontorlanskapp.
■ Forskriftsmessig bruk IEC950/EN60950 av systemet er kun gitt ved komplett montert metalldeksel (kjøling, brannbeskyttelse, radio-støydempning).
■ Omgivelsestemperaturen må ikke overskride 50 °C. Unngå direkte sollys.
■ Pass på at ingen gjenstander (f. eks. binders) eller væsker kan komme inn
i apparatet (fare for elektrisk støt, kortslutning). Pass på tilstrekkelig
avkjøling.
■ X4000 inneholder ingen komponenter som kan byttes ut av brukeren, eller
brytere/jumpere som brukeren må innstille.
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■ I nødstilfeller (f.eks. skadet hus eller betjenings-elementer, når væske eller
fremmedlegemer er kommet inn) må du straks bryte strømforsyningen og
tilkalle service.
Rengjøring og
reparasjon
■ Apparatet skal kun åpnes av et BinTec-autorisert serviceverksted. Trekk ut
nettstøpselet før apparatet åpnes. Ved uautorisert åpning og usakkyndige
reparasjoner kan det oppstå alvorlige risikoer for brukeren (f. eks. fare for
elektrisk støt). Se til at reparasjoner på apparatet kun utføres av et BinTecautorisert serviceverksted. Din forhandler kan fortelle deg hvor nærmeste
serviceverksted er. I alle andre tilfeller tapes garantien.
■ Apparatet må under ingen omstendighet rengjøres med vann. Dersom
vann trenger inn, kan det oppstå alvorlige risikoer for brukeren (f. eks.
elektrisk støt) og alvorlige skader på apparatet.
■ Bruk aldri skuremidler, alkaliske rengjøringsmidler, skarpe eller skurende
hjelpemidler.
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Considerações genéricas em matéria de segurança em português
Nos parágrafos que se seguem, encontra considerações em matéria de
segurança que terá de respeitar estritamente ao lidar com o Router.
Transporte e
armazenamento
■ Transporte e armazene o X4000 apenas na embalagem original ou noutra
Instalação e
colocação em
funcionamento
■ Antes de proceder à instalação e à colocação em funcionamento do X4000
adequada para o efeito que o proteja contra embates fortes e pancadas.
tenha em conta as indicações relativas às condições ambientais (cf. Dados
técnicos). Utilize uma base consistente e lisa.
■ As cargas electrostáticas podem causar danos nos aparelhos. Por conseguinte, use um punho de ligação terra à volta do pulso ou então toque
numa superfície ligada à terra antes de mexer nas tomadas ou placas de
expansão do X4000 . Toque apenas nos bordos das placas de expansão
e não toque nos componentes ou circuitos impressos.
■ Mantenha a slot de expansão não utilizada fechada com a cobertura cega,
de modo a que não possa entrar qualquer objecto no interior do aparelho.
Se, durante o funcionamento, houver algum objecto estranho dentro do
aparelho, existe perigo de choque eléctrico e de curto-circuito.
■ Tenha cuidado para que nenhum objecto pontiagudo danifique a janela do
módulo de display. Para evitar danos no X4000 e no módulo de display,
proteja o módulo de display contra embates fortes e quedas e conecte o
mesmo à tomada RJ11 do X4000 destinada a esse fim.
■ Durante a cablagem, tenha atenção para que as ranhuras de ventilação do
aparelho não fiquem tapadas e a ventilação não seja obstruída. A obstrução da ventilação do X4000 pode causar danos no aparelho. Os danos
causados por uma ventilação insuficiente têm como consequência a perda
da garantia.
■ Não abra o aparelho base, nem mexa no equipamento de alimentação de
rede, uma vez que existe perigo de morte devido a choque eléctrico. Não
retire quaisquer parafusos de fixação do aparelho base.
■ Quando o aparelho é deslocado de um local frio para o local de
funcionamento, poderá haver formação de condensação tanto no exterior
como no interior do aparelho. Aguarde até o aparelho se encontrar à
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temperatura ambiente e completamente seco antes de o colocar em
funcionamento. Tenha em atenção as indicações relativas às condições
ambientais nos Dados técnicos.
■ Verifique se a tensão de rede local corresponde às tensões nominais do
equipamento de alimentação de rede. O aparelho pode ser operado nas
seguintes condições:
–
100 - 240 VAC
–
50 - 60 Hz
■ Certifique-se de que a tomada de contacto de segurança da instalação
está acessível. Para desligar completamente a corrente do aparelho, retire
a ficha de rede.
■ Ao proceder à cablagem, respeite a sequência tal como está descrita no
manual. Utilize unicamente cabos que correspondam às especificações
contidas neste manual ou cabos originais que tenham sido fornecidos. Se
usar outros cabos, a BinTec Communications AG não se responsabiliza
por danos daí decorrentes ou por limitações de funcionamento. Nestes casos, a garantia do aparelho é anulada.
■ Aquando da conexão do aparelho, respeite as indicações constante do
manual.
■ Instale os cabos de maneira a não constituírem uma fonte de perigo (perigo
de tropeçar) nem se danificarem.
■ Em caso de trovoada, não ligue, retire ou toque nos cabos de transmissão
de dados.
Utilização conforme
com as especificações,
Operação
■ O X4000 destina-se à utilização em escritórios. Como Router de protocolos
múltiplos, o X4000 constrói ligações WAN de acordo com a configuração
do sistema. Para evitar custos indesejados, controle o produto.
■ O X4000 corresponde às normas de segurança habituais relativas a
dispositivos de informática para utilização em escritórios.
■ Só é possível assegurar o funcionamento adequado do sistema em conformidade com IEC950/EN60950 se a caixa de chapa estiver completamente
montada (refrigeração, protecção contra incêndio, supressão de interferências).
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■ A temperatura ambiente não pode exceder os 50 °C. Evite expor o aparelho à luz solar directa.
■ Tenha o cuidado de não deixar entrar objectos (por ex. clipes) ou líquidos
para o interior do aparelho (choque eléctrico, curto-circuito). Verifique se a
refrigeração é suficiente.
■ O X4000 não contém componentes que possam ser substituídos pelo utilizador ou interruptores/conectores que o utilizador tenha de regular.
■ Em caso de emergência (por ex. caixa ou elemento de comando
danificado, entrada de líquido ou de corpos estranhos), interrompa
imediatamente a alimentação de corrente e recorra ao serviço de
assistência técnica.
Limpeza e
reparação
■ O aparelho só pode ser aberto num serviço de assistência técnica BinTec
autorizado. Antes de abrir o aparelho é indispensável retirar a ficha de rede. A abertura não autorizada e as reparações inadequadas podem representar riscos graves para o utilizador (por ex. choque eléctrico). Mande
efectuar as reparações do aparelho apenas nos serviços de assistência
técnica BinTec autorizados. O seu fornecedor indicar-lhe-á a localização
dos referidos serviços. Caso contrário, perderá todos os direitos de garantia.
■ O aparelho nunca pode ser limpo a húmido. A infiltração de água pode
constituir perigo para o utilizador (por ex. choque eléctrico) e danos de
monta no aparelho.
■ Nunca utilizar abrasivos, produtos de limpeza alcalinos, objectos afiados
ou que risquem.
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Ogólne zasady bezpieczeństwa w języku polskim
Poniżej podano zasady bezpieczeństwa, których
przestrzegać przy obchodzeniu się z routerem.
należy
bezwzględnie
Transport i
magazynowanie
■ Urządzenie X4000 należy transportować i magazynować wyłącznie w
Ustawianie i
uruchamianie
■ Przed ustawieniem i uruchomieniem urządzenia X4000 należy zastosować
opakowaniu oryginalnym lub innym nadającym się do tego celu opakowaniu,
zapewniającym ochronę przed obiciami i uderzeniami.
się do wskazówek dotyczących warunków otoczenia (por. Parametry
techniczne). Urządzenie należy ustawić na trwałym i równym podłożu.
■ Elektrostatyczna różnica potencjałów może doprowadzić do uszkodzenia
urządzenia. Przed przystąpieniem do pracy należy założyć na przegub ręki
antyelektrostatyczną opaskę zabezpieczającą lub dotknąć uziemionej
powierzchni zanim dojdzie do kontaktu dłoni z puszkami lub kartami
rozszerzenia X4000 Karty poszerzające chwytać zawsze na obrzeżach; nie
dotykać
bezpośrednio
ścieżek
drukowanych
oraz
elementów
elektronicznych.
■ Nie używane pole do dodatkowych wcisków zamknąć zaślepkami
zabezpieczającymi które zapobiegają dostaniu się do wnętrza niepożądanych
przedmiotów. Obecność obcych elementów w urządzeniu w czasie jego
eksploatacji stanowi zagrożenie porażenia prądem lub prowadzi do spięcia
elektrycznego.
■ Zwrócić szczególną uwagę aby okienko displaya (pola wyświetlającego) w
module displaya nie zostało uszkodzone ostrymi przedmiotami. Należy
chronić moduł displaya przed uderzeniami i upadkiem i zamykać w do tego
celu przeznaczonej puszce RJ11X4000, aby nie dopuścić do szkód na
X4000 i module displaya.
■ Okablowanie powinno być tak prowadzone, żeby szczeliny wentylacyjne i
otwory w obudowie nie zostały przysłonięte i w konsekwencji nie doszło do
zakłócenia
właściwego
chłodzenia
urządzenia.
Niewystarczające
przewietrzanie X4000może doprowadzić do awarii urządzenia. Uszkodzenia
wynikające z niedostatecznej wentylacji mogą wiązać się z utratą reklamacji.
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■ Otwieranie urządzenia głównego i dokonywanie manipulacji w części
przewodowej jest niedozwolone i grozi śmiertelnym porażeniem prądem.
Zabronione jest odkręcanie śrub mocujących z urządzenia głównego.
■ W momencie przemieszczenia urządzenia z zimnego otoczenia do
pomieszczenia eksploatacyjnego, może wystąpić pokrycie parą zarówno
części zewnętrznych jak i wewnętrznych. Należy odczekać aż urządzenie
przejmie nową temperaturę i całkowicie wyschnie, dopiero wtedy możliwa
jest jego eksploatacja. Należy przestrzegać warunków środowiskowych
opisanych w danych technicznych urządzenia.
■ Konieczne jest sprawdzenie zgodności napięcia sieci zasilającej z napięciem
znamionowym zasilacza prądowego. Urządzenie może być eksploatowane
pod następującymi warunkami:
–
100 - 240 VAC
–
50 - 60 Hz
■ Należy upewnić się, czy gniazdko kontaktu bezpieczeństwa instalacji
elektrycznej jest łatwo dostępne. Aby przerwać w pełni zasilanie prądem,
wtyczka musi być wyciągnięta z gniazdka.
