562194 EN 08/08 CIROS® Studio 1.0 User's Guide

562194 EN 08/08 CIROS® Studio 1.0 User's Guide
CIROS®
Studio 1.0
User’s Guide
562194 EN
08/08
Order No.:
Edition:
Author:
Graphics:
Layout:
562194
08/2008
U. Karras
U. Karras
08/2008, U. Karras, J. Saßenscheidt
© Dortmunder Initiative zur rechnerintegrierten Fertigung (RIF) e.V.,
44227 Dortmund/Germany, 2008
Internet: www.ciros-engineering.com
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG, 73770 Denkendorf/Germany, 2008
Internet: www.festo-didactic.com
e-mail: [email protected]
The copying, distribution and utilization of this document as well as the
communication of its contents to others without expressed
authorization is prohibited. Offenders will be held liable for the payment
of damages. All rights reserved, in particular the right to carry out
patent, utility model or ornamental design registration.
Contents
1.
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
Introduction ________________________________________ 5
The 3D Simulation System CIROS® ______________________ 5
Text Formats ________________________________________ 6
System Requirements ________________________________ 7
Installation Instructions _______________________________ 7
2.
2.1
2.2
2.3
Operating __________________________________________ 9
The CIROS® User Interface _____________________________ 9
Window Types _____________________________________ 12
Camera Cruise _____________________________________ 17
3.
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
Modeling __________________________________________ 21
Model Hierarchy ____________________________________ 21
Model Libraries _____________________________________ 23
Model Explorer _____________________________________ 32
Example: Work cell Modeling _________________________ 33
Modeling via Import _________________________________ 40
Integration of a PLC into a work cell ____________________ 42
Texture Mapping ___________________________________ 46
Masterframe Concept ________________________________ 46
Activate Model _____________________________________ 47
4.
4.1
Programming ______________________________________ 49
Example: Work cell Programming ______________________ 49
5.
5.1
5.2
Simulation_________________________________________ 57
Settings ___________________________________________ 57
Example: Work cell Simulation ________________________ 62
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Contents
4
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
Collision Detection __________________________________ 62
Sensor Simulation __________________________________ 64
Manual Operation __________________________________ 68
Hose- and Cable Track Simulation ______________________ 69
Fault Simulation ____________________________________ 82
6.
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.10
6.11
6.12
Mechanisms _______________________________________ 87
Gripper ___________________________________________ 88
Conveyor Belt ______________________________________ 89
Push Cylinder ______________________________________ 90
Rotary Drive _______________________________________ 91
Turntable__________________________________________ 92
Two Way Push Cylinder ______________________________ 93
Turning Mover _____________________________________ 94
Parts Feeder _______________________________________ 95
Proximity Sensor ___________________________________ 96
Replicator _________________________________________ 97
Trash Can _________________________________________ 98
Action Objects _____________________________________ 99
7.
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
Communication Interfaces ___________________________ 103
OPC Client ________________________________________ 103
OPC Controller Connection __________________________ 105
PARSIFAL _________________________________________ 106
Robot Controller Interface ___________________________ 107
8.
8.1
8.2
Appendix _________________________________________ 152
Keyboard Usage ___________________________________ 152
Abbreviations _____________________________________ 154
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • 562194
1. Introduction
1.1
The 3D Simulation
System CIROS®
Welcome to the new release 1.0 of CIROS® Studio. It replaces the
previous product COSIMIR® Professional Release 4.2. The new name
CIROS® (Computer Integrated Robot Simulation) shall point out that the
software kernel of the previous simulation system COSIMIR® was
completely renewed. The concept and the main features of COSIMIR®
Professional are kept but the user interface is new designed. The data
types of COSIMIR® and CIROS® are fully compatible. CIROS® Studio is
part of the CIROS® Automation Suite.
CIROS® Studio is the universal 3-D-simulation-system, suitable for
various application ranges, adaptable in composition, efficient and
convenient for everyday work. Area of product appliance is widely
spread. It ranges from the usage of 3-D-simulation in training and
education to the realisation of digital factories up to real-time
simulation of complex, immersive and virtual environments.
CIROS® Studio runs on PC based operating systems Windows 2000™,
Windows XP™ und Windows VISTA™.
CIROS® Studio enables you to create a detailed planning of industrial
manufacturing work cells, to test the reachability of critical positions,
the development of robot and PLC programs and the optimization of the
cell layout. All movements and handling processes can be simulated to
check collision problems and to optimize cycle times.
The Modeling Extensions for CIROS® support the composition of robotbased work cells. Efficient modeling is provided by using component
libraries containing machinery, robots, tools, conveyor belts, part
feeders, etc. Free 3D modeling and import from CAD systems are also
possible via the standard data format STEP.
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1. Introduction
1.2
Text Formats
Different text formats are used for certain text contents as well as for
keyboard shortcuts.
Text Format
Used for
bold
Commands, menus, and dialog boxes.
italic
Enter text instead of the italic printed
text.
CAPITALS
Acronyms, directory and file names. You
can use lower case letters, too.
"quotation marks"
Options, chapter titles, and links.
Text Format
Means
KEY1+KEY2
If you have to press two keys at the same
time a plus sign (+) is printed between
the two keys.
KEY1-KEY2
If you have to press two keys one after
another a minus sign (-) is printed
between the two keys.
Text formats for plain text
Text formats for keyboard shortcuts
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1. Introduction
1.3
System Requirements
Minimum configuration:
Processor:
At least Pentium IV 1 GHz
Memory:
512 MB RAM
Hard disk:
5 GB free disk space
Operating System:
Windows 2000™/XP™/VISTA™
Graphic Adapter:
Graphics card with Open-GL support,
128 MB RAM
CD ROM drive:
Interface:
One free serial interface for connection to the
robot controller (drive unit) or a network interface
for the TCP/IP connection. One USB port for the
USB license key.
Recommended configuration:
Processor:
Intel Core Duo 2,2 GHz
Memory:
1 GB RAM
Harddisk:
10 GB free disk space
Operating System:
Windows 2000™/XP™/VISTA™
Graphic Adapter:
Graphics card Nvidia 7800GT, 512 MB RAM
Monitor:
19“ with 1280x1024 pixel resolution
DVD ROM drive:
Interface:
One free serial interface for connection to the
robot controller (drive unit) or a network interface
for the TCP/IP connection. One USB port for the
USB license key.
Internet access
email client
email-account for online upgrade of the license
key
1.4
Installation Instructions
The product package CIROS® Studio consists of a DVD, a manual with
comprehensive installation instructions, this user guide as pdf-file on
the DVD and a USB license key. You may separately order this user
guide as a print out version. The installation does not need a license
key. The license key is only required for running the software.
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1. Introduction
You may find all further details in the installation instruction manual of
the CIROS® Automation Suite.
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2. Operating
2.
Operating
This chapter shows the first steps in using CIROS®.
2.1 The CIROS® User
Interface
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2. Operating
The user interface was new designed:
• The menu File includes all Windows standard functions and
following additional ones if you have opened some work cell:
o
Activate Model: This function allows you to release work cells
to use them in the educational systems Robotics,
Mechatronics and Production.
o
Import and export of files ( e.g. the import of CAD files )
10
•
The menu Edit includes all standard Windows functions you may
expect.
•
The menu View includes all functions supporting you to use the
graphic representation of the 3D-simulation.
•
The menu Modeling includes all functions you need in order to
create or modify models.
•
The menu Programming includes all functions in order to program
robots.
•
The menu Simulation includes all functions to start and stop the
simulation, to configure the setting of the simulation, to activate the
collision detection, the sensor- and transport simulation.
•
The menu Extras provides following special functions:
o
Camera Cruise: This function enables you to create a
predefined dynamic change of your viewpoint during
simulation or to create videos of your simulation
o
Fault Simulation: This menu provides all functions in order to
simulate faults in work cell.
o
Master Frame concept
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2. Operating
o
o
o
•
Online Management: This menu provides all functions to
establish a powerful online communication to a Mitsubishi
robot controller.
Solution Finder: It provides a powerful script language to
create simulation processes.
Create Plant: This menu allows you to generate a xml-data
model for a superordinate control system.
The menu Setting enables you to configure numerous functions:
o
CAD import
o
Display of the user interface
o
Online Management: Configuration of the online
communication interface to the Mitsubishi robot controller.
o
ORL: The ORL name configuration can be used to create I/O
names corresponding to Operation Resource Labels.
o
GriP: Configuration of the grip functionality of a robot.
o
Configuration of the IRDATA interpreter
o
Configuration of the Camera Cruise
o
Type of orientation representation
o
Configuration of the programming editor
o
Configuration of the simulation analysis
o
TCP (Tool Centre Point) offset
o
Transport simulation
o
Vertex normals
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2. Operating
•
2.2
Window Types
The menu Window includes the expected standard functions and the
submenu Workspace. This menu supports you in the window
configuration of your user interface called workspace. You can save
and later restore your own configuration. Additionally, you may use
numerous predefined workspace configurations:
o
PLC Operation
o
Manual Operation
o
Fault Operation
o
Teacher mode
o
Robot Programming
The most important window types of the CIROS® user interface are
specified in the following list.
Work cell Window
A graphic representation of the currently selected work cell is displayed
in the work cell window. Additional views can be opened in the work cell
window with the menu function View New Window, allowing you to
observe different perspectives simultaneously. The three dimensional
representation of the work cell is dependent upon the selected point of
view.
• Zoom:
Mouse wheel or left mouse button and function keys Ctrl+shift. The
mouse pointer appears in the form of this button, and can then be
used to enlarge or reduce the display by moving the mouse.
• Translate:
Left mouse button and function key shift. The mouse pointer
appears in the form of this button, and can then be used to move the
display by moving the pointer along the coordinate axis.
• Rotation:
Left or right mouse button and function key CTRL. The display can
be rotated around the individual coordinate axes.
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2. Operating
You can also select various predefined standard views. Use the menu
function View Standard to this end. A dialogue box appears which
includes various options:
• Default Setting (O)
• Front view (V)
• Rear view (U)
• Top view (A)
• Left-hand side view (L)
• Right-hand side view (R)
By clicking with the mouse on one of these options, you get
immediately the corresponding view if your work cell window is active.
Joint Coordinates
The window joint coordinates shows the positions of the single robot
joints. The display unit for rotational joints is degrees, for linear joints it
is millimeters. A double click into this window opens the dialog box Set
Joint Coordinates.
To open the window joint coordinates, press F7 or choose the command
Show Joint Coordinates from the menu View Robot Position.
World Coordinates
Activate the Shift+F7 key combination or select the menu function View
Robot position Show world coordinates.
The World coordinates window displays the position and orientation of
the TCP (tool centre point) in world coordinates. In addition to position
and orientation, the robot's configuration appears in the bottom most
line in the window. You may select following different orientation
representations by the menu Settings Orientation Representation:
• Roll-Pitch-Yaw angles representation
• Quaternions representation
• Mitsubishi 5-axis coordinates representation
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2. Operating
Note
14
In this case the world coordinate system is always equal to the base
coordinate system of the robot.
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2. Operating
Teach-In
Activate the F8 key or select the menu function Programming Teach-in. In addition to the designations of the robot's joints, the
window that now appears includes two small buttons which can be used
to advance the robot's individual joints. The performance of a real robot
is simulated when these buttons are activated. The robot is accelerated
to the preset speed (override) if one of these buttons is pressed and
held. The preset speed is then held constant, and braking to a speed of
0 ensues when the button is released, controlled by means of a
acceleration ramp.
By clicking the corresponding option, teach-in can be performed using
world coordinates or tool coordinates.
Inputs/Outputs
The window Inputs/Outputs shows the states of the simulated robotcontroller’s inputs/outputs. The current states of the inputs/outputs are
displayed next to their names. 0-signals are displayed in red color, 1signals are displayed in green color.
The value of an input is displayed in brackets, i. e. [1], if the input is
connected to an output. If the signal of the input is forced, the value of
the input is displayed in angle brackets, i. e. <1>.
