R&S ZNC User Manual

R&S ZNC User Manual
R&S® ZNC
Vector Network Analyzers
User Manual
(;×íÇ2)
User Manual
Test & Measurement
1173.9557.02 ─ 13
This manual describes the following vector network analyzer type and its options:
●
R&S® ZNC3, order no. 1311.6004K12 (2 test ports)
The firmware of the instrument makes use of several valuable open source software packages. For information, see the "Open Source
Acknowledgement" on the user documentation CD-ROM (included in delivery).
Rohde & Schwarz would like to thank the open source community for their valuable contribution to embedded computing.
© 2013 Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG
Mühldorfstr. 15, 81671 München, Germany
Phone: +49 89 41 29 - 0
Fax: +49 89 41 29 12 164
E-mail: [email protected]
Internet: www.rohde-schwarz.com
Printed in Germany – Subject to change – Data without tolerance limits is not binding.
R&S® is a registered trademark of Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG.
Trade names are trademarks of the owners.
Throughout this manual, R&S® is abbreviated as R&S
Basic Safety Instructions
Always read through and comply with the following safety instructions!
All plants and locations of the Rohde & Schwarz group of companies make every effort to keep the safety
standards of our products up to date and to offer our customers the highest possible degree of safety. Our
products and the auxiliary equipment they require are designed, built and tested in accordance with the
safety standards that apply in each case. Compliance with these standards is continuously monitored by
our quality assurance system. The product described here has been designed, built and tested in
accordance with the EC Certificate of Conformity and has left the manufacturer’s plant in a condition fully
complying with safety standards. To maintain this condition and to ensure safe operation, you must
observe all instructions and warnings provided in this manual. If you have any questions regarding these
safety instructions, the Rohde & Schwarz group of companies will be happy to answer them.
Furthermore, it is your responsibility to use the product in an appropriate manner. This product is designed
for use solely in industrial and laboratory environments or, if expressly permitted, also in the field and must
not be used in any way that may cause personal injury or property damage. You are responsible if the
product is used for any purpose other than its designated purpose or in disregard of the manufacturer's
instructions. The manufacturer shall assume no responsibility for such use of the product.
The product is used for its designated purpose if it is used in accordance with its product documentation
and within its performance limits (see data sheet, documentation, the following safety instructions). Using
the product requires technical skills and, in some cases, a basic knowledge of English. It is therefore
essential that only skilled and specialized staff or thoroughly trained personnel with the required skills be
allowed to use the product. If personal safety gear is required for using Rohde & Schwarz products, this
will be indicated at the appropriate place in the product documentation. Keep the basic safety instructions
and the product documentation in a safe place and pass them on to the subsequent users.
Observing the safety instructions will help prevent personal injury or damage of any kind caused by
dangerous situations. Therefore, carefully read through and adhere to the following safety instructions
before and when using the product. It is also absolutely essential to observe the additional safety
instructions on personal safety, for example, that appear in relevant parts of the product documentation. In
these safety instructions, the word "product" refers to all merchandise sold and distributed by the Rohde &
Schwarz group of companies, including instruments, systems and all accessories. For product-specific
information, see the data sheet and the product documentation.
Safety labels on products
The following safety labels are used on products to warn against risks and dangers.
Symbol
Meaning
Notice, general danger location
Symbol
Meaning
ON/OFF supply voltage
Observe product documentation
Caution when handling heavy equipment
Standby indication
Danger of electric shock
Direct current (DC)
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Basic Safety Instructions
Symbol
Meaning
Symbol
Meaning
Warning! Hot surface
Alternating current (AC)
Protective conductor terminal
Direct/alternating current (DC/AC)
Ground
Device fully protected by double (reinforced)
insulation
Ground terminal
EU labeling for batteries and accumulators
For additional information, see section "Waste
disposal/Environmental protection", item 1.
Be careful when handling electrostatic sensitive
devices
EU labeling for separate collection of electrical
and electronic devices
For additonal information, see section "Waste
disposal/Environmental protection", item 2.
Warning! Laser radiation
For additional information, see section
"Operation", item 7.
Signal words and their meaning
The following signal words are used in the product documentation in order to warn the reader about risks
and dangers.
Indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, will result in death or
serious injury.
Indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in death or
serious injury.
Indicates a hazardous situation which, if not avoided, could result in minor or
moderate injury.
Indicates information considered important, but not hazard-related, e.g.
messages relating to property damage.
In the product documentation, the word ATTENTION is used synonymously.
These signal words are in accordance with the standard definition for civil applications in the European
Economic Area. Definitions that deviate from the standard definition may also exist in other economic
areas or military applications. It is therefore essential to make sure that the signal words described here
are always used only in connection with the related product documentation and the related product. The
use of signal words in connection with unrelated products or documentation can result in misinterpretation
and in personal injury or material damage.
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Basic Safety Instructions
Operating states and operating positions
The product may be operated only under the operating conditions and in the positions specified by the
manufacturer, without the product's ventilation being obstructed. If the manufacturer's specifications are
not observed, this can result in electric shock, fire and/or serious personal injury or death. Applicable local
or national safety regulations and rules for the prevention of accidents must be observed in all work
performed.
1. Unless otherwise specified, the following requirements apply to Rohde & Schwarz products:
predefined operating position is always with the housing floor facing down, IP protection 2X, use only
indoors, max. operating altitude 2000 m above sea level, max. transport altitude 4500 m above sea
level. A tolerance of ±10 % shall apply to the nominal voltage and ±5 % to the nominal frequency,
overvoltage category 2, pollution severity 2.
2. Do not place the product on surfaces, vehicles, cabinets or tables that for reasons of weight or stability
are unsuitable for this purpose. Always follow the manufacturer's installation instructions when
installing the product and fastening it to objects or structures (e.g. walls and shelves). An installation
that is not carried out as described in the product documentation could result in personal injury or
even death.
3. Do not place the product on heat-generating devices such as radiators or fan heaters. The ambient
temperature must not exceed the maximum temperature specified in the product documentation or in
the data sheet. Product overheating can cause electric shock, fire and/or serious personal injury or
even death.
Electrical safety
If the information on electrical safety is not observed either at all or to the extent necessary, electric shock,
fire and/or serious personal injury or death may occur.
1. Prior to switching on the product, always ensure that the nominal voltage setting on the product
matches the nominal voltage of the AC supply network. If a different voltage is to be set, the power
fuse of the product may have to be changed accordingly.
2. In the case of products of safety class I with movable power cord and connector, operation is
permitted only on sockets with a protective conductor contact and protective conductor.
3. Intentionally breaking the protective conductor either in the feed line or in the product itself is not
permitted. Doing so can result in the danger of an electric shock from the product. If extension cords
or connector strips are implemented, they must be checked on a regular basis to ensure that they are
safe to use.
4. If there is no power switch for disconnecting the product from the AC supply network, or if the power
switch is not suitable for this purpose, use the plug of the connecting cable to disconnect the product
from the AC supply network. In such cases, always ensure that the power plug is easily reachable and
accessible at all times. For example, if the power plug is the disconnecting device, the length of the
connecting cable must not exceed 3 m. Functional or electronic switches are not suitable for providing
disconnection from the AC supply network. If products without power switches are integrated into
racks or systems, the disconnecting device must be provided at the system level.
5. Never use the product if the power cable is damaged. Check the power cables on a regular basis to
ensure that they are in proper operating condition. By taking appropriate safety measures and
carefully laying the power cable, ensure that the cable cannot be damaged and that no one can be
hurt by, for example, tripping over the cable or suffering an electric shock.
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Basic Safety Instructions
6. The product may be operated only from TN/TT supply networks fuse-protected with max. 16 A (higher
fuse only after consulting with the Rohde & Schwarz group of companies).
7. Do not insert the plug into sockets that are dusty or dirty. Insert the plug firmly and all the way into the
socket provided for this purpose. Otherwise, sparks that result in fire and/or injuries may occur.
8. Do not overload any sockets, extension cords or connector strips; doing so can cause fire or electric
shocks.
9. For measurements in circuits with voltages Vrms > 30 V, suitable measures (e.g. appropriate
measuring equipment, fuse protection, current limiting, electrical separation, insulation) should be
taken to avoid any hazards.
10. Ensure that the connections with information technology equipment, e.g. PCs or other industrial
computers, comply with the IEC60950-1/EN60950-1 or IEC61010-1/EN 61010-1 standards that apply
in each case.
11. Unless expressly permitted, never remove the cover or any part of the housing while the product is in
operation. Doing so will expose circuits and components and can lead to injuries, fire or damage to the
product.
12. If a product is to be permanently installed, the connection between the protective conductor terminal
on site and the product's protective conductor must be made first before any other connection is
made. The product may be installed and connected only by a licensed electrician.
13. For permanently installed equipment without built-in fuses, circuit breakers or similar protective
devices, the supply circuit must be fuse-protected in such a way that anyone who has access to the
product, as well as the product itself, is adequately protected from injury or damage.
14. Use suitable overvoltage protection to ensure that no overvoltage (such as that caused by a bolt of
lightning) can reach the product. Otherwise, the person operating the product will be exposed to the
danger of an electric shock.
15. Any object that is not designed to be placed in the openings of the housing must not be used for this
purpose. Doing so can cause short circuits inside the product and/or electric shocks, fire or injuries.
16. Unless specified otherwise, products are not liquid-proof (see also section "Operating states and
operating positions", item 1). Therefore, the equipment must be protected against penetration by
liquids. If the necessary precautions are not taken, the user may suffer electric shock or the product
itself may be damaged, which can also lead to personal injury.
17. Never use the product under conditions in which condensation has formed or can form in or on the
product, e.g. if the product has been moved from a cold to a warm environment. Penetration by water
increases the risk of electric shock.
18. Prior to cleaning the product, disconnect it completely from the power supply (e.g. AC supply network
or battery). Use a soft, non-linting cloth to clean the product. Never use chemical cleaning agents such
as alcohol, acetone or diluents for cellulose lacquers.
Operation
1. Operating the products requires special training and intense concentration. Make sure that persons
who use the products are physically, mentally and emotionally fit enough to do so; otherwise, injuries
or material damage may occur. It is the responsibility of the employer/operator to select suitable
personnel for operating the products.
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Basic Safety Instructions
2. Before you move or transport the product, read and observe the section titled "Transport".
3. As with all industrially manufactured goods, the use of substances that induce an allergic reaction
(allergens) such as nickel cannot be generally excluded. If you develop an allergic reaction (such as a
skin rash, frequent sneezing, red eyes or respiratory difficulties) when using a Rohde & Schwarz
product, consult a physician immediately to determine the cause and to prevent health problems or
stress.
4. Before you start processing the product mechanically and/or thermally, or before you take it apart, be
sure to read and pay special attention to the section titled "Waste disposal/Environmental protection",
item 1.
5. Depending on the function, certain products such as RF radio equipment can produce an elevated
level of electromagnetic radiation. Considering that unborn babies require increased protection,
pregnant women must be protected by appropriate measures. Persons with pacemakers may also be
exposed to risks from electromagnetic radiation. The employer/operator must evaluate workplaces
where there is a special risk of exposure to radiation and, if necessary, take measures to avert the
potential danger.
6. Should a fire occur, the product may release hazardous substances (gases, fluids, etc.) that can
cause health problems. Therefore, suitable measures must be taken, e.g. protective masks and
protective clothing must be worn.
7. Laser products are given warning labels that are standardized according to their laser class. Lasers
can cause biological harm due to the properties of their radiation and due to their extremely
concentrated electromagnetic power. If a laser product (e.g. a CD/DVD drive) is integrated into a
Rohde & Schwarz product, absolutely no other settings or functions may be used as described in the
product documentation. The objective is to prevent personal injury (e.g. due to laser beams).
8. EMC classes (in line with EN 55011/CISPR 11, and analogously with EN 55022/CISPR 22,
EN 55032/CISPR 32)
Class A equipment:
Equipment suitable for use in all environments except residential environments and environments
that are directly connected to a low-voltage supply network that supplies residential buildings
Note: Class A equipment is intended for use in an industrial environment. This equipment may
cause radio disturbances in residential environments, due to possible conducted as well as
radiated disturbances. In this case, the operator may be required to take appropriate measures to
eliminate these disturbances.
Class B equipment:
Equipment suitable for use in residential environments and environments that are directly
connected to a low-voltage supply network that supplies residential buildings
Repair and service
1. The product may be opened only by authorized, specially trained personnel. Before any work is
performed on the product or before the product is opened, it must be disconnected from the AC supply
network. Otherwise, personnel will be exposed to the risk of an electric shock.
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Basic Safety Instructions
2. Adjustments, replacement of parts, maintenance and repair may be performed only by electrical
experts authorized by Rohde & Schwarz. Only original parts may be used for replacing parts relevant
to safety (e.g. power switches, power transformers, fuses). A safety test must always be performed
after parts relevant to safety have been replaced (visual inspection, protective conductor test,
insulation resistance measurement, leakage current measurement, functional test). This helps ensure
the continued safety of the product.
Batteries and rechargeable batteries/cells
If the information regarding batteries and rechargeable batteries/cells is not observed either at all or to the
extent necessary, product users may be exposed to the risk of explosions, fire and/or serious personal
injury, and, in some cases, death. Batteries and rechargeable batteries with alkaline electrolytes (e.g.
lithium cells) must be handled in accordance with the EN 62133 standard.
1. Cells must not be taken apart or crushed.
2. Cells or batteries must not be exposed to heat or fire. Storage in direct sunlight must be avoided.
Keep cells and batteries clean and dry. Clean soiled connectors using a dry, clean cloth.
3. Cells or batteries must not be short-circuited. Cells or batteries must not be stored in a box or in a
drawer where they can short-circuit each other, or where they can be short-circuited by other
conductive materials. Cells and batteries must not be removed from their original packaging until they
are ready to be used.
4. Cells and batteries must not be exposed to any mechanical shocks that are stronger than permitted.
5. If a cell develops a leak, the fluid must not be allowed to come into contact with the skin or eyes. If
contact occurs, wash the affected area with plenty of water and seek medical aid.
6. Improperly replacing or charging cells or batteries that contain alkaline electrolytes (e.g. lithium cells)
can cause explosions. Replace cells or batteries only with the matching Rohde & Schwarz type (see
parts list) in order to ensure the safety of the product.
7. Cells and batteries must be recycled and kept separate from residual waste. Rechargeable batteries
and normal batteries that contain lead, mercury or cadmium are hazardous waste. Observe the
national regulations regarding waste disposal and recycling.
Transport
1. The product may be very heavy. Therefore, the product must be handled with care. In some cases,
the user may require a suitable means of lifting or moving the product (e.g. with a lift-truck) to avoid
back or other physical injuries.
2. Handles on the products are designed exclusively to enable personnel to transport the product. It is
therefore not permissible to use handles to fasten the product to or on transport equipment such as
cranes, fork lifts, wagons, etc. The user is responsible for securely fastening the products to or on the
means of transport or lifting. Observe the safety regulations of the manufacturer of the means of
transport or lifting. Noncompliance can result in personal injury or material damage.
3. If you use the product in a vehicle, it is the sole responsibility of the driver to drive the vehicle safely
and properly. The manufacturer assumes no responsibility for accidents or collisions. Never use the
product in a moving vehicle if doing so could distract the driver of the vehicle. Adequately secure the
product in the vehicle to prevent injuries or other damage in the event of an accident.
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
Waste disposal/Environmental protection
1. Specially marked equipment has a battery or accumulator that must not be disposed of with unsorted
municipal waste, but must be collected separately. It may only be disposed of at a suitable collection
point or via a Rohde & Schwarz customer service center.
2. Waste electrical and electronic equipment must not be disposed of with unsorted municipal waste, but
must be collected separately.
Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG has developed a disposal concept and takes full responsibility for
take-back obligations and disposal obligations for manufacturers within the EU. Contact your
Rohde & Schwarz customer service center for environmentally responsible disposal of the product.
3. If products or their components are mechanically and/or thermally processed in a manner that goes
beyond their intended use, hazardous substances (heavy-metal dust such as lead, beryllium, nickel)
may be released. For this reason, the product may only be disassembled by specially trained
personnel. Improper disassembly may be hazardous to your health. National waste disposal
regulations must be observed.
4. If handling the product releases hazardous substances or fuels that must be disposed of in a special
way, e.g. coolants or engine oils that must be replenished regularly, the safety instructions of the
manufacturer of the hazardous substances or fuels and the applicable regional waste disposal
regulations must be observed. Also observe the relevant safety instructions in the product
documentation. The improper disposal of hazardous substances or fuels can cause health problems
and lead to environmental damage.
For additional information about environmental protection, visit the Rohde & Schwarz website.
Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
¡Es imprescindible leer y cumplir las siguientes instrucciones e informaciones de seguridad!
El principio del grupo de empresas Rohde & Schwarz consiste en tener nuestros productos siempre al día
con los estándares de seguridad y de ofrecer a nuestros clientes el máximo grado de seguridad. Nuestros
productos y todos los equipos adicionales son siempre fabricados y examinados según las normas de
seguridad vigentes. Nuestro sistema de garantía de calidad controla constantemente que sean cumplidas
estas normas. El presente producto ha sido fabricado y examinado según el certificado de conformidad
de la UE y ha salido de nuestra planta en estado impecable según los estándares técnicos de seguridad.
Para poder preservar este estado y garantizar un funcionamiento libre de peligros, el usuario deberá
atenerse a todas las indicaciones, informaciones de seguridad y notas de alerta. El grupo de empresas
Rohde & Schwarz está siempre a su disposición en caso de que tengan preguntas referentes a estas
informaciones de seguridad.
Además queda en la responsabilidad del usuario utilizar el producto en la forma debida. Este producto
está destinado exclusivamente al uso en la industria y el laboratorio o, si ha sido expresamente
autorizado, para aplicaciones de campo y de ninguna manera deberá ser utilizado de modo que alguna
persona/cosa pueda sufrir daño. El uso del producto fuera de sus fines definidos o sin tener en cuenta las
instrucciones del fabricante queda en la responsabilidad del usuario. El fabricante no se hace en ninguna
forma responsable de consecuencias a causa del mal uso del producto.
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
Se parte del uso correcto del producto para los fines definidos si el producto es utilizado conforme a las
indicaciones de la correspondiente documentación del producto y dentro del margen de rendimiento
definido (ver hoja de datos, documentación, informaciones de seguridad que siguen). El uso del producto
hace necesarios conocimientos técnicos y ciertos conocimientos del idioma inglés. Por eso se debe tener
en cuenta que el producto solo pueda ser operado por personal especializado o personas instruidas en
profundidad con las capacidades correspondientes. Si fuera necesaria indumentaria de seguridad para el
uso de productos de Rohde & Schwarz, encontraría la información debida en la documentación del
producto en el capítulo correspondiente. Guarde bien las informaciones de seguridad elementales, así
como la documentación del producto, y entréguelas a usuarios posteriores.
Tener en cuenta las informaciones de seguridad sirve para evitar en lo posible lesiones o daños por
peligros de toda clase. Por eso es imprescindible leer detalladamente y comprender por completo las
siguientes informaciones de seguridad antes de usar el producto, y respetarlas durante el uso del
producto. Deberán tenerse en cuenta todas las demás informaciones de seguridad, como p. ej. las
referentes a la protección de personas, que encontrarán en el capítulo correspondiente de la
documentación del producto y que también son de obligado cumplimiento. En las presentes
informaciones de seguridad se recogen todos los objetos que distribuye el grupo de empresas
Rohde & Schwarz bajo la denominación de "producto", entre ellos también aparatos, instalaciones así
como toda clase de accesorios. Los datos específicos del producto figuran en la hoja de datos y en la
documentación del producto.
Señalización de seguridad de los productos
Las siguientes señales de seguridad se utilizan en los productos para advertir sobre riesgos y peligros.
Símbolo
Significado
Aviso: punto de peligro general
Observar la documentación del producto
Símbolo
Significado
Tensión de alimentación de PUESTA EN
MARCHA / PARADA
Atención en el manejo de dispositivos de peso
elevado
Indicación de estado de espera (standby)
Peligro de choque eléctrico
Corriente continua (DC)
Advertencia: superficie caliente
Corriente alterna (AC)
Conexión a conductor de protección
Corriente continua / Corriente alterna (DC/AC)
Conexión a tierra
El aparato está protegido en su totalidad por un
aislamiento doble (reforzado)
Conexión a masa
Distintivo de la UE para baterías y
acumuladores
Más información en la sección
"Eliminación/protección del medio ambiente",
punto 1.
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
Símbolo
Significado
Símbolo
Aviso: Cuidado en el manejo de dispositivos
sensibles a la electrostática (ESD)
Significado
Distintivo de la UE para la eliminación por
separado de dispositivos eléctricos y
electrónicos
Más información en la sección
"Eliminación/protección del medio ambiente",
punto 2.
Advertencia: rayo láser
Más información en la sección
"Funcionamiento", punto 7.
Palabras de señal y su significado
En la documentación del producto se utilizan las siguientes palabras de señal con el fin de advertir contra
riesgos y peligros.
Indica una situación de peligro que, si no se evita, causa lesiones
graves o incluso la muerte.
Indica una situación de peligro que, si no se evita, puede causar
lesiones graves o incluso la muerte.
Indica una situación de peligro que, si no se evita, puede causar
lesiones leves o moderadas.
Indica información que se considera importante, pero no en relación
con situaciones de peligro; p. ej., avisos sobre posibles daños
materiales.
En la documentación del producto se emplea de forma sinónima el
término CUIDADO.
Las palabras de señal corresponden a la definición habitual para aplicaciones civiles en el área
económica europea. Pueden existir definiciones diferentes a esta definición en otras áreas económicas o
en aplicaciones militares. Por eso se deberá tener en cuenta que las palabras de señal aquí descritas
sean utilizadas siempre solamente en combinación con la correspondiente documentación del producto y
solamente en combinación con el producto correspondiente. La utilización de las palabras de señal en
combinación con productos o documentaciones que no les correspondan puede llevar a interpretaciones
equivocadas y tener por consecuencia daños en personas u objetos.
Estados operativos y posiciones de funcionamiento
El producto solamente debe ser utilizado según lo indicado por el fabricante respecto a los estados
operativos y posiciones de funcionamiento sin que se obstruya la ventilación. Si no se siguen las
indicaciones del fabricante, pueden producirse choques eléctricos, incendios y/o lesiones graves con
posible consecuencia de muerte. En todos los trabajos deberán ser tenidas en cuenta las normas
nacionales y locales de seguridad del trabajo y de prevención de accidentes.
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Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
1. Si no se convino de otra manera, es para los productos Rohde & Schwarz válido lo que sigue:
como posición de funcionamiento se define por principio la posición con el suelo de la caja para
abajo, modo de protección IP 2X, uso solamente en estancias interiores, utilización hasta 2000 m
sobre el nivel del mar, transporte hasta 4500 m sobre el nivel del mar. Se aplicará una tolerancia de
±10 % sobre el voltaje nominal y de ±5 % sobre la frecuencia nominal. Categoría de sobrecarga
eléctrica 2, índice de suciedad 2.
2. No sitúe el producto encima de superficies, vehículos, estantes o mesas, que por sus características
de peso o de estabilidad no sean aptos para él. Siga siempre las instrucciones de instalación del
fabricante cuando instale y asegure el producto en objetos o estructuras (p. ej. paredes y estantes). Si
se realiza la instalación de modo distinto al indicado en la documentación del producto, se pueden
causar lesiones o, en determinadas circunstancias, incluso la muerte.
3. No ponga el producto sobre aparatos que generen calor (p. ej. radiadores o calefactores). La
temperatura ambiente no debe superar la temperatura máxima especificada en la documentación del
producto o en la hoja de datos. En caso de sobrecalentamiento del producto, pueden producirse
choques eléctricos, incendios y/o lesiones graves con posible consecuencia de muerte.
Seguridad eléctrica
Si no se siguen (o se siguen de modo insuficiente) las indicaciones del fabricante en cuanto a seguridad
eléctrica, pueden producirse choques eléctricos, incendios y/o lesiones graves con posible consecuencia
de muerte.
1. Antes de la puesta en marcha del producto se deberá comprobar siempre que la tensión
preseleccionada en el producto coincida con la de la red de alimentación eléctrica. Si es necesario
modificar el ajuste de tensión, también se deberán cambiar en caso dado los fusibles
correspondientes del producto.
2. Los productos de la clase de protección I con alimentación móvil y enchufe individual solamente
podrán enchufarse a tomas de corriente con contacto de seguridad y con conductor de protección
conectado.
3. Queda prohibida la interrupción intencionada del conductor de protección, tanto en la toma de
corriente como en el mismo producto. La interrupción puede tener como consecuencia el riesgo de
que el producto sea fuente de choques eléctricos. Si se utilizan cables alargadores o regletas de
enchufe, deberá garantizarse la realización de un examen regular de los mismos en cuanto a su
estado técnico de seguridad.
4. Si el producto no está equipado con un interruptor para desconectarlo de la red, o bien si el
interruptor existente no resulta apropiado para la desconexión de la red, el enchufe del cable de
conexión se deberá considerar como un dispositivo de desconexión.
El dispositivo de desconexión se debe poder alcanzar fácilmente y debe estar siempre bien accesible.
Si, p. ej., el enchufe de conexión a la red es el dispositivo de desconexión, la longitud del cable de
conexión no debe superar 3 m).
Los interruptores selectores o electrónicos no son aptos para el corte de la red eléctrica. Si se
integran productos sin interruptor en bastidores o instalaciones, se deberá colocar el interruptor en el
nivel de la instalación.
5. No utilice nunca el producto si está dañado el cable de conexión a red. Compruebe regularmente el
correcto estado de los cables de conexión a red. Asegúrese, mediante las medidas de protección y
de instalación adecuadas, de que el cable de conexión a red no pueda ser dañado o de que nadie
pueda ser dañado por él, p. ej. al tropezar o por un choque eléctrico.
1171.0000.42 - 07
Page 10
Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
6. Solamente está permitido el funcionamiento en redes de alimentación TN/TT aseguradas con fusibles
de 16 A como máximo (utilización de fusibles de mayor amperaje solo previa consulta con el grupo de
empresas Rohde & Schwarz).
7. Nunca conecte el enchufe en tomas de corriente sucias o llenas de polvo. Introduzca el enchufe por
completo y fuertemente en la toma de corriente. La no observación de estas medidas puede provocar
chispas, fuego y/o lesiones.
8. No sobrecargue las tomas de corriente, los cables alargadores o las regletas de enchufe ya que esto
podría causar fuego o choques eléctricos.
9. En las mediciones en circuitos de corriente con una tensión Ueff > 30 V se deberán tomar las medidas
apropiadas para impedir cualquier peligro (p. ej. medios de medición adecuados, seguros, limitación
de tensión, corte protector, aislamiento etc.).
10. Para la conexión con dispositivos informáticos como un PC o un ordenador industrial, debe
comprobarse que éstos cumplan los estándares IEC60950-1/EN60950-1 o IEC61010-1/EN 61010-1
válidos en cada caso.
11. A menos que esté permitido expresamente, no retire nunca la tapa ni componentes de la carcasa
mientras el producto esté en servicio. Esto pone a descubierto los cables y componentes eléctricos y
puede causar lesiones, fuego o daños en el producto.
12. Si un producto se instala en un lugar fijo, se deberá primero conectar el conductor de protección fijo
con el conductor de protección del producto antes de hacer cualquier otra conexión. La instalación y
la conexión deberán ser efectuadas por un electricista especializado.
13. En el caso de dispositivos fijos que no estén provistos de fusibles, interruptor automático ni otros
mecanismos de seguridad similares, el circuito de alimentación debe estar protegido de modo que
todas las personas que puedan acceder al producto, así como el producto mismo, estén a salvo de
posibles daños.
14. Todo producto debe estar protegido contra sobretensión (debida p. ej. a una caída del rayo) mediante
los correspondientes sistemas de protección. Si no, el personal que lo utilice quedará expuesto al
peligro de choque eléctrico.
15. No debe introducirse en los orificios de la caja del aparato ningún objeto que no esté destinado a ello.
Esto puede producir cortocircuitos en el producto y/o puede causar choques eléctricos, fuego o
lesiones.
16. Salvo indicación contraria, los productos no están impermeabilizados (ver también el capítulo
"Estados operativos y posiciones de funcionamiento", punto 1). Por eso es necesario tomar las
medidas necesarias para evitar la entrada de líquidos. En caso contrario, existe peligro de choque
eléctrico para el usuario o de daños en el producto, que también pueden redundar en peligro para las
personas.
17. No utilice el producto en condiciones en las que pueda producirse o ya se hayan producido
condensaciones sobre el producto o en el interior de éste, como p. ej. al desplazarlo de un lugar frío a
otro caliente. La entrada de agua aumenta el riesgo de choque eléctrico.
18. Antes de la limpieza, desconecte por completo el producto de la alimentación de tensión (p. ej. red de
alimentación o batería). Realice la limpieza de los aparatos con un paño suave, que no se deshilache.
No utilice bajo ningún concepto productos de limpieza químicos como alcohol, acetona o diluyentes
para lacas nitrocelulósicas.
1171.0000.42 - 07
Page 11
Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
Funcionamiento
1. El uso del producto requiere instrucciones especiales y una alta concentración durante el manejo.
Debe asegurarse que las personas que manejen el producto estén a la altura de los requerimientos
necesarios en cuanto a aptitudes físicas, psíquicas y emocionales, ya que de otra manera no se
pueden excluir lesiones o daños de objetos. El empresario u operador es responsable de seleccionar
el personal usuario apto para el manejo del producto.
2. Antes de desplazar o transportar el producto, lea y tenga en cuenta el capítulo "Transporte".
3. Como con todo producto de fabricación industrial no puede quedar excluida en general la posibilidad
de que se produzcan alergias provocadas por algunos materiales empleados Slos llamados
alérgenos (p. ej. el níquel)S. Si durante el manejo de productos Rohde & Schwarz se producen
reacciones alérgicas, como p. ej. irritaciones cutáneas, estornudos continuos, enrojecimiento de la
conjuntiva o dificultades respiratorias, debe avisarse inmediatamente a un médico para investigar las
causas y evitar cualquier molestia o daño a la salud.
4. Antes de la manipulación mecánica y/o térmica o el desmontaje del producto, debe tenerse en cuenta
imprescindiblemente el capítulo "Eliminación/protección del medio ambiente", punto 1.
5. Ciertos productos, como p. ej. las instalaciones de radiocomunicación RF, pueden a causa de su
función natural, emitir una radiación electromagnética aumentada. Deben tomarse todas las medidas
necesarias para la protección de las mujeres embarazadas. También las personas con marcapasos
pueden correr peligro a causa de la radiación electromagnética. El empresario/operador tiene la
obligación de evaluar y señalizar las áreas de trabajo en las que exista un riesgo elevado de
exposición a radiaciones.
6. Tenga en cuenta que en caso de incendio pueden desprenderse del producto sustancias tóxicas
(gases, líquidos etc.) que pueden generar daños a la salud. Por eso, en caso de incendio deben
usarse medidas adecuadas, como p. ej. máscaras antigás e indumentaria de protección.
7. Los productos con láser están provistos de indicaciones de advertencia normalizadas en función de la
clase de láser del que se trate. Los rayos láser pueden provocar daños de tipo biológico a causa de
las propiedades de su radiación y debido a su concentración extrema de potencia electromagnética.
En caso de que un producto Rohde & Schwarz contenga un producto láser (p. ej. un lector de
CD/DVD), no debe usarse ninguna otra configuración o función aparte de las descritas en la
documentación del producto, a fin de evitar lesiones (p. ej. debidas a irradiación láser).
8. Clases de compatibilidad electromagnética (conforme a EN 55011 / CISPR 11; y en analogía con EN
55022 / CISPR 22, EN 55032 / CISPR 32)
Aparato de clase A:
Aparato adecuado para su uso en todos los entornos excepto en los residenciales y en aquellos
conectados directamente a una red de distribución de baja tensión que suministra corriente a
edificios residenciales.
Nota: Los aparatos de clase A están destinados al uso en entornos industriales. Estos aparatos
pueden causar perturbaciones radioeléctricas en entornos residenciales debido a posibles
perturbaciones guiadas o radiadas. En este caso, se le podrá solicitar al operador que tome las
medidas adecuadas para eliminar estas perturbaciones.
Aparato de clase B:
Aparato adecuado para su uso en entornos residenciales, así como en aquellos conectados
directamente a una red de distribución de baja tensión que suministra corriente a edificios
residenciales.
1171.0000.42 - 07
Page 12
Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
Reparación y mantenimiento
1. El producto solamente debe ser abierto por personal especializado con autorización para ello. Antes
de manipular el producto o abrirlo, es obligatorio desconectarlo de la tensión de alimentación, para
evitar toda posibilidad de choque eléctrico.
2. El ajuste, el cambio de partes, el mantenimiento y la reparación deberán ser efectuadas solamente
por electricistas autorizados por Rohde & Schwarz. Si se reponen partes con importancia para los
aspectos de seguridad (p. ej. el enchufe, los transformadores o los fusibles), solamente podrán ser
sustituidos por partes originales. Después de cada cambio de partes relevantes para la seguridad
deberá realizarse un control de seguridad (control a primera vista, control del conductor de
protección, medición de resistencia de aislamiento, medición de la corriente de fuga, control de
funcionamiento). Con esto queda garantizada la seguridad del producto.
Baterías y acumuladores o celdas
Si no se siguen (o se siguen de modo insuficiente) las indicaciones en cuanto a las baterías y
acumuladores o celdas, pueden producirse explosiones, incendios y/o lesiones graves con posible
consecuencia de muerte. El manejo de baterías y acumuladores con electrolitos alcalinos (p. ej. celdas de
litio) debe seguir el estándar EN 62133.
1. No deben desmontarse, abrirse ni triturarse las celdas.
2. Las celdas o baterías no deben someterse a calor ni fuego. Debe evitarse el almacenamiento a la luz
directa del sol. Las celdas y baterías deben mantenerse limpias y secas. Limpiar las conexiones
sucias con un paño seco y limpio.
3. Las celdas o baterías no deben cortocircuitarse. Es peligroso almacenar las celdas o baterías en
estuches o cajones en cuyo interior puedan cortocircuitarse por contacto recíproco o por contacto con
otros materiales conductores. No deben extraerse las celdas o baterías de sus embalajes originales
hasta el momento en que vayan a utilizarse.
4. Las celdas o baterías no deben someterse a impactos mecánicos fuertes indebidos.
5. En caso de falta de estanqueidad de una celda, el líquido vertido no debe entrar en contacto con la
piel ni los ojos. Si se produce contacto, lavar con agua abundante la zona afectada y avisar a un
médico.
6. En caso de cambio o recarga inadecuados, las celdas o baterías que contienen electrolitos alcalinos
(p. ej. las celdas de litio) pueden explotar. Para garantizar la seguridad del producto, las celdas o
baterías solo deben ser sustituidas por el tipo Rohde & Schwarz correspondiente (ver lista de
recambios).
7. Las baterías y celdas deben reciclarse y no deben tirarse a la basura doméstica. Las baterías o
acumuladores que contienen plomo, mercurio o cadmio deben tratarse como residuos especiales.
Respete en esta relación las normas nacionales de eliminación y reciclaje.
Transporte
1. El producto puede tener un peso elevado. Por eso es necesario desplazarlo o transportarlo con
precaución y, si es necesario, usando un sistema de elevación adecuado (p. ej. una carretilla
elevadora), a fin de evitar lesiones en la espalda u otros daños personales.
1171.0000.42 - 07
Page 13
Instrucciones de seguridad elementales
2. Las asas instaladas en los productos sirven solamente de ayuda para el transporte del producto por
personas. Por eso no está permitido utilizar las asas para la sujeción en o sobre medios de transporte
como p. ej. grúas, carretillas elevadoras de horquilla, carros etc. Es responsabilidad suya fijar los
productos de manera segura a los medios de transporte o elevación. Para evitar daños personales o
daños en el producto, siga las instrucciones de seguridad del fabricante del medio de transporte o
elevación utilizado.
3. Si se utiliza el producto dentro de un vehículo, recae de manera exclusiva en el conductor la
responsabilidad de conducir el vehículo de manera segura y adecuada. El fabricante no asumirá
ninguna responsabilidad por accidentes o colisiones. No utilice nunca el producto dentro de un
vehículo en movimiento si esto pudiera distraer al conductor. Asegure el producto dentro del vehículo
debidamente para evitar, en caso de un accidente, lesiones u otra clase de daños.
Eliminación/protección del medio ambiente
1. Los dispositivos marcados contienen una batería o un acumulador que no se debe desechar con los
residuos domésticos sin clasificar, sino que debe ser recogido por separado. La eliminación se debe
efectuar exclusivamente a través de un punto de recogida apropiado o del servicio de atención al
cliente de Rohde & Schwarz.
2. Los dispositivos eléctricos usados no se deben desechar con los residuos domésticos sin clasificar,
sino que deben ser recogidos por separado.
Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co.KG ha elaborado un concepto de eliminación de residuos y asume
plenamente los deberes de recogida y eliminación para los fabricantes dentro de la UE. Para
desechar el producto de manera respetuosa con el medio ambiente, diríjase a su servicio de atención
al cliente de Rohde & Schwarz.
3. Si se trabaja de manera mecánica y/o térmica cualquier producto o componente más allá del
funcionamiento previsto, pueden liberarse sustancias peligrosas (polvos con contenido de metales
pesados como p. ej. plomo, berilio o níquel). Por eso el producto solo debe ser desmontado por
personal especializado con formación adecuada. Un desmontaje inadecuado puede ocasionar daños
para la salud. Se deben tener en cuenta las directivas nacionales referentes a la eliminación de
residuos.
4. En caso de que durante el trato del producto se formen sustancias peligrosas o combustibles que
deban tratarse como residuos especiales (p. ej. refrigerantes o aceites de motor con intervalos de
cambio definidos), deben tenerse en cuenta las indicaciones de seguridad del fabricante de dichas
sustancias y las normas regionales de eliminación de residuos. Tenga en cuenta también en caso
necesario las indicaciones de seguridad especiales contenidas en la documentación del producto. La
eliminación incorrecta de sustancias peligrosas o combustibles puede causar daños a la salud o
daños al medio ambiente.
Se puede encontrar más información sobre la protección del medio ambiente en la página web de
Rohde & Schwarz.
1171.0000.42 - 07
Page 14
Certified Quality System
ISO 9001
Certified Environmental System
ISO 14001
Sehr geehrter Kunde,
Dear customer,
Cher client,
Sie haben sich für den Kauf
eines Rohde & Schwarz Produktes entschieden. Sie erhalten
damit ein nach modernsten Fertigungsmethoden hergestelltes
Produkt. Es wurde nach den
Regeln unserer Qualitäts- und
Umweltmanagementsysteme
entwickelt, gefertigt und geprüft.
Rohde & Schwarz ist unter anderem nach den Managementsystemen ISO 9001 und ISO 14001
zertifiziert.
You have decided to buy a
Rohde & Schwarz product. This
product has been manufactured
using the most advanced methods. It was developed, manufactured and tested in compliance
with our quality management
and environmental management systems. Rohde & Schwarz
has been certified, for example, according to the ISO 9001
and ISO 14001 management
systems.
Der Umwelt verpflichtet
Environmental commitment
Vous avez choisi d’acheter un
produit Rohde & Schwarz. Vous
disposez donc d’un produit
fabriqué d’après les méthodes
les plus avancées. Le développement, la fabrication et les
tests de ce produit ont été effectués selon nos systèmes de
management de qualité et de
management environnemental.
La société Rohde & Schwarz a
été homologuée, entre autres,
conformément aux systèmes
de management ISO 9001 et
ISO 14001.
❙❙ Energie-effiziente,
❙❙ Energy-efficient
RoHS-konforme Produkte
❙❙ Kontinuierliche
Weiterentwicklung nachhaltiger
­Umweltkonzepte
❙❙ ISO 14001-zertifiziertes
Umweltmanagementsystem
❙❙ Continuous
Engagement écologique
❙❙ Produits
à efficience
énergétique
❙❙ Amélioration continue de la
durabilité environnementale
❙❙ Système de management
environnemental certifié selon
ISO 14001
1171.0200.11 V 05.01
products
improvement in
environmental sustainability
❙❙ ISO 14001-certified
environmental management
system
ISO-Qualitaets-Zertifikat_1171-0200-11_A4.indd 1
28.09.2012 10:25:08
1171020011
Quality management
and environmental
management
Customer Support
Technical support – where and when you need it
For quick, expert help with any Rohde & Schwarz equipment, contact one of our Customer Support
Centers. A team of highly qualified engineers provides telephone support and will work with you to find a
solution to your query on any aspect of the operation, programming or applications of Rohde & Schwarz
equipment.
Up-to-date information and upgrades
To keep your instrument up-to-date and to be informed about new application notes related to your
instrument, please send an e-mail to the Customer Support Center stating your instrument and your wish.
We will take care that you will get the right information.
Europe, Africa, Middle East
Phone +49 89 4129 12345
[email protected]
North America
Phone 1-888-TEST-RSA (1-888-837-8772)
[email protected]
Latin America
Phone +1-410-910-7988
[email protected]
Asia/Pacific
Phone +65 65 13 04 88
[email protected]
China
Phone +86-800-810-8228 /
+86-400-650-5896
[email protected]
1171.0200.22-06.00
R&S® ZNC
Contents
Contents
1 Documentation Map...............................................................................9
1.1
Getting Started Guide...................................................................................................9
1.2
User Manual...................................................................................................................9
1.3
Help System...................................................................................................................9
1.4
Documentation CD-ROM..............................................................................................9
2 Release Notes for Firmware V1.81.....................................................10
3 Concepts and Features.......................................................................11
3.1
Basic Concepts...........................................................................................................11
3.1.1
Global (Persistent) Settings..........................................................................................11
3.1.2
Recall Sets....................................................................................................................12
3.1.3
Traces, Channels and Diagrams...................................................................................12
3.1.4
Sweep Control...............................................................................................................14
3.1.5
Data Flow......................................................................................................................17
3.2
Screen Elements.........................................................................................................19
3.2.1
Control Elements of the Screen....................................................................................19
3.2.2
Display Elements in the Diagram..................................................................................24
3.2.3
Dialogs..........................................................................................................................34
3.2.4
Display Formats and Diagram Types............................................................................35
3.3
Measurement Results.................................................................................................43
3.3.1
S-Parameters................................................................................................................43
3.3.2
Impedance Parameters.................................................................................................45
3.3.3
Admittance Parameters.................................................................................................47
3.3.4
Wave Quantities and Ratios..........................................................................................49
3.3.5
Unbalance-Balance Conversion....................................................................................52
3.3.6
Stability Factors.............................................................................................................57
3.3.7
Delay, Aperture, Electrical Length.................................................................................58
3.4
Operations on Traces.................................................................................................59
3.4.1
Limit Check...................................................................................................................59
3.4.2
Trace Files....................................................................................................................64
3.5
Calibration...................................................................................................................67
3.5.1
Calibration Types..........................................................................................................69
User Manual 1173.9557.02 ─ 13
3
R&S® ZNC
Contents
3.5.2
Calibration Standards and Calibration Kits...................................................................75
3.5.3
Calibration Pool.............................................................................................................81
3.5.4
Calibration Labels.........................................................................................................81
3.5.5
Automatic Calibration....................................................................................................81
3.5.6
Scalar Power Calibration...............................................................................................86
3.6
Offset Parameters and Embedding...........................................................................91
3.6.1
Offset Parameters.........................................................................................................92
3.7
Optional Extensions and Accessories......................................................................97
3.7.1
Time Domain (R&S ZNC-K2)........................................................................................98
3.7.2
GPIB Interface (R&S ZNC-B10)..................................................................................103
3.7.3
Handler I/O (Universal Interface, R&S ZN-B14)..........................................................103
3.7.4
Extended Power Range..............................................................................................103
3.7.5
External Power Meters................................................................................................104
4 GUI Reference....................................................................................106
4.1
File Settings...............................................................................................................106
4.1.1
File > Recall Sets........................................................................................................106
4.1.2
File > Print...................................................................................................................109
4.1.3
File > Trace Data.........................................................................................................111
4.1.4
File > More..................................................................................................................111
4.2
Trace Settings...........................................................................................................111
4.2.1
Meas Settings.............................................................................................................112
4.2.2
Format Settings...........................................................................................................135
4.2.3
Scale Settings.............................................................................................................141
4.2.4
Trace Config Settings..................................................................................................147
4.2.5
Lines Settings..............................................................................................................177
4.2.6
Marker Settings...........................................................................................................192
4.3
Stimulus Settings......................................................................................................210
4.3.1
Stimulus > Stimulus.....................................................................................................210
4.3.2
Stimulus > Power........................................................................................................212
4.3.3
Stimulus > Time Domain X-Axis..................................................................................213
4.4
Channel Settings.......................................................................................................214
4.4.1
Power Bandwidth Average Settings............................................................................215
4.4.2
Sweep Settings...........................................................................................................217
User Manual 1173.9557.02 ─ 13
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R&S® ZNC
Contents
4.4.3
Calibration...................................................................................................................233
4.4.4
Channel Config...........................................................................................................276
4.4.5
Trigger.........................................................................................................................283
4.4.6
Offset Embed..............................................................................................................287
4.5
Display Settings........................................................................................................294
4.5.1
Display > Diagram.......................................................................................................295
4.5.2
Display > Split.............................................................................................................299
4.5.3
Display > Config..........................................................................................................301
4.5.4
Define User Color Scheme (Dialog)............................................................................303
4.5.5
Display > View Bar......................................................................................................306
4.5.6
Display > Touchscreen................................................................................................307
4.6
System Settings........................................................................................................307
4.6.1
System > Setup > Setup.............................................................................................308
4.6.2
System Configuration (Dialog)....................................................................................308
4.6.3
Info (Dialog).................................................................................................................314
4.6.4
Service Function (Dialog)............................................................................................316
4.6.5
System > Setup > Freq. Ref........................................................................................316
4.6.6
System > Setup > Remote Settings............................................................................317
4.6.7
Remote LXI (Dialog)....................................................................................................320
4.6.8
System > Setup > External Devices............................................................................321
4.6.9
External Power Meters (Dialog)..................................................................................322
4.6.10
External Power Meter Config (Dialog).........................................................................325
4.6.11
System > Print.............................................................................................................325
4.6.12
Additional System Functions.......................................................................................325
4.7
Applic Menu...............................................................................................................326
4.8
Help Menu..................................................................................................................328
4.9
Control Menu.............................................................................................................328
5 Remote Control..................................................................................330
5.1
Introduction to Remote Control...............................................................................330
5.1.1
Starting a Remote Control Session.............................................................................331
5.1.2
GPIB Explorer.............................................................................................................331
5.1.3
Switchover to Remote Control....................................................................................333
5.1.4
Combining Manual and Remote Control.....................................................................335
User Manual 1173.9557.02 ─ 13
5
R&S® ZNC
Contents
5.2
Messages...................................................................................................................336
5.2.1
Device Messages (Commands and Device Responses)............................................336
5.2.2
SCPI Command Structure and Syntax........................................................................336
5.2.3
SCPI Parameters........................................................................................................340
5.3
Basic Remote Control Concepts.............................................................................342
5.3.1
Traces, Channels, and Diagram Areas.......................................................................342
5.3.2
Active Traces in Remote Control................................................................................343
5.3.3
Initiating Measurements, Speed Considerations.........................................................344
5.3.4
Addressing Traces and Channels...............................................................................345
5.4
Command Processing..............................................................................................346
5.4.1
Input Unit.....................................................................................................................346
5.4.2
Command Recognition................................................................................................346
5.4.3
Data Base and Instrument Hardware..........................................................................347
5.4.4
Status Reporting System............................................................................................347
5.4.5
Output Unit..................................................................................................................348
5.4.6
Command Sequence and Command Synchronization...............................................348
5.5
Status Reporting System.........................................................................................349
5.5.1
Overview of Status Registers......................................................................................350
5.5.2
Structure of an SCPI Status Register..........................................................................351
5.5.3
Contents of the Status Registers................................................................................353
5.5.4
Application of the Status Reporting System................................................................359
5.5.5
Reset Values of the Status Reporting System............................................................362
5.6
LXI Configuration......................................................................................................362
5.6.1
LXI Classes and LXI Functionality..............................................................................363
5.6.2
LXI Browser Interface..................................................................................................364
5.6.3
LAN Configuration.......................................................................................................365
6 Command Reference.........................................................................368
6.1
Special Terms and Notation.....................................................................................368
6.1.1
Upper/Lower Case......................................................................................................369
6.1.2
Special Characters......................................................................................................369
6.1.3
Parameters..................................................................................................................369
6.1.4
Numeric Suffixes.........................................................................................................369
6.2
Common Commands................................................................................................370
User Manual 1173.9557.02 ─ 13
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R&S® ZNC
Contents
6.3
SCPI Command Reference.......................................................................................371
6.3.1
CALCulate Commands...............................................................................................372
6.3.2
CONFigure Commands...............................................................................................453
6.3.3
CONTrol Commands...................................................................................................460
6.3.4
DIAGnostic Commands...............................................................................................469
6.3.5
DISPlay Commands....................................................................................................470
6.3.6
FORMat Commands...................................................................................................493
6.3.7
HCOPy Commands.....................................................................................................495
6.3.8
INITiate Commands....................................................................................................499
6.3.9
INSTrument Commands.............................................................................................502
6.3.10
MEMory.......................................................................................................................503
6.3.11
MMEMory Commands................................................................................................504
6.3.12
OUTPut Commands....................................................................................................529
6.3.13
PROGram Commands................................................................................................531
6.3.14
[SENSe:] Commands..................................................................................................534
6.3.15
SOURce Commands...................................................................................................619
6.3.16
STATus Commands....................................................................................................645
6.3.17
SYSTem Commands..................................................................................................648
6.3.18
TRACe Commands.....................................................................................................670
6.3.19
TRIGger Commands...................................................................................................673
6.4
R&S ZVR/ZVAB Compatible Commands................................................................679
7 Programming Examples....................................................................703
7.1
Basic Tasks...............................................................................................................703
7.1.1
Typical Stages of a Remote Control Program.............................................................703
7.1.2
Channel, Trace and Diagram Handling.......................................................................706
7.2
Condensed Programming Examples......................................................................712
7.2.1
Path Independent RC Programs.................................................................................712
7.2.2
Trace and Diagram Handling......................................................................................713
7.2.3
Using Markers.............................................................................................................722
7.2.4
Data Handling.............................................................................................................724
7.2.5
Calibration...................................................................................................................728
8 Error Messages and Troubleshooting.............................................733
8.1
Errors during Firmware Operation..........................................................................733
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Contents
8.1.1
Asynchronous Errors...................................................................................................734
8.1.2
Errors during Measurement........................................................................................734
8.1.3
Obtaining Technical Support.......................................................................................735
8.2
Errors during Firmware Installation/Update...........................................................735
9 Annexes..............................................................................................737
9.1
Interfaces and Connectors.......................................................................................737
9.1.1
Rear Panel Connectors...............................................................................................737
9.1.2
LAN Interface..............................................................................................................739
9.1.3
GPIB Interface.............................................................................................................739
9.1.4
Universal Interface......................................................................................................742
9.2
Maintenance..............................................................................................................750
9.2.1
Storing and Packing the Instrument............................................................................750
9.2.2
Replacing Fuses.........................................................................................................750
9.3
Showroom Mode.......................................................................................................751
Glossary: Frequently Used Terms....................................................752
List of Commands..............................................................................758
Index....................................................................................................772
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Documentation Map
Getting Started Guide
1 Documentation Map
The R&S ZNC documentation is delivered as a printed Getting Started guide and a documentation CD-ROM providing the complete user documentation. In addition, a help
system is embedded in the instrument.
1.1 Getting Started Guide
The Getting Started guide describes everything that is needed to put the instrument into
operation and helps you to get familiar with the R&S ZNC. It gives an introduction to the
instrument's operating concept and provides simple measurement examples. A printed
Getting Started guide is delivered with each R&S ZNC.
1.2 User Manual
The User Manual complements the Getting Started guide, providing a detailed description
of the instrument's capabilities, examples and reference information for manual and
remote control. The User Manual is available on the documentation CD-ROM; the most
recent version is available for download on the R&S ZNC product pages on the R&S
internet.
1.3 Help System
The help system is embedded in the instrument, offering quick, context-sensitive reference to the information needed for operation and programming. It comprises the complete
information of the Getting Started guide and the User Manual.
You can use the help also if you control the instrument from an external monitor. Furthermore you can transfer the help to your PC and use it as a standalone help.
1.4 Documentation CD-ROM
The CD-ROM contains the complete user documentation for the R&S ZNC:
●
the help system
●
the quick start guide in printable form
●
the user manual in printable form
●
brochures and data sheets in printable form
●
the service manual in printable form
●
links to different useful sites in the R&S internet
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R&S® ZNC
Release Notes for Firmware V1.81
2 Release Notes for Firmware V1.81
Version V1.81 of the R&S ZNC firmware provides the following changes:
Bug fix:
Missing ​Channel Bits in ​Segmented sweeps
Software version
► To check your R&S ZNC firmware version, press "Help > About...".
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R&S® ZNC
Concepts and Features
Basic Concepts
3 Concepts and Features
The following chapter provides an overview of the analyzer's capabilities and their use.
This includes a description of the basic concepts that the analyzer uses to organize,
process and display measurement data, of the screen contents, possible measured
quantities, calibration methods and typical test setups.
For a systematic explanation of all menus, functions and parameters refer to ​chapter 4,
"GUI Reference", on page 106.
3.1 Basic Concepts
The analyzer provides a variety of functions to perform a particular measurement and to
customize and optimize the evaluation of results. To ensure that the instrument resources
are easily accessible and that user-defined configurations can be conveniently implemented, stored and reused the instrument uses a hierarchy of structures:
●
Global resources can be used for all measurements, irrespective of the current measurement session or recall set.
●
A recall set comprises a set of diagrams with all displayed information that can be
stored to a recall set file.
●
The diagrams show traces which are assigned to channels. See ​chapter 3.1.3,
"Traces, Channels and Diagrams", on page 12.
3.1.1 Global (Persistent) Settings
The analyzer provides global settings that are mostly hardware-related and can be used
for all measurements, irrespective of the current measurement session or recall set. The
settings are stored in independent files and do not enter into any of the recall set files.
The following list contains examples of global settings:
●
Calibration kits
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●
Connector types
●
Cal pool data including system error correction and power correction data
●
Directories for trace data, limit lines calibration data etc.
●
Color schemes and printer settings
●
System configurations, to be accessed via "SYSTEM > SETUP"
●
External power meter and generator configurations
The data related to global settings are not affected by a "Preset" of the analyzer. Some
of them are preset when a new measurement session is started ("session settings"). In
addition, it is possible to reset many of the global settings using the buttons in the "System
Config" dialog.
3.1.2 Recall Sets
A recall set comprises a set of diagrams with all displayed information that can be stored
to a recall set file (*.znx) and reused. Each recall set is displayed in an independent tab.
Tap the tab to change between different recall sets; tap the "+" tab to create a new recall
set.
The recall set file contains the following information:
●
General settings related to the recall set
●
The trace settings for all traces in the diagrams
●
The channel settings for all channels associated to the traces
●
The display settings for each diagram
The "File" menu is used to organize recall sets.
3.1.3 Traces, Channels and Diagrams
The analyzer arranges, displays or stores the measured data in traces which are
assigned to channels and displayed in diagrams. To understand the menu structure of
the instrument and quickly find the appropriate settings, it is important to understand the
exact meaning of the three terms.
●
A trace is a set of data points that can be displayed together in a diagram. The trace
settings specify the mathematical operations used in order to obtain traces from the
measured or stored data and to display them.
●
A channel contains hardware-related settings which specify how the network analyzer collects data.
●
A diagram is a rectangular portion of the screen which is used to display traces.
Diagrams which belong to the same recall set are arranged in a common window.
The settings for diagrams are described in ​chapter 3.2.2, "Display Elements in the
Diagram", on page 24.
A diagram can contain a practically unlimited number of traces, assigned to different
channels. diagrams and channels are completely independent from each other.
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Basic Concepts
3.1.3.1
Trace Settings
The trace settings specify the mathematical operations used in order to obtain traces from
the measured or stored data. They can be divided into several main groups:
●
Selection of the measured quantity (S-parameters, wave quantities, ratios, impedances,...)
●
Conversion into the appropriate display format and selection of the diagram type
●
Scaling of the diagram and selection of the traces associated to the same channel
●
Readout and search of particular values on the trace by means of markers
●
Limit check
The "Trace" menu provides all trace settings. They complement the definitions of the
"Channel" menu. Each trace is assigned to a channel. The channel settings apply to all
traces of the channel.
If a trace is selected in order to apply the trace settings, it becomes the active trace. In
manual control there is always exactly one active trace, irrespective of the number of
channels and traces defined. The active channel contains the active trace. In remote
control, each channel contains an active trace.
See also ​chapter 5.3, "Basic Remote Control Concepts", on page 342.
3.1.3.2
Channel Settings
A channel contains hardware-related settings which specify how the network analyzer
collects data. The channel settings can be divided into three main groups:
●
Control of the measurement process ("Sweep", "Trigger", "Average")
●
Description of the test setup ("Power" of the internal source, IF filter "Bandwidth" and
"Step Attenuators", "Port Configuration")
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Basic Concepts
●
Correction data ("Calibration", "Offset")
The "Channel" menu provides all channel settings.
3.1.3.3
Active and Inactive Traces and Channels
A window can display several diagrams simultaneously, each with a variable number of
traces. One of these traces is active at each time. The active trace is highlighted in the
trace list on top of the active diagram (Trc3 in the figure below):
Tapping a trace in the list selects the trace as the active trace. Alternatively, use the
functions of the "TRACE > TRACE CONFIG > Traces" tab. If a previously inactive area
is selected as the active area, the trace that was active last time when the area was active
will again become the active trace.
The active channel is the channel which belongs to the active trace. The channels of all
traces in a diagram are listed at the bottom of the diagram, together with the "Stimulus"
values and the display colors of all traces. The active channel is highlighted (Ch1 in the
example below).
Tapping a trace in the trace list selects the channel associated to the trace as the active
channel. Channels with no traces are not indicated in the diagrams but can be accessed
via the "Channel Manager" dialog.
3.1.4 Sweep Control
A sweep is a series of consecutive measurements taken over a specified sequence of
stimulus values. It represents the basic measurement cycle of the analyzer.
The analyzer can perform sweeps at constant power but variable frequency (frequency
sweeps), sweeps at constant frequency but variable power (power sweeps), and sweeps
at constant power and frequency that are repeated in time (Time/CW Mode sweeps). The
sweeps are further specified by the number of measurement points and the total measurement time.
By default sweeps are repeated continuously. Alternatively, a measurement may also
consist of a single sweep or of a specified number of sweeps.
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Basic Concepts
After changing the channel settings or selecting another measured quantity, the analyzer
needs some time to initialize the new sweep. This preparation period increases with the
number of points and the number of partial measurements involved. It is visualized by a
"Preparing Sweep" symbol in the status bar:
All analyzer settings can still be changed during sweep initialization. If necessary, the
analyzer terminates the current initialization and starts a new preparation period. During
the first sweep after a change of the channel settings, the asterisk symbol in the status
bar remains yellow:
The asterisk turns grey after the first sweep has been completed.
3.1.4.1
Partial Measurements and Driving Mode
Depending on the measurement task and the measured quantities, the measurement at
each sweep point can consist of one or several "partial measurements" with definite
hardware settings.
●
If a single S-parameter is measured (e.g. the reflection coefficient S11), the analyzer
can operate at fixed hardware settings. In particular, a fixed source port and receive
port is used. Each sweep point requires a single partial measurement.
See also ​chapter 3.3.1, "S-Parameters", on page 43.
●
For a complete two-port S-parameter measurement (e.g. S11, S21, S12, S22) the analyzer needs to interchange the roles of the source and receive ports. Each sweep
point requires two partial measurements.
To enhance the accuracy, it is possible to insert a delay time before each partial measurement.
In the default configuration, the R&S ZNC performs a partial measurement at all sweep
points (partial sweep) before the hardware settings are changed and the next partial
measurement is carried out in an additional sweep ("Alternated" driving mode). It is possible though to reverse the order of partial measurements and sweeps ("Chopped" mode;
see "CHANNEL > CHANNEL CONFIG > Mode > Driving Mode").
Advantages of alternated and chopped driving mode
If the settling time between adjacent frequency points is smaller than the settling time
between the partial measurements (which is generally true), then the "Alternated" measurement is faster than a normal sweep so that a smaller sweep times can be set. On
the other hand, an "Alternated" measurement provides a result only during the last partial
sweep.
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Concepts and Features
Basic Concepts
Use the "Alternated" mode to increase the accuracy of measurements on DUTs with long
level settling times (e.g. quartzes, SAW filters). To measure DUTs with short settling times
and obtain a trace from the beginning of the sweep, use "Chopped" mode. In "Auto" mode,
the analyzer will optimize the display update: Fast sweeps are performed in "Alternated" mode, slower sweeps in "Chopped" mode.
As an alternative to activating the "Alternate" mode, it is possible to insert a "Meas.
Delay" before each partial measurement and thus improve the accuracy. The delay slows
down the measurement.
Relation to trigger settings
In triggered measurements, "Alternated" has no effect if the triggered measurement
sequence is identical to a single sweep point. The following table shows how the analyzer
performs a sweep comprising m sweep points, assuming that each of them requires n
partial measurements.
3.1.4.2
Triggered Meas.
Sequence
Alternate On
Alternate Off
Sweep
Trigger event starts n partial sweeps over
all sweep points.
Trigger event starts m complete
measurements at consecutive sweep
points.
Sweep Segment
Trigger event starts n partial sweeps over
the next segment.
Trigger event starts complete measurements at all consecutive sweep
points in the segment.
Point
All partial measurements of each sweep
point are carried out one after another.
All partial measurements of each
sweep point are carried out one after
another.
Partial Measurement
Each partial measurement is carried out for All partial measurements of each
all sweep points.
sweep point are carried out one after
another
Stimulus and Sweep Types
The function of the "START", "STOP", "CENTER" and "SPAN" keys depends on the
sweep type.
Table 3-1: Function of STIMULUS keys
Sweep type
START [unit]
STOP [unit]
CENTER [unit]
SPAN [unit]
Lin. Frequency
Start Frequency [Hz]
Stop Frequency [Hz]
Center Frequency [Hz]
Frequency Span [Hz]
Power
Start Power [dBm]
Stop Power [dBm]
CW Frequency [Hz]
CW Frequency [Hz]
CW Mode
CW Frequency [Hz]
CW Frequency [Hz]
CW Frequency [Hz]
CW Frequency [Hz]
Time
CW Frequency [Hz]
Stop Time [s]
CW Frequency [Hz]
CW Frequency [Hz]
Log. Frequency
Segmented Frequency
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Basic Concepts
The ranges of numerical values must be compatible with the instrument model. The conditions for the stimulus range depend on the sweep type:
●
Lin. Frequency/Log. Frequency/Segmented Frequency
The supported frequency range is listed in ​chapter 6.3.14.8, "[SENSe:]FREQuency...", on page 586.
The stop frequency must be greater than the start frequency; the span must be ≥ 1
Hz. If a stop frequency smaller than the current start frequency is set, then the start
frequency is adjusted and vice versa. A sweep must contain at least two different
sweep points.
●
Power
Start and stop power are both entered in absolute units (dBm). Start and stop power
must be different; the stop power must be larger than the start power. If a stop power
smaller than the start power is set, then the start power is adjusted automatically and
vice versa.
The power corresponds to the actual source power at the test ports (channel base
power Pb). After a port power calibration, this source power is available at the calibrated reference plane.
●
CW Mode
The stimulus keys define the fixed stimulus frequency (CW Frequency) of the measurement. The other sweep parameters (e.g. the Number of Points) are set via
"CHANNEL > SWEEP > Sweep Params".
●
Time
The "Stop" key defines the total sweep time (Stop Time). The remaining stimulus keys
define the fixed stimulus frequency (CW Frequency) of the measurement. The other
sweep parameters (e.g. the Number of Points) are set via "CHANNEL > SWEEP >
Sweep Params".
The sweep time is entered in seconds and must be positive.
The selected sweep range applies to all source and receive ports of the analyzer.
3.1.5 Data Flow
The analyzer processes the raw measurement data in a sequence of stages in order to
obtain the displayed trace. The following diagram gives an overview.
The diagram consists of an upper and a lower part, corresponding to the data processing
stages for the entire channel and for the individual traces. All stages in the diagram are
configurable. Note that the channel data flow for S-parameters (and quantities derived
from S-parameters such as impedances, admittances, stability factors etc.) differs from
the channel data flow for wave quantities (and derived quantities such as ratios).
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Basic Concepts
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R&S® ZNC
Concepts and Features
Screen Elements
3.2 Screen Elements
This section describes the operating concept of the network analyzer, including the alternative navigation tools for touchscreen, mouse and hardkey operation, the trace settings,
markers and diagrams. For a description of the different quantities measured by the analyzer refer to ​chapter 3.3, "Measurement Results", on page 43.
3.2.1 Control Elements of the Screen
The main window of the analyzer provides all control elements for the measurements and
contains the diagrams for the results. There are several alternative ways for accessing
an instrument function:
●
Using the icons in the toolbar above the diagram area (for frequent actions)
●
Using the control elements of the softtool panel (recommended, provides all settings)
●
Using the menus and submenus of the menu bar (alternative to the previous method)
●
Using the hardkey panel (preselection of the most important softtool panels)
For further reference:
●
Refer to ​chapter 3.2.2, "Display Elements in the Diagram", on page 24 to obtain
information about the results in the diagram.
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Concepts and Features
Screen Elements
●
3.2.1.1
Refer to ​chapter 4.5, "Display Settings", on page 294 and learn how to customize
the screen.
Title Bar
The main application window of the vector network analyzer application provides a title
bar, in analogy to every Windows® application. The title bar contains the name of the
application and the standard minimize, maximize, and close buttons. The appearance
depends on the "Control Panel" settings of the operating system.
You can display or hide the title bar using "SYSTEM > DISPLAY > View Bar" or "APPLIC
> External Tools". The title bar is displayed together with the taskbar across the bottom
of the screen which you can use to change between the VNA application and external
tools.
3.2.1.2
Toolbar
The toolbar above the diagram area contains the most frequently used control elements
of the user interface. All controls are also accessible from the R&S ZNC's softtool panels.
The toolbar is divided into two parts.
●
The icons in the left part initiate frequently used actions: Add a new recall set ("FILE
> Recall Sets > New..."), open/recall a recall set file ("FILE > Recall Sets > New..."),
save active recall set to a file ("FILE > Recall Sets > Save..."), undo/redo the last
action ("System > Undo / Redo"). The "Undo" and "Redo" icons are equivalent to the
corresponding front panel keys.
●
The icons in the middle part control the graphical zoom function, unzoom, zoom, and
enable zoom overview ("TRACE > Scale > Zoom").
●
The icons in the right part allow to add a new trace and (possibly) a new diagram
("TRACE > Trace Config > Trace"), add a marker ("TRACE > Marker > Markers"),
and delete a marker, trace, or diagram.
You can hide the toolbar using "SYSTEM > DISPLAY > View Bar".
3.2.1.3
Softtool Panel
Softtool panels display groups of related settings. They can be opened by pressing a
front panel key, the hard key panel, or a menu command from the menu bar or from a
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Concepts and Features
Screen Elements
context menu. Tapping a control element in the softtool panels activates a setting. You
can also enter values and open dialogs with extended settings.
A softtool panel consists of a title (e.g. "Display") with a close/re-open icon and the control
element area below. The title keeps being displayed when the softtoool panel is closed,
which allows to re-open closed softtools at any time. Most softtool panels are subdivided
into different tabs (e.g. "Diagram", "Split", "Config", "View Bar").
Softtool panels may contain different types of control elements:
3.2.1.4
●
A button with a double arrow (e.g. "Color Scheme" in the example above) opens a
list of alternative settings.
●
A button with three dots (e.g. "User Define..." in the example above) opens a dialog
which provides several related settings.
●
A button with a checkmark (e.g. "Frequency Info" in the example above) enables or
disables.
●
A button with a light background (e.g. "Font Size" in the example above) is an input
fields for numbers or characters.
●
A labeled button with no additional symbols directly initiates an action.
Menu Bar
All analyzer functions are arranged in drop-down menus. The menu bar is located across
the bottom of the diagram:
Menus can be controlled with the touchscreen or a mouse, like the menus in any Windows® application. A short tap (left mouse click) expands a menu or submenu. If a menu
command has no submenu assigned, a short tap (left mouse click) opens a dialog or
directly activates the menu command. When a (sub)menu is selected, the R&S ZNC
displays the corresponding softtool panel.
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Screen Elements
Overview of menu functions
●
The "File" menu provides standard Windows® functions that can be used to create,
save, recall or print recall sets, to copy the current screen or to shut down the application.
●
The "Trace" menu provides all trace settings, the limit check settings, and the marker
functions including marker search.
●
The "Channel" menu provides all channel settings and activates, modifies or stores
different channels.
●
The "Display" menu provides all display settings and the functions for activating,
modifying and arranging different diagrams.
●
The "System" menu provides functions that can be used to return to a defined instrument state, reverse operations, access service functions and define various systemrelated settings.
●
The "Help" menu provides assistance with the network analyzer and its operation.
You can hide the menu bar using "SYSTEM > DISPLAY > View Bar".
3.2.1.5
Menu Structure
All menus show an analogous structure.
●
A menu command with a right arrow expands a submenu with further related settings.
Example: "Meas" expands a submenu to select the measured and displayed quantity.
●
A menu command with three dots appended calls up a dialog providing several related settings.
Example: "Balanced Ports..." opens a dialog to define balanced port configurations.
●
A menu command with no arrow or dots initiates an immediate action.
Example: "S21" selects the forward transmission coefficient S21 as measured quantity.
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Screen Elements
3.2.1.6
Hardkey Panel
The hardkey panel (see "SYSTEM > DISPLAY > View Bar") shows the setup keys which
you also find at the front panel of the R&S ZNC. Most keys open a particular tab of the
softtool panel providing related control elements. For a short description refer to section
"Front Panel Tour" in the Help or in the Getting Started guide.
The hardkey panel corresponds to the TRACE, STIMULUS, CHANNEL, and SYSTEM
keypads:
The hardkey panel is particularly useful if the analyzer is controlled from an external
monitor or Remote Desktop. Alternatively the settings are accessible from the menu bar
or from the context menus.
The hardkey panel is hidden by default to gain screen space for the diagrams. You can
display it using "SYSTEM > DISPLAY > View Bar"
3.2.1.7
Status Bar
The status bar shows
●
the active channel and drive port (P1, P2 ...)
●
the statistics for the sweep average (if sweep average is on, otherwise "Avg None")
●
the progress of the sweep
The progress bar also shows when the R&S ZNC prepares a sweep with new channel
settings; see ​chapter 3.1.4, "Sweep Control", on page 14.
●
the LXI status symbol (if enabled; see "SYSTEM > SETUP > Remote Settings")
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Screen Elements
A green LXI status symbol indicates that a LAN connection has been established; a
red symbol indicates that no LAN cable is connected.
●
the current date and time
The progress bar slowly oscillates from left to right and back if the sweep is too fast to be
monitored, e.g. because the number of sweep points is low. You can hide the status bar
using "SYSTEM > DISPLAY > View Bar".
3.2.2 Display Elements in the Diagram
The central part of the screen is occupied by one or several diagrams.
A "diagram" is a rectangular portion of the screen used to display traces. Diagrams are
independent of trace and channel settings. A diagram can contain a practically unlimited
number of traces which may be assigned to different channels.
Most diagram settings are arranged in the "Display" menu. To assign traces and channels
to diagrams, use the control elements in the "TRACE > TRACE CONFIG > Traces" and
"CHANNEL > CHANNEL CONFIG > Channels" softtool panels.
Diagrams may contain:
●
A title (optional)
●
The current number of the diagram
●
Measurement results, in particular traces and marker values (optional)
●
An indication of the basic channel and trace settings
●
Context menus providing settings which are related to a particular display element
●
Error messages
The examples in this section have been taken from Cartesian diagrams. All other diagram
types provide the same display elements.
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Screen Elements
3.2.2.1
Title
An optional title across the top of the diagram may be used for a brief description of the
diagram contents.
Select "SYSTEM > DISPLAY > Diagram > Show Title" to display or hide the title.
3.2.2.2
Traces
A trace is a set of data points displayed together in the diagram. The individual data points
are connected so that each trace forms a continuous line.
The trace can be complemented by the following display elements, plotted with the same
color:
●
Reference value (for all traces): The reference value is indicated with a triangle at the
right edge of the diagram and a dashed, horizontal line. The value and position of the
triangle can be changed in order to modify the diagram scale and shift the trace vertically.
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●
Measured quantity (for the active trace): The measured quantity is indicated in the
trace list; see ​"Trace List and Trace Settings" on page 26.
A trace can be either a data trace, a memory trace, or a mathematical trace; see ​"Trace
Types" on page 26.
Trace Types
The analyzer uses traces to display the current measurement result in a diagram but is
also capable of storing traces to the memory, recalling stored traces, and defining mathematical relations between different traces. There are three basic trace types:
●
Data traces show the current measurement data and are continuously updated as
the measurement goes on. Data traces are dynamic traces.
●
Memory traces are generated by storing the data trace to the memory. They represent
the state of the data trace at the moment when it was stored. Memory traces are static
traces which can be stored to a file and recalled.
●
Mathematical traces are calculated according to a mathematical relation between
constants and the data or memory traces of the active recall set. A mathematical trace
that is based on the active data trace is dynamic.
It is possible to generate an unlimited number of memory traces from a data trace and
display them together. Markers and marker functions are available for all trace types.
The trace type of each trace in a diagram is indicated in the trace list. MEM<no> at the
beginning of the trace name denotes a memory trace, "Math" denotes a mathematical
trace. You can also hide each trace ("Invisible") without deleting it.
Trace List and Trace Settings
The main properties of all traces assigned to the diagram are displayed in the trace list
in the upper part of the diagram.
Each line in the trace list describes a single trace. The active trace is highlighted
("Trc5" in the example above). The lines are divided into several sections with the following contents (from left to right):
●
The trace name appears in the first section. The default names for new traces are
Trc<n> where <n> is a current number. A "Mem..." preceding the trace name indicates a memory trace. Tap and hold the section for some seconds (or right-click) and
call the "Trace Manager" from the context menu to change the trace name.
●
The measured quantity (e.g. an S-parameter or a ratio) appears on a colored background. The source port for wave quantities and ratios is indicated in brackets.
●
The format section shows how the measured data is presented in the graphical display ("TRACE > FORMAT").
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●
The next sections show the value of the vertical or radial diagram divisions ("Scale
Div.") and the reference value ("Ref").
●
The channel section shows the channel that each trace is assigned to. It is omitted
if the all traces in the diagram are assigned to the same channel.
●
The type section indicates "Invisible" if a trace is hidden and "Math" if the trace is a
mathematical trace. "GAT" indicates that a time gate is active for the trace. Use the
"TRACE > TRACE CONFIG > Mem Math" functions to display and hide data and
memory traces, and to define mathematical traces.
Tap and hold any of the sections in the trace list (except the type section) to open a context
menu and access the most common tasks related to the section.
Example:
The following context menu is assigned to the measured quantity section in the trace list:
A label "Cal Off" appears at the end of the trace line if the system error correction no
longer applies to the trace.
3.2.2.3
Markers
Markers are tools for numerical readout of measured data and for selecting points on the
trace. A marker is displayed with a symbol (e.g. a triangle, a crossbar or a line) on the
trace, which may be a data trace or a memory trace. At the same time, the coordinates
are displayed in a marker info field or in a table. Each marker can be defined as a normal
marker (M), reference marker (R), or delta marker (ΔM).
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●
A (normal) marker ("M1, M2 ...") determines the coordinates of a measurement point
on the trace. Up to 10 different normal markers can be assigned to a trace.
●
The reference marker ("R") defines the reference value for all delta markers.
●
A delta marker ("ΔM1, ΔM2 ...") indicates the coordinates relative to the reference
marker.
A special set of markers M1 to M4 is provided for bandfilter search mode.
The most common tasks to be performed with markers can be achieved using the
"Marker" menu functions:
●
Determine the coordinates of a measurement point on the trace. In polar diagrams
where no x-axis is displayed, markers can be used to retrieve the stimulus value of
specific points.
●
Determine the difference between two trace points or the relative measurement result
("Delta Mode").
●
Convert a complex measurement result into other formats.
Markers also play an important role in performing the following advanced tasks:
●
Change the sweep range and the diagram scale ("Marker Function").
●
Search for specific points on the trace ("Marker Search", "Target Search", "Bandfilter
Search").
Activating and Moving Markers
To select one of several markers as an active marker, do one of the following:
●
Tap the marker symbol.
●
Tap the marker line in the marker info field.
To change the position of the active marker on the trace use one of the following methods:
●
Drag-and-drop the marker symbol to the desired position.
●
Tap the "Marker <n>" or "Ref. Marker" softkey to call up the entry bar for the new
stimulus value.
●
Tap and hold the diagram or select "Mkr. Properties" to call up the "Marker Properties" dialog and select the new stimulus value.
●
Use the "Search" functions to place the marker to a specific point on the trace.
If the marker position is defined explicitly by entering a numeric value, the marker position
can be outside the sweep range. If it is just varied using the rollkey, the mouse or the
cursor keys, it always remains within the sweep range. If the position of a marker outside
the sweep range is varied, it is automatically moved to the start or stop value of the sweep
range, whichever is closer.
Marker Info Field
The coordinates of all markers defined in a diagram can be displayed in the info field,
which by default is located in the upper right corner.
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The info field contains the following information:
●
"M1, M2, ..." denote the marker numbers. Markers are displayed with the same color
as the associated trace.
●
The marker coordinates are expressed in one of the marker formats selected via
"TRACE > MARKER > Marker Properties > Marker Format". The formats of the
markers assigned to a trace are independent of each other and of the trace format
settings.
●
The active marker has a dot placed in front of the marker line.
●
"R" denotes the reference marker. A "Δ" sign placed in front of the marker line indicates that the marker is in delta mode.
Customizing the marker info field
To change the position, appearance or contents of the marker info field use one of the
following methods:
●
Tap and hold the info field to open a context menu providing frequently used marker
settings.
●
The info field may be moved to several positions in the upper and lower part of the
active diagram. Drag-and-drop it to the desired position.
●
To change the format of the active marker, select "TRACE > MARKER > Marker
Properties > Marker Format".
●
To express the coordinates of the active marker relative to the reference marker,
activate the delta mode "TRACE > MARKER > Markers > Delta Mode".
Info Table
If you wish to reserve the full diagram area for the traces, you can drag-and-drop the
marker info field in to the info table.
The table is hidden by default. To display the table, select "DISPLAY > Config > Info
Table: Show".
Tap and hold on the marker info field to open a context menu:
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The settings correspond to the most common functions in the "TRACE > MARKER >
Markers", "TRACE > MARKER > Marker Properties", and "TRACE > MARKER > Marker
Search" menus.
Marker Coupling
The concept of marker coupling means that corresponding markers on different traces
(i.e. markers with the same number or reference markers) are positioned to the same
stimulus values but keep their independent format and type settings.
When a trace with markers is selected as the active trace and marker coupling is switched
on, the following happens:
●
The active trace and all associated markers are left unchanged. The active trace
markers become the master markers of the recall set.
●
Markers on the other traces which have no corresponding master marker are
removed but remember their properties and can be re-activated after the coupling is
released.
●
The remaining markers on the other traces become slave markers and are moved to
the position of the corresponding master markers. "Missing" slave markers are created so that each trace has the same number of markers placed at the same position.
●
If the position of a master marker is outside the sweep range of the slave trace, the
slave marker is displayed at the edge of the diagram. The marker info field indicates
an invalid measurement result:
While marker coupling is active, it is possible to:
●
Move a master marker and thus change the position of all corresponding slave markers.
●
Activate another trace in order to make the associated markers the new master
markers.
Marker coupling makes sense only if the master and the slave traces use the same stimulus variable. Channels with a different stimulus variable (sweep type) are not coupled.
Marker Search Functions
The search functions are tools for searching measurement data according to specific
criteria. A search consists of analyzing the measurement points of the current trace (or
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of a user-defined subrange termed the "Search Range") in order to find one of the following:
●
Absolute or relative (local) maxima and minima (minimum/maximum search).
●
Trace points with a specific response value (target search).
●
Trace segments with a shape that is characteristic for bandpass or bandstop filters
(bandfilter search); see ​"Bandfilter Search" on page 31.
When the search is activated, the active marker is moved to the (next) point that meets
the search criteria. If the trace contains no markers, a marker M1 is created and used for
the search. The search result is displayed in the marker info field. If no search result can
be found, the marker remains at its original position.
Some search functions can be activated repeatedly in order to find all possible search
results. Moreover the analyzer provides a "Tracking" mode where the search is repeated
after each sweep.
Bandfilter Search
In a bandfilter search, the R&S ZNC locates trace segments with a bandpass or bandstop
shape and determines characteristic filter parameters.
Bandpass and bandstop regions can be described with the same parameter set:
●
A bandpass region contains a local maximum around which the magnitude of the
trace falls off by more than a specified bandwidth factor.
●
A bandstop region contains a local minimum around which the magnitude of the trace
increases by more than a specified bandwidth factor.
The analyzer locates bandpass and bandstop regions and determines their position
("Center" frequency) and shape ("Bandwidth, lower and upper edge", quality factor. For
a meaningful definition of the bandwidth factor, the trace format must be "dB Mag".
The info field contains the following search results:
●
"Bandwidth" is the n-dB bandwidth of the bandpass/bandstop region, where n is a
selectable bandwidth factor. The bandwidth is equal to the difference between the
"Upper Edge" and the "Lower Edge".
●
"Center" is calculated as the geometric mean value of the "Lower Edge" (LBE) and
"Upper Edge" (UBE) positions:
f Center 
(f LBE * fUBE )
●
"Lower Band Edge" is the closest frequency below the center frequency where the
trace is equal to the center value minus n dB.
●
"Upper Band Edge" is the closest frequency above the center frequency where the
trace is equal to the center value minus n dB.
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3.2.2.4
●
The "Quality Factor (3 dB)" is the ratio between the "Center" frequency and the 3-dB
"Bandwidth"; it does not depend on the selected bandwidth factor.
●
The "Quality Factor (BW)" is the ratio between the "Center" frequency and the
"Bandwidth" displayed above. This result is available only if the selected bandwidth
factor is different from 3 dB.
●
"Loss" is the loss of the filter at its center frequency and is equal to the response value
of marker no. 4. For an ideal bandpass filter the loss is zero (0 dB), for an ideal
bandstop filter it is –∞ dB.
Channel List and Channel Settings
The main properties of all channels assigned to the traces in the diagram are displayed
in the channel list below the diagram.
Each line in the channel list describes a single channel. The channel of the active trace
is highlighted. The lines are divided into several sections with the following contents (from
left to right):
●
The "channel name" appears in the first section. The default names for new channels
are Ch<n> where <n> is a current number. If a time domain transform is active, the
R&S ZNC displays an additional line to indicate the stimulus range of the displayed
time-domain trace.
Tap and hold the section and call the "Channel Manager" from the context menu to
change the channel name.
●
Start indicates the lowest value of the sweep variable (e.g. the lowest frequency
measured), corresponding to the left edge of a Cartesian diagram.
●
The color legend shows the display color of all traces assigned to the channel. The
colors are different, so the number of colors is equal to the numbers of traces
assigned to the channel.
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●
The values behind the color legend show the constant stimulus value, which is
either the power of the internal signal source (for frequency sweeps and time sweeps)
or the CW frequency (for power sweeps), and the measurement bandwidth ("BW").
●
Stop indicates the highest value of the sweep variable (e.g. the highest frequency
measured), corresponding to the right edge of a Cartesian diagram.
Tap and hold any of the sections in the trace list (except the color legend) to open a
context menu and access the most common tasks related to the section.
Example:
The following context menu is assigned to the channel name section:
The settings in the context menus correspond to the most common functions in the
"CHANNEL > CONFIG > Channels", "STIMULUS", "CHANNEL > SWEEP > Sweep Params" and "CHANNEL > POWER BW AVG" menus.
3.2.2.5
Context Menus
To provide access to the most common tasks and speed up the operation, the analyzer
offers context menus (right-click menus) for the following display elements:
●
Diagram
●
Marker info field
●
Trace list (separate context menus for trace name section, measured quantity section, format section, scale section, and channel section)
●
Channel list (separate context menus for channel name section, sweep range section, additional parameter section)
To open a context menu associated with a display element, tap and hold the element for
some seconds. Right-click the display element if you use a mouse.
Example:
The following context menu is assigned to the channel name section in the channel list:
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Except from some particular screen configurations, anything that can be done from the
context menu can also be done from the menu bar, the front panel keys or softtool panels.
Use whatever method is most convenient.
3.2.3 Dialogs
Dialogs provide groups of related settings and allow to make selections and enter data
in an organized way. All softkeys with three dots behind their labeling (as in "Balanced
Ports...") call up a dialog. The dialogs of the analyzer have an analogous structure and
a number of common control elements.
Dialogs are controlled in the usual way. For an introduction refer to section "Working with
Dialogs" in the Help or in the Getting Started guide.
3.2.3.1
Immediate vs. Confirmed Settings
In some dialogs, the settings take effect immediately so that the effect on the measurement is observable while the dialog is still open. This is especially convenient when a
numeric value is incremented or decremented, or when display elements are added or
removed.
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In most dialogs, however, it is possible to cancel an erroneous input before it takes effect.
The settings in such dialogs must be confirmed explicitly.
The two types of dialogs are easy to distinguish:
●
Dialogs with immediate settings provide a "Close" button but no "OK" button.
Example: "Trace Manager" dialog
●
Dialogs with confirmed settings provide both an "OK" button and a "Cancel" button.
Example: "Balanced Ports" dialog
Immediate settings can be undone using the UNDO key or "System > Undo".
3.2.4 Display Formats and Diagram Types
A display format defines how the set of (complex) measurement points is converted and
displayed in a diagram. The display formats in the "TRACE > FORMAT" menu use the
following basic diagram types:
●
Cartesian (rectangular) diagrams are used for all display formats involving a conversion of the measurement data into a real (scalar) quantity, i.e. for "dB Mag",
"Phase", "Delay", "SWR", "Lin Mag", "Real", "Imag" and "Unwrapped Phase".
●
Polar diagrams are used for the display format "Polar" and show a complex quantity
as a vector in a single trace.
●
Smith charts are used for the display format "Smith". They show a complex quantity
like polar diagrams but with grid lines of constant real and imaginary part of the impedance.
●
Inverted Smith charts are used for the display format "Inverted Smith". They show a
complex quantity like polar diagrams but with grid lines of constant real and imaginary
part of the admittance.
The analyzer allows arbitrary combinations of display formats and measured quantities
("TRACE > MEAS"). Nevertheless, in order to extract useful information from the data, it
is important to select a display format which is appropriate to the analysis of a particular
measured quantity; see ​chapter 3.2.4.6, "Measured Quantities and Display Formats",
on page 42.
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3.2.4.1
Cartesian Diagrams
Cartesian diagrams are rectangular diagrams used to display a scalar quantity as a function of the stimulus variable (frequency / power / time).
●
The stimulus variable appears on the horizontal axis (x-axis), scaled linearly (sweep
types "Lin Frequency", "Power", "Time", "CW Mode") or logarithmically (sweep type
"Log Frequency").
●
The measured data (response values) appears on the vertical axis (y-axis). The scale
of the y-axis is linear with equidistant grid lines although the y-axis values may be
obtained from the measured data by non-linear conversions.
The following examples show the same trace in Cartesian diagrams with linear and logarithmic x-axis scaling.
3.2.4.2
Conversion of Complex into Real Quantities
The results in the "TRACE > MEAS" menu can be divided into two groups:
●
"S-Parameters", "Ratios", "Wave Quantities", "Impedances", "Admittances", "ZParameters", "Y-Parameters", and "Imbalances" are complex.
●
"Stability" factors, "Power Sensor" results, and "DC" results are real.
The following table shows how the response values in the different Cartesian diagrams
are calculated from the complex measurement values z = x + j y (where x, y, z are functions of the sweep variable). The formulas also hold for real results, which are treated as
complex values with zero imaginary part (y = 0).
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Trace Format
Description
Formula
Lin Mag
Magnitude of z, unconverted
|z| = sqrt ( x2 + y2 )
dB Mag
Magnitude of z in dB
dB Mag(z) = 20 * log|z| dB
Phase
Phase of z
φ (z) = arctan (y/x)
Real
Real part of z
Re(z) = x
Imag
Imaginary part of z
Im(z) = y
SWR
(Voltage) Standing Wave Ratio
SWR = (1 + |z|) / (1 – |z|)
Delay
Group delay, neg. derivative of the
phase response
– d φ (z) / dΩ (Ω = 2π * f)
An extended range of formats and conversion formulas is available for markers. To convert any point on a trace, create a marker and select the appropriate marker format.
Marker and trace formats can be selected independently.
3.2.4.3
Polar Diagrams
Polar diagrams show the measured data (response values) in the complex plane with a
horizontal real axis and a vertical imaginary axis. The grid lines correspond to points of
equal magnitude and phase.
●
The magnitude of the response values corresponds to their distance from the center.
Values with the same magnitude are located on circles.
●
The phase of the response values is given by the angle from the positive horizontal
axis. Values with the same phase are on straight lines originating at the center.
The following example shows a polar diagram with a marker used to display a pair of
stimulus and response values.
Example: Reflection coefficients in polar diagrams
If the measured quantity is a complex reflection coefficient (S11, S22 etc.), then the center
of the polar diagram corresponds to a perfect load Z0 at the input test port of the DUT (no
reflection, matched input), whereas the outer circumference (|Sii| = 1) represents a totally
reflected signal.
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Examples for definite magnitudes and phase angles:
3.2.4.4
●
The magnitude of the reflection coefficient of an open circuit (Z = infinity, I = 0) is one,
its phase is zero.
●
The magnitude of the reflection coefficient of a short circuit (Z = 0, U = 0) is one, its
phase is –180 deg.
Smith Chart
The Smith chart is a circular diagram that maps the complex reflection coefficients Sii to
normalized impedance values. In contrast to the polar diagram, the scaling of the diagram
is not linear. The grid lines correspond to points of constant resistance and reactance.
●
Points with the same resistance are located on circles.
●
Points with the same reactance produce arcs.
The following example shows a Smith chart with a marker used to display the stimulus
value, the complex impedance Z = R + j X and the equivalent inductance L.
A comparison of the Smith chart, the inverted Smith chart and the polar diagram reveals
many similarities between the two representations. In fact the shape of a trace does not
change at all if the display format is switched from "Polar" to "Smith" or "Inverted
Smith" – the analyzer simply replaces the underlying grid and the default marker format.
Smith chart construction
In a Smith chart, the impedance plane is reshaped so that the area with positive resistance is mapped into a unit circle.
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The basic properties of the Smith chart follow from this construction:
●
The central horizontal axis corresponds to zero reactance (real impedance). The
center of the diagram represents Z/Z0 = 1 which is the reference impedance of the
system (zero reflection). At the left and right intersection points between the horizontal
axis and the outer circle, the impedance is zero (short) and infinity (open).
●
The outer circle corresponds to zero resistance (purely imaginary impedance). Points
outside the outer circle indicate an active component.
●
The upper and lower half of the diagram correspond to positive (inductive) and negative (capacitive) reactive components of the impedance, respectively.
Example: Reflection coefficients in the Smith chart
If the measured quantity is a complex reflection coefficient Γ (e.g. S11, S22), then the unit
Smith chart can be used to read the normalized impedance of the DUT. The coordinates
in the normalized impedance plane and in the reflection coefficient plane are related as
follows (see also: definition of matched-circuit (converted) impedances):
Z / Z0 = (1 + Γ) / (1 – Γ)
From this equation it is easy to relate the real and imaginary components of the complex
resistance to the real and imaginary parts of Γ:
R  Re( Z / Z 0 ) 
1  Re( ) 2  Im() 2
,
1  Re()2  Im() 2
X  Im( Z / Z 0 ) 
2  Im( )
1  Re()2  Im() 2
According to the two equations above, the graphical representation in a Smith chart has
the following properties:
●
Real reflection coefficients are mapped to real impedances (resistances).
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●
The center of the Γ plane (Γ = 0) is mapped to the reference impedance Z0, whereas
the circle with |Γ| = 1 is mapped to the imaginary axis of the Z plane.
●
The circles for the points of equal resistance are centered on the real axis and intersect at Z = infinity. The arcs for the points of equal reactance also belong to circles
intersecting at Z = infinity (open circuit point (1, 0)), centered on a straight vertical
line.
Examples for special points in the Smith chart:
3.2.4.5
●
The magnitude of the reflection coefficient of an open circuit (Z = infinity, I = 0) is one,
its phase is zero.
●
The magnitude of the reflection coefficient of a short circuit (Z = 0, U = 0) is one, its
phase is –180 deg.
Inverted Smith Chart
The inverted Smith chart is a circular diagram that maps the complex reflection coefficients Sii to normalized admittance values. In contrast to the polar diagram, the scaling
of the diagram is not linear. The grid lines correspond to points of constant conductance
and susceptance.
●
Points with the same conductance are located on circles.
●
Points with the same susceptance produce arcs.
The following example shows an inverted Smith chart with a marker used to display the
stimulus value, the complex admittance Y = G + j B and the equivalent inductance L.
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A comparison of the inverted Smith chart with the Smith chart and the polar diagram
reveals many similarities between the different representations. In fact the shape of a
trace does not change at all if the display format is switched from "Polar" to "Inverted
Smith" or "Smith" – the analyzer simply replaces the underlying grid and the default
marker format.
Inverted Smith chart construction
The inverted Smith chart is point-symmetric to the Smith chart:
The basic properties of the inverted Smith chart follow from this construction:
●
The central horizontal axis corresponds to zero susceptance (real admittance). The
center of the diagram represents Y/Y0 = 1, where Y0 is the reference admittance of
the system (zero reflection). At the left and right intersection points between the horizontal axis and the outer circle, the admittance is infinity (short) and zero (open).
●
The outer circle corresponds to zero conductance (purely imaginary admittance).
Points outside the outer circle indicate an active component.
●
The upper and lower half of the diagram correspond to negative (inductive) and positive (capacitive) susceptive components of the admittance, respectively.
Example: Reflection coefficients in the inverted Smith chart
If the measured quantity is a complex reflection coefficient G (e.g. S11, S22), then the unit
inverted Smith chart can be used to read the normalized admittance of the DUT. The
coordinates in the normalized admittance plane and in the reflection coefficient plane are
related as follows (see also: definition of matched-circuit (converted) admittances):
Y / Y0 = (1 - Γ) / (1 + Γ)
From this equation it is easy to relate the real and imaginary components of the complex
admittance to the real and imaginary parts of Γ:
G  Re(Y / Y0 ) 
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1  Re( )2  Im( ) 2
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B  Im(Y / Y0 ) 
 2  Im()
,
1  Re()2  Im() 2
According to the two equations above, the graphical representation in an inverted Smith
chart has the following properties:
●
Real reflection coefficients are mapped to real admittances (conductances).
●
The center of the Γ plane (Γ = 0) is mapped to the reference admittance Y0, whereas
the circle with |Γ| = 1 is mapped to the imaginary axis of the Y plane.
●
The circles for the points of equal conductance are centered on the real axis and
intersect at Y = infinity. The arcs for the points of equal susceptance also belong to
circles intersecting at Y = infinity (short circuit point (–1, 0)), centered on a straight
vertical line.
Examples for special points in the inverted Smith chart:
3.2.4.6
●
The magnitude of the reflection coefficient of a short circuit (Y = infinity, U = 0) is one,
its phase is –180 deg.
●
The magnitude of the reflection coefficient of an open circuit (Y = 0, I = 0) is one, its
phase is zero.
Measured Quantities and Display Formats
The analyzer allows any combination of a display format and a measured quantity. The
following rules can help to avoid inappropriate formats and find the format that is ideally
suited to the measurement task.
●
All formats are suitable for the analysis of reflection coefficients Sii. The formats
"SWR", "Smith" and "Inverted Smith" lose their original meaning (standing wave ratio,
normalized impedance or admittance) if they are used for transmission S-parameters,
ratios and other quantities.
●
The complex "Impedances", "Admittances", "Z-parameters", and "Y-parameters" are
generally displayed in one of the Cartesian diagrams with linear vertical axis scale or
in a polar diagram.
●
The real "Stability Factors" are generally displayed in a linear Cartesian diagram ("Lin
Mag" or "Real"). In complex formats, real numbers represent complex numbers with
zero imaginary part.
The following table gives an overview of recommended display formats.
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Complex dimensionless quantities:
S-parameters and ratios
Complex quantities with dimensions: Real quantities:
Wave quantities, Z-parameters, Yparameters, impedances, admittances
Stability Factors
Lin Mag
ON
ON (default for Z-parameters, Y-parameters, impedances, admittances)
ON (default)
dB Mag
ON (default)
ON (default for wave quantities)
–
Phase
ON
ON
–
Real
ON
ON
ON
Imag
ON
ON
–
Unwrapped Phase
ON
ON
–
Smith
ON (reflection coefficients Sii)
–
–
Polar
ON
–
–
Inverted Smith
ON (reflection coefficients Sii)
–
–
SWR
ON (reflection coefficients Sii)
–
–
Delay
ON (transmission coefficients Sij)
–
–
The default formats are activated automatically when the measured quantity is changed.
3.3 Measurement Results
This section gives an overview of the measurement results of the network analyzer and
the meaning of the different measured quantities. All quantities can be selected in the
"TRACE > MEAS >" softtool panels.
The definitions in this and the following sections apply to general n-port DUTs. An analyzer with a smaller number of test ports provides a subset of the n-port quantities.
3.3.1 S-Parameters
S-parameters are the basic measured quantities of a network analyzer. They describe
how the DUT modifies a signal that is transmitted or reflected in forward or reverse direction. For a 2-port measurement the signal flow is as follows.
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The figure above is sufficient for the definition of S-parameters but does not necessarily
show the complete signal flow. In fact, if the source and load ports are not ideally matched,
part of the transmitted waves are reflected off the receiver ports so that an additional a2
contribution occurs in forward measurements, and an a1 contribution occurs in reverse
measurements. The 7-term calibration types Txx take these additional contributions into
account.
The scattering matrix links the incident waves a1, a2 to the outgoing waves b1, b2 according to the following linear equation:
b1  S11
b   S
 2   21
S12   a1 

