TRM V20 - E Source
Wisconsin Focus on Energy
TECHNICAL REFERENCE
MANUAL
October 22, 2015
Public Service Commission of Wisconsin
610 North Whitney Way
Madison, WI 53707
This page left blank.
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000 / [email protected]
Cadmus: Energy Services Division
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000 / [email protected]
This page left blank.
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000 / [email protected]
Table of Contents
Executive Summary......................................................................................................................... viii
Update Process ............................................................................................................................. viii
Navigating the TRM ......................................................................................................................... x
Measure Detail Structure................................................................................................................. x
Acknowledgements........................................................................................................................ xii
Business (Nonresidential) Measures ...................................................................................................1
Agriculture...................................................................................................................................2
Grain Dryer, Energy Efficient, Hybrid ............................................................................................... 2
Energy Efficient or Energy Free Livestock Waterer ......................................................................... 9
Circulation Fan, High Efficiency, Ag ............................................................................................... 12
Boilers & Burners .......................................................................................................................14
Boiler, Hot Water, Near Condensing, ≥ 85% AFUE, ≥ 300 MBh ..................................................... 14
Boiler Plant Retrofit, Hybrid Plant, >1 MMBh................................................................................ 17
Boiler Plant Retrofit, Mid-Efficiency Plant, 1-5 MMBh .................................................................. 20
Natural Gas Boilers (≤ 300 MBh) 90%+ AFUE ................................................................................ 23
Steam Fittings and Pipe Insulation................................................................................................. 26
Compressed Air, Vacuum Pumps ................................................................................................29
Compressed Air Controller, Pressure/Flow Controller .................................................................. 29
Compressed Air, Cycling Thermal Mass Air Dryers ........................................................................ 32
Compressed Air Heat Recovery, Space Heating ............................................................................ 35
Compressed Air Mist Eliminators................................................................................................... 37
Compressed Air System Leak Survey and Repair............................................................................ 42
Domestic Hot Water ..................................................................................................................49
Water Heater, High Usage ............................................................................................................. 50
Food Service ..............................................................................................................................56
Dishwasher, ENERGY STAR Commercial ........................................................................................ 56
CEE Tier 2 Ice Machines ................................................................................................................. 64
ENERGY STAR Commercial Combination Ovens (Natural Gas or Electric)..................................... 68
Oven, Convection, ENERGY STAR, Electric ..................................................................................... 73
Oven, Convection, ENERGY STAR, Natural Gas .............................................................................. 77
2015 Wisconsin Focus on Energy TRM, Cadmus
i
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000 / [email protected]
Commercial Refrigerator, ENERGY STAR ....................................................................................... 80
Commercial Freezers, ENERGY STAR ............................................................................................. 85
HVAC .........................................................................................................................................90
Demand Control Ventilation for Air Handling Units ...................................................................... 90
Parking Garage Ventilation Controls.............................................................................................. 95
Surgery Occupancy, HVAC Controls ............................................................................................... 98
Economizer, RTU Optimization .................................................................................................... 104
Natural Gas Furnace with ECM, 95%+ AFUE (Existing) ................................................................ 113
Variable Frequency Drive HVAC Applications .............................................................................. 115
RTU Optimization - Programmable Thermostat .......................................................................... 118
A/C Split or Packaged System, High Efficiency............................................................................. 122
Demand Control Ventilation, RTU Optimization ......................................................................... 127
Steam Trap Repair, >50 PSIG, General Heating ........................................................................... 130
A/C Split System, ≤ 65 MBh, SEER 14/15/16+.............................................................................. 135
Steam Trap Repair, < 50 psig, General Heating ........................................................................... 139
Air Conditioning Unit Tune Up - Coil Cleaning ............................................................................. 142
Air Conditioning Unit Tune Up - Refrigerant Charge Correction ................................................. 145
Chiller Plant Setpoint Adjustment ............................................................................................... 149
Cooling System Tune-Up .............................................................................................................. 154
Economizer Optimization............................................................................................................. 158
Hot Water Supply Reset ............................................................................................................... 162
Outside Air Intake Control Optimization ..................................................................................... 166
Retrocommissioning, Express Building Tune-Up ......................................................................... 171
Schedule Optimization ................................................................................................................. 174
Supply Air Temperature Reset ..................................................................................................... 180
Temperature Sensor Calibration.................................................................................................. 185
Valve Repair ................................................................................................................................. 190
VFD Fan Motor Control Restoration ............................................................................................ 194
VFD Pump Control Restoration .................................................................................................... 198
Variable Speed ECM Pump, Domestic Hot Water Recirculation, Heating Water Circulation, and
Cooling Water Circulation ............................................................................................................ 202
2015 Wisconsin Focus on Energy TRM, Cadmus
ii
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000 / [email protected]
Lighting ................................................................................................................................... 208
Lighting Fixture, Agricultural Daylighting..................................................................................... 208
Daylighting Control ...................................................................................................................... 212
Bi Level Controls, High Bay Fixtures ............................................................................................. 216
Occupancy Sensors for High Bay Fixtures .................................................................................... 222
Occupancy Sensors – Prescriptive ............................................................................................... 228
CFL Fixture, 12 Hours, CALP ......................................................................................................... 233
HPT8, 1-Foot by 4-Foot, Replacing T12 or T8, 2 Lamp ................................................................. 236
8-Foot Linear Fluorescent T8 Replacement System .................................................................... 241
Reduced Wattage T5 and T5HO Lamps Replacing Standard T5 Lamps ....................................... 248
Reduced Wattage 8-Foot T8 Lamps Replacing 8-Foot Standard T8 Lamps ................................. 252
T8, Low-Watt Relamp .................................................................................................................. 255
Ceramic Metal Halide Lamp, ≤ 25 Watts ..................................................................................... 260
Exterior/Parking LED Fixtures ...................................................................................................... 262
LED Fixture or PSMH/CMH, Replacing 1,000 Watt HID, Exterior ................................................ 266
LED Fixture Replacing T8/T12 U-Tube Lamps .............................................................................. 269
LED Fixture Replacing 2x4 Linear Fluorescent Fixture ................................................................. 273
Bi-Level Controls for Interior, Exterior, and Parking Garages ...................................................... 279
Delamping, T12 to T8, T8 to T8 .................................................................................................... 283
Delamping Light Fixtures ............................................................................................................. 288
T8 2-Foot Lamps Replacing T8 and T12 U-Tube Lamps ............................................................... 291
Exterior Lighting Optimization ..................................................................................................... 295
HID, Reduced Wattage, Replacing HID, Interior, Exterior, Parking Garage ................................. 303
LED Troffer, 2x4, Replacing 4-Foot, 3-4 Lamp T8 Troffer............................................................. 309
LED Fixture, ≤ 180 Watts, Replacing 4 Lamp T5 or 6 Lamp T8, High Bay, DLC Listed .................. 313
LED Downlights Replacing CFL Downlight.................................................................................... 317
LED Fixture, Downlights, ≤ 18 Watts, Replacing Incandescent Downlight, Exterior ................... 321
Exterior LED Downlights Luminaires > 18 Watts.......................................................................... 324
Exterior LED Fixtures Replacement.............................................................................................. 327
LED Replacing Incandescent, Exterior .......................................................................................... 330
LED Fixtures, High Bay.................................................................................................................. 333
2015 Wisconsin Focus on Energy TRM, Cadmus
iii
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000 / [email protected]
LED, Horizontal Case Lighting ...................................................................................................... 337
LED, Direct Install ......................................................................................................................... 340
LED Exit Signs ............................................................................................................................... 344
LED Fixture, Downlights, Accent Lights, and Monopoint ≤ 18 Watts .......................................... 347
LED Fixture, Downlights, ≤ 100 Watts, ≥ 4,000 Lumens, Exterior, Interior ................................. 350
LED Fixture, Downlights, ≥ 6,000 Lumens, Exterior, Interior ....................................................... 350
LED 1-Foot by 4-Foot Replacing 2 Lamp Linear Fluorescent........................................................ 357
LED 8-Foot, Replacing T12 or T8, 1 or 2 Lamp ............................................................................. 361
LED, Recessed Downlight, ENERGY STAR ..................................................................................... 365
LED Replacement of 4-Foot T8 Lamps Using Existing Ballast ...................................................... 368
LED Replacement of 4-Foot T8 Lamps with Integral or External Driver ...................................... 372
LED Lamp Replacing Incandescent Lamp ≤ 40 Watts .................................................................. 376
LED Lamp Replacing Incandescent Lamp > 40 Watts .................................................................. 379
LED Tube Retrofit of 4-Foot T12 or T8 Fixtures ........................................................................... 382
LED Lamp Replacing Neon Sign .................................................................................................... 385
LED Fixture, 2x2, Low and High Output, DLC Listed..................................................................... 389
High Bay Fluorescent Lighting ...................................................................................................... 393
Exterior – Induction, PSMH, CMH, Linear Florescent Fixtures .................................................... 399
Parking Garage Induction PSMH CMH LF Fixtures ....................................................................... 403
High Bay – Induction, PSMH, CMH Fixtures ................................................................................. 407
Other ....................................................................................................................................... 412
DEET Behavioral Savings .............................................................................................................. 412
Process .................................................................................................................................... 417
Process Exhaust Filtration ............................................................................................................ 417
Pressure Screen Rotor.................................................................................................................. 420
Repulper Rotor ............................................................................................................................. 423
Variable Frequency Drive (Variable Torque and Constant Torque)............................................. 426
Refrigeration ........................................................................................................................... 431
Cooler Evaporator Fan Control .................................................................................................... 431
ECM Compressor Fan Motor........................................................................................................ 435
Reach In Refrigerated Case w/ Doors Replacing Open Multi Deck Case ..................................... 437
2015 Wisconsin Focus on Energy TRM, Cadmus
iv
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000 / [email protected]
Retrofit Open Multi-Deck Cases with Doors ................................................................................ 441
Strip Curtains for Walk-In Freezers and Coolers .......................................................................... 445
Renewable Energy ................................................................................................................... 451
Ground Source Heat Pump, Natural Gas and Electric Backup ..................................................... 451
Residential Measures ..................................................................................................................... 455
Boiler, Natural Gas ....................................................................................................................... 460
Boiler Control, Outside Air Temperature Reset/Cutout Control ................................................. 463
Boiler Tune-Up ............................................................................................................................. 466
Combination Boiler, Natural Gas, AFUE ≤ 0.95 ............................................................................ 468
Building Shell ........................................................................................................................... 472
Insulation, Attic, R-11 or R-19 to R-38 ......................................................................................... 476
Domestic Hot Water ................................................................................................................ 482
Kitchen Aerators, Single-Family ................................................................................................... 482
Bathroom Aerators ...................................................................................................................... 482
Shower Aerators, Single-Family ................................................................................................... 483
Kitchen, Bath, and Shower Aerators ............................................................................................ 487
DHW Temperature Turn Down, Direct Install, Electric and Natural Gas ..................................... 491
Insulation, Direct Install, Pipe, Electric ........................................................................................ 496
Insulation, Direct Install, Pipe, NG ............................................................................................... 499
Retail Store Markdown, Low-Flow Showerheads ........................................................................ 502
Domestic Hot Water Plant Replacement ..................................................................................... 506
Condensing Water Heater, NG, 90%+.......................................................................................... 510
Water Heater, ≥ 0.82 EF, Tankless, Residential, Natural Gas ...................................................... 515
Water Heater, Indirect ................................................................................................................. 518
HVAC ....................................................................................................................................... 522
Smart Thermostat ........................................................................................................................ 522
Smart Thermostat, Installed with Home Heating Measure ......................................................... 529
Gas Furnace.................................................................................................................................. 536
Joint Furnace & Central AC with ECM .......................................................................................... 540
Laundry ................................................................................................................................... 544
ENERGY STAR Multifamily Common Area Clothes Washers ....................................................... 544
2015 Wisconsin Focus on Energy TRM, Cadmus
v
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000 / [email protected]
CFL, Direct Install, 9, 14, 19, or 23 Watts ..................................................................................... 551
CFL, Direct Install, 20 Watt........................................................................................................... 554
CFL, Direct Install, 13 Watt, 18 Watt............................................................................................ 556
CFL Fixture, Interior or Exterior, 24 Hours, CALP ......................................................................... 558
CFL Reflector Lamps ..................................................................................................................... 560
CFL, Reflector, 15 Watt, Retail Store Markdown ......................................................................... 563
CFL, Standard Bulb, Retail Store Markdown ................................................................................ 566
2-Lamp F28T5, HPT8, RWT8 2x4 High- Efficiency Recessed Fixtures .......................................... 569
8-Foot Linear Fluorescent T8 Replacement System Parking Garage ........................................... 572
Linear Fluorescent, 2-Lamp, 4-Foot, RWT8 Replacements, 24 Hours, CALP ............................... 577
Linear Fluorescent, 2-Lamp, 4-Foot, RWT8 Replacements, 12 Hours, CALP ............................... 580
LED, Direct Install, 9.5 Watt ......................................................................................................... 583
LED, Omnidirectional, Retail Store Markdown ............................................................................ 586
LED, Direct Install, 10 Watt .......................................................................................................... 589
LED, Direct Install, 13.5 Watt ....................................................................................................... 591
LED, Reflector, 12 Watt, Retail Store Markdown ........................................................................ 593
LED Fixture, Interior, Above 12 Hours to 24 Hours- CALP ........................................................... 596
LED, ENERGY STAR, Replacing Incandescent ≤ 40 Watts ............................................................. 600
LED, ENERGY STAR, Replacing Incandescent > 40 Watts ............................................................. 603
ENERGY STAR LED Porch Fixtures ................................................................................................ 608
Motors and Drives ................................................................................................................... 611
ECM, Furnace or Air Handler ....................................................................................................... 611
Air Source Heat Pump, ≥ 16 SEER ................................................................................................ 614
Other ....................................................................................................................................... 617
Multifamily Benchmarking Incentive ........................................................................................... 617
Refrigeration ........................................................................................................................... 623
Refrigerator and Freezer Recycling .............................................................................................. 623
Renewable Energy ................................................................................................................... 626
Ground Source Heat Pump, Residential, Natural Gas and Electric Backup ................................. 626
Solar Photovoltaic ........................................................................................................................ 630
Solar Thermal ............................................................................................................................... 634
2015 Wisconsin Focus on Energy TRM, Cadmus
vi
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000 / [email protected]
Appendix A: List of Acronyms ......................................................................................................... 639
Appendix B: Common Variables ..................................................................................................... 641
Hours-of-Use ................................................................................................................................ 641
Coincidence Factors ..................................................................................................................... 643
Phased-In EISA 2007 Standards ................................................................................................... 644
Equivalent Full-Load Hours .......................................................................................................... 645
Flow Rates .................................................................................................................................... 645
Temperature (Water)................................................................................................................... 646
Outside Air Temperature Bin Analysis ......................................................................................... 647
Heating and Cooling Degree Days................................................................................................ 647
Appendix C: Effective Useful Life Table ........................................................................................... 648
Appendix D: Incremental Costs ....................................................................................................... 678
Appendix E: Measure Lookup by MMID .......................................................................................... 734
2015 Wisconsin Focus on Energy TRM, Cadmus
vii
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000 / [email protected]
Executive Summary
Under its contract with the Public Service Commission of Wisconsin (the PSC) to evaluate the Wisconsin
Focus on Energy programs, the Evaluation Team 1—in coordination with the Program Administrator, the
Program Implementers, and PSC staff—compiled this Technical Reference Manual (TRM). The
information contained in this document summarizes the consensus calculations of the electric and
natural gas energy savings, and the electric demand reductions, achieved from installing energy
efficiency and renewable energy measures that are supported by Focus on Energy programs. This TRM is
publicly available online at http://www.focusonenergy.com/about/evaluation-reports.
The values presented in this TRM fall into one of two categories:
•
Deemed Savings are specific per-unit saving or demand reduction values that have been
accepted by the Program Administrator, Program Implementers, Evaluator, and the PSC because
the measures and the uses for the measures are consistent, and sound research supports the
savings achieved.
•
Savings Algorithms are equations for calculating savings or demand reductions based on
project- and measure-specific details. This TRM makes these calculations transparent by
identifying and justifying all relevant formulas, variables, and assumptions.
This TRM is also a reference guide as to how measures are classified in Focus on Energy’s tracking
database, SPECTRUM. This document is revised twice annually to account for changes to programs
and/or measures.
The Evaluation Team leveraged many different primary and secondary sources to derive the calculation
algorithms, variable assumptions, and measure descriptions contained in this TRM. These sources
include available best practices and industry standards; on-site evaluation, measurement, and
verification (EM&V) of savings from Focus on Energy projects; engineering reviews; and reviews of
practices used in other jurisdictions. To best represent the Wisconsin climates and demographics, as
well as program implementation practices, these energy-savings calculations account for state-specific
factors such as climate zones, building codes, and market penetrations.
Update Process
The TRM is updated twice each year, at the beginning of the year and in fall. The early-year update
reflects the savings that will be in effect for the calendar year. The fall update incorporates savings
updates from evaluation findings that will be effective for the following calendar year. The present
edition presents deemed savings and inputs effective for calendar year 2016.
1
The Evaluation Team consists of Cadmus, Nexant, St. Norbert College Strategic Research Institute, TecMarket
Works, Apex Analytics, and REMI.
2015 Wisconsin Focus on Energy TRM, Cadmus
viii
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000 / [email protected]
Annual updates keep the TRM relevant and useful by:
•
Presenting validated savings calculations for any new measures Focus on Energy has begun
offering through its programs since the last update;
•
Eliminating measures that are no longer being offered through Focus on Energy programs; and
•
Updating information on existing measures to reflect new research findings and technology
changes.
Two processes are in place for updating the TRM and ensuring that those updates are timely,
comprehensive, and accurate. All content updates are integrated into the existing document, with
changes indicated in the Revision History table included for each measure entry.
1. Updates to savings calculations for existing measures are only made in the fall TRM revision. As
part of the annual impact evaluation, the Evaluation Team identifies whether measures’
recommended savings could be informed by evaluation findings and/or the presence of new
research. The Evaluation Team works with the Program Administrator and the PSC to determine
whether the findings are significant enough to merit a full review of the measure savings.
Further review is typically pursued for those measure(s) that make a significant contribution to
overall program savings, as well as when a lengthy period of time has elapsed since the measure
was last reviewed, and/or if there is uncertainty regarding the accuracy of the existing savings
calculations.
In summer of each year, the Evaluation Team issues the results of its review, including any
proposed revisions to savings calculations or other aspects of the existing TRM content. Program
Implementation staff, the Program Administrator, and PSC staff review the proposed updates to
achieve consensus on final revisions for publication in the fall TRM.
By publishing all changes to existing measures in the fall update, the TRM is able to inform the
Program Administrator and Program Implementers in program planning for the upcoming year.
2. Focus on Energy Program Implementers may propose adding new measures or changing the
definition of existing measures at any time during the year, by preparing a workpaper that
follows the structure of a TRM entry. These workpapers are reviewed by members of the
Evaluation Team, the Program Administrator, and PSC staff to ensure that the proposed savings
calculations are fully and adequately justified. Workpapers that meet this standard must have
the following key criteria:
a. A clear definition of the measure;
b. A clear description of how the measure saves energy;
c. A complete description of the calculation algorithms used to calculate savings, which
identifies all variables and, where relevant, identifies the standard values to be used as
inputs; and
d. Citation of all data to valid sources.
2015 Wisconsin Focus on Energy TRM, Cadmus
ix
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000 / [email protected]
The initial workpaper may be revised to ensure that all criteria are met and to achieve consensus on a
final savings recommendation. Workpapers that pass all levels of the review receive formal approval
from the PSC.
New measures and revised savings calculations take effect for the programs immediately after the
workpaper is approved. Similarly, existing measures are deactivated as soon as they are no longer
offered. As a result, the TRM does not have details for all active measures or savings calculations at
every point during the year.
Measure additions and deactivations completed during the first half of the calendar year are
incorporated into the August/September update. The January/February TRM update addresses
additions and deactivations that occur later in the preceding year. The January/February update is
limited to additions and deletions and does not incorporate any changes to continuing measures.
Navigating the TRM
Focus on Energy savings and demand reductions are calculated, and incentives are paid, by measure.
Measures are defined as a specific product, technology, or service offered through one or more Focus
on Energy programs, for which definable savings can be identified. Some TRM entries describe the
savings for a single measure. Other entries address a group of related measures whose savings are
calculated in a consistent way, such as measures that offer the same type of lighting product in different
wattages.
TRM entries are grouped by technology and function, based on the group designations used to classify
measures in SPECTRUM. Most groups are based on technology, including a lighting group with
subcategories addressing CFLs, LEDs, and other specific lighting technologies. Some measures are
grouped by technology end use, such as laundry or food service. These classifications are used for
planning purposes and to categorize savings outcomes in evaluation reports.
Measure Detail Structure
Each entry describes the measure and its savings using the following format:
1. An introductory Measure Detail Table summarizes the measure savings and characteristics,
including the formal measure name and any information necessary to include the measure
in SPECTRUM. The measure detail table also identifies two key characteristics that guide
how savings are calculated.
First, the detail table identifies all sectors in which the measure is offered, which include: 2
a. Residential single-family homes;
b. Residential multifamily dwellings (such as apartment buildings and condominiums);
c. Commercial facilities;
2
Because measures that are incented through a markdown on the retail price at the store cannot be clearly
assigned to a sector, they are assigned to the “upstream” sector based on the program design.
2015 Wisconsin Focus on Energy TRM, Cadmus
x
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000 / [email protected]
d. Industrial facilities;
e. Agriculture facilities; and
f.
School and government facilities.
In many cases, the energy savings calculated for a measure will be the same for each sector in
which it is used. However, this can vary for measures that are used differently by different
customer sectors. For example, research has confirmed that, on average, homeowners,
commercial businesses, and industrial facilities use the same lighting product for different
amounts of time and at different times of the day, resulting in different annual electricity
savings and demand reductions.
3. Second, the table documents the measure type, which identifies the process by which savings
are calculated. Each Focus on Energy measure is one of the following three measure types:
a. Prescriptive measures have a specific deemed savings value that can be applied to each
project within a given sector where the measure is used. This measure type is most
commonly used for products that are manufactured and used consistently by all
participants, such as light bulbs and appliances.
b. Custom measure savings vary by project. This applies to more complex, multifaceted
measures with different energy-use factors for each project, such as changes to industrial
processes. TRM entries for custom measures do not identify savings values, but instead
specify the savings algorithm that should be used to calculate savings and the source and
calculation method used for algorithm inputs.
c. Hybrid measure savings, like custom measure savings, vary by project, and are treated like
custom measures in the TRM. The distinction between hybrid and custom measures is that
the value of custom incentives also varies by project, while hybrid incentives are the same
for each project.
4. The next three sections describe the measure(s) and how they achieve energy savings. The
Measure Description defines the product, technology, or service. The Description of Baseline
Condition identifies the less efficient product or service the customer could purchase in absence
of Focus on Energy programs and incentives, while the Description of Efficient Condition
identifies how the measure incented through Focus on Energy is more efficient than the
baseline. Measures achieve energy savings and/or demand reductions based on the difference
in energy use and demand between the baseline and efficient conditions.
5. Formulas are provided to specify the energy savings and demand reduction calculations. The
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm identifies how to calculate the electricity and/or natural gas
savings achieved per year. The Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm identifies the
formula used to calculate reductions in electric demand, under the assumption that peak
electric demand in Wisconsin occurs weekday afternoons (from 1:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m.) in the
months of June, July, and August. The Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm identifies the formula
used to convert annual electricity and/or natural gas savings to the lifecycle savings achieved
over the expected useful life (EUL) of the measure. In addition to describing the algorithms used,
2015 Wisconsin Focus on Energy TRM, Cadmus
xi
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000 / [email protected]
all three sections specify the values of variables used in the calculation. These inputs may
include assumptions about usage behavior or other details obtained through research. For
custom and hybrid measures, the algorithms also note which inputs should be calculated on a
project-by-project basis, from sources such as engineering reviews, modeling inputs, or on-site
measurements.
6. Savings calculated through those formulas are often reported in the Measure Detail Table.
However, in some cases—such as when there are calculations for multiple related measures—
there is too much detail to concisely include in the Measure Detail Table. In those cases, a
Deemed Savings section describes all completed savings calculations. In some cases, an
Assumptions section may also be added to describe the process of selecting and/or calculating
algorithm inputs in greater detail.
7. All factual statements and figures throughout the measure description include a superscript
citation. The Sources section lists those citations numerically. For public sources such as
published studies, hyperlinks and publication information are provided for the original source.
More details on data cited to internal sources, such as historical Focus on Energy data or
measure-specific market research, can be obtained from program staff. Initial inquiries can be
directed to Joe Fontaine at the PSC, (608) 266-0910, [email protected]
8. The Revision History Table lists all the revision dates for that TRM entry and briefly describes
the changes.
Acknowledgements
Many individuals and companies have made valuable contributions to compiling and validating the TRM,
as well as to preparing the measure write-ups and savings calculations that preceded the first edition.
Special thanks go to:
•
Robert McCormack and Brian Evans from Cadmus
•
Carol Stemrich, Joe Fontaine, and Denise Schmidt from the PSC of Wisconsin
•
Allison Carlson and Erinn Monroe from CB&I, the Focus on Energy Program Administrator
•
Program Implementers, which includes:

CLEAResult – Bobbi Fey, Kate Wesselink, Phil Grupe, Carter Dedolph and Donna Bambrough
and Seth Craigo-Snell

Franklin Energy Services – Frank Falter and Tony Haas

GDS Associates – Mark Bergum

JACO – Phil Sisson

CESA 10 – Melissa Rickert and Jason Garvens

Leidos – Amy Wanek and Craig Schepp

Staples Energy and GDS – Nathan Baer and Chase Kelm

The Weidt Group – Adam Niederloh

Wisconsin Energy Conservation Corporation – Andy Kuc
2015 Wisconsin Focus on Energy TRM, Cadmus
xii
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Business (Nonresidential) Measures
Through the Business portfolio, Wisconsin Focus on Energy delivers energy efficiency and renewable
energy programs to nonresidential utility customers in the State. Customers eligible to participate in
these programs include commercial and industrial firms, agricultural producers, schools, and local
governments. With the programs, Focus on Energy aims to help nonresidential customers meet their
unique and complex electricity and natural gas needs as efficiently as possible. Focus on Energy
accomplishes this by providing information, financial incentives, and support for implementing energyefficient technologies. These technologies include, but are not limited to, efficient lighting, heating and
cooling systems, motors and drives, appliances, renewable energy systems, and custom products
specific to key industries, such as food service and agricultural production.
The calendar year 2016 Nonresidential portfolio includes seven programs designed to meet the needs of
different types of nonresidential customers.
Focus on Energy designed three programs to serve nonresidential customers with different levels of
energy use.
1. The Small Business Program serves small business customers with relatively low energy
use, providing free direct installation of measures such as CFLs and exit signs, and offering
incentives for the installation of additional measures.
2. The Large Energy Users Program serves customers with high energy use, such as large
industrial firms and large commercial facilities, providing implementation support and
incentives designed to meet each user’s specific energy needs.
3. The Business Incentive Program offers product-based and custom incentives for customers
whose energy demand ranges between 100 kW and 1,000 kW per month.
In addition, two programs offer support for markets with specialized needs. The Chains & Franchises
Program offers incentives and support designed for customers who have five or more facilities in the
State of Wisconsin, such as retail businesses and restaurants. The Agriculture, Schools and Government
Program offers specialized incentives and support to address the needs of public facilities and
agricultural producers.
Nonresidential customers who are building new facilities can receive support from the Design
Assistance Program, which connects customers, builders, and developers with experts who can provide
energy-saving recommendations, and provides incentives to customers who incorporate those
recommendations into their new construction.
Finally, the Renewable Energy Competitive Incentive Program offers incentives for installing a
renewable energy technology through a competitive Request for Proposal.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
1
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Agriculture
Grain Dryer, Energy Efficient, Hybrid
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
Grain Dryer, Energy Efficient, Hybrid, 3386
Per bushels/hour of grain dryer capacity
Hybrid
Agriculture
Dryer
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
0
0
Calculated
0
Calculated
0
5,8
20
N/A
Measure Description
This incentive offering is for agricultural operation replacing existing grain drying systems with more
energy efficient batch or continuous flow grain drying systems that have less than a 1,500 bushels per
hour capacity. Older equipment, although still operational, becomes efficiency obsolete and can be
more expensive to operate. Newer grain dryers generally have larger drying capacities, which can
process loads faster and at a greater efficiency. Installing a new and more efficient grain dryer will
effectively allow for reduced annual hours of operation by allowing for faster process of grain through
increased efficiency. The purpose of drying grain is to reduce the amount of water in the crop after
harvest to an acceptable level for marketing, storage, or processing. This incentive will be provided
based on the bushel per hour processing capacity of the new grain dryer.
In-bin drying and tower grain drying are excluded and will be handled as custom measures.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline grain dryer system is assumed to be at least 20 years old, and operating at an efficiency of
2,241.20 Btu/lb moisture removed.1 This baseline value was based on historical documentation from 27
completed Focus on Energy grain dryer upgrades/projects that received monetary incentives for
improvements. Emphasis was placed on projects that reported at least two years of historical energy
consumption and actual grain drying efficiencies based on the weather conditions during each specific
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
2
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
year. Based on this emphasis, 10 projects were chosen to represent an accurate baseline (shown in table
below).
Baseline Efficiency Data from Past Projects
Focus on Energy
Project Number
Project
Designation
Reported Baseline
Efficiency [Btu/lb H2O]
26046
1
28478
2
29705
3
29713
4
29724
5
29995
6
35670
7
36208
8
37285
9
42041
10
Average Efficiency [Btu/lb H 2 O]:
1,806.20
2,187.00
2,158.00
2,159.67
2,365.00
1,569.33
2,406.25
2,147.00
2,768.75
2,844.80
2,241.20
This measured data aligns with the reported efficiency of a traditional cross-flow dryer of 2,500 Btu/lb
H2O.2 These projects are plotted below, with blue representing the 10 baseline projects and red
representing the remaining 17 projects.
Past Grain Dryer Projects
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
3
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
It is understood that the proposed equipment efficiency, based on manufacturer specifications, will
remain constant regardless of location. However, this efficiency is dependent on the month of harvest
and the weather conditions during that harvest. Specifically, the enthalpy (Btu/lb dry air), which varies
based on the dry-bulb temperature and relative humidity, will have the largest impact on the efficiency
of the grain dryers.
It well known that grain is hygroscopic and will exchange moisture with the surrounding air until a state
of equilibrium is reached, so using enthalpy to normalize the efficiency of the grain dryers allows for
greater accuracy in formulating a baseline efficiency. Based on this, farmers typically wait to harvest
their grain until the last few month of the year, specifically October through November.3 Given the wide
geography of past projects, the 13 past projects were chosen to represent a wide variety of locations
and typical weather data, representing the state as a whole.
While the proposed grain dryer efficiency is very dependent on the weather conditions and time of
harvest, there is no accurate way to depict or normalize this information without ongoing case studies
to verify manufacturer claims.
Description of Efficient Condition
Per the North Dakota State University Extension Service, the minimum energy required to evaporate
water from corn is approximately 1,200 Btu/lb H2O, and the realistic dryer maximum efficiency is about
1,500 Btu/lb H2O.2
The proposed efficiency was calculated using a historical representation of completed grain dryer
projects (see the table below). This weighted average efficiency for proposed grain dryers is
representative of completed projects in Wisconsin and illustrates manufacturer claims of ideal
efficiencies. The proposed manufacturer efficiency should be used for determining the potential
incentive and energy savings claim. The calculated proposed efficiency value is only an average, and can
be improved pending the manufacturer claims for total system efficiency. However, the minimum
qualifying efficiency for a grain dryer replacement should meet and/or exceed the claimed value of
1,625.20 Btu/lb H2O.1
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
4
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Proposed/Installed Efficiency Data from Past Projects
Focus on Energy
Project Number
Project
Designation
26046
1
28478
2
29705
3
29713
4
29724
5
29995
6
35670
7
36208
8
37285
9
42041
10
Average Efficiency [Btu/lb H2O]
Proposed/Installed
Efficiency [Btu/lb H 2 O]
1,644.00
1,643.00
1,634.00
1,790.00
1,702.00
1,300.00
1,517.00
1,783.00
1,803.00
1,436.00
1,625.20
As the measured dryer efficiency from past projects averages very close to the maximum efficiency of
1,500 Btu/lb H2O, a revised efficient condition of 1,700 Btu/lb H2O is conservative. Note that since this
measure is hybrid, the actual drying efficiency will be calculated for the specific efficient grain that is
installed.
To ensure that the efficient grain dryer is in fact more efficient than the previous dryer, the efficient
grain dryer must use at least 250 Btu/lb H2O less than the baseline dryer to qualify for an incentive. The
efficient grain dryer must also have at least one of the following features specific to making the dryer
more energy efficient:
•
Staged temperature (higher temperature for wet grain, lower for dry grain)
•
Grain turners or inverters (which rotate mostly dry grain away from plenum and wetter grain
near plenum)
•
Differential grain speed (column designed to move grain next to drying plenum faster to reduce
excessive grain temperatures and provide a more uniform moisture content)
•
Varied width of the drying column (narrower at top where the grain is wettest, allowing humid
air to vent to the atmosphere faster)
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
The annual fuel savings is based on a conservative average of 15% to 22% moisture content removed for
grain being dried. These values were estimated from actual reported moisture content for the 13
projects with historical documentation. In an effort to account for variance in weather conditions, a
conservative average of 7.0 points of moisture content removed was assumed in lieu of the 8.7 points
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
5
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
reported. Shelled corn at 15% and 22% moisture content equates to 55.67 lb/bu and 60.67 lb/bu,
respectively.4
Note that the energy savings calculations remain constant regardless of the grain being dried. The only
variables in drying other grains, such as wheat or soybeans, relates to the moisture content percentage
and weights per bushel. This workpaper only identifies a savings estimate for shelled corn, as this was
more representative of the completed projects used in the energy savings analysis.
Therm SAVED = bu * (W HARVEST – W DRY ) * (Ƞ BASE – Ƞ PROPOSED ) * (1/100,000)
Where:
bu
=
Annual bushels of grain processed
W HARVEST
=
Weight of corn at harvest at assumed 22% moisture (= 60.67 lb/bu)4
WDRY
=
Weight of corn after drying at assumed 15% moisture (= 55.67 lb/bu)4
ηBASE
=
Energy efficiency of existing grain dryer (= 2,241.20 Btu/lb, unless there
is historical data to calculate)
η PROPOSED
=
Energy efficiency of proposed grain dryer (= 1,625.20 Btu/lb, unless
there is detailed manufacturer data to calculate)
1/100,000 =
Conversion factor from Btu to therms
If historical data is available to calculate the baseline efficiency for the existing grain dryer, it is
determined by the following formula:
ηBASE = 𝛶𝛶 * [C P,H2O * ρ * (T F – T I ) * C 1 ] / [((M I – M F )/(100 – M F )) * C G * M C * ηCOMB]
Where:
𝛶𝛶
=
Airflow rate in cubic feet per minute
C P,H2O
=
Specific heat of water vapor (= 0.443905 BTU/lb * Rankine)5
ρ
=
Density of water vapor (= 0.036745 lb/cubic foot)5
TF
=
Plenum temperature of grain dryer (= 210°F)6
TI
=
Average ambient temperature (= 40.73°F)7
C1
=
Conversion constant for 60 minutes per hour
MI
=
Initial moisture content (= 22% unless otherwise proven)
MF
=
Final moisture content (= 15% unless otherwise proven)
CG
=
Existing grain dryer capacity flowrate in bushels per hour
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
6
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
MC
=
Mass of corn at 22% moisture content (= 60.67 lb/bu, unless there is
historical data to support a different value)3
η COMB
=
Combustion efficiency of natural gas, assumed 95%
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
There are no electric savings being claimed.
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
Therm LIFECYCLE = bu * (W HARVEST – W DRY ) * (Ƞ BASE – Ƞ PROPOSED ) * (1 therm / 100,000 Btu) * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Expected useful life (= 20 years; sources list measure life of 30 years5
and 10 to 12 years,8 so 20 years was selected as the midpoint)
Deemed Savings
The annual and lifecycle savings for efficient grain dryers are calculated based on an algorithm, as this is
a hybrid measure. This measure currently exists in SPECTRUM as a hybrid measure.
Assumptions
Energy savings for grain dryers is production-based, meaning that if more grain is dried, more savings
are achieved. The amount of grain harvested can be effected by the weather and the number of acres of
grain planted that year. The need for drying is also dependent on the weather, with drier weather during
harvest requiring less grain drying.
To attempt to control for these variables, the bushels of grain dried over the past two to three years is
collected on the application, along with anticipated drying needs in the upcoming two to three years.
This will help identify the variability in grain dryer use based on past harvests, and will also identify any
expected production increases or decreases after the grain dryer is installed, so that an accurate value of
bushels of grain dried per year can be used in the hybrid calculations.
The specific energy efficiency of most high capacity grain dryers, including existing and proposed
systems, range from 1,500 Btu/lb of water to 3,000 Btu/lb of water removed.9
The average cost of a grain dryer was determined as $56.00 per bushel per hour capacity.10
Sources
1. Ag Grain Dryer Calcs WI. Excel spreadsheet. Revised January 2014.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
7
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
2. North Dakota State University, Department of Agriculture and Biosystems Engineering. Grain
Dryer Selection and Energy Efficiency Presentation by Kenneth Hellevang, Ph.D., P.E.
https://www.ag.ndsu.edu/pubs/plantsci/smgrains/ae701.pdf
3. Iowa Corn. “FAQ.” March 10, 2013. http://www.iowacorn.org/en/corn_use_education/faq/
4. Penn State Agronomy Guide. Table 1.4-13. Weight of corn (shelled and ear) to equal 56 lb (1
bu) shelled corn at 15.5 percent moister. March 10, 2013.
http://extension.psu.edu/agronomy-guide
5. Shapiro and Moran. Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics. Washington DC: McGraw
Hill, 1995. 815. Print.
6. GSI Group LLC. “Tower Drying.” Brochure. October 2010.
http://www.schafstall.net/gsi/TSeriesTowerDryer.pdf
7. “National Solar Radiation Data Base.” http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/nsrdb/19912005/tmy3/by_state_and_city.html#W. Average temperature calculated from TMY3 hourly
weather data for Madison, Wisconsin in the typical harvest months of October and November.
8. Iowa State University Ag Extension. “Computing a Grain Storage Rental Rate.” October 10,
2013. http://www.extension.iastate.edu/agdm/wholefarm/pdf/c2-24.pdf . and Maier, Dirk E.
and F.W. Bakker-Arkema. “Grain Drying Systems.” Paper presented at the Facility Design
Conference of the Grain Elevator & Processing Society, St. Charles, Illinois, July 28-31, 2002.
Available online: http://www.uwex.edu/energy/pubs/GrainDryingSystems_GEAPS2002.pdf .
9. Drss. Maier and Bakker-Arkema. "Grain Drying Systems." St. Charles: 2002. Print.
10. Brock Grain Dryer Prices.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
02
10/11/2013
01/29/2014
New measure
Revised per comments
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
8
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Energy Efficient or Energy Free Livestock Waterer
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Waterer, Livestock:
< 250 Watts, 2660
Energy Free, 3018
Per waterer
Prescriptive
Agriculture
Livestock Waterer
Agriculture
Varies by measure
0 (winter use only)
0
Varies by measure
0
0
1
10
MMID 2660 = $710.33; MMID 3018 = $741.00
Measure Description
Electrically heated waterers are commonly used to provide clean water for livestock during winter
months when temperatures may drop below freezing. Baseline efficiency waterers typically have no
insulation and require large heating elements to prevent water from freezing. Energy-efficient livestock
waterers have at least two inches of insulation, which allows for the use of much smaller heating
elements (less than 250 watts). Energy-free waterers have at least two inches of insulation and no
heating element, as they use ground source water to prevent freezing.
Description of Baseline Condition
The heating element for a baseline unit is typically at least 750 watts, but may be 1,500 watts or larger.
Retrofit waterer installations, both energy efficient and energy free, use a baseline of 1,100 watts. New
construction waterer calculations use a baseline of 500 watts.
Description of Efficient Condition
Efficient or low energy livestock waterers must have a minimum of two inches of insulation. The heating
element for an efficient unit will be a maximum of 250 watts. The energy-free unit may not have an
electric heating element installed, but instead uses ground source heating. The new waterer must be
able to serve the same herd size as the existing equipment. For new construction, the livestock waterer
must be energy free.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
9
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (Watts BASE – Watts EE ) / 1,000 * HOURS
Where:
Watts BASE
=
Power consumption of baseline measure equipment (= 1,100 watts for
retrofit; = 500 watts for new installation)2
Watts EE
=
Power consumption of efficient measure equipment (= 250 watts for
energy-efficient retrofit; = 0 watts for energy-free installation)
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOURS
=
Average annual run hours of heater (= 3,040; annual operation is used
as a conservative estimate of the number of hours below 32°F annually
throughout the State of Wisconsin, consistent with TMY3 bin data)
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (Watts BASE – Watts EE) / 1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 0)
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 10 years)1
Deemed Savings
Average Annual Deemed Savings
Type
Energy Efficient Livestock Waterer
Energy Free Retrofit Livestock Waterer
Energy Free New Construction Livestock Waterer
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
MMID
Sector
kWh
2660
3018
3018
Agriculture
Agriculture
Agriculture
2,584
3,344
1,520
10
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Lifecycle Energy Savings
Type
Energy Efficient Livestock Waterer
Energy Free Retrofit Livestock Waterer
Energy Free New Construction Livestock Waterer
MMID
Sector
kWh
2660
3018
3018
Agriculture
Agriculture
Agriculture
25,840
33,440
15,200
Peak Demand Deemed Reduction
Type
All Livestock Waterers
MMIDs
kWh
2660 and 3018
0
Assumptions
No peak demand (kW) savings are associated with this measure because heaters are generally only used
during winter months.
Source
1. PA Consulting Group Inc. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin Focus on
Energy Evaluation: Business Programs: Measure Life Study.” Final Report. August 25, 2009.
2. EnSave. Energy Efficient Stock Waterers.
http://www.usdairy.com/~/media/usd/public/ensaveenergyefficientstockwaterers.pdf
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
11
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Circulation Fan, High Efficiency, Ag
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Circulation Fan, High Efficiency, Ag, 2253
Per fan
Hybrid
Agriculture
Other
Agriculture
Varies
Varies
0
Varies
0
0
1
15
$150.00
Measure Description
Agriculture circulation fans are designed to destratify air, reduce animal heat stress, control insects, dry
surfaces, and cool people and animals. Generally, agricultural-grade air circulating fans are corrosion
resistant and designed for easy cleaning.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is an air circulation fan used within an agricultural building. Calculations are
performed using three separate fan diameter size groupings: 24-35 inches, 36-47 inches, and 48-71
inches. The baseline unit demand is based on the fan size groupings, at 450 watts, 620 watts, and 1,160
watts, respectively.
Description of Efficient Condition
To qualify for a prescriptive incentive, each circulation fan must undergo third-party testing and be rated
through the Bioenvironmental and Structural System Lab at the University of Illinois or through the Air
Control and Movement Association International Lab.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
12
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (CFM EE / VER EE – CFM BASE / VER BASE ) * HOURS
Where:
CFM EE
=
New efficient unit flow at 0.10 static pressure in CFM2
VER EE
=
New efficient unit ventilating efficiency ratio in CFM/watt at 0.10 static
pressure
CFM BASE
=
Baseline unit flow at 0.10 static pressure in CFM
VER BASE
=
Baseline unit ventilating efficiency ratio in CFM/watt at 0.10 static
pressure
HOURS
=
Annual hours of operation (= 2,935)2
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (CFM EE / VER EE – CFM BASE / VER BASE ) * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 1.0)
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 15 years)1
Sources
1. PA Consulting Group Inc. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin Focus on
Energy Evaluation: Business Programs: Measure Life Study.” Final Report. August 25, 2009.
2. Deemed savings from Illinois Technical Reference Manual Version 2.0 dated June 7, 2013,
referencing Illinois Act On Energy Commercial TRM No. 2010-4 dated May 31, 2011.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
13
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Boilers & Burners
Boiler, Hot Water, Near Condensing, ≥ 85% AFUE, ≥ 300 MBh
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Boiler, Hot Water, Near Condensing, ≥ 85% AFUE, ≥ 300 MBh, 3277
Per MBh
Prescriptive
Boilers & Burners
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Boiler
Residential- multifamily
0
0
1.42
0
28.31
0
1
20
$14.72
Measure Description
Mid-efficiency boilers use forced draft or induced draft power burners, instead of atmospheric draft, to
push or pull gases through the firebox and heat exchanger. Because these boilers have relatively high
efficiencies and relatively low flue gas temperatures, they are often constructed with stainless steel
or other corrosion-resistant materials to tolerate condensation in the boiler. These boilers are typically
used in applications where HESCCM boilers cannot be vented or where they will not have low enough
return water temperatures to condense the water vapor in the flue gas.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is a hot water boiler with 80% TE that is replaced on failure.2
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition for a mid-efficiency boiler is a TE ≥ 85% for hot water boilers and being capable of
modulating the firing rate. Redundant or backup boilers do not qualify.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
14
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Therm SAVED = BC *EFLH * (1 - EFF BASELINE / EFF EE ) / 100
Where:
BC
=
Boiler input capacity in MBh (= 1)
EFLH
=
Equivalent full-load hours (Multifamily residential= 1,759; Commercial,
Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government = see table below)3,4
Effective Full Load Heating and Cooling Hours by City
City
Green Bay
La Crosse
Madison
Milwaukee
EFLHheating
1,852
1,966
1,934
1,883
EFF BASELINE =
TE of the baseline measure (= 80%)
EFF EE
=
TE of the efficient measure (= 87%)
100
=
Conversion factor from MBtu to therms
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 20 years)1
Assumptions
The equipment efficiency used for the deemed savings is assumed as 87% TE.
The analysis assumes that residential furnaces are operated similarly to this type of large, multi-family
hot water boiler (i.e., both measures use a EFLH based on single unitary residential furnace data).
Sources
1. PA Consulting Group Inc. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin Focus on
Energy Evaluation Business Programs: Measure Life Study. Final Report. August 25, 2009.
Available
online: https://focusonenergy.com/sites/default/files/bpmeasurelifestudyfinal_evaluationrepor
t.pdf
2. Code of Federal Regulations Energy Efficiency Standards, Title 10 Part 431 Section 87.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
15
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
3. Multifamily: Full load hours for all residential natural gas measures estimate from: Pigg and
Nevius. Electricity Use by New Furnaces. 2000. Available online:
http://www.ecw.org/sites/d3efault/files/230-1.pdf
4. Non-residential: Several Cadmus metering studies reveal that the ENERGY STAR calculator EFLH
are over-estimated by 25%. The heating EFLH were adjusted by population-weighted HDD and
TMY-3 values.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
16
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Boiler Plant Retrofit, Hybrid Plant, >1 MMBh
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Boiler Plant Retrofit, Hybrid Plant, >1 MMBh, 3275
Per MBh
Prescriptive
Boilers & Burners
Boiler
Commercial, Industrial, Schools & Government
0
0
1.54
0
30.79
0
1,2
20
$25.65
Measure Description
High-efficiency sealed combustion, condensing, and modulating (HESCCM) boilers operate by taking
advantage of condensing in an effort to decrease energy consumption. Condensing boilers are designed
to capture latent heat by condensing water vapor in the exhaust stream. For a boiler to properly
condense, its return water temperature should be kept below 120°F. In order to capture as much latent
heat as possible, condensing boilers are made from stainless steel or other corrosion-resistant materials.
Mid-efficiency boilers use forced draft or induced draft power burners, instead of atmospheric draft, to
push or pull gases through the firebox and heat exchanger. Because these boilers have relatively high
efficiencies and relatively low flue gas temperatures, they are often constructed with stainless steel or
other corrosion-resistant materials to tolerate condensation in the boiler.
This measure applies to the entire boiler plant. The summation of the capacity for all heating equipment
must be greater than 1,000 MBh. This measure combines high- and mid-efficiency boilers in a boiler
plant to take advantage of both condensing boilers (when return water temperatures are low enough
for condensing) and mid-efficiency boilers (when return water temperatures do not allow for
condensing). The upgraded plant must have at least 50% high-efficiency boilers.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline is for multiple 300 MBh to 1,000 MBh boilers with a thermal efficiency of 80%.2
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
17
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is for the entire boiler plant to have capacity for all heating equipment greater
than 1,000 MBh. This measure combines the high- and mid-efficiency boilers in a boiler plant to take
advantage of both condensing boilers and mid-efficiency boilers. The upgraded plant must have at least
50% high-efficiency boilers with the following requirements:
•
High-efficiency boilers must have TE ≥ 90%
•
Mid-efficiency boilers must have TE ≥ 85%
•
Boiler plant must be > 1,000 MBh
•
Boilers must be capable of capacity modulation
•
Boilers must be used for space heating (HVAC), not for industrial purposes or domestic water
heating
•
Redundant or back-up boilers do not qualify
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Therm SAVED = (C Q * BOF * HDD * 24 / ∆T) * (TE Q / TE B - 1) / 100
Where:
CQ
=
Input capacity of qualifying unit in MBh (= 1)
BOF
=
Boiler oversize factor (= 77%)2
HDD
=
Heating degree days (= 7,616; see table below)
Heating Degree Days by Location
Location
HDD3
Milwaukee
Green Bay
Wausau
Madison
La Crosse
Minocqua
Rice Lake
Statewide Weighted
7,276
7,725
7,805
7,599
7,397
8,616
8,552
7,616
24
=
Conversion factor, hours per day
∆T
=
Design temperature difference (= 80°F)2
TE Q
=
Assumed thermal efficiency of mid- and high-efficiency boilers (= 87%)
TE B
=
Thermal efficiency of baseline boilers (= 80%)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
18
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
100
=
Conversion factor from MBtus to therms
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 20 years)1,2
Assumptions
It is assumed that the equipment efficiency used for the deemed savings has 87% TE, as an approximate
midpoint between the high-efficiency and mid-efficiency boilers jointly involved in the plant.
Sources
1. Similar measure in EUL Database (MMID 2208: Boiler Plant Retrofit, Hybrid Plant, 1- 5 MMBh)
2. PA Consulting Group Inc. Public Service Commission of Wisconsin Focus on Energy Evaluation,
Business Programs: Deemed Savings Manual, Final Report. March 22, 2010.
3. Calculated from TMY3 weather files of the seven Wisconsin locations using ASHRAE Estimation
of Degree-Days: Fundamentals, Chapter 14. Statewide weighted values calculated using 2010
U.S. Census data for Wisconsin.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
19
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Boiler Plant Retrofit, Mid-Efficiency Plant, 1-5 MMBh
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Boiler Plant Retrofit, Mid Efficiency Plant, 1-5 MMBh, 2209
Per MBh
Prescriptive
Boilers & Burners
Boiler
Residential- multifamily
0
0
1.10
0
21.99
0
1
20
$16.43
Measure Description
Mid-efficiency boilers use forced draft or induced draft power burners, instead of atmospheric draft, to
push or pull gases through the firebox and heat exchanger. Because these boilers have relatively high
efficiencies and relatively low flue gas temperatures, they are often constructed with stainless steel
or other corrosion-resistant materials to tolerate condensation in the boiler. This measure is for the
entire boiler plant, and the capacity for all heating equipment must fall within 1,000 MBh and 5,000
MBh.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline is for multiple 300 MBh to 1,000 MBh boilers with a thermal efficiency of 80%.2
Description of Efficient Condition
The upgraded plant must meet the following requirements:
•
Mid-efficiency boilers must have a TE ≥ 85%
•
Boiler plant must be between 1,000 MBh and 5,000 MBh
•
Boilers must be capable of capacity modulation
•
Boiler must be used for space heating (HVAC), not for industrial purposes or domestic water
heating
•
Redundant or back-up boilers do not qualify
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
20
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
The following equation is based on the Focus on Energy Business Incentive Program deemed savings for
boilers that have TE ≥ 85%.
Therm SAVED = (C Q * BOF * HDD * 24 / ∆T) * (TE Q / TE B – 1) / 100
Where:
CQ
=
Input capacity of qualifying unit in MBh (= 1)
BOF
=
Boiler oversize factor (= 77%)2
HDD
=
Heating degree days (= 7,616; see table below)
Heating Degree Days by Location
Location
HDD2
Milwaukee
Green Bay
Wausau
Madison
La Crosse
Minocqua
Rice Lake
Statewide Weighted
7,276
7,725
7,805
7,599
7,397
8,616
8,552
7,616
24
=
Conversion factor, hours per day
∆T
=
Design temperature difference (= 80°F)1
TE Q
=
Assumed thermal efficiency of qualifying unit (= 85%)
TE B
=
Thermal efficiency of baseline unit (= 80%)
1
=
Conversion factor to normalize difference
100
=
Conversion factor from MBtus to therms
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 20 years)1
Assumptions
The equipment efficiency used for the deemed savings is assumed to have 85% TE.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
21
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Sources
1. PA Consulting Group Inc. Public Service Commission of Wisconsin, Focus on Energy Evaluation,
Business Programs: Deemed Savings Manual, Final Report. March 22, 2010.
2. Calculated from TMY3 weather files of the seven Wisconsin locations using ASHRAE Estimation
of Degree-Days: Fundamentals, Chapter 14. Statewide weighted values calculated using 2010
U.S. Census data for Wisconsin.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
22
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Natural Gas Boilers (≤ 300 MBh) 90%+ AFUE
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
Natural Gas Boilers (≤ 300 MBh) 90%+ AFUE, 2743
Per Mbh
Hybrid
Boilers & Burners
Boiler
Residential- multifamily
0
0
Varies by boiler capacity
0
Varies by boiler capacity
0
1
20
3
Equipment Cost : $24.11/kBtu * 150 kBtu = $3,616.50
3
Incremental Cost : $11.80/kBtu * 150 kBtu = $1,770.00
4
Average Cost : ($3,616.50 * 0.60) + ($1,770 * 0.40) = $2,877.90
Measure Description
High-efficiency sealed combustion condensing modulating (HESCCM) boilers operate by taking
advantage of condensing to lower energy consumption. Condensing boilers are designed to capture the
latent heat of condensed water vapor in the exhaust stream, which produces high-efficiency levels. For a
boiler to operate in condensing mode, its return water temperature should be kept below 120°F.
In order to capture as much latent heat as possible, condensing boilers are made from stainless steel or
other corrosion resistant materials. Chimney liners must be installed if the boiler is replacing a naturally
drafting unit that was vented through the same flue as a water heater. Flue closure protocol must be
followed where the chimney used by the replaced unit is no longer in use.1
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline measure is an 82% AFUE boiler.2
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient measure is a 90%+ AFUE boiler that is capable of modulating the firing rate, has integrated
I/O reset control, and is used for space heating. Industrial process or DHW applications do not qualify.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
23
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
∆T=T indoor – T out design
DHR=BC * 0.77
DS=DHR*[(HDD*24/∆T)*(1/ƞ e – 1/ƞ p )/100]
Where:
T INDOOR
=
Desired indoor temperature at winter design conditions ( typically =
65°F)
T OUT,DESIGN
=
Outside winter design temperature
DHR
=
Design heating requirement, where 1 MBtuh = 1,000 Btu
BC
=
Boiler capacity rating (actual)
0.77
=
Estimated average boiler oversizing
DS
=
Deemed therms saved per year
HDD
=
Heating degree days, base 65°F
24
=
Conversion of hours per day
ΔT
=
Change in temperature
nE
=
Standard AFUE
nP
=
Proposed annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE)
100
=
Conversion factor from MBtu to therms
DSM
=
Deemed savings multiplier
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
There are no peak saving for this measure.
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
Therms LIFECYCLE = Therms SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 20 years)4
Deemed Savings
Average annual savings for a high-efficiency condensing boiler project:2,3
187 MBh * 2.57 therms/Mbh = 480 therms
Average lifecycle savings for a high-efficiency condensing boiler project: 9,600 therms
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
24
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Updated Recommended Deemed Savings Multiplier for Boiler Replacements by Zone
DOA Zone
DSM
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
WI Average
2.71
2.69
2.67
2.50
2.66
2.66
2.57
2.60
2.58
2.50
2.52
2.57
Assumptions
The assumed boiler baseline efficiency is the EISA requirement of 82%.
Sources
1. PA Consulting Group Inc., Public Service Commission of Wisconsin, Focus on Energy Evaluation,
Business Programs: Measure Life Study, Final Report. August 25, 2009
1. PA Consulting Group Inc. Public Service Commission of Wisconsin, Focus on Energy Evaluation,
ACES: Default Deemed Savings Review, Final Report. August 25, 2009.
2. Focus on Energy ACES Program, 2008-2010 deemed savings average for measure.
3. California Energy Commission and California Public Utilities Commission. Database for Energy
Efficient Resources (DEER) 2008. http://www.energy.ca.gov/deer/ .Revision History
4. 40% replace on fail.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/02/2013
Updated baseline efficiency from 80% to 82%
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
25
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Steam Fittings and Pipe Insulation
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Insulation, Steam Fitting, Removable, NG, 2429
Insulation, Steam Piping, NG, 2430
Per linear foot (pipe insulation)
Per fitting (fitting insulation)
Prescriptive
Boilers & Burners
Insulation
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
0
0
11.38 (per linear foot pipe insulation)
40.44 (per fitting insulation)
0
113.8 (per linear foot pipe insulation)
404.4 (per fitting insulation)
0
1
10
MMID 2429 = $45.44; MMID 2430 = $22.76
Measure Description
Uninsulated steam lines and fittings are a constant source of wasted energy. Adding insulation can
typically reduce energy losses by 90% and will help ensure proper steam pressure and temperatures
where needed. This measure is only for steam pipes in unconditioned spaces, including unconditioned
basements and crawlspaces that are insulated from the conditioned space of the building.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline measure is an existing, non-insulated steam pipe or fittings that is part of an HVAC steam
distribution system, with 80% boiler efficiency.
Description of Efficient Condition
Insulation must meet all federal and local safety standards and be rated for the temperature of the pipe
on which it will be applied. Incentives are not intended for replacing existing pipe, insulation but only for
insulating existing bare pipe.
The pipe being insulated must be at least 0.5-inches in diameter and must carry steam as part of an
HVAC steam distribution system. The insulation thickness must meet 2009 IECC standards,2 as outlined
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
26
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
in section 5.3.2.8. For steam pipe with a 1.5-inch NPS or smaller, insulation must be at least 1.5 inches
thick. For steam pipe with an NPS greater than 1.5 inches, insulation must be at least 3.0-inches thick.
This is based on insulation with a K- value that does not exceed 0.27 Btu per inch/h*ft2*°F. Installation
must include a protective jacket around the insulation.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Savings were calculated using the assumptions listed below and 3E Plus v4.0 software, distributed by
NAIMA (North American Insulation Manufacturers Association). 3 The 3E Plus software was used to
calculate heat loss rates for bare and insulated pipe thickness per foot. The difference in heat loss is
multiplied by the assumed hours of operation and divided by the boiler efficiency and Btu to therm
conversion to calculate annual natural gas therm savings.
Therm SAVED_PIPE = PipeInsul SAVED * LF
PipeInsul SAVED = Pipe BARE - Pipe INSUL
Where:
PipeInsul SAVED
=
Annual energy savings through insulating in therms per linear foot
of pipe (= 11.38)
LF
=
Total linear feet of pipe (= 1)
Pipe BARE
=
Annual energy consumption for uninsulated pipe calculated with
3E Plus software
Pipe INSUL
=
Annual energy consumption for insulated pipe calculated with 3E
Plus software
Therm SAVED_FITTING = FittingInsul SAVED * NF
FittingInsul SAVED = Fitting BARE - Fitting INSUL
Where:
FittingInsul SAVED
=
Annual energy savings through insulating in therms per fitting
(= 40.44)
NF
=
Number of fittings (= 1)
Fitting BARE
=
Annual energy consumption for uninsulated fitting calculated with
3E Plus software
Fitting INSUL
=
Annual energy consumption for uninsulated fitting calculated with
3E Plus software
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
27
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 10 years)1
Assumptions
The pipe or fitting will be hot for 4,000 hours per year.
The NPS is 2 inches. A fitting is equivalent to approximately 3.55 feet of 2-inch pipe.
The system application for this calculation is Pipe – Horizontal/Vertical, with the dimensional standard of
ASTM C 585 Rigid/Flexible.
Sources
1. PA Consulting Group Inc. Public Service Commission of Wisconsin Focus on Energy Evaluation,
Business Programs: Deemed Savings Manual, Final Report. March 22, 2010.
2.
2009 IECC standards.
3. This program is available through NAIMA (North American Insulation Manufacturers
Association) at http://www.pipeinsulation.org/.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
28
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Compressed Air, Vacuum Pumps
Compressed Air Controller, Pressure/Flow Controller
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Compressed Air Controller, Pressure/Flow Controller, 2255
Per Compressed Air System
Hybrid
Compressed Air, Vacuum Pumps
Controls
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
178
0.035
0
2,670
0
0
1
15
$151.13
Measure Description
A pressure/flow controller can greatly increase the control of an air storage system. These units, also
called demand valves, precision flow controllers, or pilot-operated regulators, are precision pressure
regulators that allow the airflow to fluctuate while maintaining a constant pressure to the facility’s air
distribution piping network.
Compressed Air System with a Pressure/Flow Controller2
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
29
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Installing a pressure/flow controller on the downstream side of an air storage receiver creates a
pressure differential entering and leaving the vessel. This pressure differential stores energy in the form
of readily available compressed air, which can be used to supply the peak air demand for shortduration events, in place of using more compressor horsepower to feed this peak demand.
The benefits of having a pressure/flow controller include:
•
Reducing kW of peak demand, especially with multiple compressor configurations.
•
Saving kWh by allowing the compressor to run at most efficient loads, then turn itself off in
low/no demand periods.
•
Saving kWh by reducing plant air pressure to the minimum allowable. This leads to reduced
loads on the electric motors and greater system efficiency. For every 2 psi reduced in the
system, 1% of energy is saved.
•
Maintaining a reduced, constant pressure in the facility wastes less air due to leakage, and less
volume is required by the compressor.
•
Ensuring quality control of the process by the constant pressure: machines can produce an
enhanced product quality when the pressure is allowed to fluctuate.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline conditioning is having no existing pressure/flow controller and an existing compressed air
system with a total compressor motor capacity ≥ 50 hp.
Description of Efficient Condition
To qualify for an incentive, the facility must have a compressed air system with motor capacity ≥ 50 hp,
and a pressure/flow controller must be installed on the main pressure header. This measure is not
replacing drop-line regulators or filter-regulator lubricators.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = HP * 0.746 / Motor Eff. * Load Factor * HOURS * % decrease
Where:
HP
=
Compressor motor size in horsepower
0.746
=
Conversion factor from kilowatts to horsepower
Motor Eff. =
Compressor motor efficiency (= 95%)3
Load Factor =
Average load on compressor motor (= 89%)3
HOURS
=
% decrease =
Average annual run hours (= 5,083)4
Percentage decrease in power input (= 5%)5
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
30
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = HP * 0.746 / Motor Eff. * Load Factor * % decrease * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 1)6
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 15 years)1
Sources
1. Estimate from product representative.
2. Industrial Technologies Program. Compressed Air Tip Sheet #9. August 2004.
3. Cascade Energy. Proposed Standard Savings Estimation Protocol for Ultra-Premium Efficiency
Motors. November 5, 2012.
4. United States Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy. United
States Industrial Electric Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment. Pg. 42. December
2002.
5. United States Department of Energy. Improving Compressed Air System Performance: A
Sourcebook for Industry. Pg. 20. November 2003.
6. Army Corps of Engineers. Compressed Air System Survey at Sierra Army Depot, CA. Mike C.J. Lin,
Ahmad R. Ganji, Shy-Sheng Liou, and Bryan Hackett. November 2000. www.dtic.mil/cgibin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA384166Revision History
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
31
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Compressed Air, Cycling Thermal Mass Air Dryers
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Compressed Air, Cycling Thermal Mass Air Dryers, 2264
Per CFM
Prescriptive
Compressed Air, Vacuum Pumps
Dryer
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
1,430 per 100 CFM
0.281 per 100 CFM
0
21,450 per 100 CFM
0
0
1
15
$10.20
Measure Description
When air is compressed, it is typically saturated with moisture, which may cause corrosion or
contamination if it condenses in a compressed air system. Compressed air dryers remove moisture from
the compressed air system. Refrigerated dryers are the most common,2 which remove moisture by
cooling the air and causing water vapor to condense. Cycled refrigerated dryers turn on and off, or use a
VFD to operate only as needed. Non-cycling dryers will continue to consume energy when drying is not
needed.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline for this measure is a non-cycling refrigerated thermal mass air dryer.
Description of Efficient Condition
New dryers must be properly sized to meet the needs of the compressed air system in order to qualify.
New dryers must be cycling or VFD-controlled refrigerated dryers. This measure is only for the
replacement of non-cycled refrigerated dryers with cycled refrigerated dryers. The addition of controls
to existing dryers does not qualify. The replacement of desiccant, deliquescent, heat-of-compression,
membrane, or other types of dryers does not qualify.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
32
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = SF * LF * CFM * HOURS
Where:
SF
=
Savings factor in kW/CFM (= see table below)3
LF
=
Load factor (= 89%)4
CFM
=
Cubic feet per minute; the actual rated capacity of air dryer
HOURS
=
Average annual run hours (= 5,083)5
Savings Factor by Dryer Capacity
Dryer Capacity in CFM
Savings Factor (kW/CFM)
< 100
≥ 100 and < 200
≥ 200 and < 300
≥ 300 and < 400
≥ 400
0.00474
0.00359
0.00316
0.00290
0.00272
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = SF * LF * CFM * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 1)6
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 15 years)1
Sources
1. Energy and Resource Soultions. Measure Life Study prepared for The Massachusetts Joint
Utilities.
2005. http://rtf.nwcouncil.org/subcommittees/nonreslighting/Measure%20Life%20Study_MA%
20Joint%20Utilities_2005_ERS-1.pdf
2. United States Department of Energy. Compressed Air Challenge, Improving Compressed Air
System Performance: a Sourcebook for Industry. Pg. 11. November 2003.
3. Massachusetts Technical Resource Manual for Estimating Savings from Energy Efficiency
Measures. Average of values, pg. 217. October 2010.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
33
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
4. Cascade Energy. Proposed Standard Savings Estimation Protocol for Ultra-Premium Efficiency
Motors. November 5, 2012.
5. United States Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy. United
States Industrial Electric Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment. Pg 42. December
2002.
6. Army Corps of Engineers. Compressed Air System Survey at Sierra Army Depot, CA. Mike C.J. Lin,
Ahmad R. Ganji, Shy-Sheng Liou, and Bryan Hackett. November 2000. www.dtic.mil/cgibin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA384166Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
34
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Compressed Air Heat Recovery, Space Heating
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Compressed Air Heat Recovery, Space Heating, 2257
Per horsepower
Hybrid
Compressed Air, Vacuum Pumps
Energy Recovery
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
0
0
58 per HP
0
870 per HP
0
1
15
Varies by project
Measure Description
The majority of the energy consumed by industrial air compressors is converted to heat, which can
be recovered. Air compressor heat recovery systems are designed to capture waste heat and use it for
space heating, water heating, or process heating. These systems can be installed on both air- and
water-cooled compressors. For air-cooled compressors, ductwork and fans may be installed to send
cool air across the compressor’s after-cooler and oil cooler. The cool air absorbs heat from the
compressor and gets ducted to where it is needed. For water-cooled compressors, a water-to-air or
water-to-water heat exchanger may be used.
Heat recovery systems installed for backup or redundant air compressors do not qualify. The project
must result in an estimated net reduction in facility Btus to be eligible. The static pressure in the area
where the compressor is enclosed must remain the same, since a reduction in static pressure may
reduce compressor efficiency. If outside air is used, anti-freeze protection must be considered.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is a compressor without a heat recovery system.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is a compressor with a heat recovery system.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
35
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Therm SAVED = HR * BHP * 2,545 * HOURS * Load Factor / 100,000
Where:
HR
=
Heat recoverable as a percentage of brake horsepower (= 50%)2
BHP
=
Compressor motor size, brake horsepower
2,545
=
Conversion factor from Btu to BHP/hour
HOURS
=
Average annual run hours (= 5,083)3
Load Factor =
Average load on compressor motor (= 89%)4
100,000
Conversion from Btus to therms
=
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 15 years)1
Sources
1. PA Consulting Group Inc. Public Service Commission of Wisconsin Focus on Energy Evaluation,
Business Programs: Deemed Savings Manual, Final Report. March 22, 2010.
2. Bonneville Power Administration. Compressed Air System Energy Efficiency Measure
Information Sheet. May 2006.
3. United States Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy. United
States Industrial Electric Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment. Pg 42. December
2002.
4. Cascade Energy. Proposed Standard Savings Estimation Protocol for Ultra-Premium Efficiency
Motors. November 5, 2012.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
36
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Compressed Air Mist Eliminators
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Compressed Air Mist Eliminators, 2258
Per horsepower
Hybrid
Compressed Air, Vacuum Pumps
Filtration
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
71
0.014
0
710
0
0
1
5 (new construction), 3 (retrofit)
$21.55
Measure Description
Large compressed air systems require air filtration for proper operation. These filters remove oil mist
from the supply air of lubricated compressors, protecting the distribution system and end-use devices.
While these filters are important to the operation of the system, they do have a pressure drop across
them, and thus require a slightly higher operating pressure. Typical coalescing oil filters will operate with
a 2 psig to 10 psig pressure drop. Mist eliminator air filters operate at a 0.5 psig pressure drop that
increases to 3 psig over time before replacement is recommended.
This reduction in pressure drop allows the compressed air system to operate at a reduced pressure and,
in turn, reduces the energy consumption of the system. In general, the energy consumption will decrease
by 1% for every 2 psig the operating pressure is reduced.2 Lowering the operating pressure has the
secondary benefit of decreasing the demand of all unregulated usage, such as leaks and open blowing.
The equipment is mist eliminator air filters. The compressed air system must be greater than 50 hp to
qualify, and the mist eliminator must have less than a 1 psig pressure drop and replace a coalescing
filter.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline measure is a standard coalescing filter.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
37
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is a mist eliminator air filter that replaces a standard coalescing filter.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = HP * 0.746 / Motor Eff. * Load Factor * HOURS * % Savings
% Savings = Total PR * RS
Where:
HP
=
Compressor motor size horsepower
0.746
=
Conversion factor from HP to kW
Motor Eff. =
Compressor motor efficiency (= 95%)2
Load Factor =
Average load on compressor motor (= 89%)2
HOURS
=
Average annual run hours (= 5,083)3
% Savings
=
Percentage of energy saved (= 2%)4
Total PR
=
Total pressure reduction from replacing filter (= 4 psig)4
RS
=
Percentage of energy saved for each psig reduced (= 0.5%)5
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = HP * 0.746 / Motor Eff. * Load Factor * % Savings * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 1; compressed air systems run during peak
demand)6
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 10 years)1
Sources
1. Massachussetts TRM 2013. http://ma-eeac.org/wordpress/wpcontent/uploads/TRM_PLAN_2013-15.pdf .Savings based on low pressure "mist eliminator"
filters; Based on typical replacement schedules for low pressure filters (NSTAR staff estimates)
2. Cascade Energy. Proposed Standard Savings Estimation Protocol for Ultra-Premium Efficiency
Motors. November 5, 2012.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
38
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
3. United States Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy. United
States Industrial Electric Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment. Pg. 42. December
2002.
4. Sullair Corporation. Compressed Air Filtration and Mist Eliminators Datasheet. Available
online: http://www.amcompair.com/products/brochures/sullair_brochures/_Sullair%20filtratio
n.pdf.
5. United States Department of Energy. Improving Compressed Air System Performance: A
Sourcebook for Industry. Pg. 20. November 2003.
6. Army Corps of Engineers. Compressed Air System Survey at Sierra Army Depot, CA. Mike C.J. Lin,
Ahmad R. Ganji, Shy-Sheng Liou, and Bryan Hackett. November 2000. www.dtic.mil/cgibin/GetTRDoc?AD=ADA384166Revision History
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
39
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Compressed Air Nozzles, Air Entraining
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Compressed Air Nozzles, Air Entraining, 2259
Per nozzle
Prescriptive
Compressed Air, Vacuum Pumps
Nozzle
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
4,800
1.8
0
72,000
0
0
Effective Useful Life (years)
15
$36.42
1
Incremental Cost
Measure Description
Engineered nozzles, also known as air entraining nozzles, reduce the amount of compressed air required
for cleaning, cooling, drying, and blowoff applications. These nozzles use the coanda effect to pull in free
air and accomplish tasks with up to 70% less compressed air. Engineered nozzles often replace simple
copper tubes, and have the added benefits of reducing noise due to the use of laminar airflow and
producing a safer workplace due to the elimination of potential skin contact with high pressure air.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is a standard efficiency compressed air system operating at an efficiency of 0.16
kW/scfm2 for a minimum of 2,000 hours per year. Compressed air pipe flow rates are standard.3
Description of Efficient Condition
Nozzles must be engineered and usage must be 2,000 hours or greater to qualify.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = Eff * (Open Flow – Eng. Flow) * HOURS
Where:
Eff
=
Open Flow =
Efficiency of standard air compressor (= 0.16 kW/scfm)
Flow of copper pipe nozzle (= 21 scfm)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
40
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Eng. Flow
=
Flow of engineered nozzle (= 6 scfm)
HOURS
=
Average annual run hours (= 2,000)
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = Eff * (Open Flow – Eng. Flow) * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 0.75)4
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 15 years)1
Assumptions
The nozzle flow rates are averages based on available published data from engineered nozzle
manufacturers. The savings assume a 1/8-inch diameter open tube.3
Sources
1. PA Consulting Group Inc. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin Focus on
Energy Evaluation: Business Programs: Measure Life Study.” Final Report. August 25, 2009.
2. United States Department of Energy. Improving Compressed Air System Performance. Pgs. 4849.
3. Franklin Energy Services, LLC. Personal communications regarding engineering approximation
based on field observation.
4. Technical Reference Manual for Ohio Senate Bill 221 Energy Efficiency and Conservation
Program and 09-512-GE-UNC. October 15, 2009.
5. The 2,000 hours is the minimum (and most conservative) run hours needed to qualify for this
measure and agreed upon by the PSC, Cadmus, Administrator, and Implmenters.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
41
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Compressed Air System Leak Survey and Repair
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Compressed Air System Leak Survey and Repair:
Year 1, 2261
Year 2, 2262
Year 3, 2263
Year 4 and Beyond, 3598
Per CFM
Hybrid
Compressed Air, Vacuum Pumps
Tune-up / Repair / Commissioning
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
Varies by capacity and leak size
Varies by capacity and leak size
0
Varies by capacity and leak size
0
0
1
2
Varies by measure, see Appendix D
Measure Description
For the compressed air system survey and repair measure, the facility’s compressed air system is
analyzed and areas are identified with opportunity to reduce leakage and energy consumption and gain
efficiency through an improved equipment control strategy or equipment replacement.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is determined by surveying the existing compressed air system. This involves
identifying the number and types of compressors used; their nominal hp, scfm, or psig; and the controls
associated with each compressor.
Description of Efficient Condition
In order to qualify for an incentive, the customer must repair one leak for every five connected
compressor horsepower. If less than one leak per every five horsepower is identified, then all identified
leaks must be repaired. The customer may provide a written explanation for a leak that cannot be
repaired and may still qualify for an incentive. The customer must provide a leak log in the form of a
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
42
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
spreadsheet so that the number of repairs and associated savings can be checked and calculated using
the method outlined below.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
This hybrid measure is designed to determine the kWh losses associated with the distribution of air
system leaks. The required calculation inputs provide the estimated system CFM capacity and the
associated CFM losses associated with the number of identified leaks. A leak survey will results in the
input values for the leak sizes and quantities. The annual energy savings and percentage of existing
system losses, along with the grant calculations, are provided as outputs. The general calculation
methodology is:
kWh SAVED = (10,655 * [($/kWh) / 0.06] / 104 * OpPressure * (HOURS / 8,760) * ΔCFM Loss) / ($/kWh)))
ΔCFM Loss = #ofLeaks * (CFM/leak)
Where:
10,655
=
Cost of 104 CFM compressed air leak at $0.06/kWh operating for
8,760 hours
$/kWh
=
Unit rate for electricity (= $0.06 or participant input)
0.06
=
kWh $ rate
104
=
Total CFM loss from 1/4-inch leak at 100 psig
OpPressure
=
Adjustment factor for current operating pressure (= see table
below)3
HOURS
=
Average annual run hours (participant input)
8,760
=
Total hours per year
ΔCFM Loss
=
Total CFM lost in whole system (= see table below)3
#ofLeaks
=
Number of leaks at each orifice size
CFM/leak
=
CFM of air lost at particular orifice size from decibel reading (= see
table below)
Adjustment Factor for Operating Pressure (100 psig = 1.0)3
OpPressure
(psig)
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
110
125
Factor
0.725
0.7625
0.8
0.85
0.90
0.95
1.00
1.10
1.20
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
43
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
CFM Look-Up by Leak Orifice Size
Leak Orifice
Size
70
75
80
85
90
95
100
110
125
1/64”
1/32”
1/16”
1/8”
1/4”
3/8”
1/2”
0.29
1.16
4.66
18.62
74.40
167.80
296.00
0.31
1.21
4.95
19.69
78.75
177.50
309.00
0.32
1.26
5.24
20.76
83.10
187.20
322.00
0.34
1.36
5.48
21.93
87.55
196.90
350.50
0.36
1.46
5.72
23.10
92.00
206.60
379.00
0.38
1.51
6.02
24.16
96.45
216.80
397.00
0.40
1.55
6.31
25.22
100.90
227.00
415.00
0.44
1.75
6.99
27.94
111.55
251.25
460.50
0.48
1.94
7.66
30.65
122.20
275.50
506.00
Decibel Readings vs. CFM2
Digital Reading
100 PSIG
75 PSIG
50 PSIG
25 PSIG
10 PSIG
10 dB
20 dB
30 dB
40 dB
50 dB
60 dB
70 dB
80 dB
90 dB
100 dB
0.5
0.8
1.4
1.7
2.0
3.6
5.2
7.7
8.4
10.6
0.3
0.9
1.1
1.4
2.8
3.0
4.9
6.8
7.7
10.0
0.2
0.5
0.8
1.1
2.2
2.8
3.9
5.6
7.1
9.6
0.1
0.3
0.5
0.8
2.0
2.6
3.4
5.1
6.8
7.3
0.05
0.15
0.4
0.5
1.9
2.3
3.0
3.6
5.3
6.0
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 2 years)1
Assumptions
Efficiency of Compressor Types:
•
Single-Stage: 3.8 CFM/hp
•
Two-stage: 4.8 CFM/hp
•
Rotary: 5.2 CFM/hp
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
44
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Sources
1. PA Consulting Group Inc. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin Focus on
Energy Evaluation: Business Programs: Measure Life Study.” Final Report. August 25, 2009. Each
year's tune-up should last two years.
2. UE Systems, Inc. Compressed Air Ultrasonic Leak Detection Guide. Available
online: http://www.plantsupport.com/download/UCAGuide.pdf.
3.
Department of
Energy. http://www1.eere.energy.gov/manufacturing/tech_assistance/pdfs/compressed_air3.p
df (originally from: Used with permission from Fundamentals of Compressed Air Systems
Training offered by the Compressed Air Challenge®.)"
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
45
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Compressed Air Condensate Drains, No Loss Drain
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Compressed Air Condensate Drains, No Loss Drain, 2254
Per drain
Prescriptive
Compressed Air, Vacuum Pumps
Other
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
1,525
0.24
0
30,500
0
0
1
20
$624.10
Measure Description
Air condensate drains, also referred to as traps, allow for water in the form of condensation to be
removed from compressed air systems. Undrained water may interfere with the flow of compressed air
and may also corrode the piping or tank.
Manual or automatic drains may be used. A manual drain is typically a simple valve that is opened by an
operator. Level-operated mechanical drains are automatic and should not waste air if properly
maintained, but they do require maintenance. Electrically operated solenoid drains use a timing device
to open an orifice for a programmed amount of time, regardless of the level of condensate. Each of
these types of drains may waste compressed air, and each can be replaced with no air-loss drains that
automatically remove condensate without waste.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline measure is a timed solenoid drain.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is a no loss air drain used in a system with load/no-load, variable speed, variable
displacement, or centrifugal compressors. Load/no-load compressors must have adequate storage for
drains to be eligible. Manual drains, lever-operated mechanical drains, and solenoid drains are not
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
46
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
eligible for incentives. No loss drains must be rated to remove the necessary amount of condensate
without any loss of compressed air.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = SF * HOURS
Where:
SF
=
Saving factor in kilowatts per drain (= 0.3)2
HOURS
=
Average annual run hours (= 5,083)3
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = SF * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 0.80)
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 20 years)1
Sources
1. 2011 Xcel Colorado DSM
Plan. https://www.xcelenergy.com/staticfiles/xe/Regulatory/Regulatory%20PDFs/2011-CODSM-Plan.pdf .
2. TecMarket Works. New York Standard Approach for Estimating Energy Savings from Energy
Efficiency Programs. Pgs. 193 and 194. October 15, 2010.
3. United States Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy. United
States Industrial Electric Motor Systems Market Opportunities Assessment. Pg. 42. December
2002.
4. TecMarket Works, New York Standard Approach for Estimating Energy Savings from Energy
Efficiency Programs, October 15, 2010, page 13.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
47
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
48
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Domestic Hot Water
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
49
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Water Heater, High Usage
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Water Heater, High Usage:
≥ 90% TE, NG, 3045
≥ 0.82 EF, Tankless, NG, 3046
≥ 2 EF, Heat Pump Storage, Electric, 3047
Per heater
Hybrid
Domestic Hot Water
Water Heater
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
Varies by facility type
0
Varies by facility type
Varies by facility type
Varies by facility type
0
1
10 (MMIDs 3045)
2
15 (MMID 3046 and 3047)
MMID 3045 = $7,303.00
MMID 3046 = $1,120.00
MMID 3047 = $2,893.00
Measure Description
This measure would substitute a less-efficient, code-compliant baseline DHW heater and deliver hot
water at the same temperature and flow rate as the baseline water heater using less energy.
Description of Baseline Condition
New DHW heaters are only installed when the existing unit has failed, or is judged to have reached endof-life. Therefore, the baseline unit is a new conventional electric or natural gas storage water heater
intended for service in commercial and industrial buildings. Per the “Market Transformation Efforts for
Water Heating Efficiency” report from ACEEE,4 the following efficiency ratings are assumed:
•
Electric DHW Heater: 0.90 EF
•
Natural Gas DHW Heater: 0.59 EF
•
Natural Gas DHW Heater: ≥ 0.67 EF
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
50
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
High usage applications are required to meet the annual operation and usage requirements for one or
more of the categories shown in the table below.
Annual Operation and Usage in High Usage Applications
Category
Food Service
Lodging
Healthcare
Laundry
Food Sales
Sub Category
Full Service Restaurant Fast Food
Cafeteria
Dormitory
Hotel/Motel
Hospital
Nursing Home
Laundromat
Super Market
Annual Operation
(Minimum)
Usage
(Minimum)
Days/Year (≥ 300)
Days/Year (≥ 175)
Days/Year (≥ 200)
Days/Year (≥ 300)
Days/Year (≥ 300)
Days/Year (≥ 300)
Days/Year (≥ 300)
Days/Year (≥ 300)
Meals/Day (≥ 300)
Meals/Day (≥ 300)
Beds (≥ 50)
Rooms or Beds (≥ 30)
Beds (≥ 30)
Beds (≥ 30)
Washes/Day (≥ 30)
Not Applicable
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is one of the following types of new energy-efficient DHW heater:
Qualifying Natural Gas Equipment:
•
0.82 EF6 Natural Gas Tankless Water Heaters

•
To be able to heat water to 70°F or more virtually instantaneously, most natural gas,
tankless water heaters have an input of 100,000 Btu/hour or higher. Their major advantage
is having no standby heat losses, which is made up by the heater firing whenever the water
temperature drops below a set point. In addition, these heaters are typically installed close
to the location where hot water is needed, which minimizes losses from the hot-water
delivery piping.
90% TE6 Condensing Natural Gas Storage Water Heaters