To open the window Inputs/Outputs press F9/CTRL+F9 or choose the
command Show Inputs/Show Outputs from the menu View Inputs/Outputs.
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2. Operating
Controller Selection
The window Controller Selection shows the states of all controllers of
the work cell. You are able to choose the master controller and to
observe the activity of the different controllers. Display of robot
positions, inputs, outputs and teach-in is always done for the
emphasized robot (master).
To open the window Controller Selection select the command Controller
Selection from the Programming menu.
Robot Program
Click the menu function File Open and select the desired file type:
• *.mb4 (for programming in Melfa Basic IV),
• *.mrl (for programming in Movemaster Command)
• *.IRL (for programming in IRL = Industrial Robot Language)
Or create a new program with the menu function File New and select
the desired data type. The programming languages RAPID for ABB
robots, KRL for KUKA robots, V+ for Stäubli or Kawasaki robots are only
optional available.
Position List
The screenshot shown on the left contains a position list for a robot. The
name of the associated object is specified in the header.
Click the menu function File -> Open and select the desired file type, i.e.
• *.pos (for Mitsubishi robot)
• *.psl (for programming in IRL).
Alternatively, create a new position list with the menu function
File New and select the desired data type as above.
User Input/Output
The User Input/Output window opens automatically if the robot
program contains commands for reading and writing of data via the
serial interface to and from the robot control.
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2. Operating
Because of the simulation of a robot control, the data is not sent
physically via the serial interface, but it is sent to the User Input/Output
window where the data is displayed.
2.3
Camera Cruise
The Camera cruise can record different views of an active work cell
window. During simulation these views are recovered in rotation. A new
view between two views is determined by linear interpolation. Thus the
viewpoint moves uniformly. At the configuration of the Camera Cruise
you can schedule times for holding a certain view and for zooming to
another viewpoint. As the Camera Cruise is synchronized to the
simulation time the viewpoint movement is always synchronized to the
simulation of the work cell. You can also save a Camera Cruise in a
video file. At this several compression methods are supported. In the
video file (File extension.AVI) all view during the cruise are saved. The
video file has the same name and is stored in the same directory as the
model file (Extension .MOD) of the actual simulation model.
Switching Camera Cruise on
To switch a camera cruise on, use the menu function Extras Camera Cruise Camera Cruise. If the camera cruise is switched on,
the view follows the configured cruise of the camera during simulation.
Recording Camera Cruise
To record the view of a camera cruise, first switch on the camera cruise.
Then use the menu function Extras Camera Cruise Camera Cruise
Record. The view will then be recorded to a video-file which will be
saved in the model folder under the name <model name>.avi.
Playback a Camera Cruise Video
To play back a recorded Camera Cruise in CIROS use the menu function
Extras Camera Cruise Camera Cruise Play. This will open the video
file in your operating systems default media player.
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2. Operating
Stop recording
The menu function Extras Camera Cruise Camera Cruise Stop stops
the recording of a camera cruise.
Configure Camera Cruise
To setup a Camera Cruise for a simulation model use the menu function
Settings Camera Cruise. All setting of the camera cruise are saved to
the current work cell's .ini file. To apply changes, write access to this file
must be granted. For backup purposes or further use in other work cells,
the list of steps can be exported to and imported from a file. To import
or export the list use the menu functions File Import and File
Export and select file type CIROS Camera Cruise (file extension .ccc).
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2. Operating
Options
View list
This list contains all views of the Camera Cruise. To select a certain view
click the number in column step. You can open a context-sensitive menu
by clicking the right mouse button.
Double-clicking a step changes the view of the active work cell window
to the view of the camera cruise step.
Add
To add the current view to the list click Add.
Remove
To remove the selected view from the list click Remove.
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2. Operating
Properties
To edit the properties of the selected view with dialog box Camera
Cruise - Step X click Properties.
To move up the selected view click this button.
To move down the selected view click this button.
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3. Modeling
There are several tools (i. e. model libraries and the Model Explorer for
CIROS®) providing a comfortable modeling of robot-based work cells. By
means of a simple example work cell, a short introduction in work cell
modeling is given in this chapter.
3.1
Model Hierarchy
The CIROS® model hierarchy contains the following element types:
Objects
The highest units in the element structure are the objects.
Example: A robot is an object.
Sections
Sections are assigned to objects. One degree-of-freedom can be
associated to each section that is moveable relatively to the previous
section.
Example: Each joint of a robot is a section.
Hulls
Hulls are assigned to sections and are responsible for the graphical
representation.
Example: A face, a box or a polyhedron are hulls.
Gripper Points
An object needs a gripper point to grasp other objects. Gripper points
are assigned to sections.
Example: At the flange of a robot a gripper point is modeled.
Grip Points
To be grasped by another object an object needs a grip point.
Grip points are assigned to sections.
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3. Modeling
Example: A grip point is associated to a work piece that has to be
grasped.
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3. Modeling
3.2
Model Libraries
CIROS® Studio provides a wide range of model libraries for. Use these
model libraries to add new objects or model parts to a work cell .
Following model libraries are available:
• Robots
ABB robots
Adept robots
Fanuc robots
KUKA robots
Mitsubishi robots
Reis robots
Stäubli robots
Miscellaneous
• PLC
Logic controller
Siemens S5/S7
Logic controller
Miscellaneous controllers
• Miscellaneous Grippers
Primitives
Materials
Mechanisms
LEDs
Sensors
Textures
• Modeling Essentials
Predefined working objects , i.e. gravitational
surface, Linear 3 axis kinematics, replicator,
trashcan, transceiver, transponder etc…
• Extended Mechanisms
Gear Box, servo motor, cardan shaft, crank slider,
flap door, hydraulic linear axis, etc..
• Festo FMS:
This library contains numerous prepared CNC- and
robot assembly work cells, conveyor systems and
automatic warehouses to build up a automated
plant system.
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3. Modeling
The work cells provided prepared
robot and PLC programs to realize manufacturing
and assembly processes which have to be
supervised by some control system.
•
MPS stations:
•
MPS 500:
This library contains all actual MPS stations with
prepared S7 programs
This library enables you to build up MPS systems
with integrated conveyor.
The dialog box Model Libraries can be opened as follows:
Modeling Model Libraries
Toolbar
The menu command File -> New provides you various options to open a
new work cell:
• MPS system
• Production Line
• Project Wizard
• Work cell
If you select MPS system then enter a name for the new work cell and
the editor to create a MPS system will be opened:
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3. Modeling
Figure: MPS system
If you select Production Line then enter a name for the new work cell
and the editor to create a production line will be opened:
Figure: Production line
If you select Project Wizard then following dialog box will be opened:
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3. Modeling
Figure: Project Wizard
Project Name
The project name is used identify the project. It will be the filename
after saving, and you must use this name to open the project later. The
default suggestion for the project name is "UNTITLED". During
installation a directory "Project Name" below the CIROS/CIROS
Programming directory is created automatically. According to the
selected project name a subdirectory with just that name is created and
all files belonging to the project are stored there.
Note: The character <'> (apostrophe) within the project name is
automatically replaced by the character <_> (underscore).
Program Name
Enter the desired program name into this edit field. The program name
is used as a suggestion when downloading a program into the drive
unit. After downloading the program you may use this name to start the
program or for a subprogram call.
Directory / Browse...
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3. Modeling
The Directory field shows the currently selected location to save the
actual project. It shows the drive and path, not including the filename.
You may alter the location by using the browse button. The default
suggestion for the directory is the actual directory.
Created by
Enter a name to identify the author of the project, robot program, etc..
Initials
Enter the author‚s initials, e.g. for referencing in the project description
or the project history.
Description
This field may be used for a description of the project.
General
All data entered within this dialog will be saved, if you change to
another step of the project wizard or leave the wizard using Finish.
All data entered within this dialog and during the actual use of the
project wizard will be lost if leaving the wizard using Cancel.
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3. Modeling
Step 2/3
Robot Type
Use this list box to select your robot type. The selected robot is shown
in the upper right area of the dialog.
I/O-interface cards
Selects the number of interface cards of your drive unit. The maximum
number of cards to select depends on the actual robot type:
· Movemaster RE-xxx: 3 cards
· Movemaster RV-M1/2: 2 cards
Hands
Select the number of hands of the robot here.
Programming Language
The programming language selected here is used for the creation of a
program file and selects the der syntax checker. This item is only
available if the selected robot type supports more than one
programming language. If there is only one possible language for the
robot or the controller this language is selected automatically.
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3. Modeling
Additional Axis 1 (L1)
Use this item to determine the first additional axis. You may specify the
type of the axis. The selection lin describes a travel axis, rot a rotating
table.
Additional Axis 2 (L2)
Use this item to determine the second additional axis. You may specify
the type of the axis. The selection lin describes a travel axis, rot a
rotating table. This item is only available if the first additional axis is
selected as lin or rot and if the robot type supports 2 additional axis.
Step 3/3
Use this item to determine the second additional axis. You may specify
the type of the axis. The selection lin describes a travel axis, rot a
rotating table. This item is only available if the first additional axis is
selected as lin or rot and if the robot type supports 2 additional axis.
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3. Modeling
Changes
This field may be used for a description of the changes of the project.
You may enter any sentences, words, characters and symbols.
Then click on the button Finish and the work cell with the selected
robot, the programming window and position list will be shown. Using
the menu function Window Workspace Robot programming
Program, Position List and I/O's you get an ideal display of your
application windows.
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3. Modeling
If you select Work cell then following workspace with integrated Model
Explorer will be opened:
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3. Modeling
3.3
Model Explorer
Use the Model Explorer to access all the elements of a work cell.
Besides objects and associated elements you are able to maintain
materials, libraries, lighting sources, and I/O connections, too.
The Model Explorer’s window is divided into two parts.
In the left area a navigation tree contains folders with the different
elements of a work cell.
If you select a folder in the navigation tree the element list in the right
area of the Model Explorer is filled with the folder’s elements.
To access an element select the element in the navigation tree or in the
element list by clicking on the element using the mouse.
By clicking the right mouse button you can open a context menu with
most important commands depending on the current element selection.
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3. Modeling
The Model Explorer can be opened as follows:
Menu
Modeling Model Explorer
Keyboard
CTRL+T
Toolbar
3.4
Example: Work cell
Modeling
In this chapter modeling of a simple work cell is described step by step.
Programming and simulation of this work cell are described in the next
chapters.
Choose command New Work cell from the File menu to create a new
work cell. Specify the filename (e. g. “Example. mod”) for the new work
cell.
After creating the new work cell you are able to specify a different work
cell name as well as properties for the work cell (e. g. background color,
floor color, and floor size).
Use the dialog Properties for work cell while the work cell name is
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3. Modeling
selected in the Model Explorer to change work cell properties. Change
the x-value of the floor seize to x = 2200 mm.
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3. Modeling
Open dialog box Model Libraries by choosing command Model
Libraries from the Modeling menu or clicking the button in the toolbar.
Add a box from the model library Miscellaneous Primitives to the work
cell.
Edit the element properties in dialog box Properties for object as
follows:
Pose (x,y,z)
750 mm, -250 mm, 0 mm
Dimension (x,y,z)
250 mm, 500 mm, 500 mm
Visualization
Light blue
In the Model Explorer rename the object “Box” to “Table”.
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3. Modeling
Add a second box to your work cell. Rename it by MyBox and edit the
element properties in dialog box Properties for object as follows:
Pose (x,y,z)
850 mm, 0 mm, 500 mm
Dimension (x,y,z)
50 mm, 50 mm, 50 mm
Visualization
Light grey
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3. Modeling
To let a work piece be grasped by a robot you have to assign a grip
point to the work piece. Select the group base of the object MyBox and
open the context menu. Choose the command New -> Grip point.
Rename the grip point to Workpiece and move the grip point in the
centre of the object by choosing following coordinates relative to the
section coordinate system:
Pose (x,y,z)
25 mm, 25 mm, 25 mm
(R,P,Y)
180 °, 0 °, 180 °
Select the Mitsubishi Robot RV-12SL from the library Mitsubishi Robots
and click Add.
