COSIMIR Educational, User's Guide

COSIMIR Educational, User's Guide
COSIMIR®
Educational
User’s Guide
536501 EN
06/2003
Order no.
Description:
Designation:
Revision level:
Authors:
Layout:
526501
Manual
D:HB-COSIMIR-EDUNET-EN
06/2003
Ulrich Karras, IRF University Dortmund
18.06.2003, Beatrice Huber
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG, 73770 Denkendorf, Germany, 2003
Internet: www.festo.com/didactic
e-mail: [email protected]
The copying, distribution and utilization of this document as well as the
communication of its contents to others without expressed
authorization is prohibited. Offenders will be held liable for the payment
of damages. All rights reserved, in particular the right to carry out
patent, utility model or ornamental design registration.
Contents
1.
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
Introduction ________________________________________ 5
The COSIMIR® 3D Simulation System ____________________ 6
What’s new? ________________________________________ 7
Notation ___________________________________________ 9
System Requirements _______________________________ 10
Installation ________________________________________ 11
Special Notes ______________________________________ 27
2.
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
The COSIMIR® Educational Concept ___________________ 29
Didactic Concept____________________________________ 29
Approach and Learning Goals _________________________ 30
Learning via Virtual Workcells _________________________ 32
The Workcells ______________________________________ 40
3.
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
Working with COSIMIR® _____________________________ 49
COSIMIR® Help _____________________________________ 50
The COSIMIR® Assistant______________________________ 51
The COSIMIR® User Interface__________________________ 54
Window Types _____________________________________ 55
4.
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
Programming ______________________________________ 63
Teach-In __________________________________________ 63
Example: Programming a Workcell _____________________ 66
Automatic Trajectory Generation_______________________ 74
Download to the Mitsubishi Robot Controller ____________ 76
5.
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
Simulation ________________________________________ 77
Settings___________________________________________ 77
Example: Workcell Simulation ________________________ 77
Sensor Simulation __________________________________ 80
PLC Simulation _____________________________________ 80
Process Simulation__________________________________ 81
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® Educational
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Contents
6.
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
4
Modelling _________________________________________ 83
Model Hierarchy ____________________________________ 83
Model Libraries_____________________________________ 84
Model Explorer _____________________________________ 85
Modelling in a Workcell ______________________________ 90
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® Educational
1. Introduction
Welcome to the new 4.1 release of COSIMIR® Educational.
COSIMIR® Educational provides you with a virtual learning environment
in the field of robotics. Step by step, you’ll be able to advance
independently from very simple robotics applications right through to
highly complex workcells in a highly realistic, simulated 3D work
environment.
The virtual learning environment consists of:
• Programming and simulation environment for predefined robotic
workcells that represent typical industrial applications
• The Robotics Assistant online tutorial offering comprehensive
robotics knowledge via multimedia presentations
The Robotics Assistant is not a CBT (computer based training), but
rather a multimedia information system that provides teachers with
support in designing courses of study, and that can be used by trainees
for autodidactic learning.
You decide yourself how you’ll proceed with your course of study. With
its integrated library of workcells, COSIMIR® Educational provides you
with an introduction to robotics covering various degrees of complexity.
The library of workcells encompasses innumerable examples of typical
industrial robotic workcells, including appropriate function descriptions
and technical documentation. A sample application is included for each
workcell, and instructions are provided for implementing each
respective application. You can decide whether or not you’d like to
install the sample solutions while installing the software. Of course
you’ll also have the opportunity of developing and solving a host of
other tasks for any or all of the predefined robotic workcells.
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® Educational
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1. Introduction
The COSIMIR® Educational leaning environment provides you with user
help in a number of ways. The COSIMIR® online help function is based
on the standard HTML Windows help format. The Microsoft Internet
explorer (version 3.0 or higher) is required in order to use the help
function.
This new release incorporates many of the comments and suggestions
we have received from COSIMIR® Educational users. In order to
continue improving COSIMIR® Educational, we invite all future users to
send us their comments, suggestions and criticism as well. We would
also be happy to answer any questions that might arise regarding
COSIMIR® Educational.
Just send us an e-mail at: [email protected]
You can also contact us by calling our telephone hotline should you
experience problems while installing or using COSIMIR® Educational.
1.1
The COSIMIR® 3D
simulation system
COSIMIR® is an industrial 3D simulation system for PC based operating
systems including Windows 95® and 98®, as well as Windows NT®,
2000® and XP®. COSIMIR® facilitates the planning of robotic workcells,
testing the reach ability of all required positions, the development of
robotics and control programs, and layout optimisation. All motion
sequences and handling operations can be simulated in order to rule
out the possibility of collision, and to optimise cycle times.
Work-cells can be created using library components such as machines,
robots, tools, assembly lines, loaders and more with the help of
COSIMIR® model expansion modules. You can also create your own
workcell components, and import part models and workpieces from
other CAD systems such as AutoCAD®.
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1. Introduction
1.2
What’s new?
We’ve integrated a host of new workcells into COSIMIR® Educational:
• A simple introductory workcell with Mitsubishi RV-M1 and RV-2AJ
robots
• Robotic workcells from the “Basic Robotics” workbook (BP70)
furnished to our initial robot customers, for taking advantage of
existing learning scenarios in COSIMIR® Educational
• All robotic workcells from our new version C of MPS®:
– Robot station
– Robot station with assembly
– Robot station with assembly and hydraulic punch
including comprehensive documentation of the sample programs.
Control panels are also made available as highly realistic 3D objects.
• Festo handling systems
• Robotic welding station, which is also offered as part of our
CIM/FMS system
“Manual” feeding of workpieces is accomplished by means of simple,
supplementary buttons. It’s no longer necessary to import workpieces
as new models.
The following methodology has been utilised for the workcell sample
programs:
• All sample programs for Mitsubishi robots use the Melfa Basic IV
programming language if supported by the utilised controller.
Otherwise, MRL is used (Movemaster Command).
• All programs for workcells that do not include any Mitsubishi robots
have been written in universal IRL (industrial robot language).
However, Mitsubishi’s Melfa Basic IV programming language can
also be used with these workcells, although not all of the special
Mitsubishi functions can be used in this case.
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® Educational
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1. Introduction
A graphic representation of the I/O assignment list for the workcell’s
sensors/actuators and the inputs and outputs at the robot controller
can be additionally selected in the model explorer. New connections can
be established by means of drag and drop within this display. Input and
output statuses are displayed online by mean of colour codes in the
simulation mode.
The integrated S5 soft PLC has been replaced with an S7 soft PLC.
Program modules can be displayed online in the STL mode, and can be
run in single-step operation. This provides for a much more clear-cut
representation of strictly specified PLC functionality in several of the
sample workcells.
You’re not only able to modify the layout with the new COSIMIR®
Educational release, you can also import new designs which have been
created using COSIMIR® Industrial or COSIMIR® Professional. However,
the import function does not support I/O connections, which must be
set up manually after import.
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© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® Educational
1. Introduction
1.3
Notation
Certain types of notation are used for texts, key combinations
(shortcuts) and key sequences, making it easier to locate and identify
different types of information.
Text formats
The following text formats are used:
Text Format
Used for
Bold
Names of commands, menus and
dialogue boxes
Cursive
Place holder: text must be specified for
elements using cursive formatting.
CAPITALS
Acronyms, folder names and file names:
lower case letters can also be used when
entering these names.
“Quotation marks”
Command options: quotation marks are
also used to highlight chapter titles
included as references within body text.
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® Educational
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1. Introduction
Notation for key
combinations (shortcuts)
and key sequences
1.4
System Requirements
10
Key combinations (shortcuts) and key sequences are written as follows:
Notation
Meaning
Key 1 + Key 2
A plus sign (+) between the names of the
two keys means that both keys are
activated simultaneously.
Key 1 - Key 2
A minus sign (-) between the names of
the two keys means that they are
activated one after the other.
Minimum Configuration
Processor
Pentium II, 300 MHz or higher
RAM
128 MB
Hard disk space
850 MB
Operating system
Windows 95®, 98®; NT®, 2000® or XP®
Graphic card
3D acceleration and support for OpenGL,
32 MB RAM
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® Educational
1. Introduction
Recommended Configuration
Processor
Pentium IV, 1 GHz
RAM
256 MB
Hard disk space
650 MB
Operating system
Windows NT®, 2000® or XP®
Graphic card
3D acceleration and support for OpenGL,
64 MB RAM
Monitor
17" screen with resolution of 1024 x 768
pixels
1.5
Installation
A CD and this user’s guide are supplied with COSIMIR® Educational. The
software can be installed in two different ways:
• Network installation
• Installation with online activation
Installation with
online activation
Getting started:
• Switch on your PC and start Microsoft Windows.
• Insert the COSIMIR® Educational CD ROM into the CD disk drive.
• Click Run in the start menu.
• Enter d:setup.exe to the entry field in the dialogue box which then
appears. Acknowledge your entry by clicking the OK button.
• If your CD ROM disk drive has a designation other than “d:”, the
letter “d” must be replaced with the appropriate designation.
The installation program’s initial window appears:
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® Educational
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1. Introduction
Follow the instructions that appear at the screen. If you are uncertain
about how you should answer any given question, click either Back or
Next.