S22  a 2 
The equation shows that the S-parameters are expressed as S<out>< in>, where <out> and
<in> denote the output and input port numbers of the DUT.
Meaning of 2-port S-parameters
The four 2-port S-parameters can be interpreted as follows:
●
S11 is the input reflection coefficient, defined as the ratio of the wave quantities b1/
a1, measured at PORT 1 (forward measurement with matched output and a2 = 0).
●
S21 is the forward transmission coefficient, defined as the ratio of the wave quantities
b2/a1 (forward measurement with matched output and a2 = 0).
●
S12 is the reverse transmission coefficient, defined as the ratio of the wave quantities
b1 (reverse measurement with matched input, b1,rev in the figure above and a1 = 0) to
a 2.
●
S22 is the output reflection coefficient, defined as the ratio of the wave quantities b2
(reverse measurement with matched input, b2,rev in the figure above and a1 = 0) to
a2, measured at PORT 2.
Meaning of squared amplitudes
The squared amplitudes of the incident and outgoing waves and of the matrix elements
have a simple meaning:
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Table 3-2: Squared S-parameters
|a1|2
Available incident power at the input of a two-port (= the power provided by a generator with a source impedance equal to the reference
impedance Z0)
|a2|2
Available incident power at the output
|b1|2
Reflected power at the input of a two-port
|b2|2
Reflected power at the output
10*log|S11|2 (= 20*log|S11|)
Reflection loss at the input
10*log|S22|2
Reflection loss at the output
10*log|S21|2
Insertion loss at the input
10*log|S12|2
Insertion loss at the output
3.3.2 Impedance Parameters
An impedance is the complex ratio between a voltage and a current. The analyzer provides two independent sets of impedance parameters:
3.3.2.1
●
Converted impedances (each impedance parameter is obtained from a single Sparameter)
●
Z-parameters (complete description of the n-port DUT)
Converted Impedances
The converted impedance parameters describe the input impedances of a DUT with fully
matched outputs. In the figures below the indices i and j number the analyzer/DUT ports,
Z0i is the reference impedance at the DUT port i.
The analyzer converts a single measured S-parameter to determine the corresponding
converted impedance. As a result, converted Z-parameters cannot completely describe
general n-port DUTs:
●
A reflection parameter Zii completely describes a one-port DUT. For n-port DUTs
(n>1) the reflection parameters Zii describe the input impedances at ports i (i = 1 to
n) under the condition that each of the other ports is terminated with its reference
impedance (matched-circuit parameters).
●
A two-port transmission parameter Zij (i ≠ j) can describe a pure serial impedance
between the two ports.
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Relation with S-parameters
The converted impedances Zii are calculated from the reflection S-parameters Sii according to:
Z ii  Z 0i
1  S ii
1  S ii
The transmission parameters are calculated according to:
Z ij  2 
Z 0i  Z 0 j
S ij
 Z 0i  Z 0 j , i  j ,
The converted admittances are defined as the inverse of the impedances.
Examples:
●
Z11 is the input impedance of a 2-port DUT that is terminated at its output with the
reference impedance Z0 (matched-circuit impedance measured in a forward reflection measurement).
●
The extension of the impedances to more ports and mixed mode measurements is
analogous to S-parameters. Zdd44 is the differential mode input impedance at port 4
of a DUT that is terminated at its other ports with the reference impedance Z0.
You can also read the converted impedances in a reflection coefficient measurement
from the Smith chart.
3.3.2.2
Z-Parameters
The Z-parameters describe the impedances of a DUT with open output ports (i = 0). The
analyzer provides the full set of Z-parameters including the transfer impedances (i.e. the
complete nxn Z-matrix for an n port DUT).
This means that Z-parameters can be used as an alternative to S-parameters (or Yparameters) in order to completely characterize a linear n-port network.
2-Port Z-Parameters
In analogy to S-parameters, Z-parameters are expressed as Z<out>< in>, where <out> and
<in> denote the output and input port numbers of the DUT.
The Z-parameters for a two-port are based on a circuit model that can be expressed with
two linear equations:
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V1  Z11 I1  Z12 I 2
V2  Z 21 I1  Z 22 I 2
Meaning of Z-parameters
The four 2-port Z-parameters can be interpreted as follows:
●
Z11 is the input impedance, defined as the ratio of the voltage V1 to the current I1,
measured at port 1 (forward measurement with open output, I2 = 0).
●
Z21 is the forward transfer impedance, defined as the ratio of the voltage V2 to the
current I1 (forward measurement with open output, I2 = 0).
●
Z12 is the reverse transfer impedance, defined as the ratio of the voltage V1 to the
current I2 (reverse measurement with open input, I1 = 0).
●
Z22 is the output impedance, defined as the ratio of the voltage V2 to the current I2,
measured at port 2 (reverse measurement with open input, I1 = 0).
Z-parameters can be easily extended to describe circuits with more than two ports or
several modes of propagation.
3.3.3 Admittance Parameters
An admittance is the complex ratio between a current and a voltage. The analyzer provides two independent sets of admittance parameters:
3.3.3.1
●
Converted admittances (each admittance parameter is obtained from a single Sparameter)
●
Y-parameters (complete description of the n-port DUT)
Converted Admittances
The converted admittance parameters describe the input admittances of a DUT with fully
matched outputs. The converted admittances are the inverse of the converted impedances.
The analyzer converts a single measured S-parameter to determine the corresponding
converted admittance. As a result, converted Y-parameters cannot completely describe
general n-port DUTs:
●
A reflection parameter Yii completely describes a one-port DUT. For n-port DUTs
(n>1) the reflection parameters Yii describe the input admittances at ports i (i = 1 to
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n) under the condition that each of the other ports is terminated with its reference
impedance (matched-circuit parameters).
●
A two-port transmission parameter Yij (i ≠ j) can describe a pure serial impedance
between the two ports.
Relation with S-parameters
The converted admittances Yii are calculated from the reflection S-parameters Sii according to:
Yii 
1 1  Sii
 1 / Z ii
Z 0i 1  Sii
The transmission parameters are calculated according to:
Yij 
Sij
2  Z 0i  Z 0 j  Sij  Z 0i  Z 0 j 
 1 / Z ij , i  j ,
i, j  1, ..., 99
Examples:
●
Y11 is the input admittance of a 2-port DUT that is terminated at its output with the
reference impedance Z0 (matched-circuit admittance measured in a forward reflection measurement).
●
The extension of the admittances to more ports and mixed mode measurements is
analogous to S-parameters. Ydd22 is the differential mode input admittance at port 2
of a DUT that is terminated at its other ports with the reference impedance Z0.
You can also read the converted admittances in a reflection coefficient measurement
from the inverted Smith chart.
3.3.3.2
Y-Parameters
The Y-parameters describe the admittances of a DUT with output ports terminated in a
short circuit (V = 0). The analyzer provides the full set of Y-parameters including the
transfer admittances (i.e. the complete n x n Y-matrix for an n port DUT).
This means that Y-parameters can be used as an alternative to S-parameters (or Zparameters) in order to completely characterize a linear n-port network.
2-Port Y-Parameters
In analogy to S-parameters, Y-parameters are expressed as Y<out>< in>, where <out> and
<in> denote the output and input port numbers of the DUT. In analogy to Z-parameters,
the Y-parameters for a two-port are based on a circuit model that can be expressed with
two linear equations:
I1  Y11V1  Y12V2
I 2  Y21V1  Y22V2
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Meaning of Y-parameters
The four 2-port Y-parameters can be interpreted as follows:
●
Y11 is the input admittance, defined as the ratio of the current I1 to the voltage V1,
measured at port 1 (forward measurement with output terminated in a short circuit,
V2 = 0).
●
Y21 is the forward transfer admittance, defined as the ratio of the current I2 to the
voltage V1 (forward measurement with output terminated in a short circuit, V2 = 0).
●
Y12 is the reverse transfer admittance, defined as the ratio of the current I1 to the
voltage V2 (reverse measurement with input terminated in a short circuit, V1 = 0).
●
Y22 is the output admittance, defined as the ratio of the current I2 to the voltage V2,
measured at port 2 (reverse measurement with input terminated in a short circuit,
V1 = 0).
Y-parameters can be easily extended to describe circuits with more than two ports or
several modes of propagation.
3.3.4 Wave Quantities and Ratios
The elements of the S-, Z- and Y-matrices represent fixed ratios of complex wave amplitudes. As long as the assumption of linearity holds, the S-, Z- and Y-parameters are
independent of the source power.
The network analyzer provides two additional sets of measurement parameters which
have a unambiguous meaning even if the DUT is measured outside its linear range:
●
"Wave Quantities" provide the power of any of the transmitted or received waves.
●
"Ratios" provide the complex ratio of any combination of transmitted or received wave
quantities.
In contrast to S-, Z- and Y-parameters, wave quantities and ratios are not system-error
corrected. A power calibration can be applied to wave quantities and ratios.
3.3.4.1
Wave Quantities
A wave quantity measurement provides the power of any of the transmitted or received
waves. The power can be displayed in voltage units (e.g. "V" or "dBmV") or equivalent
power units (e.g. "W" or "dBm").
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Examples for using wave quantities
The wave quantities provide the power at the different receive ports of the analyzer. This
is different from an S-parameter measurement, where the absolute power of a linear
device is cancelled. Wave quantities are therefore suitable for the following measurement
tasks:
●
Analysis of non-linearities of the DUT.
●
Use of the analyzer as a selective power meter.
To increase the accuracy or correct a possible attenuation in the source signal path,
it is recommended to perform a power calibration.
The notation for wave quantities includes the direction and the test port number. Additionally, the source port must be specified. The letter a indicates a transmitted wave, b a
received wave.
Examples:
3.3.4.2
●
a1 Src Port 1 is the outgoing wave at test port 1. In a standard S-parameter measurement, this wave is fed to the input port (port 1) of the DUT (forward measurement).
●
b1 Src Port 1 is the incoming wave at test port 1. In a standard S-parameter measurement, this is the reflected wave at port 1 of the DUT (forward measurement).
Ratios
A ratio measurement provides the complex ratio of any combination of transmitted or
received wave amplitudes. Ratios complement the S-parameter measurements, where
only ratios of the form bi/aj (ratio of the incoming wave to the outgoing wave at the test
ports i and j of the DUT) are considered.
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Examples for using ratios
A measurement of ratios is particularly suitable for the following test scenarios:
●
The test setup or some of its components (e.g. active components or non-reciprocal
devices) do not allow a system error correction so that a complete S-parameter measurement is not possible.
●
The test setup contains frequency-converting components so that the transmitted and
the received waves are at different frequencies.
●
A ratio of two arbitrary waves that is not an element of the S-matrix (e.g. a ratio of the
form ai/aj) is needed.
The notation for ratios includes the two waves with their directions and test port numbers.
Additionally, the source port must be specified. In analogy to wave quantities, the letter
a indicates an outgoing wave, b an incoming wave.
Examples:
3.3.4.3
●
b2/a1 Src Port 1 is the ratio of the outgoing wave b2 at port 2 and the incident wave
a1 at port 1; this corresponds to the S-parameter S21 (forward transmission coefficient).
●
b1/a1 Src Port 1 is the ratio of the wave quantities b1 and a1, measured at PORT 1;
this corresponds to the S-parameter S11 (input reflection coefficient).
Detector Settings
The "Detector" settings select the algorithm that is used to calculate the displayed measurement points from the raw data. The "Detector" can be selected in the "More
Ratios" and "More Wave Quantities" dialogs.
The following detectors are available:
●
Normal selects the default detector mode where each measurement point is displayed without modification as soon as it is recognized to be valid. The analyzer then
proceeds to the next sweep point. Normal detector mode ensures that the measurement is performed at maximum speed and that a meaningful complex result is
obtained.
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●
AVG Real Imag collects all valid results at each sweep point during the "Meas.
Time" set in the "More Ratios" or "More Wave Quantities" dialog and calculates the
complex arithmetic mean value of these results. This yields the complex average of
the wave quantities or ratios. Averaging tends to remove statistical fluctuations (e.g.
noise contributions) from the measured signal.
●
AVG Mag Phase collects all valid results at each sweep point during the "Meas.
Time" set in the "More Ratios" or "More Wave Quantities" dialog and calculates the
root mean square (RMS) of the linear magnitude of these results. This yields the
magnitude of the measurement point. Note that the phase is not evaluated in this
process so that complex conversions (e. g. the calculation of real and imaginary values) do not really make sense.
Combining different detectors
The detector setting in the "More Ratios" menu affects the ratio of a numerator and a
denominator wave quantity. This does not place any restrictions on the measurement
functionality of the analyzer, because ratios can also be formed by measuring the numerator and denominator individually and using the trace functions. A possible application is
the comparison of different detector settings for a particular trace.
Error Messages
The analyzer generates a warning if the selected measurement time for the "AVG..."
detectors is too long. At the same time, bit no. 15 in the ...INTegrity:HARDware
status register is set. Reduce the measurement time and/or reduce the IF bandwidth until
the warning disappears. A warning also appears if the measurement time for the
"AVG..." detectors is too short. Increase the measurement time and/or increase the IF
bandwidth until the warning disappears.
3.3.5 Unbalance-Balance Conversion
Unbalance-balance conversion is the simulation of one or more unbalance-balance
transformers (baluns) integrated in the measurement circuit in order to convert the DUT
ports from an unbalanced state into a balanced state and virtually separate the differential
and common mode signals. The analyzer measures the unbalanced state but converts
the results and calculates mixed mode parameters, e.g. mixed mode S-parameters. No
physical transformer is needed.
To perform balanced measurements, a pair of physical analyzer ports is combined to
form a logical port. The balanced port of the DUT is directly connected to the analyzer
ports. For a two-port analyzer, a single balanced port can be defined.
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Unbalance-balance conversion avoids the disadvantages of real transformers:
3.3.5.1
●
There is no need to fabricate test fixtures with integrated baluns for each type of DUT.
●
The measurement is not impaired by the non-ideal characteristics of the balun (e.g.
error tolerances, limited frequency range).
●
Calibration can be performed at the DUT's ports. If necessary (e.g. to compensate
for the effect of a test fixture), it is possible to shift the calibration plane using length
offset parameters.
●
Differential and common mode parameters can be evaluated with a single test setup.
Balanced Port Configurations
Defining a logical port requires two physical analyzer ports. The ports of an analyzer are
equivalent and can be freely combined. Moreover, it is possible to assign arbitrary, independent reference impedance values to each unbalanced port and to the differential and
common mode of each logical port. The following types of balanced devices can be
measured with 2-port, 3-port and 4-port analyzers:
2-port analyzers: Reflection measurements on 1 balanced port
Balanced port:
Bal.
port
DUT
Log.
VNA
port
Differential mode
Zref = Z0d
Common mode
Zref = Z0c
A balanced port configuration is defined by simply selecting the pairs of physical ports
that are combined to form balanced ports and defining the two reference impedances for
the differential and common mode at each balanced port. All this is done in a single
"Balanced Ports" dialog. The most commonly used balanced port configurations and
impedances are predefined and can be selected in the "Measurement Wizard".
Depending on the test setup, the analyzer provides different types of mixed mode parameters; refer to the following sections for details.
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3.3.5.2
Mixed Mode Parameters
Mixed mode parameters are an extension of normal mode parameters (e.g. S-parameters, impedances and admittances) for balanced measurements. The analyzer can measure mixed mode parameters as soon as a balanced port configuration is selected.
Mixed mode parameters are used to distinguish the following three port modes:
●
s: Single-ended (for unbalanced ports)
●
d: Differential mode (for balanced ports)
●
c: Common mode (for balanced ports)
The notation of a general S-parameter is S<mout><min><out><in>, where <mout> and <min>
denote the output and input port modes, <out> and <in> denote the output and input port
numbers.
Meaning of 2-port mixed mode S-parameters
The mixed mode 2-port S-parameters can be interpreted as follows:
●
S<mout><min>11 is the mixed mode input reflection coefficient, defined as the ratio of the
wave quantities b1 (mode mout) to a1 (mode min), measured at PORT 1 (forward
measurement with matched output and a2 = 0).
●
S<mout><min>21 is the mixed mode forward transmission coefficient, defined as the ratio
of the wave quantities b2 (mode mout) to a1 (mode min) (forward measurement with
matched output and a2 = 0).
●
S<mout><min>12 is the mixed mode reverse transmission coefficient, defined as the ratio
of the wave quantities b1 (mode mout) (reverse measurement with matched input,
b1' in the figure above and a1 = 0) to a2 (mode min).
●
S<mout><min>22 is the mixed mode output reflection coefficient, defined as the ratio of
the wave quantities b2 (mode mout) (reverse measurement with matched input, b2'
in the figure above and a1 = 0) to a2 (mode min), measured at PORT 2.
If <mout> is different from <min>, the S-parameters are called mode conversion factors.
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Mixed Mode Parameters for Different Test Setups
Which types of mixed mode parameter are available depends on the measured device
and the port configuration of the analyzer. The following examples of mixed mode parameters can all be obtained with a 2-port analyzer.
1. DUT with only single-ended ports: No balanced port definition necessary, the analyzer provides single-ended multiport parameters.
2. DUT with one balanced port: Only reflection and mode conversion measurements
with differential and common mode parameters.
3.3.5.3
Imbalance Parameters
An ideal unbalance-balance transformer (balun) converts an unbalanced signal into a
balanced one and vice versa. When it is driven with an unbalanced signal at its physical
port k, unbalanced signals with equal amplitude and opposite phase appear at the physical ports m and n.
This means that the ratio –Skm/Skn of the physical transmission coefficients of an ideal
balun equals 1. This ratio is called imbalance; it is a measure for the deviation of the balun
from ideality. The definition of the imbalance of a DUT with one or two balanced ports
and physical port numbers k < l, m < n is given below.
●
Logical port i
(single-ended)
Physical port k
Singleended
port
Bal.
port
Log.
VNA
port
DUT
Logical port j
(balanced)
Physical
port m
Physical
port n
The imbalance of a DUT with a single ended logical input port i and a balanced logical
output port j is defined as Imbij = –Skm/Skn and Imbji = –Smk/Snk.
●
Logical port i
(balanced)
Physical
port k
Physical
port l
Log.
VNA
port
Bal.
port
Bal.
port
DUT
Log.
VNA
port
Logical port j
(balanced)
Physical
port m
Physical
port n
The imbalance of a DUT with a balanced logical input port i and a balanced logical
output port j is defined as Imbij = –(Skm– Skn)/(Slm– Sln).
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In general the imbalance is a quantity with two numeric indices numbering the logical
output port and the logical input port of the DUT during the measurement (Imb<out><in>).
3.3.5.4
Reference Impedances
Changing the reference impedances of the analyzer ports is often referred to as renormalization of port impedances. Renormalization means that the measurement results measured at 50 Ω (75 Ω) are converted into results at arbitrary port impedance.
●
Renormalization of the physical port impedances affects e.g. S-parameters and wave
quantities in "Power" representation.
●
Renormalization of the balanced port impedances affects all measured quantities
("Trace > Measure") that the analyzer provides for balanced ports.
The default reference impedance of a physical port is equal to the reference impedance
of the connector type assigned to the port (50 Ω or 75 Ω). It can be defined as a complex
value. For balanced ports it is possible to define separate complex reference impedances
for differential and for common mode.
The default values for the balanced port reference impedances are derived from the
default reference impedance of the physical analyzer ports (Z0 = 50 Ω):
●
The default value for the differential mode is Z0d = 100 Ω = 2*Z0.
●
The default value for the common mode is Z0c = 25 Ω = Z0/2
Renormalization can be based on two alternative waveguide circuit theories whose conversion formulas may yield different results if the reference impedance of at least one
test port has a non-zero imaginary part.
Conversion formula for wave quantities and S-parameters
Renormalization transforms the "raw" S-matrix S0 for the default reference impedances
Z0i (with physical port number index i = 1,2,...,n) into a "renormalized" S-matrix S1 for the
modified reference impedances Z1i. In terms of raw and renormalized wave quantities
a0i, b0i and a1i, b1i, S0 and S1 are defined as follows:
 b01 
 a01 
 
 
 b02   S   a02  ;
0 
 ... 
... 
 
 
 b0 n 
 a0 n 
 b11 
 a11 
 
 
 b12   S   a12  .
1 
 ... 
... 
 
 
 b1n 
 a1n 
The renormalized wave quantities (a1 and b1) and the S-matrix S1 can be calculated from
S0 and the reference impedances Z0i, Z1i according to two alternative waveguide circuit
theories.
1. Travelling waves
In the model of Marks and Williams ("A General Waveguide Circuit Theory"), the wave
quantities a and b are transformed as follows:
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 a1i 
1 Z 0i
  
 b1i  2 Z 0i Z1i
Re( Z1i )  Z 0i  Z1i

Re( Z 0i )  Z 0i  Z1i
Z 0i  Z1i   a0i 
 
Z 0i  Z1i   b0i 
The renormalized S-matrix S1 is calculated as
S1  P 1 S 0   E  S 0  P
1
with the unit matrix E and two additional matrices with the elements
 ii 
Z1i  Z 0i
Z1i  Z 0i
Pii 
2 Z 0i Z1i
Z 0i  Z1i Z 0i
Re(Z 0i )
Re(Z1i )
2. Power waves
In the model of Kurokawa ("Power Waves and the Scattering Matrix"), the wave
quantities a and b are transformed as follows:
 Z  Z1i
 a1i 
1
  
  0i
 b1i  2 Re( Z 0i ) Re( Z1i )  Z 0i  Z1i
Z 0i  Z1i   a0i 
 
Z 0i  Z1i   b0i 
The renormalized S-matrix S1 is calculated as


S1  A1 S 0   E  S 0  A
1
with the unit matrix E and two additional matrices with the elements
ii 
Z1i  Z 0i
Z1i  Z 0i
Aii 
1  ii
1  ii
1  ii ii
3.3.6 Stability Factors
The stability factors K, μ1 and μ2 are real functions of the (complex) S-parameters,
defined as follows:
K :
1 | S11 |2  | S 22 |2  | S11  S 22  S12  S 21 |2
2 | S12  S 21 |
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 1 :
1 | S11 |2
| S 22  S11  ( S11  S 22  S12  S 21 ) |  | S12  S 21 |
 2 :
1 | S 22 |2
| S11  S 22  ( S11  S 22  S12  S 21 ) |  | S12  S 21 |
where
denotes the complex conjugate of S.
Stability factors are calculated as functions of the frequency or another stimulus parameter. They provide criteria for linear stability of two-ports such as amplifiers. A linear circuit
is said to be unconditionally stable if no combination of passive source or load can cause
the circuit to oscillate.
●
The K-factor provides a necessary condition for unconditional stability: A circuit is
unconditionally stable if K>1 and an additional condition is met. The additional condition can be tested by means of the stability factors μ1 and μ2.
●
The μ1 and μ2 factors both provide a necessary and sufficient condition for unconditional stability: The conditions μ1>1 or μ2>1 are both equivalent to unconditional stability. This means that μ1 and μ2 provide direct insight into the degree of stability or
potential instability of linear circuits.
References: Marion Lee Edwards and Jeffrey H. Sinsky, "A New Criterion for Linear 2Port Stability Using a Single Geometrically Derived Parameter", IEEE Trans. MTT, vol.
40, No. 12, pp. 2303-2311, Dec. 1992.
3.3.7 Delay, Aperture, Electrical Length
The group delay τg represents the propagation time of wave through a device. τg is a real
quantity and is calculated as the negative of the derivative of its phase response. A nondispersive DUT shows a linear phase response, which produces a constant delay (a
constant ratio of phase difference to frequency difference).
The group delay is defined as:
g  
ddeg
drad

d
360df
where
Φrad, Φdeg= phase response in radians or degrees
ω = angular velocity in radians/s
f = frequency in Hz
In practice, the analyzer calculates an approximation to the derivative of the phase
response, taking a small frequency interval Δf and determining the corresponding phase
change ΔΦ. The delay is thus computed as:
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 g ,meas  
 deg
360   f
The aperture Δf must be adjusted to the conditions of the measurement.
If the delay is constant over the considered frequency range (non-dispersive DUT, e.g.
a cable), then τg and τg,meas are identical and
g 
L  
d (360 f   t )
  t  mech
360d f
c
where Δt is the propagation time of the wave across the DUT, which often can be
expressed in terms of its mechanical length Lmech, the permittivity ε, and the velocity of
light c. The product Lmech · sqrt(ε) is termed the electrical length of the DUT and is always
larger or equal than the mechanical length (ε > 1 for all dielectrics and ε = 1 for the
vacuum).
3.4 Operations on Traces
The R&S ZNC can perform more complex operations on the measured traces. Some of
the operations, e.g. the time domain transform, require additional software options; see ​
chapter 3.7, "Optional Extensions and Accessories", on page 97.
The R&S ZNC can also check whether the measured values comply with specified limits
and export trace data, using different file formats.
3.4.1 Limit Check
A limit line is a set of data to specify the allowed range for some or all points of a trace.
Typically, limit lines are used to check whether a DUT conforms to the rated specifications
(conformance testing).
●
The "upper" limit line defines the maximum value for the trace points.
●
The "lower" limit line defines the minimum value for the trace points.
●
The "ripple" limit defines the maximum difference between the largest and the smallest response value of the trace. A ripple limit test is suitable e.g. to check whether
the passband ripple of a filter is within acceptable limits, irrespective of the actual
transmitted power in the passband.
●
The "circle" limit defines the acceptable values as a circular area within a polar diagram.
A limit check consists of comparing the measurement results to the limit lines and display
a pass/fail indication. An acoustic warning and a TTL signal at the "USER PORT" on the
rear panel (for test automatization) can be generated in addition if a limit is exceeded.
Upper and lower limit lines are both defined as a combination of segments with a linear
dependence between the measured quantity and the sweep variable (stimulus variable).
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Similar to this segmentation, ripple limits may be defined in several ranges. The limit lines
(except circle limits) can be stored to a file and recalled. Data or memory traces can be
used to define the segments of an upper or lower limit line. Moreover it is possible to
modify the upper and lower limit lines globally by adding an offset to the stimulus or
response values.
3.4.1.1
Rules for Limit Line Definition
The analyzer places very few restrictions on the definition of limit line segments.
The following rules ensure a maximum of flexibility:
●
Segments do not have to be sorted in ascending or descending order (e.g. the "Start
Stimulus" value of segment no. n doesn't have to be smaller than the "Start Stimulus" value of segment no. n+1).
●
Overlapping segments are allowed. The limit check in the overlapping area is related
to the tighter limit (the pass test involves a logical AND operation).
●
Gaps between segments are allowed and equivalent to switching off an intermediate
limit line segment.
●
Limit lines can be partially or entirely outside the sweep range, however, the limits
are only checked at the measurement points.
The following figure shows a limit line consisting of 3 upper and 2 lower limit line segments. To pass the limit check, the trace must be confined to the shaded area.
As a consequence of the limit line rules, a DUT will always pass the limit check if no limit
lines are defined.
When the sweep axis is changed from linear frequency sweep to logarithmic sweeps,
straight limit lines are transformed into exponential curves. The sweep points are redistributed along the x-axis, so the number of failed points may change.
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While "Show Limit Line" is active, the diagrams display all limit line segments.
Exception: In a segmented frequency sweep with point-based x-axis, gaps between the
segments are minimized. To facilitate the interpretation, the R&S ZNC displays only the
limit line segments which provides the limit check criterion (the "tighter" limit line at each
point). In the example below, this rule results in a single, continuous lower limit line.
3.4.1.2
Rules for Ripple Test Definition
The analyzer places very few restrictions on the definition of ripple limit ranges.
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The following rules ensure a maximum of flexibility:
●
Ranges do not have to be sorted in ascending or descending order (e.g. the "Start
Stimulus" value of range no. n doesn't have to be smaller than the "Start Stimulus"
value of range no. n+1).
●
Overlapping ranges are allowed. The limit check in the overlapping area is related to
the tighter limit (the pass test involves a logical AND operation).
●
Gaps between ranges are allowed and equivalent to switching off an intermediate
ripple limit range.
●
Ripple limit ranges can be partially or entirely outside the sweep range, however, the
limits are only checked at the measurement points.
The following figure shows a ripple limit test involving 3 active ranges.
The limit line rules for logarithmic sweeps and segmented frequency sweeps with point
based x-axis also apply to ripple limit lines (see ​chapter 3.4.1.1, "Rules for Limit Line
Definition", on page 60).
3.4.1.3
Circle Limits
A circle limit is a special type of upper limit line which is defined by its center coordinate
in the diagram and its radius. Depending on the diagram type, circle limit can serve different purposes:
●
With a circle limit line centered around the origin of a polar diagram, you can check
whether the magnitude of the measurement results exceeds a limit, defined by the
radius of the limit line.
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3.4.1.4
●
With a circle limit line adjusted to the right border of a Smith diagram (Z = infinity),
you can check whether the imaginary part of the impedance (Im(Z), reactance) falls
below a limit.
●
With a circle limit line centered around the left border of an inverted Smith diagram
(Y = infinity), you can check whether the imaginary part of the admittance (Im(Y),
susceptance) falls below a limit.
File Format for Limit Lines
The analyzer uses a simple ASCII format to export limit line data. By default, the limit line
file has the extension *.limit and is stored in the directory shown in the "Export Limit
Line" and "Import Limit Line" dialogs. The file starts with a preamble containing the channel and trace name and the header of the segment list. The following lines contain the
entries of all editable columns of the list.
Example of a limit line file
The limit line:
is described by the limit line file:
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Compatibility with other instruments
Network analyzers of the R&S ZVA/ZVB family use the same file format. Limit line files
can be interchanged without restriction.
3.4.1.5
File Format for Ripple Limits
The analyzer uses a simple ASCII format to export ripple limit data. By default, the ripple
limit file has the extension *.ripple and is stored in the directory shown in the "Save
Ripple Limits" and "Recall Ripple Limits" dialogs. The file starts with a preamble containing the channel and trace name and the header of the range list. The following lines
contain the entries of all editable columns of the list.
Example of a ripple limit file
The ripple limit list:
is described by the ripple limit file:
Compatibility with other instruments
Network analyzers of the R&S ZVA/ZVB family use the same file format. Ripple limit files
can be interchanged without restriction.
3.4.2 Trace Files
The R&S ZNC can store one or several data or memory traces to a file or load a memory
trace from a file.
Trace files are ASCII files with selectable file format. The analyzer provides several types
of trace files:
●
Touchstone (*.s<n>p) files
●
ASCII ("*.csv") files
●
Matlab ("*.dat") files are ASCII files which can be imported and processed in Matlab.
The trace file formats complement each other; see ​chapter 3.4.2.3, "Finding the Best File
Format", on page 67.
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3.4.2.1
Touchstone Files
All Touchstone files contain a header, a comment section, and the actual trace data:
# HZ S RI R
50.0000
! Rohde & Schwarz ZNC
! Measurement: S11
! 2003-07-07
!
60297750.000000
0.498113 -0.054290
80297000.000000
0.504888 -0.081229
The header consists of the following data elements:
●
# specifies beginning of header line (required at top of file).
●
<Frequency unit>: HZ / KHZ / MHZ / GHZ allowed for imported files. The analyzer
always uses HZ for exported data.
●
<Data file type>: at present only S for S-parameter files is supported.
●
<Data format>: RI for Re/Im, MA for lin. Mag-Phase, DB for dB Mag-Phase. The data
format for export files can be selected in the Export Data dialog.
●
<Normalizing impedance>: Impedance system in which the data was defined. The
analyzer uses 50.0000 Ω.
Comment lines start with the exclamation mark (!) and may contain any text used for
documentation of the trace data file. Any number of comment lines may be inserted before
or after the header line.
The trace data section corresponds to a set of single-ended S-parameters. It depends
on the number of ports <n> and the data format.
For real and imaginary values (data format = Real-Imag) the trace data for each stimulus
frequency is arranged as follows:
●
1-port files (*.s1p)
Freq Re(S11) Im(S11)
S11 can be replaced by an any S-parameter, so the *.s1p format is suitable for
exporting an arbitrary data trace representing an S-parameter.
●
2-port files (*.s2p)
Freq Re(S11) Im(S11) Re(S21) Im(S21)
(all values arranged in 1 line)
Re(S12) Im(S12)
Re(S22) Im(S22)
The stimulus frequencies are arranged in ascending order. If a "lin. Mag-Phase (MA)" or
"dB Mag-Phase (DB)" data format is selected the real and imaginary S-parameter values
Re(Sij), Im(Sij) are replaced by lin Mag(Sij), phase(Sij) or dB Mag(Sij), phase(Sij), respectively.
According to Touchstone file specifications, no more than four pairs of network data are
allowed per data line. The entries in the data lines are separated by white space, and a
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data line is terminated by a new line character. All data sets are arranged in increasing
order of frequency.
When exporting traces to a Touchstone file, it is recommended to set the analyzer to
single sweep mode (Channel – Sweep – Single (All Chans)). This will ensure that a complete sweep is exported.
Conditions for Touchstone file export
●
For a one-port Touchstone file, the reflection coefficient for the specified port (e.g.
S11 for port no. 1) must be measured. If a full one-port ("Refl OSM") calibration is
available, it is also possible to export transmission parameters that are related to the
calibrated port. If a full n-port (TOSM, TNA, TRL ...) calibration is available for a group
of n ports, or if a complete set of <n>2 S-parameters is available, all S-parameters
may be exported.
Example 1: Refl OSM calibration at port 1; the active channel contains the traces
S11, S21, and S12; Touchstone export via "s1p Port 2...". Export of S12 or S21 is allowed.
●
For a multiport Touchstone file *.s<n>p, either a full multiport system error correction or a complete set of <n>2 S-parameters must be available. Export of system error
corrected, incomplete S-parameter sets is possible, too. If the port configuration contains balanced ports, the Touchstone file will contain the converted single-ended Sparameters.
Touchstone files cannot be used to export mathematical traces.
3.4.2.2
ASCII (*.csv) Files
An ASCII file contains a header and the actual trace data:
freq;reTrc1_S21;imTrc1_S21;reMem2[Trc1]_S21;imMem2[Trc1]_S21;
300000.000000;0.000000;0.000000;0.000000;0.000000;
40499497.487437;0.000000;0.000000;0.000000;0.000000;
80698994.974874;0.494927;-0.065174;0.500833;-0.074866;
120898492.462312;0.497959;-0.111724;0.488029;-0.107375;
...
The header consists of the following data elements:
●
<Stimulus> stimulus variable: freq for Frequency sweep, power for Power sweep,
time for Time sweep, trigger for CW Mode sweep.
●
<reTrace1> first response value of first trace: re<Trace_Name>, mag<Trace_Name>
or db<Trace_Name> for output format Re/Im, lin. Mag-Phase or dB Mag-Phase,
respectively. The data format for export files can be selected in the Export Data dialog.
●
<imTrace1> second response value of first trace: im<Trace_Name> for output format
Re/Im, ang<Trace_Name> for output formats lin. Mag-Phase or dB Mag-Phase. The
data format for export files can be selected in the Export Data dialog.
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●
<reTrace2> first response value of second trace: re<Trace_Name>,
mag<Trace_Name> or db<Trace_Name> for output format Re/Im, lin. Mag-Phase or
dB Mag-Phase, respectively. The data format for export files can be selected in the
Export Data dialog.
●
<imTrace2>... second response value of second trace: im<Trace_Name> for output
format Re/Im, ang<Trace_Name> for output formats lin. Mag-Phase or dB MagPhase. The data format for export files can be selected in the Export Data dialog. first
response value of second trace. HZ / KHZ / MHZ / GHZ allowed for imported files.
The analyzer always uses HZ for exported data. second response value of first trace:
im<Trace_Name> for output format Re/Im, ang<Trace_Name> for output formats lin.
Mag-Phase or dB Mag-Phase. The data format for export files can be selected in the
Export Data dialog.
The trace data is arranged as described in the header. Different values are separated by
semicolons, commas or other characters, depending on the selected "Decimal Separator" in the "Export ... Data" dialogs. A semicolon is inserted before the end of each line.
The stimulus values are arranged in ascending order.
3.4.2.3
Finding the Best File Format
The file format depends on how you want to use the exported data.
Use a Touchstone file format to export single-ended S-parameter data traces to a file
that can be evaluated with applications such as Agilent's Microwave Design System
(MDS) and Advanced Design System (ADS), and to convert mixed mode parameters
back to single-ended parameters. The data must be acquired in a frequency sweep. Note
the conditions for Touchstone file export in section "Select Ports".
Use the ASCII (*.csv) format if you want to do one of the following:
●
Import the created file into a spreadsheet application such as Microsoft Excel.
●
Export an arbitrary number of traces, multiple traces with the same parameter or
memory traces.
●
Export traces acquired in a power sweep or CW sweep.
●
Use export options.
Use a the Matlab (*.dat) format if you want to import and process the trace data in
Matlab.
3.5 Calibration
Calibration or "system error correction" is the process of eliminating systematic, reproducible errors from the measurement results (S-parameters and derived quantities; see ​
chapter 3.1.5, "Data Flow", on page 17). The process involves the following stages:
1. A set of calibration standards is selected and measured over the required sweep
range. For many calibration types the magnitude and phase response of each calibration standard (i.e. its S-parameters if no system errors occur) must be known
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within the entire sweep range. In some calibration procedures (TRL, TNA, TRM), part
of the characteristics of the standards can be auto-determined due to implicit redundancy (self-calibration).
2. The analyzer compares the measurement data of the standards with their known,
ideal response. The difference is used to calculate the system errors using a particular
error model (calibration type) and derive a set of system error correction data.
3. The system error correction data is used to correct the measurement results of a DUT
that is measured instead of the standards.
Calibration is always channel-specific because it depends on the hardware settings, in
particular on the sweep range. The means that a system error correction data set is stored
with the calibrated channel.
The analyzer provides a wide range of sophisticated calibration methods for all types of
measurements. Which calibration method is selected depends on the expected system
errors, the accuracy requirements of the measurement, on the test setup and on the types
of calibration standards available.
Due to the analyzer's calibration wizard, calibration is a straightforward, menu-guided
process. Moreover, it is possible to perform the entire calibration process automatically
using a Calibration Unit (accessories R&S ZV-Z5x).
The system error correction data determined in a calibration procedure are stored on the
analyzer. You can read these correction data using the remote control command
[SENSe<Ch>:]CORRection:CDATa. You can also replace the correction data of the
analyzer by your own correction data sets.
Cal Off label
A label "Cal Off" appears in the trace line if the system error correction no longer applies
to the trace:
This may happen for one of the following reasons:
●
The sweep range is outside the calibrated frequency range.
●
The measurement result is a wave quantity or ratio which is never system error corrected (see ​chapter 3.1.5, "Data Flow", on page 17).
●
The channel calibration is not sufficient for the measured quantity (e.g. a one-port
calibration has been performed, but the measured quantity is a transmission parameter).
●
The system error correction has been switched off deliberately ("User Cal Active" is
disabled).
The analyzer provides other labels to indicate the status of the current calibration; see ​
chapter 3.5.4, "Calibration Labels", on page 81.
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3.5.1 Calibration Types
The analyzer provides a wide range of calibration types for one, two or more ports. The
calibration types differ in the number and types of standards used, the error terms, i.e.
the type of systematic errors corrected and the general accuracy. The following table
gives an overview.
Table 3-3: Overview of calibration types
Calibration Type
Standards
Parameters
Error Terms
General Accuracy
Application
Reflection Normalization
Open or Short
S11
Reflection tracking
Low to medium
Reflection measurements on any port.
Transmission Normalization
Through
Transmission tracking
Medium
Transmission measurements in any
direction and
between any combination of ports.
Reflection OSM
Open, Short,
Match1)
S11
Reflection tracking,
High
(or S22, ...)
Source match
Reflection measurements on any port.
Medium to high
Unidirectional transmission measurements in any direction and between
any combination of
ports.
High
Reflection and
transmission measurements; classical
12-term error correction model.
High
Reflection and
transmission measurements.
High
Reflection and
transmission measurements.
(or S22, ...)
S12, S21
(or S13,...)
Directivity,
One Path Two Ports Open, Short,
Match1) (at source
port),
S11, S21
Reflection tracking,
(or S22,...)
Source match,
Directivity,
Through2)
TOSM or UOSM
(2-port)
Open, Short,
Match1) (at each
port),
Transmission tracking
All
Source match,
Directivity,
Through2) (between
all combinations of 2
ports)
TOM
(2-port)
Open, Match (at
both ports),
Reflection tracking,
Load match,
Transmission tracking,
All
Reflection tracking,
Source match,
Through
Directivity,
Load match,
Transmission tracking
TSM
(2-port)
Short, Match (at
both ports),
Through
All
Reflection tracking,
Source match,
Directivity,
Load match,
Transmission tracking
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Calibration Type
Standards
Parameters
Error Terms
General Accuracy
Application
TRM
Reflect (equal at
both ports), Match,
All
Reflection tracking,
High
Reflection and
transmission measurements, especially in test fixtures.
(2-port)
Source match,
Through
Directivity,
Load match,
Transmission tracking
TRL
Reflect (at both
ports),
(2-port)
TNA
(2-port)
All
Reflection tracking,
Source match,
Through, Line1,
Line2/3 (optional),
combination with
TRM (optional)
Directivity,
Through, AttenuaAll
tion, Symmetric network
Reflection tracking,
Load match,
Transmission tracking
Source match,
Directivity,
High, high directivity Reflection and
transmission measurements, especially for planar circuits. Limited bandwidth.
High, lowest
requirements on
standards
Load match,
Reflection and
transmission measurements, especially for planar circuits.
Transmission tracking
1) Or any other 3 known one-port standards. To be used in a guided calibration, the known
standards must be declared to be Open, Short, and Match irrespective of their properties.
2) Or any other known two-port standard. See remark above.
The calibration type must be selected in accordance with the test setup. Select the calibration type for which you can obtain or design the most accurate standards and for which
you can measure the required parameters with best accuracy.
3.5.1.1
Normalization (Refl Norm..., Trans Norm...)
A normalization is the simplest calibration type since it requires the measurement of only
one standard for each calibrated S-parameter:
●
One-port (reflection) S-parameters (S11, S22, ...) are calibrated with an Open or a
Short standard providing the reflection tracking error term.
●
Two-port (transmission) S-parameters (S12, S21, ...) are calibrated with a Through
standard providing the transmission tracking error term.
Normalization means that the measured S-parameter at each sweep point is divided by
the corresponding S-parameter of the standard. A normalization eliminates the frequency-dependent attenuation and phase shift in the measurement path (reflection or
transmission tracking error). It does not compensate for directivity or mismatch errors.
This limits the accuracy of a normalization.
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3.5.1.2
Reflection OSM Calibration
A reflection OSM (full one-port) calibration requires a Short, an Open and a Match standard to be connected to a single test port. The three standard measurements are used to
derive all three reflection error terms:
●
The Short and Open standards are used to derive the source match and the reflection
tracking error terms.
●
The Match standard is used to derive the directivity error.
A reflection OSM calibration is more accurate than a normalization but is only applicable
for reflection measurements.
3.5.1.3
One Path Two Ports Calibration
A one path two ports calibration combines a reflection OSM (full one-port) calibration with
a transmission normalization. The fully calibrated port is termed the node port. This calibration type requires a Short, an Open and a Match standard to be connected to a single
test port plus a Through standard between this calibrated source port and a second load
port. The four standard measurements are used to derive the following error terms:
●
The Short and Open standards are used to derive the source match and the reflection
tracking error terms at the source port.
●
The Match standard is used to derive the directivity error at the source port.
●
The through standard provides the transmission tracking error term.
A one-path two-port calibration requires only four standards to be connected (instead of
7 for a full two-port TOSM calibration). It is suitable when only the forward (e.g. S11 and
S21) or reverse S-parameters (e.g. S22 and S12) are needed, and if the DUT is well
matched, especially at the load port. It is also the best calibration method for test setups
with unidirectional signal flow, e.g. a pulsed measurement using an external generator.
3.5.1.4
TOSM and UOSM Calibration
A TOSM (Through – Open – Short – Match) calibration requires the same standards as
the one path two ports calibration, however, all measurements are performed in the forward and reverse direction. TOSM is also referred to as SOLT (Short – Open – Load =
Match – Through) calibration. The four standards are used to derive 6 error terms for
each signal direction:
●
In addition to the source match and reflection tracking error terms provided by the
one-path two-port calibration, TOSM also provides the load match.
●
The directivity error is determined at both source ports.
●
The transmission tracking is determined for each direction.
TOSM calibration is provided for 2-port measurements. A 2-port TOSM calibration
requires 7 standard measurements (3 one-port standards at each port and a Through
between the two ports). The Through must be measured in both directions, so the number
of standard measurements (calibration sweeps) is 8. The calibration provides 10 error
terms (no isolation terms are available).
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TOSM with unknown Through, UOSM
The network analyzer supports different connector types at its test ports in order to measure DUTs with different port connectors. To perform a TOSM calibration, the DUT must
be replaced by a Through connection, which generally involves an adapter between the
two connector types.
An adapter represents a Through standard with unknown characteristics (in particular,
with unknown delay time/transmission phase). The analyzer can perform a TOSM calibration with an unknown Through, provided that it is reciprocal (S21 = S12). The modified
TOSM calibration is referred to as UOSM (Unknown through – Open – Short – Match)
calibration. It can be selected as follows:
●
If different connector types are assigned to the test ports, the analyzer automatically
replaces TOSM –> UOSM.
●
If the same connector types are used but the appropriate through standard is not
defined, the analyzer also replaces TOSM –> UOSM.
●
UOSM can be selected explicitly in the "Calibration Presetting" dialog.
After acquiring the calibration sweep data for the unknown Through, the analyzer automatically determines its delay time/transmission phase.
3.5.1.5
TOM Calibration
A TOM (Through – Open – Match) calibration requires a low-reflection, low-loss Through
standard with an electrical length that may be different from zero, an Open, and a Match.
The characteristics of all standards must be fully known; the Match may have non-ideal
characteristics.
3.5.1.6
TSM Calibration
A TSM (Through – Short – Match) calibration requires a low-reflection, low-loss Through
standard with an electrical length that may be different from zero, a Short, and a Match.
The characteristics of all standards must be fully known; the Match may have non-ideal
characteristics.
TSM calibration can replace TOM calibration if no appropriate "Open" standard is available, especially in the high frequency domain.
3.5.1.7
TRM Calibration
A TRM (Through – Reflect – Match) calibration requires a low-reflection, low-loss Through
standard with an electrical length that may be different from zero, a Reflect, and a Match.
The magnitude of the reflection coefficient of the Reflect standard can be unknown but
must be nonzero; its phase must be roughly known (90 deg). The magnitude and phase
of the reflection coefficient must be the same at both test ports.
TRM calibration is especially useful for DUTs in test fixtures.
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3.5.1.8
TRL Calibration
A TRL (Through – Reflect – Line) calibration requires the two-port standards Through
and Line, which are both assumed to be ideally matched. Beyond that, the Through must
be lossless, and its length must be exactly known. The length of the Line standard must
be known approximately.
Furthermore, a reflecting one-port standard (Reflect) is needed. The magnitude of the
reflection coefficient of the Reflect standard can be unknown but must be nonzero; its
phase must be roughly known (90 deg). The magnitude and phase of the reflection coefficient must be the same at both test ports.
TRL calibration is especially useful for DUTs in planar line technology (e.g. test fixtures,
on-wafer measurements) where it is difficult to design and connect accurately modeled
Open, Short or Match standards. If TRL is not practicable, TNA may be an alternative.
TRL with several lines and with TRM
The system of equations solved to derive the error terms is such that singularities occur
whenever the length difference ΔL between the Through and the Line is an integer multiple of half of the wave length:
L  n