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3. Modeling
Select the Parallel Gripper (simple) of library “Miscellaneous Grippers”
in dialog box Model Libraries and click Add. The gripper is attached to
the robot’s flange automatically.
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3. Modeling
To simulate the electrical connection between the robot controller and
the gripper, select the menu command Modeling -> Manual Operation to
open the window Manual Operation:
The window shows the inputs on the left side and the outputs on the
right side. In between the I/O connections will be shown. Now click on
the arrow next to the output HCLOSE1 of the robot in the area I/O
Connections and draw a connection line to the input Gripper Close of
the gripper .
Close the window Manual Operation and save the work cell by clicking
the button in the toolbar.
You can open the modeled work cell from the following installation
directory of CIROS® Studio: <InstallationDirectory>\
GettingStarted\Mitsubishi\Modeling\ Example.mod.
As an exercise you can do similar examples using ABB or KUKA robots.
For example, select the ABB robot IRB 2400 10/16 or the KR6 of the
robot libraries. To do the I/O wiring, select the output [inactive 000] of
the robot controller. Press F2 to rename the output and call it Grasp.
Now the output is activated and can be used as above.
You find numerous samples in the folder Samples of the installation
directory of CIROS® Studio. All these samples are write-protected so
that you have these examples always ready for presentation in the
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3. Modeling
original status. The online help system of CIROS® Studio provides a
section Sample Models. You can open these sample models in your
own folder to work with them.
Further the online help system provides three tutorials for learning the
modeling of work cells:
• Tutorial
• Advaneced Tutorial
• Tutorial: PLC controlled package system
The first tutorial helps you to do the first steps in modeling a new work
cell. The advanced tutorial shows how to use advanced modeling
mechanisms. The third tutorial describes all steps in order to realize a
transport system for packages controlled by a PLC.
3.5
Modeling via Import
You can add a geometric model to a work cell. Besides the mod – file
format, following other formats are available for the import:
• CIROS I/O connections (*.cct)
• CIROS camera cruise (*.ccc)
• CAD format STEP (*stp, *.step)
Use the menu function File Import. To create a work cell you can use
at first the included libraries. Further you can also use components of
prepared work cells. For that purpose you have to save the components
as *.mod files. Then you can import them.
If you want to import a STEP-file you will be asked for the name of the
file. Then following dialog box will be opened:
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3. Modeling
The first options ask you to decide how the CAD data shall be mapped
on the object hierarchy of your model:
• A deep hierarchy means that your model consists of many objects
containing only one section after the import.
• A flat hierarchy means that your model consists of only few objects
with several sections.
Scale Factor
The scale factor enables you to adapt the seize of the objects in your
work cell in compare to the dimension of your CAD model. The default
value is 1.
Deflection
The value of the deflection determines when a new facet will be
generated for the curvature of your model. The default value is 1 (1
mm). If the value is too high then the curvature of your model might
look rather angled.
Duplicate Facets
Facets are only visible in direction of their normal vector. If for example
a facet is modeled such that its normal vector points to the interior of
the object then the facet is only inside visible. In this case you may use
the dialog box Facets Duplicate.
Then the facet will be duplicated but with the opposite orientation.
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3. Modeling
Hence it will be also visible from outside. However, this procedure
increases the number of the facets of your model.
Import Lines
If your CAD file contains polylines then you can import them.
Add Unique Index to
Objects
CAD files allow that several objects appear with the same name. This
option makes sure that the objects get an index after import.
Surface Colour/Line
Colour
If the CAD file does not provide a colour for a surface or a line, then this
option makes sure that after import the corresponding surface or line
has the selected colour.
Conform your settings by OK then the import will be started:
After import of non mod-files you must in general adapt the geometric
model corresponding the model hierarchy of CIROS®.
3.6
Integration of a PLC
into a work cell
42
During modeling of complex work cells the system loads standard
components e.g. robots, grippers, assembly – lines and PLCs from
libraries. Only cell or user specific sections must be modeled with the
help of elementary hulls. After inserting all cell objects you have to link
the appropriate inputs and outputs of the controllable objects with the
PLC and create the control programs. Robot programs in different
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3. Modeling
languages can be created in CIROS® and linked with position lists. The
programming of the PLC in Step5/Step7 has to be done by means of a
PLC environment, how they are offered by PLC manufactures or by
software companies.
The PLC programs which are also part of the project can be loaded in
CIROS® and interpreted during the work cell simulation.
Following multi robot work cell is available as demo in your CIROS®
Studio version (<InstallationDirectory>\Samples\KRL
\PressAutomation\Model\PressAutomation.mod).
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3. Modeling
At first, you have to model the press, the table and the door using
geometric primitives of the library. In a next step, you have to integrate
the appropriate mechanisms, see chapter 6. Load the two KUKA robots
KR 125 from the library and place them using the Model – Explorer. The
robot on the yellow surface is denoted by KRYellow und the robot on the
blue surface is called KRBlue.
Insert a Siemens PLC S7 with 8 digital inputs (DI) and 8 digital outputs
(DO). Again use the Model – Explorer to place the PLC at the correct
position.
As an example we want to outline the realization of a communication
between the PLC and the robot KRBlue. The PLC shall send the message
at which time the press is open such that the robot can place the door
into the press.
1. Open the list of outputs of the object PLC in the Model – Explorer.
Rename the second output with PressIsOpen. You select the
appropriate output and you open by right mouse click the context
menu. Choose the submenu Rename and rename it by above name.
2. As before, rename an input of the robot KRBlue by PressIsOpened.
3. Connect the output PressIsOpen of the PLC with the input
PressIsOpened of the robot. This can be easily as follows: Select
the output range of the PLC. Then the list of all outputs will be
shown in the right side of the Model – Explorer window.
4.
44
Select the output PressIsOpen with the mouse and drag it to the
input PressIsOpened of the robot. The connection is ready.
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3. Modeling
Load of a S7 program
The S7 simulator interprets executable S7 programs. Each work cell can
contain several PLCs. In each PLC a S7 program is running. While
loading the PLC module the appropriate S7 program is loaded like-wise.
Of course, you can exchange the standard S7 PLC-program by another
S7 program. Before the first usage of a work cell the PLC does not
contain any program. So the appropriate S7 program must at first be
assigned to the PLC. Proceed as follows:
•
•
Make sure that the simulation is stopped, see chapter 5.
Choose the command Programming Controller selection.
Following window is opened:
•
Select in the column Master the desired PLC by clicking the
appropriate field, here PLC .
Choose the command File Open. This opens the File open dialog.
Select in the combination field type of file the entry S7 project. This
will display all files in the current directory according this data
format.
Select the desired S7 project by a double click on the file name or by
selecting the file and pressing the Open button afterwards.
•
•
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3. Modeling
3.7
Texture Mapping
Use texture mapping to let pictures display on object’s surfaces in a
work cell. The texture mapping can be easily realized as a material
property. Provide your object’s surface with a material. Select the
material and open the dialog box Properties for Material. Now you can
change the texture of this material by choosing some *.bmp file.
3.8
Masterframe Concept
The masterframe is a user defined frame (x,y,z,R,P,Y), which can be
used for the positioning of elements or the tcp of the current robot
during graphical modeling. The masterframe is controlled by the
following toolbar buttons:
Showing / hiding the masterframe:
Use this button to show/hide a coordinates system which represents
the masterframe
Positioning the masterframe:
The masterframe can be positioned either by directly entering it's
coordinates using the MasterFrame Location dialog or by moving it to
the position of an element automatically:
Sets the masterframe to the position of the 3D-Cursor.
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Sets the masterframe to the position the currently selected element(s).
If more than one element is selected, the geometrical center of the
selection will be calculated and used as current position of the
selection.
Sets the masterframe to the position of the current robot's TCP.
Opens a dialogue, in which the position of the masterframe can be
entered directly.
Using the masterframe to position elements:
Moves the current selection to the position of the masterframe. If more
than one Element is selected, each of the selected elements will be
moved to the position of the masterframe.
Sets the TCP of the current robot to the position of the masterframe.
3.9
Activate Model
The menu command File -> Activate Model is only available in CIROS®
Studio. This command generates a check sum for the actual model
which will be saved in the license key.
Using these check sums it is possible to make up to ten own work cells
usable in the educational CIROS® packages CIROS® Mechatronics/
CIROS® Advanced Mechatronics/ CIROS® Robotics/ CIROS® Production.
Note that the activated models must be compatible to the
corresponding versions of CIROS® (e.g. CIROS® Mechatronics can only
run one PLC controller).
Open the model you wish to activate in CIROS® Studio. Select the
command File -> Activate Model. Following dialog box will be opened:
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3. Modeling
The license key has 10 memory cells (model 1-10). Select one of them
and click on OK to save the check sum.
The corresponding model can now be used in all educational packages
using the same license key.
Note that it can happen you overwrite a already existing check sum.
Then the corresponding work cell is no longer usable in one of the
educational packages of CIROS®. Thus it is advisable to maintain a list
of all activated models.
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4. Programming
4.
Programming
Programming of the Mitsubishi robots, KUKA robots, ABB robots, Adept
and Stäubli robots can be done in CIROS® Studio in their native
programming languages:
• Movemaster Command or Melfa Basic IV
• KRL
• RAPID
• Vplus
Note that the programming languages KRL, RAPID and Vplus are not
part of the standard delivery of CIROS® Studio.
You can also program the robots using the universal robot programming
language IRL (Industrial Robot Language). You will find details about
these different programming languages in the chapter Programming of
the help system.
4.1
Example:
Work cell Programming
This example shows the programming of the Mitsubishi robot RV-12SLin
IRL. The work cell modeled in the previous chapter is used.
Choose command Open from the File menu to open the example work
cell of the previous chapter.
Create a new position list by choosing command New from the File
menu and selecting item Position List.
You are able to open dialog box new by clicking button in the toolbar or
by using the shortcut CTRL+N.
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4. Programming
Accept the initial position of the robot as first position (POS1) of the
position list. Use the shortcut CTRL+F2 to accept current robot positions
in position lists.
Select the last free entry in the position list and use the shortcut
CTRL+F2 a second time. This position (POS2) has to be changed.
Select the grip point of the object MyBox in the Model Explorer and
open its property Pose. Choose the world coordinate system as
reference coordinate system.
Select the position by clicking on the entry with the left mouse button
and open the dialog box Position List Entry via the context menu.
Transfer the position data of the grip point to position POS2. Click on OK
and close the dialog box:
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4. Programming
Use the menu Settings -> Grip to configure the grip control via the
Teach-In (F8) window. Select the output HCLOSE1 and press OK.
Press Close Hand respectively Open Hand in the Teach-In window in
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4. Programming
order to open or close the gripper of the robot. Confirm the warnings
that no object near the gripper or no object can be gripped. You may
also switch off these warnings.
Move the robot to position POS2 by double click on the position entry in
the position list. Select the modus XYZ-Jog (world coordinates) in the
Teach-In window and press the button to move the robot in negative ydirection. Insert the new position POS3 in the position list by the short
cut Ctrl+F2.
Save the position list as Example.psl. Select the command Reset
Workcell from the menu Simulation.
Use the menu command File -> New -> File to open a new IRL program.
Save the program as Example.IRL. Close the Model-Explorer and the
property dialog box.
Use the program wizard to generate a simple body of the program.
Activate the programming window and select the menu Programming ->
Programming Wizard. Select all options and press OK.
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4. Programming
Change the program to a simple pick and place task where the safety
positions should be 50 mm above picking and placing position. Delete
all input and output variables except the output variable HCLOSE 1.
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4. Programming
Sample Program:
PROGRAM IRL;
IMPORT DATALIST 'Example.PSL';
VAR
TEACH ROBTARGET : POS1;
TEACH ROBTARGET : POS2;
TEACH ROBTARGET : POS3;
OUTPUT BOOL : Grasp AT 0;
BEGIN
MOVE PTP
MOVE PTP
MOVE LIN
GRASP :=
MOVE LIN
MOVE PTP
MOVE LIN
GRASP :=
MOVE LIN
MOVE PTP
ENDPROGRAM;
POS1;
POS2 +
POS2;
TRUE;
POS2 +
POS3 +
POS3;
FALSE;
POS3 +
POS1;
POSITION (0.0,0.0,50.0);
POSITION (0.0,0.0,50.0);
POSITION (0.0,0.0,50.0);
POSITION (0.0,0.0,50.0);
The editor provides a highlighting of the syntax for your support. You
may adjust the highlighting using the menu Settings -> Program Editor.