■ Przy przyłączaniu przewodów należy przestrzegać kolejności opisanej w
instrukcji obsługi. Należy używać tylko takich kabli których specyfikacje
odpowiadają danym z niniejszej instrukcji obsługi lub też są dostarczone wraz
z urządzeniem. W przypadku zastosowania innych przewodów firma BinTec
Communications AG nie ponosi odpowiedzialności za poniesione szkody.
Tym samym umowa gwarancyjna staje się nieaktualna.
■ Podczas podłączania urządzenia do sieci należy przestrzegać wskazówek
zawartych w instrukcji obsługi.
■ Przewody należy ułożyć tak, aby nie występowało niebezpieczeństwo
potykania się o nie oraz ich uszkadzania.
■ Podczas burzy nie wolno podłanczać przewodów przenoszenia danych, ani
też dotykać ich lub wyłanczać.
Zgodne z
przeznaczeniem
stosowanie,
eksploatacja
■ X4000 przeznaczona jest do pracy w otoczeniu biurowym. Jako MultiProtokoll-Router buduje X4000 niezależnie od konfiguracji systemowej
połączenia WAN. Aby zapobiec nieprzewidzianym opłatom, powinno się go
strzec.
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■ Urządzenie X4000 spełnia obowiązujące zasady bezpieczeństwa dla
urządzeń informatycznych przeznaczonych do stosowania w otoczeniu
biurowym.
■ Zgodna z przeznaczeniem eksploatacja systemu zgodnie z IEC950/EN60950
jest zagwarantowana tylko w przypadku kompletnie zamontowanej obudowy
blaszanej (chłodzenie, ochrona przeciwpożarowa, eliminacja zakłóceń w
eterze).
■ Temperatura otoczenia nie powinna przekraczać 50°C. Należy unikać
bezpośredniego działania promieni słonecznych.
■ Należy uważać, aby do wnętrza urządzenia nie wnikały żadnego rodzaju
przedmioty (np. spinacze biurowe) bądź ciecze (udar prądowy, zwarcia).
Zapewnić wystarczające chłodzenia urządzenia.
■ X4000nie zawiera żadnych części budowy które musiałyby być wymieniane
przez użytkownika, nie zawiera też żadnych przełączników czy też innych
elementów które trzeba ustawiać.
■ W sytuacjach awaryjnych (np. uszkodzona obudowa lub element obsługi,
wniknięcie cieczy bądź ciał obcych) należy natychmiast przerwać zasilanie
urządzenia prądem elektrycznym i zawiadomić serwis.
Oczyszczanie i
naprawa
■ Urządzenie może być otwarte tylko przez fachowca z autoryzowanego
serwisu BinTec. Przed otwarciem urządzenia koniecznie wyjąć wtyczkę z
gniazdka sieciowego. Otwarcie przez osoby nieupoważnione i niefachowo
przeprowadzone naprawy mogą pociągnąć za sobą powstanie poważnych
zagrożeń dla użytkownika (np.porażenie prądem). Naprawy mogą być
wykonywane tylko przez autoryzowany serwis naprawczy BinTec. Adresy
warsztatów serwisowych można uzyskać w placówkach handlowych. W
pozostałych przypadkach wszelkie umowy gwarancyjne będą uznane za
nieważne.
■ Urządzenia pod żadnym pozorem nie wolno czyścić na mokro. Dostanie się
wody do wnętrza urządzenia może wywoływać poważne zagrożenia dla
użytkownika (np. porażenie prądem) oraz poważne uszkodzenia produktu.
■ Nigdy nie stosować środków do szorowania, zasadowych środków
czyszczących, ostrych lub szorujących środków pomocniczych.
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Instrucciones generales de seguridad
En los párrafos siguientes encontrará unas instrucciones de seguridad. Es
imprescindible tener las mismas en cuenta a la hora de manejar su router.
Transporte y
almacenamiento
■ Transporte y almacene su X4000 únicamente en su embalaje original o en
Colocación y
puesta en servicio
■ Antes de la colocación y puesta en servicio de X4000, observe las
otro embalaje adecuado que garantice su protección contra golpes y
choques.
instrucciones acerca de las condiciones ambientales (ver ”Datos
técnicos”). Utilice una superficie firme y plana.
■ Las cargas electrostáticas pueden ocasionar daños en los aparatos. Por ello, lleve un puño puesto a tierra alrededor de la muñeca o entre en contacto
con una superficie puesta a tierra antes de tocar hembrillas o tarjetas de
expansión de X4000. Toque las tarjetas de expansión sólo en los bordes y
no entre en contacto con componentes ni con redes de circuitos impresos.
■ Mantenga cerrada la ranura de expansión con la cubierta ciega para que
no pueda penetrar ningún objeto en el interior del aparato. Si durante el
servicio hubiera dentro algún objeto extraño, se correría peligro de electrocución y de cortocircuito.
■ Preste atención a que ningún objeto afilado dañe la ventana de display del
módulo de display. Proteja este módulo frente a golpes y caída y conéctelo
únicamente a la hembrilla RJ11 prevista en X4000 a fin de evitar daños en
X4000 y en el módulo de display.
■ Al instalar los cables, preste atención a no cubrir las rendijas de ventilación
del aparato para no impedir la ventilación. Si la ventilación de X4000 resultase afectada, podrían ocasionar daños en el aparato. Los daños producidos a causa de una ventilación insuficiente conllevan la pérdida de garantía.
■ No abra el aparato base, ni manipule de ningún modo el bloque de alimentación, ya que en caso contrario se corre peligro de muerte por electrocución. No retire ninguno de los tornillos de fijación del aparato base.
■ Si el aparato proviene de un ambiente frío, al introducirlo en el local de
trabajo se puede producir deshielo tanto en su exterior como en su interior.
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Por ello, antes de ponerlo en funcionamiento espere a que su temperatura
se haya igualado y a que esté totalmente seco. Preste atención a las
condiciones medioambientales expuestas en el apartado de Datos
Técnicos.
■ Asegúrese de que la tensión de la red local coincida con las tensiones nominales del bloque de alimentación. El aparato puede funcionar bajo las siguientes condiciones:
–
100 - 240 VCA
–
50 - 60 Hz
■ Asegúrese de que no quede obstaculizado el acceso a la caja de enchufe
con puesta a tierra de la instalación. Para desconectar totalmente el aparato de la red es necesario desenchufar el enchufe de la red.
■ Al instalar los cables respete el orden descrito en el manual. Utilice únicamente cables que cumplan las especificaciones expuestas en este manual
o que hayan venido incluidos en el volumen de suministro. Si utiliza otros
cables, BinTec Communications AG no se hará responsable en el caso de
que se produzcan daños o una merma en el funcionamiento. En estos casos la garantía pierde su validez.
■ Al conectar el aparato, respete las indicaciones dadas en el manual.
■ Coloque los cables de manera que no constituyan un peligro (tropezones)
y no puedan ser deteriorados.
■ Durante una tormenta, no enchufe ni desenchufe los conductos de
transmisión de datos, ni los toque.
Utilización prevista,
servicio
■ X4000 está concebido para ser utilizado en oficinas. Como router
multiprotocolo, X4000 establece conexiones WAN dependiendo de la
configuración del sistema. Para evitar que se produzcan gastos de
conexiones indeseadas, es absolutamente necesario vigilar el producto.
■ X4000 corresponde a las disposiciones de seguridad pertinentes para
equipos informáticos utilizados en oficinas y despachos.
■ El servicio correspondiente al destino según IEC 950/EN 60950 del
sistema está sólo asegurado al estar montada completamente la caja de
chapa (refrigeración, protección contra incendios, antiparasitaje).
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■ La temperatura ambiente no debe ser superior a los 50 °C. Evite que el
aparato quede expuesto a la luz solar directa.
■ Procure que ningún objeto (p. ej. clips) o líquido entre en el interior del
aparato (descargas eléctricas, cortocircuitos) y que exista una refrigeración
suficiente.
■ El usuario de X4000 no puede cambiar ningún componente, ni debe ajustar
ningún interruptor/puente.
■ En casos de emergencia (p. ej. caja o elemento de mando deteriorados,
penetración de líquidos o de cuerpos extraños), interrumpa
inmediatamente la alimentación de energía y avise al servicio técnico.
Limpieza y
reparación
■ Sólo personal de un servicio técnico autorizado por Bin Tec puede abrir el
aparato. Antes de abrirlo, es imprescindible desconectar el enchufe de la
red. Si se abre de forma no autorizada o las reparaciones no se efectúan
como es debido, esto puede suponer riesgos considerables para el usuario
(p. ej., electrocución). Por ello, encargue siempre los trabajos de reparación a un servicio técnico autorizado por BinTec, cuya dirección se la proporcionará su distribuidor. De otro modo, perderá todo el derecho de garantía.
■ En ningún caso, el aparato debe limpiarse en húmedo. Al penetrar agua,
puede existir un peligro considerable para el usuario (p. ej., descargas
eléctricas) y pueden producirse daños considerables en el aparato.
■ No utilizar jamás productos abrasivos, detergentes alcalinos, ni instrumentos afilados o abrasivos.
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Allmänna säkerhetsanvisningar på svenska
Beakta alltid nedanstående säkerhetsanvisningar för användning av apparaten.
Transport och
förvaring
■ X4000 får endast transporteras och förvaras i originalförpackningen eller i
Installation och
start
■ Beakta uppgifterna om omgivningsförhållanden (se Tekniska data) innan
en annan likvärdig förpackning som ger ett fullvärdigt skydd mot stötar och
slag.
X4000 installeras och startas. Installera den på ett stabilt och jämnt
underlag.
■ Elektrostatisk uppladdning kan förorsaka skador på apparaten. Bär därför
en antistatisk manschett runt handleden, eller rör alltid vid en jordad yta
innan Du vidrör uttag/kontakter eller utbyggnadskort till X4000. Tag endast
på utbyggnadskortens kanter, vidrör aldrig ledningarna och
komponenterna.
■ Täck över en ej använd utbyggnadsinsticksplats med täckskivan så att inga
främmande föremål kan komma in i apparaten. Risk för strömstötar och
kortslutning om främmande föremål finns i apparaten under drift.
■ Säkerställ att displaymodulens displayfönster inte kan skadas av några
spetsiga föremål. Installera displaymodulen så att den inte kan falla ned
resp utsättas för stötar och slag. Anslut den endast till härför avsett RJ11uttag X4000 , annars kan X4000 och displaymodulen ta skada.