2
As a rule, singularities are avoided with sufficient accuracy if the phase shift resulting
from the (electric) length difference between the Through and the Line standard is
between 20° and 160°. This corresponds to a ratio of 1:8 for the start and stop frequency
of the calibrated sweep range.
To shift the calibrated sweep range to smaller or larger frequencies, you can use a longer
or shorter Line. To extend the calibrated range, use one of the following methods:
●
Perform TRL calibration with two or three different Line standards. With an appropriate length of the Lines, the ratio for the start and stop frequency of the calibrated
sweep range can increase to approx. 1:64 (for 2 lines) or 1:512 (for 3 lines).
●
In the low-frequency domain where TRL becomes inaccurate, replace TRL by TRM
calibration.
The methods can be combined or used separately. The list of measured standards in the
"Calibration" dialog for TRL calibration is extended if the calibration kit in use contains
the necessary standards:
●
A 2-line (3-line) calibration requires two (three) different Lines of matching gender.
The lines must be measured between any combination of two ports.
●
A TRM extension at low frequencies requires either a Match or a Sliding Match
standard. The standard must be measured at each port.
The complete list of measured standards for a two-port calibration is shown below.
●
For a TRL calibration with 1 Line, the Reflect standard at both ports, the Through,
and one Line standard must be measured.
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●
For a TRL calibration with 2 Lines, a second Line standard must be measured in
addition.
●
For a TRM calibration, The Reflect and Match standards at both ports and the
Through must be measured. See also ​chapter 3.5.2.3, "Sliding Match Standards",
on page 79.
The TRL calibration is valid as soon as the standards for a "TRL calibration with 1 line"
have been measured. The TRL extensions are applied automatically if the necessary
standards have been measured.
Example: TRL calibration with two and three Lines
If several Lines with different lengths are measured, the analyzer automatically divides
the calibrated range into segments. The calibration data of the longest line is applied to
the lowest segment, the calibration data of the shortest line to the highest segment.
The calibration sweep segments for two Lines with electric lengths llong and lshort (llong >
lshort) are obtained as follows (the Through standard is assumed to be of length lthr):
●
The longer Line can be used up to a frequency flong where its transmission phase is
equal to 160 deg. This frequency is equal to "flong = 4*c0/[9*(llong– lthr)]".
●
The shorter Line can be used from a frequency fshort where its transmission phase is
equal to 20 deg. This frequency is equal to "fshort = c0/[18*(lshort– lthr)]".
●
The border between the two frequency segments fdiv is calculated as the geometric
mean of flong and fshort, i.e. "fdiv = sqrt(flong * fshort)".
The formulas are also applied if "flong < fshort".
For a TRL calibration using three Lines with different length, the allowed frequency ranges
are calculated in an analogous manner in order to obtain three (ideally overlapping) frequency ranges. The borders between two adjacent frequency ranges are calculated as
the geometric mean of the frequency limits flong and fshort of the two ranges.
A second or third line in the list does not mean that you have to measure two or three line
standards. If the calibrated frequency range is small enough, the calibration is valid as
soon as the analyzer has acquired correction data for a single line line standard. The
Match and Sliding Match standards are not necessary for TRL calibration, however, they
must be measured if TRL is combined with TRM calibration.
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Low-frequency extension with TRM
TRL calibration becomes inaccurate if the electrical length difference between Line and
Through standard corresponds to a phase shift below 20°. In practice this means that
TRL is only practicable above a threshold frequency fTRM which depends on the lengths
of the longest line and through standards. The threshold frequency is given by:
"fTRM = c0/[18*(llong– lthr)]"
where llong denotes the electrical length of the longest of the used Line standards, lthr the
length of the Through. The analyzer assumes lthr << llong and calculates fTRM = c0/
(18*llong). At frequencies below fTRM, TRL calibration is automatically replaced by TRM,
provided that the necessary calibration data has been acquired. For a line with llong =
16.666 cm, the threshold frequency is fTRM = 100 MHz.
Accuracy conditions for the Line(s)
The length error of the Line, converted into a transmission phase error, must be below
the minimum difference to the singularity points 0 deg or 180 deg multiplied by two. Suppose that an approximately known Line standard causes a transmission phase 30 deg
at the start frequency and of 160 deg at the stop frequency of the sweep. Its length error
must cause a phase difference below (180 deg – 160 deg)*2 = 40 deg.
3.5.1.9
TNA Calibration
A TNA (Through – Network – Attenuation) calibration requires two-port standards only.
Again, the Through standard must be ideally matched and lossless. The Symmetric Network must have the same properties as the Reflect standard used for a TRL calibration,
i.e. the magnitude of its reflection coefficient can be unknown but must be nonzero; its
phase must be roughly known (±90 deg). The magnitude and phase of the reflection
coefficient must be the same at both test ports. The Attenuation standard must be well
matched on both sides and cause an attenuation different from 0 dB; the exact value of
the transmission coefficient is not important.
As with TRL, TNA calibration is especially useful for planar DUTs. If TNA is not practicable, TRL may be an alternative.
3.5.2 Calibration Standards and Calibration Kits
A calibration kit is a set of physical calibration standards for a particular connector type.
The magnitude and phase response of the calibration standards (i.e. their S-parameters)
must be known or predictable within a given frequency range.
The standards are grouped into several types (Open, Through, Match,...) corresponding
to the different input quantities for the analyzer's error models. The standard type also
determines the equivalent circuit model used to describe its properties. The circuit model
depends on several parameters that are stored in the cal kit file associated with the calibration kit.
As an alternative to using circuit models, it is possible to describe the standards by means
of S-parameter tables stored in a file.
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The analyzer provides a large number of predefined cal kits but can also import cal kit
files and create new kits:
●
A selection of predefined kits is available for all connector types. The parameters of
these kits are displayed in the "Add/Modify Standards" dialog, however, it is not possible to change or delete the kits.
●
Imported and user-defined kits can be changed in the "Calibration Kits" dialog and
its various sub-dialogs.
Calibration kits and connector types are global resources; the parameters are stored
independently and are available irrespective of the current recall set.
3.5.2.1
Calibration Standard Types
The following table gives an overview of the different standards and their circuit models
(offset and load models).
Table 3-4: Calibration standard types
Standard Type
Characteristics
Ideal Standard
Offset Model Load Model
Open
Open circuit (one-port)
∞Ω
☑
☑
Short
Short circuit (one-port)
0Ω
☑
☑
Offset short
Short circuit with added electrical length offset, for
waveguide calibration (one-port)
0Ω
☑
☑
Match
Matched broadband termination (one-port)
Z0 (characteristic
impedance of the
connector type)
☑
☑
Sliding match
One-port standard consisting of an air line with a
movable, low-reflection load element (sliding load)
–
–
–
Reflect
Unknown mismatched standard (one-port)
∞Ω
☑
☑
Through
Through-connection with minimum loss (two-port)
–
☑
–
Line1, Line 2
Line(s) for TRL calibration with minimum loss (twoport)
–
☑
–
Attenuation
Fully matched standard in both directions (two-port; –
the reflection factor at both ports is zero)
–
–
Symm. network
Unknown mismatched reflection-symmetric standard (two-port)
☑
☑
–
Offset parameters
The offset parameters have the following physical meaning:
●
The "Delay" is the propagation time of a wave traveling through the standard. The
"Electrical Length" is equal to the "Delay" times the speed of light in the vacuum and
is a measure for the length of transmission line between the standard and the actual
calibration plane. For a waveguide with permittivity εr and mechanical length Lmech
the following relations hold:
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Delay 
Lmech   r
; Electrical Length  Lmech   r
c
The default delay is 0 s, the default step width is 1 ns, corresponding to a step width
of 299.792 mm for the electrical length. The relations hold for one-port and 2-port
standards.
●
Z0 is the "Characteristic Impedance" of the standard. If the standard is terminated
with Z0, then its input impedance is also equal to Z0. Z0 is not necessarily equal to the
reference impedance of the system (depending on the "Connector Type") or the terminal impedance of the standard. The characteristic impedance of the standard is
only used in the context of calibration.
The default characteristic impedance is equal to the reference impedance of the system.
●
The "Loss" is the energy loss along the transmission line due to the skin effect. For
resistive lines and at RF frequencies the loss is approximately proportional to the
square root of the frequency.
In Agilent mode the "Offset Loss" is expressed in units of Ω/s at a frequency of 1 GHz.
The following formula holds for two-port standards:
Offset Loss /  / s 
Loss / dB Z 0 /
4.3429 / dB delay / s 
The conversion formula for one-port standards has an additional factor ½ on the righthand side. The reason for this factor is that the Loss in dB accounts for the attenuation
along the forward and the reverse path (no matter how often the wave actually propagates through the line), whereas the "Offset Loss" is proportional to the attenuation
of the line.
To determine an offset loss value experimentally, measure the delay in seconds and
the loss in dB at 1 GHz and use the formula above.
The default "Loss" or "Offset Loss" is zero.
The impedance for waveguides is frequency-dependent. If a waveguide line type is
selected in the "Cal Connector Types" dialog, the "Char. Imp." field is disabled and indicates "varies" instead of a definite impedance value. Moreover no "Loss" or "Offset
Loss" can be set.
Offset parameters and standard types
Offset parameters are used to describe all types of standards except the Sliding Match
and the Attenuation.
●
The Sliding Match is a one-port standard with variable load parameters (sliding load)
and unspecified length. The reference impedance is fixed and equal to the characteristic impedance of the connector type. No load and offset parameters need to be
set.
●
The Attenuation is a two-port standard which is fully matched in both directions (the
reflection factor at both ports is zero). No load and offset parameters need to be set.
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Load parameters and standard types
Load parameters are used to describe all types of standards except a Through, a Sliding
Match, a Line, and an Attenuation.
3.5.2.2
●
The Through standard is a through-connection between two ports with minimum loss
which is taken into account by the offset parameters.
●
The Sliding Match is a one-port standard with variable load parameters (sliding load),
so there is no fixed load model.
●
The Line standard is a line of variable length with minimum loss which is taken into
account by the offset parameters.
●
The Attenuation is a two-port standard which is fully matched in both directions (the
reflection factor at both ports is zero). No load and offset parameters need to be set.
Cal Kit Parameter Types
The analyzer uses three types of parameters to describe the calibration standards. The
parameter type is the same for all standards in a kit and therefore annexed to the kit
name:
●
Universal parameters (no label) describe calibration kit models with highly standardized components so that the parameters are valid for all calibration kits of the model.
●
Typical parameters (labeled "typical") approximately describe a calibration kit model.
To correct for deviations between the standards, each kit of the model is individually
measured and delivered with an additional, kit-specific parameter set. Therefore each
typical parameter set "<kit_name> typical" is complemented by an additional parameter set "<kit_name>" containing optimized parameters for an individual kit.
●
Ideal parameters (labeled "Ideal Kit") describe an idealized calibration kit for each
connector type; see below.
Make sure to use universal or individual parameter sets if you need to obtain high-precision results. The precision of the calibration kit parameters determine the accuracy of
the system error correction and of the measurements. The R&S ZNC displays a warning
if you use a typical or ideal parameter set to calibrate a channel.
Calibration kits can be obtained as network analyzer accessories; refer to the data sheet
for the relevant ordering information. The name of all parameter sets is equal to the name
of the corresponding calibration kit model.
Ideal parameters
All ideal kits contain the standards listed below.
Table 3-5: Ideal standard parameters
Standard (Gender)
R (Load)
Electrical Length (Offset)
Open (f, m)
∞Ω
0 mm (Delay: 0 s)
Short (f, m)
0Ω
0 mm
Offset Short (f, m)
0Ω
10 mm
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Standard (Gender)
R (Load)
Electrical Length (Offset)
Match (f, m)
Z0 (characteristic impedance of the 0 mm
connector type)
Sliding Match (f, m)
–
0 mm
Reflect (f, m)
∞Ω
0 mm
Through (ff, mm, mf)
–
0 mm
Line (ff, mm, mf)
–
10 mm
Attenuation (ff, mm , mf)
–
0 mm
Symm. Network (ff, mm, mf)
–
0 mm
The following additional parameters are used:
3.5.2.3
●
Characteristic impedance: Z0 (characteristic impedance of the connector type)
●
Loss: 0 dB / sqrt(GHz) or (0 GΩ / s) in Agilent mode
●
All inductance and capacitance parameters are set to zero.
Sliding Match Standards
The Sliding Match is a one-port standard consisting of an air line with a movable, lowreflection load element (sliding load). This standard is used because a no perfect Match
is available over a wide frequency range. However, a series of measurements at a given
frequency with equal mismatch and varying phase yields reflection factors that are located on a circle in the Smith chart. The center of this circle corresponds to perfect match.
The network analyzer determines and further corrects this match point following I. Kása's
circle-fitting algorithm.
To obtain the reflection coefficient for a perfectly matched calibration standard, the Sliding
Match must be measured at least at 3 positions which should be unequally spaced to
avoid overlapping data points. Increasing the number of positions to 4 – 6 can improve
the accuracy. Moreover it is recommended to use the predefined load positions of the
standard.
A calibration is valid (and can be applied to the calibrated channel) if either the Match or
three positions of the Sliding Match have been measured. However, it is often desirable
to acquire calibration data from both standards.
The analyzer combines the data in an appropriate manner:
3.5.2.4
●
The Match results are used up to the lower edge of the specified frequency range of
the Sliding Match (Min Freq).
●
The Sliding Match results are used for frequencies above the Min Freq. In general,
the Sliding Match will provide better results than the Match within its specified frequency range.
Cal Kit Files
Calibration kit files can be used to store the parameters of a particular calibration kit, to
re-load the data and to exchange calibration kits from one network analyzer to another.
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Cal kit file contents
Cal kit files are independent of the current recall set and contain the following information:
●
Name and label of the calibration kit
●
Connector type including all connector type parameters (name, polarity, offset model,
reference impedance)
●
Type, gender and label of all standards in the kit together with the circuit model
parameters (offsets, load) or S-parameter tables (.s<n>p file) that are necessary to
determine its magnitude and phase response.
By default cal kit files are stored in the
C:\Users\Public\Documents\Rohde-Schwarz\Vna\Calibration directory.
●
To export cal kit data, the analyzer uses a specific binary file format *.calkit.
●
Three different import file formats are supported: R&S ZVA-specific binary cal kit
files (*.calkit), R&S ZVR-specific binary cal kit files (*.ck), cal kit files in Agilentspecific ASCII formats (*.csv, *.prn.
Importing older R&S ZVR cal kit files
On loading some older R&S ZVR-specific *.ck files, e.g. the R&S ZV-Z23 cal kit file, the
R&S ZNC generates the message "File does not comply with instrument calibration kit
file format". The files must be converted using an R&S ZVR network analyzer equipped
with a firmware version V3.52 or higher.
Proceed as follows:
●
On the R&S ZVR, press "CAL > CAL KITS > MODIFY KITS > INSTALL NEW KIT"
to import the *.ck file.
●
Press "CREATE INST FILE" in the same submenu to export the *.ck file in a R&S
ZNC-compatible format.
●
Import the converted file into the R&S ZNC.
*.csv cal kit files: VNA Cal Kit Manager 2.1
The "VNA Cal Kit Manager" is a free, Windows®-based software tool intended to import,
edit, and export *csv cal kit files. The software is available for download at http://www.vnahelp.com/products.html. The decimal separator used by the "VNA Cal Kit Manager
V2.1" depends on the language version of the Windows® operating system: Cal kit files
generated on an English operating system contain dots, the ones generated on a German
system contain commas.
The network analyzer expects the dot as a separator and displays an error message
when a *.csv file with commas is loaded. Please install the
VNA Cal Kit Manager V2.1 on an appropriate (e.g. English) Windows® version to
avoid trouble.
*.prn cal kit files: PNA Cal Kit Editor
The network analyzer can import and process cal kit files created with the "PNA Cal Kit
Editor". The files use the extension *.prn; the data format is identical to the *.csv
format.
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The decimal separator used by the "PNA Cal Kit Editor" depends on the language version
of the Windows® operating system: Cal kit files generated on an English operating system
contain dots, the ones generated on a German system contain commas.
The network analyzer expects the dot as a separator and displays an error message
when a *.prn file with commas is loaded. Please install the "PNA Cal Kit Editor" on an
appropriate (e.g. English) Windows® version to avoid trouble.
3.5.3 Calibration Pool
The calibration pool is a collection of correction data sets (cal groups) that the analyzer
stores in a common directory
C:\Users\Public\Documents\Rohde-Schwarz\Vna\Calibration\Data. Cal
groups in the pool can be applied to different channels and recall sets. Each cal group is
stored in a separate file named <CalGroup_name>.cal. The cal group name can be
changed in the "Calibration Manager" dialog.
Since V1.70 one of the available cal groups can be set as "Preset User Cal", i.e. the user
correction data that shall be restored after a user-defined preset.
If a new channel is created, the channel calibration of the active channel is also applied
to the new channel. See also ​Calibration Labels.
3.5.4 Calibration Labels
The following labels in the trace list inform you about the status or type of the current
system error correction.
Table 3-6: Calibration labels (system error correction)
Label
Meaning
Cal
The system error correction is applied without interpolation. This means that a set of
measured correction data is available at each sweep point.
Cal int
The system error correction is applied, however, the correction data for at least one
sweep point is interpolated from the measured values. This means that the channel
settings have been changed so that a current sweep point is different from the calibrated
sweep points. It is not possible to disable interpolation.
Cal Off
The system error correction is no longer applied (e.g. "User Cal Active" is disabled). See
also ​"Cal Off label" on page 68.
3.5.5 Automatic Calibration
A calibration unit is an integrated solution for automatic system error correction of vector
network analyzers. Rohde & Schwarz offers a wide range of calibration units for different
frequency ranges and connector types.
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For R&S ZNC analyzers, the calibration unit R&S ZV-Z51 is recommended, however, all
of the calibration units listed below can be used.
The connector types of the calibration unit should be selected according the connectors
of the DUT.
Calibration unit
Frequency range
Connector type
No. of ports
Order no.
R&S ZV-Z51
300 kHz to 8 GHz
type N (f)
4
1164.0515.70
R&S ZV-Z51
300 kHz to 8 GHz
3.5 mm (f)
4
1164.0515.30
R&S ZV-Z52
10 MHz to 24 GHz
3.5 mm (f)
4
1164.0521.30
R&S ZV-Z53
300 kHz to 18 GHz
type N (f)
2
1164.0473.72
R&S ZV-Z53
300 kHz to 24 GHz
3.5 mm (f)
2
1164.0473.32
R&S ZV-Z54
10 MHz to 40 GHz
2.92 mm (f)
2
1164.0467.92
R&S ZV-Z55
10 MHz to 50 GHz
2.4 mm (f)
2
1164.0480.42
R&S ZV-Z58
300 kHz to 8 GHz
type N (f)
8
1164.0638.78
R&S ZV-Z58
300 kHz to 8 GHz GHz
3.5 mm (f)
8
1164.0638.38
R&S ZV-Z58
10 MHz to 20 GHz
3.5 mm (f)
6
1164.0450.36
The units contain calibration standards that are electronically switched when a calibration
is performed. The calibration kit data for the internal standards are also stored in the
calibration unit, so that the analyzer can calculate the error terms and apply the calibration
without any further input.
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Advantages of automatic calibration
Automatic calibration is generally faster and more secure than manual calibration,
because:
●
There is no need to connect several standards manually. The number of connections
to be performed quickly increases with the number of ports.
●
Invalid calibrations due to operator errors (e.g. wrong standards or improper connections) are almost excluded.
●
No need to handle calibration kit data.
●
The internal standards don't wear out because they are switched electronically.
Limitations: Some calibration types (TOM, TSM, TRM, TRL, TNA) are not available.
Safety instructions
Please observe the safety instructions in the "Technical Information" provided with the
calibration unit to avoid any damage to the unit and the network analyzer. Safety-related
aspects of the connection and operation of the units are also reported in the following
sections.
3.5.5.1
Connecting the Calibration Unit
The calibration units provide the following connectors:
●
A USB type B connector at the rear is used to power-supply and control the unit. A
USB cable for connection to the network analyzer is provided with the calibration unit.
●
Two or four RF connectors numbered 1 to 4 are to be connected to the test ports 1
to 4 of the analyzer. The connector type is equal for all ports. Depending on the
calibration unit model, it is either type N (f), 3.5 mm (f), 2.92 mm (f) or 2.4 mm (f).
To connect the unit,
1. Switch on and start up your network analyzer.
2. To protect your equipment against ESD damage use the wrist strap and grounding
cord supplied with the instrument and connect yourself to the GND connector at the
front panel.
3. Connect the USB type A connector of the USB cable to any of the USB type A connectors of the analyzer. Connect the USB type B connector of the USB cable to the
USB type B connector of the calibration unit.
4. Wait until the operating system has recognized and initialized the new hardware.
When the unit is connected for the first time, this may take longer than in normal use.
The unit is ready to be used, see ​chapter 3.5.5.2, "Performing an Automatic Calibration", on page 84.
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Safety aspects
3.5.5.2
●
The calibration unit is intended for direct connection to R&S ZNC network analyzers
following the procedure described above. You can also connect the unit before
switching on the analyzer. Do not connect the unit to other USB hosts, e.g. a PC, or
insert any USB hubs between the analyzer and the unit, as this may cause damage
to the unit or the host.
●
You can connect several calibration units to the different USB ports of the analyzer.
You can also connect cal units and other devices (mouse, USB memory stick etc.)
simultaneously.
●
An unused calibration unit may remain connected to the USB port while the network
analyzer is performing measurements. It must be disconnected during a firmware
update.
●
It is safe to connect or disconnect the calibration unit while the network analyzer is
operating. Never connect or disconnect the unit while data is being transferred
between the analyzer and the unit. Never connect the unit during a firmware update.
Performing an Automatic Calibration
After connection and initialization, you can use the calibration unit as follows:
1. Connect n analyzer ports (n = 1 or 2, depending on the number of ports to be calibrated) to n arbitrary ports of the calibration unit. Terminate all unused ports of the
unit (no. n + 1 to 2 or 4) with a 50 Ω match.
2. Perform the automatic calibration for the selected number of ports using the "Calibration Unit" wizard (CHANNEL > CAL > Start Cal (Cal Unit); see ​chapter 4.4.3.2,
"Calibration Unit Wizard", on page 234).
3. Remove the test cables from the unit, connect your DUT instead and perform calibrated measurements.
The assignment between the analyzer ports and the cal unit ports can be detected automatically. If auto-detection fails (e.g. because of a high attenuation in the signal path),
you can either enter the port assignment manually or connect matching port numbers
and select "Default Port Assignment".
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Accuracy considerations
To ensure an accurate calibration, please observe the following items:
●
Unused ports of the calibration unit must be terminated with a 50 Ω match.
●
No adaptors must be inserted between the calibration unit and the test ports of the
analyzer.
●
After connecting the unit to the USB port, allow for a sufficient warm-up time before
starting the calibration. Refer to the "Specifications" of the calibration unit for details.
●
To ensure best accuracy the analyzer automatically reduces the source power to –
10 dBm. If the test setup contains a large attenuation, deactivate "Auto Power Reduction for Cal Unit" in the "Calibration" tab of the "System Config" dialog and ensure an
input power of –10 dBm at the ports of the calibration unit (please also refer to the
"Specifications" of the calibration unit).
Maximum RF input power
The maximum RF input power of the calibration unit is beyond the RF output power range
of the analyzer, so there is no risk of damage if the device is directly connected to the
test ports. If you use an external power amplifier, make sure that the maximum RF input
power of the calibration unit quoted in the data sheet is never exceeded.
The available calibration types depend on the number of ports. For a single calibrated
port, the reflection calibration types are available ("Refl Norm Open", "Refl Norm Short",
"Refl OSM").
For 2 ports, the analyzer provides the following additional calibration types:
3.5.5.3
●
A single full 2-port (TOSM or UOSM) calibration.
●
Two full one-port calibrations for the two calibrated ports.
●
A one path two port calibration. The node port is the source port for the one path two
port calibration (fully calibrated port).
●
A transmission normalization (bidirectional, forward or reverse). "Forward" transmission normalization means that the signal direction is from port 1 to port 2.
Characterization of Calibration Units
Each calibration unit is delivered with factory characterization data which ensure an
accurate calibration for all standard applications. For specific modifications of the test
setup, e.g. the connection of additional adapters to a calibration unit, a modified set of
characterization data (suitable for the cal unit with adapters) may be desirable. The R&S
ZNC provides a characterization wizard which you can use to generate your own characterization data sets for (modified) R&S cal units. The characterization data can be
stored in the cal unit and used for automatic calibration whenever needed.
A cal unit characterization can be performed in a frequency sweep. The network analyzer
must be properly calibrated, with the reference plane at the input ports of the (modifed)
cal unit to be characterized.
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Calibration
The procedure involves the following steps:
1. Perform a calibration of your network analyzer, using the test setup and the calibration
type you wish to perform with your calibration unit.
2. Connect the calibration unit to the network analyzer.
3. Access the "Characterize Cal Unit" dialog ("CHANNEL > CAL > Cal Devices > Characterize Cal Unit") and start the characterization wizard.
4. Step through the wizard, following the instructions in the dialogs.
Dependency between calibration types and characterization data
A cal unit characterization provides full one-port (OSM) data at the selected ports plus
two-port (Through) data between any pair of selected ports. The measurement of
Through data is optional, however, it is required for some calibration types. The following
table gives an overview.
Calibration type
Characterization data required
Refl Norm Open
OSM CalPort 1, OSM CalPort2 ... (all calibrated ports)
Refl Norm Short
Refl OSM
UOSM
TOSM
Trans Norm Both
OSM CalPort 1, OSM CalPort2 ... (all calibrated
ports), Through (between all pairs of ports)
Trans Norm Forward
One Path Two Ports
3.5.6 Scalar Power Calibration
The purpose of a scalar power calibration is to ensure accurate source power levels and
power readings at a particular position (calibration plane) in the test setup. Scalar power
calibration is essentially different from the system error correction described in ​chapter 3.5, "Calibration", on page 67.
A power calibration is required for accurate measurement of wave quantities or ratios
(see section ​chapter 3.1.5, "Data Flow", on page 17). For best accuracy, choose a calibration method according to the table below.
Table 3-7: System error correction and power calibration for various measurements
Measurement
System error correction
Scalar power calibration
S-parameter meas. on linear DUTs Yes, necessary
Not necessary
Meas. of wave quantities or ratios
on linear or non-linear DUTs
a-wave: power (source) necessary
Yes, recommended
Power sweep, e.g. for compression Yes, necessary
point measurement
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b-wave: meas. receiver necessary
Power (source): necessary
Meas. receiver: not necessary
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In general, a power calibration involves two stages:
1. Source power calibration: An external power meter is connected to the calibration
plane. The analyzer uses the power meter readings to calibrate its reference receiver.
Subsequently, it modifies its source power so that the calibrated reference receiver
reading corresponds to the desired source power value (flatness calibration).
2. Measurement receiver calibration: The analyzer uses the calibrated source signal
to adjust the power reading at the receive port.
3.5.6.1
Source Power Calibration
A source power calibration ensures an accurate power of the generated wave at an arbitrary calibration plane in the measurement path. Typically the calibration plane corresponds to the input of the DUT.
In a frequency sweep, the power at the calibration plane is maintained at a constant "Cal
Power" value. The source power calibration eliminates frequency response errors in the
signal path between the source and the calibration plane. It is possible to introduce an
arbitrary attenuation or gain into the signal path so that the cal power is not restricted to
the power range of the source. A typical application for a power calibration in a frequency
sweep is the measurement of the gain of an amplifier across a frequency range but at a
fixed input power.
In a power sweep, the power calibration ensures that the power at the calibration plane
is either constant or a linear function of the stimulus power. A typical application for a
power calibration in a power sweep is the measurement of the gain of an amplifier across
a power range but at a fixed frequency. The correction data acquired in a frequency or
power sweep is re-used if a "Time" or "CW Mode" sweep is activated.
Calibration procedure
The source power calibration requires an external power meter, to be connected via GPIB
bus, USB or LAN interface. Use the USB-to-IEC/IEEE Adapter (option R&S ZVAB-B44 )
to control devices equipped with a GPIB interface. The power sensor can be connected
directly at the calibration plane or to any other point in the test setup where the signal
power is known to be proportional to the power at the calibration plane.
The source power calibration involves several steps:
1. Reference receiver calibration: The analyzer performs a first calibration sweep at
the source power that is likely to produce the target power ("Cal Power") at the calibration plane. A known attenuation or gain at the source port and in the signal path
between the source port and the calibration plane can be taken into account:
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The power which the external power meter measured at the calibration plane is displayed in the calibration sweep diagram, together with the reference receiver reading.
The difference between the two traces is used to correct the reference receiver reading, i.e. the reference receiver is calibrated by the external power meter results.
2. Internal source power flatness calibration: In the following steps, the calibrated
reference receiver is used to adjust the source power. To this end, the R&S ZNC
performs a series of calibration sweeps at varying source power until the number of
"Total Readings" is reached or until the deviation between the calibrated reference
receiver power and the cal power is below a specified "Tolerance". The external
power meter is no longer used for these repeated calibration sweeps; everything is
based on the previously calibrated reference receiver. This speeds up the calibration
procedure but does not impair its accuracy.
3. After the flatness calibration, the R&S ZNC performs an additional verification sweep
in order to demonstrate the accuracy of the calibration.
After the source power calibration, one can expect the power at the calibration plane to
be within the range of uncertainty of the power meter. The reference receiver reading
corresponds to the calibrated source power. After a change of the sweep points or sweep
range, the analyzer interpolates or extrapolates the calibration data; see ​chapter 3.5.6.3,
"Power Calibration Labels", on page 89.
3.5.6.2
Measurement Receiver Calibration
A measurement receiver calibration ensures that the power readings at a specified
receive port of the analyzer (b-waves) agree with the source power level calibrated at an
arbitrary calibration plane. Typically, the calibration plane is at the input of the receiver
so that the calibration eliminates frequency response errors in the calibrated receiver.
In contrast, the reference receiver calibration, which is automatically performed together
with the (source) power calibration, ensures correct power readings for the generated
waves (a-waves).
A measurement receiver calibration generally improves the accuracy of power (wave
quantity) measurements. The correction data acquired in a frequency or power sweep is
re-used if a "Time" or "CW Mode" sweep is activated.
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Calibration procedure
The measurement receiver calibration is based on a received wave bn with known power.
The calibration involves a connection to a (previously source power-calibrated) source
port.
The received wave to calibrate is generated by the other analyzer port Pm (m ≠ n). Alternatively, it is possible to connect an Open or Short standard to port Pn: The measurement
receiver is calibrated using the reflected wave an.
The measurement receiver calibration involves a single calibration sweep. The calibration
sweep is performed with current channel settings but with a maximum IF bandwidth of
10 kHz. Smaller IF bandwidths are maintained during the calibration sweep; larger bandwidths are restored after the sweep. The analyzer measures the power at each sweep
point, compares the result with the nominal power of the source, and compiles a correction table.
An acoustic signal indicates the end of the calibration sweep. At the same time, a checkmark symbol next to the calibrated source indicates the status of the measurement
receiver calibration. After a change of the sweep points or sweep range, the analyzer
interpolates or extrapolates the calibration data.
3.5.6.3
Power Calibration Labels
Power calibration labels in the trace list for wave quantities and ratios inform you about
the status and type of the current scalar power calibration. The labels appear in the following instances:
●
For a-waves, if a source power calibration is available.
●
For b-waves, if a measurement receiver power calibration is available.
●
For ratios between a- and b-waves, if both a source power and a measurement
receiver power calibration is available.
Calibration of S-parameters
S-parameters and derived quantities (e.g. impedances, admittances, stability factors) are
assumed to be linear.
Therefore, a scalar power calibration is not applied to S-parameters and derived quantities; no power calibration labels appear in the trace list.
Table 3-8: Power calibration labels
Label
Meaning
PCal
A scalar power calibration is available and applied without interpolation or extrapolation
(see below).
This means that a set of measured correction data is available at each sweep point.
PCai
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The power calibration is applied, however, the correction data for at least one sweep
point is interpolated from the measured values. This means that the channel settings
have been changed so that a current sweep point is different from the calibrated sweep
points. It is not possible to disable interpolation.
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Label
Meaning
PCao
The power calibration is applied, however, the source power (channel base power) was
changed.
PCax
The power calibration is applied, however the calibration data is extrapolated. The current stimulus range exceeds the calibrated stimulus range. The power calibration data
of the first calibrated sweep point is used for all smaller stimulus values; the power
calibration data of the last calibrated sweep point is used for all larger stimulus values.
PCal Off
The power calibration is no longer applied (e.g. deliberately turned off in the "Calibration
> Use Cal " softtool panel).
A lower label in the list has priority over the higher labels (e.g. if the power calibration is
interpolated and the source power is changed, then the label PCao is displayed).
Interpolation and extrapolation
The analyzer can interpolate and extrapolate power correction data so that a source or
receiver power calibration can be reused after a change of the frequency sweep range:
3.5.6.4
●
At new sweep points within the calibrated sweep range, interpolation is applied to
calculate the correction data. A label "PCai" in the trace list indicates an interpolated
power calibration.
●
At new sweep points outside the calibrated sweep range, the correction values are
extrapolated: Sweep points below the lowest calibrated frequency are assigned the
correction value of the lowest frequency. Sweep points above the highest calibrated
frequency are assigned the correction value of the highest frequency. A label
"PCax" in the trace list indicates an extrapolated power calibration.
Extended Test Setups
The power calibration data can be modified to account for an additional two-port device
in the test setup. The known transmission coefficients of the two-port can be entered
manually or automatically ("CHANNEL > CAL > Pwr Cal Settings > Transm. Coefficients"). The R&S ZNC supports two different test scenarios.
A: Two-port at DUT (during measurement)
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Test and measurement procedure:
1. Perform the calibration without the additional two-port. During the calibration the
analyzer decreases the power sensor values by the 2-port transmission coefficients
to move the calibration plane of the power calibration towards the input of the DUT.
The calibration plane corresponds to the output of the 2-port which is placed inbetween the network analyzer port and the DUT.
2. Perform the measurement with the additional two-port.
Practical example: On-wafer measurements. The power sensor cannot be directly connected to the input of the DUT. The transmission coefficients of the wafer probe are used
for the power meter correction.
B: Two-port at power meter (during calibration)
Test and measurement procedure:
1. Perform the calibration with the additional two-port between the analyzer port and the
power sensor. During the calibration the analyzer increases the power sensor values
by the 2-port transmission coefficients to move the calibration plane of the power
calibration towards the input of the DUT. The calibration plane corresponds to the
input of the additional 2-port.
2. Perform the measurement without the additional two-port.
Practical example: An adapter or attenuator with known attenuation is needed to connected the power sensor to the test port of the network analyzer. The transmission coefficients of the adapter are used for the power meter correction.
3.6 Offset Parameters and Embedding
The R&S ZNC functionality described in this section complements the calibration, compensating for the effect of known transmission lines between the calibrated reference
plane and the DUT.
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3.6.1 Offset Parameters
Offset parameters compensate for the known length and loss of a (non-dispersive and
perfectly matched) transmission line between the calibrated reference plane and the
DUT.
The analyzer can also auto-determine length and loss parameters, assuming that the
actual values should minimize the group delay and loss across the sweep range.
3.6.1.1
Definition of Offset Parameters
The delay is the propagation time of a wave traveling through the transmission line. The
electrical length is equal to the delay times the speed of light in the vacuum and is a
measure for the length of the transmission line between the standard and the actual
calibration plane. For a line with permittivity εr and mechanical length Lmech the delay
and the electrical length are calculated as follows:
Delay 
Lmech   r
; Electrical Length  Lmech   r
c
In the "CHANNEL > OFFSET EMBED > Offset" tab, "Electrical Length, Mechanical
Length" or "Delay" are coupled parameters. When one of them is changed, the other two
follow.
For a non-dispersive DUT, the delay defined above is constant over the considered frequency range and equal to the negative derivative of the phase response with respect to
the frequency (see mathematical relations). The length offset parameters compensate
for a constant delay, which is equivalent to a linear phase response.
3.6.1.2
Definition of Loss Parameters
The loss "L" is the attenuation of a wave when traveling through the offset transmission
line. In logarithmic representation, the loss can be modeled as the sum of a constant and
a frequency-dependent part. The frequency dependence is essentially due to the skin
effect; the total loss can be approximated by an expression of the following form:


Loss ( f )  Loss ( f ref )  LossDC 
f
f ref
 LossDC
The "Loss at DC" LossDC, the reference "Frequency for Loss" fref, and the loss at the
reference frequency Loss(fref) are empirical parameters for the transmission lines connected to each port which can be entered in the "CHANNEL > OFFSET EMBED > DC
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Loss" tab. For a lossless transmission line, LossDC = Loss(fref) = 0 dB. In practice, the
frequency-dependent loss often represents the dominant contribution so that LossDC can
be set to zero.
Experimentally, the two loss values LossDC and Loss(fref) are determined in two separate
measurements at a very low frequency (f --> 0) and at f = fref.
3.6.1.3
Auto Length
The "Auto Length" function ("CHANNEL > OFFSET EMBED > Offset > Auto Length")
adds an electrical length offset to a test port with the condition that the residual delay of
the active trace (defined as the negative derivative of the phase response) is minimized
across the entire sweep range. If "Delay" is the selected trace format, the entire trace is
shifted in vertical direction and centered around zero. In phase format, the "Auto
Length" corrected trace shows the deviation from linear phase.
Length and delay measurement, related settings
"Auto Length" is suited for length and delay measurements on transmission lines.
1. Connect a (non-dispersive) cable to a single analyzer port no. n and measure the
reflection factor Snn.
2. Select "Auto Length".
The delay is displayed in the "CHANNEL > OFFSET EMBED > Offset > Auto
Length" tab. The cable length, depending on the velocity factor, can be read in the
"Mechanical Length" field.
It is also possible to determine cable lengths using a transmission measurement. Note
that "Auto Length" always provides the single cable length and the delay for a propagation in one direction.
The analyzer provides alternative ways for delay measurements:
1. Measure the reflection factor and select "TRACE > FORMAT > Delay". This yields
the delay for propagation in forward and reverse direction and should be approx. twice
the "Auto Length" result. For transmission measurements, both results should be
approx. equal.
2. Measure the reflection factor and select "TRACE > FORMAT > Phase". Place a
marker to the trace and activate "TRACE > TRACE CONFIG > Trace Statistics >
Phase / El Length". This yields the delay in one direction and should be approx. equal
to the "Auto Length" result.
The measurement results using trace formats and trace statistics functions depend on
the selected delay aperture and evaluation range. Auto Length is particularly accurate
because it uses all sweep points. For non-dispersive cables, aperture and evaluation
range effects are expected to vanish.
Use "Zero Delay at Marker" to set the delay at a special trace point to zero.
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Preconditions for Auto Length, effect on measured quantities and exceptions
"Auto Length" is enabled if the measured quantity contains the necessary phase information as a function of frequency, and if the interpretation of the results is unambiguous:
●
A frequency sweep must be active.
●
The measured quantity must be an S-parameter, ratio, wave quantity, a converted
impedance or a converted admittance.
The effect of "Auto Length" on S-parameters, wave quantities and ratios is to eliminate
a linear phase response as described above. The magnitude of the measured quantity
is not affected. Converted admittances or impedances are calculated from the corresponding "Auto Length" corrected S-parameters. Y-parameters, Z-parameters and stability factors are not derived from a single S-parameter, therefore "Auto Length" is disabled.
Auto Length for logical ports
The "Auto Length" function can be used for balanced port configurations as well. If the
active test port is a logical port, then the same length offset must be assigned to both
physical ports that are combined to form the logical port. If different length offsets have
been assigned to the physical ports before, they are both corrected by the same amount.
3.6.1.4
Auto Length and Loss
The "Auto Length and Loss" function ("CHANNEL > OFFSET EMBED > One Way Loss
> Auto Length and Loss") determines all offset parameters such that the residual group
delay of the active trace (defined as the negative derivative of the phase response) is
minimized and the measured loss is minimized as far as possible across the entire sweep
range.
"Auto Length and Loss" involves a two-step procedure:
●
An "Auto Length" correction modifies the phase of the measured quantity, minimizing
the residual group delay. The magnitude of the measured quantity is not affected.
●
The "Auto Loss" correction modifies the magnitude of the measured quantity, leaving
the (auto length-corrected) phase unchanged.
Preconditions for Auto Length and Loss, effect on measured quantities and exceptions
"Auto Length and Loss" is enabled if the measured quantity contains the necessary phase
information as a function of the frequency, and if the interpretation of the results is unambiguous:
●
A frequency sweep must be active.
●
The measured quantity must be an S-parameter, ratio, wave quantity, a converted
impedance or a converted admittance.
The effect of "Auto Length and Loss" on S-parameters, wave quantities and ratios is to
eliminate a linear phase response and account for a loss as described above. Converted
admittances or impedances are calculated from the corresponding "Auto Length and
Loss" corrected S-parameters. Y-parameters, Z-parameters and stability factors are not
derived from a single S-parameter, therefore "Auto Length and Loss" is disabled.
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Calculation of loss parameters
The loss is assumed to be given in terms of the DC loss LossDC, the reference frequency
fref, and the loss at the reference frequency Loss(fref). The formula used in the Auto Loss
algorithm is similar to the formula for manual entry of the loss parameters (see ​chapter 3.6.1.2, "Definition of Loss Parameters ", on page 92).
The result is calculated according to the following rules:
●
The reference frequency fref is kept at its previously defined value (default: 1 GHz).
●
The DC loss c is zero except for wave quantities and for S-parameters and ratios with
maximum dB magnitude larger than –0.01 dB.
●
"Auto Length and Loss" for a wave quantity centers the corrected dB magnitude as
close as possible around 0 dBm.
●
"Auto Length and Loss" for S-parameters and ratios centers the corrected dB magnitude as close as possible around 0 dB.
The resulting offset parameters are displayed in the "CHANNEL > EFFSET EMBED >
Offset" tab.
Auto Length and Loss for logical ports
The "Auto Length and Loss" function can be used for balanced port configurations as
well. If the active test port is a logical port, then the same offset parameters must be
assigned to both physical ports that are combined to form the logical port. If different offset
parameters have been assigned to the physical ports before, they are both corrected by
the same amount.
3.6.1.5
Fixture Compensation
Fixture compensation is an automated length offset and loss compensation for test fixtures with up to four ports (for 4-port analyzers). The analyzer performs a one-port reflection measurement at each port, assuming the inner contacts of the test fixtures to be
terminated with an open or short circuit.
Fixture compensation complements a previous system error correction and replaces a
possible manual length offset and loss correction. For maximum accuracy, it is recommendable to place the reference plane as close as possible towards the outer test fixture
connectors using a full n-port calibration. The fixture compensation is then carried out in
a second step, it only has to compensate for the effect of the test fixture connections.
The following features can further improve the accuracy of the fixture compensation:
●
"Direct Compensation" provides a frequency-dependent transmission factor (instead
of a global electrical length and loss).
●
"Open and Short" causes the analyzer to calculate the correction data from two subsequent sweeps. The results are averaged in order to compensate for errors due to
non-ideal terminations.
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Auto Length and Loss vs. Direct Compensation
"Auto Length and Loss" compensation is a descriptive correction type: The effects of the
test fixture connection are traced back to quantities that are commonly used to characterize transmission lines.
Use this correction type if your test fixture connections have suitable properties in the
considered frequency range:
●
The electrical length is approximately constant.
●
The loss varies essentially due to the skin effect.
"Direct Compensation" provides a frequency-dependent transmission factor. The phase
of the transmission factor is calculated from the square root of the measured reflection
factor, assuming a reciprocal test fixture. The sign ambiguity of this calculated transmission factor is resolved by a comparison with the phase obtained in an Auto Length calculation. This compensation type is recommended for test fixture connections that do not
have the properties described above.
A "Direct Compensation" resets the offset parameters to zero.
Open / Short vs. Open and Short compensation
A non-ideal open or short termination of the test fixture connections during fixture compensation impairs subsequent measurements, causing an artificial ripple in the measured
reflection factor of the DUT. If you observe this effect, an "Open and Short" compensation
may improve the accuracy.
"Open and Short" compensation is more time-consuming because it requires two consecutive fixture compensation sweeps for each port, the first with an open, the second
with a short circuit. The analyzer automatically calculates suitable averages from both
fixture compensation sweeps in order to compensate for the inaccuracies of the individual
"Open and Short" compensations.
3.6.1.6
Application and Effect of Offset Parameters
Offset and loss parameters can be particularly useful if the reference plane of the calibration cannot be placed directly at the DUT ports, e.g. because the DUT has non-coaxial
ports and can only be measured in a test fixture. Offset parameters can also help to avoid
a new complete system error correction if a cable with known properties has to be included in the test setup.
●
A positive length offset moves the reference plane of the port towards the DUT, which
is equivalent to deembedding the DUT by numerically removing a (perfectly matched)
transmission line at that port.
●
A negative offset moves the reference plane away from the DUT, which is equivalent
to embedding the DUT by numerically adding a (perfectly matched) transmission line
at that port.
The offset parameters are also suited for length and delay measurements; see ​chapter 3.6.1.3, "Auto Length", on page 93. The parameters cannot compensate for a possible
mismatch in the test setup.
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Each offset parameter is assigned to a particular port. The delay parameters affect the
phase of all measured quantities related to this port; the loss parameters affect their
magnitude. An offset at port 1 affects the S-parameters S11, S21, S12, S31... Some quantities (like the Z-parameters) depend on the whole of all S-parameters, so they are all
more or less affected when one S-parameter changes due to the addition of an offset
length.
To account for the propagation in both directions, the phase shift of a reflection parameter
due to a given length offset is twice the phase shift of a transmission parameter. If, at a
frequency of 300 MHz, the electrical length is increased by 250 mm (λ/4), then the phase
of S21 increases by 90 deg, whereas the phase of S11 increases by 180 deg.
Equivalent relations hold for the loss.
If the trace is displayed in "Delay" format, changing the offset parameters simply shifts
the whole trace in vertical direction.
The sign of the phase shift is determined as follows:
3.6.1.7
●
A positive offset parameter causes a positive phase shift of the measured parameter
and therefore reduces the calculated group delay.
●
A negative offset parameter causes a negative phase shift of the measured parameter and therefore increases the calculated group delay.
Offset Parameters for Balanced Ports
The offset parameters can be used for balanced port configurations:
●
Offset parameters must be assigned to both physical ports of a logical port.
●
"Auto Length" corrects the length offset of both physical ports of a logical port by the
same amount.
3.7 Optional Extensions and Accessories
The network analyzer can be upgraded with a number of hardware and software options,
providing enhanced flexibility and an extended measurement functionality. The available
options are listed in the "Info" dialog ("SETUP > Setup > Info..."). For a complete list of
options, accessories, and extras refer to the product brochure of your analyzer or to the
"Ordering Information" section of the R&S ZNC product pages on the internet.
The following sections provide an introduction to the software and hardware options
described in this documentation. The use of external power meters and generators does
not require any additional hardware or software options; it is described at the end of the
chapter.
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3.7.1 Time Domain (R&S ZNC-K2)
The network analyzer measures and displays complex S-parameters and other quantities
as a function of the frequency. The measurement results can be filtered and mathematically transformed in order to obtain the time domain representation, which often gives a
clearer insight into the characteristics of the DUT.
Time domain transforms can be calculated in band pass or low pass mode. For the latter
the analyzer offers the impulse and step response as two alternative transformation
types. A wide selection of windows can be used to optimize the time domain response
and suppress sidelobes due to the finite sweep range. Moreover, it is possible to eliminate
unwanted responses by means of a time gate and transform the gated result back into
the frequency domain.
For a detailed discussion of the time domain transformation including many examples
refer to the application note 1EZ44_OE which is posted on the R&S internet.
3.7.1.1
Chirp z-Transformation
The Chirp z-transformation that the analyzer uses to compute the time domain response
is an extension of the (inverse) Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). Compared to the FFT, the
number of sweep points is arbitrary (not necessarily an integer power of 2), but the computation time is increased by approx. a factor of 2. This increased computation time is
usually negligible compared to the sweep times of the analyzer.
The following properties of the Chirp z-transformation are relevant for the analyzer settings:
●
The frequency points must be equidistant.
●
The time domain response is repeated after a time interval which is equal to Δt = 1/
Δf, where Δf is the spacing between two consecutive sweep points in the frequency
domain. For a sweep span of 4 GHz and 201 equidistant sweep points, Δf = 4 GHz/
200 = 2 * 107 Hz, so that Δt = 50 ns. Δt is termed measurement range (in time domain)
or unambiguous range.
Additional constraints apply if the selected Chirp z-transformation is a lowpass transformation.
3.7.1.2
Band Pass and Low Pass Mode
The analyzer provides two essentially different types of time domain transforms:
●
Band pass mode : The time domain transform is based on the measurement results
obtained in the sweep range between any set of positive start and stop values. The
sweep points must be equidistant. No assumption is made about the measurement
point at zero frequency (DC value). The time domain result is complex with a generally
undetermined phase depending on the delay of the signal.
●
Low pass mode : The measurement results are continued towards f = 0 (DC value)
and mirrored at the frequency origin so that the effective sweep range (and thus the
response resolution) is more than doubled. Together with the DC value, the condition
of equidistant sweep points implies that the frequency grid must be harmonic. Due
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to the symmetry of the trace in the frequency domain, the time domain result is harmonic.
See also ​chapter 3.7.1.4, "Harmonic Grid", on page 100.
Two different types of response are available in low pass mode; see below.
Table 3-9: Comparison of band pass and low pass modes
Transform
type
Band pass
Low pass
Advantages
Easiest to use: works with any set of equidis- Higher response resolution (doubled)
tant sweep points
Includes information about DC value
Real result
Impulse and step response
Restrictions
No step response
Needs harmonic grid
Undetermined phase
Use for...
Scalar measurements where the phase is not Scalar measurements where the sign is of
needed
interest
DUTs that don't operate down to f = 0 (e.g.
pass band or high pass filters)
DUT's with known DC value
Impulse and step response
In low pass mode, the analyzer can calculate two different types of responses:
●
The impulse response corresponds to the response of a DUT that is stimulated with
a short pulse.
●
The step response corresponds to the response of a DUT that is stimulated with a
voltage waveform that transitions from zero to unity.
The two alternative responses are mathematically equivalent; the step response can be
obtained by integrating the impulse response:
Integrate impulse
response
Obtain step
response
The step response is recommended for impedance measurements and for the analysis
of discontinuities (especially inductive and capacitive discontinuities). The impulse
response has an unambiguous magnitude and is therefore recommended for most other
applications.
3.7.1.3
Windows in the Frequency Domain
The finite sweep range in a frequency domain measurement with the discontinuous transitions at the start and stop frequency broadens the impulses and causes sidelobes
(ringing) in the time domain response. The windows offered in the "Define Transform"
dialog can reduce this effect and optimize the time domain response. The windows have
the following characteristics:
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Table 3-10: Properties of frequency windows
3.7.1.4
Window
Sidelobe suppres- Relative impulse
sion
width
Best for...
No Profiling (Rectangle)
13 dB
1
–
Low First Sidelobe
(Hamming)
43 dB
1.4
Response resolution: separation of closely
spaced responses with comparable amplitude
Normal Profile
(Hann)
32 dB
1.6
Good compromise between pulse width
and sidelobe suppression
Steep Falloff (Bohman)
46 dB
1.9
Dynamic range: separation of distant
responses with different amplitude
Arbitrary Sidelobes
(Dolph-Chebychev)
User defined
between 10 dB and
120 dB
1.2 (at 32 dB sidelobe suppression)
Adjustment to individual needs; tradeoff
between sidelobe suppression and
impulse width
Harmonic Grid
A harmonic grid is formed by a set of equidistant frequency points fi (i = 1...n) with spacing
Δf and the additional condition that f1 = Δf. In other words, all frequencies fi are set to
harmonics of the start frequency f1.
If a harmonic grid, including the DC value (f = 0), is mirrored to the negative frequency
range, the result is again an equidistant grid.
The point symmetry with respect to the DC value makes harmonic grids suitable for lowpass time domain transformations.
Visualization of the harmonic grid algorithms
The R&S ZNC provides three different algorithms for harmonic grid calculation. The three
harmonic grids have the following characteristics:
●
Keep "Stop Frequency and Number of Points" means that the stop frequency and the
number of sweep points is maintained. The sweep points are re-distributed across
the range between the minimum frequency of the analyzer and the stop frequency;
the step width may be increased.
●
Keep "Frequency Gap and Number of Points" means that the number of sweep points
and their relative spacing is maintained. If the start frequency of the sweep is suffi-
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ciently above the fmin, the entire set of sweep points is shifted towards lower frequencies so that the stop frequency is decreased.
If the start frequency of the sweep is close to fmin, then the sweep points may have
to be shifted towards higher frequencies. If the last sweep point of the calculated
harmonic grid exceeds the maximum frequency of the analyzer, then an error message is displayed, and another harmonic grid algorithm must be used.
●
Keep "Stop Frequency and Approximate Frequency Gap" means that the stop frequency is maintained and the number of sweep points is increased until the range
between fmin and the stop frequency is filled. The frequency gap is approximately
maintained.
The figures above are schematic and do not comply with the conditions placed on the
number of sweep points and interpolated/extrapolated values.
The harmonic grids can not be calculated for any set of sweep points. If the minimum
number of sweep points is smaller than 5, then the interpolation/extrapolation algorithm
for additional sweep points will not work. The same is true if the number of sweep points
or stop frequency exceeds the upper limit. Besides, the ratio between the sweep range
and the interpolation range between f = 0 and f = fmin must be large enough to ensure
accurate results. If the sweep range for the harmonic grid exceeds the frequency range
of the current system error correction, a warning is displayed.
Finding the appropriate algorithm
The three types of harmonic grids have different advantages and drawbacks. Note that
for a bandpass transformation the grid parameters have the following effect:
●
A wider sweep range (i.e. a larger bandwidth) increases the time domain resolution.
●
A smaller frequency gap extends the unambiguous range.
●
A larger number of points increases the sweep time.
With default analyzer settings, the difference between the grid types are small. The following table helps you find the appropriate grid.
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Table 3-11: Properties of grid types
Grid type: Keep
3.7.1.5
Sweep
time
Time
domain
Unambiguous
resolution
range
Algorithm fails if...
Stop freq. and no. of
points
–
Freq. gap and no. of
points
Stop frequency beyond upper frequency limit
Stop freq. and approx.
freq. gap
Number of sweep points beyond limit
Time Gates
A time gate is used to eliminate unwanted responses that appear on the time domain
transform. An active time gate acts on the trace in time domain as well as in frequency
domain representation.
The properties of the time gates are analogous to the properties of the frequency domain
windows. The following table gives an overview:
Table 3-12: Properties of time gates
Window
Sidelobe
Passband
suppression
ripple
Steepest Edges
(Rectangle)
13 dB
0.547 dB
Eliminate small distortions in the vicinity of the
useful signal, if demands on amplitude accuracy
are low
Steep Edges
(Hamming)
43 dB
0.019 dB
Good compromise between edge steepness and
sidelobe suppression
Normal Gate
(Hann)
32 dB
0.032 dB
Good compromise between edge steepness and
sidelobe suppression
Maximum Flatness (Bohman)
46 dB
0 dB
Maximum attenuation of responses outside the
gate span
Arbitrary Gate
Shape (DolphChebychev)
User defined
0.071 dB
Adjustment to individual needs; tradeoff
between sidelobe suppression and edge steepness
between 10 dB
and 120 dB
Best for...
Time-Gated Frequency Domain Trace
The trace in the frequency domain depends on the state of the "Time Gate":
●
If the gate is disabled, the frequency domain (FD) trace corresponds to the measured
sweep results prior to the time-domain transformation.
●
If the gate is enabled, the displayed frequency domain trace is calculated from the
time domain (TD) trace which is gated and transformed back into the frequency
domain.
The analyzer uses fixed "No Profiling (Rectangle)" window settings to transform the
measured trace into time domain. The TD trace is gated using the selected time gate.
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The gated trace is transformed back into frequency domain using a "No Profiling (Rectangle)" window.
The shape, width and position of the time gate affect the gated frequency domain trace.
The window type selection in the "Define Transform" dialog is ignored. The selected window is used again when the TD trace is displayed ("Time Domain: On").
The rectangular "No Profiling (Rectangle) "windows minimize numerical inaccuracies
near the boundaries of the measured frequency span. In the limit where the effect of the
time gate vanishes (e.g. a gate of type "Notch" and a very small width), the time gated
trace is equal to the original measured trace.
3.7.2 GPIB Interface (R&S ZNC-B10)
The hardware option R&S ZNC-B10, "GPIB Interface", provides a GPIB bus connector
according to standard IEEE 488 / IEC 625. The GPIB interface is mostly intended for
remote control purposes and for the connection of external devices, e.g. power meters.
For details refer to ​chapter 9.1.3, "GPIB Interface", on page 739.
3.7.3 Handler I/O (Universal Interface, R&S ZN-B14)
A network analyzer which is equipped with option R&S ZN-B14, Handler I/O (Universal
Interface), can interact with an external part handler. The digital control signals on the
interface connector indicate the possible start and the end of a measurement, as well as
a global limit check result. Typically, the handler will insert the device to be tested into a
test fixture, provide a trigger pulse to initiate the measurement, remove and replace the
device after the measurement is complete and sort it into pass/fail bins. For details refer
to ​chapter 9.1.4, "Universal Interface", on page 742.
3.7.4 Extended Power Range
Option R&S ZNC3-B22 decreases the minimum receive power down to -50 dBm.
It is also required to manually configure AGC for a-waves (see ​Manual Config...).
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3.7.5 External Power Meters
The connection of an external power meter to the R&S ZNC can serve different purposes.
●
Extended measurement functionality: Each external power meter represents an additional receive port. External generators increase the number of RF output signals of
a DUT that the analyzer can measure simultaneously. They can also provide accurate
results for signals at inaccurate or unknown frequencies. A typical example is a mixer
measurement with an unknown LO signal (and therefore unknown IF output frequency).
●
Power calibration: An external power meter can measure the exact signal power at
an arbitrary point in the test setup (reference plane) and thus provide the reference
values for a power calibration. A typical example is a source power calibration for an
arbitrary analyzer port.
External power meters must be configured with their connection type and device address
before they are available as additional receivers ("SYSTEM SETUP > External Devices
> Power Meters"). Configured power meters appear in many control elements of the R&S
ZNC, e.g. in the in the port configuration and in the power calibration dialogs.
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Zeroing
Zeroing calibrates the external power meter by adjusting its reading at zero signal power.
For this purpose, the RF cable between the analyzer and the power sensor must be
disconnected (see tips below!). R&S power sensors and power meters automatically
detect the presence of any significant input power. This aborts zeroing and generates an
error message. Zeroing can take a few seconds, depending on the power meter model;
refer to the documentation of your external power meter for more information.
Repeat zeroing
●
During warm-up after switching on or connecting the instrument
●
After a substantial change of the ambient temperature
●
After fastening the power meter to an RF connector at high temperature
●
After several hours of operation
●
When very low-power signals are to be measured, e.g. less than 10 dB above the
lower measurement limit.
A reset of the network analyzer does not affect the last zeroing result.
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File Settings
4 GUI Reference
This chapter explains all functions of the analyzer and their application. It is organized
according to the menus of the Graphical User Interface (GUI).
The topics in this chapter can be called up directly using the HELP key or the Help buttons
in the dialogs. A link at the end of each function description leads to the corresponding
remote control command.
For a general overview of the analyzer's capabilities and their use refer to ​chapter 3,
"Concepts and Features", on page 11.
4.1 File Settings
The "File" menu provides standard Windows® functions to create, save, recall or print
recall sets, to copy the active screen and to shut down the application.
4.1.1 File > Recall Sets
A recall set comprises a set of diagrams with all displayed information that can be stored
to a VNA recall set file (*.znx).
●
The "Display" commands arrange different windows on the screen.
●
The "File" commands organize recall sets.
The relation between global settings, recall sets, channels and traces is described in ​
chapter 3.1, "Basic Concepts", on page 11.
Access: SYSTEM > FILE key or Ctrl + O
4.1.1.1
Basic Recall Set Functions
To create a recall set based on the current analyzer configuration, select "Save". To open
an existing recall set, select "Open Recall".
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New
Creates a new recall set. The default names for recall sets are "Set1", "Set2" ... Recall
sets are accessible via tabs in the diagram area:
Tip: To open an existing recall set, use "Open Recall...". To rename a setup, use "Save..."
Remote command:
​MEMory:​DEFine​
Open Recall
Loads an existing recall set from a file. The analyzer opens a dialog box to select the file
from all VNA recall set files (*.znx) stored on the file system; see ​Recall dialog. The
opened recall set replaces the active recall set.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​LOAD:​STATe​
Recall dialog
Specifies the name and location of a particular file (e.g. a VNA recall set file) to open:
● "Look in:" specifies the drive and directory in which the file to open is stored. The
icons to the right of the pull-down list are provided for easy navigation in the file system
(place the cursor on the icons to obtain "What's this?" help).
● "File name:" specifies a file name (e.g. a recall set file, *.znx) to open. The file can be
selected by tapping on the directory overview above.
● "Files of type:" selects a particular file type (e.g. recall set files, *.znx) to be displayed
in the directory overview.
● "Open" opens selected file and closes the dialog.
● "Cancel" closes the dialog without opening a recall set file.
● "Windows Explorer" opens the selected directory in Windows Explorer.
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Save
Saves and names the active recall set. The analyzer opens a dialog box to select a recall
set file name (*.znx) and location for the recall set file.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​STORe:​STATe​
Save dialog
Specifies the name and location of a particular file (e.g. a VNA recall set file) to save:
● "Look in:" specifies the drive and directory in which the data is stored. The icons to
the right of the pull-down list are provided for easy navigation in the file system (place
the cursor on the icons to obtain "What's this?" help).
● "File name:" specifies a file name to save the current data (e.g. the recall set). The
analyzer adds the extension (e.g. *.znx) in the "Files of type:" field.
"Files
of type:" selects a particular file type (e.g. recall set files, *.znx) for the created
●
file.
● "Save" saves the data (e.g. the active recall set) in the selected file and directory and
closes the dialog.
● "Cancel" closes the dialog without saving the data.
● "Windows Explorer" opens the selected directory in Windows Explorer.
Tip: The "Save" dialog is used to store various data types (e.g. cal kit data, limit lines,
sweep segment lists, ...). Depending on its use the dialog is opened with different file
locations and file type filters. File locations (directories) are remembered when the dialog
is closed. To restore default directories use the "Presets" tab of the "SYSTEM > SETUP
> Setup > System Config" dialog. See ​chapter 4.6.2.1, "Presets", on page 309.
Recent Files
The buttons are labelled with the last recall sets which were stored in the current or in
previous sessions. They open the corresponding recall set.
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4.1.2 File > Print
The "File > Print" buttons allow to send the active recall set (i.e. the contents of the active
diagrams) to an external printer, to a file or to the clipboard.
Access: SYSTEM > PRINT key or Ctrl + P
Print (<Printer>)
Prints the active recall set using the current printer and printer settings.
Remote command:
The HCOPy... commands provide the printer settings; see ​chapter 6.3.7, "HCOPy
Commands", on page 495.
​HCOPy[:​IMMediate]​ initiates printing.
Print...
The "Printer Setup" dialog specifies how the active recall set is printed. Printer options
are specified in three tabs. The lower part of the diagram shows a preview of the print.
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Content ← Print...
The "Content > Print Charts" panel specifies how the diagrams of the active recall set are
printed. Refer to the text in the dialog for a description. The "Marker" and "Setup Info" is
printed on a separate page. The "Setup Info" provides a detailed list of the active channel
and trace settings and information about the analyzer.
Remote command:
The HCOPy... commands provide the printer settings; see ​chapter 6.3.7, "HCOPy
Commands", on page 495.
Printer ← Print...
The "Printer" settings select one of the installed printers and specify printer options.
Printers can be installed using the "Start > Control Panel > Hardware and Sound > Devices and Printers" menu in the Windows® "Control Panel".
Remote command:
The HCOPy... commands provide the printer settings; see ​chapter 6.3.7, "HCOPy
Commands", on page 495.
Page Setup ← Print...
The "Page Setup" settings are visualized in the preview page in the lower part of the
dialog.
Tip: The printer settings are not affected by a preset of the R&S ZNC. Use the
"Remote" tab in the "System Configuration" dialog ("SYSTEM > SETUP > Setup > System Config...") to restore default settings.
Remote command:
The HCOPy... commands provide the printer settings; see ​chapter 6.3.7, "HCOPy
Commands", on page 495.
To File...
The "Save Image" dialog selects a file and file format to store the current diagrams. See
also ​"Save dialog" on page 108.
Remote command:
​HCOPy:​DESTination​
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To Clipboard
Copies the current diagram to the clipboard from where you can paste it into another
application.
4.1.3 File > Trace Data
Imports and exports trace data. The settings are identical with the "TRACE > TRACE
CONFIG > Trace Data" settings; see ​chapter 4.2.4, "Trace Config Settings",
on page 147.
4.1.4 File > More
The "File > More" buttons load simulation data or close the VNA application.
Access: SYSTEM > FILE key or Ctrl + O
Load Simulation Data...
Imports previously stored trace data into the active diagram. The analyzer opens a dialog
box to select the file from all trace files (*.s?p, *.csv, *.dat) stored on the file
system; see ​Recall dialog. The opened trace replaces the active trace.
Exit
Saves the active recall set and ends the analyzer session. The active recall set is automatically recalled when the analyzer application is re-started.
Tip: This button is equivalent to the "Close" command on the application "Control" menu
(see ​chapter 4.9, "Control Menu", on page 328) and to the close icon in the title bar.
4.2 Trace Settings
The "Trace" menu provides all trace settings, limit check settings, and the marker functions including marker search.
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Background information
Refer to the following sections:
●
​chapter 3.1.3, "Traces, Channels and Diagrams", on page 12
●
​chapter 3.1.3.1, "Trace Settings", on page 13
●
​chapter 3.1.4, "Sweep Control", on page 14
4.2.1 Meas Settings
The "Meas" functions select the measured and displayed results.
Background information
For a detailed description of all measurement results of the R&S ZNC refer to ​chapter 3.3,
"Measurement Results", on page 43.
Efficient trace handling
To select a result and display it as a trace, you can simply drag and drop the corresponding button into a diagram area. See also section "Handling Diagrams, Traces, and
Markers" in the Help or in the "Getting Started" guide.
4.2.1.1
Meas > S-Params
Selects S-parameters as measured quantities.
Background information
Refer to ​chapter 3.3.1, "S-Parameters", on page 43.
Access: TRACE > MEAS key or Alt + Shift + A
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Some of the softkeys in the "S-Params" tab open dialogs.
●
see ​chapter 4.2.1.2, "S-Parameter Wizard", on page 114
●
see ​chapter 4.2.1.3, "Balanced Ports Dialog", on page 116
S-Parameter
Selects a scattering parameter (S-parameter) as measured quantity for the active trace.
For a channel setup with n logical ports, one of n2 S-parameters can be selected.
The S-parameters are the basic measured quantities of a network analyzer. They
describe how the DUT modifies a signal that is transmitted or reflected in forward or
reverse direction. For background information see ​chapter 3.3.1, "S-Parameters",
on page 43.
Single-ended (unbalanced) S-parameters are referred to as S<out>< in>, where <out>
and <in> denote the output and input logical port numbers, respectively.
In presence of balanced ports, S-parameters are defined in the form
S<m_out><m_in><out><in>, where output mode <m_out> and input mode <m_in> can
be one of
● d (differential, balanced)
● c (common, balanced)
● s (single-ended, unbalanced)
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​MEASure​ "<Trace_Name>", "S11" | "S12" |
"S21" | "S22" ...
Create new trace and select trace name and measurement parameter:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​SDEFine​ "<Trace_Name>", "S11" | "S12" |
"S21" | "S22" ...
S11 / S12 / S21 / S22
Selects one of the four elements of the standard 2-port scattering matrix (S-parameters)
as a measured quantity for the active trace.
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The S-parameters are the basic measured quantities of a network analyzer. They
describe how the DUT modifies a signal that is transmitted or reflected in forward or
reverse direction. S-parameters are expressed as S<out>< in>, where <out> and <in>
denote the output and input port numbers of the DUT.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​MEASure​ "<Trace_Name>", "S11" | "S12" |
"S21" | "S22"
Create new trace and select trace name and measurement parameter:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​SDEFine​ "<Trace_Name>", "S11" | "S12" |
"S21" | "S22"
All S-Params
Creates n2 diagrams (for an n-port vector network analyzer) and displays the full set of
S-parameters, one in each diagram. The diagrams are arranged as an (n x n) matrix. The
reflection coefficients Sii appear in the diagrams on the main diagonal, the transmission
coefficients Sij (i ≠ j) occupy the other diagrams. Reflection coefficients are displayed in
Smith diagrams; transmission coefficients in Cartesian diagrams with logarithmic ("dB
mag") scale.
See also: ​Format Settings
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​SDEFine​
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​DEFine:​SGRoup​
4.2.1.2
S-Parameter Wizard
The "S-Parameter Wizard" dialog consists of a series of dialogs providing the settings for
a standard two-port S-parameter measurement in a frequency sweep.
Access: E.g. TRACE > MEAS > S-Params > S-Param Wizard ...
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The measurement comprises the following stages:
1. Select the test setup
Choose the single-ended or balanced ports of the analyzer according to the port
configuration of your DUT and connect the DUT to the selected analyzer ports. This
dialog corresponds to the "Predefined Configs" tab of the "Balanced Ports" dialog;
see​"Predefined Configs" on page 117 .
2. Define port impedances
Assign reference impedances to all physical and balanced test ports selected in the
previous step. The reference impedances can be complex.
Tip: The default reference impedance of the physical analyzer ports is Z0 = 50 Ω. The
default reference impedances for balanced ports are derived hereof. You do not need
to change these value unless you want to renormalize the port impedances; see ​
chapter 3.3.5.4, "Reference Impedances", on page 56.
3. Select the measurement parameters and the diagram areas
Choose an S-parameter or a group of S-parameters to be measured and displayed.
The measurement parameters are displayed in separate diagram areas: Cartesian
diagram areas are used for transmission S-parameters, Cartesian or Smith diagrams
for reflection parameters. The selections to be made depend on the test setup
selected in the previous stage.
Tip: In case of an error in a previous stage, you can always use the "Back" button
and correct your settings.
4. Select the sweep settings
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Choose the frequency range and the number of measurement points per sweep. The
sweep range is defined by two values (start and stop frequency or center frequency
and span). The measurement points are equidistant across the sweep range.
Increasing the number of points also increases the measurement time per single
sweep.
5. Select the measurement bandwidth and source power
Choose a typical measurement bandwidth and one of three typical source power
values. A smaller measurement bandwidth increases the dynamic range but slows
down the measurement. A smaller source power protects the input port of the analyzer from being overdriven, especially if an active DUT with high gain is measured.
Note:
The predefined bandwidths and source powers have been selected according to the
following criteria:
●
●
The large measurement bandwidth ("Fast Sweep") ensures that the noise of a
S21 trace at minimum (–40 dBm) source power and 0 dB attenuation is smaller
than 0.1 dB.
The default source power for a passive DUT ensures that the analyzer receiver
is in its linear range (no compression) if a passive DUT with 0 dB attenuation is
measured. The default source powers for active DUTs ensure no compression if
an active DUT with 20 dB or 40 dB gain is measured. If the actual gain of the DUT
is more than 50 dB, then the default source power of –40 dB is still too high and
needs to be changed after finishing the wizard.
6. Perform a calibration (optional)