Save the program and select the command Compile+Link from the
menu Programming. The syntax will be checked, the IRDATA code will
be generated and downloaded in the virtual robot controller.
In window Messages all used system modules, program modules, and
position lists as well as errors and warnings are displayed. If no errors
and warnings are displayed,, then close the message window and your
program can be started.
IRDATA is a standardized low level code needed to download robot
programs created in different programming languages.
CIROS® processes IRDATA code created by compilers for different high
level programming languages.
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4. Programming
IRDATA files created by CIROS® may be only used inside CIROS®. Do not
use IRDATA files created by CIROS® with robot controllers.
Melfa Basic IV Project
As above you may also create a Melfa Basic IV program. For that
purpose you have to open a MRL-position list and a Melfa Basic IV
program. The new files will be named as Example.pos and
Example.mb4. For the purpose of simulation the program as well as the
position list must be integrated into a MELFA Basic IV project.
Create a new MELFA Basic IV project in dialog box Project Management
(command Project Management from Execute menu). Choose command
Add Project or click button to add a new project named “Mitsubishi.prj”.
In page Files of the dialog box add the program and the position list by
clicking button and selecting the files. Declare the program
“Mitsubishi.mb4” as Main Program.
The program is integrated into the current project.
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4. Programming
Close dialog box Project Management and activate the program
window. Choose command Compile + Link from the Programming
menu (CTRL+F9 or button) to check the syntax of the program and to
translate it into IRDATA code.
You have developed an executable robot program for the work cell
simulation.
The next chapter contains an example of simulating the modeled and
programmed work cell.
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5. Simulation
This chapter contains the simulation of programs developed offline in
CIROS®.
5.1
Settings
Choose the command Simulation Settings from the Simulation menu to
configure the simulation.
Simulation cycle
The simulation cycle specifies the intervals, in which the simulation
controller interpolates the states of robots. Additionally it specifies the
cycle time for available PLCs and the recalculation time for all extension
modules (e.g. sensor simulation, transport simulation,...)
A high value results in a fast simulation, but with only very few
interpolation steps. Too high values may result in important steps not
being calculated. A low value calculates more interpolation steps, but
therefore decreases the simulation speed due to the need of more
machine time.
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5. Simulation
Example
58
Suppose a robot needs exactly one second for a certain motion
command. Depending on the simulation cycle, the number of
interpolations would be as following:
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5. Simulation
Simulation cycle:
Number of interpolations:
0.040 0.100 0.200 0.500 1.000
25
10
5
2
1
Target Visualization Cycle
The visualization cycle specifies the intervals, in which the model in the
work cell window shall be refreshed. The value can be interpreted as
"refresh work cell window each visualization cycle seconds". A very low
value means that the window will be refreshed very often, which may
due to a higher need of machine power, result in slowing down the
simulation.
Since the simulation is recalculated each simulation cycle, the value of
the visualization cycle must always be equal to or greater than the
simulation cycle.
Show End Positions
This option ensures that the state at the end position of a robot motion
visualized, even if it lies between two visualization cycles.
Real Time Control
Select this option to enable the real time visualization. The visualization
cycle will then be adjusted dynamically to provide real time views of a
running simulation.
Real Time Compensation
This parameter determines a constant (amplification P) to control the
Visualization Cycle. Values range from 0.1 to 0.6. A small value means a
slower compensation, higher values may force fluctuations or even
oscillations.
Maximum Visualization
Cycle
Selecting Realtime makes the system set the Visualization Cycle
automatically to reach a synchronization between the simulation time
and the real clock.
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5. Simulation
In case that a model is very complex, it can happen that real time
control is not possible due to too high machine power requirements.
This would result in permanently increasing the visualization cycle. To
avoid this effect, the maximum visualization cycle can be limited to a
certain value. The range of the visualization cycle is always between the
simulation cycle and the simulation cycle.
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5. Simulation
Simulation / Real Time
Ratio
The parameter entered determines the relation between simulation time
and real time. The default value 1.0 controls the simulation time
according to realtime, a value greater 1.0 makes the simulation time run
faster then realtime.
Selecting the value 5.0 makes the simulation time run five times faster
than realtime. A simulation period of 50 seconds will take 10 seconds in
realtime.
Simulation Cycle
Optimization
Select this option to use spare computing power of your machine in
order to improve the simulation cycle. The simulation cycle will then be
optimized dynamically, depending on the unused computing power. The
lower limit for the simulation cycle can be defined in the field Minimum
simulation cycle.
Minimal simulation cycle
This field defines a lower limit for the option Simulation Cycle
Optimization.
The selection Model Update switches the update of model calculations
like belts or process simulation from the very small cycle Controller
Cycle to Simulation Cycle. The setting Controller Cycle may lead to
decreasing performance for some models, on the other hand Simulation
Cycle may evaluate to some inaccuracies.
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5. Simulation
5.2
Example:
Work cell Simulation
Open the example work cell of the previous chapters.
To start simulation, choose command Start from the Simulation menu.
The program is simulated step by step. The simulation time is displayed
in the status bar. Because of the source code sequence trace the
currently executed command is highlighted in the program window.
Before you start simulation a second time choose command Reset Work
cell from the Simulation menu. This command resets all objects as well
as the robot
5.3
Collision Detection
By the collision detection you can detect collisions in your applications.
You are able to select objects for checking.
Use the menu function Settings Collision detection to this end. Click
the Selection index card. The index card displays a list of all of the
objects included in the work cell. Select the Selected objects against
each other option, in order to determine whether or not the selected
objects collide with each other.
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You may adjust the distance between two objects, which leads to a
collision message. Click the Check indexing card. Here you are also able
to detect collisions while gripping. This is useful, if you want to detect
the inexact positioning of a gripper.
Objects, which are controlled by the collision detection, can be coloured
corresponding their status. The color of the edges or areas can be
chosen by preferences. Secondly, collisions can be put out as confirmed
or unconfirmed messages. You are able to adjust this by clicking on
Messsages index card.
Warning
If you select the option of confirmed or unconfirmed messages, then
you have to open the property window General of the work cell. Make
sure that the parameter Confirm Errors of the class Messages and
Errors is set to Yes.
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5. Simulation
Now you can activate the collision detection by the menu function
Simulation Collision detection.
Example
Replace line 220 in above sample program Mitsubishi. mb4 as follows:
80 MVS P3, +10
A collision between work piece MyBox and the table will be generated.
5.4
Sensor Simulation
The sensor simulation extends the capability of CIROS® to simulate
complete work cells. Many sensors used in production automation can
be parameterized and simulated realistically. Moreover the visualization
of measuring ranges helps to prevent errors in the planning stage. This
cannot be done in reality.
Switching on and off
The sensor simulation is switched on by default. In some cases it might
be useful to switch off the sensor simulation to save computing time.
To switch the sensor simulation on resp. off select the command
Simulation Sensor Simulation.
Settings of the sensor
simulation
By adjusting the settings of the sensor simulation you can choose how
the measuring range and the measured value of a sensor shall be
displayed within a work cell window. Moreover you can specify a path in
which CIROS® searches for sensor-definition-files.
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5. Simulation
In a sensor-definition-file (*.sdf) all parameters which characterize a
sensor type are stored. All sensors are marked by an object type (in
MOD-file object_type) which begins with SEN_. The following letters
specify the filename of the SDF which contains the description of the
sensor (see figure). Single parameters are identified by keywords.
The extension of the SDF is always ".sdf". The file has the same format
as a Windows-INI-file. It starts with a section name which is given in
squared brackets. This name always starts with CIROS-Sensor. After
that the name of the sensor definition file without extension follows.
Upper and lower case are not distinguished.
To modify the settings of the sensor simulation you must at first open
the dialog box "Sensor Simulation Settings":
Open the model-explorer. Use the right mousebutton to click the work
cell. A context menu pops open. Open the submenu Properties and
select the tab Sensor Simulation .
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5. Simulation
The following settings can be modified:
Show measuring range
Display mode
If this option is activated the measuring range of each sensor is
displayed by a line respectively a fan of lines. You can choose the color
of these lines by clicking the button "Color...". Measuring rays normally
start at the origin of the measuring coordinate system.
Show measured value
If this option is activated the measured value of each measuring ray of
each sensor is displayed by a line (normally starting at the origin of the
measuring coordinate system) to the detected object. You can choose
the line color by clicking the button "Color...". The measured value of
one single ray is not displayed if no object is detected by this ray.
Sensor-definition-file
You can determine the path (the directory) in which CIROS® searches for
sensor-definition-files (Files with the extension "sdf"). If the path is not
specified CIROS® searches the directory from which the current mod-file
was loaded.
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5. Simulation
Setting sensor parameters
Parameters of every sensor which is used within a work cell can be
modified using the property page Sensor-Properties. This page can be
opened as follows:
Open the model explorer. Select the sensor whose parameters you want
to modify and press the right mouse button to open the context menu.
Select the menu item Properties. The page Sensor-Properties is
displayed now. If for example a color sensor is selected the page looks
as shown in the figure:
In the upper part of the page single parameters can be selected which
then may be modified in the lower part of the page.
Some parameters may exist multiply like for example "reference color".
If you want to add another element of such a parameter please click the
right mouse button on any already existing entry of this parameter to
open the context menu. Choose New to generate a new entry with
default values.
If you want to delete an element of such a parameter please open the
context menu on the entry you want to delete and choose menu item
Delete. Notice that only the last element of a coherent chain of
elements can be deleted.
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5. Simulation
5.5
Manual Operation
To switch the manual operation on resp. off please select the command
Modeling Manual Operation.
The dialog Manual Operation shows the inputs on the left side and the
outputs on the right side. You can change the input values.
By a double click a red LED you can change the corresponding input
value. Is the input connected, the connection is released temporarily
and the input is forced to 0 or 1. The connection is established again:
• Executing the menu command Simulation Reset Work cell.
• Saving or closing the work cell.
• Executing the menu command Restore I/O connections in the
context menu of the dialog manual operation.
If you select a connected input or output, the corresponding output or
input is highlighted. By a double click in the column Value of the inputs,
you can enter values directly, especially for analog inputs.
Context Menu Inputs
Set/Reset
Executing this menu command the input is forced temporarily to 0 or 1.
Disconnect Controllers
The connection of all connected inputs for all controllers are released
and forced to their current value.
Restore I/O Connections
All I/O connections that were changed via the dialog manual operation
are established again. All inputs, that were forced via the dialog manual
operation are set to the condition before calling the dialog manual
operation.
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5. Simulation
Show Value Changes
Activation of this menu entry results in a green highlighting of all inputs
that have changed at last.
Stop at Value Change
Activation of this menu entry results in assigning or deleting of stops to
inputs. An icon shows the user if a stop is assigned. If a stop is assigned
and the input value changes, the simulation run is stopped.
Delete all Stops
Deletes all assigned stops.
Function Text
Via the context menu you can change this dialog to the function text
view. The dialogs then looks like:
Context Menu Outputs
There are similar functions available for the output signals.
5.6
Hose- and Cable Track
Simulation
The COSCABLE module offers the simulation of flexible hoses and cable
tracks for CIROS®. Shape and position of it is calculated in simulation
frequency. Because of the simple way of modeling it easy to equip work
cells with powerlines, robots and other mechanisms with properly sized
hoses for electric and pneumatic power in the virtual world.
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5. Simulation
Even lengths of hoses can easily be adapted and interactively set
properly on static and moving parts.
This new object type has full support for collision detection.
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5. Simulation
Modeling
The object type "COSCABLE" supports three different types of hoses
and tracks:
• Type 1
simulation of hoses consisting of lined up segments which poses are
calculated by the object controller.