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© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® Educational
1. Introduction
The Festo Didactic license agreement is displayed first. You must accept
the license agreement in order to continue installing the software. Click
Agree, and then click the Next button.
Now you are provided with the option of installing the software for a
single, currently logged on user only.
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® Educational
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1. Introduction
This dialogue box prompts you to enter your product ID. The product ID
is a 12-place character string which is printed on the back of the CD
sleeve.
If the product ID is entered incorrectly, a message appears prompting
you to enter a valid product ID.
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© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® Educational
1. Introduction
You can select the folder to which COSIMIR® Educational will be
installed in the Directory path dialogue box.
C:\Programs\didactic\CosimirEducationalGB appears automatically as
a default directory path. If you would like to install the software to
another folder, click the Browse button.
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® Educational
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1. Introduction
Note
In any case, you should select a folder that does not contain any other
versions of COSIMIR®.
You are also provided with the option of selecting a program group to
which the COSIMIR® Educational icons can be saved. Festo Didactic
appears automatically as a default program group, which you can of
course rename if you wish.
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© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® Educational
1. Introduction
COSIMIR® Educational is now ready to be installed. Click the Next
button in order to start installation.
Installing COSIMIR®
The initial window for the COSIMIR® Educational installation program
appears.
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® Educational
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1. Introduction
COSIMIR® Educational can be installed along with two supplementary
options, which can be selected in the following dialogue box:
We recommend to use the default settings. Click the Option button of
COSIMIR® Kernel. Following dialog box will appear:
The examples include predefined robotic workcells with
comprehensively described tasks. Click the OK button. You will be
asked to confirm following selection:
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© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® Educational
1. Introduction
The corresponding solutions can also be installed.
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® Educational
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1. Introduction
A message appears indicating that COSIMIR® Educational has been
installed successfully. Click the Finish button.
Software installation has now been completed. Now you’ll need to
decide whether you want to activate your license immediately, or later.
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© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® Educational
1. Introduction
Online activation
Various options are available for enabling your license. We recommend
using the direct online activation option. Indirect online activation can
be executed from a separate PC, or you can request your activation code
on the phone.
However, this telephone service is only available from
Monday through Friday, from 8 a.m. to 10 p.m. central European time.
If you decide to use the direct, online activation option:
You are prompted to establish a connection with the Internet, after
which your license is enabled automatically.
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® Educational
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1. Introduction
The following dialogue box appears if your PC is equipped with a
firewall that prevents incoming communication via the Internet:
Your activation key appears in the display shown above. Select this
number and copy it to the clipboard with the key combination Ctrl+C,
and then paste it to the COSIMIR® activation dialogue box with the key
combination Ctrl+V. Click the Finish button in order to complete license
enabling.
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© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® Educational
1. Introduction
Indirect activation
The following dialogue box appears if you select the indirect online
activation option for inquiring at a separate PC:
Access the website at the specified web address from a separate PC.
The following display appears:
Copy the license key into the appropriate entry field and click the
Generate enable code button.
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® Educational
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1. Introduction
The activation code appears. Copy this code and enter it in the
appropriate field at the PC to which the software has been installed.
Telephone inquiry
If you decide to request your enable code on the phone:
Call the phone number shown in the above dialogue box. You’ll be
asked for the license key.
You may save the license key. Click the Print/Copy… button. Following
options will be offered:
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© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® Educational
1. Introduction
You’ll receive your enable code in return, which must be entered to the
appropriate field. Click the Finish button in order to enable your license.
Multiple License
If you’ve purchased a multiple license, each installation must be
enabled separately. Each time an installation is enabled, a message
appears indicating how many licenses can still be issued with the
specified product ID.
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® Educational
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1. Introduction
Network installation
Most importantly, the term network installation makes reference to
software licensing which is executed via a network from a central
license server. A green license dongle is required for network
installation. Licensing of the individual installations is executed
dynamically, and licenses can be requested from any workstation within
the network until the ordered number of licenses has been allocated.
The license server is a PC within the network that executes the licensing
procedure. The license dongle must be plugged into the parallel port of
the license server, and must be accessible to all licensed workstations
at all times.
Single workstation
Single workstations can also be licensed locally. Start installation as
described above, and the following initial window appears:
Select the second option in order to license a single workstation.
Proceed with installation as described above.
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© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® Educational
1. Introduction
After installation has been completed, additional COSIMIR® program
components can be installed with the help of the Change components
option.
License server
If you want to licence a workstation via a licenser server, carefully read
the included network installation instructions first.
1.6
Special Notes
When you access a model for the first time from the help function, a
dialogue box appears for downloading files. Notes on working with this
dialogue box can be displayed by clicking the (Special Note) link in the
model help window:
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® Educational
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1. Introduction
Known conflicts with other programs:
Winamp
28
As a standard function, Winamp registers file types with the “.mod”
extension in a protected mode. This makes it impossible to open models
from the help function. If Winamp has already been installed on your PC,
it must first be deinstalled, and then reinstalled with a different option
setting. Click the (Special Note) link to this end. A display appears which
includes a further link: (Known Conflicts). Click the (Known Conflicts)
link for a complete description of the correct option settings required for
Winamp.
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® Educational
2. The COSIMIR® Educational Concept
2.1
Didactic Concept
COSIMIR® Educational software is based upon the concept of an open
learning environment.
Open learning environment means:
• An open approach to learning characterised by constructivism, i.e.
various tools including basic knowledge, a lexicon and simulations
are made available which can be combined and utilised as desired in
accordance with your own learning objectives.
This open concept has also been implemented in organising the basic
knowledge. The central topic is robotics, which is why we call it the
“Robotics Assistant”. It’s not laid out as a CBT or a WBT, but rather as
an interactive, multimedia knowledge and information system. The
contents of the program are presented as individual information
modules including:
• Texts (concepts, explanations, regulations, examples etc.)
• Graphics
• Videos and animations
The information modules are interconnected by means of hyperlinks.
The Robotics Assistant provides you with various options for accessing
information in a targeted fashion:
• Searches for keywords or topics
• Tree structure navigator
• List of selected topics
Selected information can also be printed out at any time.
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® Educational
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2. The COSIMIR® Educational Concept
Why have we selected this open concept for imparting knowledge?
• We do not perceive the acquisition of knowledge and information as
an end unto itself, but rather as a necessity for solving problems.
• The project task or the problem to be solved are at the heart of our
concept, resulting in the need to acquire new knowledge in order to
solve the problem at hand.
• Acquiring knowledge and information with modern methods based
on software technology is one of the central learning tasks in
today’s technological society.
A further didactic concept is the provision of virtual work environments
in the form of simulated robotic workcells. These are represented in 3
dimensions in order to create as realistic an image as possible.
• Options for experimenting with the workcells effectively place the
trainee in a close relationship to the object under study. Knowledge
is tested and reinforced.
• Realistic experience provided by the workcell gives rise to a new
quality of knowledge: theoretical knowledge is transformed into
practical application and skills.
• The workcells promote learning by discovery at different levels of
difficulty (it works, it doesn’t work, it works more efficiently etc.).
2.2
Approach and Learning
Goals
Robotics is a fascinating, but at the same time highly complex and
intricate technology. We restrict ourselves here to the field of industrial
robotic systems, and the area of mobile robotics will not be addressed
at all.
Target groups and
prerequisites
Our approach is aligned to vocational training in the following areas:
• Mechatronics
• Various technical qualifications for metalworking and electrical
engineering
• Information technology
Our approach is aligned to technical colleges and universities. We also
assume that you, the trainee, are familiar with the Windows PC
environment.
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© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® Educational
2. The COSIMIR® Educational Concept
Trainees must be equipped with certain basic knowledge in order to get
started in the field of robotics. The Robotics Assistant provides
comprehensive basic knowledge on the subject of industrial robots (see
chapter 2.1 above). The Robotics Assistant makes it possible for the
trainee to:
• Acquire basic knowledge independently, and in a targeted fashion
• Prepare for problem solving tasks
• Retrieve, and if necessary print out additional information during the
problem solving stage
We also provide teachers with the opportunity of using the Robotics
Assistant as a multimedia supplement to their own course. Thus
COSIMIR® Educational assists you in organising the basics for your
projected learning approach in a highly flexible way right from the
beginning of the introductory phase. We recommend covering at least
the following subjects with the Robotics Assistant for introductory
courses:
• Definition of robots including characteristic values
• Robot design with subchapters covering hardware, different types of
robots and work safety
• Robot programming languages
That which has been read or heard can then be subjected to practical
testing, analysed and implemented by the trainee in his work with the
numerous virtual robotic workcells. Of course we are aware of the fact
that a virtual workcell is not capable of imparting all of the many
aspects of this technology. Problems associated with drive technology,
accuracy and dynamics are not taken into consideration in the
simulations. For this reason, we also offer the respective hardware
environments for several of the workcells:
• BP70
• MPS® RobotStation
• MPS® RobotAssemblyStation
• MPS® PunchingStation
• FMS-MachineAssembly
• RobWeld
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® Educational
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2. The COSIMIR® Educational Concept
An ideal learning environment can be created with these workcells by
fulfilling the following basic requirements:
• At least one real robotic workcell
• One workstation (learning station) with a COSIMIR® Industrial (or
COSIMIR® Professional) license
• Each trainee has their own COSIMIR® Educational license
In this way, each trainee has the opportunity of downloading their
program to the robot controller at the real workcell, and can start up
and run their own solution to the specified problem at the actual
system.