Condensing natural gas storage water heaters are designed to capture the latent heat from
water vapor created when natural gas is burned. Conventional natural gas storage water
heaters allow water vapor to leave the device, and therefore the latent heat is not captured;
this means condensing natural gas heaters have a higher efficiency. Because flue gases have
been significantly cooled, condensing natural gas water heaters require the use of a fan to
propel combustion products gases through the exhaust flue.
Qualifying Electric Equipment:
•
2.0 EF6 ENERGY STAR-Qualified Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters
•
2.0 EF6 Add-On Heat Pump Water Heaters
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
51
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
The EF rating for residential water heaters was developed per a U.S. DOE rulemaking process, and is
therefore based on a test profile that represents the water usage pattern in a typical residence. There is
a general consensus that this profile is not appropriate for rating the newer types of DHW heaters or the
storage types, and a U.S. DOE-sponsored committee is developing a better test procedure and profile.
High usage, condensing, natural gas storage water heaters are not EF rated. For calculation purposes, an
EF of 0.80 is used for condensing storage water heaters in high usage applications.6
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Btu SAVED = GPY * 8.33 * 1.0 * 60 * [(1/EF BASELINE ) – (1/EF EFFICIENT )]
For electric water heaters: kWh SAVED = Btu SAVED / 3,412
For natural gas water heaters: Therm SAVED = Btu SAVED / 100,000
Where:
GPY
=
Gallons per year of DHW usage (= derived from days per year of
operation and gallons per day shown in table below)
8.33
=
Density of water in pounds per gallon
1.0
=
Specific heat of water in Btu per (pound-°F temperature change)
60
=
Annual average water temperature change produced by the DHW
heater in °F
EF BASELINE
=
Efficiency metric for baseline DHW heater
EF EFFICIENT
=
Efficiency metric for efficient DHW heater
3,412
=
Conversion factor for Btu per kWh
100,000
=
Conversion factor for Btu per therm
Average Daily Gallons of DHW Usage by Facility Type
Facility Type
Average Daily
Gallons
Source
4
Motels and Hotels
≤ 20 rooms/suites
21 to 99 rooms/suites
≥ 100 rooms/suites
4
Dormitories
Hospital
5
20 per room
14 per room
10 per room
12.7 per student
50 per bed
ASHRAE HVAC Applications 2011, Chapter 50, Table 7
ASHRAE HVAC Applications 2011, Chapter 50, Table 7 (average
of 13.1 for male dormitory and 12.3 for female dormitory)
http://smud.apogee.net/comsuite/content/ces/?id=971
(lists a range of 25 to 90 gallons/day/bed. 50 is on the
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
52
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Facility Type
4
Nursing Homes
4
Food Service
Full Service Restaurant
Cafeteria
Fast Food
Supermarket
Laundry
4
Average Daily
Gallons
18.4 per bed
2.4 per meal
2.4 per meal
350 per day
650 per day
4
21 per wash
Source
conservative side of a 57.5 midpoint)
ASHRAE HVAC Applications 2011, Chapter 50, Table 7
Full Service and Cafeteria: ASHRAE HVAC Applications 2011,
Chapter 50, Table 7
Fast Food: ASHRAE HVAC Applications 2011, Chapter 50, page
50.15 (lists range of 250 to 500. 350 is just under the midpoint
of the range)
ASHRAE HVAC Applications 2011, Chapter 50, page 50.15 (lists
range of 300 to 1,000. 650 is average)
ASHRAE HVAC Applications 2011, Chapter 50, page 50.12 (for
low-flow clothes washer)
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
Demand reduction is a function of building type, because it is a function of whether—at the time of
interest—the units are operating intermittently to compensate for heat losses through the tank and
surrounding insulation, or if they are operating at a constant level to heat incoming water that is
replacing hot water being used at a high rate. A careful study to analyze demand reduction in various
facility types has not been performed, largely because it is recognized that the amount of reduciton will
be quite small. For this reason, and because the power rating of storage-type electric water heaters is
the same for the baseline and efficient models, zero demand reduction is assumed for all storage-type
heaters. For heat pump DHW heaters, there will be savings due to different power ratings.
Electric and Natural Gas Storage DHW Heaters
There are no summer coincident peak savings for storage DHW heaters.
Electric Heat Pump DHW Heaters
kW SAVED = CF * FUF * kW BASELINE * [(1/EF BASELINE ) – (1/EF EFFICIENT )]
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (ratio of expected power demand at utility peak
system demand to the maximum connected load of an item of
equipment; see assumed values for various facility types in table below)
FUF
=
Facility utilization factor (ratio of facility utilization at the time of utility
peak system demand to the maximum facility utilization). This
parameter is a function of facility type. For dormitories, it should reflect
summer occupancy relative to maximum occupancy. Similarly for other
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
53
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
facility types, it should account for summer weekday occupancy factors
that affect DHW usage. (=project-specific values; otherwise use the set
of typical FUF values shown in the table below)
Coincidence Factors and Facility Utilization Factors7
Facility Type
Dormitories
Schools
Elementary
Junior / Middle / High
Motels & Hotels*
Nursing Homes
Hospital (assume same values as nursing home)
Office Buildings
Food Service
Apartment Houses
Supermarkets
Laundry
*Excludes restaurants, kitchens, and laundries.
CF
FUF
0.25
0.30
0.10
0.25
0.25
0.35
0.35
0.15
0.40
0.25
0.15
0.50
0.10
0.40
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.90
1.00
0.90
1.00
1.00
kW BASELINE
=
Power rating of the baseline DHW heater
EF BASELINE
=
Efficiency metric for baseline DHW heater
EF EFFICIENT
=
Efficiency metric for efficient DHW heater
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 10 years1 for natural gas storage, = 15 years2 for
natural gas tankless and electric heat pump)
Sources
1. MMID 3045: Based on Warranty of Equipment in 2013 Massachussetts TRM. http://maeeac.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/TRM_PLAN_2013-15.pdf .
2. MMID 3046 and 3047: CALMAC 2000 workshop report. Available online
here: http://www.cpuc.ca.gov/NR/rdonlyres/7E3A4773-6D35-4D21-A7A29895C1E04A01/0/EEPolicyManualV5forPDF.pdf. and; PA Consulting Group Inc. State of
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
54
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin Focus on Energy Evaluation Business
Programs: Measure Life Study. Final Report. August 25, 2009. Available
online: https://focusonenergy.com/sites/default/files/bpmeasurelifestudyfinal_evaluationrepor
t.pdf .
3. American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (Jacob Talbot). “Market Transformation
Efforts for Water Heating Efficiency.” ACEEE Report A121. January 2012.
4. American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc. ASHRAE
Handbook, HVAC Applications. Chapter 50 “Service Water Heating.” 2011.
5. Sacramento Municipal Utility District. “Energy Library / Facility Types / Healthcare /
Hospitals.” http://smud.apogee.net/comsuite/content/ces/?id=971. Accessed November 12,
2014.
6. Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 431 sets minimum efficiency standards for gas-fired
commercial storage water heaters at an EF=0.80
7. Coincidence Factors and Facility Utilization Factors were “developed by seeking consensus
among a small group of engineers having experience performing energy audits in C&I facilities.”
Seven experienced engineers were surveyed.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
55
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Food Service
Dishwasher, ENERGY STAR Commercial
Measure Details
Dishwasher:
Low Temp:
Door Type, ENERGY STAR, 2280 (Electric) and 2293 (NG)
Multi Tank Conveyor, ENERGY STAR, 2294 (Electric) and 2295 (NG)
Single Tank Conveyor, ENERGY STAR, 2296 (Electric) and 2297 (NG)
Under Counter, ENERGY STAR, 2298 (Electric) and 2299 (NG)
Pots/Pans Type, ENERGY STAR, 3140 (NG)
High Temp:
Measure Master ID
Electric Booster, Door Type, ENERGY STAR, 2281 (Electric) and 2282 (NG)
Electric Booster, Multi Tank Conveyor, ENERGY STAR, 2283 (Electric) and 2284 (NG)
Electric Booster, Single Tank Conveyor, ENERGY STAR, 2285 (Electric) and 2286 (NG)
Electric Booster, Under Counter, ENERGY STAR, 2287 (Electric) and 2288 (NG)
Electric Booster, Pots/Pans Type, ENERGY STAR, 3137 (NG)
Natural Gas Booster, Door Type, ENERGY STAR, 2289 (NG)
Natural Gas Booster, Multi Tank Conveyor, ENERGY STAR, 2290 (NG)
Natural Gas Booster, Single Tank Conveyor, ENERGY STAR, 2291 (NG)
Natural Gas Heat, Natural Gas Booster, Under Counter, ENERGY STAR, 2292 (NG)
Natural Gas Booster, Pots/Pans Type, ENERGY STAR, 3138 (NG)
Measure Unit
Per dishwasher
Measure Type
Prescriptive
Measure Group
Food Service
Measure Category
Dishwasher, Commercial
Sector(s)
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Varies by measure
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Varies by measure
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Varies by measure
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Varies by measure
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms) Varies by measure
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Varies by measure
1
Effective Useful Life (years)
10
Incremental Cost
Varies by measure, see Appendix D
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
56
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Measure Description
On average, ENERGY STAR-qualified commercial dishwashers are 25% more efficient than conventional
dishwashers in both energy and water use. The reduction in water use results in additional waterheating energy savings.
The ENERGY STAR rating applies to commercial under-counter dishwashers; single-tank door type
dishwashers; pot, pan, and utensil dishwashers; single- and multiple-tank conveyor dishwashers; and
flight-type dishwashers. To meet ENERGY STAR criteria, commercial dishwashers must meet certain idle
energy use rates and volume of water consumed per rack.
Dishwasher measures are for higher temperature and lower temperature machines in door type,
multitank conveyor, single-tank conveyor, and under-counter machines. Water heater configurations
are for electric water heaters with an electric booster heater, natural gas water heaters with an electric
booster heater, and natural gas water heaters with a natural gas booster heater. This measure does not
apply to flight-type dishwashers, as these units are custom.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition for commercial dishwashers is based on values in the ENERGY STAR commercial
kitchen equipment calculator;2 these values were based on the U.S. EPA 2013 FSTC research on available
commercial dishwasher models.3
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition for commercial dishwashers is defined by the ENERGY STAR v2.0 Requirements
for Commercial Dishwashers.2
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = ∆kWh/yr WATER HEATER + ∆kWh/yr BOOSTER HEATER + ∆kWh/yr IDLE
Therm SAVED = ∆Therms/yr WATER HEATER + ∆Therms/yr BOOSTER HEATER
Gallons SAVED = Gallons/yr BASE – Gallons/yr EE
Energy-Savings Algorithms by Fuel and Machine Type
Fuel Type
Electric
Natural Gas
Machine Type
Algorithm
Water Heater
∆kWh/yr WATER HEATER = Gallons SAVED * kWh/gallon WATER HEATER
Booster Heater
∆kWh/yr BOOSTER HEATER = Gallons SAVED * kWh/gallon BOOSTER HEATER
Water Heater
∆Therms/yr WATER HEATER = Gallons SAVED ∗ Therms/gallon WATER HEATER
Booster Heater
∆Therms/yr BOOSTER HEATER = Gallons SAVED ∗ Therms/gallon BOOSTER HEATER
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
57
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Energy Usage by Fuel and Machine Type
Fuel Type
Electric
Natural Gas
Machine Type
Energy Use
Water Heater
kWh/gallon WATER HEATER = ∆T WH * C WATER * ρ WATER / η ELECTRIC / 3,412
Booster Heater
kWh/gallon WATER HEATER = ∆T BH * C WATER * ρ WATER / η ELECTRIC / 3,412
Water Heater
Therms/gallon WATER HEATER = ∆T WH * C WATER * ρ WATER / η GAS / 100,000
Booster Heater
Therms/gallon BOOSTER HEATER = ∆T WH * C WATER * ρ WATER / η GAS / 100,000
Where:
∆T WH
=
Temperature rise delivered by water heater (= 70°F)2
C WATER
=
Specific heat of water (= 1 Btu/pound/°F)
ρ WATER
=
Density of water (= 8.33 lbs/cubic foot)
η ELECTRIC
=
Electric conversion efficiency (= 98%)4
3,412
=
Conversion factor from Btu to kWh
∆T BH
=
Temperature rise delivered by booster heater (= 40°F)2
η GAS
=
Natural gas conversion efficiency (= 76%)4
100,000
=
Conversion factor from Btu to therms
∆kWh/yr IDLE = (kW BASE IDLE * DY* (HD – RD * WT BASE / 60)) – (kW EE IDLE * DY* (HD – RD * WT EE / 60))
Gallons/yr BASE = GPR BASE * DY * RD
Gallons/yr EE = GPR EE * DY * RD
Where:
kW BASE IDLE =
Baseline consumption when on but not in wash cycle (= see table
below)2
DY
=
Days per year of dishwasher operation (= 365)2
HD
=
Hours per day of dishwasher operation (= 18)2
RD
=
Number of racks of dishes washed each day (= see table below)2
WT BASE
=
Washtime (= length of wash cycles in minutes, see table below)2
60
=
Minutes per hour
kW EE IDLE
=
Efficient equipment consumption when on but not in wash cycle (= see
table below)2
WT EE
=
Washtime efficient equipment (= see table below)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
58
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
GPR BASE
=
Gallons per rack of baseline equipment (= see table below)2
GPR EE
=
Gallons per rack of ENERGY STAR equipment (= see table below)2
Variable Values by Measure Type
Measure Type
GPR BASE
Low Temperature
Under Counter
Stationary Single-Tank Door
Single-Tank Conveyor
Multiple Tank Conveyor
High Temperature
Under Counter
Stationary Single-Tank Door
Single-Tank Conveyor
Multiple Tank Conveyor
Pot, Pan, and Utensil
GPR EE
kW BASE IDLE
kW EE IDLE
WT BASE
WT EE
RD
1.73
2.10
1.31
1.04
1.19
1.18
0.79
0.54
0.50
0.60
1.60
2.00
0.50
0.60
1.50
2.00
2.0
1.5
0.3
0.3
2.0
1.5
0.3
0.3
75
280
400
600
1.09
1.29
0.87
0.97
0.70
0.86
0.89
0.70
0.54
0.58
0.76
0.87
1.93
2.59
1.20
0.50
0.70
1.50
2.25
1.20
2.0
1.0
0.3
0.2
3.0
2.0
1.0
0.3
0.2
3.0
75
280
400
600
280
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = DRed DW * CF
Where:
DRed DW
=
Summer demand reduction per purchased ENERGY STAR dishwasher
(= 0.0225)5
CF
=
Coincident factor (= 1; this is already embedded in the summer peak
demand reduction estimate as DRed DW )
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
Gallons LIFECYCLE = Gallons SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 10 years)1
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
59
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Deemed Savings
Savings With Electric Water Heater and Booster Heater
MMID
Baseline
Natural
Electric
Gas
(kWh)
(therm)
ENERGY STAR
Natural
Electric
Gas
(kWh)
(therm)
Savings
Natural
Electric
Gas
(kWh)
(therm)
Low Temperature
2298 (Electric)
11,085
2299 (NG)
2280 (Electric)
Stationary Single2293 (NG)
39,824
Tank Door
3140 (Pots/Pans)
Single-Tank
2296 (Electric)
42,687
Conveyor
2297 (NG)
2294 (Electric)
50,656
Multitank Conveyor
2295 (NG)
High Temperature (with electric booster heater)
2287 (Electric)
12,474
Under Counter
2288 (NG)
2281 (Electric)
Stationary Single2282 (NG)
40,351
Tank Door
2761 (Pots/Pans)
Single-Tank
2285 (Electric)
46,069
Conveyor
2286 (NG)
2283 (Electric)
73,321
Multitank Conveyor
2284 (NG)
Pot, Pan, and
3137
21,351
Utensil
High Temperature (with natural gas booster heater)
Under Counter
2292
9,502
Stationary Single2289
27,218
Tank Door
Single-Tank
2291
33,415
Conveyor
Multitank Conveyor
2290
52,159
Pot, Pan, and
3138
14,224
Utensil
Under Counter
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
0
8,508
0
2,577
0
0
23,433
0
16,392
0
0
28,868
0
13,819
0
0
31,567
0
19,090
0
0
9,278
0
3,196
0
0
28,325
0
12,027
0
0
36,758
0
9,311
0
0
45,538
0
27,784
0
0
17,991
0
3,360
0
131
6,933
103
2,569
28
578
19,264
399
7,954
179
557
26,577
448
6,838
109
931
33,757
518
18,403
413
314
12,086
260
2,138
54
60
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Savings With Natural Gas Water Heater and Booster Heater
MMID
Baseline
Natural
Electric
Gas
(kWh)
(therm)
ENERGY STAR
Natural
Electric
Gas
(kWh)
(therm)
Savings
Natural
Electric
Gas
(kWh)
(therm)
Low Temperature
2298 (Electric)
2,829
2299 (NG)
2280 (Electric)
Stationary Single2,409
2293 (NG)
Tank Door
3140 (Pots/Pans)
Single-Tank
2296 (Electric)
9,344
Conveyor
2297 (NG)
2294 (Electric)
Multitank Conveyor
10,950
2295 (NG)
High Temperature (with electric booster heater)
2287 (Electric)
Under Counter
7,272
2288 (NG)
2281 (Electric)
Stationary Single17,368
2282 (NG)
Tank Door
2761 (Pots/Pans)
Single-Tank
2285 (Electric)
23,925
Conveyor
2286 (NG)
2283 (Electric)
Multitank Conveyor
36,288
2284 (NG)
Pot, Pan, and
3137
8,879
Utensil
High Temperature (with natural gas booster heater)
Under Counter
2292
4,300
Stationary Single2289
4,234
Tank Door
Single-Tank
2291
11,271
Conveyor
Multitank Conveyor
2290
15,126
Pot, Pan, and
3138
1,752
Utensil
Under Counter
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
363
2,829
250
0
113
1,647
2,409
925
0
721
1,467
8,760
885
584
582
1,747
10,950
907
0
840
229
5,174
181
2,098
48
1,012
12,468
698
4,900
314
975
18,941
784
4,984
190
1,630
24,921
907
11,367
723
549
7,657
455
1,222
94
360
2,829
284
1,471
76
1,590
3,407
1,097
827
493
1,531
8,760
1,232
2,511
299
2,561
13,140
1,426
1,986
1,135
863
1,752
715
0
148
61
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Water Savings
MMID
Low Temperature
Under Counter
Stationary Single-Tank
Door
Single-Tank Conveyor
Multitank Conveyor
High Temperature
Under Counter
Stationary Single-Tank
Door
Single-Tank Conveyor
Multitank Conveyor
Pot, Pan, and Utensil
2298 (Electric) 2299 (NG)
2280 (Electric) 2293 (NG) 3140
(Pots/Pans)
2296 (Electric) 2297 (NG)
2294 (Electric) 2295 (NG)
Electric Booster Heater:
2287 (Electric) 2288 (NG)
Natural Gas Booster Heater: 2292
2281 (Electric) 2282 (NG) 2761
(Pots/Pans)
Electric Booster Heater:
2285 (Electric) 2286 (NG)
Natural Gas Booster Heater: 2291
Electric Booster Heater:
2283 (Electric) 2284 (NG)
Electric Booster Heater: 3137
Natural Gas Booster Heater: 3138
Baseline
(Gallons/yr)
ENERGY STAR
(Gallons/yr)
Savings
(Gallons/yr)
47,359
32,576
14,783
214,620
120,596
94,024
191,260
227,760
115,340
118,260
75,920
109,500
29,839
23,543
6,296
131,838
90,958
40,880
127,020
102,200
24,820
212,430
118,260
94,170
71,540
59,276
12,264
Assumptions
For peak demand savings, the HOU is assumed to be the total HOU and is not differentiated from the
percentage of time during idle state versus washing.
Sources
1. PA Consulting Group Inc. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin Focus on
Energy Evaluation Business Programs: Measure Life Study. Final Report. August 25, 2009.
Available online:
https://focusonenergy.com/sites/default/files/bpmeasurelifestudyfinal_evaluationreport.pdf
2. United States Department of Energy. “ENERGY STAR Commercial Kitchens
Calculator.” www.energystar.gov.
3. United State Environmental Protection Agency, Food Service Technology
Center. http://www.fishnick.com/
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
62
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
4. Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute. RWH research. Most common RE for nonheat pump water
heaters: http://www.ahridirectory.org/ahridirectory/pages/rwh/defaultSearch.aspx.
5. Pennsylvania Public Utilities Commission. Pennsylvania PUC Technical Reference Manual. June
2013. Demand savings derived using dishwasher load shape.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
63
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
CEE Tier 2 Ice Machines
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Ice Machine, CEE Tier 2:
Air Cooled:
Self Contained, 0-499 lbs/day, 3414
Ice Making Head, 0-499 lbs/day, 3416
Ice Making Head, 500-999 lbs/day, 3417
Ice Making Head, ≥1,000 lbs/day, 3418
Remote Condensing, 0-499 lbs/day, 3422
Remote Condensing, 500-999 lbs/day, 3423
Remote Condensing, ≥1,000 lbs/day, 3424
Water Cooled:
Self Contained, 0-499 lbs/day, 3415
Ice Making Head, <500 lbs/day, 3419
Ice Making Head, 500-999 lbs/day, 3420
Ice Making Head, ≥1,000 lbs/day, 3421
Per ice machine
Prescriptive
Food Service
Ice Machine
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
Varies by machine type and size
Varies by machine type and size
0
Varies by machine type and size
0
1
53
2
10
Varies by measure, see Appendix D (MMIDs 2388-2418)
Measure Description
Commercial ice machines are used in restaurants, hospitals, hotels, schools, offices, and grocery stores.
CEE Tier 2 ice machines are, on average, 10% more energy efficient and use approximately 25% less
water than standard models. These machines are designed with more efficient compressors. Investing in
more energy-efficient ice machines can save hundreds of dollars per year.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
64
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline is a standard ice machine that meets the Energy Policy Act of 2005.
Description of Efficient Condition
New units must be CEE Tier 2 ice machines with a harvest rate based on operation at standard rating
conditions per AHRI Standard 810.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Based on the harvest rate for various CEE categories of ice machines, each qualifying ice machine must
meet an energy use limit based on kWh/100 lbs of ice. The savings are derived by subtracting the CEE
Tier 2 energy limits from the baseline Energy Policy Act of 2005 ice machine energy usage. The savings
based on each harvest rate category are weighted based on the number of qualifying CEE Tier 2 units
from the January 2014 Qualified Products List to provide an overall measure savings for the measure
descriptions listed above.
kWh SAVED = (ΔkWh/100 lb of ice)/100 * (H * DutyCycle) * 365
ΔkWh/100 lb of ice = ΔB + (ΔA * H * DutyCycle)
ΔB = B BASE – B CEE TIER 2
ΔA = A BASE – A CEE TIER 2
Where:
100
=
Factor to normalize from 100 pounds of ice to 1 pound of ice
H
=
Harvest rate of ice in pounds
DutyCycle =
Percentage of annual average ice machine duty cycle3
365
=
Number of days per year
ΔB
=
Constant to calculate kWh consumption per 100 pounds of ice as a
function of harvest rate (algorithm represents maximum energy
consumption for the category)
ΔA
=
Coefficient to calculate kWh consumption per 100 pounds of ice as a
function of harvest rate (algorithm represents maximum energy
consumption for the category)
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = kWh SAVED /HOURS
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
65
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Where:
HOURS =
Annual hours per year (= 8,760)5
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 10 years)1
Deemed Savings
Annual Deemed Savings
Measure
MMID
Ice Machine, CEE Tier 2, Air Cooled, Self Contained, 0-499 lbs/day
Ice Machine, CEE Tier 2, Water Cooled, Self Contained, 0-499 lbs/day
Ice Machine, CEE Tier 2, Air Cooled, Ice Making Head, 0-499 lbs/day
Ice Machine, CEE Tier 2, Water Cooled, Ice Making Head, < 500 lbs/day
Ice Machine, CEE Tier 2, Air Cooled, Remote Condensing, 0-499 lbs/day
Ice Machine, CEE Tier 2, Air Cooled, Ice Making Head, 500-999 lbs/day
Ice Machine, CEE Tier 2, Water Cooled, Ice Making Head, 500-999 lbs/day
Ice Machine, CEE Tier 2, Air Cooled, Remote Condensing, 500-999 lbs/day
Ice Machine, CEE Tier 2, Air Cooled, Ice Making Head, ≥ 1,000 lbs/day
Ice Machine, CEE Tier 2, Water Cooled, Ice Making Head, ≥ 1,000 lbs/day
Ice Machine, CEE Tier 2, Air Cooled, Remote Condensing, ≥ 1,000 lbs/day
kWh
3414
3415
3416
3419
3422
3417
3420
3423
3418
3421
3424
853
856
543
839
2,752
2,266
1,686
2,735
1,427
1,686
2,164
kW
0.0974
0.0977
0.0619
0.0957
0.3141
0.2590
0.1925
0.3141
0.1631
0.1920
0.2469
Lifecycle Deemed Savings
Measure
Ice Machine, CEE Tier 2, Air Cooled, Self Contained, 0-499 lbs/day
Ice Machine, CEE Tier 2, Water Cooled, Self Contained, 0-499 lbs/day
Ice Machine, CEE Tier 2, Air Cooled, Ice Making Head, 0-499 lbs/day
Ice Machine, CEE Tier 2, Water Cooled, Ice Making Head, < 500 lbs/day
Ice Machine, CEE Tier 2, Air Cooled, Remote Condensing, 0-499 lbs/day
Ice Machine, CEE Tier 2, Air Cooled, Ice Making Head, 500-999 lbs/day
Ice Machine, CEE Tier 2, Water Cooled, Ice Making Head, 500-999 lbs/day
Ice Machine, CEE Tier 2, Air Cooled, Remote Condensing, 500-999 lbs/day
Ice Machine, CEE Tier 2, Air Cooled, Ice Making Head, ≥ 1,000 lbs/day
Ice Machine, CEE Tier 2, Water Cooled, Ice Making Head, ≥ 1,000 lbs/day
Ice Machine, CEE Tier 2, Air Cooled, Remote Condensing, ≥ 1,000 lbs/day
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
MMID
3414
3415
3416
3419
3422
3417
3420
3423
3418
3421
3424
Lifecycle kWh
8,529
8,560
5,425
8,387
27,517
22,660
16,862
27,346
14,267
16,860
21,643
66
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Assumptions
The harvest rates are determined based on the High Efficiency Specifications for Commercial Ice
Machines category for various types of air cooled and water cooled units for CEE Tier 2 specifications.4,6
Sources
1. Consortium for Energy Efficiency. Average Daily Potable Water Consumption at CEE Tiers.
Provided by Kim Erickson, CEE.
2. PA Consulting Group Inc. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin, Focus on
Energy Evaluation Business Programs: Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Updated March 22, 2010.
(24 hours/day * 7 days/week * 52 weeks/year = 8,760 hours)
3. Consortium for Energy Effiency. Commercial Ice Machines: The Potential for Energy Efficiency
and Demand Response. Don Fisher, David Cowen and Angelo Karas, Fisher–Nickel, Inc. Charlene
Spoor, Pacific Gas & Electric Company. 2012.
http://aceee.org/files/proceedings/2012/data/papers/0193-000289.pdf
4. Consortium for Energy Efficiency. Commercial Kitchens Initiative. High Efficiency Specifications
for Commercial Ice Machines. Effective Date July 1, 2011..
5. PA Consulting Group Inc. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission Wisconsin Focus on
Energy Evaluation Business Programs: Measure Life Study Final Report. August 25, 2009.
6. Consortium for Energy Efficiency. Commercial Ice Machines Specification Revision Technical
Analysis. Data obtained from Autoquotes.® July 2010.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
67
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
ENERGY STAR Commercial Combination Ovens (Natural Gas or Electric)
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Oven, Combination, ENERGY STAR, 3118 (Electric) and 3119 (NG)
Per oven
Prescriptive
Food Service
Oven
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
15,096
3.446
1,103
181,146
13,237
0
1
12
$4,300.00
Measure Description
A combination oven is a self-contained device that functions as a hot air convection (oven mode),
saturated and superheated steam heating (steam mode), and combination convection/steam mode for
moist heating. The convection/stem mode performs steaming, baking, roasting, rethermalizing, and
proofing of various food products. The combination oven can also be referred to as a combination
oven/steamer, combi, or combo.
Description of Baseline Condition
Baseline equipment is assumed to be a new combination oven that does not meet ENERGY STAR v2.0
performance specification. Data analysis were provided by the CEE and a dataset was provided by the
EPA FSTC and manufacturers from December 2011 through July 2012.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is any commercial combination oven that is on the ENERGY STAR Commercial
Combination Ovens qualified products list,2 per the ENERGY STAR v2.0 performance specifications for
natural gas and electric combination ovens.2
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
68
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithms
Electric Combination Oven:
kWh SAVED = (Wh/day BASELINE – Wh/day EE ) * DPY / 1,000
Wh/day BASELINE = Wh/day CONVECTION, BASELINE + Wh/day STEAM, BASELINE + Wh/day PREHEAT, BASELINE
Wh/day CONVECTION, BASELINE = (1-% STEAM ) *{(m * E CONVECTION ) / η CONVECTION, BASELINE + [E IDLE-CONVECTION, BASELINE * (t DAY m/PC CONVECTION, BASELINE – nP * t PREHEAT /60)]}
Wh/day STEAM, BASELINE = % STEAM * {(m* E STEAM ) / η STEAM,BASELINE + [E IDLE-STEAM, BASELINE * (t DAY - m/PC STEAM,BASELINE –
nP * t PREHEAT /60)]}
Wh/day PREHEAT, BASELINE = E PREHEAT, BASELINE * nP
Wh/day EE = Wh/day CONVECTION, EE + Wh/day STEAM, EE + Wh/day PREHEAT, EE
Wh/day CONVECTION, EE = (1-% STEAM ) * {(m * E CONVECTION ) / η CONVECTION, EE + [E IDLE-CONVECTION, EE * (t DAY m/PC CONVECTION, EE – nP * t PREHEAT /60)]}
Wh/day STEAM, EE = % STEAM * {(m * E STEAM ) / η STEAM,EE + [E IDLE-STEAM, EE * (t DAY - m/PC STEAM, EE – nP * t PREHEAT /60)]}
Wh/day PREHEAT, EE = E PREHEAT, EE * nP
Natural Gas Combination Oven:
Therm SAVED = (Btu/day BASELINE – Btu/day EE ) * DPY / 100,000
Btu/day BASELINE = Btu/day CONVECTION, BASELINE + Btu/day STEAM,BASELINE + Btu/day PREHEAT, BASELINE
Btu/day CONVECTION, BASELINE = (1-% STEAM ) * {(m * E CONVECTION ) / η CONVECTION, BASELINE + [E IDLE-CONVECTION, BASELINE * (t DAY
- m/PC CONVECTION, BASELINE – nP * t PREHEAT /60)]}
Btu/day STEAM, BASELINE = % STEAM * {(m* E STEAM ) / η STEAM, BASELINE + [E IDLE-STEAM, BASELINE * (t DAY - m/PC STEAM,BASELINE –
nP * t PREHEAT /60)]}
Btu/day PREHEAT, BASELINE = E PREHEAT,BASELINE * nP
Btu/day EE = Wh/day CONVECTION, EE + Wh/day STEAM, EE + Wh/day PREHEAT, EE
Wh/day CONVECTION, EE = (1-% STEAM ) * {(m* E CONVECTION ) / η CONVECTION, EE + [E IDLE-CONVECTION, EE * (t day m/PC CONVECTION, EE – nP * t PREHEAT /60)]}
Wh/day STEAM, EE = % STEAM * {(m * E STEAM ) / η STEAM, EE + [E IDLE-STEAM, EE * (t DAY - m/PC STEAM, EE – nP * t PREHEAT /60)]}
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
69
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Wh/day PREHEAT, EE = E PREHEAT,EE * nP
Where:
DPY
=
Days of operation per year (= 365)3
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
% STEAM
=
Percentage of time in steam mode (= 50%)3
m
=
Estimated mass of food cooked per day, in pounds (= 250)3
E CONVECTION
=
Energy absorbed by food product: cooking by convection
(= 73.2 Wh/lb; = 250 Btu/lb)4
E IDLE-CONVECTION, BASELINE=
t DAY
=
Baseline idle energy rate (= see table below)3
Estimated operating time per day, in hours (= 12)3
PC CONVECTION, BASELINE = Production capacity of baseline equipment in pounds per hour
(= see table below)3
nP
=
Estimated number of preheats per day (= 1)3
t PREHEAT
=
Estimated preheat time in minutes per preheat (= 15)3
60
=
Minutes in an hour
E STEAM
=
Energy absorbed by food product: cooking by steam (= 30.8 Wh/lb;
= 105 Btu/lb)4
100,000
=
Conversion factor from Btu to therms
η STEAM,BASELINE
=
Cooking energy efficiency of baseline unit (= see table below)4
η CONVECTION, BASELINE = Energy efficiency of baseline unit (= see, from table below)4
E IDLE-STEAM, BASELINE =
Baseline energy absorbed by food product: cooking by by steam(=
see table below)3
PC STEAM,BASELINE =
Production capacity of baseline cooking by steam
E PREHEAT, BASELINE =
Measured energy used per preheat for baseline unit (= see table
below)3
η CONVECTION, EE
Cooking energy efficiency of efficient unit
=
E IDLE-CONVECTION, EE =
ENERGY STAR idle rate of efficient equipment (= see table below)4
PC CONVECTION, EE
=
Production capacity of efficient equipment in pounds per hour
(= see table below)3
η STEAM, EE
=
Cooking energy efficiency of efficient unit, cooking by steam (= see
table below)4
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
70
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
E IDLE-STEAM, EE
=
ENERGY STAR idle rate of efficient equipment, cooking by steam
(= see table below)4
PC STEAM,EE
=
Production capacity of energy efficient equipment, cooking by
steam
E PREHEAT, EE
=
Measured energy used per preheat from efficient equipment
(= see table below)3
Production Capacity by Unit Type
PC CONVECTION
PC STEAM
Baseline
EE
100
150
125
200
Cooking Energy Efficiency by Type of Unit
Electric
Baseline
EE
η CONVECTION
η STEAM
65%
40%
Natural Gas
Baseline
EE
70%
50%
35%
20%
44%
38%
Measured Energy Used per Preheat by Type of Unit
E PREHEAT, ELECTRIC (Watts)
E PREHEAT, STEAM (Btu)
Baseline
EE
3,750
22,000
2,000
16,000
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = kWh SAVED * (CF / HOU)
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 1)5
HOU
=
Annual hours-of-use (= 4,380)3
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 12 years)1
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
71
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Assumptions
The default values given in calculators from the ENERGY STAR FSTC were used for savings calculation
variables.
Sources
1. Similar MMIDs 2485-2488. EUL derived from Food Service Technology Center. Gas Convection
Oven Life-Cycle Cost Calculator.
2. United States Department of Energy. ENERGY STAR Product Finder: Commercial Combination
Ovens.
3. United States Department of Energy. Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Performance Specification for
Gas and Electric Combination Ovens.
4. Food Service Technology Center. “Life-Cycle & Energy Cost Calculator: Combination
Ovens.” http://www.fishnick.com/saveenergy/tools/calculators/.
5. The Summer Peak Coincidence Factor is assumed to equal 1.0, since the annual kWh savings is
divided by the total annual hours (8760), effectively resulting in the average kW reduction
during the peak period.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
72
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Oven, Convection, ENERGY STAR, Electric
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Oven, Convection, ENERGY STAR, Electric, 2485
Per oven
Prescriptive
Food Service
Oven
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
2,083
0.48
0
24,998
0
0
1
12
$50.00
Measure Description
A convection oven is a self-contained device that functions as a hot air convection (oven mode),
saturated and superheated steam heating (steam mode), and combination convection/steam mode for
moist heating. The convection/stem mode performs steaming, baking, roasting, rethermalizing, and
proofing of various food products. Savings adjustment for existing active measure based on ENERGY
STAR Version 2.1 specification taking effect January 1, 2014.3
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is an electric full-size convection ovens that has an average cooking energy
efficiency of 65% and an average idle rate of 2 kW.4
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is the minimum cooking energy efficiency of an ENERGY STAR electric full-size
convection ovens of 71%, with a maximum idle rate of 1.6 kW.4
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
73
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Per the energy formula on page 4-48 of the Deemed Savings Manual 1.0:2
kWh SAVED = (E DAY, BASELINE – E DAY, ENERGY STAR ) * OpDay
E DAY = [(LB FOOD * E FOOD )/Efficiency] + IdleRate * [OpHrs – (LB FOOD /PC) – (T PREHT /60)] + E PREHT
Where:
OpDay
=
Operating days per year (= see table below)
EDAY
=
Daily energy consumption (kWh or Btu)
LBFOOD
=
Pounds of food cooked per day (= see table below)
EFOOD
=
ASTM Energy to Food (kWh/lb or Btu/lb; = see table below)
Efficiency
=
ASTM Heavy Load Cooking Energy Efficiency percentage (= see table
below)
IdleRate
=
Idle energy rate (kW or Btu/hr; = see table below)
OpHrs
=
Operating hours per day (= see table below)
PC
=
Production capacity in pounds per hour (= see table below)
TPREHT
=
Preheat time in minutes (= see table below)
60
=
Conversion from minutes to hours
EPREHT
=
Preheat energy (kWh or Btu; = see table below)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
74
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Parameter Values by Model and Oven Fuel
Oven Fuel
Electric or
Natural Gas
Parameter
Preheat Time (min)
Operating Hrs/Day
Operating Days/Year
Pounds of Food Cooked per Day
Production Capacity (lb/h)
Baseline Model
ENERGY STAR Model
15
12
365
100
90
15
12
365
100
90
1.5
2
65%
0.0732
83
1
1.6
71%
0.0732
86
19,000
15,100
44%
250
11,000
12,000
46%
250
Preheat Energy (kWh)
Electric
Idle Energy Rate (kW)
Cooking Energy Efficiency (%)
ASTM Energy to Food (kWh/lb)
Production Capacity (lb/h)
Preheat Energy (Btu)
Natural Gas
Idle Energy Rate (Btu/h)
Cooking Energy Efficiency (%)
ASTM Energy to Food (Btu/lb)
Source
Deemed
4
4
4
4
Error!
Reference
source not
found.
4
4
4
4
Error!
Reference
source not
found.
4
4
4
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (E DAY, BASELINE – E DAY, ENERGY STAR ) / OpHrs
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 12 years)4
Sources
1. Food Service Technology Center. Convection Oven Life-Cycle Cost Calculator.
2. Business Programs, Deemed Savings Manual V1.0, March 22, 2010.
3. ENERGY STAR Commercial Ovens Program Requirements, Version 2.1.
4. ENERGY STAR Commercial Kitchen Equipment Calculator.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
75
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
76
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Oven, Convection, ENERGY STAR, Natural Gas
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Oven, Convection, ENERGY STAR, NG, 2486
Per full size oven
Prescriptive
Food Service
Oven
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools and Government
0
0
156
0
1,872
0
1
12
$50.00
Measure Description
A convection oven is a self-contained device that functions as a hot air convection (oven mode),
saturated and superheated steam heating (steam mode), and combination convection/steam mode for
moist heating. The convection/stem mode performs steaming, baking, roasting, rethermalizing, and
proofing of various food products.
Description of Baseline Condition
The average cooking energy efficiency of a natural gas full-size convection oven is 44%, with an average
idle rate of 15,100 Btu per hour.4
Description of Efficient Condition
The minimum cooking energy efficiency of ENERGY STAR full-size convection ovens is 46%, with a
maximum idle rate of 12,000 Btu per hour.4
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
77
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (E DAY, BASELINE – E DAY, ENERGY STAR ) * OpDay * (1/100,000)
E DAY = [(LB FOOD * E FOOD )/Efficiency] + IdleRate * [OpHrs – (LB FOOD /PC) – (T PREHT /60)] + E PREHT
Where:
EDAY
=
Daily energy consumption (kWh or Btu)
OpDays
=
Operating days per year (= see table below)
1/100,000 =
Btu to therms conversion
LBFOOD
=
Pounds of food cooked per day (= see table below)
EFOOD
=
ASTM Energy to Food (kWh/lb or Btu/lb; = see table below)
Efficiency
=
ASTM Heavy Load Cooking Energy Efficiency percentage (= see table
below)
IdleRate
=
Idle energy rate (kW or Btu/hr; = see table below)
OpHrs
=
Operating hours per day (= see table below)
PC
=
Production capacity (lb/hr; = see table below)
TPREHT
=
Preheat time in minutes (= see table below)
60
=
Conversion from minutes to hours
EPREHT
=
Preheat energy (kWh or Btu; = see table below)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
78
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Parameter Values by Model and Oven Fuel
Oven Fuel
Electric or
Natural Gas
Electric
Natural Gas
Parameter
Baseline Model
Preheat Time (min)
Operating Hrs/Day
Operating Days/Year
Pounds of Food Cooked per Day
Production Capacity (lb/h)
Preheat Energy (kWh)
Idle Energy Rate (kW)
Cooking Energy Efficiency (%)
ASTM Energy to Food (kWh/lb)
Production Capacity (lb/h)
Preheat Energy (Btu)
Idle Energy Rate (Btu/h)
Cooking Energy Efficiency (%)
ASTM Energy to Food (Btu/lb)
ENERGY STAR Model
15
12
365
100
90
1.5
2
65%
0.0732
83
19,000
15,100
44%
250
15
12
365
100
90
1
1.6
71%
0.0732
86
11,000
12,000
46%
250
Source
Deemed
3
3
3
3
4
3
3
3
3
4
3
3
3
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 12 years)1
Sources
1. Food Service Technology Center. Gas Convection Oven Life-Cycle Cost Calculator.
2. ENERGY STAR Commercial Ovens Program Requirements, Version 2.1.
3. ENERGY STAR Commercial Kitchen Equipment Calculator.
4. Food Service Technology Center. Electric Convection Oven Life-Cycle Cost Calculator.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
79
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Commercial Refrigerator, ENERGY STAR
Measure Details
Refrigerator, Chest, Glass Door:
< 15 cu ft, ENERGY STAR, 2521
15-29 cu ft, ENERGY STAR, 2522
30-49 cu ft, ENERGY STAR, 2523
50+ cu ft, ENERGY STAR, 2524
Refrigerator, Chest, Solid Door:
< 15 cu ft, ENERGY STAR, 2525
15-29 cu ft, ENERGY STAR, 2526
30-49 cu ft, ENERGY STAR, 2527
50+ cu ft, ENERGY STAR, 2528
Measure Master ID
Refrigerator, Vertical, Glass Door:
< 15 cu ft, ENERGY STAR, 2529
15-29 cu ft, ENERGY STAR, 2530
30-49 cu ft, ENERGY STAR, 2531
50+ cu ft, ENERGY STAR, 2532
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Refrigerator, Vertical, Solid Door:
< 15 cu ft, ENERGY STAR, 2533
15-29 cu ft, ENERGY STAR, 2534
30-49 cu ft, ENERGY STAR, 2535
50+ cu ft, ENERGY STAR, 2536
Per refrigerator
Prescriptive
Food Service
Refrigerator / Freezer - Commercial
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools and Government
Varies by size and door type
Varies by size and door type
0
Varies by size and door type
0
0
1
12
Varies by measure, see Appendix D
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
80
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Measure Description
This measure is installing ENERGY STAR refrigeration equipment that meets the ENERGY STAR Version
3.0 performance specification, effective October 1, 2014.2 ENERGY STAR commercial solid door and
glass door refrigerators are designed to be more energy efficient than standard units and use higher
efficiency ECM evaporator and condenser fan motors, a hot natural gas anti-sweat heater, or highefficiency compressors.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is a unit meeting U.S. Department of Energy commercial refrigeration equipment
standards effective January 10, 2010.3
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is certified ENERGY STAR Version 3.0 vertical and horizontal closed door
equipment.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (kWh BASELINE – kWh ENERGY STAR ) * Days
Where:
kWh BASELINE
=
Daily baseline unit consumption (= see table below)4
kWh ENERGY STAR =
Daily qualifying unit consumption (= see table below)4
Days
Annual days of operation, deemed (= 365)
=
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
81
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Parameter Values by Unit Type
Unit Type
Size
(cu. ft.)
Door Type
Daily Baseline
Consumption
Daily
Qualifying
Consumption
0 < V < 15
15 ≤ V < 30
30 ≤ V < 50
50 ≤ V
0 < V < 15
15 ≤ V < 30
30 ≤ V < 50
50 ≤ V
Annual
Energy
Savings
(kWh)
430
620
1,063
1,564
890
865
1,031
1,461
On Peak
Savings
(kW)
Lifecycle
Energy
Savings
(kWh)
5,160
7,440
12,756
18,768
10,680
10,380
12,372
17,532
0.10V + 2.04
0.02V + 1.60
0.0491
0.10V + 2.04
0.09V + 0.55
0.0708
Solid
0.10V + 2.04
0.01V + 2.95
0.1214
0.10V + 2.04
0.06V + 0.45
0.1785
Vertical Closed
Refrigerators
0.12V + 3.34
0.10V + 1.07
0.1016
0.12V + 3.34
0.15V + 0.32
0.0987
Transparent
0.12V + 3.34
0.06V + 3.02
0.1177
0.12V + 3.34
0.08V + 2.02
0.1668
0.10V + 2.04
Horizontal Closed Solid
All volumes
0.06V + 0.60
726
0.0828
8,712
Refrigerators*
Transparent
0.12V + 3.34
* The U.S. EPA provided a masked data set for the horizontal closed refrigerators and freezers that did not distinguish
solid door units from transparent door horizontal units. The solid door daily baseline consumption was used as a
conservative savings estimate for the horizontal closed unit type.
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = kWh SAVED * (CF / HOU)
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 1)5
HOU
=
Hours-of-use, deemed (= 8,760)
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 12 years)4
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
82
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Deemed Savings
Deemed Savings Values by Measure
Measure Master Name
Refrigerator, Chest, Glass Door, < 15 cu ft, ENERGY STAR
Refrigerator, Chest, Glass Door, 15-29 cu ft, ENERGY STAR
Refrigerator, Chest, Glass Door, 30-49 cu ft, ENERGY STAR
Refrigerator, Chest, Glass Door, 50+ cu ft, ENERGY STAR
Refrigerator, Chest, Solid Door, < 15 cu ft, ENERGY STAR
Refrigerator, Chest, Solid Door, 15-29 cu ft, ENERGY STAR
Refrigerator, Chest, Solid Door, 30-49 cu ft, ENERGY STAR
Refrigerator, Chest, Solid Door, 50+ cu ft, ENERGY STAR
Refrigerator, Vertical, Glass Door, < 15 cu ft, ENERGY STAR
Refrigerator, Vertical, Glass Door, 15-29 cu ft, ENERGY STAR
Refrigerator, Vertical, Glass Door, 30-49 cu ft, ENERGY STAR
Refrigerator, Vertical, Glass Door, 50+ cu ft, ENERGY STAR
Refrigerator, Vertical, Solid Door, < 15 cu ft, ENERGY STAR
Refrigerator, Vertical, Solid Door, 15-29 cu ft, ENERGY STAR
Refrigerator, Vertical, Solid Door, 30-49 cu ft, ENERGY STAR
Refrigerator, Vertical, Solid Door, 50+ cu ft, ENERGY STAR
MMID
2521
2522
2523
2524
2525
2526
2527
2528
2529
2530
2531
2532
2533
2534
2535
2536
Deemed Savings Values
kWh kWh kW
Annual
Lifecycle
726
726
726
726
726
726
726
726
890
865
1,031
1,461
430
620
1,063
1,564
8,712
8,712
8,712
8,712
8,712
8,712
8,712
8,712
10,680
10,380
12,372
17,532
5,160
7,440
12,756
18,768
0.0828
0.0828
0.0828
0.0828
0.0828
0.0828
0.0828
0.0828
0.1016
0.0987
0.1177
0.1668
0.0491
0.0708
0.1214
0.1785
Sources
1. ENERGY STAR Program Calculator for Commercial Refrigerators and
Freezers http://www.energystar.gov/sites/default/files/asset/document/appliance_calculator.xl
sx
2. ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers, Version 3.0.
3. U.S. Department of Energy. Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Standards. Effective January
20, 2010.
4. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Masked data set for commercial refrigerators and
freezers, provided May 2013.
5. The Summer Peak Coincidence Factor is assumed to equal 1.0, since the annual kWh savings is
divided by the total annual hours (8760), effectively resulting in the average kW reduction
during the peak period.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
83
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
84
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Commercial Freezers, ENERGY STAR
Measure Details
Freezer, Chest, Glass Door:
< 15 cu ft, ENERGY STAR, 2321
15-29 cu ft, ENERGY STAR, 2322
30-49 cu ft, ENERGY STAR, 2323
50+ cu ft, ENERGY STAR, 2324
Freezer, Chest, Solid Door:
< 15 cu ft, ENERGY STAR, 2325
15-29 cu ft, ENERGY STAR, 2326
30-49 cu ft, ENERGY STAR, 2327
50+ cu ft, ENERGY STAR, 2328
Measure Master ID
Freezer, Vertical, Glass Door:
< 15 cu ft, ENERGY STAR, 2329
15-29 cu ft, ENERGY STAR, 2330
30-49 cu ft, ENERGY STAR, 2331
50+ cu ft, ENERGY STAR, 2332
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Freezer, Vertical, Solid Door:
< 15 cu ft, ENERGY STAR, 2333
15-29 cu ft, ENERGY STAR, 2334
30-49 cu ft, ENERGY STAR, 2335
50+ cu ft, ENERGY STAR, 2336
Per freezer
Prescriptive
Food Service
Refrigerator / Freezer - Commercial
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools and Government
Varies by size and door type
Varies by size and door type
0
Varies by size and door type
0
0
1
12
Varies by measure, see Appendix D
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
85
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Measure Description
This measure is installing ENERGY STAR refrigeration equipment that meets the ENERGY STAR Version
3.0 performance specification, effective October 1, 2014.2 ENERGY STAR commercial solid door and
glass door freezers are designed to be more energy efficient than standard units, and use higher
efficiency ECM evaporator and condenser fan motors, hot natural gas anti-sweat heater, or highefficiency compressors.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is a unit meeting U.S. Department of Energy commercial refrigeration equipment
standards effective January 10, 2010.3
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is certified ENERGY STAR Version 3.0 vertical and horizontal closed freezers.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (kWh BASELINE – kWh ENERGY STAR ) * Days
Where:
kWh BASELINE
=
Daily baseline unit consumption (= see table below)4
kWh ENERGY STAR =
Daily qualifying unit consumption (= see table below)4
Days
Annual days of operation, deemed (= 365)
=
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
86
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Parameter Values by Unit Type
Unit Type
Door Type
Size (cu. ft.)
Daily Baseline
Consumption
Equation
0 < V < 15
15 ≤ V < 30
30 ≤ V < 50
50 ≤ V
0 < V < 15
15 ≤ V < 30
30 ≤ V < 50
50 ≤ V
Daily
Qualifying
Consumption
Equation
0.25V + 1.55
0.20V + 2.30
0.25V + 0.80
0.14V + 6.30
0.56V + 1.61
0.30V + 5.50
0.55V - 2.00
0.32V + 9.49
Annual
Energy
Savings
(kWh)
447
1,204
2,557
4,602
1,266
3,134
5,422
8,351
On Peak
Savings
(kW)
Lifecycle
Energy
Savings
(kWh)
5,364
14,448
30,684
55,224
15,192
37,608
65,064
100,212
0.4V + 1.38
0.051
0.4V + 1.38
0.1374
Solid
0.4V + 1.38
0.2919
0.4V + 1.38
0.5254
Vertical Closed
Freezers
0.75V + 4.10
0.1445
0.75V + 4.10
0.3578
Transparent
0.75V + 4.10
0.6189
0.75V + 4.10
0.9533
0.4V + 1.38
Horizontal Closed Solid
All volumes
0.10V + 0.20
672
0.0767
8,064
Freezers*
Transparent
0.75V + 4.10
* The U.S. EPA provided a masked data set for the horizontal closed refrigerators and freezers that did not distinguish
solid door units from transparent door horizontal units. The solid door daily baseline consumption was used as a
conservative savings estimate for the horizontal closed unit type.
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = kWh SAVED / HOURS
Where:
HOURS
=
Hours-of-use, deemed (= 8,760)
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 12 years)1
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
87
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Deemed Savings
Deemed Savings Values by Measure
Measure Master Name
Freezer, Chest, Glass Door, < 15 cu ft, ENERGY STAR
Freezer, Chest, Glass Door, 15-29 cu ft, ENERGY STAR
Freezer, Chest, Glass Door, 30-49 cu ft, ENERGY STAR
Freezer, Chest, Glass Door, 50+ cu ft, ENERGY STAR
Freezer, Chest, Solid Door, < 15 cu ft, ENERGY STAR
Freezer, Chest, Solid Door, 15-29 cu ft, ENERGY STAR
Freezer, Chest, Solid Door, 30-49 cu ft, ENERGY STAR
Freezer, Chest, Solid Door, 50+ cu ft, ENERGY STAR
Freezer, Vertical, Glass Door, < 15 cu ft, ENERGY STAR
Freezer, Vertical, Glass Door, 15-29 cu ft, ENERGY STAR
Freezer, Vertical, Glass Door, 30-49 cu ft, ENERGY STAR
Freezer, Vertical, Glass Door, 50+ cu ft, ENERGY STAR
Freezer, Vertical, Solid Door, < 15 cu ft, ENERGY STAR
Freezer, Vertical, Solid Door, 15-29 cu ft, ENERGY STAR
Freezer, Vertical, Solid Door, 30-49 cu ft, ENERGY STAR
Freezer, Vertical, Solid Door, 50+ cu ft, ENERGY STAR
MMID
2321
2322
2323
2324
2325
2326
2327
2328
2329
2330
2331
2332
2333
2334
2335
2336
Deemed Savings
kWh - Annual kWh - Lifecycle
672
672
672
672
672
672
672
672
1,266
3,134
5,422
8,351
447
1,204
2,557
4,602
8,064
8,064
8,064
8,064
8,064
8,064
8,064
8,064
15,192
37,608
65,064
100,212
5,364
14,448
30,684
55,224
kW
0.0767
0.0767
0.0767
0.0767
0.0767
0.0767
0.0767
0.0767
0.1445
0.3578
0.6189
0.9533
0.051
0.1374
0.2919
0.5254
Sources
1. ENERGY STAR Program Calculator for Commercial Refrigerators and
Freezers http://www.energystar.gov/sites/default/files/asset/document/appliance_calculator.xl
sx
2. ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers, Version 3.0.
3. U.S. Department of Energy. Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Standards. Effective January
20, 2010.
4. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Masked data set for commercial refrigerators and
freezers, provided May 2013.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
88
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
89
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
HVAC
Demand Control Ventilation for Air Handling Units
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Demand Control Ventilation for Air Handling Units, 2853
Per CFM of outside air controlled
Hybrid
HVAC
Controls
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
Calculated
0
Calculated
Calculated
Calculated
0
1
10
2
$0.60
Measure Description
Commercial spaces are required to provide ventilation based on a minimum flow rate of outside air, as
calculated using the area of conditioned space and number of occupants. Standard systems are unable
to measure the number of occupants and must default to a maximum occupancy based ventilation rate.
Demand control ventilation measures that carbon dioxide is in the space as a proxy for occupants, and
allows the occupant-based portion of ventilation to be reduced below the maximum, resulting in
heating and cooling savings.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline equipment is a packaged, split, or built-up air handler with an economizer that does not
provide ventilation during unoccupied operation. Heating is assumed to be provided by natural gas
equipment with an operating efficiency of 80%. Cooling efficiencies are estimated at code requirements
according to the table below.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
90
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Cooling Efficiency Code Requirements
IECC 2009 Table 503.2.3(1)
Minimum Efficiency
Standard AC Unit < 65 kBtu/h (5.42 tons)
Standard AC Unit ≥ 65 and < 135 kBtu/h (5.42 to 11.25 tons)
Standard AC Unit ≥ 135 and < 239 KBtu/h (11.25 to 20 tons)
Standard AC Unit ≥ 240 and < 759 kBtu/h (20 to 63.33 tons)
Standard AC Unit ≥ 760 kBtu/h (63.33 tons)
13.0 SEER
11.0 EER
10.8 EER
9.8 EER
9.5 EER
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient equipment includes packaged, split, or built up air handlers that control outside air by
monitoring carbon dioxide conditions in the space and adjusting ventilation to meet the occupancy
based space requirement while not falling below the conditioned area requirement.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = ( 4.5 * CFM * Δh ) * ( EFLH COOL * 12 / EER ) * SF COOL / 3,412 * (HOURS/HOURS COOL )
Therm SAVED = ( 1.08 * CFM ) * HOURS * HDD / ɳ / 100,000 x SF HEAT
Where:
4.5
=
Conversion factor for flow rate and specific volume of air for enthalpy
based cooling calculation
CFM
=
Outside airflow in cubic feet per minute, provided by customer
Δh
=
Difference in enthalpy (Btu/lbm) between the design day outside air
conditions and the return air conditions; lbm is pounds per mass.
EFLH COOL
=
Effective full load cooling hours (= depends on building type; see table
below)6
12
=
Conversion factor from EER to kW/ton
EER
=
Energy efficiency ratio of the existing equipment, assumed to be code (=
see table above)
SF COOL
=
Deemed cooling savings factor (= depends on building type; see table
below)6
3,412
=
BTU per kWh
HOURS
=
Hours of operation per day, provided by customer
HOURS COOL =
Default hours of operation per day used in EFLH COOL (= see table below)6
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
91
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
1.08
=
Conversion factor for flow rate and specific volume of air for dry bulb
heating calculation
HDD
=
Heating degree days (using base 65; see table below)
ɳ
=
Heating efficiency (= assumed to be 0.83)
SF HEAT
=
Deemed heating savings factor (= depends on building type; see table
below)6
Enthalpies, HDD, and Incremental Costs
Design Cooling
h (Btu/lbm)
Cooling Return
h (Btu/lbm)
HDD
32.15
28.86
7,616
Weighted Wisconsin Average
Cooling and Heating Savings Factors and Equivalent Full Load Hours by Building Type
Building Type
SF COOL
SF HEAT
EFLH COOL
Food Sales
0.34
0.40
749
Food Service
0.34
0.40
578
Health Care
0.34
0.40
803
Hotel/Motel
0.15
0.18*
663
Office
0.15
0.18
578
Public Assembly
0.34
0.40
535
Public Services (non-food)
0.34
0.40
535
Retail
0.34
0.40
567
Warehouse
0.31
0.36
358
School
0.34
0.40
439
College
0.34
0.40
877
Other
0.15
0.18
589
* This value is applicable to common areas and conference rooms, but not to sleeping areas.
HOURS COOL
17.25
11.50
24.00
24.00
11.50
11.50
11.50
11.50
11.50
13.00
13.20
11.50
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
There are no peak savings associated with this measure.
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
92
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 15 years)1
Assumptions
EFLH COOL data based on DOE2/Equest building simulation. The prototype building models are based on
the California DEER study prototypes, modified for local construction practices and code. Simulations
were run using TMY3 weather data.
Assumed ventilation rates complied following the requirements of ASHRAE standard 62.1 - 2004.
Incremental costs include controls and programming, and assumes a similar cost between Direct
Expansion and water cooled equipment.
Savings assume a constant volume air system.
Savings assume existing economizer operation, and that economizer operation is given preference over
a demand control ventilation strategy.
Assumes savings in hospitals and clinics is limited to areas without a code required ACH of fresh air.
Sources
1. 2013 Conneticut
TRM. http://www.energizect.com/sites/default/files/2013%20PSD_ProgramSavingsDocumentat
ion-Final110112.pdf
2. Franklin Energy Services. Assumed zone size of 1,500 outside air CFM. Assumed standard
combustion efficiency of heating equipment.
3. "ANSI/AHRI 210/240-2008: 2008 Standard for Performance Rating of Unitary Air-Conditioning &
Air-Source Heat Pump Equipment."
4. Trane. "Psychometric Chart at Barometric Pressure 29.921 Inches of Mercury." and ASHRAE
2009 Fundamentals. Cooling DB/MCWB @ 0.4% averaged for state.
5. Franklin Energy Services. Assumed cooling setpoint of 74°F with 50% relative humidity and a 2°F
temperature rise in the return plenum.
6. Focus on Energy Deemed Savings Manual.
7. Franklin Energy Services. Calculated through energy modeling with certain building type square
footage modified based on economizer operation hours. Savings limited to 40% based on
professional experience due to concerns for negative building pressurization and minimum
outside air requirements per square footage of occupied facility. Higher values may be obtained,
requiring custom calculations.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
93
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/01/2013
Revised measure
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
94
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Parking Garage Ventilation Controls
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
Parking Garage Ventilation Controls, 3493
Per exhaust fan system
Hybrid
HVAC
Controls
Residential- multifamily; Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools &
Government
Varies by fan horsepower
0
0
Varies by fan horsepower
0
0
1
5
2
$8,000.00
Measure Description
The proposed measure requires controlling ventilation airflow in enclosed parking garages based on
carbon monoxide concentrations, while maintaining code required run hours.3 By controlling airflow
based on need rather than running constantly, the system will save energy and maintain a safe
environment.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is 24-hour garage exhaust fan operation.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is garage exhaust fan(s) controlled by carbon monoxide sensor(s) with a
minimum 5 hours of daily operation.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = kWh B - kWh CO
kWh B = HP FAN * 0.746 * 24 * 365
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
95
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
kWh CO = HP FAN * 0.746 * HOURS RUN * 365
Where:
kWh B
=
Annual electricity consumption of baseline fan control system
kWh CO
=
Annual electricity consumption of CO fan control system
HP FAN
=
Total horsepower of garage ventilation fan motor(s)
0.746
=
Kilowatts per horsepower
24
=
Hours per day
365
=
Days per year
HOURS RUN =
Average daily exhaust fan run hours with CO control system (=7 to
account for 5 hour minimum plus additional CO sensing run time)
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
There are no coincident peak savings associated with this measure.
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = (kWh B - kWh CO ) * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 5 years)1
Sources
1. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin. Focus on Energy Evaluation Business
Programs: Measure Life Study – Ventilation Controls Installed - Final Report. August 25, 2009.
Available
online: https://focusonenergy.com/sites/default/files/bpmeasurelifestudyfinal_evaluationrepor
t.pdf
2. Measure incremental cost based on historical project data.
3. Wisconsin Legislature SPS 364.0404 - minimum enclosed garage
ventilation https://docs.legis.wisconsin.gov/code/admin_code/sps/safety_and_buildings_and_e
nvironment/361_366/364/II/0404
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
96
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
12/31/2012
New measure
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
97
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Surgery Occupancy, HVAC Controls
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Measure Incremental Cost ($/unit)
Measure Details
HVAC Controls, Surgery Occupancy, 3632
Per upgrade
Hybrid
HVAC
Controls
Commercial, Schools & Government
Varies by type of savings
Varies by type of savings
Varies by type of savings
Varies by type of savings
Varies by type of savings
0
107
$5,500.006
Measure Description
The savings expected to be realized in the business commercial sector, specifically within hospital air
handlers serving surgery spaces. These air handlers currently operate continuously at a minimum of 20
Air Changes per Hour (ACH), and 4 ACH of outside air. After Building Automation Systems are upgraded
to an extended architecture, the capability to reduce airflow to operating rooms when unoccupied may
be obtained. However, space pressure relationships between an operating room and adjoining spaces
are critical and steps must be taken to prevent an operating room from having negative pressure when
airflow is reduced. Typically, these steps involve installing additional equipment on the return and/or
supply ductwork serving the operating room. Once the equipment and controls changes have been
made, an airflow reduction to 6 ACH, 1.6 ACH OA is feasible. The cost of these upgrades varies widely,
depending on the existing equipment. However, if a base system of building automation system is
present, the additional controls and possible VFD cost is within expected program range of 1 to 10 years.
Description of Baseline Condition
Baseline equipment includes an air handler with Supply/Return fans served by Variable Speed Drives,
chilled water cooling coils, hot water heating coils, and economizer operation. Cooling energy is
provided by a chilled water loop, typically served by a chiller paired with a cooling tower. Heating energy
is provided by a hot water loop, typically served by an atmospheric boiler.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
98
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Air handlers typically serve multiple spaces, so the portion of air flow and Supply/Return Fan HP energy
that should be attributed to the surgery rooms is calculated by the following inputs:
•
Number of surgery rooms
•
Total square footage of surgery rooms
•
Total square footage of non-surgery rooms served by associated AHU
•
Average volume of rooms
•
Reheat Type, Natural Gas or Electric
•
Existing air changes per hour
•
Surgery room temperature and humidity requirements during occupied and unoccupied modes
•
Estimated schedule of unoccupied controls to be implemented (e.g. 6pm to 6am, 7 days/week)
•
Surgery Room space pressure setpoint relative to adjacent spaces
•
Proposed Control Strategy Type (described in description of efficient condition)
Based on these inputs, a baseline condition of Supply CFM, OA CFM, and Fan Power kW is calculated.
CFM calculations are based on the size of the room and assumptions of 20 ACH Supply, 4 ACH OA
Supply. Fan power is calculated as CFM*Static Pressure/(6356*Total Fan Efficiency).
With these calculated values, BIN Data and typical AHU setpoints are used to calculate savings on
cooling kWh, heating therms, reheat therms, and fan kWh. Assumptions are used for Cooling kW/Ton,
Boiler efficiency, Return Air Temperature, Supply Air Temperature, Fan efficiency, fan static pressure,
and return/exhaust fan load relative to supply fan.
Description of Efficient Condition
The Efficient Condition allows for operation in a similar manner to the proposed condition, except the
total supply CFM has been reduced to 6 ACH with proportional OA cfm reduction. The Efficient
Condition is expected to operate as one of the three possible controls strategies:
•
A two-position (min/max) variable air volume (VAV) box is installed on the supply air source.
Supply airflow is controlled to setpoint. Shut-off dampers are installed in the return ductwork
equal to the amount of the setback volume. The VAV box and dampers are balanced to the
maximum and minimum volumes for occupied and unoccupied modes. When the VAV box
switches to the unoccupied mode, the return dampers (controlling the setback volume) close.
•
Pressure-independent valves are placed on the supply and return ductwork (and potentially on
ductwork serving surrounding spaces). The supply airflow is controlled to setpoint. The valves,
calibrated to the maximum and minimum volumes for occupied and unoccupied modes,
maintain the desired offset.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
99
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
•
A modulating control dampers is installed in the return duct and controlled by a room pressure
sensor. The damper modulates to maintain a positive relative room pressure during both
occupied and unoccupied modes. A standard terminal box controls the supply airflow to
setpoint for each sequence.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Heating Load Savings (therms/yr)
If bin data recorded is between schedule of unoccupied controls: (Total CFM Existing - Total CFM
Proposed) * Sensible Heat Constant * (T_supply - T_MA)
Cooling Load Savings (kWh/yr)
Total Energy Cooling Load of outside Air: (Outside Air CFM Existing-Outside Air CFM Proposed) * Total
Heat Constant * (Enthalpy_OA - Enthalpy_DA)
Sensible Energy Cooling Load of Return Air: If T_OA > T_supply: (Return Air CFM Existing - Return Air
CFM Proposed) * Sensible Heat Constant * (T_return - T_supply)
Fan Power Savings (kWh/yr)
(Total Air CFM Existing - Total AIR CFM Proposed) * (Pressure_fan static / 6,356 / Efficiency_fan) *
kW/bHP * RF + EF_Multiplier * hours/yr unoccupied
Reheat Savings (therms/yr)
Sensible Heat Constant * (Total CFM Existing - Total CFM Proposed) * (T_VAV_Supply_Existing T_VAV_Supply_Proposed) * (Total Hours - Occupied Hours)
Where:
Total CFM Existing =
Actual total building airflow
Total CFM Proposed
=
Sensible Heat Constant =
Proposed total building airflow
(lb/cubic feet air * Btu/lb air * minute/hour = 1.08
T_supply
=
Supply temperature of air handling unit (= 52°F)
T_MA
=
Mixed air temperature, calculated based on percentage of outside
air vs. return air (based on ideal economizer schedule)
Outside Air CFM Existing
=
Outside Air CFM Proposed =
Total Heat Constant =
Actual outside air supply airflow
Proposed outside air supply airflow
(60 min/hr) / (density of standard air = 0.075) = 4.5
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
100
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Enthalpy_OA
=
Enthlapy of outside air= [A * RH_OA + B (Curve fit equation to psych
chart, accurate within 0.7% between 40°F ≤ T_OA ≤ 80°F)]
A = 0.007468 * DB^2 - 0.4344 * DB + 11.1769
RH_OA
= Outside air relative humidity, TMY3 bin data B = 0.2372 * DB +
0.1230
Enthalpy_DA
=
Enthalpy of discharge air, 52°F at saturated conditions in 0-foot
elevation (= 21.45)
Return Air CFM Existing =
Actual return air supply airflow
Return Air CFM Proposed
=
T_return
=
Proposed return air supply airflow
Return temperature of air handling unit (= assumed 3°F above
T_setpoint)
Total Air CFM Existing =
Actual total airflow
Total AirCFM Proposed =
Proposed total airflow
Pressure_fan static = Total static pressure of supply fan (= assumed 4 inches Water
Guage)
6,356
=
Horsepower conversion factor
Efficiency_fan =
Overall supply fan efficiency (= assumed 75, including fan, motor,
and VFD efficiencies)
kW/bHP
Conversion HP to watts (= 0.746)
=
RF+ EF_Multiplier = Total energy consumption of all fans is 175% of the energy
consumption of just the supply fan. (= assumed 1.75)
hours/yr unoccupied
=
Unoccupied hours/yr (=6,140)
T_VAV_Supply_Existing = Actual supply temperature of the air after passing through
the VAV box
T_VAV_Supply_Proposed = Proposed supply temperature of the air after passing
through the VAV box
Total Hours
Occupied Hours
=
Number of hours per year, per bin
=
Number of hours facility is occupied
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
There are no peak savings from this measure.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
101
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 10 years)
Sources
1. Grumman Butkus. “Greening the OR Symposium.” Presentation. September 11, 2014.
2. The American Society for Healthcare Engineering. Operating Room HVAC Setback Strategies.
2011. Available online:
http://www.ashe.org/resources/management_monographs/pdfs/mg2011love.pdf
3. ANSI/ASHRAE/ASHE 170-2008 Ventilation of Healthcare Facilities
4. ASHRAE 90.1-2007 Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings
5. ASHRAE 62.1-2007 Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality
6. Savings-weighted average of historical Focus on Energy incentives. The four projects below were
done as custom incentives under retrocommissioning and HVAC control measures. Going
forward, these project types can be done under this new measure. The cost has variability based
on the amount of equipment and controls installed at the customer site.
Historical Focus on Energy Surgery HVAC Projects
App ID
Project Cost
249844
74147
118592
199725
$29,980.00
$25,050.00
$29,514.00
$75,640.00
Square Footage
1,800
3,912
3,600
4,520
7. Previous projects were performed under the “HVAC Controls, Scheduling/Setpoint
Optimization” measure (EUL = 15 years) and standard retrocommissioning measure (EUL = 5
years) - used an average of 10 year EUL.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
102
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
03/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
103
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Economizer, RTU Optimization
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Economizer, RTU Optimization, 3066
Per ton
Hybrid
HVAC
Economizer
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
Varies by location
0
0
Varies by location
0
0
1
10
$155.00
Measure Description
A majority of commercial spaces are heated and cooled by packaged rooftop units. This measure is
installing an air side economizer that offsets or reduces the need for mechanical cooling.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline equipment is a packaged rooftop unit with a fixed ventilation rate (fixed damper; no
economizer).
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient equipment is a packaged rooftop unit that includes an economizer controller, actuator, and
sensor that provide air-side economizing.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
The following algorithm is iterated for and summed over every hour (from April to October, inclusive)
that has an outside air dry-bulb temperature greater than or equal to 55°F, with the estimated average
balance point of the buildings addressed.
kWh SAVED = kWh/year BASELINE – kWh/year ECONOMIZER
kWh/year BASELINE = Ʃ(kW HOUR-INTERVAL-BASELINE * 1 hour)
kW HOUR-INTERVAL-BASELINE = CAP * R CAP * (12 / EER)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
104
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
kWh/year ECONOMIZER = Ʃ(kW HOUR-INTERVAL-ECONOMIZER * 1 hour)
kW HOUR-INTERVAL-ECONOMIZER = CAP * R CAP * (12 / EER) * Econ OPERATING
Where:
1 hour
=
Duration of time for each hour-long interval
CAP
=
Cooling capacity of equipment in tons (= varies by equipment; actual
equipment values should be used; 1 ton is used for per-ton deemed
savings value provided in this workpaper)
R CAP
=
The cooling load at which the air conditioning compressor is operating,
as a percentage of the full load capacity CAP; interpolated for every hour
between (55°F, 0%) and (95°F, 90%)
12
=
Conversion factor from EER to kW/ton
EER
=
Energy efficiency ratio of the rooftop air handling unit, in Btu/(W*hr) (=
varies by equipment; default 9.675 used for deemed savings)2
Econ OPERATING = Binary variable (1 or 0) that indicates whether the economizer is in
operation; economizer operates when outside air (dry-bulb)
temperature is between 55°F and 65°F, inclusive
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
The peak demand reduction for economizers is assumed to be zero, as economizers are not expected to
operate during peak hours due to the outside air temperature constraints. Economizers, in this savings
algorithm, are defined to operate between the outside air dry-bulb temperature of 55°F (the estimated
building balance point) and the assumed dry bulb equivalent set point temperature of 65°F, and peak
demand hours are likely to be characterized by higher outside air temperatures.
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 10 years)1
Deemed Savings
The deemed savings were calculated as shown in the table below. The city nearest the participant
location should be applied.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
105
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Deemed Savings by Location
City
Madison
Milwaukee
Green Bay
La Crosse
Minocqua
Wausau
Rice Lake
Annual Savings
(kWh/yr/ton)
Peak Demand Reduction
(kW)
Lifecycle Electric Energy
Savings (kWh/ton)
177
222
229
167
215
175
202
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1,761
2,220
2,293
1,674
2,150
1,748
2,019
Assumptions
The economizer operates between 55°F and 65°F.
Economizer modulation (mixing of outside air and inside air to match the set point temperature) is not
taken into account with the savings analysis.
The fraction of the full capacity where the air conditioning compressor is operating is assumed to be a
linear function of outside air dry-bulb temperature (0% at 55°F and 90% at 95°F). This assumes correct
sizing of the air conditioning unit when installed, including some extra capacity for cooling beyond 95°F.
The hourly interval weather data for Green Bay, La Crosse, Madison, Milwaukee, Minocqua, Rice Lake,
and Wausau were obtained from TMY 3 data.3
Sources
1. California Energy Commission and California Public Utilities Commission. Database for Energy
Efficient Resources (DEER) 2008. http://www.energy.ca.gov/deer/ .
2. International Energy Conservation Code. Table 503.2.3(1). 2009. Straight unweighted average of
minimum EER standards for RTUs of cooling capacities greater than 11.25 tons.
3. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. “TMY3 Weather Data: National Solar Radiation Data
Base.” http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/nsrdb/1991-2005/tmy3/by_state_and_city.html.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
106
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
107
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Energy Recovery Ventilator
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Energy Recovery Ventilator, 2314
Per CFM
Hybrid
HVAC
Energy Recovery
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government,
Residential- multifamily
72 (reference savings)
9.43 (reference savings)
13,576 (reference savings)
1,080 (reference savings)
203,640 (reference savings)
0
3
15
$1,500.00 per ventilator
Measure Description
This measure is installing an ERV on an HVAC system that provides both heating and cooling to occupied
space. ERV systems exchange heat (often both sensible heat and water vapor) between outgoing
exhaust air and incoming ventilation air. Under appropriate conditions, this allows for reducing the
capacity of the HVAC system, which creates energy savings. Heat and energy recovery wheels are the
most commonly applied ERV systems.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline is determined from the facility operating hours, current heating/cooling equipment
efficiencies, and ERV supply airflow CFM.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is an ERV installed on the HVAC system. The system must both heat and cool the
space, with minimum cooling hours from 1:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m., June through August, and with heating
occurring in the winter. In addition, the following specifications must be met:
• The leaving supply airflow matches AHRI standard 1060-2005.
• Equipment is AHRI certified to standard 1060-2005 and bear the AHRI certification symbol
for the air-to-air recovery ventilation equipment certification program based on AHRI 106.
• Qualifying equipment is independently tested and reported per ASHRAE standard 84-1991.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
108
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Savings were calculated as the sum of iterations over the full range of temperatures (-30°F to 100°F),
broken into five-degree intervals. The total savings account for the distribution of the number of hours
for each temperature interval.
When in cooling, the savings for each temperature interval are calculated as:1
kWh SAVED = Ʃ (ΔkWh TEMP-INTERVAL )
ΔkWh TEMP-INTERVAL = [(1/ρ AIR * 60 * V SUPPLY * η HX-SUMMER * (H OUT – H RETURN ) / 12,000 * η COOLING ) – kW FAN ] *
t TEMP-INTERVAL
kW FAN = V SUPPLY * (∆P HX + ∆P OTHERS ) / (33,013 / 5.202) / η FANMECH. / η FANMOTOR * 0.746
When in heating, the savings for each temperature interval are calculated as:
Therm SAVED = Ʃ (ΔTherms TEMP-INTERVAL )
ΔTherm TEMP-INTERVAL = ((1.08 * V SUPPLY * η HX-WINTER *(T HEATED SPACE – T OUTSIDE ) / 100,000) / η HEATING ) * t TEMPINTERVAL
Where:
1/ ρ AIR
=
Specific volume of air (ρ AIR = 0.075 lb/cubic foot at 1 atm and 68°F)
60
=
Conversion factor from hours to minutes
V SUPPLY
=
Volume of supply air (= actual; otherwise use default value of 7,200
CFM)
η HX-SUMMER
=
Efficiency of summer heat exchanger (= actual; otherwise use default
value of 74%)
H OUT
=
Enthalpy of outside air in Btu per pound, based on temperature interval
H RETURN
=
Enthalpy of inside air at 75°F, 50% RH (= 28.3 Btu/lb)
12,000
=
Conversion from Btu to tons (of cooling)
η COOLING
=
Efficiency of cooling system (= 1.20 kW/ton)
t TEMP-INTERVAL =
Number of hours the system operates in the particular temperature
interval
∆P HX
=
Pressure drop across the heat exchanger (= 0.29 inches of water)
∆P OTHERS
=
Pressure drop across the filter, louver, inlet, and outlet (= 0.80 inches of
water)
33,013
=
Conversion factor from HP to foot pounds per minute
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
109
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
5.202
=
Conversion factor from inches of water to pounds per square foot
η FANMECH
=
Fan mechanical efficiency (= actual; otherwise use default value of 65%)
η FANMOTOR
=
Fan motor efficiency (= actual; otherwise use default value of 89.5% for
5 HP fan motor)
0.746
=
Conversion factor from horsepower to kilwatts
1.08
=
Conversion factor of pounds of air per hour multiplied by heat capacity
of air in Btu per pound, whichallows the enthalpy to be determined
using the volumetric flowrate of air in CFM and the temperature
difference
η HX-WINTER
=
Efficiency of summer heat exchanger (= actual; otherwise use default
value of 73%)
T HEATED SPACE =
Temperature inside heated space (= 68°F)
T OUTSIDE
=
Midpoint of the temperature interval outside in Fahrenheit, based on
temperature interval
100,000
=
Btu to therm conversion
η HEATING
=
Efficiency of heating system (= 85%)
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = kWh SAVED / HOURS COOLING
Where:
=
kWh SAVED
Annual savings during cooling season, based on temperature interval
(= 9,615 kWh)
Number of operating hours during cooling (= 1,258)2
HOURS COOLING =
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 15 years)3
Deemed Savings
Deemed Energy Savings by Heating or Cooling
Yearlong
Annual Energy Savings
Peak Demand Reduction
Lifecycle Energy Savings
72 kWh
13,576 therms
-
1,080 kWh
203,640 rherms
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
110
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Cooling
Heating
11,867 kWh
-11,795 kWh
13,576 therms
9.43 kW
-
178,005 kWh
176,925 kWh
203,640 therms
There are negative kWh savings from operating the fan (kWh FAN ); when the system is in heating mode,
heating savings come from natural gas savings, whereas the electric energy use increases due to the
kWh consumed by the fan. However, the overall Btu savings is net positive.
Assumptions
Deemed savings values were calculated for a system with a 7,200 CFM supply fan.
All of the assumptions used in the savings calculations, as listed in the definition of terms, are from the
Focus on Energy Program Energy Recovery Ventilator Calculation input.1
The weather intervals and corresponding operating hours in the following tables were used to calculate
the deemed savings values.2
Weather Intervals and Corresponding Operating Hours
Temperature
Range (°F)
Cooling
Heating
Range Midpoint
(°F)
95 to 100
90 to 95
85 to 90
80 to 85
75 to 80
70 to 75
65 to 70
60 to 65
55 to 60
50 to 55
45 to 50
40 to 45
35 to 40
30 to 35
25 to 30
20 to 25
15 to 20
10 to 15
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
97.5
92.5
87.5
82.5
77.5
72.5
67.5
62.5
57.5
52.5
47.5
42.5
37.5
32.5
27.5
22.5
17.5
12.5
Hours Operating in
Each Temperature
Interval (hours)
4.18
20.56
70.72
266.68
421.24
474.69
698.74
877.28
574.89
642.02
466.10
639.90
859.58
730.96
429.07
507.80
388.02
229.07
Enthalpy
(Btu/lb)
42.12
40.57
39.45
35.13
32.40
30.69
28.33
25.22
21.97
19.17
17.11
15.06
12.95
10.99
9.13
7.61
5.87
4.04
111
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Temperature
Range (°F)
Range Midpoint
(°F)
5 to 10
0 to 5
-5 to 0
-10 to -5
-15 to -10
-20 to -15
-25 to -20
-30 to -25
Hours Operating in
Each Temperature
Interval (hours)
7.5
2.5
-2.5
-7.5
-12.5
-17.5
-22.5
-27.5
147.38
95.69
93.43
79.95
27.69
9.57
3.49
1.31
Enthalpy
(Btu/lb)
2.53
1.30
0.08
-1.39
-2.52
-3.90
-4.86
-6.22
Sources
1. PA Consulting Group Inc. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin Focus on
Energy Evaluation Business Programs: Measure Life Study. Final Report. August 25, 2009.
Available
online: https://focusonenergy.com/sites/default/files/bpmeasurelifestudyfinal_evaluationrepor
t.pdf
2. Focus on Energy Program, Energy Recovery Ventilator Calculator prepared by Franklin Energy..
3. Wisconsin PSC EUL Database. 2013. See Appendix C.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
 08/2014
 Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
112
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Natural Gas Furnace with ECM, 95%+ AFUE (Existing)
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Natural Gas Furnace with ECM, 95%+ AFUE (Existing), 1981
Per furnace
Prescriptive
HVAC
Furnace
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
831
0
97.3
14,967
1,751
0
1
2
18 Single family: 23
$345.93
Measure Description
Conventional natural gas furnaces produce by-products, such as water vapor and carbon dioxide, that
are usually vented out through a chimney, along with a considerable amount of heat. This occurs not
only when the furnace is in use, but also when it is turned off. Newer designs increase energy efficiency
by reducing the amount of heat that escapes and by extracting heat from the flue gas before it is
vented. These furnaces use much less energy than conventional furnaces.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is a conventional furnace with AFUE < 78%.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is furnaces with AFUE ≥ 95%, a multi-stage burner, variable speed ECM or
brushless DC blower motor, and at least two firing stages.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Therm savings are calculated as the difference in energy consumptions between standard efficiency
furnaces and high-efficiency furnaces. Electric savings are estimated by multiplying the consumption of
the efficient furnace in therms by a kWh/therm savings factor.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
113
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Therm SAVED = CAP * HOURS HEATING * (1/AFUE BASE - 1/AFUE EE ) * (1/100)
kWh SAVED = (kWh/therm) * CAP * HOURS HEATING * (1/100)
Where:
CAP
=
Actual output capacity of furnace (= 90 MBtu/hour)2
HOURS HEATING = Engineering estimate using 20% oversize factor, 80°F design
temperature differential, and 7,699 HDD
AFUE BASE
=
Efficiency rating of standard efficiency furnace, deemed (= 78%)
AFUE EE
=
Efficiency rating of high-efficiency furnace, deemed (= 95%)
100
=
Conversion factor for MBtus per therm
kWh/therm =
High-efficiency electric savings factor, deemed (= 0.5 kWh/therm when
based on 100% AFUE system)
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 18 years)1
Sources
1. PA Consulting Group Inc. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin Focus on
Energy Evaluation Business Programs: Measure Life Study. Final Report. August 25, 2009.
Available
online: https://focusonenergy.com/sites/default/files/bpmeasurelifestudyfinal_evaluationrep
ort.pdf
2. Cadmus completed a survey of small commercial furnace sizes and relied on various utilities
studies. Completed November 2014.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
114
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Variable Frequency Drive HVAC Applications
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Variable Frequency Drive, HVAC Fan, 2643
Variable Frequency Drive, HVAC Heating Pump, 2644
Per horsepower
Hybrid
HVAC
Motors and Drives
Residential- multifamily
1
880 (reference savings)
2
0.13 (reference savings)
0
1
13,200 (reference savings)
0
0
3
15
$130.00
Measure Description
This measure is a VFD installed on an existing HVAC fan or pump (retrofit only). Units must operate a
minimum of 2,000 hours annually. The reference savings values are based on average motor size of
7.5 hp.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is a pump or fan that operates at a constant speed.
Description of Efficient Condition
VFDs physically slow motor driving pumps and fans to achieve reduced flow rates at considerable energy
savings. Traditionally, flow rates have been reduced by increasing the head pressure drop in a system
and riding the pump or fan curve back to a new flow rate (throttling control). Alternately, some systems
have bypasses that divert a portion of the flow back to the pump or fan inlet to reduce system flow
(bypass control).
This measure is VFDs installed on existing HVAC fans and pumps. The installation of a VFD must
accompany the permanent removal or disabling of any throttling devices, such as inlet vanes, bypass
dampers, and throttling valves. The unit must operate a minimum of 2,000 hours annually. VFDs on new
equipment are not eligible. Redundant, back-up units and replacing existing VFDs do not qualify.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
115
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = kWh BASE – kWh VSD
kWh BASE = (Watts BASE * HOURS) / 1,000
kWh VSD = Σ( Watts VSD,i * CAP i × HOURS) / 1,000
Where:
Watts BASE
=
Power draw of baseline motor at constant baseline speed
HOURS
=
Annual operating hours
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
Watts VSD,i
=
Power draw of motor with VFD at capacity i
CAP i
=
Percentage of time motor runs at capacity i (CAP i should add to 100%)
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = kW BASE – kW VSD
kW BASE = Watts BASE * HOURS PEAK
kW VSD = Σ( Watts VSD,i * CAP i,PEAK * HOURS PEAK ) / 1,000
Where:
HOURS PEAK =
CAP i,PEAK
=
Annual operating hours during peak period
Percentage of time motor runs at capacity i during the peak period
(CAP i,PEAK should add to 100%)
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 15 years)3
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
116
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Sources
1. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin. Focus on Energy ACES Program.
2008-2010 average project savings for measure (based on an average of 7.5 hp).
2. Michigan Public Service Commission, Department of Licensing and Regulatory Affairs. “Michigan
Energy Measures Database.” http://www.michigan.gov/mpsc/0,1607,7-159-52495_55129--,00.html.
3. PA Consulting Group Inc. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin Focus on
Energy Evaluation Business Programs: Measure Life Study. Final Report. August 25, 2009.
Available
online: https://focusonenergy.com/sites/default/files/bpmeasurelifestudyfinal_evaluationrepor
t.pdf
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
117
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
RTU Optimization - Programmable Thermostat
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Cateogry
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
Programmable Thermostat, RTU Optimization Advanced, 3120
Programmable Thermostat, RTU Optimization Standard, 3121
Per 1,000 square feet (kSF)
Hybrid
HVAC
Other
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
Varies by inputs
0
Varies by inputs
Varies by inputs
Varies by inputs
0
1
5
2
3
$150.00 (standard) , $292.00 (advanced)
Measure Description
A majority of commercial spaces are heated and cooled by packaged rooftop units. This measure allows
for installing and programming a programmable thermostat to reset space temperatures during
unoccupied periods and save energy. The advanced measure involves installing a more advanced
programmable thermostat that can operate two modes of ventilation for occupied and unoccupied
periods, thus reducing or eliminating ventilation when not needed. The advanced thermostat option
requires an economizer with multiple ventilation set points, a more advanced thermostat, and
additional wiring.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline equipment is a non-programmable thermostat controlling a packaged rooftop unit.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient equipment includes a programmed programmable thermostat controlling a packaged
rooftop unit. System must reset by 5 degrees or more for at least 6 hours per day.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Savings are calculated using the Honeywell Savings Estimator5 tool for Rooftop Units, with inputs given
in the table below.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
118
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Honeywell Savings Estimator Inputs
Data Input
Outdoor CO 2 Level
Building Type
Area
Construction
Thermal Envelope
City
Equipment Type
Efficiency
Damper Leakage
Base Case
Set Points Heating
Set Points Cooling
CO 2 Setpoint
Occupancy
Utility Rates
Programmable Thermostat
Advanced Programmable Thermostat
390 ppm
4
Space Type
4
Tons * 400 CFM/ton * 1 sq.ft./CFM
Frame Construction
ASHRAE Standard 90.1 - 2007
4
Nearest to Site Address of Eau Claire,
Green Bay, La Crosse, Madison, Milwaukee
4
Unitary AC and Heating Type
Cooling EER 10.0
Heating Natural Gas – 0.8
Heating Electric – 1.0
0%
Unoccupied Fan Cycling
Occupied 70°F
Unoccupied (70°F – Heating Set Back)
Occupied 75°F
Unoccupied (75°F + Cooling Set Up)
1,100 ppm
Default Occupancy
$0.70/therm, $0.10/kWh
390 ppm
4
Space Type
4
Tons * 400 CFM/ton * 1 sq.ft./CFM
Frame Construction
ASHRAE Standard 90.1 - 2007
4
Nearest to Site Address of Eau Claire,
Green Bay, La Crosse, Madison, Milwaukee
4
Unitary AC and Heating Type
Cooling EER 10.0
Heating Natural Gas – 0.8
Heating Electric – 1.0
0%
Unoccupied Fan Cycling
Occupied 70°F
Unoccupied (70°F – Heating Set Back)
Occupied 75°F
Unoccupied (75°F + Cooling Set Up)
1,100 ppm
Default Occupancy
$0.70/therm, $0.10/kWh
Annual Therm Savings (Natural Gas Heat)
Standard Programmable Thermostat = Natural Gas Energy (Base) – Natural Gas Energy (Setback)
Advanced Programmable Thermostat = Natural Gas Energy (Base) – Natural Gas Energy (Dry Bulb)
Annual Energy Savings (Natural Gas Heat)
Standard Programmable Thermostat = Electric Energy (Base) – Electric Energy (Setback)
Advanced Programmable Thermostat = Electric Energy (Base) – Electric Energy (Setback)
Annual Energy Savings (Electric Heat)
Standard Programmable Thermostat = Electric Energy (Base) – Electric Energy (Setback)
Advanced Programmable Thermostat = Electric Energy (Base) – Electric Energy (Setback) + Night
Ventilation Savings
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
119
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
To determine Night Ventilation Savings, change heating type to natural gas and use the following
formula: (Natural Gas Energy (Setback) – Natural Gas Energy (Dry Bulb)) * 29.3 kWh/therm * 0.8
(Electric Efficiency/Natural Gas Efficiency)
The following example provides savings for the retail sector in Milwaukee, using natural gas heating and
inputs from the table above:
Inputs Calculated:
Area = 50 Tons (from application) * 400 CFM/ton * sq. ft./CFM
Where:
29.3
=
Conversion from therms to kWh
CFM
=
Outside air flow in cubic feet per minute
EER
=
Energy efficiency ratio for cooling
Electric Energy
=
Model output from Honeywell savings estimator in kWh
Natural Gas Energy = Model output from Honeywell savings estimator in therms
Example Output Results
Natural Gas
Energy (therms)
Electric Energy
(kWh)
Electric Demand
(kW)
Electricity Cost
($)
Natural Gas Cost
($)
Total Utility Cost
($)
Comp Run Time
(hrs)
CO2 Emissions
(mTons)
Equip Cost ($)
Cost Savings (%)
Cost Savings ($)
Dry
Bulb
Enthalpy
Diff
Enth
Base
Setback
2,231
2,042
1,952
1,952
1,952
1,325
1,325
1,325
1,325
22,193
21,406
21,129
21,140
19,332
21,547
20,986
21,033
19,018
18
18
18
18
18
16
16
16
16
1,775
1,713
1,690
1,691
1,547
1,724
1,679
1,683
1,521
1,562
1.430
1,367
1,367
1,367
928
928
928
928
3,337
3,142
3,057
3,058
2,913
2,652
2,607
2,610
2,449
526
520
511
511
413
540
514
515
399
25
24
23
23
22
20
20
20
19
0
0
0
0
5,844
195
0
8,391
280
0
8,361
279
0
12,706
424
0
20,527
685
0
21,876
730
0
21,786
727
0
26,611
888
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
DCV
DCV+DB DCV+Enth DCV+DiffE
120
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Base
Payback (yrs)
Setback
0
Dry
Bulb
0
Enthalpy
0
Diff
Enth
0
DCV
0
DCV+DB DCV+Enth DCV+DiffE
0
0
0
0
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
There are no peak savings for this measure.
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Sources
1. PA Consulting Group Inc. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin Focus on
Energy Evaluation Business Programs: Measure Life Study. Final Report. August 25, 2009.
Available
online: https://focusonenergy.com/sites/default/files/bpmeasurelifestudyfinal_evaluationrepor
t.pdf
2. DEER Measure Cost Summary. Revised June 2, 2008.
3. Median material cost for preapproved list is $180.00; additional labor is required for
programming and running wire from output to economizer, estimated at 2 hours per thermostat
at labor rate of $56.48.
4. Inputs from program application.
5. Honeywell. https://customer.honeywell.com/Documents/setupFullSE4_2_0_1.zip
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
02
03/11/2013
05/07/2013
New measure
Revised
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
121
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
A/C Split or Packaged System, High Efficiency
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
A/C Split or Packaged System, High Efficiency, 3022
Per system
Hybrid
HVAC
Rooftop Unit / Split System AC
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
Varies by capacity
Varies by capacity
0
Varies by capacity
0
0
1
15
$100.00 per ton
Measure Description
This measure is installing high-efficiency, unitary packaged, and split air conditioning equipment. This
measure also applies to replacing an existing unit at the end of its useful life or installing a new unit in a
new or existing building.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline equipment for new construction or where new equipment is required by code is a
standard-efficiency packaged or split air conditioner that meets the 2009 IECC energy efficiency
requirements. The rating conditions for the baseline and efficient equipment efficiencies must be
equivalent.
Baseline Equipment for New Construction
IECC 2009, Table 503.2.3(1)
Standard AC Unit < 65 kBtu/hour (5.42 tons or less)
Standard AC Unit ≥ 65 and < 135 kBtu/hour (5.42 to 11.25 tons)
Standard AC Unit ≥ 135 and < 240 kBtu/hour (11.25 to 20 tons)
Standard AC Unit ≥ 240 and < 760 kBtu/hour (20 to 63.33 tons)
Standard AC Unit ≥ 760 kBtu/hour (63.33 tons or more)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
Minimum Efficiency2
13.0 SEER
11.2 EER
11.0 EER
10.0 EER
9.7 EER
122
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
The baseline equipment for existing buildings is a standard-efficiency packaged or split air conditioner
that meets the 2006 IECC energy efficiency requirements. The rating conditions for the baseline and
efficient equipment efficiencies must be equivalent.
Baseline Equipment for Existing Building
Minimum Efficiency3
IECC 2006 Table 503.2.3(1)
Standard AC Unit < 65 kBtu/hour (5.42 tons or less)
Standard AC Unit ≥ 65 and < 135 kBtu/hour (5.42 to 11.25 tons)
Standard AC Unit ≥ 135 and < 240 kBtu/hour (11.25 to 20 tons)
Standard AC Unit ≥ 240 and < 760 kBtu/hour (20 to 63.33 tons)
Standard AC Unit ≥ 760 kBtu/hour (63.33 tons or more)
10.0 SEER
10.2 EER
9.7 EER
9.5 EER
9.2 EER
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient equipment is a high-efficiency packaged air conditioner that exceeds the minimum CEE
energy-efficiency requirements listed in the table below.
Efficient Equipment
CEE High Efficiency RTU Efficiencies by Size
High Eff AC Unit < 65 kBtu/hour (5.42 tons or less)
High Eff AC Unit ≥ 65 and < 135 kBtu/hour (5.42 to 11.25 tons)
High Eff AC Unit ≥ 135 and < 240 kBtu/hour (11.25 to 20 tons)
High Eff AC Unit ≥ 240 and < 760 kBtu/hour (20 to 63.33 tons)
High Eff AC Unit ≥ 760 kBtu/hour (63.33 tons or more)
Minimum to Qualify2
15.0 SEER / 12.0 EER
12.0 EER / 13.8 IEER
12.0 EER / 13.0 IEER
10.6 EER / 12.1 IEER
10.2 EER / 11.4 IEER
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = kWh BASE – kWh EE
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithms by Size
Baseline (kWh BASE )
≥ 65 kBtu
< 65 kBtu
kWh BASE = Capacity * RLF * EFLH C * (1/EER BASE ) * (1 kW/1,000)
kWh BASE = Capacity * RLF * EFLH C * (1/SEER BASE ) * (1 kW/1,000)
Efficient (kWh EE )
≥ 65 kBtu
< 65 kBtu
kWh EE = Capacity * RLF * EFLH C * (1/EER EE ) * (1 kW/1,000)
kWh EE = Capacity * RLF * EFLH C * (1/SEER BASE ) * (1 kW/1,000)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
123
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Where:
Capacity
=
Capacity (size) of the unit in Btu/hour
RLF
=
Rated load factor; the peak cooling load/nameplate capacity. This factor
compensates for oversizing of the air conditioning unit (= 0.90)
EFLH C
=
Cooling equivalent full load hours (= see table below for default values)
EER BASE
=
Energy efficiency ratio of standard efficiency code baseline unit in
Btu/watt-hour
1,000
=
Conversion factor
SEER BASE
=
Seasonal energy efficiency rating. Factor used on smaller commercial
and residential cooling equipment ˃ 65 kBtu. For air conditioning units
< 65 kBtu, used SEER instead of EER to calculate kWh SAVED , then
converted SEER to EER (11.3/13) to calculate kW saved
EER EE
=
Energy efficiency ratio of efficient unit in Btu/watt-hour
Cooling Equivalent Full Load Hours by Building Type
Building Type
College
Food Sales
Food Service
Healthcare
Hotel/Motel
Industrial
Office
Other
Public Assembly
Public Services (non-food)
Retail
School
Warehouse
Average
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
EFLH C 4
877
749
578
803
663
519
578
589
535
535
567
439
358
599
124
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = kW BASE – kW EE
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithms by Size
Baseline (kW BASE )
≥ 65 kBtu
< 65 kBtu
kW BASE = Capacity * ( 1kW/1,000) * CF * (1/EER BASE )
kW BASE = Capacity (Btu/hour) * (1 kW/1,000) * CF * (1/SEER BASE )
Efficient (kW EE )
≥ 65 kBtu
< 65 kBtu
kW EE = Capacity * (1 kW/1,000) * CF * (1/EER EE )
kW EE = Capacity * (1 kW/1,000) * CF * (1/SEER EE )
Where
CF
Coincidence factor (= 0.8)5
=
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 15 years)1
Deemed Savings
Deemed Savings Values by Capacity
Capacity
(Btu/hour)
50,000
100,000
187,000
517,500
800,000
SEER/
EER BASE
10
10.3
9.7
9.5
9.2
SEER/
EER EE
15
12.0
12.0
10.6
10.2
MMID
kWh BASE
kWh EE
kWh SAVED
kW BASE
kW EE
kW SAVED
kWh LIFECYCLE
3022
2,695.50
5,233.98
10,392.96
29,366.76
46,878.26
1,797.00
4,492.50
8,400.98
26,319.27
42,282.35
899
742
1,627
3,048
3,315
4.00
7.77
15.42
43.58
69.57
2.67
6.67
12.47
39.06
62.75
1.33
1.10
2.96
4.52
6.82
13,478
11,122
29,880
45,712
68,939
Assumptions
The average (mean) value for all building types was used to determine cooling EFLH.
A default value of 0.90 was assumed for the rated load factor.
The deemed savings values were calculated for hypothetical units with capacities equal to the midpoint
of each interval found in the IECC 2009 standard, with the exception of units < 65 kBtu/hour (which used
50 kBtu/hour) and units ≥ 760 kBtu/hour (which used 800 kBtu/hour).
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
125
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Sources
1. PA Consulting Group Inc. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin Focus on
Energy Evaluation Business Programs: Measure Life Study. Final Report. August 25, 2009.
Available
online: https://focusonenergy.com/sites/default/files/bpmeasurelifestudyfinal_evaluationrepor
t.pdf; And Similar A/C measures (MMIDs 123-124, 821-879, 2192-2194).
2. International Energy Conservation Code. Table 503.2.3(1). 2009.
3. International Energy Conservation Code. Table 503.2.3(1). 2006.
4. DEER model runs that were weather normalized for statewide use by population density.
5. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. March 22, 2010.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
126
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Demand Control Ventilation, RTU Optimization
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
Demand Control Ventilation, RTU Optimization, 3266
Per RTU
Hybrid
HVAC
Rooftop Unit / Split System AC
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
Varies by area of conditioned space and number of occupants
0
Varies by area of conditioned space and number of occupants
Varies by area of conditioned space and number of occupants
Varies by area of conditioned space and number of occupants
0
1
15
2
$900.00
Measure Desription
Commercial spaces are required to provide ventilation based on a minimum flow rate of outside air,
calculated using the area of conditioned space and number of occupants. Standard systems are unable
to measure the number of occupants and must default to a maximum occupancy based ventilation rate.
Demand control ventilation controls measure the carbon dioxide in the space as a proxy for the number
of occupants and allow the occupant-based portion of ventilation to be reduced below the maximum,
resulting in heating and cooling savings.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline equipment is a packaged RTU with an air side economizer and a fixed minimum
ventilation rate.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient equipment includes a sensor that measures the carbon dioxide level of the space and an
economizer that can adjust the ventilation rate to maintain carbon dioxide levels within the space
according to code.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Savings are calculated using the Honeywell Savings Estimator4 tool for RTUs, with inputs given in the
following table.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
127
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Honeywell Savings Estimator Inputs
Data Input
Demand Controlled Ventilation
Outdoor CO 2 Level
3
Building Type
3
Area
Construction
Thermal Envelope
City
Equipment Type
390 ppm
Space type
Tons * 400 cfm/ton * 1 sq.ft./cfm
Frame
ASHRAE Standard 90.1 - 2007
3
Nearest to site address in Eau Claire, Green Bay, La Crosse, or Madison, Milwaukee
3
Unitary AC and heating
Cooling EER = 10
Heating Natural Gas EER = 0.8
Heating Electric EER = 1.0
0%
Unoccupied fan cycling
Occupied 70°F
Unoccupied (70°F heating set back)
Occupied 75°F
Unoccupied (75°F cooling set up)
1,100 ppm
Default occupancy
$0.70/therm; $0.10/kWh
Efficiency
Damper Leakage
Base Case
Set Points Heating
Set Points Cooling
CO 2 Setpoint
Occupancy
Utility Rates
Savings from Honeywell Estimator:
Therm SAVED = Natural Gas Energy (DCV + DB) – Natural Gas Energy (Dry Bulb)
kWh SAVED = Electric Energy (DCV + DB) – Electric Energy (Dry Bulb)
Where:
Natural Gas Energy =
Model output from Honeywell Savings Estimator in therms4
DCV
=
Demand control ventilation
DB
=
Decibels
Dry Blub
=
The ambient air temperature
Electric Energy
=
Model output from Honeywell Savings Estimator in kWh4
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
There are no peak savings for this measure.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
128
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (15 years)1
Assumptions
The minimum ventilation is based on ASHRAE 62.1-2007, which is representative or conservative for
building stock addressed by measure.
Sources
1. 2013 Minnesota TRM: http://mn.gov/commerce-stat/pdfs/trm-version-1.3.pdf . 2013 Illinois
TRM: http://www.ilsag.info/technical-reference-manual.html.The Minnesota TRM uses 15 year
measure life. The Minnesota TRM EUL is sourced in the US Department of Energy Efficiency and
Renewable Energy document: “Demand Control Ventilation Using CO2 Sensors”.
2. US Department of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. “Demand Control Ventilation Using
CO2 Sensors”.
3. Inputs collected from customer in Focus on Energy application.
4. Honeywell Savings Estimator Model located at:
https://customer.honeywell.com/Documents/setupFullSE4_2_0_1.zip
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
03/11/2013
Intial measure entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
129
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Steam Trap Repair, >50 PSIG, General Heating
Measure Details
Steam Trap Repair, 50-125 psig, General Heating, Prescriptive:
7/32" or Smaller, 3516
1/4", 3583
5/16", 3515
3/8" or Larger, 3514
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Steam Trap Repair, 126-225 psig, General Heating, Prescriptive:
7/32" or Smaller, 3520
1/4", 3517
5/16", 3519
3/8" or Larger, 3518
Steam Trap Repair, > 225 psig, General Heating, Prescriptive:
7/32" or Smaller, 3524
1/4", 3521
5/16", 3523
3/8" or Larger, 3522
Per steam trap
Prescriptive and Hybrid
HVAC
Steam Trap
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government, Residentialmultifamily
0
0
Varies by pressure and orifice size
0
Varies by pressure and orifice size
0
1
6
Varies, see Appendix D
Measure Description
This measure is the repair of failed open steam traps leaking steam into the condensate lines of HVAC
only steam systems.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
130
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Steam distribution systems contain steam traps, which are automatic valves that remove condensate,
air, and other non-condensable gases, while preventing or minimizing steam loss. This measure is for
the repair of failed steam traps that are leaking steam within the trap, and are part of an HVAC steam
system.
Steam traps that fail in the open position allow steam to escape into the condensate lines before the
available heat energy can be used for space heating, wasting the energy used to make the steam. By
replacing or repairing traps that have failed in the open position, the wasted heat energy can be
conserved.
The measure specifications are as follows:
•
Boiler must be used for space heating, not process applications.
•
Repaired traps must be leaking steam, not failed closed or plugged.
•
Incentive is available once per year per system.
•
Municipal steam systems do not qualify.
A steam trap survey and repair log must be completed. Required information includes a trap
identification tag number, location description, nominal steam pressure, trap type, trap condition
(functioning, failed open, or failed closed), and orifice size.
Description of Baseline Condition
The measure baseline is a steam trap that has failed in the open position and is leaking steam into the
condensate line in a high-pressure (>50 psig) steam system. The steam from the boiler must be used for
space heating and not for process applications. The boiler is assumed to operate with 80% efficiency. It
is important to note that the trap must be failed in the open position and not failed closed or plugged.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is replacing or repairing traps that have failed in the open position, providing the
ability to use steam heat that was previously wasted.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
W = 24.24 * P_abs * OD2 * Napier’s Formula
Therm SAVED = 24.24 * D2 * (P g + P atm ) * h fg * HOURS * DF / 100,000 / Eff
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
131
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Where:
W
=
The pounds of steam flowing per second
24.24
=
Constant from Napier equation
P_abs
=
Absolute Pressure in pounds per square inch absolute.
OD2
=
Diameter of orifice, in.
Napier’s Formula = W = p_a / 70 (p = the absolute pressure in pounds per square inch, a
= the area of the orifice in square inches, and 70 = constant)
D
=
Steam trap orifice diameter in inches (= 7/32, 1/4, 5/16, or 3/8)
Pg
=
Gauge pressure in pounds per square inch (= 87.5, 175.5, or 226)
P atm
=
Atmospheric pressure at sea level in pounds per square inch (= 14.7)
h fg
=
Latent heat of steam at P g in Btu/lb (= 887.8, 847.2, or 828.7)
HOURS
=
Annual hours of operation the boiler is on and the system is at design
pressure (= 4,706)2
DF
=
De-rating factor to account for the percentage that the trap is failed
open (= 50%)3
100,000
=
Conversion factor from Btu to therms
Eff
=
Boiler efficiency; for this calculation refers to boiler combustion
efficiency (= 80%)
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 6 years)1
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
132
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Deemed Savings
Annual and Lifecycle Savings by Measure
Measure Name
MMID
Annual
Savings
(Therms)
Lifecycle
Savings
(Therms)
Steam Trap Repair, 126-225 psig, General Heating, 7/32" or Smaller
3520
5,497
32,984
Steam Trap Repair, 126-225 psig, General Heating, 1/4"
3517
7,180
43,082
Steam Trap Repair, 126-225 psig, General Heating, 5/16"
3519
11,219
67,315
Steam Trap Repair, 126-225 psig, General Heating, 3/8" or Larger
3518
16,156
96,934
Steam Trap Repair, >225 psig, General Heating, 7/32" or Smaller
3524
6,805
40,831
Steam Trap Repair, >225 psig, General Heating, 1/4"
3521
8,888
53,330
Steam Trap Repair, >225 psig, General Heating, 5/16"
3523
13,888
83,328
Steam Trap Repair, >225 psig, General Heating, 3/8" or Larger
3522
19,999
119,992
Assumptions
The steam trap is assumed to be failed open, for an HVAC steam distribution system operating with a
boiler efficiency of 80%.
The following pressures were used to calculate the deemed savings for each pressure range and their
corresponding latent heat values:
•
50-125 psig:
87.5 psig; 887.8 Btu/lb
•
126-225 psig:
175.5 psig; 847.2 Btu/lb
•
>225 psig: 226 psig; 828.7 Btu/lb
Sources
1. PA Consulting Group Inc. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin Focus on
Energy Evaluation Business Programs: Measure Life Study. Final Report. August 25, 2009.
Available
online: https://focusonenergy.com/sites/default/files/bpmeasurelifestudyfinal_evaluationrepor
t.pdf
2. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission. Focus on Energy Evaluation – Business Programs:
Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Calculated based on weighted average between float and
thermostaticand thermostatic steam trap types.
3. Enbridge Steam Saver Program. 2005.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
133
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
134
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
A/C Split System, ≤ 65 MBh, SEER 14/15/16+
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
A/C Split System, ≤ 65 MBh:
SEER 14, 2194
SEER 15, 2192
SEER 16+, 2193
Per system
Prescriptive
HVAC
Rooftop Unit / Split System AC
Residential- multifamily
Varies by SEER level
Varies by SEER level
0
Varies by SEER level
0
0
7
15
Varies by measure, see Appendix D
Measure Description
A split-system air conditioner has a compressor and condenser located outside of the building, and has
an evaporator mounted inside the building in an air handler or blower. The system is connected by pipes
that cycle refrigerant between the two heat exchangers. Energy savings result from installing a more
efficient unit than the market standard. Additional savings are incurred because the unit must be
installed with proper RCA. Proper adjustment of the RCA results in more efficient operation. Installation
by a qualified contractor and regular servicing are required to maintain proper RCA.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is a SEER 13 unit.1
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is an air conditioning split system ≤ 65 MBh with SEER 14 or greater. Both the
condenser and evaporator coils must be replaced. The refrigerant line diameters must meet
manufacturer specifications.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
135
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
The condenser model and serial number, evaporator model and serial number, and AHRI reference
number are required for all installations.
System efficiency is based solely on the evaporator and condenser coils; the SEER may not be increased
by factoring in the efficiency of a variable speed forced air heating system fan, except where a two-stage
air conditioner is installed.
All efficiency ratings will be verified using the AHRI database. 2
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (CAP / 1,000) * (1 / SEER BASE – 1 / SEER EE ) * EFLH COOL
Where:
CAP
=
Rated cooling capacity of the energy-efficient unit (= 29,100 in
BtuHcool)4
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
SEER BASE
=
Seasonal energy efficiency rating of baseline unit (= 13)
SEER EE
=
Seasonal energy efficiency rating of efficient unit (= 14, 15, or 16)
EFLH COOL
=
Equivalent full-load hours for cooling season (= 380; see table below)6
Equivalent Full-Load Cooling Hours by Location
Location
Green Bay
La Crosse
Madison
Milwaukee
Wisconsin Average
EFLH COOL
344
323
395
457
380
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (CAP / 1,000) * (1 / EER BASE – 1 / EER EE ) * CF
Where:
EER BASE
=
Energy efficiency rating of baseline unit (=11 for SEER 13 unit)
EER EE
=
Energy efficiency rating of efficient unit (= 11.7 for 14 SEER; = 12.2 for
15 SEER; = 12.7 for 16 SEER)
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 0.66)5
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
136
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 15 years)7
Deemed Savings
Deemed Savings by SEER Level
SEER
MMID
Annual kWh
Savings
kW Savings
Lifecycle kWh
Savings
14
15
16+
2194
2192
2193
60.7
113.3
159.4
0.104
0.172
0.234
1,093
2,040
2,869
Assumptions
For the typical cooling capacity (size) of the unit, 2.425 tons was used.3 This is equivalent to 29,100
Btu/hour (12,000 Btu/hour is equivalent to 1 ton).
Additional savings incurred from proper adjustment of the RCA is highly variable, and was unaccounted
for in the savings algorithm.
Sources
1.
Appliance Standards Awareness Project. “Central Air Conditioners and Heat Pumps.” Available
online: http://www.appliance-standards.org/product/central-air-conditioners-and-heat-pumps.
2. Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute. “Directory of Certified Product
Performance.” Last updated 2013. Available online: www.ahridirectory.org.
3. Focus on Energy Evaluation, Residential Programs: CY09 Deemed Savings Review. March 26,
2010.
4. Morgan Marketing Partners. Michigan Energy Measures Database. Details
online: http://www.michigan.gov/mpsc/0,1607,7-159-52495_55129---,00.html.
5. Opinion Dymanics Corporation. Delaware Technical Reference Manual. April 30, 2012. Available
online: http://www.dnrec.delaware.gov/energy/information/otherinfo/Documents/EM-andV-guidance-documents/DELAWARE_TRM_August%202012.pdf.
6. Several Cadmus metering studies reveal that EFL HCOOL is over-estimated in the ENERGY STAR
calculator by 30%. These values were adjusted by population-weighted CDD TMY-3 values.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
137
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
7. Measure Life Study prepared for The Massachusetts Joint Utilities:
http://rtf.nwcouncil.org/subcommittees/nonreslighting/Measure%20Life%20Study_MA%20Join
t%20Utilities_2005_ERS-1.pdf Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
138
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Steam Trap Repair, < 50 psig, General Heating
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Steam Trap Repair, < 10 psig, Radiator, 2772
Per steam trap
Prescriptive
HVAC
Steam Trap
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government,
Residential- multifamily
0
0
245
0
1,470
0
1
6
$219.40
Measure Description
These measures are the repair of a radiator steam trap that is < 10 psig and the repair of general heating
or industrial steam trap that is < 50 psig.
Steam systems distribute heat from boilers to satisfy space heating requirements. Steam distribution
systems contain steam traps, which are automatic valves that remove condensate, air, and other noncondensable gases, while preventing or minimizing steam loss. Steam traps that fail may allow excess
steam to escape, thus increasing the amount of steam that must be generated to meet end-use
requirements.
All traps are susceptible to wear and dirt contamination and require periodic inspection and
maintenance to ensure correct operation. Faulty steam traps (with blocked, leaking, or blow-through)
can be diagnosed with ultrasonic, temperature, or conductivity monitoring techniques. Regular steam
trap maintenance and faulty steam trap replacement are steps that minimize steam loss. There are four
major types of steam traps: 1) thermostatic (including float and thermostatic), 2) mechanical,
3) thermodynamic, and 4) fixed orifice (fixed orifice traps do not qualify for incentives).
Individual steam traps must be failed open to qualify. When mass replacing steam traps, 30% of traps
replaced will qualify. Systems on a city steam do not qualify for incentives. Traps can be repaired or
replaced.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
139
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is that a steam trap failed to open.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is that the steam trap is operating per design with the same specifications as the
baseline.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
The steam leakage rate is calculated using the Napier equation:
Therm SAVED = [24.24 * (P 1 – P 2 ) * D2 * h fg * HOURS * β] / (100,000 * η)
Where:
24.24
=
24.24 is a constant depending on the units of P and D. For pounds per
square inch and inches it is 24.24.
P1
=
Steam pressure (psig)
P2
=
Condensate tank pressure (psig)
D
=
Size of steam trap orifice (inches)
h fg
=
Heat of evaporation of water to steam at P 1 (Btu/lb)
HOURS
=
Average annual run hours per year
β
=
Adjustment factor to account for actual vs. theoretical steam loss (%)
100,000
=
Conversion from Btu to therm
η
=
Combustion efficiency of boiler (%)
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 6 years)1
Assumptions
The following assumptions are true for both types of steam traps (< 50 psig and < 10 psig operating
pressure, general heating):
•
Average diameter of steam trap orifice (D) = default of 1/4-inch
•
HOURS = 5,392 hours per year (based on a Wisconsin temperature bin analysis; see Appendix B)
•
P 2 = 0 psig
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
140
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
•
η1 = 80%
•
β1 = 50%
For steam traps < 50 psig operating pressure, general heating:
•
P 1 = 30 psig
•
h fg = 929 Btu/lb
For steam traps < 10 psig operating pressure, radiators:
•
P 1 = 5 psig
•
h fg = 961 Btu/lb
The HOURS for the steam systems were calculated using bin analysis of weather data across Wisconsin
and a 55°F balance point on the heating system.
Sources
1. PA Consulting Group Inc. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin Focus on
Energy Evaluation Business Programs: Measure Life Study. Final Report. August 25, 2009.
Available
online: https://focusonenergy.com/sites/default/files/bpmeasurelifestudyfinal_evaluationrepor
t.pdf
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
141
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Air Conditioning Unit Tune Up - Coil Cleaning
Measure Details
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
A/C Coil Cleaning:
< 10 Tons, 3059
10-20 Tons, 3061
> 20 Tons, 3060
Per ton of refrigeration capacity
Hybrid
HVAC
Tune-up / Repair / Commissioning
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
Varies by sector and cooling capacity
Varies by sector and cooling capacity
0
Varies by sector and cooling capacity
0
Water Savings (gal/yr)
0
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
3
$35.00
Measure Master ID
1
Measure Description
This measure is coil cleaning of packaged AC units operating in commercial applications, applicable for
commercial and industrial customers, and applies savings from documented tune-ups for packaged or
split system AC equipment.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is an AC system with fouled condenser coils.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient equipment is a unitary or split system AC with condenser coil cleaning as part of a tune up.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
For AC units < 65,000 Btu/hour, use SEER instead of EER to calculate:
kWh SAVED = (EFLH C * CAPY C / 1,000) * (1/[EER * CCF] -1 / EER)
kWh SAVED = (EFLH C *CAPY C / 1,000) * (1/[SEER * CCF] -1 / SEER)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
142
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Where:
EFLH C
=
Equivalent full load hours for mechanical cooling (= see table below)2
CAPY C
=
Unit capacity for cooling in Btu/hour
1,000
=
Conversion Factor
EER
=
Energy efficiency ratio (for AC and heat pump units < 65,000 Btu/hour,
SEER should be used for cooling savings; = based on actual participant
information)
CCF
=
Condenser coil fouling COP degradation factor for cooling (= 93.2%)4
SEER
=
Seasonal energy efficiency ratio (for AC and heat pump units > 65,000
Btu/hour, EER should be used for cooling savings; = based on actual
participant information)
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
For AC units < 65,000 Btu/hour, convert SEER to EER to calculate, using 11.3/13 as the conversion factor:
kW SAVED = (CF * CAPY C / 1,000) * (1 / [EER * CCF] - 1 / EER)
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 0.90)5
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 3 years)1
Assumptions
Calculation Variable Assumptions
Component
Type
CAPY C
EER
Variable
Variable
EFLH C
Variable
CCF
CF
Fixed
Fixed
Value
Nameplate
Nameplate
See Equivalent Full Load Hours by
Business Type (table below)
93.2%
90%
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
Source
Data Gathering
Data Gathering
2
4
5
143
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Equivalent Full Load Hours by Business Type
Building Type
College
Food Sales
Food Service
Healthcare
Hotel/Motel
Industrial
Office
Other
Public Assembly
Public Services (non-food)
Retail
School
Warehouse
Average
EFLH C 3
877
749
578
803
663
519
578
589
535
535
567
439
358
599
Sources
1. California Energy Commission and California Public Utilities Commission. Database for Energy
Efficient Resources (DEER) 2008. http://www.energy.ca.gov/deer/.DEER model runs weather
normalized for statewide use by population density.
2. Weighted value for bin charges based on Southern California Edison program results for
commerical and industrial buildings with 3,154 participating units. The weighting assumptions
are calibrated annually to reflect Wisconsin findings.
3. Energy Center of Wisconsin (Scott Pigg). Central Air Conditioning in Wisconsin. ECW Report
Number 241-1. 2008.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
144
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Air Conditioning Unit Tune Up - Refrigerant Charge Correction
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Incremental Cost
Effective Useful Life (years)
A/C Refrigerant Charge Correction:
< 10 Tons, 3062
10-20 Tons, 3064
> 20 Tons, 3063
Per ton of refrigeration capacity
Hybrid
HVAC
Tune-up / Repair / Commissioning
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
Varies by sector and cooling capacity
Varies by sector and cooling capacity
0
Varies by sector and cooling capacity
0
0
$35.00
2
10
Description
This measure is refrigerant charging on packaged AC units operating in commercial applications,
applicable for commercial and industrial customers, and applies savings from documented tune-ups for
packaged or split system AC equipment.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is an AC system with incorrect refrigerant charge.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient equipment is a unitary or split system AC that had refrigerant charge correction as part of a
tune up.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
For AC units < 65,000 Btu/hour, use SEER instead of EER to calculate:
kWh SAVED = (EFLH C * CAPY C / 1,000) * (1 / [EER * RCF] - 1 / EER)
kWh SAVED = (EFLH C * CAPY C / 1,000) * (1 / [SEER * RCF] - 1 / SEER)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
145
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Where:
EFLH C
=
Equivalent full load hours for mechanical cooling (= see table below)3
CAPY C
=
Unit capacity for cooling in Btu/hour
1,000
=
Conversion Factor
EER
=
Energy efficiency ratio (for AC and heat pump units < 65,000 Btu/hour,
SEER should be used for cooling savings; = use actual participant
information)
RCF
=
Refrigerant charge COP degradation factor for cooling (= 98.3%)5
SEER
=
Seasonal energy efficiency ratio (for AC and heat pump units > 65,000
Btu/hour, EER should be used for cooling savings; = use actual
participant information)
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
For AC units < 65,000 Btu/hour, convert SEER to EER to calculate, using 11.3/13 as the conversion factor:
kW SAVED = (CF * CAPY C / 1,000) * (1 / [EER * RCF] - 1 / EER)
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 0.90)4
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (10 years)1
Assumptions
Calculation Variable Assumptions
Component
Type
CAPY C
EER
Variable
Variable
EFLH C
Variable
RCF
CF
Variable
Fixed
Value
Nameplate
Nameplate
See Equivalent Full Load Hours by
Business Type (table below)
98.3%
90%
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
Source
Data Gathering
Data Gathering
3
3, 5
4
146
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Charge Correction Factor Weighting
Correction Needed
Bin Charge
Weighting
RCF
≥-20%
-5% to -20%
-5% to 5%
5% to 20%
≥ 20%
-20%
-13%
0%
13%
20%
5%
27%
46%
20%
2%
92%
97%
100%
97%
92%
Equivalent Full Load Hours by Business Type
Building Type
College
Food Sales
Food Service
Healthcare
Hotel/Motel
Industrial
Office
Other
Public Assembly
Public Services (non-food)
Retail
School
Warehouse
Average
EFLH C 3
877
749
578
803
663
519
578
589
535
535
567
439
358
599
Sources
1. California Energy Commission and California Public Utilities Commission. Database for Energy
Efficient Resources (DEER) 2008. http://www.energy.ca.gov/deer/ . DEER model runs weather
normalized for statewide use by population density.
2. Energy Center of Wisconsin (Scott Pigg). Central Air Conditioning in Wisconsin. ECW Report
Number 241-1. 2008.
3. U.S. Department of Energy, Weatherization Center. Energy OutWest – Weatherization Field
Guide. “3.8 Evaluating Refrigerant Charge.” Available
online: http://www.waptac.org/data/files/website_docs/training/standardized_curricula/curric
ula_resources/us%20doe_evaluating%20refrigerant%20charge.pdf.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
147
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
148
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Chiller Plant Setpoint Adjustment
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Life-cycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Life-cycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
EBTU Chiller Plant Chilled Water Setpoint Adjustment, 3659
EBTU Chiller Plant Condenser Water Setpoint Adjustment, 3660
Per ton
Custom
HVAC
Tune-up / Repair / Commissioning
Commercial, Industrial, Schools & Government
Varies by measure
Varies by measure
0
Varies by measure
0
0
1
5
2
$108.00
Measure Description
The intent of this measure is to capture savings associated with adjusting the chilled water setpoint to
a higher temperature that is determined to still meet the building cooling load requirement. This
involves re-programming the chiller plant controls to optimize chilled water setpoint temperatures for
the building based on usage. This measure includes condenser water temperature setpoint
adjustments as well.
This measure is not applicable to DX cooling systems. This measure is not applicable to buildings that
already use a chilled water reset control strategy or that normally change their chilled water setpoint
temperature on a regular basis for control.
The measure can be applied only once per building during the EUL. This measure is meant to be a part
of the Express Building Tune-Up Program to help optimize building HVAC systems to operate more
efficiently at existing building load conditions. It does not apply to newly constructed facilities that
have not been commissioned.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline measure is a chiller plant with an opportunity for energy savings from adjusting either the
chilled and/or condenser water supply setpoint temperature values of a chiller system up or down a few
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
149
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
degrees, respectively. The existing chiller cannot already use a chiller control that varies the chiller and
condenser temperatures on a regular basis.
Description of Efficient Condition
This efficient measure is a chiller plant that has undergone a setpoint increase in the chilled water
and/or a setpoint decrease in the condenser water loop supply temperatures. The HVAC professional
implementing these changes must also verify that any change in setpoint temperature values must still
be determined to adequately meet building cooling loads to avoid undoing the setpoint changes at a
later date.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Savings are determined by summing the baseline and proposed energy consumption formulas below
across the bin data temperature ranges and corresponding bin temperature hours found in the EBTU
workbook.3,4
kWh SAVED = kWh BASELINE – kWh PROPOSED
kWh BASELINE = Σ [(ΔT EXISTING CHILLED H2O * 500 * Chiller GPM * bin hrs * Chiller_Eff * Area Load / 12,000) (ΔT BASELINE LMTD * 500 * Condenser GPM * bin hrs * Chiller_Eff * Area Load / 12,000)]
kWh PROPOSED = Σ [(ΔT PROPOSED CHILLED H2O * 500 * Chiller GPM * bin hrs * Chiller_Eff * Area Load / 12,000) (ΔT PROPOSED LMTD * 500 * Condenser GPM * bin hrs * Chiller_Eff * Area Load / 12,000)]
Where:
ΔT EXISTING CHILLED H2O
=
Estimated chilled water return temperature - existing chilled
water supply temperature
ΔT PROPOSED CHILLED H2O =
Estimated chilled water return temperature - proposed chilled
water supply temperature
500
=
Water sensible heat equation constant
Chiller GPM
=
(= 2 GPM/ton)5
bin hours
=
Bin hours used in workbook for each respective city4
Chiller_Eff
=
kW/ton partial load rating (= based on chiller type; see table
below)
Area Load
=
Percentage based on linear interpolation of a 60°F dry bulb OAT
balance point, bin data dry bulb OAT, and 2.5% dry bulb design
summer/winter conditions for different Wisconsin cities6 (see
Assumptions for more explanation of 2.5% dry bulb design
conditions)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
150
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
12,000
=
Btu to ton conversion factor
ΔT BASLINE LMTD
=
Logarithmic mean (see equation below)
LMTD = (ΔT A – ΔT B ) / [ln (ΔT A / ΔT B )] = (ΔT A – ΔT B ) / [ln ΔT A – ln
ΔT B )]
Where:
ΔT A
=
Existing condenser water supply temperature (= 95°F)7
ΔT B
=
Existing chilled water return temperature – existing chilled
water supply temperature
Condenser GPM
=
(= 3 GPM/ton for electric chillers)5
ΔT PROPOSED LMTD
=
Logarithmic mean (see equation below)
LMTD = (ΔT A – ΔT B ) / [ln (ΔT A / ΔT B )] = (ΔT A – ΔT B ) / [ln ΔT A – ln
ΔT B )]
Where:
ΔT A
=
Proposed condenser water supply temperature (=95°F)7
ΔT B
=
Proposed chilled water return temperature – proposed
chilled water supply temperature
Cooling Efficiency Factor by System Type8
Cooling System Type
Cooling System Efficiency Factor
at Partial Load (kW/ton)
Air-Cooled Chiller
Water-Cooled Chiller
0.95
0.64
The workbook calculator requires the following measure-specific inputs to be provided from the trained
professional performing the tune-up/optimization measure:
•
Chiller capacity (tons) = AHRI rated capacity (if possible), otherwise = general rated capacity
•
Existing and proposed chilled water setpoints
•
Existing and proposed condenser water setpoints
•
Cooling system type (air-cooled chiller or water-cooled chiller)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
151
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = kWh SAVED / Hours COOL * CF
Where:
Hours COOL =
Annual cooling hours of operation (= based on city; see table below)
Annual Cooling Hours by City
City
BIN Annual Cooling Hours
(Outside Air Temperature > 60°F)9
Green Bay
La Crosse
Madison
Milwaukee
CF
=
2,748
2,971
2,876
2,830
Coincidence factor (= 1)
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 5 years)1
Assumptions
•
Chilled and condenser water flow rates are assumed to be 2 GPM and 3 GPM per ton,
respectively, of cooling system refrigeration capacity.5
•
2.5% dry bulb design conditions means that for cooling/heating seasons, the HVAC system is
designed to adequately handle the cooling/heating of a given building for all outdoor air
temperatures that do not exceed the hottest/coldest 2.5% of hours in the respective season.
Explained another way, this is the point where the cooling/heating system can adequately
handle the cooling/heating load of a given building for 97.5% of the total anticipated peak
cooling/heating hours for the year.
Sources
1. Cadmus. EUL Response Memo. April 26, 2013. (Used RCx Program EUL standard and direction
from CB&I to keep 5 year EUL standard).
2. RSMeans. Facilities Construction Cost Data. 29th Edition. 2013. ($54/hour labor rate for general
work performed on water cooled chillers; 2 hours to install based on project experience).
3. Wisconsin Focus on Energy. EBTU Measures Workbook Calculator.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
152
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
4. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Bin temperature data from respective Wisconsin city
TMY3 weather data. Available online: http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/nsrdb/19912005/tmy3/by_state_and_city.html#W
5. Edison Electric Institute. Technical Information Handbook. Pg. 23. 2000.
6. ASHRAE Handbook, Fundamentals Volume for Wisconsin Cities. 1985. Available
online: http://publicecodes.cyberregs.com/icod/ipc/2012/icod_ipc_2012_appd.htm
7. Edison Electric Institute. Technical Information Handbook. Pg. 12. 2000.
8. ASHRAE 90.1-2007. Table 6.8.1C. Simple average of minimum efficiency for chillers with capacity
between 0 tons and 300 tons.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
09/2013
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
153
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Cooling System Tune-Up
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Chiller System Tune Up, Air Cooled, ≤ 500 Tons, 2666
Chiller System Tune Up, Air Cooled, > 500 Tons, 2667
Chiller System Tune Up, Water Cooled, ≤ 500 Tons, 2668
Chiller System Tune Up, Water Cooled, > 500 Tons, 2669
Per ton
Prescriptive
HVAC
Tune-up / Repair / Commissioning
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government,
Residential- multifamily
Varies by cooling mechanism
Varies by cooling mechanism
0
Varies by cooling mechanism
0
0
1
5
$35.00
Measure Description
This measure is a chiller system tune-up for air and water cooled chillers completed in accordance with
the chiller system tune-up checklist.
Tune-up requirements:
•
Clean condenser coil/tubes
•
Check cooling tower for scale or buildup
•
Check contactors condition
•
Check evaporator condition
•
Check low-pressure controls
•
Check high-pressure controls
•
Check filter, replace as needed
•
Check belt, replace as needed
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
154
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
•
Check crankcase heater operation
•
Check economizer operation
Measurement requirements:
•
Record system pressure psig
•
Record compressor amp draw
•
Record liquid line temperature in °F
•
Record subcooling and superheat temperatures in °F
•
Record suction pressure psig and temperature in °F
•
Record condenser fan amp draw
•
Record supply motor amp draw
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline is air-cooled and water-cooled chillers that operate at a diminished efficiency from design
specifications.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is a chiller system tune-up conducted to ensure that equipment is operating at its
best and as preventative maintenance to extend the life of the equipment. Tune-ups improve the
chiller’s efficiency and performance and are useful system checks, as regular maintenance keeps the
equipment operating as specified.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Because the existing chiller efficiency cannot be determined without extensive testing, the ASHRAE
90.1-20073 minimum efficiency for chillers is used for the baseline efficiency.
Minimum Efficiencies from ASHRAE 90.1-2007
Equipment Type
Air Cooled, with Condenser
Air Cooled, without Condenser
Water Cooled, Electrically Operated, Positive
Displacement (Reciprocating)
Water Cooled, Electrically Operated, Positive
Displacement (Rotary Screw and Scroll)
Water Cooled, Electrically Operated, Positive
Displacement (Rotary Screw and Scroll)
Water Cooled, Electrically Operated, Positive
Displacement (Rotary Screw and Scroll)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
Size Category
Minimum Efficiency
All capacities
All capacities
2.80 COP; 3.05 IPLV
3.10 COP; 3.45 IPLV
All capacities
4.2 COP; 5.05 IPLV
< 150 tons
4.45 COP; 5.20 IPLV
≥ 150 tons and < 300 tons
4.90 COP; 5.60 IPLV
≥ 300 tons
5.50 COP; 6.15 IPLV
155
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Water Cooled, Electrically Operated, Centrifugal
Water Cooled, Electrically Operated, Centrifugal
Water Cooled, Electrically Operated, Centrifugal
< 150 tons
≥ 150 tons and < 300 tons
≥ 300 tons
5.00 COP; 5.25 IPLV
5.55 COP; 5.90 IPLV
6.10 COP; 6.40 IPLV
The annual energy savings and demand reduction are calculated by applying a percentage savings to the
baseline consumption. Parametric runs were applied to estimate deemed savings for this measure.
Existing Equipment as a Baseline:
kWh SAVED = (IPLV BASLINE EXISTING ) * ton * HOURS * % savings
Where:
IPLV BASLINE EXISTING =
Integrated part load value of baseline chiller (= 3.05 for air cooled; =
5.85 for water cooled)3
ton
=
Equipment size (= 50, 100, 150 for air cooled; = 100, 200, 300 for
water cooled)
HOURS
=
Determined from weather bin hours and building design cooling
load (~ 1,440)
% savings
=
Percentage savings associated with a chiller tune-up (= 5%)2
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
Existing Equipment as a Baseline:
kW SAVED = (Full Load kW/Ton BASELINE EXISTING * % savings) * CF * Tons
Where:
Full Load kW/ton BASELINE EXISTING = Full load power draw of baseline chiller3
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 0.80)
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 5 years)1
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
156
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Deemed Savings
Deemed Savings by Measure Type
Measure
Air Cooled
(MMID 2666 if ≤ 500 Tons;
MMID 2667 if > 500 Tons)
Average Annual Deemed Savings (kWh/yr/ton)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW/ton)
Average Lifecycle Deemed Savings (kWh/yr/ton)
83
0.0461
415
Water Cooled
(MMID 2668 if ≤ 500 Tons;
MMID 2669 if > 500 Tons)
44
0.0242
218
Sources
1. PA Consulting Group Inc. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin Focus on
Energy Evaluation Business Programs: Measure Life Study. Final Report. August 25, 2009.
Available
online: https://focusonenergy.com/sites/default/files/bpmeasurelifestudyfinal_evaluationrepor
t.pdf
2. United States Department of Energy. Building Technologies Program: Hospitals Benefit by
Improving Inefficient Chiller Systems. White paper. August 2011. The paper found that coil
cleaning, the primary savings associated with this cooling tune-up measure, reduces annual
cooling energy consumption by 5% to 7%.
3. ASHRAE 90.1-2007 air cooled and water cooled chiller efficiencies. Simple averages were taken
from the following sizes (in tons): air cooled 50, 100, 150; water cooled 100, 200, 300. The
respective IPLVs were applied: air cooled 3.05, 3.05, 3.05; water cooled 5.25, 5.9, 6.4.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
157
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Economizer Optimization
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Life-cycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Life-cycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
Economizer Optimization, 3066
Per ton of refrigeration
Hybrid
HVAC
Tune-up / Repair / Commissioning
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
Varies by cooling system type
0
0
Varies by cooling system type
0
0
1
10
2
$108.00
Measure Description
The intent of this measure is to determine economizer health and capture savings associated with
correcting improper operation of or damaged outside air economizer units. The measure can be applied
only once per building during the EUL. This measure is meant to be a part of the Express Building TuneUp Program to help optimize HVAC systems to operate more efficiently at existing building load
conditions. It does not apply to newly constructed facilities that have not been commissioned.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline measure is an air handling unit with an economizer that is either not in operation or has a
limited OAT range of operation that could be expanded.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient measure is bringing a non-operational economizer back to at least a baseline value, or
adjusting the economizer OAT operating range to be larger than baseline. The efficient condition OAT
economizer range should not exceed 55°F to 75°F.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
The following algorithms are based off another measure’s workpaper.3
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
158
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Hours iterated for and summed over bin data4,5 of every hour of the year (from April 1 to September 30)
that has an outside air dry-bulb temperature greater than or equal to 55°F (the estimated average
balance point of the buildings addressed).
kWh SAVED = kWh/year BASELINE – kWh/year PROPOSED
kWh/year BASELINE = kW HOUR-INTERVAL-BASELINE * 1 hour
kWh/year PROPOSED = kW HOUR-INTERVAL-PROPOSED * 1 hour
kW HOUR-INTERVAL-BASELINE = CAP * R CAP * (12 / EER) * Econ BASE
kW OUR-INTERVAL-PROPOSED = CAP * R CAP * (12 / EER) * Econ PROP
Where:
CAP
=
Cooling capacity of equipment, in tons (= varies by equipment; actual
equipment values should be used)
R CAP
=
The cooling load at which the air conditioning compressor is operating,
as a percentage/fraction of the full load capacity CAP; interpolated for
every hour between (55°F, 0%) and (95°F, 90%)
12
=
Conversion factor from EER to kW/ton
EER
=
Energy efficiency ratio of rooftop air handling unit, in Btu/ (W * hour) (=
varies by equipment, see table below)
Cooling Efficiency by System Type
Cooling System Type
Direct Expansion
Air-Cooled Chiller
Water-Cooled Chiller
Cooling System Efficiency
Factors (EER)
6
10.43
7
12.63
7
18.75
Econ BASE
=
Binary variable (0 or 1) that indicates whether the economizer is in
operation; baseline economizer operation occurs when the OAT range
(dry-bulb) is operating between 55°F and 65°F
Econ PROP
=
Binary variable (0 or 1) that indicates whether the economizer is in
operation; proposed economizer operation when the OAT range (drybulb) is greater than the baseline of 55°F to 65°F
1 hour
=
Hour-long time interval
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
159
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
The following information is required to be supplied by the customer/trade ally applying for this
measure:
•
Type of facility chiller unit and capacity (tons)
•
Efficiency of facility chiller unit (EER) when possible, otherwise use a default value based on
chiller unit type
•
Existing economizer OAT range (°F); when different than 55°F to 65°F, ‘none’ is also a possibility
•
Proposed economizer OAT range (°F)
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
There are no peak demand savings because economizers are not expected to operate during peak
demand hours (based on typical economizer temperature ranges).
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (=10 years)1
Assumptions
•
Economizer modulation (mixing of outside air and inside air to match the setpoint temperature)
is not account for in the savings analysis.
•
The full capacity of the air conditioning compressor operation is assumed to be a linear function
of outside air dry-bulb temperature (0% at 55°F and 90% at 95°F). This assumes correct sizing of
the air conditioning unit for each installation, including some extra capacity for cooling beyond
95°F.
•
It is assumed that the facility sizes within the EBTU scope will require ≤ 300 tons of cooling.
•
The economizer operating time period is assumed to be between April and September, including
the peak summer months and some of the shoulder months when facility cooling needs are
most expected. Temperature data for these months was pulled from the general TMY3 bin
temperature data used for all EBTU measures.5
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
160
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Sources
1. California Energy Commission and California Public Utilities Commission. Database for Energy
Efficient Resources (DEER) 2008. http://www.energy.ca.gov/deer/ .
2. RSMeans. Facilities Construction Cost Data. 29th Edition. 2013. Assumed $54/hour labor rate for
work performed on air cooling equipment. Estimated 2 hours for completion based on project
experience.
3. Wisconsin Focus on Energy. Technical Reference Manual. Pgs. 69-71. 2015. Measure 3066 /
Economizer, RTU Optimization.
4. Wisconsin Focus on Energy. EBTU Measures Workbook Calculator.
5. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. TMY3 weather data. Bin temperature data from
respective Wisconsin cities. Available online: http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/nsrdb/19912005/tmy3/by_state_and_city.html#W
6. International Energy Conservation Code. Table 503.2.3(1). 2009. DX cooling efficiency values
determined from simple average of minimum efficiencies for systems with capacity ≥ 5.5 tons.
7. ASHRAE 90.1-2007. Table 6.8.1C. Chiller unit part load efficiency values determined from simple
averages of minimum efficiencies for chiller with capacity of 0 tons to 300 tons.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
11/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
161
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Hot Water Supply Reset
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
Hot Water Supply Reset, 3662
Per MBh
Hybrid
HVAC
Tune-up / Repair / Commissioning
Commercial, Industrial, Schools & Government
0
0
Varies by temperature setpoint
0
Varies by temperature setpoint
0
1
5
2
$108.00
Measure Description
The intent of this measure is to capture savings by lowering the boiler hot water supply setpoint
temperature for the primary heating loop based on actual building load and outdoor air temperature.
This measure applies to non-condensing natural gas boilers only. This measure is meant to help
optimize HVAC systems to operate more efficiently at existing building load conditions. It does not
apply to newly constructed facilities that have not been commissioned.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline measure is an eligible building with a boiler hot water heating system that has working
controls in place but does not use a hot water reset supply strategy, or has a reset strategy that an HVAC
service professional determines can be optimized further.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient measure is a trained HVAC service professional determining if a new/change in the hot
water supply reset strategy is possible to implement while still safely meeting buildings heating load
requirements. The reset strategy should incorporate maximum and minimum water temperatures to
correspond with the minimum and maximum outdoor air temperature range, respectively. Savings are
calculated based on the particular existing and proposed reset strategy, accounting for boiler capacity.
Hot water supply reset control incentives are for existing space heating boilers only. The controls should
be set so that the boiler return water is not more than 10°F above the manufacturer’s recommended
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
162
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
minimum return temperature. The system must have an outdoor air temperature sensor in a shaded
location, preferably on the north side of the building.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Savings are determined by summing the baseline and proposed energy consumption formulas below
across the bin data temperature ranges and corresponding bin temperature hours found in the EBTU
workbook.3,4
Therm SAVED = Therms BASELINE – Therms PROPOSED
Therms BASELINE = Σ [500 * GPM * (HW Supply Temp BASE - HW Return Temp) * Area Load / 100,000 / boiler
eff * Bin Hours]
Therms PROPOSED = Σ [500 * GPM * (HW Supply Temp PROP - HW Return Temp) * Area Load / 100,000 /
boiler eff * Bin Hours]
Where:
500
=
Water sensible heat formula constant5
GPM
=
Average gallons per minute of heating water during heating
season (= user defined)
HW Supply Temp BASE
=
Existing hot water maximum supply temperature in °F (=
user defined)
HW Supply Temp PROP
=
Proposed hot water reset curve temperature in °F (= user
defined)
HW Return Temp
=
Hot water return temperature (= estimated based on OAT
and hottest water supply temperature in the system; return
temperature schedule is a constant between baseline and
proposed used to model heat loss reduction
Area Load
=
Percentage of area load based on linear interpolation of a
60°F dry bulb OAT balance point, bin data dry bulb OAT, and
2.5% dry bulb design summer/winter conditions for
different Wisconsin cities;6 see Assumptions for more
explanation of 2.5% dry bulb design conditions
100,000
=
Conversion from Btu to therm
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
163
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
boiler eff
=
Efficiency of natural gas to heat conversion for heating
purposes (= 80%)
Bin Hours
=
Dry-bulb temperature and time of day (also known as
temperature bin data) (= based on statewide BIN weather
data)4
The workbook calculator requires the following measure-specific inputs provided from the trained
professional performing the tune-up/optimization measure:
•
Actual average heating water supply loop flow rate (GPM) if known, or at ΔT=20°F conditions
(can be listed or calculated based on boiler output rating)
•
Boiler input MBh and efficiency rating (used for incentive calculation purposes)
•
Existing constant hot water setpoint temperature
•
Existing OAT hot water reset range along with corresponding maximum and minimum setpoints
(°F; if prior reset strategy was in place)
•
New OAT hot water reset range along with corresponding maximum and minimum setpoints (°F)
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
There are no peak demand savings for this measure.
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (=5 years)1
Assumptions
•
Return water temperature schedule is assumed to be at ΔT=30°F for the coldest OAT and at
ΔT=10°F for the warmest OAT compared to the existing hot water heating setpoint.5
•
Assumed that the return water temperature schedule across the OAT range will stay the same
between existing and hot water reset schedule to model the reduction of heat losses and
subsequent energy savings.
•
Assumed a constant GPM flow rate (should be based on the heating season average GPM if
possible, or the rated boiler flow rate when boiler is at ΔT=20°F operation).
•
Assumed that the hot water setpoint at minimum OAT range will be greater than or equal to the
existing hot water setpoint constant.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
164
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
•
If hot water reset temperatures at higher OAT dip below the constant estimated for return
water scheduled temperatures, then the hot water reset supply temperature will equal the
calculated return temperature (since it effectively shuts off the boiler).
•
Assumed that boiler operation occurs only during periods when OAT < 60°F.
•
Assumed that the HVAC service professional making adjustment ensures that boiler return
water will stay above the boiler minimum.
•
2.5% dry bulb design conditions means that for cooling/heating seasons, the HVAC system is
designed to adequately handle the building cooling/heating for all outdoor air temperatures
that do not exceed the hottest/coldest 2.5% of hours of the respective season. Explained
another way, this means that the cooling/heating system can adequately handle the
cooling/heating load of a given building for 97.5% of the total anticipated peak cooling/heating
hours for the year.
Sources
1. Cadmus. EUL Response Memo. April 26, 2013. Used the RCx Program EUL standard and direction
from CB&I to keep 5 year EUL standard).
2. RSMeans. Facilities Construction Cost Data. 29th Edition. 2013. (Assumed $54/hour labor rate
for work performed on natural gas boilers; estimated 2 hours for completion of this measure
based on project experience).
3. Wisconsin Focus on Energy. EBTU Measures Workbook Calculator.
4. Natural Renewable Energy Laboratory. Bin temperature data comes from respective Wisconsin
cities TMY3 weather data. Available online: http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/nsrdb/19912005/tmy3/by_state_and_city.html#W
5. Edison Electric Institute. Technical Information Handbook. Pg. 24. 2000.
6. ASHRAE. Handbook, Fundamentals Volume for Wisconsin Cities. 1985. Available
online: http://publicecodes.cyberregs.com/icod/ipc/2012/icod_ipc_2012_appd.htm
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/10/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
165
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Outside Air Intake Control Optimization
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Life-cycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Life-cycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
Outside Air Intake Control Optimization, 3663
Per CFM reduced
Hybrid
HVAC
Tune-up / Repair / Commissioning
Commercial, Industrial, Schools & Government
Varies by baseline and proposed energy consumption
0
Varies by baseline and proposed energy consumption
Varies by baseline and proposed energy consumption
Varies by baseline and proposed energy consumption
0
1
5
2
$212.00
Measure Description
The intent of this measure is to capture savings associated with reducing outside air (OA) supply CFM
to a minimum. The outside air intake levels should always conform to local codes and ASHRAE 62.1
standards. This measure applies to buildings that currently do not use a variable outside air intake
control strategy. Measure can be applied only once per building during the EUL. This measure is meant
to be a part of the Express Building Tune-Up Program to help optimize building HVAC systems to
operate more efficiently at existing building load conditions. It does not apply to newly constructed
facilities that have not been commissioned.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline measure is an eligible building that a qualified HVAC control professional has verified can
save energy by reducing the outside air intake CFM compared to existing levels. The building must
currently exceed the minimum outside air intake levels for standard occupancy as defined by local or
state requirements.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient measure is having a trained HVAC professional determine an appropriate adjustment to the
outside air intake levels that conforms to all applicable building codes but is reduced and will still meet
the buildings requirements for proper ventilation. Measure rebates do not apply if the outside air CFM
needs to increase.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
166
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Savings are determined by summing the baseline and proposed energy consumption formulas below
across the bin data temperature ranges and corresponding bin temperature hours found in the EBTU
workbook.3,4
kWh SAVED = (Btu BASELINE – Btu PROPOSED ) / 12,000 * Chiller_Eff + (Fan Energy BASE - Fan Energy PROP )
Therm SAVED = (Btu BASELINE – Btu PROPOSED ) / 100,000 / Gas Eff
Btu BASELINE = Σ (1.08 * OA existing supply CFM * |ST - OAT| * Bin Hours)
Btu PROPOSED = Σ (1.08 * OA proposed supply CFM * |ST - OAT| * Bin Hours)
Fan Energy BASE = Supply Fan HP * 0.7465 * Load Factor / Fan motor Efficiency * annual hours of fan
operation
Fan Energy PROP = Supply Fan HP * (OA proposed supply CFM / OA existing supply CFM) ^ 2.5 * 0.7465 *
Load Factor / Fan motor Efficiency * annual hours of fan operation
Where:
1.08
=
Constant for air sensible heat equation5
OA existing supply CFM =
Actual outside air supply airflow (= based on user input)
ST
=
Building setpoint temperature (= 70°F for OAT > 60°F = 75°F for OAT
< 60°F)
OAT
=
Outside air temperature (= determined by Wisconsin BIN data in
EBTU workbook)4
Bin Hours
=
Dry-bulb temperature and time of day (also known as temperature
bin data)
OA proposed supply CFM = Proposed air supply airflow (= based on user input) (=
based on user input)
12,000
=
Conversion factor from Btu to tons
Chiller_Eff
=
Kilowatts per ton (= varies by chiller type based on 80% of full load
rating (= see table below)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
167
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Cooling Efficiency by System Type
Cooling System Type
Cooling System Efficiency Factor
at Partial Load (kW/ton)
6
Direct Expansion
Air-Cooled Chiller
Water-Cooled Chiller
1.15
7
0.95
7
0.64
Supply Fan HP =
Horsepower of supply fan (= based on user input)
0.7465
=
Conversion from horsepower to kW
Load Factor
=
Ratio of average demand to maximum demand (= 80%)
Fan motor efficiency = Ratio between power transferred to the airflow and the
power used by the fan (= actual motor nameplate rating)
Annual hours of fan operation =
Hours in use (= based on user input)
2.5
=
Fan affinity law
100,000
=
Conversion from Btu to therm
Gas Eff
=
Efficency of gas unit (= 80%)
The workbook calculator requires the following measure-specific inputs to be provided from the trained
professional performing the tune-up/optimization measure:
•
Existing outside air intake volume in CFM
•
Modified outside air intake volume in CFM (must still meet code minimum for carbon dioxide
level control)
•
Air supply fan size (hp)
•
Number of hours outside air supply fan runs annually
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = kWh SAVED / Hours COOL * CF
Where:
Hours COOL
=
Annual cooling hours of operation (= based on city; see table below)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
168
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Cooling Hours by City8
BIN Annual Cooling Hours
(OAT > 60°F)
City
Green Bay
La Crosse
Madison
Milwaukee
CF
2,748
2,971
2,876
2,830
=
Coincidence factor (= 1 assuming that the reduction of outside air
intake CFM will be constant over entire summer peak period)
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (=5 years)1
Assumptions
•
Partial load kW/ton rating for DX, air cooled, and water cooled chillers is the average of the IEER
and IPLV minimum efficiency values.6,7
•
Assumed use of 1 CFM of total supply air per square foot of conditioned building space.
•
Assumed heating and cooling balance temperature of 60°F
Sources
1. Cadmus. EUL Response Memo. April 26, 2013. Used the RCx Program EUL standard and direction
from CB&I to keep 5 year EUL standard.
2. RSMeans. Facilities Construction Cost Data. 29th Edition. 2013. Assumed $56/hour labor rate for
work performed on HVAC control systems; estimated 2 hours for completion of this measure
based on project experience; estimated engineer design time at $100/hour for 1 hour.
3. Wisconsin Focus on Energy. EBTU Measures Workbook Calculator.
4. Natural Renewable Energy Laboratory. Bin temperature data from respective Wisconsin City
TMY3 weather data. Available online: http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/nsrdb/19912005/tmy3/by_state_and_city.html#W
5. Edison Electric Institute. Technical Information Handbook. Pg. 24. 2000.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
169
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
6. International Energy Conservation Code. Table 503.2.3(1). 2009. DX cooling efficiency values
determined from simple average of minimum efficiencies for systems with ≥ 5.5 ton capacity.
7. ASHRAE 90.1-2007, Table 6.8.1C. Chiller unit part load efficiency values determined from simple
average of minimum efficiencies for chillers with capacity 0 tons to 300 tons.
8. Wisconsin Focus on Energy. Technical Reference Manual. Pg. 389, Outside Air Temperature Bin
Analysis. January 2015.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
11/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
170
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Retrocommissioning, Express Building Tune-Up
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
Retrocommissioning, Express Building Tune-Up, 3224
Per project
Hybrid
HVAC
Tune-up / Repair / Commissioning
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
Varies by project
0
Varies by project
Varies by project
Varies by project
0
1
5
2
Varies by project
Measure Description
The Retrocommissioning Lite Program is an expansion to the Retrocommissioning Program, making
retrocommissioning services available to customers without complex systems or large buildings that
operate at a high cost per square foot. In addition, the program is focused on addressing deficiencies in
mechanical and electrical systems to reduce energy consumption and operating costs while minimizing
the out-of-pocket cost to the customer.
Mechanical issues that cause energy waste are frequently found in the targeted market segment. For
example, motors are put in hand mode, broken damper actuators go unnoticed, and schedules set for
the holiday shopping season are not set back to the current time of year. In most cases, targeted
customers do not have a qualified facility manager onsite to identify the reason for increased energy
consumption, and often lack awareness of the benefits associated with retrocommissioning services. In
addition, they often have neither the resources nor the sufficient complexity to warrant a
comprehensive audit. Because customers in the target demographic often cannot afford advanced
energy efficiency services, these services are not invest marketed to them. This program raises
awareness and offers package incentives for targeted customers to implement a highly focused set of
low-cost measures.
Typical Details of Retrocommissioning Project
Measure
Peak Electric
Electric
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
Natural Gas
Incremental
Effective
171
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Description
Demand Reduction
(kW/Unit)
Savings
(kWh/Unit)
Savings
(therms)
Measure
Cost ($/unit)
Useful Life
(years)
0
37,500
1,875
$4,000.00
5
Retrocommissioning
Express Building
Tune-Up: Typical
Project Summary
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is maintaining the current operations of the facility. This condition is documented
during the comprehensive facility audit as a required pre-requisite to program participation.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is implementing all, or part, of the recommended measures identified through
the comprehensive facility audit mechanism. The savings for the efficiency improvements will be
determined for each individual measure (e.g., setpoint adjustments, sensor calibrations) within the
given facilities. Then, upon final implementation of the measures, the total energy savings through the
efficiency improvements will be provided at the project level.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Annual energy savings methodologies will be used within the individual measure workbooks (or end use
workbooks) to calculate the potential savings within a given facility. These savings will be provided at
the project level upon implementation of the prescribed efficiency improvements.
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
No peak demand savings have been identified for this offering.
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 5 years)
Assumptions
The energy savings associated with the Retrocommissioning Lite Program will be determined through
engineered workbooks that account for specific facility inputs, along with industry accepted standards
and methodologies. The project savings will predominantly be achieved through optimizing four
different measure end-use categories within the facility: Air-Side, Water-Side, Chiller Plant, and Lighting.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
172
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual energy savings are determined through engineering workbooks for both electric (gross kWh) and
natural gas savings (gross therms).
The measure workbooks use assumptions based on accepted engineering methodologies, industry
codes, and standards.
Sources
1. RCx Lite End Measure and End Use Engineering Summary. April 24, 2013.
2. The measure incremental cost is the measure installed cost, and varies based on facilities,
opportunities, and implementation of the individual identified measures. For each project, the
final installed cost of the combined efficiency improvements will be used for determining
potential incentive caps through the fulfillment process.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
04/26/2013
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
173
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Schedule Optimization
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Measure Incremental Cost ($/unit)
Schedule Optimization:
Weekday:
Heating, 0-50,000 square feet, 3664
Cooling, 0-50,000 square feet, 3665
Heating, 50,000-100,000 square feet, 3668
Cooling, 50,000-100,000 square feet, 3669
Weekend:
Heating, 0-50,000 square feet, 3666
Cooling, 0-50,000 square feet, 3667
Heating, 50,000-100,000 square feet, 3670
Cooling, 50,000-100,000 square feet, 3671
Per hour reduction
Hybrid
HVAC
Tune-up / Repair / Commissioning
Commercial, Industrial, Schools & Government
Varies by type of schedule optimization
0
Varies by type of schedule optimization
Varies by type of schedule optimization
Varies by type of schedule optimization
0
1
5
2
$168.00
Measure Description
This measure captures savings associated with resetting the scheduled weekly building nighttime (or
unoccupied) supply air setpoint temperatures via programmable thermostats or direct digital control
(DDC) systems. This is a simple temperature setback measure and not a temperature reset control
strategy.
For this measures’ savings to apply, the heating supply fuel must be natural gas, and cooling must be
supplied by an electrically powered system. The measure can be applied only once per building during
the EUL. This measure is meant to be a part of the Express Building Tune-Up Program to help optimize
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
174
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
buildings HVAC systems to operate more efficiently at existing building load conditions. It does not
apply to newly constructed facilities that have not been commissioned.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline measure is a building that already has an HVAC system not using its hourly setback
scheduling or a building that can increase its scheduled setback hours. Building must have a consistent
weekly operation schedule throughout the year. A buildings standard heating and cooling schedule are
both eligible for adjustment.
Description of Efficient Condition
This efficient measure is an increased number of scheduled setback hours controlled through a building
programmable HVAC system. A buildings’ standard daily scheduled setback time must be increased by at
least 1 hour during the weekdays or weekends to be eligible for an incentive.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Savings are the sum of the baseline and proposed energy consumption formulas below across the bin
data temperature ranges and corresponding bin temperature hours.3,4
Energy savings are effectively summed over every hour of the year, effectively assuming that the same
hour of the day (e.g., 1:00 a.m. to 2:00 a.m.) for each day in a given month will yield the same Btu/hour
of energy use.
kWh SAVED = kWh BASELINE - kWh PROPOSED
Therm SAVED = Therm BASELINE - Therm PROPOSED
kWh BASELINE = Σ EXISTING (1.08 * Hourly CFM * |SAT – MAT| * # of days per month / 12,000 * chiller_eff)
Therm BASELINE = Σ EXISTING (1.08 * Hourly CFM * |SAT - MAT| * # of days per month / 100,000 / boiler_eff)
Baseline data is based on user-defined existing building schedule.
kWh PROPOSED = Σ PROPOSED (1.08 * Hourly CFM * |SAT - MAT| * # of days per month / 12,000 * chiller_eff)
Therm PROPOSED = Σ PROPOSED (1.08 * Hourly CFM * |SAT - MAT| * # of days per month / 100,000 / boiler_eff)
Proposed data is based on user-defined proposed building schedule, and should reflect a reduction of
HVAC/occupied hours compared to baseline.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
175
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Where:
1.08
=
Constant for air sensible heat equation5
Hourly CFM =
Total building airflow in CFM * hourly area load (where the area load is
a percentage value based on a linear interpolation of a 60°F dry bulb
OAT balance point, bin data dry bulb OAT, and 2.5% dry bulb design
summer/winter conditions for different Wisconsin cities.6 See the
Assumptions section for more explanation about the 2.5% dry bulb
design conditions)
SAT
=
Supply air temperature for occupied hours (= 60°F for OAT > 60°F, 75°F
for OAT ≤ 60°F); for scheduled unoccupied temperature setback hours,
SAT = standard occupied hour temperature setting ± user-defined
setback temperature for cooling and heating periods, respectively
MAT
=
(RAT * Return Air CFM + Weighted Average Hourly Temperature *
Outside Air CFM) / Total Airflow CFM
Where:
RAT
=
Return air temperature (75°F for OAT > 60°F, 68°F for
OAT ≤ 60°F)
Return Air CFM =
Total airflow CFM - Outside Air CFM
Weighted Average Hourly Temperature = Calculated based on the
maximum and minimum temperatures over every given
hour of the day and number of occurrences per month
based on bin data3
Outside Air CFM = Amount of outside air expected based on facility
type and square footage as determined through CBECS
statistical data inserted in the EBTU workbook7,3
Total Airflow CFM = 1 CFM per square foot of facility space
# of days per month = Variable by month ( = 31 in January; = 28 in February; etc.)
12,000
=
chiller_eff =
Btu to ton conversion factor
Varies based on chiller type; see table below
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
176
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Cooling Efficiency by System Type
Cooling System Type
Cooling System Efficiency Factor at
Partial Load Rating (kW/ton)
Direct Expansion
Air-Cooled Chiller
Water-Cooled Chiller
100,000
=
boiler_eff =
8
1.15
9
0.95
9
0.64
Btu to therm conversion factor
Efficiency of natural gas to heat conversion for heating purposes (= 80%)
The workbook calculator requires the following inputs to be provided from the trained professional
performing the tune-up/optimization measure:
•
Majority facility space type (e.g., offices, classroom, lobby, health club)
•
Square footage of facility’s conditioned space affected by schedule change
•
Baseline (pre) and efficient (post) heating and cooling schedule hours, indicating when the
system turns on and off during a typical weekday and weekend in 24 hour time format
•
Amount of planned temperature setback degrees during scheduled unoccupied times
•
Type of facility cooling system (direct expansion, air cooled, or water cooled)
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
There are no peak savings for this measure, as the temperature setback scheduling is not expected to
occur during Wisconsin Focus on Energy peak demand hours of 1:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. from June
through August.
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (=5 years)1
Assumptions
•
RAT fixed values of (75°F for OAT > 60°F, 68°F for OAT < 60°F) for calculation purposes
•
SAT setpoints are increased or decreased by 5°F during weekly scheduled unoccupied hours
during cooling and heating periods, respectively
•
Heating and cooling balance temperature of 60°F
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
177
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
•
Therm savings are calculated when daily weighted hourly temperatures are less than 60°F
•
kWh savings are calculated when daily weighted hourly temperatures are greater than 60°F
•
Same average weekly hours schedule is repeated throughout the year
•
Total supply is 1 CFM per building square foot
•
2.5% dry bulb design conditions for cooling/heating seasons means that the HVAC system is
designed to adequately handle the cooling/heating of a given building for all outdoor air
temperatures that do not exceed the hottest/coldest 2.5% of hours of the respective season.
Explained put another way, it means the cooling/heating system can adequately handle the
cooling/heating load of a given building for 97.5% of the total anticipated peak cooling/heating
hours for the year.
Sources
1. Cadmus. EUL Response Memo. April 26, 2013. (Used RCx Program EUL standard and direction
from CB&I to keep 5 year EUL standard)
2. RSMeans. Facilities Construction Cost Data. 29th Edition. 2013. ($56/hour labor rate for work
performed on HVAC control systems). Estimated 3 hours for completion based on project
experience.
3. Wisconsin Focus on Energy. EBTU Measures Workbook Calculator.
4. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Bin temperature data comes from respective Wisconsin
cities TMY3 weather data. Available online: http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/nsrdb/19912005/tmy3/by_state_and_city.html#W
5. Edison Electric Institute. Technical Information Handbook. Pg. 24. 2000.
6. ASHRAE Handbook, Fundamentals Volume for Wisconsin Cities. 1985. Available online:
http://publicecodes.cyberregs.com/icod/ipc/2012/icod_ipc_2012_appd.htm
7. U.S. Energy Information Administration. “2003 CBECS Survey Data.”
http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/data/2003/
8. International Energy Conservation Code. Table 503.2.3(1). 2009. (Direct expansion cooling
efficiency values determined as simple averages of minimum efficiencies for system capacities
of ≥ 5.5 tons).
9. ASHRAE 90.1-2007, Table 6.8.1C. (Chiller unit part load efficiency values determined as simple
averages of minimum efficiencies, for chillers with capacity of 0 tons to 300 tons).
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
178
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
11/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
179
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Supply Air Temperature Reset
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
Supply Air Temperature Reset, Heating, 3672
Supply Air Temperature Reset, Cooling, 3673
Per degree Fahrenheit
Hybrid
HVAC
Tune-up / Repair / Commissioning
Commercial, Industrial, Schools & Government
Varies by type of reset
0
Varies by type of reset
Varies by type of reset
Varies by type of reset
0
1
5
2
$96.00
Measure Description
This measure captures savings associated with implementing a new supply air temperature (SAT),
cooling or heating, reset strategy or optimizing a programmed SAT reset strategy based on OAT ranges.
To claim the measure savings, the heating must be supplied by a natural gas boiler, and the cooling
system must be electrically powered. The savings apply specifically to constant air volume (CAV)
systems.
This measure is meant to be a part of the Express Building Tune-Up Program to help optimize building
HVAC systems to operate more efficiently at existing building load conditions. It does not apply to
newly constructed facilities that have not been commissioned.
Description of Baseline Condition
This baseline measure is an HVAC system with preset SAT setpoints that are not based on OAT.
Description of Efficient Condition
This efficient measure is implementing or optimizing an SAT reset strategy based on OAT. The reset
strategy should incorporate a maximum and minimum supply air temperature for both heating and
cooling modes to correspond with a minimum and maximum outdoor air temperature range,
respectively.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
180
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Savings are the sum of the baseline and proposed energy consumption formulas below across the bin
data temperature ranges and corresponding bin temperature hours.3,4
kWh SAVED = Σ (SAT Btu Baseline – SAT Btu Proposed) / 12,000 * chiller_eff * % building affected
Therm SAVED = Σ (SAT Btu Baseline – SAT Btu Proposed) / 100,000 / boiler_eff * % building affected
SAT Btu Baseline = [(1.08 * Area_Load * |SAT BASE - OAT| * Outside Air CFM + 1.08 * Area_Load *
|SAT BASE - RAT| * Return Air CFM] * bin hours
SAT Btu Proposed = [(1.08 * Area_Load * |SAT RESET - OAT| * Outside Air CFM + 1.08 * Area_Load *
|SAT RESET - RAT| * Return Air CFM] * bin hours
Where:
1.08
=
Constant for air sensible heat equation5
Area Load =
Percentage value based on linear interpolation of a 60°F dry bulb OAT
balance point, bin data dry bulb OAT, and 2.5% dry bulb design
summer/winter conditions for different Wisconsin cities6 (see
Assumptions for more explanation about the 2.5% dry bulb design
conditions)
SAT BASE
=
Supply air temperature baseline (= user defined input; constant)
OAT
=
Outside Air Temperature (= determined from workbook bin data)
Outside Air CFM
= Amount of outside air expected based on facility type and
square footage as determined through CBECS statistical data inserted in
the EBTU workbook7,3
RAT
=
Return air temperature (= 75°F for OAT > 60°F; = 68°F for OAT < 60°F)
Return Air CFM =
Total building airflow – Outside Air CFM
bin hours
=
Heating and cooling hours for each city based on OAT4
SAT RESET
=
OAT reset range (= user input)
12,000
=
Btu to ton conversion factor
chiller_eff =
Varies by chiller type (= see table below)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
181
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Cooling Efficiency by System Type
Cooling System Type
Cooling System Efficiency Factor
at Partial Load (kW/ton)
Direct Expansion
Air-Cooled Chiller
Water-Cooled Chiller
8
1.15
9
0.95
9
0.64
% building affected = Amount of total building conditioned square footage affected
by implementing the SAT reset control (= user defined input)
100,000
=
boiler_eff =
Btu to therm conversion factor
Efficiency of natural gas to heat conversion for heating purposes (= 80%)
The workbook calculator requires the following measure-specific inputs to be provided from the trained
professional performing the tune-up/optimization measure:
•
OAT Reset Range – Heating and Cooling (°F)
•
Existing Facility Supply Air Heating and Cooling Temperature Setpoints (°F)
•
SA Reset Temperature Range – Heating and Cooling (°F)
•
Facility Type (e.g., office, library, retail)
•
Useable Facility Square Footage
•
Percentage of Total Facility Area Cooled
•
Percentage of Total Facility Area Heated
•
Number of Building Zones Affected
•
Type of Chiller System
•
Percentage of Building Square Footage Affected
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
There are no peak demand savings because during peak demand times, the cooling system will be
operating above the bounds of the SAT reset curve.
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 5 years)1
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
182
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Assumptions
•
Partial load kW/ton rating for air cooled and water cooled chillers is average IPLV minimum
efficiency value found in Focus on Energy HVAC catalog9
•
Total supply of 1 CFM per building conditioned square foot
•
Heating and cooling balance temperature = 60°F
•
2.5% dry bulb design conditions means that for cooling/heating seasons, the HVAC system is
designed to adequately handle the cooling/heating of a given building for all outdoor air
temperatures that do not exceed the hottest/coldest 2.5% of hours of the respective season.
Explained another way, this means the cooling/heating system can adequately handle the
cooling/heating load of a given building for 97.5% of the total anticipated peak cooling/heating
hours for the year.
Sources
1. Cadmus. EUL Response Memo. April 26, 2013.(Used RCx Program EUL standard and direction
from CB&I to keep 5 year EUL standard)
2. RSMeans. Facilities Construction Cost Data. 29th Edition. 2013. ($48/hour labor rate for work on
CAV terminal units; estimated 2 hours for completion based on project experience).
3. Wisconsin Focus on Energy. EBTU Measures Workbook Calculator.
4. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Bin temperature data from respective Wisconsin cities
TMY3 weather data. Available online: http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/nsrdb/19912005/tmy3/by_state_and_city.html#W
5. Edison Electric Institute. Technical Information Handbook. Pg. 24. 2000.
6. ASHRAE. Handbook, Fundamentals Volume for Wisconsin Cities. 1985. Available online:
http://publicecodes.cyberregs.com/icod/ipc/2012/icod_ipc_2012_appd.htm
7. U.S. Energy Information Administration. National CBECS Statistical Data. 2003. Available online:
http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/data/2003/
8. International Energy Conservation Code. Table 503.2.3(1). 2009. DX cooling efficiency values
determined as simple average minimum efficiencies for systems with capacity ≥ 5.5 tons.
9. ASHRAE 90.1-2007. Table 6.8.1C. Chiller unit part load efficiency values are simple average
minimum efficiencies for chillers with capacity of 0 tons to 300 tons.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
183
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
11/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
184
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Temperature Sensor Calibration
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
Temperature Sensor Calibration, 3674
Per degree of calibration
Hybrid
HVAC
Tune-up / Repair / Commissioning
Commercial, Industrial, Schools & Government
Varies by temperature ranges and hours
Varies by temperature ranges and hours
Varies by temperature ranges and hours
Varies by temperature ranges and hours
Varies by temperature ranges and hours
0
1
5
2
$108.00
Measure Description
This measure captures savings by calibrating temperature sensors in an air handling unit feeding a
particular building zone. The measure savings are specific to air distribution systems, but are otherwise
flexible. This measure does not include the cost to replace sensors that have completely failed.
To apply measure savings, the heating supply must be produced by a natural gas boiler, while the
cooling system must be electrically powered. The measure can be applied only once per building during
the EUL. This measure is meant to be a part of the Express Building Tune-Up Program to help optimize
building HVAC systems to operate more efficiently at existing building load conditions. It does not apply
to newly constructed facilities that have not been commissioned.
This measure is applicable for supply air temperature (SAT) and indoor air room temperature (IAT)
sensors that are measuring and providing control feedback to the building HVAC systems.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline measure is a facility’s SAT and IAT sensors not having been calibrated and no Wisconsin
Focus on Energy rebate applied for at least five years.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient measure is to re-calibrate SAT and IAT sensors by averaging three separate temperature
readings with a secondary calibrated temperature device within close proximity of the sensor to be
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
185
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
calibrated. This will determine the amount the facility temperature sensors are off from actual in order
to make the necessary calibrations. The recalibrated sensors will help ensure that excess energy is not
being wasted to heat or cool a space. Broken sensors that need total replacement are not eligible.
Calibrated sensors should be adjusted to within two decimal places.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Savings are the sum of the baseline and proposed energy consumption formulas below across the bin
data temperature ranges and corresponding bin temperature hours found in the EBTU workbook.3,4
kWh SAVED = Σ (Temp Sensor cooling Btu Baseline – Temp Sensor cooling Btu Proposed) / 12,000 *
chiller_eff * % building affected * bin hours
Therm SAVED = Σ (Temp Sensor heating Btu Baseline – Temp Sensor heating Btu Proposed) / 80% / 100,000
* % building affected * bin hours
Temp Sensor cooling/heating Btu Baseline = 1.08 * Area_Load BASE * |SAT - OAT| * Outside Air CFM +
1.08 * Area_Load BASE * Δ(SAT - RAT) * Return Air CFM
Temp Sensor cooling/heating Btu Proposed = 1.08 * Area_Load PROP * |SAT - OAT| * Outside Air CFM +
1.08 * Area_Load PROP * Δ(SAT - RAT) * Return Air CFM
Where:
1.08
=
Constant for air sensible heat equation5
Area_Load BASE = Percentage value based on linear interpolation of a 60°F dry bulb
OAT balance point, bin data dry bulb OAT, and 2.5% dry bulb design
summer/winter conditions for different Wisconsin cities6 (see
Assumptions for more explanation about the 2.5% dry bulb design
conditions)
SAT
=
Supply air temperature (= 60°F for OAT > 60°F; = 75°F for OAT < 60°F)
OAT
=
Outside air temperature
Outside Air CFM
= Amount of outside air expected based on facility type and
square footage as determined through CBECS statistical data inserted in
the EBTU workbook7,3
RAT
=
Return air temperature (= 75°F for OAT > 60°F; = 68°F for OAT < 60°F)
Return Air CFM =
Total building airflow – Outside Air CFM (per zone)
Area_Load PROP = Percentage value based on linear interpolation of a 60°F dry bulb
OAT balance point, bin data dry bulb OAT ± calibrated values, and 2.5%
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
186
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
dry bulb design maximum/minimum temperatures for different
Wisconsin cities6
12,000
=
chiller_eff =
Btu to ton conversion factor
kW/ton based on 80% of full load rating of chiller units (= based on type
of chiller; see table below),
Cooling Efficiency by System Type
Cooling System Type
Cooling System Efficiency Factor
at Partial Load (kW/ton)
Direct Expansion
Air-Cooled Chiller
Water-Cooled Chiller
8
1.15
9
0.95
9
0.64
% building affected = Amount of total building square footage affected by sensor
calibration (= user defined)
bin hours
=
Heating and cooling hours for each city based on OAT4
80%
=
Efficiency of natural gas to heat conversion for heating purposes
100,000
=
Btu to therm conversion factor
The workbook calculator requires the following measure-specific inputs to be provided from the trained
professional performing the tune-up/optimization measure:
•
An average of three separate measurement reading of the un-calibrated air handling unit
temperature sensor to determine the current baseline reading (measurements should be out
two decimal places)
•
An average of three separate temperature readings of the calibrated air flowing near the uncalibrated temperature sensor, used to read and calibrate the un-calibrated sensor
(measurements should be out two decimal places)
•
Majority facility space type (e.g., offices, classroom, lobby, health club)
•
Percentage of facility being heated
•
Percentage of facility being cooled
•
Square footage of usable facility space
•
Chiller system type (direct expansion, air cooled, or water cooled)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
187
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = kWh SAVED / Hours COOL * CF
Where:
Hours COOL =
Annual cooling hours of operation (= based on city; see table below)
Annual Cooling Hours by City
City
BIN Annual Cooling Hours
(OAT > 60°F)10
Green Bay
La Crosse
Madison
Milwaukee
CF
=
2,745
2,971
2,874
2,830
Coincidence factor (= 1)
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (=5 years)1
Assumptions
•
Therm savings are calculated only when the calibrated reading is greater than the original
sensors reading
•
kWh savings are calculated only when the calibrated reading is less than the original sensor
reading
•
Heating and cooling balance temperature = 60°F
•
Total supply of 1 CFM per building square foot
•
2.5% dry bulb design conditions means that for cooling/heating seasons, the HVAC system is
designed to adequately handle the cooling/heating of a given building for all outdoor air
temperatures that do not exceed the hottest/coldest 2.5% of hours of the respective season.
Explained another way, this means the cooling/heating system can adequately handle the
cooling/heating load of a given building for 97.5% of the total anticipated peak cooling/heating
hours for the year.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
188
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Sources
1. Cadmus. EUL Response Memo. April 26, 2013.(Used RCx Program EUL standard and direction
from CB&I to keep 5 year EUL standard)
2. RSMeans. Facilities Construction Cost Data. 29th Edition. 2013. ($54/hour labor rate for work on
temperature sensors; estimated 2 hours for completion based on project experience).
3. Wisconsin Focus on Energy. EBTU Measures Workbook Calculator.
4. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Bin temperature data from respective Wisconsin cities
TMY3 weather data. Available online: http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/nsrdb/19912005/tmy3/by_state_and_city.html#W
5. Edison Electric Institute. Technical Information Handbook. Pg. 24. 2000.
6. ASHRAE. Handbook, Fundamentals Volume for Wisconsin Cities. 1985. Available online:
http://publicecodes.cyberregs.com/icod/ipc/2012/icod_ipc_2012_appd.htm
7. U.S. Energy Information Administration. National CBECS Statistical Data. 2003. Available online:
http://www.eia.gov/consumption/commercial/data/2003/
8. International Energy Conservation Code. Table 503.2.3(1). 2009. DX cooling efficiency values
determined as simple average minimum efficiencies for systems with capacity ≥ 5.5 tons.
9. ASHRAE 90.1-2007. Table 6.8.1C. Chiller unit part load efficiency values are simple average
minimum efficiencies for chillers with capacity of 0 tons to 300 tons.
10. Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual. Outside Air Temperature Bin Analysis,
pg. 389. January 2015.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
11/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
189
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Valve Repair
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Life-cycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Life-cycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
Valve Repair, Chilled Water, 3675
Valve Repair, Hot Water, 3676
Per MBh
Hybrid
HVAC
Tune-up / Repair / Commissioning
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
Varies by type of repair
0
Varies by type of repair
Varies by type of repair
Varies by type of repair
0
1
5
2
$112.00
Measure Description
This measure captures savings associated with repairing a chilled or hot water valve serving a
cooling/heating coil in a central air handling unit. This measure is for addressing a valve that has a 70%
failure rate at open or higher.
The measure incremental cost does not account for the potential replacement of unrepairable/broken
valves. The heating supply must be produced by a natural gas boiler, and the cooling system must be
electrically powered. The measure can be applied only once per building during the EUL. This measure is
meant to be a part of the Express Building Tune-Up Program to help optimize building HVAC systems to
operate more efficiently at existing building load conditions. It does not apply to newly constructed
facilities that have not been commissioned.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline measure is a chilled or hot water valve in need of repair due to being stuck open at 70% or
greater. If the valve is stuck at some point less than 70% open, this measure does not apply.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient measure is replacing or repairing a failed valve back to its optimal working state.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
190
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Savings are the sum of the baseline and proposed energy consumption formulas below across the bin
data temperature ranges and corresponding bin temperature hours found in the EBTU workbook.3,4
kWh SAVED = Σ [(Valve cooling Btu Baseline – Valve cooling Btu Proposed) / 12,000 * chiller_eff * Adjusted
Hours]
Therm SAVED = Σ [(Valve heating Btu Baseline – Valve heating Btu Proposed) / 80% / 100,000 * Adjusted
Hours]
Valve heating/cooling Btu Baseline = Capacity of heat_cool coil being served * 1,000 * stuck valve
position % * Area Load
Valve heating/cooling Btu Proposed = Capacity of heat_cool coil being served * 1,000 * working valve
position % * Area Load
Where:
Capacity of heat_cool coil being served = Expressed in MBh or Tons (= user defined;
MBh for chilled water = # tons * 12)
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
Stuck valve position % =
Area Load =
Percentage value based on linear interpolation of a 60°F dry bulb OAT
balance point, bin data dry bulb OAT, and 2.5% dry bulb design
summer/winter conditions for different Wisconsin cities5 (see
Assumptions for more explanation about the 2.5% dry bulb design
conditions)
Working valve position %
12,000
=
chiller_eff =
Percentage open (= user defined)
=
Workbook-calculated value based on bin data OAT
Btu to ton conversion factor
Units kilowatts per ton (= based on type of chiller; see table below)
Cooling Efficiency by System Type
Chiller Type
Cooling System Efficiency Factor at
Partial Load (kW/ton)
6
Air-Cooled
Water-Cooled
Adjusted Hours =
0.95
6
0.64
Bin hours * EFLH (see table below) / 8,760 total annual hours4
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
191
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Effective Full Load Heating and Cooling Hours by City
City
EFLHcooling7
EFLHheating7
344
323
395
457
1,852
1,966
1,934
1,883
Green Bay
La Crosse
Madison
Milwaukee
80%
=
Efficiency of natural gas to heat conversion for heating purposes
100,000
=
Btu to therm conversion factor
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
There are no peak savings for this measure.
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (=5 years)1
Assumptions
•
•
Heating and cooling balance temperature = 60°F
2.5% dry bulb design conditions means that for cooling/heating seasons, the HVAC system is
designed to adequately handle the cooling/heating of a given building for all outdoor air
temperatures that do not exceed the hottest/coldest 2.5% of hours of the respective season.
Explained another way, this means the cooling/heating system can adequately handle the
cooling/heating load of a given building for 97.5% of the total anticipated peak cooling/heating
hours for the year.
Sources
1. Cadmus. EUL Response Memo. April 26, 2013.(Used RCx Program EUL standard and direction
from CB&I to keep 5 year EUL standard)
2. RSMeans. Facilities Construction Cost Data. 29th Edition. 2013. ($56/hour labor rate for work on
heating/cooling control valves; estimated 2 hours for completion based on project experience).
3. Wisconsin Focus on Energy. EBTU Measures Workbook Calculator.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
192
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
4. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Bin temperature data from respective Wisconsin cities
TMY3 weather data. Available online: http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/nsrdb/19912005/tmy3/by_state_and_city.html#W
5. ASHRAE. Handbook, Fundamentals Volume for Wisconsin Cities. 1985. Available online:
http://publicecodes.cyberregs.com/icod/ipc/2012/icod_ipc_2012_appd.htm
6. ASHRAE 90.1-2007. Table 6.8.1C. Chiller unit part load efficiency values are simple average
minimum efficiencies for chillers with capacity of 0 tons to 300 tons.
7. Several Cadmus metering studies reveal that the ENERGY STAR calculator EFLH are overestimated by 25%. The heating EFLH were adjusted by population-weighted HDD and TMY-3
values.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
11/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
193
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
f[email protected]
VFD Fan Motor Control Restoration
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
VFD Fan Motor Control Restoration, 3677
Per horsepower
Hybrid
HVAC
Tune-up / Repair / Commissioning
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
Varies by temperature ranges and hours
Varies by temperature ranges and hours
0
Varies by temperature ranges and hours
0
0
1
5
2
$56.00
Measure Description
This measure captures savings associated with correcting the operating setting on a variable frequency
drive (VFD) controlling an HVAC system-related fan motor that is stuck in ‘hand’ mode or is in bypass
mode. Measure rebate does not apply if the original VFD was incented by Wisconsin Focus on Energy.
Measure rebate applies to all other VFDs only once per building during the EUL. This measure is meant
to be a part of the Express Building Tune-Up Program to help optimize building HVAC systems to
operate more efficiently at existing building load conditions. It does not apply to newly constructed
facilities that have not been commissioned.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline measure is a fan motor in a facility using a VFD for motor control, but not using the
‘automatic’ VFD control features.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient measure is restoring the automatic control features of a VFD controlling a fan motor load.
The VFD should not be manually altered in its control operation after being set to automatic mode.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Savings are the sum of the baseline and proposed energy consumption formulas below across the bin
data temperature ranges and corresponding bin temperature hours found in the EBTU workbook.3,4
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
194
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
kWh SAVED = VFD Motor Baseline - VFD Motor Proposed
VFD Motor Baseline = Σ [Motor hp * 0.7465 / Motor eff * (Motor loading % BASE )^2.5 * Adjusted Run
Hours]
VFD Motor Proposed = Σ [Motor hp * 0.7465 / Motor eff * (Motor loading % PROP )^2.5 * Adjusted Run
Hours]
Where:
Motor hp
=
VFD controlled motor nameplate horsepower rating
0.7465
=
Horsepower to kW conversion factor
Motor eff =
Specific VFD controlled motor nameplate efficiency; otherwise use
default of 90%
Motor Loading % BASE
=
defined)
Percent capacity (Load Factor) of motor at baseline (= user
Adjusted Run Hours
=
hours)
Bin hours * (annual VFD operational hours / 8,760 annual
Motor Loading % PROP = Percent capacity (Load Factor) of motor proposed; assumes
the VFD is set back to ‘automatic’ control based on user-defined loading
minimum and maximum percentages and on area load (area load is a
percentage based on a linear interpolation of a 60°F dry bulb OAT
balance point, bin data dry bulb OAT, and 2.5% dry bulb design
summer/winter conditions for different Wisconsin cities;5 see
Assumptions for more explanation about the 2.5% dry bulb design
conditions)
The workbook calculator requires the following measure-specific inputs to be provided from the trained
professional performing the tune-up/optimization measure:
•
Annual hours of VFD/fan operation
•
Fan VFD application (cooling tower fan, chiller system fan, boiler/heating fan)
•
Existing VFD control state (auto, manual, bypassed/off)
•
Fan motor nameplate capacity controlled by VFD (horsepower)
•
Fan motor nameplate efficiency percentage
•
Measured speed at set point if VFD is stuck in ‘hand’ mode (Hz)
•
VFD fan control loading minimum and maximum percentages
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
195
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = kWh SAVED / Hours FAN * CF
Where:
Hours FAN
=
Annual hours of operation for the fan controlled by the VFD
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= based on VFD fan use; see table below)
Coincidence Factor by VFD Fan Use6
VFD Use
CF
Cooling Tower Fan
0.9
Boiler Draft/Heating Fan
0.0
Details
DEER model runs are weather-normalized for statewide use by
population density
Assumed that heating fan not operating at peak summer period
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (=5 years)1
Assumptions
•
Assumes 100% load factor for all motors running in a VFD bypassed state.
•
2.5% dry bulb design conditions means that for cooling/heating seasons, the HVAC system is
designed to adequately handle the cooling/heating of a given building for all outdoor air
temperatures that do not exceed the hottest/coldest 2.5% of hours of the respective season.
Explained another way, this means the cooling/heating system can adequately handle the
cooling/heating load of a given building for 97.5% of the total anticipated peak cooling/heating
hours for the year.
Sources
1. Cadmus. EUL Response Memo. April 26, 2013. Used the RCx Program EUL standard and direction
from CB&I to keep 5 year EUL standard.
2. RSMeans. Facilities Construction Cost Data. 29th Edition. 2013. Assumed $56/hour labor rate for
work performed on HVAC control systems; estimated 1 hour for completion of this measure
based on project experience.
3. Wisconsin Focus on Energy. EBTU Measures Workbook Calculator.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
196
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
4. Natural Renewable Energy Laboratory. Bin temperature data from respective Wisconsin City
TMY3 weather data. Available online: http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/nsrdb/19912005/tmy3/by_state_and_city.html#W
5. ASHRAE. Handbook, Fundamentals Volume for Wisconsin Cities. 1985. Available online:
http://publicecodes.cyberregs.com/icod/ipc/2012/icod_ipc_2012_appd.htm
6. Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual. Pg. 225, Variable Frequency Drive,
summer coincident peak savings algorithm VFD coincidence factor chart. 2015.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
10/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
197
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
VFD Pump Control Restoration
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
VFD Pump Control Restoration, 3678
Measure Unit
Per horsepower
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
Hybrid
HVAC
Tune-up / Repair / Commissioning
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
Varies by temperature ranges and hours
Varies by temperature ranges and hours
0
Varies by temperature ranges and hours
0
0
1
5
2
$56.00
Measure Description
This measure captures savings associated with correcting the operating setting on a variable frequency
drive (VFD) controlling an HVAC system-related pump motor that is stuck in ‘hand’ mode or is in bypass
mode. Measure rebate does not apply if the original VFD was incented by Wisconsin Focus on Energy.
Measure rebate applies to all other VFDs only once per building during the EUL. This measure is meant
to be a part of the Express Building Tune-Up Program to help optimize building HVAC systems to
operate more efficiently at existing building load conditions. It does not apply to newly constructed
facilities that have not been commissioned.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline measure is a pump motor in a facility using a VFD for pump control, but not using the
‘automatic’ VFD control features.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient measure is restoring the automatic control features of a VFD controlling a pump load. The
VFD should not be manually altered in its control operation after being set to automatic mode.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Savings are the sum of the baseline and proposed energy consumption formulas below across the bin
data temperature ranges and corresponding bin temperature hours found in the EBTU workbook.3,4
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
198
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
kWh SAVED = VFD Pump Baseline - VFD Pump Proposed
VFD Pump Baseline = Σ [Motor hp * 0.7465 / Motor eff * (Motor loading % BASE )^2.5 * Adjusted Run
Hours]
VFD Pump Proposed = Σ [Motor hp * 0.7465 / Motor eff * (Motor loading % PROP )^2.5 * Adjusted Run
Hours]
Where:
Motor hp
=
VFD controlled motor nameplate horsepower rating
0.7465
=
Horsepower to kW conversion factor
Motor eff =
Specific VFD controlled pump motor nameplate efficiency; otherwise
use default of 90%
Motor Loading % BASE
=
defined)
Percent capacity (Load Factor) of motor at baseline (= user
Adjusted Run Hours
=
hours)
Bin hours * (annual VFD operational hours / 8,760 annual
Motor Loading % PROP = Percent capacity (Load Factor) of motor proposed; assumes
the VFD is set back to ‘automatic’ control based on user-defined loading
minimum and maximum percentages and on area load (area load is a
percentage based on a linear interpolation of a 60°F dry bulb OAT
balance point, bin data dry bulb OAT, and 2.5% dry bulb design
summer/winter conditions for different Wisconsin cities;5 see
Assumptions for more explanation about the 2.5% dry bulb design
conditions)
The workbook calculator requires the following measure-specific inputs to be provided from the trained
professional performing the tune-up/optimization measure:
•
Annual hours of VFD/fan operation
•
Fan VFD application (cooling tower fan, chiller system fan, boiler/heating fan)
•
Existing VFD control state (auto, manual, bypassed/off)
•
Fan motor nameplate capacity controlled by VFD (horsepower)
•
Fan motor nameplate efficiency percentage
•
Measured speed at set point if VFD is stuck in ‘hand’ mode (Hz)
•
VFD fan control loading minimum and maximum percentages
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
199
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = kWh SAVED / Hours PUMP * CF
Where:
Hours PUMP =
Annual hours of operation for the pump controlled by the VFD
CF
Coincidence factor (= based on VFD pump use; see table below)
=
Coincidence Factor by VFD Pump Use6
VFD Use
CF
Chilled Water Pump
0.9
Hot Water Pump
0.0
Source
DEER model runs are weather-normalized for statewide use by population
density
Assumed that heating/hot water pump not operating at peak times
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (=5 years)1
Assumptions
•
Assumes 100% load factor for all motors running in a VFD bypassed state.
•
2.5% dry bulb design conditions means that for cooling/heating seasons, the HVAC system is
designed to adequately handle the cooling/heating of a given building for all outdoor air
temperatures that do not exceed the hottest/coldest 2.5% of hours of the respective season.
Explained another way, this means the cooling/heating system can adequately handle the
cooling/heating load of a given building for 97.5% of the total anticipated peak cooling/heating
hours for the year.
Sources
1. Cadmus. EUL Response Memo. April 26, 2013. Used the RCx Program EUL standard and direction
from CB&I to keep 5 year EUL standard.
2. RSMeans. Facilities Construction Cost Data. 29th Edition. 2013. Assumed $56/hour labor rate for
work performed on HVAC control systems; estimated 1 hour for completion of this measure
based on project experience.
3. Wisconsin Focus on Energy. EBTU Measures Workbook Calculator. January 2015.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
200
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
4. Natural Renewable Energy Laboratory. Bin temperature data from respective Wisconsin City
TMY3 weather data. Available online: http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/nsrdb/19912005/tmy3/by_state_and_city.html#W
5. ASHRAE. Handbook, Fundamentals Volume for Wisconsin Cities. 1985. Available
online: http://publicecodes.cyberregs.com/icod/ipc/2012/icod_ipc_2012_appd.htm
6. Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual. Pg. 225., Variable Frequency Drive,
summer coincident peak savings algorithm VFD coincidence factor chart. 2015
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
10/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
201
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Variable Speed ECM Pump, Domestic Hot Water Recirculation, Heating Water
Circulation, and Cooling Water Circulation
Measure Details
Variable Speed ECM Pump:
Domestic Hot Water Recirculation:
< 100 Watts Max Input, 3494
100 - 500 Watts Max Input, 3495
> 500 Watts Max Input, 3496
Measure Master ID
Heating Water Circulation:
< 100 Watts Max Input, 3497
100 - 500 Watts Max Input, 3498
> 500 Watts Max Input, 3499
Cooling Water Circulation:
< 100 Watts Max Input, 3500
100 - 500 Watts Max Input, 3501
> 500 Watts Max Input, 3502
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Water Loop Heat Pump Circulation:
< 100 Watts Max Input, 3503
100 - 500 Watts Max Input, 3504
> 500 Watts Max Input, 3505
Per pump
Prescriptive
HVAC
Variable Speed Drive
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government,
Residential- multifamily
Varies by wattage
Varies by wattage
0
Varies by wattage
0
0
1
15
Varies by measure and wattage, see Appendix D
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
202
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Measure Description
ECMs are high-efficiency brushless DC motors. They are typically fractional horsepower motors that
have several benefits over the more common PSC fractional horsepower motor. One of these
advantages is higher overall efficiency. PSC motors are generally 20% to 60% efficient, depending on
their loading, while ECM motor efficiencies range from 70% to 80%. Other advantages include a
reduction in the pump motor size, the variable speed capability of the pump, the ability to provide
constant flow with varying pressures, a wider range of rpm, and the ability to be controlled by direct
digital controls.
DHW recirculating pumps are commonly used in multifamily and commercial buildings to shorten the
amount of time it would otherwise take for hot water to reach the occupants on upper floors and that
have long piping runs. These recirculation pumps can be operated continuously or be controlled by a
timer or an aquastat. An aquastat turns on the pump only when the temperature of the return line falls
below a certain set point. Many of the ECM recirculating pumps currently on the market have integrated
aquastat controls and the ability to be controlled and monitored wirelessly.
Heating and cooling water circulation pumps are commonly used in baseboard and radiant floor heating
systems, as well as in coils in forced air systems in multifamily and commercial buildings. Cooling loops
are often part of heat pump circulation systems. Often the primary and secondary loops run constantly
throughout the heating or cooling season. ECM circulator pumps can modulate their speed to match the
load.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is a standard efficiency, constant volume PSC pump for domestic heating or
cooling circulation without variable speed capabilities.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is a properly sized, high-efficiency ECM pump for domestic heating or cooling
circulation with variable speed capabilities to match demand.
Savings for this measure are from the reduction in the pump motor size, the variable speed capability of
the pump, and the increased efficiency of the ECMs versus the fraction horsepower PSC motors.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Heating and Cooling Circulation Pumps:
kWh SAVED = (Watts BASE - Watts EE ) / 1,000 * HOURS
Watts BASE = Watts EE * R
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
203
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
HOURS HEATING = HDD * 24 * ∆T
HOURS COOLING = CDD * 24 * ∆T
Water Loop Heat Pump Circulation Pumps:
kWh SAVED = (Watts BASE - Watts EE ) / 1,000 * (HOURS HEATING + HOURS COOLING )
Watts BASE = Watts EE * R
HOURS HEATING = HDD * 24 * ∆T
HOURS COOLING = CDD * 24 * ∆T
DHW Recirculation Pumps:
kWh SAVED = (Watts BASE / 1,000 * HOURS DHW-BASE ) – (Watts EE / 1,000 * HOURS DHW-EE )
HOURS DHW-BASE = HOURS UNCONTROLLED * 44.5% + HOURS CONTROLLED * 55.5%
HOURS DHW-EE = HOURS CONTROLLED
Where:
Watts BASE
=
Power consumption of constant speed PSC pump (= 278 watts for < 100
watt VSD ECM pumps; = 1,389 watts for 100 watt to 500 watt VSD ECM
pumps; = 5,556 watts for > 500 watt VSD ECM pumps)
Watts EE
=
Power consumption of variable speed ECM pump (= 50 watts for < 100
watt VSD ECM pumps; = 250 watts for 100 watt to 500 watt VSD ECM
pumps; = 1,000 watts for > 500 watt VSD ECM pumps)
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOURS
=
Average annual pump run hours
R
=
Ratio of ECM watts to baseline watts based on measured data of
comparable efficient and nonefficient pumps (18%)2
HOURS HEATING = Average annual pump run hours for heating (= 2,285)3
HDD
=
Heating degree days (= 7,616; see table below)5
24
=
Conversion factor, hours per day
∆T
=
Design temperature difference (= 80°F for heating; = 20°F for cooling as
95°F outdoor design - 75°F indoor design)6
HOURS COOLING = Average annual pump run hours for cooling (= 678)3
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
204
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
CDD
=
Cooling degree days (= 565; see table below)5
Heating and Cooling Degree Days by Location
Location
HDD5
CDD5
Milwaukee
Green Bay
Wausau
Madison
La Cross
Minocqua
Rice Lake
Statewide Weighted
7,276
7,725
7,805
7,599
7,397
8,616
8,552
7,616
548
516
654
630
729
423
438
565
HOURS DHW-BASE =
Average annual pump run hours for DHW recirculating (= 5,114)3
HOURS DHW-EE = Average annual pump run hours for DHW recirculating (= 2,190)3
HOURS UNCONTROLLED = Average annual pump run hours for DHW recirculating continuously
running (= 8,760)
44.5%
=
Constant4
HOURS CONTROLLED = Average annual pump run hours for DHW recirculating controlled by
a timer or aquastat (= 2,190)3
55.5%
=
Constant4
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
The summer coincident peak savings algorithm only applies to cooling circulation pumps and DHW
recirculation pumps.
kW SAVED = (Watts BASE - Watts EE ) / 1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 0.299 for chilled water pumps,5 = 1.0 for DHW
pumps)
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 15 years)1
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
205
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Deemed Savings
Energy Savings for DHW Recirculation
Savings
Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Savings (kWh)
Demand Reduction (kW)
< 100 Watt
VSD ECM Pump
MMID 3494
100 - 500 Watt
VSD ECM Pump
MMID 3495
> 500 Watt
VSD ECM Pump
MMID 3496
1,311
19,666
0.228
6,555
98,329
1.139
26,221
393,317
4.556
Energy Savings for Heating Circulation
Savings
Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Savings (kWh)
Demand Reduction (kW)
< 100 Watt
VSD ECM Pump
MMID 3497
100 - 500 Watt
VSD ECM Pump
MMID 3498
> 500 Watt
VSD ECM Pump
MMID 3499
520
7,807
0.000
2,602
39,035
0.000
10,409
156,142
0.000
Energy Savings for Cooling Circulation
Savings
Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Savings (kWh)
Demand Reduction (kW)
< 100 Watt
VSD ECM Pump
MMID 3500
100 - 500 Watt
VSD ECM Pump
MMID 3501
> 500 Watt
VSD ECM Pump
MMID 3502
154
2,317
0.068
772
11,583
0.341
3,089
46,330
1.362
Energy Savings for Water Loop Heat Pump Circulation
Savings
Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Savings (kWh)
Demand Reduction (kW)
< 100 Watt
VSD ECM Pump
MMID 3503
100 - 500 Watt
VSD ECM Pump
MMID 3504
> 500 Watt
VSD ECM Pump
MMID 3505
675
10,124
0.068
3,375
50,618
0.341
13,498
202,472
1.362
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
206
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Assumptions
Variable Speed ECM Pump, < 100 Watts Max Input
•
Wattage inputs for qualifying pumps under 100 watts range from 3 watts to 93 watts. 50 watts
was used as a conservative midpoint.
Variable Speed ECM Pump, 100 - 500 Watts Max Input
•
Wattage inputs for qualifying pumps between 100 watts and 500 watts range from 130 watts to
500 watts. 250 watts was used as a conservative midpoint.
Variable Speed ECM Pump, > 500 Watts Max Input
•
Wattage inputs for qualifying pumps greater than 500 watts range from 587 watts to 2,500
watts. 1,000 watts was used as a conservative midpoint.
Sources
1. U.S. Department of Energy. Pump Life Cycle Costs: A Guide to LCC Analysis for Pumping Systems.
January 2001. Page 4. January 2001. Available
online: https://www1.eere.energy.gov/manufacturing/tech_assistance/pdfs/pumplcc_1001.pdf.
2. Cadmus. Impact Evaluation of the 2011–2012 ECM Circulator Pump Pilot Program. Table 2.
Pump Spot Measurements. October 18, 2012.
3. DHW Recirculation System Control Strategies. Final Report 99-1. Pg. 3-30. January 1999. Hoursof-use for pumps with an aquastat control in multifamily applications.
4. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems.
Prepared for California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research Program. Pg. 16,
Figure 10: Control Types Installed or Maintained by Contractors. May 2008.
5. Illinois Statewide Technical Reference Manual for Energy Efficiency, Version 2.0. Pg. 235. June 7,
2013.
6. Used to match other measures: example: Natural Gas Furnace with ECM, 95%+ AFUE (Existing),
1981.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
207
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Lighting
Lighting Fixture, Agricultural Daylighting
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Measure Incremental Cost ($/unit)
Lighting Fixture, Agricultural Daylighting:
≤ 155 Watts, 3019
156 - 250 Watts, 3020
251 - 365 Watts, 3021
Per luminaire or complete retrofit kit
Prescriptive
Lighting
Controls
Agriculture
Varies by wattage
Varies by wattage
0
Varies by wattage
0
0
1
15
2
$246.43
Measure Description
Various lighting technologies—such as LED, induction, ceramic metal halide, pulse start metal halide,
and linear fluorescent high bay products—are energy-efficient alternatives to 320-watt pulse start metal
halide fixtures. These options have become a popular for dairy facilities upgrades to long day lighting, a
process used to help increase cows’ milk production by simulating longer days and therefore increasing
the animal food intake and thus milk production. Long day lighting requires a minimum of 15
footcandles of photopic light being present at cow eye level for 16 hours to18 hours each day.
Energy savings are achieved when installing energy-efficient LED, induction, ceramic metal halide, pulse
start metal halide, and/or linear fluorescent options instead of 250-watt and 320-watt pulse start metal
halide fixtures. When the design is optimized to the technology, a considerable amount of energy can be
saved.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is 250-watt and 320-watt pulse start metal halide options in new construction
buildings and upon retrofit upgrades to long day lighting.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
208
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is qualifying LED, induction, ceramic metal halide, pulse start metal halide, and/or
linear fluorescent high bay options. Pulse start metal halides are not acceptable for new construction
applications.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = kWh 320 WATT PSMH – kWh EE HIGH BAY * Hours
Where:
kWh 320 WATT PSMH
=
Annual electricity consumption of pulse start metal halide
KWh EE HIGH BAY
=
Annual electricity consumption of an eligible high/low bay
option using LED, induction, ceramic metal halide, pulse start
metal halide, or linear fluorescent technology
Hours
=
6,205 hours; full details in Assumptions section below
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kWSAVED = Qty * (kWh SAVED )/1,000 * CF
Where:
Qty
=
Quantity
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
CF
=
Demand coincidence factor (= 1.0)
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 15 years)1
Deemed Savings
Annual Deemed Savings for Agricultural Long Day Lighting
Measure
MMID
Existing Building
New Construction
Long Daylighting High Bay Fixtures, ≤ 155 Watts
3019
834 kWh, 0.1344 kW
874 kWh, 0.1409 kW
Long Daylighting High Bay Fixtures, 156 - 250 Watts
3020
908 kWh, 0.1463 kW
956 kWh, 0.1541 kW
Long Daylighting High Bay Fixtures, 251 - 365 Watts
3021
847 kWh, 0.1365 kW
892 kWh, 0.1438 kW
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
209
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Lifecycle Deemed Savings for Agricultural Long Day Lighting
Measure
MMID
Existing Building
New Construction
Long Daylighting High Bay Fixtures, ≤ 155 Watts
3019
12510 kWh
13110 kWh
Long Daylighting High Bay Fixtures, 156 - 250 Watts
3020
13620 kWh
14340 kWh
Long Daylighting High Bay Fixtures, 251 - 365 Watts
3021
12705 kWh
13380 kWh
Assumptions
A 320-watt pulse start metal halide was used as the baseline (it is the industry standard for lighting in
several high bay applications including agricultural facilities), but 250-watt pulse start metal halides are
also used in lower wattage applications.
The design of the long day lighting system should be based on the energy-efficient technology used.
Hours was based on long day lighting studies, which reveal that in order for long day lighting to work,
the lights must deliver a minimum of 15 footcandles at cow eye level for 16 hours to 18 hours a day (17
* 365 = 6,205 hours).
The coincidence factor of 1 was based on the system being on for 16 hours to 18 hours each day.3,4
The energy-efficient high bay option is based on the following:
•
An average of the following replacements was used to generate the deemed savings values in
place of 320-watt PSMH:

•
Eligible Replacements = 5.8% 200-watt induction, 5.8% 225-watt induction, 5.8% 165-watt
induction, 5.8% 200-watt PSMH or CMH, 5.8% 210-watt PSMH or CMH, 5.8% 220-watt
PSMH or CMH, 5.8% 4-foot 6-lamp T8, 5.8% 4-foot 4-lamp T5HO, 5.8% LED < 250 watts,
5.8% 250-watt induction, 5.8% 300-watt induction, 5.8% 250-watt PSMH or CMH, 5.8% 270watt PSMH or CMH, 5.8% 315-watt PSMH or CMH, 5.8% 4-foot 8-lamp T8, 5.8% 4-foot 6lamp T5HO, and 5.8% LED < 365 watts
An average of the following replacements was used to generate the deemed savings values in
place of 250-watt metal halide:

Eligible Replacements = 10% 120-watt to 125-watt induction,10% 150-watt induction,10%
165-watt induction,10% 125-watt PSMH or CMH, 10% 140-watt PSMH or CMH, 10% 150watt PSMH or CMH, 10% 4-foot 4-lampT8, 10% 4-foot 3-lamp T5HO, 10% 4-foot 2-lamp
T5HO, and 10% LED < 155 watts
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
210
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Sources
1. Focus on Energy Evaluation Business Programs: Measure Life Study Final Report. August 25,
2009.
2. Focus on Energy Evaluation Business Programs: Incremental Cost Study Final Report. October 28,
2009.
3. Photoperiod Manipulation of Lactation in Dairy Cattle. (2001-2004). Retrieved April 30, 2012.
http://www.livestocktrail.illinois.edu/photoperiod.
4. University of Wisconsin Madison. Long Day Lighting in Dairy Barns (August 2000). Healthy
Farmers, Healthy Profits Project. Second Edition.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/01/2013
02
04/23/2013
Initial TRM entry
Updated proposed fixture wattage for new construction, removed
PSMH as option for new construction, and updated savings values
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
211
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Daylighting Control
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
Daylighting Control, 3406
Per watt controlled
Prescriptive
Lighting
Controls
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government,
Residential- multifamily
Varies by sector
0
0
Varies by sector
0
0
1
8
2
Varies by sector
Measure Description
Daylighting controls save energy by reducing the total wattage input of the connected lighting load by
matching the light output of the connected electric lighting system to the amount of natural light
supplied by the sun that enters the space being lit. This is accomplished using dimming light sources or a
system that steps the light of the connected fixtures based on controlling the lamps inside each
connected fixture to produce different levels of illumination. This measure will provide reinforcement
that integrating daylighting controls is an effective method to further reduce energy consumption.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is any lighting equipment that is not connected to a daylighting controls system.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is any lighting equipment that is connected to a daylighting controls system.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
212
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = kWh UNCONTROLLED * Savings Factor
kWh UNCONTROLLED = Wattage UNCONTROLLED / 1,000 * CF * HOURS
Where:
KWh UNCONTROLLED
=
Savings Factor
= Savings percentage achieved per watt of lighting load that is
controlled by daylighting controls7
Annual electricity consumption per watt of lighting load that is
not controlled by daylighting controls
Wattage UNCONTROLLED =
Instantaneous electric consumption of lamp or fixture
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
CF
=
Demand coincidence factor (= see table below)
Demand Coincidence Factor by Sector
CF4, 6
Sector
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
Multifamily
HOURS
=
0.77
0.77
0.67
0.64
0.77
Average annual run hours (= see table below)
Average Annual Run Hours by Sector
Sector
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
Multifamily
HOURS3, 5
3,730
3,299
4,745
4,698
5,950
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = Wattage UNCONTROLLED / 1,000 * CF
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
213
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (8 years)1
Deemed Savings
Annual Savings per Watt of Lighting Load Controlled by Daylighting Controls
Measure
Daylighting Control
Commercial
3,730 (0.77)
kWh
kW
Industrial
4,745 (0.77)
kWh
kWh
Agriculture
4,698 (0.67)
kW
kW
Schools & Gov
3,239 (0.64)
kWh
kW
Multifamily
5,950 (0.77)
kWh
kW
1.12
1.43
0.0
1.41
1.78
0.0
0.97
0.0
0.0
0.0
Lifecycle Savings per Watt of Lighting Load Controlled by Daylighting Controls
Measure
Daylighting Control
Commercial
3,730 (0.77)
kWh
Industrial
4,745 (0.77)
kWh
Agriculture
4,698 (0.67)
kWh
Schools & Gov
3,239 (0.64)
kWh
Multifamily
5,950 (0.77)
kWh
8.96
11.44
11.28
7.76
14.24
Sources
1. California Energy Commission and California Public Utilities Commission. Database for Energy
Efficient Resources (DEER) 2008. http://www.energy.ca.gov/deer/ .
2. Varies based on wattage connected. For example, a $250 daylighting sensor system connected
to 100 watts of lighting load will cost $2.50 per watt controlled; but the same $250 daylighting
sensor system connected to 10,000 watts of lighting load will only cost $0.025 per watt
controlled.
3. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 3.2 Lighting Hours of
Use in Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
4. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Lighting in Commercial
Applications. March 22, 2010.
5. ACES. Deemed Savings Desk Review. November 3, 2010.
6. ACES. Default Deemed Savings Review Final Report. June 24, 2008. Available online:
http://www.coned.com/documents/Con%20Edison%20Callable%20Load%20Study_Final%20Re
port_5-15-08.pdf. CF is within range of similar programs; see Table 4-1 showing multifamily
housing (in unit) CF of 65% to 83%.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
214
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
7. Williams, Allison, B. Atkinson P.E., K. Garbesi Ph.D., E. Page P.E., and F. Rubenstein, FIES.
“Lighting Controls in Commercial Buildings.” Luekos Vol. 8, No. 3 (January 2012).
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
04/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
215
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Bi Level Controls, High Bay Fixtures
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
2
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
Bi Level Controls, High Bay Fixtures:
Gymnasium, 3260
Industrial, 3261
Retail, 3262
Warehouse, 3263
Public Assembly, 3264
Other, 3265
Per fixture
Prescriptive
Lighting
Controls
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
Varies by sector
Varies by sector
0
Varies by sector
0
0
1
8
$150.00
Measure Description
This measure is bi-level controls for high bay fixtures. Numerous new and existing installations use LED,
induction, linear fluorescent, ceramic metal halide, and pulse start metal halide fixtures to light their
high bay interiors, commonly in full light output 24 hours a day. Bi level controls and replacement
products use ultrasonic and passive infrared sensors to adjust the light output to a safe but energy
conserving low level when these spaces become unoccupied. These products save energy by more
efficiently lighting the spaces based on occupancy.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is LED, induction, fluorescent, ceramic metal halide, and/or pulse start metal
halide fixture input wattages with no lighting controls at building interior.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
216
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is individually controlled light fixtures that may include dimming, stepped
dimming, and hi-lo ballast controls. The control must include a passive infrared and/or ultrasonic
occupancy sensor with a feature to fail in “on” position in case of failure.
Fixtures must operate in a low-standby light level during vacancy and switch to full light output upon
occupancy. The fixture cannot exceed 50% of full wattage during unoccupied periods.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
All algorithms and methodology from: Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual
V1.0. March 22, 2010.2
The kW savings for this measure are deemed by space type, while kWh savings are deemed by sector
and space type. Savings due to occupancy sensor installation are described by the following equations:
kWh SAVED = LtgWatts / 1,000 * % Off * Hours * 50%
Where:
Ltg. Watts =
Lighting wattage controlled, deemed (= 237 watts; updated per new
wattage table to 310 watts)
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
% Off
=
Percentage of time lights are controlled (= see table below)
Hours
=
Baseline hours per year (= see table below)
50%
=
Bi level factor for fixtures that include dimming, stepped dimming, or hilo ballast controls (at least 50% of light source or lamps must be
reduced to qualify for incentive)
Percentage Of Values by Space Type (Various Sources)2
Space Type
Gymnasiums
Industrial
Retail
Warehouses
Public Assembly
Other
Cal. SPC
35%
45%
15%
45%
35%
-
RLW Schools
48%
59%
-
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
LRC
Maine
65%
-
Average
35%
50%
-
39%
45%
15%
53%
47%
40%
217
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Hours-of-Use by Sector2
Sector
Hours
Commercial
Schools & Government
Industrial
Agriculture
3,730
3,239
4,745
4,698
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = LtgWatts / 1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= see table below)
Coincidence Factors by Space Type (Various Sources)2
Space Type
Cal. SPC
Gymnasiums
Industrial
Retail
Warehouses
Public
Other
RLW Schools
14%
18%
6%
18%
14%
-
Average
15%
10%
-
15%
18%
6%
18%
12%
14%
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 8 years)1
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
218
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Deemed Savings
Annual and Lifecycle Deemed Savings in Agriculture and Commercial Sectors
Measure Name
Bi Level Controls, High Bay
Fixtures, Gymnasium
Bi Level Controls, High Bay
Fixtures, Industrial
Bi Level Controls, High Bay
Fixtures, Retail
Bi Level Controls, High Bay
Fixtures, Warehouse
Bi Level Controls, High Bay
Fixtures, Public Assembly
Bi Level Controls, High Bay
Fixtures, Other
MMID
kW
Agriculture
kWh
Lifecycle
kW
Commercial
kWh
Lifecycle
3260
0.0465
284
2,274
0.0465
226
1,806
3261
0.0559
328
2,624
0.0559
260
2,083
3262
0.0186
109
875
0.0186
87
694
3263
0.0559
386
3,090
0.0559
307
2,454
3264
0.0372
343
2,741
0.0372
272
2,176
3265
0.0434
292
2,332
0.0434
231
1,852
Annual and Lifecycle Deemed Savings in Industrial and Schools & Government Sectors
Measure Name
Bi Level Controls, High Bay
Fixtures, Gymnasium
Bi Level Controls, High Bay
Fixtures, Industrial
Bi Level Controls, High Bay
Fixtures, Retail
Bi Level Controls, High Bay
Fixtures, Warehouse
Bi Level Controls, High Bay
Fixtures, Public Assembly
Bi Level Controls, High Bay
Fixtures, Other
MMID
kW
Industrial
kWh
Lifecycle
Schools & Government
kW
kWh
Lifecycle
3260
0.0465
287
2,297
0.0465
196
1,568
3261
0.0559
331
2,650
0.0559
226
1,809
3262
0.0186
110
883
0.0186
75
603
3263
0.0559
390
3,121
0.0559
266
2,131
3264
0.0372
346
2,768
0.0372
236
1,889
3265
0.0434
294
2,356
0.0434
201
1,608
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
219
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Assumptions
The annual hours of operation for interior high bay applications is based on sector.
Bi level controls are able to and must achieve at least a 50% reduction in power requirements. Many
systems can reduce the light output below 50%.
Product weightings were based on historical project information (gathered October 3, 2013) with a
projected increase and prevalence of LED fixtures based on market knowledge. The higher weighting of
LED fixtures leads to a more conservative wattage estimate (see table below).
Weighted Average High Bay Lighting Replacement Wattage2
Measure
250-399 Watt Replacements
400-699 Watt Replacements
400-999 Watt Replacements
≤ 500 Watts, Replacing ≥
1,000 Watts
≤ 800 Watts, Replacing ≥
1,000 Watts
Total
Average Watts
Watts
Agriculture
Commercial
Industrial
Schools &
Government
185
316
335
13.90%
73.50%
12.60%
5.10%
61.40%
30.40%
9.70%
74.90%
10.30%
18.50%
70.40%
9.20%
9.00%
70.70%
16.00%
355
0.00%
2.50%
4.40%
1.10%
3.60%
591
0.00%
0.60%
0.70%
0.70%
0.70%
100%
300
100%
318
100%
309
100%
295
100%
310
Total
Wattages for LED, induction, fluorescent, ceramic metal halide, and pulse start metal halide fixtures
were grouped into five replacement categories based on the existing high bay fluorescent replacement
option groups from the deemed savings manual (Table4-204). A weighted average of the wattages per
lighting technology was then taken for the four groups based on historical project information (gathered
October 3, 2013), with a projected increase and prevalence of LED fixture. Refer to the following table
for the technology weightings.
Lighting Technology Weightings
Technology
Linear Fluorescent
LED
PSMH/CMH
Induction
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
Weighting
65%
20%
10%
5%
220
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Wattage by Fixture Type
Replacing 250-399 Watt HID
Measure Name
Wattage
Induction 120 watt
Induction 125 watt
Induction 150 watt
Induction 165 watt
PSMH or CMH 125 watts
PSMH or CMH 140 watts
PSMH or CMH 150 watts
LED
T8 4 lamp or T5HO 2 lamp
T8 6 lamp or T5HO 4 lamp
132
138
161
174
146
154
185
119
144
212
Replacing 400 HID < 365 Watt
Measure Name
Wattage
Induction 250 watt
Induction 300 watt
PSMH or CMH 250 watt
PSMH or CMH 270 watt
PSMH or CMH 315 watt
PSMH or CMH 320 watt
LED
T8 6 lamp or T5HO 4 lamp
T8 8 lamp or T5HO 6 lamp
T8 or T5HO ≤ 500 watt
Replacing 400 HID < 250 Watt
Measure Name
Wattage
Induction 200 watt
PSMH or CMH 200 watt
PSMH or CMH 210 watt
PSMH or CMH 220 watt
LED
T8 6 lamp or T5HO 4 lamp
220
225
229
242
169
212
275
330
281
290
343
640
296
212
359
363
Replacing 1,000 HID < 800 Watt
Measure Name
Wattage
Induction 750 watt
PSMH or CMH 575 watt
LED
T8 or T5HO ≤ 800 watt
825
640
690
535
Replacing 1,000 HID < 500 Watt
Measure Name
Wattage
LED
T8 8 lamp or T5HO 6 lamp
T8 or T5HO ≤ 500 watt
338
359
363
Sources
1. Focus on Energy Evaluation Business Programs: Measure Life Study Final Report. August 25,
2009.
2. Based on a rounded average of historical project information (gathered October 3, 2013).
3. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. March 22, 2010.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
02
12/2012
10/2013
Initial TRM entry
Changed entry from hybrid to prescriptive (MMID 3115)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
221
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Occupancy Sensors for High Bay Fixtures
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
3
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
Occupancy Sensor, High Bay Fixtures:
Gymnasium, 3254
Industrial, 3255
Retail, 3256
Warehouse, 3257
Public Assembly, 3258
Other, 3259
Per fixture
Prescriptive
Lighting
Controls
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
Varies by fixture
Varies by fixture
0
Varies by fixture
0
0
1
8
$150.00
Measure Description
This measure is occupancy sensors for high bay fixtures. Numerous new and existing installations use
LED, induction, fluorescent, ceramic metal halide, and pulse start metal halide fixtures to light their high
bay interiors, commonly in full light output for 24 hours a day. Occupancy controls and replacement
products use ultrasonic and passive infrared sensors to turn the fixture off when these spaces become
unoccupied. These products save energy by more efficiently lighting the spaces based on occupancy.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is LED, induction, fluorescent, ceramic metal halide, and/or pulse start metal
halide fixture input wattages with no lighting controls at the building interior.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
222
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is an indoor wall, ceiling, or fixture mounted occupancy sensor being used to
control a high bay fixture. The control must include a passive infrared and/or ultrasonic occupancy
sensor with a feature to fail in “on” position in case of failure.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
All algorithms and methodology are from: Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual
V1.0. March 22, 2010.2
The kW savings for this measure are deemed by space type, while kWh savings are deemed by sector
and space type. Savings due to occupancy sensor installation are described by the following equations:
kWh SAVED = LtgWatts / 1,000 * % Off * Hours
Where:
Ltg. Watts =
Lighting wattage controlled, deemed (= 237 watts; updated per new
wattage table to 310 watts)
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
% Off
=
Percentage of time lights are controlled (= see table below)
Hours
=
Baseline hours per year (= see table below)
Percentage Of Values by Space Type (Various Sources)2
Space Type
Gymnasiums
Industrial
Retail
Warehouses
Public Assembly
Other
Cal. SPC
RLW Schools
35%
45%
15%
45%
35%
-
LRC
48%
59%
-
Maine
65%
-
Average
35%
50%
-
39%
45%
15%
53%
47%
40%
Hours-of-Use by Sector2
Sector
Commercial
Schools & Gov
Industrial
Agriculture
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
Hours
3,730
3,239
4,745
4,698
223
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = LtgWatts / 1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= see table below)
Coincidence Factors by Space Type (Various Sources)2
Space Type
Cal. SPC
Gymnasiums
Industrial
Retail
Warehouses
Public
Other
RLW Schools
14%
18%
6%
18%
14%
-
Average
15%
18%
6%
18%
12%
14%
15%
10%
-
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 8 years)1
Deemed Savings
Annual and Lifecycle Deemed Savings in Agriculture and Commercial Sectors
Measure Name
Occupancy Sensor, High Bay
Fixtures, Gymnasium
Occupancy Sensor, High Bay
Fixtures, Industrial
Occupancy Sensor, High Bay
Fixtures, Retail
Occupancy Sensor, High Bay
Fixtures, Warehouse
Occupancy Sensor, High Bay
Fixtures, Public Assembly
Occupancy Sensor, High Bay
Fixtures, Other
MMID
kW
Agriculture
kWh
Lifecycle
kW
Commercial
kWh
Lifecycle
3254
0.0465
569
4,548
0.0465
451
3,611
3255
0.0559
656
5,248
0.0559
521
4,167
3256
0.0186
219
1,749
0.0186
174
1,389
3257
0.0559
773
6,181
0.0559
613
4,907
3258
0.0372
685
5,481
0.0372
544
4,352
3259
0.0434
583
4,665
0.0434
463
3,704
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
224
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual and Lifecycle Deemed Savings in Industrial and Schools & Government Sectors
Measure Name
MMID
Occupancy Sensor, High Bay
Fixtures, Gymnasium
Occupancy Sensor, High Bay
Fixtures, Industrial
Occupancy Sensor, High Bay
Fixtures, Retail
Occupancy Sensor, High Bay
Fixtures, Warehouse
Occupancy Sensor, High Bay
Fixtures, Public Assembly
Occupancy Sensor, High Bay
Fixtures, Other
kW
Industrial
kWh
Lifecycle
Schools & Government
kW
kWh
Lifecycle
3254
0.0465
574
4,594
0.0465
392
3,136
3255
0.0559
663
5,300
0.0559
452
3,618
3256
0.0186
221
1,767
0.0186
151
1,206
3257
0.0559
780
6,243
0.0559
533
4,261
3258
0.0372
692
5,536
0.0372
472
3,779
3259
0.0434
589
4,711
0.0434
402
3,216
Assumptions
Product weightings were based on historical project information (gathered October 3, 2013) with a
projected increase and prevalence of LED fixtures based on market knowledge. The higher weighting of
LED fixtures leads to a more conservative wattage estimate (see table below).
Weighted Average High Bay Lighting Replacement Wattage2
Measure
250-399 Watt Replacements
400-699 Watt Replacements
400-999 Watt Replacements
≤ 500 Watts, Replacing ≥
1,000 Watts
≤ 800 Watts, Replacing ≥
1,000 Watts
Total
Average Watts
Watts
Agriculture
Commercial
Industrial
Schools &
Government
185
316
335
13.90%
73.50%
12.60%
5.10%
61.40%
30.40%
9.70%
74.90%
10.30%
18.50%
70.40%
9.20%
9.00%
70.70%
16.00%
355
0.00%
2.50%
4.40%
1.10%
3.60%
591
0.00%
0.60%
0.70%
0.70%
0.70%
100%
300
100%
318
100%
309
100%
295
100%
310
Total
Wattages for LED, induction, fluorescent, ceramic metal halide, and pulse start metal halide fixtures
were grouped into five replacement categories based on the existing high bay fluorescent replacement
option groups from the deemed savings manual (Table4-204). A weighted average of the wattages per
lighting technology was then taken for the four groups based on historical project information (gathered
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
225
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
October 3, 2013), with a projected increase and prevalence of LED fixture. Refer to the following table
for the technology weightings.
Lighting Technology Weightings
Technology
Weighting
Linear Fluorescent
LED
PSMH/CMH
Induction
65%
20%
10%
5%
Wattage by Fixture Type
Replacing 250-399 Watt HID
Measure Name
Wattage
Induction 120 watt
Induction 125 watt
Induction 150 watt
Induction 165 watt
PSMH or CMH 125 watts
PSMH or CMH 140 watts
PSMH or CMH 150 watts
LED
T8 4 lamp or T5HO 2 lamp
T8 6 lamp or T5HO 4 lamp
132
138
161
174
146
154
185
119
144
212
Replacing 400 HID < 365 Watt
Measure Name
Wattage
Induction 250 watt
Induction 300 watt
PSMH or CMH 250 watt
PSMH or CMH 270 watt
PSMH or CMH 315 watt
PSMH or CMH 320 watt
LED
T8 6 lamp or T5HO 4 lamp
T8 8 lamp or T5HO 6 lamp
T8 or T5HO ≤ 500 watt
Replacing 400 HID < 250 Watt
Measure Name
Wattage
Induction 200 watt
PSMH or CMH 200 watt
PSMH or CMH 210 watt
PSMH or CMH 220 watt
LED
T8 6 lamp or T5HO 4 lamp
220
225
229
242
169
212
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
275
330
281
290
343
640
296
212
359
363
Replacing 1,000 HID < 800 Watt
Measure Name
Wattage
Induction 750 watt
PSMH or CMH 575 watt
LED
T8 or T5HO ≤ 800 watt
825
640
690
535
Replacing 1,000 HID < 500 Watt
Measure Name
Wattage
LED
T8 8 lamp or T5HO 6 lamp
T8 or T5HO ≤ 500 watt
338
359
363
226
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Sources
1. Focus on Energy Evaluation Business Programs: Measure Life Study Final Report. August 25,
2009.
2. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. March 22, 2010.
3. Based on a rounded average of historical project information (gathered October 3, 2013).
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
10/07/2013
Updated deemed savings and all fixture options and wattages
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
227
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Occupancy Sensors – Prescriptive
Measure Details
Occupancy Sensor, Ceiling Mount
≤ 500 Watts, 2471
≥ 1,001 Watts, 2472
501-Watts to 1,000 Watts, 2473
Occupancy Sensor, ≤ 200 Watts
Wall Mount, 2483, 3361
Fixture Mount, 2474
Wall or Ceiling Mount, CALP, 3201
Measure Master ID
Fixture Mount, CALP, 3605
Occupancy Sensor > 200 Watts,
Wall Mount, 2484, 3357
Fixture Mount, 2475
Wall or Ceiling Mount, CALP, 3202
Fixture Mount, CALP, 3606
Occupancy Sensor, Fixture Mount
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
≤ 60 Watts, 3561
> 60 Watts, 3560
Per sensor
Prescriptive
Lighting
Controls
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government,
Residential- multifamily
Varies by connected wattage
0
0
Varies by connected wattage
0
0
1
8
Ceiling Mount: $120.00
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
228
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Wall Mount: $35.00
Fixture Mount: $115.00
Measure Description
Occupancy sensors reduce energy consumption by reducing the operating hours for lighting equipment
in low occupancy areas, such as hallways, storage rooms, and restrooms. Occupancy sensors
automatically turn lights off a preset time after people leave a space, and turn lights on automatically
when movement is detected. Occupancy sensors feature a delay adjustment that determines the time
that lights are on after no occupancy is detected, as well as a sensitivity adjustment that determines the
magnitude of the signal required to trigger the occupied status.
The two primary technologies used for occupancy sensors are passive infrared (PIR) and ultrasonic. PIR
sensors determine occupancy by detecting the difference in heat between a body and the background.
Ultrasonic sensors detect people using volumetric detectors and broadcast sounds above the range of
human hearing, then measure the time it takes the waves to return.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is no occupancy sensor, with lighting fixtures being controlled by manual wall
switches.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is a hard-wired, fixture-, wall-, or ceiling-mounted occupancy sensor, where
lighting fixtures are controlled by the sensors based on detected occupancy.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWhSAVED = Watts / 1,000 * SF* HOU
Where:
Watts
=
Controlled lighting wattage (= see table below)
Controlled Lighting Wattage by Measure
Measure Name
Occupancy Sensor, Ceiling Mount, ≤ 500 Watts
Occupancy Sensor, Ceiling Mount, ≥ 1,001 Watts
Occupancy Sensor, Ceiling Mount, 501-1,000 Watts
Occupancy Sensor, Wall Mount, ≤ 200 Watts
Occupancy Sensor, Wall Mount, > 200 Watts
Occupancy Sensor, Fixture Mount, ≤ 60 Watts
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
Average Connected Wattage
2
350
2
1,200
2
750
2
150
2
350
3
35
229
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
3
Occupancy Sensor, Fixture Mount, > 60 Watts
89
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
SF
=
Savings factor, deemed (= 41%)3
HOU
=
Annual operating hours (= see table below)
Annual Operating Hours by Sector 3
Sector
Multifamily
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
HOU
5,950
3,730
4,745
4,698
3,239
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
There are no deemed summer peak savings for this measure. Although occupancy sensors may reduce
load during the peak period, most savings will occur during non-peak hours.
kWSAVED = Watts / 1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 0 kW)
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 8 years)1
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
230
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Deemed Savings
Deemed Annual Electricity Savings (kWh)
Measure Name
Occupancy Sensor, Ceiling
Mount, ≤ 500 Watts
Occupancy Sensor, Ceiling
Mount, ≥ 1,001 Watts
Occupancy Sensor, Ceiling
Mount, 501-1,000 Watts
Occupancy Sensor, Wall
Mount, ≤ 200 Watts
Occupancy Sensor, Wall
Mount, > 200 Watts
Occupancy Sensor, Fixture
Mount, ≤ 60 Watts
Occupancy Sensor, Fixture
Mount, > 60 Watts
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
535
681
674
Schools &
Government
465
1835
2335
2311
1594
1147
1459
1445
996
366
229
292
289
199
854
535
681
674
465
3561
86
52
67
66
46
3560
217
133
169
167
115
MMID
Multifamily
2471
854
2472
2,927
2473
1,830
2483; 2474; 3201;
3361; 3605
2484; 2475; 3202;
3357; 3606
Deemed Lifecycle Electricity Savings (kWh)
Measure Name
Occupancy Sensor, Ceiling
Mount, ≤ 500 Watts
Occupancy Sensor, Ceiling
Mount, ≥ 1,001 Watts
Occupancy Sensor, Ceiling
Mount, 501-1,000 Watts
Occupancy Sensor, Wall
Mount, ≤ 200 Watts
Occupancy Sensor, Wall
Mount, > 200 Watts
Occupancy Sensor, Fixture
Mount, ≤ 60 Watts
Occupancy Sensor, Fixture
Mount, > 60 Watts
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
4282
5447
5393
Schools &
Government
3718
14681
18676
18491
12749
9176
11673
11557
7968
2,927
1835
2335
2311
1594
6,831
4282
5447
5393
3718
3561
686
419
534
528
364
3560
1,737
1,062
1,351
1,338
922
MMID
Multifamily
2471
6,831
2472
23,419
2473
14,637
2483; 2474; 3201;
3361; 3605
2484; 2475; 3202;
3357; 3606
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
231
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Assumptions
Occupancy controls at small commercial facilities can be expected achieve a 41% savings3, based on an
average derived from sources that specify the different savings factors in different spaces such as
offices, corridors, restrooms, and storage areas.
The deemed summer peak savings is set to zero. Although occupancy sensors may reduce load during
the peak period, no savings are assumed because uses are widely variable and most savings will occur
during non-peak hours.
Occupancy controls at small commercial facilities can be expected achieve a 50% reduction in power
requirements, so a 40% reduction is used as a conservative estimate. No kilowatt savings are estimated
because of the variable nature of the uses.
Sources
1. PA Consulting Group Inc. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin Focus on
Energy Evaluation Business Programs: Measure Life Study. Final Report. August 25, 2009.
Available
online: https://focusonenergy.com/sites/default/files/bpmeasurelifestudyfinal_evaluationrepor
t.pdf
2. Average wattage taken from common pin-based CFL fixtures and 4-foot linear fluorescent
fixtures ≤ 60 watts and > 60 watts.
3. PA Consulting Group Inc. and Public Service Commission of Wisconsin. Focus on Energy.
Evaluation, Business Programs: Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. March 22, 2010. Hours of Use can
be found in Table 3.2. Average connected wattages can be found on Final Report, Page 4-194
and Table 4-163
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
02
04/06/2015
04/12/2015
Initial TRM entry
Combined workpapers, added comments
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
232
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
CFL Fixture, 12 Hours, CALP
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
CFL Fixture, 12 Hours, CALP:
Interior, 3198
Exterior, 3199
Per fixture
Prescriptive
Lighting
Fluorescent, Compact (CFL)
Residential- multifamily
278
0
0
Varies by installation year
0
0
1
13
2
$79.00
Measure Description
Hardwired CFL incentives apply only to complete new fixtures or modular (pin or GU-24 based) retrofits
with hardwired electronic ballasts. Incentives are for the replacement of incandescent fixtures only, and
replacements must result in a net decrease in energy use. CFLs provide the same or better light output
than incandescent lamps while using 75% less energy.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline equipment is a one or two lamp, 60-watt incandescent fixture on a switch, photocell, or
timer that is used for 12 or more hours per day.
Description of Efficient Condition
Hardwired CFL incentives apply only to complete new fixtures or modular (pin or GU-24 based) retrofits
with hardwired electronic ballasts. Incentives are for the replacement of incandescent fixtures only.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
233
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = kWh INCANDESCENT – kWh CFL
Where:
kWh INCANDESCENT =
=
kWh CFL
kWh use incandescent fixture (baseline)
kWh use CFL fixture (new fixture)
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
There are no peak savings are this measure.
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 13 years)1
Deemed Savings
EISA Compliant Lifetime Savings*
Installation Year
Measure
2013
2014
2015
2016 and
Beyond
2,411.2 kWh
2,306.9 kWh
2,254.8 kWh
2,254.8 kWh
0.0000 kW
0.0000 kW
0.0000 kW
0.0000 kW
* Pre-EISA savings ended on July 1, 2014; six months after EISA phased out the standard 60-watt A-19
incandescent lamp.
Multifamily CALP CFL Fixture, 12 hour
Assumptions
A weighted average of one and two lamp fixtures with 60-watt incandescent lamps being replaced with
a fixture containing –one or two 13-watt CFLs operating at least 12 hours per day was used to determine
savings. Weighting based on historical project data and estimates.
Sources
1. PA Consulting Group Inc. Public Service Commission of Wisconsin, Focus on Energy Evaluation,
Business Programs: Measure Life Study, Final Report. August 25, 2009.
2. Michigan DEER Measure Master database. 2013.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
234
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
06/2013
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
235
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
HPT8, 1-Foot by 4-Foot, Replacing T12 or T8, 2 Lamp
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
HPT8, 1-Foot by 4-Foot, Replacing T12 or T8, 2 Lamp:
SBP After A La Carte, 3390
SBP A La Carte, 3391
SBP Package, 3392
Per fixture
Prescriptive
Lighting
Fluorescent, Linear
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
Varies by sector
Varies by sector
0
Varies by sector
0
0
1
13
$45.00
Measure Description
High performance fixture replacements save energy over standard wattage fluorescent fixtures by
increasing the number of lumens per watt and reducing the number of lamps needed to produce
appropriate lighting levels. The one-lamp HP 1-foot by 4-foot fixture will replace a 2-lamp or greater T12
or T8 fixture.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline measure is EISA-compliant T8 linear fluorescent fixtures with 58 watts and two lamps; or
T12 linear fluorescent fixtures with 82 watts and two lamps.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is using one 32-watt T8 lamp in a 1-foot by 4-foot fixture combined with a ballast
that has a normal ballast factor.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
236
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (W EX - W HP ) / 1,000 * HOURS
Where:
W EX
=
Wattage of existing T8 or T12 lamps and ballasts
W HP
=
Wattage of the of HP 2-lamp 1-foot by 4-foot luminaire
1,000
=
Conversion
HOURS
=
Average annual run hours (= see table below)
Hours-of-Use by Sector2
Sector
Hours
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
3,730
4,745
4,698
3,299
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (W Ex - W HP ) / 1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Demand coincidence factor (= see table below)
Demand Coincidence Factor by Sector
Sector
CF3
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
0.77
0.77
0.67
0.64
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = (kWh EX – kWh HP ) * N + (kWh EISA – kWh HP ) * (EUL - N)
kWh EX = W EX / 1,000 * HOURS
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
237
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
kWh HP = W HP / 1,000 * HOURS
kWh EISA = W EISA / 1,000 * HOURS
Where:
kWh EX
=
Annual electricity consumption of existing T8 and T12 lamps and ballasts
kWh HP
=
Annual electricity consumption of HP one-lamp, 1-foot by 4-foot
luminaire
N
=
Number of years until 2016 (2014 = 2, 2015=1)
kWh EISA
=
Annual electricity consumption of EISA compliant lamps and ballasts
W EISA
=
Existing wattage of EISA compliant lamps and ballasts
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 13 years)1
This calculation is used to account for the federal legislation stemming from EISA, which dictates the
fluorescent fixture efficiency in lumens per watt. As of July 14, 2012, federal standards require that
practically all linear fluorescents meet strict performance requirements, such that all consumers will
need to upgrade to high performance T8 and T5 lamps and electronic ballasts when purchasing new
bulbs. The effect is that first-year savings for T12 to T8 replacements can be assumed only for the
remaining useful life of T12 equipment, at which point customers have no choice but to install
equipment meeting the new standard.
The calculation above is based on the Illinois TRM, for which the standard is expected to become fully
effective 2016. Therefore, the N is set as the number of years until 2016; after that, the remainder of the
new fixture EUL will accumulate lifetime savings with the baseline assuming that the EISA regulations
are in full effect. As the years between the installed measures and 2016 decreases, the lifetime savings
decrease.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
238
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Deemed Savings
Average Annual Deemed Savings for HP 1-Lamp, 1-Foot by 4-Foot Fixture Replacement of 2-Lamp 1Foot by 4-Foot T8 and T12 Fixtures
Measure
HPT8 1-Foot by 4-Foot
Replacement, 2014-2015
HPT8 1-Foot by 4-Foot
Replacement, 2016 and Beyond
Commercial
3,730 (0.77)
kWh
kW
Industrial
4,745 (0.77)
kWh
kW
Agriculture
4,698 (0.67)
kWh
kW
Schools & Gov
3,239 (0.64)
kWh
kW
156
0.0322
199
0.0322
197
0.0280
136
0.0268
111
0.0230
142
0.0230
140
0.0200
97
0.0191
Average Lifecycle Deemed Savings for HP 1-Lamp, 1-Foot by 4-Foot Fixture Replacement of 2-Lamp 1Foot by 4-Foot T8 and T12 Fixtures
Sector
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
2014
2015
2016 and Beyond
1,536
1,955
1,935
1,334
1,492
1,898
1,879
1,295
1,447
1,841
1,822
1,256
Assumptions
The following table is based on a July 2013 contractor pricing quote from Wesco Distribution for a
reflector, lamp, and ballast. The quote is for materials only, and labor was estimated at approximately
$25 for this product. The installed cost was rounded to $75.00 total ($50.00 for materials and $25.00 for
labor).
Measure Cost Quotes
Item
TRK14S-T8 with mirror reflector for 2-lamp T12 to 1-lamp T8 conversion
F32T8ADV850/EW/ALTO (28 watt T8 lamp) wesco #28105
IOPA2P32N35I 2-lamp T8 ballast - normal version
Price
Brand
$34.10
$3.15
$10.40
Louv
PHL
ADV
The 1-foot by 4-foot HP fixture uses one 32-watt T8 and a ballast with a 0.88 ballast factor. Replaced
fixtures are assumed to be 50% T8s and 50% T12s in 2014 and 2015.
The Illinois TRM assumes that this standard will become fully effective in 2016. Their recommendation is
due to a realistic expectation that if a customer relamps an existing T12 fixture the day the standard
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
239
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
takes effect, they would likely need to upgrade to T8s in less than five years. The Illinois TRM therefore
recommends that for T12 systems, the baseline becomes a standard T8 in 2016, regardless of the
equipment on the site. In addition, retrofits to T12 systems installed before 2016 have a baseline
adjustment applied in 2016 for the remainder of the measure life.
Sources
1. Similar measure MMID 2561 (existing HPT8 one-lamp measure). PA Consulting Group Inc. State
of Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin Focus on Energy Evaluation Business
Programs: Measure Life Study. Final Report. August 25, 2009. Available
online: https://focusonenergy.com/sites/default/files/bpmeasurelifestudyfinal_evaluationrepor
t.pdf
2. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 3.2 Lighting Hours of
Use and Coincidence Factors by Sector. March 22, 2010.
3. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 3.2 Lighting Hours of
Use and Coincidence Factors by Sector. March 22, 2010.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
2/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
240
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
8-Foot Linear Fluorescent T8 Replacement System
Measure Details
T8, 2-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8:
Replacing T12, 1-Lamp, 8-Foot, 0.78 < BF < 1.00, SBP A La Carte, 3307
Replacing T12, 1-Lamp, 8-Foot, 0.78 < BF < 1.00, 3122
Replacing T12, 1-Lamp, 8-Foot, BF ≤ 0.78, 3123
Replacing T12HO, 1-Lamp, 8-Foot, 0.78 < BF < 1.00, SBP A La Carte, 3312
Replacing T12HO, 1-Lamp, 8-Foot, 0.78 < BF < 1.00, 3124
Replacing T12HO, 1-Lamp, 8-Foot, BF ≤ 0.78, 3125
Replacing T12HO, 1-Lamp, 8-Foot, BF > 1.00, 3126
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
T8, 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8:
Replacing T12, 2-Lamp, 8-Foot, 0.78 < BF < 1.00, SBP A La Carte, 3309
Replacing T12, 2-Lamp, 8-Foot, 0.78 < BF < 1.00, 3127
Replacing T12, 2-Lamp, 8-Foot, BF ≤ 0.78, 3128
Replacing T12HO 1L 8', 0.78 < BF < 1.00, SBP A La Carte, 3312
Replacing T12HO, 2-Lamp, 8-Foot, 0.78 < BF < 1.00, SBP A La Carte, 3314
Replacing T12HO, 2-Lamp, 8-Foot, 0.78 < BF < 1.00, 3129
Replacing T12HO, 2-Lamp, 8-Foot, BF ≤ 0.78, 3130
Replacing T12HO, 2-Lamp, 8-Foot, BF > 1.00, 3131
Replacing T12VHO, 2-Lamp, 8-Foot, 0.78 < BF < 1.00, 3132
Replacing T12VHO, 2-Lamp, 8-Foot, BF ≤ 0.78, 3133
Replacing T12VHO, 2-Lamp, 8-Foot, BF > 1.00, 3134
Per fixture
Prescriptive
Lighting
Fluorescent, Linear
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
Varies by measure
Varies by measure
0
Varies by measure
0
0
1
15
2
Varies by measure
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
241
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Measure Description
High performance (HP) and reduced wattage (RW) 4-foot linear fluorescent lighting fixtures that use low
ballast factors, high wattage lamps, or reduced wattage lamps are an energy-efficient alternative to 8foot, standard wattage T12, T12HO, and T12VHO linear fluorescent fixtures. These products can be
installed on a two-to-one basis to replace 1-lamp or 2-lamp T12 luminaires without sacrificing lighting
quality.
Description of Baseline Condition
For existing buildings, the baseline measure is 8-foot, 1-lamp or 2-lamp standard T12, T12HO, and
T12VHO linear fluorescent fixtures. High output (HO) 8-foot T12 baseline lamps range from 95 watts to
110 watts, while for very high output (VHO) lamps the range is 185 watts to 215 watts.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient measure is 2-lamp or 4-lamp, 4-foot, high performance T8 fixtures with normal and low
ballast factor, and reduced wattage, 25-watt and 28-watt T8s with high, normal, and low ballast factors.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = kWh 8’ T12 - kWh HP/RW
Where:
kWh 8’ T12
=
Annual electricity consumption of an 8-foot T12, T12HO, or T12VHO
linear fluorescent lamp fixture
kWh HP/RW
=
Annual electricity consumption of a 4-foot, linear fluorescent, high
performance or reduced wattage fixture
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = Wattage/1,000 * CF
Where:
Wattage
=
Wattage of installed fixture
1,000
=
Conversion
CF
=
Demand coincidence factor (= see table below)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
242
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Demand Coincidence Factor by Sector
Sector
CF5
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
0.77
0.77
0.67
0.64
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 15 years)1
Deemed Savings
Annual Deemed Savings for 8-FootLinear Fluorescent T8 Replacement System
Measure
MMID
Commercial
3,730 (0.77)
kWh
kW
T8, 2-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8
or RWT8 Replacing T12, 1Lamp, 8-Foot, 0.78 < BF <
1.00
T8, 2-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8
or RWT8 Replacing T12, 1Lamp, 8-Foot, BF ≤ 0.78
T8, 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8
or RWT8 Replacing T12, 2Lamp, 8-Foot, 0.78 < BF <
1.00
T8, 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8
or RWT8 Replacing T12, 2Lamp, 8-Foot, BF ≤ 0.78
T8, 2-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8
or RWT8 Replacing
T12HO, 1-Lamp, 8-Foot,
BF > 1.00
T8, 2-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8
or RWT8 Replacing
3122
SBP A La
Carte,
3307
112
0.0231
97
0.0192
142
0.0231
141
0.0201
3123
137
0.0283
119
0.0235
174
0.0283
173
0.0246
3127
SBP A La
Carte,
3309
129
0.0266
112
0.0221
164
0.0266
162
0.0231
3128
175
0.0362
152
0.0301
223
0.0362
220
0.0315
3126
202
0.0416
175
0.0346
257
0.0416
254
0.0362
3124
SBP A La
269
0.0555
234
0.0461
342
0.0555
339
0.0483
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
Schools & Gov
3,239 (0.64)
kWh
kW
Industrial
4,745 (0.77)
kWh
kW
Agriculture
4,698 (0.67)
kWh
kW
243
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Measure
T12HO, 1-Lamp, 8-Foot,
0.78 < BF < 1.00
T8, 2-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8
or RWT8 Replacing
T12HO, 1-Lamp, 8-Foot,
BF ≤ 0.78
T8, 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8
or RWT8 Replacing
T12HO, 2-Lamp, 8-Foot,
BF > 1.00
T8, 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8
or RWT8 Replacing
T12HO, 2-Lamp, 8-Foot,
0.78 < BF < 1.00
T8, 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8
or RWT8 Replacing
T12HO, 2-Lamp, 8-Foot,
BF ≤ 0.78
T8, 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8
or RWT8 Replacing
T12VHO, 2-Lamp, 8-Foot,
BF > 1.00
T8, 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8
or RWT8 Replacing
T12VHO, 2-Lamp, 8-Foot,
0.78 < BF < 1.00
T8, 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8
or RWT8 Replacing
T12VHO, 2-Lamp, 8-Foot,
BF ≤ 0.78
MMID
Commercial
3,730 (0.77)
kWh
kW
Schools & Gov
3,239 (0.64)
kWh
kW
Industrial
4,745 (0.77)
kWh
kW
Agriculture
4,698 (0.67)
kWh
kW
Carte,
3312
3125
294
0.0606
255
0.0504
374
0.0606
370
0.0527
3131
322
0.0665
280
0.0553
410
0.0665
406
0.0579
3129;
SBP A La
Carte,
3314
461
0.0952
400
0.0791
586
0.0952
581
0.0828
3130
507
0.1047
440
0.0870
645
0.1047
639
0.0911
3134
967
0.1997
840
0.1660
1,230
0.1997
1,218
0.1738
3132
1,106
0.2284
960
0.1898
1,407
0.2284
1,393
0.1987
3133
1,153
0.2379
1,001
0.1977
1,467
0.2379
1,452
0.2070
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
244
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Lifecycle Deemed Savings for 8-Foot Linear Fluorescent T8 Replacement System
Measure
MMID
Commercial
3,730 (0.77)
kWh
Schools & Gov
3,239 (0.64)
kWh
Industrial
4,745 (0.77)
kWh
Agriculture
4,698 (0.67)
kWh
T8, 2-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or
RWT8 Replacing T12, 1Lamp, 8-Foot, 0.78 < BF <
1.00
T8, 2-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or
RWT8 Replacing T12, 1Lamp, 8-Foot, BF ≤ 0.78
T8, 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or
RWT8 Replacing T12, 2Lamp, 8-Foot, 0.78 < BF <
1.00
T8, 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or
RWT8 Replacing T12, 2Lamp, 8-Foot, BF ≤ 0.78
T8, 2-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or
RWT8 Replacing T12HO, 1Lamp, 8-Foot, BF > 1.00
T8, 2-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or
RWT8 Replacing T12HO, 1Lamp, 8-Foot, 0.78 < BF <
1.00
T8, 2-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or
RWT8 Replacing T12HO, 1Lamp, 8-Foot, BF ≤ 0.78
T8, 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or
RWT8 Replacing T12HO, 2Lamp, 8-Foot, BF > 1.00
T8, 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or
RWT8 Replacing T12HO, 2Lamp, 8-Foot, 0.78 < BF <
1.00
T8, 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or
RWT8 Replacing T12HO, 2Lamp, 8-Foot, BF ≤ 0.78
T8, 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or
RWT8 Replacing T12VHO,
3122
SBP A La
Carte,
3307
1,680
1,455
2,130
2,115
3123
2,055
1,785
2,610
2,595
3127
SBP A La
Carte,
3309
1,935
1,680
2,460
2,430
3128
2,625
2,280
3,345
3,300
3126
3,030
2,625
3,855
3,810
3124
SBP A La
Carte,
3312
4,035
3,510
5,130
5,085
3125
4,410
3,825
5,610
5,550
3131
4,830
4,200
6,150
6,090
3129;
SBP A La
Carte,
3314
6,915
6,000
8,790
8,715
3130
7,605
6,600
9,675
9,585
3134
14,505
12,600
18,450
18,270
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
245
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Measure
2-Lamp, 8-Foot, BF > 1.00
T8, 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or
RWT8 Replacing T12VHO,
2-Lamp, 8-Foot, 0.78 < BF <
1.00
T8, 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or
RWT8 Replacing T12VHO,
2-Lamp, 8-Foot, BF ≤ 0.78
MMID
Commercial
3,730 (0.77)
kWh
Schools & Gov
3,239 (0.64)
kWh
Industrial
4,745 (0.77)
kWh
Agriculture
4,698 (0.67)
kWh
3132
16,590
14,400
21,105
20,895
3133
17,295
15,015
22,005
21,780
Measure Costs for 8-Foot Linear Fluorescent T8 Replacement System2
Measure
T8, 2-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12, 1-Lamp, 8-Foot, 0.78 < BF < 1.00
T8, 2-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12, 1-Lamp, 8-Foot, BF ≤ 0.78
T8, 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12, 2-Lamp, 8-Foot, 0.78 < BF < 1.00
T8, 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12, 2-Lamp, 8-Foot, BF ≤ 0.78
T8, 2-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12HO, 1-Lamp, 8-Foot, BF > 1.00
T8, 2-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12HO, 1-Lamp, 8-Foot, 0.78 < BF <
1.00
T8, 2-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12HO, 1-Lamp, 8-Foot, BF ≤ 0.78
T8, 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12HO, 2-Lamp, 8-Foot, BF > 1.00
T8, 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12HO, 2-Lamp, 8-Foot, 0.78 < BF <
1.00
T8, 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12HO, 2-Lamp, 8-Foot, BF ≤ 0.78
T8, 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12VHO, 2-Lamp, 8-Foot, BF > 1.00
T8, 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12VHO, 2-Lamp, 8-Foot, 0.78 < BF <
1.00
T8, 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12VHO, 2-Lamp, 8-Foot, BF ≤ 0.78
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
MMID
3122; SBP A La
Carte, 3307
3123
3127; SBP A La
Carte, 3309
3128
3126
3124; SBP A La
Carte, 3312
3125
3131
3129; SBP A La
Carte, 3314
3130
3134
Cost ($)
$41.00
$41.00
$66.00
$66.00
$41.00
$41.00
$41.00
$66.00
$66.00
$66.00
$66.00
3132
$66.00
3133
$66.00
246
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Sources
1. Focus on Energy Evaluation Business Programs: Measure Life Study Final Report. August 25,
2009. And DEER 2014 EUL Table. http://www.deeresources.com/. Rated ballast life of 70,000
hours, not rated on bulb life. As such the value is capped at 15 years.
2. Focus on Energy EUL Database. April 18, 2013. (Average of 15 years and 13 years)
3. Michigan Master Measure Database. 2011 baselines. Updated May 26, 2011.
4. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Commercial Applications.
March 22, 2010.
5. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 3.2 Lighting Hours of
Use in Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
6. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 3.2 Coincidence Factor
for Lighting in Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
12/2012
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
247
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Reduced Wattage T5 and T5HO Lamps Replacing Standard T5 Lamps
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
Reduced Wattage Lamps:
Replacing Standard T5, 3023
Replacing Standard T5HO, 3024
Per lamp
Prescriptive
Lighting
Fluorescent, Linear
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
Varies by sector
Varies by sector
0
Varies by sector
0
0
1
T5 = 6; T5HO = 8
4
T5 = $1.00; T5HO = $15.00
Measure Description
Reduced wattage T5 and T5HO lamps save energy by reducing the total input wattage of the luminaires
where they are installed. Reduced wattage T5 and T5HO lamps can be installed in place of existing
standard wattage T5 and T5HO lamps where the tasks that take place in the space do not require the
light level provided by the existing T5 and T5HO lamps.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline equipment is 4-foot, T5 28-watt lamps and 4-foot, 54-watt T5HO lamps.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient equipment is 4-foot, 26-watt T5 lamps and 4-foot, 44-watt, 47-watt, 49-watt, or 51-watt
T5HO lamps.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
248
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = kWh 28wattT5 or 54wattT5HO - kWh RWLamp
Where:
kWh 28wattT5 or 54wattT5HO
=
Annual electricity consumption of standard 28-watt, 4foot T5 lamp or 4-foot, 54-watt T5HO lamp
kWh RWLamp
=
Annual electricity consumption of reduced wattage 4foot, 26-watt T5 lamp or 44-watt, 47-watt, 49-watt, or
51-watt T5HO lamp
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = Wattage / 1,000 * CF
Where:
Wattage
=
Wattage of installed fixture; (= ballast factor * lamp wattage)
1,000
=
Conversion
CF
=
Demand coincidence factor (= see table below)
Demand Coincidence Factor by Sector
Sector
CF3
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
0.77
0.77
0.67
0.64
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = (kWh 28wattT5 or 54wattT5HO - kWh RWLamp ) * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 6 years for T5; = 8 years for T5HO)1
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
249
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Deemed Savings
Average Annual Deemed Savings for Reduced Wattage
T5 and T5HO Lamps Replacing Standard T5 and T5HO Lamps
Measure
MMID
RW T5 Lamp
RW T5HO Lamp
3023
3024
Commercial
3,730 (0.77)
kWh
kW
7
23
Schools & Gov
3,239 (0.64)
kWh
kW
0.0015
0.0048
6
20
0.0012
0.0040
Industrial
4,745 (0.77)
kWh
kW
9
29
0.0015
0.0048
Agriculture
4,698 (0.67)
kWh
kW
9
29
0.0013
0.0042
Average Lifecycle Deemed Savings for Reduced Wattage
T5 and T5HO Lamps Replacing Standard T5 and T5HO Lamps
Measure
RW T5 Lamp
RW T5HO Lamp
MMID
Commercial
3,730 (0.77)
kWh
Schools & Gov
3,239 (0.64)
kWh
Industrial
4,745 (0.77)
kWh
Agriculture
4,698 (0.67)
kWh
3023
3024
42
184
36
160
54
232
54
232
Assumptions
An average of 25% each of 44-watt, 47-watt, 49-watt, and 51-watt 4-foot T5HO lamps was used to
generate the new measure wattage and savings for the T5HO lamp replacement measure.
A 26-watt T5 lamps was used to generate the new measure wattage and savings for the T5 lamp
replacement measure.
Sources
1. Multiple manufacturers’ product life rating (≈ 25,000 hours for T5 and ≈ 30,000 hours for T5HO
lamps.
2. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 3.2 Lighting Hours of
Use in Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
3. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 3.2 Coincidence Factor
for Lighting in Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
4. Based on market knowledge. Information gathered December 15, 2012.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
250
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
12/2012
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
251
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Reduced Wattage 8-Foot T8 Lamps Replacing 8-Foot Standard T8 Lamps
Measure Details
Reduced Wattage 8-Foot T8 Lamps Replacing 8-Foot Standard T8
Lamps, 2665
Per lamp
Prescriptive
Lighting
Fluorescent, Linear
Residential - multi family
Varies by wattage
Varies by wattage
0
Varies by wattage
0
0
1
15
4
$8.00
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
Measure Description
Reduced wattage 8-foot standard wattage T8 lamps save energy by reducing the total input wattage of
the luminaires where installed. Reduced wattage 8-foot T8 lamps can be installed in place of existing 59watt 8-foot T8 lamps where the tasks that take place in the space do not require the light level provided
by the existing lamps.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline equipment is standard 59-watt 8-foot T8 lamps.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient equipment is 49-watt, 50-watt, 51-watt, or 54-watt 8-foot T8 lamps.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = kWh 59wattT8 - kWh RWLamp
Where:
kWh 59wattT8
=
Annual electricity consumption of standard 59-watt 8-foot T8 lamp
kWh RWLamp
=
Annual electricity consumption of reduced wattage 8-foot T8 lamp
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
252
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = Wattage / 1,000 * CF
Where:
Wattage
=
Wattage of installed fixture; (= ballast factor * lamp wattage)
1,000
=
Conversion
CF
=
Demand coincidence factor (= see table below)
Demand Coincidence Factor by Sector
Sector
CF3
Multifamily
0.77
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = (kWh 59wattT8 - kWh RWLamp ) * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 15 years)1
Assumptions
An average of 25% each of 49-watt, 50-watt, 51-watt, and 54-watt 8-foot T8 lamps was used to generate
the new measure wattage.
Sources
1. DEER 2014. http://www.deeresources.com/. Rated ballast life of 70,000 hours. Not rated on
bulb life. Capped at 15 years.
2. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 3.2 Lighting Hours of
Use in Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
3. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 3.2 Coincidence Factor
for Lighting in Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
4. Based on market knowledge.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
253
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
12/2012
Updated savings values
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
254
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
T8, Low-Watt Relamp
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
T8, Low-Watt Relamp:
54 Watts, 8-Foot, 2707
8-Foot, 3135
Per unit
Prescriptive
Lighting
Fluorescent, Linear
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government,
Residential- multifamily
18
0.0034
0
90
0
0
1
5
2
$2.00
Measure Description
Replacing standard T8 lamps with reduced wattage T8 lamps can result in energy savings while still
maintaining adequate light levels. This measure is replacing standard replacing standard 59-watt, 8-foot
T8 lamps with 54-watt T8 lamps. This measure is for the replacement of lamps only.
Light levels after relamping should meet current Illuminating Engineering Society of North America
standards. Reduced-wattage lamps should be CEE listed, and should be used with compatible and
existing T8 electronic ballasts. The nominal wattages of the new lamps must be 54 watt.
Description of Baseline Condition
Baseline lamp is 59-watt T8 lamps.
Description of Efficient Condition
54-watt T8 efficient lamps should be used with compatible T8 electronic ballasts:
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = [(P E – P P ) / 1,000) * HOURS
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
255
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Where:
PE
=
Existing lighting wattage
PP
=
Proposed replacement lighting wattage
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOURS
=
Annual operating hours
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = [(P E – P P ) / 1,000) * CF
Where:
CF
=
Demand coincident factor
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = [(P E – P P ) / 1,000) * HOURS * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 5 years)1
Sources
1. PA Consulting Group Inc. Public Service Commission of Wisconsin, Focus on Energy Evaluation,
Business Programs: Measure Life Study, Final Report. August 25, 2009.
2. Michigan Public Service Commission. Michigan Energy Measures Database. Available
online: http://www.michigan.gov/mpsc/0,1607,7-159-52495_55129---,00.html
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
02
03
10/25/2012
01/08/2013
03/08/2013
Initial draft
Updated to new template
Updated
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
256
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
T8, 2 Lamp, 4-Foot, Recessed Indirect Fixture, HPT8, Replacing 3 Lamp or 4
Lamp T8 or T12
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Measure Incremental Cost ($/unit)
T8, 2 Lamp, 4-Foot, Recessed Indirect Fixture, HPT8, Replacing 3 Lamp
or 4 Lamp T8 or T12, 2704
Per fixture
Prescriptive
Lighting
Fluorescent, Linear
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government, Residentialmultifamily
179.0 kWh T5 fixture, 276.0 kWh T8 fixture
0.0231 kW T5 fixture, 0.0355 kW T8 fixture
0
2,685.0 kWh T5 fixture, 4,140.0 kWh T8 fixture
0
0
3
15
4
$50.00 Existing Buildings, $8.19 New Construction
Measure Description
This measure is replacing 3 lamp or 4 lamp, 4-footstandard T8 and T12 fixtures with 2 lamp F28T5, HPT8,
RWT8 2x4 high-efficiency recessed fixtures.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline measure is 3 lamp or 4 lamp, 4-foot standard T8 and T12 fixtures.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient measure is 2 lamp F28T5, HPT8, RWT8 2x4 high-efficiency recessed fixtures.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
257
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = kWh DEEMED * (HOURS MULTIFAMILY / HOURS COMMERCIAL )
Where:
=
kWh DEEMED
Annual commercial deemed electricity savings
HOURS MULTIFAMILY =
Annual multifamily deemed lighting hours (= 3,730)2
HOURS COMMERCIAL =
Annual commercial deemed lighting hours (= 5,949.5; 16.3
hours/day * 365 days/year)1
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = Wattage / 1,000 * CF
Where: CF=0.77 1
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 15 years)3
Deemed Savings
Deemed Savings2
Measure
4-Foot, 2 Lamp, T5 Fixture
4-Foot, 2 Lamp, T8 Fixture
Annual Energy
Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand
Reduction (kW)
Lifecycle Energy
Savings (kWh)
179.0
276.0
0.0231
0.0355
2,685.0
4,140.0
Sources
5. ACES. Deemed Savings Desk Review. Multifamily applications for common areas. November 3,
2010.
Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Tables 4-185, 4-190, and 4-208,
Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
CA DEER EUL IDs "ILtg-Lfluor-CommArea" and "Linear Fluorescents - MF Common Area."
2005 DEER D03-852 Database.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
258
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/02/2013
New measure
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
259
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Ceramic Metal Halide Lamp, ≤ 25 Watts
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Ceramic Metal Halide Integral Ballast Lamps, ≤ 25 watts, 2238
Per lamp
Prescriptive
Lighting
High Intensity Discharge (HID)
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government,
Residential- multifamily
341
0.0443
0
3,751
0
0
1
11
3
$50.00
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
Measure Description
Integral ballast ceramic metal halide lamps are an energy-saving alternative to standard 70 watt to
100 watt incandescent lamps. These ceramic metal halide lamps can be applied in several common
applications without sacrificing any needed performance.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is 70 watt to 100 watt incandescent flood or spot lamps.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is ceramic metal halide lamps with integrated ballasts.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = kWh DEEMED * (HOURS MULTIFAMILY / HOURS COMMERCIAL )
Where:
kWh DEEMED
= Annual commercial deemed electricity savings
HOURS MULTIFAMILY
=
HOURS CCOMMERCIAL
Annual multifamily deemed lighting hours(=733.65)2
=
Annual commercial deemed lighting hours (=3,730) 2
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
260
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Summer Coincident Peak Savings
kW Demand = kW saved / HOURS * CF
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWhSAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 11 years)1
Deemed Savings
Annual deemed savings per CMH integral ballast lamp is 341.0 kWh and 0.0443 kW.
Lifecycle deemed savings per CMH integral ballast lamps is 682 kWh.
Assumptions
•
The 214 kWh and 0.0443 kW deemed savings is from: Focus on Energy Business Programs
Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 4-194 Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
•
The 3,730 annual operating hours is from: Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings
Manual V1.0. Table 4-185 Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
•
The 5,949.5 annual operating hours (16.3 hours/day * 365 days/year) is from: Focus on Energy
ACES Deemed Savings Desk Review. Multifamily applications for common areas. November 3,
2010.
Sources
1. Averaged between Cadmus 2013 database, DEER 2008, 2009 Focus study, and Fannie Mae
Estimated Useful Life Table: https://www.fanniemae.com/content/guide_form/4099f.pdf .
2. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Commercial Applications.
March 22, 2010.
3. Based on market knowledge, data gathered December 15, 2012.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
02
01/02/2013
03/11/2013
New measure
Revisions per comments
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
261
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Exterior/Parking LED Fixtures
Measure Details
LED Fixture, Replacing 150-175 Watt HID, Parking Garage:
24 Hour, 3100
Dusk to Dawn, 3101
Measure Master ID
LED Fixture, Replacing 250 Watt HID, Parking Garage:
24 Hour, 3103
Dusk to Dawn, 3104
LED Fixture, Replacing 70-100 Watt HID, Parking Garage:
24 Hour, 3109
Dusk to Dawn, 3110
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
LED Fixture, Replacing 320 Watt HID, Parking Garage, 3056
Per fixture
Prescriptive
Lighting
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government,
Residential- multifamily
Varies by measure
Varies by measure
0
Varies by measure
0
0
1
16= 3101, 3104, 3110 and 8= 3100, 3103, 3109, 3506
Varies by measure, see Appendix D
Measure Description
Parking garage and exterior LED fixtures are an energy-saving alternative to traditional standard wattage
HID light sources used for the same applications. LED light sources can be applied in almost every
common application type where HID light sources are currently found.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline is standard HID lamps between 70 watts and 400 watts.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
262
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Description of Efficient Condition
Replacements must be complete fixtures with a total power reduction of 40% or more. Lamp-only
replacements are not eligible for incentive. LEDs must be on the DLC qualifying list.2
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (Watts BASE – Watts EE ) * HOU / 1,000
Where:
Watts BASE
=
Annual electricity consumption of standard HID fixture (= see table
below)
Watts EE
=
Annual electricity consumption of efficient LED fixture2
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Hours-of-use ( = 4,380 for dusk to dawn/exterior; = 8,760 for 24 hours)
Baseline HID Lamps
Watts BASE
70-watt to 100-watt HID replacement
70-watt HID: 94 watts
100-watt HID: 129 watts
150-watt HID replacement
150-watt HID: 179 watts
175-watt HID replacement
175-watt HID: 210 watts
250-watt HID replacement
250-watt HID: 299 watts
320-watt HID replacement
320-watt HID: 368 watts
Baseline Wattage by HID Lamp Type
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (Watts BASE - Watts EE ) / 1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 0 for exterior lights; = 0 or 1 for garage lights)
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL =
Effective useful life (= 12 years)1
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
263
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Deemed Savings
Average Deemed Savings for Exterior LED Fixtures
Annual Savings Measure
Exterior LED replacing 320-watt HID
MMID
Annual kWh Savings
Lifecycle kWh Savings
3056
645
7,737
Average Annual Deemed Savings for Parking LED Fixtures
Measure (hours)
Parking LED replacing 70-watt to 100-watt (8,760)
Parking LED replacing 70-watt to 100-watt (4,380)
Parking LED replacing 150-watt to 175-watt (8,760)
Parking LED replacing 150-watt to 175-watt (4,380)
Parking LED replacing 250-watt (8,760)
Parking LED replacing 250-watt (4,380)
MMID
kWh
kW
3109
3110
3100
3101
3103
3104
391
195
682
341
1,048
524
0.045
0
0.078
0
0.120
0
Average Lifecycle Deemed Savings for Parking LED Fixtures
Measure (hours)
Parking LED replacing 70-watt to 100-watt (8,760)
Parking LED replacing 70-watt to 100-watt (4,380)
Parking LED replacing 150-watt to 175-watt (8,760)
Parking LED replacing 150-watt to 175-watt (4,380)
Parking LED replacing 250-watt (8,760)
Parking LED replacing 250-watt (4,380)
MMID
kWh
3109
3110
3100
3101
3103
3104
4,688
2,344
8,178
4,089
12,572
6,286
Assumptions
•
4,380 and 8,760 hours of annual operation were used for parking garage calculations
•
4,380 hours of annual operation were used for exterior lighting calculations, with dusk to dawn
operation. A load factor of 1.0 was used for both parking garage and exterior lighting
calculations.
•
It was assumed that LED lamps are capable of achieving a 40% reduction in power
requirements.2
Sources
1. Cadmus review of manufacturers’ measure life.
2. Design Lights Consortium. Qualified Parts List. Available online: http://www.designlights.org/.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
264
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
265
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
LED Fixture or PSMH/CMH, Replacing 1,000 Watt HID, Exterior
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
LED Fixture, Replacing 1,000 Watt HID, Exterior, 3407
PSMH/CMH, Replacing 1,000 Watt HID, Exterior, 3408
Per fixture
Prescriptive
Lighting
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government,
Residential- multifamily
Varies by measure
0
0
Varies by measure
0
0
1
1
MMID 3407=20 ; MMID 3408=15
2
2
MMID 3407=$1,214.33; MMID 3408=$50.83
Measure Description
LED pole-mount, wall-mount, and flood light luminaires save energy when replacing 1,000-watt HID
products by providing a similar lumen output with lower input wattage. These products can be installed
on a one-for-one basis to replace 1,000-watt HID luminaires.
CMH and PSMH 575-watt pole-mount, wall-mount, and flood light luminaires save energy when
replacing 1,000-watt HID products by providing a similar lumen output with lower input wattage. These
products can be installed on a one-for-one basis to replace 1,000-watt HID luminaires.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline measure is 1,000-watt metal halide, high-pressure sodium HID luminaires for existing
buildings and new construction buildings.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient measure is DLC-listed pole, wall, and flood luminaries and complete retrofit kits listed in
one of the following DLC categories: 1, 2, 3, 25, 26, 27, or 28, which consumes ≤ 650 watts and has an
initial lumen output of ≥ 35,000, 575 watt PSMH or CMH.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
266
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = kWh 1,000W HID - kWh LED
kWh SAVED = kWh 1,000W HID - kWh 575W PSMH or CMH
Where:
kWh 1,000W HID
=
Average annual electricity consumption of 1,000-watt metal
halide or high-pressure sodium luminaire
kWh LED
=
Annual electricity consumption of a DLC listed pole, wall, and
flood luminaries and complete retrofit kits listed in one of the
following DLC categories: 1, 2, 3, 25, 26, 27, and 28, which
consumes ≤ 650 watts and has an initial lumen output ≥ 35,000
kWh 575W PSMH or CMH =
Annual electricity consumption of a 575-watt PSMH or CMH
lamp and ballast system or complete luminaire
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = (kWh 1,000W HID -kWh LED ) * EUL
kWh LIFECYCLE = (kWh 1,000W HID -kWh 575W PSMH or CMH ) * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 20 years for LED fixture;1 = 15 years for
PSMH/CMH fixture)1
Deemed Savings
Average Deemed Savings for DLC Listed LED
Savings
MMID
Exterior
3407
1,841
20,252
Annual kWh
Lifecycle kWh
Average Deemed Savings for PSMH or CMH
Savings
Annual kWh
Lifecycle kWh
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
MMID
Exterior
3408
1,364
20,466
267
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Assumptions
An average of 50% metal halide 1,000-watt luminaires and 50% high-pressure sodium 1,000-watt
luminaires was used to generate the baseline wattage.
4,380 hours run time of fixtures based on an annual average of 12 hours per day from NOAA data.4 This
also includes the times when photocells turn on prior to exact sunset and turn off after exact sunrise,
accounting for diminished outdoor lighting as well as time clock scheduled lighting.
Applying a controls factor allows for a more conservative estimate of savings. Based on project
experience with 1,000-watt HID baselines, less than 30% of the exterior 1,000-watt HID fixtures on the
market have additional controls that may operate at conditions other than dusk to dawn.
Sources
1. Cadmus review of manufacturers’ measure life.
2.
All sources used for gathering pricing data are documented in a calculation workbook titled
1000w HID replacement calculation_FES_BIP_LEU_CSF_SBP_04.01.14.xls.
3. U.S. Department of Commerce National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration. “NOAA Solar
Calculator.” http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/grad/solcalc/.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
268
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
LED Fixture Replacing T8/T12 U-Tube Lamps
Measure Details
LED, 2x2, Replacing T12 2 Lamp U-Tube, SBP After A La Carte, 3238
LED, 2x2, Replacing T12 2 Lamp U-Tube, SBP A La Carte, 3323
LED, 2x2, Replacing T12 2 Lamp U-Tube, SBP Package, 3366
LED, 2x2, Replacing T8 2 Lamp U-Tube, 3239
Per fixture
Prescriptive
Lighting
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
Varies by sector
Varies by sector
0
Varies by sector
0
0
1
15
$100.00
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
Measure Description
LED-based troffer replacements save energy over fluorescent fixtures due to the increased number of
lumens per watt and increased light quality and distribution. There are varying wattage LED fixtures
used to replace 2-foot by 2-foot troffers, which normally have single or dual T8 or T12 U-tube lamps
installed. The LED fixture will replace fixtures with either dual (or greater) T12 U-tubes or dual (or
greater) T8 U-tubes per 2-foot by 2-foot fixture.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is a u-tube fixture, with wattages given in the following table.
U-Tube Fixture Wattages
Measure
LED, 2x2, Replacing T12 2 Lamp U-Tube, SBP After A La Carte
LED, 2x2, Replacing T12 2 Lamp U-Tube, SBP A La Carte
LED, 2x2, Replacing T12 2 Lamp U-Tube, SBP Package
LED, 2x2, Replacing T8 2 Lamp U-Tube
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
MMID
Wattage
3238
3323
3366
3239
82 watts
82 watts
82 watts
70 watts
269
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is DLC-listed, 2x2 LED troffers of 44 watts, luminaires for ambient lighting of
interior commercial spaces.4
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = kWh EX – kWh LED
Where:
kWh EX
=
Annual electricity consumption of existing T8 or T12 lamps and ballasts
kWh LED
=
Annual electricity consumption of LED 2x2 luminaire
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
First Year Savings
kW SAVED = (W EX - W LED ) / 1,000 * CF
Where:
W EX
=
Wattage of existing T8 or T12 lamps and ballasts
W LED
=
Wattage of the existing LED 2x2 luminaire
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
CF
=
Demand coincidence factor (= see table below)
Demand Coincidence Factor by Sector
Sector
CF3
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
0.77
0.77
0.67
0.64
Lifecycle Peak Savings
kW LIFECYCLE = {(W EX – W LED ) * (N) + (W EISA – W LED ) * (EUL - N)} / 1,000
Where:
N
=
Number of years until 2016 (= 1 in 2015)
W EISA
=
Wattage of EISA-compliant lamps and ballasts
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 15 years)1
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
270
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = (kWh SAVED * N) + (kWh EISA – kWh LED ) * (EUL - N)
Where:
kWh EISA
=
Annual electricity consumption of EISA compliant lamps and ballasts
Deemed Savings
Average Annual Deemed Savings
Measure
LED, 2x2, Replacing
T12 2 Lamp U-Tube,
SBP After A La Carte
LED, 2x2, Replacing
T12 2 Lamp U-Tube,
SBP A La Carte
LED, 2x2, Replacing
T12 2 Lamp U-Tube,
SBP Package
LED, 2x2, Replacing T8
2 Lamp U-Tube
Commercial
3,730 (0.77)
kWh
kW
Schools & Gov
3,239 (0.64)
kWh
kW
Industrial
4,745 (0.77)
kWh
kW
Agriculture
4,698 (0.67)
kWh
kW
3238
96.8
0.0200
84.0
0.0166
123.1
0.0200
121.9
0.0174
3323
96.8
0.0200
84.0
0.0166
123.1
0.0200
121.9
0.0174
3366
96.8
0.0200
84.0
0.0166
123.1
0.0200
121.9
0.0174
3239
140.0
0.0289
121.6
0.0240
178.1
0.0289
176.4
0.0252
MMID
Average Lifecycle Deemed Savings
Installation Year
Sector
2013
kWh
2014
kW
kWh
2015
kW
LED, 2x2, Replacing T12 2 Lamp U-Tube, SBP After A La Carte, 3238
Commercial
1,581.2
0.3264
1,537.9
0.3175
Schools & Govt.
1,373.0
0.2713
1,335.5
0.2639
Industrial
2,011.5
0.3264
1,956.4
0.3175
Agriculture
1,991.5
0.2840
1,937.0
0.2762
LED, 2x2, Replacing T12 2 Lamp U-Tube, SBP A La Carte, 3323
Commercial
1,581.2
0.3264
1,537.9
0.3175
Schools & Govt.
1,373.0
0.2713
1,335.5
0.2639
Industrial
2,011.5
0.3264
1,956.4
0.3175
Agriculture
1,991.5
0.2840
1,937.0
0.2762
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
2016 and Beyond
kWh
kW
kWh
kW
1,494.7
1,297.9
1,901.4
1,882.5
0.3085
0.2565
0.3085
0.2685
1,451.4
1,260.3
1,846.3
1,828.0
0.2996
0.2490
0.2996
0.2607
1,494.7
1,297.9
1,901.4
1,882.5
0.3085
0.2565
0.3085
0.2685
1,451.4
1,260.3
1,846.3
1,828.0
0.2996
0.2490
0.2996
0.2607
271
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Installation Year
Sector
2013
kWh
2014
kW
kWh
2015
kW
LED, 2x2, Replacing T12 2 Lamp U-Tube, SBP Package, 3366
Commercial
1,581.2
0.3264
1,537.9
0.3175
Schools & Govt.
1,373.0
0.2713
1,335.5
0.2639
Industrial
2,011.5
0.3264
1,956.4
0.3175
Agriculture
1,991.5
0.2840
1,937.0
0.2762
LED, 2x2, Replacing T8 2 Lamp U-Tube, 3239
Commercial
1,451.4
0.2996
1,451.4
0.2996
Schools & Govt.
1,260.3
0.2490
1,260.3
0.2490
Industrial
1,846.3
0.2996
1,846.3
0.2996
Agriculture
1,828.0
0.2607
1,828.0
0.2607
2016 and Beyond
kWh
kW
kWh
kW
1,494.7
1,297.9
1,901.4
1,882.5
0.3085
0.2565
0.3085
0.2685
1,451.4
1,260.3
1,846.3
1,828.0
0.2996
0.2490
0.2996
0.2607
1,451.4
1,260.3
1,846.3
1,828.0
0.2996
0.2490
0.2996
0.2607
1,451.4
1,260.3
1,846.3
1,828.0
0.2996
0.2490
0.2996
0.2607
Sources
1. Cadmus review of manufacturers’ measure life.
2. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 3.2 Lighting Hours of
Use in Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
3. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 3.2 Coincidence Factor
for Lighting in Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.T
4. The new measure condition assumes an average of the DLC listing as of June 21, 2013.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
07/2013
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
272
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
LED Fixture Replacing 2x4 Linear Fluorescent Fixture
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
LED, 2x4, Replacing T12 2 Lamp, 3232
LED, 2x4, Replacing T8 2 Lamp, SBP After A La Carte, 3235
Fixture
Prescriptive
Lighting
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
Varies by sector
Varies by sector
0
Varies by sector
0
0
1
15
$100.00
Measure Description
LED-based troffer replacements save energy over fluorescent fixtures due to the increased number of
lumens per watt and increased light quality and distribution. There are varying wattage LED fixtures
used to replace 2-foot by 4-foot troffers, which normally have two, three, or four T12 or T8 lamps with
ballast installed. The LED fixture will replace fixtures with either T12 or T8 lamps.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition measure and wattages are shown in the following table.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
273
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Baseline Wattages4
Measure
Wattage
T8 Linear Fluorescent Fixtures (EISA compliant)
2 Lamp T8
58 watts
3 Lamp T8
86 watts
4 Lamp T8
112 watts
T12 Linear Fluorescent Fixtures
2 Lamp T12
82 watts
3 Lamp T12
130 watts
4 Lamp T12
144 watts
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is DLC-listed, retrofit kits of 2x4 LED troffers of 50 watts, luminaires for ambient
lighting of interior commercial spaces.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = kWh EX – kWh LED
Where:
kWh EX
=
Annual electricity consumption of existing T8 or T12 lamps and ballasts
kWh LED
=
Annual electricity consumption of LED 2x4 luminaire
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
First Year Savings
kW SAVED = (W EX - W LED ) / 1,000 * CF
Where:
W EX
=
Wattage of existing T8 or T12 lamps and ballasts
W LED
=
Wattage of LED 2x4 luminaire
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
CF
=
Demand coincidence factor (= see table below)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
274
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Demand Coincidence Factor by Sector
Sector
CF3
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
0.77
0.77
0.67
0.64
Lifecycle Peak Savings
kW LIFECYCLE = {kWh SAVED * N + (W EISA – W LED ) * (EUL - N)} / 1,000
Where:
N
=
Number of years until 2016 (= 1 in 2015)
W EISA
=
Wattage of EISA compliant lamps and ballasts
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 15 years)1
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = (kWh SAVED * N) + (kWh EISA – kWh LED ) * (EUL - N)
Where:
kWh EISA
=
Annual electricity consumption of EISA compliant lamps and ballasts
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
275
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Deemed Savings
Average Annual Deemed Savings for LED Troffer Fixture
Replacement of 2-Foot by 4-Foot T8 and T12 Fixtures
Measure
LED 2x4 replacement
of 2 lamp T12
LED 2x4 replacement
of 3 lamp T12
LED 2x4 replacement
of 4 lamp T12
LED 2x4 replacement
of 2 lamp T8
LED 2x4 replacement
of 3 lamp T8
LED 2x4 replacement
of 4 lamp T8
MMID
Commercial
3,730 (0.77)
kWh
kW
Schools & Gov
3,239 (0.64)
kWh
kW
Industrial 4,745
(0.77)
kWh
kW
Agriculture
4,698 (0.67)
kWh
kW
3232
118.6
0.0245
103.0
0.0204
150.9
0.0245
149.4
0.0213
3232
297.7
0.0614
258.5
0.0511
378.7
0.0614
374.9
0.0535
3232
349.9
0.0722
303.8
0.0600
445.1
0.0722
440.7
0.0628
3235
29.1
0.0060
25.3
0.0050
37.0
0.0060
36.7
0.0052
3235
133.5
0.0276
116.0
0.0229
169.9
0.0276
168.2
0.0240
3235
230.5
0.0476
200.2
0.0396
293.3
0.0476
290.4
0.0414
Average Lifecycle Deemed Savings for LED Troffer Fixture
Replacement of 2-Foot by 4-Foot T8 and T12 Fixtures
Installation Year
Sector
2013
kWh
2014
kW
LED 2x4 replacement of 2 lamp T12, 3232
Commercial
705.2
0.1456
Schools & Govt.
612.4
0.1210
Industrial
897.1
0.1456
Agriculture
888.2
0.1267
LED 2x4 replacement of 3 lamp T12, 3232
Commercial
2,495.6
0.5152
Schools & Govt.
2,167.1
0.4282
Industrial
3,174.7
0.5152
Agriculture
3,143.2
0.4483
2015
2016 and Beyond
kWh
kW
kWh
kW
kWh
kW
615.7
534.6
783.2
775.4
0.1271
0.1056
0.1271
0.1106
526.1
456.9
669.3
662.7
0.1086
0.0903
0.1086
0.0945
436.6
379.1
555.4
549.9
0.0901
0.0749
0.0901
0.0784
2,331.5
2,024.6
2,965.9
2,936.5
0.4813
0.4000
0.4813
0.4188
2,167.3
1,882.0
2,757.1
2,729.8
0.4474
0.3719
0.4474
0.3893
2,003.2
1,739.5
2,548.3
2,523.1
0.4135
0.3437
0.4135
0.3598
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
276
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Installation Year
Sector
2013
kWh
2014
kW
LED 2x4 replacement of 4 lamp T12, 3232
Commercial
3,816.0
0.7878
Schools & Govt.
3,313.7
0.6548
Industrial
4,854.4
0.7878
Agriculture
4,806.3
0.6854
LED 2x4 replacement of 2 lamp T8, 3235
Commercial
436.6
0.0901
Schools & Govt.
379.1
0.0749
Industrial
555.4
0.0901
Agriculture
549.9
0.0784
LED 2x4 replacement of 3 lamp T8, 3225
Commercial
2,003.2
0.4135
Schools & Govt.
1,739.5
0.3437
Industrial
2,548.3
0.4135
Agriculture
2,523.1
0.3598
LED 2x4 replacement of 4 lamp T8, 3235
Commercial
3,457.9
0.7138
Schools & Govt.
3,002.7
0.5933
Industrial
4,398.9
0.7138
Agriculture
4,355.3
0.6211
2015
2016 and Beyond
kWh
kW
kWh
kW
kWh
kW
3,696.6
3,210.0
4,702.6
4,656.0
0.7631
0.6343
0.7631
0.6640
3,577.3
3,106.4
4,550.7
4,505.7
0.7385
0.6138
0.7385
0.6426
3,457.9
3,002.7
4,398.9
4,355.3
0.7138
0.5933
0.7138
0.6211
436.6
379.1
555.4
549.9
0.0901
0.0749
0.0901
0.0784
436.6
379.1
555.4
549.9
0.0901
0.0749
0.0901
0.0784
436.6
379.1
555.4
549.9
0.0901
0.0749
0.0901
0.0784
2,003.2
1,739.5
2,548.3
2,523.1
0.4135
0.3437
0.4135
0.3598
2,003.2
1,739.5
2,548.3
2,523.1
0.4135
0.3437
0.4135
0.3598
2,003.2
1,739.5
2,548.3
2,523.1
0.4135
0.3437
0.4135
0.3598
3,457.9
3,002.7
4,398.9
4,355.3
0.7138
0.5933
0.7138
0.6211
3,457.9
3,002.7
4,398.9
4,355.3
0.7138
0.5933
0.7138
0.6211
3,457.9
3,002.7
4,398.9
4,355.3
0.7138
0.5933
0.7138
0.6211
Sources
1. Cadmus review of manufacturers’ measure life.
2. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 3.2 Lighting Hours of
Use in Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
3. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 3.2 Coincidence
Factor for Lighting in Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
4. The new measure condition assumes an average of the DLC listing as of June 21, 2013.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
277
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
07/2013
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
278
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Bi-Level Controls for Interior, Exterior, and Parking Garages
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
LED Fixture, Bi-Level:
Stairwell and Passageway, 3097
Stairwell and Passageway, SBP A La Carte, 3596
Stairwell and Passageway, SBP After A La Carte, 3597
Lighting Controls, Bi-Level:
Exterior and Parking Garage Fixtures, Dusk to Dawn, 3251
Parking Garage Fixtures, 24 Hour, 3252
Per fixture
Prescriptive
Lighting
MMID 3097, 3596, 3597= Light Emitting Diode (LED)
MMIDs 3251, 3252 = Controls
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
Varies by sector
Varies by sector
0
Varies by sector
0
0
1
9
Varies by measure, see Appendix D
Measure Description
Numerous existing installations use LED, induction, fluorescent, CMH, and PSMH fixtures to light their
high-bay interiors, exteriors, and parking garages. These fixtures commonly operate in full light output
24 hours a day. Bi-level controls and replacement products use ultrasonic and PIR sensors to adjust the
light output to a safe but energy-conserving low light level when these spaces become unoccupied.
These products save energy by more efficiently lighting spaces based on occupancy.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is LED, induction, fluorescent, CMH, and PSMH fixture input wattages with no
lighting controls at building interiors, exteriors, and parking garages.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
279
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is individually controlled light fixtures that may include dimming, stepped
dimming, and/or hi-low ballast controls. Control must include a PIR and/or ultrasonic occupancy sensor
with a fail-safe feature (fails in “on” position in case of sensor failure). Fixtures must operate in lowstandby light level during vacancy and switch to full light output upon occupancy. The fixture cannot
exceed 50% of full wattage during unoccupied periods.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = kWh BASE - kWh EE
kWh BASE = Watts FIXTURES * HOU /1,000
kWh EE = Watts FIXTURES * HOU * 0.60/1,000
Where:
kWh BASE
=
Energy consumption of baseline equipment (standard non-controlled
fixture)
kWh EE
=
Energy consumption of efficient equipment (bi-level controlled fixture)
Watts FIXTURES = Input wattage of fixture(s) being controlled
HOU
=
Hours-of-use (= 8,760 for parking garages; = 4,380 for exterior; = see
table below for interior)
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
0.60
=
40% savings potential from bi-level controls
Interior Hours-of-Use by Sector
Sector
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
Hours-of-Use2
3,730
4,745
4,698
3,239
280
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = Watts FIXTURES /1,000 * SF * CF
Where:
SF
=
Savings factor (= 40%)
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 1 for parking; = 0 for exterior; = see table below
for interior)
Interior Coincidence Factor by Sector
Sector
CF2
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
0.77
0.77
0.67
0.64
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 9 years)1
Deemed Savings
Bi-Level Controls in Parking Garage
Savings per Fixture
kWh
kW
kWh LIFECYCLE
MMID
All Sectors
3252
1,135
0.1296
9,082
Bi-Level Controls in Exterior
Savings per Fixture
kWh
kW
kWh LIFECYCLE
MMIDs
All Sectors
3251 and 3343
568
0
4,541
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
281
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Bi-Level Controls in Interior
Savings per
Fixture
kWh
kW
kWh LIFECYCLE
MMIDs
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools &
Government
3097, 3596, 3597
(LED) and 3117
(fluorescent)
483
0.0998
3,867
615
0.0998
4,920
609
0.0868
4,871
420
0.0829
3,358
Assumptions
It is assumed that an exterior lamp is on for a nighttime average of 4,380 hours. 8,760 hours are assumed
for 24/7 parking garage. Savings for interior are based on the sector for interior high-bay applications.
While bi-level controls can achieve a 50% reduction in power requirements, a 40% reduction is used for
Focus on Energy programs as a conservative estimate. No kilowatt savings are assigned to exterior
lighting due to reduced hours-of-use for the same wattage.
Sources
1. Cadmus review of manufacturers’ measure life.
2.
PA Consulting Group Inc. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin. Focus on
Energy Business Programs: Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 3.2 Lighting Hours of Use in
Commercial Applications. Updated March 22, 2010.
3. The Program directs that wattagage must be reduced by a minimum of 50%, however 40% was
is applied to account for any other power factors or unforseen power consumption.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
282
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Delamping, T12 to T8, T8 to T8
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Delamping:
T12 to T8, 4-Foot, 2276
T8 to T8, 2277
T12 to T8, 8-Foot, 3184, 3320
Per lamp
Prescriptive
Lighting
MMIDs 2276 and 2277 = Delamping
MMID 3184 and 3320 = Fluorescent, Linear
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government,
Residential- multifamily
Varies by sector
Varies by sector
0
Varies by sector
0
0
1
TBA
Varies by measure, see Appendix D
Measure Description
This measure is the permanent removal of standard T12 and T8 lamps from two, three, and four lamp 4foot and 8-foot fixtures. Although the savings are not accounted for here, the measure requires:
•
Delamped fixtures must also include upgrading the remaining lamps to HPT8 or RWT8 lamps.
•
If a qualifying combination of lamps and ballast are installed, delamped fixtures can also qualify
for incentives for HPT8 or RWT8 systems based on the number of lamps in the delamped fixture.
If the existing fixture contains standard T8 ballasts, the ballast is not required to be replaced. Only the
lamps must be upgraded. In this case, the project would only qualify for a reduced watt lamp incentive if
reduced watt lamps are used. The project would not qualify for a system upgrade incentive.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is a weighted average of two, three, and four lamp T12 and T8 fixtures; see the
Assumptions section for weighting metrics.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
283
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is a weighted average of one, two, and three lamp low, normal, and high ballast
factor T8 fixtures with 32-watt lamps. See the Assumptions section for weighting metrics.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (Watts BASE – Watts EE ) / 1,000 * HOU
Where:
Watts BASE
=
Watts of baseline equipment (existing standard T12 and T8 fixture(s))
Watts EE
=
Power consumption of efficient measure (delamped T8 fixture(s))
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Hours-of-use (= see table below)
Hours-of-Use by Sector
Sector
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
Multifamily
HOU2
3,730
4,745
4,698
3,239
5,950
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (Watts BASE – Watts EE ) / 1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= see table below)
Coincidence Factor by Sector
Sector
CF2
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
Multifamily
0.77
0.77
0.67
0.64
0.77
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
284
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
Effective useful life (= 10 years)1
=
Deemed Savings
Average Annual Deemed Savings for Linear Fluorescent Delamping
Measure
MMID
Delamping T12 to
T8 (4-Foot)
Delamping T8 to
T8 (4-Foot)
Delamping T12 to
T8 (8-Foot)
Commercial
kWh
kW
Industrial
kWh
kW
Agriculture
kWh
kW
Schools & Gov
kWh
kW
Multifamily
kWh
kW
2276
192
0.040
244
0.040
242
0.035
167
0.033
306
0.040
2277
96
0.020
122
0.020
121
0.017
83
0.017
153
0.020
3184,
3320
357
0.074
454
0.074
450
0.064
310
0.061
N/A
N/A
Average Lifecycle Deemed Savings for Linear Fluorescent Delamping
Measure
MMID
Delamping T12 to T8 (4-Foot)
Delamping T8 to T8 (4-Foot)
2276
2277
3184,
3320
Delamping T12 to T8 (8-Foot)
Commercial
kWh
1,920
960
Industrial
kWh
2,440
1,220
Agriculture
kWh
2,420
1,210
3,570
4,540
4,500
Schools & Gov
kWh
1,670
830
Multifamily
kWh
3,060
1,530
3,100
N/A
Assumptions
Weighting of delamping quantities is based on historical program data.
The baseline condition is a weighted average of two, three, and four lamp T12 and T8 fixtures:
•
•
Delamping T12 to T8 (4-Foot)