• Type 2
simulation of hoses consisting of a single polyhedron by directly
modifying the positions of its polyhedron points (vertices) by the
COSCABLE controller.
• Type 3
simulation of cable track systems, consisting of lined up segments
running on lines and half-circles, which poses are calculated by the
object controller.
Specification is done by the object property dialog, setting the
object type to COSCABLE.
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5. Simulation
Modeling of Start and End
The first and last segment of this object type needs to contain grip
points for defining the start and end of the object. These grip points own
a property with the name of a corresponding gripper-point and by this
way they are attached to each other.
The starting grip point has got the name StartGripper and the end
EndGripper. The following screenshots are viewing these correlations:
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5. Simulation
Properties and value of the grip point of the first segment of the tube.
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5. Simulation
If the Object is a flexible conduit, the z-axis of the grip points are
directing tangentially into the hoses fixed position.
If the object is a cable track the z-axis of the start grip point is the
moving direction of the track.
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5. Simulation
Type 1
The hose is modeled by single overlapping segments. The positions of
these segments are calculated by the object controller.
The first segment is the topmost listed element in the explorer view
respectively the last. Enumerations have no relevance.
The length of the object can be adapted by the property Length and its
unit is mm.
Assigning the property RatioSE, the balance of the hose can be
adapted, as shown in picture 1 and 2. The default value is "1.0":
RatioSE = 1
RatioSE = 5.0
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5. Simulation
If the length is set too large the segments do not overlap and become
singular parts, as shown in following picture
Type 2
This type of hose is not built by N sections but by one cylindrical
polyhedron which is bent by modification of its polyhedron points
(vertices) containing N+1 layers. The object controller itself can not
generate such polyhedron. It has to be modeled with CIROS® or a text
editor. The controller calculates the vertices only.
Ployhedron of a bent hose
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5. Simulation
The wireframe representation shows the structure of such a singleobject hose. This object type needs some more properties:
Type 3
If a cable track is needed, another property must be set. Additionally to
the properties of type 1 the property CableDuct with the value TRUE
must be present.
The property RatioSE does not have an effect in this mode. The
movement direction of the track is the z-axis of the start gripper point.
The height of the cable track results automatically form the position of
the end gripper point, because the start and end line are parallel and
are leading through the start and end gripper.
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5. Simulation
Cable track with its start gripper point. Its Z axis is the movement
direction
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5. Simulation
Object Properties for the COSCABLE Object
Property name
Value range
Mode of operation
Relevant
for type
Length
greater than 0.0
Sets the length of the object in mm.
Within this length the segments are
aequidistantly arranged.
1,2,3
RatioSE
greater than 0.0
Balance of the hose of shifting it more to
start or end. 1.0 is default.
1,2
CableDuct
TRUE or FALSE
Flag for cable track. If present and true
the object is a cable track.
2
CablesOneSegment
TRUE or FALSE
If present and true the object is a single
segment polyhedron.
2
CableRadius
greater than 0.0
If CableIsOneSegment =TRUE this value
is the radius of the cable.
2
NumberOfEdges
corresponding to the
model of the hose
If CableIsOneSegment =TRUE this is the
number of edges, the polyhedron has.
The number of layers is calculated
automatically.
2
NumberOfTurns
integer
Complete torsion twists of the hose. If
the hose should be twisted less than a
complete turn, the start or endpoint can
be rotated around its z-axis.
1,2
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5. Simulation
Hints:
Static conduits:
The design of the workcell looks more nice, if static hoses or conduits
are visualized too. During modelling these parts can be laid more easily
by using this flexible object type. After proper installation the object
type can be reset to "inactive object". All calculated vertices, boxes,
segments will remain in this position, if the workcell is saved.
Type 1 or type 2?
Type 1 is much more easily to built, because one segment can be
replicated by simple copy and paste, but needs more vertices than type
2. Type 2 requires a completely modelled single segmented polyhedron
with N Layers, which vertices are calculated by the object controller.
Textures
Textures on hoses or conduits make them much more attractive.
Estimation of length
The object controller is ideal for estimation of length of hoses or
conduits or cable tracks, because the parameter "Length" is adjustable
very easy and the user has instant visual feedback of his manipulations.
With this method the lengths for real, wry, bent or twisted cables and
tracks can be found very easily.
CAD data for cable tracks
Many manufacturers of cable tracks are offering 3D-Data download on
their home pages, which can be imported by CIROS. This makes
modelling much easier and faster.
Quality of Simulation
The hose, calculated by the object controller, mathematically is a bezier
curve. Its run can be very near to reality but can not be compared to it,
because dynamical effects like mass, weight, stiffness or inner life are
not taken into account.
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5. Simulation
Examples
You can find a demo model for a hose on a robot in <CIROS
directory>\samples\CableSimulation\RobotWithHose\RH-5AH55.mod
You can find a demo model for a cable track at a storage system in
<CIROS directory>\samples\CableSimulation\StorageWithCableTrack\XY-Storage.mod
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5. Simulation
5.7
Fault Simulation
The module Fault Simulation enables the user in CIROS® to simulate
faults that occur during the production process. The fault simulation is
switched off by default. To switch the fault simulation on resp. off select
the command Extras Fault Simulation.
Modeling
The fault simulation discriminates the following faults:
• Object faults
Select the dialog "Properties for object" of the object that should
have a fault. Here you can enter the start and the duration of the
fault.
•
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I/O Connection Faults
Select the dialog "Properties for input" of the input that should
have a fault. Here you can enter the start and the duration of the
fault.
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5. Simulation
Settings
In the dialog Properties for work cell you can change the following
settings:
•
Fault Simulation Activation
Here you can switch the fault simulation on and off.
•
Password
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5. Simulation
•
•
Fault Setting
Here you can change the password to activate the teacher mode.
Select Reenter to leave the teacher mode.
Fault Log
Here you can specify a new file for the fault log. The fault log records
all actions of the fault localization.
Show/Delete
Here you can show the fault log or you can delete it.
You can activate or deactivate the fault setting either executing the
menu command Extras -> Fault Simulation Fault Setting .In the
dialog fault setting you get an overview of the modeled faults.
Enabling the check box you can specify the faults to be considered. The
LED shows the fault status of the object.
LED is of
The fault is not yet active or is ignored
Red LED
The fault is active.
Green LED
An active fault is over.
Yellow Bar
This fault is localized and it is ignored.
By a double click on the column type of a single fault , a list opens that
contains possible types for this fault . Thereby you can change the fault
type of an object or an I/O connection.
By a double click on the column begin of a single fault , you can enter a
new beginning of a fault .
By a double click on the column duration of a single fault , you can enter
a new duration of a fault.
Fault Localization
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5. Simulation
You can activate or deactivate the fault localization executing the menu
command Extras -> Fault Simulation Fault Localization.
In the teacher mode (password) both LED columns will be shown. If the
teacher mode is not activated you will only see the first LED column.
Yellow LED
A localization is set.
Green LED
The localization complies with the fault in the fault
setting.
Red LED
The localization does not comply with the fault in the
fault setting.
By a double click on the column Type of a single row, a list opens that
contains possible types to localize. These names correspond to the
names in column Type of the fault setting.
Fault Log
You can activate or deactivate the fault executing the menu command
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5. Simulation
Extras -> Fault Simulation Fault Setting .The fault log records all
actions of fault localization.
Red LED
The fault was not correctly localized.
Green LED
The fault was correctly localized.
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6. Mechanisms
In CIROS® the simulation of so called base mechanisms is a powerful
feature for simulation of work cells. A mechanism is assigned to an
object using the object’s type. Depending on the mechanism the object
structure (concerning number of I/Os, number and configuration of
sections and joints) is given. The mechanism can only be simulated
correctly if the given object structure exists.
To model a mechanism, use the model libraries. Add an object with a
mechanism to the work cell to guarantee that the object structure is
correct. Afterwards, change the shape as well as the dynamics and I/O
names of the object to model your own mechanism.
Please note that to control any of the mechanisms the input values have
to change from low to high to start the mechanism. Moreover the output
values containing the state of the mechanisms are only updated if the
outputs are connected to an input.
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6. Mechanisms
6.1
Gripper
Use the gripper mechanism to simulate grasping of workpieces. If
system input 0 of the gripper object is set to high, the gripper grasps an
object that has a free grip point in the grip range of the gripper’s gripper
point. All sections of the gripper object that have a degree of freedom
are moved to their upper limits. Thus the movement of gripper chucks is
simulated.
Mechanism: Gripper
System Input/Output
Object Type: Gripper
Input
Output
Index
Type
Value
Description
000
digital
1
Closes the gripper.
0
Opens the gripper.
Index
Type
Value
Description
000
digital
0
Gripper is not closed.
1
Gripper is closed.
Examples
Object
Model Library
Parallel Gripper
Miscellaneous Grippers
Three Jaw Gripper
Miscellaneous Grippers
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6. Mechanisms
6.2
Conveyor Belt
If there is another object with a free grip point above a conveyer belt
object, the object is moved along the active surface of the conveyor belt
if the grip point lies inside the grip range of the active surface. This only
works if system input 0 of the conveyor belt is set to high. If the object is
moved up to the end of the active surface system output 0 is set to high.
Mechanism: Conveyor Belt
System Input/Output
Object Type: Conveyor Belt
Input
Index
Type
Value
Description
000
digital
1
Switches the conveyor belt
on.
0
Switches the conveyor belt
off.
1
Conveyor belt transports
backwards.
0
Conveyor belt transports
forward.
001
Output
digital
Index
Type
Value
Description
000
digital
0
There is no object at
conveyor’s end.
1
There is an object at
conveyor’s end.
Examples
Object
Model Library
Conveyor Belt
Miscellaneous Mechanisms
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6. Mechanisms
6.3
Push Cylinder
The push cylinder is extended if system input 0 is set to high. If there is
an object with a free grip point in the grip range of the push cylinder’s
gripper point the object is moved by the push cylinder. The push
cylinder is retracted if system input 0 is set to low.
Mechanism: Push Cylinder
System Input/Output
Object Type: Push Cylinder
Input
Output
Index
Type
Value
Description
000
digital
1
Extends the push cylinder.
0
Retracts the push cylinder.
Index
Type
Value
Description
000
digital
0
Push cylinder is not extended.
1
Push cylinder is extended.
Examples
Object
Model Library
Push Cylinder
Miscellaneous Mechanisms
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6. Mechanisms
6.4
Rotary Drive
The mechanism rotary drive is based on the push cylinder mechanism.
Mechanism: Rotary Drive
System Input/Output
Object Type: Rotary Drive
Input
Output
Index
Type
Value
Description
000
digital
1
Rotary Drive moves to upper
limit.
0
Rotary Drive moves to lower
limit.
Index
Type
Value
Description
000
digital
0
Rotary Drive is not at upper
limit.
1
Rotary Drive is at upper limit.
Examples
Object
Model Library
Rotary Drive
Miscellaneous Mechanisms
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6. Mechanisms
6.5
Turntable
All axes of turntable object are moved to the upper limits if system input
0 is set to high. If there is an object with a free grip point inside the grip
range of the turntable’s active surface the object is moved with the
turntable.
Mechanism: Turntable
System Input/Output
Object Type: Turntable
Input
Output
Index
Type
Value
Description
000
digital
1
Turns the turntable.
0
–
Index
Type
Value
Description
000
digital
0
Turntable is moving.
1
Turntable stand still.
Examples
Object
Model Library
Turntable
Miscellaneous Mechanisms
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6. Mechanisms
6.6
Two Way Push Cylinder
The function of the two way push cylinder is similar to the function of
the push cylinder. For the purpose of control there are two system
inputs. According to this there are two system outputs for the cylinder’s
state.
Mechanism: Two Way Push Cylinder
System Input/Output
Input
Object Type: Two Way Push Cylinder
Index
Type
Value
Description
000
digital
1
Extends the push cylinder.
0
–
1
Retracts the push cylinder.
0
–
001
Output
digital
Index
Type
Value
Description
000
digital
0
Push cylinder is not extended.