2.3
Learning via
Virtual Workcells
The virtual workcells create an experimental environment for trainees,
allowing them to experience and grasp the required basic knowledge. At
the same time, they are a point of departure for the examination of new
questions and problems, i.e. for building upon existing knowledge.
The educational portion supplies you with descriptions of all of the
robotic workcells, and the graphic navigator (see figure 2.1) provides
you with direct access to all applications. The descriptions of each of
the respective workcells can be opened by clicking the image of the
appropriate models in the graphic navigator:
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© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® Educational
2. The COSIMIR® Educational Concept
Figure 2.1: Model description
An animation is started by clicking the model image, and the respective
workcell is demonstrated by means of a simulation sequence. The
trainee is thus provided with visual support in addition to the workcell’s
function description. The following additional information can be
displayed:
• Learning objectives (know how):
Here we’ve listed the typical learning objectives that can be realised
with the respective workcell as examples. Of course it is also
possible to establish additional objectives with the selected robotic
workcell, depending upon the specified tasks.
• Description of the workcell:
This section provides a function description of the workcell, creating
the basis for the generation of one’s own tasks.
• Components of the workcell:
This section contains a brief technical documentation of the most
significant components included in the respective workcell.
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2. The COSIMIR® Educational Concept
•
•
I/O connections:
Here you’ll find a commentated list of I/O assignments for the robot
controller, as well as for the PLC if included.
Programming:
The structure of the sample program is explained, and helpful
hyperlinks and tips are provided for program writing.
In addition to, and independent of the included hyperlinks, you can also
access any explanations of terminology and basic theory which you
deem necessary for your problem solving task at any time with the help
of the assistant explorer or the index and search functions.
Introductory workcell
Which workcell should you start with? If you have no previous robotics
knowledge, we recommend beginning with the “First Steps” and “Next
Steps” models. In the First Steps workcell, simple rectangular
workpieces can be picked up from a table, moved to a pallet, and finally
positioned on a second pallet. A glass plate is located between the two
pallets in the Next Steps workcell, and an alternate position must thus
be added to the pick & place sequence in order to avoid possible
collision.
Work-cells with either the Mitsubishi RV-2AJ robot or the RV-M1
predecessor model can be selected. The RV-2AJ can be programmed
with the modern, high-level Melfa Basic IV robot language, whereas the
simple command language, Movemaster Command (MRL), must be
used with the older RV-M1. We only recommend the model with the RVM1 robot if your hardware environment also includes RV-M1 robots.
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© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® Educational
2. The COSIMIR® Educational Concept
Before writing a robot program, you must first learn to move the robot
and actuate its gripper. The robot can be moved within various
coordinate systems:
• Joint coordinates
• World coordinates
• Tool coordinates
The various coordinate systems can be visualised in the workcell
window. Robots can be set into motion with a so-called teach panel. A
universal control module is also replicated in the simulation by means
of the teach-in window and can also be used to move the robot. For
example, attempt to move the robot by simply changing the axis
coordinates such that it is able to securely grasp a workpiece with its
gripper.
Three-dimensional
navigation
Three-dimensional navigation within the workcell presents you with an
additional problem. The representation of the workcell changes
depending upon the point of view:
• From the top left or top right
• From the front or the back
• From up close or far away
At least two different views are required for trouble-free, three
dimensional orientation. With COSIMIR® Educational, the number of
views is only limited by the performance characteristics of your PC.
Robot motion
You’ll discover that it’s quite advantageous to make use of motion
within the other coordinate systems in order to grasp a workpiece. On
the other hand, each movement executed by the robot is the result of
coordinated motion of the individual joints. These can be viewed in the
status window, for example in order to observe the means by which
axes must be moved in order to advance the gripper along the X-axis in
the world coordinate system. In order to execute the gripping operation,
the gripper must be appropriately oriented. Consider whether or not
restrictions would result in this area through the use of a 5-axis
articulated robot?
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2. The COSIMIR® Educational Concept
The position list
Now that you’ve brought the robot into a position from which it can
grasp the workpiece with its gripper, you can save this point to the
position list. The position list contains all of the points to which the
robot must move directly for a given program, as well as important
ancillary points for moving along a path (mid-point, diverging point
etc.). Why is a position list so important? One could argue that as long
as the cell is known, any desired point can be calculated. Why, then,
should the robot first move to certain teaching points? The answer is
quite simple: As a rule, industrial robots demonstrate very good
repetition accuracy, but their absolute positioning accuracy is entirely
inadequate for most applications. Further details are included in the
Robotics Assistant.
One of the main tasks during commissioning of a robotics application is
testing the position list, i.e. positions established in the simulation are
tested via the real system, and are modified if necessary. It is thus
extremely important for trainees to become well acquainted with the
teach-in procedure in the simulation.
Each workcell has its own position list which you can take advantage of
in order to reduce the time required for teaching in all of the positions.
The first robot program
36
As is also the case with the teach-in procedure, two different types of
motion commands are also used for programming robot motion:
• Movement from a starting point to an end point, which is known as
point-to-point movement (abbreviated PTP). The actual path to the
robot’s end point is not defined, because all axes travel to their endpositions independent of one another.
• Movement of the robot to the end point via a predefined path (for
example along a straight line).
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® Educational
2. The COSIMIR® Educational Concept
Sample task
The blue workpiece in the First Steps model must first be set onto the
middle section of the first pallet. After a waiting period of 2 seconds, it
must then be sorted into the bottom section of the second pallet.
Sequence plan
First, a sequence plan is created for the program:
1. The robot’s gripper is open.
2. The robot moves the gripper to the gripping position (blue
workpiece) with a PTP movement.
3. The gripper is closed.
4. The robot moves the gripper to the middle section of the first pallet
with a PTP movement.
5. The gripper is opened.
6. The robot moves linearly back to a point above the first pallet.
7. 2 second waiting period
8. The robot moves the gripper back to the middle section of the first
pallet (linear movement).
9. The gripper is closed.
10. The robot moves the gripper to a point above the final position with
a PTP movement (for safety reasons).
11. The robot moves the gripper to the final position (linear movement).
12. The gripper is opened.
13. The robot returns to its initial position with a PTP movement.
14. End
Of course the robot’s controller is unable to understand this text, which
must be translated step by step into, for example, the Melfa Basic IV
programming language:
10 HOPEN 1
20 MOV P1, -30 “P1 = gripping position”
etc.
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The sequence plan should be laid out such that each step can be
implemented by means of a command or a subprogram. At the same
time, the sequence plan provides you with ideal documentation of your
program. Details regarding Mitsubishi programming languages can be
found in the “Programming” chapter included in the COSIMIR® help
function.
Downloading to
the robot controller
The program has now been created, and must be downloaded to the
robot controller. This procedure can be replicated in COSIMIR®
Educational, because the simulation includes a fully fledged robot
controller. The downloading procedure is completed in two steps:
• Compile the program, i.e. the syntax of the programming language is
checked and is translated into universal IRDATA machine code.
• The machine code is downloaded to the robot controller, i.e. the
code is linked to the controller.
Any errors that might occur are displayed. The details for this procedure
are presented in chapter 4.2.
Simulation
The program has now been downloaded without error to the robot
controller. Start the program and observe the 3D motion sequence. You
can select either the
– automatic mode
or the
– single step mode,
and you’re able to determine whether or not the sequence is executed
in a logically and functionally correct fashion.
Collision detection
If the sequence is error-free, you should then check to see if any
undesired collisions occur. The Next Steps model is used to illustrate
this procedure, which includes an additional glass plate between the
two pallets. Start collision detection (see chapter 5.2), and then start
the above described program. If a collision occurs, the robot’s path
must be suitably changed. Check to see whether or not any other
collisions might occur during the sequence. Why, for example, does the
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robot move to a point above the final position for safety reasons in the
above represented sequence plan? Check the other movements and
gripping positions with this in mind.
Flexibility in
designing tasks
Various problems can be posed for each of the workcells. The layout of
any given workcell can be readily changed with the help of the model
explorer (see chapter 6.3), for example the pallets or the workpieces in
the First Steps model can be repositioned. Can the tasks still be
completed after repositioning? Additional components can also be
imported to the workcell (see also chapter 6.4).
If you use a Kuka, an ABB or a Fanuc robot in your laboratory
environment, you can use the ABB Pick & Place, FANUC Pick & Place and
KUKA Pick & Place models as alternative introductory workcells.
The IRL programming
language
Robot systems from various manufacturers use different programming
languages, although there is a standardised, universal robot
programming language known as IRL (industrial robot language). We
have selected the following didactic solution for COSIMIR® Educational:
• We offer the Melfa Basic IV high-level programming language or the
simple MRL command language for all robotic workcells with
Mitsubishi robots.
• If the workcell does not include any Mitsubishi robots, we offer the
standardised IRL language. Please note that the robots in these cells
can also be programmed with Melfa Basic IV, but not all of the
language’s attributes will be supported in this case.
Keep in mind that IRL is a significantly more complex language than
Melfa Basic IV. Details regarding IRL are included in the COSIMIR® help
function under “Programming”.