2 Lamp (10%)

3 Lamp (30%)

T12 - 4 Lamp (60%)
Delamping T8 to T8

2 Lamp (10%)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
285
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
•

3 Lamp (30%)

T8 - 4 Lamp (60%)
Delamping T12 to T8 (8-Foot)

T12 - 2 Lamp (80%)

HOT12 - 2 Lamp (20%)
Efficient Condition:
•
•
•
Delamping T12 to T8 (4-Foot)

2 to 1 Lamp (10%)

3 to 1 Lamp (5%)

3 to 2 Lamp (25%)

4 to 2 Lamp (50%)

T8 - 4 to 3 Lamp (10%)
Delamping T8 to T8

2 to 1 Lamp (10%)

3 to 1 Lamp (5%)

3 to 2 Lamp (25%)

4 to 2 Lamp (50%)

T8 - 4 to 3 Lamp (10%)
Delamping T12 to T8 (8-Foot)

T8 – 2 Lamp (8-Foot) to 2 Lamp (4-Foot) (100%)
Sources
1. Early Replacement Calculator spreadsheet.
2. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 3.2 Lighting Hours of
Use in Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
3. ACES. Deemed Savings Desk Review. November 3, 2010.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
286
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
287
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Delamping Light Fixtures
Measure Details
Delamping:
200 - 399 Watt Fixture, 3001, 3321
≥ 400 Watt Fixture, 3002, 3322
Per fixture
Prescriptive
Lighting
Delamping
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
Varies by wattage and sector
Varies by wattage and sector
0
Varies by sector
0
0
1
TBA
$15.00
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Measure Description
This measure is to permanently remove existing high-wattage light fixtures from an existing ceiling. Delamping savings do not include replacements. Customers are responsible for deciding whether delamping will maintain adequate light levels.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline equipment is 250-watt and 450-watt metal halide light fixtures.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is permanent removal of unneeded light fixtures.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (Watts BASE – Watts EE ) / 1,000 * HOU
Where:
Watts BASE
=
Watts of high wattage baseline measure light fixture (= 299 for 200-watt
or 399-watt light fixture; = 463 for ≥ 400-watt light fixture)4
Watts EE
=
Watts of efficient measure (= 0)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
288
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Hours-of-use (= see table below)
Hours-of-Use by Sector
Sector
HOU2
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
3,730
4,745
4,698
3,239
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (Watts BASE – Watts EE ) / 1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= see table below)
Coincidence Factor by Sector
Sector
CF3
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
0.77
0.77
0.67
0.64
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 13 years)1
Deemed Savings
Deemed Savings for Delamping 200-Watt to 399-Watt Light Fixture
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
MMID
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools &
Government
3001 and 3321
1,115
0.2302
14,499
1,419
0.2302
18,444
1,405
0.2003
18,261
968
0.1914
12,590
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
289
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Deemed Savings for Delamping ≥ 400-Watt Light Fixture
MMID
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW) 3002 and 3322
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools &
Government
1,727
0.3565
22,451
2,197
0.3565
28,560
2,175
0.3102
28,277
1,500
0.2963
19,496
Sources
1. Early Replacement Calculator spreadsheet.
2. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission. Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0.
Table 3.2 Lighting Hours of Use in Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
3. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission. Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0.
Table 3.2 Coincidence Factor for Lighting in Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
4. Vermont Energy Investment Corporation. Ohio Technical Reference Manual. August 2010.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
290
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
T8 2-Foot Lamps Replacing T8 and T12 U-Tube Lamps
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
T8 2-Foot Lamps:
Replacing Single T12 U-Tube Lamp, 3240, 3325
Replacing Double T12 U-Tube Lamp, 3241, 3326
Replacing Single T8 U-Tube, 3242
Replacing Double T8 U-Tube, 3243
Per fixture
Prescriptive
Lighting
Fluorescent, Linear
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
Varies by measure
Varies by measure
0
Varies by measure
0
0
1
2
3240, 3241, 3242, 3243= 6 and 3325, 3326 =15
$40.00 for single U-lamp; $60.00 for double U-lamp
Measure Description
Reduced wattage 2-foot T8 lamps save energy by reducing the total input wattage of the luminaires
installed in a fixture. The 2-foot T8 lamps can be installed in varying amounts per fixture as necessary for
lighting configurations, with the most common being three lamps in a 2-foot by 2-foot fixture. This
measure replaces fixtures with either one or two U-tubes per 2-foot by 2-foot fixture.
Description of Baseline Condition
The wattage of the baseline equipment is shown in the table below.
U-Tube Fixture Wattages
Measure
U-tube T12 1 Lamp
U-tube T12 2 Lamp
U-tube T8 - 1 Lamp (EISA)
U-tube T8 - 2 Lamp (EISA)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
MMID
Wattage
3240, 3325
3241, 3326
3242
3243
48 watts
82 watts
35 watts
70 watts
291
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Description of Efficient Condition
The wattages for F17, 2-foot T8 lamps with a ballast factor of 0.82 are shown in the table below. The one
exception is a single lamp F17T8, which has a ballast factor of 0.88.
Efficient Fixture Wattages
Measure
Wattage
2-Foot 1 Lamp F17T8
2-Foot 2 Lamp F17T8
2-Foot 3 Lamp F17T8
2-Foot 4 Lamp F17T8
15 watts
28 watts
42 watts
56 watts
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = kWh U – kWh F17T8
Where:
kWh U
=
Annual electricity consumption of existing U-tube lamps and ballasts
kWh F17T8
=
Annual electricity consumption of F17T8 lamps and ballasts
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
First Year Savings
kW SAVED = (W U - W F17T8 ) / 1,000 * CF
Where:
WU
=
Wattage of existing U-tube lamps and ballasts
W F17T8
=
Existing wattage of F17T8 lamps and ballasts
1,000
=
Conversion
CF
=
Demand coincidence factor (= see table below)
Demand Coincidence Factor by Sector
Sector
CF3
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
0.77
0.77
0.67
0.64
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
292
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Subsequent Year Savings
kW SAVED = {(W U – W F17T8 ) * N + (W UEISA – W F17T8 ) * (EUL - N)} / 1,000
Where:
N
=
Number of years until 2016 (=1 in 2015)
W UEISA
=
Existing wattage of EISA-compliant U-tube lamps and ballasts
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 6 years)1
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = (kWh U – kWh F17T8 ) * N + (kWh UEISA – kWh F17T8 ) * (EUL - N)
Where:
kWh UEISA
=
Annual electricity consumption of EISA-compliant U-tube lamps and
ballasts
Deemed Savings
Average Annual Deemed Savings
Measure
F17T8, 2-Foot Lamps
Replacing Single T12 UTube Lamps
F17T8, 2-Foot Lamps
Replacing Double T12 UTube Lamps
F17T8, 2-Foot Lamps
Replacing Single T8 UTube Lamps
F17T8, 2-Foot Lamps
Replacing Double T8 UTube Lamps
Commercial
3,730 (0.77)
kWh
kW
Schools & Gov
3,239 (0.64)
kWh
kW
Industrial
4,745 (0.77)
kWh
kW
Agriculture
4,698 (0.67)
kWh
kW
3240,
3325
90.8
0.0187
78.8
0.0156
115.5
0.0187
114.3
0.0163
3241,
3326
149.2
0.0308
129.6
0.0256
189.8
0.0308
187.9
0.0268
3242
43.0
0.0089
37.4
0.0074
54.7
0.0089
54.2
0.0077
3243
105.9
0.0219
92.0
0.0182
134.8
0.0219
133.4
0.0190
MMID
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
293
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Average Lifecycle Deemed kWh Savings
MMID
3240
3241
3242
3243
3325
3326
Commercial
3,730 (0.77)
kWh
544.8
895.2
258
635.4
1362
2238
Schools & Gov 3,239
(0.64)
kWh
472.8
777.6
224.4
552
1182
1944
Industrial 4,745 (0.77)
kWh
693
1138.8
328.2
808.8
1732.5
2847
Agriculture
4,698 (0.67)
kWh
685.8
1127.4
325.2
800.4
1714.5
2818.5
Assumptions
The replacement of single U-tube fixtures uses an average of 1/3 single F17T8 replacements and 2/3
double F17T8 fixtures to generate the new measure wattage.
The replacement of double U-tube fixtures uses an average of 25% 4-Lamp F17T8, 50% 3-Lamp F17T8,
and 25% 2-Lamp F17T8 fixture replacements to generate the new measure wattage.
Sources
1. Multiple Manufacturers Product Life Rating of ~ 24,000 hours.
2. DEER 2014 EUL Table. http://www.deeresources.com. Rated ballast life of 70,000 hours. Not
rated on bulb life as such EUL is capped at 15 years.
3. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 3.2 Coincidence Factor
for Lighting in Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
07/2013
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
294
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Exterior Lighting Optimization
Measure Details
Exterior Lighting Optimization:
CMH Lamp:
330 Watts, Replacing 400-Watt HID, 3206
205 Watts, Replacing 250-Watt HID, 3208
CMH Lamp With Controls:
330 Watts, Replacing 400-Watt HID, 3207
205 Watts, Replacing 250-Watt HID, 3209
CMH System:
210-220 Watts, Replacing 400-Watt HID, 3210
140-150 Watts, Replacing 250-Watt HID, 3212
90 Watts, Replacing 150-175 Watt HID, 3214
Measure Master ID
CMH System With Controls:
210-220 Watts, Replacing 400-Watt HID, 3211
140-150 Watts, Replacing 250-Watt HID, 3213
90 Watts, Replacing 150-175 Watt HID, 3215
LED:
≤ 200 Watts, Replacing 400-Watt HID, 3216
≤ 125 Watts, Replacing 250-Watt HID, 3218
≤ 60 Watts, Replacing 150-175 Watt HID, 3220
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
LED With Controls:
≤ 200 Watts, Replacing 400-Watt HID, 3217
≤ 125 Watts, Replacing 250-Watt HID, 3219
≤ 60 Watts, Replacing 150-175 Watt HID, 3221
Per lamp or fixture
Prescriptive
Lighting
High Intensity Discharge (HID)
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government, Residentialmultifamily
Varies by measure
0
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
295
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Measure Details
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
0
0
0
1
3206, 3207, 3208, 3209= 4
2
3210, 3211, 3212, 3215 = 13
3
3216, 3217, 3218, 3219, 3220, 3221 =20
4
$12.91 - $1,295.21
Measure Description
Exterior lighting optimization (ELO) offers three energy-efficient upgrade choices for replacing or
retrofitting qualifying exterior pole-mount and wall-mount fixtures. The ELO measures are structured to
supply annual savings and set measure cost information for end users.
Description of Baseline Condition
ELO measures target the replacement or retrofit of 150-watt to 175-watt, 250-watt, and 400-watt HID
systems that currently operate 4,380 hours per year. Fixtures must be exterior pole mount or wall
mount, where the head of the fixture is a minimum of 15-feet above finished grade. There must also be
a minimum of 10 pole heads and/or wall packs per location addressed.
Description of Efficient Condition
Facilities with existing 150-watt to 175-watt HIDs have the option to select from a 90-watt ceramic
metal halide lamp and ballast replacement or a new LED fixture of ≤ 60 input watts.
Facilities with existing 250-watt HIDs have the option to select from a simple 205-watt direct
replacement ceramic metal halide lamp, a 140-watt to 150-watt ceramic metal halide lamp and ballast
replacement, or a new LED fixture of ≤ 125 input watts.
Facilities with existing 400-watt HIDs have the option to select from a simple 330-watt direct
replacement ceramic metal halide lamp, a 200-watt to 220-watt ceramic metal halide lamp and ballast
replacement, or a new LED fixture of ≤ 200 input watts.
When applicable, twistlock fixture-mounted controls with integrated timers will also be an option for
each ELO replacement/retrofit conducted.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
296
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = kWh HID – kWh ELO
Where:
KWh HID
=
Annual electricity consumption of standard 150-watt, 175-watt, 250watt, or 400-watt HID
KWh ELO
=
Annual electricity consumption of ELO measure
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
There are no peak savings for this measure.
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= varies by measure; see tables in Deemed Savings
section)
For systems with controls:
kWh LIFECYCLE = (kWh SAVED * EUL) + ((kWh SAVED – kWh SAVED W/CONTROLS ) * (EUL CONTROLS ))
Where:
KWh SAVED W/CONTROLS
= Annual electricity consumption of ELO measure with additional
controls hours reduction
EUL CONTROLS
Effective useful life of lighting controls (= 8 years)3
=
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
297
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Deemed Savings
Lamp Replacement Options (from existing metal halide only)*
400-Watt HID Replacements
330-Watt CMH
Lamp
250-Watt HID Replacements
330-Watt CMH
Lamp w/ Controls
250-Watt CMH
Lamp
250-Watt CMH
Lamp w/ Controls
263
4
1,052
613
4
3,852
Annual kWh Savings
351
905
2
EUL (years)
4
4
Lifecycle kWh Savings
1,404
5,836
* This table applies to the following measures:
ELO, CMH Lamp, 330 Watts, Replacing 400-Watt HID, 3206
ELO, CMH Lamp With Controls, 330 Watts, Replacing 400-Watt HID, 3207
ELO, CMH Lamp, 205 Watts, Replacing 250-Watt HID, 3208
ELO, CMH Lamp With Controls, 205 Watts, Replacing 250-Watt HID, 3209
Lamp and Ballast Replacement Options*
400-Watt HID
Replacements
210 Watt
210 Watt
and 220
and 220
Watt CMH
Watt CMH
System w/
System
Controls
250-Watt HID
Replacements
90-Watt
CMH
System
150-Watt to 175-Watt HID
Replacements
90-Watt
CMH
System
Annual kWh
964
1,314
438
438
Savings
3
EUL (years)
13
13
13
13
Lifecycle kWh
12,532
15,332
5,694
5,694
Savings
* This table applies to the following measures:
ELO, CMH System, 210-220 Watts, Replacing 400-Watt HID, 3210
ELO, CMH System With Controls, 210-220 Watts, Replacing 400-Watt HID, 3211
ELO, CMH System, 140-150 Watts, Replacing 250-Watt HID, 3212
ELO, CMH System With Controls, 140-150 Watts, Replacing 250-Watt HID, 3213
ELO, CMH System, 90 Watts, Replacing 150-Watt to 175-Watt HID, 3214
ELO, CMH System With Controls, 90 Watts, Replacing 150-Watt to 175-Watt HID, 3215
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
90-Watt
CMH
System
90-Watt
CMH
System w/
Controls
438
584
13
13
5,694
6,862
298
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Fixture Replacement or Retrofit to LED Options*
400-Watt HID
Replacements
LED ≤ 200
LED ≤ 200
Watts w/
Watts
Controls
Annual kWh Savings
EUL (years)
4
250-Watt HID
Replacements
LED ≤ 125
LED ≤ 125
Watts w/
Watts
Controls
150-Watt 175-Watt HID
Replacements
LED ≤ 60
LED ≤ 60
Watts w/
Watts
Controls
1,358
1,577
920
1,051
701
759
20
20
20
20
20
20
14,020
15,100
Lifecycle kWh
27,160
31,540
18,400
21,020
Savings
* This table applies to the following measures:
ELO, LED ≤ 200 Watts, Replacing 400-Watt HID, 3216
ELO, LED ≤ 200 Watts With Controls, Replacing 400-Watt HID, 3217
ELO, LED ≤ 125 Watts, Replacing 250-Watt HID, 3218
ELO, LED ≤ 125 Watts With Controls, Replacing 250-Watt HID, 3219
ELO, LED ≤ 60 Watts, Replacing 150-Watt to 175-Watt HID, 3220
ELO, LED ≤ 60 Watts With Controls, Replacing 150-Watt to 175-Watt HID, 3221
Assumptions
The 4,380 hours of required minimum run time of fixtures was based on an annual average of 12 hours
per day from NOAA data.5 This includes when photocells turn on prior to exact sunset and turn off after
exact sunrise, accounting for diminished outdoor lighting as well as time clock scheduled lighting.
Options that include controls are required to be set to reduce the controlled fixture hours of operation
by a minimum of 4 hours per night. This results in a decrease from 4,380 annual run hours 2,920 annual
run hours.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
299
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Existing and Efficient Wattages by Measure
Measure Description*
MMIDs
Baseline
300-Watt CMH Lamp
(Replacing Metal Halide Only)
200-220 Watt CMH System
3206
400 Watt HID
3207
3210
400 Watt HID
3216
LED Option ≤ 200 Watts
400 Watt HID
3217
205-Watt CHM Lamp
3208
250 Watt HID
(Replacing Metal Halide Only)
3209
140-150 Watt CMH System
3212
250 Watt HID
3218
LED Option ≤ 125 Watts
250 Watt HID
3219
3214
90-Watt CMH System
150-175 Watt HID
3215
3220
LED Option ≤ 60 Watts
150-175 Watt HID
3221
* Same wattages apply when including controls upgrades.
Existing Wattage
Energy Efficient
Wattage
458
379.5
458
235
458
151
295
236
295
172
295
91
195
101
195
42
Sources
1. Cadmus review of manufacturers’ measure life.
2. PA Consulting Group Inc. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin Focus on
Energy Evaluation Business Programs: Measure Life Study. Final Report. August 25, 2009.
Available online:
https://focusonenergy.com/sites/default/files/bpmeasurelifestudyfinal_evaluationreport.pdf
3. Cadmus review of manufacturers’ measure life.
4. Installed Measure Cost Details.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
300
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Installed Measure Cost Table
Measure
Ceramic Metal Halide System Measures
210-Watt and 220-Watt CMH System
210-Watt and 220-Watt CMH System w/ Controls
140-Watt and 150-Watt CMH System
140-Watt and 150-Watt CMH System w/ Controls
90-Watt CMH System
90-Watt CMH System w/ Controls
Ceramic Metal Halide Lamp Measures
330-Watt CMH Lamp
330-Watt CMH Lamp w/ Controls
205-Watt CMH Lamp
205-Watt CMH Lamp w/ Controls
LED Fixture of Retrofit Measures
LED ≤ 200 Watts
LED ≤ 200 Watts w/ Controls
LED ≤ 125 Watts
LED ≤ 125 Watts w/ Controls
LED ≤ 60 Watts
LED ≤ 60 Watts w/ Controls
MMID
Cost
3210
3211
3212
3213
3214
3215
$354.00
$448.00
$279.00
$373.00
$214.00
$305.00
3206
3207
3208
3209
$106.00
$197.00
$97.00
$188.00
3216
3217
3218
3219
3220
3221
$1,466.00
$1,565.00
$878.00
$977.00
$421.00
$520.00
All labor cost data for ceramic metal halide direct replacement reduced wattage lamps and ceramic
metal halide lamp and ballast systems was based on data gathered from installation contractors from all
four geographical quadrants of the Wisconsin Focus on Energy program territory. Out of 40 installation
parties, we contacted 12respondents who completed the questionnaire in time to be included.
Material costs, including standard industry mark-ups for distribution, were collected from all known
manufacturers of ceramic metal halide equipment that meets the ELO performance criteria. Internet
pricing data was used for LED materials, some HID ballasts, lamp sockets, controls sockets, and
photocell/timer controls.
Material Specification Data was collected from the following manufacturers and distributors websites:
http://www.venturelighting.com/; http://www.eyelighting.com/;
http://www.ripleylightingcontrols.com; http://www.precisionmulticontrols.com;
http://www.usa.lighting.philips.com/; and https://www.sylvania.com.
5. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration. Solar Calculator.
Available online: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/grad/solcalc/
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
301
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
02
08/01/2013
08/21/2013
Initial TRM entry
Expanded entry to include wall-mounted HIDs
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
302
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
HID, Reduced Wattage, Replacing HID, Interior, Exterior, Parking Garage
Measure Details
HID, Reduced Wattage:
Interior:
Replacing 1,000 Watt HID, 3067
Replacing 175 Watt HID, 3068
Replacing 250 Watt HID, 3070
Replacing 320 Watt HID, 3072
Replacing 400 Watt HID, 3073
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Exterior:
Replacing 1,000 Watt HID, 3036
Replacing 400 Watt HID, 3037
Replacing 320 Watt HID, 3038
Replacing 250 Watt HID, 3039
Replacing 175 Watt HID, 3040
Parking Garage:
Replacing 175 Watt HID, 3069
Replacing 250 Watt HID, 3071
Per lamp
Prescriptive
Lighting
High Intensity Discharge (HID)
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government,
Residential- multifamily (exterior measures only)
Varies by baseline and sector
Varies by baseline and sector
0
Varies by sector
0
0
1
4
Varies by measure, see Appendix D
Measure Description
RW HID direct replacement lamps save energy by reducing the total input wattage of the luminaire as
compared to the same luminaire operating with standard wattage HID lamps. This measure can be
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
303
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
applied in spaces where standard wattage HID lamps are being used. These RW HID products have a
similar or equivalent lumen output to the lamps that they replace, which allows them to be installed
anywhere that standard wattage HID lamps are found.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline is standard 175-watt, 250-watt, 320-watt, 400-watt, and 1,000-watt HID lamps.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is 145-watt, 150-watt, 205-watt, 220-watt, 260-watt, 330-watt, 360-watt, and
860-watt RW HID lamps.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (Watts BASE - Watts EE )/ 1,000 * HOU
Where:
Watts BASE
=
Wattage of baseline standard HID lamp (= see table below)
Watts EE
=
Wattage of efficient RW direct replacement HID lamp (= see table
below)
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Hours-of-use (= 4,380 for exterior; = 8,760 for parking garages; = see
table below for interior)
Wattages for Deemed Savings Calculations
Measure
Exterior RW HID Lamp 1,000-Watt Replacement
Interior HID Lamp 1,000-Watt Replacement
Exterior RW HID Lamp 400-Watt Replacement
Interior HID Lamp 400-Watt Replacement
Exterior RW HID Lamp 320-Watt Replacement
Interior HID Lamp 320-Watt Replacement
Exterior RW HID Lamp 250-Watt Replacement
PG HID Lamp 250-Watt Replacement
Interior HID Lamp 250-Watt Replacement
Exterior RW HID Lamp 175-Watt Replacement
PG HID Lamp 175-Watt Replacement
Interior HID Lamp 175-Watt Replacement
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
Watts BASE
Watts EE
1,079
1,079
455
455
356
356
293
293
293
210
210
210
928.8
928.8
396.75
396.75
299
299
250.75
250.75
250.75
177
177
177
304
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Interior Hours-of-Use by Sector
Sector
HOU2
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
3,730
4,745
4,698
3,239
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (Watts BASE – Watts EE ) / 1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 0.00 for exterior; = 1.0 for parking garages; = see
table below for interior)
Interior Coincidence Factor by Sector
Sector
CF2
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
0.77
0.77
0.67
0.64
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 4 years)1
Deemed Savings
Average Annual Deemed Savings for Reduced Wattage HID Direct Replacement Lamps
Measure
HID, Reduced Wattage Replacing
1,000-Watt HID, Exterior
HID, Reduced Wattage Replacing
1,000-Watt HID, Interior
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Gov
kWh
kW
kWh
kW
kWh
kW
kWh
kW
3036
658
0
658
0
658
0
658
0
3067
560 0.1157 713 0.1157 706 0.1006 486
MMID
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
0.0961
ResMultifamily
kWh kW
658
0
N/A
305
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Measure
HID, Reduced Wattage, Replacing
400-Watt HID, Exterior
HID reduced Wattage, Replacing
400-Watt HID, Interior
HID, Reduced Wattage, Replacing
Lamp 320-Watt HID, Exterior
HID, Reduced Wattage, Replacing
Lamp 320-Watt HID, Interior
HID, Reduced Wattage Replacing
250-Watt HID, Exterior
HID, Reduced Wattage Replacing
250-Watt HID, Parking Garage
HID, Reduced Wattage Replacing
250-Watt HID, Interior
HID, Reduced Wattage
Replacing175-Watt HID, Exterior
HID, Reduced Wattage
Replacing175-Watt HID, Parking
Garage
HID, Reduced Wattage Replacing
175-Watt HID, Interior
ResMultifamily
kWh kW
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Gov
kWh
kW
kWh
kW
kWh
kW
kWh
kW
3037
255
0
255
0
255
0
255
0
3073
217 0.0449 276 0.0449 274 0.0390 189
3038
250
3072
213 0.0439 270 0.0439 268 0.0382 185
3039
185
3071
370 0.0423 370 0.0423 370 0.0423 370
0.0423
N/A
3070
158 0.0325 200 0.0325 198 0.0283 137
0.0270
N/A
3040
145
3069
289 0.0330 289 0.0330 289 0.0330 289
0.0330
N/A
3068
123 0.0254 157 0.0254 155 0.0221 107
0.0211
N/A
MMID
0
0
0
250
185
145
0
0
0
250
185
145
0
250
0
185
0
145
0.0373
0
0.0365
0
0
255
0
N/A
250
0
N/A
185
0
145
0
Average Lifecycle Deemed Savings for Reduced Wattage HID Direct Replacement Lamps (kWh)
Measure
HID, Reduced Wattage Replacing 1,000Watt HID, Exterior
HID, Reduced Wattage Replacing 1,000Watt HID, Interior
HID, Reduced Wattage, Replacing 400Watt HID, Exterior
HID reduced Wattage, Replacing 400Watt HID, Interior
HID, Reduced Wattage, Replacing Lamp
320-Watt HID, Exterior
HID, Reduced Wattage, Replacing Lamp
MMID
Commercial Industrial
Agriculture
Schools
& Gov
ResMultifamily
3036
2,632
2,632
2,632
2,632
2,632
3067
2,241
2,851
2,823
1,946
N/A
3037
1,021
1,021
1,021
1,021
1,021
3073
869
1,106
1,095
755
N/A
3038
999
999
999
999
999
3072
850
1,082
1,071
738
N/A
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
306
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Measure
320-Watt HID, Interior
HID, Reduced Wattage Replacing 250Watt HID, Exterior
HID, Reduced Wattage Replacing 250Watt HID, Parking Garage
HID, Reduced Wattage Replacing 250Watt HID, Interior
HID, Reduced Wattage Replacing175Watt HID, Exterior
HID, Reduced Wattage Replacing175Watt HID, Parking Garage
HID, Reduced Wattage Replacing 175Watt HID, Interior
MMID
Commercial Industrial
Agriculture
Schools
& Gov
ResMultifamily
3039
740
740
740
740
740
3071
1,480
1,480
1,480
1,480
N/A
3070
630
802
794
547
N/A
3040
578
578
578
578
578
3069
1,156
1,156
1,156
1,156
N/A
3068
492
626
620
428
N/A
Assumptions
Same ballast factors were assumed for each replacement watt product (e.g., a 1.18 ballast factor was
used for 250-watt products and their replacements). The assumptions for exterior replacement lamps
are:
•
400-watt metal halide replacement: An average of 50% each of 360-watt RW and 330-watt RW
was used to generate the new measure wattage.
•
250-watt HID replacement: An average of 50% each of 220-watt RW and 205-watt RW was used
to generate the new measure wattage.
•
175-watt HID replacement: An average of 50% each of 150-watt RW and 145-watt RW was used
to generate the new measure wattage.
Sources
1. Cadmus review of manufacturers’ measure life. Multiple manufacturers’ product life rating (with
a minimum of 20,000 hours / 4,380 hours = 4.5 years, rounded down to 4 years to be
conservative).
2. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission. Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0.
March 22, 2010.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
307
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
308
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
LED Troffer, 2x4, Replacing 4-Foot, 3-4 Lamp T8 Troffer
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
LED Troffer, 2x4:
Replacing 4-Foot 3-4 Lamp T8 Troffer, SBP Package, 3348
Replacing 4-Foot 3-4 Lamp T8 Troffer, 3111
Replacing 4-Foot 3-4 Lamp T8 Troffer, SBP A La Carte, 3291
Per luminaire
Prescriptive
Lighting
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government,
Residential- multifamily
Varies by sector
Varies by sector
0
Varies by sector
0
0
1
3111= 15 and 3348 and 3291= 13
Varies by measure, see Appendix D
Measure Description
Using LED 2x4 troffers saves energy over 3-lamp or 4-lamp T8 products because they provide a similar
lumen output but with lower input wattage. These products can be installed on a one-for-one basis to
replace 3-lamp or 4-lamp T8 luminaires.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline measure is a four-foot 3-lamp or 4-lamp T8 troffer in an existing building or new
construction.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is LED fixtures that meet program requirements. Lamp-only replacements are not
eligible for an incentive. LEDs must be on the qualified DLC products list.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
309
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = [(Qty BASE * Watts BASE ) – (Qty EE * Watts EE )] / 1,000 * HOU
Where:
Qty BASE
=
Quantity of baseline equipment
Watts BASE
=
Wattage of 3- or 4-lamp T8 troffer luminaires (= 115.5)
Qty EE
=
Quantity of efficient condition
Watts EE
=
Wattage of DLC-listed 2x4 troffers that consume ≤ 55 watts and have
≥ 4,000 initial lumen output (= 49)
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Hours-of-use (= see table below)
Hours-of-Use by Sector
Sector
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
HOU2
3,730
4,745
4,698
3,239
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = [(Qty BASE * Watts BASE ) – (Qty EE * Watts EE )] / 1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= see table below)
Coincidence Factor by Sector
Sector
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
CF2
0.77
0.77
0.67
0.64
310
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
Effective useful life (3111= 15; 3348 and 3291= 13)1
=
Deemed Savings
Average Annual Deemed Savings for DLC-Listed 2x4 Troffers
Measure
LED Troffer, 2x4,
Replacing 4-Foot 3-4
Lamp T8 Troffer
MMID
3111,
3291,
3348
Commercial
kWh
kW
248
0.0512
Industrial
kWh
kW
316
0.0512
Agriculture
kWh
kW
312
Schools & Gov
kWh
kW
0.0446
215
0.0426
Average Lifecycle Deemed Savings for DLC-Listed 2x4 Troffers
Measure
LED Troffer, 2x4,
Replacing 4-Foot 3-4
Lamp T8 Troffer - SBP
LED Troffer, 2x4,
Replacing 4' 3-4 Lamp
T8 Troffer
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
kWh
kWh
kWh
Schools &
Gov
kWh
3291, 3348
3,224
4,108
4,056
2,795
3111
3,720
4,740
4,680
3,225
MMID
Assumptions
Baseline wattages were generated using 3-lamp troffers for 50% of the calculations and 4-lamp troffers
for the remaining 50%.
Sources
1. Cadmus review of manufacturers’ measure life.
2. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission. Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0.
Table 3.2 Lighting Hours of Use and Coincidence Factors by Sector. March 22, 2010.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
311
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
312
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
LED Fixture, ≤ 180 Watts, Replacing 4 Lamp T5 or 6 Lamp T8, High Bay, DLC
Listed
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
LED Fixture, ≤ 180 Watts, Replacing 4 Lamp T5 or 6 Lamp T8, High
Bay, DLC Listed, 3393
Per luminaire
Prescriptive
Lighting
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government,
Residential- multifamily
Varies by sector
Varies by sector
0
Varies by sector
0
0
1
16
2
$300.00
Measure Description
LED high bay fixtures save energy when replacing 4 lamp T5 or 6 lamp T8 high bay products by providing
a similar lumen output with lower input wattage. These products can be installed on a one-for-one basis
to replace 4 lamp T5 or 6 lamp T8 high bay luminaires.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is 4-foot 4 lamp T5HO, or 6 lamp T8 high/low bay fixtures for existing buildings
and new construction buildings. An average of 50% 4-foot 4 lamp T5HO and 50% 6 lamp T8 high/low bay
luminaires was used to generate the baseline wattage.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is DLC-listed LED high bay “High-Bay Luminaires for Commercial and Industrial
Buildings,” “High-Bay Aisle Luminaires,” or “Retrofit Kits for High-Bay Luminaires for Commercial and
Industrial Buildings” that consume ≤ 180 watts.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
313
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (Watts LF HIGHBAY - Watts LED ) /1,000 * HOU
Where:
Watts LF HIGHBAY =
Annual electricity consumption of 4-foot 4 lamp T5HO or 6 lamp T8
high/low bay luminaires (=228 Watts)5
Watts LED
=
Annual electricity consumption of DLC-listed high/low bay luminaire
or retrofit kit
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Hours-of-use (= see table below)
Hours-of-Use by Sector
Sector
HOU3
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
Multifamily
3,730
4,745
4,698
3,239
5,950
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (Watts LF HIGHBAY - Watts LED ) /1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= see table below)
Coincidence Factor by Sector
Sector
CF4
Commercial
Industrial
Schools & Government
Agriculture
Multifamily Common Area
0.77
0.77
0.64
0.67
0.77
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
314
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
Effective useful life (= 18 years)1
=
Deemed Savings
Average Annual Deemed Savings for DLC-Listed LED Highbay ≤ 180 Watts
Measure
LED Fixture, ≤ 180
Watts, Replacing 4
Lamp T5 or 6 Lamp T8,
High Bay, DLC Listed
MMID
3393
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
kWh
kW
kWh
kW
kWh
kW
334
0.0689
424
0.0689
420
0.0599
Schools &
Gov
kWh
kW
290
0.0572
Multifamily
kWh
kW
532
0.0689
Average Lifecycle Deemed Savings for DLC-Listed LED Highbay ≤ 180 Watts (kWh)
Measure
MMID
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools &
Gov
Multifamily
LED Fixture, ≤180
Watts, Replacing 4
Lamp T5 or 6 Lamp T8,
High Bay, DLC Listed
3393
6,006
7,640
7,564
5,215
9,580
Sources
1. Cadmus review of manufacturers’ measure life.
2. Market knowledge of accredited lighting experts, trade allies, and cost information gathered
from supplier listings. March 1, 2014.
3. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 3.2 Lighting Hours of
Use in Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
4. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 3.2 Coincidence Factor
for Lighting in Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
5. The wattage shown is an weighted average of 75% 6 lamp LF and 25% 4 lamp T5HO highbay
fixtures.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
315
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
316
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
LED Downlights Replacing CFL Downlight
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
LED Fixture, Downlights, ≤ 18 Watts Replacing 1 Lamp Pin-Based CFL
Downlight, 3394
LED Fixture, Downlights, ˃ 18 Watts Replacing 2 Lamp Pin-Based CFL
Downlight, 3395
Per fixture
Prescriptive
Lighting
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government,
Residential- multifamily
Varies by sector
Varies by sector
0
Varies by sector
0
0
1
Business = 11
Varies by measures, see Appendix D
Measure Description
LED downlights can be used to replace existing 1 and 2 lamp pin-based CFL downlights without
sacrificing performance. LED downlights save energy because they consume less wattage than the 1 and
2 lamp pin-based CFL downlights products they replace.
Description of Baseline Condition
Low Wattage Downlights
The baseline condition is pin-based CFL downlights containing 1 lamp of 26, 32, or 42 watts in existing
buildings and new construction or any 1 lamp pin-based CFL downlight between 26 watts and 45 watts.
An average of 33.3% each for 1 lamp 26-watt pin-based CFL downlights, 1 lamp 32-watt pin-based CFL
downlights, and 1 lamp 42-watt pin-based CFL downlights was used to generate the baseline usage.
High Wattage Downlights
The baseline condition is pin-based CFL downlights containing 2 lamps of 26, 32 or 42 watts each in
existing buildings and new construction or any 2 lamp pin-based CFL downlight with 26 watts to 45
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
317
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
watts. An average of 33.3% each for 2 lamp 26-watt pin-based CFL downlights, 2 lamp 32-watt pin-based
CFL downlights, and 2 lamp 42-watt pin-based CFL downlights was used to generate the baseline usage.
Description of Efficient Condition
Low Wattage Downlights
Efficient low-wattage downlights are ENERGY STAR-rated and/or Focus on Energy QPL-listed LED
downlights that consume ≤ 18 watts.
High Wattage Downlights
Efficient high-wattage downlights are ENERGY STAR-rated and/or Focus on Energy QPL-listed LED
downlights that consume > 18 watts.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (Watts PB CFL - Watts LED ) /1,000 * HOU
Where:
Watts PB CFL =
Wattage of 1 or 2 lamp pin-based CFL downlights with 26, 32, or 42 watt
lamps
Watts LED
=
Wattage of LED products
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Hours-of-use (= see table below)
Hours-of-Use by Sector
Sector
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
Multifamily
HOU2
3,730
4,745
4,698
3,239
4
5,950
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (W PB CFL - W LED ) /1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= see table below)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
318
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Coincidence Factor by Sector
CF3
Sector
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
Multifamily
0.77
0.77
0.67
0.64
0.77
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 10 years for business; = 6 years for multifamily)1
Deemed Savings
Average Annual Deemed Savings for LED Downlights Replacing 1 Lamp or 2 Lamp Pin-Based CFL
Measure
LED downlights that
consume ≤ 18 watts
replacing 1 lamp pinbased CFL
LED downlights that
consume > 18 watts
replacing 2 lamp pinbased CFL
MMID
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools &
Gov
kWh
kW
kWh
kW
kWh
kW
kWh
kW
3394
90
0.0187
115
0.0187
114
0.0162
78
3395
161
0.0332
204
0.0332
202
0.0289
140
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
Multifamily
kWh
kW
0.0155
144
0.0187
0.0276
256
0.0332
319
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Average Lifecycle Deemed Savings for LED Downlights
Replacing 1 Lamp or 2 Lamp Pin-Based CFL (kWh)
Measure
LED downlights that consume ≤
18 watts replacing 1 lamp pinbased CFL
LED downlights that consume >
18 watts replacing 2 lamp pinbased CFL
MMID
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools
& Gov
Multifamily
3394
904
1,150
1,138
785
865
3395
1,607
2,044
2,024
1,395
1,538
Sources
1. Cadmus review of manufacturers’ measure life.
2. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 3.2 Lighting Hours of
Use in Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
3. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 3.2 Coincidence Factor
for Lighting in Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
4. ACES. Focus on Energy Deemed Savings Desk Review Multifamily Applications for Common
Areas. November 3, 2010. (5949.5 annual operating hours based on 16.3 hours/day * 365
days/year)
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
320
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
LED Fixture, Downlights, ≤ 18 Watts, Replacing Incandescent Downlight,
Exterior
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
LED Fixture, Downlights, ≤ 18 Watts, Replacing Incandescent
Downlight, Exterior, 3405
Per fixture
Prescriptive
Lighting
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government,
Residential- multifamily
193
0
0
1,932
0
0
1
11
$66.29
Measure Description
LED downlight luminaires can replace existing incandescent luminaires without sacrificing performance.
LED downlights save energy because they consume less wattage than the incandescent luminaries they
replace. There is no demand reduction since this measure is used during evening and night lighting
hours.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline measure is 50 watt to 72 watt incandescent luminaires.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient measure is ENERGY STAR-rated LED downlights that consume ≤ 18 watts.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
321
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (Watts INC - Watts LED ) /1,000 * HOU * Con FACT
Where:
Watts INC
=
Wattage of standard incandescent fixture (= 62)
Watts LED
=
Wattage of LED product (= 13)
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Hours-of-use (= 4,380)
Con FACT
=
Control factor (= 0.90)
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (10 years)1
Assumptions
A weighted average of 16.66% each for 50 watt, 53 watt, 60 watt, 65 watt, 70 watt, and 72 watt
incandescent luminaires was used to generate the baseline wattage.
4,380 hours run time of fixtures based on an annual average of 12 hours per day from NOAA data.2 This
also includes the times when photocells turn on prior to exact sunset and turn off after exact sunrise,
accounting for diminished outdoor lighting as well as time clock scheduled lighting.
Applying a controls factor allows for a more conservative estimate of savings. Based on project
experience, less than 10% of the exterior fixtures on the market have additional controls that may
operate at conditions other than dusk to dawn.
Sources
1.
Cadmus review of manufacturers’ measure life.
2. U.S. Department of Commerce National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration.– “NOAA Solar
Calculator.” http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/grad/solcalc/.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
322
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
323
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Exterior LED Downlights Luminaires > 18 Watts
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
Exterior LED Downlights Luminaires > 18 Watts, 3404
Per fixture
Prescriptive
Lighting
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government,
Residential- multifamily
226.3
0
0
2,263
0
0
1
11
$84.98
Measure Description
LED downlight luminaires can replace existing incandescent luminaires used for the same application
without sacrificing performance. LED downlights save energy because they consume less wattage than
the incandescent luminaries they replace.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is 80-watt halogen and 50-watt to 100-watt HID luminaires.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is ENERGY STAR-rated LED downlights that consume less than 18 watts.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = kWh INC - kWh LED
kWh INC = Wattage INC / 1,000 * HOURS * CF
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
324
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
kWh LED = Wattage LED / 1,000 * HOURS * CF
Where:
kWh INC
=
Annual electricity consumption of standard wattage incandescent
fixtures
kWh LED
=
Annual electricity consumption of LED products
Wattage
=
Instantaneous electric consumption of lamp or fixture
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOURS
=
Average annual run hours (= 4,380)3
CF
=
Controls factor that accounts for the small percentage of systems in the
market with additional controls (= 0.9)
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
There are no peak savings for this measure.
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 11 years)1
Deemed Savings
Average Annual Deemed Savings for LED Downlights > 18 Watts
Measure
LED Downlights >18 watts
Exterior 4380 (0.00)
Savings (kWh)
Savings (kW)
226.3
0.0
Average Lifecycle Deemed Savings for LED Downlights > 18 Watts
Measure
LED Downlights >18 watts
Exterior 4380 (0.00)
Savings (kWh)
2,263
Assumptions
A weighted average of 25% each for 80-watt halogen, 50-watt HID, 70-watt HID, and 100-watt HID
luminaires was used to generate the baseline wattage.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
325
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
The 4,380 HOURS was based on an annual average of 12 hours per day from NOAA data.2 This includes
when photocells turn on prior to exact sunset and turn off after exact sunrise, accounting for diminished
outdoor lighting as well as time clock scheduled lighting.
Applying a controls factor allows for a more conservative savings estimate. Based on project experience,
less than 10% of the exterior fixtures on the market have additional controls that may operate at
conditions other than dusk to dawn.
Sources
1. Cadmus review of manufacturers’ measure life.
2. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration. NOAA Solar
Calculator. Available online: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/grad/solcalc/
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
04/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
326
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Exterior LED Fixtures Replacement
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
LED Fixture, Exterior:
Replacing 150-175 Watt HID, 3099, 3289
Replacing 250 Watt HID, 3102, 3301
Replacing 320 Watt HID, 3105
Replacing 320-400 Watt HID, 3106
Replacing 400 Watt HID, 3107, 3303
Replacing 70-100 Watt HID, 3108,3304
Per fixture
Prescriptive
Lighting
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government,
Residential- multifamily
Varies by wattage
0
0
Varies by wattage
0
0
1
20
Varies by measure, see Appendix D
Measure Description
Exterior LED fixtures are an energy-saving alternative to traditional standard wattage HID light sources
that have been used for the same applications. LED light sources can be applied in almost every common
application type where HID light sources are currently found. This measure is only for replacing existing
HID fixtures.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is existing HID lamps between 70 watts and 400 watts.2
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is LED fixtures that meet program requirements. Replacements must be complete
fixtures or a retrofit of interior components with a total power reduction of 40% or more. Lamp-only
replacements are not eligible for an incentive. LEDs must be on the qualifying DLC list.3
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
327
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (Watts BASE - Watts EE ) /1,000 * HOU
Where:
Watts BASE
=
Wattage of standard HID fixture
Watts EE
=
Wattage of LED fixture
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Hours-of-use (= 4,380)
Wattages Used for Deemed Savings Calculations
Measure
Exterior LED replacing 70-watt to 100-watt HID Average
Exterior LED replacing 150-watt to 175-watt HID Average
Exterior LED replacing 250-watt HID Average
Exterior LED replacing 320-watt HID
Exterior LED replacing 400-watt HID
Watts BASE 5
Watts EE 4
111.5
194.5
299.0
368.0
463.0
31
59
94
160
178
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 12 years)1
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
328
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Deemed Savings
Average Annual Deemed Savings for Exterior LED Fixtures
Measure
MMID
Exterior LED replacing 70-watt to 100-watt HID Average
Exterior LED replacing 150-watt to 175-watt HID Average
Exterior LED replacing 250-watt HID Average
Exterior LED replacing 320-watt HID
Exterior LED replacing 400-watt HID
3108, 3304
3099, 3289
3102, 3301
3105
3106, 3107, 3290, 3303
kWh
kW
344
594
870
859
1,215
0
0
0
0
0
Average Lifecycle Deemed Savings for Exterior LED Fixtures
Measure
MMID
Exterior LED replacing 70-watt to 100-watt HID Average
Exterior LED replacing 150-watt to 175-watt HID Average
Exterior LED replacing 250-watt HID Average
Exterior LED replacing 320-watt HID
Exterior LED replacing 400-watt HID
3108, 3304
3099, 3289
3102, 3301
3105
3106, 3107, 3290, 3303
kWh
4,131
7,127
10,438
10,312
14,575
Assumptions
Calculations are based on exterior lighting that operates 4,380 hours annually, 12 hours per day (dusk to
dawn).
LED lamps can achieve a 40% reduction in power requirements.
Sources
1. Cadmus review of manufacturers’ measure life.
2. Based on market research.
3. Design Lights Consortium. Qualified Products List.
4. Focus on Energy Default Wattage Guide 2013, Version 1.0.
5. Focus on Energy Default Wattage Guide 2013, Version 1.0.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
329
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
LED Replacing Incandescent, Exterior
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
LED Lamp, ENERGY STAR, Exterior:
Replacing Incandescent Lamp ≤ 40 Watts, 3402
Replacing Incandescent Lamp > 40 Watts, 3403
Per lamp
Prescriptive
Lighting
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government,
Residential- multifamily
Varies by baseline
0
0
Varies by baseline
0
0
1
7
2
$15.00
Measure Description
ENERGY STAR-rated LED replacement lamps save energy by reducing the total input wattage of the
luminaire as compared to the same luminaire operating with standard wattage incandescent lamps. This
measure provides an energy-efficient alternative to using incandescent lamps in several exterior
applications.
Description of Baseline Condition
Less than or equal to 40 watts
One baseline condition is for standard incandescent lamps. The baseline wattage is generated using an
average of 50% 25-watt incandescents and 50% 40-watt incandescents.
Greater than 40 watts
Another baseline condition is for standard and EISA compliant incandescent lamps of 53 watts, 60 watts,
65 watts, 70 watts, 72 watts, and 80 watts. The baseline wattage is generated using an average of
16.66% each of 53-watt incandescent, 60-watt incandescent and halogen, 65-watt incandescent, 70watt halogen, 72-watt halogen, and 80-watt halogen lamps.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
330
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient equipment must be an ENERGY STAR-rated LED lamp. The efficient wattage is generated
using an average of 33% each of 11.68 watt, 16.70 watt, and 17.81 watt ENERGY STAR-rated LEDs.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm3
kWh SAVED = (Watts INCANDESCENT - Watts EXT LED ) /1,000 * HOU
Where:
Watts INCANDESCENT = Wattage of standard incandescent lamps = 67 if > 40 watts; = 32.5 if
≤ 40 watts)
Watts EXT LED
=
Wattage of ENERGY STAR-rated LED lamp with a lumen output
rating equivalent to the lumen output of incandescent being
replaced (= 15.4)
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Hours-of-use (= 4,380)
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 7 years)1
Deemed Savings
Average Annual Deemed Savings for LED Lamp Replacing Incandescent
Measure
LED Lamp, ENERGY STAR, Replacing Incandescent Lamp ≤ 40 Watts, Exterior
LED Lamp, ENERGY STAR, Replacing Incandescent Lamp > 40 Watts, Exterior
MMID
kWh Saved
3402
3403
106
202
Average Lifecycle Deemed Savings for LED Lamp Replacing Incandescent
Measure
LED Lamp, ENERGY STAR, Replacing Incandescent Lamp ≤ 40 Watts, Exterior
LED Lamp, ENERGY STAR, Replacing Incandescent Lamp > 40 Watts, Exterior
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
MMID
kWh Saved
3402
3403
742
1,414
331
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Assumptions
4,380 hours run time of fixtures based on an annual average of 12 hours per day from NOAA data.3 This
also includes the times when photocells turn on prior to exact sunset and turn off after exact sunrise,
accounting for diminished outdoor lighting as well as time clock scheduled lighting.
Sources
1. Cadmus review of manufacturers’ measure life.
2. Market knowledge of accredited lighting experts, trade allies, and cost information gathered
from supplier listings. March 1, 2014.
3. U.S. Department of Commerce National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration. “NOAA Solar
Calculator.” http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/grad/solcalc/.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
332
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
LED Fixtures, High Bay
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
LED Fixture, High Bay
< 155 Watts, Replacing 250 Watt HID, 3091, 3285
< 250 Watts, Replacing 320-400 Watt HID, 3092
< 250 Watts, Replacing 400 Watt HID, 3093, 3287
< 365 Watts, Replacing 400 Watt HID, 3094, 3288
< 500 Watts, Replacing 1,000 Watt HID, 3095
< 800 Watts, Replacing 1,000 Watt HID, 3096
Per fixture
Prescriptive
Lighting
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
Varies by wattage and sector
Varies by wattage and sector
0
Varies by measure and sector
0
0
1
20
Varies by measure, see Appendix D
Measure Description
High bay LED fixtures are an energy-saving alternative to traditional standard wattage HID light sources
used for the same applications. LED light sources can be used in almost every common type of
application where HID light sources are currently found.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline is standard HID lamps that range from 250 watts to 1,000 watts.
Description of Efficient Condition
To meet program requirements, the LED replacements must be complete fixtures that result in a total
power reduction of 40% or more. The LEDs must also be on the qualifying DLC list. Lamp-only
replacements are not eligible for incentive.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
333
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = [(Qty BASE * Watts BASE ) – (Qty EE * Watts EE )]/1,000 * HOU
Where:
Qty BASE
=
Quantity of standard HID fixture
Watts BASE
=
Baseline consumption of standard HID fixture (= see table below)
Qty EE
=
Quantity of LED fixture
Watts EE
=
Efficient consumption of LED fixture (= see table below)
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Hours-of-use (= see table below)
Hours-of-Use by Sector
HOU2
Sector
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
3,730
4,745
4,698
3,239
Baseline and Efficient Lamp Consumption
Measure
LED Fixture, High Bay, < 155 Watts Replacing 250-Watt HID
LED Fixture, High Bay, < 250 Watts Replacing 400-Watt HID
LED Fixture, High Bay, < 250 Watts Replacing 320-Watt to 400-Watt HID
LED Fixture, High Bay, < 365 Watts Replacing 400-Watt HID
LED Fixture, High Bay, < 800 Watts Replacing 1,000-Watt HID
LED Fixture, High Bay, < 500 Watts Replacing 1,000-Watt HID
Watts BASE
Watts EE
293
455
356
455
1,079
1,079
119
169
169
296
690
500
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = [(Qty BASE * Watts BASE ) – (Qty EE * Watts EE )]/1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= see table below)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
334
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Coincidence Factor by Sector
CF2
Sector
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
0.77
0.77
0.67
0.64
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 18 years)1
Deemed Savings
Average Annual Deemed Savings for High Bay LED Fixtures
Measure
LED Fixture, High Bay, < 155 Watts
Replacing 250-Watt HID
LED Fixture, High Bay, < 250 Watts
Replacing 400-Watt HID
LED Fixture, High Bay, < 250 Watts
Replacing 320-Watt to 400-Watt
HID
Fixture, High Bay, < 365 Watts
Replacing 400-Watt HID
LED Fixture, High Bay, < 800 Watts
Replacing 1,000-Watt HID
LED Fixture, High Bay, < 500 Watts
Replacing 1,000-Watt HID
MMID
Commercial
kWh
kW
Industrial
kWh
kW
Agriculture
kWh
kW
Schools & Gov
kWh
kW
3091,
3285
649
0.1340
826
0.1340
817
0.1166
564
0.1114
3093
1,067
0.2202
1,357
0.2202
1,344
0.1916
926
0.1830
3092,
3287
698
0.1440
887
0.1440
879
0.1253
606
0.1197
3094,
3288
593
0.1224
754
0.1224
747
0.1065
515
0.1018
3096
1,451
0.2995
1,846
0.2995
1,828
0.2606
1,260
0.2490
3095
2,160
0.4458
2,747
0.4458
2,720
0.3879
1,875
0.3706
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
335
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Average Lifecycle Deemed Savings for High Bay LED Fixtures (kWh)
Measure
MMID
Commercial
LED Fixture, High Bay, < 155 Watts
3091, 3285
Replacing 250-Watt HID
LED Fixture, High Bay, < 250 Watts
3093
Replacing 400-Watt HID
LED Fixture, High Bay, < 250 Watts
3092, 3287
Replacing 320-Watt to 400-Watt HID
Fixture, High Bay, < 365 Watts
3094, 3288
Replacing 400-Watt HID
LED Fixture, High Bay, < 800 Watts
3096
Replacing 1,000-Watt HID
LED Fixture, High Bay, < 500 Watts
3095
Replacing 1,000-Watt HID
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools &
Gov
11,682
14,861
14,714
10,145
19,202
24,427
24,185
16,674
12,555
15,972
15,813
10,902
10,675
13,580
13,446
9,270
26,117
33,224
32,895
22,679
38,874
49,452
48,963
33,757
Assumptions
LED lamps are capable of achieving a 40% reduction in power requirements.
Sources
1. Cadmus review of manufacturers’ measure life.
2. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin. Focus on Energy Evaluation,
Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 3.2 Lighting Hours of Use and
Coincidence Factors by Sector. March 22, 2010.
3. Focus on Energy Default Wattage Guide. 2013. All values are based on metal halide fixtures,
except as otherwise noted.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
336
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
LED, Horizontal Case Lighting
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
LED, Horizontal Case Lighting, 3114, 3335
Per linear foot
Prescriptive
Lighting
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
55
0.0063
0
1,100
0
0
1
2
3114=20 3335=16
$86.00 per installation
Measure Description
This measure is horizontal LED case lighting replacing existing fluorescent case lighting in both freezers
and cooler applications. The measure incentives are based on the feet of lamp replaced.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline is a mix of fluorescent T8 lamps, T12 lamps, and HOT12 lamps in a multideck refrigerated or
freezer case. The deemed value of the existing fluorescent lamps is 10.93 watts per linear foot of lamp.
This estimate represents the assumed base case technology of F32 T8 fluorescent lamps with electronic
ballasts, F40 T12 fluorescent lamps with energy-saving magnetic ballasts, and F48 HOT12 fluorescent
lamps with energy-saving magnetic ballasts. A weighting of 60% for F32 T8 fixtures, 20% for F40 T12
fixtures, and 20% for F48 HOT12 fixtures was used based on industry market research. The deemed
wattage value was taken from specifications for a standard refrigeration multideck case.3,4
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient equipment is LED fixtures in a multideck refrigerated or freezer case. The deemed value for
the LED replacement lamp is 6.29 watts per linear foot of multideck case, based on DLC qualifying
products. The deemed wattage value was taken from specifications for a standard refrigeration
multideck case with LED lighting.3,4
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
337
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = [P E – P P + ((P E * F FH – P P * F LH )/COP COOLING )] * HOU
Where:
PE
=
Existing fluorescent lighting wattage per linear foot (= 0.01093 kW)
PP
=
Replacement LED lighting wattage per linear foot (= 0.00629 kW)
F FH
=
Fluorescent lighting to heat factor (= 79%)5
F LH
=
LED lighting to heat factor (= 80%)5
COP COOLING =
Coefficient of performance of refrigeration system (= 2.22)5
HOU
Hours-of-use (= 8,760)6
=
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = [P E – P P + ((P E * F FH – P P * F LH )/COP COOLING )] * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 1)
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (3114=201 3335=162)
Assumptions
The deemed value for the fluorescent lighting to heat factor is 79%, based on an analysis stating that
21% of the power to a fluorescent light is converted to light while the remainder (79%) is infrared
radiation or direct heat.5
The deemed value for the LED lighting to heat factor is 80%, as the midpoint based on an analysis stating
that 15-25% of the power to an LED light is converted to light, while the remainder (75-85%) is
converted directly to heat.6
The deemed value of the COP for a refrigeration system is 2.5 for coolers and 1.3 for freezers. The COP
was weighted 77% to coolers and 23% to freezers, for an overall value of 2.22.6
The deemed annual operating hours is 8,760, the number of hours in a year.6
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
338
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Sources
1. Cadmus review of manufacturers’ measure life, similar measures MMIDs 2456-2457.
2. DEER 2008 and Regional Technical Forum http://www.energy.ca.gov/deer/
and http://rtf.nwcouncil.org/
3. Arthur D. Little, Inc. Energy Savings Potential for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment – Final
Report. 1996.
4. Navigant Consulting, Inc. Energy Savings Potential and R&D Opportunities for Commercial
Refrigeration. 2009.
5. United States Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy. The
calculation assumes that 100% of the thermal energy produced by the lights is removed by the
refrigeration system.
6. PA Consulting Group Inc. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin, Focus on
Energy Evaluation Business Programs: Deemed Savings Manual v1.0. Updated March 22, 2010.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
339
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
LED, Direct Install
Measure Details
LED, Direct Install:
12 Watts, 3274, 3347
12 Watts, SBP A La Carte, 3631
> 12 Watts, 3577, 3578
> 12 Watts, SBP A La Carte, 3629
> 16 Watt, 3579, 3580
> 16 Watt, SBP A La Carte, 3630
Per LED
Prescriptive
Lighting
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
Varies by wattage and sector
Varies by wattage and sector
0
Varies by wattage and sector
0
0
1
7
Varies by measure, see Appendix D
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Measure Description
This measure is an ENERGY STAR-qualified LED screw-in bulb installed by a qualified Small Business
Program trade ally to replace an incandescent screw-in bulb. Assumptions are based on a direct
installation, not a time-of-sale purchase. Replacement involves a functioning bulb.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline equipment is assumed to be the EISA requirements (see table below).2
Baseline Wattage by Measure
Measure
LED, > 16 Watt, DI
LED, > 12 Watt, DI
LED, 12 Watt, DI
LED, 8 Watt, DI
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
Baseline Wattage
72
53
43
29
340
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient measure is a standard screw-based LED lamp. Based on experiences for the 2014 Small
Business Program, the following table shows the most common wattages installed.
Efficient Wattages by Measure
Measure
LED Wattage
LED, > 16 Watt, DI
LED, > 12 Watt, DI
LED, 12 Watt, DI
LED, 8 Watt, DI
18.0
12.5
10.5
8.0
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (Watts BASE – Watts EE )/1,000 * HOU
Where:
Watts BASE
=
Baseline wattage (= see table above)
Watts EE
=
Efficient wattage (= see table above)
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Hours-of-use (= see table below)
Hours-of-Use by Sector
Sector
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
HOU3
3,730
4,745
4,698
3,239
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (Watts BASE – Watts EE )/1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= see table below)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
341
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Coincidence Factor by Sector
CF3
Sector
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
0.77
0.77
0.67
0.64
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (=7 years)1
Deemed Savings
Annual Savings
Measure
LED, > 16 Watt
LED, > 12 Watt
LED, 12 Watt
LED, 8 Watt
MMID
3580, 3630
3577, 3578, 3629
3274, 3347, 3631
3273
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
kWh
kW
kWh
kW
kWh
kW
201
151
121
78
0.0416
0.0312
0.0250
0.0162
256
192
154
100
0.0416
0.0312
0.0250
0.0162
254
190
153
99
0.0362
0.0271
0.0218
0.0141
Schools &
Government
kWh
kW
175
131
105
68
0.0346
0.0259
0.0208
0.0134
Lifecycle Savings
MMID
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
LED, > 16 Watt
3580, 3630
1,407
1,792
1,778
Schools &
Government
1,225
LED, > 12 Watt
3577, 3578, 3629
1,057
1,344
1,330
917
LED, 12 Watt
3274, 3347, 3631
847
1,078
1,071
735
LED, <=8 Watt
3273
546
700
693
476
Measure
Sources
1. Cadmus review of manufacturers’ measure life.
2. Focus on Energy. Approach to Accounting for Changes in Lighting Baseline. May 2013.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
342
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
3. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 3.2 Lighting Hours of
Use in Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
4. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 3.2 Coincidence
Factor for Lighting in Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
343
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
LED Exit Signs
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
LED Exit Sign, Retrofit, 2768
Per sign
Prescriptive
Lighting
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government,
Residential- multifamily
Varies by baseline
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Varies by baseline
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
0
Varies by baseline
0
0
4
8 MESP, 16 Small Business
$91.61
Measure Description
Exit signs that have earned the ENERGY STAR label use 5 watts or less, compared to standard signs that
use up to 40 watts. Savings result from replacing incandescent or fluorescent exit signs with LED exit
signs, which use significantly less electricity. The savings estimate assumes that both incandescent and
fluorescent exit signs undergo early replacement rather than replacement at failure.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is an incandescent (40 watt) or CFL (16 watt) exit sign with one or two bulbs.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is an LED exit sign. The fixture must meet ENERGY STAR v2.0 specifications.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (Watts BASE – Watts EE ) / 1,000 * HOU
Where:
Watts BASE
=
Wattage of baseline measure (= 16 for CFL exit sign; = 40 for
incandescent exit sign)2
Watts EE
=
Wattage of LED exit sign (= 2.9)1
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
344
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Hours-of-use (= 8,760)3
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (Watts BASE – Watts EE )/1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 1)3
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 8 years MESP; = 16 years small business)4
Deemed Savings
The default assumption is generated using 50% CFL replacements and 50% incandescent replacements.
Deemed Savings for LED Exit Signs
Type of Savings
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh) - MESP
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh) – Small Business
MMID
2768
Baseline Measure Type
CFL
Incandescent
Default
115
0.013
918
1,836
325
0.037
2,600
5,200
220
0.025
1,759
3,518
Sources
1. ENERGY STAR. “Exit Signs.” ENERGY STAR Savings
Calculator. http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=exit_signs.pr_exit_signs.
2. ENERGY STAR. “Save Energy, Money and Prevent Pollution with Light-Emitting Diode Exit
Signs.” http://www.energystar.gov/ia/business/small_business/led_exitsigns_techsheet.pdf.
3. Mid-Atlantic Technical Reference Manual, Version 3. March 2013.
4. PA Consulting Group Inc. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin Focus on
Energy Evaluation Business Programs: Measure Life Study. Final Report. August 25, 2009.
Available
online: https://focusonenergy.com/sites/default/files/bpmeasurelifestudyfinal_evaluationrepor
t.pdf
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
345
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
346
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
LED Fixture, Downlights, Accent Lights, and Monopoint ≤ 18 Watts
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
LED Fixture, Downlights, Accent Lights, and Monopoint ≤ 18 Watts:
Common Area, 2984
In Unit, 3158
Per fixture
Prescriptive
Lighting
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government,
Residential- multifamily
Varies by location
Varies by location
0
Varies by location
0
0
1
2984=11 and 3158=20
MMID 2984 = $80.13; MMID 3158 = $88.38
Measure Description
LED downlights, accent lights, and monopoint fixtures can replace existing incandescent fixtures without
sacrificing performance, and save energy because they consume less wattage than the incandescent
products they replace.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline is a 60-watt to 100-watt incandescent fixture.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient equipment is a monopoint fixture that consumes ≤ 18 watts, an ENERGY STAR-rated LED
downlight that consumes ≤ 18 watts, and an ENERGY STAR-rated LED accent lights that consumes ≤ 18
watts.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
347
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (Watts BASE – Watts EE ) * HOU / 1,000
Where:
Watts BASE
=
Power consumption of baseline incandescent fixtures (see table below)
Watts EE
=
Power consumption of efficient LED products (see table below)
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Hours-of-use (= 5,950 in common area;2 = 829 in unit)6
Wattage by Location and Lumen Output
Location
Lumen Output
Typical Wattage
Watts BASE 3
Watts EFFICIENT 4
60
75
60
75
49
58
49
58
13
16
13
16
750-1,049
1,050-1,489
750-1,049
1,050-1,489
In Unit
Common Area
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (Watts BASE – Watts EE ) / 1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 0.77 in common area;5 = 0.11 in unit)7
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (MMIDS 2984=11 and 3158=20)1
Assumptions
The baseline for this measure is a combination of halogen and incandescent efficiencies for 2014. The
weighted average is based on estimated sales percentages: 0-309 lumens = 20%; 310-749 lumens = 30%;
750-1,049 lumens = 40%; 1,050-1,489 lumens = 10%.
Sources
1. Cadmus review of manufacturers’ measure life.
2.
ACES. Deemed Savings Desk Review. November 3, 2010.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
348
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
3. United States Environmental Protection Agency. “Next Generation Lighting Programs:
Opportunities to Advance Efficient Lighting for a Cleaner Environment.” EPA-430-R-11-115, pg.
27. October 2011. http://www.energystar.gov/lightingresources.
4. Predominant wattage in each category.
5. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 3.2 Coincidence Factor
for Lighting in Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
6.
Cadmus. Field Study Research: Residential Lighting. October 18, 2013. Conducted regarding CFL
and incandescent bulbs.
7.
Cadmus. Field Study Research: Residential Lighting. October 25, 2013. Conducted regarding CFL
and incandescent bulbs.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
349
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
LED Fixture, Downlights, ≤ 100 Watts, ≥ 4,000 Lumens, Exterior, Interior
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
LED Fixture, Downlights ≤ 100 Watts, ≥ 4,000 Lumens:
Interior, 3396
Exterior, 3397
Per fixture
Prescriptive
Lighting
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government,
Residential- multifamily
Varies by sector
0
0
Varies by sector
0
0
1
11
2
$60.00
LED Fixture, Downlights, ≥ 6,000 Lumens, Exterior, Interior
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
LED Fixture, Downlights ≥ 6,000 Lumens:
Interior, 3398
Exterior, 3399
Per fixture
Prescriptive
Lighting
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government,
Residential- multifamily
Varies by sector
0
0
Varies by sector
0
0
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
350
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Measure Details
1
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
11
2
$60.00
Measure Description
LED downlights can replace existing interior and exterior 150-watt to 250-watt HID fixtures without
sacrificing performance. LED downlights save energy because they consume less wattage than the HID
products they replace.
Description of Baseline Condition
An average of 50% each 150-watt and 175-watt HID fixtures was used to generate the baseline usage.
≥ 4,000 Lumen ≤ 100 Watt LED Downlights
The baseline measure is 150-watt to 175-watt HID fixtures for existing buildings and new construction.
100% 250-watt HID fixtures were used to generate the baseline usage.
≥ 6,000 Lumen LED Downlights
The baseline measure is 176-watt to 250-watt HID fixtures for existing buildings and new construction.
Description of Efficient Condition
Replacement of 150-175 Watt HID
The efficient measure is an ENERGY STAR-rated and/or Focus on Energy QPL-listed LED downlight that
produces ≥ 4,000 lumens and consumes ≤ 100 watts.
Replacement of 176-250 Watt HID
The efficient measure is an ENERGY STAR-rated and/or Focus on Energy QPL-listed LED downlight that
produces ≥ 6,000 lumens.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (Watts HID -Watts LED ) /1,000 * HOU * Con FACT
Where:
Watts HID
=
Wattage of standard HID fixtures
Watts LED
=
Wattage of LED products
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Hours-of-use (= 4,380 for exterior; = see table below for interior)
Con FACT
=
Control factor (= 0.90), exterior only
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
351
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Interior Hours-of-Use by Sector
HOU3
Sector
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
Multifamily
3,730
4,745
4,698
3,239
5,950
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (Watts HID - Watts LED ) /1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor, interior fixtures only (= see table below)
Interior Coincidence Factor by Sector
CF4
Sector
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
Multifamily
0.77
0.77
0.67
0.64
0.77
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (10 years)1
Deemed Savings
Average Annual Deemed Savings for Interior LED Downlights
≥ 4,000 Lumens and Consume ≤ 100 Watts
Measure
MMID
LED Fixture, Downlights
≤ 100 Watts, ≥ 4,000
Lumens, Interior
3396
Commercial
kWh
kW
Industrial
kWh
kW
Agriculture
kWh
kW
Schools & Gov
kWh
kW
Multifamily
kWh
kW
372
473
468
323
593
0.0767
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
0.0767
0.0668
0.0638
0.0767
352
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Average Lifecycle Deemed Savings for Interior LED Downlights
≥ 4,000 Lumens and Consume ≤ 100 Watts (kWh)
Measure
LED Fixture, Downlights ≤
100 Watts, ≥ 4,000
Lumens, Interior
MMID
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Gov
Multifamily
3396
3,717
4,729
4,682
3,228
5,930
Average Annual Deemed Savings for Exterior LED Downlights
≥ 4,000 Lumens and Consume ≤ 100 Watts
Measure
Exterior
kWh
kW
MMID
LED Fixture, Downlights ≤ 100 Watts, ≥ 4,000 Lumens, Exterior
3397
393
N/A
Average Lifecycle Deemed Savings for Exterior LED Downlights
≥ 4,000 Lumens and Consume ≤ 100 Watts (kWh)
Measure
LED Fixture, Downlights ≤ 100 Watts, ≥ 4,000 Lumens, Exterior
MMID
Exterior
3397
3,929
Average Annual Deemed Savings for Interior LED Downlights ≥ 6,000 Lumens
Measure
LED Fixture,
Downlights ≥ 6,000
Lumens, Interior
MMID
3398
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
kWh
kW
kWh
kW
kWh
kW
518
0.1069
658
0.1069
652
0.0930
Schools &
Gov
kWh
kW
kWh
kW
449
826
0.1069
0.0888
Multifamily
Average Lifecycle Deemed Savings for Interior LED Downlights ≥ 6,000 Lumens (kWh)
Measure
MMID
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools &
Gov
Multifamily
LED Fixture, Downlights ≥
6,000 Lumens, Interior
3398
5,176
6,585
6519
4,495
8,257
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
353
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Average Annual Deemed Savings for Exterior LED Downlights ≥ 6,000 Lumens
Measure
LED Fixture, Downlights ≥ 6,000 Lumens, Exterior
MMID
3399
Exterior
kWh
kW
547
N/A
Average Lifecycle Deemed Savings for Exterior LED Downlights ≥ 6,000 Lumens (kWh)
Measure
LED Fixture, Downlights ≥ 6,000 Lumens, Exterior
MMID
Exterior
3399
5,470
Assumptions
4,380 hours run time of exterior fixtures based on an annual average of 12 hours per day from NOAA
data.5 This also includes the times when photocells turn on prior to exact sunset and turn off after exact
sunrise, accounting for diminished outdoor lighting as well as time clock scheduled lighting.
Applying a controls factor allows for a more conservative estimate of savings. Based on project
experience, less than 10% of the exterior fixtures on the market have additional controls that may
operate at conditions other than dusk to dawn.
Sources
1. Cadmus review of manufacturers’ measure life.
2. Market knowledge of accredited lighting experts, trade allies, and cost information gathered
from supplier listings. March 1, 2014.
3. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 3.2 Lighting Hours of
Use in Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
4. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 3.2 Coincidence Factor
for Lighting in Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
5. U.S. Department of Commerce National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration.– “NOAA Solar
Calculator.” http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/grad/solcalc/.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
354
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
LED Fixture, Replacing HID, Exterior
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
LED Fixture, Exterior:
Replacing 70-100 Watt HID, 3108
Replacing 150-175 Watt HID, 3099
Replacing 250 Watt HID, 3102
Replacing 320 Watt HID, 3105
Replacing 400 Watt HID, 3107
Per fixture
Prescriptive
Lighting
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government,
Residential- multifamily
Varies by baseline
0
0
Varies by baseline
0
0
1
20
Varies by measure, see Appendix D
Measure Description
Exterior LED fixtures are an energy-saving alternative to traditional standard wattage HID light sources
that have been used for the same applications. LED light sources can be applied in almost every common
application type where HID light sources are currently found.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is standard HID lamps between 70 watts and 400 watts.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is LED fixtures that meet program requirements. Replacements must be complete
fixtures with a total power reduction of 40% or more. Lamp-only replacements are not eligible for an
incentive. LEDs must be on the qualifying DLC list.2
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
355
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (Watts BASE - Watts EE ) / 1,000 * HOU
Where:
Watts BASE
=
Wattage of standard HID fixture (= varies by measure)
Watts EE
=
Wattage of LED fixture (= varies by measure)
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Hours-of-use (= 4,380)
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 12 years)1
Deemed Savings
Average Deemed Savings for Exterior LED Fixtures
Measure
LED Fixture, Replacing 70-100 Watt HID Exterior
LED Fixture, Replacing 150-175 watt HID, Exterior
LED Fixture, Replacing 250 Watt HID, Exterior
LED Fixture, Replacing 320 Watt HID, Exterior
LED Fixture, Replacing 400 Watt HID, Exterior
MMID
Annual kWh
Savings
Lifecycle kWh
Savings
3108
3099
3102
3105
3107
317
534
808
820
1,123
3,804
6,408
9,696
9,840
13,476
Assumptions
Calculations are based on exterior lighting that operates 4,380 hours annually, dusk to dawn. LED lamps
can achieve a 40% reduction in power requirements.
Sources
1. Cadmus review of manufacturers’ measure life.
2. Design Lights Consortium. Qualified Parts List.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
356
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
LED 1-Foot by 4-Foot Replacing 2 Lamp Linear Fluorescent
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
LED, 1x4, Replacing T8 or T12, 2-Lamp, 3387,3388, 3389
Per fixture
Prescriptive
Lighting
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
Varies by sector
Varies by sector
0
Varies by sector
0
0
1
16
$110.00
Measure Description
LED-based fixture replacements or complete LED retrofits save energy over fluorescent fixtures by
increasing the number of lumens per watt and increasing the light quality and distribution. There are
varying wattage LED fixtures used to replace 1’x4’ dimension fixtures, which normally have two T12 or
T8 lamps with ballast installed. While not in the savings calculations, this measure can be used for
replacing specialty 1’x4’ fixtures that have three T12 or T8 lamps. The 1’x4’ LED fixture will replace a 2
lamp or greater T12 or T8 fixture.
LED fixtures are counted on a per-fixture basis. A partial retrofit of the fixture is not allowed, including
linear LED tubes and LED luminaires that adhere to the interior of the existing fixture housing.
Description of Baseline Condition
T8 Linear Fluorescent Fixtures (EISA compliant)
2 Lamp T8
58 watts
T12 Linear Fluorescent Fixtures
2 Lamp T12
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
82 watts
357
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
The baseline is a 2 lamp T8 fixture. 3 Lamp replacements are allowed, although not included in the
calculation because of the expected limited number applied in the field.
This measure does not include replacing 1 lamp T12 or T8 1-foot by 4-foot fixtures.
Description of Efficient Condition
The DLC provides a listing of qualified LED products. The efficient condition uses the listing for 1’x4’
Luminaires for Ambient Lighting of Interior Commercial Spaces. The new measure condition assumes an
average of the DLC listing on December 2, 2013.
Average of DLC Listing
1’x4’ LED troffer
36 watts
DLC-listed equipment in the following categories are not acceptable as replacements.
•
Four-Foot Linear Replacement Lamps
•
Two-Foot Linear Replacement Lamps
Replacing T8 or T12 fixtures use the DLC listing of 1’x4’ Luminaires for Ambient Lighting of Interior
Commercial Spaces. The new measure condition assumes an average of the DLC listing on December 2,
2013. The efficient condition wattage and hours of operation are an average of the listing on this date.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (Watts EX – Watts LED ) /1,000 * HOU
Where:
Watts EX
=
Wattage of existing T8 or T12 lamps and ballasts
Watts LED
=
Wattage of LED 1-foot by 4-foot luminaire
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Hours-of-use (= see table below)
Hours-of-Use by Sector
Sector
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
Multifamily
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
HOU1
3,730
4,745
4,698
3,239
5,950
358
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (Watts Ex - Watts LED ) / 1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= see table below)
Coincidence Factor by Sector
CF2
Sector
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
Multifamily
0.77
0.77
0.67
0.64
0.77
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 16 years)1
Deemed Savings
Average Annual Savings
Measure
kWh Savings
kW Savings
81
104
102
71
0.0168
0.0168
0.0146
0.0140
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
Average Lifecycle Savings
Measure
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
kWh Savings
1,296
1,664
1,632
1,136
359
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Assumptions
This measure does not include the replacement of 1-lamp T12 or T8 1’x4’ fixtures. This calculation is
used to account for the federal legislation stemming from EISA, which dictates the fluorescent fixture
efficiency in lumens per watt. Initiated on July 14, 2012, federal standards will require that practically all
linear fluorescents meet strict performance requirements that will essentially require all T12 users to
upgrade to high performance T8 and T5 lamps and electronic ballasts when purchasing new bulbs. The
effect is that first-year savings for T12 to T8 replacements can be assumed only for the remaining useful
life of T12 equipment, at which point customers have no choice but to install equipment meeting the
new standard.
Cost Assumptions: Cost is expected to be $10 less for materials than the 2’x4’ LED replacements based
on preliminary quotes from suppliers. Labor costs are the same as for 2’x4’ LED replacements. Labor is
estimated at approximately $40 for the troffer replacement and $20 for the troffer retrofit. The installed
cost was rounded to $150.00 ($110.00 materials + $40.00 labor or $130.00 material + $20.00 labor).This
price is expected to drop over time.
Sources
1. Cadmus review of manufacturers’ measure life.
2. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 3.2 Lighting Hours of
Use and Coincidence Factors by Sector. March 22, 2010.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
360
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
LED 8-Foot, Replacing T12 or T8, 1 or 2 Lamp
Measure Details
LED, 8-Foot, Replacing T12 or T8:
1 Lamp, 3425, 3426, 3427
2 Lamp, 3428, 3429, 3430
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
LED, 8-Foot, Replacing T12HO or T8HO:
1 Lamp, 3432, 3433
2 Lamp, 3435, 3436
LED, 4-Foot, 2 Lamp, < 20 Watts, Replacing 8-Foot, 1 Lamp T12 or T8,
SBP A La Carte, 3616
LED, 4-Foot, 4 Lamp, < 20 Watts, Replacing 8-Foot, 2 Lamp T12 or T8,
SBP A La Carte, 3617
Per fixture
Prescriptive
Lighting
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
Varies by sector
Varies by sector
0
Varies by sector
0
0
1
16
Varies by measure
Measure Description
This measure is replacing an 8-foot T12 or T8 linear fluorescent fixture with an 8-foot LED-based (or
equivalent) fixture. Energy savings result from the decrease in fixture wattage, and the increased lumens
per watt improves light quality and distribution. There are varying wattages LED fixtures used to replace
8-foot fixtures, and normally install one or two 8-foot T12 or T8 lamps with ballasts.
Four different measures will be used depending on the configuration of the existing fixture. These are
for 1 and 2 lamp standard output 8-foot T8 or T12 fixtures and 1 and 2 lamp high output T8 or T12
fixtures. A partial retrofit of a fixture does not qualify, which include linear LED tubes and LED luminaires
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
361
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
that adhere to the interior of the existing fixture housing. A retrofit that includes two fixtures combined
to create the equivalent of an 8-foot fixture (such as two 4-foot fixtures) is acceptable.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition wattage is outlined in the following table.
T8 Linear 8-Foot Fluorescent Fixture Baseline Conditions (EISA compliant)
Measure
8-foot 1 Lamp T8
8-foot 2 Lamp T8
8-foot 1 Lamp T8HO
8-foot 2 Lamp T8HO
4-Foot, 2 Lamp, < 20 Watts
4-Foot, 4 Lamp, < 20 Watts
Wattage
65
110
91
145
N/A
N/A
Replaced standard output 1 and 2 lamp fixtures are assumed to be 80% T12 and 20% T8. Replaced high
output 1 and 2 lamp fixtures are assumed to be 95% T12 and 5% T8. The Illinois TRM assumes that EISA
standards will become fully effective in 2016.
Description of Efficient Condition
DLC provides a listing of qualified LED products. The efficient condition uses an average from a filtered
listing of luminaires for Low-Bay Commercial and Industrial Building applications (V2.0) and similar
products from other reputable manufacturers. The new measure condition assumes an average of five
models on the DLC listing on December 10, 2013 and six models from two additional manufacturers that
are intending to be DLC listed. These models were included because of the low number of DLC-qualified
products at the time of this analysis.
Efficient Condition Wattage by Measure
Measure
8-foot LED Fixture Standard Output
8-foot LED Fixture Standard Output
8-foot LED Fixture 1 Lamp High Output
8-foot LED Fixture 2 Lamp High Output
4-Foot, 2 Lamp, < 20 Watts
4-Foot, 4 Lamp, < 20 Watts
Wattage
60
84
84
125
N/A
N/A
In order to guide the marketplace and ensure that future qualified products meet the intentions of this
work paper, the following maximum wattages for the efficient condition are allowable.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
362
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Maximum Wattages Allowable for Efficient Condition
Existing Fixture
Maximum Efficient Specification
8-foot LED Fixture Standard Output
8-foot LED Fixture Standard Output
8-foot LED Fixture 1 Lamp High Output
8-foot LED Fixture 2 Lamp High Output
4-Foot, 2 Lamp, < 20 Watts
4-Foot, 4 Lamp, < 20 Watts
70 watts
95 watts
95 watts
145 watts
N/A
N/A
Replaced standard output 1 and 2 lamp fixtures are assumed to be 80% T12 and 20% T8. Replaced high
output 1 and 2 lamp fixtures are assumed to be 95% T12 and 5% T8.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (Watts EX – Watts LED ) /1,000 * HOU
Where:
Watts EX
=
Wattage of existing T8 and T12 lamps and ballasts
Watts LED
=
Wattage of LED 8-foot luminaire
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Hours-of-use (= see table below)
Hours-of-Use by Sector
Sector
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
HOU1
3,730
4,745
4,698
3,239
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (Watts EX -Watts LED ) /1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= see table below)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
363
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Coincidence Factor by Sector
Sector
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
CF2
0.77
0.77
0.67
0.64
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 16 years)1
Assumptions
For MMIDs 3428-3435: Labor to install the fixture is estimated at approximately $20.00. The installed
cost is estimated as $480.00 ($460.00 materials + $20.00 labor), and is expected to drop over time.
The incremental cost was determined as the difference between the standard replacement of the
fixture ($110.00) and the energy-efficient fixture replacement ($480.00), for a total of $370.00.
Sources
1. Cadmus review of manufacturers’ measure life.
2. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 3.2 Coincidence Factor
for Lighting in Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
364
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
LED, Recessed Downlight, ENERGY STAR
Measure Details
LED, Recessed Downlight, Replacing CFL, ENERGY STAR:
Common Area, 3464
In Unit, 3463
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
LED, Recessed Downlight, Replacing Incandescent, ENERGY STAR:
Common Area, 3462
In Unit, 3461
Per fixture
Prescriptive
Lighting
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Residential- multifamily
Varies by measure and location
Varies by measure and location
0
Varies by measure and location
0
0
1
11
6
$46.00
Measure Description
This measure is for replacing incandescent or CFL downlights with qualified LED fixtures.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline is an incandescent (65 watt) or CFL (16 watt) downlight.3
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is replacing a complete luminaire unit. The downlight (12 watt)3 must be
ENERGY STAR rated and replace the trim, reflector, lens, heat sink, driver, and light source.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
365
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (Watts BASE – Watts EE ) / 1,000 * HOU
Where:
Watts BASE
=
Power consumption of baseline measure (= 65 watts if incandescent;
= 16 watts if CFL)3
Watts EE
=
Power consumption of efficient LED downlight (= 12 watts)3
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Hours-of-use (= 5,950 for multifamily common areas;4 = 829 for inresidence lighting)2
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (Watts BASE - Watts EE ) / 1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (=0.77 for multifamily common areas;5 = 0.11 for inresidence lighting)2
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 15 years)1
Deemed Savings
Baseline
Technology
Incandescent
CFL
Incandescent
CFL
Area Type
In Unit
Common Area
MMID
Watts BASE
Watts EFFICIENT
Annual
kWh SAVED
kW SAVED
Lifecycle
kWh SAVED
3461
3463
3462
3464
65
16
65
16
12
12
12
12
50
4
315
24
0.006
0.000
0.041
0.003
754
57
4730
357
Assumptions
Incremental cost assumed to be the same as MMID 2458.
Sources
1. Cadmus review of manufacturers’ measure life.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
366
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
2.
Cadmus. Field Study Research: Residential Lighting. October 18, 2013. (Report based on using
CFL bulbs to replace incandescent bulbs. LEDs will initially be treated the same as CFLs, pending
further research)
3. Mid-Atlantic TRM Version 3. March 2013.
4. ACES. Focus on Energy Deemed Savings Desk Review. Multifamily Applications for Common
Areas. November 3, 2010.
5. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 3.2 Coincidence Factor
for Lighting in Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
6. Assumed to be the same as MMID 2458.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
367
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
LED Replacement of 4-Foot T8 Lamps Using Existing Ballast
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
LED Replacement of 4-Foot T8 Lamps Using Existing Ballast, 3512
Per lamp
Prescriptive
Lighting
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government,
Residential- multifamily
Varies by sector
Varies by sector
0
Varies by sector
0
0
1
16
4
$30.00
Measure Description
Four-foot T8 LEDs are an energy-efficient alternative to standard 4-foot 32/28/25 watt T8 fluorescent
lamps found commonly throughout commercial, industrial, agriculture, school, government, and
multifamily spaces. These products can replace 32/28/25 watt T8 lamps one-for-one operating off the
existing fluorescent ballast.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is 4-foot standard 32/28/25 watt T8 lamps on low (0.78), normal (0.88), and high
(1.15) ballast factor ballasts. Lamps are weighted 60%, 30%, and 10%, respectively, in the savings
calculations. 32-watt lamps are weighted 10%, 70%, and 20% with respect to low, normal, and high
ballast factors; while 28-watt and 25-watt lamps are weighted 5%, 90%, and 5% for the same ballast
factors in the savings calculations.5
Description of Efficient Condition
Equipment must be DLC-listed with less than 24 watts based on a normal ballast factor (0.88) and
operate off the existing fluorescent ballast. This measure is not intended to be used in refrigerated case
lighting applications. Products must carry a safety certification from a NRTL, such as UL or ETL.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
368
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (Watts BASE - Watts LED ) / 1,000 * HOU
Where:
Watts BASE
=
Weighted annual electricity consumption of standard 4-foot 32/28/25
watt T8 fluorescent lamp operating on low/normal/high ballast factor
ballasts
Watts LED
=
Weighted average annual electricity consumption of DLC-listed 4-foot
linear LED < 24 watts, operating off existing ballast
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Hours-of-use (= see table below)
Hours-of-Use by Sector
HOU2
Sector
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
Multifamily
3,730
4,745
4,698
3,239
5,950
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (Watts BASE - Watts LED ) /1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= see table below)
Coincidence Factor by Sector
Sector
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
Multifamily
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
CF3
0.77
0.77
0.67
0.64
0.77
369
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 16 years)1
Deemed Savings
Annual Savings
Measure
LED Replacement of
4-Foot T8 Lamps
Using Existing Ballast
MMID
3512
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
kWh
kW
kWh
kW
kWh
kW
24
0.0049
30
0.0049
30
0.0043
Schools &
Gov
kWh
kW
21
0.0041
Multifamily
kWh
kW
37
0.0048
Lifecycle Savings (kWh)
Measure
MMID
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools &
Gov
Multifamily
LED Replacement of 4-Foot T8
Lamps Using Existing Ballast
3512
384
480
480
336
592
Sources
1. Cadmus review of manufacturers’ measure life.
2. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 3.2 Lighting Hours of
Use in Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
3. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 3.2 Coincidence Factor
for Lighting in Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
4. Pricing research from market sources.
5. Weights are estimated based on general market knowledge and historical application data.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
370
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
371
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
LED Replacement of 4-Foot T8 Lamps with Integral or External Driver
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Group
Measure Category
Measure Type
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
LED Replacement of 4-Foot T8 Lamps with Integral or External
Driver, 3511
Per lamp
Lighting
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Prescriptive
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government,
Residential - multifamily
Varies by sector
Varies by sector
0
Varies by sector
0
0
1
16
4
$73.00
Measure Description
Dual 4-foot T8 LEDs are an energy-efficient alternative to standard 8-foot fluorescent lamps found
commonly throughout multifamily, commercial, industrial, agriculture, and schools and government
facilities. These products can replace 96-watt T12 and 75-watt T8 lamps two-for-one when replacing
the existing fluorescent lamp(s) and ballast(s).
Description of Baseline Condition
Because 8-foot standard 96-watt T12 lamps are required to be replaced by 8-foot T8 lamps, the baseline
is an 8-foot T8 with 75 watts per lamp. These are generally operated on low (0.78), normal (0.88), and
high (1.15) ballast factor ballasts within their fixtures. Lamps are weighted 10%, 70%, and 20%,
respectively, in the savings calculations.5
Description of Efficient Condition
Efficient equipment must be DLC-listed, less than 20 watts, and use a new external driver not operate
off the existing fluorescent ballast(s). This measure is not intended to be used in refrigerated case
lighting applications or in products intended to bring line voltage to existing sockets. Products must
carry a safety certification from a NTRL, such as UL or ETL.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
372
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (Watts FLUORESCENT - Watts LED ) / 1,000 * HOU
Where:
Watts FLUORESCENT =
Weighted annual electricity consumption of standard 8-foot 75-watt
T8 fluorescent lamp operating on low/normal/high ballast factor
ballasts
Watts LED
=
Weighted average annual electricity consumption of two DLC-listed
4-foot linear LEDs < 20 watts, noted w/external driver
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Hours-of-use (= see table below)
Hours-of-Use by Sector
HOU2
Sector
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
Multifamily
3,730
4,745
4,698
3,239
5,950
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (Watts FLUORESCENT - Watts LED ) / 1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= see table below)
Coincidence Factor by Sector
Sector
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
Multifamily
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
CF3
0.77
0.77
0.67
0.64
0.77
373
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
Effective useful life (= 16 years)1
=
Deemed Savings
Annual Savings
Annual
Savings
MMID
LED
Replacement
of 4-Foot T8
Lamps
w/External
Driver
3511
Commercial
kWh
kW
131
0.0270
Industrial
kWh
kW
166
Agriculture
kWh
kW
0.0270
165
Schools & Gov
kWh
kW
0.0235
113
0.0224
Multifamily
kWh
kW
327
0.2510
Lifecycle Savings
Lifecycle Savings
(kWh)
LED Replacement of 4Foot T8 Lamps
w/External Driver
MMID
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools &
Gov
Multifamily
3511
2,096
2,656
2,640
1,808
5,232
Sources
1. Cadmus review of manufacturers’ measure life.
2. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 3.2 Lighting Hours of
Use in Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
3. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 3.2 Coincidence Factor
for Lighting in Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
4. Pricing research from market sources.
5. Weights are estimated based on general market knowledge and historical application data.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
374
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
375
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
LED Lamp Replacing Incandescent Lamp ≤ 40 Watts
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
LED, ≤ 40 Watt, ENERGY STAR, Replacing Incandescent, 3112
Per lamp
Prescriptive
Lighting
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
Varies by sector
Varies by sector
0
Varies by sector
0
0
1
7
$12.75
Measure Description
ENERGY STAR-rated LED replacement lamps save energy by reducing the total input wattage of the
luminaire as compared to the same luminaire operating with standard wattage incandescent lamps. This
measure will provide an energy-efficient alternative to using incandescent lamps in several applications.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is standard 25-watt and 40-watt incandescent lamps.
Description of Efficient Condition
Efficient equipment must be an ENERGY STAR-rated LED lamp.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (Watts BASE – Watts EE ) / 1,000 * HOU
Where:
Watts BASE
=
Average consumption of standard 25-watt or 40-watt incandescent
lamp (= 32.5 watts)
Watts EE
=
Consumption of reduced ENERGY STAR-rated lamp of equivalent lumen
output to ≤ 40-watt incandescent (= 6 watts)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
376
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Hours-of-use (= see table below)
Hours-of-Use by Sector
Sector
HOU2
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
3,730
4,745
4,698
3,239
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (Watts BASE – Watts EE ) / 1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= see table below)
Coincidence Factor by Sector
Sector
CF3
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
0.77
0.77
0.67
0.64
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 7 years)1
Deemed Savings
Average Annual Deemed Savings for LED Lamp Replacing Incandescent Lamp ≤ 40 Watts
Measure
LED Lamps ENERGY STAR ≤ 40 Watts
MMID
3112
Commercial
kWh kW
100
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
0.0204
Industrial
kWh kW
127
0.0204
Agriculture Schools & Gov
kWh kW kWh kW
126
0.0178
87
0.0169
377
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Average Lifecycle Deemed Savings for LED Lamp Replacing Incandescent Lamp ≤ 40 Watts
Measure
MMID
Commercial
kWh
Industrial
kWh
LED Lamps ENERGY STAR ≤ 40 Watts
3112
700
889
Agriculture Schools & Gov
kWh
kWh
882
609
Assumptions
Assumes an average of 25-watt and 40-watt incandescent lamps in calculation of baseline usage.
Assumes that average ENERGY STAR-rated LED of 5.64 watts for ≤ 40-watt replacement products.
Sources
1. Cadmus review of manufacturers’ measure life.
2.
State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission. Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0.
Table 3.2 Lighting Hours of Use and Coincidence Factors by Sector. March 22, 2010.
3. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission. Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0.
Table 3.2 Lighting Hours of Use and Coincidence Factors by Sector. March 22, 2010.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
378
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
LED Lamp Replacing Incandescent Lamp > 40 Watts
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
LED, > 40 Watt, ENERGY STAR, Replacing Incandescent, 3113
Per lamp
Prescriptive
Lighting
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
Varies by sector
Varies by sector
0
Varies by sector
0
0
1
7
$20.00
Measure Description
ENERGY STAR-rated LED replacement lamps save energy by reducing the total input wattage of the
luminaire as compared to the same luminaire operating with standard wattage incandescent lamps. This
measure will provide an energy-efficient alternative to using incandescent lamps in several applications.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is standard 53-watt, 60-watt, 65-watt, 70-watt, 72-watt, and 80-watt
incandescent lamps.
Description of Efficient Condition
Efficient equipment must be an ENERGY STAR-rated LED lamp.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (Watts BASE – Watts EE ) / 1,000 * HOU
Where:
Watts BASE
=
Average power consumption of standard incandescent lamps (= 66.7
watts)
Watts EE
=
Power consumption of ENERGY STAR-rated LED lamp with a lumen
output rating equivalent to a > 40-watt incandescent (= 14.2 watts)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
379
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Hours-of-use (= see table below)
Hours-of-Use by Sector
Sector
HOU2
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
3,730
4,745
4,698
3,239
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (Watts BASE – Watts EE ) / 1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= see table below)
Coincidence Factor by Sector
Sector
CF3
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
0.77
0.77
0.67
0.64
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 7 years)1
Deemed Savings
Average Annual Deemed Savings for LED Lamp Replacing Incandescent Lamp > 40 Watts
Measure
LED Lamps ENERGY STAR > 40 Watts
MMID
3113
Commercial
kWh kW
196
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
0.0404
Industrial
kWh kW
249
0.0404
Agriculture Schools & Gov
kWh kW kWh kW
247
0.0352
170
0.0336
380
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Average Lifecycle Deemed Savings for LED Lamp Replacing Incandescent Lamp > 40 Watts
Measure
MMID
LED Lamps ENERGY STAR > 40 Watts 3113
Commercial
kWh
Industrial
kWh
Agriculture
kWh
Schools & Gov
kWh
1,372
1,743
1,729
1,190
Assumptions
An average of 16.67% each of 53-watt incandescent, 60-watt incandescent and halogens, 65-watt
incandescent, 70-watt halogens, 80-watt halogens, and 100-watt halogen lamps was used to generate
the baseline wattage.3
An average of 20% each of 9-watt, 11-watt, 13-watt, 18-watt, and 20-watt ENERGY STAR-rated LED
lamps was used to generate the new wattage.3
Sources
1. Cadmus review of manufacturers’ measure life.
2.
State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission. Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0.
March 22, 2010.
3. Based on market knowledge.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
381
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
LED Tube Retrofit of 4-Foot T12 or T8 Fixtures
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
T8 LED < 20 Watts, 2L, Replacing 3L or 4L T12/T8, SBP After A La Carte, 3582
Per fixture
Prescriptive
Lighting
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
Varies by sector
Varies by sector
0
Varies by sector
0
0
1
16
5
6
MMID 3581= $94.00; MMID 3582=$62.00
Measure Description
Four-foot T8 LEDs are an energy-efficient alternative to standard 4-foot 32/28/25 watt T8 fluorescent
lamps found commonly throughout small commercial facilities. These products can replace 32/28/25
watt T8 lamps one-for-one, incorporating replacing the existing fluorescent lamp(s) and ballast(s).
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is 4-foot standard 32/28/25 watt T8 lamps on low (0.78), normal (0.88), and high
(1.15) ballast factor ballasts. Lamps are weighted 60%, 30%, and 10%, respectively, in the savings
calculations. 32-watt lamps are weighted 10%, 70%, and 20% with respect to low, normal, and high
ballast factors, while 28-watt and 25-watt lamp ballast factors are weighted 5%, 90%, and 5% for those
same ballast factors in the savings calculations.3
Description of Efficient Condition
Efficient equipment must be DLC-listed, less than 20 watts, and use a new external driver or operate on
a new fluorescent ballast(s). This measure is not intended to be used in refrigerated case lighting
applications and those products which intend to bring line voltage to existing sockets. Products must
carry a safety certification from a NRTL, such as UL or ETL.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
382
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (Watts BASE – Watts EE ) / 1,000 * HOU
Where:
Watts BASE
=
Power consumption of baseline measure based on ballast factor
Watts EE
=
Power consumption of efficient equipment based on ballast factor
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Hours-of-use (= see table below)
Hours-of-Use by Sector
Sector
HOU2
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
3,730
4,745
4,698
3,239
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (Watts BASE – Watts EE ) / 1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= see table below)
Coincidence Factor by Sector
Sector
CF4
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
0.77
0.77
0.67
0.64
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (=16 years)1
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
383
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Deemed Savings
Annual Savings
Measure
Commercial
kWh
kW
Industrial
kWh
kW
Agriculture
kWh
kW
Schools & Gov
kWh
kW
166
0.0342
211
0.0342
209
0.0297
144
0.0284
230
0.0474
292
0.0474
289
0.0413
199
0.0394
T8 LED < 20W, 3L,
replace 3 or 4L T12/T8
T8 LED < 20W, 2L,
replace 3 or 4L T12/T8
Lifecycle Savings
Measure
T8 LED < 20W, 3L, replace 3 or 4L T12/T8
T8 LED < 20W, 2L, replace 3 or 4L T12/T8
Commercial
kWh
Industrial
kWh
Agriculture
kWh
Schools & Gov
kWh
2,656
3,680
3,376
4,672
3,344
4,624
2,304
3,184
Sources
1. Cadmus review of manufacturers’ measure life.
2.
Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 3.2 Lighting Hours of
Use in Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
3. Weights estimated based on general market knowledge and historical application data.
4. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 3.2 Coincidence Factor
for Lighting in Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
5. Market research documented in Excel spreadsheet Four-foot Linear LED replacing 4-foot T8 flour
4to3 calculation_GDS_SBP_12_26_14.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
384
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
LED Lamp Replacing Neon Sign
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
LED, Replacing Neon Sign, 3353
Per fixture (or per sign)
Prescriptive
Lighting
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
Varies by sector
Varies by sector
0
Varies by sector
0
0
1
15
$55.00
Measure Description
This measure is installing a new LED open sign to replace an old neon sign with high voltage magnetic
transformers. All new open signs must meet UL-84 requirements.
Traditionally, these signs consist of 5 or 6 millimeter (roughly 1/2 inch) diameter neon tubing with a
3,000 to 15,000 magnetic high-voltage transformer. The tubing length varies by the sign size, but
averages 10 feet. Electrical drive levels vary by brightness, but neon tubing of this diameter typically
operates at 6 watts to 8 watts per linear foot.
The high voltage neon transformers that drive the neon tubing are designed to provide a limited and
reasonably constant current of 20 to 30 mill amperes. One of the consequences of this transformer
design is an extremely poor normal power factor. Normal power factors range from 45% to 50%, while
high power factors range from 85% to 90%.
Improvements in solid-state electronics over the last two decades have led to the availability of
electronic neon transformers and LED alternatives to neon tube technology. Electronic neon
transformers can supply the needed current limitation and regulation with roughly twice the efficiency
of magnetic transformers, while providing a high power factor. LED technology can provide a neon-like
appearance at the same or higher brightness levels, with six to eight times the efficiency of neon tubes
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
385
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
that use magnetic transformers. LEDs also have the advantage of being powered by inherently safe lowvoltage drivers in lieu of high voltage neon transformers.
LED drivers can be either electronic switching or linear magnetic, with the supplies for electronic
switching being the most efficient. The on-off power switch may be on either the power line or load side
of the driver, with the line side location providing significantly lower standby losses when the sign is
turned off.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is a neon open sign with a normal magnetic ballast neon sign power factor.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient equipment is the new LED open sign.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (Watts BASE – Watts EE ) / 1,000 * HOU
Where:
Watts BASE
=
Wattage of neon sign with magnetic high voltage transformer (= 189)
Watts EE
=
Wattage of LED sign with low voltage transformer (= 20)
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Hours-of-use, estimated as 80% of that listed in the Deemed Savings
Manual to account for when the facility is occupied but not open (= see
table below)
Hours-of-Use by Sector
Sector
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
HOU4
80% of 3,730 = 2,984
80% of 4,745 = 3,796
80% of 4,698 = 3,758
80% of 3,239 = 2,591
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (Watts BASE – Watts EE ) / 1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 1.0 for commercial, industrial, and agriculture;
= 0.59 for schools & government)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
386
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 15 years)1
Deemed Savings
Deemed Savings by Sector
Savings
kWh
kW
Lifecycle kWh
MMIDs
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools &
Government
3003 and 3353
504
0.1690
7,564
642
0.1690
9,623
635
0.1690
9,527
438
0.0997
6,568
Assumptions
The peak demand coincidence factor varies from the typical weighted average factors because it is
assumed that the open sign (if owned by the facility) will be on during peak times. Therefore, the
demand coincidence factor is set to 1.0 or 0.59.
The baseline wattage of the fixtures has two components: the real power and the reactive power. Neon
open signs have low-grade magnetic ballasts that create a very low power factor and increase the
apparent power from the grid. The 2004 Core Program LED Open Sign Pilot findings (in California)
revealed a power factor of 0.41. In order for the grid to supply the power, the wattage draw of the neon
signs must be divided by the power factor. In other words, the wattage draw is only 41% of the power
that needs to be supplied from the grid to operate the neon sign.
The baseline is 189 watts to account for varying real power requirements between 90 and 100 watts.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
387
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Sources
1. Cadmus review of manufacturers’ measure life.
2.
Itron. 2004-2005 DEER Update Study Final Report. Table 3-8, pg. 3-12. December 2005.
3. Pacific Gas & Electric. Lighting Rebate Catalog and Application. 2007. Retrieved February 2008.
4. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission. Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual
V1.0. Table 3.2 Lighting Hours of Use in Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
5. U.S. Department of Energy. (n.d.). Save Energy, Money, and Prevent Pollution with LightEmitting Diode Exit Signs. February 2008. Available
online: http://www.energystar.gov/ia/business/small_business/led_exitsigns_techsheet.pdf.
6. GDS Associates. LED Open Signs. Work Paper PGEPLTG018. August 20, 2009.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
388
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
LED Fixture, 2x2, Low and High Output, DLC Listed
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
LED Fixture, 2x2, Low Output, DLC Listed, 3400
LED Fixture, 2x2, High Output, DLC Listed, 3401
Per luminaire
Prescriptive
Lighting
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government,
Residential- multifamily
Varies by sector
Varies by sector
0
Varies by sector
0
0
1
16
$23.16
Measure Description
LED 2x2 troffers save energy when replacing 2-4 lamp T8 products and 2-4 FT lamps by providing a
similar lumen output with lower input wattage. These products can be installed on a one-for-one basis
to replace 2x2 2-4 lamp T8, T12, or FT lamp luminaires.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is 2-foot 2, 3, and 4 lamp T8 or FT lamp troffers for existing buildings and new
construction buildings.
Low Output 2x2
An average of 2% 2 lamp, 40% 2 lamp U bend, 38% 3 lamp, and 20% 4 lamp troffers was used to
generate the baseline wattage.
High Output 2x2
An average of 50% 3 lamp and 50% 4 lamp troffers was used to generate the baseline wattage.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
389
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Description of Efficient Condition
Low Output 2x2
The efficient condition is a DLC-listed 2x2 “Linear Panel (2x2 troffer),” which consumes ≤ 36 watts and
has an output of ≥ 2,000 initial lumens.
High Output 2x2
The efficient condition is DLC-listed 2x2 “Linear Panel (2x2 troffer),” which consumes ≤ 85 watts and has
an output of ≥ 4,000 initial lumens.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Low Output 2x2
kWh SAVED = (Watts 2 -4L 2’ T8 -Watts LED LOW OUTPUT 2x2 ) /1,000 * HOU
High Output 2x2
kWh SAVED = (Watts 2 -4L 4’ FT -Watts LED HIGH OUTPUT 2x2 ) /1,000 * HOU
Where:
Annual electricity consumption of 2 or 4 lamp T8 troffer
luminaires
Watts 2 -4L 2’ T8
=
Watts LED LOW OUTPUT 2x2
=
Wattage of DLC-listed 2x2 troffer that consumes ≤ 36
watts and has an initial lumen output ≥ 2,000
Watts 2 -4L 4’ FT -
=
Annual electricity consumption of 2 to 4 lamp FT troffer
luminaires
Watts LED HIGH OUTPUT 2x2
=
Annual electricity consumption of a DLC-listed 2x2 troffer
that consumes ≤ 85 watts and has an initial lumen output
≥ 4,000
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Hours-of-use (= see table below)
Hours-of-Use by Sector
Sector
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
Multifamily
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
HOU2
3,730
4,745
4,698
3,239
5,950
390
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
Low Output 2x2
kW SAVED = (Watts 2 -4L 4’ FT -Watts LED LOW OUTPUT 2x2 ) / 1,000 * CF
High Output 2x2
kW SAVED = (Watts 2 -4L 4’ FT -Watts LED HIGH OUTPUT 2x2 ) / 1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= see table below)
Coincidence factor by Sector
Sector
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
Multifamily
CF3
0.77
0.77
0.67
0.64
0.77
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
Low Output 2x2
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
High Output 2x2
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 16 years)1
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
391
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Deemed Savings
Average Annual Deemed Savings for DLC-Listed 2x2 Troffer
Measure
Low Output 2x2
Qualifying DLC-Listed
HPT Fixtures
High Output 2x2
Qualifying DLC-Listed
HPT Fixtures
Commercial
kWh
kW
MMID
Industrial
kWh
kW
Agriculture
kWh
kW
Schools & Gov
kWh
kW
Multifamily
kWh
kW
3400
94
0.0193
119
0.0193
118
0.0168
81
0.0161
149
0.0193
3401
345
0.0713
439
0.0713
435
0.0620
300
0.0593
551
0.0713
Average Lifecycle Deemed Savings for DLC-Listed 2x2 Troffer (kWh)
Measure
Low Output 2x2 Qualifying
DLC-Listed HPT Fixtures
High Output 2x2 Qualifying
DLC-Listed HPT Fixtures
MMID
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Gov
Multifamily
3400
1,504
1,904
1,888
1,296
2,384
3401
5,520
7,024
6,960
4,800
8,816
Sources
1. Cadmus review of manufacturers’ measure life.
2. Focus on Energy. Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 3.2 Lighting Hours of
Use in Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
3. Focus on Energy. Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 3.2 Coincidence Factor
for Lighting in Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
392
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
High Bay Fluorescent Lighting
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
High Bay Fluorescent Lighting:
T8 4L Replacing 250-399 W HID, 2884, 3329
T8 6L Replacing 400-999 W HID, 2885, 3331
T8 8L Replacing 400-999 W HID, 2886
T8 8L ≤ 500 W, Replacing ≥ 1,000 W HID, 2887, 3333
T8 10L ≤ 500 W, Replacing ≥ 1,000 W HID, 2888
T8 (2) 6L ≤ 500 W, Replacing ≥ 1,000 W HID, 2889
T5HO 2L Replacing 250-399 W HID, 2890, 3330
T5HO 3L Replacing 250-399 W HID, 2891
T5HO 4L Replacing 400-999 W HID, 2892, 3332
T5HO 6L Replacing 400-999 W HID, 2893
T5HO 6L ≤ 500 W, Replacing ≥ 1,000 W HID, 2894, 3334
T5HO 8L ≤ 500 W, Replacing ≥ 1,000 W HID, 2895
T5HO (2) 4L ≤ 500 W, Replacing ≥ 1,000 W HID, 2896
T5HO (2) 6L ≤ 800 W, Replacing ≥ 1,000 W HID, 2897
Per lamp
Prescriptive
Lighting
Fluorescent, Linear
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
Varies by measure
Varies by measure
0
Varies by measure
0
0
2884, 2885, 2886, 2887, 2888, 2889, 2890, 2891, 2892, 2893, 2894,
1
2
2895, 2896, 2897 =14 and 3329, 3330, 3331, 3332, 3333, 3334 = 15
Varies by measure, see Appendix D
Measure Description
In high-bay lighting applications (ceiling heights generally over 15 feet), HID fixtures have typically been
used due to their high lumen output. In recent years, however, improvements in fluorescent lamps and
the emergence of new high-intensity fluorescent fixtures have made fluorescent lighting the most
cost-effective choice for lighting high indoor spaces. These high-intensity fluorescent systems are
more energy efficient than HID solutions and feature lower lumen depreciation rates, better
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
393
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
dimming options, virtually instant start-up and re-strike, better color rendition, and reduced glare.
Similar high-intensity fluorescent lighting fixtures are also available for low bay applications, generally
with equipment available in the same product family as the manufacturers’ high bay products.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is HID fixtures and lamps.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition varies by the wattage of the baseline lamp. See table below.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (Watts BASE – Watts EE ) / 1,000 * HOU
Where:
Watts BASE
=
Wattage of a HID lamp (= see table below)
Watts EE
=
Wattage of HOT5 or HOT8 lamp (= see table below)
Wattages Used for Deemed Savings Calculations
Measure
Watts BASE
Watts EE
293
293
293
356
356
455
455
455
455
1,079
1,079
1,079
1,079
1,079
1,079
1,079
117
179
151
234
224
234
355
224
291
355
585
468
709
291
366
447
2L HOT5
3L HOT5
4L T8
4L HOT5
6L T8
4L HOT5
6L HOT5
6L T8
8L T8
6L HOT5
8L HOT5
(2) 4L HOT5
(2) 6L HOT5
8L T8
10L T8
(2) 6L T8
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Hours-of-use (= see table below)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
394
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Hours-of-Use by Sector
Sector
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
HOU2
3,730
4,745
4,698
3,239
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (Watts BASE – Watts EE ) / 1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= see table below)
Coincidence Factor by Sector
Sector
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
CF2
0.77
0.77
0.67
0.64
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 14 years)1
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
395
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Deemed Savings
Annual Electric Savings (kWh/year/lamp removed)
Existing
Wattage
250 watts 399 watts
400 watts 999 watts
New Fixture
Type
MMID
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools &
Government
2L HOT5
2890, 3330
656
835
827
570
3L HOT5
2891
425
541
536
369
4L T8
2884, 3329
532
676
669
462
4L HOT5
2892, 3332
824
1,049
1,038
716
6L HOT5
2893
375
477
472
326
2885, 3331
863
1,098
1,088
750
6L T8
8L T8
1,000 watts
2886
612
778
770
531
6L HOT5
2894, 3334
2,701
3,435
3,401
2,345
8L HOT5
2895
1,841
2,342
2,318
1,598
(2) 4L HOT5
2896
2,277
2,897
2,868
1,977
(2) 6L HOT5
2897
1,378
1,753
1,736
1,197
8L T8
2887, 3333
2,937
3,737
3,700
2,551
10L T8
2888
2,658
3,381
3,347
2,308
(2) 6L T8
2889
2,355
2,996
2,967
2,045
Summer Peak Savings
Existing
Wattage
250 watts –
399 watts
400 watts 999 watts
1,000 watts
New Fixture
Type
MMID
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools &
Government
2L HOT5
3L HOT5
4L T8
4L HOT5
6L HOT5
6L T8
8L T8
6L HOT5
8L HOT5
(2) 4L HOT5
(2) 6L HOT5
8L T8
10L T8
(2) 6L T8
2890, 3330
2891
2884, 3329
2892, 3332
2893
2885, 3331
2886
2894, 3334
2895
2896
2897
2887, 3333
2888
2889
0.136
0.088
0.11
0.17
0.077
0.178
0.126
0.557
0.38
0.47
0.285
0.606
0.549
0.486
0.136
0.088
0.11
0.17
0.077
0.178
0.126
0.557
0.38
0.47
0.285
0.606
0.549
0.486
0.118
0.076
0.095
0.148
0.067
0.155
0.11
0.485
0.331
0.409
0.248
0.528
0.477
0.423
0.113
0.073
0.091
0.141
0.064
0.148
0.105
0.463
0.316
0.391
0.236
0.504
0.456
0.404
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
396
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Lifecycle Savings (kWh)
Existing
Wattage
250 watts 399 watts
400 watts 999 watts
1,000 watts
New Fixture
Type
MMID
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools &
Government
2L HOT5
2890, 3330
9,191
11,692
11,576
7,981
3L HOT5
2891
5,953
7,573
7,498
5,169
4L T8
2884, 3329
7,441
9,466
9,373
6,462
4L HOT5
2892, 3332
11,541
14,681
14,536
10,021
6L HOT5
2893
5,248
6,676
6,610
4,557
6L T8
2885, 3331
12,089
15,379
15,226
10,498
8L T8
2886
8,564
10,895
10,787
7,437
6L HOT5
2894, 3334
37,807
48,095
47,619
32,831
8L HOT5
2895
25,771
32,783
32,458
22,378
(2) 4L HOT5
2896
31,880
40,556
40,154
27,684
(2) 6L HOT5
2897
19,295
24,546
24,303
16,755
8L T8
2887, 3333
41,123
52,314
51,795
35,710
10L T8
2888
37,207
47,331
46,863
32,309
(2) 6L T8
2889
32,977
41,951
41,535
28,636
Sources
1. Average of: Cadmus 2013 database; 2007 GDS residential measure life
report: http://www.iar.unicamp.br/lab/luz/ld/Arquitetural/interiores/ilumina%E7%E3o%20indu
strial/measure_life_GDS.pdf; California Energy Commission and California Public Utilities
Commission. Database for Energy Efficient Resources (DEER)
2008. http://www.energy.ca.gov/deer/ ; and PA Consulting Group Inc. State of Wisconsin Public
Service Commission of Wisconsin, Focus on Energy Evaluation Business Programs: Deemed
Savings Manual v1.0. Updated March 22, 2010.
2. DEER 2014 EUL Table. http://www.deeresources.com/. Rated ballast life of 70,000 hours. Not
rated on bulb life as such capped at 15 years.
3. PA Consulting Group Inc. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin, Focus on
Energy Evaluation Business Programs: Deemed Savings Manual v1.0. Updated March 22, 2010.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
397
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
398
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Exterior – Induction, PSMH, CMH, Linear Florescent Fixtures
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Induction, PSMH/CMF or Linear Fluorescent, Exterior:
Replacing 150-175 Watt HID, 3078
Replacing 250 Watt HID, 3081
Replacing 320 -Watt HID, 3084
Replacing 400 Watt HID, 3086
Replacing 70-100 Watt HID, 3087
Per fixture
Prescriptive
Lighting
Other
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government,
Residential- multifamily
Varies by fixture
Varies by fixture
0
Varies by fixture
0
0
1
15
Varies by measure, see Appendix D
Measure Description
Induction, PSMH, CMH, and linear fluorescent lighting fixtures save energy by reducing the light fixture
wattage compared to standard metal halide fixtures, without sacrificing illumination quality and safety.
These lighting technologies are appropriate for exterior applications.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline measure is standard HID lamps between 70 watts and 400 watts, located on exterior poles
or high canopies.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient measure is induction, PSMH, CMH, and linear fluorescent fixtures between 35 watts and
250 watts.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
399
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (Watts BASE – Watts EE ) / 1,000 * HOU
Where:
Watts BASE
=
Wattage of baseline HID fixture
Watts EE
=
Wattage of efficient induction fixture, PSMH fixture, CMH fixture, or
linear fluorescent fixture
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Hours-of-use (= 4,380)
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 15 years)1
Deemed Savings
Deemed Savings by Measure
Measure
Induction, PSMH/CMH, or Linear Fluorescent,
Replacing 70-Watt to 100-Watt HID, Exterior
Induction, PSMH/CMH, or Linear Fluorescent,
Replacing 150-Watt to 175-Watt HID, Exterior
Induction, PSMH, CMH, or Linear Fluorescent
Replacing 250-Watt HID, Exterior
Induction, PSMH, CMH, or Linear Fluorescent
Replacing 320-Watt HID, Exterior
Induction, PSMH, CMH, or Linear Fluorescent
Replacing 400-Watt HID, Exterior
MMID
Annual
Savings
(kWh)
Peak Demand
Reduction
(kW)
Lifecycle
Savings
(kWh)
3087
247
0
3,712
3078
329
0
4,938
3081
605
0
9,076
3084
556
0
8,344
3086
972
0
14,585
Assumptions
The induction wattages shown below include the ballast wattage, which was calculated as 10% of the
lamp wattage based on the manufacturer specifications.
All exterior replacement calculations use 4,380 hours of annual operation, half the total hours in a year.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
400
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
70-watt to 100-watt HID exterior replacements are weighted as follows:
•
Baseline = 50% 70-watt HID and 50% 100-watt HID (= 111.5 watts)
•
Eligible Replacements = 50% linear fluorescent ≤ 60 watts, 25% 35-watt induction, and 25% 55watt induction (= 55 watts)
150-watt to 175-watt HID exterior replacements are weighted as follows:
•
Baseline = 50% 150-watt HID and 50% 175-watt HID (= 194.5 watts)
•
Eligible Replacements = 33.33% 100-watt induction, 33.33% 100-watt PSMH or CMH, and
33.33% ≤ 120-watt linear fluorescent (= 119 watts)
250-watt HID exterior replacements are weighted as follows:
•
Baseline = 100% 250-watt HID (= 299 watts)
•
Eligible Replacements = 14.3% 120-watt to 125-watt induction, 14.3% 150-watt induction, 14.3%
165-watt induction, 14.3% 125-watt PSMH or CMH, 14.3% 140-watt PSMH or CMH, 14.3% 150watt PSMH or CMH, and 14.3% ≤ 155-watts linear fluorescent (= 161 watts)
320-watt HID exterior replacements are weighted as follows:
•
Baseline = 100% 320-watt HID (= 368 watts)
•
Eligible Replacements = 16.6% 200-watt induction, 16.6% 225-watt induction, 16.6% 250-watt
induction, 16.6% 200-watt PSMH or CMH, 16.6% 210-watt PSMH or CMH, and 16.6% 220-watt
PSMH or CMH (= 241 watts)
400-watt HID exterior replacements are weighted as follows:
•
Baseline = 100% 400-watt HID (= 463 watts)
•
Eligible Replacements = 16.6% 200-watt induction, 16.6% 225-watt induction, 16.6% 250-watt
induction, 16.6% 200-watt PSMH or CMH, 16.6% 210-watt PSMH or CMH, and 16.6% 220-watt
PSMH or CMH (= 241 watts)
Sources
1. Similar measure MMID 2419.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
401
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
402
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Parking Garage Induction PSMH CMH LF Fixtures
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Induction, PSMH/CMH, or Linear Fluorescent, Parking Garage:
Replacing 150-175 Watt HID, 24 Hour, 3079
Replacing 150-175 Watt HID, Dusk to Dawn, 3080
Replacing 250 Watt HID, 24 Hour, 3082
Replacing 250 Watt HID, Dusk to Dawn, 3083
Replacing 70-100 Watt HID, 24 Hour, 3088
Replacing 70-100 Watt HID, Dusk to Dawn, 3089
Per fixture
Prescriptive
Lighting
Other
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government,
Residential- multifamily
Varies by fixture
Varies by fixture
0
Varies by fixture
0
0
1
15
Varies by measure, see Appendix D
Measure Description
Induction, PSMH, CMH, and linear fluorescent lighting fixtures save energy by reducing the light fixture
wattage compared to standard metal halide fixtures, without sacrificing illumination quality and safety.
These lighting technologies are appropriate for parking garage applications.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline is standard HID lamps between 70 watts and 400 watts located in parking garages.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is induction, PSMH, CMH, and linear fluorescent fixtures between 35 watts and
250 watts.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
403
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (Watts BASE – Watts EE ) / 1,000 * HOU
Where:
Watts BASE
=
Wattage of baseline HID fixture
Watts EE
=
Wattage of efficient induction fixture, PSMH fixture, CMH fixture, or
linear fluorescent fixture
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Hours-of-use (varies by hours of operation; = 4,380 for night run only; =
8,760 if on continuously)
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 15 years)1
Deemed Savings
Average Annual Deemed Savings
Measure
Induction, PSMH/CMH, or Linear Fluorescent, Replacing 70
Watt to 100 Watt HID, Parking Garage, 24 Hour
Induction, PSMH, CMH, or Linear Fluorescent, Replacing 70
Watt to 100 Watt, Parking Garage, Dusk to Dawn
Induction PSMH, CMH, or Linear Fluorescent, 150 Watt to
175 Watt Parking Garage, 24 Hour
Induction, PSMH/CMH, or Linear Fluorescent, Replacing 150
Watt to 175 Watt HID, Parking Garage, Dusk to Dawn
Induction PSMH, CMH, or Linear Fluorescent, 250 Watt,
Parking Garage, 24-hour
Induction PSMH, CMH, or Linear Fluorescent, 250 Watt,
Parking Garage, Dusk to Dawn
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
MMID
kWh
kW
3088
495
0.057
3089
247
0
3079
658
0.075
3080
329
0
3082
1.210
0.141
3083
605
0
404
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Average Lifecycle Deemed Savings
Measure
MMID
kWh
3088
7,424
3089
3,712
3079
9,877
3080
4,938
3082
18,152
3083
9,076
Induction, PSMH/CMH, or Linear Fluorescent, Replacing 70 Watt to 100
Watt HID, Parking Garage, 24 Hour
Induction, PSMH, CMH, or Linear Fluorescent, Replacing 70 Watt to 100
Watt, Parking Garage, Dusk to Dawn
Induction PSMH, CMH, or Linear Fluorescent, 150 Watt to 175 Watt,
Parking Garage, 24 Hour
Induction, PSMH/CMH, or Linear Fluorescent, Replacing 150 Watt to 175
Watt HID, Parking Garage, Dusk to Dawn
Induction PSMH, CMH, or Linear Fluorescent, 250 Watt, Parking Garage,
24-hour
Induction PSMH, CMH, or Linear Fluorescent, 250 Watt, Parking Garage,
Dusk to Dawn
Assumptions
The induction wattages shown below include the ballast wattages, which was calculated as 10% of the
lamp wattage based on the manufacturer specifications.
All garage replacement calculations use 8,760 or 4,380 hours of annual operation.
70-watt to 100-watt HID parking garage replacements are weighted as follows:
•
Baseline = 50% 70-watt HID and 50% 100-watt HID (= 111.5 watts)
•
Eligible Replacements = 25% 35-watt induction, 25% 55-watt induction, and 50% ≤ 60-watt linear
fluorescent (= 55 watts)
150-watt to 175-watt HID parking garage replacements are weighted as follows:
•
Baseline = 50% 150-watt HID and 50% 175-watt HID (= 194.5 watts)
•
Eligible Replacements = 33.33% 100-watt induction, 33.33% 100-watt PSMH or CMH, and
33.33% ≤ 120-watt linear fluorescent (= 119 watts)
250-watt HID parking garage replacements are weighted as follows:
•
Baseline = 100% 250-watt HID (= 299 watts)
•
Eligible Replacements = 14.3% 120-watt to 125-watt induction, 14.3% 150-watt induction, 14.3%
165-watt induction, 14.3% 125-watt PSMH or CMH, 14.3% 140-watt PSMH or CMH, 14.3% 150watt PSMH or CMH, and 14.3% ≤ 155-watt linear fluorescent (= 161 watts)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
405
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Sources
1. PA Consulting Group Inc. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin
Focus on Energy Evaluation Business Programs: Measure Life Study. Final Report. August
25, 2009. Available online:
https://focusonenergy.com/sites/default/files/bpmeasurelifestudyfinal_evaluationrepor
t.pdf
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
406
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
High Bay – Induction, PSMH, CMH Fixtures
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
High Bay – Induction, PSMH, CMH Fixtures:
≤ 250 Watt, Replacing 320-400 Watt HID, 3075
≤ 250 Watt, Replacing 400 Watt HID, 3076
≤ 365 Watt, Replacing 400 Watt HID, 3077
Replacing 250 Watt HID, 3090
Induction, 750 Watt, Replacing 1000 Watt HID, High Bay, 3074
Per fixture
Prescriptive
Lighting
Other
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government,
Residential- multifamily
Varies by measure
Varies by measure
0
Varies by measure
0
0
1
15
2
27 (for 750-watt induction)
2
Varies by measure
Measure Description
Induction, pulse-start metal halide, and ceramic metal halide lighting fixtures save energy by reducing
the light fixture wattage compared to standard metal halide fixtures, without sacrificing illumination
quality and safety. These lighting technologies are appropriate for high bay applications.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is standard HID lamps between 250 watts and 1,000 watts, located in a parking
garage.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is induction, pulse-start metal halide, and ceramic metal halide fixtures between
120 watts and 750 watts.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
407
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED IND = kWh HID - kWh IND
kWh SAVED PSMH = kWh HID - kWh PSMH
kWh SAVED CMH = kWh HID - kWhc MH
Where:
kWh HID
=
Annual electricity consumption of standard HID fixture
kWh IND
=
Annual electricity consumption of induction lighting fixture
kWh PSMH
=
Annual electricity consumption of pulse start metal halide fixture
kWh CMH
=
Annual electricity consumption of ceramic metal halide fixture
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = Wattage / 1,000 * CF
kW IND = kW PEAK HID – kW PEAK IND
kW PSMH = kW PEAK HID – kW PEAK PSMH
kW CMH = kW PEAK HID – kW PEAK CMH
Where:
kW PEAK HID
=
Peak demand of existing HID system
kW PEAK IND
=
Peak demand of new induction lighting system
kW PEAK PSMH =
Peak demand of new pulse start metal halide lighting system
kW PEAK CMH =
Peak demand of new ceramic metal halide lighting system
HOURS
Hours-of-use (= see table below)
=
Hours-of-Use by Sector
Sector
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
CF
=
HOU2
3,730
4,745
4,698
3,239
Demand coincidence factor (= see table below)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
408
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Demand Coincidence Factor by Sector
Sector
CF4
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
0.77
0.77
0.67
0.64
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE IND = (kWh HID - kWh IND ) * EUL
kWh LIFECYCLE PSMH = (kWh HID - kWh PSMH ) * EUL
kWh LIFECYCLE CMH = (kWh HID – kWh CMH ) * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 15 years;1 = 27 years for 750-watt induction)2
Deemed Savings
Average Annual Deemed Savings for High Bay Induction PSMH/CMH Fixtures
Measure
HB PSMH, CMH, IND
Replacing 250 Watt HID
HB PSMH, CMH, IND (250
Watt or Less) Replacing 400
Watt HID
HB PSMH, CMH, IND (250
Watt or Less) Replacing 320400 Watt HID NC (Based on
320 watt savings)
HB PSMH, CMH, IND (365
Watt or Less) Replacing 400
Watt HID
HB IND 750 Watt High Bay
Replacing 1,000 Watt HID
MMID
Commercial
3,730 (0.77)
kWh
kW
Schools & Gov
3,239 (0.64)
kWh
kW
Industrial
4,745 (0.77)
kWh
kW
Agriculture
4,698 (0.67)
kWh
kW
3090
510
0.1053
443
0.0875
649
0.1053
642
0.0916
3076
827
0.1706
718
0.1418
1,052
0.1706
1,042
0.1484
3075
499
0.1031
433
0.0857
635
0.1031
628
0.0897
3077
546
0.1128
474
0.0938
695
0.1128
688
0.0982
3074
970
0.2002
842
0.1664
1,234
0.2002
1,222
0.1742
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
409
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Average Lifecycle Deemed Savings for High Bay Induction PSMH/CMH Fixtures
Measure
kWh
Schools &
Gov 3,239
(0.64)
kWh
3090
7,650
6,645
9,735
9,630
3076
12,405
10,770
15,780
15,630
3075
7,485
6,495
9,525
9,420
3077
8,190
7,110
10,425
10,320
3074
26,190
22,734
33,318
32,994
MMID
HB PSMH, CMH, IND Replacing
250 Watt HID
HB PSMH, CMH, IND (250 Watt or
Less) Replacing 400 Watt HID
HB PSMH, CMH, IND (250 Watt or
Less) Replacing 320-400 Watt HID
NC (Based on 320 watt savings)
HB PSMH, CMH, IND (365 Watt or
Less) Replacing 400 Watt HID
HB IND 750 Watt High Bay
Replacing 1,000 Watt HID
Commercial
3,730 (0.77)
Industrial
4,745 (0.77)
Agriculture
4,698 (0.67)
kWh
kWh
Measure Costs for High Bay Induction PSMH/CMH Fixtures
Measure
HB PSMH, CMH, IND Replacing 250 Watt HID
HB PSMH, CMH, IND (250 Watt or Less) Replacing 400 Watt HID
HB PSMH, CMH, IND (250 Watt or Less) Replacing 320-400 Watt HID NC (Based
on 320 watt savings)
HB PSMH, CMH, IND (365 Watt or Less) Replacing 400 Watt HID
HB IND 750 Watt High Bay Replacing 1,000 Watt HID
MMID
3090
3076
Cost ($)
$100.00
$240.00
3075
$290.00
3077
3074
$240.00
$750.00
Assumptions
Hours of operation and coincidence factor based on sector. Induction wattage shown includes ballast
wattage, which was calculated as 10% of lamp wattage based on the manufacturer specifications. 250watt HID high bay replacements of ≤ 155 watts weighted as follows:
•
Baseline = 100% 250-watt HID
•
Eligible Replacements = 16.6% 120-watt to 125-watt induction, 16.6% 150-watt induction, 16.6%
165-watt induction,16.6% 125-watt PSMH or CMH, 16.6% 140-watt PSMH or CMH, and 16.6%
150-watt PSMH or CMH
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
410
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
320-watt HID high bay replacements of ≤ 250 watts weighted as follows:
•
Baseline = 100% 320-watt HID
•
Eligible Replacements = 16.6% 200-watt induction, 16.6% 225-watt induction, 16.6% 165-watt
induction, 16.6% 200-watt PSMH or CMH, 16.6% 210-watt PSMH or CMH, and 16.6% 220-watt
PSMH or CMH
400-watt HID high bay replacements of ≤ 365 watts weighted as follows:
•
Baseline = 100% 400-watt HID
•
Eligible Replacements = 16.6% 250-watt induction, 16.6% 300-watt induction, 16.6% 250-watt
PSMH or CMH, 16.6% 270-watt PSMH or CMH, 16.6% 315-watt PSMH or CMH, and 16.6% 320watt PSMH
1,000-watt HID high bay replacements of ≤ 800 watts weighted as follows:
•
Baseline = 100% 1,000-watt HID
•
Eligible Replacements = 50% 750-watt induction, and 50% 575-watt PSMH or CMH
Sources
1. PA Consulting Group Inc. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin Focus on
Energy Evaluation Business Programs: Measure Life Study. Final Report. August 25, 2009.
Available
online: https://focusonenergy.com/sites/default/files/bpmeasurelifestudyfinal_evaluationrepor
t.pdf
2. Based on market research.
3. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 3.2 Lighting Hours of
Use in Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
4. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 3.2 Coincidence Factor
for Lighting in Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
02
12/2012
09/2015
Initial TRM entry
Updates and revisions
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
411
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Other
DEET Behavioral Savings
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
DEET, Savings Period 1, 3652
DEET, Savings Period 2, 3653
DEET, Savings Period 3, 3654
DEET, Savings Period 4, 3655
DEET, Savings Period 5, 3656
DEET, Savings Period 6, 3657
DEET, Savings Persistence, 3658
Per building
Hybrid
Other
Whole Building
Schools & Government
Varies by measure
Varies by measure
Varies by measure
Varies by measure
Varies by measure
0
1
3
2
$12,000.00
Measure Description
According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 30% of a district’s total energy may be used
inefficiently or unnecessarily.3 Schools have a considerable opportunity to reduce energy consumption
and district energy costs. Recommended behavior changes that will conserve energy include turning off
unnecessary lights, shutting down computers, reducing phantom loads, and disseminating regular
energy conservation reminders.
This measure is a series of behavioral incentives based on savings measured directly from utility bills in
K-12 schools every six months for three years. The amount of kW, kWh, and therm savings incentives is
determined by comparing reporting period utility bills to an established baseline (12 months prior to
starting the initiative). Program/sector kW, kWh, and therms savings are determined by comparing
reporting period consumption to previous year consumption using utility bills.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
412
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is a school building that has not completed any measures incented by Focus on
Energy within 12 months. In addition, participating buildings must not be planning for major
renovations and/or energy upgrades within three years from the start of initiative.
Description of Efficient Condition
DEET participants will use less energy than their baseline by expanding management-driven savings to
include occupant behavioral energy savings, sustaining energy reductions, increasing occupancy
involvement in energy reduction initiatives, and increasing occupants’ realization of the financial and
environmental impact of individual and group energy consumption.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh and therms savings are calculated every six months for three years (for a total of six
calculation/reporting periods). Measured savings will use the previous year consumption as a baseline.
kWh SAVED = kWh BP – kWh RP
Where:
kWh BP
=
Electrical consumption during baseline period (= varies by building)
kWh RP
=
Electrical consumption during reporting period (= varies by building)
Therms SAVED = Therms BP – Therms RP
Therms BP = (Therms BPACT ) * (HDD 30YRAVG / HDD BP )
Therms RP = Therms NORM = (Therms RPACT ) * (HDD 30YRAVG / HDD RP )
Where:
Therms BP
=
Natural gas consumption during baseline period (= varies by building)
Therms RP
=
Natural gas consumption during reporting period (= varies by building)
Therms BPACT =
Actual natural gas consumption during baseline period (= varies by
building)
HDD 30YRAVG =
30-year average heating degree days
HDD BP
=
Therms NORM =
Heating degree days during baseline period (= varies by year)
Natural gas consumption normalized for heating loads (= varies by
building)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
413
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Therms RPACT =
Actual natural gas consumption for reporting period (= directly from
utility bill; varies by building)
HDD RP
Heating degree days during reporting period (= varies by year)
=
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
There will be no peak savings for Periods 1, 3, and 5. For Periods 2, 4, and 6, the monthly kW for June,
July, and August of the reporting year is averaged and used as the kW RP .
kW SAVED = kW BP - kW RP
Where:
kW BP
=
Average monthly kW usage for baseline year (= average of kW JUNE +
kW JULY + kW AUG ; varies by building)
kW RP
=
Average monthly kW usage for reporting year (= average of kW JUNE +
kW JULY + kW AUG ; varies by building)
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 3 years)1
Assumptions
The 30-year average HDDs per month by Wisconsin city are provided in the table below.
30-Year HDD4 Values Per Month by Wisconsin City
Month
Milwaukee
Green Bay
Wausau
Madison
La Crosse
Minocqua
Rice Lake
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
1,443
1,211
934
595
358
126
29
36
116
471
1,591
1,238
1,019
630
265
87
38
74
182
560
1,440
1,313
1,278
550
460
39
33
54
143
568
1,561
1,272
844
607
217
105
18
45
233
568
1,623
1,200
911
514
242
80
10
40
186
522
1,632
1,293
1,222
574
321
124
73
97
294
528
1,623
1,455
1,125
531
414
84
45
64
185
571
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
414
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Month
November
December
Total
Milwaukee
Green Bay
Wausau
Madison
La Crosse
Minocqua
Rice Lake
817
1,262
7,398
932
1,288
7,903
844
1,261
7,982
916
1,404
7,791
861
1,373
7,561
969
1,665
8,793
1,007
1,624
8,726
The incremental cost of $12,000 per building was based on the following assumptions:
•
According to project experience, we assumed that staff will spend approximately 45 minutes per
month on the DEET Initiative, doing activities such as reviewing DEET-related emails and reports,
addressing energy topics in staff meetings, and discussing energy with students.
•
We assumed an average staff wage of $30/hour based on working 1,500 hours for the median
teacher salary of $45,227 in La Crosse, Wisconsin.5 (Note: administrators have a higher salary
and support staff will have a lower salary). The total, at $30/hour multiplied by 0.75 hour/month
and 9 months/year, is $202.50 (rounded to $200).
•
We assumed an average of 50 staff per building based on field experience ($200 multiplied by
50 staff/building = $10,000/building).
•
Finally, based on rough estimates from general data available to the program, we assumed each
building would spend an average of $2,000 in buildings and grounds discretionary funds on
small energy projects (such as replacing incandescent/CFLs with LEDs, installing timers and/or
power strips, and adding LED task lighting or vending misers). Since this is the first time an
initiative like DEET has been proposed in Wisconsin, we concluded that an incremental cost of
$10,000 for staff time and $2,000 for energy projects per building is reasonable and appropriate.
Sources
1. Skumatz, Lisa A. “Measuring the Impacts of Behavior Change Programs: Filling in the Blanks.”
2012 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. Available
online: http://beccconference.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/Hannah-Arnold_BECCPresentation-FINAL-2013-11-20.pdf
2. This includes a $2,000.00 estimate for annual expenditures on small energy projects, such as
replacing incandescent/CFLs with LEDs, installing timers and/or power strips, or installing LED
task lighting or vending misers. In addition, the incremental cost accounts for the average staff
time needed to ensure that DEET is a success, at 50 staff/building and $200/staff (= $10,000;
larger buildings will have more staff, smaller building will have fewer staff).
3. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Schools: An Overview of Energy Use and Energy
Efficiency Opportunities. 2006. Available
online: http://www.energystar.gov/ia/partners/publications/pubdocs/Schools.pdf
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
415
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
4. Renewable Resource Data Center, National Renewable Resource Laboratory. National Solar
Radiation Database (Base of 65°F) Typical Meteorological Year 3. Available online:
http://rredc.nrel.gov/solar/old_data/nsrdb/1991-2005/tmy3/by_state_and_city.html
5. Public School Teacher Salaries, La Crosse, WI. Available online: http://www1.salary.com/WI/LaCrosse/Public-School-Teacher-salary.html on August 10, 2015.
Revision History
Version Number
01
Date
09/2015
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
Description of Change
Initial release
416
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Process
Process Exhaust Filtration
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
Process Exhaust Filtration, 3244
Per CFM
Hybrid
Process
Filtration
Industrial, Commercial
0
0
Varies by project
0
Varies by project
0
1,2,3
15
N/A
Measure Description
Process exhaust air filtration systems save energy by reducing the heat load on a make-up air system by
recirculating filtered process air instead of bringing in colder outdoor make-up air during the heating
season. Energy savings result from the reduced temperature difference through the heat exchanger of
the supply air system. The temperature difference between the filtered indoor air and the indoor supply
air temperature is much lower than the difference between outdoor air and indoor supply air
temperature. This reduction in heat load results in natural gas savings.
Exhaust filtration systems typically use cartridge filters and are frequently found in welding fume
exhaust and paint booth exhaust applications. This measure is incented per CFM of make-up air
eliminated and savings will be realized in industrial and service facilities. Systems must run a minimum
of 2,000 hours annually in order to be eligible.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is 100% of process exhaust fumes being evacuated from the space associated
with the industrial process, with ventilation provided by 100% outside air with heating provided by a
natural gas fired make-up air unit.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
417
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is a filtration system that reduces or eliminates the need to discharge 100% of
process exhaust by filtering and recirculating the air and thereby reducing or eliminating make-up air
demand and associated heating energy.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Btu/°F = CFM * Specific Heat
Btu SAVED = Btu/°F * ΔT * HOURS
Therm SAVED = BTU SAVED / (System Efficiency * 100,000)
Note: Fan energy savings are neglected for this measure, as eliminating the makeup air fan is offset by
the increased energy usage of the exhaust fan due to static pressure increases.
Where:
BTU/°F
=
Energy required to heat volume of make-up air for each additional
degree Fahrenheit
CFM
=
Volumetric flow rate of eliminated make-up air unit (= actual)
Specific Heat
=
1.08 Btu/hr/CFM-°F (dry air)
BTU SAVED
=
Total energy required to heat eliminated make-up air
ΔT
=
Difference between average indoor temperature and average
outside winter temperature
HOURS
=
Annual hours requiring exhaust (= actual)
Therm SAVED
=
Natural gas energy required to heat make-up air before eliminated
System Efficiency = Heating efficiency of make-up air system (= actual)
100,000
=
Conversion from Btu to therm
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
There are no peak savings associated with this measure.
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (15 years)1,2,3
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
418
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Assumptions
The average inside temperature, 65°F, assumed to equal design temperature. Average outdoor winter
temperature of 30.8°F.5 (Therefore ΔT = 65°F – 30.8°F = 34.2°F).
Sources
1. Using current EULs, rooftop units are very similar to the industrial ventilation system but
without a heating or cooling coil. Focus on Energy currently uses a 15 year EUL for rooftop units.
6. Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers. “Probabilistic Estimation Of Service
Life.” http://www.cibse.org/knowledge/cibse-technical-symposium-2011/probabilisticestimation-of-service-life. The industrial ventilation system would consist of a fan and a set of
filters; fan EUL is 15 to 20 years depending on type and filter EUL is 15 to 20 years depending on
type.
7. Wisconsin DOA guideline document for lifecycle costing of state building projects. Page 36 lists
10 to 20 years for rooftop units and 15 to 30 years for fans depending on type.
8. SPECTRUM historical projects (custom projects that implemented comparable measures).
9. Focus on Energy Deemed Savings Manual.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
07/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
419
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Pressure Screen Rotor
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Pressure Screen Rotor, 2496
Measure Unit
Per horsepower
Measure Type
Hybrid
Measure Group
Process
Measure Category
Specialty Pulp & Paper
Sector(s)
Industrial
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Varies by horsepower
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Varies by horsepower
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
0
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Varies by horsepower
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
0
Water Savings (gal/yr)
0
Effective Useful Life (years)
15
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
Varies by measure
2
Measure Description
Paper mills use pressure screens to separate contaminants from the pulp produced from recycled
products. A motor is used to spin the rotor at a high velocity, forcing the pulp through narrow slots or
apertures that are a barrier to debris, stickies, contaminates, and uncooked or undeveloped bundles of
wood fibers (shives). This makes contaminate-free pulp available for further processing.
Pressure screen rotors are an energy-efficient method of removing large contaminants from pulp stock.
The new dual element foil design more efficiently removes the contaminants while using less power.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline technology for removing contaminants is with a narrow slotted screen.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is a pressure screen rotor design.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
There are two methods for estimating savings. The first method relies on pre-retrofit and post-retrofit
amp measurements from the participant application; the second method determines deemed savings
using an energy savings factor of 30% based on Focus on Energy project history.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
420
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Method #1: Custom Approach (Amps Known)
kWh SAVED = (Amps PRE - Amps POST ) * 1.73 * V * PF * Hrs/wk * Weeks
Method #2: Deemed Approach (Amps Unknown)
kWh SAVED = HP * LF / Eff *0.746 * S * Hrs/wk * Weeks
Where:
Amps PRE
=
Pre-retrofit pulper amps (= actual; requested in program application or
measured)
Amps POST
=
Post-retrofit pulper amps (= actual; requested in program application or
measured)
1.73
=
Constant to calculate kWh
V
=
Voltage of pulper (= actual; requested in program application or
reported by customer)
PF
=
Power factor (= actual reported by customer or deemed 0.75)
Hrs/wk
=
Hours per week (= actual; requested in program application or reported
by customer)
Weeks
=
Weeks of operation per year (= actual; requested in program application
or reported by customer)
HP
=
Motor horsepower (= actual; reported by customer)
LF
=
Motor load factor (= actual reported by customer or deemed 65%)
Eff
=
Estimated motor efficiency (= actual reported by customer or deemed
92%)
0.746
=
Conversion HP to Watts
S
=
Deemed savings factor (= 30%)1
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
Method #1: Custom Approach (Amps Known)
kW = (Amps PRE - Amps POST ) * 1.73 * V * PF
Method #2: Deemed Approach (Amps Unknown)
kW = HP * LF / Eff * 0.746 * S
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
421
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 15 years)
Sources
1. Focus on Energy industrial sector project history.
2. Engineering Judgement
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
05/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
422
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Repulper Rotor
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Repulper Rotor, 2538
Measure Unit
Per horsepower
Measure Type
Hybrid
Measure Group
Process
Measure Category
Specialty Pulp & Paper
Sector(s)
Industrial
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Varies by amperage
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Varies by amperage
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
0
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Varies by amperage
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
0
Water Savings (gal/yr)
0
Effective Useful Life (years)
15
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
Varies by amperage
3
Measure Description
A repulper is a large tank with a mixer, or rotor, on the bottom. Pulping rotors are rebuilt or replaced
periodically, providing facility managers with the opportunity to investigate new repulper rotors for
their facility. Manufacturers of paper process equipment designed new energy-efficient repulper rotors
to help offset rising energy costs, including energy-efficient repulper rotors (HM rotors, new energy
efficient repulping blades) replacing conventional HOG-type rotors (bexisiting conventional repulping
blades, baseline). HM rotors have a tall, swept-back blade design that provides effective turbulence of
the fiber suspension product and maximizes rotor fiber contact while consuming less horsepower than
conventional rotors.
Description of Baseline Equipment
The baseline technology is a HOG rotor.
Description of Efficient Equipment
The efficient condition is a HM rotor.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
423
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Saving Algorithm
There are two methods for estimating savings. The first method relies on pre-retrofit and post-retrofit
amp measurements as provided in the participant application or obtained; the second method uses
deemed savings using an energy savings factor of 23%.1
Method #1: Custom Approach (Amps Known)
kWh SAVED = (Amps PRE - Amps POST ) * 1.73 * V * PF * Bwk * t * Weeks
Method #2: Deemed Approach (Amps Unknown)
kWh SAVED = HP * LF / Eff * 0.746 * S * Bwk * t * Weeks
Where:
Amps PRE =
Pre-retrofit pulper amps (= actual; from program application or measured)
Amps POST =
Post-retrofit pulper amps (= actual; from program application or
measured)
1.73
=
Constant to calculate kWh
V
=
Voltage of pulper (= actual; from program application or reported by
customer)
PF
=
Power factor (= actual reported by customer or deemed 0.75)
Bwk
=
Batches per week (= actual; from program application or reported by
customer)
t
=
Time per pulp batch in minutes (= actual; from program application or
reported by customer)
Weeks
=
Weeks of pulping per year (= actual; from program application or reported
by customer)
HP
=
Motor horsepower (= actual; reported by customer)
LF
=
Motor load factor (= actual reported by customer or deemed 65%)
Eff
=
Estimated motor efficiency (=actual reported by customer or deemed
92%)
0.746
=
Conversion HP to Watts
S
=
Savings factor (= deemed 23%)2
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
424
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Summer Concident Peak Savings Algorithm
Method #1: Custom Approach (Amps Known)
kW = (Amps PRE - Amps POST ) * 1.73 * V * PF
Method #2: Deemed Approach (Amps Unknown)
kW = HP * LF / Eff * 0.746 * S
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 15 years)
Sources
1. As determined from the pilot study performed in 2005 by Wisconsin Focus on Energy in
partnership with an in-state towel, tissue, and paper manufacturing company based in
Wisconsin. Voith High Efficiency HM Rotor Energy Data A Repulper Rotor Design Case Study.
2005. http://oaktrust.library.tamu.edu/bitstream/handle/1969.1/5580/ESL-IE-05-0521.pdf?sequence=4&isAllowed=y. Accessed 05/ 2015.
2. Focus on Energy Business Programs - Industrial Sector. December 16, 2005. Repulper rotor
reduces energy costs by 23%.
3. Engineering Judgement
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
05/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
425
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Variable Frequency Drive (Variable Torque and Constant Torque)
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Variable Frequency Drive, Process Fan, 2647
Variable Frequency Drive, Process Pump, 2648
Variable Frequency Drive, Constant Torque, 3280
Per motor
Hybrid
Process
Variable Speed Drive
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
Varies by motor
0
0
Varies by motor
0
0
1
15
Varies by measure, see Appendix D
Measure Description
Fans, pumps, conveyors, and other motor-driven equipment require controls to vary their operation to
produce the desired output (sufficient airflow to cool a building, deliver hot water for heating, or move
product down a conveyor). Traditionally, flow rates have been reduced by increasing the head and riding
the pump (or fan) curve back to a new flow rate (throttling control). Alternately, some systems have
bypasses that divert a portion of the flow back to the pump or fan inlet to reduce system flow (bypass
control). Other systems simply start and stop the motor to meet the given load (on/off control). An
alternate way to provide control of motor systems is to use VFDs, which physically slow the motors
driving pumps, fans, and other equipment in order to achieve reduced flow rates at considerable energy
savings.
There are three categories of motor applications, but only two (variable torque and constant torque)
have the potential for energy savings when adding VFDs. The categories of motor applications are as
follows:2
Variable Torque Loads – This category consists of centrifugal pumps and fans. For these applications, the
motors follow the fan or affinity laws, resulting in the input power varying with the pump or fan
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
426
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
rotational speed. This means that small reductions in flow (20%, for example) can produce large input
power savings (50%).
Constant Torque Loads – This category consists of equipment where the torque requirement is
independent of speed. Examples include cranes, hoists, conveyors, extruders, mixers, and positive
displacement pumps. The input power varies linearly with the rotational speed (e.g., a 20% reduction in
speed equals a 20% reduction in input power).
Constant Horsepower Loads3 – For equipment in this category, the torque varies inversely with the
speed of the motor. Therefore, the power requirement does not vary, regardless of speed. Examples
include lathes, drilling, and milling equipment. This equipment category does not offer energy savings
for installing VFDs, and is therefore ineligible for VFD incentives.
The following rules and requirements apply to the VFD application:
•
VFD must be used in conjunction with a process (non HVAC) pumping application.
•
Redundant or back-up units do not qualify.
•
Routine replacement of existing VFDs does not qualify.
•
VFD speed (for variable torque applications) must be automatically controlled by differential
pressure, flow, temperature, or other variable signal.
•
VFD speed (for constant torque applications) may be either automatically or manually
controlled.
•
The system controlled must have significant load diversity that will result in savings through
motor speed variation. Conditions requiring the motor to be loaded consistently above 80% or
consistently loaded below 30% are not eligible for this incentive, as these operating conditions
may not realize sufficient savings from a VFD.
•
Copies of invoices that clearly show the drive’s size are required.
•
Incremental cost assumed to equal measure installed cost. HVAC and process systems either
have equipment described under the Description of Baseline Condition section or have a VFD.
Baseline condition equipment is required for operation, so VFD is a replacement technology, not
an incremental improvement in efficiency (like for a chiller or boiler).
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is a motor for a variable torque or constant torque application operating at full
speed and using throttling, bypass, or on/off control to handle variable outputs from the driven device
(pump, fan, etc.).
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
427
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is adding a VFD to the motor to vary the electric frequency (i.e., Hertz) going to
the motor, which will allow the speed of the motor to be varied. For variable torque (pump and fan)
applications, the VFD must be automatically controlled by a variable input signal. Constant torque
applications have the option to be manually controlled to vary the speed of equipment associated with
production in a manufacturing environment.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Energy savings for this measure are custom calculated using a spreadsheet tool,4 which is based on an
engineering bulletin5 and savings calculators6 from two different VFD manufacturers. This spreadsheet
tool uses power curves developed from data obtained by measuring the operating characteristics of
various fans and pumps. The curves are representative of typical VFD operation.
•
Equation used in the software tool:
•
Power at Design GPM [CFM] = Nameplate Horsepower * Conversion Constant (kW/hp) * Motor
Load at Design GPM [CFM] / Nameplate Efficiency
Computed for each capacity level:
•
Percentage of Design kW = A1 + (A2 * Capacity) + (A3 * (Capacity)2) + (A4 * (Capacity)3)
•
Percentage of Design kW for VSD = A1 + (A2 * Capacity) + (A3 * (Capacity)2) + (A4 * (Capacity)3)