■ Säkerställ, under kabeldragningen, att apparatens ventilationsslitsar inte
täcks över och att ventilationen inte påverkas. En reducerad
ventilationseffekt kan medföra skador på X4000. Tillverkaren övertar inget
garantiansvar för skador som uppstår p g a bristfällig ventilation.
■ Öppna inte basenheten, utför inga som helst förändringar på nätdelen; risk
för strömstötar, livsfara. Tag inte bort några montageskruvar från
basenheten.
■ Om enheten flyttas från en kall till en varm omgivning kan det bildas
kondensvatten på och i apparaten. Tag apparaten i drift först när den har
nått rumstemperatur och har torkat helt. Beakta uppgifterna över
omgivningsförhållanden i Tekniska data.
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■ Kontrollera att spänningen på plats överensstämmer med nätdelens
märkspänning. Under följande villkor får apparaten användas:
–
100 - 240 VAC
–
50 - 60 Hz
■ Säkerställ att det jordade vägguttaget alltid är fritt tillgängligt. För
separering från nätet måste nätkontakten dras ut.
■ Utför kabeldragningen i den ordningsföljd som anges i handboken. Använd
endast medlevererade originalkablar eller kablar som överensstämmer
med specifikationerna i denna handbok. BinTec Communications AG påtar
sig inget ansvar för eventuella skador eller brister på apparaten om den
används tillsammans med andra kablar. I detta fall gäller inte garantin
längre.
■ Beakta anvisningarna i handboken vid anslutning av apparaten.
■ Drag kablarna så att de inte kan utgöra någon fara (de får inte ligga så att
man kan snubbla över dem) och så att de inte kan skadas.
■ Dataöverföringskabeln får inte anslutas, dras ut eller vidröras under ett
åskväder.
Ändamålsenlig
användning, drift
■ X4000 är avsedd för användning i kontorslokaler. X4000 är en multiprotokoll-router som, beroende på systemkonfiguration, upprättar WANförbindelser. Produkten bör övervakas så att inte onödiga kostnader
uppstår.
■ X4000 uppfyller kraven i alla relevanta säkerhetsbestämmelser för
informationsteknikutrustning i kontorslokaler.
■ Ändamålsenlig användning av systemet enligt IEC 950/EN 60950
säkerställs endast om plåthöljet är komplett monterat (kylning, brandskydd,
radioavstörning).
■ Omgivningstemperaturen bör inte vara högre än 50°C . Undvik direkt
solljus.
■ Säkerställ att det inte kan komma in några föremål (t ex häftklammer) eller
någon vätska i apparaten (strömstötar, kortslutning). Sörj för fullgod
kylning.
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■ X4000 har inga komponenter som användaren kan byta ut, och inga
kontakter/jumpers som måste ställas in.
■ Koppla genast ifrån strömförsörjningen i nödsituationer (t ex skadat hölje
eller skadade manöverelement, eller om vätska eller främmande föremål
har kommit in i apparaten) och tag kontakt med serviceavdelningen.
Rengöring och
reparation:
■ Apparaten får endast öppnas av en av BinTEc auktoriserad
serviceverkstad. Drag alltid ut nätkontakten innan apparaten öppnas.
Obehörigt öppnande resp ej sakkunniga reparationer på apparaten kan
medföra fara för användaren (t ex elektriska stötar). Reparationer får bara
utföras av en av BinTec auktoriserad serviceverkstad. Återförsäljaren
tillhandahåller information om närmaste serviceverkstad. I annat fall upphör
garantiansvaret att gälla.
■ Apparaten får aldrig våtrengöras. Vatten som kommer i enheten kan
medföra fara för användaren (t ex elektriska stötar) och förorsaka skador
på apparaten.
■ Använd inget skurpulver, inga alkaliska rengöringsmedel, använd inga
vassa resp repande hjälpmedel.
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Genel güvenlik bilgileri türkçe
Müteakip bölümlerde cihazınızı kullanırken mutlaka dikkat etmeniz gereken
genel güvenlik bilgilerini bulabilirsiniz.
Taşıma ve
Depolama
■ X4000 cihazı sadece orjinal ambalajı içinde veya çarpmaya ve darbeye
Kurulması ve
Çalıştırılması
■ X4000 cihazını kurup çalıştırmadan önce çevre koşulları hakkındaki
karşı koruyan uygun başka bir ambalajla taşıyıp depolayınız.
bilgileri dikkate alınız (bak. Teknik Bilgiler). Sağlam ve düz bir altlık
kullanınız.
■ Elektrostatik yüklenmeler cihazın zarar görmesine neden olabilir. Bu
yüzden el bileğinize antistatik bir manşet takınız veya X4000 cihazının
soketleri ve modüllerine dokunmadan önce, topraklı bir yüzeye
dokununuz. Modülleri yalnız kenarlarından tutunuz, yapı parçalarına veya
hatlara dokunmayınız.
■ Cihazın içine yabancı cisimlerin girmesini engellemek için kullanılamayan
modül soketlerini körtapalarla kapatınız. Kullanım esnasında cihazın
içinde yabancı cisimler bulunuyorsa, elektrik çarpması ve elektrik
bağlantılarının kısa devre yapma tehlikesi bulunmaktadır.
■ Sivri aletlerin display modülünün display penceresine zarar vermemesine
dikkat ediniz. Display modülünü çarpma ve düşmeden koruyunuz ayrıca
X4000 cihazına ve display modülüne zarar gelmemesi için, sadece bunun
için ön görülmüs olan X4000 cihazının RTJ11 soketine bağlayınız.
■ Kabloları
yerleştirirken,
cihazın
havalandırma
deliklerinin
kapanmamasına ve havalandırmanın engellenmemesine dikkat ediniz.
X4000 cihazının havalandırması engellendiği takdirde cihaza zarar
gelebilir. Yetersiz havalandırmanın yol açtığı zararlar, cihazın garanti
hakkının kaybına sebeb verir.
■ Ana cihazı kesinlikle açmayınız ve elektrik çarpması sonucunda hayati
tehlike bulunduğundan, elektrik kablosunda hiçbir işlem yapmayınız. Ana
cihazdan tespit vidalarını sökmeyiniz.
■ Cihaz, çalıştırılacağı odaya soğuk bir ortamdan getirilmiş ise, cihazın
dışında ve içinde çiylenme olabilir.
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tamamen kurumasını ve oda sıcaklığına uyum sağlamasını bekleyiniz.
Teknik Bilgiler'deki çevre koşullarını dikkate alınız.
■ Yerel şebeke geriliminin, şebeke parçasının nominal gerilimine uygun
olup olmadığını kontrol ediniz. Cihaz, aşağıdaki koşullar doğrultusunda
çalıştırılabilir:
–
100 - 240 VAC
–
50 - 60 Hz
■ Koruyucu kontak prizinin montaj için rahatlıkla ulaşılabilecek durumda
olmasını sağlayınız. Şebekeden tamam kopmak için, elektrik fişinin
prizden çekilmeşi gerekir.
■ Kabloları takarken el kitapcığındaki sıralamaya dikkat ediniz. Sadece el
kitapcığında belirtilen verilere uygun veya cihazla birlikte gönderilen
kabloları kullanınız. Başka kablo kullandığınız takdirde, BinTec
Communications AG meydana gelen hasar veya fonksiyonlardaki
olumsuz etkilerden dolayı sorumluluk üstlenmez. Bu durumlarda garanti
hakkı ortadan kalkar.
■ Cihazı bağlarken el kitapcığındaki açıklamalara dikkat ediniz.
■ Kabloları, tehlike kaynağı olamayacak ve zarar görmeyecek şekilde
(takılma tehlikesi) döşeyiniz.
■ Fırtına esnasında veri iletişim hatlarını ne bağlayınız, ne çıkartınız, ne de
bunlara dokununuz.
Belirlenmiş şekilde
kullanım, işletim
■ X4000 cihazı büro ortamında kullanım için tasarlanmıştır. Multi-ProtokolRouter olarak X4000 cihazı sistem konfigurasyonuna bağlı olarak WANbağlantıları kurmaktadır. Istenmeyen masrafları önlemek için, ürünü
mutlaka kontrol altında tutunuz.
■ X4000 cihazı, büro ortamında kullanılan enformasyon teknik donanımları
için geçerli olan güvenlik talimatnamelerine kesinlikle uymaktadır.
■ IEC 950/EN 60950 uyarınca, sistemin belirlenmiş şekilde kullanımı
sadece saç kasnağı tamamiyle monte edildiğinde sağlanabilir (soğutma,
yangın önleme, parazit giderme).
■ Çevre sıcaklığı kesinlikle 50°C’yi geçmemeli. Cihazı direk gelen güneş
ışınlarından koruyunuz.
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■ Cihazın içine yabancı cisimlerin (örneğin ataç) veya sıvıların girmesini
önleyiniz (elektrik çarpması, kısa devre). Cihazın yeterli oranda
soğutulmasına dikkat ediniz.
■ X4000 cihazında, kullanıcı tarafından değiştirilebilecek herhangi bir yapı
elemanı veya kullanıcının
bulunmamaktadır.
ayarlaması
gereken
şalter/jumper
■ Acil durumlarda (örneğin hasarlı cihaz kasası veya kullanım parçası,
cihazın içine sıvı veya yabancı maddelerin girmesi) derhal elektrik akımını
kesip servise haber veriniz.
Temizlik ve
Tamir
■ Cihaz sadece BinTec'in yetkili servisi tarafından açılabilir.
Cihazı
açmadan önce, mutlaka elektrik fişini prizden çekiniz. Müsaade edilen
işlemler dışında açılması ve uygun olmayan şekilde tamir edilmesi,
kullanıcı için büyük tehlikeler doğurabilir (örneğin elektrik çarpması).
Cihazın tamiratını sadece BinTec yetkili servisi tarafından yaptırınız.
Yetkili
servis
yerlerini
nerede
bulabileceğinizi
satıcınızdan
öğrenebilirsiniz. Diğer durumlarda garanti hakkı kaybolmaktadır.
■ Cihazın su ile temizlenmesi kesinlikle yasaktır. Suyun cihaz içine kaçması,
kullanıcı için büyük tehlikeler doğurabilir (örneğin elektrik çarpması) ve
cihaza da ciddi zararlar verebilir.
■ Kesinlikle temizleme tozları, alkalik temizlik maddeleri, keskin veya
aşındırıcı yardımcı maddeler kullanmayınız.
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Általános biztonsági útmutató
A következő fejezetekben olyan biztonsági útmutatásokat talál, amelyeket a
készüléke alkalmazása során feltétlenül figyelembe kell vennie.