Call the calibration wizard and perform a calibration. The default calibration type is a
full two-port (TOSM) calibration. This calibration can be performed as well using
automatic calibration (if a calibration unit R&S ZV-Z5x is available).
Tip:
You can skip the automatic calibration stage (select "Finish now without Calibration") if one of the following applies:
●
●
●
A valid calibration is already assigned to the active channel
You want to apply a valid calibration stored in the cal pool.
You don't want to use a calibration, e.g. because the factory calibration is accurate
enough for your measurement.
Instrument reset
In order to obtain a predictable result the measurement wizard has to reset all settings
except the current calibration data. Store your recall set if you don't want to lose the
current configuration.
4.2.1.3
Balanced Ports Dialog
The "Balanced Ports" dialog selects a balanced port configuration and defines reference
impedances for the balanced ports. Selecting a balanced port configuration means that
one or more pairs of physical test ports are combined to form logical (balanced) ports.
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Currently, "non-standard" logical port assignments created via ​SOURce<Ch>:​
LPORt<LogPt>​ can neither be created nor edited with the balanced port dialog. They
are erroneously displayed as the 1:1 standard mapping between physical and (singleended) logical ports.
Measurements do not necessarily require all of the physical and logical ports of the network analyzer. To save measurement time, it is recommended to specify the ports that
are not used in the current test setup as "Unused" ports. Unused ports will not be considered for the calculation of mixed mode, Z- and Y-parameters.
Background information
Refer to the following sections:
●
​chapter 3.3.5, "Unbalance-Balance Conversion", on page 52
●
​chapter 3.3.5.1, "Balanced Port Configurations", on page 53
●
​chapter 3.3.5.4, "Reference Impedances", on page 56
Predefined Configs
The "Predefined Configs" tab of the "Balanced and Measured Ports" dialog provides the
most commonly used balanced port configurations for the analyzer.
Access: E.g. TRACE > MEAS > S-Params > Balanced Ports...
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The port configurations are arranged in a scrollable list. The resulting port number
assignment is shown on the left-hand side of the "Predefined Configs" tab.
●
For a single-ended port, the diagram shows a single line between the physical test
port and the logical port.
●
For a balanced port, two physical ports are combined to form a single logical port.
●
For unused ports, the physical port is crossed out; no logical port number is assigned.
Select Predefined
List of predefined port configurations.
Three configurations are possible: Two single-ended ports, one balanced port, only one
port uses (single-ended reflection measurement).
Remote command:
​SOURce<Ch>:​LPORt<LogPt>​
​SOURce<Ch>:​LPORt<LogPt>:​CLEar​
User Configs
The "User Configs" tab of the "Balanced Ports" dialog defines a new balanced port configuration.
Access: E.g. TRACE > MEAS > S-Params > Balanced Ports...
Define Physical to Logical Port Relation
Defines balanced, single-ended, and unused ports. The two physical ports of the analyzer
can be combined into a balanced port.
●
To define a balanced port, select two physical ports and tap "Balanced".
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●
●
To dissolves a balanced port, select it and tap "Single".
To exclude a single physical port from the measurement, select the port and tap
"Unused".
Remote command:
​SOURce<Ch>:​LPORt<LogPt>​
​SOURce<Ch>:​LPORt<LogPt>:​CLEar​
​SOURce<Ch>:​GROup<Grp>​
​SOURce<Ch>:​GROup<Grp>:​PORTs​
​SOURce<Ch>:​GROup<Grp>:​CLEar​
Reference Impedance
The "Reference Impedance" tab of the "Balanced and Measured Ports" dialog
(re-)defines the port impedances for differential and common mode.
Background information
Refer to ​chapter 3.3.5.4, "Reference Impedances", on page 56.
Access: E.g. TRACE > MEAS > S-Params > Balanced Ports...
The default reference impedance for a physical port is equal to the reference impedance
of the connector type assigned to the port but can be defined as an arbitrary complex
value (renormalization of port impedances). By changing the reference impedance, it is
possible to convert the measured values at 50 Ω (75 Ω) into values at arbitrary port
impedances.
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For balanced ports it is possible to define separate complex reference impedances for
differential and for common mode.
Singleended port
Single-ended
(unbalanced) port
Zref, default = Zconnector
Physical Port
no.
1
Balanced port:
Balanced
port
Differential mode
Zref = Z0d
Common mode
Zref = Z0c
2
3
Logical Port
no.
1
}
DUT
2
Analyzer
Common Mode / Differential Mode
Defines arbitrary reference impedances. "Common Mode" impedances are available for
single-ended ports; "Differential Mode" impedances for balanced ports only.
The default values for the balanced port reference impedances are derived from the (real)
default reference impedance of the physical analyzer ports (Z0 = 50 Ω):
● The default value for the differential mode is Z0d = 100 Ω = 2*Z0.
● The default value for the common mode is Z0c = 25 Ω = Z0/2.
Remote command:
​SOURce<Ch>:​LPORt<LogPt>​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]LPORt<LogPt>:​ZCOMmon​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]LPORt<LogPt>:​ZDIFferent​
Renormalization according to Theory of
Selects the waveguide circuit theory for renormalization. The conversion formula of both
theories differ only if the reference impedance of at least one test port has a non-zero
imaginary part.
Refer to ​chapter 3.3.5.4, "Reference Impedances", on page 56.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]PORT<PhyPt>:​ZREFerence​ on page 592
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]LPORt<LogPt>:​ZCOMmon​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]LPORt<LogPt>:​ZDIFferent​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​IMPedance:​RNORmal​ on page 446
4.2.1.4
Meas > Ratios
Selects ratios of wave quantities as measured quantities.
Background information
Refer to ​chapter 3.3.4, "Wave Quantities and Ratios", on page 49.
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Access: TRACE > MEAS key or Alt + Shift + A
b1 / a1 Source Port 1 ... b1/a2 Source Port 2
Selects predefined complex ratios of the standard 2-port wave quantities a1, a2, b1, and
b 2.
The predefined wave quantities can all be obtained with the same test setup, where a 2port DUT is connected between the analyzer ports 1 and 2. The stimulus signal is provided by the analyzer port 1 or 2 ("Source Port").
The predefined wave quantities correspond to the 2-port S-parameters:
● "b1/a1 Source Port 1" is the ratio of the wave quantities b1 and a1, measured at port
1. This ratio corresponds to the S-parameter S11 (input reflection coefficient).
● "b2/a1 Source Port 1" is the ratio of the wave quantities b2 and a1 and corresponds
to the S-parameter S21 (forward transmission coefficient).
● "b2/a2 Source Port 2" is the ratio of the wave quantities b2 and a2, measured at port
2. This ratio corresponds to the S-parameter S22 (output reflection coefficient).
● "b1/a2 Source Port 2" is the ratio of the wave quantities b1 and a2 and corresponds
to the S-parameter S12 (reverse transmission coefficient).
The analyzer can also measure arbitrary ratios for other source ports; see ​"More
Ratios" on page 122.
Tip: In the trace list the source port is indicated in brackets. "b2/a1(P1)" denotes the ratio
b2/a1 with source port 1.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​MEASure​ "<Trace_Name>", "B2/A1" | ...
Create new trace and select trace name and measurement parameter:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​SDEFine​ "<Trace_Name>", "B2/A1" | ...
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More Ratios
Opens a dialog to select arbitrary ratios of wave quantities, e.g. for different source ports
or higher port numbers.
4.2.1.5
More Ratios (Dialog)
The "More Ratios" dialog provides arbitrary ratios with arbitrary source ports as measured
quantities. All ratios can be calculated with different detector settings.
Background information
Refer to the following sections:
●
​chapter 3.3.4.1, "Wave Quantities", on page 49
●
​chapter 3.3.4.2, "Ratios", on page 50
Access: TRACE > MEAS > Ratios > More Ratios...
The notation for ratios follows the usual scheme of the vector network analyzer:
●
The a-waves are the outgoing/transmitted waves at the analyzer's test ports.
●
The b-waves are the incoming/measured waves.
●
The source port for the stimulus signal must be specified in addition.
●
The port number range covers all test ports of the analyzer.
Numerator
Selects the type (left pull-down list) and the port number assignment (right pull-down list)
of the wave that forms the numerator of the ratio.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​MEASure​ "<Trace_Name>", "B2/A1" | ...
Create new trace and select trace name and measurement parameter:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​SDEFine​ "<Trace_Name>", "B2/A1" | ...
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Denominator
Selects the type (left pull-down list) and the port number assignment (right pull-down list)
of the wave that forms the denominator of the ratio.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​MEASure​ "<Trace_Name>", "B2/A1" | ...
Create new trace and select trace name and measurement parameter:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​SDEFine​ "<Trace_Name>", "B2/A1" | ...
Source Port
Selects the the source port for the stimulus signal ("Port 1" or "Port 2").
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​MEASure​ "<Trace_Name>", "<Ratio>"
Create new trace and select trace name and measurement parameter:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​SDEFine​ "<Trace_Name>", "<Ratio>"
(the parameter name <Ratio> can also contain the source port)
Detector
Selects the algorithm that is used to calculate the displayed measurement points from
the raw data.
For details refer to: ​chapter 3.3.4.3, "Detector Settings", on page 51.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​MEASure​ "<Trace_Name>", "<Ratio>"
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​SDEFine​ "<Trace_Name>", "<Ratio>"
(the parameter name <Ratio> can also contain the detector)
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SWEep:​DETector:​TIME​
4.2.1.6
Meas > Wave
Selects wave quantities as measured quantities.
Background information
Refer to ​chapter 3.3.4, "Wave Quantities and Ratios", on page 49.
Access: TRACE > MEAS key or Alt + Shift + A
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a1 Source Port 1 ... b1 Source Port 2
Selects the standard 2-port wave quantities a1, a2, b1, and b2 for different source ports.
The predefined wave quantities are obtained with different source ports. "a1 Source Port
1, b1 Source Port 1" and "b1 Source Port 2" are measured at Port 1 of the analyzer. "a2
Source Port 2, b2 Source Port 1" and "b2 Source Port 2" are measured at Port 2 of the
analyzer.
●
●
●
●
●
●
"a1 Source Port 1" is the wave transmitted at test port 1. In a standard S-parameter
measurement, this wave is fed to the input port (port 1) of the DUT (forward measurement).
"b1 Source Port 1" is the wave received at test port 1. In a standard S-parameter
measurement, this is the reflected wave at port 1 of the DUT (forward measurement).
"b2 Source Port 1" is the wave received at test port 2. In a standard S-parameter
measurement, this wave is transmitted at port 2 of the DUT (forward measurement).
"a2 Source Port 2" is the wave transmitted at test port 2. In a standard S-parameter
measurement, this wave is fed to the output port (port 2) of the DUT (reverse measurement).
"b1 Source Port 2" is the wave received at test port 1. In a standard S-parameter
measurement, this wave is transmitted at port 2 of the DUT (reverse measurement).
"b2 Source Port 2" is the wave received at test port 2. In a standard S-parameter
measurement, this wave is fed to the output port (port 2) of the DUT (reverse measurement).
Tip: In the trace list the source port is indicated in brackets. "a1(P1)" denotes the wave
a1 with source port 1.
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The analyzer can also measure arbitrary wave quantities for other source ports; see ​More
Wave Quantities.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​MEASure​ "<Trace_Name>", "A1" | ...
Create new trace and select trace name and measurement parameter:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​SDEFine​ "<Trace_Name>", "A1" | ...
More Wave Quantities
Opens a dialog to select arbitrary wave quantities, e.g. for different source ports or higher
port numbers.
4.2.1.7
More Wave Quantities (Dialog)
The "More Wave Quantities" dialog provides arbitrary wave quantities with arbitrary
source ports as measured quantities. All wave quantities can be calculated with different
detector settings.
Background information
Refer to the following sections:
●
​chapter 3.3.4.1, "Wave Quantities", on page 49
●
​chapter 3.3.4.2, "Ratios", on page 50
Access: TRACE > MEAS > Wave Quantities > More Wave Quantities...
The notation for wave quantities follows the usual scheme of the vector network analyzer:
●
The a-waves are the outgoing/transmitted waves at the analyzer's test ports.
●
The b-waves are the incoming/measured waves.
●
The source port for the stimulus signal must be specified in addition.
●
The port number range covers all test ports of the analyzer.
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Wave Quantity
Selects the type (left pull-down list) and the port number assignment (right pull-down list)
of the wave quantitiy.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​MEASure​ "<Trace_Name>", "A1" ...
Create new trace and select trace name and measurement parameter:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​SDEFine​ "<Trace_Name>", "A1" ...
Source Port
Selects the the source port for the stimulus signal ("Port 1" or "Port 2").
The analyzer places no restriction on the combination of source ports and port numbers
of the measured wave quantity, so it is even possible to measure a2 while the source port
is Port 1 (e.g. in order to estimate the directivity of the coupler in the internal test set).
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​MEASure​ "<Trace_Name>", "A1" ...
Create new trace and select trace name and measurement parameter:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​SDEFine​ "<Trace_Name>", "A1" ...
(the parameter name <Ratio> can also contain the source port)
Show as
Selects the physical unit of the displayed trace. It is possible to display the measured
"Voltage" V or convert the wave quantity into an effective power according to P = V2/
Re(Z0). Z0 denotes the reference impedance of the source port (for wave quantities an)
or of the receive port (for wave quantities bn).
The reference impedances are defined in the "Balanced Ports" dialog; see ​chapter 4.2.1.3, "Balanced Ports Dialog", on page 116.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​FORMat:​WQUType​
Detector
Selects the algorithm that is used to calculate the displayed measurement points from
the raw data.
For details refer to: ​chapter 3.3.4.3, "Detector Settings", on page 51.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​MEASure​ "<Trace_Name>", "<Ratio>"
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​SDEFine​ "<Trace_Name>", "<Ratio>"
(the parameter name <Ratio> can also contain the detector)
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SWEep:​DETector:​TIME​
4.2.1.8
Meas > Z <-- Sij
Selects converted impedances as measured quantities. The impedances are calculated
from the measured S-parameters.
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Background information
Refer to the following sections:
●
​chapter 3.3.2, "Impedance Parameters", on page 45
●
​chapter 3.3.2.1, "Converted Impedances", on page 45
Access: TRACE > MEAS key or Alt + Shift + A
Z <Selects a converted impedance parameter as a measured quantity for the active trace.
For an n-port vector network analyzer, the pull-down list provides the full set of n2 impedance parameters.
Converted impedance parameters are expressed as Z <-<out>< in>, where <out> and <in>
denote the output and input port numbers of the DUT.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​MEASure​ "<Trace_Name>", "Z-S11" |
"Z-S12" ...
Create new trace and select trace name and measurement parameter:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​SDEFine​ "<Trace_Name>", "Z-S11" | "Z-S22"
| ...
Z<-S11 / Z<-S12 / Z<-S21 / Z<-S22
Selects the 2-port converted impedance parameters. The parameters describe the impedances of a 2-port DUT, obtained in forward and reverse transmission and reflection
measurements:
● Z11 is the input impedance at port 1 of a 2-port DUT that is terminated at port 2 with
the reference impedance Z0 (matched-circuit impedance measured in a forward
reflection measurement).
● Z22 is the input impedance at port 2 of a 2-port DUT that is terminated at port 1 with
the reference impedance Z0 (matched-circuit impedance measured in a reverse
reflection measurement).
● Z12 and Z21 denote the forward and reverse converted transfer impedances, respectively.
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Tip: Use the "Y- Z-Params" tab to measure Z-parameters including the transfer parameters. Use the Smith chart to obtain an alternative, graphical representation of the converted impedances in a reflection measurement.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​MEASure​ "<Trace_Name>", "Z-S11" | "Z-S12"
| "Z-S21" | "Z-S22"
Create new trace and select trace name and measurement parameter:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​SDEFine​ "<Trace_Name>", "Z-S11" | "Z-S12"
| "Z-S21" | "Z-S22"
Balanced Ports...
Opens a dialog to define a balanced port configuration.
See ​chapter 4.2.1.3, "Balanced Ports Dialog", on page 116.
4.2.1.9
Meas > Y <-- Sij
Selects converted admittances as measured quantities. The admittances are calculated
from the measured S-parameters.
Background information
Refer to the following sections:
●
​chapter 3.3.3, "Admittance Parameters", on page 47
●
​chapter 3.3.3.1, "Converted Admittances", on page 47
Access: TRACE > MEAS key or Alt + Shift + A
Y <Selects a converted admittance parameter as a measured quantity for the active trace.
For an n-port vector network analyzer, the pull-down list provides the full set of n2 admittance parameters.
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Converted admittance parameters are expressed as Y <-<out>< in>, where <out> and <in>
denote the output and input port numbers of the DUT.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​MEASure​ "<Trace_Name>", "Y-S11" |
"Y-S12" ...
Create new trace and select trace name and measurement parameter:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​SDEFine​ "<Trace_Name>", "Y-S11" | "Y-S22"
| ...
Y<-S11 / Y<-S12 / Y<-S21 / Y<-S22
Selects the 2-port converted admittance parameters. The parameters describe the admittances of a 2-port DUT, obtained in forward and reverse transmission and reflection
measurements:
● Y11 is the input admittance at port 1 of a 2-port DUT that is terminated at port 2 with
the reference impedance Z0 (matched-circuit admittance measured in a forward
reflection measurement).
● Y22 is the input admittance at port 2 of a 2-port DUT that is terminated at port 1 with
the reference impedance Z0 (matched-circuit admittance measured in a reverse
reflection measurement).
● Y12 and Y21 denote the forward and reverse converted transfer admittances, respectively.
Tip: Use the "Y- Z-Params" tab to measure Y-parameters including the transfer parameters. Use the inverted Smith chart to obtain an alternative, graphical representation of
the converted admittances in a reflection measurement.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​MEASure​ "<Trace_Name>", "Y-S11" | "Y-S12"
| "Y-S21" | "Y-S22"
Create new trace and select trace name and measurement parameter:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​SDEFine​ "<Trace_Name>", "Y-S11" | "Y-S12"
| "Y-S21" | "Y-S22"
Balanced Ports...
Opens a dialog to define a balanced port configuration.
See ​chapter 4.2.1.3, "Balanced Ports Dialog", on page 116.
4.2.1.10
Meas > Y-Z-Params
Selects Y and Z-parameters as measured quantities. Both the Y-parameters and the Zparameters can be used as an alternative to S-parameters in order to completely characterize a linear n-port network.
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Background information
Refer to the following sections:
●
​chapter 3.3.2, "Impedance Parameters", on page 45
●
​chapter 3.3.3, "Admittance Parameters", on page 47
●
​chapter 3.3.2.2, "Z-Parameters", on page 46
●
​chapter 3.3.3.2, "Y-Parameters", on page 48
Access: TRACE > MEAS key or Alt + Shift + A
Y/Z-Parameter
Selects an Y- or Z-parameter as a measured quantity for the active trace. For an n-port
vector network analyzer, the pull-down list provides the full set of n2 Y- and Z-parameters.
Y- and Z-parameters are expressed as Y/Z<out>< in>, where <out> and <in> denote the
output and input port numbers of the DUT.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​MEASure​ "<Trace_Name>", "Y11" |
"Z11" ...
Create new trace and select trace name and measurement parameter:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​SDEFine​ "<Trace_Name>", "Y11" |
"Z11" ...
Y11 / Y12 / Y21 / Y22
Selects the 2-port Y- parameters as a measured quantity for the active trace. The Yparameters describe the admittances of a DUT with output ports terminated in a short
circuit (V = 0).
The four 2-port Y-parameters can be interpreted as follows:
● Y11 is the input admittance, defined as the ratio of the current I1 to the voltage V1,
measured at port 1 (forward measurement with output terminated in a short circuit,
V2 = 0).
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●
●
●
Y21 is the forward transfer admittance, defined as the ratio of the current I2 to the
voltage V1 (forward measurement with output terminated in a short circuit, V2 = 0).
Y12 is the reverse transfer admittance, defined as the ratio of the current I1 to the
voltage V2 (reverse measurement with input terminated in a short circuit, V1 = 0).
Y22 is the output admittance, defined as the ratio of the current I2 to the voltage V2,
measured at port 2 (reverse measurement with input terminated in a short circuit,
V1 = 0).
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​MEASure​ "<Trace_Name>", "Y11" | "Y12" |
"Y21" | "Y22"
Create new trace and select trace name and measurement parameter:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​SDEFine​ "<Trace_Name>", "Y11" | "Y12" |
"Y21" | "Y22"
Z11 / Z12 / Z21 / Z22
Selects the 2-port Z-parameters as a measured quantity for the active trace. The Zparameters describe the impedances of a DUT with open output ports (I = 0).
The four 2-port Z-parameters can be interpreted as follows:
● Z11 is the input impedance, defined as the ratio of the voltage V1 to the current I1,
measured at port 1 (forward measurement with open output, I2 = 0).
● Z21 is the forward transfer impedance, defined as the ratio of the voltage V2 to the
current I1 (forward measurement with open output, I2 = 0).
● Z12 is the reverse transfer impedance, defined as the ratio of the voltage V1 to the
current I2 (reverse measurement with open input, I1 = 0).
Z
●
22 is the output impedance, defined as the ratio of the voltage V2 to the current I2,
measured at port 2 (reverse measurement with open input, I1 = 0).
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​MEASure​ "<Trace_Name>", "Z11" | "Z12" |
"Z21" | "Z22"
Create new trace and select trace name and measurement parameter:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​SDEFine​ "<Trace_Name>", "Z11" | "Z12" |
"Z21" | "Z22"
Balanced Ports...
Opens a dialog to define a balanced port configuration.
See ​Balanced Ports Dialog.
4.2.1.11
Meas > Imbalance
Selects the imbalance of a DUT with at least one balanced port as measured quantities.
The parameters are available if a balanced port configuration is active.
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Background information
Refer to the following sections:
●
​chapter 3.3.5, "Unbalance-Balance Conversion", on page 52
●
​chapter 3.3.5.3, "Imbalance Parameters", on page 55
Access: TRACE > MEAS key or Alt + Shift + A
Imbalance
Selects an imbalance parameter as a measured quantity for the active trace. For a balanced port configuration with k balanced ports plus m single-ended ports (2 * k + m = n,
where n is the number of analyzer ports), the pull-down list provides the full set of k * (k
– 1 + 2 * m) imbalance parameters.
Imbalance parameters are expressed as "Imb<out><in>", where <out> and <in> denote the
logical output and input port numbers of the DUT.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​MEASure​ "<Trace_Name>", "IMB21" |
"IMB12" ...
Create new trace and select trace name and measurement parameter:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​SDEFine​ "<Trace_Name>", "IMB21" |
"IMB12" ...
Imb21 / Imb12
Selects one of the standard 2-port imbalance parameters as a measured quantity for the
active trace. The buttons are available if either logical port 1 or logical port 2 (or both) is
defined as a balanced port.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​MEASure​ "<Trace_Name>", "IMB21" |
"IMB12"
Create new trace and select trace name and measurement parameter:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​SDEFine​ "<Trace_Name>", "IMB21" |
"IMB12"
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Balanced Ports...
Opens a dialog to define a balanced port configuration.
See ​chapter 4.2.1.3, "Balanced Ports Dialog", on page 116.
4.2.1.12
Meas > Stability
Selects one of the three two port stability factors K, μ1 or μ2 as measured quantities. A
typical application of stability factors is to assess the stability of an amplifier. Stability
factors cannot be calculated in balanced port configurations.
Background information
Refer to ​chapter 3.3.6, "Stability Factors", on page 57.
Access: TRACE > MEAS key or Alt + Shift + A
Stability
Selects a stability parameter as a measured quantity for the active trace. The stability
factor calculation is based on 2-port reflection and transmission S-parameters so that the
input and output port numbers must be different. The pull-down list contains all possible
physical (single-ended) port combinations. For an analyzer with n ports, provides n * (n
– 1) stability parameters.
Stability parameters are expressed as "K<out><in>", "μ1<out><in>", and "μ2<out><in>", where
<out> and <in> denote the logical output and input port numbers of the DUT.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​MEASure​ "<Trace_Name>", "KFAC21" |
"MUF121" | "MUF221" | ...
Create new trace and select trace name and measurement parameter:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​SDEFine​ "<Trace_Name>", "KFAC21" |
"MUF121" | "MUF221" | ...
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μ1 21 / μ2 21 / K 21
Selects one of the standard 2-port stability factors as a measured quantity for the active
trace. The buttons are available if none of the logical ports 1 and 2 is defined as a balanced port.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​MEASure​ "<Trace_Name>", "MUF121" |
"MUF221" | "KFAC21"
Create new trace and select trace name and measurement parameter:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​SDEFine​ "<Trace_Name>", "MUF121" |
"MUF221" | "KFAC21"
Balanced Ports...
Opens a dialog to define a balanced port configuration.
See ​chapter 4.2.1.3, "Balanced Ports Dialog", on page 116.
4.2.1.13
Meas > Power Sensor
Opens a configuration dialog for the measurement of wave quantities using an external
power meter.
Access: TRACE > MEAS key or Alt + Shift + A
The standard test setup for a "Power Sensor" measurement involves one analyzer source
port and a power sensor. The power sensor is connected e.g. to the analyzer's USB port
and provides the (scalar) wave quantity results. See examples in ​chapter 3.7.5, "External
Power Meters", on page 104.
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Show as
Selects the physical unit of the displayed trace. It is possible to display the measured
"Voltage" V or convert the wave quantity into an effective power according to P = V2/
Re(Z0). Z0 denotes the reference impedance of the source port. The reference impedances are defined in the "Balanced Ports" dialog ("TRACE > MEAS > S-Params > Balanced
Ports...").
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​FORMat:​WQUType​
Source Port
Selects one of the available test ports of the analyzer as a source of the stimulus signal.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​MEASure​'TraceName', 'PmtrD1 | ...
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​SDEFine​ 'TraceName', 'PmtrD1 | ...
Power Meter
Shows a list of all power meters that have been properly configured. See ​"Configured
Devices" on page 323.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​MEASure​'TraceName', 'PmtrD1 | ...
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​SDEFine​ 'TraceName', 'PmtrD1 | ...
Auto Zero
Initiates an automatic zeroing procedure of the power meter which must be disconnected
from the RF power; see ​"Zeroing" on page 105. A message indicates that zeroing is
finished.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​RDEVice:​PMETer<Pmtr>:​AZERo​
4.2.2 Format Settings
The "Format" menu defines how the measured data is presented in the diagram area.
Measured quantitites and display formats
The analyzer allows arbitrary combinations of display formats and measured quantities
("Trace > Measure"). Nevertheless, in order to extract useful information from the data,
it is important to select a display format which is appropriate to the analysis of a particular
measured quantity.
An extended range of formats is available for markers. To convert any point on a trace,
create a marker and select the appropriate marker format ("TRACE > MARKER > Marker
Format"). Marker and trace formats can be applied independently.
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Background information
Refer to the following sections:
●
​chapter 3.2.4, "Display Formats and Diagram Types", on page 35
●
​chapter 3.2.4.6, "Measured Quantities and Display Formats", on page 42
Access: TRACE > FORMAT key or Alt + Shift + B
dB Mag
Selects a Cartesian diagram with a logarithmic scale of the vertical axis to display the
magnitude of the complex measured quantity.
Properties: The stimulus variable appears on the horizontal axis, scaled linearly. The
magnitude of the complex quantity C, i.e. |C| = sqrt ( Re(C)2 + Im(C)2 ), appears on the
vertical axis, scaled in dB. The decibel conversion is calculated according to dB Mag(C)
= 20 * log(|C|) dB.
Application: dB Mag is the default format for the complex, dimensionless S-parameters.
The dB-scale is the natural scale for measurements related to power ratios (insertion
loss, gain etc.).
Tip (alternative formats): The magnitude of each complex quantity can be displayed on
a linear scale. It is possible to view the real and imaginary parts instead of the magnitude
and phase. Both the magnitude and phase are displayed in the polar diagram.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​FORMat​ MLOGarithmic
Phase
Selects a Cartesian diagram with a linear vertical axis to display the phase of a complex
measured quantity in the range between –180 degrees and +180 degrees.
Properties: The stimulus variable appears on the horizontal axis, scaled linearly. The
phase of the complex quantity C, i.e. φ (C) = arctan ( Im(C) / Re(C) ), appears on the
vertical axis. φ (C) is measured relative to the phase at the start of the sweep (reference
phase = 0°). If φ (C) exceeds +180° the curve jumps by –360°; if it falls below –180°, the
trace jumps by +360°. The result is a trace with a typical sawtooth shape. The alternative
"Phase Unwrapped" format avoids this behavior.
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Application: Phase measurements, e.g. phase distortion, deviation from linearity.
Tip (alternative formats): The magnitude of each complex quantity can be displayed on
a linear scale or on a logarithmic scale. It is possible to view the real and imaginary parts
instead of the magnitude and phase. Both the magnitude and phase are displayed in the
polar diagram. As an alternative to direct phase measurements, the analyzer provides
the derivative of the phase response for a frequency sweep (Delay).
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​FORMat​ PHASe
Smith
Selects a Smith chart to display a complex quantity, primarily a reflection S-parameter.
Properties: The Smith chart is a circular diagram obtained by mapping the positive complex semi-plane into a unit circle. Points with the same resistance are located on circles,
points with the same reactance produce arcs. If the measured quantity is a complex
reflection coefficient (S11, S22 etc.), then the unit Smith chart represents the normalized
impedance. In contrast to the polar diagram, the scaling of the diagram is not linear.
Application: Reflection measurements; see example in ​chapter 3.2.4.4, "Smith Chart",
on page 38.
Tip: The axis for the sweep variable is lost in Smith charts but the marker functions easily
provide the stimulus value of any measurement point. dB values for the magnitude and
other conversions can be obtained by means of the "Marker Format" functions.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​FORMat​ SMITh
Polar
Selects a polar diagram to display a complex quantity, primarily an S-parameter or ratio.
Properties: The polar diagram shows the measured data (response values) in the complex plane with a horizontal real axis and a vertical imaginary axis. The magnitude of a
complex value is determined by its distance from the center, its phase is given by the
angle from the positive horizontal axis. In contrast to the Smith chart, the scaling of the
axes is linear.
Application: Reflection or transmission measurements, see example in ​chapter 3.2.4.3,
"Polar Diagrams", on page 37.
Tip: The axis for the sweep variable is lost in polar diagrams but the marker functions
easily provide the stimulus value of any measurement point. dB values for the magnitude
and other conversions can be obtained by means of the "Marker Format" functions.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​FORMat​ POLar
Delay
Calculates the (group) delay from the measured quantity (primarily: from a transmission
S-parameter) and displays it in a Cartesian diagram.
Properties: The group delay τg represents the propagation time of wave through a
device. τg is a real quantity and is calculated as the negative of the derivative of its phase
response. A non-dispersive DUT shows a linear phase response, which produces a constant delay (a constant ratio of phase difference to frequency difference).
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For more information refer to ​chapter 3.3.7, "Delay, Aperture, Electrical Length",
on page 58.
Application: Transmission measurements, especially with the purpose of investigating
deviations from linear phase response and phase distortions. To obtain the delay a frequency sweep must be active.
Tip: The cables between the analyzer test ports and the DUT introduce an unwanted
delay, which often can be assumed to be constant. Use the "Zero Delay at Marker" function, define a numeric length "Offset" or use the "Auto Length" function to mathematically
compensate for this effect in the measurement results. To compensate for a frequencydependent delay in the test setup, a system error correction is required.
Note: The delay for reflection factors corresponds to the transmission time in forward and
reverse direction; see "Length and delay measurement" in ​chapter 3.6.1.3, "Auto
Length", on page 93.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​FORMat​ GDELay
Aperture
Sets a delay aperture for the delay calculation. The aperture Δf is entered as an integer
number of steps. An aperture step corresponds to the distance between two sweep
points.
Properties: The delay at each sweep point is computed as:
 g ,meas  
 deg
360   f
where the aperture Δf is a finite frequency interval around the sweep point fo and the
analyzer measures the corresponding phase change ΔΦ.
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Calculation of Δf and ΔΦ
With a given number of aperture steps n the delay at sweep point no. m is calculated as
follows:
● If n is even (n = 2k), then Δf (m) = f (m+k) – f (m–k) and ΔΦ(m) = ΔΦ (m+k) – ΔΦ
(m–k).
● If n is odd (n = 2k+1), then Δf (m) = f (m+k) – f (m–k–1) and ΔΦ (m) = ΔΦ (m+k) –
ΔΦ (m–k–1).
The calculated phase difference (and thus the group delay) is always assigned to the
frequency point no. m. For linear sweeps and odd numbers of aperture steps, the center
of the aperture range is [f (m+k) + f (m–k–1)] / 2 = f (m–1/2), i.e. half a frequency step
size below the sweep point f (m). This is why toggling from even to odd numbers of
aperture steps and back can virtually shift the group delay curve towards higher/lower
frequencies. It is recommended to use even numbers of aperture steps, especially for
large frequency step sizes.
The delay calculation is based on the already measured sweep points and does not slow
down the measurement.
Δf is constant over the entire sweep range, if the sweep type is a Lin. Frequency sweep.
For Log. Frequency and Segmented Frequency sweeps, it varies with the sweep point
number m.
Application: The aperture must be adjusted to the conditions of the measurement. A
small aperture increases the noise in the group delay; a large aperture tends to minimize
the effects of noise and phase uncertainty, but at the expense of frequency resolution.
Phase distortions (i.e. deviations from linear phase) which are narrower in frequency than
the aperture tend to be smeared over and cannot be measured.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​GDAPerture:​SCOunt​
SWR
Calculates the Standing Wave Ratio (SWR) from the measured quantity (primarily: from
a reflection S-parameter) and displays it in a Cartesian diagram.
Properties: The SWR (or Voltage Standing Wave Ratio, VSWR) is a measure of the
power reflected at the input of the DUT. It is calculated from the magnitude of the reflection
coefficients Sii (where i denotes the port number of the DUT) according to:
SWR 
1 | Sii |
1 | Sii |
The superposition of the incident and the reflected wave on the transmission line connecting the analyzer and the DUT causes an interference pattern with variable envelope
voltage. The SWR is the ratio of the maximum voltage to the minimum envelope voltage
along the line.
Interpretation of the SWR
The superposition of the incident wave I and the reflected wave R on the transmission
line connecting the analyzer and the DUT causes an interference pattern with variable
envelope voltage. The SWR is the ratio of the maximum voltage to the minimum envelope
voltage along the line:
SWR = VMax/VMin = (|VI| + |VR|) / (|VI| – |VR|) = (1 + |Sii|) / (1 – |Sii|)
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Application: Reflection measurements with conversion of the complex S-parameter to
a real SWR.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​FORMat​ SWR
Unwrapped Phase
Selects a Cartesian diagram with an arbitrarily scaled linear vertical axis to display the
phase of the measured quantity.
Properties: The stimulus variable appears on the horizontal axis, scaled linearly. The
phase of the complex quantity C, i.e. φ (C) = arctan ( Im(C) / Re(C) ), appears on the
vertical axis. φ (C) is measured relative to the phase at the start of the sweep (reference
phase = 0°). In contrast to the normal Phase format, the display range is not limited to
values between –180° and +180°. This avoids artificial jumps of the trace but can entail
a relatively wide phase range if the sweep span is large.
Application: Phase measurements, e.g. phase distortion, deviation from linearity.
Tip: After changing to the "Unwrapped Phase" format, use "TRACE > SCALE – Auto
Scale Trace" to re-scale the vertical axis and view the entire trace.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​FORMat​ SWR
Lin Mag
Selects a Cartesian diagram with a linear vertical axis scale to display the magnitude of
the measured quantity.
Properties: The stimulus variable appears on the horizontal axis, scaled linearly. The
magnitude of the complex quantity C, i.e. |C| = sqrt ( Re(C)2 + Im(C)2 ), appears on the
vertical axis, also scaled linearly.
Application: Real measurement data (i.e. the Stability Factors and the DC voltages) are
always displayed in a Lin Mag diagram.
Tip (alternative formats): The magnitude of each complex quantity can be displayed on
a logarithmic scale. It is possible to view the real and imaginary parts instead of the
magnitude and phase.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​FORMat​ MLINear
Inv Smith
Selects an inverted Smith chart to display a complex quantity, primarily a reflection Sparameter.
Properties: The Inverted Smith chart is a circular diagram obtained by mapping the positive complex semi-plane into a unit circle. If the measured quantity is a complex reflection
coefficient (S11, S22 etc.), then the unit Inverted Smith chart represents the normalized
admittance. In contrast to the polar diagram, the scaling of the diagram is not linear.
Application: Reflection measurements, see example in ​chapter 3.2.4.5, "Inverted Smith
Chart", on page 40.
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Tip: The axis for the sweep variable is lost in Smith charts but the marker functions easily
provide the stimulus value of any measurement point. dB values for the magnitude and
other conversions can be obtained by means of the "Marker Format" functions.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​FORMat​ ISMith
Real
Selects a Cartesian diagram to display the real part of a complex measured quantity.
Properties: The stimulus variable appears on the horizontal axis, scaled linearly. The
real part Re(C) of the complex quantity C = Re(C) + j Im(C), appears on the vertical axis,
also scaled linearly.
Application: The real part of an impedance corresponds to its resistive portion.
Tip (alternative formats): It is possible to view the magnitude and phase of a complex
quantity instead of the real and imaginary part. The magnitude can be displayed on a
linear scale or on a logarithmic scale. Both the real and imaginary parts are displayed in
the polar diagram.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​FORMat​ REAL
Imag
Selects a Cartesian diagram to display the imaginary part of a complex measured quantity.
Properties: The stimulus variable appears on the horizontal axis, scaled linearly. The
imaginary part Im(C) of the complex quantity C = Re(C) + j Im(C), appears on the vertical
axis, also scaled linearly.
Application: The imaginary part of an impedance corresponds to its reactive portion.
Positive (negative) values represent inductive (capacitive) reactance.
Tip (alternative formats): It is possible to view the magnitude and phase of a complex
quantity instead of the real and imaginary part. The magnitude can be displayed on a
linear scale or on a logarithmic scale. Both the real and imaginary parts are displayed in
the polar diagram.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​FORMat​ IMAGinary
4.2.3 Scale Settings
The "Scale" settings define how the active trace is displayed in the diagram selected in
the "Trace > Format" tab.
4.2.3.1
Scale > Scale Values
Provides the functions for diagram scaling.
The "Scale" settings are closely related to the settings in the "Format" submenu and in
the "Display" menu. All of them have an influence on the way the analyzer presents data
on the screen.
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The "Scale" settings depend on the diagram type (Trace > Format) because not all diagrams can be scaled in the same way:
●
In Cartesian diagrams, all scale settings are available.
●
In circular diagrams, no "Scale/Div.", no "Ref. Position", and no "Max" and "Min" values can be defined.
The default scale is activated automatically when a display format (diagram type) is
selected. Scale settings that are not compatible with the current display format are
unavailable (grayed).
Relations between the scaling parameters
The scaling parameters "Scale / Div, Ref Value, Ref Position, Max, Min" are coupled
together in the following manner:
●
Max – Min = Scale / Div * <Number of graticule divisions>
●
Max = Ref Value when Ref Position is 10
●
Min = Ref Value when Ref Position is 0
Alternatives and examples
The marker functions and the icons in the toolbar provide alternatives to manual diagram
scaling. Refer to the following sections:
●
chapter "Scaling Diagrams" in the Getting Started guide
●
​chapter 4.3.1, "Stimulus > Stimulus", on page 210
Access: TRACE > SCALE key or Alt + Shift + C
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Auto Scale Trace
Adjusts the "Scale/Div" and the "Ref Value" in order to display the entire active trace in
the diagram area, leaving an appropriate display margin.
● In Cartesian diagrams, the analyzer re-calculates the values of the vertical divisions
so that the trace fits onto approx. 80% of the vertical grid. The reference value is
chosen to center the trace in the diagram.
● In circular diagrams ("Polar, Smith, Inverted Smith"), the analyzer re-calculates the
values of the radial divisions so that the diagram is confined to approx. 80% of the
outer circumference. The reference value is set to the value of the outer circumference.
Auto scale does not affect the stimulus values and the horizontal axis.
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​AUTO​
Auto Scale Diagram
Adjusts the "Scale/Div" and the "Ref Value" in order to display all traces in the diagram
area, leaving an appropriate display margin. This scale settings are analogous to the
"Auto Scale Trace" function. The traces in the active diagram area are taken into account
irrespective of their channel assignment.
Ref Value = Marker
See ​"Ref Val / Max / Min = Marker" on page 209.
Zoom Active
Enables or disables the current scale settings, including all the numeric entries in the
input fields below. See also "Using the Graphic Zoom" in the R&S ZNC Getting Started
manual.
Scale/Div
Sets the value of the vertical diagram divisions in Cartesian diagrams.
"Scale /Div" corresponds to the increment between two consecutive grid lines. The unit
depends on the display format: dB for display format "dB Mag", degrees for "Phase" and
"Unwrapped Phase", ns for "Delay", U (units) for all other (dimensionless) formats.
"Scale /Div" is not available (grayed) for circular diagrams ("Polar, Smith, Inverted
Smith").
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​PDIVision​
Ref Value
Sets the reference line of a Cartesian diagram or the outer circumference of a circular
diagram.
● In Cartesian diagrams "Ref. Value" defines the value of the reference line, indicated
by a symbol at the right edge of the diagram area. The color of the symbol corresponds to the trace color. As the "Ref. Value" is varied, the position of the reference
line (Ref. Position) is left unchanged, so that the current trace is shifted in vertical
direction. The unit of the "Ref. Value" depends on the display format: dB for display
format "dB Mag", degrees for "Phase" and "Unwrapped Phase", ns for "Delay", U
(units) for all other (dimensionless) formats.
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●
In circular diagrams ("Polar, Smith, Inverted Smith"), Ref. Value defines the value of
the outer circumference. Changing Ref. Value enlarges or scales down the diagram,
leaving the center unchanged. The unit is U (units) for all circular diagrams.
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​RLEVel​
Ref Position
Defines the position of the reference line in a Cartesian diagram.
The reference line is indicated by a symbol at the right edge of the diagram area. The
color of the symbol corresponds to the trace color. "Ref. Position "is defined on a linear
scale between 0 (bottom line of the diagram) and 10 (top line of the diagram). As the
"Ref. Position "is varied, the value of the reference line (Ref. Value) is left unchanged, so
the current trace is shifted together with the "Ref. Position".
"Ref. Position" is not available (grayed) for polar diagrams ("Polar, Smith, Inverted
Smith").
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​RPOSition​
Max / Min
Define the upper and lower edge of a Cartesian diagram.
"Max" and "Min" are not available (grayed) for polar diagrams ("Polar, Smith, Inverted
Smith").
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​TOP​
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​BOTTom​
4.2.3.2
Scale > Scale Coupling
Selects common scale settings for all traces. The softkeys are available if the active recall
set contains at least two traces, and if the active trace is not a reference trace ("To
Trace").
Related settings
Refer to ​chapter 4.2.4.2, "Trace Manager (Dialog)", on page 148.
Access: TRACE > SCALE key or Alt + Shift + C
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Couple ... To Trace
Applies the scale settings of the reference trace ("To Trace") to the active trace or to all
traces.
Remote command:
n/a
Decouple Active Trace / All Traces
Assigns independent scale settings to the active trace or to all traces.
Remote command:
n/a
4.2.3.3
Scale > Zoom
Provides the graphical and numerical zoom functions. A zoom magnifies a rectangular
portion inside a diagram (zoom window) to fill the entire diagram area.
Alternative settings and examples
The icons in the toolbar provide alternatives to manual zooming. Refer to the following
sections:
●
chapter "Using the Graphic Zoom" in the Getting Started guide
●
​chapter 4.3.1, "Stimulus > Stimulus", on page 210
Access: TRACE > SCALE key or Alt + Shift + C
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Zoom Reset
Disables the zoom function.
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​ZOOM[:​STATe]​
Zoom Select
Enables the zoom function. With active zoom, the numerical input fields "Max", "Min",
"Start", "Stop" can be used to re-define the active diagram.
Alternatively, you can define a zoom window using the touchscreen or the mouse. After
performing a graphical zoom, the numeric input fields are updated.
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​ZOOM[:​STATe]​
Overview Select
Enables the zoom function with an additional overview window. The overview window
appears in the upper part of the active diagram and shows the original diagram and the
zoom area. You can move the zoomed part of the trace by moving the zoom area.
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​OVERview[:​STATe]​ on page 481
Max / Min / Start / Stop
Defines the coordinates of the zoom window for the active diagram. "Max" and "Min"
define the response axis range, "Start" and "Stop" define the stimulus axis range. The
input fields are available if "Zoom Active" is selected; they are updated after a graphical
zoom.
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​ZOOM:​BOTTom​
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​ZOOM:​STARt​
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​ZOOM:​STOP​
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​ZOOM:​TOP​
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4.2.4 Trace Config Settings
The "Trace Config" settings store traces to the memory and perform mathematical operations on traces.
4.2.4.1
Trace Config > Traces
Provides functions to handle traces and diagram areas, and assign traces to channels.
Related information
Refer to the following sections:
●
​chapter 3.1.3.3, "Active and Inactive Traces and Channels", on page 14
●
See chapter "Operating the Instrument > Handling Diagrams, Traces, and Markers"
in the Help system or in the R&S ZNC Getting Started guide.
In remote control each channel can contain an active trace. The active remote traces and
the active manual trace are independent of each other; see ​chapter 5.3.2, "Active Traces
in Remote Control", on page 343.
Access: TRACE > SCALE key or Alt + Shift + D
Active Trace / Diagram / Channel
Selects an arbitrary trace / diagram / channel of the active recall set as the active trace.
This function is disabled if only one trace / diagram / channel is defined.
Tip: You can simply tap a line in the trace list, the trace itself, a diagram, or a line in the
channel list to activate the corresponding elements.
Remote command:
The numeric suffixes <Chn> / <Ch> appended to the first-level mnemonic of a command
selects a trace / channel as the active trace / channel. The numeric suffix <Wnd> appended to the DISPlay:WINDow<Wnd>:... commands selects a diagram area.
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Add Trace
Creates a new trace in the active diagram area and assigns it to the active channel. The
new trace is created with the trace and channel settings of the former active trace but
displayed with another color. The former and the new active trace are superimposed but
can be easily separated, e.g. by changing the "Reference Position".
The new trace is named Trc <n>, where <n> is the largest of all existing trace numbers
plus one. The name can be changed in the "Trace Manager" dialog.
Tip: To create a new trace in a new channel, use "Channel > Channel Config > Add Ch
+ Trace".
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​SDEFine​
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​FEED​
Add Trace + Diag
Creates a new trace in a new diagram area and assigns the trace to the active channel.
The new trace is created with the trace and channel settings of the former active trace
but displayed with another color.
The new trace is named Trc <n>, where <n> is the largest of all existing trace numbers
plus one. The name can be changed in the "Trace Manager".
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​SDEFine​
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​STATe​ ON
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​FEED​
Delete Trace
Deletes the active trace and removes it from the diagram area. If the active diagram
contains only one trace, the diagram is also deleted.
"Delete Trace" is disabled if the recall set contains only one trace: In manual control, each
recall set must contain at least one diagram area with one channel and one trace.
Tips: Use the "Trace Manager" to hide traces in the diagrams.
Use the UNDO key to restore a trace that was unintentionally deleted.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​DELete​
​CALCulate:​PARameter:​DELete:​ALL​
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​DELete:​CALL​
4.2.4.2
Trace Manager (Dialog)
The "Trace Manager" dialog performs operations on traces.
Access: TRACE > TRACE CONFIG > Traces > Trace Manager...
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All existing traces of the current recall set are listed in a table with several editable (white)
or non-editable (gray) columns.
Trace Manager Table
The list contains the following columns:
● "Name" indicates the current trace name. The default names for new traces are
Trc<n> where <n> is a current number. Current numbers in the trace names are
necessary to make automatic assignments, e.g. decouple the channel settings in the
"Coupling" dialog. To serve as an unambiguous reference (e.g. in remote control
commands), trace names must be unique across all channels and diagram areas in
a recall set.
● "On" indicates whether the trace is displayed on the screen ("On") or invisible.
● "Meas" indicates the measured parameter.
● "Type" indicates whether the trace is a data trace ("DAT"), displaying the current
measurement data, or a memory trace ("MEM").
● "Channel" indicates the channel of each trace.
● "Area" indicates the diagram area of each trace.
● "Scale" shows which traces use common scaling and format settings.
Rules for trace names
The analyzer can define mathematical relations between different traces and calculate
new mathematical traces (User Def Math). The trace names are used as operands in the
mathematical expressions and must be distinguished from the mathematical operators
+, -, *, /, (, ) etc. This places some restrictions on the syntax of trace names:
● The first character of a trace name can be either one of the upper case letters A to
Z, one of the lower case letters a to z, an underscore _ or a square bracket [ or ].
● For all other characters of a trace name, the numbers 0 to 9 can be used in addition.
The analyzer does not accept illegal trace names. If an illegal name is specified, the entry
is denied.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​SDEFine​
​CONFigure:​TRACe<Trc>:​REName​
​CONFigure:​TRACe:​CATalog?​
​CONFigure:​CHANnel<Ch>:​TRACe:​CATalog?​
​CONFigure:​CHANnel<Ch>:​NAME​
​CONFigure:​CHANnel<Ch>:​NAME:​ID?​
​CONFigure:​CHANnel<Ch>:​TRACe:​REName​
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Add
Creates a new trace and adds it to the list in the "Trace Manager", assigning it to the
channel and diagram area of the active trace.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​SDEFine​
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​FEED​
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​EFEed​
​CONFigure:​TRACe:​WINDow?​
​CONFigure:​TRACe:​WINDow:​TRACe?​
Delete
Deletes the selected trace, removing it from the list in the Trace Manager and from the
screen. This button is disabled if the recall set contains only one trace: In manual control,
each recall set must contain at least one diagram area with one channel and one trace.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​DELete​
Couple / Decouple all Channels / Scales
Selects common channel or scale settings for all traces in the Trace Manager dialog.
● "Couple All ..." assigns all traces to the channel or scale settings of the active trace.
All channel or scale settings except the selected ones are lost. The analyzer displays
a confirmation dialog box before deleting the unused channels.
● "Decouple All ..." assigns independent channel or scale settings to all traces in the
"Trace Manager". If the channel and trace names include numbers, the trace with the
lowest number is assigned to the channel with the lowest number and so forth. Measurement or data traces and their associated memory traces are assigned to the
same channel.
Remote command:
n/a
4.2.4.3
New Trace Dialog
The "New Trace" and "New Ch + Tr" tool bar buttons offer the opportunity to create a new
trace either in the active channel or a new one. By dragging and dropping the button onto
the diagram area a new diagram can be created on the fly.
After the button has been dropped, the "New Trace" dialog pops up and allows you to
select the S-Parameter for the new trace.
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4.2.4.4
Trace Config > Mem Math
Stores traces to the memory and performs mathematical operations on traces.
Background information
Refer to ​"Trace Types" on page 26.
Access: TRACE > SCALE key or Alt + Shift + D
Destination
Shows the available memory traces. Some of the other softkeys (e.g. "Data to Mem") act
on the selected memory trace.
Remote command:
n/a
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Data to <Destination>
Stores the current state of the active trace as a memory trace. No trace functions are
applied to the stored trace. The memory trace is displayed in the active diagram area with
another color, and its properties are indicated in the trace list:
Memory traces are named "Mem<n>[<Data_Trace>]" where <n> counts all data and
memory traces in the active recall set in chronological order, and <Data_Trace> is the
name of the associated data trace. Trace names can be changed in the "Trace Manager" dialog.
"Data to <Destination>" overwrites the memory trace selected under "Destination". If
"New" is selected, a new memory trace is created.
Tips: You can also create memory traces using the "File > More > Import... > Import
Data" dialog. Notice that it is not possible to store "Max. Hold" traces to memory ("TRACE
CONFIG > Smooth Shift Hold > Hold Mode").
Coupling of data and memory traces
When a memory trace is generated from a data trace, it is displayed in the same diagram
area and inherits all channel and trace settings from the data trace.
The following display settings of a data trace and the associated memory traces are fully
coupled. Changing a property of one trace affects the properties of all other traces.
● All "Trace > Format" settings
● All "Trace > Scale" settings
Selection of the measured quantity ("Trace > Measure") is possible for the data trace but
disabled for the memory traces.
Channel settings made for a memory trace act on the associated data trace. Some of the
channel settings for a data trace (e.g. the "Stimulus" range) also affect the display of the
memory traces.
Note: If the sweep type of a data trace is changed so that the stimulus ranges of the data
traces and the memory traces become incompatible, all coupled memory traces are
removed from the diagram area and deleted.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MATH:​MEMorize​
​TRACe:​COPY​
Data & Func to <Destination>
Stores the current state of the active data trace modified by the trace functions as a
memory trace.
Trace functions
The trace functions comprise the following mathematical operations:
● Any mathematical relation applied to the trace ("Math = Data/Mem, Math = User
Def").
● A shift of the trace in horizontal or vertical direction ("TRACE CONFIG > Smooth Shift
Hold > Shift Trace").
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"Data to <Destination>" stores the raw trace without the trace functions, "Data & Funct
to <Destination>" stores the trace after it has been transformed using the trace functions.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MATH:​MEMorize​
Show <Destination>
Displays or hides the active memory trace or the memory trace associated with the active
data trace.
● If no memory trace is associated with the active data trace, "Show <Destination>" is
disabled.
● If several memory traces are associated with the active data trace, "Show <Destination>" affects the last generated or changed memory trace.
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​SHOW​
Show <Data>
Displays or hides the active data trace in the diagram area. If "Trace Math" is active, then
the active mathematical trace is displayed or hidden.
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​SHOW​
Trace Math
Activates the mathematical mode, applying the last active mathematical relation to the
active data trace. The data trace is replaced by the mathematical trace. "Math" is displayed in the trace list while the mathematical mode is active.
"Trace Math" is enabled if the active data trace fulfils the conditions for evaluating the
mathematical relation. E.g. if no "User Defined" mathematical relation is defined, a memory trace must be coupled to the active data trace, so that the R&S ZNC can evaluate
one of the relations "Data / Mem" or "Data – Mem".
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MATH:​STATe​
Data / Mem, Data – Mem
Activates the mathematical mode where the active data trace is divided by (subtracted
from) the last generated memory trace. The division (subtraction) is calculated on a pointto-point basis: Each measurement point of the active trace is divided by (subtracted from)
the corresponding measurement point of the memory trace. If the memory trace represents the result of a previous sweep with unchanged settings, the divided (subtracted)
curve is typically centered around 1 / 0 dB (0); it shows the variation of the results in
subsequent sweeps.
The result of the division is a mathematical trace and replaces the active data trace in
the diagram area. The mathematical trace is updated as the measurement goes on and
the analyzer provides new active trace data.
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This function is disabled unless a memory trace is coupled to the active data trace. Trace
coupling ensures that the two traces have the same number of points so that the mathematical trace is well-defined.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MATH:​STATe​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MATH[:​EXPRession]:​SDEFine​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MATH:​FUNCtion​
User Defined
Activates the mathematical mode and displays the mathematical trace defined in the
"User Def Math" dialog. The mathematical trace replaces the active data trace in the
diagram area; it is updated as the measurement goes on and the analyzer provides new
active trace data.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MATH:​STATe​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MATH[:​EXPRession]:​SDEFine​
4.2.4.5
User Def Math (Dialog)
The "User Def Math" dialog defines a mathematical relation between traces and calculate
a new mathematical trace. Each measurement point of the active trace is replaced by the
corresponding point of the mathematical trace.
Compatibility between traces in mathematical relations
Mathematical traces are either constant functions or functions of one or more data or
memory traces. They are calculated on a point-to-point basis. Each trace point no. i of
the mathematical trace is calculated from a set of constant values c1, ..., cn plus the trace
points Trc1i, Trcmi of all traces 1 to m in the mathematical relation:
Mathi = Fct. (c1, ..., cn, Trc1i, Trcmi ), i = 1, no. of points
Different traces can be used in the same mathematical relation provided that they contain
the same number of points. The analyzer places no further restriction on the compatibility
of traces, e.g. the sweep points of the traces do not have to be the same.
The number of points belongs to the channel settings. Coupled data and memory traces
are always compatible because they have the same channel settings.
The analyzer processes only numeric values without units in the mathematical formulas.
No consistency check for units is performed.
Access: TRACE > TRACE CONFIG > Mem Math > Def Math...
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Mathematical Expression
The mathematical expression appears in the upper part of the dialog. The operands and
operators in the expression can be selected from a keyboard and the list of "Operands":
● The keyboard supports the entry of numeric values, constants, and mathematical
functions. In addition to the numbers 0 to 9, the decimal point and the constants j
(complex unit), pi (approx. 3.14159) and e (approx. 2.71828), it contains the following
buttons:
– +/- changes the sign
– The effect of the basic arithmetic operators (/, *, –, +) and the mathematical functions is described in ​table 4-1.
Products of numbers and constants may be entered in abbreviated form, e.g. 2e
for 2*e.
– The Clear, Del, Back buttons are used to correct faulty entries.
– Check performs a consistency check of the displayed mathematical expression
and displays a message.
● Operand contains all data traces and memory traces of the active recall set.
– Data and memory traces are identified by their trace names.
– "Data" denotes the active data trace.
– "Mem" is the memory trace associated with the active data trace (or the last created/modified memory trace, if several memory traces are associated with the
active data trace).
– "StimVal" is the array of stimulus values; see footnote for ​table 4-1.
The trace operands denote unmodified data and memory traces. Mathematical relations for the traces are not taken into account, even if the mathematical mode is active
("User Defined: On"). The same applies to smoothing and the "Shift Trace" functions.
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Table 4-1: Effect of the operators on a complex quantity z = x + jy.
+, -, *, /
Basic arithmetic operations
()
Grouping parts of an expression
Lin Mag
|z| = sqrt ( x2 + y2 )
xy
Exponential, e.g. z^2
dB Mag
dB Mag(z) = 20 * log|z| dB
Arg
Phase φ (z) = arctan ( Im(z) / Re(z) )
Re, Im
x, y (Real and Imag)
log, ln
Common (base 10) or natural (base e) logarithm
Min, Max
Smaller or larger values of all points of two traces, e.g. Min(Trc1,Trc2)
StimVal *)
Stimulus value*)
tan, atan, sin, asin, cos, acos
Direct and inverse trigonometric functions.
*) The function StimVal can be used for all sweep types. Please note that - as with all
user math operands - only the numerical value without unit is processed in the user math
formula.
● In frequency sweeps StimVal provides the stimulus frequency in Hz.
● In power sweeps, StimVal provides the voltage in V that results from the source power
in dBm. To obtain the correct source power in dBm (for "dB Mag" trace format),
"Result is Wave Quantity" must be enabled. Note that, due to the conversion into a
dBm value, the source power depends on the reference impedance of the port associated with the measured wave quantity, to be set in the "Balanced Ports" dialog.
● In time sweeps, StimVal is the stimulus time in s.
● In CW mode sweeps, StimVal is the number of the point.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MATH:​WUNit[:​STATe]​
Result is Wave Quantity
Controls the conversion and formatting of the mathematic expression.
● If "Result is Wave Quantity" is enabled the analyzer assumes that the result of the
mathematical expression represents a voltage. Examples for voltage-type expressions are all terms proportional to a wave quantity (e.g. 1.1*Data, if a wave quantity
is measured) or to a stimulus value of a power sweep. If "Show As: Power" is selected
in the "More Wave Quantities" dialog, the result is converted into a linear power before
the selected trace format is applied. Otherwise no conversion is performed, and "dB
Mag" results are referenced to 1 μV.
● If "Result is Wave Quantity" is disabled the analyzer assumes that the result of the
mathematical expression is dimensionless. Examples for dimensionless expressions
are all terms proportional to ratios of wave quantities, e.g. "Data / Mem2[Trc1]". The
selected trace format is applied without previous conversion.
"Result is Wave Quantity" acts on the result of the mathematical expression only. Wave
quantities and power sweep stimulus values always enter into the expression as voltages.
Effect of "Result is Wave Quantity"
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In the "More Wave Quantities" dialog, the "Show as:" control element specifies whether
wave quantities are displayed as voltages or equivalent powers, using the port impedances for a conversion between the two representations. "Result is Wave Quantity" is relevant for mathematical traces displayed in units of "dBm" ("Show as: Power" and trace
format "dB Mag"):
If "Result is Wave Quantity" is on (checked), the mathematical trace values <W> are
interpreted as voltages and first converted into equivalent powers (<W> —> <P> =
<W>2/Re(Z0)). Results in "dB Mag" format are calculated according to <P>log = 10 * log
(<P>/1mW).
● If "Result is Wave Quantity" is off, the mathematical trace values <W> are interpreted
as dimensionless quantities. Results in "dB Mag" format are calculated according to
<W>log = 20 * log (<W>).
Example:
A mathematical trace value amounts to 1 (real value); the port impedance is 50 Ω. If
"Result is Wave Quantity" is on, the analyzer assumes the trace value to be 1 V, which
is converted into a linear power of 20 mW, corresponding to approx. 13 dBm. With "Result
is Wave Quantity" off, the trace value 1 is directly converted into a logarithmic power of
0 dBm.
Tip: See also example for CALCulate<Chn>:MATH:WUNit:STATe.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MATH:​WUNit[:​STATe]​
Recall... / Save...
Recalls / saves a mathematical expression from / to a trace math string file. Trace math
string files are ASCII files with the default extension *.mth and contain the mathematical
expression as it is written in the User Def Math... dialog. It is possible to change or create
math string files using a text editor.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MATH:​WUNit[:​STATe]​
4.2.4.6
Trace Config > All Mem All Data
Performs actions on all data or memory traces in the active recall set.
Background information
Refer to ​"Trace Types" on page 26.
Access: TRACE > SCALE key or Alt + Shift + D
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All Data to Mem
Stores all data traces in the current recall set to memory traces, in accordance with the
"Copy Dest" setting. No trace functions are applied to the stored traces.
If no memory trace is associated with a data trace, then a new memory trace is created.
The new trace is named "Mem<n+1>[<Data_Trace>]", where n is the largest of all existing
memory trace indices. If several memory traces are associated with a data trace, the
newest memory trace is replaced.
Remote command:
​TRACe:​COPY​
All Data & Func to Mem
Stores the current state of the active data traces modified by the trace functions to memory traces, in accordance with the "Destination" setting.
Trace functions
The trace functions comprise the following mathematical operations:
● Any mathematical relation applied to the trace ("Math = Data/Mem, Math = User
Def").
● A shift of the trace in horizontal or vertical direction ("TRACE CONFIG > Smooth Shift
Hold > Shift Trace").
"All Data to Mem" stores the raw trace without the trace functions, "All Data & Func to
Mem" stores the trace after it has been transformed using the trace functions.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MATH:​MEMorize​
Destination
Specifies whether data will be copied to existing memory traces ("Mem"), overwriting the
previous values, or to "New" memory traces.
Remote command:
n/a
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Show / Hide All Data / Mem
Displays or hides all data or memory traces. Hidden traces are not deleted.
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​SHOW​
Delete all Mem
Deletes all memory traces in the active recall set.
Tips: Use "TRACE CONFIG > Traces > Delete Trace" to delete a (single) data trace.
Use the "Trace Manager" to hide traces in the diagrams.
Use the UNDO key to restore a trace that was unintentionally deleted.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​DELete​
4.2.4.7
Trace Config > Time Domain
Calculates and displays the results as a function of time. The functionality is part of option
R&S ZNC-K2, "Time Domain Analysis". Option R&S ZNC-K2 also provides the "Time
Gate" functions.
Background information
Refer to ​chapter 3.7.1, "Time Domain (R&S ZNC-K2)", on page 98.
For a comparison of the different transformation types and windows and for application
examples please also refer to the application note 1EZ44_OE which is posted on the
R&S internet.
Access: TRACE > SCALE key or Alt + Shift + D
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Time Domain
Selects the time domain representation for the active diagram area. The softkey is
enabled if a linear frequency sweep ("CHANNEL > SWEEP > Sweep Type > Lin. Frequency") is active. The analyzer automatically quits time domain representation as soon
as a different sweep type is selected.
The time domain results are obtained by transforming the measured frequency sweep
data into the time domain using an appropriate mathematical transformation type and
frequency window ("Impulse Response"). The sweep range and the output power for the
active channel is still displayed below the diagram; the displayed time interval is shown
in a second line:
Trace settings in time domain representation
While the time domain representation is active the trace settings behave as follows:
● The "Start" and "Stop" settings in the "Time Gate" tab configure the time axis.
● All trace formats including the circular diagrams are available.
● Limit lines can be defined like the limit lines for time sweeps.
● The bandfilter search functions are available for the transformed trace.
● If marker coupling is active, then the markers in the time domain and in the frequency
domain are coupled with each other.
The analyzer places no restriction on the measured quantities to be transformed into the
time domain. Impedances and admittances are first converted back into the equivalent
S-parameter, transformed, and restored after the transformation.
See also ​chapter 3.7.1.1, "Chirp z-Transformation", on page 98.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​STATe​
Type
Selects a band pass or low pass time domain transform. See ​chapter 3.7.1.2, "Band Pass
and Low Pass Mode", on page 98.
To calculate a low pass transform the sweep points must be on a harmonic grid (otherwise
the analyzer will only be able to calculate an approximate result and generate a warning).
"Low Pass Settings"... opens a dialog to establish or change a harmonic grid (not available for memory traces).
See ​chapter 4.2.4.8, "Low Pass Settings (Dialog)", on page 161
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME[:​TYPE]​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​STIMulus​
Impulse Response
Selects a window type which the R&S ZNC uses to filter the trace in the frequency domain.
The drop-down list shows the impulse response of a constant trace over a finite sweep
range (i.e. a rectangular function) that was filtered using the different available window
types. The selected window is applied to the active trace.
See also ​chapter 3.7.1.3, "Windows in the Frequency Domain", on page 99.
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Note: The frequency domain window is used to filter the trace prior to the time domain
transformation. An independent time gate ("TRACE CONFIG > Time Gate") can be used
after the transformation in order to eliminate unwanted responses.
The analyzer always uses a "No Profiling (Rectangle)" window to calculate the time-gated
frequency domain trace, see ​"Time-Gated Frequency Domain Trace" on page 102.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​WINDow​
Side Lobe Level
Defines the side lobe suppression for an "Arbitrary Sidelobes (Dolph-Chebychev)" window. The entered value is the ratio of the power of the central lobe to the power of the
first side lobe in dB.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​DCHebyshev​
Resolution Enh(ancement)
Broadens the frequency range that the analyzer considers for the time domain transform
by a linear factor. A factor of 1 means that the original sweep range and the measured
sweep points are used; no additional assumptions are made. With higher resolution
enhancement factors, the measurement data is extrapolated using a linear prediction
method. As a result, the resolution in time domain can be improved.
The ideal resolution enhancement factor depends on the properties of the DUT. In distance to fault measurements on cables, factors between 3 and 5 turned out to be a good
choice.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​RESolution:​EFACtor​
4.2.4.8
Low Pass Settings (Dialog)
The "Low Pass Settings" dialog defines the harmonic grid for low pass time domain
transforms.
Background information
Refer to ​chapter 3.7.1.4, "Harmonic Grid", on page 100.
Access: TRACE > TRACE CONFIG > Time Domain > Low Pass Settings...
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Set Harmonic Grid and Keep
The three buttons provide alternative algorithms for calculation of a harmonic grid, based
on the current sweep points.
● Keep "Stop Frequency and Number of Points" calculates a harmonic grid based on
the current stop frequency ("STIMULUS STOP") and the current number of sweep
points ("CHANNEL SWEEP > Number of Points"). This may increase the frequency
gap (the spacing between the equidistant sweep points, i.e. the sweep "Span" divided
by the "Number of Points" minus one) .
● Keep "Frequency Gap and Number of Points" calculates a harmonic grid based on
the current stop frequency ("STIMULUS STOP") and the current frequency gap.
● Keep "Stop Frequency and Approximate Frequency Gap" calculates a harmonic grid
based on the current stop frequency ("STIMULUS STOP"), increasing the number of
points ("CHANNEL SWEEP > Number of Points") in such a way that the frequency
gap remains approximately the same. This may increase the sweep time, due to the
additional sweep points introduced.
The three grids can be calculated repeatedly in any order; the analyzer always starts from
the original set of sweep points.
For more information refer to ​chapter 3.7.1.4, "Harmonic Grid", on page 100.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​LPASs​
DC Value
The control elements define the measurement result at zero frequency and in the interpolation/extrapolation range between f = 0 and f = fmin. They are enabled after a harmonic
grid has been established.
Defining the low frequency sweep points
After calculating a harmonic grid, the analyzer must determine the value of the measured
quantity at zero frequency and possibly at additional points in the range between f = 0
and f = fmin.
The following figure shows a scenario where the harmonic grid was calculated with fixed
"Stop Frequency and Number of Points". The DC value and the values at the two additional red points must be extrapolated or interpolated according to the measured sweep
points (blue dots) and the properties of the DUT.
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●
●
If the properties of the DUT at f = 0 are sufficiently well known, then it is recommendable to enter the DC value manually ("Manual Entry") and let the analyzer calculate
the remaining values (red dots) by linear interpolation of the magnitude and phase.
Examples: At f = 0 the reflection factor of an open-ended cable is 1. It is –1 for a
short-circuited cable and 0 for a cable with matched termination. If a cable with known
termination is measured, then these real numbers should be entered as DC values.
The "Extrapolate" button initiates an extrapolation of the measured trace towards f =
0 and overwrite the current DC value. This can be used for a consistency check.
"Continuous Extrapolation" initiates an extrapolation of the measured trace towards
lower frequencies, so that the missing values (green and red dots) are obtained without any additional input. The extrapolation is repeated after each sweep.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​LPASs:​DCSParam​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​LPASs:​DCSParam:​CONTinuous​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​LPASs:​DCSParam:​EXTRapolate​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​LPFRequency​
4.2.4.9
Trace Config > Time Gate
Defines and activates a time gate. An active time gate acts on the trace in time domain
as well as in frequency domain representation. In time domain representation, you can
use the time gate settings in order to eliminate unwanted responses in your signal. After
switching back to the frequency domain, you will receive the frequency response of your
DUT without the contribution of the unwanted responses. The time gate is independent
of the frequency window used to filter the trace prior to the time domain transformation.
The "Time Gate" functionality is part of option R&S ZNC-K2, "Time Domain Analysis".
Option R&S ZNC-K2 also provides the "Time Domain" functions.
Background information
Refer to ​chapter 3.7.1.5, "Time Gates", on page 102.
Access: TRACE > SCALE key or Alt + Shift + D
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Time Gate
Enables or disables the time gate for the time domain and frequency domain traces.
"Gat" is displayed in the trace list while the time gate is active.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​FILTer[:​GATE]:​TIME:​STATe​
Axis Pair
"Start" and "Stop" or "Center" and "Span" define the size of the time gate. The analyzer
generates a warning if the selected time span exceeds the unambiguous range which is
given by Δt = 1/Δf, where Δf is the spacing between two consecutive frequency points.
Simply reduce the time span until the warning disappears.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​FILTer[:​GATE]:​TIME:​CENTer​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​FILTer[:​GATE]:​TIME:​SPAN​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​FILTer[:​GATE]:​TIME:​STARt​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​FILTer[:​GATE]:​TIME:​STOP​
Show Range Limits
Displays or hides two red lines indicating the start and stop of the time gate in the diagram.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​FILTer[:​GATE]:​TIME:​SHOW​
Bandpass / Notch
The filter type defines what happens to the data in the specific time region.
● A "Band Pass" filter passes all information in the specified time region and rejects
everything else.
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●
A "Notch" filter rejects all information in the specified time region and passes everything else.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​FILTer[:​GATE]:​TIME[:​TYPE]​
Shape
Selects a gate shape which the R&S ZNC uses to filter the trace in the time domain. The
drop-down list visualizes how the time gate will affect a constant function after transformation back into the frequency domain. The selected window is applied to the active
trace. The two red vertical lines represent the "Start" and "Stop" values defining the size
of the time gate.
The R&S ZNC always uses a "Steepest Edges (Rectangle)" window to calculate the timegated frequency domain trace, see ​"Time-Gated Frequency Domain Trace"
on page 102.
See also ​chapter 3.7.1.5, "Time Gates", on page 102.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​FILTer[:​GATE]:​TIME:​SHAPe​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​FILTer[:​GATE]:​TIME:​WINDow​
Side Lobe Level
Defines the side lobe suppression for an "Arbitrary Gate Shape (Dolph-Chebychev)" gate.
The entered value is the ratio of the power of the central lobe to the power of the first side
lobe in dB.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​FILTer[:​GATE]:​TIME:​DCHebyshev​
4.2.4.10
Trace Config > Trace Statistics
Evaluates statistical and phase information of the entire trace or of a specific evaluation
range and calculates the x-dB compression point.
Access: TRACE > SCALE key or Alt + Shift + D
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Statistical Functions
The upper two softkeys in the "Trace Statistics" tab display or hide groups of statistical
results. The values are based on all response values of the trace in the selected evaluation range ("Eval Range...").
Suppose that the trace in the evaluation range contains n stimulus values xi and n corresponding response values yi (measurement points). The statistical values are obtained
as follows:
● "Min." and "Max." are the largest and the smallest of all response values yi.
● "Pk-Pk" is the peak-to-peak value and is equal to the difference "Max. – Min."
● "Mean" is the arithmetic mean value of all response values:
Mean 
●
1 n
 yi
n i 1
SDev is the standard deviation of all response values:
Std . Dev. 
●
1 n
1 n
(
y