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Sensor technology
A robot can only be used flexibly if it is capable of communicating with
its work environment. The analysis of sensor signals is utilised to this
end. We have provided numerous workcells for this purpose. We
recommend the BP70 model, and in particular the MPS® RobotStation,
for getting started with this subject matter. In this workcell, the
positions of objects are detected by the robot in an elementary way, and
are evaluated for further processing. You can make use of a simulation
box with 8 inputs and outputs that are connected to the robot’s
controller in the BP70 workcell.
2.4
The Workcells
The sequence in which the workcells are laid out is organised such that,
as a rule, knowledge gained in working with previous workcells is very
helpful in solving the problems posed by subsequent workcells.
However, if the trainee has prepared himself adequately, the workcells
can be processed in any other desired order. In any case, before you
begin work with any given workcell, you should carefully examine the
respective video animation, as well as instructions regarding
programming and I/O connections, and included component
descriptions.
FirstSteps/NextSteps
These robotic workcells have already been described in detail in chapter
2.3. They are available with RV-2AJ and RV-M1 robots. The sample
programs for the RV-2AJ have been created with Melfa Basic IV, and for
the RV-M1 with MRL.
PickandPlaceABB.mod
The PickandPlaceABB.mod workcell includes a very simple handling
task with a type 2400-16 ABB robot, which serves as a basis for all
further tasks. Simple examination of the working space can be executed
with this workcell by repositioning the robot and the pick & place library
component. For the purpose of introduction, this workcell is also
available for Fanuc S700 and Kuka KR125Z robots. Please note that it is
very easy to replace the robot included in the workcell with any other
robot from the robot library (see also chapter 6.4). The sample
programs are written in IRL.
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PickandPlaceFesto
A similar handling task is implemented with this workcell using a Festo
2-axis pneumatic linear system. This model is also available with
sensors that detect the objects to be handled. The sample program is
written in IRL.
Festo linear gantry
The linear gantry in this workcell is equipped with a double gripper
system. It is thus capable of simultaneously removing two crankshafts
from different workpiece holders, and transferring them to different
destinations. The sample program is written in IRL.
FESTO Linear gantry with
conveyor belt
This workcell additionally includes two conveyor belts. Two crankshafts
are removed from a container. However, the container is closed and the
gantry system must wait until it has been opened. The two crankshafts
are then removed and each is transferred to a conveyor belt, by means
of which they are taken away.
BP70
This workcell is available with the Mitsubishi RV-M1 robot, as well as
the RV-2AJ. It additionally includes two workpiece holders, one tool
holder with tool, a pallet with workpieces and a simulation box with 8
inputs and outputs. A large number of different tasks can thus be
executed with the workcell:
• Handling task
• Machining task
• Palletising task
The tasks section in our “Basic Robotics” workbook includes concrete
task suggestions. This was the first robotic workcell offered by Festo as
part of the MPS® product range.
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MPS® RobotStation
This workcell is a simulation of the new MPS® Robot Station, and is
equipped with the RV-2AJ robot. Geometric data are based upon a CAD
import of the associated design engineering data. The station performs
the following task sequence:
• Determine the material characteristics of a workpiece held by the
robot’s gripper with the help of a sensor.
• Remove workpieces from the seat in a chute after a signal has been
generated.
• Detect the position of workpieces and set them down correctly
orientated at an assembly point.
• Sort workpieces into magazines according to material
characteristics.
This is the standard MPS® robotic workcell. The sample program is
written in Melfa Basic IV.
MPS® RobotHandling
The MPS® RobotHandling.mod workcell is a simulation of the MPS®
“Robot Handling” Station from Festo Didactic. It was the predecessor of
the above described station. Different types of housings must be sorted
into magazines using this workcell. The housings are either on a pallet
or in a storage bin. If the robot is to remove a housing from a storage
bin, the housing has to be added first by means of the import function.
The sample program is written in Melfa Basic IV.
MPS® RobotAssembly
The MPS® RobotAssembly.mod workcell is a simulation of the MPS®
“Robot Assembly” station from Festo Didactic. It is available with the 6axis Mitsubishi RV-E2 robot, as well as the new 5-axis Mitsubishi RV2AJ. It is the task of the robot to completely assemble various cylinders
from individual parts. The appropriate cylinder housing must be fed to
the robot to this end by importing the respective model from the
“Import” folder. The sample programs are written in Melfa Basic IV for
the RV-2AJ, and in MRL for the RV-E2.
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MPS®
RobotAssemblyStation
This workcell is a simulation of a combination including the new MPS®
“Robot” and “Assembly” stations. The combination replaces the above
described assembly station. The “Assembly” station is controlled by a
simulated S7 PLC, or by the robot controller. A comprehensively
documented sample program is available for both variants. The
programs are identical to the respective programs for the real robotic
workcells. The task consists of assembling model cylinders from the
following components:
• Cylinder housing
• Piston
• Spring (piston return spring)
• Cylinder cap
Through the use of various cylinder housings (red, black and silver), it is
possible to assemble various cylinders with different piston diameters
(identified by the colours black and silver).
MPS®
RobotPunchingStation
This workcell is a virtual representation of a combination including the
three MPS® stations “Robot”, “Assembly” and “Hydraulic Punch”. As
before, the “Assembly” station is controlled by a simulated S7 PLC or
the robot controller. The hydraulic punch is controlled by a simulated S7
PLC. The hydraulic punch produces the cylinder caps in this combination
station. Blank caps are fed to the punch from a cap magazine. The hole
for the piston rod is then punched into the cylinder cap and the cap is
set into a tray.
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PalletAssembly
The PalletAssembly.mod workcell includes a Mitsubishi RV-2AJ robot,
that has the task of filling a pallet with workpieces. This is also a
handling task, but robot movements take place to calculated positions
as well as to predefined positions in this case. For this task, it is also
useful to introduce the programming of loops. Feeding workpieces from
a magazine necessitates additional I/O interrogations. The sample
program is written in Melfa Basic IV.
LabAutomation
Gripper changeover systems must be taken into consideration with the
LabAutomation.mod workcell. It must be determined whether or not a
new TCP needs to be calculated. Various tasks must be executed with
the various gripper systems, which have to be organised via I/O
communication. It is useful to elucidate the use of subprograms and
counters for the programming of this workcell. 6-axis Mitsubishi RV-E2
robots are used. The sample program is written in MRL.
Packaging
A SCARA robot equipped with a vacuum gripper is utilised in the
Packaging.mod workcell. Beyond this, a conveyor belt and the creation
of additional packages must also be controlled. Removing packages
from the conveyor belt is controlled by means of I/O communication.
The sample program is written in the standardised IRL robotics
language. The integrated programming assistant can be exploited,
which provides considerable help in creating an initial program.
Disassembly
The bolts must be removed from an automobile wheel using a Reis RV16 robot in the Disassembly.mod workcell. An inductive sensor is used
to determine whether or not the robot is using the right socket wrench
to remove the bolts. Programming must be written in IRL. Knowledge of
procedural and modular programming must be acquired. Sensor
interrogations must also be incorporated into the communications
sequence in this workcell.
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Disktest
Hard disks are tested at four different stations with the Disktest.mod
workcell. The test stations perform a surface inspection of the metal
coatings on the disks. This task can be expanded with a requirement for
calculating the Cartesian coordinates of the disks, and corresponding
organisation of generated workcell data into data structures as part of
the programming.
Mitsubishi-S7
A Mitsubishi RH-5AH55 SCARA robot communicates with a PLC in this
workcell. The robot must execute simple handling tasks based upon PLC
commands. The robot and the PLC are connected to one another via
digital inputs and outputs to this end. The sample program is written in
Melfa Basic IV.
FMS-MachineAssembly
The FMS-MaschineAssembly.mod workcell simulates a Festo Didactic
FMS system. Four different processes can be executed. Depending upon
the process, a given workpiece holder is fed to the workcell on a
conveyor belt. The workpiece holder must be added to the model by
clicking the appropriate button. The following points outline the most
important new learning content included in this workcell:
• Accurate teach-in of difficult to access positions
• Collision-free path planning in very tight spaces
• Control of the functional units included in an EMCO CNC milling
machine
• Complex I/O communication
• Initialisation of robot subprograms based upon sensor detection of
the type of workpiece fed to the system
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PressAutomation
Press linking is accomplished by means of two type KUKA KR 125
industrial robots and a simulated S7 PLC in the PressAutomation.mod
workcell. In addition to communication with the PLC via digital inputs
and outputs, the work procedures of two robots must be synchronised
as an additional challenge in this case. The sample program is written in
IRL.
RobWeld
This workcell simulates the actual Festo Didactic FMS welding station.
Welding is performed by a Kawasaki FS03N robot. The gripper system
consists of a pneumatic 3-finger gripper and a welding torch, which is
connected to the robot flange via a collision-shutdown device for safety
reasons. The task is to weld three raw metal components together into a
cylinder housing. This can be accomplished by means of spot welding or
path welding. The sample program is written in IRL, and executes a spot
welding sequence. A glass shield for the prevention of electroophthalmia must be brought into position during welding for safety
reasons. The welding torch must be cleaned after welding.
TablePainting
A robot must paint the surface of a table with the help of a spray gun in
the TablePainting.mod workcell. This painting sequence can also be
simulated (see also chapter 5.5). As an initial exercise, you should first
test the painting sequence in teach-in mode in order to gain a bit of
experience with painting quality. The tool for automatic trajectory
generation can also be used in order to calculate the robot’s paths for
execution of the painting sequence (see also chapter 4.3). The effects of
the parameter settings must be determined in this case.