1
Push cylinder is extended.
0
Push cylinder is not retracted.
1
Push cylinder is retracted.
001
digital
Examples
Object
Model Library
Two Way Push Cylinder
Miscellaneous Mechanisms
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6. Mechanisms
6.7
Turning Mover
The turning mover consists of two sections and a vacuum gripper that
can be controlled by setting system inputs 2 and 3. Use system inputs 0
and 1 to control the position of the turning mover.
Mechanism: Turning Mover
System Input/Output
Input
Object Type: Turning Mover
Index
Type
Value
Description
000
digital
1
Moves to position A.
0
–
1
Moves to position B.
0
–
1
Grasp
0
–
1
Release
0
–
001
002
003
Output
digital
digital
digital
Index
Type
Value
Description
000
digital
0
Turning mover is not at
position A.
1
Turning mover is at position A.
0
Turning mover is not at
position B.
1
Turning mover is at position B.
001
digital
Examples
Object
Model Library
Turning Mover
Miscellaneous Mechanisms
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6. Mechanisms
6.8
Parts Feeder
Use the mechanism parts feeder to model depots for workpieces etc.
The associated object contains a whole string of gripper points. The
sequence of these gripper points is important for the function of the
parts feeder that is filled by moving objects with free grip points in the
grip range of the feeder’s gripper points. Note that the first of the
feeder’s gripper points must not be covered. In case of setting system
input 0 of the parts feeder to high the object at the second gripper point
is moved to the first gripper point, the object at the third gripper point is
moved to the second gripper point etc. If there is an object at the
position of the first gripper point system output 0 is set to high.
Mechanism: Parts Feeder
System Input/Output
Object Type: Parts Feeder, optional “with Gravity”
Input
Output
Index
Type
Value
Description
000
digital
1
Requests a new part.
0
–
Index
Type
Value
Description
000
digital
0
No part is available.
1
There is a part available.
Examples
Object
Model Library
Parts Feeder 1
Miscellaneous Mechanisms
Parts Feeder 2
Miscellaneous Mechanisms
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6.9
Proximity Sensor
This simple proximity sensor checks if there is an object with a free grip
point in the grip range of the sensor’s gripper point.
Mechanism: Proximity Sensor
System Input/Output
Output
Object Type: Proximity Sensor
Index
Type
Value
Description
000
digital
0
No grip point detected.
1
Grip point detected.
Examples
Object
Model Library
Proximity Sensor
Miscellaneous Mechanisms
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6. Mechanisms
6.10
Replicator
Use the replicator mechanism for creation of new objects based on
templates. The extended properties of the replicator object contain the
assignment of system inputs and templates (example; template 0 =
“Workpiece”). If a system input is set to high, a new object based on the
associated template is created at the gripper point of the replicator
object.
Mechanism: Replicator
System Input/Output
Object Type: Replicator
Input
Index
Type
Value
Description
000
digital
1
Create first configured object.
0
–
1
Create second configured
object.
0
–
001
digital
...
...
...
…
00n
digital
1
Create n-th configured object.
0
–
Examples
Object
Model Library
Replicator
Miscellaneous Mechanisms
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6. Mechanisms
6.11
Trash Can
The trash can is the counterpart of the replicator. Use the mechanism
trash can to remove objects at runtime. Each system input of the trash
can object is associated to a gripper point. If system input 1 is set to
high and there is an object with a free grip point inside the grip range of
grip point 1 of the trash can object, the object is removed.
Please note that all objects that have been removed by this mechanism
are not recovered by choosing command Reset Work cell from the Edit
menu.
Mechanism: Trash Can
System Input/Output
Object Type: Trash Can
Input
Index
Type
Value
Description
000
digital
1
Remove object at gripper
point 1.
0
–
1
Remove object at gripper
point 2.
0
–
001
digital
...
...
...
...
00n
digital
1
Remove object at gripper
point n.
0
–
Examples
Object
Model Library
Trash Can
Miscellaneous Mechanisms
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6. Mechanisms
6.12
Action Objects
Use Action Objects in CIROS® to execute different actions because of
output values of any object.
The Action Object must have inputs only und have to be configured of
type Action Object.
The inputs of the Action Object are connected to outputs of simulated
objects (e. g. robots).
Each input of the Action Object is able to be configured. For different
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6. Mechanisms
input values different actions can be defined.
Now, certain actions have been associated to certain output values of
the simulated object.
Properties for Input
100
Configure the properties of an Action Object's input with the
corresponding dialog in the tab control. Select the input to be
configured in the Model Explorer and open Actions in the tab control
Properties for input.
Click New to associate a new action with the selected input.
Click Edit or Remove to edit or to remove the action selected in the list.
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6. Mechanisms
Actions
The following actions are available:
Action
Description
Parameter
Unconfirmed message
Writes an unconfirmed message in
window Messages of CIROS®
Message text
Confirmed message
Opens a message box that has to be
confirmed.
Message text
Show picture
Shows a picture.
Filename of picture (.bmpFormat)
Play sound
Plays an audio file. Use the switch cyclic
to let the sound be played as long as the
input value of the Action Object is the
configured value.
Filename of sound (.wavformat)
Play video
Plays a video file.
Filename of video (.avi-Format)
Show www-page
Opens a WWW page in the standard
browser.
URL of HTML-page.
Open CIROS® work cell
Opens a work cell.
Filename of work cell.
Restart simulation.
Executes the menu command Edit Reset Work cell and starts the
simulation.
Track object
Starts the object tracking.
Name of object to be tracked
Make object invisible
Makes an object invisible.
Name of object to be invisible
Make object visible
Makes an object visible.
Name of object to be visible
Switch on light source
Switch on a certain light source.
Index of light source to be
switched on
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6. Mechanisms
Switch off light source
Switch off a certain light source.
Index of light source to be
switched off
Action
Description
Parameter
Open CIROS® help
Opens a HTML page of CIROS® help.
HTML page to be opened in
CIROS® help..
Open popup-window
Opens a popup-window containing text.
Text for popup-window.
Set material
transmission
Sets the transmission factor of one
material to the value of the analoge
input.
Material name
Move to camera cruise
lookat
Sets the lookat in the work cell window
that is associated to the camera cruise.
Index of camera cruise stepl.
Set Level of Detail
Sets the Level of Detail (LOD)
Level of Detail
Import CIROS® work
cell.
Imports one CIROS® work cell into the
current model.
Filename incl. full or relative
path.
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7. Communication
Interfaces
7.
Communication
Interfaces
CIROS® Studio provides several communication interfaces:
• OPC Client
• OPC coupling
• PARSIFAL
• Robot controller interface to Mitsubishi robot controller
7.1
OPC Client
The OPC-Client can be used to swap out the controller of an object to an
OPC-Server. All or some of the configured IOs and robot joint values can
be exchanged between the client and the server. The required
configuration of COM interfaces in the Windows operating system is
described in chapter OPC controller connection.
Connecting
Select an object and change its controller type to OPC-Client. The dialog
box Properties for object will then be extended by a tab named OPC
Client.
Host name
Options:
Use this field to enter the host to which you want to connect. The
default value is localhost. If you entered a name, press OK. CIROS then
starts to read all OPC-servers of the selected host.
Server name
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7. Communication Interfaces
Next to the host entry you will find a drop down box with all available
OPC servers. Use this field to select the desired OPC server. After
clicking on read items, the list below will be filled with available OPC
items.
Note: The OPC server must be running.
Inputs/Outputs/Joint
Values
This pull down box can be used to select, which part of your CIROS
object you would like to configure. Outputs are read from the server to
CIROS, inputs are written to the server by CIROS. Joint values can only
be read. Depending on the choice made in this field, the number of
available items and the display of already configured elements of your
object may vary.
Connection
Select the desired connection. The default value Best connection uses
the best available connection. This is automatically detected using the
following sequence: ASYNC V2.00, ASYNC V1.00, SYNC. Alternatively
you can select an entry to use only a specific type of connection.
Change configuration
Use the table to select the entry which you want to configure. From the
list of items select the item, which shall be connected to the selected
element. Then press Change. The table entry will be extended by the
new OPC item. If a desired item is not available for configuration, please
check the read/write permission settings of your OPC server.
Log
Check this option to log extended output to the message window.
Automatic configuration:
Configuration manager
The Configuration manager button opens the Configuration Manager,
which allows you to manage different configurations.
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7. Communication Interfaces
7.2
OPC Controller Connection
The OPC coupling of CIROS enables you to connect external controllers
to the simulation system. The external controllers can be of different
kind: controllers that perform basic logical and arithmetic calculations
or controllers that control one or several kinematics. Programmable
logic controllers (PLC) belong to the first group and robot controllers to
the second.
The communication interface used for the coupling of the controller and
the simulations system is OPC (OLE for Process Control). OPC is a
standardized software interface definition that facilitates and
standardizes the data access of PC-based applications within the
automation engineering field. For a controller that is to be coupled to
CIROS an OPC server must be disposable that provides controller
internal information to communication partners. The OPC coupling of
CIROS is realized as an OPC client which retrieves the necessary
information from the server and passes them to the CIROS kernel.
The coupling is realized as an extension module and is fully integrated
into the user interface of CIROS. Since the coupling also has an
adequate controller interface to CIROS an external controller shows
exactly the same behaviour as a controller that is integrated in CIROS
and that emulates the program processing and the kinematic functions.
Setup and Installation
Your simulation computer (PC) must meet the following requirements
for the operation of the CIROS OPC coupling:
• 32 bit Windows operating system (Windows 2000, Windows XP, )
• Ethernet network card
• TCP/IP protocol
Please consider the following notes for the communication between
CIROS and the OPC server.
• Microsoft network:
Integrate the CIROS-PC and the OPC server into a common
Windows network and assign unequivocal computer names.
•
User management:
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7. Communication Interfaces
•
Install two identical users with the same user name and the same
password on the CIROS-PC and on the OPC server. Grant
administrator rights to both users.
Registration of the interface classes of the OPC server:
Register the class descriptions of your OPC server in the registry of
the CIROS-PC. Note: In most cases it is required to install the OPC
Server also on the client PC in order to register the DCOM-classes
properly.
DCom Configuration:
OPC is based upon the DCOM (Distributed Component Object Model)
technology developed by Microsoft for distributed applications. Hence,
the features of DCOM are used, when CIROS and the OPC server of the
external controller are running on different computer systems.
DCOM uses several security mechanisms that control the access to local
applications over network. Numerous system settings that are
dependent on the network environment are necessary for the
establishment of a network connection.
Firewall Settings
The firewall of both machines should be configured to allow
connections to TCP Port 135 and OPCEnum.exe (usually found at
<Windows Directory>\System32) .
Note
You can find examples for DCOM settings in the section Control-> OPC
coupling -> Setup and Installation of the online help system.
7.3
PARSIFAL
Use the Extension PARSIFAL to connect the simulation system to other
simulation and controller systems.
To configure PARSIFAL, use the corresponding tab of the Properties for
workcell dialog.
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7. Communication Interfaces
Choose from the list of parameters the parameter to configure.
Depending on the type of the chosen parameter some control elements
are displayed at the bottom of the dialog box.
You are able to configure the following parameters for PARSIFAL:
• Save client connections with the workcell
• Logging in message window
• Logging in log file (.\bin\PARSIFAL.log)
• Cycle time of text-based notification for model update
• Automatic model partitioning
7.4
Robot Controller Interface
The RCI Explorer (Robot Controller Interface) is the new informationprocessing center of CIROS® Studio. With the RCI Explorer you can upand download programs, simply by drag-and-drop. Start programs in
any slot you want and keep track of the actual state of your robot
parameters, error messages, system variables, etc.
It has never been so easy to test your programs in deep.
The new Debugger supports a breakpoint-oriented online debugging of
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your robot programs. Set breakpoints wherever you want. Start your
program in any line; use single stepping forward and backward. The
online debugger is the ultimate test tool for detailed online testing of
your programs.
How to Setup a new
Project with CIROS® Studio
Before you can write robot programs you have to open your work cell or
you start the project wizard using the menu function File Project
Wizard.