yi ) 2
 i n
n i 1
i 1
RMS is the root mean square (effective value) of all response values:
RMS 
1 n
 | yi | 2
n i 1
Note: To calculate the Min., Max., Pk-Pk values and the SDev, the analyzer uses formatted response values yi (see trace formats). Consequently, the mean value and the
standard deviation of a trace depend on the selected trace format. In contrast, the RMS
calculation is based on linear, unformatted values. The physical units for unformatted
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wave quantities is 1 Volt. The RMS value has zero phase. The selected trace format is
applied to the unformatted RMS value, which means that the RMS result of a trace does
depend on the trace format.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics[:​STATe]​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics:​RESult?​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics:​MMPTpeak[:​STATe]​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics:​MSTDdev[:​STATe]​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics:​RMS[:​STATe]​
Phase / El Length
Displays or hides the phase delay ("Delay") and the electrical length ("EL") of the trace
in the selected evaluation range ("Eval Range..."). The parameters are only available for
trace formats that contain phase information, i.e. for the formats "Phase, Unwrapped
Phase", and the polar diagram formats "Polar, Smith, Inverted Smith". Moreover, the
sweep type must be a "frequency sweep", and the evaluation range must contain at least
3 measurement points.
The phase parameters are obtained from an approximation to the derivative of the phase
with respect to frequency in the selected evaluation range.
● "Delay" is the phase delay, which is an approximation to the group delay and calculated as follows:
PD  
●
 deg
360   f
where Δf is the width of the evaluation range and ΔΦ is the corresponding phase
change. See also note on transmission and reflection parameters below.
"EL" is the electrical length, which is the product of the phase delay times the speed
of light in the vacuum.
If no dispersion occurs the phase delay is equal to the group delay. For more information
refer to ​chapter 3.3.7, "Delay, Aperture, Electrical Length", on page 58.
Note: To account for the propagation in both directions, the delay and the electrical length
of a reflection parameter is only half the delay and the electrical length of a transmission
parameter. The formula for PD above is for transmission parameters. See also "Length
and delay measurement" in ​chapter 3.6.1.3, "Auto Length", on page 93.
"Tip:" The phase evaluation can cause misleading results if the evaluation range contains
a 360 deg phase jump. The trace format "Unwrapped Phase" avoids this behavior.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics[:​STATe]​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics:​RESult?​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics:​EPDelay[:​STATe]​
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Flatness / Gain / Slope
Displays or hides trace parameters that the analyzer calculates for the selected evaluation range ("Eval Range...").
Suppose that A and B denote the trace points at the beginning and at the end of the
evaluation range, respectively.
● "Gain" is the larger of the two stimulus values of points A and B.
● "Slope" is the difference of the stimulus values of point B minus point A.
● "Flatness" is a measure of the deviation of the trace in the evaluation range from
linearity. The analyzer calculates the difference trace between the active trace and
the straight line between points A and B. The flatness is the difference between the
largest and the smallest response value of this difference trace.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics[:​STATe]​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics:​RESult?​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics:​SFLatness[:​STATe]​
Compr Point / Value
Displays or hides all results related to the x-dB compression point of the trace, where x
is the selected compression value. To obtain valid compression point results, a power
sweep must be active, and the trace format must be "dB Mag".
The x-dB compression point of an S-parameter or ratio is the stimulus signal level where
the magnitude of the measured quantity has dropped by x dB compared to its value at
small stimulus signal levels (small-signal value). As an approximation for the small-signal
value, the analyzer uses the value at the start level of the evaluation range ("Eval
Range...").
The compression point is a measure for the upper edge of the linearity range of a DUT.
It is close to the highest input signal level for which the DUT shows a linear response (|
an| —> x*|an| ➪ |bn| —> x*|bn|, so that the magnitude of all S-parameters remains constant).
When "Compression Point" is activated, a marker labeled "Cmp" is placed to the compression point with the smallest stimulus level. Moreover the movable "Trace Statistics"
info field shows the numerical results of the compression point measurement:
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●
●
"Cmp In" is the stimulus level at the compression point in units of dBm. "Cmp In"
always corresponds to the driving port level (e.g. the level from port no. j, if a transmission parameter Sij is measured).
"Cmp Out" is the sum of the stimulus level "Cmp In" and the magnitude of the measured response value at the compression point. The magnitude of a transmission Sparameter Sij is a measure for the attenuation (or gain) of the DUT, hence: "Cmp Out
= Cmp In + <Attenuation>". The example above is based on an attenuation of –20.8
dB, hence "Cmp Out" = –24.9 dB – 20.8 dB = –45.7 dBm.
The info field shows invalid results ('----') if the wrong sweep type or trace format is
selected, or if the trace contains no x-dB compression points in the selected evaluation
range.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics:​NLINear:​COMP[:​STATe]​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics:​NLINear:​COMP:​RESult?​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics:​NLINear:​COMP:​LEVel​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics[:​STATe]:​AREA​
Decimal Places
Opens the "System Config" dialog to define the (maximum) number of fractional digits
for setting values and measurement results. See also ​chapter 4.6.2.3, "User Interface",
on page 311.
4.2.4.11
Evaluation Range (Dialog)
The "Evaluation Range" dialog defines the range for the "Trace Statistics" results. The
evaluation range is a continuous interval of the sweep variable.
See also ​chapter 4.2.4.10, "Trace Config > Trace Statistics", on page 165.
Access: TRACE > TRACE CONFIG > Trace Statistics > Eval Range...
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Evaluation Range
Selects a predefined evaluation range. Up to ten different ranges are available for each
recall set. "Full Span" means that the search range is equal to the entire sweep range.
The statistical and phase evaluation and the compression point measurement take into
account all measurement points with stimulus values xi between the "Start" and "Stop"
value of the evaluation range:
"Start ≦ xi ≦ Stop"
Note: The evaluation ranges are identical to the marker search ranges. For more information see ​chapter 4.2.6.4, "Search Range (Dialog)", on page 199.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics:​DOMain:​USER​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics:​DOMain:​USER:​STARt​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics:​DOMain:​USER:​STOP​
Range Limit Lines on
Displays or hides the range limit lines in the diagram area. Range limit lines are two
vertical lines at the Start and Stop values of the active evaluation range ("Range 1" to
"Range 10").
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics:​DOMain:​USER:​SHOW​
4.2.4.12
Trace Config > Smooth Shift Hold
Provides various functions to modify the entire measured trace.
Trace functions and exported data
The analyzer can export the raw complex (unformatted) data or formatted data. The
unformatted data are independent of all "Smooth Shift Hold" settings; see ​"Formatted
Values" on page 176.
Access: TRACE > SCALE key or Alt + Shift + D
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Smoothing
Activates the smoothing function for the active trace, which may be a data or a memory
trace. With active smoothing function, each measurement point is replaced by the arithmetic mean value of all measurement points located in a symmetric interval centered on
the stimulus value. The width of the smoothing interval is referred to as the "Smoothing
Aperture" and can be adjusted according to the properties of the trace.
Tip: The sweep average is an alternative method of compensating for random effects on
the trace by averaging consecutive traces. Compared to smoothing, the sweep average
requires a longer measurement time but does not have the drawback of averaging out
quick variations of the measured values. See ​chapter 4.4.1.3, "Power Bw Avg > Average", on page 216.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​SMOothing[:​STATe]​
Aperture
Defines how many measurement points are averaged to smooth the trace if smoothing
is switched on. The "Smoothing Aperture" is entered as a percentage of the total sweep
span.
An aperture of n % means that the smoothing interval for each sweep point i with stimulus
value xi is equal to [xi – span*n/200, xi + span*n/200], and that the result of i is replaced
by the arithmetic mean value of all measurement points in this interval. The average is
calculated for every measurement point. Smoothing does not significantly increase the
measurement time.
Tips: Finding the appropriate aperture
A large smoothing aperture enhances the smoothing effect but may also average out
quick variations of the measured values and thus produce misleading results.
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To avoid errors, observe the following recommendations.
● Start with a small aperture and increase it only as long as you are certain that the
trace is still correctly reproduced.
● As a general rule, the smoothing aperture should be small compared to the width of
the observed structures (e.g. the resonance peaks of a filter). If necessary, restrict
the sweep range or switch smoothing off to analyze narrow structures.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​SMOothing:​APERture​ on page 438
Hold
Selects the Max Hold (peak hold) or Min Hold function for the active trace, or disables
both functions (Hold Off). With enabled Max Hold or Min Hold function, the displayed
trace shows the maximum or minimum values that the analyzer acquired since the start
of the measurement. The max hold and min hold trace is real, it is based on the magnitude
of the trace values (the phase values are discarded).
The max hold or min hold process can be restarted any time using "Restart". It is also
restarted automatically when the channel or trace settings are changed so that the previous measurement results are no longer compatible.
Note: A memory trace is unformatted by definition. Therefore, "Data --> Mem" stores the
last measured trace instead of the real Max Hold or Min Hold trace.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​PHOLd​
Shift Trace > Stimulus
Shifts the active trace in horizontal direction, leaving the positions of all markers
unchanged. The unit of the offset value depends on the sweep type.
Note:
"Shift Stimulus Value" can be used in Cartesian as well as in polar diagrams. The visible
effect depends on the diagram type:
● In Cartesian diagrams, the trace is shifted relative to the markers and the x-axis.
● In polar diagrams, the trace is not affected, however, markers change their position.
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​X:​OFFSet​
Shift Trace > Mag / Phase / Real / Imag
Modifies all points of the active trace by means of an added and/or a multiplied complex
constant.
The units of the constants are adjusted to the format of the active trace. Setting all values
to zero ("Shift Reset") restores the original trace.
The trace points are modified according to the following formula:
M new  M old 10 Magnitude  / 20 dB a  e j  Phase /180   Real   j  Imag 
The formula and the different constants are adjusted to the different display formats of a
trace:
● The "Mag(nitude)" factor shifts a dB Mag trace in vertical direction, leaving the phase
of a complex parameter unchanged.
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●
●
●
The "Phase" factor rotates a trace that is displayed in a polar diagram around the
origin, leaving the magnitude unchanged.
The "Real" added constant shifts a real trace in vertical direction, leaving the imaginary part unchanged.
The "Imag(inary)" added constant shifts a imaginary trace in vertical direction, leaving
the real part unchanged.
Tip: Shifting the trace by means of constant values is a simple case of trace mathematics.
Use the "User Defined Math" dialog to define more complicated mathematical operations.
See ​chapter 4.2.4.5, "User Def Math (Dialog)", on page 154.
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​Y:​OFFSet​
4.2.4.13
Trace Config > Trace Data
Stores one or several data or memory traces to a file or loads a memory trace from a file.
Background information
Refer to ​chapter 3.4.2, "Trace Files", on page 64.
Access: TRACE > SCALE key or Alt + Shift + D
Import...
Calls up a dialog to load a memory trace from a trace file. See ​chapter 4.2.4.14, "Import
Complex Data (Dialog)", on page 174.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​LOAD:​TRACe​
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Export...
Calls up a dialog to store data or memory traces to a trace file of the selected file format.
See ​chapter 4.2.4.15, "Export Data (Dialog)", on page 175
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​STORe:​TRACe​ on page 526
​MMEMory:​STORe:​TRACe:​CHANnel​
​MMEMory:​STORe:​TRACe:​PORTs​
4.2.4.14
Import Complex Data (Dialog)
The "Import Complex Data" dialog loads a memory trace from a trace file. Trace files are
ASCII files with selectable file format. The loaded trace data is used to generate a memory
trace which is coupled to the active data trace.
Background information
Refer to ​chapter 3.4.2, "Trace Files", on page 64.
Access: TRACE > TRACE CONFIG > Trace Data > Import...
On loading data from a trace file with several traces, the analyzer displays a dialog to
select one of the traces stored in the file (see ​chapter 4.2.4.16, "Select Parameters (Dialog)", on page 177). E.g. for an *.s2p Touchstone file, the box offers all four 2-port Sparameters (see ​chapter 3.4.2.1, "Touchstone Files", on page 65).
Coupling between the imported memory trace and the active data trace implies that the
stimulus values of the imported data and of the active trace must be compatible. Compatibility means that the "Sweep Type" of the two traces must match; the position and
number of the sweep points do not have to be the same.
The analyzer checks for compatibility before importing data. The "Select Parameter" box
remains empty if the selected files contains no compatible data.
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"Import Complex Data" is a standard "Open File" dialog with an additional button.
Import Data to New Mem
Qualifies whether the loaded data overwrite the active memory trace (box unchecked,
analogous to "Data -> Mem" with selected memory trace) or whether they are used to
generate a new memory trace (box checked, analogous to "Data -> Mem" with selected
"New" memory trace).
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​LOAD:​TRACe​
4.2.4.15
Export Data (Dialog)
The "Export Data" dialog stores data or memory traces to a trace file. Trace files are
ASCII files with selectable file format.
Data export can serve many purposes, e.g.:
●
To process and evaluate measurement data in an external application.
●
To store measurement data and re-import it in a future measurement session.
Background information
Refer to the following sections:
●
​chapter 3.4.2, "Trace Files", on page 64.
●
​chapter 3.4.2.3, "Finding the Best File Format", on page 67
Access: TRACE > TRACE CONFIG > Trace Data > Export...
"Export Data" is a standard "Save File" dialog with a number of additional buttons to
specify the export options. Many options depend on the selected export file format ("Files
of Type"). The displayed option buttons change accordingly.
The export options are remembered when the dialog is closed.
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Ask before Overwriting
Activates a message box to be displayed before an older trace file with the same file
name and directory is overwritten.
Add Ref Impedances
For ASCII (*.csv) or Matlab (*.dat) files only: Includes the reference impedances Z0
for all analyzer ports in the file header.
Formatted Values
For ASCII (*.csv) or Matlab (*.dat) files only: Selects the format for the exported trace
data.
● Check box cleared (off): Export the raw complex (unformatted) measurement values, represented by the real and imaginary parts, the linear magnitude and phase,
or dB magnitude and phase.
The exported complex trace values are the values at the beginning of the trace data
flow. None of the following stages (trace mathematics, shift, time domain gate, trace
formatting and smoothing) affects the exported data. "Save" writes the raw stimulus
values (frequency/power/time, according to the sweep type) and the raw, complex
measurement points to a file. See ​chapter 3.1.5, "Data Flow", on page 17.
Export of complex data is available for all trace file types.
● Check box selected (on): Export the the values as they are displayed in the diagram,
e.g. export the logarithmic magnitude, if trace format "dB Mag" is selected. The trace
file does not necessarily contain the full (complex) information about the trace.
For trace formats involving Cartesian diagrams (dB Mag, Real, Imag...), the stimulus
value and a single real response value is exported. For circular diagrams, both the
real and imaginary part of the response value is exported.
The trace values are the fully processed values as they appear in the diagram area.
They correspond to the results in the marker info field. All possible stages of the trace
data flow (e.g. trace formats, trace mathematics, time domain transform, shift,
smoothing) are taken into account. Some trace functions (e.g. time scale, shift stimulus) also affect the stimulus values.
Export of formatted data is not available for Touchstone files.
Output Format
For Touchstone file export only: Selects the the format of the exported raw, complex
measurement values. The exported values can be represented by the real and imaginary
parts, the linear magnitude and phase, or dB magnitude and phase; see also ​"Formatted
Values" on page 176.
Export of formatted data is not available for Touchstone files.
Contents
Selects only the active trace or all traces of the active channel (including all data and
memory traces) or all traces in all channels for data export to an ASCII (*.csv) or Matlab
(*.dat) file.
For Touchstone file export, it is possible to export the traces in the active channel or in
all channels. See also ​"Conditions for Touchstone file export" on page 66.
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Decimal Separator
For ASCII (*.csv) files only: Selects either the "Point" or the "Comma" (if needed to
process the exported data with an external application) as a separator for decimal numbers.
Field Separator
For ASCII (*.csv) or Matlab (*.dat) files only: Defines the separator that the analyzer
uses to separate different numbers in each line of the file.
Save
Stores the trace data, according to the selected options.
Tip: Note the conditions described in ​"Conditions for Touchstone file export"
on page 66.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​STORe:​TRACe​ on page 526
​MMEMory:​STORe:​TRACe:​CHANnel​
4.2.4.16
Select Parameters (Dialog)
The "Select Parameters" dialog provides a selection of measurement results (e.g. Sparameters) or traces, e.g. for trace import, import of power correction coefficients, limit
line import.
Access: The dialog may be called from several dialogs, e.g. "TRACE > TRACE CONFIG
> Trace Data > Import...".
4.2.5 Lines Settings
The commands in the "Lines" tab define limits for the measurement results, visualize
them in the diagrams and activate/deactivate the limit check. The analyzer provides
upper, lower, and ripple limits. Besides the menu provides a horizontal line for each trace.
Background information
Refer to ​chapter 3.4.1, "Limit Check", on page 59.
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4.2.5.1
Lines > Limit Test
Defines limits for the measurement results, visualizes them in the diagrams and activates/
deactivates the limit check. The analyzer provides upper and lower limits, and a circle
test.
Limit lines are available for all Cartesian diagram types (TRACE > FORMAT). For Smith
and Polar diagrams, the circle test is available.
Background information
Refer to ​chapter 3.4.1, "Limit Check", on page 59.
Access: TRACE > SCALE key or Alt + Shift + E
Show Limit Line
Shows or hides the limit line associated with the active trace in a Cartesian diagram area.
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The limit line colors are defined in the "Define User Color Scheme" dialog ("SYSTEM >
DISPLAY > Config > Define User Color..."). You can choose between various options:
● Display upper and lower limit lines with different colors.
● Assign the same color to traces and associated limit lines.
● Assign different colors to limit line segments with disabled limit check.
Note: Display of the limit line and limit check are independent of each other: Hiding the
limit line does not switch off the limit check.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​DISPlay[:​STATe]​
Limit Check
Switches the limit check of the active trace on or off.
When the limit check is switched on, a movable "PASS" or "FAIL" message is displayed
in the diagram. If the limit check fails at a measurement point, the point is marked with a
colored square. The "Limit Fail Trace" color is defined in the "Define User Color
Scheme" dialog ("Display > Display Config. > Define User Color..."). An acoustic signal
("Global Beep") and a TTL signal indicating pass or fail can be generated in addition.
The appearance of the limit fail symbols is defined in the "Define User Color Scheme"
dialog ("SYSTEM > DISPLAY > Config > Define User Color..."). You can choose between
various options:
● Change the trace color between failed measurement points.
● Show or hide the colored squares.
Note: Limit check and display of the limit lines are independent of each other: With
disabled limit check, the limit line can still be displayed. If no limit lines are defined for the
active trace, the limit check can be switched on but will always PASS the trace.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​STATe​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​LOWer:​STATe​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​UPPer:​STATe​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​FAIL?​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​STATe:​AREA​
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Limit Fail Beep
Activates or deactivates the fail beep. The fail beep is a low-tone acoustic signal that is
generated each time the analyzer detects an exceeded limit. No fail beep can be generated if the limit check is switched off.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​SOUNd[:​STATe]​
Clear Test
Resets the limit check results.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​CLEar​
Global Check
Activates or deactivates the global limit check including upper/lower limits and ripple limits. The global limit check is a composite limit check over all traces of the current recall
set. The result of the global check appears in a semi-transparent popup box whenever
"Global Limit Check" is selected.
●
●
"PASS "represents pass for all traces with enabled limit check. A trace without limit
lines or with disabled individual limit check always passes the global check.
"FAIL" means that the limit check for one or more traces failed.
Remote command:
​CALCulate:​CLIMits:​FAIL?​
TTL 1 / 2 Pass
Assigns the active trace to the low-voltage (3.3 V) TTL output signals at the "USER
PORT" connector (see ​chapter 9.1.1.1, "USER PORT", on page 737). To generate the
signals, the limit check of the active trace must be switched on.
● If "TTL 1 Pass" is selected and the active trace passes the limit check (including
upper/lower limits and ripple limits), then the TTL signal is applied to pin 13 of the
"USER PORT" connector.
● If "TTL 2 Pass" is selected and the active trace passes the limit check (including
upper/lower limits and ripple limits), then the TTL signal is applied to pin 14 of the
"USER PORT" connector.
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If the active trace exceeds the limits, then no TTL signal is generated. It is possible to
activate both pass/fail signals for the same trace or assign several traces to a signal.
Monitoring several traces
If a channel contains several traces, is possible to assign them one after another to each
pass/fail signal. The procedure divides the traces of the channel into four groups that are
either assigned to signal 1, to signal 2, to both signals, or to none of them.
If several traces with independent limit check are assigned to a pass/fail signal, then the
TTL signal is generated only if all traces are within limits. It is switched off as soon as one
trace exceeds the limits.
Application: Graduated limit check
The two pass/fail signals can be used to distinguish three quality levels of a DUT. The
test is performed with a looser and a tighter set of limit lines that are assigned to two
traces with identical channel and trace settings. The limit check for the two traces is
monitored by means of the signals "TTL Out Pass 1 /TTL Out Pass 2", respectively.
● If the DUT is passed in both limit checks, the quality is good.
● If the DUT is failed in the limit check with tighter limits, the quality is still sufficient.
● If the DUT is failed in both limit checks, the quality is poor.
Instead of using two traces, it is possible to consider two groups of traces that are
assigned to "TTL 1 Pass" and "TTL 2 Pass".
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​TTLout<Pt>[:​STATe]​
Shift Lines
By setting the "Stimulus" and "Response" values it is possible to shift a previously defined
limit line in x and y direction, respectively, without having to redefine the constituent line
segments.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​CONTrol:​SHIFt​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​UPPer:​SHIFt​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​LOWer:​SHIFt​
4.2.5.2
Define Limit Lines (Dialog)
The "Define Limit Lines" dialog defines the limit lines for the active trace on a segmentby-segment basis. In each segment the limit line is defined as a straight line connecting
two points.
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Creating limit lines with minimum effort
Choose one of the following methods to efficiently create and handle limit lines:
●
To define limit lines with only a few segments, use "Add Segment" and edit each
segment in the segment table individually.
●
Select a data or memory trace as a limit line ("Import Trace...") or import a trace stored
in a file ("Import File...").
●
Save your limit lines to a file so you can re-use or modify them later sessions ("Save
Limit Line..., Recall Limit Line...").
Background information
Refer to ​chapter 3.4.1, "Limit Check", on page 59.
Access: TRACE > LINES > Limit Test > Define Limit Line...
The "Define Limit Lines" dialog contains a table to edit the individual segments of the limit
lines. The buttons below the table extend or shorten the segment list.
Segment List
Defines the individual limit line segments.
The table contains an automatically assigned current number for each segment plus the
following editable columns:
● "Type" indicates whether the segment belongs to an "Upper" or a "Lower" limit line,
or if the limit check at the segment is switched "Off". Switching off the limit check does
not delete the segment but changes its screen color.
● "Start Stimulus" is the stimulus (x-axis) value of the first point of the segment.
● "Stop Stimulus" is the stimulus (x-axis) value of the last point of the segment.
● "Start Response" is the response (y-axis) value of the first point of the segment.
● "Stop Response" is the response (y-axis) value of the last point of the segment.
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The limit line segment is calculated as a straight line connecting the two points (<Start
Stimulus>, <Start Response>) and (<Stop Stimulus>, <Stop Response>); see ​chapter 3.4.1.1, "Rules for Limit Line Definition", on page 60.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​SEGMent:​COUNt?​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​SEGMent<Seg>:​TYPE​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​SEGMent<Seg>:​STIMulus:​STARt​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​SEGMent<Seg>:​STIMulus:​STOP​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​SEGMent<Seg>:​AMPLitude:​STARt​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​SEGMent<Seg>:​AMPLitude:​STOP​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​CONTrol[:​DATA]​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​CONTrol:​SHIFt​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​DATA​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​LOWer[:​DATA]​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​LOWer:​SHIFt​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​UPPer[:​DATA]​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​UPPer:​FEED​
Add / Insert / Delete / Delete All
The first four buttons below the segment list extend or shorten the list. The analyzer
places no restriction on the number of segments in a limit line.
● Add adds a new segment to the end of the list. The new segment extends from the
"Stop Stimulus" value of the last segment to the end of the sweep range. Its response
values are equal to the "Stop Response" value of the last segment.
● Insert adds a new segment before the active segment (marked by a blue background
in the first column of the segment list). The new segment extends from the "Stop
Stimulus" value of the segment before the active segment to the "Start Stimulus"
value of the active segment. Its response values are equal to the "Start Response"
value of the active segment. The segment numbers in the list are adapted.
If no segment is active, "Insert" is equivalent to "Add".
● Delete removes the selected segment from the list.
● Delete All clears the entire segment list so it is possible to define or load a new limit
line.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​DELete:​ALL​
Recall / Save Limit Line...
The buttons open an Open File / Save File dialog to load a limit line from a limit line file
or store the current limit line configuration to a file.
Limit line files are ASCII files with the default extension *.limit and a special file format.
See ​chapter 3.4.1.4, "File Format for Limit Lines", on page 63.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​LOAD:​LIMit​
​MMEMory:​STORe:​LIMit​
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Import Trace / File...
The buttons open a dialog to load a limit line from a data or memory trace in the active
recall set or from a trace which has been stored to a file (see ​chapter 4.2.4.13, "Trace
Config > Trace Data", on page 173).
Imported traces are polygonal curves with n points and n – 1 segments. The number of
points n is set via "CHANNEL > SWEEP > Sweeps > Number of Points". The n – 1
segments are appended to the current segment table for further editing. Existing limit line
segments are not overwritten.
The import dialogs contain a list of all available traces or files and the following file import
settings.
● "Offsets" contains two input fields to define constant offset values for all imported
segments. The "Response" offset shifts all segments in vertical direction, the "Stimulus" offset shifts them in horizontal direction. The offsets are added to the start and
stop values of all segments.
● "Type" defines whether the imported segments belong to the "Upper" or "Lower" limit
line. A third option is to import the segments but disable the limit check ("Off").
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​LOWer:​FEED​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​UPPer:​FEED​
4.2.5.3
Lines > Ripple Test
Defines ripple limits for the measurement results, visualizes them in the diagrams and
activates/deactivates the ripple limit check. A ripple test is a special type of limit test where
the maximum difference between the largest and the smallest response value of the
trace must not exceed the specified limit.
Ripple limit lines are available for all Cartesian diagram types (TRACE > FORMAT). For
polar diagrams, the functions of the "Ripple Test" softtool except the "Global Check" are
grayed. The ripple limit lines are hidden and the limit check is disabled when a Cartesian
trace format is replaced by a polar diagram.
Background information
Refer to ​chapter 3.4.1, "Limit Check", on page 59.
Access: TRACE > SCALE key or Alt + Shift + E
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Some of the softkeys are coupled to the softkeys in the "Limit Test" tab and provide
identical results:
●
​Global Check
●
​TTL 1 / 2 Pass
Show Ripple Limits
Shows or hides the ripple limit lines associated with the active trace in a Cartesian diagram area. The vertical positions of the ripple lines are re-calculated after each sweep;
only their stimulus range and distance (the ripple limit) is fixed.
Note:
Display of the ripple limit line and limit check are independent of each other: Hiding the
limit line does not switch off the limit check.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​DISPlay[:​STATe]​
Ripple Check
Switches the ripple limit check of the active trace on or off.
When the limit check is switched on, a movable info field shows the pass/fail information
and the measured ripple in each ripple limit range. If the ripple limit check fails at a measurement point, the point is marked with a colored square. The "Limit Fail Trace" color is
defined in the "Define User Color Scheme" dialog ("Display > Display Config. > Define
User Color..."). An acoustic signal ("Global Beep") and a TTL signal indicating pass or
fail can be generated in addition.
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Note: Ripple limit check and display of the ripple limit lines are independent of each
other: With disabled limit check, the limit line can still be displayed. If no limit lines are
defined for the active trace, the limit check can still be switched on but the info field will
display a warning ("No ripple defined!").
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​STATe​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​FAIL?​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​SEGMent<Seg>:​RESult?​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​STATe:​AREA​
Ripple Fail Beep
Activates or deactivates the fail beep. The fail beep is a low-tone acoustic signal that is
generated each time the analyzer detects an exceeded ripple limit. No fail beep can be
generated if the ripple limit check is switched off.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​SOUNd[:​STATe]​
Show Results All Traces
Shows or hides the info fields for all traces in the active recall set for which a limit check
is enabled, irrespective of the active trace. If "Show Results All Traces" is disabled (and
the ripple check is on), the info field for the active trace is displayed only.
Remote command:
No command; display configuration only.
Clear Test
Resets the limit check results.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​CLEar​
4.2.5.4
Define Ripple Test (Dialog)
The "Define Ripple Test" dialog defines the ripple limits for the active trace on a rangeby-range basis. A separate ripple limit can be assigned to each range.
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Defining ripple limits with minimum effort
Choose one of the following methods to efficiently create and handle ripple limit ranges:
●
To configure a limit test with only a few ranges, use "Add" and edit each range in the
table individually.
●
Use the "Align All" button to create non-overlapping, contiguous ranges of equal
width.
●
Save your ripple ranges to a file so you can re-use or modify them later sessions
("Save Ripple Test..., Recall Ripple Test...").
Background information
Refer to ​chapter 3.4.1, "Limit Check", on page 59.
Access: TRACE > LINES > Ripple Test > Def. Ripple Test...
The "Define Ripple Test" dialog contains a table to edit the individual ranges of the ripple
check ranges. The buttons below the table extend, shorten, or re-order the range list and
save/recall ripple test data.
Range List
Defines the individual ripple limit ranges.
The table contains an automatically assigned current number for each range plus the
following editable columns:
● "Range On/Off" enables or disables the ripple limit check in each range. Disabling
the ripple limit check does not delete the range but hides the entry in the info field.
● "Start Stimulus" is the smallest stimulus (x-axis) value of the range.
● "Stop Stimulus" is the largest stimulus (x-axis) value of the range.
● "Ripple Limit" is the maximum allowed difference between the largest and the smallest trace value in the range.
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The ripple limit range is displayed as two parallel, horizontal lines in the diagram. "Stop
Stimulus" – "Start Stimulus" is the length of both lines (if the range is within the sweep
range); "Ripple Limit" is their vertical distance. See c​ hapter 3.4.1.2, "Rules for Ripple Test
Definition", on page 61.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​SEGMent<Seg>[:​STATe]​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​SEGMent<Seg>:​STIMulus:​STARt​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​SEGMent<Seg>:​STIMulus:​STOP​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​SEGMent<Seg>:​LIMit​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​SEGMent:​COUNt?​
Add / Insert / Delete / Delete All / Align All
The first four buttons below the range list extend, shorten, or re-order the list.
● Add adds a new range to the list. The new range is and inserted after the previously
selected range. The current range numbers are adapted; the start and stop stimulus
values are set so that an overlap is avoided. Moreover, the ripple limit is estimated
according to the measured ripple of the trace in the created range. The analyzer
places no restriction on the number of ranges assigned to each trace.
● Insert adds a new range before the active range (marked by a blue background in
the first column of the range list). The new range extends from the "Stop Stimulus"
value of the range before the active range to the "Start Stimulus" value of the active
range. Its ripple limit is estimated according to the measured ripple of the trace in the
created range. The range numbers in the list are adapted.
If no range is active, "Insert" is equivalent to "Add".
● Delete removes the selected range from the list.
● Delete All clears the entire range list so it is possible to define or load a new ripple
limit line.
● Align All subdivides the entire sweep range into contiguous ripple limit ranges of
equal width. The ripple limits are estimated according to the measured ripple of the
trace in the created ranges.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​CONTrol:​DOMain​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​DATA​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​DELete:​ALL​
Recall / Save Ripple Test...
The buttons open an Open File / Save File dialog to load a ripple limit line from a ripple
limit file or store the current ripple limit configuration to a file.
Ripple limit files are ASCII files with the default extension *.ripple and a special file
format. See ​chapter 3.4.1.5, "File Format for Ripple Limits", on page 64.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​LOAD:​RIPPle​
​MMEMory:​STORe:​RIPPle​
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4.2.5.5
Circle Test
Defines circular limit lines for the measurement results in circular diagrams ("Polar",
"Smith", "Inverted Smith"), visualizes them in the diagram and activates/deactivates the
circle limit check.
Most of the control elements in the "Circle Test" tab are unavailable unless the active
diagram is a circular diagram.
Background information
Refer to ​chapter 3.4.1.3, "Circle Limits", on page 62.
Access: TRACE > SCALE key or Alt + Shift + E
Some of the softkeys are coupled to the softkeys in the "Limit Test" tab and provide
identical results:
●
​Global Check
●
​TTL 1 / 2 Pass
Show Limit Circle
Shows or hides the limit line associated with the active trace in a polar diagram area.
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The limit line colors are defined in the "Define User Color SCheme" dialog ("Display >
Config > Define User Color..."). You can choose between various options:
● Assign the same color to traces and associated limit lines.
● Assign different colors to limit line segments with disabled limit check.
Note: Display of the limit line and limit check are independent of each other: Hiding the
limit line does not switch off the limit check.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​CIRCle:​DISPlay[:​STATe]​
Limit Check
Switches the limit check of the active trace on or off.
When the limit check is switched on, a movable "PASS" or "FAIL" message is displayed
in the diagram. If the limit check fails at a measurement point, the point is marked with a
colored square. The "Limit Fail Trace" color is defined in the "Define User Color
Scheme" dialog ("Display > Display Config. > Define User Color..."). An acoustic signal
("Global Beep") and a TTL signal indicating pass or fail can be generated in addition.
The appearance of the limit fail symbols is defined in the "Define User Color SCheme"
dialog ("Display > Config > Define User Color..."). You can choose between various
options:
● Change the trace color between failed measurement points.
● Show or hide the colored squares.
Note: Limit check and display of the limit lines are independent of each other: With
disabled limit check, the limit line can still be displayed. If no limit lines are defined for the
active trace, the limit check can be switched on but will always PASS the trace.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​CIRCle[:​STATe]​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​CIRCle:​FAIL?​
Limit Fail Beep
Activates or deactivates the fail beep. The fail beep is a low-tone acoustic signal that is
generated each time the analyzer detects an exceeded limit. No fail beep can be generated if the limit check is switched off.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​CIRCle:​SOUNd[:​STATe]​
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Clear Test
Resets the limit check results.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​CIRCle:​CLEar​
Draw Circle
Activates touchscreen operation; tap the diagram at one border of the limit circle and
draw the circle to the required size and position.
Remote command:
n/a
Radius / Center X/Y
Defines the limit circle by its radius and its center on the x-axis and y-axis.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​CIRCle:​DATA​
4.2.5.6
Lines > Horizontal Line
Shows or hides the horizontal line associated to the active trace in a Cartesian diagram
area. The horizontal line (or display line) can be moved to particular trace points in order
to retrieve the response values. It also shows which parts of a trace are above or below
a definite response value.
Access: TRACE > SCALE key or Alt + Shift + E
Response Value
Defines/shows the response value of the horizontal line.
Tip: Use the R&S ZNC's drag-and-drop functionality to move the horizontal line to a
particular position. The response value appears in the numeric entry field.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​DLINe​
Horizontal Line
Displays or hides the horizontal line.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​DLINe:​STATe​
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4.2.6 Marker Settings
The marker settings are used to position markers on a trace and define their properties.
Markers are also convenient tools for searching special points on traces and for scaling
diagrams.
Background information
Refer to the following sections:
4.2.6.1
●
​chapter 3.2.2.3, "Markers", on page 27
●
chapter "Set by Marker" in the Help or in the Getting Started guide
Marker > Markers
Creates markers and configures their properties. Markers are available for all diagram
types (TRACE > FORMAT). A first marker labeled "M1" is automatically created when
the MARKER key is pressed.
The "Mkr 1 ... Mkr 10" and "Ref Mkr" softkeys create markers or remove them from the
display. A removed marker remembers its properties (stimulus value, format, delta mode,
number) and will be restored with these properties when "Mkr <n>" or "Ref Mkr" is
selected again. The marker properties are definitely lost when the associated trace is
deleted.
Related information
Refer to the following sections:
●
​chapter 3.2.2.3, "Markers", on page 27
●
See chapter "Operating the Instrument > Handling Diagrams, Traces, and Markers"
in the Help system or in the R&S ZNC Getting Started guide.
Access: TRACE > MARKER key or Alt + Shift + G
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Mkr Stimulus / On / Delta Mode
The functions on top of the softkey panel act on all markers; see ​"Mkr 1 ... Mkr 10"
on page 193.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​X​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>[:​STATe]​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​REFerence:​X​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​REFerence[:​STATe]​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​DELTa[:​STATe]​
Mkr 1 ... Mkr 10
Creates the markers numbered 1 to 10 and assigns them to the active trace. When a
marker is created, a triangle labeled "M<n>" is positioned on the trace and the marker
coordinates are displayed in the movable info field.
The stimulus position of an active marker can be entered in the "Mkr <n> Stimulus" entry
field. The default position is the center of the sweep range. You can also simply drag and
drop markers to change their x-axis position.
See also ​"Activating and Moving Markers" on page 28.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>[:​STATe]​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​Y?​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer[:​STATe]:​AREA​
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Ref Mkr
Creates a reference marker and assigns it to the active trace. When a marker is created,
a triangle labeled "R" is positioned on the trace and the marker coordinates are displayed
in the info field.
The stimulus position of the active reference marker can be entered in the "Ref Marker
Stimulus" entry field. The default position is the start of the sweep range or the position
of the last active marker.
The reference marker defines the reference value for all markers that are in "Delta
Mode".
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​REFerence[:​STATe]​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​REFerence:​Y?​
All Markers Off
Removes all markers from the active trace. Markers on other traces are not affected. The
removed markers remember their properties (stimulus value, format, delta mode, number) when they are restored. The marker properties are definitely lost when the associated trace is deleted.
Tip: To delete a single marker, drag it into vertical direction to release it from the trace
and drop it onto the "Delete" icon.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​AOFF​
Coupled Markers
Couples the markers of all traces in the active recall set to the markers of the active trace.
While marker coupling is active, the active trace markers assume the role of master
markers; the other markers behave as slave markers, following any change of position
of the master marker. Coupled markers allow you to compare different measurement
results (assigned to different traces) at the same stimulus value (i.e., at the same measurement point).
See also ​"Marker Coupling" on page 30.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​COUPled[:​STATe]​
4.2.6.2
Marker > Marker Props
Modifies the properies of a marker created previously (see ​chapter 4.2.6.1, "Marker >
Markers", on page 192). The functions (except "Export Markers...") are unavailable if the
active trace contains no markers.
Access: TRACE > MARKER key or Alt + Shift + G
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Marker Name
Assigns a (new) name to the active marker. Marker names may exceed the length of the
input box and contain letters, numbers, blanks and special characters.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​NAME​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​REFerence:​NAME​
Marker Format
Selects an output format for the (complex) active marker value in the movable marker
info field. The default marker format is the format of the associated trace.
All marker formats are always available, irrespective of the measured quantity. The output
values are calculated by a simple conversion of a complex measurement result; the
marker format defines the conversion rules. This flexibility in the calculation must be kept
in mind when interpreting the results and physical units displayed. See also ​chapter 3.2.4.6, "Measured Quantities and Display Formats", on page 42.
Short description of marker formats
The formats of the markers assigned to a trace are independent of each other and of the
trace format settings. The following table gives an overview on how a complex marker
value z = x + jy is converted.
Table 4-2: Marker formats
Marker Format
Description
Formula
Default (Trace)
Marker format identical with trace format
–
Lin Mag
Magnitude of z, unconverted
|z| = sqrt ( x2 + y2)
dB Mag
Magnitude of z in dB
|z| = sqrt ( x2 + y2 ) dB Mag(z) =
20 * log|z| dB
Phase
Phase of z
φ (z) = arctan (y/x)
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Marker Format
Description
Formula
Delay
Group delay, neg. derivative of the phase
response*)
– d φ (z) / d ω
Real
Real part of z
Re(z) = x
Imag
Imaginary part of z
Im(z) = y
SWR
(Voltage) Standing Wave Ratio
SWR = (1 + |z|) / (1 – |z|)
dB Mag Phase
Magnitude of z in dB and phase in two lines
20 * log|z| dB arctan ( Im(z) /
Re(z) )
Lin Mag Phase
Magnitude of z (unconverted) and phase in two lines |z| arctan ( Im(z) / Re(z) )
Real Imag
Real and imaginary part of z in two lines
xy
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FORMat​
Marker Style
Defines how the selected marker is displayed on the screen.
Remote command:
n/a
Discrete
Discrete mode means that a marker can be set to discrete sweep points only. If discrete
mode is switched off, the marker can be positioned on any point of the trace, and its
response values are obtained by interpolation.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​MODE​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​REFerence:​MODE​
Fixed
Freezes the current response value of the selected marker. The marker can still be shifted
horizontally but the vertical position remains fixed if the other marker settings are
changed. Markers must be inside the sweep range and have a valid response value when
they are fixed.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​TYPE​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​REFerence:​TYPE​
Marker Info
Displays the marker coordinates above the marker symbol.
Remote command:
n/a
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Ref Mkr -> Mkr
Places the reference marker to the position of the active marker. "Ref. Mkr -> Mkr" is not
active if the active marker is a reference marker.
Remote command:
n/a
Export Markers
Calls up a "Save As"... dialog to store the current marker values to a marker file.
The analyzer uses a simple ASCII format to export marker values. By default, the marker
file extension is *.txt. The file contains all traces in the active recall set together with
their names and measured quantities. Below each trace, the file shows a list of all markers
with their names, stimulus and response values.
The following example of a marker file describes a recall set with two traces, "Trc1" and
its memory trace "Mem2[Trc1]". "Trc1" has a reference marker "R" and three normal
markers "M1, M2, M3" assigned, the memory trace has no markers.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​STORe:​MARKer​
Decimal Places
Opens the "System Config" dialog to define the (maximum) number of fractional digits
for setting values and measurement results. See also ​chapter 4.6.2.3, "User Interface",
on page 311.
4.2.6.3
Marker > Marker Search
The "Marker Search" functions use markers to locate specific points on the trace. The
functions are unavailable if the active trace contains no markers (e.g. after "All Markers
Off").
The marker search extends over a configurable range of stimulus values ("Search
Range..."). In the default configuration, the search range is equal to the entire sweep
range.
Background information
Refer to ​"Marker Search Functions" on page 30.
Access: TRACE > MARKER key or Alt + Shift + G
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Max / Min
Sets the active marker to the absolute maximum or minimum in the search range, i.e. to
the largest or smallest of all response values. If a complex trace format (e.g. a polar
diagram) is active, the marker is set to the measurement point with the maximum or
minimum magnitude.
"Max" and "Min"also overwrite the current "Search Mode" (--> "Search Min" and "Search
Max") and the "Peak Type" for the peak search functions.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​EXECute​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​RESult?​ MINimum | MAXimum
Center = Marker
Sets the center of the sweep range equal to the stimulus value of the active marker,
leaving the span unchanged. The active marker appears in the center of the diagram.
This function is useful to focus on the sweep segment of particular interest, e.g. after a
maximum or minimum search.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​CENTer​
Next Peak / Peak Type
Sets the active marker to the next maximum or minimum in the search range, depending
on the "Peak Type" setting.
● If "Max" is active, then the marker is set to the next maximum. The next maximum is
the maximum with the largest response value that is below the current marker
response value.
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●
●
If "Min" is active, then the marker is set to the next minimum. The next minimum is
the minimum with the smallest response value that is above the current marker
response value.
If "Min or Max" is active, then the marker is set to the next minimum or maximum,
whichever has the smallest distance from the current marker response value.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​EXECute​ NPEak
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​RESult?​
Peak Left / Right
Sets the active marker to the next maximum or minimum to the left or right of the current
marker position, depending on the "Peak Type" setting.
● If "Max" is active, then the marker is set to the next maximum.
● If "Min" is active, then the marker is set to the next minimum.
● If "Min or Max" is active, then the marker is set to the next minimum or maximum,
whichever is closer.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​EXECute​ LPEak | RPEak
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​RESult?​
Search Mode
Indicates the current search mode, depending on the last executed search function.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​EXECute​?
Tracking
Enables/disables tracking of the active marker for "Marker Search" and "Target
Search" modes, which causes the marker to be updated after each sweep.
Tracking for bandfilter search can be activated separately, see ​"Tracking" on page 207.
Among the "Marker Search" and "Target Search" modes, the tracking functionality only
makes sense for
● "Marker Search: Min/Max", where such an update typically causes the marker to
change both its horizontal and vertical position and
● "Target Search: Target Search", where typically only the horizontal position changes
Define an adequate "Search Range" to restrict the search to the adequate frequency or
power interval (see ​chapter 4.2.6.4, "Search Range (Dialog)", on page 199).
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​SEARch:​TRACking​
4.2.6.4
Search Range (Dialog)
The "Search Range" dialog confines the "Marker Search" and "Target Search" for the
selected marker to a subrange of the sweep. The search range is a continuous interval
of the sweep variable.
If ​Tracking is active, the assigned search range applies to all sweeps and can be used
to achieve uniqueness in "Marker Search Min", "Marker Search Max" or "Target Search".
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Trace Settings
See also ​chapter 4.2.4.10, "Trace Config > Trace Statistics", on page 165.
Access: TRACE > MARKER > Marker Search > Search Range...
It is possible to define up to ten different search ranges for each recall set and assign
them to the markers no. 1 to 10.
Select Marker
Selects the reference marker or one of the ten numbered markers that can be assigned
to the trace. If a numbered marker does not exist, it is created as soon as "On" is checked.
A created marker is displayed in the center of the search range.
Search Range
Selects the search range to be assigned to the selected marker. "Full Span" means that
the search range is equal to the sweep range. Besides, it is possible to store up to 10
customized search ranges.
The search ranges are bordered by the "Start" and "Stop" values. "Start" must be smaller
than "Stop", otherwise the second value is automatically adjusted.
Search range properties
The ten search ranges are valid for the entire recall set. Each of them can be assigned
to any marker in the recall set, irrespective of the trace and channel that the marker
belongs to.
The default search range of any new marker is "Full Span". The analyzer provides the
greatest flexibility in defining search ranges. In particular, two search ranges may overlap
or even be identical. The search is confined to the part of the search range that belongs
to the sweep range.
The following example shows how search ranges can be used to search a trace for several local maxima.
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Note: The search ranges are identical to the evaluation ranges for trace statistics. For
more information see ​chapter 4.2.4.11, "Evaluation Range (Dialog)", on page 169.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​DOMain:​USER​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​DOMain:​USER:​STARt​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​DOMain:​USER:​STOP​
Range Limit Lines on
Displays or hides the range limit lines in the diagram area. Range limit lines are two
vertical lines at the Start and Stop values of the active search range ("Range 1" to "Range
10").
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​DOMain:​USER:​SHOW​
4.2.6.5
Marker > Target Search
The "Target Search" functions use markers to locate trace points with a specific response
value ("Target Value"). The functions are unavailable if the active trace contains no
markers (e.g. after "All Markers Off").
Access: TRACE > MARKER key or Alt + Shift + G
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Some of the "Target Search" functions are equal to the corresponding "Marker Search"
functions. Refer to the following sections:
●
​chapter 4.2.6.4, "Search Range (Dialog)", on page 199
●
​"Search Mode" on page 199
●
​"Tracking" on page 199
Target Value
Specifies the target value for the search.
Since V1.80 of the VNA software the target value can be specified in different formats
(see ​Target Format below). For instance, this enables searching for particular phase
values in Smith charts.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​TARGet​
Target Format
Selects the format in which the ​Target Value shall be specified.
The selected target format applies to the current marker only: each marker may have a
different target format. The table below gives an overview on how a complex target value
z = x + jy is converted.
Target Format
Description
Formula
Lin Mag
Magnitude of z, unconverted.
|z| = sqrt ( x2 + y2)
dB Mag [dB]
Magnitude of z in dB
Mag(z) = 20 log|z| dB
Phase [°]
Phase of z
φ (z) = arctan (y/x)
Phase unwrap [°]
Unwrapped phase of z comprising Ф(z) = φ (z) + 2k·360°
the complete number of 360°
phase rotations
Real
Real part of z
Re(z) = x
Imag
Imaginary part of z
Im(z) = y
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Target Format
Description
Formula
SWR
(Voltage) Standing Wave Ratio
SWR = (1 + |z|) / (1 – |z|)
Default
Identical to trace format.
-
Note: the Smith and Polar traces
use "Lin Mag" as the default format
for target value.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​SEARch:​FORMat​
Target Search
Activates the search and sets the active marker to the defined target value. If the target
value occurs at several stimulus values, the marker is placed to the search result with
the smallest stimulus value. The other measurement points with the same target value
can be located using the "Search Right" function.
If the target is not found (e.g. because the active trace doesn't contain the target value),
then the active marker is not moved away from its original position.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​EXECute​ TARGet
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​RESult?​
Search Left
Activates the search to the left of the active marker position and sets the active marker
to the defined target value. The target search range is between the "Start" value of the
search range and the active marker position.
If the target value occurs at several stimulus values, the marker is placed to the search
result with the largest stimulus value (i.e. the one which is closest to the active marker
position). The other measurement points with the same target value can be located using
"Search Left" repeatedly.
If the target is not found (e.g. because the active trace doesn't contain the target value),
then the active marker is not moved away from its original position.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​EXECute​ LTARget
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​RESult?​
Search Right
Activates the search to the right of the active marker position and sets the active marker
to the defined target value. The target search range is between the active marker position
and the "Stop" value of the search range.
If the target value occurs at several stimulus values, the marker is placed to the search
result with the smallest stimulus value (i.e. the one which is closest to the active marker
position). The other measurement points with the same target value can be located using
"Search Right" repeatedly.
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If the target is not found (e.g. because the active trace doesn't contain the target value),
then the active marker is not moved away from its original position.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​EXECute​ RTARget
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​RESult?​
4.2.6.6
Marker > Bandfilter Search
The "Bandfilter Search" functions search for trace segments with a bandpass or bandstop
shape and determine characteristic filter parameters.
Background information
Refer to ​"Bandfilter Search" on page 31.
Bandfilter search mode can be used for a broad range of measured quantities (TRACE
> MEAS), provided that the display format is dB Mag. To obtain real filter parameters, the
measured quantity must be a transmission S-parameter and a frequency sweep must be
performed. For other quantities (e.g reflection parameters), the "Bandfilter Search" functions are still useful to analyze general trace properties. In some display formats (e.g.
"Phase") the bandfilter search is disabled.
Access: TRACE > MARKER key or Alt + Shift + G
Many of the "Bandfilter Search" functions are equal to the corresponding "Marker
Search" functions. Refer to the following sections:
●
​chapter 4.2.6.4, "Search Range (Dialog)", on page 199
●
​"Search Mode" on page 199
●
​"Tracking" on page 199
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Bandwidth
Specifies the minimum excursion of the bandpass and bandstop peaks.
● A bandpass peak must fall off on both sides by the specified <Bandwidth> value to
be considered a valid peak.
● A bandstop peak must be <Bandwidth> below the maximum level in the search range
(bandpass value) to be considered a valid peak.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​TARGet​
Bandpass Ref to Max
Activates the search for a bandpass region on the active trace and activates bandfilter
"Tracking". The located bandpass region is the tallest peak in the search range with with
a minimum excursion as specified by the "Bandwidth" parameter.
If "Bandpass Ref to Max" is selected the analyzer uses (or creates) the four markers
"M1" to "M4" to locate the bandpass region.
●
●
●
●
"M1" indicates the maximum of the peak ("Max").
"M2" indicates the point on the left edge of the peak where the trace value is equal
to the maximum minus the bandwidth factor ("Lower Edge").
"M3" indicates the point on the right edge of the peak where the trace value is equal
to the maximum minus the bandwidth factor ("Upper Edge").
"M4" indicates the center of the peak, calculated as the geometric mean value of the
"Lower Edge" (LBE) and "Upper Edge" (UBE) positions:
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f Center 
(f LBE * fUBE )
The bandfilter search results are displayed in the movable bandfilter info field.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​BWIDth:​MODE​ BPASs
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​EXECute​ BFILter
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer:​SEARch:​BFILter:​RESult[:​STATe]:​AREA​
Bandpass Ref to Mkr
Activates the search for a bandpass region on the active trace and activates bandfilter
"Tracking", starting at the position of the active marker. A bandpass region is the closest
peak in the search range with a minimum excursion as specified by the "Bandwidth"
parameter.
In contrast to a "Bandpass Ref to Max", the "Bandpass Ref to Mkr" does not change the
position of the active markers. The bandfilter search results are displayed in the movable
bandfilter info field.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​BWIDth:​MODE​ BPRMarker
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​EXECute​ BFILter
Bandstop Ref to Max
Activates the search for a bandstop region on the active trace and activates bandfilter
"Tracking". A bandstop region is the lowest peak (local minimum) in the search range,
provided that its level is at least <Bandwidth> below the maximum (passband value).
If "Bandstop Ref to Max" is selected the analyzer uses (or creates) the four markers
"M1" to "M4" to locate the bandstop region.
●
●
●
●
"M1" indicates the minimum of the peak ("Min").
"M2" indicates the point on the left edge of the peak where the trace value is equal
to the maximum in the search range (passband value) minus the bandwidth factor
("Lower Edge").
"M3" indicates the point on the right edge of the peak where the trace value is equal
to the maximum in the search range (passband value) minus "x dB Bandwidth" (Upper
Edge).
"M4" indicates the center of the peak, calculated as the geometric mean value of the
"Lower Edge" (LBE) and "Upper Edge" (UBE) positions:
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f Center 
(f LBE * fUBE )
The bandfilter search results are displayed in the movable bandfilter info field.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​BWIDth:​MODE​ BSTop
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​EXECute​ BFILter
Result Off
Hides the movable info field with the results of a bandpass or a bandstop search and
disables bandfiter "Tracking". The info field is displayed again (and tracking re-enabled)
when a new bandfilter search is performed.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​BWIDth​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer:​SEARch:​BFILter:​RESult[:​STATe]​
Search / Search Mode
Enables a bandpass or bandstop search (left/right icon) for an arbitrary search mode.
The search modes have the following effect:
● Bandpass Ref to Max / Bandstop Ref to Max: The bandpass / bandstop is the tallest /
lowest peak in the search range. For a detailed description refer to ​"Bandpass Ref to
Max" on page 205 and ​"Bandstop Ref to Max" on page 206.
● "Bandpass / Bandstop Ref to Marker:" The bandpass / bandstop is the tallest / lowest
peak in the search range. The response value for the lower and upper band edges
is calculated as the response value at the active marker position plus / minus x dB,
where x is equal to the <Bandwidth> value. To be valid the peak must be above /
below the response value for the band edges.
● "Bandpass / Bandstop Absolute Level:" The bandpass / bandstop is the tallest/lowest
peak in the search range. To be valid, the peak must be above / below –x dB, where
x is numerically equal to the <Bandwidth> value. The Lower Band Edge and Upper
Band Edge values are given by the frequencies where the trace is equal to –x dB.
● "None" Bandfilter search switched off, result off.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​BWIDth:​MODE​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​BWIDth​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer:​SEARch:​BFILter:​RESult[:​STATe]​
Tracking
Causes the active bandfilter search to be repeated after each sweep: When tracking
mode is active the markers typically change their horizontal and vertical positions as the
measurement goes on.
Tracking mode properties
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Trace Settings
Tracking modes are available for all search modes. The tracking modes for minimum/
maximum/peak search and target search are coupled; tracking for bandfilter search can
be activated separately. Bandfilter tracking is activated automatically when one of the
bandfilter search modes is selected.
Remote command:
Bandfilter tracking and marker/target search tracking are controlled with the same command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​SEARch:​TRACking​
4.2.6.7
Marker > Set by Marker
The "Set by Marker" functions use the active marker to define the sweep range, scale
the diagram and introduce an electrical length offset. The functions are unavailable if the
active trace contains no markers (e.g. after "All Markers Off").
Examples
Refer to chapter "Set by Marker" in the Help or in the Getting Started guide.
Access: TRACE > MARKER key or Alt + Shift + G
Center / Start / Stop / Span = Marker
The following functions use the stimulus value of the active marker to define the sweep
range.
● Center = Marker sets the center of the sweep range equal to the stimulus value of
the active marker, leaving the span unchanged. The active marker appears in the
center of the diagram.
● Start = Marker sets the beginning (start) of the sweep range equal to the stimulus
value of the active marker, leaving the end (stop) value unchanged. The active marker
appears at the left edge of the diagram.
● Stop = Marker sets the end (stop) of the sweep range equal to the stimulus value of
the active marker, leaving the beginning (start) unchanged. The active marker
appears at the right edge of the diagram.
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●
Span = Marker sets the span of the sweep range equal to the absolute value of the
first coordinate of the active delta marker, i.e. to the difference between the delta
marker and the reference marker positions. The function is available only if the active
marker is in "Delta Mode". The reference marker appears at the right, the delta marker
at the left edge of the diagram or vice versa, depending on which of the two markers
has the smaller stimulus value.
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​CENTer​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​STARt​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​STOP​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​SPAN​
Ref Val / Max / Min = Marker
The following functions use the response value of the active marker to scale the y-axis
of the diagram:
● Ref Val = Marker sets the reference value equal to the response value of the active
marker, leaving the values of the vertical divisions ("Scale / Div") unchanged.
● Max = Marker sets the upper edge of the diagram equal to the response value of the
active marker, leaving the values of the vertical divisions ("Scale / Div") unchanged.
● Min = Marker sets the lower edge of the diagram equal to the response value of the
active marker, leaving the values of the vertical divisions ("Scale / Div") unchanged.
Remote command:
n/a
Zero Delay at Marker
Corrects the measurement result by adding or subtracting a constant group delay. This
function must be applied to a trace which is displayed in group delay format. The trace
is shifted in vertical direction so that the delay at the marker position vanishes.
The delay represents the propagation time of the wave across the DUT, so this operation
corresponds to a electrical length compensation, i.e. to a shift of the reference plane by
adding to or subtracting from the test port a simulated lossless transmission line of variable length. The correction must be carried out on the "Delay" trace but has an impact
on all trace formats.
A standard application of "Zero Delay at Marker" is correction of the constant delay
caused by the interconnecting cables between the analyzer test ports and the DUT (line
stretch).
Note: "Zero Delay at Marker" modifies the "Offset" parameters and therefore influences
the entire channel.
Remote command:
n/a
4.2.6.8
Marker > Info Field
Displays or hides the marker info field and selects it contents. The functions are selfexplanatory.
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Background information
Refer to ​"Marker Info Field" on page 28
Access: TRACE > MARKER key or Alt + Shift + G
4.3 Stimulus Settings
The "Channel > Stimulus" settings define the sweep range in the current channel,
depending on the sweep type.
In Cartesian diagrams, the sweep range corresponds to the diagram width and defines
the scaling of the x-axis. In polar diagrams and Smith charts the stimulus axis is lost but
the marker functions easily provide the stimulus value of any measurement point.
All stimulus settings except the "Time Domain X-Axis" settings are channel settings.
"Time Domain X-Axis" applies to the active trace which must be transformed into time
domain.
Background information
Refer to the following sections:
●
​chapter 3.1.3, "Traces, Channels and Diagrams", on page 12
●
chapter "Setting the Sweep Range" in the Help or in the Getting Started guide
●
chapter "Using Marker Functions" in the Help or in the Getting Started guide
4.3.1 Stimulus > Stimulus
Defines the sweep range in the current channel, depending on the sweep type.
Related Settings
Refer to the following sections:
●
​chapter 3.1.4.2, "Stimulus and Sweep Types", on page 16
●
​chapter 4.4.2.2, "Sweep > Sweep Type", on page 220
Access: STIMULUS keys or Alt + Shift + J
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Start / Stop / Center / Span Frequency (Power / Time)
Defines the sweep range:
● "Start ..." is the lowest value of the sweep variable (e.g. the lowest frequency measured) and corresponds to the left edge of the Cartesian diagram.
● "Stop ..." is the highest value of the sweep variable (e.g. the highest frequency measured) and corresponds to the right edge of the Cartesian diagram.
● "Center..." corresponds to the center of the Cartesian diagram, i.e. (Start ... + Stop ...)/
2.
● "... Span" corresponds to the diagram width, i.e. (Stop ... – Start ...).
For a frequency sweep the "Start Frequency" and "Stop Frequency" or the "Center Frequency" and "Frequency Span" are alternative settings.
For the other sweep types, some of the input fields are unavailable; see ​table 3-1.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]FREQuency:​STARt​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]FREQuency:​STOP​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]FREQuency:​CENTer​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]FREQuency:​SPAN​
​SOURce<Ch>:​POWer<PhyPt>:​STARt​
​SOURce<Ch>:​POWer<PhyPt>:​STOP​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SWEep:​TIME​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SWEep:​POINts​
​SYSTem:​FREQuency?​ (query frequency range of the network analyzer)
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Power
Determines the output power at the test ports for the sweep types "Power", "CW Mode",
and "Time". The setting has no effect for "Power" sweeps, where the source power is
varied over a continuous range.
Remote command:
​SOURce<Ch>:​POWer<PhyPt>[:​LEVel][:​IMMediate][:​AMPLitude]​
CW Frequency
Sets the fixed frequency for the sweep types "Power", "CW Mode", and "Time".
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]FREQuency:​FIXed​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]FREQuency[:​CW]​
​SOURce<Ch>:​FREQuency<PhyPt>:​FIXed​
​SOURce<Ch>:​FREQuency<PhyPt>[:​CW]​
Zoom Stimulus
Magnifies a rectangular portion of the diagram (zoom window) to fill the entire diagram
area. See also ​chapter 4.2.3.3, "Scale > Zoom", on page 145 or chapter "Operating the
Instrument > Using the Graphic Zoom" in the Help system or in the R&S ZNC Getting
Started guide.
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​ZOOM:​BOTTom​
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​ZOOM:​STARt​
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​ZOOM:​STOP​
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​ZOOM:​TOP​
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​ZOOM[:​STATe]​
4.3.2 Stimulus > Power
Defines the power of the internal signal source in the current channel, depending on the
sweep type.
Access: STIMULUS keys or Alt + Shift + J
Most of the "Power" settings are also available in the "Stimulus" tab. Refer to the following
sections:
●
​"Power" on page 212
●
​"Start / Stop / Center / Span Frequency (Power / Time)" on page 211
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RF Off All Channels
"RF Off" switches the internal power source for all channels off (if checked) or on. Switching off the RF power helps to prevent overheating of a connected DUT while no measurement results are taken.
Remote command:
​OUTPut<Ch>[:​STATe]​
4.3.3 Stimulus > Time Domain X-Axis
Defines the stimulus axis for a active trace which is transformed into time domain. All
settings are unavailable if "TRACE CONFIG > Time Domain" is disabled for the active
trace.
Related information
Refer to the following sections:
●
​chapter 3.7.1, "Time Domain (R&S ZNC-K2)", on page 98
●
​chapter 4.2.4.7, "Trace Config > Time Domain", on page 159
Access: STIMULUS keys or Alt + Shift + J
Time Start / Stop / Center / Span
Defines the display range for the time domain trace.
● "Time Start" is the lowest displayed time and corresponds to the left edge of the
Cartesian diagram.
● "Time Stop" is the highest displayed time and corresponds to the right edge of the
Cartesian diagram.
● "Time Center" corresponds to the center of the Cartesian diagram, i.e. (Time Start +
Time Stop)/2.
● "Time Span" corresponds to the diagram width, i.e. (Time Stop – Time Start).
"Time Start" and "Time Stop" or "Time Center" and "Time Span" are alternative settings.
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Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​STARt​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​STOP​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​CENTer​
​CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​SPAN​
Time / Distance
"Time" and "Distance" switch over between the x-axis scaling in time units or distance
units.
The interpretation of time and distance depends on the measurement type. For reflection
measurements, the time axis represents the propagation time of a signal from the source
to the DUT and back. For transmission measurement, it represents the propagation time
from the source through the device to the receiver.
The distance calculation is consistent with this picture:
● For reflection measurements (S-parameters Sii or ratios with equal port indices) the
distance between the source and the DUT is half the propagation time multiplied by
the velocity of light in the vacuum times the velocity factor of the receiving port defined
via "OFFSET EMBED > Offset" (Distance = 1/2 * <Time> * c0 * <Velocity Factor>).
The factor 1/2 accounts for the return trip from the DUT to the receiver.
● For transmission measurements, the distance is calculated as the propagation time
times the velocity of light in the vacuum times the velocity factor of the receiving port
defined via "OFFSET EMBED > Offset" (Distance = <Time> * c0 * <Velocity Factor>).
Remote command:
​CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​XAXis​
4.4 Channel Settings
The "Channel" menu provides all channel settings and activates, modifies and stores
different channels.
Background information
Refer to the following sections:
●
​chapter 3.1.3, "Traces, Channels and Diagrams", on page 12
●
​chapter 3.1.3.2, "Channel Settings", on page 13
●
​chapter 3.1.4, "Sweep Control", on page 14
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4.4.1 Power Bandwidth Average Settings
The "Power Bw Avg" menu defines the power of the internal signal source(s), sets the
step attenuators and the IF bandwidths, and configures the sweep average.
4.4.1.1
Power Bw Avg > Power
Defines the power of the internal signal source(s). The settings are identical with the
"Stimulus > Power" settings; see ​chapter 4.3.2, "Stimulus > Power", on page 212.
4.4.1.2
Power Bw Avg > Bandwidth
Sets the measurement bandwidth of the IF filter. The settings apply to all filters in the
active channel. A system error correction (calibration) remains valid when the filter settings are changed.
Optimizing the filter settings
A small filter bandwidth suppresses the noise level around the measurement frequency
and thus increases the dynamic range. On the other hand the time needed to acquire a
single measurement point increases with smaller filter bandwidths. For small bandwidths,
the filter settling time, which is inversely proportional to the bandwidth, is responsible for
the predominant part of the measurement time.
Segmented sweeps
In "Segmented Frequency" sweeps, the filter settings can be selected independently for
each segment. see ​chapter 4.4.2.3, "Define Segments (Dialog)", on page 225.
Access: CHANNEL > POWER BW AVG key or Alt + Shift + L
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Bandwidth
Sets the measurement bandwidth of the IF filter. Values can be set between 1 Hz and
300 kHz. The entered value is rounded up to 1.5 * 10n Hz, 2 * 10n Hz, 3 * 10n Hz, 5 *
10n Hz, 7 * 10n Hz, 10 * 10n Hz (n = 1 to 5). Values exceeding the maximum bandwidth
are rounded down.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]BANDwidth[:​RESolution]​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]BWIDth[:​RESolution]​
4.4.1.3
Power Bw Avg > Average
Define the number of consecutive sweeps to be averaged and enables/disables the
sweep average.
Effects of sweep average, alternative settings
An average over several sweeps reduces the influence of random effects in the measurement and therefore minimizes the noise level. The effect increases with the average
factor, however, obtaining an averaged result requires several sweeps and therefore
increases the measurement time.
Smoothing is an alternative method of compensating for random effects on the trace by
averaging adjacent measurement points. Compared to the sweep average, smoothing
does not significantly increase the measurement time but can eliminate narrow peaks
and thus produce misleading results.
The sweep average is not frequency selective. To eliminate a spurious signal in the
vicinity of the measurement frequency from the trace, alternative techniques (e.g. a
smaller filter bandwidth) must be used.
In contrast to the sweep count (for single sweep mode), averaging is always channelspecific. Both features are completely independent from each other.
The average factor is also valid for calibration sweeps: The calculation of system correction data is based on the averaged trace.
Access: CHANNEL > POWER BW AVG key or Alt + Shift + L
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Factor / On / Reset
"Factor" defines the number of averaged traces, "On" enables or disables the sweep
average, "Reset" starts a new average cycle. The average cycle is also re-started when
the "Mode" is changed.
Calculation of the average trace
Let c be the average factor and assume that n sweeps have been measured since the
start of the average cycle (start of the measurement or "Reset"). The following two situations are distinguished:
● n ≤ c: At each sweep point, the average trace no. n is calculated from the average
trace no. n – 1 and the current trace no. n according to the following recurrence:
Avg (n) 
●
n 1
1
Avg (n  1)  Curr (n)
n
n
(n  1... c)
The average trace represents the arithmetic mean value over all n sweeps.
n > c: At each sweep point, the average trace no. n is calculated from the average
trace no. n – 1 and the current trace no. n according to:
Avg (n) 
c 1
1
Avg (n  1)  Curr (n)
c
c
(n  c)
The formulas hold for an average factor n = 1 where the average trace becomes equal
to the current trace.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]AVERage:​COUNt​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]AVERage[:​STATe]​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]AVERage:​CLEar​
Mode
Selects one of the following averaging algorithms:
● Auto: Automatic selection of the averaging mode, depending on the trace format.
● Reduce Noise: Averaging of the real and imaginary parts of each measurement
result, provides the most effective noise suppression for the "Real" and "Imag" formats and for polar diagrams.
● Flatten Noise: Averaging of the (linear) magnitude and phase values, provides the
most effective noise suppression for the "dB Mag", "Phase", "Unwr. Phase", and "Lin
Mag" formats.
Changing the mode resets the average cycle.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]AVERage:​MODE​ on page 535
4.4.2 Sweep Settings
The "Sweep" menu defines the scope of the measurement in the active channel. This
includes the sweep type with various parameters, the trigger conditions and the periodicity of the measurement.
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Background information
Refer to the following sections:
4.4.2.1
●
​chapter 3.1.4, "Sweep Control", on page 14
●
​chapter 3.1.4.2, "Stimulus and Sweep Types", on page 16
Sweep > Sweep Params
Controls the scope and timing of the measurement in the active channel.
Segmented sweeps
In "Segmented Frequency" sweeps, the sweep parameters can be set independently for
each segment. see ​chapter 4.4.2.3, "Define Segments (Dialog)", on page 225.
System error correction
In general, the system error correction is no longer valid after a change of the sweep
parameters. The status of the calibration is shown in the trace list. If the number of points
is changed, the analyzer interpolates the correction data. The calibration label "Cal Int"
is displayed. See also ​chapter 3.5.4, "Calibration Labels", on page 81.
Access: CHANNEL > SWEEP key or Alt + Shift + M
Number of Points
Sets the total number of measurement points per sweep. The minimum number of points
is 1 (measurement at a single frequency/power/time value). The maximum depends on
the analyzer type.
Together with the sweep range defined with the "Stimulus" settings, this parameter
defines the grid of sweep points. The sweep points are equidistantly distributed over the
entire sweep range: The step width between two consecutive sweep points is constant
on a linear scale (sweep types "Lin. Frequency", "Time" and "CW Mode") or on a logarithmic scale (sweep types "Log. Frequency" and "Power").
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The sweep points for "Lin Frequency" sweeps may alternatively be defined using the
"Frequency Step Size".
Tip: Measurement time and screen resolution
A large number of points improve the resolution of the trace but increases the measurement time. The overall measurement time is composed of the hardware settling time at
the beginning of the sweep plus the sum of the measurement times at each individual
sweep point. This implies that the measurement time increases roughly linearly with the
number of points.
See also ​chapter 3.1.4, "Sweep Control", on page 14.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SWEep:​POINts​
Freq Step Size
Sets the distance between two consecutive frequency sweep points.
The step size is an alternative to the "Number of Points" setting:
● If the sweep range is defined by means of the "Start" and "Stop" variables, both the
"Stop" value and the "Number of Points" can vary as the "Freq Step Size" is changed.
The "Stop" value is changed as little as possible so that the condition "Freq Step
Size" = "(Stop – Start) / (Number of Points – 1)" can be fulfilled. Changing the Start
and Stop values modifies the "Freq Step Size".
● If the sweep range is defined by means of the "Center" and "Span" variables, both
the "Span" value and the "Number of Points" can vary as the "Freq Step Size" is
changed. The "Span" is reduced as little as possible so that the condition "Freq Step
Size" = "(Stop – Start) / (Number of Points – 1)" can be fulfilled. Changing the
"Span" modifies the "Freq Step Size".
Note: This setting is valid for linear frequency sweeps only. It does not apply to logarithmic
and segmented sweeps, power, time or CW Mode sweeps. Increasing the "Freq Step
Size" generally increases the measurement time.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SWEep:​STEP​
Sweep Time / Auto
Varies the measurement time for a sweep or delays the start of each sweep.
● "Sweep Time" is the total measurement time for the sweep. The minimum possible
sweep time is equal to the estimated value in "Auto" mode. Setting a larger sweep
time is equivalent to defining a ​Meas Delay before each partial measurement.
● "Auto" minimizes the sweep time. The "Meas. Delay" is set to 0 s. "Sweep Time"
indicates the estimated sweep time, depending on the current measurement settings.
The "Sweep Time" and "Meas. Delay" values are maintained until changed explicitly
if "Auto" is switched off.
If a time sweep is active, "Sweep Time" is not available. The analyzer uses the previously
defined sweep time settings.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SWEep:​TIME​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SWEep:​TIME:​AUTO​
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Meas Delay
Adds a delay time before the start of the partial measurements. See ​chapter 3.1.4.1,
"Partial Measurements and Driving Mode", on page 15.
● If "All Partial Meas'ments" is selected, the delay time is added before each partial
measurement. For a complete 2 port S-parameter measurement, the delay must be
added twice per sweep point.
● If "First Partial Meas'ment" is selected, the delay time is added once per sweep point
only, irrespective of the measured quantities and the number of partial measurements. The sweep time increases by the measurement delay times the number of
sweep points.
"Meas Delay" is not available while a time sweep or CW mode sweep is active. However,
the analyzer takes into account a previously defined measurement delay.
Tip: A delay time before the start of each partial measurement increases the accuracy,
in particular for measurements on DUTs with long settling times (e.g. quartz oscillators,
SAW filters). Select "First Partial Meas'ment" if the DUT does not require an additional
settling time due to the interchange of source and receive ports.
As an alternative to increasing the delay (and thus the total sweep time), it is possible to
select "Alternated" sweep; see ​"Driving Mode" on page 279.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SWEep:​DWELl​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SWEep:​DWELl:​IPOint​
4.4.2.2
Sweep > Sweep Type
Defines the sweep variable (frequency/power/time) and the position of the sweep points
across the sweep range.
Access: CHANNEL > SWEEP key or Alt + Shift + M
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Lin Freq
In a "Lin Freq" sweep the stimulus frequency is swept in equidistant steps over the continuous frequency range. The frequency range (sweep range) is defined with the STIMULUS settings. The step width between two consecutive sweep points is constant and
given by <Span>/(n - 1) where n is the specified "Number of Points" (n > 1). The internal
generator power can be set via "POWER BW AVG > Power".
"Lin Freq" is the default sweep type. In a Cartesian diagram the measurement result is
displayed as a trace over a linear frequency scale (as known e.g. from spectrum analyzers). The following example shows a "Lin Freq" sweep with a stimulus range between
4 GHz and 6 GHz, the forward transmission parameter S21 as measured quantity, and a
"dB Mag" scaled y-axis.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SWEep:​TYPE​ LINear
Log Freq
In a "Log Freq" sweep the stimulus frequency is swept on a logarithmic scale over the
continuous frequency range. The frequency range (sweep range) is defined with the
STIMULUS settings. The sweep points are calculated from the "Span" and the specified
"Number of Points" (n > 1) with the condition that the step width is constant on the logarithmic scale. The internal generator power can be set via "POWER BW AVG > Power".
"Log Freq" sweeps are suitable for the analysis of a DUT over a large frequency range,
e.g. over several octaves. In a Cartesian diagram the measurement result is displayed
as a trace over a logarithmic frequency scale. The following example shows a "Log
Freq" sweep with a stimulus range between 1 MHz and 6 GHz, the forward transmission
parameter S21 as measured quantity, and a "dB Mag" scaled y-axis.
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Tip: In "Log Freq" representation, limit lines and ripple limit lines appear as exponential
curves; see ​chapter 3.4.1.1, "Rules for Limit Line Definition", on page 60.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SWEep:​TYPE​ LOGarithmic
Segmented
In a "Segmented" frequency sweep the sweep range can be composed of several continuous frequency sub-ranges or single frequency points. The sub-ranges are termed
sweep segments and defined in the "Define Segments" dialog. Sweep segments may
overlap. The segment list must contain at least 2 distinct frequency points before a segmented frequency sweep can be started.
Instrument settings such as the internal generator power, the measurement (IF) bandwidth, and the frequency band of the local oscillator can be set independently for the
individual segments.
Due to this flexibility, segmented frequency sweeps are suitable for any detailed analysis
of a DUT at specified frequencies. In a Cartesian diagram the measurement result is
displayed as a trace over a linear frequency scale ranging from the lowest to the highest
frequency point of all segments. The following example shows a segmented frequency
sweep with 2 segments in the stimulus ranges between 1 GHz and 6 GHz and between
4 GHz and 5 GHz, respectively. The forward transmission parameter S21 is measured,
and a "dB Mag" scaled y-axis is used. In the frequency range between the sweep segments the trace is displayed as a straight line.
Tip: You can change to point based x-axis to improve the display of a segmented frequency sweep (see ​"Seg x-Axis" on page 225).
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SWEep:​TYPE​ SEGMent
Power
In a "Power" sweep the internal generator power is swept in linear, equidistant steps over
a continuous power range. The generator power range (sweep range) is defined via
"STIMULUS > START" and "STIMULUS > STOP". The fixed frequency can be defined
via "CHANNEL > SWEEP > Sweep Params > CW Frequency".
"Power" sweeps are particularly suitable for the analysis of non-linear effects (saturation,
compression) on active and passive DUTs (e.g. power amplifiers, mixers).
In a Cartesian diagram the measurement result is displayed as a trace over a dB-linear
power scale. The following example shows a "Power" sweep in the source power range
between –25 dBm and 0 dBm, performed at a CW frequency of 1 GHz.
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Tip: Generator power
The power range for a power sweep replaces the fixed internal source power which is
defined via "POWER BW AVG > Power". The power is the output power at all test ports
which supply the stimulus signals for the active channel.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SWEep:​TYPE​ POWer
CW Mode
"CW Mode" sweeps, like "Time" sweeps, are performed at constant frequency and stimulus power. The measurement is triggered according to the current trigger settings; each
trigger event triggers the first partial measurement of a measurement point. The time
interval between two consecutive measurements depends on the trigger settings and the
sweep parameters (especially the number of points). Any trigger mode is allowed.
The frequency ("CW Frequency") and internal source power ("Power") are fixed. Both
can be defined in the "CHANNEL > SWEEP > Sweep Params" tab.
A "CW Mode" sweep corresponds to the analysis of a signal over the time with a time
scale and resolution that is determined by the trigger events. In a Cartesian diagram the
measurement result is displayed as a trace over a linear time scale (like e.g. in an oscilloscope). The diagram is similar to the "Time" diagram. The following example shows a
"CW Mode" sweep with a DUT that does not markedly change its transmission characteristics over the time.
Tip: Sweep time
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The time interval between two consecutive trigger pulses must not be smaller than the
minimum measurement time per measurement point. See ​"Sweep Time / Auto"
on page 219.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SWEep:​TYPE​ POINt
Time
"Time" sweeps are performed at constant frequency and stimulus power. A single sweep
extends over a specified period of time. The sweep time is defined via "STIMULUS >
STOP"; see ​chapter 3.1.4.2, "Stimulus and Sweep Types", on page 16. The time intervals
between two consecutive sweep points are calculated according to <Stop>/(n - 1) where
n is the selected "Number of Points". The frequency ("CW Frequency") and internal
source power ("Power") are fixed. Both can be defined in the "CHANNEL > SWEEP >
Sweep Params" tab.
A "Time" sweep corresponds to the analysis of a signal over the time; the function of the
analyzer is analogous to an oscilloscope. In a Cartesian diagram the measurement result
is displayed as a trace over a linear time scale. The following example shows a "Time"
sweep with a DUT that does not markedly change its transmission characteristics over
the time.
Tip: Sweep time
The minimum sweep time depends on the number of measurement points, the measurement bandwidth, the delay time before each partial measurement and the number
of partial measurements required for each measurement point. The analyzer estimates
this time, taking into account the current measurement settings.
If the total sweep time entered via "STIMULUS > STOP" is smaller than the estimated
minimum sweep time, the entered value is increased automatically.
Equidistance of sweep points
The analyzer tries to keep the time intervals between any two consecutive time sweep
points equal: The time sweep samples are equidistant. Equidistance also holds for
sweeps which range over several channels.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SWEep:​TYPE​ CW
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Seg x-Axis
Scales the x-axis for a segmented frequency sweep:
● In frequency based mode, the x-axis covers the frequency ranges of all sweep segments, including possible gaps between the segments. Equal frequency spacings
correspond to equal distances on the x-axis.
● In point based mode, the x-axis shows all sweep points with equal spacings. Gaps
between sweep segments are minimized; no diagram space is "wasted" on unused
frequency ranges. Point based mode is indicated in the channel line.
The example below shows a segmented frequency sweep with two segments. The first
segment ranges from 1 GHz to 1.4 GHz; the second segment from 2 GHz to 3 GHz. Both
segments contain 11 sweep points. In point based mode (lower diagram), all sweep
points are equidistant.
Tip: Overlapping limit line and ripple limit line segments are not displayed when a pointbased x-xis is active; see ​chapter 3.4.1.1, "Rules for Limit Line Definition", on page 60.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]FREQuency:​SEGMent:​AXIS​
4.4.2.3
Define Segments (Dialog)
The "Define Segments" dialog defines all channel settings for a "Segmented" frequency
sweep and imports or exports segmented sweep settings.
The dialog contains a table to edit the individual segments of the sweep range. Sweep
segments may have common points or even overlap.
See also ​"Segmented" on page 222.
Access:CHANNEL > SWEEP > Sweep Type > Define Segments...
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Table Columns
The table in the upper part of the "Define Segments" dialog contains an automatically
assigned current number for each segment plus the following editable or non-editable
columns:
● "On" provides check boxes to activate or deactivate each individual segment.
"Sweep" points in inactive segments are not measured and not listed in the "Point
List".
● "Start" is the stimulus (x-axis) value of the first point of the segment. If the segment
contains more than one "Point", then "Start" must be smaller than the "Stop" value.
If a "Start" value equal to or larger than the current "Stop" value is set, "Stop" is
adjusted to the new "Start" value plus 1 Hz.
● "Stop" is the stimulus (x-axis) value of the last point of the segment. If the segment
contains more than one "Point", then "Stop" must be larger or equal than the "Start"
value. If a "Stop" value equal to or smaller than the current "Start" value is set,
"Start" is adjusted to the new "Stop" value minus 1 Hz.
● "Points" is the number of sweep points in the segment. A single segment can consist
of only one point. If "Points" is set to 1, then the "Stop" frequency is set equal to the
"Start" frequency.
● The remaining columns show the channel settings for each segment. They are displayed only if they are selected in the "Displayed Columns" dialog.
Note: Limitations for overlapping segments
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When overlapping sweep segments are created, the marker functions, trace evaluation
functions, trace search functions and band filter functions are still available. It is possible,
however, that these tools show an unexpected behavior when used in overlapping sweep
segments. The reason is that the assignment of markers to traces in overlapping segments is ambiguous. To avoid any problem, it is recommended to turn off the sweep
segments that overlap with the one that needs to be analyzed in detail with the aid of a
marker function.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SEGMent:​COUNt?​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SEGMent<Seg>[:​STATe]​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SEGMent<Seg>:​FREQuency:​STARt​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SEGMent<Seg>:​FREQuency:​STOP​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SEGMent<Seg>:​FREQuency:​CENTer?​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SEGMent<Seg>:​FREQuency:​SPAN?​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SEGMent<Seg>:​SWEep:​POINts​
Add / Insert / Delete / Delete All
The four buttons below the segment list extend or shorten the list.
● "Add" adds a new segment to the end of the list.
The added segment covers a possible frequency gap between the preceeding segment and the upper frequency limit of the analyzer. The start frequency of the new
segment is set equal to the stop frequency of the preceeding segment (minus 1 Hz,
if this value is already equal to the upper frequency limit). The stop frequency is equal
to the upper frequency limit. The number of points is 51.
● "Insert" inserts a new segment before the active segment. The segment numbers of
all segments after the new segment are incremented by one.
The new segment covers a possible frequency gap between the two adjacent segments. If there is no gap, the stop frequency of the inserted segment is set to the start
frequency of the next segment; the start frequency is equal to the stop frequency
minus 1 Hz. A new segment which is inserted before segment no. 1 starts at the lower
frequency limit of the analyzer. The number of points is 51.
● "Delete" removes the selected segment from the list.
● "Delete All" clears the entire segment list so it is possible to define or load a new
segmented sweep range.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SEGMent<Seg>:​ADD​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SEGMent<Seg>:​INSert​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SEGMent<Seg>:​DELete[:​DUMMy]​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SEGMent<Seg>:​DELete:​ALL​
Show Point List...
Opens a list of all active sweep points and their channel settings. All columns except Pnt
# and Frequency are displayed only if they are explicitly selected; see ​chapter 4.4.2.4,
"Displayed Columns (Dialog)", on page 229.
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Import... / Export...
The buttons open standard dialogs to import and export sweep segment settings.
● "Import..." loads a sweep segment list from a sweep segment file.
● "Export..." stores the current sweep segments to a sweep segment file.
Sweep segment files
The analyzer uses a simple ASCII format to export sweep segment data. By default, the
sweep segment file extension is *.SegList. The file starts with two comment lines containing the version and a third line reproducing the header of the segment list. The following lines contain the entries of all columns of the segment list, including the "Displayed
Columns" that may be hidden in the "Define Segments" dialog.
Example:
The segmented sweep range
is described by the following sweep segment file:
Note: The sweep segment file actually contains more columns listing all channel settings
of the individual sweep segments. The headings of the additional columns read:
IF Bandwidth [Hz]; enIF Selectivity; en IF Sideband; Meas Delay [µs]; boSweep Time
Auto
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​LOAD:​SEGMent​
​MMEMory:​STORe:​SEGMent​
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4.4.2.4
Displayed Columns (Dialog)
The "Displayed Columns" dialog selects the segment-specific channel settings that the
analyzer displays in the "Define Segments" and in the "Point List" dialogs.
All settings can be adjusted in the "Define Segments" dialog. By default, the first sweep
segment is created with the channel settings defined for unsegmented sweep types.
When any further sweep segment created, it uses the channel settings of the previously
active segment.
Related information
Refer to the following sections:
●
​chapter 4.4.2.3, "Define Segments (Dialog)", on page 225
●
​"Show Point List..." on page 227
Access:CHANNEL > SWEEP > Sweep Type > Define Segments... > Displayed Columns...
Table Columns
Each selected (checked) option adds a column to the segment list.