Szállítás és
tárolás
■ Az X4000 csak az eredeti vagy egy más, arra alkalmas csomagolásban
Felállítás és
üzembe helyezés
■ Az X4000 felállítása és üzembe helyezése előtt vegye figyelembe a környezeti
szállítandó és tárolandó, amely lökések és ütések ellen védelmet biztosít.
feltételekre vonatkozó utasításokat (v.ö. a műszaki adatokkal). A készüléket
szilárd és sík alapon alkalmazza.
■ Az elektrosztatikus töltések kisülése a berendezés meghibásodásához
vezethet. Ezek megelőzése céljából viseljen földelt csuklópántot, vagy
érintsen meg egy földelt felületet, mielőtt az X4000 csatlakozóhüvelyeihez
vagy bővítőkártyáihoz hozzáérne. A bővítőkártyákat mindig csak a szélükön
érintse meg, sose érjen alkatrészekhez vagy vezető vonalakhoz.
■ A nem használt slotokat mindig zárja le vakfedéllel, hogy ne kerülhessenek
idegen tárgyak a készülék belsejébe. Amennyiben idegen tárgyak kerülnek a
készülék belsejébe, áramütés és rövidzárlat veszélye áll fenn.
■ Ügyeljen arra, hogy a displaymodul display-jét semmilyen hegyes tárgy ne
sérthesse meg. Óvja a displaymodult lökésektől és leeséstől. A displaymodult
csak az X4000 erre kijelölt RJ11 csatlakozóhüvelyére csatlakoztassa, hogy az
X4000 készüléken és a displaymodulon emiatt keletkező meghibásodásokat
elkerülje.
■ A vezetékezésnél ügyeljen arra, hogy a készülék szellőzőnyílásai ne legyenek
letakarva, a szellőzés zavartalanul működjék. A nem megfelelő szellőzés az
X4000 meghibásodásához vezethet. A nem megfelelő szellőzés miatt fellépő
károk esetében garanciaigénye megszűnik.
■ Ne nyissa ki a készülék burkolatát, és ne végezzen semmilyen átalakítást a
tápegységen, mert ezáltal életveszélyes áramütés veszélye áll fenn. Ne
távolítsa el a készülék rögzítő csavarjait.
■ Ha a készülék hideg környezetből kerül az üzemeltetési helyére, akkor a
készülék külsején és belsejében lecsapódhat a nedvesség. Az üzembe
helyezés előtt várja meg, amíg a készülék el nem éri a szobahőmérsékletet,
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és teljesen meg nem szárad. Vegye figyelembe a műszaki adatoknál
megadott környezeti feltételeket.
■ Ellenőrizze, hogy a helyi hálózati feszültség megegyezik-e a tápegység
névleges feszültségével. A készülék az alábbi feltételek mellett üzemeltethető:
–
100 - 240 VAC
–
50 - 60 Hz
■ Gondoskodjon róla, hogy a védőérintkezős csatlakozó aljzat a telepítésnél
hozzáférhető legyen. A hálózatról való teljes leválasztáshoz húzza ki a hálózati
csatlakozót.
■ A vezetékezés során vegye figyelembe a kézikönyvben megadott sorrendet.
Csak olyan vezetékeket alkalmazzon, amelyek a kézikönyvben megadott
specifikációknak megfelelnek, vagy amelyek a készülék szállítási
terjedelmében találhatók. Amennyiben más vezetékeket alkalmaz, az emiatt
fellépő károkért vagy a működésben fellépő változásokért a BinTec
Communications AG nem vállal felelősséget. Ebben az esetben megszűnik a
garanciajogosultsága.
■ Vegye figyelembe a készülék csatlakoztatásánál a kézikönyvben leírt ide
vonatkozó utasításokat.
■ A vezetékeket úgy fektesse le, hogy azok ne lehessenek veszélyek forrásai
(botlásveszély), azokban pedig kár ne keletkezhessen.
■ Az adatátvivő vezetékeket vihar esetében ne csatlakoztassa, ne húzza le, ne
érintse meg.
Rendeltetésszerű
alkalmazás,
üzemeltetés
■ Az X4000 irodai környezetben való alkalmazásra készült. Az X4000, mint
multi-protokoll-router, a rendszerkonfigurációtól függően a WANösszeköttetésekre épül. A nem kívánt telefondíjak elkerülése végett, a
terméket feltétlenül tartsa megfigyelés alatt.
■ Az X4000 megfelel az idevágó - irodai környezetben való használatra
alkalmas információtechnikai berendezésekre vonatkozó - biztonsági
előírásoknak.
■ Az A rendszer rendeltetésszerű üzemeltetése az IEC 950/EN 60950
szabályzatnak megfelelően csak a teljesen összeszerelt fémburkolattal
biztosítható (hűtés, tűzvédelem, zavarszűrés).
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■ A környezeti hőmérséklet nem haladhatja meg az 50 °C-t. Kerülje a közvetlen
napsütést.
■ Ügyeljen arra, hogy semmilyen tárgy (pl. gémkapocs) vagy folyadék ne
kerülhessen a készülék belsejébe (áramütés, rövidzárlat). Ügyeljen a
megfelelő hűtésre.
■ Az X4000 nem tartalmaz alkatrészeket, amelyeket a felhasználó kicserélhet,
vagy kapcsolókat, jumpereket, amelyeket a felhasználónak kellene beállítania.
■ Vészhelyzetben (pl. sérült burkolat vagy kezelőegység, folyadék vagy idegen
test behatolása esetén) azonnal szakítsa meg az áramellátást, és értesítse a
szervizt.
Tisztítás és
javítás
■ A készüléket csak a BinTec által feljogosított szervizek nyithatják fel. A
készülék felnyitása előtt feltétlenül húzza ki a hálózati csatlakozót. A készülék
jogtalan felnyitása és a helytelen javítás révén a felhasználó számára jelentős
veszélyforrások keletkezhetnek (pl. áramütés). A készüléken szükséges
javításokat ezért csak a BinTec által feljogosított szervizekkel végeztesse. A
szervizek címét érdeklődje meg a szakkereskedőjénél. Ellenkező esetben a
mindennemű garanciaigénye megszűnik.
■ A készüléket semmi esetre sem szabad nedvesen tisztítani. A behatoló víz
jelentős veszélyforrásokat jelenthet a felhasználó számára (pl. áramütés), és
jelentős károkat okozhat a készüléken.
■ Sohasem szabad súrolószereket, lúgos tisztítószereket, éles vagy karcoló
segédeszközöket alkalmazni.
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Všeobecné bezpečnostní pokyny
V následujících odstavcích jsou uvedeny bezpečnostní pokyny, které se při
používání přístroje musí zásadně dodržovat.
Doprava a uskladnění
■ X4000 dopravujte a skladujte pouze v originálním obalu anebo v jiném
vhodném obalu, který jej chrání proti nárazům.
Instalace a
uvedení do provozu.
■ Před instalací a provozem X4000 přihlížejte k pokynům, které se týkají
podmínek okolního prostředí (srovn. Technické údaje). Předpokládá se pevný
a rovný podklad.
■ Elektrostatické náboje mohou způsobit poškození přístroje. Použijte proto
uzemněnou manžetu připevnenou kolem zápěstí anebo se nejprv dotkněte
některé uzemněné plochy, než se budete dotýkat konektorovoých zásuvek
nebo rozširujících desek X4000. Rozšiřovacích desek se zásadně dotýkejte
pouze na okrajích a nesahejte na součásti nebo vodivé spoje.
■ Uzavírejte nepoužívaný rozšiřovací slot záslepkou tak, aby do vnitřku přístroje
nemohly vniknout cizí předměty. Pokud se během provozu v přístroji
nacházejí cizí předměty, hrozí nebezpečí zasažení elektrickým proudem nebo
zkratu.
■ Dbejte na to, aby okno displeje u displejového modulu nebylo poškozeno
ostrými, špičatými předměty. Chraňte displejový modul před poškozením
nárazy a pádem a připojte jej pouze na příslušný konektor RJ11 u X4000 ,
aby se zabránilo poškození X4000 a displejového modulu.
■ Při kabeláži dbejte na to, aby nedošlo k zakrytí větracích otvorů přístroje a aby
nebyla omezována funkce větrání. V důsledku omezení větrání X4000 by
mohlo dojít k poškození přístroje. Škody vzniklé v důsledku nedostatečného
větrání vedou ke ztrátě nároků z ručení.
■ Neotevírejte základní přístroj a sít’ový zdroj nepodrobujte žádným
manipulacím, jinak hrozí životní nebezpečí zasažením elektrickým proudem.
Neodstraňujte žádné šrouby u upevnění základního přístroje.
■ Pokud se přístroj přemístí z chladného prostředí do provozního prostoru,
může se vyskytnout orosení jak na vnějších částech tak i uvnitř přístroje.
Vyčkejte teplotní přizpůsobení přístroje a jeho absolutní vysušení, než jej
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uvedete do provozu. Přihlížejte k podmínkám okolního prostředí uvedeným v
Technických údajích.
■ Kontrolujte, zda se napětí místní sítě shoduje s hodnotami jmenovitého napětí
sít’ového zdroje. Přístroj lze provozovat za těchto podmínek:
–
100 - 240 VAC
–
50 - 60 Hz
■ Postarejte se o to, aby zásuvka s ochranným kontaktem byla při instalaci
volně přístupná. Pro úplné odpojení od sítě je třeba vytáhnout sít’ovou
zástrčku.
■ Při propojování dbejte na pořadí tak, jak je popsáno v příručce. Používejte
pouze kabely, jež odpovídají specifikacím v této příručce anebo dodané
originální kabely. Pokud použijete jiné kabely, odmítá BinTec
Communications AG ručení za vzniklé škody nebo za omezenou funkčnost.
Ručení za přístroj v těchto případech zaniká.
■ Při připojování přístroje dbejte na pokyny uvedené v příručce.
■ Vedení ukládejte tak, aby se nestala zdrojem nebezpečí (např. zakopnutím) a
aby se nepoškodily.
■ Během bouřky nepřipojujte vedení na přenos dat, neodpojujte je a ani se jich
nedotýkejte.
Použití, provoz podle
stanoveného účelu
■ X4000 je určen pro použití v kancelářském prostředí. Jako MultiProtocol
Router sestavuje X4000 v závislosti na systémové konfiguraci spojení WAN.
Chcete-li zabránit účtování nežádoucích poplatků, měli byste výrobek
bezpodmínečně hlídat.
■ X4000 odpovídá příslušným bezpečnostním předpisům pro zařízení
informační techniky používaná v kancelářském prostředí.
■ Provoz systému odpovídající stanovenému účelu podle IEC 950/EN 60950 je
zaručen pouze při kompletní montáži plechového krytu (chlazení, protipožární
ochrana, odrušení).