Where A1, A2, A3, and A4 are variables unique to each “before VFD” control type, allowing a
quadratic equation to be created to represent the load profile. The next table shows values
for A1, A2, A3, and A4.
Equation Variables: Before VFD
Control
Pumps
Outlet Control Valve
Eddy Current Clutch
Torque Converter
Bypass Valve
VFD_Pump
On/Off
A1
55.21240
16.39683
13.51137
102.00000
27.44751
100.00000
A2
A3
A4
0.63700
-0.05647
0.34467
0.00000
-1.00853
0.00000
0.00190
0.01237
0.01269
0.00000
0.01762
0.00000
0.00000
-0.00003
-0.00007
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
CF
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
428
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Control
Fans
Inlet Guide Vane, FC Fans
Inlet Guide Vanes
Inlet Damper Box
Outlet Damper, FC Fans
Discharge Damper
Eddy Current Drives
VFD_Fan
Constant Torque VFD
Constant_Torque_VFD
A1
A2
A3
A4
CF
20.00000
47.26190
50.25833
20.41905
55.92857
16.39683
5.90000
0.06808
0.67944
0.71648
0.10983
-0.56905
-0.05647
-0.19567
0.00128
0.01554
0.01452
0.00745
0.02462
0.01237
0.00766
0.00009
0.00014
0.00013
0.00000
-0.00014
-0.00003
0.00004
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.9
0.00000
1.00000
0.00000
0.00000
0.78
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = kWh SAVED / HOURS * CF
Where:
HOURS
=
Annual hours of operation for the system controlled by the VFD
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= varies by VFD use; see table below)
Coincidence Factor by VFD Use
VFD Use
Hot Water Pump
Equipment type = Other Pump, Other Fan
Baseline flow controls = Fan with Inlet Damper
Box, Eddy Current Drives, Torque Converter
Chilled Water Pump
Constant Volume Fan (on/off control)
Air foil / inlet guide vanes
Forward curved fan with discharge damper
Forward curved inlet guide vanes
Inlet guide vanes, fan type unknown
Cooling tower fan
Process pump
Process fan
Constant torque process applications
Pool pump
CF
Source
0.00
Heating pumps operate in winter (off peak)
0.00
Assume no demand reduction
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.90
0.78
0.78
0.78
0.78
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
DEER model runs are weather normalized for
statewide use by population density.
Per Michigan Energy Measures Database
7
Assume same CF as other process equipment
Assume same CF as process equipment
429
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Expected useful life (= 15 years)1
Sources
1. 2013 Vermont
TRM. http://www.greenmountainpower.com/upload/photos/371TRM_User_Manual_No_201382-5-protected.pdf
2. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Advanced Manufacturing Office. Motor
Systems Tip Sheet #11, Adjustable Speed Drive Part Load Efficiency.
3. Smart Energy Design Assistance Center. SEDAC Tech Note – Variable Frequency Drives.
November 2011.
4. Focus on Energy. VFD calculation spreadsheet. Modified to handle constant torque loads.
5. “Flow Control." Westinghouse publication, Bulletin B-851, F/86/Rev-CMS 8121.
6. ABB and Toshiba energy saving spreadsheet tools.
ABB Pump Save (use version
4.4): http://www.abb.com/product/seitp322/5fcd62536739a42bc12574b70043c53a.aspx
ABB Fan Save (use version
4.4): http://www.abb.com/product/seitp322/5b6810a0e20d157fc1256f2d00338395.aspx
Toshiba (set filters to product family=drives and download type=software, look for “Cost Savings
Estimator”): http://www.toshiba.com/ind/downloads_main.jsp.
7. “Michigan Energy Measures Database.” 2013. Available
online: http://www.michigan.gov/mpsc/0,4639,7-159-52495_55129---,00.html. Refer to “VFD
1.5 to 50 hp Process Pumping” and “VFD for Process Fans Under 50 hp” measures.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
430
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Refrigeration
Cooler Evaporator Fan Control
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Cooler Evaporator Fan Control, 2269
Per fan motor
Prescriptive
Refrigeration
Controls
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
2,051
0.234
0
32,817
0
0
1
16
$275.00
Measure Description
Walk-in cooler and freezer refrigeration systems typically operate 24 hours per day, 365 days per year.
These systems must run when the compressor is running to provide cooling, and they must run when
the compressor is not running to provide air circulation, thus preventing the coil from freezing. The only
time these fans do not operate is during the defrost cycle.
Significant energy savings can be realized by installing a more efficient evaporator fan motor and control
fan system, which regulates the speed of the evaporator fan motor to meet the need during each phase
of the refrigeration cycle. These systems save energy in two ways: (1) the evaporator fans consume less
energy, and (2) the system results in less heat being introduced to the refrigerated chamber from the
evaporator fan motors, which decreases the overall box load, thereby reducing the
compressor/condenser on-duty cycle.
This measure is a single motor and a controller that could control multiple fan motors.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is a refrigeration system with a SP or PSC motor without an evaporator fan
controller. Existing ECMs are not eligible for replacement under this measure. It is assumed that these
fans run at a constant speed for 8,578 hours per year.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
431
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is a two-speed ECM replacing a SP or PSC motor on an evaporator fan unit and a
controller to switch the fan to lower speed when the temperature of the unit or refrigerant is
determined to need lower air movement. Only upgraded motors connected to the control unit are
allowable under this measure.
Controls must meet the requirements of the ECM fan motor control measures.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = kWh BASE - kWh EE
kWh BASE = [(kWevap∗ DCevap)* BF] * HOURS
kWh EE = {[(kWcircH*(1-LS)+ kWcircH*LS)∗ BF} *HOURS
Where:
kWh BASE
=
Annual existing base kWh consumed
kWh EE
=
Proposed annual kWh consumed
kWevap
=
Connected load kW of each evaporator fan
DCevap
=
Duty cycle of evaporator fan (= 97%)3
BF
=
Bonus factor to account for a reduced cooling load on the compressor,
thus refrigeration savings.3
HOURS
=
Annual operating hours of fans (= 8,578)
kWcircH
=
Connected load kW of the normal speed ECM evaporator fan
LS
=
Fraction of time at low-speed setting (= 32%)7
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = kWh SAVED / (8,760)∗ CF
Where:
8,760
=
Total annual operating hours of building
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 1)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
432
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 16 years)1
Assumptions
A 60% SP motor and 40% PSC motor were assumed for the baseline. An equal mix of 1/10, 1/15, and
1/20 HP motors were assumed for the motor sizes being replaced. It is assumed that there is a 70% load
factor, 20% SP motor efficiency, and 40% PSC motor efficiency. It is assumed that the fan size is equal to
the horsepower replaced for walk in coolers and freezers. It is assumed that there is a 70% load factor
for full operation and 70% motor efficiency. Low-speed operation assumes a 10% load factor and 50%
motor efficiency. The assumed bonus factor for coolers is 1.3 and for freezers is 1.5.
Bonus Factor assumes that the application of this measure would occur 50% of the time in a cooler and
50% of the time in a freezer. Thus the assumed bonus factor for coolers is 1.3 and for freezers is 1.5.
Annual operating hours, assumes that the application of this measure would occur 50% of the time in a
cooler and 50% of the time in a freezer. The assumed number of operating hours for coolers is 8,760 per
year and for freezers is 8,273 per year (with for 4 x 20-minute defrost cycles per day).
The Connected load kW of the normal speed ECM evaporator fan is based on 100% ECM evaporator fan
types. It is assumed that the fan size is equal to the horsepower replaced for walk in coolers and
freezers. It is assumed that there is a 70% load factor for full operation and 70% motor efficiency. Lowspeed operation assumes a 10% load factor and 50% motor efficiency.
It is assumed that application of this measure would occur 50% of the time in a cooler and 50% of the
time in a freezer. The associated duty cycle assumed for coolers is 100% and for freezers is 100% and
94%.
Sources
1. California Energy Commission and California Public Utilities Commission. Database for Energy
Efficient Resources (DEER) 2008. http://www.energy.ca.gov/deer/ .
2. Efficiency Maine. Commercial Technical Reference Manual, Version 2013.1. Pg. 67. January 1,
2013.
3. Regional Technical Forum. Evaporator Fan Controls and Evaporator Fan Uniform Energy Savings
Measures Calculations. 2010. Estimated as conservative average of a Medium Temperature Low
Speed at 42% and a Low Temperature Low Speed at 32%.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
433
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
434
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
ECM Compressor Fan Motor
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
ECM Compressor Fan Motor, 2306
Per motor
Prescriptive
Refrigeration
Motor
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
396
0.0792
0
5,940
0
0
Effective Useful Life (years)
15
$80.00
Incremental Cost
1
Measure Description
Compressor and condenser packaged unit fans typically run 4,500 hours per year to blow air across the
compressor and condenser to cool the equipment and refrigerant. The long-time standard in
refrigeration equipment is SP fan motors, which are highly inefficient and generate excessive heat.
Higher-efficiency ECMs use 75% less energy to run and generate less heat. ECMs or brushless AC fan
motors are used in conjunction with air-cooled condensers and/or compressors.
Incentives are available for ECMs replacing SP motors or PSC motors on existing packaged
condenser/compressor fans. This measure does not apply to evaporator fan motors.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is an SP or PSC packaged compressor/condenser unit fan motor.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is an ECM replacing a SP motor or PSC motor on a compressor/condenser unit.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
435
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (Watts BASE – Watts EE ) / 1,000 * HOURS
Where:
Watts BASE
=
Wattage of the existing SP fan motor (= 142 average)2
Watts EE
=
Wattage of the proposed motor (= 54)2
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOURS
=
Average annual run hours (= 4,500)3
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (Watts BASE - Watts EE ) / 1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 0.90)
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 15 years)1
Assumptions
A 50% SP motor and 50% PSC motor were assumed for the baseline.
Sources
1. PA Consulting Group Inc. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin Focus on
Energy Evaluation Business Programs: Measure Life Study. Final Report. August 25, 2009.
Available online:
https://focusonenergy.com/sites/default/files/bpmeasurelifestudyfinal_evaluationreport.pdf
2. Pennsylvania Public Utility Commission. Technical Reference Manual. June 2013.
3. Operating hours based on compressor/condenser run time and Wisconsin weather. This value is
between 4,000 – 5,000 hours, so 4,500 hours was used.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
436
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Reach In Refrigerated Case w/ Doors Replacing Open Multi Deck Case
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Reach In Refrigerated Case w/ Doors Replacing Open Multi Deck Case, 2509
Per linear foot
Prescriptive
Refrigeration
Refrigerated Case Door
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
847
0.0966
98
12,697
847
0
8
15
9
$700.00
Measure Description
This measure is replacing existing open multi-deck cases with equivalent storage (in cubic feet or linear
feet) of reach-in cases with doors. The estimated measure savings are conservative because case
replacements use equivalent linear feet, but reach-in cases are designed to hold more cubic feet of
product per linear foot (side-to-side measure) than multi-deck cases.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline is a 95% to 5% mix of cooler to freezer open multi-deck style cases.
Description of Efficient Condition
The replacement cases must have doors, be tied into a central refrigeration system, and be purchased
new. New case upgrades that simply enclose and/or add doors to an existing multi-deck do not qualify
for this incentive. New cases must be DOE 2012 Energy Compliant.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
437
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = [((P CE – P LE – P ME – (P CE F CR )) – (((P CP * (1 – F I ) – P LP – P MP – P CP F CR (1 – F I )))] * [((LF * (1/3,412)
* HOURS) / COP REFRIG ) – ((24 * (CDD / (T S – T R )) * (12/3,412) * COP ROOFTOP * (1/12,000))]
Therm SAVED = [((P CE – P LE – P ME – (P CE F CR )) – (((P CP * (1 – F I ) – P LP – P MP – (P CP F CR (1 – F I )))] * [24 * (HDD /
(T S – T R )) * (1/eff) * (1/100,000)]
Where:
P CE
=
Total load of multideck case (= 1,500 Btuh per linear foot for coolers;1
= 1,850 Btuh per linear foot for freezers)2
P LE
=
Lighting load of existing case (= 6.7 Btuh per linear foot)2
P ME
=
Motor load of existing case (= 7.3 Btuh per linear foot)2
F CR
=
Amount of case load associated with conduction and radiation (= 13%)5
P CP
=
Total load of new enclosed case (= 332 Btuh per linear foot for coolers;
= 528 Btuh per linear foot for freezers)3
FI
=
Amount of case load associated with infiltration reduction (= 68%)4
P LP
=
Lighting load of new case (= 8.2 Btuh per linear foot)3
P MP
=
Motor load of new case (= 2.7 Btuh per linear foot for coolers; = 3.5 Btuh
per linear foot for freezers)3
LF
=
Case load factor, the compressor duty cycle needed to maintain case
temperatures, deemed (= 62% for coolers; = 80% for freezers)6
3,412
=
Conversion from kilowatt-hours to Btu
HOURS
=
Average annual operating hours of the light fixture measured in hours per
year, deemed (= 8,760)6
COP REFRIG =
Coefficient of performance of refrigeration system: a measure of the
refrigeration system efficiency equal to the ratio of net heat removal to
total energy input, deemed (= 2.5 for coolers; = 1.3 for freezers)1
24
=
Hours per day
CDD
=
Cooling degree days, the sum of the number of degrees the average daily
temperature is greater than a base temperature for a given time period,
deemed (= 535)6
TS
=
Temperature of store, deemed (= 65°F)6
TR
=
Temperature of refrigerated case that needs to be maintained (= 36.5°F
for coolers; = -11°F for freezers)7
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
438
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
12
=
COP conversion factor
COP ROOFTOP = Coefficient of performance of rooftop system: a measure of the efficiency
of the rooftop system equal to the ratio of net heat removal to total
energy input (= 3.2)7
12,000
=
Btu to ton conversion factor
HDD
=
Heating degree days, the sum of the number of degrees the average daily
temperature is less than a base temperature for a given time period,
deemed (= 7,699)6
eff
=
Heating system efficiency, the average combustion efficiency of the boiler
(= 78%)7
100,000 =
Conversion factor from Btu to Dth
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = [((P CE – P LE – P ME – (P CE F CR )) – (((P CP * (1 – F I ) – P LP – P MP – P CP F CR (1 – F I )))] * [((LF * (1/3,412) *
HOURS) / COP REFRIG ) – ((24 * (CDD / (T S – T R )) * (12/3,412) * COP ROOFTOP * (1/12,000))] *
(1/8,760)
Where:
8,760
=
Total annual operating hours of building
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 15 years)8
Assumptions
Refrigerated case temperatures were calculated as the average of the most commonly used settings for
cooler and freezer cases: 35°F to 38°F and -14°F to -8°F, respectively.7
Sources
1. Arthur D. Little, Inc. Energy Savings Potential for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment – Final
Report. 1996.
2. Manufacturer’s specification sheet for open multideck style freezer case. Hussmann Excel F6L.
November 2010.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
439
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
3. Manufacturer’s specification sheet for enclosed reach-in cases. Zero Zone RVCC30 and RVZC30.
2012.
4. California Edison Research and Thermal Test Center.
5. ASHRAE RP-1402.
6. PA Consulting Group Inc. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin, Focus on
Energy Evaluation Business Programs: Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Updated March 22, 2010.
7. National Renewable Energy Lab. U.S. Department of Energy Building Technology Program.
Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide: Practical Ways to Improve Energy Performance, Grocery Stores.
June 2012.
8. California Energy Commission and California Public Utilities Commission. Database for Energy
Efficient Resources (DEER) 2008. http://www.energy.ca.gov/deer/ .
9. Project bid data based on Focus on Energy project history.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
440
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Retrofit Open Multi-Deck Cases with Doors
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Retrofit Open Refrigerated Cases with Doors, 3409
Per linear foot
Prescriptive
Refrigeration
Refrigerated Case Door
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
615
0.0702
11
7,378
129
0
7
12
$126.53
Measure Description
Existing open multi-deck style cases can be retrofitted with doors. The doors are designed to fit right
onto the open multi-deck style cases with minimal case modification. The measure incentives are based
on a per-foot-case enclosed.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline is a 95% to 5% mix of cooler to freezer open multi-deck style cases.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is installing doors on the cooler or freezer multi-deck style cases.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
441
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (P C F I – P L – P M – (P C F CR F I )) * (LF * (1/3,412) * HOURS * COP REFRIG ) – ((24 * (CDD / (T S – T R )) *
(12/3,412) * COP ROOFTOP * (1/12,000))
Therm SAVED = P C F CR F I * ((24 * (HDD / (T S – T R )) * (1/eff) * (1/100,000))
Where:
PC
=
Total case load, the average energy consumption of the refrigerated
case (= 1,500 Btuh for coolers;1 = 1,850 Btuh for freezers)2
FI
=
Amount of infiltration reduction, the fraction of the case energy
associated with infiltration (= 68%)3
PL
=
Lighting load of case, the average energy consumption of the lighting in
the case (= 6.7 Btuh)2
PM
=
Motor load of case, the average energy consumption of the evaporator
motors in the case (= 5 Btuh)2
F CR
=
Amount of case load energy associated with conduction and radiation
(= 13%)4
LF
=
Case load factor, the compressor duty cycle needed to maintain case
temperatures, deemed (= 62% for coolers; = 80% for freezers)5
3,412
=
Conversion factor from kilowatt-hours to Btu
HOURS
=
Average annual operating hours of the light fixture, deemed
(= 8,760)5
COP REFRIG
=
Coefficient of performance of refrigeration system, a measure of the
refrigeration system efficiency equal to the ratio of net heat removal to
the total energy input, deemed (= 2.5 for coolers; = 1.3 for freezers)1
24
=
Hours per day
CDD
=
Cooling degree days, the sum of the number of degrees that the
average daily temperature is greater than a base temperature for a
given time period (the State of Wisconsin uses a base temperature of
65°F, which is a standard value used in the HVAC industry), deemed
(= 535)5
TS
=
Temperature of store, deemed (= 65°F)5
TR
=
Temperature of case, the refrigerated case temperature that needs to
be maintained (= 36.5°F for coolers; = -11°F for freezers)6
12
=
COP conversion factor
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
442
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
COP ROOFTOP =
Coefficient of performance of rooftop system, a measure of the
efficiency of the rooftop system equal to the ratio of net heat removal
to the total energy input (= 3.2)6
12,000
=
Btu to ton conversion factor
HDD
=
Heating degree days, the sum of the number of degrees that the
average daily temperature is less than a base temperature for a given
time period (the State of Wisconsin uses a base temperature of 65°F,
which is a standard value used in the HVAC industry), deemed (= 7,699)5
eff
=
Heating system efficiency, the average combustion efficiency of the
boiler (= 78%)6
100,000
=
Conversion factor from Btu to Dth
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (P C F I – P L – P M – (P C F CR F I )) * (LF * (1/3,412) * HOURS * (1/COP REFRIG )) – ((24 * (CDD / (T S – T R ))
* (12/3,412) * COP ROOFTOP * (1/12,000)) * 1/8,760
Where:
100,000
=
Conversion factor from Btu to Dth
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 12 years)7
Assumptions
Refrigerated case temperatures were calculated as the average of the most commonly used settings for
cooler and freezer cases, 35°F to 38°F and -14°F to -8°F, respectively.6
Sources
1. Arthur D. Little, Inc. Energy Savings Potential for Commercial refrigeration Equipment – Final
Report. 1996.
2. Manufacturer’s specification sheet for open multideck style freezer case. Hussmann Excel F6L.
November 2010.
3. California Edison Research and Thermal Test Center.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
443
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
4. ASHRAE RP-1402.
5. PA Consulting Group Inc. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin, Focus on
Energy Evaluation Business Programs: Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Updated March 22, 2010.
6. U.S. Department of Energy Building Technology Program. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide:
Practical Ways to Improve Energy Performance, Grocery Stores. National Renewable Energy
Laboratory. June 2012.
7. California Energy Commission and California Public Utilities Commission. Database for Energy
Efficient Resources (DEER) 2008. http://www.energy.ca.gov/deer/ .Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
444
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Strip Curtains for Walk-In Freezers and Coolers
Measure Details
Strip Curtains for Walk-In Freezers and Coolers, 3183
Strip Curtains for Walk-In Freezers and Coolers, SBP A La Carte, 3284
Per linear foot
Prescriptive
Refrigeration
Strip Curtain
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government
315 per linear foot
0.036 per linear foot
0
1,260 per linear foot
0
0
1
4
$50.00
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
Measure Description
Strip curtains reduce the refrigeration load associated with the infiltration of non-refrigerated air into
the refrigerated spaces of walk-in coolers or freezers. The most likely areas of application are grocery
stores, supermarkets, restaurants, and refrigerated warehouse.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is a walk-in cooler or freezer that with no strip curtain or an old, ineffective strip
curtain installed.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is adding a strip curtain or replacing the ineffective strip curtain on a walk-in
cooler or freezer. Strip curtains must be at least 0.06 inches thick. Low temperature strip curtains must
be used for low temperature applications.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = ΔkWh/LF * LF
Where:
LF
=
Linear feet of door width of installation
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
445
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = ΔkW/LF * LF
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 4 years)1
Deemed Savings
The annual deemed savings is calculated based on methods and deemed savings included in the 2013
Pennsylvania TRM.2 For the Small Business Program, a single deemed measure is developed using the
expected mix of program customers and situations.
In order to create the Small Business Program measure mix, the following assumptions based on facility
type are assumed. See the Assumptions section for more background.
•
•
•
Facility Types