Insert your desired Project Name into the appropriate field of the dialog
box. The dialog box will come up with the project name "UNTITLED". In
the example the project name is DEMO. You can enter any valid file
name (without file name extension) into this field. As Program Name
insert e. g. 3.
For each new project you create, CIROS® Studio will create a new
directory with the name of the project. CIROS® Studio uses this
directory to store all the programs that belong to your project.
The program name is the name CIROS® Studio uses to download the
robot program into the robot controller.
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The directory used for this project is displayed under Directory. If you
want to change the directory or if you want to create a new directory
press the button Browse which will open the browse dialog.
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Insert your name into the text box Created by, your initials into Initials,
and a short description of the project task into Description.
Proceed to the second step of the project wizard by pressing the Next
button. This will display the second step of the Project Wizard.
Select the robot type you are working with, from the list Robot Type.
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Then, select the number of I/O Interface Cards (only required for the
I/O Monitor), the number of Hands (only required for opening and
closing hands in the Jog Operation), the number and type of Additional
Axes (required for Jog Operation) and the Programming Language,
which is essential for opening of the correct program window. You can
only choose between different programming languages for robots of the
RV-EN and the A series (RV-A, RH-AH, RP-AH). Robots of the RV-M and
RV-E series can only be programmed in Movemaster Command (MRL).
Press the button Finish, to create the project. A work cell window, the
RCI Explorer, an empty robot program window, the associated position
list window, and the message window will be opened and arranged on
your monitor. Several files for the project itself, the program and the
position list are created in the directory Project Name.
How to Work with
the RCI Explorer
The RCI Explorer is an information and data exchange center. It gives
you an overview of the current state of the robot and provides an
intuitive way to upload, download, start, debug, and monitor robot
programs.
The RCI Explorer contains two folders. The first folder is the robot folder.
The name of the folder matches the robot name, you have configured in
the second step of the project wizard. This example makes use of the
robot RH-5AH55.
The robot folder provides access to the data on the robot controller. The
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second folder is the Workplace. It contains the data on your PC in the
project directory.
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In the robot folder you find information concerning
• the connection to the robot controller,
• the connected robot type,
• the programs, currently available on the robot controller,
• the contents of the program slots,
• the system variables,
• the state of the robot using a wide range of monitors,
• the robot parameters,
• and the most recent errors.
In the workplace folder you find
• the programs and position lists currently available in the CIROS®
Studio project directory on your PC,
• and the CIROS® Studio tools.
Before you can exchange programs and position lists between the
CIROS® Studio PC and the robot drive unit the following you have to do
the following steps.
1. Connect a serial interface of the CIROS® Studio PC to the RS-232
interface of the robot controller. Be sure to use a serial cable that
connects the hardware handshake signals (DTR, RTS, CTS) of the
serial interface, too. See the robot manual for details.
2. Use the RCI Explorer to check the connection properties. Open the
context menu of the Connection by clicking with the right mouse
button on the folder Connection. Select Properties from the context
menu.
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How to Establish a
Connection to the Robot
Drive Unit
3rd Check if your Communication Interface is the Serial Interface.
Alternatively, you can open the dialog Communication Port Common
also with the command Extras Settings Communication Port.
The command is only available if a work cell is loaded.
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4. Switch to the property page Communication Port Serial Interface to
select the port and to set the communication parameter. Select the
correct port and set the communication parameters of the serial
interface appropriately. The default port is the serial port that has
been selected during the installation.
5. Disable the teaching box.
6. If you have a robot of the A series (RV-A, RH-AH, RP-AH), set the key
switch on the robot controller to Auto(Ext.).
7. Establish the logical connection between CIROS® Studio and the
robot drive unit by executing the command Execute/Init
Connection, which will communicate with the robot and determine
the type of the robot and some parameters of the robot and display
them in the dialog box Robot Type. If this dialog box will be
displayed the communication to the robot drive unit has been
established and programs and position lists can be down- and
uploaded.
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8. Establish a connection between CIROS® Studio and the robot
controller. Use again the context menu of the Connection. Select
Connect to establish the connection.
Alternatively, you can use the command Execute Init Connection
to establish a connection. If the connection initialization is
successful, the dialog Robot Type displays information regarding the
robot type, the robot programming language, and the amount of
free memory.
How to Check the
Robot Type
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Check, if the configured robot type matches the actual type of the
connected robot. In the RCI Explorer select the folder Robot Type:
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You get information concerning the type of the connected robot, the
version of the operating system, the actual robot language, and the
number of available robot programs on the robot controller.
How to Write a
Robot Program
You are now ready to write your first robot program. Activate the
window with the robot program by clicking into the window or by
selecting the window with the command Window/1,2,3
Now you can freely edit your program using the keyboard and the
mouse.
The online help contains a detailed syntax description for every
command. The F1 key opens the help page of the command where the
cursor is located. See the Reference Manual or the Instruction Manual
to get further information.
A simple robot program in MELFA-BASIC IV might look like this:
Use the context sensitive help to get help on the command OVRD. To
open the help page place the cursor inside the OVRD command and
press the F1 key.
To renumber a program sequentially use the command Edit Renumber. This command can be used to renumber the whole program
(in this case no part of the program must be selected) or only the
selected range of the program.
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If you have added new program lines that should be inserted between
other lines in the program according to their line numbers, use the
command Edit/Sort to sort the whole program in ascending order
according to the line numbers.
Save the program with the command File Save.
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How to Create a Position
List Using the Robot
Read and observe the safety instructions of the SAFETY MANUAL
carefully before operating or programming the robot with CIROS®
Studio! Nobody must be in the safeguarded area, when using the JOG
operation.
Usually, you use the T/B (teach pendant) to create position data. Have a
look at your Instruction Manual for a detailed description of how to
create position data. Once you have created position data with the T/B
it is easy to upload the position data into a position list on your PC.
Simply use the program upload. You will get your position data as a
position list and additionally any program lines you might have created
with the T/B.
Alternatively, you can create and modify a position list interactively
using CIROS® Studio. Open the window Jog Operation by double
clicking on the tool Jog Operation.
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Optionally, you can also open the window Jog Operation by the
command Execute Jog Operation. Use this window to jog the robot in
JOINT, XYZ and TOOL coordinates.
Use the button Current Position Pos. List to insert the current robot
position into the position list as position number Pos.-No. To override
an existing position just enter the position number into the text box
Pos.-No. or use the spin buttons next to the text box. Set the Jog Speed
and the Jog Increment to appropriate values.
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Create two positions P1 and P2 in your current position list and save the
position list with the command File/Save. Your position list might look
like this:
Discover next, how to check the syntax of your program.
How to Check the Syntax
of your Program
Your first robot program and the associated position list are now
located on the PC in the project directory. In the RCI Explorer they are
accessible in the folder Programs in your Workplace. Click with the right
mouse button on the name of the robot program and open the context
menu of the program. Select Syntax Check to check the syntax of your
program.
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You can check the syntax of your program also by using the command
Execute/check Syntax. The syntax checker finds syntactical errors in
your program and displays the errors in the message window.
Load the syntactically correct program and position list into the robot
controller.
How to Exchange
Programs and Position
Lists with the Robot
Before you can exchange programs and position lists between the
CIROS® Studio PC and the robot controller the connection must have
been established. If the connection is established, you can
• Download a program to the robot
• Download a position list to the robot
• Upload a program from the robot to the PC
Downloading a program
The RCI Explorer offers a very easy and intuitive way to download a
program from the PC to the robot controller. Select the program you
want to download to the controller, in the folder Programs in your
Workplace. In the example the program 3. MB4 is selected. Keep the
left mouse button pressed and simply "drag and drop" the program into
the folder Programs of the robot:
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If you release the mouse button, the download starts. The download
can also be started with the command Download from the context menu
of the program. Click on the program 3. MB4 with the right mouse
button to open the context menu.
Alternatively, you can download a program without the RCI Explorer,
too. Activate the window with the robot program by clicking into the
window or by selecting the window with the command Window/1,2,3….
Download the program by executing the command Extras Online
Management -> Download PC Robot. The dialog box Up- and
Download is displayed.
Usually, it is best to use the default values in the dialog “Up- and
Download" and download the complete program. To download the
complete program, select the option Complete Program. If you want to
download only a certain number of lines, switch off the option Complete
Program and insert line number for From Line to To Line. For MELFABASIC III and MELFA-BASIC IV the line numbers have to be in the range
between 1 and 32767, for Movemaster Command between 1 and 9999.
Before the download, the specified line range is cleared in the robot
controller. Furthermore, insert the program name, that will be used for
your program in the controller. This field is always initialized with the
file name of the program on the PC.
If you are programming in MELFA BASIC and you are using line numbers
larger than 9999, be sure to check Delete all before Downloading. If
this option is chosen, a program in the Drive Unit will be deleted even if
it contains line numbers larger than 9999. If this option is not selected,
line numbers larger than 9999 will not be erased, independent of the
line number you specify in the To Line section. Position lists will not be
deleted.
Press the OK button to start the download. All commands that are
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transmitted to the drive unit are displayed on the screen. After each
command the alarm (error) status of the drive unit is checked. If an error
should occurs the download will be aborted and the erroneous
command is displayed.
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If you are trying to download an empty program or an empty position
list, a warning is issued and you are asked, if you really intend to
download an empty program and delete the program on the robot
controller. It is saved to cancel the download at this point. The warning
keeps you from destroying valuable programs on the controller, in all
the cases, when you actually want to upload a file from the robot
controller and you select the download by mistake.
If an error is reported during deleting of the old program (command
"DL. . . " for RV-E or RV-M robots), delete the program on the robot
controller manually. Use the RCI Explorer to delete a program. Open the
"Programs" folder on the robot. Open the context menu of the program
that is going to be deleted, by clicking with the right mouse button on
the program name. Select Delete.
After the successful download of the robot program, discover how to
download the position list to the robot controller.
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Downloading a position list
The steps required to download a position list are almost the same as
for a program. The easiest way, to download a position list from the PC
to the robot controller, is to use the RCI Explorer. Select the position list
you are going to download to the robot controller, in the folder
Programs on your Workplace. Keep the left mouse button pushed and
drag and drop it into the Programs folder on the robot.
The example demonstrates another way to download a position list.
Select the position list 3. POS. Open the context menu with the right
mouse button. In the context menu select Download.
Alternatively, you can download a position list without the RCI Explorer.
Activate the position list window and execute the command Extras Online Management -> Download PC Robot.
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The dialog box Up- und Download is displayed. In most cases, it is best
to can use the standard settings. Be sure that the option All Positions is
selected. If you want to download only a special range of position
numbers, switch off the option All Positions and insert values for From
Position and To Position. There are no limits for position numbers in
MELFA-BASIC III and MELFA-BASIC IV. In Movemaster Command the
position numbers are limited to 1 to 999, and for the RV-M1 the range is
1 to 629.
Before the download the old positions in the selected range are cleared.
Note, that the old positions are not cleared if you use MELFA-BASIC IV.
Additionally, you can add a name. The default name is the name of the
file position list on the PC.
If you use a different name, be sure to use the same name that you have
used for the program beforehand.
It is also very easy, to upload all the programs on the robot controller
back to the PC.
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Uploading a program
The procedure for uploading is very similar to the downloading
procedure. Again, it is best to use the RCI Explorer. Just drag and drop
the program from the Programs folder of the robot to the Programs
folder of your Workplace. Optionally, you can use the context menu of
the robot program. Right click with the mouse on the program 3. Select
Upload in the context menu to start the upload of a program and its
associated position list. Note, that the program is uploaded into your
Workplace folder, but it is not opened on your monitor. If you want to
upload and open the program, select Open from the context menu or
simply double click on the program name.
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Alternatively, you can also upload programs and position lists without
the RCI Explorer. Activate the program window that is to be used for the
uploaded program. You can open a new program window with the
command File New, too. Then, execute the command Execute Upload Robot PC. This will again open the dialog box Up- and
Download. After pressing the OK button the program will be uploaded
line by line from the robot controller and finally displayed in the
program window.