■ Teplota okolí nesmí překročit 50 °C. Zabraňte přímému ozáření sluncem.
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■ Dbejte na to, aby do vnitřku přístroje nemohly vniknout žádné předměty (např.
kancelářské svorky) anebo kapaliny (elektrický výboj, zkrat). Dbejte na
dostatečné chlazení.
■ X4000 neobsahuje žádné součásti, které by uživatel směl vyměňovat, nebo
spínače/propojky, které by uživatel musel nastavovat.
■ V nouzových případech (např. poškozená skříň anebo ovládací prvek, vniknutí
kapaliny nebo cizích těles) okamžitě přerušte přívod proudu a informujte
servis.
Čištění aopravy
■ Přístroj smí otvírat pouze autorizovaný servis firmy BinTec. Před otevřením se
přístroj zásadně musí odpojit od sítě (vytáhnout zástrčku). Nepovolaným
otevíráním a neodbornými opravami se uživatel vystavuje značnému ohrožení
(např. zasažení elektrickým proudem). Provedením oprav přístroje pověřujte
pouze autorizovaný servis firmy BinTec. Adresu servisu Vám sdělí Váš
obchodník. Ve všech ostatních případech zanikají veškeré nároky ze záruky.
■ Přístroj se zásadně nesmí čistit mokrým způsobem. Vnikající voda může
uživatele vystavit značnému ohrožení (např. zasažení elektrickým proudem) a
může způsobit značné poškození přístroje.
■ Nikdy nepoužívejte prostředky na mechanické čištění, alkalické čisticí
prostředky, agresivní a drhnoucí pomůcky.
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Generelle sikkerhedsforskrifter på dansk
Nedenstående afsnit indeholder sikkerhedsforskrifter, som ubetinget skal
overholdes ved brugen af apparatet.
Transport og
opbevaring
■ Transportér og opbevar kun X4000 i originalemballage eller i anden egnet
Opstilling og
ibrugtagning
■ Læs og overhold forskrifterne for de omgivende betingelser, før X4000
emballage, der beskytter mod stød og slag.
opstilles og tages i brug (se Tekniske data). Brug et fast og jævnt underlag.
■ Statisk elektricitet kan medføre apparatskader. Bær derfor en antistatisk
manchet om håndleddet eller rør ved en flade med jordforbindelse, inden
du rører ved stik eller udvidelseskort på X4000. Berør kun udvidelseskort i
kanten og tag ikke fat om konstruktionsdele eller ledninger.
■ Luk den ubenyttede udvidelsesmodulplads med blindafdækningen, så der
ikke kan komme genstande ind i apparatets indre. Er der fremmede genstande i apparatet under driften, er der fare for elektriske stød og kortslutninger.
■ Sørg for, at ingen spidse genstande beskadiger displaymodulets displayrude. Beskyt displaymodulet mod stød og fald og slut det kun til den dertil beregnede RJ11-bøsning på X4000 for at undgå skader på X4000 og displaymodulet.
■ Ved ledningsføringen skal du sørge for, at apparatets udluftningsslidser
ikke dækkes til og at der ikke skabes hindringer for ventilationen. Begrænsning af ventilationen for X4000 kan medføre skader på apparatet. Skader,
som skyldes manglende ventilation, dækkes ikke af garantien.
■ Undlad at åbne basisapparatet og foretag ingen manipulationer med
netdelen, da der ellers kan opstå livsfare ved elektrisk stød. Fjern ingen af
basisapparatets fastgørelsesskruer.
■ Hvis apparatet bringes fra kolde omgivelser ind i det rum, hvor det skal
bruges, kan der opstå kondensvand både udvendigt og indvendigt på
apparatet. Vent, indtil apparatet har tilpasset sig temperaturen og er
absolut tørt, før du tager det i brug. Overhold omgivelsesbetingelserne i
Tekniske data.
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15
General Safety Precautions in 15 Different Languages
■ Kontrollér, om den lokale netspænding stemmer overens med netdelens
mærkespænding. Apparatet må anvendes under følgende betingelser:
–
100 - 240 VAC
–
50 - 60 Hz
■ Kontrollér, at der er fri adgang til installationens jordede sikkerhedsstikkontakt. For at opnå fuld afbrydelse fra strømnettet skal netstikket trækkes ud.
■ Følg den rækkefølge, der angives i denne håndbog, for tilslutningen af kablerne. Brug kun kabler som opfylder specifikationerne i denne håndbog eller de originale, medfølgede kabler. BinTec Communications AG hæfter
ikke for evt. skader eller funktionsbegrænsninger ved brug af andre kabler.
I sådanne tilfælde bortfalder apparatets garanti.
■ Overhold henvisningerne i denne håndbog mht. apparatets tilslutning.
■ Ledningerne skal trækkes på en sådan måde, at de ikke beskadiges og at
de ikke er til fare for omgivelserne (fare for at snuble).
■ Undlad at tilslutte eller trække datatransmissionsledninger ud af apparatet,
når det er tordenvejr, og undlad at berøre dem.
Bestemmelsesmæssig
anvendelse, brug
■ X4000 er beregnet til anvendelse i kontormiljø. Som multiprotokolrouter
etablerer X4000 WAN-forbindelser afhængigt af systemkonfigurationen.
For at forebygge uønskede afgiftsbetalinger bør du ubetinget overvåge
produktet.
■ X4000
opfylder
de
gældende
informationsteknisk udstyr til kontorer.
sikkerhedsbestemmelser
for
■ Bestemmelsesmæssig anvendelse af systemet iht. IEC_950/EN_60950, er
kun sikret, når metalkabinettet er monteret komplet (køling, brandsikkerhed, radiostøjdæmpning).
■ Omgivelsestemperaturen må ikke overstige 50 °C. Undgå direkte sollys.
■ Sørg for, at genstande (f.eks. klips) eller væske ikke trænger ind i apparatet
(elektrisk stød, kortslutning). Sørg for tilstrækkelig køling.
■ X4000 indeholder ingen komponenter, som må udskiftes af brugeren, eller
kontakter/jumpere, som brugeren skal indstille.
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X4000 User’s Guide
15
■ Afbryd straks strømforsyningen og kontakt serviceafdelingen i nødstilfælde
(f.eks. beskadiget kabinet eller betjeningselement, indtrængning af væske
eller fremmede genstande).
Rengøring og
reparation
■ Apparatet må kun åbnes af et BinTec-autoriseret serviceværksted. Træk
altid netstikket ud, før apparatet åbnes. Uautoriseret åbning og ukorrekt
udførte reparationer kan medføre betydelige farer for brugeren (f.eks.
elektrisk stød). Lad kun et autoriseret BinTEC-serviceværksted udføre
reparationer på apparatet. Din forhandler kan oplyse dig
serviceværkstedets adresse. I alle andre tilfælde bortfalder enhver garanti.
■ Apparatet må under ingen omstændigheder rengøres med væske.
Indtrængende vand kan udsætte brugeren for alvorlige farer (f.eks.
elektrisk stød) og forårsage alvorlige skader på apparatet.
■ Benyt aldrig skuremidler, alkaliske rengøringsmidler, skrappe eller
skurende hjælpemidler.
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15
468
General Safety Precautions in 15 Different Languages
X4000 User’s Guide
Glossary
Glossary
100Base-T
10Base-T
Twisted pair connection, Fast Ethernet. Network connection for 100-Mbps
networks.
Twisted pair connection. Network connection for 10-Mbps networks with
➤➤ RJ45 connector.
1TR6
D-channel protocol used in the German ISDN. Today the more common
protocol is the ➤➤ DSS1.
Access list
A rule that defines a set of packets that should or should not be transmitted by
the router.
Accounting
Recording of connection data, e.g. date, time, connection duration, charging
information and number of data packets transferred.
ADSL
Asymmetric ➤➤ Digital Subscriber Line
The data rate is up to 640 kbps ➤➤ upstream and 1.5 - 9 Mbps
➤➤ downstream over ranges of up to 5.5 km.
The main ADSL applications are: Internet access, video-on-demand (digital and
compressed) and high-speed data communication over ➤➤ POTS.
ARP
Address Resolution Protocol
ARP belongs to the ➤➤ TCP/IP protocol family. ARP resolves IP addresses
into their corresponding ➤➤ MAC addresses.
Asynchronous
transmission
A method of data transmission in which the time intervals between transmitted
characters can vary in length. This allows computers and peripheral devices to
intercommunicate without being synchronized by clock signals. The beginning
and end of the transmitted characters must be marked by start and stop bits –
in contrast to ➤➤ synchronous transmission.
B-channel
Control and signaling channel of the ➤➤ ISDN Basic Rate Interface or the
➤➤ Primary Rate Interface for transmission of traffic (voice, data). An ISDN
Basic Rate Interface consists of two B-channels and one ➤➤ D-channel. A Bchannel has a data transmission rate of 64 kbps.
The data transmission rate of an ISDN Basic Rate Interface with X4000 can be
increased to up to 128 kbps using ➤➤ channel bundling.
BOD
Bandwidth on Demand
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469
Glossary
Bandwidth on Demand is an extended method of ➤➤ channel bundling, in
which it is also possible to connect ➤➤ dialup connections to ➤➤ leased
lines or to configure dialup connections as a backup facility for leased lines.
BootP
Bootstrap protocol
Based on the ➤➤ UDP or ➤➤ IP protocol. Automatically assigns an
➤➤ IP address. DIME Tools contain a BootP server that you can start on your
PC to assign the as yet unconfigured router an IP address.
Bridge
Network components for connecting homogeneous networks. As opposed to a
➤➤ router, bridges operate at layer 2 (data link layer) of the ➤➤ OSI model,
are independent of higher-level protocols and transmit data packets using
➤➤ MAC addresses. Data transmission is transparent, which means the
information contained in the data packages is not interpreted.
Bridges are used to physically decouple networks and to reduce network data
traffic. This is done by using filter functions that allow data packets to pass to
certain network segments only.
Some BinTec routers can be operated in Bridging Mode.
Broadcast
Broadcasts (data packages) are sent to all stations in a network in order to
exchange information. Generally, there is a certain address (broadcast
address) in the network that allows all stations to interpret a message as a
broadcast.
Bus
A data transmission medium for use by all the devices connected to a network.
Data is forwarded over the entire bus and received by all devices on the bus.
Called Party Number
Number of the terminal called.
Calling Party Number
Number of the calling terminal.
CAPI
Common ISDN Application Programming Interface
A software interface standardized in 1989 that allows application programs to
access ISDN hardware from the PC. Most ISDN-specific software solutions
(communications programs such as RVS-COM Lite) work with the CAPI
interface. Such communications applications enable you, for example, to send
and receive faxes or transfer data over the ISDN from your PC. See also
➤➤ Remote CAPI.