Supermarket = 10%

Convenience Store = 30%

Restaurant = 60%
Cooler and Freezer Mix

Coolers = 75%

Freezers = 25%
Facilities that have existing ineffective strip curtains

25% (75% have no existing strip curtains)
Comparison of Pennsylvania TRM to Focus on Energy Values by Facility Type*
Facility Type
Supermarket - Cooler
Supermarket - Freezer
PA TRM 2013 (Source 1)
Demand
PreEnergy
Reduction
Existing
Savings
(per
Curtains (per sqft)**
sqft)***
Yes
No
Unknown
Yes
No
37
108
108
119
349
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
0.0042
0.0123
0.0123
0.0136
0.0398
Focus on Energy
Weighted
Measure
Energy
Mix
Savings
(per sqft)
1.88%
5.63%
0.00%
0.63%
1.88%
0.69
6.08
0.00
0.74
6.54
Weighted
Demand
Reduction
(per sqft)
0.00008
0.00069
0.00000
0.00009
0.00075
446
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Facility Type
PA TRM 2013 (Source 1)
Demand
PreEnergy
Reduction
Existing
Savings
(per
Curtains (per sqft)**
sqft)***
Focus on Energy
Weighted
Measure
Energy
Mix
Savings
(per sqft)
Weighted
Demand
Reduction
(per sqft)
Unknown
349
0.0398
0.00%
0.00
0.00000
Yes
5
0.0006
5.63%
0.28
0.00003
Convenience Store - Cooler
No
20
0.0023
16.88%
3.38
0.00039
Unknown
11
0.0013
0.00%
0.00
0.00000
Yes
8
0.0009
1.88%
0.15
0.00002
Convenience Store - Freezer
No
27
0.0031
5.63%
1.52
0.00017
Unknown
17
0.002
0.00%
0.00
0.00000
Yes
8
0.0009
11.25%
0.90
0.00010
Restaurant - Cooler
No
30
0.0034
33.75%
10.13
0.00115
Unknown
18
0.002
0.00%
0.00
0.00000
Yes
34
0.0039
3.75%
1.28
0.00015
Restaurant - Freezer
No
119
0.0136
11.25%
13.39
0.00153
Unknown
81
0.0092
0.00%
0.00
0.00000
Yes
254
0.029
0.00%
0.00
0.00000
Refrigerated Warehouse
No
729
0.0832
0.00%
0.00
0.00000
Unknown
287
0.0327
0.00%
0.00
0.00000
Focus on Energy Small Business Program Savings Values (per sqft)
45.00
0.00514
* Sum values may differ due to rounding.
* The 2013 Pennsylvania TRM uses the Tamm Equation to determine electricity savings: kWh = 365 x topen x (ηnew - ηold) x
20CD x A x {[(Ti - Tr)/Ti]gH}0.5 x 60 x (ρihi – ρrhr) / (3413 x COPadj)
*** kW SAVED = kWh SAVED / 8,760
The unit of measurement for strip curtains is per linear foot of doorway width. It is assumed that all
walk-in unit doors are 7 feet tall. The table below shows the energy savings per square foot to linear
foot comparison for determining deemed savings.
Conversion of Energy Savings
Savings Type
Annual Electricity Savings (kWh/yr)
Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Natural Gas Savings (therms/yr)
Savings (per sqft)
Door Height (Ft)
Deemed Value
per Linear Foot
45
0.0051
0
7
7
7
315
0.036
0
Using the EUL, the table below shows updated savings values for strip curtains.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
447
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Deemed Annual Savings
Savings Type
Annual Electricity Savings (kWh/yr)
Annual Natural Gas Savings (therms/yr)
Annual Savings
EUL
Lifecycle Savings
315
0
4
4
1,260
0
Assumptions
The primary cause of air infiltration into walk-in coolers and freezers is the air density difference
between two adjacent spaces of different temperatures. The total refrigeration load due to infiltration
through the main door into the unit depends on the temperature differential between the refrigerated
and non-refrigerated airs, the door area and height, and the duration and frequency of door openings.
The avoided infiltration depends on the barrier efficacy of the newly installed strip curtains, and on the
efficacy of the supplanted infiltration barriers, if applicable. The calculation of the refrigeration load due
to air infiltration and the energy required to meet that load is rather straightforward, but relies on
critical assumptions regarding the aforementioned operating parameters. The calculation for this
measure follows the Pennsylvania TRM1 calculation for Measure 3.17: Strip Curtains for Walk-In Freezers
and Coolers. The assumptions in that protocol are based on values that were determined by direct
measurement and monitoring of over 100 walk-in units in the 2006-2008 evaluation for the California
Public Utility Commission.
Within the TRM calculation, the kW demand reduction is simplistic, but should be noted as a major
assumption. The below quote is from Page 259 of the 2013 Pennsylvania TRM;
“The peak demand reduction is quantified by multiplying savings per square foot by
area. The source algorithm is the annual energy savings divided by 8760. This
assumption is based on general observation that refrigeration is constant for food
storage, even outside of normal operating conditions. This is the most conservative
approach in lieu of a more sophisticated model.
ΔkW PEAK = ΔkWh / 8760”
There is no code requiring strip curtains for remodeling walk-in coolers and freezers.
Assumptions for Facility Types and Technology
The assumed levels of facility types within the Small Business Program for Focus on Energy are based on
the Program Implementer’s experience between July 2012 and April 2013 (Staples Energy). Although
data was not collected on existing walk-in coolers and freezers from the existing customer list, that list
was categorized to differentiate restaurants, convenience stores (including liquor stores and florists),
and supermarkets (including meat markets and fish markets).
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
448
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
The table below details the number of customers the Program Implementer visited in each category and
the estimated number that will have walk-in refrigeration. The customer size in the small business sector
indicates the amount of facilities that have walk-in refrigeration, and does not represent the standard
mix for the total marketplace.
Percentage of Walk-In Refrigerators by Facility Type
Facility Type
Restaurant
Convenience Store
Supermarket
Total
Customer
Visits
Percentage with WalkIn Refrigeration
Number with WalkIn Refrigeration
Percentage of
Total Facilities
424
96
39
559
33%
70%
80%
139.92
67.2
31.2
238.32
59%
28%
13%
100%
The calculation uses a slightly more conservative number by reducing the supermarket total to 10% and
increasing the convenience store and restaurant totals slightly.
The assumptions for the refrigerator/freezer mix were roughly determined from the same list of
customers, broken out by type of facility. The assumptions included determining the numbers of
freezers present at the following restaurant types: fast food, Asian cuisine, and fry kitchens. The
supermarket freezer components are meat markets, fish markets, and an estimated amount of rural
groceries.
Percentage of Walk-In Freezers by Facility Type*
Facility Type
Customer
Visits
Restaurant
424
Convenience Store
96
Supermarket
39
Total
559
*Percentages are rounded up
Number with WalkIn Freezer
Percentage with
Walk-In Freezer
Percentage of Total
Facilities
123
0
19
142
30%
0%
50%
22%
0%
3%
25%
Sources
1.
GDS Associates, Inc. The Measure Life Report for Residential and Commercial/Industrial Lighting
and HVAC Measures. June 2007.
2. Pennsylvania Technical Reference Manual. 2013. Available
online: http://www.puc.state.pa.us/filing_resources/issues_laws_regulations/act_129_informat
ion/technical_reference_manual.aspx
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
449
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
3. Commercial Facilities Contract Group. 2006-2008 Direct Impact Evaluation. Available
online: http://www.calmac.org/publications/ComFac_Evaluation_V1_Final_Report_02-182010.pdf
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
04/22/2013
Initial submittal
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
450
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Renewable Energy
Ground Source Heat Pump, Natural Gas and Electric Backup
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Ground Source Heat Pump, 2820 (Electric Back-up) and 2821 (NG
Back-Up)
Per heat pump
Prescriptive
Renewable Energy
Geothermal
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government,
Residential- multifamily
3,476
0.8277
0
62,568
0
0
1
18
Varies by project
Measure Description
This measure is installing residential-sized geothermal (ground-source) heat pump systems in nonresidential applications. Geothermal heat pump systems use the earth as a source of heating and
cooling through the installation of an exterior underground loop working in combination with an interior
heat pump unit. The measure provides a centralized heating and cooling system, similar to that of a
standard air-source heat pump.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is an air-source heat pump of 13 SEER and 7.7 HSPF.4
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is a ground-source heat pump of 3.5 COP and 15 EER with either a multicompressor or a multi-stage compressor, as well as an ECM air handler. Additionally, the procedures
followed when installing the equipment must conform to the ACCA Standard 5 Quality Installation
requirements.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
451
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (FLH COOL * Btu/h COOL * (1/SEER BASE – 1/(EER EE * 1.02)))/1,000 + (FLH HEAT * Btu/h HEAT *
(1/HSPF BASE – 1/(COP EE * 3.412)))/1,000
Where:
FLH COOL
=
Full-load cooling hours (= 599)5
Btu/h COOL
=
Cooling capacity of equipment (= 40,089 Btu/hour)3
SEER BASE
=
Seasonal energy efficiency ratio of baseline equipment (= 13)4
EER EE
=
Energy efficiency ratio of efficient equipment (= 22.43 kBtu/kWh)3
1.02
=
Factor to determine SEER based on its EER
1,000
=
Conversion
FLH HEAT
=
Full-load heating hours (= 1,466)6
Btu/h HEAT
=
Heating capacity of equipment (= 30,579 Btu/hour)3
HSPF BASE
=
Heating seasonal performance factor of baseline equipment
(= 7.7 kBtu/kWh)4
COP EE
=
Coefficient of performance of efficient equipment (= 4.18)3
3.412
=
Conversion from Watt to Btu
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (Btu/h COOL * (1/EER BASE – 1/EER EE )) / 1,000 * CF
Where:
EER BASE
=
Energy efficiency ratio of baseline equipment (= 12.75)4
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 0.61)
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 18 years)1
Assumptions
This system life expectancy is generally constrained by the heat pump exchanger and compressor
equipment. The actual ground loop installation often has a much longer life expectancy.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
452
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]om
The run-time differs for non-residential and residential applications due to internal heat gains, additional
ventilation requirements for non-residential buildings, times of occupancy, and occupancy numbers.
Heating run-times from the TRM for Pennsylvania 2013 Draft for Commercial HVAC were used and
adjusted using EFLH from the U.S. DOE ENERGY STAR Air Source Heat Pump Calculator5 to account for
differences in weather conditions. This resulted in a 42% reduction in hours from ENERGY STAR – or
1,466 hours.
Full Load Heating Hours from Pennsylvania TRM and ENERGY STAR
City
PE TRM
(hours)4
Allentown
Erie
Harrisburg
Philadelphia
Pittsburgh
Scranton
Williamsport
Average
ENERGY STAR
(hours)8
1,098
1,720
1,406
1,461
1,411
1,501
1,483
1,440
2,492
2,901
2,371
2,328
2,380
2,532
2,502
2,501
Full Load Heating Hours from Wisconsin TRM and ENERGY STAR
City
ENERGY STAR
(hours)8
Green Bay
La Crosse
Madison
Milwaukee
Average
WI TRM
(hours)
2,641
2,445
2,547
2,548
2,545
1,521
1,408
1,467
1,467
1,466
Full Load Heating and Cooling Hours for Average Commercial Building
Building Type
Average Commercial
FLH HEA T 6
FLH COOL 5
1,466
599
The installation of a ground-source heat pump is more likely to happen in the northern part of the state
due to the lack of available natural gas. A lower coincidence factor than residential (0.68)5 and nonresidential (0.80)7 air conditioning is used to account for the reduced occurrence of operation.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
453
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Coincidence Factors by Sector
Sector
Residential
Non-Residential
Air Conditioner
5
0.68
7
0.80
GSHP
3
0.50
0.61
Sources
1. 2012 Illinois TRM. http://www.ilsag.info/technical-reference-manual.html
2. Energy Center of Wisconsin. Update of Geothermal Analysis. Pg. 19-21. August 31 2009.
3. California Energy Commission and California Public Utilities Commission. Database for Energy
Efficient Resources (DEER) 2008. http://www.energy.ca.gov/deer/ .Revision History DEER model
runs that were weather normalized for statewide use by population density.
4. International Energy Conservation Code. Table 503.2.3(1). 2009.
5. See similar measures A/C Split System, ≤ 65 MBh: SEER 14, 2194; SEER 15, 2192; and SEER 16+,
2193.
6. Technical Reference Manual for Pennsylvania 2013 Draft for Commercial HVAC were used and
adjusted using EFLH from the U.S. DOE ENERGY STAR Air Source Heat Pump Calculator to
account for differences in weather conditions.
7. See similar measures A/C Split System, ≤ 65 MBh: SEER 14, 2194; SEER 15, 2192; and SEER 16+,
2193.
8. See similar measure Natural Gas Boilers (≤ 300 MBh) 90%+ AFUE, 2743
9. U.S. Department of Energy. ENERGY STAR Calculator.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
454
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Residential Measures
Through the Residential Portfolio, Wisconsin Focus on Energy delivers information, incentives, and
implementation support to help residential customers access energy-efficient technologies that help
them control their electricity and natural gas use. These efficient technologies include, but are not
limited to, lighting, heating and cooling systems, home appliances, insulation and air sealing services,
and residential renewable energy systems.
The Mass Markets portfolio for 2016 includes 9 core programs that Focus on Energy designed to help
different types of residential customers access these technologies, using different approaches to offer
outreach and financial support.
All types of residential homeowners can take advantage of the Residential Lighting and Appliance
Program, in which they receive in-store discounts for purchasing high-efficiency light bulbs and home
appliances.
Residential customers that live in single-family homes 3 can participate in the following programs and
obtain incentives for different types of energy-saving measures:
3
•
The Appliance Recycling Program offers a financial incentive for residents to recycle old
refrigerators and freezers, as well as free pickup and disposal.
•
The Home Performance with ENERGY STAR Program offers comprehensive energy audits,
incentives for whole-house energy-savings measures, such as insulation and air sealing, and
incentives for customers to install energy-efficient furnaces and other heating equipment.
•
The Assisted Home Performance with ENERGY STAR Program offers enhanced incentives for
income-qualified participants.
•
A new program, unnamed at the time of this publication, will provide free kits with energysaving measures to customers.
•
The Renewable Rewards Program connects customers with experts that help them determine
whether their property could effectively support a renewable energy system, and offers
financial incentives for customers who proceed to install these systems.
Including single-family detached homes, mobile homes, and single-family attached homes with three or fewer
units.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
455
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Owners, managers, and residents of multifamily buildings (such as apartments and condominiums) are
served through two related programs.
1. The Multifamily Direct Install Program offers free installation of CFLs, LEDs, low-flow
showerheads, and other energy-savings measures in tenant units, as well as walk-through
assessments of the whole building.
2. Those assessments can identify additional incentives that property owners and managers can
take advantage of through the Multifamily Energy Savings Program, which provides
information, financial incentives, and implementation support to install measures in resident
units and common areas.
Residential customers who are building a new home can receive assistance through the New Homes
Program, in which Focus on Energy works with owners, builders, and energy experts to construct homes
that are more energy efficient than required by Wisconsin building codes.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
456
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Boilers & Burners
Hot Water Boiler, 95%+ AFUE
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Hot Water Boiler, 95%+ AFUE, 1983
Per boiler
Prescriptive
Boilers & Burners
Boiler
Residential- single family
0
0
151
0
3,011
1
20
$3,105.00
Measure Description
Space heating boilers are pressure vessels that transfer heat to water for use primarily in space heating
applications. Boilers either heat water using a heat exchanger that works like an instantaneous water
heater, or by the addition of a separate tank with an internal heat exchanger that is connected to the
boiler.
High-efficiency space heating boilers are applicable to any residential boiler used for space heating. They
are not applicable to boilers used for process end uses, DHW, pools, or spas. The space heating boiler
qualifications are listed in the table below.
Qualifications for Space Heating Boilers
Type
95% Efficient Boiler
Input Rating
Required Efficiency
≤ 300 MBh
AFUE ≥ 95%
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline equipment is a hot water boiler with 82% AFUE.2
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
457
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Description of Efficient Condition
Energy-efficient space heating boilers often feature high-efficiency and/or low-Nox burners, and
typically have features such as forced air burners, relatively large heat exchange surfaces, and/or use
heat recovery from stack gases.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Therm SAVED = EFLH * (1 - EFF BASELINE / EFF EE )
Where:
EFLH
=
Equivalent full-load hours (= 1,000)3
EFF BASELINE =
AFUE of baseline measure (= 82%)
=
AFUE of efficient measure (= 95%)
EFF EE
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 20 years)1
Sources
1. PA Consulting Group Inc. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin Focus on
Energy Evaluation Business Programs: Measure Life Study. Final Report. August 25, 2009.
Available
online: https://focusonenergy.com/sites/default/files/bpmeasurelifestudyfinal_evaluationrepor
t.pdf
2. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office. Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency. Section 10 CFR
430.23(n)(2). Available online: http://www.regulations.gov/#!documentDetail;D=EERE-2006STD-0102-0009.
3. 800 therms consumed by 90% AFUE furnaces (i.e., 720 therms output) for all residential natural
gas measures estimate from: Pigg and Nevius. Electricity Use by New Furnaces. 2000. Available
online: http://www.ecw.org/sites/d3efault/files/230-1.pdf. Using average furnace size of 72,000
Btu (from 2012 SPECTRUM database of 13,000 furnaces), 1,000 full-load heating hours are
estimated.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
458
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
02
08/2014
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
MMIDs 1982 and 1978 deactivated and removed
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
459
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
focu[email protected]
Boiler, Natural Gas
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Boiler, ≥ 90% AFUE, NG, 2747
Per MBh
Custom
Boilers & Burners
Boiler
Residential- multifamily
0
0
1.56
0
31.27
0
Effective Useful Life (years)
20
Varies by project
Incremental Cost
1
Measure Description
High efficiency sealed combustion, condensing, and modulating boilers operate by taking advantage of
condensing to lower energy consumption. Condensing boilers are designed to capture the latent heat of
condensation in the form of water vapor in the exhaust stream. Capturing this latent heat produces high
efficiency levels. For a boiler to operate in condensing mode, its return water temperature should be
kept below 120°F. In order to capture as much latent heat as possible, condensing boilers are made
from stainless steel or other corrosion resistant materials. Chimney liners must be installed for boilers
that are replacing a naturally drafting unit that was vented through the same flue as a water heater. Flue
closure protocols must be followed when the chimney that will used by the replacement unit was not in
use for the previous equipment.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline equipment is an 82% AFUE boiler.2
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient equipment is a 85-90%+ AFUE boiler3 that is capable of modulating the firing rate, has
integrated input/output reset control, and is used for space heating. Industrial process or DHW
applications do not qualify. Redundant or backup boilers do not qualify.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
460
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
These savings are per Mbh of input boiler capacity.
Therm SAVED = BC * EFLH * (1 - EFF BASELINE / EFF EE ) / 100)
Where:
BC
=
Boiler capacity in MBh (=1)
EFLH
=
Equivalent full-load hours (= 1,759)3
EFF BASELINE =
AFUE of baseline measure (=82%)
EFF EE
=
AFUE of efficient measure (=85-90%)
100
=
Conversion factor from MBtu to therms
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 20 years)1
Assumptions
The boiler baseline efficiency is based on the EISA requirements of 82%.
Sources
1. California Energy Commission and California Public Utilities Commission. Database for Energy
Efficient Resources (DEER) 2008. http://www.energy.ca.gov/deer/ .
2. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office. Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency. Section 10 CFR
430.23(n)(2). Available online: http://www.regulations.gov/#!documentDetail;D=EERE-2006STD-0102-0009.
3. Full load hours for all residential natural gas measures estimate from: Pigg and Nevius. Electricity
Use by New Furnaces. 2000. Available online: http://www.ecw.org/sites/d3efault/files/2301.pdf
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
461
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
02
08/2014
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Savings changed from per unit to per MBh
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
462
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Boiler Control, Outside Air Temperature Reset/Cutout Control
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Boiler, Outside Temperature Reset/Cutout Control, 2221
Per MBh
Prescriptive
Boilers & Burners
Controls
Residential- multifamily
0
0
1.48
0
7.41
0
5
$612.00 per unit
Measure Description
Boiler reset controls automatically control the boiler water temperature based on outdoor temperature.
This allows the water to run a little cooler during the fall and spring, and a little hotter during the coldest
parts of the winter, improving boiler efficiency and indoor comfort by providing a better match between
boiler output and space heating needs. Boiler cutout controls prevent a boiler from firing at a
predetermined outside temperature set point to prevent overheating.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is no input/output reset with an 87% TE boiler.
Description of Efficient Condition
Outside air temperature reset or cutout control incentives are for existing space heating boilers only. A
new boiler with integrated boiler reset controls is not eligible. New boilers not equipped with these
controls are eligible for retrofit. The system must be set so that the minimum temperature is not more
than 10°F above the manufacturer’s recommended minimum return temperature, unless unusual
circumstances require a higher setting. The system must have an outdoor air temperature sensor in a
shaded location on the north side of the building. For controls on multiple boilers to qualify, a control
strategy must stage the lag boiler(s) only after the first boiler stage(s) fail to maintain the boiler water
temperature called for by the reset control.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
463
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Therm SAVED = BC * EFLH / (Eff * 100) * SF
Where:
BC
=
Boiler capacity in MBh (= 1)
EFLH
=
Equivalent full-load hours (Multifamily residential= 1,759; Commercial,
Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government = see table below)3,4
Effective Full Load Heating and Cooling Hours by City
City
Green Bay
La Crosse
Madison
Milwaukee
EFLHheating
1,852
1,966
1,934
1,883
Eff
=
Combustion efficiency of the boiler (= 87%)
100
=
Conversion factor from therm to MBtu
SF
=
Savings factor (= 8%)2
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 5 years)1
Sources
1. Average of Cadmus database March 2013 and Fannie Mae Estimated Useful Life
Table: https://www.fanniemae.com/content/guide_form/4099f.pdf .
2. Michigan Energy Measures Database. Available
online: http://www.michigan.gov/mpsc/0,1607,7-159-52495_55129---,00.html.
3. Pigg and Nevius. Electricity Use by New Furnaces. 2000. Available
online: http://www.ecw.org/sites/d3efault/files/230-1.pdf
4. Several Cadmus metering studies reveal that the ENERGY STAR calculator EFLH are overestimated by 25%. The heating EFLH were adjusted by population-weighted HDD and TMY-3
values.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
464
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
02
08/2014
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Savings changed from per unit to per MBh
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
465
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Boiler Tune-Up
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Boiler Tune-Up, 2744
Per tune-up
Prescriptive
Boilers & Burners
Tune-up / Repair / Commissioning
Residential- multifamily
0
0
129
0
258
0
1
2
$119.95 per tune-up
Measure Description
Tune-ups are required for boilers to maintain optimal combustion efficiency. Boiler tune-ups must be
completed according to the boiler tune-up checklist. This measure applies to non-process-related
boilers. A boiler tune-up includes reducing excess air and stack temperature; cleaning burners, burner
nozzles, combustion chamber, and boiler tubes; sealing the combustion chamber; and recalibrating
boiler controls.
The inspector also checks combustion air intake. The proper combustion air-to-fuel ratio directly affects
combustion efficiency. Inadequate air supply yields unburned combustibles (fuel, soot, smoke, and
carbon monoxide) while excess air causes heat loss from increased flue gas flow, which lowers the boiler
efficiency.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline measure is 82% boiler efficiency.
Description of Efficient Condition
The minimum burner size for measure eligibility is 110,000 Btu per hour. The incentive is available once
in a 24-month period. The service provider must perform before and after combustion efficiency tests
and record the results on the boiler tune-up incentive application. The burner must be adjusted to
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
466
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
improve combustion efficiency as needed. The incentives are only available for space and water heating
equipment.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Therm SAVED = 0.346 * Boiler Size
Where:
=
0.346
Boiler Size =
Therms savings per input MBh2
Size of the boiler being tuned and cleaned (= 373 MBtu/hour)3
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 2 years)1
Sources
1. 2012 NYSERDA Natural Gas Database. http://www.nyserda.ny.gov//media/Files/Publications/PPSER/Program-Evaluation/2012ContractorReports/2012-CI-NaturalGas-Report.pdf .
2. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission. Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0.
March 22, 2010. (based on an updated baseline efficiency of 82%).
3. Average boiler size of boilers tuned and cleaned in the ACES program 2008-2010.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
467
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Combination Boiler, Natural Gas, AFUE ≤ 0.95
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
Boiler, 95%+ AFUE, With DHW, NG, 3559
Per combination boiler
Prescriptive
Boilers & Burners
Boiler
Residential- single family
0
0
277
0
5,540
0
1
20
2
$3,521.72
Measure Description
Space heating boilers are pressure vessels that transfer heat to water for use in space heating. Boilers
either heat water using a heat exchanger that works like an instantaneous water heater or by
adding/connecting a separate tank with an internal heat exchanger to the boiler. A combination boiler
contains a separate heat exchanger that heats water for domestic hot water use.
Qualifying combination boilers must be whole-house units used for both space conditioning (boiler) and
hot water heating with one appliance and energy source. Only participants who have a natural gas
account with a participating natural gas utility are eligible for this rebate.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is a boiler with the federal minimum of 82% AFUE2 and a residential, natural gasfueled, 0.575 EF storage water heater.3 New federal efficiency standards that took effect in April 2015
raised the minimum EF for baseline units from 0.575 to 0.600. The criteria date was rounded to January
1, 2016 since the code took affect mid-year 2015.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is a combination boiler unit with boiler AFUE of 95% or greater. The combination
boiler must have a sealed combustion unit and be capable of modulating the firing rate. Measures that
do not qualify for this incentive include boilers with a storage tank and redundant or backup boilers.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
468
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Therm SAVED = Therm SAVED - BOILER + Therm SAVED – WH
Therm SAVED - BOILER = BC * EFLH (1 – EFF BASE / EFF EE ) / 100
Therm SAVED – WH = ((GPD * 365 * 8.33 * 1 * ∆T w )/100,000) * ((1/RE BASE ) – (1/E C,EE )) + ((UA BASE / RE BASE ) –
(UA EE / E C,EE )) * (∆T s * 8,760)/100,000
Where:
BC
=
Boiler capacity (= 110 MBtu/hour)3
EFLH
=
Effective full-load hours (= 1,000)4
EFF BASE
=
Baseline AFUE (= 82%)5
EFF EE
=
Efficient AFUE (= 95%)
100
=
Conversion
GPD
=
Gallons of hot water used by the home (= 51.5 per day)6
365
=
Days per year
8.33
=
Density of water (lb/gal)
1
=
Specific heat of water (Btu/lb °F)
∆T w
=
Average difference between cold water inlet temperature (52.3°F) and
hot water delivery temperature (125°F) (= 72.7°F)7
100,000
=
Conversion from Btu to therm
RE BASE
=
Recovery efficiency of the baseline tank type water heater (= 76%)8
E C,EE
=
Combustion efficiency of combination boiler used to provide DHW
(= 95%)9
UA BASE
=
Overall heat loss coefficient of baseline tank-type water heater
(= 14.0 Btu/hr-°F) 10
UA EE
=
Overall heat loss coefficient of combination boiler (=0 Btu/hr-°F)
ΔT S
=
Temperature difference between stored hot water (125°F) and ambient
indoor temperature (65°F) (= 60°F)
8,760
=
Hours per year
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
There are no peak demand savings for this measure.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
469
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 20 years)1
Assumptions
Because the efficiency of a residential water heater is measured in EF, the true thermal efficiency and
overall heat loss coefficient (UA BASE ) is not available. A TE of 76% and a UA BASE of 14 is assumed.
The overall heat loss of the combination heater is assumed to be 0 Btu/hr-°F due to the minimal amount
of domestic hot water stored within the unit. The average difference of 60°F assumes pipe and ambient
air temperatures of 125°F and 65°F, respectively.
Sources
1. PA Consulting Group Inc. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin Focus on
Energy Evaluation Business Programs: Measure Life Study. Final Report. August 25, 2009.
Available
online: https://focusonenergy.com/sites/default/files/bpmeasurelifestudyfinal_evaluationrepor
t.pdf
2. Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships. Incremental Cost Study Report. September 23, 2011.
Incremental measure cost of $2,791.00 for a combination boiler and $2,461.00 for a highefficiency boiler sized at 110 Mbh. The percentage increase is applied to the current boiler
incremental cost to provide a combination boiler cost of $3,521.72.
3. Average input capacity of boilers under 300 Mbh in the 2013 SPECTRUM Database.
4. 800 therms consumed by 90% AFUE furnaces (i.e., 720 therms output) for all residential natural
gas measures estimate from: Pigg and Nevius. Electricity Use by New Furnaces. 2000. Available
online: http://www.ecw.org/sites/d3efault/files/230-1.pdf. Using average furnace size of 72,000
Btu (from 2012 SPECTRUM database of 13,000 furnaces), 1,000 full-load heating hours are
estimated.
5. Title 42 - THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE - 42 U.S.C. 6291-6309
(http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/USCODE-2010-title42/html/USCODE-2010-title42-chap77subchapIII-partA-sec6291.htm)
6. Calculated by using the linear relationship of y = 16.286 x + 13, where x is the average number of
people per home and y is the average gallons of hot water used per day. An average value of
2.361 people/home was used for Wisconsin, based on RECS 2009 data
(http://www.eia.gov/consumption/residential/data/2009/ ). The linear relationship is used in
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
470
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
the 2012 Indiana TRM (http://aceee.org/files/pdf/2012-indiana-emv-report.pdf ) and the 2010
NY TRM (http://aceee.org/files/pdf/2012-indiana-emv-report.pdf ).
7. Public Service Commission of Wisconsin. Request for Proposals. Issued for Mass Markets
Portfolio Residential Energy Efficiency Program Implementation. July 26, 2011.
8. Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute. “RWH Search.”
http://www.ahridirectory.org/ahridirectory/pages/rwh/defaultSearch.aspx. Most common RE
for non-heat pump water heaters.
9. ENERGY STAR. “ENERGY STAR Most Efficient 2015 — Boilers.”
https://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=most_efficient.me_boilers
10. United States Department of Energy. Technical Support Document: Energy Efficiency Standards
for Consumer Products, Residential Water Heaters, Including Regulatory Impact Analysis. 2000.
Revision History
Version Number Date
Description of Change
01
11/03/2014
02
12/17/2014
Original
Changed ΔT S to match residential indirect, provided assumptions for
value used in calculation, and provided justification for UA EE value
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
471
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Building Shell
Air Sealing
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Air Sealing, 2745
Per CFM leakage
Custom
Building Shell
Air Sealing
Residential- multifamily
Varies by heating and cooling system
Varies by heating and cooling system
Varies by heating system
Varies by heating and cooling system
Varies by heating system
0
1
20
Varies by project
Measure Description
Air sealing is the sealing of cracks, gaps, or other penetrations that allow unwanted outside air to enter
or exit conditioned spaces. Air sealing reduces the load on heating and cooling equipment, and can
increase comfort. Typical areas to seal are attics, basements, crawlspaces, and around doors and
windows. Blower door tests may be required to estimate the CFM of leaks before and after air sealing is
performed. Savings are determined either by pre- and post-blower door testing or pre- and post-billing
analysis.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is no air sealing.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is air sealing of cracks, gaps, or other penetrations that allow unwanted outside
air to enter or exit conditioned spaces.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
472
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm2
kWh SAVED = kWh SAVED COOL + kWh SAVED HEAT
For systems with cooling installed:
kWh SAVED COOL = [{((CFM50 PRE – CFM50 POST ))/N COOL ) * 60 * 24 * CDD * 0.018} /(1,000 * Cool EFF )] * LM
For systems with electric heat:
kWh SAVED HEAT = [((CFM50 PRE – CFM50 POST )/N HEAT ) * 60 * 24 * HDD * 0.018] /(3,412 * Heat EFF )
For systems with natural gas heat:
Therm SAVED = [((CFM50 PRE – CFM50 POST )/N HEAT ) * 60 * 24 * HDD * 0.018] /(100,000 * Heat EFF )
Where:
CFM50 PRE
=
CFM50 POST =
Blower door test result before air sealing is performed
Blower door test result after air sealing is performed
N COOL
=
Conversion factor for CFM from 50 Pascal to natural conditions (= 18.5
assuming normal shielding)
60
=
Constant to convert minutes to hours
24
=
Hours per day
CDD
=
Cooling degree days (= 565; see table below)
0.018
=
Specific heat capacity of air (Btu/cubic feet – oF)
1,000
=
Conversion factor from kW to W
Cool EFF
=
Cooling system efficiency, BTW/W - hr (= 10 SEER if manufactured
before 2006; = 13 SEER if manufactured in 2006 or later)
LM
=
Latent multiplier to convert the calculated sensible cooling savings to a
value representing sensible and latent cooling loads (= 6.6 as an average
of Chicago and Minneapolis)2
N HEAT
=
Conversion factor for CFM from 50 Pascal to natural conditions,
assuming normal shielding (= 18.5 if 1-story; = 16.5 if 1.5 stories; = 15.0
if 2 stories; = 14.1 if 2.5 stories; = 13.3 if 3-stories)3
HDD
=
Heating degree days (= 7,616; see table below)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
473
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Cooling Degree Days and Heating Degree Days by Location
Location
HDD4
CDD4
Milwaukee
Green Bay
Wausau
Madison
La Crosse
Minocqua
Rice Lake
Statewide Weighted
7,276
7,725
7,805
7,599
7,397
8,616
8,552
7,616
548
516
654
630
729
423
438
565
3,412
=
Conversion factor from kW-hr to Btu
Heat EFF
=
Heating system efficiency (fraction of heat output per unit of energy
input expressed as a decimal)
100,000
=
Conversion factor from Btu to therms
For systems with electric heat, Heat EFF = HSPF/3.412
Heat pumps manufactured before 2006, Heat EFF = 6.8/3.412 = 1.99
Heat pumps manufactured in 2006 or later, Heat EFF = 7.7/3.412 = 2.26
Electric resistance, Heat EFF = 1.0
Installed AFUE for systems with natural gas heat:
Heat EFF = 0.92 for condensing systems
Heat EFF = 0.78 for non-condensing systems
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
For systems with central air conditioning:
kW SAVED = (kWh SAVED COOL /EFLH COOL ) * CF
Where:
EFLH COOL
=
Equivalent full load cooling hours (= 380; see table below)
Supporting Inputs for Load Hours in Several Wisconsin Cities5
Location
Green Bay
La Crosse
Madison
Milwaukee
Wisconsin Average
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
EFLH COOL
344
323
395
457
380
474
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 0.66)6
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 20 years)1
Sources
1. 2007 GDS residential measure life
report: http://www.iar.unicamp.br/lab/luz/ld/Arquitetural/interiores/ilumina%E7%E3o%20indu
strial/measure_life_GDS.pdf
2. Harriman et al. "Dehumidification and Cooling Loads From Ventilation Air." ASHRAE Journal.
(Added the latent and sensible loads to determine the total (using averages from Chicago and
Minneapolis to represent Wisconsin), then divided by the sensible load.
3. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Building Performance Institute Building Analyst
Technical Standards. Available
online: http://www.bpi.org/tools_downloads.aspx?selectedTypeID=1&selectedID=2.
4. ASHRAE Estimation of Degree-Days: Fundamentals, Chapter 14. (Calculated from TMY3 weather
files of the seven Wisconsin locations using statewide weighted values calculated from 2010 U.S.
Census data for Wisconsin.)
5. Illinois Statewide Technical Reference Manual. (used average FLH/CDD and applied to Wisconsin
CDD.)
6. Opinion Dynamics Corporation. Delaware Technical Resource Manual. April 30, 2012. Available
online: http://www.dnrec.delaware.gov/energy/information/otherinfo/Documents/EM-and-Vguidance-documents/DELAWARE_TRM_August%202012.pdf.
Revision History
Version Number
01
Date
08/2014
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
Description of Change
Initial TRM entry
475
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Insulation, Attic, R-11 or R-19 to R-38
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Insulation and Air Sealing, Attic, R-11 to R-38, 3570
Insulation, Attic, R-19 to R-38, 3558
Per residence
Prescriptive
Building Shell
Insulation
Residential- single family
Varies by baseline
Varies by baseline
Varies by baseline
Varies by baseline
Varies by baseline
0
1
20
2,3
$2,647.71
Measure Description
This measure is installing attic insulation in an existing single-family residence, prefaced by sealing the
attic to reduce air infiltration. The associated insulation measure characteristics are from the Focus on
Energy single-family residential proposal calculator as provided in 2011,4 and the air sealing
characteristics are based on modeling of a house with the same assumed characteristics—natural gas
heating and electric cooling—with kWh savings reduced by 7.5% based on a Cadmus survey revealing
that 92.5% of Wisconsin homes have central cooling.6
An additional requirement of this measure is that the existing condition of the space have less than or
equal to an effective insulation of R-11 (excluding assembly section) for tier 1, or R-19 for tier 2; and the
space should be insulated to a minimum level of R-38. This specific measure detail was not provided in
the Focus on Energy calculator, but was determined through additional analysis and calculations in
reference to the Illinois TRM attic insulation methodologies.5 In absence of measure detail, specific
program installation guidelines developed by Focus on Energy for its Home Performance with ENERGY
STAR Program will be referenced to ensure consistency.
Data from the Energy Center of Wisconsin, the U.S. Census Bureau, and the American Housing Survey
were used to calculate best estimates of energy savings for installing attic insulation in single-family
Wisconsin residences.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
476
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline is an attic insulated to R-11 or below for tier 1, and up to R-19 for tier 2. Based on
adjustments for projects expected in Wisconsin, the baseline is assumed to be a CFM50 (cubic feet per
minute air leakage, at a pressure of 50 Pascal) of 3,684.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is an attic insulated to a minimum of R-38, with air sealing techniques (e.g., caulk)
of attic leaks to a CFM50 of 3,377.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
The following equations are used to determine savings from attic insulation.
For Cooling
kWh SAVED = ((1 / R BASE – 1 / R EE ) * CDD * 24 * area) / 1,000 / SEER * AC%
For heating:
Therm SAVED = ((1 / R BASE – 1 / R EE ) * HDD * 24* area ) / 100,000 / AFUE
Where:
R BASE
=
Existing R-value of attic (= 11 for tier 1; = 19 for tier 2)
R EE
=
Proposed R-value of attic (= 38)
CDD
=
Cooling degree days (= 565; see table below)
24
=
Hours per day
Area
=
Attic area to be insulated (= 1,209 square feet)
1,000
=
Conversion from W to kW
SEER
=
Cooling system efficiency (= 12)
AC%
=
Amount of homes with central cooling systems (=92.5%)6
HDD
=
Heating degree days (= 7,616; see table below)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
477
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Cooling and Heating Degree Days by Location
Location
Milwaukee
Green Bay
Wausau
Madison
La Crosse
Minocqua
Rice Lake
Statewide Weighted
HDD7
CDD7
7,276
7,725
7,805
7,599
7,397
8,616
8,552
7,616
548
516
654
630
729
423
438
565
100,000
=
Conversion from Btu to therms
AFUE
=
Natural gas heating system efficiency (= 80%)
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm (Air Sealing)8
For cooling:
kWh SAVED = [{((CFM50 EXISTING – CFM50 NEW ) / N) * 60 * 24 * CDD * 0.018} / 1,000 * SEER] * LM * AC%
For heating:
Therm SAVED = [((CFM50 EXISTING – CFM50 NEW ) / N) * 60 * 24 * HDD * 0.018] / (100,000 * AFUE)
Where:
CFM50 EXISTING = Existing airflow rate in cubic feet per minute (= 3,683.6)9
CFM50 NEW =
New airflow rate post-air sealing (= 3,377.0)9
N
=
Conversion factor for CFM from 50 Pascal to natural conditions (= 18.5
assuming normal shielding)
60
=
Constant to convert minutes to hours
0.018
=
Specific heat capacity of air (Btu/cubic feet –°F)
LM
=
Latent multiplier used to convert the calculated sensible cooling savings
to a value representing sensible and latent cooling loads (= see table
below)10
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
478
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Latent Multiplier by Location
Location
LM
Eau Claire
Green Bay
La Crosse
Madison
Milwaukee
8.0
7.7
8.0
6.5
8.3
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm8
kW SAVED = (kWh SAVED / EFLH COOLING ) * CF
Where:
EFLH COOLING =
Equivalent full-load hours of air conditioning (= 410)6
CF
Coincidence factor (=0.68)6
=
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 20 years)1
Deemed Savings
Deemed Savings by Baseline R-Value
Baseline
R-11 (tier 1)
R-19 (tier 2)
MMID
Annual
kWh
Annual
Therms
Peak
Coincident kW
Lifecycle
kWh
Lifecycle
Therms
3570
3558
231
183
219
114
0.3831
0.3035
4,620
3,660
4,380
2,280
Assumptions
The assumed attic area of 1,209 square feet represents the average across all residential attic insulation
projects undertaken in the Residential Rewards Program in 2012 and 2013. The previous value of 922
was based on a weighted average of housing unit areas and number of floors from a 2011 American
Housing Survey day for Milwaukee.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
479
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Federal AFUE standard is 78%, but most new furnaces installed are 90% and higher, so we increased the
assumption slightly to 80% (only a slight adjustment since these are likely older homes without many
other improvements). SEER 12 is the assumption used for the ECM measure through the Focus on
Energy Single Family Residential Program.
The default savings are based on existing heating and cooling equipment efficiencies of 80% AFUE and
SEER 12, respectively.
Baseline and efficient R-values are conservative estimates based on the minimum program
requirements. Where possible, savings should be calculated based on the square footage of actual
existing and final R-values.
Sources
1. Wisconsin PSC EUL Database. 2013. See Appendix C. Attic insulation has an EUL of 25 and air
sealing an EUL of 20, so 20 years was used to avoid over-counting lifecycle savings.
2. Wisconsin Public Service Commission. Incremental Cost Database. December 2014. (Attic
Insulation incremental cost of $0.99 per square foot.)
3. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. “National Residential Efficiency Measures
Database.” Air Leakage and Ceiling/Roof. http://www.nrel.gov/ap/retrofits/about.cfm (Air
sealing cost for going from 15ACH50 to 10ACH50 is $1.20 per square foot.)
4. Wisconsin Focus on Energy. Cost-Effectiveness Calculator, Mass Markets – Residential SF
Program. July 2011.
5. Illinois Energy Efficiency Statewide Advisory Group. Illinois Statewide Technical Reference
Manual. Section 5.6.4 Wall and Ceiling/Attic Insulation. February 2014.
6. Wisconsin Focus on Energy. Evaluated Deemed Savings Changes. October 21, 2014.
7. ASHRAE Estimation of Degree –Days: Fundamentals, Chapter 14. (Calculated from TMY3
weather files of the seven Wisconsin locations, with statewide weighted values calculated
using 2010 U.S. Census data for Wisconsin.)
8. Illinois Energy Efficiency Statewide Advisory Group. Illinois Statewide Technical Reference
Manual. Section 5.6.1 Air Sealing. February 2014.
9. Calculated from EnergyGauge modeling completed using data from a survey of 136 existing
homes in Illinois that participated in a CLEAResult home performance program. The model
showed CFM50 of 3,683.635 pre-blower door test and 2,588.414 post-test, for a home of
1,209 square feet. To guard against overly aggressive savings estimates, CFM reduction was
decreased by 72%, leading to a post-test figure of 3,376.973.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
480
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
10. Harriman et al. "Dehumidification and Cooling Loads from Ventilation Air." ASHRAE Journal.
. (Added the latent and sensible loads to determine the total (using averages from Chicago
and Minneapolis to represent Wisconsin), then divided by the sensible load.
Revision History
Version Number
01
Date
01/2015
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
Description of Change
Initial TRM entry
481
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Domestic Hot Water
Kitchen Aerators, Single-Family
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Faucet Aerator, 1.5 GPM, Kitchen:
NG, 2120, 2136
Electric, 2126
Per aerator
Prescriptive
Domestic Hot Water
Aeration
Residential- single family
294
0.014
13
2136 and 2126 =2,940; 2120= 5,880
2136 and 2126 =130; 2120= 260
2,897
1
9
2136, 2126= 10 and 2120= 20
$5.00
Bathroom Aerators
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Faucet Aerator, 1.0 GPM, Bathroom, Residential:
NG, 2121, 2137
Electric, 2127
Per aerator
Prescriptive
Domestic Hot Water
Aeration
Residential- multifamily, Residential- single family
Varies by sector
Varies by sector
Varies by sector
Varies by sector
Varies by sector
829
1
9
2127 and 2137=10 2121= 20
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
482
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Measure Details
Incremental Cost
$3.00
Shower Aerators, Single-Family
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Showerhead, Direct Install, 1.5 GPM:
NG, 2123
Electric, 2129
Per showerhead
Prescriptive
Domestic Hot Water
Showerhead
Residential- single family
360
0.0090
16
3,600
158
2,967
7
10
$5.00
Measure Description
This measure is the Program Implementer or a subcontractor of the Program Implementer installing a
1.75, 1.5, or 1.0 GPM faucet or shower aerator in place of a higher flow rate aerator. Assumptions are
based on a direct installation, not a time-of-sale purchase.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline equipment is a higher flow rate aerator (above 1.5 GPM).
Description of Efficient Condition
This measure applies to standard 1.5 and 1.0 GPM low-flow aerators.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Aerators:
kWh SAVED = ΔGallons * 8.33 * 1 * (T POINT OF USE – T ENTERING )) / RE ELECTRIC / 3,412)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
483
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Therm SAVED = ΔGallons * 8.33 * 1 * (T POINT OF USE – T ENTERING ))/ RE GAS / 100,000)
ΔGallons = (GPM EXISTING – GPM NEW ) * PH / FH * LU * 365
Showerheads:
kWh SAVED = ΔGallons * 8.33 * 1 * (T POINT OF USE – T ENTERING )) / RE ELECTRIC / 3,412)*ISR
Therm SAVED = ΔGallons * 8.33 * 1 * (T POINT OF USE – T ENTERING ))/ RE GAS / 100,000) *ISR
ΔGallons = (GPM EXISTING – GPM NEW )) * PH * SPD / FH * SLU * 365)*ISR
Where:
ΔGallons
=
First-year water savings, gallons
8.33
=
Density of water, lbs/gallon
1
=
Specific heat of water, Btu/lb °F
T POINT OF USE =
Temperature of water at point of use (= 93°F for kitchen aerators;
= 86°F for bathroom aerators; = 101°F for showerheads)5
T ENTERING
=
Temperature of water entering water heater (= 52.3°F)2
RE ELECTRIC
=
Recovery efficiency of electric water heater (= 98%)3
3,412
=
Conversion from Btus to kWhs
RE GAS
=
Recovery efficiency of natural gas water heater (= 76%)3
100,000
=
Conversion from Btus to therms
PH
=
Single-family persons per house (= 2.52)1 / multifamily unit (=1.93)1
FH
=
Single-family fixtures per house (= 1.0 for kitchen aerator; = 2.13 for
bathroom aerators; = 1.64 for showerheads)1 / multifamily unit (= 1.0
for kitchen aerators; = 1.11 for bathroom aerators; = 1.0 for
showerheads)1
LU
=
Length of use in minutes per person per day (= 4.5 for kitchen aerators;
= 1.6 for bathroom aerators)5
365
=
Conversion from days to years
ISR
=
In-service rate (=0.90)8
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
Aerators:
kW SAVED = ΔkWh * CF / (PH * LU * 365 / 60 / FH)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
484
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
CF = %Peak AERATOR * LU / 180
Showerheads:
kW SAVED = ΔkWh * CF / (PH * SPD * SLU * 365 / 60 / FH) *ISR
CF = %Peak SHOWER * SLU * SPD / 180
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 0.0033 for kitchen aerators; = 0.0012 for
bathroom aerators; = 0.0023 for showerheads)
60
=
Conversion from second to minutes
%Peak AERATOR =
Amount of time faucet aerators used during peak period (= 13%)6
180
Number of minutes during peak period
=
%Peak SHOWER =
Amount of time showers used during peak period (= 9%)6
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 10 years)7
Sources
1. DEER 2014 and GDS Associates, Inc. (2009). Natural Gas Energy Efficiency Potential in
Massachusetts. Prepared for GasNetworks; Table B-2a, measure C-WH-15. Found online
here: http://www.deeresources.com/files/DEER2013codeUpdate/download/DEER2014-EULtable-update_2014-02-05.xlsx and http://ma-eeac.org/wordpress/wpcontent/uploads/5_Natural-Gas-EE-Potenial-in-MA.pdf
2. U.S. Department of Energy. Domestic Hot Water Scheduler. Average water main temperature of
all locations measured in Wisconsin by scheduler, weighted by city populations.
3. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Building America Research Benchmark Definition. pg.
12. 2009. Available online: http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy10osti/47246.pdf.
4. Federal minimum at 80 psi.
5. Cadmus. Michigan Water Meter Study. 2012.
6. DeOreo, William B. The End Uses of Hot Water in Single Family Homes From Flow Trace Analysis.
Figure 2, pg. 10. Available
online: http://s3.amazonaws.com/zanran_storage/www.aquacraft.com/ContentPages/4776806
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
485
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
7.pdf. The peak percentage values of 9% and 13% for showerheads and aerators, respectively,
determined from the load shape in Figure 2 for the hours between 1:00 p.m. and 4:00 p.m.
7. New York Standard Approach for Estimating Energy Savings from Energy Efficiency Programs
Selected Residential & Small Commercial Gas Measures; March 2009. New York Department of
Public
Service. http://www3.dps.ny.gov/W/PSCWeb.nsf/96f0fec0b45a3c6485257688006a701a/766a8
3dce56eca35852576da006d79a7/$FILE/60_DAy_Gas_TecMarket_Energy_Savings_Manual_Final
_1-0.pdf
8. Cadmus. Focus on Energy Evaluated Deemed Savings Changes. September 14,
2015. https://focusonenergy.com/sites/default/files/FoE_Deemed%20Savings%20Report_%20C
Y%2015_final.pdf
9. Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources and EPA planning years
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
02
08/2014
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Combined separate entries
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
486
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Kitchen, Bath, and Shower Aerators
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Faucet Aerator:
1.5 GPM, Kitchen, 3026 (Electric), 3025 (NG)
1.0 GPM, Kitchen, 3506 (Electric), 3507 (NG)
0.5 GPM, Kitchen, 3509 (Electric), 3510 (NG)
1.5 GPM, Bathroom, 3028 (Electric), 3027 (NG)
1.0 GPM, Bathroom, 2143 (Electric), 2137 (NG)
0.5 GPM, Bathroom, 3508 (NG)
1.5 GPM, Shower, 3030 (Electric), 3029 (NG)
Per aerator
Prescriptive
Domestic Hot Water
Aeration
Residential – single family; Residential- multi family
Varies by location and sector
Varies by location and sector
Varies by location and sector
Varies by location and sector
Varies by location and sector
Varies by location
7
10
Varies by measure, see Appendix D
Measure Description
This measure is installing low-flow kitchen, bathroom, and/or shower aerators in existing buildings or
new construction. It saves either natural gas or electric consumption depending on the water heating
fuel source. It also saves on total water consumption.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline equipment is a kitchen aerator at 2.2 GPM, a bathroom aerator at 2.2 GPM, and a
showerhead at 2.5 GPM.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is a kitchen aerator at 1.5, 1.0, or 0.5 GPM, a bathroom aerator at 1.5, 1.0, or 0.5
GPM, and showerhead at 1.5 GPM.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
487
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = ((ΔGallons * 8.33 * 1* (T POINT OF USE – T ENTERING))/ RE ELECTRIC )/3,412
Therm SAVED = ((ΔGallons * 8.33 * 1 * (T POINT OF USE – T ENTERING))/ RE GAS )/100,000
For Aerators:
Gallon SAVED = (GPM EXISTING - GPM NEW ) * (PH/FH) * FLU * 365
For Showerheads:
Gallon SAVED = (GPM EXISTING - GPM NEW ) * ((PH* SPD)/FH) * SLU * 365
Where:
ΔGallons
=
First-year water savings, gallons
8.33
=
Density of water, lbs/gallon
1
=
Specific heat of water, Btu/lb °F
T POINT OF USE =
Temperature of water at point of use (= 93°F for kitchen aerators;
= 86°F for bathroom aerators; = 101°F for showerheads)5
T ENTERING
=
Temperature of water entering water heater (= 52.3°F)2
RE ELECTRIC
=
Recovery efficiency of electric water heater (= 98%)3
3,412
=
Conversion from Btus to kWhs
RE GAS
=
Recovery efficiency of natural gas water heater (= 76%)3
100,000
=
Conversion from Btus to therms
GPM EXISTING =
Baseline flow rate (= 2.2 GPM for kitchen and bathroom aerators;
= 2.5 GPM for showerheads)4
GPM NEW
=
Efficient flow rate (= 1.5, 1.0, or 0.5 GPM for kitchen and bathroom
aerators; = 1.5 GPM for showerheads)
PH
=
Single-family persons per house (= 2.52)1 / multifamily unit (=1.93)1
FH
=
Single-family fixtures per house (= 1.0 for kitchen aerator; = 2.13 for
bathroom aerators; = 1.64 for showerheads)1 / multifamily unit (= 1.0
for kitchen aerators; = 1.11 for bathroom aerators; = 1.0 for
showerheads)1
FLU
=
Length of use in minutes per person per day (= 4.5 for kitchen aerators;
= 1.6 for bathroom aerators)5
365
=
Conversion from days to years
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
488
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
SPD
=
Showers per person per day (= 0.6)5
SLU
=
Shower length of use (= 7.8 minutes/shower)5
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = kWh SAVED * CF / (PH * LU * 365 days / (60 mins/hr)/ FH)
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 0.0032 for kitchen aerators; = 0.0011 for bathroom
aerators; = 0.0039 for showerheads)6
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL =
Effective useful life (= 10 years )7
Sources
1. DEER 2014 and GDS Associates, Inc. (2009). Natural Gas Energy Efficiency Potential in
Massachusetts. Prepared for GasNetworks; Table B-2a, measure C-WH-15. Online
here: http://www.deeresources.com/files/DEER2013codeUpdate/download/DEER2014-EULtable-update_2014-02-05.xlsx and http://ma-eeac.org/wordpress/wpcontent/uploads/5_Natural-Gas-EE-Potenial-in-MA.pdf
2. U.S. Department of Energy. Domestic Hot Water Scheduler. Average water main temperature of
all locations measured in Wisconsin by scheduler, weighted by city populations.
3. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Building America Research Benchmark Definition.
Pg. 12. 2009. Available online: http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy10osti/47246.pdf.
4. Federal minimum at 80 psi.
5. Cadmus. Michigan Water Meter Study. 2012.
6. DeOreo, William B. The End Uses of Hot Water in Single Family Homes From Flow Trace Analysis.
Figure 2, pg. 10. Available online:
http://s3.amazonaws.com/zanran_storage/www.aquacraft.com/ContentPages/47768067.pdf
The peak percentage values of 9% and 13% for showerheads and aerators, respectively,
determined from the load shape in Figure 2 for the hours between 1:00 p.m. and 4:00 p.m.
7. Wisconsin PSC EUL Database. 2013. See Appendix C.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
489
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
02
08/2014
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Added measures/flow rates
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
490
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
DHW Temperature Turn Down, Direct Install, Electric and Natural Gas
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
DHW Temperature Turn Down, Direct Install:
NG, 2125, 2141
Electric, 2131, 2147
Per turn down
Prescriptive
Domestic Hot Water
Controls
Residential – single family; Residential- multi family
743
0.085
68
11,145
748
0
1
15
Measure Description
The measure is the Program Implementer or a subcontractor of the Program Implementer turning the
water heater temperature down to 120°F. Assumptions are based on direct installation, not on a timeof-sale purchase.
There are two main effects of hot water storage temperature on energy use. The primary effect is due to
standby loss, which increases with hot water temperature. The secondary effect is that hotter stored
water affects hot water end-uses. This happens in two ways. For batch appliances, such as most clothes
washers, more energy is used for hot and warm wash cycles because a fixed number of gallons is drawn
for each load. For mixed end-uses (showers, sinks, bathtubs), when the stored water is hotter, less of it
is mixed with cold water to achieve the target use temperature. Since the majority of hot water use is
mixed temperature, a modest change in the hot water temperature (of 10°F to 20°F) has a relatively
small impact on the energy required to heat the delivered hot water.
The reduction in standby loss also affects internal gains. For electric hot water, the reduction in internal
gains from a turn-down results in slightly smaller cooling load; assuming that most water heaters in
Wisconsin are in basements, and that basements have little or no direct air conditioning, this effect can
be ignored. Heating effects are ignored for electric water heaters, assuming a predominance of natural
gas heat; however, it should be accounted for at an appropriate efficiency in residence with a heat
pump or electric resistance heat.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
491
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline is a hot water temperature set above 120°F.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is for residential electric water heaters serving single residential units and
multiple dwelling units to be set to 120°F.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Electric Measures
kWh SAVED = [(HW BASE + SB BASE ) – (HW EFF + SB EFF )] * 365 * (1/3,412) * Units
HW = GPD * C P * (T WH – T ENTERING ) * 1/RE * [1 – UA * (T WH – T ROOM /Input)] * Units
SB = UA * 24 * (T WH – T ROOM ) * Units
UA = [(1/EF)-(1/RE)]/[67.5 * ((24/Q OUT ) – (1/(RE * Input)))]
Where:
HW BASE
=
Hot water baseline load (= 24,912 Btu/day)
SB BASE
=
Standby baseline load (= 4,125 Btu/day)
HW EFF
=
Hot water efficient load (= 24,111 Btu/day)
SB EFF
=
Standby efficient load (= 3,536 Btu/day)
365
=
Number of days per year
3,412
=
Conversion from Btu to kWh
Units
=
Number of dwelling units served by water heater (= 1 single family,
= 5 multifamily central unit)
GPD
=
Gallons of hot water use per day (= 38.1 for baseline measure; = 42.3 for
efficient measure)
CP
=
Heat capacity of water (= 8.33 Btu/gallon/°F)
T WH
=
Temperature in tank (= 130°F for baseline measure; = 120°F for efficient
measure)
T ENTERING
=
Cold water mains temperature (= 52.3°F)2
RE
=
Water heater recovery efficiency (=0.98)3
UA
=
Water heater equivalent heat loss factor (= 2.45 Btu/hr-°F)
T ROOM
=
Ambient temperature surrounding tank (= 65°F)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
492
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Input
=
Firing rate (= 15,350 Btu/hr)
24
=
Number of hours per day
EF
=
Energy factor (= 0.904)4
67.5
=
Ambient Air Temperature
Q OUT
=
Energy content of water drawn from water heater during 24 hour test
(= 41,094 Btu/day)4
Therm Measures
Therm SAVED = [(HW BASE + SB BASE ) – (HW EFF + SB EFF )] * 365 * 1/1,000 * Units
HW = GPD * C P * (T WH – T ENTERING ) * 1/RE * [1 – UA * (T WH – T ROOM /Input)] * Units
SB = UA * 24 * (T WH – T ROOM ) * Units
UA = [(1/EF)-(1/RE)] / [67.5 * ((24/Q OUT ) – (1/ (RE * Input)))]
Where:
HW BASE
=
Hot water baseline load (= 31,887 Btu/day)
SB BASE
=
Standby baseload (= 17,752 Btu/day)
HW EFF
=
Hot water efficient load (= 30,900 Btu/day)
SB EFF
=
Standby efficient load (= 15,021 Btu/day)
RE
=
Water heater recovery efficiency (=0.76)3
UA
=
Water heater equivalent heat loss factor (= 11.38 Btu/hr-°F)
Input
=
Firing rate (= 40,000 Btu/hr) 4
EF
=
Energy factor (= 0.575)4
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (kWh SAVED / 8,760) * CF * Units
Where:
8,760
=
Number of hours in one year
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 1)
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
493
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 15 years)1
Assumptions
The gallons per day assumptions were as follows:
•
Total hot water use at the tap = 51.5 GPD.4 The hot water use is broken into two components:
unmixed (primarily for clothes washers and dishwashers) and mixed (for showers and sinks). It is
assumed that 10 GPD is unmixed and 41.5 GPD is mixed (unmixed is direct draw from the water
heater, and does not vary with stored hot water temperature; mixed is delivered at the fixture
at 105°F, so the total draw from the water heater varies with stored water temperature).
•
The water heater draw is given as:

GPD BASE = 10 + 41.5 * (105 - 52.3)/(130 - 52.3) = 38.1 GPD

GPD EFF = 10 + 41.5 * (105 - 52.3)/(120 - 52.3) = 42.3 GPD
•
As the set temperature goes down, the hot water consumption at the tank goes up. As the
stored temperature is reduced, more hot and less cold must be mixed to reach the target of
105°F at the showerhead or sink.
•
An average value of 2.36 people per home was used for Wisconsin, based on RECS 2009 data
and calculated using the linear relationship from the 2012 Indiana TRM and the 2010 NY TRM of
y = 16.286 x + 13, where x is the average number of people per home (2.36) and y is the average
gallons of hot water used per day.
•
For multifamily central DHW units, the BTU input size was changed from 40,000 to 200,000
based on field experience and a one-year project sample of DHW heater replacements for
multifamily buildings from December 1, 2012 through December 1, 2013. The overall average
size was 217,000 BTUs, with the most common size of 200,000 BTUs, which was used as a
conservative estimate.
•
Based on an individual water heater size of 40,000 BTUs, five dwelling units were used as the
average units per water heater (200,000 / 40,000 = 5 units). This number of units was used as a
multiplier for the single unit pre- and post- GPD numbers.
Sources
1. 2007 GDS study for New England working
group: http://www.iar.unicamp.br/lab/luz/ld/Arquitetural/interiores/ilumina%E7%E3o%20indus
trial/measure_life_GDS.pdf .
2. U.S. Department of Energy. DHW Scheduler. Used average water main temperature of all
Wisconsin locations, weighted by city population.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
494
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
3. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Building America Research Benchmark Definition. Pg.
12. 2009. Available online: http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy10osti/47246.pdf.
4. Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory. Water Heater Energy Consumption. http://hesdocumentation.lbl.gov/calculation-methodology/calculation-of-energy-consumption/waterheater-energy-consumption
5. U.S. Department of Energy. Federal standard for residential water heaters effective in 2004.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
02
03
04
01/01/2012
03/09/2013
04/22/2013
12/15/2013
New measure
Updated to new template and added lifecycle savings
Revisions/comments
Added multifamily sector and larger DHW heater savings
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
495
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Insulation, Direct Install, Pipe, Electric
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Insulation, Direct Install, 6-Foot Pipe, Electric, 2128
Per unit of pipe insulation
Prescriptive
Domestic Hot Water
Insulation
Residential- single family
Depends on length of insulation
0
0
Depends on length of insulation
0
0
1
2128= 15
$3.96 per foot; $23.76 for all
Measure Description
This measure is the Program Implementer or a subcontractor of the Program Implementer insulating
non-insulated water heater pipes for 6-feet or 3-feet.
Pipe insulation near the tank saves energy by reducing standby losses from pipes that are hot from
conducting heat from the storage tank. This happens by convective currents within the pipe(s), or by
eventually drawing and using hot water in the pipe.
In the following calculations, the reduction in electric hot water internal gains from pipe insulation is
ignored, assuming that most water heaters in Wisconsin are in basements, and that basements have
little or no direct air conditioning. For natural gas hot water, the regain from reduced pipe heat loss (for
the duration of the heating season) is subtracted from the direct savings to arrive at the net natural gas
savings.
Heating effects are ignored for electric water heaters, assuming a predominance of natural gas heat. For
heat pump or electric resistance heat, the heating effects should account for an appropriate efficiency,
as with natural gas heat.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is no pipe insulation.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
496
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is pipe insulation on a residential electric water heater.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = Btu SAVED / 3,412
Btu SAVED = ((1/R EXIST – 1/R NEW ) * (L * C) * ∆T * 8,760 / RE
Where:
R EXIST
=
Pipe heat loss coefficient of existing uninsulated pipe (= 1 Btu/hr-°F-ft)
R NEW
=
Pipe heat loss coefficient of new insulated pipe (= 1/4 Btu/hr-°F-ft)
L
=
Length of pipe from water heating source covered by pipe wrap (= 6 feet
or 3 feet)
C
=
Circumference of pipe (= inches of outer diameter * π * 0.083, or
0.229 feet)
∆T
=
Average temperature difference from pipe to ambient air (= 60°F)
8,760
=
Conversion for hours per year
RE
=
Water heater recovery efficiency (= 0.98)2
3,412
=
Conversion factor from Btu to kWh
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 15 years)1
Assumptions
Assumptions are based on a direct installation, not a time-of-sale purchase.
The average difference of 60°F assumes pipe and ambient air temperatures of 125°F and 65°F,
respectively.
The pipe inner and outer diameters are assumed to be 3/4-inch and 7/8-inch, respectively.
Sources
1. 2007 GDS study for New England working
group: http://www.iar.unicamp.br/lab/luz/ld/Arquitetural/interiores/ilumina%E7%E3o%20indus
trial/measure_life_GDS.pdf .
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
497
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
2. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Building America Research Benchmark Definition.
Pg. 12. 2009. Available online: http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy10osti/47246.pdf.
3. DEER 2014 and GDS Associates, Inc. (2009). Natural Gas Energy Efficiency Potential in
Massachusetts. Prepared for GasNetworks; Table B- 2a, measure C-WH15. http://www.deeresources.com/files/DEER2013codeUpdate/download/DEER2014-EUL-tableupdate_2014-02-05.xlsx and http://ma-eeac.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/5_NaturalGas-EE-Potenial-in-MA.pdf
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
498
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Insulation, Direct Install, Pipe, NG
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Insulation Direct Install, 6-Foot Pipe, NG, 2122, 2138
Per unit of pipe insulation
Prescriptive
Domestic Hot Water
Insulation
Residential – single family; Residential- multi family
0
0
Depends on length of insulation
0
Depends on length of insulation
0
1
2122 and 2138 = 12
$3.96 per foot; $23.76 for all
Measure Description
This measure the Program Implementer or a subcontractor of the Program Implementer insulating noninsulated water heater pipes for 6-feet.
Pipe insulation near the tank saves energy by reducing standby losses from pipes that are hot from
conducting heat from the storage tank. This happens by convective currents within the pipe(s), or by
eventually drawing and using hot water in the pipe.
In the following calculations, the reduction in electric hot water internal gains from pipe insulation is
ignored, assuming that most water heaters in Wisconsin are in basements, and that basements have
little or no direct air conditioning. For natural gas hot water, the regain from reduced pipe heat loss (for
the duration of the heating season) is subtracted from the direct savings to arrive at the net natural gas
savings.
Heating effects are ignored for electric water heaters, assuming a predominance of natural gas heat. For
heat pump or electric resistance heat, the heating effects should account for an appropriate efficiency,
as with natural gas heat.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is no pipe insulation.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
499
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is pipe insulation on a residential natural gas water heater.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Therm SAVED = Btu SAVED * (1 – PCT HEAT ) * RE / HE / 100,000
Btu SAVED = ((1/R EXIST – 1/R NEW ) * (L * C) * ∆T * 8,760 / RE
Where:
R EXIST
=
Pipe heat loss coefficient of existing uninsulated pipe (= 1 Btu/hr-°F-ft)
R NEW
=
Pipe heat loss coefficient of new insulated pipe (= 1/4 Btu/hr-°F-ft)
L
=
Length of pipe from water heating source covered by pipe wrap (= 6 feet
or 3 feet)
C
=
Circumference of pipe (= inches of outer diameter * π * 0.083, or
0.229 feet)
∆T
=
Average temperature difference from pipe to ambient air (= 60°F)
8,760
=
Conversion for hours per year
RE
=
Water heater recovery efficiency (= 0.76)2
PCT HEAT
=
Portion of year the house / unit that is mechanically heated (= 0.54)
HE
=
Natural gas system heating efficiency (= 0.8)
100,000 =
Btu to therm conversion
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (2122 and 2138 = 12)1
Assumptions
Assumptions are based on a direct installation, not a time-of-sale purchase.
The average difference of 60°F assumes pipe and ambient air temperatures of 125°F and 65°F,
respectively.
The pipe inner and outer diameters are assumed to be 3/4-inch and 7/8-inch, respectively.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
500
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Sources
1. California Energy Commission and California Public Utilities Commission. Database for Energy
Efficient Resources (DEER) 2008. http://www.energy.ca.gov/deer/ .
2. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Building America Research Benchmark Definition.
Pg. 12. 2009. Available online: http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy10osti/47246.pdf.
3. DEER 2014 and GDS Associates, Inc. (2009). Natural Gas Energy Efficiency Potential in
Massachusetts. Prepared for GasNetworks; Table B- 2a, measure C-WH15. http://www.deeresources.com/files/DEER2013codeUpdate/download/DEER2014-EUL-tableupdate_2014-02-05.xlsx and http://ma-eeac.org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/5_NaturalGas-EE-Potenial-in-MA.pdf
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
501
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Retail Store Markdown, Low-Flow Showerheads
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Showerheads, Retail Store Markdown, 3017
Per showerhead
Prescriptive
Domestic Hot Water
Showerhead
Residential- multifamily, Residential- single family
Varies by sector
Varies by sector
Varies by sector
Varies by sector
Varies by sector
2,632
1
10
$5.00
Measure Description
This measure is installing a showerhead with a flow rate of 1.75 GPM or less in a residential location,
based on a time-of-sale purchase.
The energy and therm savings were adjusted based on the saturation of fuel types for water heating in
Wisconsin (30% electric and 61% natural gas). Therefore, the savings values do not reflect the actual
energy or natural gas savings on a per-unit basis.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline equipment is a showerhead with flow rate of 2.5 GPM.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient equipment is low-flow showerhead (≤ 1.75 GPM) installed in a residential location. The
GPM used for the efficient showerhead in the calculations is a weighted average from sales data as of
October 2013.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
502
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
focu[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Water Savings:
Gallon SAVED = (GPM BASE - GPM EE ) * ((PH * SPD)/FH) * SLU * 365
Electric Water Heaters:
kWh SAVED = (((Gallon SAVED * 8.33 * 1 * (T POINT OF USE – T ENTERING ))/RE)/3,412) * WHS
Natural Gas Water Heaters:
Therm SAVED = (((Gallon SAVED * 8.33 * 1 * (T POINT OF USE – T ENTERING ))/RE)/100,000 ) *WHS
Where:
GPM BASE
=
Baseline flow rate (= 2.5 GPM)2
GPM EE
=
Efficient flow rate (= 1.54 GPM)
PH
=
Single-family persons per house (= 2.52)7 / multifamily
unit (=1.93)7
SPD
=
Showers per person per day (= 0.6)4
365
=
Number of days per year
8.33
=
Density of water, lbs/gallon
1
=
Specific heat of water, Btu/lb °F
T POINT OF USE =
Temperature of water at point of use (= 101°F)4
T ENTERING
=
Temperature of water entering water heater (= 52.3°F)5
RE
=
Average estimated recovery efficiency of electric water
heater (= 98%)6
3,412
=
Conversion from Btu to kWh
WHS
=
Water heater saturation (= 30% for electric;= 61% for
natural gas)3
FH
=
Fixtures/house (= 1.47)3SLU =
(= 7.8)4
100,000
=
Conversion from Btu to therms
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
Shower length in minutes
503
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = kWh SAVED * CF /(PH * SLU * 365 * SPD) / 60 / FH)
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 0.0039%)7
SLU
=
Shower length in minutes (= 7.8)4
60
=
Number of minutes per hour
FH
=
Fixtures/house (= 1.47)3
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 10 years)1
Sources
1. Based on the effective useful life of 10 years, in California Joint Utility Low Income Energy
Efficiency Program Costs and Bill Savings Standardization Report Final Report February 1, 2001
(Revised as of March 5, 2001). The effective useful life (EUL) is defined as the median number of
years that a measure is in place and operable. See also Measure Life Report Residential and
Commercial/Industrial Lighting and HVAC Measures, prepared for The New England State
Program Working Group (SPWG) for use as an Energy Efficiency Measures/Programs Reference
Document for the ISO Forward Capacity Market (FCM) by GDS Associates, Inc., June 2007
Federal minimum at 80 psi. Available online
here: http://www3.dps.ny.gov/W/PSCWeb.nsf/96f0fec0b45a3c6485257688006a701a/766a83dc
e56eca35852576da006d79a7/$FILE/60_DAy_Gas_TecMarket_Energy_Savings_Manual_Final_10.pdf and http://www.calmac.org/%5C/publications/Bill_Savings_Final_Report_revised_3-1201.pdf
and http://www.iar.unicamp.br/lab/luz/ld/Arquitetural/interiores/ilumina%E7%E3o%20industri
al/measure_life_GDS.pdf
2. Residential Energy Consumption Survey. 2009 RECS Micro Survey Data. Structural and
Geographic Characteristics, Wisconsin.
3. Cadmus. Michigan Water Meter Study. 2012.
4. U.S. Department of Energy. DHW Scheduler. Average water main temperature of all locations
measured in Wisconsin by scheduler, weighted by city populations.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
504
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
5. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Building America Research Benchmark Definition. Pg.
12. 2009. Available online: http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy10osti/47246.pdf.
6.
Calculated assuming 9% of showers take place during peak hours (9% * 7.8 minutes per day /
180 minutes in peak period) = 0.0039.
7.
DEER 2014 and GDS Associates, Inc. (2009). Natural Gas Energy Efficiency Potential in
Massachusetts. Prepared for GasNetworks; Table B-2a, measure C-WH-15. Found online
here: http://www.deeresources.com/files/DEER2013codeUpdate/download/DEER2014-EULtable-update_2014-02-05.xlsx and http://ma-eeac.org/wordpress/wpcontent/uploads/5_Natural-Gas-EE-Potenial-in-MA.pdf
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
505
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Domestic Hot Water Plant Replacement
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life
Incremental Cost
DHW Plant Replacement, 2760
Per plant (or per apartment)
Hybrid
Domestic Hot Water
Other
Residential- multifamily
0
0
324 (reference savings)
0
3,564
0
1
15
$27.07 per MBH
Measure Description
This measure is upgrading an entire DHW plant in a building with central DHW.
Commercial water heaters with greater than 75,000 Btu/hour have a TE rating, which typically varies
from around 80% for standard efficiency natural gas water heaters to 90% or greater for condensing
water heaters.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is a DHW plant with TE of 80%.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is installing new water heater, which must be:
•
A commercially sized HESCCM,
•
An HESCC stand-alone water heater, or
•
An indirect storage tank off a HESCCM boiler(s).
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
506
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
The new commercial water heaters must have a TE of 90% or greater. Fuel switching is not included in
this measure. The additional requirements are:
•
Building must have a central DHW system.
•
Entire DHW system must be replaced: single water heater replacement in a multiple water
heater system do not qualify.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
The Building America Multi-Family Central Water Heating Evaluation Tool2 was used to determine the
deemed savings for this measure. With the exception of the inputs listed below, the tool’s default values
were used to calculate savings:
Therm SAVED = Therm BASE - Therm EE
Therm BASE = [(GPD * N APTS * 8.33 * C P * ΔT * 365)/(Ƞ BASE * 100,000)] + [(Q LOSS-BASE * N WH * 24 *
365)/(100,000)]
Therm EE = [(GPD * N APTS * 8.33 * C P * ΔT * 365)/(Ƞ EE * 100,000)] + [(Q LOSS-EE * N WH * 24 * 365)/(100,000)]
Where:
GPD
=
Gallons per day (= 43.9)3
N APTS
=
Total number of dwelling units served by system (= 11.5)4
8.33
=
Conversion from gallons to mass
CP
=
Specific heat constant pressure (= 1.0 Btu/lb-°F)
ΔT
=
Hot water setpoint of 125°F minus inlet water temperature of 52.3°F
(= 72.7°F)5
365
=
Number of days per year
η BASE
=
Baseline TE (= 80%)
100,000
=
Conversion from Btu to therm
Q LOSS-BASE
=
Baseline standby heat loss (= 1,233 Btu/hour) 6
N WH
=
Total number of DWH tanks (= 1)
24
=
Number of hours per day
η EE
=
Efficient TE (=90%)
Q LOSS-EE
=
Efficient standby heat loss (=929 Btu/hour)7
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
507
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 15 years)1
Assumptions
The water usage and recirculation loop condition parameters of the Building America Evaluation Tool
were set to “medium” and “normal,” respectively, to represent typical applications and reflect the
prescriptive nature of the measure. The total heating capacity and standby losses were scaled from the
default value of 600,000 Btuh and 15,000 Btuh to 230,000 Btuh and 5,750 Btuh, respectively, to reflect
the change in number of apartment units from the default of 30 to 11.5.
Sources
1. Engineering Judgement
2. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Strategy Guideline: Proper Water Heater Selection.
August 2012. Available online: http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy12osti/55074.pdf. Evaluation tool
described in report is
online: http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/publications/docs/building_america/multifamily
_central_dhw_evaluationtool_v1-0.xls
3. The gallons per day is calculated by using the linear relationship of y = 16.286x + 13, where x is
the average number of people per home and y is the average gallons of hot water used per day.
An average value of 1.9 people per home was used for Wisconsin, based on RECS 2009 data. The
linear relationship is used in the 2012 Indiana TRM and the 2010 NY TRM.
4. The Wisconsin multifamily number of units per apartment was estimated at 11.5 units based on:
2009 U.S. Census, table 989. Housing Units by Units in Structure and State. Available
online: https://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/cats/construction_housing/housing_units_a
nd_characteristics.html.
5. United States Department of Energy. DHW Scheduler. Average water main temperature of all
locations measured in Wisconsin by scheduler, weighted by city populations. The water heater
set point is assumed to be 125°F. Wisconsin building code 704.06 requires landlords to set water
heaters to 125°F: https://docs.legis.wisconsin.gov/statutes/statutes/704/06. Water heater
setpoints typically range between 120°F and 140°F, because temperatures below 120°F are
susceptible to Legionella bacteria (which lead to Legionnaires Disease) and heaters set to
temperatures above 140°F can quickly scald
users: http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy12osti/55074.pdf. Most TRMs assume water heater
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
508
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
setpoints of 120°F, 125°F, or 130°F, though most of these are unsourced engineering
assumptions.
6. Federal standard for natural gas storage water heater with 80 gallon storage and 199 kBtu/hour
heat input.
7. Average standby loss of AHRI certified natural gas storage water heaters with TE ˃ 94%, storage
volume between 80 and 100 gallons, and heat input less than 200 kBtu/hour.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
509
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Condensing Water Heater, NG, 90%+
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Condensing Water Heater, NG, 90%+, 1986
Condensing Water Heater, NG, 90%+, Claim Only, 3584
Per water heater
Prescriptive
Domestic Hot Water
Water Heater
Residential- single family
-50
-0.0050
46
-600
552
0
15
$1,120.00
Measure Description
This measure is installing high-efficiency, commercial-sized, condensing tank-type water heaters. These
heaters are used for whole-house domestic water heating in the residential sector. Commercial-sized
water heaters have a minimum input rating of 75,000 Btuh and have a TE rating of 80%. While these
appliances have a commercial rating, they are often installed in residential homes.
The rebate is for customers who install condensing water heaters with a TE rating of at least 90% in a
residential home.
Description of Baseline Condition
Savings are calculated using the federal code standard minimum of 0.600 if purchased after January 1,
2016. This updated baseline reflects the new federal standard that took effect April 2015, with the
criteria date rounded to January 1, 2016.2 The calculation assumes a 50 gallon tank.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is upgrading from the code-standard minimum natural gas storage residential
water heater to a higher efficiency 90% TE commercial natural gas storage-type water heater. Natural
gas storage water heaters are used to supply DHW.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
510
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Because the efficiency of traditional natural gas storage water heaters is measured using an EF and the
efficiency of condensing water heaters is measured using the TE, different algorithms are used to
calculate the baseline energy use and efficient energy use.
Therm SAVED = Therm BASELINE - Therm MEASURE
Therm BASELINE = [Ṁ * C P * (T TANK – T INLET )/EF] * (365/100,000)
Where:
Ṁ
=
Mass of water drawn (= 429 lbs/day)
cP
=
Specific heat of water (= 1 Btu/lb-°F)
T TANK
=
Water heater thermostat set point temperature (= 125°F)3
T INLET
=
Inlet water temperature (= 52.3°F)4
EF
=
Energy factor (= 0.600 after January 1, 2016)
365
=
Number of days per year
100,000
=
Conversion factor from Btu to therms
The following shows this equation solved for the post January 1, 2016 scenario:
ThermBASELINE = [(429 lbs/day * 1 Btu/lb°F * (125°F – 52.3°F))/0.600] * (365 / 100,000)
Mass flow was calculated as the product of the density of water and the gallons of water used per day:
8.33 lbs/gal * 51.5 GPD = 429 lbs/day. The gallons per day was calculated using the linear relationship of
y = 16.286 x + 13, where x is the average number of people per home and y is the average gallons of hot
water used per day. The linear relationship is used in the 2012 Indiana TRM and the 2010 NY TRM. An
average value of 2.365 people per home was used for Wisconsin, based on RECS 2009 data.
Measure Case Energy Usage
While residential storage water heater efficiency is measured in EF, which includes standby losses,
commercial-sized storage water heater efficiency is measured in TE. While the efficiency equation for TE
is similar to EF, it only measures the amount of energy used to heat the water consumed, and not the
amount of energy needed for standby losses. The total energy usage a water heater consumes can be
defined as:
ThermMEASURE = QUSAGE + QSTANDBY
QUSAGE = [Ṁ * CP * (TTANK – TINLET)]/TE
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
511
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
QSTANDBY = UA * (TTANK – TAMB) * [24 – ((QUSAGE/(RE*PON))] (source 5)
The amount of energy used to heat the water consumed is solved for below:
QUSAGE = [(429 lbs/day * 1 Btu/lb°F * (125°F – 52.3°F))/0.90] * (365 / 100,000)
Where:
TE
=
Thermal efficiency of measure (= 0.90)
UA
=
Standby heat loss coefficient (= 3.319 Btu/hr- °F)
T AMB
=
Ambient temperature (= 65°F)
24
=
Number of hours per day
RE
=
Recovery efficiency (= 0.90, assume TE as a proxy)6
P ON
=
Rated input power (= 76,000 Btu/hour, conservative)
The standby loses are solved for below:
QSTANDBY = 3.319 Btu/hr-°F * (125°F - 65°F) * [24 – ((133 therms /(0.90 * 76,000 Btu/hr) * (365
/100,000)]
Combining these equations, the total energy usage a water heater consumes is solved for below:
ThermMEASURE = 126 therms/year + 17 therms/year = 144 therms/year
The measure savings is the difference in energy used by the baseline case and the efficient case:
ThermSAVED = 198 therms – 144 therms = 54 therms/year
Electrical Energy Savings
The condensing water heaters must be power vented to qualify for a program incentive. Power-vented
equipment include an electrical fan to exhaust flue gases, which therefore has a negative electrical
impact. As shown in the RFP TRC calculator, the estimated electrical impact of power-vented equipment
is 50 kWh and 0.005 kW per year.
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
The estimated electrical peak impact of power-vented equipment is 0.0050 kW for single family.
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (=Singlefamily 15; Multifamily 12)1
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
512
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Assumptions
The electric values (kWh and kW) were reviewed from the supplied RFP calculator, which align with
expected savings.
Sources
1. Single family: CALMAC 2000 workshop report. Available online
here: http://www.cpuc.ca.gov/NR/rdonlyres/7E3A4773-6D35-4D21-A7A29895C1E04A01/0/EEPolicyManualV5forPDF.pdf. Multifamily: Fannie Mae Estimated Useful Life
Table: https://www.fanniemae.com/content/guide_form/4099f.pdf and PA Consulting Group
Inc. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin Focus on Energy Evaluation
Business Programs: Measure Life Study. Final Report. August 25, 2009. Available
online: https://focusonenergy.com/sites/default/files/bpmeasurelifestudyfinal_evaluationrepor
t.pdf
2. The water heater setpoint is assumed to be 125°F, as Wisconsin building code 704.06 requires
landlords to set water heaters to
125°F: https://docs.legis.wisconsin.gov/statutes/statutes/704/06. Water heater setpoints
typically range between 120°F and 140°F because temperatures below 120°F are susceptible to
Legionella bacteria (which lead to Legionnaires Disease) and heaters set to temperatures above
140°F can quickly scald users: http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy12osti/55074.pdf. Additionally, a
review of TRMs from geographically similar regions (including Connecticut 2012, Mid-Atlantic
v3.0, Illinois v2.0, and Indiana v1.0) found assumed hot water setpoints between 120°F and
130°F.
3. U.S. Department of Energy. DHW Scheduler. (The average water main temperature is for all
locations measured in Wisconsin, weighted by city population.)
4. U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. Residential Water Heater
Technical Support Document for the January 17, 2001, Final Rule. Appendix D-2: Water Heater
Analysis Model. Last updated October 17, 2013. Available
online: http://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/residential/pdfs/water_he
ater_fr.pdf.
5. Pacific Gas and Electric Company. Applied Technology Services Performance Testing and Analysis
Unit ATS Report #: 491-08.5, PY2008 Emerging Technologies Program. Pg. 8. 2008. Available
online: http://www.etcc-ca.com/sites/default/files/OLD/images/stories/reswhtestreport1.pdf.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
513
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
514
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Water Heater, ≥ 0.82 EF, Tankless, Residential, Natural Gas
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Water Heater, ≥ 0.82 EF, Tankless, Residential, NG, 2652
Water Heater, ≥ 0.82 EF, Tankless, Residential, NG, Claim Only, 3588
Per water heater
Prescriptive
Domestic Hot Water
Water Heater
Residential- multi family; Residential – single family
0
0
44
0
572
0
1
13
$605.00
Measure Description
This measure is installing an ENERGY STAR-qualified, small tankless water heater with an EF of 0.82 or
greater and an input rating less than or equal to 75,000 Btu/hour. In addition, qualifying tankless water
heaters must be whole-house units used for domestic water heating, and must be natural gas fueled.
Residential tankless water heaters are defined as equipment having a nominal input between 50,000
and 200,000 Btu/hour and a rated storage volume of 2 gallons or less.
Description of Baseline Condition
New federal efficiency standards that take effect in April 2015 raise the minimum EF for baseline units
from 0.575 to 0.600. The criteria date was rounded to January 1, 2016 since the code takes affect midyear 2015.
Description of Efficient Condition
Qualifying tankless water heaters must meet the qualifications listed in the table below.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
515
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Qualification Requirements for Tankless Water Heaters
Sector
Input Rating
EF
Multifamily
≤ 75,000 Btu/hour
≥ 50,000 Btu/hour
≤ 200,000 Btu/hour
≥ 0.82
Single Family
≥ 0.82
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Therm SAVED = (T WH – T ENTERING ) * GPD * 8.33 * 1 * 365 * [(1/EF BASE ) – (1/EF EFF )] * (1/100,000)
Where:
T WH
=
Water heater temperature set point (= 125°F)2
T ENTERING
=
Temperature of water entering water heater (= 52.3°F)3
GPD
=
Gallons of hot water used by the home per day (= 44.4 for multifamily;
= 51.5 for single family)4
8.33
=
Density of water, lbs/gal
1
=
Specific heat of water, Btu/lb-°F
365
=
Days per year
EF BASE
=
Baseline energy factor (= 0.575 for units sold before January 1, 2016;
= 0.600 for units sold after January 1, 2016)5
EF EFF
=
Efficiency energy factor (= 0.820)
100,000
=
Conversion from Btu to therms
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 13 years)1
Sources
1. PA Consulting Group Inc. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin Focus on
Energy Evaluation Business Programs: Measure Life Study. Final Report. August 25, 2009.
Available
online: https://focusonenergy.com/sites/default/files/bpmeasurelifestudyfinal_evaluationrepor
t.pdf
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
516
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
2. The water heater setpoint is assumed to be 125°F, as Wisconsin building code 704.06 requires
landlords to set water heaters to
125°F: https://docs.legis.wisconsin.gov/statutes/statutes/704/06. Water heater setpoints
typically range between 120°F and 140°F because temperatures below 120°F are susceptible to
Legionella bacteria (which lead to Legionnaires Disease) and heaters set to temperatures above
140°F can quickly scald users: http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy12osti/55074.pdf. Most TRMs
assume water heater set points of 120°F, 125°F, or 130°F, though most of these are unsourced
engineering assumptions. (Residential water heater setpoint resources include: Connecticut
2012 TRM PSD: 130°F for natural gas DWH and 125°F for tank wrap, HPWH, and temperature
reduction; Mid-Atlantic TRM v3.0: 130°F for tank wrap and pipe insulation; Illinois TRM v2.0:
125°F for pipe insulation, natural gas water heater, HPWH, and tank wrap and 120°F for
temperature reduction; and Indiana TRM v1.0: 130°F for pipe insulation.)
3. United States Department of Energy. DHW Scheduler. (Average water main temperature for all
Wisconsin locations as measured by scheduler and weighted by city population).
4. The gallons per day was calculated by using the linear relationship of y = 16.286 x + 13, where x
is the average number of people per home and y is the average gallons of hot water used per
day. An average value of 1.93 people per home was used for Wisconsin multifamily and 2.36 for
single family, based on RECS 2009 data. The linear relationship is used in the 2012 Indiana TRM
and the 2010 NY TRM.
5. Calculated as 0.67 - 0.0019 * 50 = 0.575, per the 2001 federal standard that took effect in 2004.
The new federal standard baseline was adopted in 2010 and took effect in April 2015; this was
calculated as 0.675 - 0.0015 * 50 = 0.600. Both calculations assume a 50 gallon tank.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
517
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Water Heater, Indirect
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Important Comments
Water Heater:
Indirect, 95% or greater, 1988
Electric, EF ≥ 0.93, 1989
Indirect, Claim Only, 3585
Electric, EF ≥ 0.93, Claim Only, 3586
Per water heater
Prescriptive
Domestic Hot Water
Water Heater
Residential- single family
0
0
93
0
1,395
0
1
15
2
$204.88
Measure Description
Indirect water heaters are applicable to any indirectly fueled water heater, and must be paired with a
high-efficiency boiler. In addition, qualifying indirect water heaters must be whole-house units or used
for domestic water heating.
Unlike other water heaters, indirect water heaters use a boiler as the heat source. The water heater
may also have a direct energy source for non-heating seasons when the boiler is shut off and thus not
able to meet the water heating demands.3
Description of Baseline Condition
The base case is a residential, gas-fueled, storage water heater with an EF of 0.575.4 New federal
efficiency standards that took effect in April 2015 raised the minimum EF for baseline units from 0.575
to 0.600. The criteria date was rounded to January 1, 2016 since the code takes affect mid-year 2015.
Description of Efficient Condition
Indirect water heaters must be connected to a boiler with an AFUE of 95% or greater.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
518
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Therms SAVED = ((GPD * 365 * 8.33 * 1 * ∆T w )/100,000) * ((1/RE BASE ) – (1/E C,EE )) + ((UA BASE / RE BASE ) – (UA EE
/ E C,EE )) * (∆T s * 8,760)/100,000
Where:
GPD
=
Average daily hot water consumption (= 51.5 gallons per day)5
365
=
Days per year
8.33
=
Density of water (lb/gallon)
1
=
Specific heat of water (Btu/lb °F)
∆T w
=
Average difference between the cold water inlet temperatures (52.3°F)
and the hot water delivery temperature (125°F) (= 72.7°F)6
100,000
=
Conversion factor (Btu/therm)
RE BASE
=
Recovery efficiency of the baseline tank type water heater (= 76%)6
E C,EE
=
Combustion efficiency of energy-efficient boiler used to heat indirect
water heater (= 95%)7
UA BASE
=
Overall heat loss coefficient of base tank type water heater
(= 14.0 Btu/hr-°F)8
UA EE
=
Overall heat loss coefficient of indirect water heater storage tank
(= 6.1 Btu/hr-°F; see table below)9
Typical Values for UA EE
Volume (gal)
H (bare tank)
inches
Diameter (bare
tank) inches
40
44
17
80
44
24
120
65
24
Insulation
UA (Btu/hr-°F)
1 in foam
4.1
2 in foam
2.1
1 in foam
6.1
2 in foam
3.1
1 in foam
8.4
2 in foam
5.4
∆T S
=
Temperature difference between the stored hot water temperature
(125°F) and the ambient indoor temperature (65°F) (= 60°F)
8,760
=
Conversion factor (hours/year)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
519
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
Indirect water heaters consume no electrical energy; therefore, they have no impact on demand
savings.
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
Therms LIFECYCLE = Therms SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (15 years)1
Assumptions
Because the efficiency of residential water heater is measured in EF, the true EF and UA BASE is not
available. A thermal efficiency of 76% and a UA BASE of 14 is assumed.
The average difference of 60°F assumes pipe and ambient air temperatures of 125°F and 65°F,
respectively.
Sources
1. 2009 GDS Residential Study,MA Natural Gas Potential http://ma-eeac.org/wordpress/wpcontent/uploads/5_Natural-Gas-EE-Potenial-in-MA.pdf .
2. Focus on Energy. Request for Proposals. Issued for Mass Markets Portfolio Residential
Energy Efficiency Program Implementation. July 26, 2011.
3. Public Service Commission of Wisconsin. Focus on Energy Evaluation, Residential Programs:
CY09 Deemed Savings Review. March 26, 2010.
4. U.S. Department of Energy. Federal standard for residential water heaters effective in 2004.
5. Calculated by using the linear relationship of y=16.286x + 13, where x is the average number
of people per home and y is the average gallons of hot water used per day. An average value
of 2.361 people/home was used for Wisconsin, based on RECS 2009 data. The linear
relationship is used in the 2012 Indiana TRM and the 2010 NY TRM.
6. Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute. “RWH Search.” Most common RE for
non-heat pump water heaters.
http://www.ahridirectory.org/ahridirectory/pages/rwh/defaultSearch.aspx
7. Assumed the combustion efficiency is a proxy for AFUE, where the program minimum is 95%
AFUE.
8. United States Department of Energy. Technical Support Document: Energy Efficiency
Standards for Consumer Products, Residential Water Heaters, Including Regulatory Impact
Analysis. 2000.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
520
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
9. New York Technical Reference Manual. Indirect Water Heaters, pg. 87. 2010.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
02
01/01/2012
10/30/2014
New measure
Updated therms based off 72.7°F temperature
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
521
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
HVAC
Smart Thermostat
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Measure Incremental Cost ($/unit)
Smart Thermostat:
Existing NG Boiler, 3609
Existing NG Furnace, 3610
Existing Air Source Heat Pump, 3611
Per thermostat
Prescriptive
HVAC
Controls
Residential- single family
Varies by existing heating system
Varies by existing heating system
Varies by existing heating system
Varies by existing heating system
Varies by existing heating system
0
1
10
$250.00
Measure Description
Users can set standard programmable thermostats to adjust temperature setpoints at different times of
the day, changing temperatures during unoccupied periods to allow for energy savings. The user can
also communicate remotely with a smart thermostat through Wi-Fi, which allows for remote
programming and can detect when the house is unoccupied through sensors or an application that
tracks the homeowner’s location through their phone. This occupancy sensor capacity allows the
thermostat to reduce energy use without requiring active programming or regular attention from the
user, thus optimizing thermostat-based energy savings independent of user interaction. Some smart
thermostats can also optimize efficiency through auto-adjustments based on outdoor temperature and
humidity, and “learning” standard occupancy behaviors and temperature preferences (eliminating the
need for programming).
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is a manual or standard programmable thermostat installed in a home with an
existing natural gas furnace, natural gas boiler, or air-source heat pump.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
522
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
See the Assumptions section for detail on weighted averages applied to savings to account for the
combination of manual and programmable thermostats in the baseline Wisconsin population.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is a smart thermostat installed in a home to replace the existing thermostat. To
qualify as a “smart,” the thermostat must be Wi-Fi capable (with the Wi-Fi connection established by the
customer), and have occupancy-sensing capability, such as motion sensors and/or geofencing.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
The savings algorithms associated with this measure involve calculating the heating and cooling energy
use, then applying a percentage savings achieved by installing a smart thermostat.2
Therm SAVED = HOURS HEATING * CAP / AFUE / 100 * ESF HEATING
kWh SAVED HEATING
=
EFLH HEATING * CAP / HSPF / 3.412 * ESF HEATING
kWh SAVED COOLING
=
(1/SEER) * EFLH COOLING * MBtuH * AC% * ESF COOLING
Where:
HOURS HEATING
=
Annual home heating hours (= 1,158 hours for natural gas furnace
and furnace/AC;5 = 1,000 hours for boiler)6
CAP
=
Heating system capacity (= 72 MBtuH for furnace;3 = 110 MBtuH for
boiler;4 = 37.2 MBtuH for ASHP)
AFUE
=
AFUE of system (= 90% for natural gas furnace; = 80% for boiler)
100
=
Conversion
ESF HEATING
=
Heating energy savings fraction (= 9.9% for furnace and boiler;8
= 12.0% for ASHP)9
EFLH HEATING
=
Effective full-load heating hours (= 1,890)7
HSPF
=
Heating seasonal performance factor (= 7.1)
3.412
=
Btu to Watt
SEER
=
Seasonal energy efficiency rating (= 12)
EFLH COOLING
=
Effective full-load cooling hours (= 410 for natural gas furnace;6
= 321 for ASHP)
MBtuH
=
Cooling system capacity (=29.1 MBtuH)10
AC%
=
Air conditioner efficiency % (= 92.5% for natural gas furnace;5
= 100% for ASHP; = 0% for boiler)
ESF COOLING
=
Cooling energy savings fraction (= 8.3%)8
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
523
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = kWh SAVED / EFLH COOLING * CF
Where:
CF
Coincidence factor (=68%)5
=
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 10 years)1
Deemed Savings
Annual and Lifecycle Electric Savings by Measure
Type of
Savings
(kWh)
Annual
Lifecycle
Measure (with existing heating equipment)
Smart Thermostat Installed Smart Thermostat Installed Smart Thermostat Installed in
in Home Heated by Natural in Home Heated by Natural
Home Heated by Air Source
Gas Boiler, MMID 3609
Gas Furnace, MMID 3610
Heat Pump, MMID 3611
0
0
76.33
763.3
430.87
4,308.7
Annual and Lifecycle Natural Gas Savings by Measure
Type of
Savings
(kWh)
Annual
Lifecycle
Measure (with existing heating equipment)
Smart Thermostat Installed Smart Thermostat Installed Smart Thermostat Installed in
in Home Heated by Natural in Home Heated by Natural
Home Heated by Air Source
Gas Boiler, MMID 3609
Gas Furnace, MMID 3610
Heat Pump, MMID 3611
136.13
1,361.3
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
91.71
917.1
0
0
524
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Summer Coincident Peak Savings by Measure
Type of
Savings
(kWh)
Measure (with existing heating equipment)
Smart Thermostat Installed Smart Thermostat Installed Smart Thermostat Installed in
in Home Heated by Natural in Home Heated by Natural
Home Heated by Air Source
Gas Boiler, MMID 3609
Gas Furnace, MMID 3610
Heat Pump, MMID 3611
Annual
0
0.127
0.175
Assumptions
Measure cost and savings assume a tech-based upgrade as opposed to end-of-life replacement, so the
baseline condition would have continued with existing equipment.
The GDS Associates document cited for EUL is also used by the Illinois TRM for programmable
thermostats.
The $250 incremental measure cost was based on typical online and retail stores prices for Nest,
Ecobee3, and Honeywell Lyric thermostats.
As a proxy for the Wisconsin service territory, the percentages of Indiana homes with a manual
thermostat and a programmable thermostat identified in a Cadmus study8 was used.
Percentages of Indiana Homes with Manual Versus Programmable Thermostat
Type of Thermostat
Percentage of Population
Heating
Cooling
Manual
Programmable
48.5%
51.5%
47.1%
52.9%
This savings for a programmable thermostat baseline was estimated by averaging the savings found by
the Cadmus Indiana study8 with that found by a 2007 study in Connecticut;12 then calculating the
additional percentage savings a smart thermostat would achieve using the smart thermostat savings
from the Indiana study.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
525
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Heating and Cooling Energy Savings Fractions by Thermostat Replacement Type
Thermostat Replacement Type
8
Manual to Smart
8
Manual to Programmable
12
Manual to Programmable
Averaged Manual to Programmable
Programmable to Smart
ESF HEATING
ESF COOLING
13.4%
7.8%
6.8%
7.3%
6.6%
16.1%
15.0%
N/A
15.0%
1.3%
The savings percentages are a weighted average to represent the combination of manual and
programmable thermostats that comprise the baseline population in Wisconsin. This was achieved by
multiplying the percentage of homes with a manual thermostat by the energy savings fraction achieved
by a smart thermostat (over a manual) and the percentage of homes with a programmable thermostat,
then multiplying by the energy savings fraction estimated for a smart thermostat replacing a
programmable thermostat.
Weighted Heating and Cooling Energy Savings Fractions
Type of Energy Savings Fraction
Weighted Percentage
ESF HEATING
ESF COOLING
9.9%
8.3%
For ASHPs, the Oregon Heat Pump Control Pilot Evaluation9 revealed savings of 12.0%, which is assumed
to be correct. This may be evaluated in the future based on additional studies as they become available.
As the region most similar to Wisconsin, the Northern Indiana pilot study was used as the primary
source for savings values used in this workpaper.
The capacity of residential heat pumps installed in Wisconsin is assumed to be 3.1 tons, based on an
analysis of 75 ASHPs installed between 2013 and 2015 for the Focus on Energy Residential Prescriptive
Program. At 12,000 Btu per hour per ton, the assumed average capacity is 37,200 Btu per hour.
The default efficiency levels are based on existing heating and cooling equipment efficiencies of 80%
AFUE boilers, 90% AFUE natural gas furnaces, SEER 12 central ACs, and HSPF 7.1 ASHPs. Current
baselines for boilers, furnaces, AC systems, and ASHPs assume 82% AFUE, 92% AFUE, SEER 13, and HSPF
7.7, respectively, based on current installation standards in Wisconsin (and assuming that the average
customer in Wisconsin is slightly below the baseline due to some homes still using older equipment).
The peak kW savings algorithm was based on the Attic Air Sealing measure in the Illinois TRM. This is
because all other kW algorithms used for Focus on Energy residential prescriptive measures are based
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
526
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
on efficiency changes, while the Attic Air Sealing measure, like this Smart Thermostat measure, involves
decreasing the HVAC system run time.
Supporting inputs for cooling load hours (furnaces) in several Wisconsin cities are shown in the table
below. Cooling hours are based on an air conditioner in the Deemed Savings Report,5 adjusted for the
larger capacity system (e.g., 410 hours at 2.425 tons is equivalent to 321 hours at 3.1 tons).
Supporting Inputs for Effective Full Load Cooling Hours by City
Location
EFLH COOLING
Weighting by Participant
344
323
395
457
380
410
22%
3%
18%
48%
9%
100%
Green Bay
Lacrosse
Madison
Milwaukee
Wisconsin Average
Weighted Average
Supporting inputs for heating load hours (ASHPs) in several Wisconsin cities are shown in the table
below.
Supporting Inputs for Effective Full Load Heating Hours by City13
Location
Green Bay
Lacrosse
Madison
Milwaukee
Wisconsin Average
Weighted Average
EFLH HEATING
Weighting by Participant
1,852
1,966
1,934
1,883
1,909
1,890
22%
3%
18%
48%
9%
100%
Sources
1. GDS Associates. Measure Life Report, Residential and Commercial/Industrial Lighting and HVAC
Measures. Table 1, HVAC Controls. 2007. Used programmable thermostat EUL as the closest
proxy for smart thermostats.
2. Indiana Technical Resource Manual, Version 1.0. Programmable Thermostats (Time of Sale,
Direct Install). January 10, 2013.
3. SPECTRUM Focus Prescriptive Database. 2012. Average furnace size of 13,000 lb.
4. SPECTRUM Focus Prescriptive Database. 2013. Average input capacity of boilers under 300 Mbh.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
527
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
5. Focus on Energy Deemed Savings Report: Evaluated Deemed Savings Changes. November 14,
2014.
6. 800 therms consumed by 90% AFUE furnaces (i.e., 720 therms output) for all residential natural
gas measures estimate from: Pigg and Nevius. Electricity Use by New Furnaces. 2000. Available
online: http://www.ecw.org/sites/d3efault/files/230-1.pdf. Using average furnace size of 72,000
Btu (from 2012 SPECTRUM database of 13,000 furnaces), 1,000 full-load heating hours are
estimated.
7. Focus on Energy. Technical Reference Manual. August 15, 2014. (Several Cadmus metering
studies reveal that ENERGY STAR calculator overestimates EFLH by 25%. The heating EFLH are
adjusted by population-weighted HDD and TMY-3 values.)
8. Cadmus. Evaluation of the 2013-2014 Programmable and Smart Thermostat Program. Prepared
for Northern Indiana Public Service Company. January 22, 2015.
9. Apex Analytics. Nest Thermostat Heat Pump Control Pilot Evaluation. Prepared for Energy Trust
of Oregon. October 10, 2014.
10. P.A. Consulting Group. Focus on Energy Evaluation, Residential Programs: CY09 Deemed Savings
Review. March 26, 2010. Available
online: https://focusonenergy.com/sites/default/files/cy09residentialdeemedsavingsreview_eva
luationreport.pdf
11. Illinois Energy Efficiency Statewide Advisory Group. Illinois Statewide Technical Reference
Manual. Section 5.6.1 Air Sealing. February 2014.
12. RLW Analytics. Validating the Impact of Programmable Thermostats. Prepared for GasNetworks.
January 2007.
13. Several Cadmus metering studies reveal that the ENERGY STAR calculator EFLH are overestimated by 25%. The heating EFLH were adjusted by population-weighted HDD and TMY-3
values.
Revision History
Version Number
01
Date
03/2015
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
Description of Change
Initial TRM entry
528
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Smart Thermostat, Installed with Home Heating Measure
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
Smart Thermostat:
Installed with 95% AFUE NG Furnace, 3612
Installed with 95% AFUE NG Boiler, 3613
Installed with Furnace and A/C, 3614
Installed with Air-Source Heat Pump, 3615
Per thermostat
Prescriptive
HVAC
Controls
Residential- single family
Varies by heating system installed
Varies by heating system installed
Varies by heating system installed
Varies by heating system installed
Varies by heating system installed
0
1
10
$250.00
Measure Description
Users can set standard programmable thermostats to adjust temperature setpoints at different times of
the day, changing temperatures during unoccupied periods to allow for energy savings. The user can
also communicate remotely with a smart thermostat through Wi-Fi, which allows for remote
programming and can detect when the house is unoccupied through sensors or an application that
tracks the homeowner’s location through their phone. This occupancy sensor capacity allows the
thermostat to reduce energy use without requiring active programming or regular attention from the
user, thus optimizing thermostat-based energy savings independent of user interaction. Some smart
thermostats can also optimize efficiency through auto-adjustments based on outdoor temperature and
humidity, and “learning” standard occupancy behaviors and temperature preferences (eliminating the
need for programming).
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is a manual or standard programmable thermostat installed in a home with new,
program qualified, natural gas furnace, natural gas boiler, furnace/AC combo, or air-source heat pump.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
529
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
See the Assumptions section for detail on weighted averages applied to savings to account for the
combination of manual and programmable thermostats in the baseline Wisconsin population.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is a smart thermostat installed in a home to replace the existing thermostat. To
qualify as a “smart,” the thermostat must be Wi-Fi capable (with the Wi-Fi connection established by the
customer), and have occupancy-sensing capability, such as motion sensors and/or geofencing.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
The savings algorithms associated with this measure involve calculating the heating and cooling energy
use, then applying a percentage savings achieved by installing a smart thermostat.2
Therm SAVED = HOURS HEATING * CAP / AFUE / 100 * ESF HEATING
kWh SAVED HEATING
=
EFLH HEATING * CAP / HSPF / 3.412 * ESF HEATING
kWh SAVED COOLING
=
(1/SEER) * EFLH COOLING * MBtuH * AC% * ESF COOLING
Where:
HOURS HEATING
=
Home heating hours (= 1,158 hours for natural gas furnace and
furnace/AC;5 = 1,000 hours for boiler)6
CAP
=
Heating system capacity (= 72 MBtuH for furnace;3 = 110 MBtuH for
boiler;4 = 37.2 MBtuH for ASHP)
AFUE
=
AFUE of system if natural gas furnace or furnace/AC
100
=
Conversion
ESF HEATING
=
Heating energy savings fraction (= 9.9% for furnace and boiler;8
= 12.0% for ASHP)9
EFLH HEATING
=
Effective full-load heating hours (= 1,890)7
HSPF
=
Heating seasonal performance factor (= 8.4)
3.412
=
Watt to Btu conversion
SEER
=
Seasonal energy efficiency rating (= 13 for 95% natural gas furnace;
= 16 for furnace/AC)
EFLH COOLING
=
Effective full-load cooling hours (= 410 for natural gas furnace and
furnace/AC;5 = 321 for ASHP)
MBtuH
=
Cooling system capacity (=29.1 MBtuH)10
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
530
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
AC%
=
Air Conditioner efficiency (= 92.5% for 95% natural gas furnace;5
= 100% for furnace/AC or ASHP; = 0% for boiler)
ESF COOLING
=
Cooling energy savings fraction (= 8.3%)8
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = kWh SAVED / EFLH COOLING * CF
Where:
CF
Coincidence factor (=68%)5,11
=
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 10 years)1
Deemed Savings
Annual and Lifecycle Electric Savings by Measure
Type of
Savings
(kWh)
Annual
Lifecycle
Measure
Smart Thermostat
Smart Thermostat
Smart Thermostat
Installed with 95% Installed with 95%
Installed with
Natural Gas Boiler,
AFUE Natural Gas
Furnace/AC Combo,
Furnace, MMID 3612
MMID 3613
MMID 3614
0
0
70.46
704.6
61.89
618.9
Smart Thermostat
Installed with Air
Source Heat Pump,
MMID 3615
356.32
3,563.2
Annual and Lifecycle Natural Gas Savings by Measure
Type of
Savings
(therms)
Annual
Lifecycle
Smart Thermostat
Installed with 95%
Natural Gas Boiler,
MMID 3613
114.63
1,146.3
Measure
Smart Thermostat
Smart Thermostat Smart Thermostat
Installed with 95%
Installed with
Installed with Air
AFUE Natural Gas
Furnace/AC Combo, Source Heat Pump,
Furnace, MMID 3612
MMID 3614
MMID 3615
86.89
868.9
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
86.89
868.9
0
0
531
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Summer Coincident Peak Savings by Measure
Type of
Savings
(kW)
Smart Thermostat
Installed with 95%
Natural Gas Boiler,
MMID 3613
Annual
Measure
Smart Thermostat
Smart Thermostat
Installed with 95%
Installed with
AFUE Natural Gas
Furnace/AC Combo,
Furnace, MMID 3612
MMID 3614
0
0.117
Smart Thermostat
Installed with Air
Source Heat Pump,
MMID 3615
0.103
0.131
Assumptions
The GDS Associates document cited for EUL is also used by the Illinois TRM for programmable
thermostats.
The $250 incremental measure cost was based on typical online and retail stores prices for Nest,
Ecobee3, and Honeywell Lyric thermostats.
As a proxy for the Wisconsin service territory, the percentages of Indiana homes with a manual
thermostat and a programmable thermostat identified in a Cadmus study8 was used.
Percentages of Indiana Homes with Manual Versus Programmable Thermostat
Type of Thermostat
Percentage of Population
Heating
Cooling
Manual
Programmable
48.5%
51.5%
47.1%
52.9%
This savings for a programmable thermostat baseline was estimated by averaging the programmable
savings found by the Cadmus Indiana study8 with that found by a 2007 study in Connecticut;12 then
calculating the additional percentage savings a smart thermostat would achieve using the smart
thermostat savings from the Indiana study.
Heating and Cooling Energy Savings Fractions by Thermostat Replacement Type
Thermostat Replacement Type
8
Manual to Smart
8
Manual to Programmable
12
Manual to Programmable
Averaged Manual to Programmable
Programmable to Smart
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
ESF HEATING
ESF COOLING
13.4%
7.8%
6.8%
7.3%
6.6%
16.1%
15.0%
N/A
15.0%
1.3%
532
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
The savings percentages are a weighted average to represent the combination of manual and
programmable thermostats that comprise the baseline population in Wisconsin. This was achieved by
multiplying the percentage of homes with a manual thermostat by the energy savings fraction achieved
by a smart thermostat (over a manual) and the percentage of homes with a programmable thermostat,
then multiplying by the energy savings fraction estimated for a smart thermostat replacing a
programmable thermostat.
Weighted Heating and Cooling Energy Savings Fractions
Type of Energy Savings Fraction
Weighted Percentage
ESF HEATING
ESF COOLING
9.9%
8.3%
For ASHPs, the Oregon Heat Pump Control Pilot Evaluation9 revealed savings of 12.0%, which is assumed
to be correct. This may be evaluated in the future based on additional studies as they become available.
As the region most similar to Wisconsin, the Northern Indiana pilot study was used as the primary
source for savings values used in this workpaper.
The capacity of residential heat pumps installed in Wisconsin is assumed to be 3.1 tons, based on an
analysis of 75 ASHPs installed between 2013 and 2015 for the Focus on Energy Residential Prescriptive
Program. At 12,000 Btu per hour per ton, the assumed average capacity is 37,200 Btu per hour.
Installed furnace/AC combos are required to have a SEER 16 AC rating, while installed natural gas
furnaces are assumed to have central AC rated at the federal minimum of 13 SEER.
As the 2014 Focus on Energy Deemed Savings Report revealed that 92.5% of customers with natural gas
furnaces also have central air conditioning, the kWh SAVED COOLING and kW SAVED values are multiplied by
0.925 for customers installing a smart thermostat with their new natural gas furnace without a 16 SEER
AC.
Customers with boilers are not assumed to have central air conditioning on the same thermostat, and
thus no kWh or kW savings are associated with a smart thermostat installed with a 95% boiler.
The peak kW savings algorithm was based on the Attic Air Sealing measure in the Illinois TRM. This is
because all other kW algorithms used for Focus on Energy residential prescriptive measures are based
on efficiency changes, while the Attic Air Sealing measure, like this Smart Thermostat measure, involves
decreasing the HVAC system run time.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
533
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Supporting inputs for cooling load hours (furnaces) in several Wisconsin cities are shown in the table
below. Cooling hours are based on an air conditioner in the Deemed Savings Report,5 adjusted for the
larger capacity system (e.g., 410 hours at 2.425 tons is equivalent to 321 hours at 3.1 tons).
Supporting Inputs for Effective Full Load Cooling Hours by City
Location
EFLH COOLING
Weighting by Participant
344
323
395
457
380
410
22%
3%
18%
48%
9%
100%
Green Bay
Lacrosse
Madison
Milwaukee
Wisconsin Average
Weighted Average
Supporting inputs for heating load hours (ASHPs) in several Wisconsin cities are shown in the table
below.
Supporting Inputs for Effective Full Load Heating Hours by City
Location
Green Bay
Lacrosse
Madison
Milwaukee
Wisconsin Average
Weighted Average
EFLH HEATING
Weighting by Participant
1,852
1,966
1,934
1,883
1,909
1,890
22%
3%
18%
48%
9%
100%
Sources
1. GDS Associates. Measure Life Report, Residential and Commercial/Industrial Lighting and HVAC
Measures. Table 1, HVAC Controls. 2007. Used programmable thermostat EUL as the closest
proxy for smart thermostats.
2. Indiana Technical Resource Manual, Version 1.0. Programmable Thermostats (Time of Sale,
Direct Install). January 10, 2013.
3. SPECTRUM Focus Prescriptive Database. 2012. Average furnace size of 13,000 lb.
4. SPECTRUM Focus Prescriptive Database. 2013. Average input capacity of boilers under 300 Mbh.
5. Focus on Energy Deemed Savings Report: Evaluated Deemed Savings Changes. November 14,
2014.
6. 800 therms consumed by 90% AFUE furnaces (i.e., 720 therms output) for all residential natural
gas measures estimate from: Pigg and Nevius. Electricity Use by New Furnaces. 2000. Available
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
534
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
online: http://www.ecw.org/sites/d3efault/files/230-1.pdf. Using average furnace size of 72,000
Btu (from 2012 SPECTRUM database of 13,000 furnaces), 1,000 full-load heating hours are
estimated.
7. Focus on Energy. Technical Reference Manual. August 15, 2014. (Several Cadmus metering
studies reveal that ENERGY STAR calculator overestimates EFLH by 25%. The heating EFLH are
adjusted by population-weighted HDD and TMY-3 values.)
8. Cadmus. Evaluation of the 2013-2014 Programmable and Smart Thermostat Program. Prepared
for Northern Indiana Public Service Company. January 22, 2015.
9. Apex Analytics. Nest Thermostat Heat Pump Control Pilot Evaluation. Prepared for Energy Trust
of Oregon. October 10, 2014.
10. PA Consulting Group. Focus on Energy Evaluation, Residential Programs: CY09 Deemed Savings
Review. March 26, 2010. Available
online: https://focusonenergy.com/sites/default/files/cy09residentialdeemedsavingsreview_eva
luationreport.pdf
11. Illinois Energy Efficiency Statewide Advisory Group. Illinois Statewide Technical Reference
Manual. Section 5.6.1 Air Sealing. February 2014.
12. RLW Analytics. Validating the Impact of Programmable Thermostats. Prepared for GasNetworks.
January 2007.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
03/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
535
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Gas Furnace
Measure Details
LP Furnace with ECM, 90%+ AFUE (Existing), 3679
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Natural Gas Furnace:
95% AFUE, 3441
With ECM, 95+ AFUE (Existing), Enhanced Rewards, 3443
Per furnace
Prescriptive
HVAC
Furnace
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government,
Residential- multifamily, Residential- single family
415 (excluding non-ECM)
0.0792 (excluding non-ECM)
Varies by AFUE and fuel type
9,545 (excluding non-ECM)
Varies by AFUE and fuel type
0
1
23
Varies by measure, see Appendix D
Measure Description
Conventional natural gas furnaces produce by-products, such as water vapor and carbon dioxide,
which are usually vented out through a chimney along with a considerable amount of heat. This
occurs not only when the furnace is in use, but also when it is turned off. Newer designs increase
energy efficiency by reducing the amount of heat that escapes and by extracting heat from the flue
gas before it is vented. These furnaces use much less energy than conventional furnaces.
Description of Baseline Condition
The current federal furnace standard is 78% AFUE without an ECM. However, the Residential Rewards
Program uses 92% AFUE furnace without an ECM as the baseline due to market trends in Wisconsin,2
while the Enhanced Rewards Program maintains the 78% AFUE baseline due to income restraints for
participating consumers. A baseline of 92% AFUE is used for nonresidential and multifamily applications.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
536
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition varies by measure-specific requirements; the measure master name largely
explains the efficient condition for each measure. For all measures, the efficient condition pertains to a
furnace used for space heating only.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Therm SAVED = CAP * hours HEATING * (1/η BASE - 1/η EE ) * (1/100)
kWh SAVED = kWh SAVED COOLING + kWh SAVED HEATING + kWh SAVED CIRC
kWh SAVED COOLING = tons * EFLH COOLING * 12 kBtu/ton * (1/SEER BASE -1/SEER ECM ) * AC%
kWh SAVED HEATING = hours HEATING * ∆kW HEAT
kWh SAVED CIRC = hours CIRC * ∆kW CIRC
Where:
CAP
=
Heating capacity (= 72 MBtu/h)3
hours HEATING =
Annual heating hours (= 1,158 hours)3
η BASE
=
Baseline unit efficiency (= 78% AFUE for Enhanced Rewards and LP
furnaces; = 92% AFUE for Residential Rewards, multifamily, and
nonresidential application)
η EE
=
Energy efficient unit efficiency (= 90% AFUE for LP or 95% AFUE forNG )
100
=
Conversion
tons
=
Cooling capacity (=2.425 tons)
EFLH COOLING =
Equivalent full-load hours of cooling (= 410; see table below)4
SEER BASE
=
Seasonal energy efficiency rating of baseline unit (= 12)3
SEER ECM
=
Seasonal energy efficiency rating of efficient unit (= 13)3
AC%
=
Air Conditioner efficiency (= 92.5%)3
∆kW HEAT
=
Heating demand (= 0.116 kW)3
hours CIRC
= Annual hours on circulate setting (= 1,020 hours)3
∆kW CIRC
=
Demand on circulate setting (= 0.207 kW)3
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
537
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Equivalent Full-Load Cooling Hours by Location
Location
EFLH COOLING
Weighting by
Participant
344
323
395
457
380
22%
3%
18%
48%
9%
Green Bay
Lacrosse
Madison
Milwaukee
Wisconsin Average
Overall
410
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
Peak electrical energy savings for the ECM changed based on the Focus on Energy ECM Study3 and is
deemed as 0.0792 kW/unit.
kW SAVED = tons * 12 kBtu/ton * (1/EER BASE – 1/EER ECM ) * CF * AC%
Where:
EER BASE
=
Energy efficiency rating of baseline unit (= 10.5)3
EER ECM
=
Energy efficiency rating of efficient unit (= 11)3
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 68%)3
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
ThermLIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (=18)1
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
538
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Sources
1. PA Consulting Group Inc. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin Focus on
Energy Evaluation Business Programs: Measure Life Study. Final Report. August 25, 2009.
Available
online: https://focusonenergy.com/sites/default/files/bpmeasurelifestudyfinal_evaluationrepor
t.pdf
2. Cadmus. Focus on Energy Calendar Year 2013 Baseline Market Study. November 26, 2013.
Available
online: https://focusonenergy.com/sites/default/files/FOC_XC_Baseline%20Evaluation%20Repo
rt%20CY%202013.pdf
3. Focus on Energy Deemed Savings Report. October 27, 2014.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
539
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Joint Furnace & Central AC with ECM
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Furnace and A/C, with ECM, 95%+ AFUE, ≥ 16 SEER, 2990
Furnace and A/C, with ECM, 95% + AFUE, ≥ 16 SEER, Enhanced
Rewards, 3569
Per system
Prescriptive
HVAC
Other
Residential- single family
518
0.277
Varies by baseline
11,914
Varies by baseline
0
1
23
2
$1,451.66 for Residential Rewards
2
$2,238.73 for Enhanced Rewards
Measure Description
This is the joint measures of a high-efficiency furnace with an ECM and a central air conditioner.
Description of Baseline Condition2
The baseline condition for Residential Rewards is a 92% AFUE3 natural gas furnace without an ECM and a
13 SEER central air conditioner, and the baseline condition for Enhanced Rewards is a 78% AFUE natural
gas furnace without an ECM and a 13 SEER central air conditioner.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is a 95% AFUE natural gas furnace with an ECM and a 16 SEER central AC.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Therm SAVED = CAP * HOURS HEAT * (1/ AFUEBASE - 1/AFUEEE) * (1/100)
kWh SAVED = kWh SAVED COOLING + kWh SAVED HEATING + kWh SAVED CIRC
kWh SAVED COOLING = tons * EFLH COOL * 12 kBtu/ton * (1/SEER BASE -1/SEER EE )
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
540
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
kWh SAVED HEATING = HOURS HEAT * kW SAVED HEATING
kWh SAVED CIRC =HOURS CIRC * kW SAVED CIRC
Where:
CAP
=
Heating capacity (= 72 MBtu/h)4
HOURS HEAT
=
Hours of heating operation (= 1,158)3
AFUE BASE
=
Efficiency rating of standard efficiency furnace, deemed (= 78%
AFUE for Enhanced Rewards; = 92% AFUE for Residential Rewards)
AFUE EE
=
Efficiency rating of efficient furnace, deemed (= 95% or 97%)
100
=
Conversion
kWh SAVED COOLING =
kWh saved from AC with ECM (= 173; see algorithm above)
kWh SAVED HEATING =
kWh saved in heating mode, deemed (= 134)3
kWh SAVED CIRC
=
kWh saved in heating mode, deemed (= 211)3
tons
=
Cooling capacity (= 2.425 tons)3
EFLH COOL
=
Equivalent full-load cooling hours (= 410; see table below)3
Equivalent Full-Load Cooling Hours by Location
Location
Green Bay
La Crosse
Madison
Milwaukee
Wisconsin Average
Overall
EFLH COOL
Weighting by
Participant
344
323
395
457
380
22%
3%
18%
48%
9%
410
SEER BASE
=
Federal minimum seasonal energy efficiency ratio (= 13)
SEER EE
=
Efficient measure seasonal energy efficiency ratio (= 16)
kW SAVED HEATING =
Average power saved in heating mode (= 0.116 kW)3
HOURS CIRC
=
Circulation hours of operation (= 1,020 hours)3
kW SAVED CIRC
=
Average power saved in circulation mode (= 0.207 kW)3
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
541
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = tons * 12 kBtu/ton * (1/EER BASE – 1/EER ECM ) * CF
Where:
EER BASE
=
Baseline energy efficiency ratio (= 11.0)5
EER ECM
=
Efficient measure energy efficiency ratio (= 13)5
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 68%)3
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Therm LIFECYCLE = ThermSAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (=18 years)1
Deemed Savings
Deemed Savings by Program
Program
Enhanced Rewards
Residential Rewards
MMID
Annual
Electric
Energy
Savings
(kWh/yr)
3569
2990
518
518
Peak Demand
Reduction
(kW)
0.277
0.277
Lifecycle
Electric
Energy
Savings
(kWh)
9,324
9,324
Annual
Natural Gas
Savings
(therms/yr)
Lifecycle
Natural Gas
Savings
(therms)
191
29
3,438
522
Assumptions
•
The current federal furnace standard is a 78% AFUE furnace without an ECM. However, the
Residential Rewards Program uses a 92% AFUE furnace without an ECM as the baseline due to
market trends in Wisconsin, while the Enhanced Rewards Program maintains the 78% AFUE
baseline due to income restraints for participating consumers.
•
Electrical energy savings for the ECM were established in a State of Wisconsin Department of
Administration Division of Energy Impact Assessment Report, and later revised in a 2009 Impact
Assessment Report, to be 733 kWh/furnace.7 Upon receiving feedback from Cadmus, the ECM
electric savings were adjusted downward to 500 kWh/furnace in 2012. The ECM savings were
revised in 2014 to 415 kWh/furnace for the 2015 program year.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
542
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
•
AHRI ratings reveal that 76% of 16 SEER combinations have an EER rating of 13 or higher. This
seems consistent with federal tax credits given to 13 EER / 16 SEER equipment in 2006, 2007,
and 2009 through 2013.
•
AHRI combination ratings reveal that EER rating is approximately 2 less than SEER rating.6 This is
very close to the U.S. DOE guideline of EER = -0.02 x SEER^2 + 1.12 x SEER
(http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy11osti/49246.pdf), obtained using an equation first proposed in:
Wassmer, M. A Component-Based Model for Residential Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Energy
Calculations. Masters Thesis, University of Colorado at Boulder. 2003.
Sources
1. PA Consulting Group Inc. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin Focus on
Energy Evaluation Business Programs: Measure Life Study. Final Report. August 25, 2009.
Available online:
https://focusonenergy.com/sites/default/files/bpmeasurelifestudyfinal_evaluationreport.pdfInc
remental costs based on Fall 2014 review of Residential Prescriptive trade allies. IMCs are
different for the two programs because the measures use different baselines.
2. Cadmus. Focus on Energy Calendar Year 2013 Baseline Market Study. November 26, 2013.
Available online: https://focusonenergy.com/sites/default/files/Appendix%20B%20%20FOC_XC_Deemed_WriteUp_12122013%20(2).pdf
3. Average size of 13,000 furnaces in the 2012 SPECTRUM Focus Prescriptive Database.
4. PA Consulting Group. Focus on Energy Evaluation, Residential Programs: CY09 Deemed Savings
Review. March 26, 2010. Available online:
https://focusonenergy.com/sites/default/files/cy09residentialdeemedsavingsreview_evaluation
report.pdf
5. Cadmus. Focus on Energy Evaluated Deemed Savings Changes. November 14, 2014.
https://focusonenergy.com/sites/default/files/FoE_Deemed_WriteUp%20CY14%20Final.pdf
6. Focus on Energy Evaluation, ECM Furnace Impact Assessment Report: Final Report. January 12,
2009.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
543
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Laundry
ENERGY STAR Multifamily Common Area Clothes Washers
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
Clothes Washer, Common Area, ENERGY STAR, 2756 (Electric), 2757 (NG)
Per clothes washer
Prescriptive
Laundry
Clothes Washer
Residential- multifamily
Varies by fuel source
Varies by fuel source
Varies by fuel source
Varies by fuel source
Varies by fuel source
13,978
1
11
$325.40
Measure Description
ENERGY STAR is a standard for energy-efficient consumer appliances. This standard increases savings for
clothes washers in multifamily buildings, which are derived from factors such as hot water fuel, dryer
type, and location (in-unit or common area).
This measure describes clothes washers in common areas. For washers installed in individual units of a
multifamily building, see the residential single-family clothes washer measure.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is a non-ENERGY STAR commercial clothes washer.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is an ENERGY STAR commercial clothes washer.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
Clothes washer with electric DHW:
kWh SAVED = [ΔkWh(EG) * %EG + ΔkWh(EE) * %EE + ΔkWh(EnD) * %EnD] * Cycles/year
Therm SAVED = [ΔTherm(EG) * %EG] * Cycles/year
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
544
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Clothes washer with natural gas DHW:
kWh SAVED = [∆kWh(GE) * %GE + ∆kWh(GG) * %GG + ∆kWh(GnD) * %GnD] * Cycles/year
Therm SAVED = [∆Therm(GG) * %GG + ∆Therm(GE) * %GE + ∆Therm(GnD) * %GnD ] * Cycles/year
Where:
Mix of dryers for clothes washers with electric DHW2
EG
=
Electric DHW and natural gas dryer (= 8.0%)
EE
=
Electric DHW and electric dryer (= 92.0%)
EnD
=
Electric DHW with no dryer (= 0.0%)
Cycles/year
=
Wash cycles per year (= 1,241)2
Mix of dryers for clothes washers with natural gas DHW2
GG
=
Natural gas DHW and natural gas dryer (= 26.5%)
GE
=
Natural gas DHW and electric dryer (= 74.5%)
Gnd
=
Natural gas DHW with no dryer (=0.0%)
Cycles/year
=
Wash cycles per year (= 1,241)2
Electric and natural gas savings for mixes of dryer and DHW types2
ΔkWh(GE)
=
Electric savings per cycle in kWh (= 1.45)
ΔkWh(EG)
=
Electric savings per cycle in kWh (= 0.25)
ΔkWh(EE)
=
Electric savings per cycle in kWh (= 1.70)
ΔkWh(EnD)
=
Electric savings per cycle in kWh (=1.70)
ΔTherm(GG) =
Natural gas savings per cycle in therms (= 0.066)
ΔTherm(GE) =
Natural gas savings per cycle in therms (= 0.011)
ΔTherm(EG) =
Natural gas savings per cycle in therms (= 0.055)
ΔTherm(GnD) =
Natural gas Savings per cycle in therms (= 0.011)
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = kWh SAVED /(Cycles/year * Hours/cycle) * CF
Where:
Hours/cycle =
1 (estimated)
CF
Coincidence factor (= 0.045)2
=
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
545
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Therm LIFECYCLE = Therm SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 11 years)1
Deemed Savings
Deemed Savings by Measure
CAE (MMID 2756)
CAG (MMID 2757)
1,971
0.071
21,681
5.3
58
13,978
195,692
1,331
0.048
14,641
31.9
351
13,978
195,692
Annual Deemed Electricity Savings (kWh)
Deemed Summer Peak Electricity Demand Reduction (kW)
Lifecycle Deemed Electricity Energy Savings (kWh)
Annual Deemed Natural Gas Energy Savings (therms)
Lifecycle Deemed Natural Gas Energy Savings (Therms)
Annual Demand Water Savings (gallons)
Lifecycle Deemed Water Savings (gallons)
Sources
1. Energy Savings Potential and RD&D Opportunities for Commercial Building Appliances: U.S.
Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Building Technologies Program,
Navigant Consulting, Inc.
2009. http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/publications/pdfs/corporate/commercial_applian
ces_report_12-09.pdf
2. California Public Utilities District. Res Retro HIM Evaluation Report. Weighted by quantity of
each efficiency level from MESP Spectrum.
3. RECs Database - Wisconsin Multifamily unit counts.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
546
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Lighting
CFL, Reduced Wattage, Pin Based, Replacing CFL
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
CFL, Reduced Wattage, Pin Based:
18 Watt, Replacing CFL, 3031
26 Watt, Replacing CFL, 3032
32 Watt, Replacing CFL, 3033
42 Watt, Replacing CFL, 3034
Per lamp
Prescriptive
Lighting
Fluorescent, Compact (CFL)
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government,
Residential- multifamily
Varies by wattage and sector
Varies by wattage and sector
0
Varies by wattage and sector
0
0
1
3
Varies by measure, see Appendix D
Measure Description
RW CFL lamps save energy by reducing the total input wattage of the luminaire as compared to the same
luminaire operating with standard wattage lamps. This measure can be applied to common area spaces
where there is more than sufficient light available for the tasks in that space using standard wattage CFL
lamps, as these are areas where RW CFL lamps can be considered.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline equipment is standard wattage, pin-based CFL lamps.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient equipment is a RW CFL lamp being used to replace a standard wattage CFL lamp.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
547
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (Watts BASE – Watts EE) / 1,000 * HOU
Where:
Watts BASE
=
Power consumption of baseline measure (= see table below)
Watts EE
=
Power consumption of efficient measure (= see table below)
Baseline and Efficient Wattage by Type of Measures
Baseline Measure
Efficient Measure
Watts BASE
Watts EE
Type 1
Type 2
Type 3
Type 4
18-Watt Pin-Based
CFL Lamp
14-Watt, 15-Watt,
or 16-Watt PinBased CFL Lamp
18
14, 15, 16
26-Watt Pin-Based
CFL Lamp
32-Watt Pin-Based
CFL Lamp
42-Watt Pin-Based
CFL Lamp
21-Watt or 23-Watt
Pin-Based CFL Lamp
27-Watt or 28-Watt
Pin-Based CFL Lamp
33-Watt or 38-Watt
Pin-Based CFL Lamp
26
21, 23
32
27, 28
42
33, 38
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Annual operating hours (= see table below)
•
Annual Operating Hours by Sector 2
Sector
Multifamily
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
HOU
5,950
3,730
4,745
4,698
3,239
2
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (Watts BASE – Watts EE ) / 1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 0.77)3
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
548
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 3 years)1
Deemed Savings
Average Annual Deemed Savings for Pin-Based, Reduced-Wattage CFL Lamps
Measure
CFL, Reduced Wattage, Pin Based, 18 Watt, Replacing CFL
CFL, Reduced Wattage, Pin Based, 26 Watt, Replacing CFL
CFL, Reduced Wattage, Pin Based, 32 Watt, Replacing CFL
CFL, Reduced Wattage, Pin Based, 42 Watt, Replacing CFL
MMID
Existing Building
3031
3032
3033
3034
18 kWh / 0.002 kW
24 kWh / 0.003 kW
27 kWh / 0.003 kW
39 kWh / 0.005 kW
Average Lifecycle Deemed Savings for Pin-Based, Reduced-Wattage CFL Lamps
Measure
CFL, Reduced Wattage, Pin Based, 18 Watt, Replacing CFL
CFL, Reduced Wattage, Pin Based, 26 Watt, Replacing CFL
CFL, Reduced Wattage, Pin Based, 32 Watt, Replacing CFL
CFL, Reduced Wattage, Pin Based, 42 Watt, Replacing CFL
MMID
Existing Building
3031
3032
3033
3034
54 kWh
72 kWh
81 kWh
117 kWh
Assumptions
An average of 33% each of 14-watt, 15-watt, and 16-watt pin-based CFL lamps were used to generate
the new measure average energy use for 18-watt lamp replacements.
An average of 50% each of 21-watt and 23-watt pin-based CFL lamps were used to generate the new
measure average energy use for 26-watt lamp replacements.
An average of 50% each of 27-watt and 28-watt pin-based CFL lamps were used to generate the new
measure average energy use for 32-watt lamp replacements.
An average of 50% each of 33-watt and 38-watt pin-based CFL lamps were used to generate the new
measure average energy use for 42-watt lamp replacements.
Sources
1. Manufacturer rated life.
2.
PA Consulting Group Inc. and Public Service Commission of Wisconsin. Focus on Energy.
Evaluation, Business Programs: Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. March 22, 2010. Hours of Use can
be found in Table 3.2. Average connected wattages can be found on Final Report, Page 4-194
and Table 4-163
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
549
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
3.
State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission. Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0.
Table 3.2 Coincidence Factor for Lighting in Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
550
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
CFL, Direct Install, 9, 14, 19, or 23 Watts
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
CFL, Direct Install:
9 Watts, 2116 and 2132
14 Watts, 2117 and 2133
19 Watts, 2118 and 2134
23 Watts, 2119 and 2135
Per bulb
Prescriptive
Lighting
Fluorescent, Compact (CFL)
Residential- multifamily, Residential-single family
Varies by wattage and sector
Varies by wattage and sector
0
Varies by wattage and sector
0
0
1
6
Varies by measure, see Appendix D
Measure Description
This measure is the Program Implementer or a subcontractor of the Program Implementer installing a 9watt, 14-watt, 19-watt, or 23-watt ENERGY STAR-qualified screw-in CFL in place of an incandescent
screw-in bulb. Assumptions are based on a direct installation, not a time-of sale purchase.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline equipment is an incandescent or halogen light bulb.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient equipment is a standard screw-based CFL lamp installed by the Program Implementer or a
subcontractor.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
551
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (Watts BASE – Watts EE ) / 1,000 * HOU
Where:
Watts BASE
=
Baseline wattage (= see table below)
Watts EE
=
Efficient wattage (= see table below)
Baseline and Efficient Wattages by Measure
Watts BASE
MMIDs
Watts EFFICIENT
72
53
43
29
2119 and 2135
2118 and 2134
2117 and 2133
2116 and 2132
23
19
14
9
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Hours-of-use (= 829 for single family;2 = 734 for multifamily)3
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (Watts BASE – Watts EE ) / 1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincident factor (= 0.075 for single family;2 = 0.055 for multifamily)3
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 6 years)1
Deemed Savings
Single Family Savings
Watts EE
MMID
Annual kWh SAVED
kW SAVED
Lifecycle kWh SAVED
23
19
14
9
2119 and 2135
2118 and 2134
2117 and 2133
2116 and 2132
41
28
24
17
0.0037
0.0026
0.0022
0.0015
244
169
144
99
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
552
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Multifamily Savings
Watts EE
MMID
Annual kWh SAVED
kW SAVED
Lifecycle kWh SAVED
23
19
14
9
2119 and 2135
2118 and 2134
2117 and 2133
2116 and 2132
36
26
21
15
0.0030
0.0020
0.0020
0.0010
216
156
128
88
Sources
1. Average of 2013 Cadmus database, CALMAC 2001, 2007 GDS, DEER 2008.
2. Cadmus. Focus on Energy Evaluated Deemed Savings Changes: 2013 Final Report. November 26,
2013. Available
online: https://focusonenergy.com/sites/default/files/FOC_XC_Deemed_WriteUp_12122013%2
0%282%29.pdf.
3. Cadmus. Focus on Energy Evaluated Deemed Savings Changes: 2014 Final Report. November 14,
2014. Available
online: https://focusonenergy.com/sites/default/files/FoE_Deemed_WriteUp%20CY14%20Final.
pdf.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
553
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
CFL, Direct Install, 20 Watt
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental ($/unit)
CFL, Direct Install, 20 Watt, 3487
Per lamp
Prescriptive
Lighting
Fluorescent, Compact (CFL)
Residential- single family
27
0.0025
0
164
0
0
1
6
$5.00
Measure Description
This measure is the Program Implementer or a subcontractor of the Program Implementer installing a
20-watt ENERGY STAR-qualified screw-in CFL in place of an incandescent screw-in bulb. The incremental
cost of the CFL compared to the incandescent light bulb is the full installed cost. Savings are based on a
direct installation, not a time-of-sale purchase.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline equipment is an incandescent 53-watt or 75-watt equivalent light bulb. Savings are
evaluated using a baseline wattage of 53 watts for both scenarios.
Description of Efficient Condition
This measure applies to standard screw-based 20-watt CFL lamps.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (Watts BASE - Watts EE ) / 1,000 * HOU
Where:
Watts BASE
=
Baseline wattage (= 53)
Watts EE
=
Efficient wattage (= 20)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
554
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Hours-of-use per year (= 829)2
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (Watts BASE - Watts EE ) / 1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 0.075)2
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 6 years)1
Sources
1. Average of 2013 Cadmus database, CALMAC 2001, 2007 GDS, DEER 2008.
2. Cadmus. Focus on Energy Evaluated Deemed Savings Changes. November 26, 2013.
Revision History
Version Number
01
Date
01/2015
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
Description of Change
Initial TRM entry
555
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
CFL, Direct Install, 13 Watt, 18 Watt
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
CFL, Direct Install, 13 Watt 3413
Per lamp
Prescriptive
Lighting
Fluorescent, Compact (CFL)
Residential- single family
25 or 35
0.0023
0
149
0
0
1
6
$0.37
Measure Description
This measure is the Program Implementer or a subcontractor of the Program Implementer installing a
13-watt or 18-watt ENERGY STAR-qualified screw-in CFL in place of an incandescent screw-in bulb. The
incremental cost of the CFL compared to the incandescent light bulb is the full installed cost. Savings are
based on a direct installation, not a time-of-sale purchase.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline equipment is an incandescent 43-watt or 60-watt light bulb.
Description of Efficient Condition
This measure applies to standard screw-based 13-watt CFL lamps.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (Watts BASE - Watts EE ) / 1,000 * HOU
Where:
Watts BASE
=
Baseline wattage (= 43 or 60-watt)
Watts EE
=
Efficient wattage (= 13 watt)
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Hours-of-use (= 829)2
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
556
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (Watts BASE - Watts EE ) / 1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 0.075)2
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 6 years)1
Sources
1. Average of 2013 Cadmus database, CALMAC 2001, 2007 GDS, DEER 2008.
2. Cadmus. Focus on Energy Evaluated Deemed Savings Changes. November 26, 2013.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
557
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
CFL Fixture, Interior or Exterior, 24 Hours, CALP
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
CFL Fixture, Interior or Exterior,- 24 Hour, CALP, 3197
Per fixture
Prescriptive
Lighting
Fluorescent, Linear
Residential- multifamily
555
0.0634
0
Varies by installation year
0
0
1
13
2
$79.00
Measure Description
Hardwired CFL incentives apply only to complete new fixtures or modular (pin or GU-24 based) retrofits
with hardwired electronic ballasts. Incentives are for the replacement of incandescent fixtures only and
must result in a net decrease in energy use. CFLs provide the same or better light output than
incandescent lamps while using 75% less energy.2
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline equipment is a 1-lamp or 2-lamp 60-watt incandescent fixture that is “on” 24 hours per day
in an existing multifamily building.
Description of Efficient Condition
Hardwired CFL incentives apply only to complete new fixtures or modular (pin or GU-24 based) retrofits
with hardwired electronic ballasts. Incentives are for the replacement of incandescent fixtures only.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = kWh INCANDESCENT – kWh NEW MEASURE CFL
Where:
kWh INCANDESCENT
=
Baseline unit annual energy use
kWh NEW MEASURE CFL
=
Efficient unit annual energy use
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
558
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = Wattage / 1,000
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 13 years)1
Deemed Savings
EISA Compliant Lifetime Savings*
Measure
2013
Installation Year
2014
2015
2016 and Beyond
Multifamily CALP CFL Fixture, 24
4,822.4 kWh
4,613.9 kWh
4,509.6 kWh
4,509.6 kWh
Hour
0.0634 kW
0.0634 kW
0.0396 kW
0.0396 kW
* Pre-EISA savings ended on July 1, 2014, 6 months after EISA phased out the standard 60-watt A-19 incandescent
lamp.
Assumptions
A weighted average between 1-lamp and 2-lamp fixtures with 60-watt incandescent lamps being
replaced with a fixture containing one or two– 13-watt CFLs (based on historical project data and
estimates).
Sources
1. PA Consulting Group Inc. Public Service Commission of Wisconsin, Focus on Energy Evaluation,
Business Programs: Measure Life Study, Final Report. August 25, 2009.
2. Michigan DEER Measure Master database. 2013.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
06/20/2013
Initial draft
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
559
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
CFL Reflector Lamps
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
CFL, Reflector Flood Lamps, ≤ 32 Watts, 2246
Per lamp
Prescriptive
Lighting
Fluorescent, Compact (CFL)
Residential- multifamily
45
0.004
0
225
0
0
1
5
$3.00
Measure Description
CFLs are designed to replace an incandescent lamp and fit into most existing in-unit light fixtures used
for incandescent lamps (E26 base). This measure includes flood-type screw-based CFL lamps. CFLs use
less power and have a longer rated life than their incandescent equivalents.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline equipment is an incandescent light bulb.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is CFL lamps replacing incandescent lamps. The replacement lamp must be screw
based, up to 30 watts, and with an integrated reflector.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (Watts BASE – Watts EE ) / 1,000 * HOU
Where:
Watts BASE
=
Wattage of baseline incandescent lamp
Watts EE
=
Wattage of efficient CFL lamp
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Annual operating hours (= see table below)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
560
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
•
Annual Operating Hours by Sector 1
Sector
HOU
Multifamily
Commercial
Industrial
Agriculture
Schools & Government
Single family
5,950
3,730
4,745
4,698
3,239
2
734
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (Watts BASE - Watts EE )/1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 0.075)2
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (Single family=5 Nonresidential= 12)1
Assumptions
The savings for this measure were evaluated using a combination of the ENERGY STAR QPL for CFL bulbs
and information from the U.S. DOE EERE data book.3 Baseline and efficient wattage values were
determined for a set of lumens bins prescribed by the U.S. DOE in the EERE data book. The overall
energy-savings value and an overall demand reduction value are weighted values determined based on
the relative number of qualified products from the ENERGY STAR QPL. A summary of the analysis is
shown in the table below.
Baseline and Efficient Wattages, and Savings, by Lumen Range
Lumens
Range [L]
Watts BASE
Watts EE
Energy Savings
(kWh)
Demand
Reduction (kW)
Weight
420-560
561-837
838-1,203
1,204-1,681
45
65
75
90
12
15
21
23
27
42
45
55
0.002
0.004
0.004
0.005
5%
59%
8%
28%
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
561
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Sources
1. PA Consulting Group Inc. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin Focus on
Energy Evaluation Business Programs: Measure Life Study. Final Report. August 25, 2009.
Available
online: https://focusonenergy.com/sites/default/files/bpmeasurelifestudyfinal_evaluationrepor
t.pdf
2. Cadmus. Field Study Research of Residential Lighting. October 18, 2013. Results published in the
2014 Focus on Energy Deemed Savings
Report: https://focusonenergy.com/sites/default/files/FoE_Deemed_WriteUp%20CY14%20Final
.pdf
3. ENERGY STAR. Qualified Product List. October 25, 2013. Available
online: https://data.energystar.gov/Government/ENERGY-STAR-Certified-Light-Bulbs/8qjd-zcsy.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
08/2014
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
562
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
CFL, Reflector, 15 Watt, Retail Store Markdown
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
CFL, Reflector, 15 Watt, Retail Store Markdown, 3552
Per lamp
Prescriptive
Lighting
Fluorescent, Compact (CFL)
Residential – single family, Residential – multi family
51
0.0059
0
404
0
1
8
2
$4.00
Measure Description
This measure is installing an ENERGY STAR-certified CFL reflector that is purchased through a retail
outlet to replace an incandescent bulb. Savings are based on a time-of-sale purchase for installation in
a residential location.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline is an incandescent 65-watt reflector. Reflectors are exempt from EISA legislation.4
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient equipment is a standard screw-based 15-watt ENERGY STAR-certified CFL reflector.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (Watts BASE – Watts EE ) / 1,000 * HOU
Where:
Watts BASE
=
Power consumption of baseline measure (= 65 watts)
Watts EE
=
Power consumption of efficient measure (= 15 watts)
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Hours-of-use (= 1,011)3
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
563
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (Watts BASE – Watts EE ) / 1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 0.1189)3
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 8 years)1
Assumptions
A 65-watt baseline is used based on 2014 Focus on Energy Residential Lighting CFL study revealing that
65-watt replacements represented 96% of reflector sales. The table below shows total 2014 reflector
sales by baseline wattage.
2014 Reflector Sales by Baseline Wattage
Baseline Wattage
Total Reflector Units Sold in 2014
Percentage of Total Reflector Sales
50
65
75
100
Total
6,433
71,5395
2,137
19,503
743,468
1%
96%
0%
3%
N/A
Hours-of-use is a weighted average of single-family residential, multifamily, and commercial use. The
weighting for these variables are given in the table below.3
Variable Weightings by Home Type
Housing Type
Single Family
Multifamily
Residential
Commercial
Weighting
HOU per Day
Coincidence Factor
74.7%
25.3%
93%
7%
2.27
2.01
2.20
10.2
7.5%
5.5%
6.99%
77%
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
564
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Sources
1. EUL based on similar measure; CFL, reflector replacing incandescent.
2. Focus on Energy Incremental Cost Database. 2014. Cost assumed the same as measure 2246,
CFL, Reflector Lamp.
3. Cadmus. Focus on Energy Evaluated Deemed Savings Changes. November 14, 2014.
4. EISA 2007
legislation. https://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/commercial/pdfs/eis
a_2007.pdf
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
565
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
CFL, Standard Bulb, Retail Store Markdown
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
CFL, Standard Bulb, Retail Store Markdown:
310-749 Lumens, 3548
750-1,049 Lumens, 3549
1,050-1,489 Lumens, 3550
1,490-2,600 Lumens, 3551
Per bulb
Prescriptive
Lighting
Fluorescent, Compact (CFL)
Residential – single family, Residential – multi family
Varies by light output
Varies by light output
0
Varies by light output
0
0
1
8
Varies by measure, see Appendix D
Measure Description
This measure is installing an ENERGY STAR-certified standard screw-in CFL purchased through a retail
outlet in place of an incandescent or halogen screw-in bulb. Assumptions are based on a time-of-sale
purchase for installation in a residential location.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline equipment is an incandescent light bulb (standard or EISA compliant halogen). The baseline
wattage is determined using the lumens equivalence method in conjunction with the lumen output of
the efficient bulb.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient measure is a standard ENERGY STAR-certified CFL.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
566
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (Watts BASE - Watts EE ) / 1,000 * HOU
Where:
Watts BASE
=
Baseline wattage (= see table below)
Watts EE
=
Efficient wattage (= see table below)
Baseline and Efficient Wattages
Watts BASE
Watts EE
29
43
53
72
9
13
18
23
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Hours-of-use (= 1,011)2
Summer Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (Watts BASE - Watts EE ) / 1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 0.1189)2
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 8 years)1
Deemed Savings
Deemed Savings by Measure
MMID
Annual kWh SAVED
kW SAVED
Lifecycle kWh SAVED
3548
3549
3550
3551
20
30
35
50
0.0024
0.0036
0.0042
0.0058
162
243
283
396
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
567
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Assumptions
Incremental costs by lumen bin for CFL standard bulb:
•
310-749 lumens = $2.12 (cost assumed the same as measure 2116, CFL 9 Watt)
•
750-1,049 lumens = $1.28 (cost assumed the same as measure 2117, CFL 14 Watt)
•
1,050-1,489 lumens = $1.28 (cost assumed the same as measure 2117, CFL 19 Watt)
•
1,490-2,600 lumens = $1.94 (cost assumed the same as measure 2118, CFL 23 Watt)
Sources
1. Similar measure ID 2959, CFL Retail Store Markdown.
2. Cadmus. Focus on Energy Evaluated Deemed Savings Changes. November 14, 2014.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
568
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
2-Lamp F28T5, HPT8, RWT8 2x4 High- Efficiency Recessed Fixtures
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings
(Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
2 Lamp F28T5, HPT8, RWT8 2x4 High-Efficiency Recessed Fixtures, 2703
Per fixture
Prescriptive
Lighting
Fluorescent, Linear
Commercial, Industrial, Agriculture, Schools & Government, Residentialmultifamily
Varies by type of fixture
Varies by type of fixture
None
Varies by type of fixture
0
0
3
15
4
$50.00 Existing Buildings; $8.19 New Construction
Measure Description
This measure is replacing 3-lamp or 4-lamp 4-footstandard T8 and T12 fixtures with 2-lamp F28T5, HPT8,
RWT8 2x4 high-efficiency recessed fixtures.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline equipment is 3-lamp or 4-lamp 4-foot standard T8 and T12 fixtures.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient equipment is 2-lamp F28T5, HPT8, RWT8 2x4 high-efficiency recessed fixtures.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = kWh DEEMED * (HOURS MULTIFAMILY / HOURS COMMERCIAL )
Where:
kWh DEEMED
=
Annual commercial deemed electricity savings
HOURS MULTIFAMILY
=
Annual multifamily deemed lighting hours
HOURS COMMERCIAL
=
Annual commercial deemed lighting hours
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
569
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = Wattage / 1,000 * CF
Where: CF=0.77 1
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 15 years)3
Deemed Savings
Annual Deemed Savings2
Measure
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Coincident Peak Demand
Reduction (kW)
179.0
276.0
0.0231
0.0355
4-Foot 2-Lamp T5 Fixtures
4-Foot 2-Lamp T8 Fixtures
Lifecycle Deemed Savings2
Measure
4-Foot 2-Lamp T5 Fixtures
4-Foot 2-Lamp T8 Fixtures
Energy Savings (kWh)
2,685.0
4,140.0
Assumptions
3,730 annual operating hours used. 1
Sources
1. ACES. Deemed Savings Desk Review. Multifamily applications for common areas. November 3,
2010.
2. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Tables 4-190 and 4-208
Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
3. CA DEER EUL ID "ILtg-Lfluor-CommArea" "Linear Fluorescents - MF Common Area."
4. 2005 DEER D03-852 Database.
5. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 4-185 Commercial
Applications. March 22, 2010.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
570
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/02/2013
New measure
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
571
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
8-Foot Linear Fluorescent T8 Replacement System Parking Garage
Measure Details
T8 2-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8:
Replacing T12 1-Lamp, 8-Foot, 0.78 < BF < 1.00, Parking Garage, 3144
Replacing T12 1-Lamp, 8-Foot, BF ≤ 0.78, Parking Garage, 3145
Replacing T12HO 1-Lamp, 8-Foot, BF > 1.00, Parking Garage, 3148
Replacing T12HO 1-Lamp, 8-Foot, 0.78 < BF < 1.00, Parking Garage, 3149
Replacing T12HO 1-Lamp, 8-Foot, BF ≤ 0.78, Parking Garage, 3150
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
T8 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8:
Replacing T12 2-Lamp, 8-Foot, 0.78 < BF < 1.00, Parking Garage, 3146
Replacing T12 2-Lamp, 8-Foot, BF ≤ 0.78, Parking Garage, 3147
Replacing T12HO 2-Lamp, 8-Foot, BF > 1.00, Parking Garage, 3151
Replacing T12HO 2-Lamp, 8-Foot, 0.78 < BF < 1.00, Parking Garage, 3152
Replacing T12HO 2-Lamp, 8-Foot, BF ≤ 0.78, Parking Garage, 3153
Replacing T12VHO 2-Lamp, 8-Foot, BF > 1.00, Parking Garage, 3154
Replacing T12VHO 2-Lamp, 8-Foot, 0.78 < BF < 1.00, Parking Garage, 3155
Replacing T12VHO 2-Lamp, 8-Foot, BF ≤ 0.78, Parking Garage, 3156
Per fixture
Prescriptive
Lighting
Fluorescent, Linear
Residential- multifamily
Varies by measure
Varies by measure
0
Varies by measure
0
0
1
15
Varies by measure
Measure Description
High performance (HP) and reduced wattage (RW) 4-foot linear fluorescent lighting fixtures that use low
ballast factors, high wattage lamps, or reduced wattage lamps are an energy-efficient alternative to 8foot standard wattage T12, T12HO, and T12VHO linear fluorescent fixtures commonly found in parking
garages within multifamily buildings. These products can be installed on a two-to-one basis to replace 1lamp or 2-lamp T12 luminaires without sacrificing lighting quality.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
572
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Description of Baseline Condition
For existing building parking garages, the baseline measure is 8-foot, 1-lamp or 2-lamp, standard T12,
T12HO, and T12VHO linear fluorescent fixtures.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient measure is 2-lamp or 4-lamp, 4-foot, high performance T8 fixtures with normal and low
ballast factor, and reduced wattage, 25-watt and 28-watt T8s with high, normal, and low ballast factors.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = kWh 8’ T12 - kWh HP/RW
Where:
kWh 8’ T12
=
Annual electricity consumption of an 8-foot, T12, T12HO, or T12VHO
lamp linear fluorescent fixture
kWh HP/RW
=
Annual electricity consumption of a 4-foot linear fluorescent high
performance or reduced wattage fixture
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = Wattage / 1,000 * CF
Where:
Wattage
=
Wattage used
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
CF
=
Demand coincidence factor (= 1.0) 3
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 15 years)1
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
573
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Deemed Savings
Annual Deemed Savings for 8-Foot Linear Fluorescent T8 Replacement System Parking Garage
Measure
T8 2-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12 1-Lamp, 8Foot, 0.78 < BF < 1.00, Parking Garage
T8 2-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12 1-Lamp, 8Foot, BF ≤ 0.78, Parking Garage
T8 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12 2-Lamp, 8Foot, 0.78 < BF < 1.00, Parking Garage
T8 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12 2-Lamp, 8Foot, BF ≤ 0.78, Parking Garage
T8 2-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12HO 1-Lamp, 8Foot, BF > 1.00, Parking Garage
T8 2-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12HO 1-Lamp, 8Foot, 0.78 < BF < 1.00, Parking Garage
T8 2-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12HO 1-Lamp, 8Foot, BF ≤ 0.78, Parking Garage
T8 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12HO 2-Lamp, 8Foot, BF > 1.00, Parking Garage
T8 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12HO 2-Lamp, 8Foot, 0.78 < BF < 1.00, Parking Garage
T8 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12HO 2-Lamp, 8Foot, BF ≤ 0.78, Parking Garage
T8 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12VHO 2-Lamp, 8Foot, BF > 1.00, Parking Garage
T8 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12VHO 2-Lamp, 8Foot, 0.78 < BF < 1.00, Parking Garage
T8 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12VHO 2-Lamp, 8Foot, BF ≤ 0.78, Parking Garage
MMID
Existing Building
kWh
kW
3144
263
0.0301
3145
322
0.0368
3146
303
0.0346
3147
412
0.047
3148
473
0.0541
3149
631
0.0721
3150
690
0.0788
3151
756
0.0863
3152
1,083
0.1236
3153
1,191
0.136
3154
2,271
0.2593
3155
2,598
0.2966
3156
2,707
0.309
Lifecycle Deemed Savings for 8-Foot Linear Fluorescent T8 Replacement System Parking Garage
Measure
T8 2-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12 1-Lamp, 8Foot, 0.78 < BF < 1.00, Parking Garage
T8 2-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12 1-Lamp, 8Foot, BF ≤ 0.78, Parking Garage
T8 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12 2-Lamp, 8-
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
MMID
Existing Building (kWh)
3144
3,945
3145
4,830
3146
4,545
574
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Measure
Foot, 0.78 < BF < 1.00, Parking Garage
T8 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12 2-Lamp, 8Foot, BF ≤ 0.78, Parking Garage
T8 2-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12HO 1Lamp, 8-Foot, BF > 1.00, Parking Garage
T8 2-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12HO 1Lamp, 8-Foot, 0.78 < BF < 1.00, Parking Garage
T8 2-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12HO 1Lamp, 8-Foot, BF ≤ 0.78, Parking Garage
T8 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12HO 2Lamp, 8-Foot, BF > 1.00, Parking Garage
T8 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12HO 2Lamp, 8-Foot, 0.78 < BF < 1.00, Parking Garage
T8 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12HO 2Lamp, 8-Foot, BF ≤ 0.78, Parking Garage
T8 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12VHO 2Lamp, 8-Foot, BF > 1.00, Parking Garage
T8 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12VHO 2Lamp, 8-Foot, 0.78 < BF < 1.00, Parking Garage
T8 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12VHO 2Lamp, 8-Foot, BF ≤ 0.78, Parking Garage
MMID
Existing Building (kWh)
3147
6,180
3148
7,095
3149
9,465
3150
10,350
3151
11,340
3152
16,245
3153
17,865
3154
34,065
3155
38,970
3156
40,605
Measure Costs for 8-Foot Linear Fluorescent T8 Replacement System Parking Garage2
Measure
T8 2-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12 1-Lamp, 8Foot, 0.78 < BF < 1.00, Parking Garage
T8 2-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12 1-Lamp, 8Foot, BF ≤ 0.78, Parking Garage
T8 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12 2-Lamp, 8Foot, 0.78 < BF < 1.00, Parking Garage
T8 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12 2-Lamp, 8Foot, BF ≤ 0.78, Parking Garage
T8 2-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12HO 1Lamp, 8-Foot, BF > 1.00, Parking Garage
T8 2-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12HO 1Lamp, 8-Foot, 0.78 < BF < 1.00, Parking Garage
T8 2-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12HO 1Lamp, 8-Foot, BF ≤ 0.78, Parking Garage
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
MMID
Existing Building Cost
3144
$41.00
3145
$41.00
3146
$66.00
3147
$66.00
3148
$41.00
3149
$41.00
3150
$41.00
575
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Measure
MMID
Existing Building Cost
3151
$66.00
3152
$66.00
3153
$66.00
3154
$66.00
3155
$66.00
3156
$66.00
T8 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12HO 2Lamp, 8-Foot, BF > 1.00, Parking Garage
T8 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12HO 2Lamp, 8-Foot, 0.78 < BF < 1.00, Parking Garage
T8 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12HO 2Lamp, 8-Foot, BF ≤ 0.78, Parking Garage
T8 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12VHO 2Lamp, 8-Foot, BF > 1.00, Parking Garage
T8 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12VHO 2Lamp, 8-Foot, 0.78 < BF < 1.00, Parking Garage
T8 4-Lamp, 4-Foot, HPT8 or RWT8 Replacing T12VHO 2Lamp, 8-Foot, BF ≤ 0.78, Parking Garage
Sources
1. California Energy Commission and California Public Utilities Commission. Database for Energy
Efficient Resources (DEER) 2008. http://www.energy.ca.gov/deer/ .
2. Michigan Master Measure Database. 2011 baselines. Updated May 26, 2011.
3. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Commercial Applications.
March 22, 2010.
4. ACES. Deemed Savings Desk Review. November 3, 2010.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
12/31/2012
New measure
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
576
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Linear Fluorescent, 2-Lamp, 4-Foot, RWT8 Replacements, 24 Hours, CALP
Measure Details
Linear Fluorescent, 2-Lamp, 4-Foot, RWT8 Replacements, 24 Hours,
CALP, 3195
Per fixture (lamps and ballast)
Prescriptive
Lighting
Fluorescent, Linear
Residential- multifamily
307.00
0.035
0
Varies by installation year
0
0
1
15
2
$110.90
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
Measure Description
Reduced wattage (RW) 4-foot linear fluorescent lighting fixtures that use low ballast factors are an
energy-efficient alternative to standard 40-watt or 34-watt linear T12 fluorescent products commonly
found in multifamily buildings. These products can be installed on a one-for-one basis to replace 2-lamp
T12 luminaires that are “on” 24 hours per day without sacrificing lighting quality.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline equipment for existing buildings is a standard 2-lamp T12 fixture.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient equipment is a reduced wattage, 2-lamp, 28-watt T8 with a low ballast factor.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = kWh 2L 4’ T12 - kWh HP/RW
Where:
kWh 2L 4’ T12 =
Annual electricity consumption of 2-lamp T12 luminaire
kWh HP/RW
Annual electricity consumption of a 4-foot, linear fluorescent, high
performance or low wattage fixture
=
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
577
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = Wattage / 1,000 * CF
Where:
Wattage
=
Wattage per fixtures
1,000
=
Conversion
CF
=
Demand coincidence factor (= 1.0)3
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 15 years)1
Deemed Savings
Annual Deemed Savings for 4-Foot RWT8 Linear Fluorescents
Measure
Existing Building
Low Watt T8 System: 28-Watt, 2Lamp, 4-Foot Ballast & Lamps ≤ 0.78
307 kWh
0.035 kW
Lifecycle Deemed Savings for 4-Foot RWT8 Linear Fluorescents*
Measure
2013
Installation Year
2014
2015
Multifamily Common Area 4-Foot
2,706.8 kWh
2,549.2 kWh
2,391.5 kWh
2-Lamp T12 to T8
0.0350 kW
0.0350 kW
0.0350 kW
* kWh savings for products replacing T12 lamps calculated using the following methodology:
2016 and Beyond
2,233.8 kWh
0.0170 kW
• Installed in 2013: receive three years T12 savings and 12 years EISA compliant T8 baseline savings.
• Installed in 2014: receive two years T12 savings and 13 years EISA compliant T8 baseline savings.
• Installed in 2015: receive one year T12 savings and 14 years EISA compliant T8 baseline savings.
• Installed in 2016: receive no T12 savings and 15 years of EISA compliant T8 baseline savings.
Measure Costs for 4-Foot RWT8 Linear Fluorescents
Measure
Low Watt T8 System: 28-Watt, 2-Lamp,
4-Foot Ballast & Lamps ≤ 0.78
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
Existing Building Cost
$110.90
578
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Assumptions
Annual operating hours: 8,760. 2-lamp T12 fixtures used to generate baseline usage. For 2-lamp reduced
wattage with low ballast factor, 28-watt, T8 lamps were used to calculate the new measure average
annual energy savings.
Sources
1. PA Consulting Group Inc. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin Focus
on Energy Evaluation Business Programs: Measure Life Study. Final Report. August 25,
2009. Available
online: https://focusonenergy.com/sites/default/files/bpmeasurelifestudyfinal_evaluationr
eport.pdf
2. RS Means Costworks 2007.
3. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Commercial
Applications. March 22, 2010.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
06/20/2013
New measure
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
579
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Linear Fluorescent, 2-Lamp, 4-Foot, RWT8 Replacements, 12 Hours, CALP
Measure Details
Linear Fluorescent, 2-Lamp, 4-Foot, RWT8 Replacements, 12 Hours,
CALP, 3196
Per fixture (lamps and ballast)
Prescriptive
Lighting
Fluorescent, Linear
Residential- multifamily
153.00
0.0270
0
Varies by installation year
0
0
1
15
2
$110.90
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
Measure Description
Reduced wattage 4-foot linear fluorescent lighting fixtures that use low ballast factors are an energyefficient alternative to standard 40-watt or 34-watt linear T12 fluorescent products commonly found in
multifamily buildings. These products can be installed on a one-for-one basis to replace 2-lamp T12
luminaires without sacrificing lighting quality.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline equipment for existing buildings is a standard 2-lamp T12 fixture.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient equipment is a reduced wattage, 2-lamp, 28-watt T8 with a low ballast factor.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = kWh 2L 4’ T12 - kWh HP/RW
Where:
kWh 2L 4’ T12 =
kWh HP/RW
=
Annual electricity consumption of 2-lamp T12 luminaire
Annual electricity consumption of a 4-foot, linear fluorescent, high
performance or low wattage fixture
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
580
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = Wattage / 1,000 * CF
Where:
Wattage
=
Wattage per fixtures
1,000
=
Conversion
CF
=
Demand coincidence factor (= 0.77)3
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 15 years)1
Deemed Savings
Annual Deemed Savings for 4-Foot RWT8 Linear Fluorescents
Measure
Existing Building
Low Watt T8 System: 28-Watt, 2-Lamp,
4-Foot Ballast & Lamps ≤ 0.78
153 kWh
0.0270 kW
Lifecycle Deemed Savings for 4-Foot RWT8 Linear Fluorescents*
Measure
2013
Installation Year
2014
2015
2016 and Beyond
Multifamily Common Area 4-Foot
1,353.4 kWh
1,274.6 kWh
1,195.7 kWh
1,116.9 kWh
2-Lamp T12 to T8
0.0270 kW
0.0270 kW
0.0270 kW
0.0131 kW
* kWh savings for products replacing T12 lamps calculated using the following methodology:
• Installed in 2013: receive three years T12 savings and 12 years EISA compliant T8 baseline savings.
• Installed in 2014: receive two years T12 savings and 13 years EISA compliant T8 baseline savings.
• Installed in 2015: receive one year T12 savings and 14 years EISA compliant T8 baseline savings.
• Installed in 2016: receive no T12 savings and 15 years of EISA compliant T8 baseline savings.
Measure Costs for 4-Foot RWT8 Linear Fluorescents
Measure
Existing Building Cost
Low Watt T8 System: 28-Watt, 2-Lamp,
4-Foot Ballast & Lamps ≤ 0.78
$110.90
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
581
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Assumptions
Annual operating hours: 4,380
2-lamp T12 fixtures used to generate baseline usage.
For 2-lamp reduced wattage with low ballast factor, 28-watt, T8 lamps were used to calculate the new
measure average annual energy savings.
Sources
1.
PA Consulting Group Inc. State of Wisconsin Public Service Commission of Wisconsin Focus on
Energy Evaluation Business Programs: Measure Life Study. Final Report. August 25, 2009.
Available online:
https://focusonenergy.com/sites/default/files/bpmeasurelifestudyfinal_evaluationreport.pdf
2. RS Means Costworks 2007.
3. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Commercial Applications.
March 22, 2010.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
06/20/2013
New measure
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
582
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
LED, Direct Install, 9.5 Watt
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
LED, Direct Install, 9.5 Watt, 3279
Per lamp
Prescriptive
Lighting
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Residential- multifamily
42
0.0031
0
840
0
0
1
20 (in unit only)
$7.07
Measure Description
ENERGY STAR-rated LED replacement lamps save energy by reducing the total input wattage of the
luminaire as compared to the same luminaire operating with standard wattage incandescent lamps. This
measure provides an energy-efficient alternative to using incandescent lamps in several applications.
Description of Baseline Condition
An average of 16.67% each of EISA compliant standard 53-watt incandescent, 60-watt incandescent and
halogen, 65-watt incandescent, 70-watt halogen, 72-watt halogen, and 80-watt halogen lamps were
used to generate the baseline usage. Existing lamps above 80 watts will be replaced by CFL lamps and
are not part of this measure.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient condition is an ENERGY STAR-rated, 9.5-watt LED lamp.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
583
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = [(Watts INCAN – Watts LED ) / 1,000] * HOU
Where:
Watts INCAN =
Electricity consumption of standard incandescent lamp (= 53 watts, 60
watts, 65 watts, 70 watts, 72 watts, or 80 watts)
Watts LED
=
Electricity consumption of ENERGY STAR-rated LED lamp with a lumen
output rating (= 9.5 watts)
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion
HOU
=
Hours-of-use (= 734)2
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = [(Watts INCAN – Watts LED ) / 1,000] * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 0.055)3
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 15 years)1
Sources
1. Cadmus review of manufacturers measure life; capped at 20 years.
2. Cadmus. Focus on Energy Evaluated Deemed Savings Changes: 2014 Final Report. November 6,
2014. Available online:
https://focusonenergy.com/sites/default/files/FoE_Deemed_WriteUp%20CY14%20Final.pdf.
3. ACES. Default Deemed Savings Review Final Report. Table 4-1 MF housing (in unit). June 24,
2008. Available online:
http://www.coned.com/documents/Con%20Edison%20Callable%20Load%20Study_Final%20Re
port_5-15-08.pdf. CF of 65% to 83% is within range of similar programs.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
584
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
585
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
LED, Omnidirectional, Retail Store Markdown
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Measure Details
LED, Omnidirectional, Retail Store Markdown:
310-749 Lumens, 3553
750-1,049 Lumens, 3554
1,050-1,489 Lumens, 3555
1,490-2,600 Lumens, 3556
Per lamp
Prescriptive
Lighting
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Residential – Single family; Residential Multi family
Varies by light output
Varies by light output
0
Varies by light output
0
Water Savings (gal/yr)
0
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
15
3
$12.50
Measure Master ID
1
Measure Description
This measure is installing an ENERGY STAR-certified omnidirectional LED bulb that is purchased through
a retail outlet to replace an incandescent or halogen bulb. The assumptions were based on a time-ofsale purchase for installation in a residential location.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline equipment is a general service incandescent light bulb (standard or EISA compliant
halogen). The wattage of the baseline bulb is determined by the lumens equivalence method.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient equipment is an ENERGY STAR-certified omnidirectional LED bulb. The actual wattage of
the installed bulb will be used to evaluate savings.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
586
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (Watts BASE – Watts EE ) / 1,000 * HOU
Where:
Watts BASE
=
Power consumption of baseline measure (= see table below)
Watts EE
=
Power consumption of efficient measure (= see table below)
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Hours-of-use (= 1,011)1
Power Consumption of Baseline and Efficient Measures by Lumen Bin
Lumen Bin
Mean Wattage of
Omnidirectional LED Bulbs2
EISA Compliant Baseline
Wattages4
6.94
10.57
12.93
17.27
29
43
53
72
310-749
750-1,049
1,050-1,489
1,490-2,600
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (Watts BASE - Watts EE )/1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 0.1189)2
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 20 years)1
Deemed Savings
The deemed savings were calculated using the mean wattage of the omnidirectional bulbs in the
approved ENERGY STAR Qualified Product List, available December 5, 2014. The mean wattage values
are shown in the table below.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
587
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Mean Savings Values by Lumen Bin
Lumens Bin
310-749
750-1,049
1,050-1,489
1,490-2,600
MMID
Annual Energy
Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Energy
Savings (kWh)
Coincident Peak Demand
Reduction (kW)
3553
3554
3555
3556
22
33
41
55
335
492
608
830
0.0026
0.0039
0.0048
0.0065
Sources
1. Cadmus review of manufacturers measure life.
2. ENERGY STAR. Qualified Products List. December 5, 2014. Mean wattage of omnidirectional LEDs
falling within the specified lumens bin.
3. Focus on Energy. Incremental Cost Database. 2014. Cost assumed the same as measure 3385,
LED, Non PI Direct Install, 13.5 Watt.
4. Cadmus. Research based on EISA 2007 backstop
legislation. https://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/commercial/pdfs/eis
a_2007.pdf
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
588
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
LED, Direct Install, 10 Watt
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
LED, Direct Install, 10 Watt, 3488, 3567
Per lamp
Prescriptive
Lighting
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Residential– single family
27
0.0025
0
540
0
0
1
20
$12.50
Measure Description
This measure is the Program Implementer or a subcontractor of the Program Implementer installing a
10-watt ENERGY STAR-qualified screw-in LED in place of an incandescent screw-in bulb. The incremental
cost of the LED compared to the incandescent light bulb is the full installed cost. Assumptions are based
on a direct installation, not a time-of-sale purchase. Replacement involves a functioning bulb.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline equipment is a 43-watt or 60-watt incandescent light bulb. The baseline of 43 watts was
used to calculate savings for both cases.
Description of Efficient Condition
This measure applies to standard screw-based 10-watt LED lamps.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (Watts BASE -Watts EE )/1,000 * HOU
Where:
Watts BASE
=
Baseline wattage (= 43)
Watts EE
=
Efficient wattage (= 10)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
589
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Hours-of-use (= 829)
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (Watts BASE - Watts EE ) / 1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 0.075)1
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 20 years)1
Sources
1. Cadmus review of manufacturers measure life; capped at 20 years.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
590
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
LED, Direct Install, 13.5 Watt
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
LED, Direct Install, 13.5 Watt, 3385, 3439
Per lamp
Prescriptive
Lighting
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Residential- single family
39
0.0035
0
780
0
0
1
20
$12.50
Measure Description
This measure is the Program Implementer or a subcontractor of the Program Implementer installing a
13.5-watt ENERGY STAR-qualified screw-in LED in place of an incandescent screw-in bulb. The
incremental cost of the LED compared to the incandescent light bulb is the full installed cost. Savings are
based on a direct installation, not a time-of-sale purchase.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline equipment is a 43-watt or 60-watt incandescent light bulb. Energy savings are evaluated
using a baseline of 43 watts.
Description of Efficient Condition
This measure applies to standard screw-based 13.5-watt LED lamps.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (Watts BASE - Watts EE ) / 1,000 * HOU
Where:
Watts BASE
=
Baseline wattage (= 60)
Watts EE
=
Efficient wattage (= 13.5)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
591
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Hours-of-use (= 829)2
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (Watts BASE - Watts EE ) / 1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 0.075)2
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 20 years)1
Sources
1. Cadmus review of manufacturers’ measure life.
2.
Cadmus. Focus on Energy Evaluated Deemed Savings Changes. November 6, 2013.
Revision History
Version Number
01
Date
01/2015
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
Description of Change
Initial TRM entry
592
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
LED, Reflector, 12 Watt, Retail Store Markdown
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost
LED, Reflector, 12 Watt, Retail Store Markdown, 3557
Per reflector
Prescriptive
Lighting
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Upstream
54
0.0063
0
1,080
0
0
1
20
$8.08
Measure Description
This measure is installing an ENERGY STAR-certified LED reflector or LED recessed downlight that is
purchased through a retail outlet to replace an incandescent bulb. The savings are based on a time-ofsale purchase for installation in a residential location.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline is an incandescent 65-watt reflector or downlight. Reflectors are exempt from EISA
legislation.3
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient equipment is a standard screw-based 12-watt ENERGY STAR-certified LED reflector or
downlight.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = (Watts BASE – Watts EE ) / 1,000 * HOU
Where:
Watts BASE
=
Power consumption of baseline measure (= 65 watts)
Watts EE
=
Power consumption of efficient measure (= 12 watts)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
593
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Hours-of-use (= 1,011)2
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (Watts BASE - Watts EE ) / 1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 0.1189)2
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
KWhLIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 20 years) 1
Assumptions
A 65-watt baseline is used based on 2014 Focus on Energy Residential Lighting CFL data revealing that
65-watt replacements represented 96% of reflector sales. The table below shows total 2014 reflector
sales by baseline wattage.
Total 2014 Reflector Sales by Baseline Wattage
Baseline Wattage
Total Reflector Units Sold in 2014
Percentage of Total Reflector Sales
50
65
75
100
Total
6,433
71,5395
2,137
19,503
743,468
1%
96%
0%
3%
100%
Sources
1. Cadmus review of manufacturers measure life; capped at 20 years.
2.
Cadmus. Focus on Energy Evaluated Deemed Savings Changes. November 14, 2014.
3. EISA 2007
legislation. https://www1.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/commercial/pdfs/eis
a_2007.pdf
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
594
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
01/2015
Initial TRM entry
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
595
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
LED Fixture, Interior, Above 12 Hours to 24 Hours- CALP
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
LED Fixture, Interior, 12 Hours, CALP, 3603
LED Fixture, Interior, 24 Hours, CALP, 3604
Per fixture
Prescriptive
Lighting
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Residential- multifamily
Varies by measure
Varies by measure
0
Varies by measure
0
0
1
12 hour: 6 and 24 hour:13
2
$80.13
Measure Description
This measures is installing hardwired LEDs to complete new fixtures. Incentives are only provided for
replacing incandescent fixtures. LEDs provide the same or better light output than incandescent lamps
while using significantly less energy.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline condition is a 1-lamp 72-watt, 65-watt, 43-watt, or 29-watt; a 2-lamp 43-watt or 29-watt;
or a 3-lamp 29-watt incandescent fixture on a switch, photocell, or timer that is used for 12 or more
hours per day up to 24 hours a day.
Description of Efficient Condition
LED incentives apply only to complete, new, hardwired fixtures that are ENERGY STAR or DLC qualified
and meet the EISA lumen equivalency of their incandescent baselines. Incentives are only for replacing
incandescent fixtures.
The contractor and/or Program Implementer verifies the hours-of-use during assessments and/or preinstalls. Typically, lights in the common areas are on for 24 hours, especially those in interior spaces and
corridors, and are on for 12 to 16 hours on timers or photocells in the entries and/or lobbies with
windows.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
596
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
The effective useful life of this measure is based on the average rated hours for qualifying products,
divided by 12 hours and 24 hours, then rounded.
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
KWhSAVED = (Watts INCANDESCENT - Watts LED ) / 1,000 * HOU
Where:
Watts INCANDESCENT = Power consumption of baseline measure (= 63.7 watts; 3 see table
below)
Baseline Wattage
Baseline Bulb
Wattage
Weighting
Contribution to Baseline (watts)
72
65
86
43
87
58
29
5%
25%
25%
25%
5%
10%
5%
100%
3.60
16.25
21.50
10.75
4.35
5.80
1.45
63.70
1L EISA 100w incand
1L 65w BR30 incand
2L EISA 60w incand
1L EISA 60w incand
3L EISA 40w incand
2L EISA 40w incand
1L EISA 40w incand
Total
Watts LED
=
Power consumption of efficient measure (= 20.93 watts;4 see table
below)
Efficient Wattage
Bulb
Wattage
Weighting
Contribution to
Efficient (watts)
32.14
13.03
31.18
15.59
32.81
21.88
10.94
5%
25%
25%
25%
5%
10%
5%
100%
1.6000
3.2575
7.7950
3.8975
1.6405
2.1880
0.5470
20.9325
LED (1,490-2,600 lumens) replacing 1L EISA 100w incand
LED (600-750 lumens) replacing 1L 65w BR30 incand
LED (750-1,049 lumens) replacing 2L EISA 60w incand
LED (750-1,049 lumens) replacing 1L EISA 60w incand
LED (310-749 lumens) replacing 3L EISA 40w incand
LED (310-749 lumens) replacing 2L EISA 40w incand
LED (310-749 lumens) replacing 1L EISA 40w incand
Total
1,000
=
Kilowatt conversion factor
HOU
=
Average annual hours-of-use (= 4,380 for 12-hour use; = 8,760 for
24-hour use)
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
597
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = (Watts INCANDESCENT - Watts LED ) / 1,000 * CF
Where:
CF
=
Coincidence factor (= 0.0 to 1.0 for 24-hour use)
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
= 12 hour: 6 and 24 hour: 13 1
Deemed Savings
Annual Savings
Measure
MMID
LED Fixture, Interior, 12 Hours, CALP
LED Fixture, Interior, 24 Hours, CALP
3603
3604
Multifamily
kWh
kW
187
375
0.0000
0.0428
Lifecycle Savings
Measure
LED Fixture, Interior, 12 Hours, CALP
LED Fixture, Interior, 24 Hours, CALP
MMID
Multifamily (kWh)
3603
3604
2,431
2,250
Assumptions
Lamp weightings were developed through previous CALP workpapers and based on typical lamp
wattages in common area light fixtures such as downlights, wall sconces, and flush/ceiling mounts, using
typical lamping configuration data from manufacturers. This information was gathered from previous
12-hour and 24-hour use CFL fixture installations, field assessments in 2014, and data on currently
available qualifying fixtures.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
598
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Sources
1. ENERGY STAR. “ENERGY STAR Certified Light Bulbs.” Accessed January 30,
2015. https://www.energystar.gov/productfinder/product/certified-light-bulbs/results. Filtered
EUL per respective incandescent lumen equivalency and indoor application type, rounded to
whole number. EULs based on average rated hours for qualifying products, divided by 12-hours
and 24-hours usage.
2. “LED Fixture, Downlights, Accent Lights and Monopoint, 18 Watts, Common Area.” Incremental
cost from similar SPECTRUM MMID 2984; and: Incremental Cost Workbook Final Reconciliation.
January 2015.
3. EISA equivalent wattages for common incandescent lamps.
4. Average wattage of equivalent qualifying ENERGY STAR and DLC-listed LED fixtures as of January
30, 2015.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
02
01/30/2015
03/30/2015
New measure
Revised and combined 12 hour and 24 hour workpapers
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
599
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
LED, ENERGY STAR, Replacing Incandescent ≤ 40 Watts
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
LED, ENERGY STAR, Replacing Incandescent ≤ 40 Watts:
In Unit, 3161
Common Area, 3162
Per lamp
Prescriptive
Lighting
Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Residential- multifamily
Varies by sector
Varies by sector
0
Varies by sector
0
0
1
In Unit= 20; Common Area = 7
2
$15.00
Measure Description
ENERGY STAR-rated LED replacement lamps save energy by reducing the total input wattage of the
luminaire compared to using standard wattage incandescent lamps. This measure is an energy-efficient
alternative to incandescent lamps in several applications.
Description of Baseline Condition
The baseline measure is standard 25-watt and 40-watt incandescent lamps.
Description of Efficient Condition
The efficient equipment is an ENERGY STAR-rated LED that appears on the “ENERGY STAR® SSL Qualified
Light Bulbs” list and is 5 watts to 9 watts.
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
600
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Annual Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh SAVED = kWh INCANDESCENT - kWh LED
Where:
KWh INCANDESCENT =
Annual electricity consumption of standard 25-watt or 40-watt
incandescent lamp
KWh LED
Annual electricity consumption of reduced wattage ENERGY STARrated lamp of equivalent lumen output to ≤ 40 watt incandescent
=
Summer Coincident Peak Savings Algorithm
kW SAVED = Wattage / 1,000 * CF
Where:
Wattage
=
Wattage of fixture
1,000
=
Conversion factor
CF
=
Demand coincidence factor (= 0.082 for in-unit; = 0.775 for common
area)4
Lifecycle Energy-Savings Algorithm
kWh LIFECYCLE = kWh SAVED * EUL
Where:
EUL
=
Effective useful life (= 20 years in unit; = 7 years common area)1
Deemed Savings
Average Annual Deemed Savings for LED Replacing Incandescent Lamp ≤ 40 Watts
Measure
LED Replacing Incandescent Lamp ≤ 40
Watts, In Unit
LED Replacing Incandescent Lamp ≤ 40
Watts, Common Area
MMID
3161
3162
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
Existing Building
New Construction
23.0 kWh
0.0022 kW
160.0 kWh
0.0207 kW
23.0 kWh
0.0022 kW
160.0 kWh
0.0207 kW
601
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
Average Lifecycle Deemed Savings for LED Replacing Incandescent Lamp ≤ 40 Watts
Measure
LED Replacing Incandescent Lamp ≤
40 Watts, In Unit
LED Replacing Incandescent Lamp ≤
40 Watts, Common Area
MMID
Existing Building
New Construction
3161
667 kWh
667 kWh
3162
640 kWh
640 kWh
Assumptions
Common Area (MMID 3162):
•
Annual operating hours: 5,949.5
•
Assumes 40-watt and 25-watt incandescent lamps in calculation of baseline usage
•
Assumes average ENERGY STAR-rated LED (5.64 watts) for ≤ 40 watt replacement products
In Unit (MMID 3161):
•
Annual operating hours: 839.5
•
Assumes 40-watt and 25-watt incandescent lamps in calculation of baseline usage
•
Assumes average ENERGY STAR-rated LED (5.64 watts) for ≤ 40 watt replacement products
Sources
1. Cadmus review of manufacturers’ measure life; in unit capped at 20 years.
2.
Based on market knowledge. Data gathered December 15, 2012.
3. ACES. Deemed Savings Desk Review. November 3, 2010.
4. ACES. Default Deemed Savings Review Final Report. June 24, 2008.
5. Focus on Energy Business Programs Deemed Savings Manual V1.0. Table 3.2 Coincidence
Factor for Lighting in Commercial Applications. March 22, 2010.
Revision History
Version Number
Date
Description of Change
01
12/27/2012
New measure
Wisconsin Focus on Energy Technical Reference Manual
602
1 South Pinckney• Suite 340 • Madison WI 53703
phone: 608.230.7000
fax: 608. 230.7035
[email protected]
LED, ENERGY STAR, Replacing Incandescent > 40 Watts
Measure Details
Measure Master ID
Measure Unit
Measure Type
Measure Group
Measure Category
Sector(s)
Annual Energy Savings (kWh)
Peak Demand Reduction (kW)
Annual Therm Savings (Therms)
Lifecycle Energy Savings (kWh)
Lifecycle Therm Savings (Therms)
Water Savings (gal/yr)
Effective Useful Life (years)
Incremental Cost ($/unit)
LED, ENERGY STAR, Replacing Incandescent > 40 Watts:
In Unit, 3159
Common Area, 3160
Per lamp
Prescriptive
Lighting
Light Emitting Diode (LED)