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CarPainting
The goal of the CarPainting.mod workcell is to paint a car hood. Due to
the fact that the hood is a freeform surface, it is very difficult to create a
painting sequence without the help of automatic trajectory generation.
Nevertheless, an attempt should be made to complete some of the
calculations with the help of teach-in points, in order to gain a better
understanding of the problem.
PCBMounting
The PCBMounting.mod workcell is highly demanding, and is well suited
for project work. It simulates a PCB production line which consists of 6
work stations:
• Station for inserting ICs
• Station for soldering ICs
• Station with three robots which position the PCB holder
• Station for assembling the PCB to the holder
• Station for screwing the PCB to the holder
The individual robot programs must be created. Finally, master controls
must be developed which coordinate the individual actions.
PlantSimulation
The PlantSimulation.mod workcell simulates an entire production
facility that consists of several manufacturing cells:
• The AGV workcell includes an automated guided vehicle system
(AGVS) that interconnects the individual manufacturing cells within
the entire production facility. The AGVS receives picking orders
which it fulfils autonomously. The workcell consists of the AGVS, a
robot and various workpiece carrier trays with sensors.
• The Workshop workcell consists of two Mitsubishi robots, one of
which is mounted to an additional linear axis. The robots must
execute simple handling tasks in a work-order related fashion.
• The Storage workcell controls automated warehousing. It is linked
to the AGVS by means of a conveyor belt.
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2. The COSIMIR® Educational Concept
•
•
•
•
The Production workcell consists of a robot, an injection moulding
machine, a press, a laser labelling unit and a conveyor belt which
links it to the AGVS. A ventilator fan base is produced in this
workcell.
The ventilator fan base must be painted in the Paintshop workcell,
which consists of a robot, a rotary table, a gripper changeover
module for grippers with various paint spray guns for different
colours, and a conveyor belt which links it to the AGVS.
The individual parts of the ventilator are then assembled in the
Assembly workcell. This workcell consists of two robots and a
conveyor system.
The ventilator is inspected and packaged in the CheckPack workcell.
It consists of a robot, packaging materials and a conveyor belt which
links it to the AGVS.
The individual workcells are available as separate cell models, so that
each workcell can initially be processed alone. Integration can then be
accomplished in the form of a large project.
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After starting COSIMIR® Educational, you can directly access the
COSIMIR® Assistant:
Figure 3.1: Graphic navigation in the library of workcells
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3. Working with COSIMIR®
3.1
COSIMIR® Help
The COSIMIR® help function is subdivided into three parts:
• Online help for working with COSIMIR®
• The COSIMIR® Robotics Assistant
• COSIMIR® Educational which provides a comprehensive library of
predefined robotic workcells
The menu bar
The menu bar provides access to functions like those of a standard
Internet browser. You can scroll forwards and backwards. You can
display or hide the navigation bar. You can select a home page, as well
as other options for Internet connections. You can print out any selected
topics that serve your needs.
Figure 3.2: The menu bar
Additional index cards
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You also have the option of conveniently navigating within the
COSIMIR® help function using additional index cards including contents,
index, search and favourites.
• The Contents index card displays the entire contents of the
COSIMIR® help function in an explorer layout, which can be
navigated just like the Microsoft explorer.
• The Index displays all of the keywords used by the entire help
function, by means of which information can also be accessed.
• The Search function facilitates full-text retrieval using all of the
terms that occur within the entire COSIMIR® help function.
• You can create your own explorer structure for the COSIMIR® help
function with the Favourites index card.
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3. Working with COSIMIR®
Figure 3.3: Help function index cards
3.2
The COSIMIR® Assistant
The COSIMIR® Assistant provides you with an online learning
environment for robotics applications in the field of automation
technology. The assistant is subdivided into two parts:
• The COSIMIR® Robotics Assistant
• COSIMIR® Educational
The educational part provides you with a description of all of the robotic
workcells. All applications can be accessed directly via the graphic
navigator (see also chapter 2.3).
Figure 3.4: Start-up information dialogue box
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3. Working with COSIMIR®
The dialogue box is opened by clicking the Start-up info function in the
Help menu. The graphic display of the robot model appears here under
the directory path used during installation. You can activate or
deactivate the display of this file each time COSIMIR® Educational is
started. Acknowledge your setting with the OK button. You can also
select another directory path by clicking the Browse button, and display
it immediately using the Open file button, or select it as a start-up
information file.
Now it’s time to finally get started with a robotic workcell in COSIMIR®.
You need only click the button shown in the screenshot on the left, and
the corresponding workcell model is opened in COSIMIR®:
Figure 3.5: Work-cell in COSIMIR® Educational
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3. Working with COSIMIR®
The opened workcell includes a display of all of the windows that are
required for solving the assigned problem. If you chose not to install the
solutions during installation, the position list and the programming
window are empty, but they are set up such that you can begin work.
The basic procedures for working with COSIMIR® are described in the
following pages.
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3.3
The COSIMIR®
User Interface
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3.4
Window Types
The most important window types used in the COSIMIR® user interface
are described below.
The Toolbar
Additional tools can be selected for inclusion in the toolbar with the
menu function Extras Settings Adjust. We recommend the
following tools in any case:
• Collision detection
• Model explorer
• Project management
• Renumber & sort
The Workcell Window
A graphic representation of the currently selected workcell is displayed
in the workcell window. Additional views can be opened in the workcell
window with the menu function View New, allowing you to observe
different perspectives simultaneously. The three dimensional
representation of the workcell is dependent upon the selected point of
view.
Click the button shown in the toolbar screenshot on the left (Ctrl + shift).
The mouse pointer appears in the form of this button, and can then be
used to enlarge or reduce the display by moving the mouse.
Click the button shown in the toolbar screenshot on the left (shift). The
mouse pointer appears in the form of this button, and can then be used
to move the display by moving the pointer along the coordinate axis.
The display can be rotated around the individual coordinate axes with
the help of this button (Ctrl).
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You can also select various predefined standard views. Use the menu
function View Standard to this end. A dialogue box appears which
includes various options:
• Preset
(O)
• Front view
(V)
• Rear view
(U)
• Top view
(A)
• Left-hand side view
(L)
• Right-hand side view (R)
The desired view appears after clicking one of the above options, as
long as the workcell window is open. This can also be accomplished by
simply activating the corresponding keyboard keys.
Joint Coordinates
Press the F7 key or select the menu function Extras Robot position
Show joint coordinates.
The Joint coordinates window displays the individual positions of each
of the robot’s joints. Position is specified in degrees for rotary axes, and
in millimetres for linear axes. The Set joint coordinates dialogue box
can be accessed by double clicking this window.
World Coordinates
Activate the shift+F7 key combination or select the menu function
Extras Robot position Show world coordinates.
The World coordinates window displays the position and orientation of
the TCP (tool centre point) in world coordinates. In addition to position
and orientation, the robot’s configuration appears in the bottommost
line in the window. The Set world coordinates dialogue box can be
accessed by double clicking this window:
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Teach-In
Activate the F8 key or select the menu function Extras Teach-in. In
addition to the designations of the robot’s joints, the window that now
appears includes two small buttons which can be used to advance the
robot’s individual joints. The performance of a real robot is simulated
when these buttons are activated. The robot is accelerated to the preset
speed (override) if one of these buttons is pressed and held. The preset
speed is then held constant, and braking to a speed of 0 ensues when
the button is released, controlled by means of a acceleration ramp.
By clicking the corresponding option, teach-in can be performed using
world coordinates or tool coordinates.
Further details are included in chapter 4.1.
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Display Coordinate Systems
Various types of coordinates systems can be displayed for support.
Select the menu Extras Coordinate systems to this end (Ctrl + K):
• Show tool centre point (The path of the TCP is recorded when this
option is selected.)
• Show world coordinate system (coordinate axes are displayed in
colour)
• Show basic coordinate system (robot coordinate system)
• Show object coordinate system
• Show gripping points
Inputs/Outputs
Press the F9 key, activate the Ctrl+F9 key combination or select the
menu function Extras Inputs/outputs Show inputs or Show
outputs.
The Inputs window shows which signals are being applied to the inputs
of the simulated controller. 0 signals are displayed in red, and 1 signals
in green. If the input signal is forced, this is indicated by the fact that the
input value appears in angle brackets, e.g. <1>. If the input is linked to
an output, the input value appears in brackets, e.g. [1]. the same
applies to output displays.
Controller Selection
Select the menu function Execute Controller selection. COSIMIR®
Educational includes workcells with several controllers, for example one
PLC and two robot controllers, which work together simultaneously in
the simulation mode. However, if a procedure is to be taught into a
robot, the teach panel must be first allocated to the desired robot. This
task is executed by the controller selection window. It is used to display
and select a master, and to activate and/or deactivate individual
controllers. The display of robot positions, the display of inputs and
outputs, and teach-in are only possible for the robot that has been
selected as a master.
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Robot Program
Click the menu function File Open and select the desired file type, i.e.
*.MB4 (Melfa Basic IV), *.MRL (Movemaster Command) or *.IRL
(industrial robot language). Or create a new program with the menu
function File New and select the desired window type, i.e. IRL
program, Movemaster Command program or MELFA BASIC IV program.