● "Name" adds a column to assign a name to each segment. A segment name is a
string that may contain letters, numbers and special characters.
● "Power (Pb)" defines the internal source power for each individual sweep segment.
See ​"Power" on page 212.
● "Meas Bandwidth" defines the IF filter bandwidth for each individual sweep segment.
See ​"Bandwidth" on page 216.
● "Selectivity" shows the fixed selectivity of the IF filter ("Normal").
● "LO <> RF" defines whether the analyzer measures the segment with a local oscillator
frequency LO below or above the RF input frequency. The parameter replaces the
"Spur Avoidance" settings for a particular segment; see ​"Image Suppr."
on page 280.
● "Segment Bits" enables the definition of a segment-dependent four-bit binary value
to control four independent output signals at the USER PORT connector (lines 16,
17, 18, 19; see ​chapter 9.1.1.1, "USER PORT", on page 737). The output signals
are 3.3 V TTL signals which can be used to differentiate between up to 16 independent analyzer states.
Setting the segment bits does not change the analyzer state.
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●
"Time" defines the sweep time for each segment. The default configuration for a new
segment is equal to the sweep time setting for unsegmented sweeps; see ​"Sweep
Time / Auto" on page 219.
When "Time" is checked two new columns appear in the table. The first column reads
"Segment Time" or "Meas Delay", depending on the selected radio button below the
"Time" checkbox. The second column reads "Auto" and is used to activate automatic
sweep time setting.
"Segment Time" is the total measurement time for the sweep segment. The minimum
segment sweep time to be set is equal to the estimated value in "Auto" mode. "Meas
Delay" sets a delay time allowing the DUT to settle before the hardware settings of
the analyzer are changed and a new partial measurement is started. Changing the
"Meas Delay" modifies the "Segment Time" and vice versa.
"Auto" minimizes the sweep time. If this option is checked, the columns "Segment
Time" or "Meas Delay" cannot be edited. "Segment Time" indicates the estimated
sweep time, depending on the current measurement settings, the "Meas Delay" is 0
s. The segment sweep time and point delay values are maintained until changed
explicitly if "Auto" is switched off.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SEGMent<Seg>:​POWer[:​LEVel]​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SEGMent<Seg>:​POWer[:​LEVel]:​CONTrol​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SEGMent<Seg>:​POWer[:​LEVel]:​CONTrol​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SEGMent<Seg>:​BWIDth[:​RESolution]​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SEGMent<Seg>:​BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​CONTrol​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SEGMent<Seg>:​DEFine​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SEGMent<Seg>:​DEFine:​SELect​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SEGMent<Seg>:​INSert​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SEGMent<Seg>:​INSert:​SELect​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SEGMent<Seg>:​SWEep:​DWELl​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SEGMent<Seg>:​SWEep:​DWELl:​CONTrol​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SEGMent<Seg>:​SWEep:​TIME​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SEGMent<Seg>:​SWEep:​TIME:​CONTrol​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SEGMent<Seg>:​SWEep:​TIME:​SUM?​
​CONTrol:​AUXiliary:​C[:​DATA]​
4.4.2.5
Sweep > Sweep Control
Selects the number of sweeps per measurement cycle. The sweep mode ("Continuous" or "Single") and the number of sweeps apply to the active channel or to all channels,
depending on the "Restart Manager" settings (see ​chapter 4.4.2.6, "Restart Manager
(Dialog)", on page 232).
Access: CHANNEL > SWEEP key or Alt + Shift + M
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Continuous / Single
Activate either continuous or single sweep mode for the active channel.
● In "Continuous" mode, the analyzer measures continuously, repeating the current
sweep.
● In "Single" sweep mode, the measurement is stopped after the number of selected
"Sweeps". "Restart Sweep" initiates a new measurement cycle.
Tip: Use "All Channels Continuous" or "All Channels on Hold" to select a common sweep
control mode for all channels.
Remote command:
​INITiate<Ch>:​CONTinuous​
See also:
​CONFigure:​CHANnel<Ch>:​MEASure[:​STATe]​
​CONFigure:​CHANnel:​MEASure:​ALL[:​STATe]​
Sweeps
Selects the number of sweeps to be measured in single sweep mode: either one or a
group of consecutive sweeps. The setting applies to the active channel.
In the "Restart Manager" dialog (accessible in R&S ZVAB compatibility mode), it is possible to define individual numbers of sweeps for all channels in the active recall set.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SWEep:​COUNt​
​[SENSe:​]SWEep:​COUNt:​ALL​
Restart Sweep
Stops the current measurement and restarts a measurement cycle. In "Single" sweep
mode a new single sweep sequence is started.
Remote command:
​INITiate<Ch>[:​IMMediate][:​DUMMy]​
​INITiate[:​IMMediate]:​ALL​ on page 501
See also ​"Remote Language" on page 318
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All Channels Continuous / on Hold
Selects a common sweep control mode for all channels of the active recall set.
● "All Channels Continuous:" The R&S ZNC continuously repeats the sweeps in all
channels.
● "All Channels on Hold:" The R&S ZNC performs single sweeps, according to the
channel-specific number of "Sweeps".
In R&S ZVAB compatibility mode the buttons are unavailable, however, you can use the
"Restart Manager" dialog instead.
Remote command:
​INITiate:​CONTinuous:​ALL​
4.4.2.6
Restart Manager (Dialog)
The "Restart Manager" dialog defines whether the active sweep mode ("Continuous" or
"Single") and the "Number of Sweeps" are valid for all channels in the active recall set or
for the active channel only.
This dialog is relevant / accessible in the "ZVR" or "ZVABT" compatibility modes only.
Related information
Refer to ​chapter 4.4.2.5, "Sweep > Sweep Control", on page 230.
Access:CHANNEL > SWEEP > Sweep Control > Restart Manager...
Sweep All Channels
Apply the sweep control settings to all channels in the active recall set. The number of
sweeps in a "Single" sweep sequence is equal to the selected number of "Sweeps" times
the number of channels. The sequence starts with the first sweep in channel no. 1.
Tip: In remote control, it is possible to retrieve the results acquired in any of the sweeps
within a single sweep group.
Remote command:
​INITiate<Ch>[:​IMMediate]:​SCOPe​ ALL
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SWEep:​COUNt​
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Sweep Active Channel
Apply the sweep control settings to the active channel only. The number of sweeps in a
"Single" sweep sequence is equal to the number of "Sweeps" in the active channel.
The table lists all channels in the active recall set and allows you to define individual
numbers of sweeps for all channels. When a new channel is selected, the analyzer uses
its specific number of sweeps.
Remote command:
​INITiate<Ch>[:​IMMediate]:​SCOPe​ SINGle
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SWEep:​COUNt​
4.4.3 Calibration
The "Calibration" menu provides all functions that are necessary to perform a system
error correction and a scalar power calibration.
4.4.3.1
Calibration > Start Cal
Provides access to all functions for automatic or manual calibration. Calibration of the
R&S ZNC is a fully menu-guided process.
Background information
Refer to the following sections:
●
​chapter 3.5, "Calibration", on page 67
●
​chapter 3.5.5, "Automatic Calibration", on page 81
●
​chapter 3.5.6, "Scalar Power Calibration", on page 86
●
​chapter 3.1.5, "Data Flow", on page 17
Access: CHANNEL > CAL key or Alt + Shift + P
The "Calibration" buttons open the following wizards/screens:
●
Calibration > Start... (Cal Unit): ​Calibration Unit Wizard
This button is active only if a calibration unit is connected to the analyzer.
●
Calibration > Start... (Manual): ​Calibration Presetting Wizard
●
Scalar Power Cal > Power Cal...: ​Power Cal Screen
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The Repeat... (Manual) button opens the last dialogs of the calibration wizards from
where you can directly (re-)start the calibration sweeps, maintaining the calibration settings of the active channel calibration. It provides a convenient means of repeating or
correcting the calibration. See also ​"Save Sweep Data" on page 311.
4.4.3.2
Calibration Unit Wizard
The "Calibration Unit" wizard guides you through the setup and execution of an automatic
calibration.
The wizard proceeds through the following steps:
1. Ports: Select the calibrated test ports, the cal unit characterization, and the calibration type.
2. Connections: Define the port assignment(s) between the R&S ZNC and the calibration unit.
3. Calibration: Acquire measurement data for all standards required for the selected
calibration type. Calculate the system error correction data (error terms) from the
measurement data of the standards and apply the result to the active channel.
Background information
Refer to ​chapter 3.5.5, "Automatic Calibration", on page 81.
●
A successful calibration will supersede the previous calibration, discarding all previous system error correction data.
To keep older correction data you can transfer them into a "Cal Pool" using the
"Calibration Manager".
●
The system error correction data determined in a calibration procedure is stored in
the analyzer. You can read these correction data using the remote control command
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​CDATa​.
Step 1: Ports
Selects the calibrated analyzer ports, the cal unit with its characterization, and the calibration type.
Background and related information
Refer to the following sections:
●
​chapter 3.5.1, "Calibration Types", on page 69
●
​chapter 3.5.5.3, "Characterization of Calibration Units", on page 85
Access: CHANNEL > CAL > Start Cal > Start... (Cal Unit)
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Fig. 4-1: Calibration Unit Wizard: Ports
Ports
Selects the test port(s) to be calibrated.
Remote command:
The port parameters in many calibration commands define the calibrated port(s).
Cal Unit
Displays the connected calibration units. The R&S ZNC auto-detects all calibration units
which are connected to one of its USB ports. If several cal units are connected, one of
them must be selected for calibration (active cal unit).
The calibration unit R&S ZV-Z51 is suited for R&S ZNC network analyzers. A warning is
displayed if the current sweep range of the network analyzer exceeds the characterized
frequency range of the calibration unit.
See also ​chapter 3.5.5.1, "Connecting the Calibration Unit", on page 83.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​RDEVice:​AKAL:​ADDRess:​ALL?​
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​RDEVice:​AKAL:​ADDRess​
Characterization
Displays all characterizations which are stored in the active cal unit. The "Factory" characterization is available for all calibration units; it ensures an accurate calibration for all
standard applications. To account for a modified test setup (e.g. the connection of additional adapters to the calibration unit), you can generate modified sets of characterization
data using the cal unit characterization wizard; see ​chapter 4.4.3.10, "Characterize Cal
Unit Dialog", on page 260. By default, the R&S ZNC uses the last generated cal unit
characterization.
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Tip: If the characterization wizard is password-protected, the "Characterization" button
is unavailable. Use this functionality to prevent inadvertent activation of inappropriate
characterizations. See ​"Authentication / Set Password" on page 261.
See also ​chapter 3.5.5.3, "Characterization of Calibration Units", on page 85.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​RDEVice:​AKAL:​CKIT:​CATalog?​
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​RDEVice:​AKAL:​CKIT:​STANdard:​CATalog?​
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​RDEVice:​AKAL:​SDATa?​
Query further cal unit properties:
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​RDEVice:​AKAL:​DATE?​
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​RDEVice:​AKAL:​FRANge?​
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​RDEVice:​AKAL:​PORTs?​
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​RDEVice:​AKAL:​WARMup[:​STATe]?​
Calibration Type / Source
Selects the calibration type for the selected physical port(s). For an overview refer to ​
table 3-3.
The reflection calibration types can be used for any combination of physical ports: Reflection calibrations are simply repeated for each selected port. A transmission calibration
type requires at least two physical ports. For the unidirectional transmission calibration
types ("Trans Norm", "One Path Two Ports"), the direction ("Source" port) must be
specified in addition.
Note: The transmission normalizations and the "One Path Two Ports Calibration" type
require two-port (Through) characterization data for the cal unit, which may not be available on older calibration units or in user-defined cal unit characterization files. If a tooltip
indicates missing two-port characterization data, simply perform a new characterization
of your cal unit. In the first dialog of the "Characterization" wizard, select "Take All OSM
and Through" to make sure the necessary two-port data is acquired. See also ​chapter 4.4.3.11, "Characterization Wizard", on page 262.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​COLLect:​AUTO:​TYPE​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​COLLect:​AUTO:​PORTs:​TYPE​
Calibrate all Channels
Check this box to apply the acquired correction data to all channels in the active recall
set. Leave it unchecked (preset setting) to apply them only to the active channel.
Note that this option is available only if the active recall set contains multiple channels.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​COLLect:​CHANnels:​ALL​
Next
Proceeds to ​Step 2: Connections. Next is unavailable (and a warning is displayed) if the
following happens:
● The selected characterization data do not cover all the ports to be calibrated.
● The selected characterization data do not contain all standards needed for the
selected calibration type.
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Step 2: Connections
Defines the port assignment(s) between the R&S ZNC and the calibration unit.
Access: CHANNEL > CAL > Start Cal > Start... (Cal Unit) > Next
Cal Type / Ports
Displays the automatic calibration to be performed, identified by its calibration type and
calibrated ports.
Remote command:
The port parameters in many calibration commands define the calibrated ports.
Cal Unit / Port Assignments
Displays the port assignment and allows to edit it.
Detect Port Assignment
Starts a procedure by which the R&S ZNC (with a little help from the attached calibration
unit) auto-detects the connected ports. The automatic assignment replaces the configured one.
In case auto-detection fails
● an error report is shown as a warning dialog
● the undetected port connections are overlayed by warning signs
● the calibration may be invalid
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If auto-detection fails because of a high attenuation in the signal path, you can either
enter the port assignment manually or connect matching port numbers and select "Default
Port Assignment".
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​COLLect:​AUTO:​PORTs:​CONNection?​
Default Port Assignment
Restores the default port assignment.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​COLLect:​AUTO:​PORTs:​CONNection?​
Start
Proceeds to ​Step 3: Calibration .
If the configured port assignments are invalid, this action is disabled.
Step 3: Calibration
During the calibration phase the R&S ZNC displays a "Cal Unit" screen that guides the
user through the actual correction data acquisition, whose setup was prepared during the
previous wizard steps.
In each step
●
the calibration unit has to be (re-)connected according to the depicted port assignment; auto-detection is possible
●
the related test ports are calibrated with the same calibration type that was selected
for in the ​Step 1: Ports page
●
a subsweep is performed for every required test port (pair), for every possible path
(if external switch matrices are involved) and for every required standard
When these steps have been completed, the resulting system error correction can be
calculated and applied.
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In the upper part of the "Cal Unit" screen, the R&S ZNC shows the calibration sweep
diagrams for the currently measured S-parameter, the lower part visualizes the active
port assignment and the measurement progress.
Calibration Sweep Diagrams
Each diagram presents an S-parameter trace and a typical result trace for the measured
standard type.
The purpose of the typical result traces "Trc1" and "Trc2" is to avoid connection errors:
If the correct standard type is measured, and everything is properly connected, then the
measured trace is expected to be similar to the typical trace.
The S-Parameter traces are labeled P[j_i]_<standard type> Sij, where j indicates the input
(test) port and i indicates the output port, e.g. P[1_2]_Through S21.
Remote command:
n/a
Start Cal Sweep / Abort Sweep
Starts the calibration sweep for the related port assignment or aborts it
Detect Port Assignment
Starts a procedure by which the R&S ZNC (with a little help from the attached calibration
unit) auto-detects the connected ports. The automatic assignment replaces the configured one.
In case auto-detection fails
● an error report is shown as a warning dialog
● the undetected port connections are overlayed by warning signs
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●
the calibration may be invalid
If auto-detection fails because of a high attenuation in the signal path, you can either
enter the port assignment manually or connect matching port numbers and select "Default
Port Assignment".
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​COLLect:​AUTO:​PORTs:​CONNection?​
Apply/Cancel
Apply the calculated system error correction to the active channel (or to all channels in
the active recall set, if all channels were calibrated).
The Apply button is enabled as soon as calibration sweeps have been successfully performed for all required port assignments.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​COLLect:​AUTO​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​COLLect:​AUTO:​PORTs​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​COLLect:​AUTO:​PORTs:​TYPE​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​COLLect:​AUTO:​TYPE​
Extended cal unit settings:
​MMEMory:​AKAL:​FACTory:​CONVersion​
​MMEMory:​AKAL:​USER:​CONVersion​
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​AKAL:​CONNection​
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​AKAL:​MMEMory[:​STATe]​
4.4.3.3
Calibration Presetting Wizard
The "Calibration Presetting" wizard guides you through the setup and execution of a
manual system error correction.
The wizard proceeds through the following steps:
1. Ports and Type: Select the ports to be calibrated and the calibration type to be used.
2. Connectors and Cal Kits: Select the connector type and gender for all ports to be
calibrated. If necessary, load or modify a calibration kit.
3. Calibration: Acquire measurement data for the required ports or port pairs and the
required standards. Finally, decide whether or not to apply the resulting system error
correction.
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Background information
Refer to ​chapter 3.5, "Calibration", on page 67 for background information.
●
If the active channel is already equipped with a system error correction, the "Calibration Presetting" wizard loads the underlying setup. If the calibration setup is not
changed and sweep data are available (see ​"Save Sweep Data" on page 311) the
existing system error correction can be optimized without repeating the measurement
of all standards.
●
When you apply the acquired system error correction, the active calibration is
replaced and discarded.
To persist any kind of calibration you can transfer it to the "Cal Pool" using the ​
Calibration Manager Dialog.
●
The active system error correction data can be read (and modified) using the remote
control command ​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​CDATa​.
Step 1: Ports and Type
Allows to select the test ports to be calibrated and the calibration type to be used
Background information
Refer to ​chapter 3.5.1, "Calibration Types", on page 69.
Access: CHANNEL > CAL > Start Cal > Start... (Manual)
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Fig. 4-2: Calibration Presetting: Ports and Type
Ports
Selects the test port(s) to be calibrated.
Remote command:
The port parameters in many calibration commands define the calibrated port(s).
Type / Source
Selects the calibration type. The green arrow symbols give a preview of the type and the
number of calibration sweeps involved:
● Curved arrows (example: "Refl Norm Open") denote one or more reflection measurements at each port.
● Straight, horizontal arrows (example: "Trans Norm") denote one or more transmission
measurements between each pair of two ports.
● The full n-port calibration types (n > 1, e.g. TOSM, TRL...) are symbolized by a closed
square symbol. The number of arrows increases the complexity but can also improve
the accuracy of the calibration.
The reflection calibration types can be used for any set of test ports: reflection calibrations
are simply repeated for each port. A transmission calibration type requires at least two
physical ports. For the unidirectional transmission calibration types ("Trans Norm", "One
Path Two Ports"), the ("Source" port) must be specified in addition. For an overview refer
to ​table 3-3.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​COLLect:​METHod:​DEFine​
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Calibrate all Channels
Check this box to apply the acquired correction data to all channels in the active recall
set. Leave it unchecked (preset setting) to apply them only to the active channel.
Note that this option is available only if the active recall set contains multiple channels.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​COLLect:​CHANnels:​ALL​
Next
Proceeds to ​Step 2: Connectors and Cal Kits.
Step 2: Connectors and Cal Kits
Selects the connector type and gender for all ports and allows you to import a calibration
kit.
Background information
Refer to ​chapter 3.5.2, "Calibration Standards and Calibration Kits", on page 75
Messages in the dialog
An information (or error message) is displayed if one of the following happens:
●
One of the selected calibration kits is described by ideal kit parameters or typical
values.
●
One of the selected calibration kits does not contain all standards that are required
for the previously selected calibration type.
●
Different connector types are defined at the ports but the selected calibration type
requires uniform connectors.
●
A cal kit standard does not cover the entire calibrated frequency range.
Access: CHANNEL > CAL > Start Cal > Start... (Manual) > Next
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Fig. 4-3: Calibration Presetting: Connectors and Cal Kits
The upper part of the panel shows the port(s) and the calibration type selected in ​Step
1: Ports and Type. The lower part gives access to the connector and cal kit settings.
Connector / Gender
Defines the connector types and genders of the ports to be calibrated. For symmetric
(sexless) connector types (e.g. 7 mm / PC7), "Gender" is unavailable.
If "Same Connector All Ports" is active, the connector types at all ports (but not their
gender) are always adjusted to the current selection. If "Same Gender All Ports" is active,
the genders at all ports are always adjusted to the current selection.
User-defined connectors can be added or removed in the ​Cal Connector Types Dialog.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​COLLect:​CONNection<PhyPt>​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​COLLect:​SCONnection<PhyPt>​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​CONNection​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​CONNection:​CATalog?​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​CONNection:​DELete​
Cal Kit
Selects a cal kit for the connector at each selected physical port. The drop-down list
contains all available calibration kits for the selected connector type. The assignment of
a calibration kit to a connector type must be the same for all physical ports: If a calibration
kit is changed, the R&S ZNC automatically assigns the new kit to all ports with the same
connector type.
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Use "Import Cal Kit..." to add new kits to the list.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​CKIT:​SELect​
Use Sliding Match
Available for cal kits which contain a Sliding Match standard; see ​chapter 3.5.2.3, "Sliding
Match Standards", on page 79.
If selected, the Sliding Match appears in the list of measured standards whenever the
selected calibration type requires a Match. For a valid calibration, either the Match or at
least three positions of the Sliding Match must be measured.
Remote command:
n/a
Same Connector / Gender All Ports
Assigns the same connector type or gender to all selected physical ports. For some multiport calibration types, the port connector types must be equal, e.g. because they require
a Through standard with known characteristics.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​COLLect:​CONNection:​PORTs​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​COLLect:​CONNection:​GENDers​
Import Cal Kit
Opens the Import Calibration Kit dialog to load and (if desired) activate a cal kit file. See
​chapter 3.5.2.4, "Cal Kit Files", on page 79.
By default cal kit files are stored in the
C:\Users\Public\Documents\Rohde-Schwarz\Vna\Calibration directory.
● Three different import file formats are supported: R&S ZVA-specific binary cal kit
files (*.calkit), ZVR-specific binary cal kit files (*.ck), cal kit files in Agilent-specific ASCII formats (*.csv, *.prn.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​LOAD:​CKIT​
​MMEMory:​LOAD:​CKIT:​SDATa​
Back
Go back to ​Step 1: Ports and Type.
Start
Start ​Step 3: Calibration.
Step 3: Calibration
Allows to acquire error correction data for every required port (pair) and calibration standard, where "required" depends on the selected ports and calibration type. On "Apply" the
R&S ZNC calculates the system error correction (error terms) from the measurement
data of the standards and applies the result to the active channel.
Access: CHANNEL > CAL > Start Cal > Start... (Manual) > Next > Next
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In the upper part of the calibration screen, the R&S ZNC shows the calibration sweep
diagrams for the currently measured S-parameter, the lower part displays the calibrated
ports and standards and visualizes the measurement progress.
Calibration Sweep Diagrams
Each diagram presents an S-parameter trace and a typical result trace for the measured
standard type.
The purpose of the typical result traces "Trc1" and "Trc2" is to avoid connection errors:
If the correct standard type is measured, and everything is properly connected, then the
measured trace is expected to be similar to the typical trace.
The S-Parameter traces are labeled P[j_i]_<standard type> Sij, where j indicates the input
(test) port and i indicates the output port, e.g. P[1_2]_Through S21.
Remote command:
n/a
Ports and Standards
Shows the calibrated port(s) and standards and visualizes the measurement progress.
A green checkmark indicates that the calibration data of a standard has been acquired
successfully. A green checkmark after the port symbol indicates that the minimum number of calibration measurements for the port has been performed.
Tip: Optional calibration measurements
For most calibration and standard types, the "Calibration" dialog shows only mandatory
calibration measurements. Note the following exceptions:
● If a sliding match measurement is selected in the "Calibration Presetting" dialog,
either the Match or at least three positions of the Sliding Match must be measured.
See ​chapter 3.5.2.3, "Sliding Match Standards", on page 79.
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●
For a TRL calibration, at least one line standard must be measured between any pair
of calibrated ports. See ​chapter 3.5.1.8, "TRL Calibration", on page 73.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​COLLect[:​ACQuire]:​SELected​
See also: ​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​COLLect:​LOAD:​SELected​
Restart Sweep on Std Meas
If this function is active, a new standard measurement initiates a new sweep, starting at
the beginning ("Start") of the sweep range: The sweep points for the calibration sweep
are in ascending order, like for an ordinary measurement.
If "Restart Sweep on Std Meas" is not active, the new standard measurement is started
at the current sweep point; the current sweep is continued as a calibration sweep.
Apply
Is enabled as soon as sufficient data have been acquired for the calibrated ports and
standards. The button starts the calculation of the system error correction and closes the
calibration wizard. The current instrument settings is stored with the correction data.
To avoid incompatibilities, older calibration data is deleted unless it has been transferred
into a "Cal Pool" using the ​Calibration Manager Dialog.
Note: Checks during the calculation of correction data
Incompatibilities between the selected calibration type, the standards and the channel
settings may cause the calibration to be inaccurate. The analyzer auto-detects potential
sources of errors and displays appropriate, self-explanatory notice boxes.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​COLLect:​SAVE:​SELected[:​DUMMy]​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​COLLect:​SAVE:​SELected:​DEFault​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​COLLect:​DELete​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​DATA:​PARameter<Sfk>?​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​DATE?​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​SSTate?​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​STIMulus?​
4.4.3.4
Power Cal Screen
The "Power Cal" screen shows the current source ("Power") and receive ("Meas.
Receiver") ports and allows you to perform scalar source power calibrations (flatness
calibrations) or measurement receiver calibrations, based on the current power calibration settings. If the active recall set contains several channels, an "Info" box lets you
decide whether the R&S ZNC acquires calibration data for the active channel or for all
channels.
Access: CHANNEL > CAL > Start Cal > Power Cal...
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Screen Elements
From top to bottom, the screen consists of the following elements.
Calibration Sweep Diagram
The calibration sweep diagram in the upper part of the screen shows the progress of the
calibration and the accuracy of a completed calibration ("Verification"). The diagram is
scaled in "dB Mag" format.
The diagram title indicates the ongoing calibration type and reading. The traces in the
diagram vary according to the calibration stage.
While no calibration is performed, or during a source power calibration ("Power"), the
following traces are displayed:
● A limit line (double horizontal) represents the target power of the source power calibration ("Cal Power").
● "Pmtr<n>" shows the reading of the power meter Pmtr <n> in use. This trace is only
shown during the first calibration sweeps; the following sweeps are based on the
reference receiver result.
● "a<m>" shows the source power reading of the analyzer (wave quantity, reference
receiver) at the calibrated source port P<m>.
After successful power calibration the trace a<m> should be close to the cal power.
During a measurement receiver calibration ("Meas. Receiver"), the following traces are
displayed:
● The trace b<n> shows the current power reading of the analyzer at the calibrated
receive port P<n>.
● The trace a<m> shows the (previously calibrated) power at the calibrated reference
plane (source port P<m>).
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After successful measurement receiver calibration, the b<n> trace should be close to the
a<m> trace. Due to the previous power calibration, both traces should be close to the cal
power.
Remote command:
​SOURce<Ch>:​POWer<PhyPt>:​CORRection[:​ACQuire]:​VERification:​
RESult?​
Port Overview
Shows all source ports together with the possible power calibrations. Either a source
power calibration (flatness calibration, "Power") or a measurement receiver calibration
("Meas. Receiver") can be performed at each analyzer port P1 ... PN.
Select a "Power" or "Meas. Receiver" symbol to open the "Power Cal" dialog and perform
a calibration sweep. A green checkmark indicates that the calibration data has been
acquired successfully.
See also ​"Power Cal – Power (Dialog)" on page 249 and ​"Power Cal – Meas. Receiver
(Dialog)" on page 250.
Remote command:
n/a, see ​SOURce<Ch>:​POWer<PhyPt>:​CORRection[:​ACQuire]​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​POWer<PhyPt>:​ACQuire​
​SOURce<Ch>:​POWer:​CORRection:​DATA:​PARameter<Wv>?​
​SOURce<Ch>:​POWer<PhyPt>:​CORRection:​DATA:​PARameter<Wv>:​COUNt?​
Apply
Is enabled as soon as a new set of power calibration data has been acquired for either
a "Power" source or a "Meas. Receiver". The button applies all available source and/or
measurement receiver calibrations to the active channel, aborts the verification sweeps,
and closes the port overview section.
The power calibration state is indicated in the trace list, see ​chapter 3.5.6.3, "Power
Calibration Labels", on page 89. Use the functions in the "Use Cal" panel to activate,
deactivate, or store power calibrations.
Remote command:
​SOURce<Ch>:​POWer<PhyPt>:​CORRection[:​ACQuire]​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​POWer<PhyPt>:​ACQuire​
​SOURce<Ch>:​POWer:​CORRection:​DATA​
​[SENSe<Chn>:​]CORRection:​PSTate?​
Power Cal – Power (Dialog)
The "Power Cal – Power" dialog guides you through the power calibration for a particular
source port (flatness and reference receiver calibration). Measurement receiver calibration is described in ​"Power Cal – Meas. Receiver (Dialog)" on page 250.
Background information
Refer to ​chapter 3.5.6.1, "Source Power Calibration", on page 87.
Access: CHANNEL > CAL > Start Cal > Power Cal... > Power
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Port Overview
The dialog shows all source ports of the network analyzer. The selected port is displayed
with the current cal power settings (see ​chapter 4.4.3.13, "Modify Cal Power Dialog",
on page 266); moreover, a circuit diagram visualizes the purpose of the flatness and
reference receiver calibration. A power meter must be connected to the calibrated port.
Remote command:
​SOURce<Ch>:​POWer<PhyPt>:​CORRection[:​ACQuire]​
Start Cal Sweep
Start the calibration sweep(s) for the selected port and power calibration settings and
close the dialog. The calibration is performed as described in ​"Calibration procedure"
on page 87.
Open the "Pwr Cal Settings" softtool panel if you wish to modify the calibration procedure.
Remote command:
​SOURce<Ch>:​POWer<PhyPt>:​CORRection[:​ACQuire]​
​SOURce<Ch>:​POWer<PhyPt>:​CORRection:​COLLect[:​ACQuire]​
Power Cal – Meas. Receiver (Dialog)
The "Power Cal – Meas. Receiver" dialog guides you through the power calibration for a
particular receiver port.
"Meas. Receiver" calibrates the measurement receiver only; the "reference" receiver is
calibrated together with the source. To ensure accurate source signal powers, a source
power calibration is required prior to the measurement receiver calibration.
Background information
Refer to ​chapter 3.5.6.2, "Measurement Receiver Calibration", on page 88.
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Access:CHANNEL > CAL > Start Cal > Power Cal... > Meas. Receiver
Port Overview
The dialog shows all receiver ports of the network analyzer. The selected port is displayed
with the current cal power settings (see ​chapter 4.4.3.13, "Modify Cal Power Dialog",
on page 266); moreover, a circuit diagram visualizes the purpose of the measurement
receiver calibration.
"Source Port" defines the type of measurement receiver calibration:
● If the source port is equal to the calibrated port Pn, the measurement receiver is
calibrated by the wave an which is reflected back by a connected Open or Short
standard. A reference receiver power calibration must be active to ensure accurate
source powers an.
Connect the Open or Short standard to the calibrated port; no additional external test
setup is required.
● If the source port and the calibrated port Pn are different, the measurement receiver
is calibrated by the wave bn from the other port. A source power calibration for bn
must be active.
Connect the source port to the calibrated port, including any external devices that
you used for the source power calibration.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​POWer<PhyPt>:​ACQuire​
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Start Cal Sweep
Start the calibration sweep for the selected port and power calibration settings and close
the dialog. The calibration is performed as described in ​"Calibration procedure"
on page 89. No additional calibration settings are needed.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​POWer<PhyPt>:​ACQuire​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​POWer:​DATA​
4.4.3.5
Calibration > Cal Devices
Provides access to all functions for calibration kit management and cal unit characterization.
Background information
Refer to the following sections:
●
​chapter 3.5.2, "Calibration Standards and Calibration Kits", on page 75
●
​chapter 3.5.5.3, "Characterization of Calibration Units", on page 85
Access: CHANNEL > CAL key or Alt + Shift + P
The "Cal Devices" buttons open the following dialogs:
4.4.3.6
●
Cal Connector Types...: See ​chapter 4.4.3.6, "Cal Connector Types Dialog",
on page 252
●
Cal Kits...: See ​chapter 4.4.3.7, "Calibration Kits Dialog", on page 254
●
Characterize Cal Unit...: See ​chapter 4.4.3.10, "Characterize Cal Unit Dialog",
on page 260
Cal Connector Types Dialog
The "Cal Connector Types" dialog displays and modifies the list of available connector
types. Cal connector types must be selected in accordance with the connectors of the
measured DUT.
Access:CHANNEL > CAL > Calibration > Cal Connector Types ...
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The list shows the available connector types with their name ("Conn Type"), polarity
("Sexless"). The remaining columns in the list are described below.
Storing connector type settings
Calibration kits and connector types are global resources; the parameters are stored
independently and available for all recall sets. The connector type settings are always
stored together with the associated calibration kit parameters. The "Calibration Kits" provides buttons to export and import cal kit and connector settings.
After assigning a calibration kit to a user-defined connector type, you can still change its
name, offset model and reference impedance. Switching between sexed and sexless will
delete all kits assigned to the connector type.
Char. Imp.
The characteristic impedance or reference impedance ("Char. Imp.") Z0 for the connectors is a critical value that has an impact on various parameter conversions. Z0 enters
into:
● The calculation of the S-parameters for the calibration standards associated with the
connector type, provided that they are derived from a circuit model (see ​chapter 4.4.3.9, "View / Modify Cal Kit Standards Dialog", on page 258).
● The calculation of the (default) reference impedances for balanced ports (see ​"Reference Impedance" on page 119).
● The calculation of impedance and admittance parameters (see ​chapter 3.3.2, "Impedance Parameters", on page 45 and ​chapter 3.3.3, "Admittance Parameters",
on page 47).
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​CONNection​
Line Type / Rel. Permittivity / Cutoff Frequency fc
"Line Type" describes the wave propagation mode (offset model) in the transmission lines
of the standards associated with the connector type.
● If the calibration kit standards contain lines with transverse electric propagation mode
(TEM, e.g. coax cables), then the "Relative Permittivity εr" of the dielectric can be
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●
defined. The default permittivity is the value for air. TEM-type lines have no cutoff
frequency.
If the calibration kit standards contain waveguides, then the lowest frequency where
a wave propagation is possible ("Cutoff Frequency fc") can be defined. The default
cutoff frequency if 0 Hz (propagation at all frequencies). No relative permittivity is
needed for waveguides.
Note: The impedance for waveguides is frequency-dependent. If a waveguide line type
is selected, various dialogs (e.g. "Add Standard...") will indicate "varies" instead of a definite impedance value.
Impact of line type parameters
The line type parameters are used for the calculation of the S-parameters for the calibration standards associated with the connector type, provided that they are derived from
a circuit model (see ​chapter 4.4.3.9, "View / Modify Cal Kit Standards Dialog",
on page 258).
● For TEM-type lines, the relative permittivity εr is needed for the conversion of a ZVRtype "Loss" (in units of dB/sqrt(GHz)) into an Agilent-type "Offset Loss" (in units of
GΩ/s) and vice versa (see ​chapter 4.4.3.9, "View / Modify Cal Kit Standards Dialog", on page 258). The "Electrical Length" and "Delay" values in the "View / Modify
Cal Kit Standards" dialog are directly entered and therefore independent of εr.
● For waveguides, the low frequency cutoff frequency fc is important because no wave
propagation is possible at frequencies below fc. If a standard is measured in order to
acquire calibration data, the analyzer checks the low frequency cutoff. If the start
frequency of the sweep range is below fc , an error message is generated.
The offset model parameters are not used except in the context of calibration. The offset
parameter definitions are based on independent εr values; see ​chapter 4.4.6.1, "Offset
Embed > Offset", on page 288.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​CONNection​
Add / Delete
Adds or deletes a user-defined connector type. The parameters of a user-defined connector type can be modified in the table. Deleting a connector type will also delete all
calibration or adapter kits assigned to it.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​CONNection​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​CONNection:​CATalog?​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​CONNection:​DELete​
4.4.3.7
Calibration Kits Dialog
The "Calibration Kits" dialog shows the available calibration kits for the different connector
types. It is also used for cal kit and cal kit file management.
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Related information
Refer to the following sections:
●
See also ​chapter 3.5.2, "Calibration Standards and Calibration Kits", on page 75
●
​chapter 3.5.2.4, "Cal Kit Files", on page 79
●
​chapter 3.5.2.2, "Cal Kit Parameter Types", on page 78
●
​chapter 4.4.3.6, "Cal Connector Types Dialog", on page 252
Access:CHANNEL > CAL > Calibration > Cal Kits ...
The contents of the "Available Cal Kits" table vary, depending on the selected "Connector
Type". The table may also contain kits with ideal or typical parameter values; see ​Cal Kit
Parameter Types. The "Agilent Model" is an optional scheme to characterize the offset
parameters of the standards; see ​"Offset Parameters" on page 259.
Cal kit labels
Assigning a label to user-defined calibration kits is optional. However, the label is displayed in many dialogs and can provide useful information about the kit, e.g. its serial
number. It is even possible to assign several calibration kits with the same name, distinguished by their label, to a common connector type. See also ​chapter 6.3.14.5,
"[SENSe:]CORRection:CKIT... with Labels", on page 545.
Add / Copy / Delete / Standards...
The buttons in the right part of the dialog are used to manage calibration kits:
● "Add" creates a new cal kit file for the selected connector type.
● "Copy" creates a new cal kit file based on the contents of an existing cal kit file.
● "Delete" deletes an imported or user-defined cal kit file.
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●
"Standards..." opens the "Kit Standards" dialog. This dialog shows the contents of
the cal kit file. For user-defined or imported kits, you can modify the contents. See ​
chapter 4.4.3.8, "Kit Standards Dialog", on page 256.
Remote command:
The following two commands create new calibration kits and modify calibration kits:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​CKIT:​<ConnType>:​SELect​
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​CKIT:​<StandardType>​
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​CKIT:​DELete​
Query connector types and calibration kits:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​CONNection:​CATalog?​
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​CKIT:​CATalog?​
Import / Export
The buttons below the "Connector Type" list are used to store cal kit data to a file and to
re-load previously stored cal kit files. By default, calibration kit files are stored in the
C:\Users\Public\Documents\Rohde-Schwarz\Vna\Calibration directory;
see ​chapter 3.5.2.4, "Cal Kit Files", on page 79.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​LOAD:​CKIT​ on page 510
​MMEMory:​STORe:​CKIT​ on page 522
4.4.3.8
Kit Standards Dialog
The "Kit Standards" dialog shows the calibration standards in a selected calibration kit.
It is also used to modify the contents of a user-defined kit.
Related information
Refer to the following sections:
●
​chapter 3.5.2.4, "Cal Kit Files", on page 79
●
​chapter 4.4.3.7, "Calibration Kits Dialog", on page 254
●
​chapter 3.5.2.1, "Calibration Standard Types", on page 76
Access:CHANNEL > CAL > Calibration > Cal Kits ... > Standards ...
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One port and two port standards are listed in two separate tables. Most of the buttons on
the right side are available only if the "Kit Standards" dialog was opened for a user-defined
calibration kit.
Table Columns
The standard table contain the following information:
● "Type" and "Gender" describe the calibration standard type; for an overview see ​
chapter 3.5.2.1, "Calibration Standard Types", on page 76.
● "Label" is a user defined name of the standard. The label can help you identify a
standard or distinguish different standards with similar parameters.
● "Min Freq" and "Max Freq" define the rated frequency range of the standard. During
calibration, the analyzer checks whether the sweep range is within the validity range
of all measured standards and possibly generates a warning.
● ".s1p File" and ".s2p File" define whether the characteristics of the standard are
described by a Touchstone file rather than by a circuit model from which the R&S
ZNC can calculate the S-parameters. See ​"Read .s<n>p File..." on page 258 and ​
chapter 4.4.3.9, "View / Modify Cal Kit Standards Dialog", on page 258.
● "Port" defines whether the standard can be connected to any analyzer port or to just
one port (for one-port standards) or a pair of ports (for two-port standards).
Standards with unrestricted port assignment ("any") are stored with their gender.
When a connector type and calibration kit is selected for the calibration, the analyzer
checks whether the kit contains the necessary standard types and whether the standards have the right gender.
Standards with restricted port assignment are always assumed to have the gender
that is appropriate for the calibrated port. The port assignment is stored in the cal-
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ibration kit file, instead of the gender. During the calibration, the analyzer checks
whether the cal kit contains the necessary standard types for the required ports.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​CKIT:​<StandardType>​
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​CKIT:​<ConnType>:​SELect​
Add / Copy / Delete / View / Modify...
The buttons in the right part of the dialog are used to manage standards:
● "Add" adds a new standard to the calibration kit. The properties of the standard can
be edited in the table.
● "Copy" creates a new standard based on the properties of an existing standard.
● "Delete" deletes the selected standard.
● "View / Modify ..." opens the "View / Modify Cal Kit Standards" dialog. This dialog
shows the circuit model for the selected standard. For user-defined standard, you
can modify the circuit model parameters. See ​chapter 4.4.3.9, "View / Modify Cal Kit
Standards Dialog", on page 258.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​CKIT:​<StandardType>​
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​CKIT:​<ConnType>:​SELect​
Read .s<n>p File...
Opens a file selection dialog where you can select a Touchstone file containing the
reflection or transmission S-parameters for the standard. The R&S ZNC uses the imported S-parameters rather than the circuit model to characterize the standard, if ".s<n>p
File" is checked in the standard table. The appropriate file type (*.s1p for one-port standards and *.s2p for two-port standards) is selected automatically.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​CKIT:​CATalog?​
4.4.3.9
View / Modify Cal Kit Standards Dialog
The "View / Modify Cal Kit Standards" dialog shows the circuit model for a selected calibration standard. It is also used to define or edit the circuit model (offset and load)
parameters for a user-defined standard.
Related information
Refer to the following sections:
●
​chapter 3.5.2.4, "Cal Kit Files", on page 79
●
​chapter 4.4.3.8, "Kit Standards Dialog", on page 256
●
​chapter 3.5.2.1, "Calibration Standard Types", on page 76
Access:CHANNEL > CAL > Calibration > Cal Kits ... > Standards ... > View / Modify
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The diagram in the "View / Modify Cal Kit Standards" dialog depends on the standard
type for which the dialog was opened. Moreover, it is possible to modify the circuit model
using the buttons in the upper right of the dialog.
Offset Parameters
The entries on the left-hand side specify the offset parameters for the transmission lines
of the selected calibration standard.
The offset parameters depend on whether or not the circuit model is defined in "Agilent
Mode" (see ​chapter 4.4.3.6, "Cal Connector Types Dialog", on page 252):
● If "Agilent Mode" is active, then the standard is characterized by its "Delay" (in s), its
characteristic impedance Z0 (in Ω) and its "Offset Loss" (in GΩ).
● If "Agilent Mode" is switched off, then the standard is characterized by the R&S ZVRcompatible parameters "Electrical Length" (in m), its "Char. Impedance" (in Ω) and
its "Loss" (in dB/sqrt(GHz)). The loss is zero and not editable as long as the electrical
length is zero.
Both parameter sets are closely related. The "Electrical Length" is proportional to the
"Delay"; Z0 corresponds to the "Char. Impedance". Moreover the analyzer converts an
Agilent-type "Offset Loss" into a ZVR-type Loss and vice versa using the "Relative Permittivity" εr for the selected connector type.
See also description of the offset parameters in ​chapter 3.5.2.1, "Calibration Standard
Types", on page 76.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​CKIT:​<ConnType>:​SELect​
Load Parameters
The entries on the right-hand side or across the bottom of the "View / Modify Cal Kit
Standards" dialog specify the load parameters for a particular calibration standard
describing its terminal impedance.
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The circuit model for the load consists of capacitance C which is connected in parallel to
an inductance L and a resistance R, both connected in series.
● "R" is the constant resistive contribution. It is possible to select a special value
("Open" for ∞ Ω so that the inductance coefficients are irrelevant, "Short" for 0 Ω,
Match for the reference impedance of the current connector type) or set any resistance R.
● The fringing capacitance C and the residual inductance L are both assumed to be
frequency-dependent and approximated by the first four terms of the Taylor series
around f = 0 Hz.
See also description of the load parameters for the different standard types in ​chapter 3.5.2.1, "Calibration Standard Types", on page 76.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​CKIT:​<ConnType>:​SELect​
4.4.3.10
Characterize Cal Unit Dialog
The "Characterize Cal Unit" dialog displays the properties of the connected cal units,
provides control elements for characterization file management, and starts the characterization wizard.
Background information
Refer to ​chapter 3.5.5.3, "Characterization of Calibration Units", on page 85.
A cal unit characterization can be performed in a frequency sweep. The "Characterize
Cal Unit" dialog is unavailable while a power, CW Mode, or time sweep is active. The
analyzer always uses a fixed source power of –10 dBm to acquire the characterization
data.
Access: CHANNEL > CAL > Cal Devices > Characterize Cal Unit...
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Calibration Unit
Displays the connected calibration units. The R&S ZNC auto-detects all calibration units
which are connected to one of its USB ports. If several cal units are connected, one of
them must be selected for characterization (active cal unit).
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​RDEVice:​AKAL:​ADDRess:​ALL?​
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​RDEVice:​AKAL:​ADDRess​
Authentication / Set Password
Set a password to protect the characterization dialog and the "Start Characterization"
wizard from unauthorized access and operation. "Set Password" opens a dialog to enter
the password and activate password protection at the next time the "Characterize Cal
Unit" dialog is opened. Enter an empty string (no password) to deactivate password protection.
Tip: A password also blocks a switchover of the active characterization during calibration;
see ​"Characterization" on page 235.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​COLLect:​AUTO:​CKIT:​PASSword​
Characterization Data
Displays all characterizations which are stored in the active cal unit. The "Factory" characterization is available for all calibration units; it ensures an accurate calibration for all
standard applications.
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The properties of the selected characterization are shown below the list. "Delete" deletes
the selected characterization file; "Start Characterization" opens the characterization
wizard to create a new characterization.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​RDEVice:​AKAL:​CKIT:​CATalog?​
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​RDEVice:​AKAL:​CKIT:​STANdard:​CATalog?​
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​RDEVice:​AKAL:​SDATa?​
4.4.3.11
Characterization Wizard
The "Characterization" wizard guides you through the automatic characterization of a
calibration unit.
The guided characterization consists of the following steps:
1. Characterization: Select the characterized ports and cal unit standards and initiate
the characterization sweeps.
2. Save Characterization Data: Save the characterization data to an internal file on
the calibration unit.
Step 1: Characterization
Selects the calibration type as well as the characterized cal unit ports and initiates the
necessary characterization sweeps.
Characterization procedure
To acquire accurate characterization data, the test setup must be properly calibrated
before you start the characterization wizard. Use the calibration type that you wish to
perform with your new cal unit characterization; see ​chapter 3.5.5.3, "Characterization of
Calibration Units", on page 85.
Access: CHANNEL > CAL > Cal Devices > Characterize Cal Unit... > Start Characterization...
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Test Port Assignment
Defines the assignment between test ports and cal unit ports. In the default "Manual"
assignment, VNA ports and cal unit port numbers match. If you decide to use a different
assignment, you can auto-detect the actual assignment ("Automatic") or select the analyzer port numbers manually. Auto-detection may fail e.g. because of a high attenuation
in the signal path.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​COLLect:​AUTO​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​COLLect:​AUTO:​PORTs​
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​COLLect:​AUTO:​PORTs:​CONNection?​
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​COLLect:​AUTO:​CKIT:​PORTs​
Take OSM ... / Take All OSM and Through
Starts a calibration sweep for the selected port(s). "Take All OSM and Through" initiates
a series of calibration sweeps; the R&S ZNC acquires a full set of one-port and two-port
data. This is required for the transmission normalizations and for a "One Path Two
Ports" calibration; see ​"Dependency between calibration types and characterization
data" on page 86.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​COLLect:​AUTO​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​COLLect:​AUTO:​PORTs​
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​COLLect:​AUTO:​PORTs:​CONNection?​
Next
Proceeds to the second dialog in the characterization wizard ("Save Characterization
Data"). Next is available as soon as the R&S ZNC has acquired characterization data for
a single port.
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Step 2: Save Characterization Data
Saves the characterization data to an internal file on the calibration unit.
Access: CHANNEL > CAL > Cal Devices > Characterize Cal Unit... > Start Characterization...
Comment / Filename / Finish
Selects a characterization file name to reference the characterization data set in the
"Characterize Cal Unit" and "Calibration Unit" dialogs and a comment, to be written into
the characterization file. A file name is required before you can "Finish" the characterization wizard and store the data.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​COLLect:​AUTO:​CKIT​
4.4.3.12
Calibration > Pwr Cal Settings
Provides access to all functions for power meter and power calibration data handling
(transmission coefficients). Power calibration of the R&S ZNC is a fully menu-guided
process.
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Efficient power calibration procedure
●
For standard applications, open the "Start Cal" tab and select "Scalar Power Cal >
Power Cal..." to perform the necessary calibration sweeps with default power calibration settings. You do not need any of the buttons in the "Pwr Cal Settings" tab.
●
Select "Cal Power ..." if you use an amplifier between the source port and the DUT.
●
Select "Transmission Coefficients ..." if you want to modify the power calibration procedure.
Background information
Refer to ​chapter 3.5.6, "Scalar Power Calibration", on page 86.
Access: CHANNEL > CAL key or Alt + Shift + P
The "Calibration" buttons open the following dialogs:
●
Cal Power...: See ​chapter 4.4.3.13, "Modify Cal Power Dialog", on page 266
●
Transmission Coefficients...: See ​chapter 4.4.3.14, "Power Meter Transmission
Coefficients Dialog", on page 268
●
Power Meters...: See ​chapter 3.7.5, "External Power Meters", on page 104
Switch Off All Other Sources
Ensures that the power at all sources except the calibrated source is switched off during
the calibration. This is advisable especially if the measurement involves a combination
of different signals.
Remote command:
​SOURce<Ch>:​POWer<PhyPt>:​CORRection:​OSOurces[:​STATe]​
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Flatness Cal > Total Readings
Sets a limit for the number of calibration sweeps. See also ​"Calibration procedure"
on page 87.
Remote command:
​SOURce<Ch>:​POWer<PhyPt>:​CORRection:​NREadings​
​SOURce<Ch>:​POWer<PhyPt>:​CORRection:​COLLect:​AVERage[:​COUNt]​
Flatness Cal > Tolerance
Defines the maximum deviation of the measured power from the cal power. The calibration procedure is stopped if the number of "Total Readings" is reached or if the measured
power is within the "Tolerance".
Remote command:
​SOURce<Ch>:​POWer<PhyPt>:​CORRection:​COLLect:​AVERage:​NTOLerance​
Flatness Cal > Convergence
Modifies the amount of power correction for each of the flatness calibration sweeps. The
power correction in each sweep, as controlled by the calibrated reference receiver (awave receiver), is multiplied by the selected convergence factor. With a convergence
factor larger (smaller) than 1, the source power correction after each flatness calibration
step is larger (smaller) than the measured deviation from the desired power.
For analyzer test ports, a convergence factor 1 is appropriate. Convergence factors different from 1 may be indicated for external generator ports which show a nonlinear
behavior. In general, it is recommendable to start the calibration with a convergence
factor 1 and choose smaller values (0.8 ... 0.4) in case that the iteration fails. Inappropriate
convergence factors can slow down the flatness calibration or even prevent convergence.
Remote command:
​SOURce<Ch>:​POWer<PhyPt>:​CORRection:​COLLect:​CFACtor​
Power Meter
Shows a list of all power meters that have been properly configured and are available for
the power calibration of a source port. The last configured power meter is selected by
default. See ​"Configured Devices" on page 323.
Remote command:
​SOURce:​POWer:​CORRection:​PMETer:​ID​
Auto Zero
Initiates an automatic zeroing procedure of the power meter; see ​"Zeroing"
on page 105.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​RDEVice:​PMETer<Pmtr>:​AZERo​
4.4.3.13
Modify Cal Power Dialog
The "Modify Cal Power" dialog adjusts the target power for the power calibration (cal
power), in particular for test setups with external attenuators or amplifiers, and defines
the target power for the reference receiver calibration.
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Channel Settings
The diagram in the center of the dialog visualizes the settings and results below.
Access: CHANNEL > CAL > Pwr Cal Settings > Cal Power...
Port Overview
The dialog shows all source ports of the network analyzer. Each port is displayed with
the current "Power Result" at the input of the DUT (in dBm) and offset (i.e. the "Cal Power
Offet" in dB).
Remote command:
​SOURce<Ch>:​POWer<PhyPt>[:​LEVel][:​IMMediate]:​OFFSet​
​SOURce<Ch>:​POWer<PhyPt>:​CORRection:​LEVel:​OFFSet​
Port Power Offset
Defines a port-specific offset to the channel base power. The actual output power at the
port is equal to the channel base power Pb ("CHANNEL > POWER BW AVG > Power
> ...") plus the "Port Power Offset". It is equal to the "Port Power Offset" (converted into
dBm) if "0 dBm" is selected instead of Pb.
For power sweep and the selection Pb, the actual port power varies across the sweep;
for other configurations the port power is constant.
Remote command:
​SOURce<Ch>:​POWer<PhyPt>[:​LEVel][:​IMMediate]:​OFFSet​
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Cal Power Offset
For power calibrations only (not supported in the current firmware version): Specifies a
gain (positive values) or an attenuation (negative values) in the signal path between the
source port and the calibrated reference plane. With a "Cal Power Offset" of n dB, the
target power at the reference plane (cal power) is equal to the actual output power at the
port plus n dB. The "Cal Power Offset" has no impact on the source power.
Example: Use of an amplifier in the signal path
Assume that a DUT requires a constant input power of +25 dBm, and that the measurement path contains an amplifier with a 30 dB gain. After a reset of the analyzer the channel
power Pb is –10 dBm. With a "Port Power Offset" of +5 dB at the calibrated source port
and a "Cal Power Offset" of +30 dB, the source power calibration ensures that the constant input power of +25 dBm is maintained across the entire sweep range. The actual
output power of the analyzer is –5 dBm.
Notice that a power calibration with an appropriate "Cal Power Offset" will automatically
prevent excess input levels at the DUT.
Remote command:
​SOURce<Ch>:​POWer<PhyPt>:​CORRection:​LEVel:​OFFSet​
Reference Receiver Cal Power
Defines the source power which the R&S ZNC uses to perform the first calibration sweep
of the source power calibration. In this first sweep, the power meter reading is used to
calibrate the reference receiver of the calibrated port; the following calibration sweeps
are based solely on the reference receiver (see ​"Calibration procedure" on page 89).
The accuracy of the source power calibration depends on the the power meter's measurement accuracy, therefore it is advantageous to select a reference receiver cal power
at which the power meter provides a maximum accuracy. Otherwise your can use equal
port cal power and reference receiver cal power values.
Note: Risk of damage due to high power settings
If an external device (e.g. an amplifier) is connected between the calibrated test port and
the power meter, ensure that the reference receiver cal power does not exceed the maximum input power of this device.
Remote command:
​SOURce<Ch>:​POWer<PhyPt>:​CORRection:​PPOWer​
​SOURce<Ch>:​POWer<PhyPt>:​CORRection:​PSELect​
4.4.3.14
Power Meter Transmission Coefficients Dialog
The "Power Meter Transmission Coefficients" dialog allows you to modify the scalar
power calibration data in order to account for an additional two-port device in the test
setup with known transmission coefficients. Configuration of the transmission coefficients
and activation are independent from each other.
Background information
Refer to ​chapter 3.5.6.4, "Extended Test Setups", on page 90.
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Access: CHANNEL > CAL > Pwr Cal Settings > Transm. Coefficients...
Test Setup
Selects a test setup with an additional two port in front of the DUT (during the measurement) or in front of the power meter (during power calibration). "No Coefficients" disables
the transmission coefficients but does not delete the entries in the "Two Port Configuration" dialog.
Remote command:
​SOURce<Ch>:​POWer<PhyPt>:​CORRection:​TCOefficient[:​STATe]​
​SOURce<Ch>:​POWer<PhyPt>:​CORRection:​TCOefficient:​CALibration​
Two Port Config...
Opens the "Two Port Configuration" dialog to define transmission coefficients for the "Two
Port at DUT" and the "Two Port at Power Meter" test setups. The button is disabled if
"No Coefficients" is active. See ​chapter 4.4.3.15, "Two Port Configuration Dialog",
on page 269.
4.4.3.15
Two Port Configuration Dialog
The "Two Port Configuration" dialog defines the transmission characteristics of an additional two-port in the calibrated frequency range.
Access: CHANNEL > CAL > Pwr Cal Settings > Transm. Coefficients... > Two Port Config...
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Transmission Coefficients; Insert / Delete / Delete All
The required two-port information is a list of transmission coefficients at different frequency values (power loss list). The buttons in the dialog provide different ways of creating and modifying the list. Use "Insert", "Delete", "Delete All" to edit the list manually.
In a power, time or CW mode sweep, one point at the fixed CW frequency is sufficient.
In a frequency sweep it is possible to enter several coefficients to account for a frequencydependent attenuation. Transmission coefficients are interpolated between the frequency points and extrapolated, if necessary. If no transmission coefficient is defined at
all, the R&S ZNC assumes a 0 dB attenuation across the entire frequency range, which
is equivalent to an ideal through connection or no "No Coefficients".
Remote command:
​SOURce<Ch>:​POWer<PhyPt>:​CORRection:​TCOefficient:​INSert<ListNo>​
​SOURce<Ch>:​POWer<PhyPt>:​CORRection:​TCOefficient:​DEFine<ListNo>​
​SOURce<Ch>:​POWer<PhyPt>:​CORRection:​TCOefficient:​COUNt?​
​SOURce<Ch>:​POWer<PhyPt>:​CORRection:​TCOefficient:​DELete<ListNo>[:​
DUMMy]​
​SOURce<Ch>:​POWer<PhyPt>:​CORRection:​TCOefficient:​DELete<ListNo>:​
ALL​
Get Trace...
Opens a selection box containing all traces in the active recall set. The "dB Mag" values
of the selected trace are used to define the transmission coefficients. Notice that if you
combine different channels with different sweep points, the analyzer may have to interpolate or extrapolate the transmission coefficients.
Remote command:
​SOURce<Ch>:​POWer<PhyPt>:​CORRection:​TCOefficient:​FEED​
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Import File...
Imports the transmission coefficients from a trace file. The imported file must be either in
Touchstone (*.s<n>p) or in *.csv format; see also ​chapter 3.4.2, "Trace Files",
on page 64.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​LOAD:​CORRection:​TCOefficient​
Recall... / Save...
You can save the displayed power loss list to a power meter correction list file with extension (*.pmcl) and re-load it in later sessions.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​LOAD:​CORRection:​TCOefficient​
​MMEMory:​STORe:​CORRection:​TCOefficient​
4.4.3.16
Calibration > Use Cal
Provides access to all functions for automatic or manual calibration and for calibration kit
management. Calibration is a fully menu-guided process.
Background information
Refer to the following sections:
●
​chapter 3.5, "Calibration", on page 67
Access: CHANNEL > CAL key or Alt + Shift + P
The "Use Cal" buttons open the following dialogs:
●
Active Power Cals...: See ​chapter 4.4.3.17, "Active Power Cals Dialog",
on page 272
●
Cal Manager...: See ​chapter 4.4.3.18, "Calibration Manager Dialog", on page 273
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User Cal Active
Activates or deactivates the system error correction in the active channel. "User Cal
Active" is available only if a valid system error correction is available for the active channel; see "Channel State" in ​chapter 4.4.3.18, "Calibration Manager Dialog",
on page 273.
Note: A label "Cal Off" appears behind the trace list if the system error correction is
switched off; see also ​chapter 3.5.4, "Calibration Labels", on page 81. The calibration
status of each channel and trace appears in the setup information ("SYSTEM > SETUP
> Info... > Setup").
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection[:​STATe]​
All Power Cals On / Off
Activates or deactivates all scalar power calibrations in the active channel. "All Power
Cals On" is available only if a valid power calibration is available for the active channel,
but not active; see "Channel State" in ​chapter 4.4.3.18, "Calibration Manager Dialog",
on page 273.
Note: A label "PCal Off" appears behind the trace list of a wave quantitiy or a ratio if the
power calibration is switched off; see also ​chapter 3.5.6.3, "Power Calibration Labels",
on page 89. The calibration status of each channel and trace appears in the setup information ("SYSTEM > SETUP > Info... > Setup").
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​PCAL​
Recall Last Cal Set
Loads and activates the recall set for which the last calibration was performed. If the last
calibrated setup is already active, nothing is changed. The calibrated setups are automatically stored in the
C:\Users\Public\Documents\Rohde-Schwarz\Vna\Calibration\
RecallSets directory. A message box pops up if the directory is empty, e.g. because
no calibration was performed yet.
Remote command:
n/a
4.4.3.17
Active Power Cals Dialog
The "Active Power Cals" dialog shows the power calibrations for the active channel, enables and disables power calibrations.
Access: CHANNEL > CAL > Power Cal > Active Power Cals...
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Port Overview
Shows all source ports together with the possible power calibrations. Either a source
power calibration ("Power") or a measurement receiver calibration ("Meas. Receiver")
can be performed at each analyzer port P1 ... PN.
Power calibrations can be enabled or disabled after the necessary calibration data has
been acquired; see ​chapter 4.4.3.4, "Power Cal Screen", on page 247.
Remote command:
​SOURce<Ch>:​POWer<PhyPt>:​CORRection:​STATe​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​POWer<PhyPt>[:​STATe]​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​PCAL​
4.4.3.18
Calibration Manager Dialog
The "Calibration Manager" dialog stores user correction data to the cal pool and assigns
stored correction data to channels.
See ​chapter 3.5.3, "Calibration Pool", on page 81 for background information.
Access:CHANNEL > CAL > Calibration > Cal Manager ...
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A warning appears before a calibration in the pool is overwritten by the new calibration.
To continue the calibration confirm by using button "Overwrite current File?" or ​"Resolve
Pool Link" on page 275.
Channel State
The "Channel State" table shows all channels in the active recall set together with their
current calibration. Channels can use either the active channel calibration (if available),
a previously stored user correction data or the factory system error correction (indicated
as '--').
Note: If a new calibration is performed for a channel assigned to a cal group (marked
as "<CalGroup>"), the correction data overwrites the cal group data, so the new calibration will affect all channels assigned to the cal group.
Remote command:
n/a
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Add / Add All / Replace / Apply / Apply to All
The buttons between the tables are used to modify the calibration pool and apply calibration data sets (cal groups) to channels:
● "Add" copies the correction data of the selected channel to the cal pool, generating
a new pool member (cal group).
● "Add All" copies the correction data of all channels to the cal pool, generating new
pool members (cal groups).
● "Replace" overwrites a cal group with new correction data.
● "Apply" assigns the selected cal group to the selected channel.
● "Apply to All" assigns the selected cal group to all channels in the "Channel State"
table.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​STORe:​CORRection​
​MMEMory:​LOAD:​CORRection​
​MMEMory:​LOAD:​CORRection:​MERGe​
Pool / Delete from Pool
The "Pool" table shows all correction data sets <CalGroup_name>.cal in the directory
C:\Users\Public\Documents\Rohde-Schwarz\Vna\Calibration\Data. The
name of a pool data set can be modified directly in the corresponding table cell. "Delete
from Pool" deletes a cal group file.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​DELete:​CORRection​
Preset User Cal
Selects a calibration from the pool that shall be restored during a user-defined preset.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​PRESet:​USER:​CAL​
Resolve Pool Link
Deletes the link between the selected channel <Channel> and the cal group <Cal Group>.
The cal group data continues to be used as a channel calibration ("Channel Cal") for the
"<Channel>", the "Channel State" list displays "<Channel> ... Channel Cal".
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​LOAD:​CORRection:​RESolve​
Channel Properties
Displays the basic channel settings and the properties of the system error correction for
the selected channel in the "Channel State" table.
In addition it is stated whether or not Cal Sweep Data are available for the selected calibration (see ​"Save Sweep Data" on page 311).
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​DATE?​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​DATA:​PARameter<Sfk>?​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​SSTate?​
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4.4.4 Channel Config
The "Channel Config" functions select, create and delete channels and optimize the
measurement process.
4.4.4.1
Channel Config > Channels
Creates and deletes channels and selects a channel as the active channel.
You can monitor the channel activity using the ​OUTPut<Ch>:​UPORt[:​VALue]​ command and the output signals at pins 8 to 11 of the "USER PORT" connector.
Background information
Refer to ​chapter 3.1.3.3, "Active and Inactive Traces and Channels", on page 14.
Access: CHANNEL > CHANNEL CONFIG key or Alt + Shift + O
Active Channel
Selects an arbitrary channel of the active recall set as the active channel. This function
is disabled if the current recall set contains only one channel.
If one or several traces are assigned to the selected channel, one of these traces
becomes the active trace.
The order of all channels in a recall set is given by the channels' creation time. By default,
the channels are named Ch1, Ch2, ... so that Ch<n – 1> precedes Ch<n>. This order is
always maintained, even if channels are renamed, invisible (because no traces are
assigned to them) or distributed over several diagram areas.
Tip: You can simply tap a line in the channel list to activate the corresponding channel.
Remote command:
The numeric suffix <Ch> appended to the first-level mnemonic of a command selects a
channel as the active channel.
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Add Ch + Trace
Creates a new channel and a new trace, which is displayed in the active diagram area.
The new channel settings (including a possible channel calibration) are identical to the
previous channel settings; the trace is created with the trace settings of the former active
trace but displayed with another color. The former and the new active trace are superimposed but can be easily separated, e.g. by changing the "Reference Position".
The new channel is named Ch<n>, where <n> is the largest of all existing channel numbers plus one. The name can be changed in the "Channel Manager" dialog.
Tips: To create a new trace in the active channel, use "TRACE > TRACE CONFIG >
Traces > Add Trace". To create a new channel and a new trace and display it in a new
diagram area, use "Add Ch + Tr + Diag".
Remote command:
​CONFigure:​CHANnel<Ch>[:​STATe]​ ON
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​SDEFine​
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​FEED​
​CONFigure:​TRACe<Trc>:​CHANnel:​NAME?​
​CONFigure:​TRACe<Trc>:​CHANnel:​NAME:​ID?​
Add Ch + Tr + Diag
Creates a new channel and a new trace, which is displayed in a new diagram area. The
new channel settings (including a possible channel calibration) are identical to the previous channel settings; the trace is created with the trace settings of the former active
trace but displayed with another color.
The new channel is named Ch<n>, where <n> is the largest of all existing channel numbers plus one. The name can be changed in the "Channel Manager" dialog.
Tips: To create a new trace in the active channel, use "TRACE > TRACE CONFIG >
Traces > Add Trace". To create a new channel and a new trace and display it in the active
diagram area, use "Add Ch + Trace".
Remote command:
​CONFigure:​CHANnel<Ch>[:​STATe]​ ON
​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​SDEFine​
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​STATe​ ON
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​FEED​
Delete Channel
Deletes the current channel including all traces assigned to the channel and removes all
display elements related to the channel from the diagram area. "Delete Channel" is disabled if the recall set contains only one channel: In manual control, each recall set must
contain at least one diagram area with one channel and one trace.
Tips: Use the "Undo" function to restore a channel that was unintentionally deleted.
Remote command:
​CONFigure:​CHANnel<Ch>[:​STATe]​ OFF
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Channel On
Toggles the measurement state of the ​Active Channel.
Remote command:
​CONFigure:​CHANnel<Ch>:​MEASure[:​STATe]​
4.4.4.2
Channel Manager (Dialog)
The "Channel Manager" dialog provides convenient access to certain actions of the
"CHANNEL > CHANNEL CONFIG > Channels" tab, allows to rename channels and to
toggle single sweep mode.
Background information
Refer to ​chapter 3.1.3.3, "Active and Inactive Traces and Channels", on page 14.
Access:CHANNEL > CHANNEL CONFIG > Channels > Channel Manager...
Channel table
The rows and columns of the channel table represent the existing channels (rows)
together with certain editable (white) or non-editable (gray) properties (columns).
● "Name" indicates the name of the related channel.
● "Traces" indicates the names of all traces assigned to the related channel.
● "On/Off" toggles the measurement state of the related channel.
● "Single Sweep" toggles between single sweep and continuous mode.
Remote command:
​CONFigure:​CHANnel:​CATalog?​
​CONFigure:​CHANnel<Ch>:​NAME​
​CONFigure:​CHANnel<Ch>:​NAME:​ID?​
​CONFigure:​CHANnel<Ch>:​MEASure[:​STATe]​
​INITiate<Ch>:​CONTinuous​
Add / Delete
The buttons below the channel table add and delete channels.
● "Add" adds a new channel to the list. The new channel is named Ch<n>, where <n>
is the largest of all existing channel numbers plus one.
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●
"Delete" deletes the channel selected in the table. This button is disabled if the setup
contains only one channel: In manual control, each setup must contain at least one
diagram area with one channel and one trace.
Remote command:
​CONFigure:​CHANnel<Ch>[:​STATe]​
4.4.4.3
Channel Config > Mode
Optimizes the measurement process.
Access: CHANNEL > CHANNEL CONFIG key or Alt + Shift + O
Driving Mode
Determines the order of partial measurements and sweeps.
● In "Auto" mode, the analyzer optimizes the display update: Fast sweeps are performed in "Alternated" mode, slower sweeps in "Chopped" mode.
● In "Alternated" mode, a partial measurement is performed at all sweep points (partial
sweep) before the hardware settings are changed and the next partial measurement
is carried out in an additional sweep. This is usually faster than "Chopped" mode.
● In "Chopped" sweep mode, the analyzer completes the necessary sequence of partial
measurements at each sweep point and obtains the result (measurement point)
before proceeding to the next sweep point. A trace is obtained from the beginning of
the sweep.
The "Driving Mode" setting is also used during a system error correction. For channels
which require a single partial measurement only, the driving mode settings are equivalent.
See also ​chapter 3.1.4.1, "Partial Measurements and Driving Mode", on page 15.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]COUPle​
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Image Suppr.
The "Image Suppr." settings define whether the analyzer measures with a local oscillator
frequency LO below or above the RF input frequency. This feature can be used to eliminate known spurious components in the input signal that can distort the measurement,
especially in the low frequency range.
● In "Auto" mode, the analyzer auto-selects the local oscillator frequency, depending
on the receiver (RF) frequency and the test port. This mode systematically avoids
known spurious signals provided that no frequency conversion occurs in the test
setup.
● "LO > RF" means that the LO frequency is always above the measured RF frequency.
This mode is appropriate for avoiding single, known spurious signals.
● "LO < RF" means that the LO frequency is always below the measured RF frequency.
This mode is appropriate for avoiding single, known spurious signals.
Tip: In the presence of several spurious signals, setting the "Image Suppr." parameter
globally may not be sufficient. To improve the result, perform a "Segmented Frequency" sweep and assign independent LO frequencies to the individual sweep segments.
Application example
Consider the following test setup with strongly reflecting DUT (e.g. a bandpass in its stop
band) that is measured in transmission. a1 is generated at a frequency RF. The reflected
wave b1 falls into the receiver mixer of the analyzer port 1, where a small fraction of the
mixer product RF + 2*IF can be reflected back towards the DUT. If this spurious wave
a'1 passes the DUT, then it is received as b'2 at port 2, together with the wanted signal
b 2.
LO > RF implies that LO = RF + IF. The mixer at port 2 converts both the wanted signal
b2 and the spurious signal b'2 which is at the frequency RF' = IF + LO, to the same IF
frequency. The response of an ideal, infinitely steep bandpass filter with a pass band
between B- and B+ looks as follows:
For a wide bandpass, the spurious response flattens the filter edges.
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The spurious signal can be eliminated by dividing the sweep range into two segments
with different LO settings:
● In the low-frequency segment, ranging up to the center frequency of the bandpass
filter, the frequency of the local oscillator is set to LO < RF. This ensures that the
spurious signal b'2 is not measured at port 2.
● In the high-frequency segment, starting at the center frequency of the bandpass filter,
the frequency of the local oscillator is set to LO > RF. If the center frequency is larger
than B+ – 2*IF, then there is no distortion from b'2.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]FREQuency:​SBANd​
AGC Mode
Configures the Automatic Gain Control (AGC).
In "Auto" mode the analyzer automatically adapts its receiver step attenuator settings
to the RF input level (→ Automatic or Adaptive Gain Control, AGC). The A/D converter is
always operated at optimum input level, selecting one of the following gain settings for
every measurement point:
●
●
"Low Dist(ortion)", corresponding to a lower internal A/D converter input level. This
setting allows for a high RF overdrive reserve and is appropriate for high RF input
levels.
"Low Noise" corresponding to a higher internal A/D converter input level. This setting
increases the dynamic range and is appropriate for low RF input levels.
"Low Dist(ortion)" and "Low Noise" can also be selected statically, completely disabling
the adaptive behavior. This is appropriate if the characteristics of the input paths must be
constant, e.g. because
● interfering signal contributions originating from the receiver (noise, nonlinear contributions) must not change during the measurement.
● a large interfering signal in the vicinity of the measured signal must not overdrive the
receiver.
"Manual" mode allows to select the preferred "AGC Mode" per sweep segment, drive
port and receiver (see ​"Manual Config..." on page 281).
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]POWer:​GAINcontrol:​GLOBal​
Manual Config...
Opens the "AGC Manual Configuration" dialog that allows to configure the Automatic
Gain Control for the individual sweep segments, drive ports and receivers. This button is
enabled in "Manual" ​AGC Mode only.
The manual AGC settings are persisted and reused for subsequent measurement
sweeps, which may increase measurement speed compared to "Auto" mode while not
compromising measurement quality.
●
●
●
●
Range: If ​Segmented AGC is enabled, each sweep segment can be configured separately.
Drive Port,a, bj: Selects the AGC mode for the respective drive port and receiver.
Auto (column): Enables the automatic mode for the corresponding drive port, disabling the manual configuration for the related a- and b-waves.
Reset: restores the default settings ("Auto" for all drive ports)
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●
Learn Sweep: During the learn sweep, the analyzer determines the appropriate static
gain settings for the measured a- and b-waves, i.e. for all a- and b-waves measured
in the current channel. The acquired settings can be overwritten manually.
At the start of the learn sweep, "Auto" mode is selected for each drive port ("Reset")
and a single shot measurement of the current channel is initiated.
During this measurement the VNA software observes the "Low Distortion" (LD) vs.
"Low Noise" (LN) gain decisions of the AGC and derives the statically assigned gain
for the individual sweep segments / drive ports / receivers as follows:
– if LD was selected for any of the related measurement points, then LD is assigned
– otherwise LN is assigned
In other words, LN is assigned if and only if LN was selected for all related measurement points.
Note:
● Without the ​Extended Power Range option only the AGC of the measurement receivers (the b-waves) can be statically set to "Low Dist" or "Low Noise"; the reference
receiver AGC mode is always set to "Auto" (see ​"AGC Mode" on page 281). With the
option available, also the AGC of the reference receivers (the a-waves) can be set
statically.
● Before running the "Learn Sweep", create the adequate port configuration and add
the required traces.
● The "Learn Sweep" is not available for power sweep channels.
● The increase in measurement speed for settings "Low Dist" and "Low Noise" is not
achieved if the AGC mode of one of the receivers is set to "Auto".
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]POWer:​GAINcontrol​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]POWer:​AGCMode:​ACQuire​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]POWer:​AGCMode:​SAVE​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SEGMent<Seg>:​POWer:​GAINcontrol​
Segmented AGC
"Segmented AGC" enables segment specific gain settings. It is available for segmented
sweep type only.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SEGMent<Seg>:​POWer:​GAINcontrol:​CONTrol​
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4.4.4.4
Channel Config > Pwr Cal Settings
Provides access to all functions for power meter and power calibration data handling
(transmission coefficients). The settings are identical with the "CHANNEL > CAL > Pwr
Cal Settings" settings; see ​chapter 4.4.3.12, "Calibration > Pwr Cal Settings",
on page 264.
4.4.5 Trigger
The "Trigger" menu provides trigger and sweep control settings.
4.4.5.1
Trigger > Trigger
Selects the source of the trigger signal and provides additional trigger settings.
Trigger system of the analyzer
The trigger system is used to synchronize the analyzer's actions with events that can be
provided by an internal or external signal or user-generated ("Manual Trigger"). Triggered
measurements are an alternative to the default mode ("Free Run", "Continuous
Sweep"), where the measurement is continuously repeated without fixed time reference.
Any trigger event may start an entire sweep or a part of it. Moreover, it is possible to
switch off the RF source between consecutive triggered measurement sequences, and
to define a delay between trigger events and the measurement sequences.
Output trigger
The R&S ZNC provides a configurable output trigger signal to synchronize external devices with the measurement. This signal is available at the rear panel connector EXT TRIG
OUT. Configuration of the output trigger signal is a remote control feature
(TRIGger:CHANnel<Ch>:AUXiliary... commands; see ​chapter 6.3.19, "TRIGger
Commands", on page 673).
The trigger settings are also valid for calibration sweeps. This means that, in external
trigger mode, the external trigger signal must be available during the system error correction, too. To start the calibration sweeps without delay, use the "Free Run" trigger type.
Background information
Refer to ​chapter 3.1.4.1, "Partial Measurements and Driving Mode", on page 15.
Access:CHANNEL > TRIGGER key or Alt + Shift + R
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Free Run / External / Manual / Multiple Triggers
The four buttons select the source of the trigger event:
● In "Free Run" mode a new measurement is started immediately without waiting for a
trigger event and without fixed time reference. The remaining trigger settings are not
valid.
"Free Run" means that a measurement in "Continuous Sweep" mode is repeated as
fast as possible.
● In "External" trigger mode the measurement is triggered by an external 5 V TTL signal
applied either to the BNC connector EXT TRIG IN or to pin 2 of the USER PORT
connector at the rear panel. The two trigger inputs are equivalent; no additional setting
for signal routing is required. For detailed specifications of the trigger signals refer to
​chapter 9.1.1.1, "USER PORT", on page 737.
The "External" trigger mode can be configured using the "Sequence" and "Slope /
Level" settings.
Note: The period of the external trigger signal should be adjusted to the triggered
measurement sequence. If the analyzer receives a trigger event while the last
sequence is still running, the R&S ZNC skips the trigger event and generates a message.
● In "Manual" trigger mode the trigger signal is generated on selecting the "Manual
Trigger" softkey.
● In "Multiple Trigger" mode the trigger sources for different triggered measurement
sequences, the trigger slope, and the trigger delay can be selected individually using
the "Trigger Manager" dialog. In particular, it is possible to use two different external
trigger sources.
See also ​chapter 4.4.5.2, "Trigger Manager (Dialog)", on page 286.
Remote command:
​TRIGger<Ch>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 679
Sequence
Selects the measurement cycle or sequence of actions to be triggered.
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●
●
●
●
"Sweep" means that each trigger event starts an entire sweep, according to the current sweep configuration.
"Point" means that each trigger event starts the measurement at the next sweep point.
"Partial Measurement" means that each trigger event starts the next partial measurement at the current or at the next sweep point. If each measurement points
requires only one partial measurement, this option is equivalent to "Point".
See also ​chapter 3.1.4.1, "Partial Measurements and Driving Mode", on page 15.
"Segment" means that each trigger event starts the next sweep segment within the
current sweep. If a sweep type other than "Segmented Sweep" is active, this option
is equivalent to "Sweep".
Relation with other sweep settings
Some sweep settings are logically incompatible with a particular selection of the triggered
measurement sequence:
● If a "Time" sweep is performed, the sequence is always a sweep.
● "Alternate" sweep mode only makes sense if the triggered measurement sequence
comprises more than one sweep point. If "Point" or "Partial Measurement" is selected,
Alternate sweep mode is switched off and vice versa.
Note: The period of the trigger events should be adjusted to the triggered measurement
sequence. If the analyzer receives a trigger event while the last sequence is still running,
the R&S ZNC skips the trigger event and generates a message.
Remote command:
​TRIGger<Ch>[:​SEQuence]:​LINK​
Delay
Specifies a delay time between the trigger event and the start of the measurement.
The Delay time entered must be zero or positive, so that the trigger event precedes the
start of the measurement (post-trigger).
In "Multiple Trigger" mode the trigger delay can be selected individually using the "Trigger
Manager" dialog. See ​chapter 4.4.5.2, "Trigger Manager (Dialog)", on page 286.
Remote command:
​TRIGger<Ch>[:​SEQuence]:​HOLDoff​
Slope / Level
Specifies the "External" trigger mode in detail.
● Rising Slope / Falling Slope means that the rising or falling slope of every external
trigger pulse can trigger a single measurement sequence.
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●
High Level / Low Level means that the analyzer performs a free run measurement
as long as the external trigger signal is high / low. The measurement is discontinued
when the trigger signal changes to low / high.
Remote command:
​TRIGger<Ch>[:​SEQuence]:​SLOPe​
Manual Trigger
Generates the trigger event for "Manual" trigger mode (see ​Free Run / External / Manual /
Multiple Triggers). "Manual Trigger" is disabled unless manual trigger mode is active.
Remote command:
​TRIGger<Ch>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 679 MANual
*TRG
4.4.5.2
Trigger Manager (Dialog)
The "Trigger Manager" dialog defines individual trigger sources and delays for the triggered measurement sequences. The settings are valid for "Multiple Trigger" mode. For
detailed specifications of the trigger signals refer to ​chapter 9.1.1.1, "USER PORT",
on page 737.
Background information
Refer to ​chapter 3.1.4.1, "Partial Measurements and Driving Mode", on page 15.
Access: CHANNEL > TRIGGER > Trigger > Trigger Manager...
Fig. 4-4: Example of a multiple trigger configuration
The table in the "Trigger Manager" dialog contains several editable (white) or non-editable
(gray) columns. All settings are analogous to the general trigger settings in the CHANNEL
> TRIGGER > Trigger tab. Refer to the following sections:
●
​"Sequence" on page 284
●
​"Free Run / External / Manual / Multiple Triggers" on page 284
●
​"Slope / Level" on page 285
●
​"Delay" on page 285
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Source / Slope / Level / Delay
The table defines all multiple trigger settings. The following trigger sources are available:
● Free Run selects an untriggered measurement sequence.
● External 1 is the external trigger signal fed in at either the EXT TRIG IN connector
on the rear panel or pin 2 of the USER PORT connector.
● External 2 is the external trigger signal fed in at pin 25 of the USER PORT connector
on the rear panel.
● External 1 and 2 means that the measurement sequence is initiated after the analyzer has received an event from both external trigger signals.
● External 1 or 2 means that the measurement sequence is initiated after the analyzer
has received an event from either external trigger 1 or external trigger 2.
● Manual means that the trigger event is generated manually, by selecting the "Manual
Trigger" button in the "Trigger > Trigger" softtool.
In the example of ​figure 4-4 the sweep is triggered by an external trigger no. 1, while each
sweep point is triggered by external trigger no. 2. With this multiple trigger configuration,
the first trigger 1 event enables the overall sweep. The first trigger 2 event after the trigger
1 event initiates the measurement of the first sweep point, the second trigger 2 event
initiates the measurement of the second sweep point and so on. Trigger 1 events are
ignored until the last sweep point has been measured and the next sweep is started. In
the figure below, dotted arrows depict ignored trigger events.
Remote command:
​TRIGger<Ch>[:​SEQuence]:​MULTiple:​SOURce​
​TRIGger<Ch>[:​SEQuence]:​MULTiple:​SLOPe<Num>​
​TRIGger<Ch>[:​SEQuence]:​MULTiple:​HOLDoff​
4.4.5.3
Trigger > Sweep Control
Selects the number of sweeps per measurement cycle. The settings are identical with
the "Sweep > Sweep Control" settings; see ​chapter 4.4.2.5, "Sweep > Sweep Control",
on page 230.
4.4.6 Offset Embed
The "Offset Embed" menu defines a length offset and a loss for the test ports. The offset
parameters complement the system error correction, compensating for the known length
and loss of a (non-dispersive and perfectly matched) transmission line between the calibrated reference plane and the DUT.
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Background information
Refer to the following sections:
●
4.4.6.1
​chapter 3.6, "Offset Parameters and Embedding", on page 91
Offset Embed > Offset
Defines length offset parameters for each port.
The "Zero Delay at Marker" function overwrites the offset parameters.
Background information
Refer to the following sections.
●
​chapter 3.6, "Offset Parameters and Embedding", on page 91
●
​chapter 3.6.1.1, "Definition of Offset Parameters ", on page 92
●
​chapter 3.6.1.3, "Auto Length", on page 93
●
​chapter 3.6.1.6, "Application and Effect of Offset Parameters ", on page 96
●
​chapter 3.6.1.7, "Offset Parameters for Balanced Ports", on page 97
●
​chapter 3.6.1.5, "Fixture Compensation ", on page 95
Access: CHANNEL > OFFSET EMBED key or Alt + Shift + Q
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Port
Physical test port of the analyzer. You can define independent offset parameters for all
ports.
Remote command:
The <PhyPt> numeric suffix in the [SENSe<Ch>:]CORRection:... commands identifies the physical port.
Delay / Electrical Length / Mechanical Length
Defines the length offset at the selected port as a delay, an electrical length, or a mechanical length. The three quantities are related by:
Delay 
Lmech   r
; Electrical Length  Lmech   r
c
and overwrite each other. See also ​chapter 3.6.1.1, "Definition of Offset Parameters ",
on page 92.
Note: The entered parameters must correspond the actual (one-way) length of the transmission line. To account for the propagation in both directions, the phase shift of a reflection parameter due to a given length offset is twice the phase shift of a transmission
parameter. For a numeric example see ​chapter 3.6.1.6, "Application and Effect of Offset
Parameters ", on page 96.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​EDELay<PhyPt>[:​TIME]​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​EDELay<PhyPt>:​ELENgth​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​EDELay<PhyPt>:​DISTance​
Permittivity / Velocity Factor
Defines the permittivity (εr) and velocity factor of the dielectic in the transmission line
between the reference plane and the DUT. The velocity factor is 1/sqrt(εr) and is a measure for the velocity of light in a dielectric with permittivity εr relative to the velocity of light
in the vacuum (velocity factor < 1). Permittivity and velocity factor are coupled parameters.
See also ​chapter 3.6.1.1, "Definition of Offset Parameters ", on page 92.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​EDELay<PhyPt>:​DIELectric​
Adjust Time Gate
Activates the operating mode where the time gate is moved in the opposite direction when
the "Delay" setting (or any other length offset parameter) is changed. The button is available if a time gate is active ("TRACE > TRACE CONFIG > Time Gate > Time Gate:
On"). In time domain, a positive delay shifts the time gate to the left, a negative delay
shifts it to the right.
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The position of the time gate is always relative to the end of the offset transmission line.
As a consequence, "Adjust Time Gate" allows measurements at variable offset but fixed
time gate position.
Example: The impedance of an antenna with possible faults is measured using a time
gate and a variable length offset. If "Adjust Time Gate" is off, the time gate is at a constant
distance from the the offset-corrected reference plane (end of the offset transmission
line). Its absolute position is varied along with the length offset.
If "Adjust Time Gate" is on, the time gate is moved to left (right) when the offset-corrected
reference plane is moved to the right (left). Its absolute position remains fixed. With this
setting, it is possible e.g. to keep the time gate at the position of the antenna connector
while the antenna is measured at different length offsets.
Remote command:
​CALCulate:​FILTer[:​GATE]:​TIME:​AOFFset​
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Auto Length
Adds an electrical length offset to the selected test port with the condition that the residual
delay of the active trace (defined as the negative derivative of the phase response) is
minimized across the entire sweep range. If "Delay" is the selected trace format, the entire
trace is shifted in vertical direction and centered around zero. In phase format, the "Auto
Length" corrected trace shows the deviation from linear phase.
If the measured quantity is a ratio, or if it is derived from a ratio, its receiving port is given
as the index of the wave quantity in the numerator. If the active trace shows an S-parameter Sij, then "Auto Length" adds a length offset at port i.
See also ​chapter 3.6.1.3, "Auto Length", on page 93.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​EDELay<PhyPt>:​AUTO​
Reset Offsets
Resets all length offsets to zero.
Remote command:
n/a
Fixture Compensation
"Fixture Compensation" opens a submenu to correct the measurement result for the
effects of a test fixture.
The "Fixture Compensation" dialog provides the following control elements:
● "Physical Port Selection" selects the ports where the analyzer performs a fixture
compensation sweep in order to determine the compensation data.
● "Offset Correction" selects the type of compensation that the network analyzer calculates from the acquired compensation data. "Auto Length" or "Auto Length and
Loss" implies that a global electrical length offset and loss is determined in analogy
to the general offset compensation (see ​chapter 3.6.1.3, "Auto Length", on page 93
and ​chapter 3.6.1.4, "Auto Length and Loss", on page 94). With "Direct Compensa-
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●
●
tion", a frequency-dependent transmission factor is calculated; see ​"Auto Length and
Loss vs. Direct Compensation " on page 96.
"Prompt for Measurement" interrupts the fixture compensation process after each
fixture compensation sweep so that you can modify your test setup (e.g. terminate
the next measured port). Disable "Prompt for Measurement" to perform all calibration
sweeps without interruption.
The "Open" , "Short", and "Open and Short" buttons open the "​Measure Fixture"
dialog to start the fixture compensation sweeps for test fixture connections which are
terminated with an open circuit, a short circuit, or both (Open and Short). See ​"Open /
Short vs. Open and Short compensation" on page 96.
Tip: Remote control provides additional flexibility. You can:
● Measure the same port(s) repeatedly without changing the standards and attribute
the results to different channels.
● Calculate the compensation data for different ports, using mixed Open and Short
standards.
Refer to the program example for ​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​COLLect:​
FIXTure[:​ACQuire]​.
Tip: For further reference see ​chapter 3.6.1.5, "Fixture Compensation ", on page 95.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​COLLect:​FIXTure[:​ACQuire]​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​COLLect:​FIXTure:​LMParameter:​LOSS[:​STATe]​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​COLLect:​FIXTure:​LMParameter[:​STATe]​
Measure Fixture ← Fixture Compensation
The "Measure Fixture" dialog acts as a wizard for fixture compensation measurements,
depending on the settings in the"Fixture Compensation" dialog. Proceed as indicated
below the title bar. Press "Take" to start a fixture compensation sweep after establishing
the required test setup.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​COLLect:​FIXTure:​STARt​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​COLLect:​FIXTure[:​ACQuire]​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​COLLect:​FIXTure:​SAVE​
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4.4.6.2
Offset Embed > One Way Loss
Defines loss parameters for each port.
Background information
Refer to the following sections.
●
​chapter 3.6, "Offset Parameters and Embedding", on page 91
●
​chapter 3.6.1.2, "Definition of Loss Parameters ", on page 92
●
​chapter 3.6.1.4, "Auto Length and Loss", on page 94
●
​chapter 3.6.1.5, "Fixture Compensation ", on page 95
Access: CHANNEL > OFFSET EMBED key or Alt + Shift + Q
For Fixture Compensation, see ​"Fixture Compensation" on page 291.
Port
Physical test port of the analyzer. You can define independent loss parameters for all
ports.
Remote command:
The <PhyPt> numeric suffix in the [SENSe<Ch>:]CORRection:... commands identifies the physical port.
Loss at DC / Loss at Freq / Freq for Loss
Defines the one-way loss parameters for the transmission line at the selected port. The
loss can be modeled as the sum of a constant and a frequency-dependent part. The total
loss is approximated by an expression of the following form:


Loss ( f )  Loss ( f ref )  LossDC 
f
f ref
 LossDC
This means that all three loss parameters enter into the calculation of the loss.
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See also ​chapter 3.6.1.2, "Definition of Loss Parameters ", on page 92.
Note: The entered parameters define the loss for a signal traveling in one direction
through the transmission line. To account for the propagation in both directions, the magnitude shift of a reflection parameter due to a given loss is twice the magnitude shift of a
transmission parameter. See also ​chapter 3.6.1.6, "Application and Effect of Offset
Parameters ", on page 96.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​LOSS<PhyPt>:​OFFSet​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​LOSS<PhyPt>​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​LOSS<PhyPt>:​FREQuency​
Auto Length and Loss
Determines all offset parameters such that the residual group delay of the active trace
(defined as the negative derivative of the phase response) is minimized and the measured loss is minimized as far as possible across the entire sweep range.
See also ​chapter 3.6.1.4, "Auto Length and Loss", on page 94.
Note: If "Auto Length and Loss" is used with a line connected to a test port, the end of
the line should be left open.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​LOSS<PhyPt>:​AUTO​
Reset Offsets
Resets the loss parameters to zero and the reference frequency to 1 GHz.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​OFFSet<PhyPt>[:​STATe]​
4.5 Display Settings
The "Display" menu provides all display settings and the functions for activating, modifying and arranging different diagrams.
Related information
Refer to the following sections:
●
​chapter 3.1.3, "Traces, Channels and Diagrams", on page 12
●
​chapter 3.2.2, "Display Elements in the Diagram", on page 24
●
See chapter "Operating the Instrument > Handling Diagrams, Traces, and Markers"
in the Help system or in the R&S ZNC Getting Started guide.
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4.5.1 Display > Diagram
Selects a diagram as the active diagram, defines a title, deletes or adds diagrams and
arranges them on the screen. Many of the functions are unavailable if the active recall
set contains only one diagram.
Related settings
Use the icons in the toolbar to add diagrams and traces. Use the "Zoom Active Trc" icon
to zoom into a rectangular portion inside a diagram. See also chapter "Operating the
Instrument > Handling Diagrams, Traces, and Markers" and "Using the Graphic Zoom"
in the Help system or in the R&S ZNC Getting Started guide.
Access: SYSTEM > DISPLAY key or Alt + Shift + S
Active Diagram
Selects the active diagram.
Each recall set screen can display several diagrams simultaneously, each with a variable
number of traces. One of these diagrams and traces is active at each time. The diagram
number in the upper right corner of the active diagram is highlighted. At the same time
the active trace is highlighted in the trace list on top of the active diagram (Trc3 in the
figure below):
The analyzer provides several tools for activating diagrams:
● tap on a point in the diagram to activate the diagram including the last active trace in
the diagram.
● tap on a trace list to activate the trace including the corresponding diagram.
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●
Some of the functions of the "TRACE > TRACE CONFIG > Traces" tab activate a
particular trace including the corresponding diagram.
Remote command:
The numeric suffix <Wnd> appended to the DISPlay:WINDow<Wnd>:... commands
selects a diagram area.
Add Tr+Diag
Creates a new diagram and a new trace which is displayed in the new diagram. The trace
is created with the channel settings of the previous active trace but with default trace
settings. The new diagram area is numbered <n>, where <n> is the largest of all existing
diagram area numbers plus one.
Tip: The function of the "Add Trace" icon in the toolbar is similar to "Add Tr+Diag".
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​STATe​ ON
Delete Diagram
Deletes the current diagram area including all traces displayed in the diagram area. The
remaining diagrams are re-numbered; each recall set always contains diagrams with
contiguous numbers. "Delete Diag Area" is disabled if the recall set contains only one
diagram area: In manual control, each recall set must contain at least one diagram area
with one channel and one trace.
Tip: To restore a diagram area that was unintentionally deleted, use "SYSTEM >
UNDO".
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​STATe​ OFF
Maximize
The toggle icons below "Maximize" arrange all diagrams in tiles or maximize the active
diagram with all traces to occupy the whole screen.
For other split types use the functions in the "Split" tab.
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​MAXimize​ on page 480
Title
Defines a title and shows it in the active diagram. The title may comprise a practically
unlimited number of characters and is centered in a line below the top of the diagram
area.
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Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TITLe:​DATA​
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TITLe[:​STATe]​
In remote control, it is also possible to define a diagram name, and to retrieve lists of
diagram areas and traces:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​NAME​
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​CATalog?​
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​CATalog?​
Overlay All
Places all traces in a single diagram area which is maximized to occupy the whole screen.
This function is available irrespective of the trace format and the channel settings; it is
even possible to overlay Cartesian and polar diagrams.
The active trace and active channel is highlighted. The scaling of the axes corresponds
to the active trace.
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Tip: To hide all traces except the active one, select "Split All" and tap and hold to maximize the active diagram.
Remote command:
No command; display configuration only.
Split All
Splits the active window into as many diagrams as there are traces and assigns a single
trace to each area.
Tip: To vary the size and position of the diagram areas, drag and drop the separating
frames or use the functions in the "Split" tab.
Remote command:
No command; display configuration only.
Additional Functionality: Zoom Active Trc
The "Zoom Active Trc" icon in the toolbar magnifies a rectangular portion of the diagram
(zoom window) to fill the entire diagram area. See also ​chapter 4.2.3.3, "Scale > Zoom",
on page 145 or chapter "Operating the Instrument > Using the Graphic Zoom" in the Help
system or in the R&S ZNC Getting Started guide.
Remote command:
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​ZOOM:​BOTTom​
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​ZOOM:​STARt​
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​ZOOM:​STOP​
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​ZOOM:​TOP​
​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​ZOOM[:​STATe]​
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4.5.2 Display > Split
Arranges different diagrams on the screen.
Access: SYSTEM > DISPLAY key or Alt + Shift + S
Some of the "Split" settings are also available in the "Display > Diagram" tab. Refer to
the following sections:
●
​"Overlay All" on page 297
●
​"Split All" on page 298
Dual Split / Triple Split / Quad Split
Splits the window into two (three / four) diagrams and distributes the traces among the
diagrams, separating diagrams with different trace format and channel settings (e.g.
Cartesian and polar diagrams), if possible. Example of four traces in "Quad Split" display:
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If less than two (three / four) traces are available, the new diagrams are created with a
default trace. Dual (triple / quad) split corresponds to "Split Type: Tile Horizontal" with 2
(3 / 4) diagrams.
Tip: To vary the size and position of the diagrams, drag and drop the separating frames
or use the functions in the "Diagram" tab.
Remote command:
No command; display configuration only.
Split Type / Diagrams / Rows / Columns
Arranges the diagrams in rows or columns and distributes the traces among the selected
number of "Diagrams". The R&S ZNC provides the following split types:
● Lineup: The diagrams are arranged side by side; each diagram occupies the entire
screen height.
● Stack: The diagrams are arranged one on top of the other; each diagram occupies
the entire screen width.
● Tile horizontal: The diagrams are arranged in horizontal rows. With 2 (3 / 4) diagrams, the result is equivalent to Dual Split (Triple Split / Quad Split); see ​"Dual Split /
Triple Split / Quad Split" on page 299.
● Tile vertical: The diagrams are arranged in vertical rows.
● Rows + Columns: The diagrams are arranged as a rectangular matrix. The number
of rows and columns is as defined in the corresponding input fields.
If the selected number of "Diagrams" exceeds the number of traces, some of the new
diagrams are created with a default trace.
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Tip: To vary the size and position of the diagrams, drag and drop the separating frames
or use the functions in the "Diagram" tab.
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​LAYout​
​DISPlay:​LAYout:​GRID​
Additional Functionality: SCPI Commands
The analyzer provides remote control commands for efficient diagram handling. The
commands listed below extend the funtionality of the "Display > Diagram" and "Display
> Split" softtool panels. For programming examples refer to ​chapter 7.2.2.6, "Creating
Diagrams", on page 720.
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​LAYout:​APPLy​
​DISPlay:​LAYout:​DEFine​
​DISPlay:​LAYout:​EXECute​
​DISPlay:​LAYout:​JOIN​
4.5.3 Display > Config
Displays or hides controls and information elements of the screen and controls the
appearance of the individual diagrams.
Hiding the controls and information elements leaves more space for the diagrams. All
elements may be shown or hidden simultaneously.
Related information
Refer to ​chapter 3.2.2, "Display Elements in the Diagram", on page 24
Access: SYSTEM > DISPLAY key or Alt + Shift + S
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Color Scheme
Controls the colors in the diagram areas. Color schemes are global settings and apply to
all active recall sets.
The following predefined color schemes are optimized for the analyzer screen and for
color hardcopies, respectively:
● "Dark Background" sets a black background color. The traces and information elements in the diagram areas are displayed in different colors. This setting is usually
suitable for observing results on the analyzer screen.
● "Light Background" sets a light background color. The traces and information elements in the diagram areas are displayed in different colors.This setting is suitable
for generating color hardcopies of the screen. All example images in this user documentation are based on this color scheme.
The following predefined color schemes can be appropriate for generating black and
white hardcopies of the screen:
● "Black and White Line Styles" sets a white background color. All traces and information elements in the diagram areas are black, however, the traces are drawn in different line styles.
● "Black and White Solid" sets a white background color. All traces and information
elements in the diagram areas are black. All traces are drawn with solid lines.
"User Define..." opens a dialog to modify the predefined schemes, changing the colors
and styles of the individual display elements. See ​chapter 4.5.4, "Define User Color
Scheme (Dialog)", on page 303.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​DISPlay:​COLor​
Frequency Info
Shows or hides all frequency stimulus values in the diagrams. This comprises:
● The frequency stimulus ranges below the diagram area, if a frequency sweep is
active.
● The CW frequency in the center below the diagram area, if a power, time or CW mode
sweep is active.
● The frequency stimulus values in the marker info field and at the marker position.
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​ANNotation:​FREQuency[:​STATe]​
Channel Info
Shows or hides the channel lists in the lower part of the diagrams.
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​ANNotation:​CHANnel[:​STATe]​
Trace Info
Shows or hides the trace lists in the upper part of the diagrams.
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Remote command:
​DISPlay:​ANNotation:​TRACe[:​STATe]​
Info Table / Position
Shows or hides the info table. The info table is a possible container for the marker info
fields and may be placed to the bottom, to the left, or to the right of the screen. See also
​chapter 4.2.6.8, "Marker > Info Field", on page 209.
Remote command:
No command; display configuration only.
Font Size
Selects the font size of all textual information elements in the diagrams. This comprises
the trace and channel lists, and the marker info fields.
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​RFSize​
4.5.4 Define User Color Scheme (Dialog)
The "Define User Color Scheme" dialog modifies the predefined color schemes, changing
the colors and styles of the individual display elements. User-defined color schemes can
be saved to a file for later re-use.
Related settings
Refer to ​"Color Scheme" on page 302
Access:SYSTEM > DISPLAY > Config > User Define...
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Element
Selects the screen element to be modified. The list contains the background and all
traces, text elements and lines in the diagrams.
Remote command:
The <DispEl> suffix in the DISPlay:CMAP<DispEl>... commands identifies the
screen element. See ​DISPlay:​CMAP<DispEl>:​RGB​.
Properties
Configures the selected screen element.
● "Color" opens a standard color dialog where you can assign a color to the selected
element.
● "Trace Line Style" and "Trace Line Width" are enabled if the selected element is a
trace.
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​CMAP<DispEl>:​RGB​
​DISPlay:​CMAP:​TRACe:​RGB​
Limit Test > Show Limit Fail Symbols
Displays or hides the colored squares on the trace indicating failed measurement points.
Hide the squares if they cover too much of the trace. Instead of using the limit fail symbols,
you can colorize the trace to highlight failed trace sections.
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​CMAP:​LIMit:​FSYMbol[:​STATe]​
Limit Test > Colorize Trace when Failed
Assigns a different trace color to failed trace segments. The different color reaches from
the last passed measurement point before the start of the failed segment to the last failed
measurement point in the segment. This means that the beginning of the colorized trace
is possibly outside the failed range.
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The example below shows a lower limit line at –10 dB. Due to the rule described above,
a marker placed on the colorized ("failed") trace point at 5.004050 GHz stil indicates a
response value within the allowed range (–9.7222 dB > –10 dB).
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​CMAP:​LIMit:​FCOLorize[:​STATe]​
Limit Test > Use Trc Color for Limit Lines
Assigns the trace color to all limit line segments associated with the trace. All other limit
line color definitions are ignored.
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​CMAP:​LIMit[:​STATe]​
General > Trace Colors per Diagram
Controls the color of traces that are moved to another diagram or created together with
a new diagram. If "Trace Colors per Diagram" is disabled while different diagrams are
defined, the colors of all traces become different.
The R&S ZNC assigns trace colors according to a predefined scheme, starting with the
colors that are easiest to distinguish. On one hand it is advantageous to use the colors
at the beginning of the scheme. On the other hand, it is often desirable to use different
colors in different diagram areas so that any trace that is moved from one diagram area
to another can keep its color. "Trace Colors per Diagram" changes between these two
alternative color modes as shown below.
Trace Colors Move trace to another diaper Diagram gram area (Trace Manager)
Add Tr+Diag (SYSTEM > DISPLAY > Diagram)
On
Trace color changed according Color scheme of the new diagram area is independent,
to the new diagram area's color restarts with the first colors. Consequently the new trace is
scheme
displayed with a color that has been already used.
Off
Trace keeps its color
Color scheme of the new diagram area continues color
scheme of the previously active area. The new trace is displayed with a new color.
See also program example for ​DISPlay:​CMAP:​TRACe:​COLor[:​STATe]​.
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​CMAP:​TRACe:​COLor[:​STATe]​
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General > Same Color all Markers
Selects a common marker color, which is independent of the trace colors.
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​CMAP:​MARKer[:​STATe]​
General > Black White Scheme / Line Styles Scheme / Light Sheme
Modifies the user color scheme, in particular the trace and channel lines, in a predefined
way. As an alternative, select predefined color schemes; see ​"Color Scheme"
on page 302.
Remote command:
​DISPlay:​CMAP<DispEl>:​RGB​
Recall / Save
Opens standard dialogs to recall a previously saved color scheme or save the current
scheme to a file. Color scheme files are non-editable files with the extension
*.ColorScheme; the default directory is
C:\Users\Public\Documents\Rohde-Schwarz\Vna\ColorSchemes.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​STORe:​CMAP​
​MMEMory:​LOAD:​CMAP​
4.5.5 Display > View Bar
Displays or hides information panels and bars of the graphical user interface. Hiding the
information elements leaves more space for the diagrams. All elements may be shown
or hidden simultaneously.
Access: SYSTEM > DISPLAY key or Alt + Shift + S
For a detailed description of the information elements refer to the following sections:
●
​chapter 3.2.1.4, "Menu Bar", on page 21
●
​chapter 3.2.1.7, "Status Bar", on page 23
●
​chapter 3.2.1.6, "Hardkey Panel", on page 23
●
​chapter 3.2.1.1, "Title Bar", on page 20
●
​chapter 3.2.1.2, "Toolbar", on page 20
SCPI command:
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​SYSTem:​DISPlay:​BAR:​MENU[:​STATe]​
​SYSTem:​DISPlay:​BAR:​STATus[:​STATe]​
​SYSTem:​DISPlay:​BAR:​HKEY[:​STATe]​
​SYSTem:​DISPlay:​BAR:​TITLe[:​STATe]​
​SYSTem:​DISPlay:​BAR:​TOOLs[:​STATe]​
See also: ​SYSTem:​DISPlay:​BAR:​STOols[:​STATe]​
4.5.6 Display > Touchscreen
Locks the touchscreen functionality of the R&S ZNC in order to prevent inadvertent
entries.
Access: SYSTEM > DISPLAY key or Alt + Shift + S
●
"Enabled" – touchscreen control of the R&S ZNC fully enabled. All control elements
are active.
●
Lock diagrams – drag and drop functions in the diagrams are disabled, all other control elements (e.g. the softtool panels) are still active.
●
Lock screen – all control elements are locked. Pressing any front panel key on the
analyzer (or sending SYSTem:TSLock OFF) re-enables touchscreen control.
SCPI command:
​SYSTem:​TSLock​
4.6 System Settings
The "System" menu provides functions which you can use to to return to a defined instrument state, reverse operations, access service functions and define various systemrelated settings.
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4.6.1 System > Setup > Setup
Gives access to system-related settings and service functions and selects the language
of the graphical user interface.
Access: SYSTEM > SETUP key or Alt + Shift + T
The "Setup" buttons open the following dialogs:
●
System Config: See ​chapter 4.6.2, "System Configuration (Dialog)", on page 308
●
Options: See ​chapter 4.6.3.2, "Options", on page 315
●
Info: See ​chapter 4.6.3, "Info (Dialog)", on page 314
●
Service Function: See ​chapter 4.6.4, "Service Function (Dialog)", on page 316
Language
Selects the language of the graphical user interface. A message box indicates that the
vector network analyzer application needs to be re-started to activate a different language.
English is the preinstalled language. A setup file for additional languages ("Vector Network Analyzer Translation Setup") is available for download from Rohde & Schwarz.
Remote command:
n/a
4.6.2 System Configuration (Dialog)
The "System Configuration" dialog modifies the predefined color schemes, changing the
colors and styles of the individual display elements. User-defined color schemes can be
saved to a file for later reuse.
Global settings
The "System Config" settings are global settings. They are not affected by an instrument
reset. See ​chapter 3.1.1, "Global (Persistent) Settings", on page 11.
Access: SYSTEM > SETUP > Setup > System Config...
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4.6.2.1
Presets
Specifies the behavior of the R&S ZNC upon a preset.
Preset Scope
Qualifies whether a preset affects all open recall sets ("Instrument") or the active recall
set only.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​PRESet:​SCOPe​
Remote Preset Configuration
"Align *RST to User Defined Preset" defines the behavior of the *RST and
SYSTem:PRESet commands.
● Off: *RST and SYSTem:PRESet restore the factory preset settings.
● On: If a valid user preset file is available, *RST and SYSTem:PRESet restore the
user-defined settings.
Remote command:
n/a
Global Settings
The two buttons reset all directory settings (e.g. the directories for storing trace data, limit
lines, calibration data...) and all settings in the "Printer Setup" dialog to default values.
See ​"Print..." on page 109.
Remote command:
n/a
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Preset Configuration
Specifies whether "System >Preset" will perform a factory preset or restore the settings
stored in a user preset file. A user preset file is an arbitrary recall set (.znx) file, to be
stored using "FILE > Setup > Save...". If the current user preset file is not found (e.g.
because it was deleted or moved), "System >Preset" initiates a factory preset.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​PRESet:​USER:​NAME​
​SYSTem:​PRESet:​USER[:​STATe]​
4.6.2.2
Calibration
Provides general system error correction (calibration) settings.
Auto Power Reduction for Cal Unit
Sets the source power at all test ports to –10 dBm while an automatic calibration using
the calibration unit R&S ZV-Z5x is active. Applying this source power to the ports of the
calibration unit ensures best accuracy of the automatic calibration. The source powers
are reset to their original values after the calibration is completed. The automatic power
reduction can be deactivated in case that the test setup introduces a large attenuation.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​RDEVice:​AKAL:​PREDuction[:​STATe]​
Auto Averaging
Activates automatic averaging, which means that the VNA may perform multiple calibration sweeps and apply averaging to reduce trace noise. In contrast to regular averaging
(see ​chapter 4.4.1.3, "Power Bw Avg > Average", on page 216) the number of calibration
sweeps is calculated automatically.
Remote command:
​[SENSe:​]CORRection:​COLLect:​AVERage​
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Save Sweep Data
Causes the raw measurement data of the standards to be stored after a calibration is
completed. This function applies to all calibrations and allows you to optimize a previous
calibration without repeating the measurement of all standards.
If "Save Sweep Data" is not active, then the raw measurement data of the standards is
deleted and the analyzer only stores the system error correction data. Deleting the raw
data saves disk space.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​COLLect[:​ACQuire]:​RSAVe​
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​COLLect[:​ACQuire]:​RSAVe:​DEFault​
Delete Cal Pool / Delete All Cal Kits
Deletes all calibration data and all cal kit data. See ​chapter 4.4.3.18, "Calibration Manager
Dialog", on page 273.
Remote command:
n/a
Search Path for Additional Cal Kits...
Contains the name and path of a special directory for cal kit files (*.calkit). All cal kit
files in the special directory will be (re-)loaded automatically as predefined kits (i.e. readonly kits which cannot be modified) every time the VNA application is started. It is possible
to select the default cal kit directory
C:\Users\Public\Documents\Rohde-Schwarz\Vna\Calibration or any other
directory. "None" means that no cal kit files are loaded on start-up.
Use the special directory to make sure that you do not have to import kits manually, even
after terminating the VNA application improperly, in which case previously imported cal
kit files will not be stored to the recall set file.
Remote command:
​MMEMory:​LOAD:​CKIT:​UDIRectory​
4.6.2.3
User Interface
Provides general user interface configurations.
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Instrument Messages / Sounds / Transparent Info Fields / Show Sweep Symbols
The buttons switch the instrument messages, acoustic messages, transparent info fields
for markers and trace statistics, and sweep symbols on or off. Sounds are generated
when the analyzer generates a notice/status message or a warning (alarm sounds) or
during calibration. The sweep symbols are arrows pointing downward onto the trace; they
are displayed if the sweep time exceeds a lower limit (e.g. for a large number of points
or a small measurement bandwidth).
The settings are also valid if the instrument is remote-controlled. Transparent info fields
do not hide an underlying trace.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​SOUNd:​ALARm[:​STATe]​
​SYSTem:​SOUNd:​STATus[:​STATe]​
Use Default Tab for Hardkey
If the checkbox is selected, a front panel key or a button in the hardkey bar activates the
first tab of the associated softtool. Otherwise the last used tab is activated.
Remote command:
n/a
Decimal Places
Defines the number of fractional digits for quantities with different physical units. The
settings affect entries and results, e.g. the values in the marker lists.
Note: If your instrument is equipped with option R&S ZNC-K19, 1mHz Frequency Resolution, set "Decimal Places" of unit "Hz" to "12" in order to utilize the high frequency
resolution.
Remote command:
n/a
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Reset Colors / Reset Dialogs / Reset Units
Resets the color settings ("SYSTEM > DISPLAY> Config"), the dialog properties and the
"Decimal Places" settings. The settings are global and not affected by an instrument
preset.
Remote command:
n/a
4.6.2.4
Channel Bits
Sets a channel-dependent eight-bit decimal value (0 ... 255) to control eight independent
output signals at the USER PORT connector (lines 8, 9, 10, 11 and lines 16, 17, 18, 19).
Setting the channel bits does not change the analyzer state.
Channel Bits (Decimal)
Entry of the eight-bit decimal value (0 ... 255) for the selected channel. The channel bits
control eight output signals at the USER PORT connector. The signals are 3.3 V TTL
signals which can be used to differentiate between up to 256 independent analyzer
states. For an application example refer to the description of the remote-control command.
The decimal values have the following effect:
● 0 means that no output signals are enabled at any of the pins 8, 9, 10, 11 and 16, 17,
18, 19.
● 1 enables the output signal at pin 8. The signal is switched on while the R&S ZNC
performs a measurement (sweep) in the selected channel. All other signals are inactive.
● 2 enables the output signal at pin 9.
● 3 enables the output signals at pins 8 and 9.
● ...
● 255 enables the output signals at all pins. See also ​"Pin 16 - 19" on page 314.
Remote command:
​OUTPut<Ch>:​UPORt[:​VALue]​
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Pin 16 - 19
Selects the control mechanism for the signals at pins 16, 17, 18, 19 of the USER PORT
connector.
● Channel Bits: Signals are controlled by channel bits 4 to 7. No drive port indication
at the USER PORT connector.
● Drive Ports: Signals indicate the active drive ports. The number of active channel
bits is reduced to 4 (pins 8, 9, 10, 11).
Remote command:
​OUTPut:​UPORt:​ECBits​
4.6.3 Info (Dialog)
The "Info" dialog displays information about the instrument and its operation. All functions
are primarily intended for error diagnostic and service purposes; see ​chapter 8.1.3,
"Obtaining Technical Support", on page 735. Many "Info" tabs also display softkeys for
printing the contents or saving them to a file.
Access:SYSTEM > SETUP > Setup > Info...
4.6.3.1
Setup
Displays the channel and trace settings of the active recall set and the main characteristics of the instrument including its IP address.
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Save... / Print... / Save Report
The buttons across the bottom of the the "Info" dialog save the contents of the open tab
to a file or create a hardcopy. "Save Report" saves the current selftest results to a zipped
error log file which you may send in for fault diagnosis; see ​chapter 8.1.3, "Obtaining
Technical Support", on page 735.
Remote command:
​DIAGnostic:​DEVice:​STATe​
​SYSTem:​DFPRint?​
4.6.3.2
Options
Shows the installed software and hardware options. Software options are listed with their
type and name, the option key and key type, the duration of activation, and the expiry
date (if applicable). You can also enable additional software options using the option key
supplied with the option. Proceed according to the instructions in the dialog.
For an overview of options refer to ​chapter 3.7, "Optional Extensions and Accessories",
on page 97.
4.6.3.3
Hardware
Gives an overview of the analyzer's hardware configuration and basic hardware-related
instrument settings.
4.6.3.4
Selftest
Displays the result of the automatic selftest of the analyzer.
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4.6.3.5
Error Log
Contains a chronological record of errors that occurred in the current and in previous
sessions. While the error log is open, additional buttons for printing, closing or clearing
(delete) the log are provided. The deleted error log shows the message "No errors
found".
4.6.4 Service Function (Dialog)
The "Service Function" dialog gives access to the service functions of the instrument.
Service functions are password-protected and should be used by a Rohde & Schwarz
service representative only. Refer to the service manual for more information.
Access: SYSTEM > SETUP > Setup > Service Function...
Password
Entry of a password to enable the selected service function.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​PASSword[:​CENable]​
​DIAGnostic:​SERVice:​FUNCtion​
​DIAGnostic:​SERVice:​SFUNction​
4.6.5 System > Setup > Freq. Ref.
Selects a reference signal for synchronization between the R&S ZNC and external devices. A common reference frequency is generally advisable to ensure frequency accuracy
and frequency stability in the test setup.
Access: SYSTEM > SETUP key or Alt + Shift + T
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State
Indicates the state of the internal phase locked loop: If the frequencies are properly
synchronized, the state is "locked".
Remote command:
n/a
Internal / External
Selects the internal or an external reference clock signal for synchronization.
● Internal: The analyzer provides a 10 MHz internal reference clock signal which can
be tapped off at the REF OUT connector at the rear of the instrument in order to
synchronize other devices, e.g. signal generators or a second R&S ZNC network
analyzer.
● External: The external reference clock signal must be applied to the REF IN connector at the rear of the instrument. The external reference signal must meet the
specifications of the data sheet; its frequency must be specified in the "Ext Frequency" field. The internal reference signal is synchronized to the external signal.
The external signal is also looped to REF OUT, so that it can be re-used to synchronize other devices.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]ROSCillator[:​SOURce]​
Ext Frequency
Specifies the frequency of the external reference clock signal at REF IN.
Remote command:
​[SENSe<Ch>:​]ROSCillator:​EXTernal:​FREQuency​
4.6.6 System > Setup > Remote Settings
Configures the remote control interfaces of the R&S ZNC.
Access: SYSTEM > SETUP key or Alt + Shift + T
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IP Address
Displays the current IP address of the R&S ZNC. By default, the analyzer is configured
to use dynamic TCP/IP configuration (DHCP) and obtain all IP address information automatically. See chapter "Assigning an IP Address" in the Help or in the Getting Started
guide.
Remote command:
n/a
GPIB Address
Defines the analyzer's GPIB address. The address must be in the range between 0 and
30.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​GPIB[:​SELF]:​ADDRess​
Remote Language
Selects the syntax of the R&S ZNC's instrument control commands.
● The DEFAULT language corresponds to the commands reported in this documentation; see ​chapter 6.3, "SCPI Command Reference", on page 371.
● The ZVABT language ensures compatibility with network analyzers of the R&S ZVA/
B/T family. E.g. compared to the DEFAULT language, the command set does not
include INITiate:CONTinuous:ALL and INITiate[:IMMediate]:ALL. The
function of INITiate:CONTinuous INITiate[:IMMediate][:DUMMy] is modified; refer to the remote control documentation in ​chapter 6.3.8, "INITiate Commands", on page 499.
The
ZVR language ensures compatibility with network analyzers of the R&S ZVR
●
family. See also ​chapter 6.4, "R&S ZVR/ZVAB Compatible Commands",
on page 679.
● PNA, ENA, HP8510, HP8720, HP8753 ... denote command sets for network analyzers from other instruments or manufacturers.
Note: Remote Language settings other than DEFAULT are intended for remote control
of the analyzer. A mixed approach, with part of the instrument configuration defined via
the GUI, is possible but may cause unexpected results in some instances.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​LANGuage​
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Show Errors
Activates a information popup box (tooltip), to be displayed whenever the parser encounters an remote control command error. The tooltip is not displayed for SCPI errors no. –
113, "Undefined header".
The tooltip is to provide information that can be useful for program development and
optimization; it does not necessarily indicate that a remote control script is faulty or nonexecutable.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​ERRor:​DISPlay​
Define *IDN? + *OPT?
Defines a format for the ID string and the option string of the analyzer. The default strings
are automatically adjusted to the selected "Remote Language". The strings can be queried via *IDN? and *OPT?, respectively.
● If the DEFAULT language is activated, the factory ID string
"Rohde&Schwarz,ZNC<Max. Freq>-<Ports>Port,<Serial_no>,<FW_Version> (e.g.
Rohde-Schwarz,ZNC8-2Port,1311.6004.12,12345,1.10.05)" is set. The option string
is a comma-separated list of all installed software and hardware options. The bit order
for transferred binary data is swapped (FORMat:BORDer SWAPped).
● If the PNA language is activated, Agilent-compatible ID and option strings are set.
The bit order for transferred binary data is normal.
● If one of the HP xxxx languages is activated, HP xxxx-compatible ID and option strings
are set. Binary data is transferred in a device-specific bit order, however, the bit order
can be changed using HP xxxx-specific commands.
The ID and option strings can be changed or reset to the R&S factory ID string.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​IDENtify[:​STRing]​
​SYSTem:​IDENtify:​FACTory​
​SYSTem:​OPTions[:​STRing]​
​SYSTem:​OPTions:​FACTory​
​FORMat:​BORDer​
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4.6.7 Remote LXI (Dialog)
The "Remote LXI" dialog provides basic LXI functions for the analyzer and displays IP
and MAC address information.
Background information
Refer to the following sections:
●
​chapter 5.6, "LXI Configuration", on page 362
●
​chapter 5.6.2, "LXI Browser Interface", on page 364
Access:SYSTEM > SETUP > Remote Settings > LXI...
LAN Config Initialize
Initiates the network configuration reset mechanism (LCI) for the R&S ZNC. According
to the LXI standard, an LCI must place the following parameters to a default state.
Parameter
Value
TCP/IP Mode
DHCP + Auto IP Address
Dynamic DNS
Enabled
ICMP Ping
Enabled
Password for LAN configuration
LxiWebIfc
The LCI for the network analyzer also resets the following parameters:
Parameter
Value
Hostname
<Instrument-specific host name>
Description
Vector Network Analyzer
Negotiation
Auto Detect
VXI-11 Discovery
Enabled
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The LAN settings are configured in the browser interface; see ​chapter 5.6.2, "LXI Browser
Interface", on page 364.
Remote command:
n/a
LXI Status Enabled
Switches the LXI logo in the status bar on or off.
Remote command:
n/a
4.6.8 System > Setup > External Devices
Configures external power meters.
Background information
Refer to ​chapter 3.7.5, "External Power Meters", on page 104
Persistent vs. session settings
The settings in the "Setup" panel and the configuration dialogs are global settings and
not affected by a "Preset" of the analyzer. The external device configuration persists even
after the analyzer is turned off. Error logging is turned off whenever a measurement session is closed. See also ​chapter 3.1.1, "Global (Persistent) Settings", on page 11.
Access: SYSTEM > SETUP key or Alt + Shift + T
The buttons in the "External Devices" panel open the following dialogs:
●
Power Meters: See ​chapter 4.6.9, "External Power Meters (Dialog)", on page 322
●
Power Meter Config: See ???
This button is active only if at least one external power meter is online (physically
connected, switched on, ready to be used).
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USB-to-IEC/IEEE adapter, VISA
To control external devices equipped with a GPIB interface (but not with a USB interface)
you can use the USB-to-IEC/IEEE Adapter (option R&S ZVAB-B44, order no.
1302.5544.03). Option R&S ZVAB-B44 consists of an adapter and a driver software. The
driver software is installed on the network analyzer. Connect the USB port of the adapter
to any of the master USB connectors on the front or rear panel of the analyzer. Connect
the GPIB port of the adapter to the external device.
An appropriate Virtual Instrument Software Architecture (VISA) library which is needed
to control external devices via LAN, GPIB, or USB interface is part of the VNA firmware.
Log Errors
Enables the transfer of error messages for external decives (e.g. connection errors) to
the error log. The error log appears in the "Info" dialog; see ​chapter 4.6.3, "Info (Dialog)", on page 314.
Remote command:
n/a
4.6.9 External Power Meters (Dialog)
The "External Power Meters" dialog configures external power meters so that they can
be used for measurements and power calibrations.
Background information
Refer to section ​chapter 3.7.5, "External Power Meters", on page 104.
Access: SYSTEM > SETUP > External Devices > Power Meters...
The configuration of a new external power meter involves the following steps:
1. connect the power meter to your R&S ZNC using a LAN (VXI-11), GPIB, or USB
interface.
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2. tap"Scan Instruments" and wait until the power meter appears in the table of "Known
Devices".
3. tap
to copy the power meter into the list of configured devices.
If the R&S ZNC fails to detect a connected power meter,
► tap "Add Device" to define the interface type and address.
The R&S ZNC can auto-detect the instrument type (driver) and the serial number of
the connected power meter.
Known Devices
Table with all power meters that the analyzer detects to be on line (i.e. connected and
copies a detected instrument
switched on). "Scan Instruments" refreshes the table;
to the table of "Configured Devices".
To appear in the table of "Known Devices", power meters (except the USB sensors R&S
NRT-Zxx) must have been configured previously. See also ​Configured Devices.
Remote command:
n/a
Configured Devices
Table with all power meters in use with their properties. The properties of manually configured power meters ("Add Device") may be changed in the dialog.
Once configured, power meters may be temporarily removed from the table of "Configured Devices" using the
button. "Scan Devices" will recover the a previously configured, connected power meter. The following symbols show the status of the power
meter:
●
– The power meter is online (connected, switched on, ready to be used).
– The power meter was detected (upper table) or configured (lower table) but is
●
not on-line (VISA communication error).
●
– The properties of the power meter could not be identified, no communication
with the power meter is possible.
To find out why one of the configured power meters is not online, activate the transfer of
error messages for external decives (see ​"Log Errors" on page 322) and reopen the
"External Power Meters" dialog.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​RDEVice:​PMETer<Pmtr>:​DEFine​
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​RDEVice:​PMETer:​DELete​
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​RDEVice:​PMETer<Pmtr>:​CATalog?​
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​RDEVice:​PMETer:​COUNt?​
Scan Instruments
Refreshes the table of "Known Devices".
Note: Unintentional switchover to remote control
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When using the NI-VISA library, ensure that the network analyzer itself is not listed as a
network device in the Measurement & Automation Explorer. Otherwise, "Scan Instruments" will send an identification query (*IDN?), causing the analyzer to close the "External Power Meters" dialog (without executing "Scan Instruments") and to activate the
remote screen.
Remote command:
n/a
Add Device
Adds a new instrument to the list of "Configured Devices". In the "Add External Power
Meter" dialog, you can specify the instrument and connection properties:
● "Interface" selects an interface/protocol type for the connection. In addition to the
GPIB, VXI-11 and SOCKET interface types (for devices connected to the GPIB Bus
or LAN connectors on the rear panel of the analyzer, respectively; see ​table 4-3), the
analyzer supports any "Other" interface supported by the installed VISA library.
"Other" is used in particular for USB connections, e.g. for auto-detected R&S NRPZxx sensors.
● "Address" contains the address for the current interface type. GPIB addresses must
be unique for all devices connected to the GPIB bus (range: 0 to 30), GPIB and IP
addresses must agree with the entries in the VISA library. The remaining interface
types require composite address formats; see ​table 4-3.
If an instrument is connected to the R&S ZNC, the entries in the DRIVER FOR NEW
INSTRUMENT panel can be auto-detected for the specified interface type and
address.
● "Identify" sends an identification query ("IDN?") to the specified device address in
order to identify the type and serial number of the connected power meter and select
an appropriate driver file. Power meter driver files (*.pwm) are stored in the
Resources\ExtDev subdirectory of the analyzer's program directory.
Table 4-3: Interface types for external power meters and address formats
Physical
Interface
interface
(protocol)
(connector)
Address
Remarks
LAN
<IpAddress>
Full VISA resource string:
e.g. 127.0.0.0
TCPIP[board]::<Address>[::INSTR]
<IpAddress>::<PortNo>
e.g.127.0.0.0::50000
LAN connection with pure TCP/IP protocol;
refer to your VISA user documentation.
GPIB0 ...
GPIB9
<Address>
Full VISA resource string:
e.g. 20
GPIB[board]::<Address>[::INSTR]
Other
Interface-specific, e.g. for SOCKET:
Use complete VISA resource string.
VXI-11
SOCKET
GPIB
LAN or USB
TCPIP0::<IpAddress>::<PortNo>::SOCKET
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​RDEVice:​PMETer<Pmtr>:​DEFine​
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Auto Config NRP-Zxx
Causes the analyzer to clear the lists of "Known Devices" and "Configured Devices" and
automatically configure all NRP-Zxx power meters detected at any of the USB ports as
Pmtr 1, Pmtr 2... No manual configuration is required.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​RDEVice:​PMETer<Pmtr>:​CONFigure:​AUTO[:​STATe]​
4.6.10 External Power Meter Config (Dialog)
Allows to modify configuration of certain external power meters, i.e. settings that are
persistently stored on the power meter (and NOT on the R&S ZNC). This requires the
respective device to be online, i.e. connected, switched on and ready to be used.
Deembed Two-Port (All Channels)
Reads and modifies the state of the built-in S-parameter correction that is available on
certain R&S®NRP-Z power sensors. See Application Note 1GP70: Using S-Parameters
with R&S®NRP-Z Power Sensors for background information.
Remote command:
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​RDEVice:​PMETer<Pmtr>:​SPCorrection[:​STATe]​
4.6.11 System > Print
Prints the active setup (i.e. the contents of the active diagrams) to an external printer, to
a file or to the clipboard. The settings are identical with the "File > Print" settings; see ​
chapter 4.1.2, "File > Print", on page 109.
4.6.12 Additional System Functions
The "System" menu also provides the "Preset", "Undo", and "Redo" functions. These
functions are not included in the "System" softtool panels; they are accessible via hardkeys in the SYSTEM panel.
Preset
Performs a preset of all instrument settings or of the active recall set, depending on the
settings in the "Presets" tab of the "SYSTEM > SETUP > Setup > System Config" dialog.
See ​chapter 4.6.2.1, "Presets", on page 309.
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Applic Menu
A preset may be a factory preset or a user-defined preset. It does not change e.g. the
data related to global resources (e.g. cal pool, cal kit data), the position of dialogs, the
color scheme of the diagrams, and the directory and printer settings. Many of these
properties can be reset in the "System Config" dialog.
Tip: If you activate "Preset" by mistake, you can tap the "Undo" button in order to restore
your previous instrument settings.
Remote command:
*RST
​SYSTem:​PRESet:​SCOPe​
​SYSTem:​PRESet:​USER:​NAME​
​SYSTem:​PRESet:​USER[:​STATe]​
​SYSTem:​PRESet[:​DUMMy]​
Undo and Redo buttons
"Undo" reverses the last action, if possible. Otherwise, the "Undo" button is disabled
(grayed). "Redo" reverses the action of the "Undo" command. If "Undo" has not been
used before, "Redo" is disabled (grayed).
"Undo" and "Redo" are disabled if the size of the active recall set file exceeds 1 MB.
Tip: You can also use "Undo" after a "Preset", in order to restore your old instrument
settings.
4.7 Applic Menu
The "Applic" menu gives access to external tools which are pre-installed on the R&S ZNC.
Some buttons are reserved for future applications.
Access: APPLIC key or System > External Tools menu
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Applic Menu
GPIB Explorer
Opens a tool that allows you to connect to the analyzer, obtain an overview of all implemented remote control programs, test programs, compile and run test scripts. For a
detailed description refer to ​chapter 5.1.2, "GPIB Explorer", on page 331.
Tool 2 ... Tool 8
Allows you to add your own external tools. Any new shortcut in the
C:\Users\Public\Documents\Rohde-Schwarz\Vna\External Tools directory will replace one of the buttons.
Title Bar Task Bar
Displays or hides the title bar and the task bar across the bottom of the screen. Typically
you can use the task bar to change between the VNA application and other external tools.
See also ​chapter 3.2.1.1, "Title Bar", on page 20.
Screen Keyboard
Opens the Windows "On-Screen Keyboard". This tool allows you to enter characters, in
particular letters, if an input field cannot call up the analyzer's own on-screen keyboard,
and if no external keyboard is connected.
Windows Explorer
Opens the WindowsExplorer and shows you the contents of the
C:\Users\Public\Documents\Rohde-Schwarz\Vna\External Tools application shortcut directory.
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Help Menu
4.8 Help Menu
The "Help" menu provides assistance with the network analyzer and its operation.
Access: SYSTEM > HELP key or Help menu
Contents... / Index...
Opens the "Contents" or the "Index" page of the help system.
About...
Opens a dialog to retrieve information about the network analyzer and the current firmware version.
4.9 Control Menu
The control icon
in the title bar provides standard Windows® functions to control the
main application window. To access this icon the "Title Bar" must be open.
Double-clicking a control icon is the same as clicking the
command.
icon or the "Close" menu
Restore
Returns the maximized or minimized active window to its size and position. "Restore" is
available after a "Maximize" or "Minimize" command only.
Move
Displays a four-headed arrow to move the active window with the arrow keys or with the
mouse. This command is unavailable for maximized windows.
Size
Displays a four-headed arrow to change the size of the active window using the arrow
keys or the mouse.
Minimize
Reduces the active window to an icon.
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Control Menu
Maximize
Enlarges the active window to fill the available space.
Close
Ends the analyzer session.
Note: The "Close" application command is equivalent to the "Exit" command in the
"File" menu. Moreover "Close" has the same effect as a tap and hold on the "Control"
menu icon or a tap and hold on the
icon in the title bar of the active window.
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Introduction to Remote Control
5 Remote Control
This chapter provides instructions on how to set up the analyzer for remote control, a
general introduction to remote control of programmable instruments, and the description
of the analyzer's remote control concept. For reference information about all remote control commands implemented by the instrument, complemented by comprehensive program examples, refer to ​chapter 6, "Command Reference", on page 368.
5.1 Introduction to Remote Control
The instrument is equipped with different interfaces for remote control:
●
A GPIB bus interface according to standard IEC 625.1/IEEE 488.1. The GPIB bus
connector for control of the analyzer from a controller is located on the rear panel of
the instrument.
●
Analyzers connected to a Local Area Network can be controlled via the RSIB, VXI-11,
or HiSLIP protocols. Two connectors for LAN connection are located on the rear
panel. A VISA installation on the controller is required.
●
The network analyzer can itself act as a master and control external power meters
via LAN, USB, or GPIB interface.
A VISA installation on the analyzer is a prerequisite for this remote control type. The
Virtual Instrument Software Architecture (VISA) library is included in the VNA firmware; no additional installation is required.
Visa library
VISA is a standardized software interface library providing input and output functions to
communicate with instruments. The I/O channel (LAN or TCP/IP, USB...) is selected at
initialization time by means of the channel–specific resource string (also termed address
string) or by an appropriately defined VISA alias (short name). A VISA installation on the
master device is a prerequisite for remote control over LAN interface and for control of
external devices from the analyzer.
To control external devices via USB, the "IVI Visa Shared Components" must be installed
in addition. You can easily perform the installation from the "Start" menu of your analyzer.
For more information about VISA refer to the user documentation.
HiSLIP protocol
The HiSLIP (High Speed LAN Instrument Protocol) is a protocol for TCP-based instruments specified by the IVI foundation. Compared to its predecessor VXI-11, it provides
speed and other improvements. HiSLIP is encapsulated in VISA; the resource string
reads TCPIP::<R&S ZNC IP address>::hislip0.
The internal VISA library of the R&S ZNC supports HiSLIP. If the connection fails, access
the Windows control panel of the controlled instrument and open port 4880 for incoming
connections.
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Introduction to Remote Control
5.1.1 Starting a Remote Control Session
A remote control program must open a connection to the analyzer (using VISA functionality), before it can send commands to the analyzer and receive device responses (e.g.
measurement data). The programming details depend on the library version used and on
the programming language. For this reason, the examples in chapters "Command Reference" and "Programming Examples" are reduced to the mere SCPI syntax.
Example controller programs may be obtained from the Rohde & Schwarz support centers. In many cases, it can be preferable to integrate the controller program into postprocessing tools (e.g. Microsoft Excel) in order to list, draw, or manipulate the measured
values retrieved from the analyzer.
The following tools can make remote control more comfortable and faster:
●
Various software tools provide an easy-to-use graphical user interface for remote
control. An example is the "GPIB Explorer" (also termed "IECWIN32") which is preinstalled on the analyzer. See ​chapter 5.1.2, "GPIB Explorer", on page 331.
●
Instrument drivers provide an improved interface between the test software and the
test instruments. They perform the actual control of the instrument using higher-level
functions for operations such as configuring, reading from, writing to, and triggering
the instrument. This reduces development time, eliminating the need to learn the
specific command set for each instrument. In general, program development is further
simplified by a graphical program environment.
Rohde & Schwarz offers various R&S ZNC driver types (LabView, LabWindows/CVI,
IVI, VXIplug&play...) for different programming languages. The drivers are available
free of charge on the product pages in the R&S internet, along with installation information.
5.1.2 GPIB Explorer
The GPIB Explorer is a software tool that allows you to connect to the analyzer, obtain
an overview of all implemented remote control programs, test programs, compile and run
test scripts. The program can be opened from the Windows® start menu: "Programs –
R&S Network Analyzer – GPIB Explorer" or via "APPLIC > External Tools > GPIB
Explorer". You can also start the executable file iecwin32.exe in the program directory
of the network analyzer (e.g.
C:\Program Files\Rohde&Schwarz\Network Analyzer\Bin).
After the GPIB Explorer is started, the interface and protocol for the connection to the
instrument can be selected in a dialog:
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The following options are provided:
●
NT named pipe (not supported at present)
●
GPIB address (for connection to controllers equipped with a National Instruments
GPIB interface using the GPIB bus connector)
●
RSIB address and VXI-11/VISA (for LAN connection, requires an appropriate IP or
local host address); see chapter "Remote Operation in a LAN" in the Help or in the
Getting Started guide.
●
NT pipe A/B (COM Parser) (only for a GPIB Explorer installed on the analyzer, recommended for "remote" test on the instrument)
●
EB200 (not supported at present)
Select "SETUP > Setup > Info..." to look up the IP address information of your analyzer.
If you run the GPIB explorer on the analyzer, the local host address (loopback address)
is 127.0.0.1.
After the connection is established, the GPIB explorer displays a tree view of all commands included in the current firmware version of the network analyzer. The programs
can be selected for execution by a single mouse click.
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It remote logging is enabled (SYSTem:LOGGing:REMote[:STATe] ON) the analyzer
stores all received commands to the file
'C:\Users\Public\Documents\Rohde-Schwarz\Vna\RemoteLog'.
5.1.3 Switchover to Remote Control
On power-up, the instrument is always in the manual operating state and can be operated
via the front panel controls. The instrument is switched to remote control as soon as it
receives a command from the controller. If the instrument is controlled via RSIB or VXI-11
protocol, the alternative commands @REM and @LOC can be used to switch from manual to remote control and back.
While remote control is active, operation via the front panel is disabled with the exception
of the "Remote" softtool panel. The instrument settings are optimized for maximum measurement speed; the display is switched off:
The softkeys in the remote screen are used to modify or quit the remote state:
●
"Go to Local" switches the instrument to local state.
●
"Display" switches the display on or off.
●
If a remote error message is displayed at the bottom of the remote screen, you can
use "Clear Error Messages" to delete it.
The remaining controls are for future extensions.
Display on and off states
Switching on the display means that the analyzer shows the measurement screen with
the current recall sets, diagram areas and traces without leaving the remote state. In this
operating mode, it is possible to observe the screen while a remote control script is executed and the control elements on the front panel are still disabled.
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Switching on the display is ideal for program test purposes but tends to slow down the
measurement. Therefore, it is recommended to switch off the display in real measurement
applications where a tested program script is to be executed repeatedly.
The analyzer provides a third display option where the measurement screen is only
updated when this is triggered by the remote control command
SYSTem:DISPlay:UPDate ONCE.
The instrument remains in the remote state until it is reset to the manual state via the GUI
or via remote control (see ​chapter 5.1.3.2, "Returning to Manual Operation",
on page 335). You can also lock the remote (touch)screen using SYSTem:TSLock
SCReen.
A tooltip across the bottom of the remote screen indicates a remote command error. You
can switch off this tooltip using SYSTem:ERRor:DISPlay OFF.
SCPI commands:
@REM
​SYSTem:​DISPlay:​UPDate​
​SYSTem:​TSLock​
​SYSTem:​ERRor:​DISPlay​
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5.1.3.1
Setting the Device Address
The GPIB address (primary address) of the instrument is factory-set to 20. It can be
changed manually in the "SYSTEM > SETUP > Remote Settings" tab or via remote control. For remote control, addresses 0 through 30 are permissible. The GPIB address is
maintained after a reset of the instrument settings.
SCPI commands:
​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​GPIB[:​SELF]:​ADDRess​
5.1.3.2
Returning to Manual Operation
Return to manual operation can be initiated via the front panel or via remote control.
●
Manually: tap the Local softkey in the remote screen.
●
Via GPIB bus: CALL IBLOC(device%)
●
Via RSIB or VXI-11 protocol: @LOC and @REM can be used to switch from remote
to manual control and back.
Local lockout
Before returning to manual control, command processing must be completed. If this is
not the case, the analyzer switches back to remote control immediately.
Returning to manual control by tapping the "Go to Local" softkey can be disabled e.g. by
the Local Lockout Message (via GPIB: LLO; see ​chapter 9.1.3.2, "Interface Messages",
on page 741). This prevents unintentional switch-over, i.e. return to manual control is
possible via remote control only.
Returning to manual control via the front panel keys can be enabled again, e.g. by deactivating the REN control line of the GPIB bus.
5.1.4 Combining Manual and Remote Control
Using a remote control script is the quickest and easiest way of performing complicated
tasks which need to be repeated many times. On the other hand, it is often preferable to
control a previously configured measurement manually in order to observe the result on
the screen.
The analyzer provides a number of tools for combining manual and remote control:
●
User Keys
The remote control commands SYSTem:USER:KEY... place up to 8 softkeys with
arbitrary functionality on the remote screen. The softkeys appear in the "User
Menu" tab of the "Remote" softtol. When a softkey is selected, the ESR bit no. 6 (User
Request) is set, and the response for SYSTem:USER:KEY? is changed. This behavior can serve as a control mechanism in remote control scripts.
SCPI commands:
​SYSTem:​USER:​KEY​
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Messages
5.2 Messages
The messages transferred on the data lines of the GPIB bus or via the RSIB / VXI-11
protocol can be either interface messages or device messages. For a description of
interface messages refer to the relevant sections:
●
​chapter 9.1.3, "GPIB Interface", on page 739
●
​chapter 9.1.2, "LAN Interface", on page 739
5.2.1 Device Messages (Commands and Device Responses)
Device messages are transferred in ASCII format. A distinction is made according to the
direction in which device messages are transferred:
●
Commands are messages the controller sends to the instrument. They operate the
device functions and request information.
●
Device responses are messages the instrument sends to the controller after a query.
They can contain measurement results, instrument settings and information on the
instrument status.
Commands are subdivided according to two criteria:
1. According to the effect they have on the instrument:
●
●
Setting commands cause instrument settings such as a reset of the instrument
or setting the output level to some value.
Queries cause data to be provided for output on the GPIB bus, e.g. for identification of the device or polling the active input.
2. According to their definition in standard IEEE 488.2:
●
●
Common commands have a function and syntax that is exactly defined in standard IEEE 488.2. Typical tasks are the management of the standardized status
registers, reset and selftest.
Instrument-control commands are functions that depend on the features of the
instrument such as frequency settings. A majority of these commands has also
been standardized by the SCPI consortium.
The device messages have a characteristic structure and syntax. In the SCPI reference
chapter all commands are listed and explained in detail.
5.2.2 SCPI Command Structure and Syntax
SCPI commands consist of a so-called header and, in most cases, one or more parameters. The header and the parameters are separated by a white space (ASCII code 0 to
9, 11 to 32 decimal, e.g. blank). The headers may consist of several mnemonics. Queries
are formed by directly appending a question mark to the header.
Common commands and device-specific commands differ in their syntax.
SCPI compatibility
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Messages
The analyzers are compatible to the final SCPI version 1999.0. Not all of the commands
supported by the instrument are taken from the SCPI standard (Standard Commands for
Programmable Instruments), however, their syntax follows SCPI rules. The SCPI standard is based on standard IEEE 488.2 and aims at the standardization of instrument-control commands, error handling and the status registers.
The requirements that the SCPI standard places on command syntax, error handling and
configuration of the status registers are explained in detail in the following sections.
Reset values
In contrast to instruments with manual control, which are designed for maximum possible
operating convenience, the priority of remote control is the predictability of the device
status. This means that when incompatible settings are attempted, the command is
ignored and the device status remains unchanged, i.e. other settings are not automatically adapted. Therefore, GPIB bus control programs should always define an initial
device status (e.g. with the command *RST) and then implement the required settings.
5.2.2.1
Common Commands
Common (=device-independent) commands consist of a header preceded by an asterisk
"*" and possibly one or more parameters.
Examples:
5.2.2.2
*RST
RESET, resets the instrument.
*ESE 253
EVENT STATUS ENABLE, sets the bits of the event status enable registers.
*ESR?
EVENT STATUS QUERY, queries the contents of the event status register.
Instrument-Control Commands
Instrument-control commands are based on a hierarchical structure and can be represented in a command tree. The command headers are built with one or several mnemonics (keywords). The first level (root level) mnemonic identifies a complete command
system.
Example:
SENSe This mnemonic identifies the command system SENSe.
For commands of lower levels, the complete path has to be specified, starting on the left with the highest
level, the individual mnemonics being separated by a colon ":".
Example:
SENSe:FREQuency:STARt 1GHZ
This command is located on the third level of the SENSe system. It defines the start frequency of the sweep.
The following rules simplify and abbreviate the command syntax:
●
Multiple mnemonics
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Some mnemonics occur on several levels within one command system. Their effect
depends on the structure of the command, i. e. on the position in the command header
they are inserted in.
Example:
SOURce:FREQuency:CW lGHZ
This command contains the mnemonic SOURce in the first command level. It defines
the frequency for sweep types operating at fixed frequency.
TRIGger:SOURce EXTernal
This command contains the mnemonic SOURce in the second command level. It
defines the trigger source “external trigger”.
5.2.2.3
●
Optional mnemonics
Some command systems permit certain mnemonics to be optionally inserted into the
header or omitted. These mnemonics are marked by square brackets in this manual.
The full command length must be recognized by the instrument for reasons of compatibility with the SCPI standard. Some commands are considerably shortened by
omitting optional mnemonics.
Example:
TRIGger[:SEQuence]:SOURce EXTernal
This command defines the trigger source “external trigger”. The following command
has the same effect:
TRIGger:SOURce EXTernal
Note:
The short form is marked by upper case letters, the long form corresponds to the
complete word. Upper case and lower case notation only serves to distinguish the
two forms in the manual, the instrument itself is case-insensitive.
●
Parameters
Parameters must be separated from the header by a white space. If several parameters are specified in a command, they are separated by a comma ,". For a description
of the parameter types, refer to section Parameters.
Example:
SOURce:GROup 1,1
This command defines a group of measured ports.
●
Numeric suffix
If a device features several functions or features of the same kind, e.g. several channels or test ports, the desired function can be selected by a suffix added to the command. Entries without suffix are interpreted like entries with the suffix 1.
Example:
SOURce:GROup2 1,1
This command defines a second group (group no 2) of measured ports.
Structure of a Command Line
A command line may consist of one or several commands. It is terminated by a <New
Line>, a <New Line> with EOI or an EOI together with the last data byte. Tools like the
GPIB Explorer automatically produce an EOI together with the last data byte.
Several commands in a command line must be separated by a semicolon ;". If the next
command belongs to a different command system, the semicolon is followed by a colon.
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Example: TRIGger:SOURce EXTernal;:SENSe:FREQuency:STARt 1GHZ
This command line contains two commands. The first command belongs to the
TRIGger system and defines the trigger source (external trigger). The second command
belongs to the SENSe system and defines the start frequency of the sweep.
If the successive commands belong to the same system, having one or several levels in
common, the command line can be abbreviated. To this end, the second command after
the semicolon starts with the level that lies below the common levels. The colon following
the semicolon must be omitted in this case.
Example: TRIG:SOUR EXT;:TRIG:TIM 0.1
This command line is represented in its full length and contains two commands separated
from each other by the semicolon. Both commands are part of the TRIGger command
system, i.e. they have one level in common.
When abbreviating the command line, the second command begins with the level below
TRIG. The colon after the semicolon is omitted. The abbreviated form of the command
line reads as follows:
TRIG:SOUR EXT; TIM 0.1
However, a new command line always begins with the complete path.
Example:
TRIG:SOUR EXT
TRIG:THR LOW
5.2.2.4
Responses to Queries
A query is defined for each setting command unless explicitly specified otherwise. It is
formed by adding a question mark to the associated setting command. According to
SCPI, the responses to queries are partly subject to stricter rules than in standard IEEE
488.2.
1. The requested parameter is transmitted without header.
Example: TRIGger:SOURce? Response: IMM
2. Maximum values, minimum values and all further quantities which are requested via
a special text parameter are returned as numerical values.
Example: SENSe:FREQuency:STOP? MAX Response: 8000000000
3. Numerical values are output without their unit. The default unit for each command is
reported in the SCPI command description.
Example: SENSe:FREQuency:STOP? MAX Response: 8000000000 for 8 GHz
4. Boolean values are returned as 0 (for OFF) and 1 (for ON).
Example: SWEep:TIME:AUTO? Response: 1
5. Text (character data) is returned in short form (see also next section).
Example: TRIGger:SOURce? Response: IMM
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5.2.3 SCPI Parameters
Many commands are supplemented by a parameter or a list of parameters. The parameters must be separated from the header by a "white space". Permissible parameters are
numerical values, Boolean parameters, text, character strings and block data. The type
of parameter required for the respective command and the permissible range of values
are specified in the command description.
5.2.3.1
Numeric Values
Numeric values can be entered in any form, i.e. with sign, decimal point and exponent.
Values exceeding the resolution of the instrument are rounded up or down. The mantissa
may comprise up to 255 characters, the values must be in the value range –9.9E37 to
9.9E37. The exponent is introduced by an E or e. Entry of the exponent alone is not
allowed. In the case of physical quantities, the unit can be entered. Permissible unit prefixes are G (giga), MA (mega), MOHM and MHZ are also permissible), K (kilo), M (milli),
U (micro) and N (nano). If the unit is missing, the default unit is used.
Example:
SOUR:RFG:FREQ 1.5GHz is equivalent to
SOUR:RFG:FREQ 1.5E9
Special numeric values
The texts MINimum, MAXimum, DEFault, UP and DOWN are interpreted as special
numeric values. A query returns the associated numerical value.
Example:
Setting command: SENSe:FREQuency:STARt
MINimum
The query SENSe:FREQuency:STARt? returns 300000 (the exact value depends on
the analyzer model).
The following special values can be used:
●
MIN/MAX MINimum and MAXimum denote the minimum and maximum value of a
range of numeric values.
●
DEF DEFault denotes the preset value. This value is set by the *RST command.
●
UP/DOWN UP, DOWN increases or reduces the numeric value by one step. The step
width is reported in the detailed command description.
●
INF/NINF Negative INFinity (NINF) represent the numerical values –9.9E37 or
+9.9E37, respectively. INF and NINF are only sent as device responses.
●
NAN Not a Number (NAN) represents the value 9.91E37. NAN is only sent as device
response. This value is not defined. Possible causes are division by zero, subtraction
or addition of infinite and the representation of missing values.
Unless it is explicitly stated in the command description you can use the special numeric
parameters for all commands of the analyzer.
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5.2.3.2
Boolean Parameters
Boolean parameters represent two states. The ON state (logically true) is represented
by ON or a numerical value different from 0. The OFF state (logically false) is represented
by OFF or the numerical value 0. A query responds with 0 or 1.
Example: Setting command: SWEep:TIME:AUTO ON
Query: SWEep:TIME:AUTO? returns 1
5.2.3.3
Text Parameters
Text parameters observe the syntax rules for mnemonics, i.e. they can be entered using
a short or long form. Like any parameter, they have to be separated from the header by
a white space. In the case of a query, the short form of the text is provided.
Example: Setting command: TRIGger:SOURce EXTernal
Query: TRIGger:SOURce? returns EXT
5.2.3.4
Strings
Strings must always be entered within single or double quotation marks (' or ).
Example: CONFigure:CHANnel:NAME "Channel 4" or
CONFigure:CHANnel:NAME 'Channel 4'
5.2.3.5
Block Data Format
Block data is a transmission format which is suitable for the transmission of large amounts
of data. A command using a block data parameter with definite length has the following
structure:
Example: HEADer:HEADer #45168xxxxxxxx
The hash symbol # introduces the data block. The next number indicates how many of
the following digits describe the length of the data block. In the example the 4 following
digits indicate the length to be 5168 bytes. The data bytes follow. During the transmission
of these data bytes all End or other control signs are ignored until all bytes are transmitted.
A #0 combination introduces a data block of indefinite length. The use of the indefinite
format requires a NL^END message to terminate the data block. This format is useful
when the length of the transmission is not known or if speed or other considerations
prevent segmentation of the data into blocks of definite length.
5.2.3.6
Overview of Syntax Elements
:
The colon separates the mnemonics of a command. In a command line the separating semicolon marks the uppermost command level.
;
The semicolon separates two commands of a command line. It does not alter the path.
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,
The comma separates several parameters of a command.
?
The question mark forms a query.
*
The asterisk marks a common command.
', "
Quotation marks introduce a string and terminate it.
#
The hash sign # introduces binary, octal, hexadecimal and block data.
Binary: #B10110
Octal: #O7612
Hexadecimal: #HF3A7
Block: #21312
A "white space" (ASCII-Code 0 to 9, 11 to 32 decimal, e.g. blank) separates header and
parameter.
5.3 Basic Remote Control Concepts
The functionality of the network analyzer's remote control commands has been defined
in close analogy to the menu commands and control elements of the graphical user
interface (GUI). The basic concepts of recall sets, traces, channels, and diagram areas
remain valid in remote control. Moreover, all commands follow SCPI syntax rules, and
SCPI-confirmed commands have been used whenever possible. These principles largely
simplify the development of remote control scripts.
The GUI and the remote control command set both aim at maximum operating convenience. In manual control this generally means that the control elements are easy to find
and intuitive to handle, and that the effect of each operation is easy to verify on the screen.
Convenient remote control operation depends on a simple and systematic program syntax and on a predictable instrument state; the display of results is secondary.
These differences suggest the peculiarities in the analyzer's remote control concept discussed in the following sections.
5.3.1 Traces, Channels, and Diagram Areas
Like in manual control, traces can be assigned to a channel and displayed in diagram
areas (see section Traces, Channels and Diagram Areas in Chapter 3). There are two
main differences between manual and remote control:
●
A trace can be created without being displayed on the screen.
●
A channel must not necessarily contain a trace. Channel and trace configurations are
independent of each other.
The following frequently used commands create and delete traces, channels, and diagram areas:
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Create new trace and new channel
(if channel <Ch> does not exist yet)
CALCulate<Ch>:PARameter:SDEFine
'<Trace Name>','< Meas Parameter>
Delete trace
CALCulate<Ch>:PARameter:DELete '<Trace
Name>'
Create or delete channel
CONFigure:CHANnel<Ch>[:STATe] ON | OFF
Create or delete diagram area
DISPlay:WINDow<Wnd>:STATe ON | OFF
Display trace in diagram area
DISPlay:WINDow<Wnd>:TRACe<WndTr>:FEED
The assignment between traces, channels, and diagram areas is defined via numeric
suffixes as illustrated in the following example:
Example:
CALC4:PAR:SDEF 'Ch4Tr1', 'S11'
Create channel 4 (channel suffix 4) and a trace named "Ch4Tr1" to measure the input
reflection coefficient S11. The trace is created but not displayed.
DISP:WIND2:STAT ON
Create diagram area no. 2 (window suffix 2).
DISP:WIND2:TRAC9:FEED 'CH4TR1'
Display the generated trace (identified by its name "Ch4Tr1") in diagram area no. 2 (window suffix 2), assigning the trace number 9 (trace suffix 9) to it.
5.3.2 Active Traces in Remote Control
In manual control there is always exactly one active trace, irrespective of the number of
channels and traces defined. The "active channel" contains the active trace; see ​chapter 3.1.3.1, "Trace Settings", on page 13.
In remote control, each channel contains an active trace (unless the channel contains no
trace at all), so the notion of "active channel" is meaningless. This principle actually simplifies the remote control command syntax, because it allows the active trace in a particular channel to be referenced by means of the channel suffix. No additional trace identifier is needed; there is no need either to distinguish channel and trace settings using
mnemonics or suffixes.
The active traces are handled as follows:
●
After a preset (*RST), the analyzer displays a single diagram area with the default
trace no. 1 named TRC1. The trace is active in manual and in remote control.
●
In manual control, a new, added trace automatically becomes the active trace. To
select another trace as the active trace, tap inside the trace list.
●
In remote control, a new trace added via CALCulate<Ch>:PARameter:SDEFine
'<trace_name>', '<parameter>' also becomes the active trace. To select
another trace as the active trace, use (CALCulate<Ch>:PARameter:SELect
'<trace_name>').
●
The active traces for manual and remote control may be different.
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The following program example illustrates how to create, select and reference traces. It
is instructive to observe the analyzer screen in order to check the effect of each step.
Example:
*RST
Reset the analyzer, creating channel no. 1 with the default trace "Trc1". The trace is
displayed in diagram area no. 1.
CALC1:PAR:SDEF 'Trc2', 'S11'; DISP:WIND:TRAC2:FEED 'Trc2'
Create a new trace named "Trc2", assigned to channel no. 1 (the suffix 1 after CALC, may
be omitted), and display the trace. The new trace automatically becomes the active trace
for manual and for remote control. To check this, tap "Trace – Marker – Marker 1" to
create a marker. The marker is assigned to "Trc2". Delete all markers ("Trace – Marker
– All Markers Off").
CALC1:MARK ON
Example:
To verify that "Trc2" is also active for remote control, use the channel suffix 1 after
CALC (may be omitted) to reference the active trace in channel 1 and create a marker
"Mkr 1". The marker is assigned to "Trc2".
Example:
CALC:PAR:SEL 'Trc1'; CALC1:MARK ON
Select the old default trace "Trc1" as the active trace for remote control. Create a new
marker to verify that "Trc1" is now the active trace in channel 1.
In the SCPI command description, the numeric suffix <Ch> is used for channel settings
(it denotes the configured channel), whereas <Chn> is used for trace settings (it denotes
the active trace in the channel).
5.3.3 Initiating Measurements, Speed Considerations
After a reset the network analyzer measures in continuous mode. The displayed trace
shows the result of the last sweep and is continuously updated. This provides a permanent visual control over the measurement and the effect of any analyzer settings.
In remote control, it is advisable to follow a different approach in order use the analyzer's
resources to full capacity and gain measurement speed. The following principles can help
to optimize a remote control program (see also programming example in ​chapter 7.1.1,
"Typical Stages of a Remote Control Program", on page 703):
●
Switch off the measurement while configuring your instrument.
●
Use a minimum number of suitably positioned sweep points.
●
Start a single sweep, observing proper command synchronization, and retrieve your
results.
The following command sequence performs a single sweep in a single channel.
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Example:
*RST; :INITiate:CONTinuous:ALL OFF
Activate single sweep mode for all channels (including the channels created later).
INITiate1:IMMediate; *WAI
Start a single sweep in channel no. 1, wait until the sweep is terminated before proceeding
to the next command (see ​chapter 5.4, "Command Processing", on page 346).
Sweeps in several channels
It is also possible to subdivide the channels within a recall set into active and inactive
channels. The analyzer will then measure in the subset of active channels only; see program example for ​CONFigure:​CHANnel<Ch>:​MEASure[:​STATe]​.
5.3.4 Addressing Traces and Channels
The analyzer provides a variety of schemes for addressing traces and channels and for
querying trace and channel names. The following tables give an overview.
Table 5-1: Addressing channels
Method
Commands / Example
Channel number <Ch> as a numeric suffix
CONFigure:CHANnel<Ch>[:STATe] ON
Query all channel names
CONFigure:CHANnel:CATalog? (returns the
names of all channels)
Assign or query channel name of a channel numbered CONFigure:CHANnel<Ch>:NAME 'ABCD'
<Ch>
CONFigure:CHANnel<Ch>:NAME? (returns 'ABCD')
Query channel number assigned to a channel named CONFigure:CHANnel<Ch>:NAME:ID? 'ABCD'
'ABCD'
(returns the actual channel number, the channel suffix
is ignored)
Table 5-2: Addressing traces
Method
Commands / Example
Channel number <Chn> used as a reference for the
active trace in the channel
CALCulate<Chn>:MARKer<Mk>[:STATe] ON
Trace name (string variable) used as a reference for
the trace
CALCulate<Ch>:PARameter:DELete '<Trace
Name>'
Trace number <Trc> as a numeric suffix (exception!) CONFigure:TRACe<Trc>:NAME?
Trace number <WndTr> within a particular diagram
area <Wnd>
DISPlay:WINDow<Wnd>:TRACe<WndTr>:FEED
Query all trace names
CONFigure:TRACe:CATalog? (returns the names
of all traces)
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Method
Commands / Example
Assign or query trace name of a trace numbered
<Trc>
CONFigure:TRACe<Trc>:NAME 'ABCD'
Query trace number assigned to a trace named
'ABCD'
CONFigure:TRACe<Trc>:NAME:ID? 'ABCD'
(returns the actual trace number; the trace suffix is
ignored)
CONFigure:TRACe<Trc>:NAME? (returns 'ABCD')
Table 5-3: Mixed commands
Method
Commands / Example
Query channel name for a trace referenced by its
trace name
CONFigure:TRACe<Trc>:CHANnel:NAME?
'ABCD' (returns the channel name for trace 'ABCD';
the trace suffix is ignored)
Query channel number for a trace referenced by its
trace name
CONFigure:TRACe<Trc>:CHANnel:NAME:ID?
'ABCD' (returns the actual channel number for trace
'ABCD'; the trace suffix is ignored)
5.4 Command Processing
The block diagram below shows how GPIB bus commands are serviced in the instrument.
The individual components work independently and simultaneously. They communicate
with each other by means of so-called messages.
5.4.1 Input Unit
The input unit receives commands character by character from the controller and collects
them in the input buffer. The input unit sends a message to the command recognition as
soon as the input buffer is full or as soon as it receives a delimiter, <PROGRAM MESSAGE
TERMINATOR>, as defined in IEEE 488.2, or the interface message DCL.
If the input buffer is full, the message data traffic is stopped and the data received up to
then is processed. Subsequently the traffic is continued. If, however, the buffer is not yet
full when receiving the delimiter, the input unit can already receive the next command
during command recognition and execution. The receipt of a DCL clears the input buffer
and immediately initiates a message to the command recognition.
5.4.2 Command Recognition
The command recognition stage analyzes the data received from the input unit. It proceeds in the order in which it receives the data. Only a DCL is serviced with priority, e.g.
a GET (Group Execute Trigger) is only executed after the commands received before.
Each recognized command is immediately transferred to the data set but not executed
immediately.
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The command recognition detects syntax errors in the commands and transfers them to
the status reporting system. The rest of a command line after a syntax error is still executed, if possible. After the syntax check, the range of the numerical parameters is
checked, if required.
If the command recognition detects a delimiter or a DCL, it also requests the data set to
perform the necessary instrument hardware settings. Subsequently it is immediately prepared to process further commands. This means that new commands can already be
serviced while the hardware is still being set (overlapping execution).
5.4.3 Data Base and Instrument Hardware
The expression instrument hardware denotes the part of the instrument fulfilling the actual
instrument function – signal generation, measurement etc. The controller is not included.
The data base manages all the parameters and associated settings required for the
instrument hardware.
Setting commands lead to an alteration in the data set. The data set management enters
the new values (e.g. frequency) into the data set, however, it only passes them on to the
hardware when requested by the command recognition. This can only occur at the end
of a command line, therefore the order of the setting commands in the command line is
not relevant.
The commands are only checked for their compatibility among each other and with the
instrument hardware immediately before they are transmitted to the instrument hardware.
If the instrument detects that execution is not possible, an execution error is signalled to
the status reporting system. All alterations of the data set are cancelled, the instrument
hardware is not reset. Due to the delayed checking and hardware setting, however,
impermissible instrument states can be set for a short period of time within one command
line without this leading to an error message (example: simultaneous activation of a frequency and a power sweep). At the end of the command line, however, a permissible
instrument state must have been reached again.
Before passing on the data to the hardware, the settling bit in the STATus:OPERation
register is set (see ​chapter 5.5.3.4, "STATus:OPERation", on page 356). The hardware
executes the settings and resets the bit again as soon as the new state has settled. This
fact can be used to synchronize command servicing.
Queries induce the data set management to send the desired data to the output unit.
5.4.4 Status Reporting System
The status reporting system collects information on the instrument state and makes it
available to the output unit on request. The exact structure and function are described in
​chapter 5.5, "Status Reporting System", on page 349.
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5.4.5 Output Unit
The output unit collects the information requested by the controller, which it receives from
the data set management. It processes it according to the SCPI rules and makes it available in the output buffer. If the information requested is longer, it is made available in
portions without this being recognized by the controller.
If the instrument is addressed as a talker without the output buffer containing data or
awaiting data from the data set management, the output unit sends the error message
Query UNTERMINATED to the status reporting system. No data is sent on the GPIB bus
or via the Ethernet, the controller waits until it has reached its time limit. This behavior is
specified by SCPI.
5.4.6 Command Sequence and Command Synchronization
IEEE 488.2 defines a distinction between overlapped and sequential commands:
●
A sequential command is one which finishes executing before the next command
starts executing. Commands that are processed quickly are usually implemented as
sequential commands.
●
An overlapping command is one which does not automatically finish executing before
the next command starts executing. Usually, overlapping commands take longer to
process and allow the program to do other tasks while being executed. If overlapping
commands do have to be executed in a defined order, e.g. in order to avoid wrong
measurement results, they must be serviced sequentially. This is called synchronization between the controller and the analyzer.
According to ​chapter 5.4.3, "Data Base and Instrument Hardware", on page 347, setting
commands within one command line, even though they may be implemented as sequential commands, are not necessarily serviced in the order in which they have been
received. In order to make sure that commands are actually carried out in a certain order,
each command must be sent in a separate command line. Examples:
Example 1: Commands and queries in one message
The response to a query combined in a program message with commands that affect the
queried value is not predictable. Sending
:FREQ:STAR 1GHZ;SPAN 100
:FREQ:STAR?
always returns 1000000000 (1 GHz). When:
:FREQ:STAR 1GHz;STAR?;SPAN 1000000
is sent, however, the result is not specified by SCPI. The result could be the value of
STARt before the command was sent since the instrument might defer executing the
individual commands until a program message terminator is received. The result could
also be 1 GHz if the instrument executes commands as they are received.
As a general rule, send commands and queries in different program messages.
Example 2: Overlapping command with *OPC
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The analyzer implements INITiate[:IMMediate]... commands as overlapped
commands. Assuming e.g. that INITiate[:IMMediate][:DUMMy] takes longer to
execute than *OPC, sending the command sequence
INIT; *OPC.
results in initiating a sweep and, after some time, setting the OPC bit in the ESR. Sending
the commands:
INIT; *OPC; *CLS
still initiates a sweep. Since the operation is still pending when the analyzer executes
*CLS, forcing it into the Operation Complete Command Idle State (OCIS), *OPC is effectively skipped. The OPC bit is not set until the analyzer executes another *OPC command.
The analyzer provides only two overlapped commands,
INITiate<Ch>[:IMMediate][:DUMMy] and INITiate<Ch>[:IMMediate]:ALL.
What is said below is not relevant for the other (sequential) SCPI commands.
Preventing overlapping execution
To prevent an overlapping execution of commands, one of the commands *OPC,
*OPC? or *WAI can be used. For a programming example refer to ​chapter 7.1.1.3, "Start
of the Measurement and Command Synchronization", on page 704.
Command
Action after the hardware has settled
Programming the controller
*WAI
Stops further command processing until all commands
sent before *WAI have been executed
Send *WAI directly after the command which should
be terminated before the next command is executed.
Note: The GPIB bus handshake is not stopped
*OPC?
Stops command processing until 1 is returned, i.e. until Send *OPC? directly after the command which
the "Operation Complete" bit has been set in the ESR.
should be terminated before the next command is
This bit indicates that the previous commands have been executed.
completed.
*OPC
Sets the operation complete bit in the ESR after all previous commands have been executed.
– Set bit 0 in the ESE
– Set bit 5 in the SRE
– Wait for service request (SRQ)
5.5 Status Reporting System
The status reporting system stores all information on the present operating state of the
instrument, and on errors which have occurred. This information is stored in the status
registers and in the error queue. Both can be queried using the STATus... commands.
Hierarchy of status registers
As shown in section ​Overview of Status Registers, the status information is of hierarchical
structure.
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●
STB, SRE:
The STatus Byte (STB) register and its associated mask register Service Request
Enable (SRE) form the highest level of the status reporting system. The STB provides
a rough overview of the instrument status, collecting the information of the lower-level
registers.
●
The STB receives its information from:
The Event Status Register (ESR) with the associated mask register standard Event
Status Enable (ESE).
The STATus:OPERation and STATus:QUEStionable registers which are defined by
SCPI and contain detailed information on the instrument.
●
IST, PPE:
The IST flag ("Individual STatus"), like the SRQ, combines the entire instrument status in a single bit. The PPE is associated to the IST flag. It fulfills an analogous function
for the IST flag as the SRE does for the service request.
●
Output buffer:
contains the messages the instrument returns to the controller. It is not part of the
status reporting system but determines the value of the MAV bit in the STB.
All status registers have the same internal structure, see ​Structure of an SCPI Status
Register.
For more information on the individual status registers see ​Contents of the Status Registers.
SRE register
The service request enable register SRE can be used as ENABle part of the STB if the
STB is structured according to SCPI. By analogy, the ESE can be used as the ENABle
part of the ESR.
5.5.1 Overview of Status Registers
The status registers of the R&S ZNC are implemented as shown below.
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-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
not used
not used
not used
not used
not used
not used
not used
not used
not used
not used
not used
not used
not used
not used
not used
-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
not used
Limit trace no. 14
Limit trace no. 13
Limit trace no. 12
Limit trace no. 11
Limit trace no. 10
Limit trace no. 9
Limit trace no. 8
Limit trace no. 7
Limit trace no. 6
Limit trace no. 5
Limit trace no. 4
Limit trace no. 3
Limit trace no. 2
Limit trace no. 1
LIMit2 summary
-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
not used
not used
not used
not used
not used
not used
not used
not used
not used
not used
not used
not used
not used
Limit trace no. 16
Limit trace no. 15
not used
SRQ
STATus:OPERation Register
-&-&-&-&-&-
SRE
-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-
STB
-&-&-&-&-&-&-
PPE
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
not used
not used
not used
not used
not used
LIMit1 summary
INTegrity summary
not used
not used
not used
not used
not used
not used
not used
not used
not used
STATus:QUEStionable Register
STATus:QUEStionable
:LIMit2 Register
STATus:QUEStionable
:LIMit1 Register
RQS/MSS
ESB
MAV
-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
not used
not used
not used
not used
not used
not used
not used
not used
not used
not used
not used
not used
not used
HARDware summary
not used
not used
STATus:QUEStionable:INTegrity Register
-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Detector meas. time limited
Port power settings exceed limits
Overload at DC MEAS
Time grid too close
Problem conc. external power meter
not used
not used
Oven cold
Instr. temperature too high
Internal communication error
not used
not used
Receiver overload
Output power unleveled
Ref. frequency lock failure
not used
STATus:QUEStionable
:INTegrity:HARDware Register
IST flag
(answer to parallel poll)
-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-&-
& = logical AND
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Power on
User request
Command error
Execution error
Device-dependent error
Query error
not used
Operation complete
Error Queue Output Buffer
= logical OR
of all bits
ESE
ESR
5.5.2 Structure of an SCPI Status Register
Each standard SCPI register consists of 5 parts which each have a width of 16 bits and
have different functions. The individual bits are independent of each other, i.e. each
hardware status is assigned a bit number which is valid for all five parts. Bit 15 (the most
significant bit) is set to zero for all parts. Thus the contents of the register parts can be
processed by the controller as positive integer.
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The sum bit is obtained from the EVENt and ENABle part for each register. The result is
then entered into a bit of the CONDition part of the higher-order register.
The instrument automatically generates the sum bit for each register. Thus an event can
lead to a ​Service Request throughout all levels of the hierarchy.
The five parts of an SCPI register have different properties and function as described
below.
CONDition
The CONDition part is permanently overwritten by the hardware or the sum bit of the next
lower register. Its contents always reflect the current instrument state.
This register part can only be read, but not overwritten or cleared. Reading the CONDition
register is nondestructive.
PTRansition
The two transition register parts define which state transition of the condition part (none,
0 to 1, 1 to 0 or both) is stored in the EVENt part.
The Positive TRansition part acts as a transition filter. When a bit of the CONDition part
is changed from 0 to 1, the associated PTR bit decides whether the EVENt bit is set to
1:
●
PTR bit = 1: the EVENt bit is set
●
PTR bit = 0: the EVENt bit is not set
This status register part can be overwritten and read at will. Reading the PTRansition
register is nondestructive.
NTRansition
The Negative TRansition part also acts as a transition filter. When a bit of the CONDition
part is changed from 1 to 0, the associated NTR bit decides whether the EVENt bit is set
to 1.
●
NTR bit = 1: the EVENt bit is set.
●
NTR bit = 0: the EVENt bit is not set.
This part can be overwritten and read at will. Reading the PTRansition register is nondestructive.
EVENt
The EVENt part indicates whether an event has occurred since the last reading, it is the
"memory" of the condition part. It only indicates events passed on by the transition filters.
It is permanently updated by the instrument. This part can only be read by the user.
Reading the register clears it. This part is often equated with the entire register.
ENABle
The ENABle part determines whether the associated EVENt bit contributes to the sum
bit (cf. below). Each bit of the EVENt part is ANDed with the associated ENABle bit (sym-
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bol '&'). The results of all logical operations of this part are passed on to the sum bit via
an OR function (symbol '+').
●
ENAB bit = 0: The associated EVENt bit does not contribute to the sum bit.
●
ENAB bit = 1: If the associated EVENT bit is "1", the sum bit is set to "1" as well.
This part can be overwritten and read by the user at will. Its contents are not affected by
reading.
The sum bit is obtained from the EVENt and ENABle part for each register. The result
is then entered into a bit of the CONDition part of the higher-order register. The instrument
automatically generates the sum bit for each register. Thus an event can lead to a service
request throughout all levels of the hierarchy.
5.5.3 Contents of the Status Registers
The individual status registers are used to report different classes of instrument states or
errors. The following status registers belong to the general model described in IEEE
488.2:
●
The STatus Byte (STB) gives a rough overview of the instrument status.
●
The IST flag combines the entire status information into a single bit that can be queried in a ​Parallel Poll.
●
The Event Status Register (ESR) indicates general instrument states.
The status registers below belong to the device-dependent SCPI register model:
5.5.3.1
●
The STATus:OPERation register contains conditions which are part of the instrument's normal operation.
●
The STATus:QUEStionable register indicates whether the data currently being
acquired is of questionable quality.
●
The STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit<1|2> register indicates the result of the limit
check.
●
The STATus:QUEStionable:INTegrity register monitors hardware failures of
the analyzer.
STB and SRE
The STatus Byte (STB) provides a rough overview of the instrument status by collecting
the pieces of information of the lower registers. The STB represents the highest level
within the SCPI hierarchy. A special feature is that bit 6 acts as the summary bit of the
remaining bits of the status byte.
The STatus Byte (STB) is linked to the Service Request Enable (SRE) register on a bitby-bit basis.
●
The STB corresponds to the EVENt part of an SCPI register, indicating the current
instrument state. This register is cleared when it is read.
●
The SRE corresponds to the ENABle part of an SCPI register. If a bit is set in the
SRE and the associated bit in the STB changes from 0 to 1, a ​Service Request (SRQ)
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is generated. Bit 6 of the SRE is ignored, because it corresponds to the summary bit
of the STB.
The bits in the STB are defined as follows:
Bit No.
Meaning
2
Error Queue not empty
If this bit is enabled by the SRE, each entry of the error queue generates a ​Service
Request (SRQ). Thus an error can be recognized and further pinned down by polling the
error queue. The poll provides an informative error message.
3
QUEStionable status summary bit
This bit is set if an EVENt bit is set in the ​STATus:QUEStionable register and the associated
ENABle bit is set to 1.
The bit indicates a questionable instrument status, which can be further pinned down by
polling the QUEStionable register.
4
MAV bit (message available)
This bit is set if a message is available and can be read from the output buffer.
This bit can be used to automatically transfer data from the instrument to the controller.
5
ESB bit
Sum bit of the event status register. It is set if one of the bits in the event status register is
set and enabled in the event status enable register.
Setting of this bit implies an error or an event which can be further pinned down by polling
the event status register.
6
MSS bit (master status summary bit)
This bit is set if the instrument triggers a service request. This is the case if one of the other
bits of this registers is set together with its mask bit in the service request enable register
SRE.
7
OPERation status register summary bit
This bit is set if an EVENt bit is set in the OPERation-Status register and the associated
ENABle bit is set to 1.
The bit indicates that the instrument is currently performing an action. The type of action can
be determined by polling the ​STATus:OPERation register.
Related common commands
The STB is read out using the command *STB? or a ​Serial Poll.
The SRE can be set using command *SRE and read using *SRE? .
5.5.3.2
IST Flag and PPE
In analogy to the ​Service Request (SRQ), the IST flag combines the entire status information in a single bit. It can be queried by means of a ​Parallel Poll.
The Parallel Poll Enable (PPE) register determines which bits of the STB contribute to
the IST flag. The bits of the STB are ANDed with the corresponding bits of the PPE, with
bit 6 being used as well in contrast to the SRE. The IST flag results from the ORing of all
results.
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Related common commands
The IST flag is queried using the common command *IST?. The PPE can be set using
*PRE and read using *PRE?.
See also ​Common Commands.
5.5.3.3
ESR and ESE
The Event Status Register (ESR) indicates general instrument states. It is linked to the
Event Status Enable (ESE) register on a bit-by-bit basis.
●
The ESR corresponds to the CONDition part of an SCPI register indicating the current
instrument state (although reading is destructive).
●
The ESE corresponds to the ENABle part of an SCPI register. If a bit is set in the ESE
and the associated bit in the ESR changes from 0 to 1, the ESB bit in the STatus Byte
is set.
The bits in the ESR are defined as follows:
Bit No.
Meaning
0
Operation Complete
This bit is set on receipt of the command *OPC after all previous commands have been