During this upload the original program file on the disk will be
overwritten and there is no way to restore it.
You are now ready to debug your program directly on the robot
controller.
How to Debug a
Robot Program
Read and observe the safety instructions of the SAFETY MANUAL
carefully before operating or programming the robot with CIROS!
Nobody must be in the safeguarded area, when debugging your
program.
Now, as you have downloaded your robot program successfully to the
robot controller, it is time to test your program online on the robot
controller. Locate last errors with the online Debugger. Start the
Debugger by using the context menu of your program. Right click with
the mouse on the name of the program in the folder Programs inside the
robot folder. Select Debug. In the example the debugger for the
program 3 is opened:
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Note!
In the debug mode, the robot actually moves according to the
movement commands.
The Debugger opens with the selected program. Set the current line to
the first program line. Select the first program line with the mouse and
set it as currently active line by pressing the icon shown in the following
picture:
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A small green arrow marks the currently active line. This is the line that
will be executed next by the robot program. Now, set breakpoints by
double clicking on the program lines, on which the program is supposed
to stop during debugging. Press on the icon shown in the following
picture and start the breakpoint debugging:
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Program execution stops at the first breakpoint. Now, continue using
the single step mode. In the single step mode, only the command in the
currently active program line is executed. Afterwards the currently
active line moves on to the next program line. Execute a single step by
pressing the icon shown in the following picture:
Stop debugging b simply by closing the debugger. Close the debugger
by pressing on the icon shown in the following picture:
After testing your program in detail with the online debugger, you can
now continue to finally start the program.
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How to Start and Stop a
Robot Program
It is really easy to start programs using the RCI Explorer. Open the folder
Programs in the robot folder, click with the right mouse button on the
program you want to start and select Start (CYC) or Start (REP) in the
context menu.
There are two commands to start a robot program. Use the command
Start (CYC) (1 cycle) to start the program, once. Use the command Start
(REP) (repeated) to start the program in a continuous loop. With the
command Start (REP) the program continues until the program is
stopped by a user command.
Stop the program with the command Stop from the context menu. It is
also possible to stop the program without the RCI Explorer. Use the
command Execute Program Stop to stop the program.
If you start a program, the robot controller loads the program into the
so-called slot 1 before it is actually executed. If you want to start the
program in a slot different from slot 1, then you have to load the
program into this slot, first.
How to Load a Robot
Program into a Slot
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Robots of the A series (RV-A, RH-AH, RP-AH) have so-called slots. In
each of these slots a single robot program can run. Thus several robot
programs can actually be executed in parallel. This type of program
execution is called multitasking. All other robot types have only one slot
for program executions. Thus, they cannot be used for multitasking. Aseries types of robots can execute the program in any slot, but slot 1 is
the default slot. In order to start a program in a slot different from slot 1,
you have to explicitly load the program into the desired slot.
Open the folder Slots. If your program 3 is already loaded into a slot (e.
g. Slot 1), then reset the slots first. Open the context menu of the folder
Slots and select Reset.
If your parameter settings do not assign any programs to any slot
(parameter SLT1 to SLT32), then all the slots should now be empty.
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At the moment our program example is not designed to run in a slot
other than slot 1. Thus, we have to modify our program first. Add the
MELFA-BASIC IC commands GETM 1 and RELM. GETM 1 reserves the
robot for the current program. This is necessary, whenever a robot is to
be moved by a program that is not running in slot 1. Only one single
program can move the robot at any given time. The robot controller
assumes that only the program running in slot 1 is moving the robot.
Thus, the command GETM 1 is not necessary, if the program is only
running in slot 1. But all other programs have to claim the robot first,
before they can use it.
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Check the syntax of the modified program and download it to the robot.
If necessary, check the functionality of the program with the debugger.
Load the modified and checked program into slot 5. Click with the right
mouse button on the program name in the folder Programs in the robot
folder. Select Load to Slot 5. The program is loaded into slot 5.
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Now, open the folder Slots. Start your program in slot 5 with the
command Start (CYC) from the context menu.
Stop the program execution with the command Stop from the context
menu. Discover next, how to monitor your running program.
How to Monitor running
Robot Programs
Monitor the execution of your programs. Open the context menu of a
slot with the right mouse button and select Monitor Program . . . .
Optionally, double click on a slot to open the Program Monitor of the
selected slot:
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You can actually monitor a lot of different types of robot data. Discover
how to monitor variable values.
How to Monitor Variable
Values
138
CIROS® Studio offers a wide range of different types of monitors. Use
the Variables Monitor to monitor the current values of variables. Open
the Variables Monitor by double clicking on Variables in the folder
Monitors.
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In order to monitor the value of a local variable, add the counter
variable MCOUNT to your robot program.
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Download the modified program to the robot, load it into slot 5, and
start the program. Select slot 5 in the Variables Monitor and add the
variable MCOUNT to the list of the monitored variables with the arrow
buttons.
Start the monitor by pressing ON and observe the changing value of
MCOUNT.
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Double click on the variable name to open the dialog Set Value. Use it
to change the value of the variable MCOUNT. Observe the change in the
Variables Monitor.
There are actually many more monitors available. Check the robot state
with some of the other robot monitors.
How to Monitor Robot
States
Start your program example and again and open some of the monitors.
To open a monitor, double click on the monitor in the folder Monitors.
Open the monitor Robot Position. Watch the changing joint and world
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coordinates of the current position as the robot moves.
Open the monitor Servo Speed. Observe the changing joint velocities of
the robot.
Open the monitor Motor Current 1. Observe the changing electric
currents of each servomotor.
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Stop the program. Discover how to send commands directly to the
robot.
How to Send Commands to
the Robot
Read and observe the safety instructions of the SAFETY MANUAL
carefully before sending commands to the robot.
You can interactively send commands to the robot and display the reply
of the robot controller with the Command Tool in the Tools folder of the
RCI Explorer.
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Alternatively, you can also open the Command Tool with the command
Edit Command Tool. Use the Command Tool to send commands to
the robot as well as to insert robot commands into a robot program.
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In order to test the functionality of the Command Tool, reset the slot
contents, first. Then, load your example program 3 into slot 1. Switch on
the servo motors of the robot with the command Servos on from the
context menu of the robot.
Send the motion commands MOV P1 and MOV P2 to the robot. The
robot will move to the desired positions.
The Command Tool offers a structured list of robot commands and
displays a short syntax description for each command. Use the
Command Tool to send commands to the robot using the button Robot.
The current command can either be selected from the command list or
entered using the keyboard. The Command Tool remembers the last 20
commands, which have been sent to the robot. Choose the class Last
commands to display the least recently used commands.
Use the button Send directly only, to communicate with a robot
program or if you have detailed knowledge about the communication
protocol. This command does not add necessary modifications to the
command. Instead, the command is sent as it is.
To directly communicate with a running robot program, you can also use
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the Terminal.
Furthermore, you can build up your own list of favorite commands by
using the button Add in the group User defined commands. This list can
be displayed by choosing the class User defined commands. These
commands will be stored together with the project.
Sometimes, it might be necessary to change internal robot properties.
Discover next, how to change robot parameter values.
How to Change
Parameter Values
146
Select the folder Parameter. If you are using an A series robot (RV-A,
RH-AH, RP-AH), then the list of all available parameters is requested
from the robot, first. COSIROP requests this parameter list only once.
Afterwards it will be used in any further projects with your robot. To
change a parameter, open the Properties dialog by double clicking on
the parameter. Double click on the parameter BZR.
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Enter a new value for the parameter in the Properties dialog. If you are
working with an A series robot (RV-A, RH-AH, RP-AH), be sure to switch
the key switch on the robot controller to Teach. Set the value of "BZR"
to 0 and press the OK button.
The setting of BZR to 0 switches off the acoustic error signal.
Note, that you have to switch the robot controller off and back on again
to confirm the changes.
Change the parameter BZR back to 1, switch the controller off and on,
and switch the key switch back to Auto(Ext.).
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How to Check the latest
Error Messages
Check the last error messages by selecting the folder Error List.
COSIROP requests the error list from the robot.
Determine the cause of any current error. Select Current Alarm . . from
the context menu of the robot.
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Alternatively, you can determine the cause of any current error with the
command Execute Current Alarm.
Closing the dialog box Properties of the current error with OK resets the
current error.
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How to Backup your
Robot Controller
After you have created a robot project, written programs, and adapted
the parameters according to your project, you want to backup your data
for future use. Backup the complete data on the robot controller with
any robot of the A series (RV-A, RH-AH, RP-AH). Select Create Backup All in the context menu of the robot.
A dialog box pops up. Select a folder for the backup. Be sure to select
an empty folder for the backup. This backup folder will then contain
only files necessary for the backup and none of your PC data will be
overwritten during the backup. The backup can take several minutes,
especially if there are a lot of programs on the robot controller and you
are connected via a slow serial link with the robot.
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Store the backup data in a safe place and use it, whenever you need to
recover the state of the robot at the backup time. To load a backup,
select Load Backup All in the context menu of the robot.
Select the folder that contains your backup data. After your data is
successfully recovered, switch the robot controller off and back on
again to confirm the changes.
Use the backup folder only for data backups of your robot and for data
recovery. Do not try to download single backup files with the program
download of CIROS® Studio, if the backup files have the same names as
regular CIROS® Studio programs! Under no circumstances try to transfer
CIROS® Studio program files with "Load Backup" to the robot. The file
formats are different and the robot programs will be destroyed and
cannot be recovered.
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • 562194
151
8. Appendix
8.1
Keyboard Usage
Key
SHIFT+F5
SHIFT+F4
ALT+F4
F7
SHIFT+F7
F8
F9
SHIFT+F9
CTRL+N
CTRL+O
SHIFT+F12
F12
CTRL+P
CTRL+A
ALT+EINGABE
CTRL+X
CTRL+C
CTRL+V
CTRL+K
CTRL+E
CTRL+T
152
Shortcut
Cascade windows.
Tile windows.
Quit the program.
Displays the joint values of the robot.
Displays the tool coordinates in world coordinates.
Displays the window Teach-In
Displays the input signals.
Displays the output signals.
Command File New
Command File Open
Command File Save
Command File Save as
Command File Print
Command Edit Select all
Command Edit Properties
Command Edit Cut: Cuts the selected text out of the
window and puts it into the clipboard.
Command Edit Copy: Copies the active window or
selected text into the clipboard.
Command Edit Paste: Pastes the contents of the
clipboard into the active window.
Opens the dialog box for configuration of coordinate
systems. Select here which coordinate systems shall
be displayed.
Toggles between Edit Mode and Simulation Mode
Opens or closes the Model Explorer.
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • 562194
8. Appendix
The following shortcuts depend on the type of the activated window.
These shortcuts are available in case of an activated work cell window:
Key
CTRL+L
Shortcut
Opens the dialog box for setting the point of view to
the work cell.
“+”-KEY
Activates the command zoom-in. It magnifies the view
of the work cell.
“-“-KEY
Activates the command zoom-out. It reduces the view
of the work cell.
O
Activates the command default settings.
V
Activates the command front view.
U
Activates the command rear view.
A
Activates the command top view.
L
Activates the command left side view.
R
Activates the command right side view.
F
Activates the command full format.
F11
Switches to wireframe representation.
SHIFT+F11
Switches to filled surfaces representation.
CTRL+F11
Switches to flat shaded representation.
SHIFT+CTRL+F11 Switches to smooth shaded representation.
CTRL+D
Opens the rendering dialog box to set the quality and
speed of the work cell representation.
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • 562194
153
8. Appendix
These shortcuts are available in case of an activated program window:
Key
CTRL+PAGE UP
CTRL+Q
CTRL+Y
8.2
Abbreviations
154
CTRL+S
Shortcut
Resets the program to the beginning.
Continues or starts the current robot program.
Continues or starts the current robot program in cyclic
mode.
Stops a running program.
Abbreviation
CIROS®
NLP
TCP
Description
Computer Integrated Robot Simulation
Native Language Programming
Tool Center Point
© Festo Didactic GmbH & Co. KG • 562194
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