The screenshot shown on the left contains a robot program in high-level
language using the native language of the respective robot. The name
of the associated object is specified in the header.
Position List
Click the menu function File Open and select the desired file type, i.e.
*.POS (for Mitsubishi robot) or *.PSL (for industrial robot language).
Alternatively, create a new position list with the menu function File New and select the desired window type, i.e. MRL position list
(Mitsubishi robot) or position list.
The screenshot shown on the left contains a position list for a robot. The
name of the associated object is specified in the header.
The New function in the File menu can also be accessed with the button
shown in the screenshot on the left, or with the Ctrl + N key
combination.
User Input/Output
The User Input/Output window appears automatically if the robot
program contains commands with which data can be read in or read out,
for example via the serial interface at the robot controller.
Due to the fact that the robot controller is only replicated in the
simulation, data are not transmitted via the serial interface, but rather
via the User Input/Output window.
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Camera Cruise
Camera cruise can be activated or deactivated with the menu function
Execute Camera cruise. The first toolbar button shown in the
screenshot on the left can be used to access this function as well.
When a simulation is started, movement is initialised to the stored
points of view, one after the other. Linear interpolation is utilised
between the views, assuring smooth motion from one to the next.
After clicking the menu function Extras Settings Camera cruise, a
dialogue box appears which allows you to store various views of your
workcell window:
Select the desired point of view for your workcell window and click the
Add button, in order to add the current view to the list. Existing views
can also be removed from the list. If you want to change the settings for
a view, select the respective view and click the Properties button:
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You can name the selected view, assign a dwell time and a zoom time,
and change the point of view manually.
Creating an Animation
You can create an animation of your simulation with the help of the
camera cruise function. The animation is saved as an AVI file. Trainees
can use this file for their own presentation purposes, or can submit it as
the result of their project.
To create an animation of your simulation:
1. Configure a camera cruise sequence and test it in combination with
your simulation.
2. In order to create an animation, start simulation and recording of the
camera cruise sequence with the second toolbar button shown in
the screenshot on the left.
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3. Working with COSIMIR®
3. Recording is stopped by clicking the last toolbar button shown in the
screenshot on the left.
4. The animation can then be played back with the third button and
stopped with the last button.
It is advisable to configure the recording after completion, in order to
optimise the animation file:
Details regarding configuration are included in the COSIMIR® help
function under Advanced Camera cruise Configuring camera
cruise Settings dialogue box – Video. Further helpful support is
provided by the Camera cruise video in the COSIMIR® help function
under Examples Operating.
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4. Programming
The following programming languages can be used in COSIMIR®
Educational for programming robots:
• Mitsubishi MELFA Basic IV robot programming language
• Mitsubishi MRL robot programming language
• Standardised industrial robot language (IRL DIN 66312)
We have proceeded as follows in creating sample programs for the
models:
All Mitsubishi robots have been programmed using MELFA Basic IV, as
long as this language is supported by the respective controller. MRL has
been used for all other Mitsubishi robots. Other types of robots have
been programmed using IRL.
The “Robot Programming” section of the Robotics Assistant includes
comprehensive information regarding the programming of robots.
Details regarding the programming languages are contained in the
chapter entitled “Programming Languages” in the COSIMIR® help
function.
4.1
Teach-In
In order to create a robot program, certain positions must be defined to
which the robot travels under certain conditions. Generally speaking, a
robot can be advanced with the help of a manually operated control
panel in order to teach such positions. COSIMIR® provides users with
two different methods for advancing the robot manually:
• With the mouse
• In the teach-In window
Click in close proximity to the gripper end point with the left mouse key.
A voxel (pixel in 3D space) is marked at the clicked point. If you double
click the voxel, the robot moves to the selected point, if it lies within its
working range. The robot can be advanced in a much more targeted way
with the universal teach panel. The teach panel can be accessed via the
Teach-in function in the Extras menu (F8).
Select the “Joint coordinates” mode from the teach-in window.
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Figure 4.1: Teach panel with joint coordinates
Select one of the robots six joints and click one of the corresponding
arrow buttons: The robot moves around the selected joint in the
corresponding direction. Speed can be selected with the override slider.
After clicking the Set Joint coordinates button, a dialogue box appears
to which joint coordinate values can be explicitly entered.
The robot’s current position can be transferred to the respective
position list by clicking the Current Position Pos. List button.
The gripper can be closed by clicking the Close gripper button, after
which the button is renamed as Open gripper.
Select the “World coordinates” mode in the teach-in window in order to
move the robot within the Cartesian coordinate system:
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Figure 4.2: Teach panel with world coordinates
The robot can be moved along the world coordinate axes, and the
gripper can be rotated around these axes by clicking the corresponding
arrow buttons. Further details are included in the COSIMIR® help
function under Operating How to ... How to move and position the
robot in COSIMIR.
Select the “Tool coordinates” mode in the teach-in window in order to
move the robot within the tool coordinate system. The tool coordinate
system is the robot’s basic coordinate system, but the zero point has
been shifted to the robot’s TCP.
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Figure 4.3: Teach panel with tool coordinates
As described above, the robot can be moved along the tool coordinate
axes and the gripper can be rotated around these axes by clicking the
corresponding arrow buttons. Note that the TCP remains unchanged.
How can this be double checked?
4.2
Example: Programming a
Workcell
This example necessitates the creation of a program for the Mitsubishi
RV-2AJ robot that solves the sample task posed in section 2.3 for the
First Steps workcell.
Open the First Steps RV-2AJ workcell with the help of the graphic
navigator, or open the FirstSteps RV-2AJ.mod file (directory path:
...\Models\FirstSteps\Model) with the menu function File Open.
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Figure 4.4: FirstSteps RV-2AJ.mod
Sample task
As a reminder, the blue workpiece must first be set onto the middle
section of the first pallet. After a waiting period of 2 seconds, it must
then be sorted into the bottom section of the second pallet.
Creating a position list
We’ve already created the sequence plan in chapter 2.3. Now we’ll need
to create a position list. First, delete the contents of the predefined MRL
position list and save it under the following new name:
“FirstStepsTest.pos”.
• Add the robot’s initial position as the first entry to the position list.
Click the Current Position Pos. List button in the teach-in window
to this end.
• The second position (P2) is the gripping position for the blue
workpiece. A line in the position list is highlighted after clicking
underneath the first position. Click the Current Position Pos. List
button in the teach-in window once again. As an exercise, position
P2 will be edited manually. Select position entry P2 to this end.
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Figure 4.5: Position list entry
•
•
•
•
Tip
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The Position list entry dialogue box can be accessed with the menu
function Edit Properties (Alt+Enter). Edit the displayed position
data as follows:
– Positions (X, Y, Z) = (167.00, -185.00, 240.00)
– Orientation (roll = A/P, pitch= B/R) = (-90.0, 180.0)
Move the robot to the new P2 position by double clicking the
position list entry.
Close the gripper by clicking the Close gripper button in the teach-in
window.
Use the world coordinate system in order to position the robot such
that the blue workpiece is set into the middle section of the first
pallet.
The coordinate axes can be displayed for improved orientation: Extras
Coordinate systems Show world coordinate system
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Gripper settings
The gripper settings dialogue box can be opened with the menu
function Extras Settings Gripper.
Figure 4.6: Gripper settings
All outputs are included in the Teach-in gripper control drop-down list,
which are assigned to objects capable of executing gripping tasks. This
output is activated whenever you click the Close gripper button in the
teach-in window. You can also choose to have possible warnings
displayed for gripper operations.
Three dimensional
navigation
It is helpful to open a second workcell window to facilitate three
dimensional navigation (see also 3.4).
• After moving to the desired position has been successfully
completed, add this position to the position list as point P3.
• P4 is the final position in the second pallet.
Video (help function)
Videos entitled “Teach-In”, “Position list” and “Working with Positions”
are included in the COSIMIR® help function under Examples Operating, which address the subjects of robot teach-in procedures and
working with the position list in the simulation.
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Creating the program
Click into the programming window in order to activate it. Delete its
contents and save it as a Melfa Basic IV program under the name of the
position list: “FirstStepsTest.mb4”. The names of the program and the
associated position list must be identical!!!
The MELFA Basic IV programming language is a dialect of Basic, and
each program line must thus be numbered. However, numbering has
been automated. First create the program lines without any numbering.
Now click the button shown in the toolbar screenshot on the left (Extras
Settings Renumber).
Implement the sequence plan from chapter 2.3 step by step in order to
create the program.
Sequence Plan
The robot’s gripper is open.
10 HOPEN 1
The robot moves the gripper to the gripping position with a PTP movement.
20 MOV P2
The gripper is closed.
30 HCLOSE 1
The robot moves the gripper to the intermediate position with a PTP movement.
40 MOV P3
The gripper is opened.
50 HOPEN 1
The robot executes linear travel back to a point above the intermediate position.
60 MVS P3,-40
2 second waiting period
70 DLY 2
The robot moves the gripper to the intermediate position (linear travel).
80 MVS P3
The gripper is closed.
90 HCLOSE 1
100 MOV P4,-40
110 MVS P4
120 HOPEN 1
130 MOV P1
140 END
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Note
Add an empty line at the end of the program!
For assistance during programming, execute a right click inside the
programming window. You are then provided with a list of the most
important function calls, and the corresponding function commands are
edited in the programming window via mouse click.