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Glossary
CCITT
Consultative Committee for International Telegraphy and Telephony
A predecessor organization of the ➤➤ ITU that passed recommendations for
the development of communications standards for public telephony and data
networks and data transmission interfaces.
Channel bundling
Channel bundling
One of X4000’s features. Channel bundling is a method of increasing the data
throughput. The data throughput is doubled by switching in a second ➤➤ Bchannel for data transmission. Channel bundling can be either dynamic (= on
demand) or static (= always).
CHAP
Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol
A security mechanism during the establishment of a connection with a
➤➤ WAN partner using ➤➤ PPP. This protocol is used for checking the
WAN partner name and the password defined for the WAN partner. If the
partner name and password at both ends are not the same, a connection is not
set up. The user name and password are encoded in CHAP before they are
sent to the partner – as opposed to ➤➤ PAP.
CLID
Calling Line Identification
A security mechanism during the establishment of a connection with a
➤➤ WAN partner. A caller is identified by means of his ISDN extension
number before the connection is established. If the extension number is not the
same as the extension number you have defined for a WAN partner, a
connection is not established.
Client
A client uses the services provided by a
workstations.
➤➤ server. Clients are usually
Data compression
A process for reducing the amount of data transmitted. This enables higher
throughput to be achieved in the same transmission time. Examples of this
technique include ➤➤ STAC, ➤➤ VJHC and ➤➤ MPPC.
Datagram
A self-contained ➤➤ data packet that is forwarded in the network with
minimum protocol overhead and without an acknowledgement mechanism.
Data packet
A data packet is used for information transfer. Each data packet contains a
prescribed number of characters (information and control characters).
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471
Glossary
DCE
Data Circuit-Terminating Equipment
Data Circuit-Terminating Equipment (see
D-channel
DCN
Dialup connection
Direct dialing range
DHCP
➤➤ V.24)
Control and signalling channel of the ➤➤ ISDN Basic Rate Interface or the
➤➤ Primary Rate Interface. The D-channel has a data transmission rate of
16 kbps. In addition to the D-channel, each ISDN BRI has two ➤➤ Bchannels.
Data communications network
A connection is set up when required by dialing an extension number, in
contrast to a ➤➤ leased line.
See
➤➤ extension numbers range
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
A Microsoft protocol that provides a mechanism for dynamic assignment of
➤➤ IP addresses. A DHCP server allocates each ➤➤ client in a network
an IP address from a defined address pool compiled by the system
administrator. Prerequisite: ➤➤ TCP/IP must be configured at the clients so
that they can request their IP address from the server. X4000 can be used as a
DHCP server.
DIME
Desktop Internetworking Management Environment
DIME Tools is a collection of tools for the configuration and monitoring of routers
over Windows applications. They are included with all BinTec routers free of
charge.
DNS
Domain Name System
Each device in a ➤➤ TCP/IP network is usually located by its ➤➤ IP
address. Because ➤➤ host names are often used in networks to reach
different devices, it is necessary for the associated IP address to be known. This
task can be performed by a Domain Name Server (DNS), which resolves the
host names into IP addresses. Alternatively, name resolution can also take
place over the HOSTS file, which is available on all PCs.
Domain
472
A domain refers to a group of devices in a network, whose host names share a
common suffix, the domain name. Thus, in the ➤➤ Internet, a part of a
naming hierarchy (e.g. bintec.de).
X4000 User’s Guide
Glossary
Downstream
DSL/xDSL
Data transmission rate from the ➤➤ Internet Service Provider to the client.
Digital Subscriber Line
Data transmission technique that enables high transmission rates to be
achieved on normal telephone lines.
The data rate is dependent on the distance to be covered and the quality of the
line and therefore varies.
xDSL is used as a bookmark for the different DSL variants, such as
➤➤ ADSL, ➤➤ RADSL, ➤➤ VDSL, ➤➤ HDSL, ➤➤ SDSL,
➤➤ U-ADSL, etc., which are part of the family of DSL techniques.
DSS1
Digital Subscriber Signalling System.
A common D-channel protocol used in the Euro ISDN.
DTE
Data Terminal Equipment
Data Terminal Equipment (see ➤➤ V.24)
DTMF
Dual Tone Multi Frequency (tone dialing system)
Dialing method for telephony systems. In this method, pressing a key on the
telephone keypad generates two simultaneous tones, which are
correspondingly evaluated by the PABX or exchange.
E1/T1
E1: European variant of the 2.048 Mbps ➤➤ ISDN
Interface, which is also called the E1 system.
➤➤ Primary Rate
T1: American variant of the ISDN Primary Rate Interface with 23 basic channels
and one D-channel (1.544 Mbps).
EAZ
Terminal Selection Digit
Is only used in the ➤➤ 1TR6 system and designates the last digit of an
extension number. It is used for dialing various terminals connected to the ISDN
Basic Rate Interface (e.g. fax). This occurs by attaching one digit between 0 and
9 to the actual ISDN telephone number. In Euro ISDN (DSS1), the complete
extension number, ➤➤ MSN, is transferred instead of the EAZ.
Encapsulation
Encapsulation of ➤➤ data packets in a certain protocol for transmitting the
packets over a network that the original protocol does not directly support (e.g.
NetBIOS over TCP/IP).
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473
Glossary
Encryption
Refers to the encoding of data, e.g. ➤➤ MPPE.
Ethernet
A local network that connects all devices in the network (PC, printers, etc.) via
a twisted pair or coaxial cable.
Extension
An extension is an internal number for a terminal or subsystem. In ➤➤ pointto-point ISDN accesses, the extension is usually a number from the
➤➤ extension numbers range assigned by the telephone provider. In pointto-multipoint connections, it can be the MSN or a part of the MSN.
Extension numbers
range
(direct dialing range)
A point-to-point ISDN access includes a ➤➤ PABX number and an
extension numbers range. The PABX number is used to reach the PABX. The
extension numbers range is a group of numbers used for selecting terminals
within the ➤➤ PABX.
Filters
A rule that defines a set of packets that should or should not be transmitted by
the router.
Firewall
Designates the whole range of mechanisms to protect the local network against
external access. X4000 provides protection mechanisms such as ➤➤ NAT,
➤➤ CLID, ➤➤ PAP/CHAP, access lists, etc.
FTP
File Transfer Protocol
A TCP/IP protocol used to transfer files between different hosts.
Gateway
Entrance and exit, transition point
Component in the local network that offers access to other networks, also offers
transitions between different networks, e.g. ➤➤ LAN and ➤➤ WAN.
HDSL
High Data Rate ➤➤ DSL
The ➤➤ upstream and ➤➤ downstream data rates are:
Mbps and ➤➤ E1 2.048 Mbps over ranges up to 4 km.
➤➤ T1 1.554
The main HDSL applications are: High-speed data communication over leased
lines.
HDSL2
High Data Rate ➤➤ DSL, version 2
The ➤➤ upstream and
ranges up to 4 km.
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X4000 User’s Guide
➤➤ downstream data rate is 1.554 Mbps over
Glossary
The main HDSL applications are: High-speed data communication over leased
lines.
Host name
A name used in ➤➤ IP networks as a replacement for the corresponding
➤➤ IP address. A host name consists of an ASCII string that uniquely
identifies the host computer.
Hub
Network component used to connect several network components together to
form a local network (star-shaped).
Internet
The Internet consists of a range of regional, local and university networks. The
➤➤ IP protocol is used for data transmission in the Internet.
IP
Internet Protocol
One of the ➤➤ TCP/IP suite of protocols used for the connection of Wide Area
Networks (➤➤ WANs).
IP address
IPX/SPX
The first part of the address by which a device is identified in an IP network, e.g.
192.168.1.254. See also ➤➤ netmask.
Internet Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange
Protocol suite from Novell for the transmission of data in a network. The two
parts of this protocol suite are IPX (layer 3 of the OSI model) and SPX (layer 4
of the OSI model).
ISDN
Integrated Services Digital Network
The ISDN is a digital network for the transmission of voice and data. There are
two possible subscriber connections for ISDN, the ➤➤ ISDN Basic Rate
Interface and the ➤➤ Primary Rate Interface. ISDN is an international
standard. For ISDN protocols, however, there is a range of variations.
ISDN Basic Rate
Interface
An ISDN subscriber interface. The Basic Rate Interface consists of two ➤➤ Bchannels and a ➤➤ D-channel. Compare ➤➤ Primary Rate Interface.
The interface to the subscriber is provided by an ➤➤ S0 bus.
ISDN BRI
ISDN Basic Rate Interface
➤➤ ISDN Basic Rate Interface, also ➤➤ S0 interface.
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475
Glossary
ISDN Login
ISDN PRI
One of X4000’s features. X4000 can be configured and administrated remotely
using ISDN Login. ISDN Login operates on routers in the ex works state as soon
they are connected to an ISDN connection and therefore reachable via an
extension number.
ISDN Primary Rate Interface
ISDN
ISO
➤➤ Primary Rate Interface, also ➤➤ S2M interface.
International Standardization Organization
An international organization for the development of world-wide standards, e.g.
➤➤ OSI model.
ISP
Internet Service Provider
Allows companies or private individuals access to the Internet.
ITU
International Telecommunication Union
International organization that co-ordinates the construction and operation of
telecommunications networks and services.
LAN
Local Area Network
A network covering a small geographic area and controlled by its owner. Usually
within the confines of a building or corporate center.
Leased line
Leased line
Fixed connection to a subscriber. In contrast to a ➤➤ dialup connection,
neither an extension number nor connection setup or clearing is necessary.
MAC address
MIB
Every device in the network is defined by a fixed hardware address (MAC
address). The network card of a device defines this internationally unique
address.
Management Information Base
The MIB is a database that describes all the manageable devices and functions
connected to a network. All MIBs (including the BinTec MIB) contain objects
specific to the manufacturer. ➤➤ SNMP is based on MIB.
MMI
476
Man-Machine Interface
X4000 User’s Guide
Glossary
Is a convenient user guide with LC display and input keys for the user to
navigate the basic functions of X4000.
Modem
Modulator/Demodulator
An electronic device used to convert digital signals to analog tone signals and
vice versa, so that data can be transmitted in an analog medium.
MPPC
Microsoft Point-to-Point Compression
➤➤ data compression procedure for
MPPE
Microsoft Point-to-Point Encryption
Data encryption process.