Comprehensive, structured documentation of all Melfa Basic IV
programming commands can be accessed in the Robotics Assistant
under Programming robots Robot programs Basic course. Save
your program after it has been completed.
Melfa Basic IV Project
Before compiling your program for the first time, you’ll have to create a
project. The project includes all of the associated programs and their
respective position lists. Select the Project management function in the
Execute menu, or click the
button shown in the toolbar screenshot on the left.
The following project management configuration window appears:
Figure 4.7: Project management
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In order to create a new project, select the MELFA-BASIC IV projects
entry and click Add project in the context menu.
Figure 4.8: Project entry
Enter a project name and acknowledge your entry with the Open button.
Select the Files register card and click the button shown in the
screenshot on the left. You are then prompted to open the program file.
The project name then appears in the right hand portion of the project
management window. Click the empty entry at the bottom, and the
corresponding line is selected. Now add the associated position list by
selecting the “MELFA BASIC IV position list (*.POS)” file type in the file
selection window.
Due to the fact that a multitasking system is utilised, you’ll have to
establish which program is the main program. In this example, your
program is of course the main program. Select your program entry in the
project management window to this end, and select Main program from
the Compiler mode properties drop-down list.
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Figure 4.9: Creating a new project
Now, activate your project. Select your project entry and click Set as
Active Project in the context menu. Acknowledge your project entry by
clicking the OK button.
You can now download your project to the internal robot controller.
Activate the program window and click the Compile & link function in
the Execute menu (Ctrl+F9), or click the button shown in the screenshot
on the left.
Utilised program and system modules, as well as the number of errors
and warnings, appear in the Messages window.
If error messages appear, the corresponding program line can be
highlighted in the program window by double clicking the respective
error message.
Caution!
As a result of cause and effect, it is entirely possible that a different line
will be highlighted which appears underneath the actually faulty
program line.
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If program syntax is error-free, you can start analysing the program
sequence with the help of the simulation function.
4.3
Automatic Path
Generation
This advanced COSIMIR® function for automatic, surface oriented
trajectory generation provides programmers of robots used for coating
and deburring tasks with support by automatically generating robot
paths, and the corresponding robot programs. Time involved in offline
robot programming can thus be minimised, and process results can be
optimised at the same time.
A table must be painted by a robot in the “Table Painting” sample
workcell. You can create the required trajectories by means of suitable
teach-in positions, or you can use the trajectory generating tool. In this
example, “Table” must be selected from the object folder in the model
explorer (see also 6.3), after which trajectory generation is started with
the menu function Execute Surface trajectories.
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Figure 4.10: Surface trajectory generation
The dialogue box shown above is opened before automatic generation
of the paths’ intermediate positions. Additional parameters can be
entered here, in order to optimise the generating process.
A comprehensive representation of this method is included in the
COSIMIR® help function under Extensions Surface oriented
trajectory generation. In addition to this, a video dealing with actual
use of this method can be found under Examples Operating.
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4.4
Download to the
Mitsubishi Robot
Controller
All of the programs you create in the Movemaster Command or MELFA
Basic IV languages can be downloaded to a Mitsubishi controller via
COSIMIR® Industrial or COSIMIR® Professional. Open a new project in
COSIMIR® to this end with the New project function in the File menu,
select the appropriate robot and set up the communications link. Open
your program and your position list, and resave the files to COSIMIR®
Industrial or COSIMIR® Professional! Establish communication with the
robot and download the robot program and the position list.
Caution!
Execute the following tests before starting the program after it has been
successfully downloaded:
• Are all teach-in points correct?
• Have all inputs and outputs been correctly wired?
• Has the TCP been set correctly?
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5. Simulation
The simulation of programs that have been written offline using
COSIMIR® is described in the following pages.
5.1
Settings
Use the menu function Execute Simulation for configuration.
Simulation
The simulation rate determines how frequently the graphic
representation is refreshed. The motion display becomes smoother, but
also slower, as the selected value for the simulation rate is reduced.
The control rate is used to calculate intermediate positions for robot
controllers, and serves as a cycle time for stored program controllers.
The control rate determines the various possible simulation rate
settings.
If you have selected the Real-time option, the simulation rate is
adjusted automatically. In the event of inadequate PC performance
characteristics, a real-time link may not be possible, resulting in a
continuous increase of the simulation rate. This effect can be limited by
specifying a Maximum simulation rate. The Control parameters option
is only available if the Real-time checkbox has been activated. This
parameter establishes which constant is utilised to control the
relationship between simulation time and real-time.
5.2
Example:
Workcell Simulation
Open the First Steps RV-2AJ workcell with the First Steps Test project
from the proceeding chapter. Start the simulation with the Start
function in the Execute menu, or click the button shown in the toolbar
screenshot on the left. The program is simulated step by step.
Simulation time is displayed in the Status line. The program line that is
currently being simulated is highlighted in the program window. At first,
you can execute each program step individually with the help of the
button shown in the toolbar screenshot on the left.
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5. Simulation
If you want to start a new simulation cycle, it is advisable to return the
robotic workcell to its initial position. Use the menu function Edit Reset Workcell to this end.
Simulation serves to check your program for two important criteria:
• Is the functional sequence correct?
• Can run time be further optimised?
We’ll concentrate here on the first question, i.e.
• Is the logical sequence correct?
• Are there any collisions?
You should be able to answer the first question on your own.
Collision detection
As regards collision detection, you should first decide which
components are to be examined for possible collisions.
Example
Consider our sample program to this end. The first critical point is
certainly the transfer of the blue workpiece to the first pallet. The task in
this case is to specify that these two objects will be examined for
possible collision.
Use the menu function Extras Settings Collision detection to this
end. Click the Selection index card
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Figure 5.1: Object selection for collision detection
The index card displays a list of all of the objects included in the
workcell. Box3 is the blue workpiece. Select Box3 and Pallet1.Pallet as
you would in the Windows explorer. Select the Selected objects against
each other option, in order to determine whether or not the selected
objects collide with each other.
Click the button shown in the toolbar screenshot on the left in order to
activate collision detection, or select the Collision detection function in
the Execute menu. Start the simulation once again. Notice that the blue
workpiece turns red during transfer before it is set down onto the first
pallet. This indicates that a collision has occurred. This collision
persists, because the workpiece is set down onto the pallet. How can
we eliminate this collision before the workpiece is set down?
Recommended solution: Replace line 40 with the following:
40 MVS P2,-30
41 MOV P3,-30
42 MVS P3
For a more detailed visualisation of collision detection use your sample
program in the slightly modified NextSteps RV-2AJ.mod workcell, and
test for collisions with the glass plate.
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Video (help function)
A video that demonstrates how to set up the collision detection function
is included in the COSIMIR® help function under Examples Operating.
5.3
Sensor Simulation
The sensor simulation functions expand the capabilities of COSIMIR®
such that complete robotic workcells can be simulated. Many of the
sensors utilised in manufacturing automation can be realistically
configured and simulated. Visualisation of sensor measuring ranges,
which is not possible in real applications, provides additional help in
avoiding design errors during the planning stages. Sensors are utilised
in numerous workcells, for example in the MPS® Robot Station, for
detecting objects and materials. The characteristics of these sensors
can be analysed with the model explorer (see also chapter 6.3).
5.4
PLC simulation
The COSIMIR® S7 simulator interprets executable S7 programs. Each
workcell may include several stored program controllers. Each PLC is
controlled by an S7 program. It is not possible to change the S7
program furnished with COSIMIR® Educational.
An overview of the S7 controllers and the installed S7 programs can be
accessed with the S7 Program Manager function in the Execute menu.
Presented in a clear-cut tree structure, the S7 program administration
window displays the name and elucidates the structure of the PLC
programs that have been installed to each of the controllers within the
selected workcell. Programs may consist of the following elements:
• Organisational modules
• Function modules
• Data modules
• Functions
• System functions
The contents of each type of element can be displayed by double
clicking the respective element.
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Your S7 programs can be displayed in the STL programming language.
All modules, organisational modules, function modules and functions
are displayed in tabular form. Modules that cannot be represented in
STL syntax are excluded, for example system functions and system
function modules.
Further details are included in the COSIMIR® help function under
Programming S7 simulator.
5.5
Process Simulation
Process simulations for coating and deburring operations make it
possible for robotics programmers to optimise the manufacturing
sequence at an early stage during program creation and, at the same
time, qualitatively evaluate processing results. This eliminates the
necessity for time consuming testing of motion sequences with test
objects, and the expense of offline programming is minimised while
improving process results.
Process simulation is used, for example, in the Table Painting sample
workcell. In order to activate process simulation, select the desired
object from the model explorer (see also chapter 6.3), and start
simulation with the Process simulation function in the Execute menu.
Figure 5.2: Process simulation settings
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You are provided with the opportunity of configuring additional
parameters for simulating the painting process.
The program can then be started, and you can observe the painting
process at the same time.
Video (help function)
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A video entitled “Process Simulation” is included in the COSIMIR® help
function under Examples Operating, which provides you with
application support.
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6. Modelling
Although new workcells cannot be saved to COSIMIR® Educational, you
are provided with numerous modelling functions within the workcells
that allow you to change layouts, and to analyse alternatively
configured problems.