MSN
Multiple Subscriber Number
Multiple number for an ISDN BRI in Euro ISDN. The MSN is the extension
number that permits a terminal to be addressed specifically on the ➤➤ S0 bus
in Euro ISDN. An MSN has up to eight digits, e.g. 49 911 7654321, where
7654321 corresponds to the MSN.
Usually three such MSNs are assigned to each ISDN BRI (point-to-multipoint
connection) in Germany.
Multiprotocol router
NAT
A ➤➤ router that can route several protocols, e.g. ➤➤ IP, ➤➤ IPX, etc.
Network Address Translation
Used as a security mechanism in X4000. Using NAT conceals your complete
network to the outside world. The IP addresses of all devices in your own
network remain confidential, only one IP address is made known for
connections to the outside.
NetBIOS
Network Basic Input Output System
A programming interface that activates network operations on a PC. It is a set
of commands for transmitting and receiving data to and from other Windows
PCs on the network.
Netmask
Network address
The second part of an address in an IP network, used for identification of a
device, e.g. 255.255.255.0. See also ➤➤ IP address.
A network address designates the address of a complete local network.
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477
Glossary
NT
Network Termination
An NT adapter is the network termination unit of an ➤➤ ISDN connection. In
Germany, this is obtained from Deutsche Telekom AG. It is used to connect a
private network (➤➤ S0 bus) to the public ISDN network. It is equivalent to the
terminal socket used for connecting an analog telephone.
NTBA
Network Termination for Basic Access.
An NTBA adapter is the network termination unit of an ➤➤ ISDN Basic Rate
Interface. In Germany, this is obtained from Deutsche Telekom AG. It is used to
connect a private network (➤➤ S0 bus) to the public ISDN network. It is
equivalent to the terminal socket used for connecting an analog telephone.
OSI model
OSI = Open Systems Interconnection
➤➤ ISO reference model for networks. Defines interface standards between
computer manufacturers for software and hardware requirements.
OSPF
Open Shortest Path First
Routing protocol used in networks to exchange information (routing tables)
between ➤➤ routers.
PABX
Private Automatic Branch Exchange
An ISDN PABX is used to set up an internal telephone infrastructure. Both
analog terminals (e.g. fax, modem) and digital terminals can be connected to a
PABX. The internal network provides free telephoning and connection
switching. The individual terminals are given different extension numbers.
PABX
Private Automatic Branch Exchange
An ISDN ➤➤ PABX is a telephone exchange with ➤➤ S0 interface and
➤➤ 1TR6 or other manufacturer-specific ➤➤ D-channel protocols on the
subscriber side.
Exchanges allow internal connections between the PABX extensions without
the need to connect to the telephone service provider. Not all BinTec routers
contain an exchange.
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X4000 User’s Guide
Glossary
PABX number
PAP
A point-to-point ISDN access includes a PABX number and an ➤➤ extension
numbers range. The PABX number is used to reach the PABX. A certain
terminal of the ➤➤ PABX is then dialed via one of the numbers of the
extension numbers range.
Password Authentication Protocol
Authentication process for connecting over ➤➤ PPP. Functions like
➤➤ CHAP, except that the user name and password are not encoded before
being transmitted to the partner.
Ping
Packet Internet Groper
Command that can be used to determine the range to remote network
components. Ping is also used for test purposes to determine if the remote
device can actually be reached at all.
Point-to-multipoint
Feature of a connection that is permanently connected between three or more
data stations or set up via switching systems.
Point-to-multipoint
connection
➤➤ Point-to-multipoint)
Several different terminals can be connected to a point-to-multipoint
connection. The individual terminals are addressed via certain extension
numbers (➤➤ MSNs).
Point-to-point
Feature of a connection between two data stations only. The connection can be
permanently switched or set up via switching systems.
Point-to-point ISDN
access
A point-to-point ISDN access is used for the connection of a ➤➤ PABX. The
PABX can forward calls to a number of terminals. A point-to-point access
includes a ➤➤ PABX number, via which the PABX is reached from outside
and a group of numbers (➤➤ extension numbers range), with which the
terminals connected to the PABX can be dialed.
Port
Input/output
The port number is used to decide to which service (telnet, WWW) an incoming
data packet should be sent.
POTS
Plain Old Telephone System
The traditional analog telephone network.
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479
Glossary
PPP
Point-to-Point Protocol
A protocol suite for authentication of the connection parameters of a
➤➤ point-to-point connection. PPP is used to connect local networks over
the ➤➤ WAN. Multiprotocol packets are encapsulated (➤➤ encapsulation)
in a standard format before transmission. Establishing a connection involves a
number of other components and subprotocols, such as the authentication
mechanisms ➤➤ PAP/CHAP.
PPP authentication
PPPoE
Security mechanism. A method of authentication using passwords in
➤➤ PPP.
Point to Point Protocol over Ethernet
The PPP-over-Ethernet (PPPoE) protocol permits Internet access over
Ethernet via an ➤➤ xDSL modem or xDSL router.
Primary Rate Interface
(PRI)
An ISDN subscriber interface. The PRI consists of a D-channel and 30 Bchannels (in Europe). (In America: 23 B-channels and a D-channel.) Compare
➤➤ ISDN Basic Rate Interface.
Protocol
Protocols are used to define the manner and means of information exchange
between two systems. Protocols control and rule the course of data
communication at various levels (decoding, addressing, network routing,
control procedures, etc.).
Proxy ARP
ARP = Address Resolution Protocol
Process used to determine the associated
whose ➤➤ IP address is known.
RADSL
➤➤ MAC address for a host
Rate-Adaptive ➤➤ Digital Subscriber Line
The data rate is up to 640 kbps ➤➤ upstream and 1.5 - 9 Mbps
➤➤ downstream over ranges of up to 18.5 km.
The main RADSL applications are: Internet access, video-on-demand (digital
and compressed) and high-speed data communication over ➤➤ POTS.
Real Time Clock (RTC)
Remote
480
Hardware clock with buffer battery
Remote, as opposed to local.
X4000 User’s Guide
Glossary
If a far station is not located in your own local network (LAN), but in another
LAN, this is referred to as remote.
This LAN must be connected to the local LAN over a WAN connection (over
X4000).
Remote access
Remote CAPI
Opposite to local access, see ➤➤ Remote.
BinTec’s own interface for ➤➤ CAPI.
The Remote CAPI interface enables all subscribers of a network to use CAPI
services, but over X4000 to a single ISDN connection. All subscribers must
have the corresponding application software installed to support the CAPI
interface. This standard interface is, however, used by most communications
applications.
X4000 is supplied as standard with suitable software (RVS-COM Lite).
BinTec’s CAPI interface is implemented as a dual-mode CAPI. CAPI 1.1 and
2.0 applications can access ISDN resources parallel to one another. This
means new CAPI 2.0 applications can be used on the network or on the same
PC parallel to old applications based on CAPI 1.1.
RIP
Routing Information Protocol
Routing protocol used in networks to exchange information (routing tables)
between ➤➤ routers.
RJ45
Router
Plug or socket for maximum eight wires. Connection for digital terminals.
A device that connects different networks at layer 3 of the ➤➤ OSI model and
routes information from one network to the other.
Routers are able to recognize blocks of information and evaluate addresses (as
opposed to a ➤➤ bridge, which operates with a transparent protocol). The
best paths (routes) from one point to another are chosen by using routing
tables. In order to keep the routing tables up to date, routers exchange
information between themselves via routing protocols (e.g. ➤➤ OSPF,
➤➤ RIP).
Modern routers such as X4000 are ➤➤ multiprotocol routers and thus
capable of routing several protocols (e.g. IP and IPX).
X4000 User’s Guide
481
Glossary
S0 bus
All ISDN sockets and the ➤➤ NTBA of an ISDN point-to-multipoint
connection. All S0 buses consist of a four-wire cable. The lines transmit digital
ISDN signals. The S0 bus is terminated with a terminating resistor after the last
ISDN socket. The S0 bus starts at the NTBA and can be up to 150 m long. Any
ISDN devices can be operated on this bus. However, only two devices can use
the S0 bus at any one time, as only two ➤➤ B-channels are available.
S0 interface
See
➤➤ ISDN Basic Rate Interface
S2M interface
See
➤➤ ISDN Primary Rate Interface
SDSL
Single line
➤➤ Digital Subscriber Line
The ➤➤ upstream and
ranges up to 3.5 km.
➤➤ downstream data rate is up to 768 kbps over
The main SDSL applications are: ➤➤ E1/T1 and ➤➤ POTS.
Server
A server offers services used by ➤➤ clients. Often refers to a certain
computer in the LAN, e.g. DHCP server.
In client-server architecture, a server is the software part that executes
functions for its clients, e.g. ➤➤ TFTP server. In such a case, the server is not
necessarily a computer server.
Setup Tool
Menu-driven tool for the configuration of X4000. The Setup Tool can be used as
soon as the router has been accessed (serial, ➤➤ ISDN Login, ➤➤ LAN).
Short hold
Is the defined amount of time, after which a connection is cleared if no more
data is transmitted. Short hold can be set to static (fixed amount of time) or
dynamic (according to charging unit).
SNMP
Simple Network Management Protocol
A protocol in the ➤➤ TCP/IP protocol suite that is used to transport
management information about network components. Every SNMP
management system contains an ➤➤ MIB. SNMP can be used to configure,
control and administrate various network components from one system. Such
an SNMP tool is included in your router: the Configuration Manager. As SNMP
is a standard protocol, you can use any other SNMP managers, e.g. HP
OpenView.
SNMP shell
482
Input level for SNMP commands.
X4000 User’s Guide
Glossary
SOHO
Small Offices and Home Offices
Small offices and home offices.
Spoofing
Technique for reducing data traffic (and thus saving costs), especially in WANs.
The router answers as proxy for remote PCs to cyclically transmitted data
packets with a monitoring function (e.g. sign of life messages).
STAC
Data compression procedure.
Subnet
A network scheme that divides individual logical networks into smaller physical
units to simplify routing.
Switch
LAN switches are network components with a similar function to ➤➤ bridges
or even ➤➤ routers. They switch data packets between the input and output
port. In contrast to bridges, switches have several input and output ports. This
increases the bandwidth in the network. Switches can also be used for
conversion between networks with different speeds (e.g. 100-Mbps and 10Mbps networks).
Synchronous
Transmission process in which the transmitter and receiver operate with exactly
the same clock signals – in contrast to ➤➤ asynchronous. Spaces are
bridged by a stop code.
TCP
Transmission Control Protocol
One of the ➤➤ TCP/IP suite of protocols used for the connection of Wide Area
Networks (➤➤ WANs).
TCP/IP
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
A protocol suite for the connection of Wide Area Networks (➤➤ WANs). The
two parts of this protocol suite are ➤➤ IP (layer 3 of the OSI model) and
➤➤ TCP (layer 4 of the OSI model).