Various tools are made available by COSIMIR® for modelling robot
controlled workcells, for example model libraries and the model
explorer. We’ll help you get acquainted with the modelling function
using the example provided in the chapter on programming.
6.1
Model Hierarchy
The following types of elements are included in the COSIMIR® model
hierarchy:
Objects
Objects are at the top of the model hierarchy.
• Example: A robot is an object.
Groups
Groups are assigned to objects. Each group may enjoy a given degree of
freedom, and can thus be moved relative to the previous group.
• Example: A robot joint is a group.
Components
Components are assigned to groups and determine the graphic
representation.
• Example: Surfaces, cuboids and polyhedrons are components.
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Gripper Points
A gripper point is assigned to a group included in the gripping object, so
that one object can grip another.
• Example: A gripper point is located on the flange of a robot’s sixth
axis.
Gripping Points
A gripping point is assigned to a group included in the object to be
gripped, so that one object can be gripped by another.
• Example: A workpiece that is gripped has a gripping point.
6.2
Model Libraries
COSIMIR® includes comprehensive model libraries, some of which are
optional. Objects or model components can be added to a workcell from
these libraries.
Click the menu function Execute Model Libraries, or the button
shown in the toolbar screenshot on the left.
The following model libraries are available:
• ABB robots
• Fanuc robots
• KUKA robots
• Mitsubishi robots
• Reis robots
• Stäubli robots
• Siemens S5/S7 SPC
• Various grippers
• Various basic forms
• Various LEDs
• Various materials
• Various mechanisms
• Various robots
• Various sensors
• Various controllers
• Various textures
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6.3
The Model Explorer
All of the elements included in a workcell can be accessed via the model
explorer. In addition to objects and their subordinate elements, this also
applies to materials, libraries, illumination settings and all I/O
connections.
The model explorer is opened by clicking the menu function Execute Model Explorer (Ctrl+T), or the button shown in the toolbar screenshot
on the left.
Figure 6.1: Model Explorer
The model explorer window is subdivided into two sections:
A tree structure used for navigation appears in the left-hand section
including folders for the individual workcell elements.
The element list included in the right-hand side of the window displays
the elements included in the folder that has been selected in the tree
structure. Elements can be accessed by clicking the desired element in
the tree structure (if it appears there), or in the element list.
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An element selection context menu containing the most important
commands can be displayed by double clicking an element or an
element folder.
The Objects folder contains all of the workcells components. We make
reference to this folder name in the workcells function descriptions.
Example
You want to determine the exact position of the green workpiece in the
First Steps workcell expressed in world coordinates.
Solution
1. Activate the editing mode using the Edit mode function in the
Execute menu (Ctrl + E), and open the model explorer. Click the
green workpiece. The object is then selected and the associated
object coordinate system is displayed. The “Objects” file is selected
in the tree structure, as well as the appropriate component, i.e.
“Box2”, in the display window. The desired allocation has now been
established.
2. Click the “Box2” object in the tree structure and select Properties
from the context menu. The Object properties dialog box appears,
from which the Position index card must now be selected.
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Figure 6.2: Object properties
The Cartesian coordinates of the zero point from the object coordinate
system are displayed here, as well as the orientation of the object
relative to the world coordinate system (roll: rotation around the Z-axis,
pitch: rotation around the Y-axis, yaw: rotation around the X-axis).
Changing object properties
We want to expand our sample task by requiring that the cell is changed
such that the green workpiece is approximately at the centre of the
table, turned 45° relative to the world coordinate system:
Solution
1. The display of Cartesian coordinates and orientation values in the
Object properties dialogue box can be directly overwritten, or you
can change the displayed values using the arrow buttons in steps
according to the selected increment. The workpiece is immediately
moved to its new position.
2. Change the Y coordinate and the roll angle accordingly.
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Note
The Object properties dialogue box includes additional parameters that
are contained in the General, Dimension, Visualisation index cards etc.
Except for display colour, it is not possible to change these additional
object properties with COSIMIR® Educational.
Library elements
Objects in a workcell can also be grouped together as library elements.
The goal is to assure that the included objects are always arranged in a
fixed geometric constellation in relation to one another. Library
elements are recognised by means of their designation. Library
elements always have two-part names:
Library_name.Object_name
Example: (First Steps workcell): Pallet1.Pallet
Only the properties of the corresponding library element can be
changed. For example, if you want to change the position of the first
pallet, you must click the “Pallet1” object in the Library folder included
in the tree structure, and open the Properties dialogue box from the
context menu.
Video (help function)
A video entitled “Working with Objects” is included in the COSIMIR®
help function under Examples Operating, which explains how to
work with objects in the model explorer.
I/O connections
After clicking I/O connections in the tree structure, an overview of all
input-output assignments is displayed, and the designation of the
associated object is shown for each input and output.
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Figure 6.3: List of I/O connections
This overview is also included in the documentation for the workcell.
You would also like to know which input bit is allocated to the symbolic
“Part_AV” input at the robot controller in the “MPS® RobotStation.mod”
workcell.
Solution
Open the folder for the RV-2AJ object and select the inputs subfolder. All
input bits are then displayed in the right-hand window.
You can now see that the input in question is allocated to input
bit no. 8.
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6.4
Example: Modelling
in a Workcell
In chapter 6.3 you learned how to change object properties, enabling
you to easily modify the workcell layout.
There are numerous other possibilities of remodelling your workcell in a
sensible fashion in COSIMIR® Educational.
Illumination
You wish to change the illumination in the graphic representation.
Illumination consists of ambient light and up to 7 additional light
sources. Open the Illumination folder and select the “Ambient light”
object. Open the properties dialogue box from the context menu. The
intensity and colour of the light can be changed.
You wish to find out which light sources are turned on in the sample
workcell, and what effect they have on the workcell.
Select, for example, light source 1 with a left click. The orientation of the
light source is graphically represented in the workcell window by means
of a light beam, and the associated object properties window is opened.
Light sources can be turned on and off, and their orientation, intensity
and colour can be changed.
Robot selection
90
You want to replace the robot in a given workcell with a different robot,
for example you would like to replace the RV-2AJ robot in the MPS®
Robot Station with the 6-axis Mitsubishi RV-1A robot. Open the model
explorer and select the name of the respective workcell,
“RobotStation”. Open the properties dialogue box via the context menu
and select the libraries index card:
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Figure 6.4: Work-cell properties
Select the “Exchange active robot” option. A line appears at the bottom
prompting you to acknowledge the change. Select “Yes” and then close
the dialogue box. Now open the model library dialogue box and select
the RV-1A from the Mitsubishi robots folder. Add this robot to the
process model. A dialogue box appears indicating that the operation
cannot be undone. Acknowledge with “Yes”. The old robot is now
replaced with the new one, and all I/O connections are updated as well.
Note
The name of the robot listed in the model explorer remains unchanged
(RV-2AJ)! Don’t forget that all teach-in points must be updated.
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Importing new
components
Task
You want to set up a partition between the two pallets in the First Steps
workcell, in order to demonstrate a collision problem.
Solution
The model library does not include a partition, but the Next Steps
workcell does. Open the Next Steps workcell with COSIMIR® Industrial
or COSIMIR® Professional and select the “Wall” component in the
model explorer from the workcell’s object folder. Save the object as
wall.mod via the context menu. This file can now be imported to any
workcell in COSIMIR® Educational with the help of the menu function
File Import.
Gripping point
Create a rectangular workpiece with a side length of 45 mm in
COSIMIR® Industrial or COSIMIR® Professional. Open the First Steps
workcell in COSIMIR® Educational and import the new component
named “Box4”. Position the component at the centre of the table. Teach
the robot to grasp the new workpiece. What happens? Select the menu
function Extras Settings Grip for troubleshooting assistance. Then
select the “Gripper warnings” option in the configuration window.
A warning now appears when the gripper is closed: “No object”. Why
does this warning appear?
Solution
92
Compare the structure of the Box3 and Box4 workpieces in the model
explorer. As you can see, Box4 does not have a gripping point, which
means that the gripper does not recognise it as a graspable object.
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® Educational
Proceed as follows in order to create a gripping point:
1. Select the Basic subfolder for the Box4 object.
2. Select New and Gripping point from the context menu.
3. A gripping point appears in the right-hand window.
4. Select the gripping point and open the properties dialogue box from
the context menu.
5. Select the object coordinate system and position the gripping point
at the centre of the workpiece.
6. A gripping point range can then be created in the “General” index
card.
In addition to this, you can import any of the workcells and elements
included in the model library. However, you must keep in mind that
existing I/O connections are not imported. You’ll have to set up the I/O
connections again after import. This process can be easily elucidated:
Creating I/O connections
Open the BP70 workcell and the model explorer. Select the SimuBox
object and the inputs subfolder in the LED_0 object for the SimuBox. A
display appears in the right window indicating that the “On” input is
connected to the “OUT0” output. Click the “On” input and select the
function Edit Remove Connection in the context menu.
Task
Connect the “On” input at LED_0 to the “OUT0” output at the robot
controller.
Solution
Position the mouse pointer at the “On” input for LED_0 in the display
window. Press and hold the left mouse key. Move the mouse pointer to
the “OUT0” output at the robot controller in the navigation window of
the model explorer, and then release the key (connect by means of drag
and drop). The connection to the selected output appears in the display
window.
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® Educational
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© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • COSIMIR® Educational
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