TE
Terminal Equipment
Terminal equipment for subscriber access, e.g. telephone, fax or PC.
TEI
Terminal Endpoint Identifier
The TEI in ➤➤ ISDN is an address field in layer 2 that is used for identifying a
certain terminal.
X4000 User’s Guide
483
Glossary
Telematics
Telematics is a combination of telecommunication and computer technology
and describes data communication between systems and devices.
Telnet
Protocol from the ➤➤ TCP/IP protocol suite. Telnet enables communication
with a remote device in the network.
TFTP
Trivial File Transfer Protocol
Protocol for data transmission.
TFTP server software is a part of ➤➤ DIME Tools. It is used for the transfer
of configuration files and software to and from the router.
U-ADSL
Universal ➤➤ Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
The data rate is 128 kbps ➤➤ upstream and 1 - 9 Mbps
over ranges of up to 5.5 km.
➤➤ downstream
The main U-ADSL applications are: ➤➤ POTS Internet access.
UDP
User Datagram Protocol
A transport protocol similar to ➤➤ TCP. UDP offers no control or
acknowledgment mechanisms, but is faster than TCP. UDP is connectionless
in contrast to TCP.
Upstream
URL
Data transmission rate from the client to the ➤➤ Internet Service Provider.
Universal/Uniform Resource Locator
Address of a file on the Internet
484
V.11
ITU-T recommendation for balanced dual-current interface lines (up to
10 Mbps).
V.24
CCITT and ITU-T recommendation that defines the interface between a PC or
terminal as Data Terminal Equipment (➤➤ DTE) and a modem as Data
Circuit-terminating Equipment (➤➤ DCE).
V.28
TU-T recommendation for unbalanced dual-current interface lines
V.35
ITU-T recommendation for data transmission at 48 kbps in the range from 60108 kHz.
V.36
Modem for ➤➤ V.35.
X4000 User’s Guide
Glossary
V.90
ITU standard for 56 kbps analog modems. In contrast to older V.34 modems,
data is sent in digital form to the client when the V.90 standard is used and does
not need to be first converted from digital to analog on one side of the modem
(provider), as was the case with V.34 and earlier modems. This makes higher
transmission rates possible. A maximum speed of 56 kbps can be achieved
only under optimum conditions.
VDSL
Very high bit rate ➤➤ Digital Subscriber Line (also called VADSL or BDSL).
The data rate is 1.5 to 2.3 Mbps ➤➤ upstream and 13 to 52 Mbps
➤➤ downstream over ranges of 300 m to 14 km.
The main VDSL applications are: as for ➤➤ ADSL, but at higher transmission
rates and with synchronization over short ranges.
VJHC
Van Jacobson Header Compression
➤➤ data compression procedure for IP header compression.
VPN
Virtual Private Network
The use of existing structures such as the ➤➤ Internet structure for
connecting private networks (e.g. SOHO exchange). The data can be encrypted
between the two endpoints of the VPN to meet increased security requirements.
WAN
Wide Area Network
Wide Area Network connections, e.g. over ISDN, X.25.
WAN interface
WAN interface
WAN interfaces connect the local network to the (➤➤ WAN). This is usually
done by means of analog or digital telephone lines (➤➤ switched or
➤➤ leased lines).
WAN partner
Remote station that is reached over a ➤➤ WAN, e.g. ISDN.
X.21
The X.21 recommendation defines the physical interface between two network
components in packet-switched data networks (e.g. Datex-P).
X.21bis
The X.21bis recommendation defines the ➤➤ DTE/➤➤ DCE interface to Vseries synchronous modems.
X4000 User’s Guide
485
Glossary
486
X.25
An internationally agreed standard protocol that defines the interface between
network components and a packet-switched data network.
X.31
For integration of X.25-compatible DTEs in ISDN.
X4000 User’s Guide
Index
Index
A
B
C
132, 335
325
322
308
276
155
187
234
327
353
358
Access lists
Access security
Activity monitor
Activity monitoring
Additional license
ADSL
Advanced configuration with Setup Tool
ARP
Authentication
TAF
Auto logout
352
201
119
242
120
36, 389
40
37
389
389
20
66
266
20, 22, 112
112
275
40
Back route verification
Bandwidth on Demand
Basic configuration with Setup Tool
Basic IP settings
Basic router settings
Basic unit
Built-in unit
Desktop unit
Interfaces
Technical data
BinTec Companion CD
Boot sequence
BOOTP relay agent
BRICKware
Installation
Bridging
Built-in unit
Callback
CAPI
Changing over the display
Channel bundling
CHAP
327
141
55
199
159, 194, 327
X4000 User’s Guide
487
Index
Checking the calling party number
Checklist for security functions
CLID
Closed User Group
COM port driver
Commands
BRICKtools for Unix
SNMP shell
Communications applications
Compression
MS-STAC
STAC
Van Jacobson Header Compression
Compuserve
Configuration
Advanced configuration with Setup Tool
Basic configuration with Configuration Wizard
Basic configuration with Setup Tool
Basic router settings
Configuration
Configuration Management
Configuring a PC
Distribution of incoming calls
Instructions for initial configuration
Preparation
Saving
Security functions
WAN interfaces
WAN partner
Configuration file administration
Configuration Management
Configuration Manager
Configuration options
Configuration Wizard
Configuring a PC
Configuring users
Connection methods
488
X4000 User’s Guide
326
360
159, 326
330
115
411
419
412
115
232
232
232
232
182
187
109
119
120
117
363
115
141
91
110
186
307
137
159
364
363
78
78
78, 109
115
141
70
Index
390
159
316
Console interface
Corporate network connection
Credits Based Accounting System
D
E
F
G
Default route
Delay after connection failure
Denial-of-Service attacks
Desktop unit
DHCP server
Display
Display interface
Distribution of incoming calls
DNS
Documentation
Domain Name
Dynamic IP address server
159, 175
198
358
37
129
93
405
141
225, 246
22
246
188
Encapsulation
Encryption
Errors, typical
Expansion cards
Installation and removal
Extended Features Reference
Extended IP routing
Extensions
CAPI
ISDN Login
Routing
159
354, 357
379
53
55
22
353
Feedback
Feedback facility
Filters
Firewall
Flash memory
141
141
141
497
29
132, 335, 348
307
364
194
31
General PPP settings
General Safety Precautions
X4000 User’s Guide
489
Index
H
I
490
General WAN settings
Guarantee terms
188
24
Hardware
Basic unit
Expansion cards
LEDs
Setting up and connecting
HTTP status page
35
36
53
63
59
320
Incoming calls
CAPI
ISDN Login
Routing
Input keys
Instructions for initial configuration
Internet access
Compuserve
T-Online
IP
Basic settings
Name resolution
Transit Network
IP address
DHCP server
Entering with MMI
Entering with the Setup Tool
IP address pools
IP address server
PCs in the LAN
Pool
IPX
LAN interface
WAN partner
ISDN B-channel
X4000 User’s Guide
141
141
141
93
91
159
182
182
242
246
222
129
93
126
188
188
115
188
268
270
271
219
Index
J
L
M
ISDN BRI interface
Configuring
Technical data
ISDN Login
137
392
74, 141
JAVA status monitor
321
LAN interface
ADSL access
Configuring
IPX
Technical data
LAN-LAN connection
Layer 1 Protocol
Leased lines
LEDs
License
Additional license
Entering
License card
Line tapping security
Local filters
Logging in
155
126
270
391
159
219
137, 148
63, 93
276
121
18
354
348
76, 325
388
364
78
22
Mains unit
Memory
MIB
MIB Reference
MMI
Changing over the display
Display
Entering IP address
Entering netmask
Input keys
Operation
Status information
Monitoring functions in the Setup Tool
55
93
93
93
93
93
93
313
X4000 User’s Guide
491
Index
MPPE
MS-STAC
N
P
R
S
492
Name resolution
NAT
NetBIOS
NetBIOS filters
Netmask
Entering with MMI
Entering with the Setup Tool
Network Address Translation
Novell networks
354
232
225
181, 331
225
132
93
126
181, 331
268
PAP
Passwords
Port
Ports
PPP authentication
General settings
PPP settings
PPTP
Proxy ARP
159, 194, 327
76, 123
265
335
159, 327
194
194
357
234
RAM
Release Notes
Remote CAPI
Resetting to ex works state
RIP
Routing
Routing entry
Routing Information Protocol
Rule
RVS-COM Lite
364
22
115, 141, 330
379
229
159
159, 175
229
335
115
S0 interface
Configuring
Technical data
X4000 User’s Guide
137
392
Index
307
31
186
18
307
325
308
360
307
354
358
159, 194
194
265, 335
59
79
187
119
79
313
79
159
76, 78
22
371
232
358
308
123
23
242
SAFERNET
Safety Precautions
Saving the configuration
Scope of supply
Security functions
Access security
Activity monitoring
Checklist
Configuration
Line tapping security
Special features
Selecting
General Settings
Service
Setting up and connecting
Setup Tool
Advanced configuration
Basic configuration
Menu architecture
Monitoring functions
Using
Short hold
SNMP shell
Software Reference
Software update
STAC
Startup procedure
Syslog messages
System data, entering
System requirements
System time
T
353
155
387
389
388
TAF
T-DSL
Technical data
Basic unit
Mains unit
X4000 User’s Guide
493
Index
U
V
W
494
Telnet
Testing
Time server
Token Authentication Firewall
T-Online
Transit Network
Troubleshooting
Aids
IPX routing
ISDN connections
System errors
73
117
242
353
182
222
375
376
383
380
379
Update
User concept
371
141
V.24 interface
Technical data
Van Jacobson Header Compression
Virtual Private Network (VPN)
VPN
393
232
357
357
WAN interfaces
WAN partner
advanced functions
Compuserve
Configuring (basic configuration)
DNS
Encapsulation
Examples
Internet access
IPX
PPP authentication
Routing entry
Short hold
T-Online
Transit Network
WINS
X4000 User’s Guide
137
198
182
159
225
159
182
182
271
159
159
159
182
159
225
Index
225, 246
WINS
X
148
X.21
X.21 interface
Configuring
Technical data
XIPR
148
393
353
X4000 User’s Guide
495
Index
496
X4000 User’s Guide
Document #71000L, Version1.3
Doc ument #71000L, Version1.3
Manual questionnaire, fax back to +49 911 / 9673 1498
selected
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#
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of networks
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Is something important missed out in the manual?
#
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O yes, the following ……………………………………………………...
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#
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………………
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Comments:
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Document #71000L, Version1.3
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X4000 User’s Guide
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