executed.
2
Query Error
This bit is set if either the controller wants to read data from the instrument without having
sent a query, or if it does not fetch requested data and sends new instructions to the instrument instead. The cause is often a query which is faulty and hence cannot be executed.
3
Device-Dependent Error
This bit is set if a device-dependent error occurs. An error message with a number between
–300 and –399 or a positive error number, which describes the error in greater detail, is
entered into the error queue. See also ​chapter 8, "Error Messages and Troubleshooting",
on page 733.
4
Execution Error
This bit is set if a received command is syntactically correct, but cannot be performed for
other reasons. An error message with a number between –200 and –300, which describes
the error in greater detail, is entered into the error queue.
5
Command Error
This bit is set if a command which is undefined or syntactically incorrect is received. An error
message with a number between -100 and -200, which describes the error in greater detail,
is entered into the error queue.
6
User Request
This bit is set when the instrument is switched over to manual control or when a user-defined
softkey is used (see ​SYSTem:​USER:​KEY​).
7
Power On (supply voltage on)
This bit is set when the instrument is switched on.
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Related common commands
The Event Status Register (ESR) can be queried using ESR?. The Event Status Enable
(ESE) register can be set using the command *ESE and read using *ESE?.
See also ​Common Commands.
5.5.3.4
STATus:OPERation
The STATus:OPERation register contains conditions which are part of the instrument's
normal operation. The analyzer does not use the STATus:OPERation register.
5.5.3.5
STATus:QUEStionable
The STATus:QUEStionable register indicates whether the acquired data is of questionable quality and monitors hardware failures of the analyzer. It can be queried using
the commands STATus:QUEStionable:CONDition? or
STATus:QUEStionable:EVENt?.
Bit No.
Meaning
9
INTegrity register summary
This bit is set if a bit is set in the STATus:QUEStionable:INTegrity register and the associated
ENABle bit is set to 1.
10
LIMit register summary
This bit is set if a bit is set in the STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit1 register and the associated
ENABle bit is set to 1.
STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit<1|2>
The STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit<1|2> registers indicate the result of the limit
check. They can be queried using the commands
STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit<1|2>:CONDition? or
STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit<1|2>[:EVENt]?
STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit1 is also the summary register of the lower-level
STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit2 register.
The bits in the STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit1 register are defined as follows:
Bit No.
Meaning
0
LIMit2 register summary
This bit is set if a bit is set in the STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit2 register and the associated
ENABle bit is set to 1.
1
Failed limit check for trace no. 1
This bit is set if any point on trace no. 1 fails the limit check.
...
...
14
Failed limit check for trace no. 14
This bit is set if any point on trace no. 14 fails the limit check.
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The bits in the STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit2 register are defined as follows:
Bit No.
Meaning
0
Not used
1
Failed Limit Check for Trace no. 15
This bit is set if any point on trace no. 15 fails the limit check.
2
Failed Limit Check for Trace no. 16
This bit is set if any point on trace no. 16 fails the limit check.
Numbering of traces
The traces numbers 1 to 16 are assigned as follows:
●
Traces assigned to channels with smaller channel numbers have smaller trace numbers.
●
Within a channel, the order of traces reflects their creation time: The oldest trace has
the smallest, the newest trace has the largest trace number. This is equivalent to the
order of traces in the response string of the
CALCulate<Ch>:PARameter:CATalog? query.
●
The number of traces monitored cannot exceed 16. If a setup contains more traces,
the newest traces are not monitored.
STATus:QUEStionable:INTegrity...
The STATus:QUEStionable:INTegrity register monitors hardware failures of the
analyzer. It can be queried using the commands
STATus:QUEStionable:INTegrity:CONDition? or
STATus:QUEStionable:INTegrity[:EVENt]?
STATus:QUEStionable:INTegrity is also the summary register of the lower-level
STATus:QUEStionable:INTegrity:HARDware register.
Refer to the ​chapter 8, "Error Messages and Troubleshooting", on page 733 for a detailed
description of hardware errors including possible remedies.
The bits in the STATus:QUEStionable:INTegrity register are defined as follows.
Bit No.
Meaning
2
HARDware register summary
This bit is set if a bit is set in the STATus:QUEStionable:INTegrity:HARDware register and
the associated ENABle bit is set to 1.
The STATus:QUEStionable:INTegrity:HARDware register can be queried using
the commands STATus:QUEStionable:INTegrity:HARDware:CONDition? or
STATus:QUEStionable:INTegrity:HARDware[:EVENt]?
The bits in the STATus:QUEStionable:INTegrity:HARDware register are defined
as follows.
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Bit No.
Meaning
0
Not used
1
Reference frequency lock failure
With external reference signal (System – External Reference active) or option ZVAB-B4
(oven quartz), the reference oscillator is phase locked to a 10 MHz signal. This bit is set if
this phase locked loop (PLL) fails.
For external reference: check frequency and level of the supplied reference signal.
2
Output power unleveled
This bit is set if the level control at one of the ports is unsettled or unstable, possibly due to
an external disturbing signal.
Change generator level at the port; check external components.
3
Receiver overload protection tripped
This bit is set if the analyzer detects an excessive input level at one of the ports. If this
condition persists, all internal sources are switched off.
Reduce RF input level at the port. Check amplifiers in the external test setup, then switch on
the internal source using OUTPut ON.
...
Not used
6
Internal communication error
This bit is set if an internal error caused the analyzer to perform an automatic hardware reset.
The current measurement results are possibly invalid.
The bit is automatically cleared at the beginning of the next sweep, no action is required.
7
Instrument temperature is too high
This bit is set if the analyzer detects that the instrument temperature is too high.
Reduce ambient temperature, keep ventilation holes of the casing unobstructed.
8
Oven cold
This bit is set if the oven for the optional oven quartz (OCXO, option ZVAB-B4) is not at its
operating temperature.
Wait until the oven has been heated up.
9
Unstable level control
This bit is set if the analyzer detects an excessive source level at one of the ports. The signal
is turned off and the sweep halted.
Check signal path for the received wave, especially check external components. Then restart
the sweep (INITiate<Ch>[:IMMediate]).
10
not used
11
Problem concerning external power meter
This bit is set if an external power meter has been configured but cannot be controlled or
provides error messages.
Check whether the power meter is properly connected and switched on. Check the GPIB
address; exclude address conflicts when using several external power meters or other
equipment.
12
Time grid too close
This bit is set if the sweep points for a time sweep are too close, so that the analyzer cannot
process the measurement data until the next sweep point starts.
Increase stop time, reduce no. of points, increase IF bandwidth. If possible reduce number
of partial measurements, e.g. by restricting the number of ports measured.
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Bit No.
Meaning
13
Overload at DC MEAS
This bit is set if the input voltage at one of the DC input connectors on the rear panel is too
high.
Reduce the input voltage.
14
Power settings exceed hardware limits
This bit is set if the source power at one of the test ports is too high or too low.
Reduce or increase the source power.
15
Detector meas time has been internally limited
This bit is set if the selected measurement time for a detector (observation time) is too long.
If desired, reduce the measurement time or select a smaller IF bandwidth.
5.5.4 Application of the Status Reporting System
The purpose of the status reporting system is to monitor the status of one or several
devices in a measuring system. To do this and react appropriately, the controller must
receive and evaluate the information of all devices. The following standard methods
described in the following sections are used:
5.5.4.1
●
Service request (SRQ) initiated by the measuring device
●
Serial poll of all devices in the bus system, initiated by the controller in order to find
out who sent a SRQ and why
●
Parallel poll of all devices
●
Query of a specific instrument status by means of commands
●
Query of the error queue
Service Request
The R&S ZNC can send a service request (SRQ) to the controller. Usually this service
request causes an interrupt, to which the control program can react appropriately.
Initiating an SRQ
As shown in section ​Overview of Status Registers, an SRQ is initiated if one or several
of bits 2, 3, 4, 5 or 7 of the status byte are set and enabled in the SRE. Each of these bits
summarizes the information of a further register, the error queue or the output buffer.
The ENABle parts of the status registers can be set such that arbitrary bits in an arbitrary
status register initiate an SRQ. To use the possibilities of the service request effectively,
all bits in the enable registers SRE and ESE should be set to "1".
Example: Use *OPC to generate an SRQ
1. Set bit 0 in the ESE (Operation Complete).
2. Set bit 5 in the SRE (ESB).
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3. Insert *OPC in the command sequence (e.g. at the end of a sweep)
As soon as all commands preceding *OPC have been completed, the instrument generates an SRQ.
Example: Generate an SRQ when a limit is exceeded
1. Set bit 3 in the SRE (summary bit of the STATus:QUEStionable register, set after
STATus:PRESet)
2. Set bit 10 in the STATus:QUEStionable:ENABle register (summary bit of the
STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit1 register)
3. Set bit 1 in the STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit1:ENABle register
The R&S ZNC generates an SRQ when the event associated with bit 1 of the
STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit1:ENABle register occurs, i.e. when any point on the
first trace fails the limit check.
Example: Find out which event caused an SRQ
The procedure to find out which event caused an SRQ is analogous the procedure to
generate an SRQ:
1. STB? (query the contents of the status byte in decimal form)
If bit 3 (QUEStionable summary bit) is set, then:
2. STAT:QUES:EVENT? (query STATus:QUEStionable register)
If bit 10 (QUEStionable:LIMit1 summary bit) is set, then:
3. Query STAT:QUES:LIMit1:EVENT? (query STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit1
register)
If bit 1 is set, then the first trace failed the limit check.
The SRQ is the only possibility for the instrument to become active on its own. Each
controller program should set the instrument such that a service request is initiated in the
case of malfunction. The program should react appropriately to the service request.
5.5.4.2
Serial Poll
In a serial poll, the controller queries the STatus Bytes of the devices in the bus system
one after another. The query is made via interface messages, so it is faster than a poll
by means of *STB?.
The serial poll method is defined in IEEE 488.1 and used to be the only standard possibility for different instruments to poll the status byte. The method also works for instruments which do not adhere to SCPI or IEEE 488.2.
The serial poll is mainly used to obtain a fast overview of the state of several instruments
connected to the controller.
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5.5.4.3
Parallel Poll
In a parallel poll, up to eight instruments are simultaneously requested by the controller
by means of a single command to transmit 1 bit of information each on the data lines,
i.e., to set the data line allocated to each instrument to a logical "0" or "1".
In addition to the SRE register, which determines the conditions under which an SRQ is
generated, there is a Parallel Poll Enable register (PPE) . This register is ANDed with the
STB bit by bit, considering bit 6 as well. The results are ORed, the result is possibly
inverted and then sent as a response to the parallel poll of the controller. The result can
also be queried without parallel poll by means of the command *IST?.
The parallel poll method is mainly used to find out quickly which one of the instruments
connected to the controller has sent a service request. To this effect, SRE and PPE must
be set to the same value.
5.5.4.4
Query of an Instrument Status
Each part of any status register can be read by means of queries. There are two types
of commands:
●
The common commands *ESR?, *IDN?, *IST?, *STB? query the higher-level
registers.
●
The commands of the STATus system query the SCPI registers (e.g.
STATus:OPERation...)
All queries return a decimal number which represents the bit pattern of the status register.
This number is evaluated by the controller program.
Queries are usually used after an SRQ in order to obtain more detailed information on its
cause.
Decimal representation of a bit pattern
The STB and ESR registers contain 8 bits, the SCPI registers 16 bits. The contents of a
status register is keyed and transferred as a single decimal number. To make this possible, each bit is assigned a weighted value. The decimal number is calculated as the
sum of the weighted values of all bits in the register that are set to 1.
Bits
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
...
Weight
1
2
4
8
16
32
64
128
...
Example: The decimal value 40 = 32 + 8 indicates that bits no. 3 and 5 in the status
register (e.g. the QUEStionable status summary bit and the ESB bit in the STB) are set.
5.5.4.5
Error Queue
Each error state in the instrument leads to an entry in the error queue. The entries of the
error queue are detailed plain text error messages that can be queried via remote control
using ​SYSTem:​ERRor[:​NEXT]?​ or ​SYSTem:​ERRor:​ALL?​. Each call of
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SYSTem:ERRor[:NEXT]? provides one entry from the error queue. If no error messages
are stored there any more, the instrument responds with 0, "No error".
The error queue should be queried after every SRQ in the controller program as the
entries describe the cause of an error more precisely than the status registers. Especially
in the test phase of a controller program the error queue should be queried regularly since
faulty commands from the controller to the instrument are recorded there as well.
5.5.5 Reset Values of the Status Reporting System
The table below indicates the effects of various commands upon the status reporting
system of the R&S ZNC.
Event
Effect
Switching on supply voltage
Power-On-StatusClear
0
DCL, SDC
(Device
Clear,
Selected
Device Clear)
*RST or
SYSTem:PRESet:ALL
STATus:PRESet
*CLS
1
Clear STB,ESR
yes
yes
Clear SRE,ESE
yes
Clear PPE
yes
Clear EVENt parts of the registers
yes
Clear ENABle parts of all
OPERation-and QUESTionable registers,
yes
yes
yes
yes
yes
Fill ENABle parts of all other
registers with "1".
Fill PTRansition parts with "1"
Clear NTRansition parts
Clear error queue
yes
yes
yes
Clear output buffer
yes
yes
yes
Clear command processing
and input buffer
yes
yes
yes
1)
1)
1)
1) Every command being the first in a command line, i.e. immediately following a
<PROGRAM MESSAGE TERMINATOR> clears the output buffer.
5.6 LXI Configuration
LAN eXtensions for Instrumentation (LXI) is an instrumentation platform for measuring
instruments and test systems that is based on standard Ethernet technology. LXI is
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intended to be the LAN-based successor to GPIB, combining the advantages of Ethernet
with the simplicity and familiarity of GPIB.
5.6.1 LXI Classes and LXI Functionality
LXI-compliant instruments are divided into three classes, A, B and C, with the functionality
of the classes hierarchically based one upon the other:
●
Class C instruments are characterized by a common LAN implementation, including
an ICMP ping responder for diagnostics, see ​Ping Client.
The instruments can be configured via the ​LXI Browser Interface; a LAN Configuration Initialize (LCI) mechanism resets the LAN configuration. The LXI class C instruments shall also support automatic detection in a LAN via the VXI-11 discovery protocol and programming by means of IVI drivers.
●
Class B adds IEEE 1588 Precision Time Protocol (PTP) and peer-to-peer communication to the base class. IEEE 1588 allows all instruments on the same network to
automatically synchronize to the most accurate clock available and then provide time
stamps or time-based synchronization signals to all instruments with exceptional
accuracy.
●
Class A instruments are additionally equipped with the eight-channel hardware trigger bus (LVDS interface) defined in the LXI standard.
Instruments of classes A and B can generate and receive software triggers via LAN messages and communicate with each other without involving the controller.
The network analyzer complies with LXI class C. In addition to the general class C features described above, it provides the following LXI-related functionality:
●
Integrated "Remote LXI" dialog for LXI activation and reset of the LAN configuration
(LAN Configuration Initialize, LCI); see ​chapter 4.6.7, "Remote LXI (Dialog)",
on page 320.
For information about the LXI standard refer to the LXI website at http://www.lxistandard.org. See also "News from Rohde & Schwarz, issue no. 190 - 2006/II".
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5.6.2 LXI Browser Interface
The instrument's LXI browser interface works correctly with all W3C compliant browsers.
Typing the instrument's host name or IP address in the address field of the browser on
your PC, e.g.
"http://10.113.10.203"
opens the "Home" page (welcome page).
The instrument home page displays the device information required by the LXI standard
including the VISA resource string in read-only format. The "Device Indicator" toggle button causes the LXI symbol in the status bar of the analyzer to blink (if active) and updates
the "Host Name". A green LXI status symbol indicates that a LAN connection has been
established; a red symbol indicates that no LAN cable is connected. The "Device Indicator" setting is not password-protected.
The navigation pane of the browser interface contains the following control elements:
●
"LXI > Lan Configuration" opens the LAN Configuration pages; see ​chapter 5.6.3,
"LAN Configuration", on page 365.
●
"LXI > Status" displays information about the LXI status of the instrument.
●
"Help" provides a link to the Rohde & Schwarz home page.
●
The remaining tabs are for future extensions.
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5.6.3 LAN Configuration
Comprises the following navigation entries.
●
●
●
5.6.3.1
IP Configuration....................................................................................................365
Advanced Config...................................................................................................365
Ping Client.............................................................................................................366
IP Configuration
The LAN configuration parameters required by the LXI standard can be accessed via the
navigation entry "IP Configuration".
The "TCP/IP Mode" configuration field controls how the IP address for the instrument
gets assigned. For the manual configuration mode, the static IP address, subnet mask,
and default gateway are used to configure the LAN. The automatic configuration mode
uses DHCP server or Dynamic Link Local Addressing (Automatic IP) to obtain the instrument IP address.
Password protection
Changing the LAN configuration is password-protected. The password reads LxiWebIfc (notice upper and lower case characters). This password cannot be changed in the
current software version.
5.6.3.2
Advanced Config
The navigation entry "Advanced Config" provides LAN settings that are not declared
mandatory by the LXI standard.
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The advanced LAN configuration parameters are used as follows:
●
"Negotiation": The negotiation configuration field provides different Ethernet speed
and duplex mode settings. In general, the "Auto Detect" mode is sufficient.
●
"ICMP Ping" must be enabled to use the ping utility.
●
"VXI-11 Discovery" and "mDNS and DNS-SD" are protocols which can be used for
discovery of the instrument in the LAN. The VXI-11 discovery mechanism is a requirement on LXI devices from the first revision of the standard. Support for the multicast
DNS (mDNS) and DNS-SD (DNS Service Discovery) mechanisms has been introduced as a requirement in version 1.3 of the standard. The R&S ZNC supports both
discovery mechanisms.
Password protection
Changing the LAN configuration is password-protected. The password reads LxiWebIfc (notice upper and lower case characters). This password cannot be changed in the
current software version.
5.6.3.3
Ping Client
Ping is a utility that verifies the connection between the LXI-compliant instrument and
another device. The ping is initiated from the instrument. It uses the ICMP echo request
and echo reply packets to determine whether the LAN connection to another device is
functional. Ping is useful for diagnosing IP network or router failures.
The ping utility is not password-protected. To initiate a ping at the instrument:
1. Ensure that "ICMP Ping" is enabled (see ​Advanced Config).
2. Enter the IP address of the second device into the "Destination Address" field (e.g.
10.123.10.0).
3. Click Submit.
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Special Terms and Notation
6 Command Reference
This chapter describes all common commands and SCPI commands implemented by the
analyzer.
Validity of the command set
The commands reported in this chapter are valid for vector network analyzers with 2 or
4 ports. Some of the program examples assume a four-port instrument. In most cases,
a simple adjustment of the port power suffixes or parameters will ensure compatibility
with 2-port analyzers.
Compatibility with R&S ZVB and older instruments
The SCPI command set for the R&S ZNC vector network analyzer has been designed
for compatibility with network analyzers R&S ZVA and R&S ZVB. A special subset of
commands has been implemented for compatibility with older analyzers of the R&S ZVR
family. These commands are listed in ​chapter 6.4, "R&S ZVR/ZVAB Compatible Commands", on page 679.
If you want to make full use of the R&S ZNC features but do not need R&S ZVR compatibility, you should use the commands listed in ​chapter 6.3, "SCPI Command Reference", on page 371.
6.1 Special Terms and Notation
This section explains the meaning of special syntax elements used in the SCPI command
reference sections.
The following information is provided in the reference sections:
●
Complete command syntax and parameter list
●
Description of the command and its relationship with other commands
●
List and description of the parameters with their numerical ranges, default values and
default units
●
Supported command types (setting command, query). If nothing is mentioned, the
command can be used to write and read data (setting command and query).
●
Program example
The SCPI conformance information is stated at the beginning of each section. Unless
otherwise stated, the commands are device-specific.
The commands are generally arranged in alphabetical order. Commands with similar
function (e.g. a pair of ...STARt and ...STOP commands) may be described in a common section, which in some instances disrupts the strict alphabetical order.
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6.1.1 Upper/Lower Case
Upper/lower case characters characterize the long and short form of the mnemonics in
a command. The short form consists of all upper-case characters, the long form of all
upper case plus all lower case characters. It is recommended to use either the short form
or the long form; mixed forms are not always recognized. The R&S ZNC itself does not
distinguish upper case and lower case characters.
6.1.2 Special Characters
The following special characters are frequencly used in the command description:
●
| A vertical stroke characterizes alternative parameter settings. Only one of the
parameters separated by | must be selected.
●
[ ] Mnemonics in square brackets can be omitted when composing the command
header. The complete command must be recognized by the instrument for reasons
of compatibility with the SCPI standard. Parameters in square brackets are optional
as well. They may be used in some application contexts, omitted in others.
●
{ } Braces or curly brackets enclose one or more parameters that may be included
zero or more times.
6.1.3 Parameters
Many commands are supplemented by a parameter or a list of parameters. Parameters
either provide alternative options (setting a or setting b or setting c ..., see special character "|"), or they form a list separated by commas (setting x, y).
●
<Parameter1>, <Parameter2>...: In the command tables and lists, parameters are
generally described by a name (Parameter1, Parameter2...) written in angle brackets
(<>). In an application program, <Parameter1>, <Parameter2>... must be replaced
by one of the possible settings reported in the detailed parameter description.
Example: CONTrol:AUXiliary:C[:DATA] <DecValue>
with <DecValue> = 0 to 255
--> possible command syntax: CONTrol:AUXiliary:C:DATA 1
●
NAN (Not A Number) (as a returned value) is generally used to represent missing
data, e.g. if a portion of a trace has not been acquired yet. It is also returned after
invalid mathematical operations such as division by zero. As defined in the SCPI
standard, NAN is represented as 9.91 E 37.
●
INV (INValid) is returned e.g. if a limit check is performed without defining the appropriate tolerance values.
6.1.4 Numeric Suffixes
Symbols in angular brackets (<Ch>, <Chn>, <Mk>...) are numeric suffixes. Numeric suffixes are replaced by integer numbers to distinguish various items of the same type. The
analyzer provides numeric suffixes for channels, traces, ports, markers etc. If unspecified,
a numeric suffix is replaced by 1.
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Common Commands
The marker suffix must be in the range between 1 and 10, the number of ports depends
on the analyzer model. No restrictions apply to channel, trace, and diagram suffixes.
In remote control, one active trace can be selected for each channel; see ​chapter 5.3.2,
"Active Traces in Remote Control", on page 343. This concept simplifies the remote control command syntax, because it allows the active trace in a particular channel to be
referenced by means of the channel suffix. To keep the syntax transparent, <Ch> is used
for channel settings (it denotes the configured channel), whereas <Chn> is used for trace
settings (it denotes the active trace in the channel).
6.2 Common Commands
Common commands are described in the IEEE 488.2 (IEC 625-2) standard. These commands have the same effect and are employed in the same way on different devices.
The headers of these commands consist of "*" followed by three letters. Many common
commands are related to the status reporting system; see ​chapter 5.5, "Status Reporting
System", on page 349.
Table 6-1: List of common commands
Command
Parameters / Remarks
Short Description
*CLS
– / no query
Sets the status byte (STB), the standard event register (ESR) and the EVENt part
of the QUEStionable and the OPERation register to zero. The command does not
alter the mask and transition parts of the registers. It clears the output buffer and
the tooltip error messages for remote control.
0...255
Sets the event status enable register to the value indicated. The query *ESE?
returns the contents of the event status enable register in decimal form.
– / query only
Returns the contents of the event status register in decimal form (0 to 255) and
subsequently sets the register to zero.
– / query only
Queries the instrument identification string of the R&S ZNC, including the manufacturer, the instrument type, its serial number, and the software revision. The
response is of the form "Rohde&Schwarz,ZNC<Max. Freq><Ports>Port,<Serial_no>,<FW_Version> (e.g. Rohde-Schwarz,ZNC8-2Port,
1311.6004.12,12345,1.10.12)".
CLear Status
*ESE
Event Status Enable
*ESR?
Event Status Read
*IDN?
IDentification Query
The IDN information is editable; see ​"Define *IDN? + *OPT?" on page 319.
*IST?
– / query only
Returns the contents of the IST flag in decimal form (0 | 1). The IST-flag is the
status bit which is sent during a parallel poll.
–
Sets bit 0 in the event status register when all preceding commands have been
executed. This bit can be used to initiate a service request. The query form writes
a "1" into the output buffer as soon as all preceding commands have been executed. This is used for command synchronization.
*OPT?
–
OPTion identification
query
query only
Queries the options included in the instrument and returns a list of the options
installed. The response consists of arbitrary ASCII response data according to
IEEE 488.2. The options are returned at fixed positions in a comma separated
string. A zero is returned for options that are not installed.
Individual STatus
query
*OPC
OPeration Complete
The OPT information is editable; see ​"Define *IDN? + *OPT?" on page 319.
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Command
Parameters / Remarks
Short Description
*PCB
0...30 / no query
Indicates the controller address to which GPIB bus control is returned after termination of the triggered action.
0...255
Sets parallel poll enable register to the value indicated. Query *PRE? returns the
contents of the parallel poll enable register in decimal form.
0|1
Determines whether the contents of the ENABle registers is maintained or reset
when the instrument is switched on. *PSC = 0 causes the contents of the status
registers to be maintained. Thus a service request can be triggered on switching
on in the case of a corresponding configuration of status registers ESE and SRE.
*PSC = 0 resets the registers. Query *PSC? reads out the contents of the poweron-status-clear flag. The response can be 0 or 1.
– / no query
Sets the instrument to a defined default status. The command is equivalent to ​
SYSTem:​PRESet[:​DUMMy]​. The *RST value of each command is reported in
the reference description. See also ​SYSTem:​PRESet:​SCOPe​.
0...255
Sets the service request enable register to the value indicated. Bit 6 (MSS mask
bit) remains 0. This command determines under which conditions a service
request is triggered. The query *SRE? returns the contents of the service request
enable register in decimal form. Bit 6 is always 0.
– / query only
Reads the contents of the status byte in decimal form.
– / no query
Triggers all actions waiting for a trigger event. *TRG generates a manual trigger
signal. This common command complements the TRIGger... commands of the
analyzer.
– / no query
Prevents servicing of the subsequent commands until all preceding commands
have been executed and all signals have settled.
Pass Control Back
*PRE
Parallel poll Register
Enable
*PSC
Power on Status Clear
*RST
ReSeT
*SRE
Service Request
Enable
*STB?
STatus Byte query
*TRG
TRiGger
*WAI
WAIt to continue
6.3 SCPI Command Reference
The following sections provide detailed reference information on the instrument control commands implemented by the R&S ZNC network analyzer.
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
CALCulate Commands.........................................................................................372
CONFigure Commands.........................................................................................453
CONTrol Commands.............................................................................................460
DIAGnostic Commands.........................................................................................469
DISPlay Commands..............................................................................................470
FORMat Commands.............................................................................................493
HCOPy Commands...............................................................................................495
INITiate Commands..............................................................................................499
INSTrument Commands.......................................................................................502
MEMory.................................................................................................................503
MMEMory Commands..........................................................................................504
OUTPut Commands..............................................................................................529
PROGram Commands..........................................................................................531
[SENSe:] Commands............................................................................................534
SOURce Commands.............................................................................................619
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●
●
●
●
STATus Commands..............................................................................................645
SYSTem Commands............................................................................................648
TRACe Commands...............................................................................................670
TRIGger Commands.............................................................................................673
6.3.1 CALCulate Commands
The CALCulate... commands perform post-acquisition data processing. Functions in
the SENSe subsystem are related to data acquisition, while the CALCulate subsystem
operates on the data acquired by a SENSe function.
6.3.1.1
CALCulate:CLIMits...
The CALCulate:CLIMits... commands control the composite limit check.
CALCulate:CLIMits:FAIL?
Returns a 0 or 1 to indicate whether or not a global, composite limit check on several
traces has failed.
6.3.1.2
Example:
*RST; CALC:LIM:CONT 1 GHZ, 2 GHZ
Define an upper limit line segment in the stimulus range between
1 GHz and 2 GHz, using default response values.
CALC:LIM:STAT ON; FAIL?
Switch the limit check on and query the result.
CALC:CLIM:FAIL?
Query the result for the composite limit check. As only one trace
is tested, the response should be equal to the previous response.
Usage:
Query only
Manual operation:
See "Global Check" on page 180
CALCulate:DATA...
The CALCulate:DATA... commands provide access to the results of a measurement.
Data format
The trace data is transferred in either ASCII or block data (REAL) format, depending on
the ​FORMat[:​DATA]​ setting. If block data format is used, it is recommended to select
EOI as a receive terminator (​SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​GPIB[:​SELF]:​RTERminator​
EOI).
CALCulate<Chn>:​DATA​.................................................................................................373
CALCulate:​DATA:​ALL?​...................................................................................................375
CALCulate<Ch>:​DATA:​CALL?​........................................................................................376
CALCulate<Ch>:​DATA:​CALL:​CATalog?​...........................................................................376
CALCulate:​DATA:​DALL?​................................................................................................377
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CALCulate<Chn>:​DATA:​NSWeep:​COUNt?​......................................................................377
CALCulate<Chn>:​DATA:​NSWeep:​FIRSt?​........................................................................377
CALCulate<Chn>:​DATA:​NSWeep[:​LAST]?​.......................................................................378
CALCulate<Ch>:​DATA:​SGRoup?​....................................................................................379
CALCulate<Chn>:​DATA:​STIMulus?​.................................................................................379
CALCulate:​DATA:​TRACe?​..............................................................................................379
CALCulate<Chn>:DATA <Format>, <Data>...
CALCulate<Chn>:DATA? <Format>
Reads the current response values of the active data trace, reads or writes a memory
trace, and reads or writes error terms.
The data format of the returned values is parameter-dependent; see tables below. The
unit is the default unit of the measured parameter; see ​CALCulate<Ch>:​
PARameter:​SDEFine​.
Suffix:
<Chn>
Parameters:
<Data>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace. If unspecified
the numeric suffix is set to 1.
<block_data>
Unformatted trace data in ASCII or block data format, depending
on FORMat[:DATA] setting. This parameter is only used for writing memory traces; see second example below.
Parameters for setting and query:
<Format>
FDATa | SDATa | MDATa | NCData | SCORr1 | SCORr2 |
SCORr3 | SCORr4 | SCORr5 | SCORr6 | SCORr7 | SCORr8 |
SCORr9 | SCORr10 | SCORr11 | SCORr12 | SCORr13 |
SCORr14 | SCORr15 | SCORr16 | SCORr17 | SCORr18 |
SCORr19 | SCORr20 | SCORr21 | SCORr22 | SCORr23 |
SCORr24 | SCORr25 | SCORr26 | SCORr27
See list of parameters below.
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Example:
*RST; SWE:POIN 20
Create a trace with 20 sweep points, making the created trace the
active trace of channel 1 (omitted optional mnemonic SENSe1).
CALC:DATA? FDAT
Query the 20 response values of the created trace. In the FDATa
setting, 20 comma-separated ASCII values are returned.
CALC:DATA:STIM?
Query the 20 stimulus values of the created trace. 20 commaseparated ASCII values are returned.
CALC2:PAR:SDEF 'Trc2', 'S11'
Create a second trace in a new channel no. 2. The second trace
does not become the active trace and is not displayed.
CALC:DATA:TRAC? 'Trc2', FDAT
Query the response values of the second (non-active) trace. 20
comma-separated ASCII values are returned.
CALC:DATA:ALL? FDAT
Query the response values of all traces. 40 comma-separated
ASCII values are returned.
Example:
Writing memory traces
*RST; SWE:POIN 3
Create a data trace 'Trc1' with 3 sweep points, making the created
trace the active trace of channel 1 (omitted optional mnemonic
SENSe1).
TRAC:COPY 'MemTrc1','Trc1'; :CALC:PAR:SEL
'MemTrc1'
Copy the data trace to a memory trace and select the memory
trace as an active trace.
CALC:DATA SDAT, 1,2, 3,4, 5,6
Write numbers (1,2), (3,4), (5,6) to the memory trace.
CALC:DATA? SDAT
Query the memory trace. The response is 1,2,3,4,5,6.
FORM REAL,32
Change the data format to 4-byte block data.
CALC:DATA SDAT, #224123456789012345678901234
Write 24 bytes (= 4 * 2 * 3 bytes) of data to the memory trace.
The following parameters are related to trace data (see also diagram in ​chapter 3.1.5,
"Data Flow", on page 17):
Table 6-2: Data format identifiers used in the CALCulate:DATA... commands
FDATa
Formatted trace data, according to the selected trace format (CALCulate<Ch>:FORMat). 1 value per trace point for Cartesian diagrams, 2 values for
polar diagrams.
SDATa
Unformatted trace data: Real and imaginary part of each measurement point. 2
values per trace point irrespective of the selected trace format. The trace mathematics is not taken into account.
MDATa
Unformatted trace data (see SDATa) after evaluation of the trace mathematics.
NCData
Factory calibrated trace data: the values are obtained right after applying the factory calibration but before applying a user-defined calibration (if any).
Offset and impedance normalization will not be performed.
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The following parameters denote the error terms generated during a calibration.
Table 6-3: Error terms in the CALCulate:DATA... commands
Error Term
Description
Receive Ports (S-parameter)
SCORr1, ..., SCORr12
2-port error terms; see ​[SENSe<Ch>:​
]CORRection:​DATA​.
1 and 2 (S11, S12, S21, S22)
SCORr13
Directivity
3 (S33)
SCORr14
Source match
3 (S33)
SCORr15
Reflection tracking
3 (S33)
SCORr16
Isolation
3 (S31)
SCORr17
Load match
3 (S31)
SCORr18
Transmission tracking
3 (S13)
SCORr19
Isolation
1 (S13)
SCORr20
Load match
1 (S13)
SCORr21
Transmission tracking
1 (S13)
SCORr22
Isolation
3 (S32)
SCORr23
Load match
3 (S32)
SCORr24
Transmission tracking
3 (S32)
SCORr25
Isolation
2 (S23)
SCORr26
Load match
2 (S23)
SCORr27
Transmission tracking
2 (S23)
Note: The error terms are channel-specific; they apply to the active calibration of channel
no. <Chn> or to the factory calibration (if no channel calibration is active). For the factory
calibration, the query form is allowed only (no change of factory calibration data).
Tip: Use the generalized command ​[SENSe<Ch>:​]CORRection:​CDATa​ to read or
write error terms for arbitrary analyzer ports. For additional programming examples refer
to ​chapter 7.2.5.2, "Saving and Recalling Error Terms", on page 729.
CALCulate:DATA:ALL? <Format>
Reads the current response values of all traces of the current recall set.
Query parameters:
<Format>
FDATa | SDATa | MDATa
Output format for the S-parameter data, see ​
CALCulate<Chn>:​DATA​.
Return values:
<Data>
<block_data>
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​DATA​
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Usage:
Query only
CALCulate<Ch>:DATA:CALL? <Format>
Reads the current response values of all S-parameter data traces in channel no. <Ch>.
If a full n-port system error correction (TOSM, TOM, TRL ...) is active in the referenced
channel, the command reads the full nxn S-matrix of the calibrated ports (there is no need
to create or display the S-parameter traces). Use ​CALCulate<Ch>:​DATA:​CALL:​
CATalog?​ to query the available traces.
Suffix:
<Ch>
.
Channel number
Query parameters:
<Format>
FDATa | SDATa | MDATa
Output format for the S-parameter data; see ​
CALCulate<Chn>:​DATA​.
*RST:
Return values:
<Data>
n/a
<block_data>
Example:
Suppose that a TOSM calibration for ports 1 and 2 is active in
channel no. 1.
CALCulate:DATA:CALL:CATalog?
Query the traces available for CALCulate<Ch>:DATA:CALL?.
The response is 'S11,S12,S21,S22'.
CALCulate:DATA:CALL? SDATa
Return the complex response values of all traces. The traces in
the catalog list are read one after another: The response array
contains n (number of points) pairs of real and imaginary values
for S11, followed by n pairs of values for S12, S21, and S22.
Usage:
Query only
CALCulate<Ch>:DATA:CALL:CATalog?
Returns all traces which are available for ​CALCulate<Ch>:​DATA:​CALL?​ in channel no.
<Ch>. The response is a string parameter with all S-parameter traces in the current
channel or in the active system error correction; see example.
Suffix:
<Ch>
.
Channel number
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Ch>:​DATA:​CALL?​
Usage:
Query only
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CALCulate:DATA:DALL? <Format>
Reads the current response values of all data traces of the current recall set. Use ​
CALCulate:​DATA:​ALL?​ to query data traces and memory traces.
Query parameters:
<Format>
FDATa | SDATa | MDATa
Output format for the S-parameter data, see ​
CALCulate<Chn>:​DATA​.
Return values:
<Data>
<block_data>
Example:
Analogous to ​CALCulate:​DATA:​DALL?​; see ​
CALCulate<Chn>:​DATA​.
Usage:
Query only
CALCulate<Chn>:DATA:NSWeep:COUNt?
Reads the number of completed sweeps in single sweep mode (​INITiate<Ch>:​
CONTinuous​OFF). The trace can be any of the traces acquired during the single sweep
cycle.
Tip:
This command can only be used for ​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SWEep:​COUNt​ > 1.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​DATA:​NSWeep:​FIRSt?​
Usage:
Query only
CALCulate<Chn>:DATA:NSWeep:FIRSt? <Format>[, <FwCount>, <FwCountEnd>]
Reads the response values of a trace or a consecutive group of traces acquired in single
sweep mode (​INITiate<Ch>:​CONTinuous​ OFF).
Tip:
This command can only be used for ​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SWEep:​COUNt​ > 1.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Query parameters:
<Format>
SDATa
Read unformatted sweep data (fixed parameter): Returns the real
and imaginary part of each measurement point (2 values per trace
point irrespective of the selected trace format).
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<FwCount>
Number of first sweep to be read. 1 denotes the first sweep
acquired, 2 denotes the second and so forth. The sweep count in
single sweep mode is defined via ​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SWEep:​
COUNt​.
Range:
<FwCountEnd>
Number of last sweep to be read. If this parameter is omitted, it is
implicitly set to <FwCount> (a single sweep is read).
Range:
Return values:
<Data>
1 to sweep count
<FwCount> to sweep count
<block_data>
Example:
SWE:COUN 10
Define the number of sweeps (10) to be measured in single sweep
mode.
INIT:CONT OFF; :INIT;
Activate single sweep mode and start a single sweep sequence in
channel no. 1. No synchronization is necessary.
if (CALC:DATA:NSW:COUN? > 4)
CALC:DATA:NSW:FIRS? SDAT, 5
Wait until 5 sweeps have been measured, then query the results
of the 5th sweep.
See also ​chapter 7.2.4.3, "Retrieving the Results of Previous
Sweeps", on page 726.
Usage:
Query only
CALCulate<Chn>:DATA:NSWeep[:LAST]? <Format>, <RvCount>
Reads the response values of a trace acquired in single sweep mode (​
INITiate<Ch>:​CONTinuous​OFF). The trace can be any of the traces acquired during
the single sweep cycle.
Tip:
●
This command can only be used for ​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SWEep:​COUNt​ > 1.
●
Ensure that the single sweep is terminated before using this command, otherwise the
results of the trace count will be unpredictable (see example below). Alternatively,
use the ​CALCulate<Chn>:​DATA:​NSWeep:​FIRSt?​ command.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Query parameters:
<Format>
SDATa
Read unformatted sweep data (fixed parameter): Returns the real
and imaginary part of each measurement point (2 values per trace
point, irrespective of the selected trace format).
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<RvCount>
Number of sweep to be read. 1 denotes the last sweep acquired,
2 denotes the second-last and so forth.
Range:
1 to sweep count defined via
[SENSe<Ch>:]SWEep:COUNt
Example:
SWE:COUN 10
Define the number of sweeps (10) to be measured in single sweep
mode.
INIT:CONT OFF; :INIT; *OPC?
Activate single sweep mode and start a single sweep sequence in
channel no. 1. Wait until the single sweep sequence is complete.
CALC:DATA:NSW? SDAT,3
Query the results of the 8th sweep.
See also ​chapter 7.2.4.3, "Retrieving the Results of Previous
Sweeps", on page 726.
Usage:
Query only
CALCulate<Ch>:DATA:SGRoup? <Format>
Reads the current response values of all S-parameters associated to a group of logical
ports (S-parameter group). The S-parameter group must be created before using ​
CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​DEFine:​SGRoup​.
Suffix:
<Ch>
.
Channel number of the previously defined S-parameter group.
Query parameters:
<Format>
FDATa | SDATa | MDATa
Output format for the S-parameter data, see ​
CALCulate<Chn>:​DATA​ on page 373.
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​DEFine:​SGRoup​
Usage:
Query only
CALCulate<Chn>:DATA:STIMulus?
Reads the stimulus values of the active data or memory trace.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​DATA​
Usage:
Query only
CALCulate:DATA:TRACe? <TraceName>, <Format>
Queries the trace data of an arbitrary (not necessarily the active) trace, referenced by its
trace name <TraceName>.
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Parameters:
<TraceName>
String parameter containing the trace name
<Format>
FDATa | SDATa | MDATa | NCData
Data format; see ​Data format identifiers used in the CALCulate:DATA... commands.
6.3.1.3
Example:
See ​Data format identifiers used in the CALCulate:DATA... commands.
Usage:
Query only
CALCulate:DLINe...
The CALCulate:DLINe... commands control the horizontal line used to mark and
retrieve response values (display line).
CALCulate<Chn>:​DLINe​.................................................................................................380
CALCulate<Chn>:​DLINe:​STATe​......................................................................................380
CALCulate<Chn>:DLINe <Position>
Defines the position (response value) of the horizontal line.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<Position>
See list of parameters below.
Range:
-200 dB to +200 dB
*RST:
0 dB
Default unit: dBm
Example:
*RST; :CALC:DLIN 10
Define the position of the horizontal line in the default dB Mag diagram at +10 dB.
CALC:DLIN:STAT ON
Display the defined horizontal line.
Manual operation:
See "Response Value" on page 191
CALCulate<Chn>:DLINe:STATe <Boolean>
Switches the horizontal line on or off.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<Boolean>
ON | OFF - horizontal line on or off
*RST:
Example:
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OFF
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​DLINe​
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Manual operation:
6.3.1.4
See "Horizontal Line" on page 191
CALCulate:FILTer[:GATE]...
The CALCulate:FILTer[:GATE]... commands define the properties of the time gate
which is used to optimize the time domain response.
CALCulate:​FILTer[:​GATE]:​TIME:​AOFFset​........................................................................381
CALCulate<Chn>:​FILTer[:​GATE]:​TIME:​CENTer​................................................................381
CALCulate<Chn>:​FILTer[:​GATE]:​TIME:​DCHebyshev​........................................................382
CALCulate<Chn>:​FILTer[:​GATE]:​TIME:​SHAPe​.................................................................382
CALCulate<Chn>:​FILTer[:​GATE]:​TIME:​SHOW​.................................................................383
CALCulate<Chn>:​FILTer[:​GATE]:​TIME:​SPAN​...................................................................383
CALCulate<Chn>:​FILTer[:​GATE]:​TIME:​STATe​.................................................................383
CALCulate<Chn>:​FILTer[:​GATE]:​TIME:​STARt​..................................................................384
CALCulate<Chn>:​FILTer[:​GATE]:​TIME:​STOP​...................................................................384
CALCulate<Chn>:​FILTer[:​GATE]:​TIME:​WINDow​...............................................................384
CALCulate<Chn>:​FILTer[:​GATE]:​TIME[:​TYPE]​.................................................................385
CALCulate:FILTer[:GATE]:TIME:AOFFset <Boolean>
Activates the operating mode where the time gate is moved in the opposite direction when
the "Delay" setting is changed.
Parameters:
<Boolean>
ON | OFF - enable or disable "Adjust Time Gate".
*RST:
OFF
Example:
*RST; :CALCulate1:TRANsform:TIME:STATe ON
CALCulate1:FILTer:GATE:TIME:STATe ON; SHOW ON
Activate time domain representation and a time gate in channel
no. 1. Display the time gate
CALCulate1:FILTer:GATE:TIME:STARt 2ns; STOP 3
ns
Restrict the time gate to the time interval between 2 ns and 3 ns.
CALCulate:FILTer:GATE:TIME:AOFFset ON
Activate an offset of the time gate according to a new delay setting.
SENSe1:CORRection:EDELay1:TIME 1ns
Specify a 1 ns delay at port 1.
CALCulate1:FILTer:GATE:TIME:STARt?; STOP?
Query the time gate position. The response is 1E-009;2E-009.
Manual operation:
See "Adjust Time Gate" on page 289
CALCulate<Chn>:FILTer[:GATE]:TIME:CENTer <CenterTime>
Defines the center time of the time gate.
Suffix:
<Chn>
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Channel number used to identify the active trace.
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Parameters:
<CenterTime>
Center time of the time gate
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
-99.8999999 s to +99.8999999 s
0.1 ns
1.5E-009 s
s
Example:
*RST; :CALC:TRAN:TIME:STAT ON; :CALC:FILT:TIME:
STAT ON
Reset the instrument and enable the time domain representation
and the time gate.
CALC:FILT:TIME:CENT 0; SPAN 5ns
Set the center time to 0 ns and the time span to 5 ns.
Manual operation:
See "Axis Pair" on page 164
CALCulate<Chn>:FILTer[:GATE]:TIME:DCHebyshev <SidebandSupp>
Sets the sideband suppression for the Dolph-Chebyshev time gate. The command is only
available if a Dolph-Chebyshev time gate is active (​CALCulate<Chn>:​FILTer[:​
GATE]:​TIME:​WINDow​ DCHebyshev).
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<SidebandSupp>
Sideband suppression
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
10 dB to 120 dB
10 dB
32 dB
dB
Example:
*RST; :CALC:FILT:TIME:WIND DCH
Reset the instrument and select a Dolph-Chebyshev time gate for
filtering the data in the frequency domain.
CALC:FILT:TIME:DCH 25
Set the sideband suppression to 25 dB.
Manual operation:
See "Side Lobe Level" on page 165
CALCulate<Chn>:FILTer[:GATE]:TIME:SHAPe <TimeGate>
Selects the time gate to be applied to the time domain transform.
Tip:
Use the generalized command ​CALCulate<Chn>:​FILTer[:​GATE]:​TIME:​WINDow​ if
you wish to select a Dolph-Chebychev time gate.
Suffix:
<Chn>
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Channel number used to identify the active trace.
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Parameters:
<TimeGate>
MAXimum | WIDE | NORMal | MINimum
MINimum - Steepest edges (rectangle)
WIDE - Normal gate (Hann)
NORM - Steep edges (Hamming)
Maximum - Maximum flatness (Bohman)
*RST:
WIDE
Example:
*RST; :CALC:FILT:TIME:SHAP?
Reset the instrument and query the type of time gate used. The
response is WIDE.
Manual operation:
See "Shape" on page 165
CALCulate<Chn>:FILTer[:GATE]:TIME:SHOW <Boolean>
Enables or disables permanent display of the gate limits.
Suffix:
<Chn>
Parameters:
<Boolean>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
ON - time gate permanently displayed
OFF - time gate hidden
*RST:
OFF
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​FILTer[:​GATE]:​TIME:​CENTer​
Manual operation:
See "Show Range Limits" on page 164
CALCulate<Chn>:FILTer[:GATE]:TIME:SPAN <Span>
Defines the span of the time gate.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<Span>
Span of the time gate.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
2E-012 s to 200 s
0.1 ns
5E-009 s
s
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​FILTer[:​GATE]:​TIME:​CENTer​
Manual operation:
See "Axis Pair" on page 164
CALCulate<Chn>:FILTer[:GATE]:TIME:STATe <Boolean>
Determines whether the time gate for trace no. <Chn> is enabled.
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Suffix:
<Chn>
Parameters:
<Boolean>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
ON - time gate enabled
OFF - time gate disabled
*RST:
OFF
Example:
*RST; :CALC:TRAN:TIME:STAT?
CALC:FILT:TIME:STAT?
Reset the instrument, activating a frequency sweep, and query
whether the default trace is displayed in the time domain and
whether the time gate is enabled. The response to both queries is
0.
Manual operation:
See "Time Gate" on page 164
CALCulate<Chn>:FILTer[:GATE]:TIME:STARt <StartTime>
CALCulate<Chn>:FILTer[:GATE]:TIME:STOP <StopTime>
These commands define the start and stop times of the time gate, respectively.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<StopTime>
Start or stop time of the time gate.
Range:
-100 s to +99.999999999998 s (start time ) and
-99.999999999998 s to +100 s (stop time)
Increment: 0.1 ns
*RST:
-1E-009 s (start time) to +4E-009 s (stop time)
Default unit: s
Example:
*RST; :CALC:TRAN:TIME:STAT ON; :CALC:FILT:TIME:
STAT ON
Reset the instrument and enable the time domain representation
and the time gate.
CALC:FILT:TIME:STAR 0; STOP 10ns; SHOW ON
Set the start time to 0 ns and the stop time to 10 ns and display
the time gate permanently.
Manual operation:
See "Axis Pair" on page 164
Note: If the start frequency entered is greater than the current stop frequency, the stop
frequency is set to the start frequency plus the minimum frequency span (​
CALCulate<Chn>:​FILTer[:​GATE]:​TIME:​SPAN​).
If the stop frequency entered is smaller than the current start frequency, the start frequency is set to the stop frequency minus the minimum frequency span.
CALCulate<Chn>:FILTer[:GATE]:TIME:WINDow <TimeGate>
Selects the time gate to be applied to the time domain transform.
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Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<TimeGate>
RECT | HAMMing | HANNing | BOHMan | DCHebyshev
RECT - steepest edges (rectangle)
HANN - normal gate (Hann)
HAMMing - steep edges (Hamming)
BOHMan - minimum flatness (Bohman)
DCHebyshev - arbitrary gate shape (Dolph-Chebychev)
*RST:
HANN
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​FILTer[:​GATE]:​TIME:​DCHebyshev​
Manual operation:
See "Shape" on page 165
CALCulate<Chn>:FILTer[:GATE]:TIME[:TYPE] <TimeGateFilter>
Selects the time gate filter type, defining what occurs to the data in the specific time
region.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace-
Parameters:
<TimeGateFilter>
BPASs | NOTCh
BPASs - band pass filter: Pass all information in specified time
region and reject everything else.
NOTCh - notch filter: Reject all information in specified time region
and pass everything else.
*RST:
6.3.1.5
BPASs
Example:
*RST; :CALC:FILT:TIME:STAT ON
Reset the instrument and enable the time gate.
CALC:FILT:TIME NOTCh
Select a notch filter in order to reject unwanted pulses.
Manual operation:
See "Bandpass / Notch" on page 164
CALCulate:FORMat...
The CALCulate:FORMat... commands determine the post-processing of the measured data in order to obtain various display formats.
CALCulate<Chn>:FORMat <Type>
Defines how the measured result at any sweep point is post-processed and presented in
the graphical display.
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Note: The analyzer allows arbitrary combinations of display formats and measured quantities; see ​chapter 4.2.2, "Format Settings", on page 135 and
CALCulate<Ch>:PARameter... commands. Nevertheless, it is advisable to check
which display formats are generally appropriate for an analysis of a particular measured
quantity; see ​chapter 3.2.4.6, "Measured Quantities and Display Formats", on page 42.
Suffix:
<Chn>
Parameters:
<Type>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
MLINear | MLOGarithmic | PHASe | UPHase | POLar | SMITh |
ISMith | GDELay | REAL | IMAGinary | SWR | COMPlex |
MAGNitude
See list of parameters below.
*RST:
MLOGarithmic
Example:
CALC4:PAR:SDEF 'Ch4Tr1', 'S11'
Create channel 4 and a trace named Ch4Tr1 to measure the input
reflection coefficient S11. The trace becomes the active trace in
channel 4.
CALC4:FORM MLIN; :DISP:WIND:TRAC2:FEED 'CH4TR1'
Calculate the magnitude of S11 and display it in a linearly scaled
Cartesian diagram, assigning the trace number 2.
Manual operation:
See "dB Mag" on page 136
Assume that the result at a sweep point is given by the complex quantity z = x + jy. The
meaning of the parameters is as follows (see also table in ​CALCulate<Chn>:​
MARKer<Mk>:​FORMat​ description):
MLINear
Calculate the magnitude of z, to be displayed in a
Cartesian diagram with a linear scale
MLOGarithmic
Calculate the magnitude of z, displayed in a Cartesian
diagram with a logarithmic scale
PHASe
Phase of z, displayed in a Cartesian diagram with a
linear vertical axis
UPHase
Unwrapped phase of z, displayed in a Cartesian diagram with a linear vertical axis
POLar
Magnitude and phase, displayed in a polar diagram
SMITh
Magnitude and phase, displayed in a Smith chart
ISMith
Magnitude and phase, displayed in an inverted Smith
chart
GDELay
Group delay, displayed in a Cartesian diagram
REAL
Real part (x), displayed in a Cartesian diagram
IMAGinary
Imaginary part (y), displayed in a Cartesian diagram
SWR
Standing Wave Ratio (SWR), displayed in a Cartesian
diagram
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COMPlex (for compatibility with R&S ZVR analyzers) x, y, displayed in a polar diagram
MAGNitude (for compatibility with R&S ZVR analyzers)
Magnitude (sqrt(x2 + y2)), displayed in a Cartesian
diagram with a logarithmic scale
CALCulate<Chn>:FORMat:WQUType <Unit>
Selects the physical unit of the displayed trace.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<Unit>
POWer | VOLTage
Power or voltage units
*RST:
6.3.1.6
POWer
Example:
CALC4:PAR:SDEF 'Ch4Tr1', 'b1'
Create channel 4 and a trace named Ch4Tr1 to measure the wave
quantity b1. The trace becomes the active trace in channel 4.
CALC4:FORM:WQUT VOLT
Select voltage units for the created trace (identified by the suffix
4).
Manual operation:
See "Show as" on page 126
CALCulate:GDAPerture...
The CALCulate:GDAPerture... commands configure the group delay measurement.
CALCulate<Chn>:GDAPerture:SCOunt <Steps>
Defines an aperture for the calculation of the group delay as an integer number of frequency sweep steps.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<Steps>
Number of steps
Range:
*RST:
1 to 10000
10
Example:
*RST; :CALC:FORM GDEL
Select group delay calculation for the active trace.
CALC:GDAP:SCO 15
Select an aperture of 15 steps.
Manual operation:
See "Aperture" on page 138
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6.3.1.7
CALCulate:LIMit...
The CALCulate:LIMit... commands define the limit lines and control the limit check.
CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​CIRCle:​DATA​..............................................................................388
CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​CIRCle:​DISPlay[:​STATe]​..............................................................389
CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​CIRCle:​FAIL?​..............................................................................389
CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​CIRCle:​SOUNd[:​STATe]​...............................................................389
CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​CIRCle[:​STATe]​...........................................................................390
CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​CIRCle:​CLEar​..............................................................................390
CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​CONTrol[:​DATA]​..........................................................................390
CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​CONTrol:​SHIFt​............................................................................391
CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​DATA​.........................................................................................392
CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​DELete:​ALL​.................................................................................393
CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​DISPlay[:​STATe]​..........................................................................393
CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​FAIL?​.........................................................................................393
CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​SEGMent<Seg>:​AMPLitude:​STARt​...............................................394
CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​SEGMent<Seg>:​AMPLitude:​STOP​................................................394
CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​SEGMent:​COUNt?​.......................................................................395
CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​SEGMent<Seg>:​STIMulus:​STARt​.................................................395
CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​SEGMent<Seg>:​STIMulus:​STOP​..................................................395
CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​SEGMent<Seg>:​TYPE​.................................................................396
CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​SOUNd[:​STATe]​..........................................................................396
CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​STATe​........................................................................................397
CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​STATe:​AREA​..............................................................................397
CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​TTLout<Pt>[:​STATe]​....................................................................398
CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​LOWer[:​DATA]​............................................................................398
CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​UPPer[:​DATA]​.............................................................................398
CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​LOWer:​FEED​..............................................................................399
CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​UPPer:​FEED​...............................................................................399
CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​LOWer:​SHIFt​...............................................................................400
CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​UPPer:​SHIFt​...............................................................................400
CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​CLEar​.........................................................................................400
CALCulate<Chn>:LIMit:CIRCle:DATA <CenterX>, <CenterY>, <Radius>
Defines a circle limit lines by its center coordinates and its radius.
Suffix:
<Chn>
Parameters:
<CenterX>
<CenterY>
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Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Range:
Virtually no restriction for center coordinates.
*RST:
0
Default unit: UNIT
Range:
Virtually no restriction for center coordinates.
*RST:
0
Default unit: UNIT
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<Radius>
Range:
Virtually no restriction for radius (use positive values).
*RST:
1
Default unit: UNIT
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​CIRCle[:​STATe]​
Manual operation:
See "Radius / Center X/Y" on page 191
CALCulate<Chn>:LIMit:CIRCle:DISPlay[:STATe] <Boolean>
Displays or hides the circle limit line associated to the active trace.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<Boolean>
ON | OFF - Circle limit line on or off.
*RST:
OFF
Example:
*RST; CALCulate:LIMit:CIRCle:DATA 0, 0, 0.5
Define a circle limit line centered around the origin of the polar
diagram, assigning a radius of 0.5 U.
CALCulate:FORMat POLar
CALCulate:LIMit:CIRCle:DISPlay ON
Activate a polar diagram and show the circle limit line in the diagram.
Manual operation:
See "Show Limit Circle" on page 189
CALCulate<Chn>:LIMit:CIRCle:FAIL?
Returns a 0 or 1 to indicate whether or not the circle limit check has failed. 0 represents
pass and 1 represents fail
Tip: Use ​CALCulate:​CLIMits:​FAIL?​ to perform a composite (global) limit check.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​CIRCle[:​STATe]​
Usage:
Query only
Manual operation:
See "Limit Check" on page 190
CALCulate<Chn>:LIMit:CIRCle:SOUNd[:STATe] <Boolean>
Switches the acoustic signal (fail beep) on or off. The fail beep is generated each time
the analyzer detects an exceeded circle limit.
Suffix:
<Chn>
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Channel number used to identify the active trace.
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Parameters:
<Boolean>
ON | OFF - Fail beep on or off.
*RST:
OFF
Example:
CALCulate:LIMit:CIRCle:STATe ON; SOUNd ON
Switch the limit check on and activate the fail beep.
Manual operation:
See "Limit Fail Beep" on page 190
CALCulate<Chn>:LIMit:CIRCle[:STATe] <Boolean>
Switches the circle limit check on or off.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<Boolean>
Example:
*RST; CALCulate:LIMit:CIRCle:DATA 0, 0, 0.5
Define a circle limit line centered around the origin of the polar
diagram, assigning a radius of 0.5 U.
CALCulate:LIMit:CIRCle:STATe ON; FAIL?
Switch the limit check on and query the result.
Manual operation:
See "Limit Check" on page 190
CALCulate<Chn>:LIMit:CIRCle:CLEar
Resets the limit check results for the circle test.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number
Usage:
Event
Manual operation:
See "Clear Test" on page 191
CALCulate<Chn>:LIMit:CONTrol[:DATA] <FreqPowTime>, <FreqPowTime>...
Defines the stimulus values of the limit line and/or creates new limit line segments. See
also ​chapter 3.4.1.1, "Rules for Limit Line Definition", on page 60.
Rules for creating segments
The following rules apply to an active trace with n existing limit line segments:
●
An odd number of values is rejected; an error message -109,"Missing parameter..."
is generated.
●
An even number of 2*k values updates or generates k limit line segments.
●
For n > k the stimulus values of all existing limit line segments no. 1 to k are updated,
the existing limit line segments no. k+1, ..., n are deleted.
●
For n < k the stimulus values of the limit line segments no. 1 to n are updated, the
limit line segments n+1, ,..., k are generated with default response values (see ​
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CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​UPPer[:​DATA]​, ​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​
LOWer[:​DATA]​).
Note: The generated segments are upper or lower limit line segments, depending on the
​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​SEGMent<Seg>:​TYPE​ setting.
CALCulate<Ch>:LIMit:CONTrol[:DATA] does not overwrite the type setting.
Tip: To define additional new limit line segments without overwriting the old segments
use ​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​DATA​.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<FreqPowTime>
Default unit: Hz
<FreqPowTime>
Pair(s) of frequency, power or time values, to be defined in accordance with the sweep type (​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SWEep:​TYPE​). See
also ​chapter 3.4.1.1, "Rules for Limit Line Definition", on page 60.
Range:
*RST:
Virtually no restriction for limit segments.
A segment that is created implicitly, e.g. by means of
CALCulate<Ch>:LIMit:UPPer[:DATA] or CALCulate<Ch>:LIMit:LOWer[:DATA,], covers the maximum sweep range of the analyzer.
Default unit: Hz
Example:
*RST; :CALC:LIM:CONT 1 GHZ, 2 GHZ
Select a lin. frequency sweep (default) and define an upper limit
line segment in the stimulus range between 1 GHz and 2 GHz,
using default response values (–40 dB).
CALC:LIM:DISP ON
Show the limit line segment in the active diagram.
Manual operation:
See "Segment List" on page 182
CALCulate<Chn>:LIMit:CONTrol:SHIFt <LimShift>
Shifts an existing existing limit line in horizontal direction. See also ​chapter 3.4.1.1, "Rules
for Limit Line Definition", on page 60.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Setting parameters:
<LimShift>
Offset value for the limit line
Range:
Virtually no restriction for limit segments
Default unit: Hz
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Example:
*RST; :CALC:LIM:CONT 1 GHZ, 2 GHZ
Define a limit line segment in the stimulus range between 1 GHz
and 2 GHz, using default response values.
CALC:LIM:CONT:SHIF 1; :CALC:LIM:CONT?
Shift the segment by 1 Hz. The modified limit line segment ranges
from 1000000001 (Hz) to 2000000001 (Hz).
Usage:
Setting only
Manual operation:
See "Shift Lines" on page 181
CALCulate<Chn>:LIMit:DATA <Type>, <StartStim>, <StopStim>, <StartResp>,
<StopResp>
Defines the limit line type, the stimulus and response values for a limit line with an arbitrary
number of limit line segments. See ​chapter 3.4.1.1, "Rules for Limit Line Definition",
on page 60.
Note: In contrast to ​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​CONTrol[:​DATA]​, this command does
not overwrite existing limit line segments. The defined segments are appended to the
segment list as new segments.
Suffix:
<Chn>
Parameters:
<Type>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Identifier for the type of the limit line segment:
0 – limit line segment off, segment defined but no limit check performed.
1 – upper limit line segment
2 – lower limit line segment
Range:
0, 1, 2 (see above)
<StartStim>,
<StopStim>,
<StartResp>,
<StopResp>
Stimulus and response values of the first and last points of the limit
line segment.
Example:
*RST; :CALC:LIM:CONT 1 GHZ, 1.5 GHZ
Define an upper limit line segment in the stimulus range between
1 GHz and 1.5 GHz, using default response values.
CALC:LIM:DATA 1, 1500000000, 2000000000, 2, 3
Define an upper limit line segment in the stimulus range between
1.5 GHz and 2 GHz, assigning response values of +2 dB and +3
dB.
CALC:LIM:DISP ON
Show the limit line segment in the active diagram.
Manual operation:
See "Segment List" on page 182
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Range:
Virtually no restriction for limit segments
Default unit: The default stimulus units depend on the sweep type:
Hz for frequency sweeps, dBm for power sweeps, s
for time sweeps. The default response units are the
units of the selected trace format (CALCulate<Chn>:FORMat).
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CALCulate<Chn>:LIMit:DELete:ALL
Deletes all limit line segments.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Example:
*RST; :CALC:LIM:CONT 1 GHZ, 1.5 GHZ
Define an upper limit line segment in the stimulus range between
1 GHz and 1.5 GHz, using default response values.
CALC:LIM:DATA 1,1500000000, 2000000000,2,3
Define an upper limit line segment in the stimulus range between
1.5 GHz and 2 GHz, assigning response values of +2 dB and +3
dB.
CALC:LIM:DEL:ALL
Delete both created limit line segments.
Usage:
Event
Manual operation:
See "Add / Insert / Delete / Delete All" on page 183
CALCulate<Chn>:LIMit:DISPlay[:STATe] <Boolean>
Displays or hides the entire limit line (including all segments) associated to the active
trace.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<Boolean>
ON | OFF - Limit line on or off.
*RST:
OFF
Example:
*RST; :CALC:LIM:CONT 1 GHZ, 2 GHZ
Define an upper limit line segment in the stimulus range between
1 GHz and 2 GHz, using default response values.
CALC:LIM:DISP ON
Show the limit line segment in the active diagram.
Manual operation:
See "Show Limit Line" on page 178
CALCulate<Chn>:LIMit:FAIL?
Returns a 0 or 1 to indicate whether or not the limit check has failed. 0 represents pass
and 1 represents fail
Tip: Use ​CALCulate:​CLIMits:​FAIL?​ to perform a composite (global) limit check.
Suffix:
<Chn>
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.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
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Example:
*RST; :CALC:LIM:CONT 1 GHZ, 2 GHZ
Define an upper limit line segment in the stimulus range between
1 GHz and 2 GHz, using default response values.
CALC:LIM:STAT ON; FAIL?
Switch the limit check on and query the result.
CALC:LIM:STAT:AREA LEFT, TOP
For a subsequent check at the GUI or a hardcopy, move the pass/
fail message to the top left position.
Usage:
Query only
Manual operation:
See "Limit Check" on page 179
CALCulate<Chn>:LIMit:SEGMent<Seg>:AMPLitude:STARt <Response>
CALCulate<Chn>:LIMit:SEGMent<Seg>:AMPLitude:STOP <Response>
These commands change the start or the stop response values (i.e. the response values
assigned to the start or stop stimulus values) of a limit line segment. A segment must be
created first to enable the commands (e.g ​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​DATA​). See also ​
chapter 3.4.1.1, "Rules for Limit Line Definition", on page 60.
Tip: To define the response values of several limit line segments with a single command,
use ​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​LOWer[:​DATA]​ or ​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​
UPPer[:​DATA]​.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
<Seg>
Segment number
Parameters:
<Response>
Response value
Range:
*RST:
Virtually no restriction for limit segments
The default response values of a segment that is created by defining its stimulus values only (e.g. by
means of CALCulate<Ch>:LIMit:CONTrol[:DATA]),
are -40 dB.
Default unit: dB
Example:
CALC:LIM:DATA 1,1500000000, 2000000000,2,3
Define an upper limit line segment (segment no. 1) in the stimulus
range between 1.5 GHz and 2 GHz, assigning response values of
+2 dB and +3 dB.
:CALC:LIM:SEGM:AMPL:STAR 5; STOP 5; :CALC:LIM:
SEGM:TYPE LMIN
Change the segment to a lower limit line segment with a constant
response value of +5 dB.
CALC:LIM:DATA?
Query the type, the stimulus and response values of the created
segment with a single command. The response is
2,1500000000,2000000000,5,5.
Manual operation:
See "Segment List" on page 182
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CALCulate<Chn>:LIMit:SEGMent:COUNt?
Returns the number of limit line segments, including enabled and disabled segments.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Example:
CALC:LIM:DATA 1,1500000000, 2000000000,2,3
Define an upper limit line segment (segment no. 1) in the stimulus
range between 1.5 GHz and 2 GHz, assigning response values of
+2 dB and +3 dB.
CALC:LIM:SEGM:COUNT?
Query the number of segments. The response is 1.
Usage:
Query only
Manual operation:
See "Segment List" on page 182
CALCulate<Chn>:LIMit:SEGMent<Seg>:STIMulus:STARt <FreqPowTime>
CALCulate<Chn>:LIMit:SEGMent<Seg>:STIMulus:STOP <FreqPowTime>
These commands change the start and stop stimulus values (i.e. the smallest and the
largest stimulus values) of a limit line segment. A segment must be created first to enable
the commands (e.g ​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​DATA​). See also ​chapter 3.4.1.1, "Rules
for Limit Line Definition", on page 60.
Tip: To define the stimulus values of several limit line segments with a single command,
use ​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​CONTrol[:​DATA]​.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
<Seg>
Segment number
Parameters:
<FreqPowTime>
Frequency, power or time value, to be defined in accordance with
the sweep type (​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SWEep:​TYPE​).
Range:
*RST:
Virtually no restriction for limit segments.
A segment that is created implicitly, e.g. by means of
CALCulate<Ch>:LIMit:UPPer[:DATA] or CALCulate<Ch>:LIMit:LOWer[:DATA,], covers the maximum sweep range of the analyzer.
Default unit: Hz for frequency sweeps, dBm for power sweeps, s
for time sweeps
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Example:
CALC:LIM:DATA 1,1500000000, 2000000000,2,3
Define an upper limit line segment (segment no. 1) in the stimulus
range between 1.5 GHz and 2 GHz, assigning response values of
+2 dB and +3 dB.
CALC:LIM:SEGM:STIM:STAR 1GHZ; STOP 2 GHZ; :
CALC:LIM:SEGM:TYPE LMIN
Change the segment to a lower limit line segment with a stimulus
range between 1 GHz and 2 GHz.
CALC:LIM:DATA?
Query the type, the stimulus and response values of the created
segment with a single command. The response is
2,1000000000,2000000000,2,3.
Manual operation:
See "Segment List" on page 182
CALCulate<Chn>:LIMit:SEGMent<Seg>:TYPE <LimLineType>
Selects the limit line type for a limit line segment. This can be done before or after defining
the stimulus and response values of the segment, however, a segment must be created
first to enable this command (e.g CALC:LIM:DATA).
Note: The type command overwrites the ​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​DATA​ settings and
is overwritten by them. It is not affected by the other commands in the
CALCulate<Chn>:LIMit... subsystem defining stimulus and response values of limit
lines.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
<Seg>
Segment number
Parameters:
<LimLineType>
LMIN | LMAX | OFF
Limit line type
Range:
*RST:
LMAX (upper limit line segment), LMIN (lower limit
line segment), OFF (limit check switched off, limit line
segment not deleted)
LMAX
Example:
*RST; :CALC:LIM:UPP 0, 0
Define an upper limit line segment across the entire sweep range,
using a constant upper limit of 0 dBm.
CALC:LIM:SEGM:TYPE LMIN
Turn the defined limit line segment into a lower limit line segment.
Manual operation:
See "Segment List" on page 182
CALCulate<Chn>:LIMit:SOUNd[:STATe] <Boolean>
Switches the acoustic signal (fail beep) on or off. The fail beep is generated each time
the analyzer detects an exceeded limit.
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Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<Boolean>
ON | OFF - Fail beep on or off.
*RST:
OFF
Example:
CALC:LIM:STAT ON; SOUN ON
Switch the limit check on and activate the fail beep.
Manual operation:
See "Limit Fail Beep" on page 180
CALCulate<Chn>:LIMit:STATe <Boolean>
Switches the limit check (including upper and lower limits) on or off.
Tip: Use CALCulate<Ch>:LIMit:UPPer:STATe or
CALCulate<Ch>:LIMit:LOWer:STATe to switch on or off the individual limit checks
for upper or lower limit lines.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<Boolean>
ON | OFF - Limit check on or off.
*RST:
OFF
Example:
*RST; CALC:LIM:CONT 1 GHZ, 2 GHZ
Define an upper limit line segment in the stimulus range between
1 GHz and 2 GHz, using default response values.
CALC:LIM:STAT ON; FAIL?
Switch the limit check on and query the result.
Manual operation:
See "Limit Check" on page 179
CALCulate<Chn>:LIMit:STATe:AREA <HorizontalPos>, <VerticalPos>
Moves the limit check pass/fail message for the active trace <Chn> to one of nine predefined positions in the active diagram.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<HorizontalPos>
LEFT | MID | RIGHt
Horizontal position
<VerticalPos>
TOP | MID | BOTTom
Vertical position
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​FAIL?​
Manual operation:
See "Limit Check" on page 179
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CALCulate<Chn>:LIMit:TTLout<Pt>[:STATe] <Boolean>
Switches the TTL pass/fail signals on or off. The signals are applied to the USER PORT
connector as long as the active trace <Chn> is within limits, including the ripple limits.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
<Pt>
1 - TTL out pass 1 (pin 13 of USER PORT connector)
2 - TTL out pass 2 (pin 14 of USER PORT connector)
Parameters:
<Boolean>
ON | OFF - TTL output signal on or off.
*RST:
OFF
Example:
*RST; :CALC:LIM:CONT 1 GHZ, 2 GHZ
Define an upper limit line segment in the stimulus range between
1 GHz and 2 GHz, using default response values.
CALC:LIM:STAT ON; TTL2 ON
Switch the limit check on and activate the TTL out pass 2 signal.
Manual operation:
See "TTL 1 / 2 Pass" on page 180
CALCulate<Chn>:LIMit:LOWer[:DATA] <LimitLineSegm>, <LimLineSegm>...
CALCulate<Chn>:LIMit:UPPer[:DATA] <Response>, <Response>...
Defines the response (y-axis) values of the lower or upper limit line and/or creates new
limit line segments. See also ​chapter 3.4.1.1, "Rules for Limit Line Definition",
on page 60.
Note: The commands CALCulate<Ch>:LIMit:LOWer[:DATA] and
CALCulate<Ch>:LIMit:UPPer[:DATA] use a fixed numbering scheme for limit line
segments: Upper limit line segments are assigned odd numbers (1, 3, 5,...), lower limit
line segments are assigned even numbers (2, 4, 6,...).
Rules for creating segments
The following rules apply to an active trace with n existing upper and n existing lower limit
line segments:
●
An odd number of values is rejected; an error message -109,"Missing parameter..."
is generated.
●
An even number of 2*k values updates or generates k lower limit line segments.
●
For n > k the response values of all existing lower limit line segments no. 2, 4 ... 2*k
are updated, the existing upper and lower limit line segments no. 2*k+1 ... 2*n are
deleted. The existing upper limit line segments no. 1, 3, 2*k-1 are not affected.
●
For n < k the response values of the lower limit line segments no. 2, 4 to 2*n are
updated, the lower limit line segments 2*n+2, 2*n+4 ... 2*k are generated with default
stimulus values (see ​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​CONTrol[:​DATA]​ on page 390.
In addition, the missing upper limit line segments 2*n+1, 2*n+3 ... 2*k-1 are generated
with default stimulus and response values
Suffix:
<Chn>
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Channel number used to identify the active trace.
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Parameters:
<Response>
Default unit: dBm
<Response>
Pair(s) of response values
Range:
*RST:
Virtually no restriction for limit segments
The response value of a segment that is created by
defining its stimulus values only (e.g. by means of
CALCulate<Chn>:LIMit:CONTrol[:DATA]), is -40 dB.
Default unit: dB
Example:
CALC:LIM:LOW -10, 0, 0, -10
Define two lower limit line segments covering the entire sweep
range. Two upper limit line segments with default response values
are created in addition.
CALC:LIM:UPP -10, 0, 0, -10
Change the response values of the upper limit line segments.
CALC:LIM:DISP ON
Show the limit line segments in the active diagram.
Manual operation:
See "Segment List" on page 182
CALCulate<Chn>:LIMit:LOWer:FEED <StimulusOffset>, <ResponseOffset>[,
<TraceName>]
CALCulate<Chn>:LIMit:UPPer:FEED <StimulusOffset>, <ResponseOffset>[,
<TraceName>]
Generates a lower or an upper limit line using the stimulus values of a data or memory
trace and specified offset values.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace. This trace provides the stimulus data for the limit line unless another trace
<TraceName> is specified.
Setting parameters:
<StimulusOffset>
Stimulus offset value, used to shift all imported limit line segments
in horizontal direction.
Range:
-1000 GHz to +1000 GHz [Hz]
*RST:
0 Hz
Default unit: Hz
<ResponseOffset>
Response offset value, used to shift all imported limit line segments in vertical direction.
Range:
-1012 dB to +1012 dB
*RST:
0 dB
Default unit: dB
<TraceName>
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Name of the selected trace as used e.g. in ​CALCulate<Ch>:​
PARameter:​SDEFine​. If no trace name is specified the analyzer
uses the active trace no. <Chn>.
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Example:
CALC:LIM:LOW:FEED 1 GHZ, -10
Use the stimulus values of the active trace, shifted by 1 GHz to the
right and decreased by –10 dB, to create a lower limit line.
CALC:LIM:UPP:FEED 1 GHZ, 10
Use the stimulus values of the active trace, shifted by 1 GHz to the
right and increased by 10 dB, to create an upper limit line.
CALC:LIM:LOW:SHIF -3; :CALC:LIM:CONT:SHIF 1 GHz
Shift the lower limit line by an additional -3 dB in vertical and by 1
GHz in horizontal direction. The upper limit line is also shifted.
Usage:
Setting only
Manual operation:
See "Segment List" on page 182
CALCulate<Chn>:LIMit:LOWer:SHIFt <LimShift>
CALCulate<Chn>:LIMit:UPPer:SHIFt <LimShift>
These commands shift all lower and upper limit line segments assigned to the active trace
in vertical direction. Both commands shift all limit lines; they have the same functionality.
See also ​chapter 3.4.1.1, "Rules for Limit Line Definition", on page 60.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Setting parameters:
<LimShift>
Response offset value for all limit line segments.
Range:
Virtually no restriction for limit segments
Default unit: dB
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​LIMit:​LOWer:​FEED​
Usage:
Setting only
Manual operation:
See "Shift Lines" on page 181
CALCulate<Chn>:LIMit:CLEar
Resets the limit check results for the limit line test.
6.3.1.8
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number
Usage:
Event
Manual operation:
See "Clear Test" on page 180
CALCulate:MARKer...
The CALCulate:MARKer... commands control the marker functions. The commands
are device-specific and beyond what is specified in the SCPI subsystem
SOURce:MARKer....
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CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​AOFF​............................................................................401
CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​BWIDth​..........................................................................402
CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​COUPled[:​STATe]​..........................................................403
CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​DELTa[:​STATe]​..............................................................404
CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FORMat​........................................................................404
CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​BWIDth:​MODE​................................................405
CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​CENTer​..........................................................406
CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​DOMain:​USER​................................................406
CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​DOMain:​USER:​SHOW​.....................................407
CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​DOMain:​USER:​STARt​.....................................407
CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​DOMain:​USER:​STOP​......................................407
CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​EXECute​........................................................407
CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​RESult?​..........................................................408
CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​SPAN​.............................................................409
CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​STARt​............................................................409
CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​STOP​.............................................................409
CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​MODE​...........................................................................410
CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​NAME​...........................................................................410
CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​REFerence:​MODE​..........................................................411
CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​REFerence:​NAME​..........................................................411
CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​REFerence[:​STATe]​........................................................411
CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​REFerence:​TYPE​...........................................................412
CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​REFerence:​X​.................................................................412
CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​REFerence:​Y?​...............................................................413
CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer:​SEARch:​BFILter:​RESult[:​STATe]​.............................................413
CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer:​SEARch:​BFILter:​RESult[:​STATe]:​AREA​....................................414
CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​SEARch:​TRACking​.........................................................414
CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​SEARch:​FORMat​...........................................................415
CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>[:​STATe]​.........................................................................416
CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer[:​STATe]:​AREA​.......................................................................416
CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​TARGet​.........................................................................417
CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​TYPE​............................................................................417
CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​X​...................................................................................418
CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​Y?​.................................................................................418
CALCulate<Chn>:MARKer<Mk>:AOFF
Removes all markers from all traces of the active recall set. The removed markers
remember their properties (stimulus value, format, delta mode, number) when they are
restored (​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>[:​STATe]​ON). The marker properties are
definitely lost if the associated trace is deleted.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace. If unspecified
the numeric suffix is set to 1.
<Mk>
Marker number in the range 1 to 10. This numeric suffix is ignored
and may be set to any value.
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Example:
Suppose that the active recall set contains an active trace no. 1.
CALC:MARK1 ON; MARK2 ON
Create markers 1 and 2 and assign them to the trace no. 1.
CALC:MARK:AOFF
Remove both markers.
Usage:
Event
Manual operation:
See "All Markers Off" on page 194
CALCulate<Chn>:MARKer<Mk>:BWIDth <Bandwidth>
Sets the bandfilter level for a bandfilter search or returns the results. The command is
only available after a bandfilter search has been executed (​CALCulate<Chn>:​
MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​EXECute​ BFILter; see example below).
The response to the query CALCulate<Chn>:MARKer<Mk>:BWIDth? contains the
following bandfilter search results:
●
<Bandwidth> – bandwidth of the bandpass/bandstop region.
●
<Center> – stimulus frequency at the center of the bandpass/bandstop region (the
stimulus value of marker M4).
●
<QualityFactor (3 dB)> – quality factor, i.e. the ratio between the center frequency
and the 3-dB bandwidth.
●
<Loss> – loss at the center of the bandpass/bandstop region (the response value of
marker M4 at the time of the bandfilter search).
●
<LowerEdge> – lower band edge.
●
<UpperEdge> – upper band edge.
Tip: To obtain the <Quality Factor (BW)> result from the bandfilter info field, calculate
the ratio <Center> / <Bandwidth>.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
<Mk>
Marker number in the range 1 to 10. This numeric suffix is ignored
and may be set to any value because the bandfilter search functions always use markers M1 to M4.
Parameters:
<Bandwidth>
Difference between the band edges and the center response value
of a bandfilter peak; must be negative for a bandpass search and
positive for a bandstop search.
Range:
For bandpass: -100.00 dB to -0.01 dB; for bandstop:
+0.01 dB to +100.00 dB
Increment: 0.03 dB
*RST:
-3 dB
Default unit: dB
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Example:
CALC:MARK:FUNC:BWID:MODE BST
Select a bandstop filter search.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:EXEC BFIL
Initiate the bandpass filter search for the current trace. Create
markers M1 to M4.
CALC:MARK:SEAR:BFIL:RES ON
Display the marker info field in the diaram area.
CALC:MARK:BWID 6
Select a 6-dB bandwidth for the bandstop.
CALC:MARK:BWID?
Query the results of the bandfilter search. An error message is
generated if the bandfilter search fails so that no valid results are
available.
CALC:MARK:SEAR:BFIL:RES:AREA LEFT, TOP
For a subsequent check at the GUI or a hardcopy, move the info
field to the top left position.
Manual operation:
See "Result Off" on page 207
CALCulate<Chn>:MARKer<Mk>:COUPled[:STATe] <Boolean>
Couples the markers of all traces in the active recall set to the markers of trace no. <Chn>,
provided that they have the same sweep type (​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SWEep:​TYPE​).
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace. The effects of
marker coupling depend on the active trace number; see ​"Marker
Coupling" on page 30.
<Mk>
Marker number in the range 1 to 10. This suffix is ignored because
the command affects all markers.
Parameters:
<Boolean>
ON | OFF - enables or disables marker coupling.
*RST:
OFF
Example:
Suppose that the active recall set contains two traces Trc1 and
Trc2, assigned to channels no. 1 and 2, respectively.
:CALC1:PAR:SEL 'TRC1'; :CALC1:MARK1 ON; MARK2
ON
Select Trc1 as the active trace and create the two markers no. 1
and 2. The default position for both markers is the center of the
sweep range.
CALC1:MARK:COUP ON
Create two markers no. 1 and 2 on Trc 2 and couple them to the
markers of Trc 1.
Manual operation:
See "Coupled Markers" on page 194
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CALCulate<Chn>:MARKer<Mk>:DELTa[:STATe] <Boolean>
Switches the delta mode for marker <Mk> on trace no. <Chn> on or off. The marker must
be created before using ​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>[:​STATe]​ ON. If the active
trace contains no reference marker, the command also creates a reference marker.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
<Mk>
Marker number in the range 1 to 10.
Parameters:
<Boolean>
ON | OFF - Enables or disables the delta mode.
*RST:
OFF
Example:
Suppose that the active recall set contains an active trace no. 1.
CALC:MARK ON
Create marker no. 1 and set it to the center of the sweep range.
CALC:MARK:DELT ON
Create a reference marker at the center of the sweep range and
set marker 1 to delta mode.
Manual operation:
See "Mkr Stimulus / On / Delta Mode" on page 193
CALCulate<Chn>:MARKer<Mk>:FORMat <OutFormat>
Defines the output format for the (complex) value of marker.
Note: The formats of the markers assigned to a trace are independent of each other and
of the trace format settings; see ​CALCulate<Chn>:​FORMat​.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
<Mk>
Marker number in the range 1 to 10.
Parameters:
<OutFormat>
MLINear | MLOGarithmic | PHASe | POLar | GDELay | REAL |
IMAGinary | SWR | LINPhase | LOGPhase | IMPedance |
ADMittance | DEFault | COMPlex | MDB | MLPHase | MDPHase
See list of parameters below.
*RST:
DEFault
Example:
Suppose that the active recall set contains an active trace no. 1.
CALC:MARK ON; :CALC:MARK:FORM?
Create marker 1, assign it to the trace no. 1 and query its format.
The analyzer returns the format of the active trace.
Manual operation:
See "Marker Format" on page 195
Assume that the marker result is given by the complex quantity z = x + jy. The meaning
of the parameters is as follows:
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DEFault
The format of the trace no. <Chn> (MLOG after *RST); see
CALCulate<Ch>:FORMat.
MLINear
|z| = sqrt ( x2 + y2 )
MLOGarithmic
|z| = sqrt ( x2 + y2 )
MDB (for R&S ZVR compatibility)
dB Mag(z) = 20 * log|z| dB
PHASe
φ(z) = arctan( Im(z) / Re(z) )
POLar
x, y (Real and Imag)
COMPlex (for R&S ZVR compatibility)
GDELay
Group Delay, –d Φ(z) / dΩ
REAL
x
IMAGinary
y
SWR
Standing Wave Ratio, SWR = (1 + |z|) / (1 |z|)
LINPhase
Lin Mag and Phase, |z|, arctan ( Im(z) / Re(z) )
MLPhase (for R&S ZVR compatibility)
LOGPhase
dB Mag and Phase, 20 * log|z| dB, arctan ( Im(z) / Re(z) )
MDPhase (for R&S ZVR compatibility)
IMPedance
R, X, L or C (depending on sign(X))
ADMittance
G, B, L or C (depending on sign(X))
CALCulate<Chn>:MARKer<Mk>:FUNCtion:BWIDth:MODE <BandfilterType>
Selects the bandfilter search mode. In contrast to manual control, bandfilter tracking is
not automatically activated.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
<Mk>
Marker number in the range 1 to 10. This numeric suffix is ignored
and may be set to any value because the bandfilter search functions always use markers M1 to M4.
Parameters:
<BandfilterType>
BPASs | BSTop | BPRMarker | BSRMarker | BPABsolute |
BSABsolute | NONE
Bandfilter search type:
BPASs – Bandpass Search Ref to Max
BSTop – Bandstop Search Ref to Max
BPRMarker – Bandpass Search Ref to Marker
BSRMarker – Bandstop Search Ref to Marker
BPABsolute – Bandpass Absolute Level
BSABsolute – Bandstop Absolute Level
NONE – deactivate bandfilter search, result off
*RST:
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Example:
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​BWIDth​
Manual operation:
See "Bandpass Ref to Max" on page 205
CALCulate<Chn>:MARKer<Mk>:FUNCtion:CENTer
Sets the center of the sweep range equal to the stimulus value of the marker <Mk> on
trace no. <Chn>.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
<Mk>
Marker number in the range 1 to 10.
Example:
*RST; :CALC:MARK ON
Create marker 1 in the center of the current sweep range and
assign it to trace no. 1.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:CENT
Leave the sweep range unchanged.
Usage:
Event
Manual operation:
See "Center = Marker" on page 198
CALCulate<Chn>:MARKer<Mk>:FUNCtion:DOMain:USER <NumSearchRange>
Assigns a search range no. <NumSearchRange> to marker no <Mk> and selects the
search range, e.g. in order to display range limit lines or define the start and stop values.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
<Mk>
Marker number in the range 1 to 10.
Parameters:
<NumSearchRange> Number of the search range.
Range:
*RST:
0 to 10. 0 denotes the fixed full span search range
(equal to the sweep range), 1 to 10 denote userdefinable search ranges; see example.
0 (reserved for full span search range)
Example:
CALC1:MARK1:FUNC:DOM:USER 2
Select the search range no. 2, assigned to marker no. 1 and trace
no. 1.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:DOM:USER:STARt 1GHz
Set the start frequency of the search range to 1 GHz.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:DOM:USER:STOP 1.2GHz
Set the stop frequency of the search range to 1.2 GHz.
Manual operation:
See "Search Range" on page 200
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CALCulate<Chn>:MARKer<Mk>:FUNCtion:DOMain:USER:SHOW <Boolean>
Displays or hides range limit lines for the search range selected via ​
CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​DOMain:​USER​.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
<Mk>
Marker number in the range 1 to 10.
Parameters:
<Boolean>
ON | OFF - range limit lines on or off.
*RST:
OFF
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics:​DOMain:​USER​
Manual operation:
See "Range Limit Lines on" on page 201
CALCulate<Chn>:MARKer<Mk>:FUNCtion:DOMain:USER:STARt
<StarSearchRange>
CALCulate<Chn>:MARKer<Mk>:FUNCtion:DOMain:USER:STOP
<StopSearchRange>
These commands define the start and stop values of the search range selected via ​
CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​DOMain:​USER​.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
<Mk>
Marker number in the range 1 to 10.
Parameters:
<StopSearchRange> Beginning or end of the search range.
Range:
Maximum allowed sweep range, depending on the
instrument model and on the sweep type.
*RST:
0 Hz
Default unit: Hz
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​DOMain:​
USER​
Manual operation:
See "Search Range" on page 200
CALCulate<Chn>:MARKer<Mk>:FUNCtion:EXECute [<SearchMode>]
Selects a search mode for marker no. <Mk> and initiates the search. The marker must
be created before using ​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>[:​STATe]​ON (exception:
bandfilter search).
Suffix:
<Chn>
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Channel number used to identify the active trace.
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<Mk>
Marker number in the range 1 to 10. For a bandfilter search
(BFILter) this numeric suffix is ignored and may be set to any
value because the bandfilter search functions always use markers
M1 to M4.
Setting parameters:
<SearchMode>
MAXimum | MINimum | RPEak | LPEak | NPEAK | TARGet |
LTARget | RTARget | BFILter
See list of parameters below.
Example:
Suppose that the active recall set contains an active trace no. 1.
CALC:MARK ON
Create marker M1 and assign it to trace no. 1.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:EXEC MAX; RES?
Move the created marker to the absolute maximum of the trace
and query the stimulus and response value of the search result.
Usage:
Setting only
Manual operation:
See "Max / Min" on page 198
The analyzer provides the following search modes:
Mode
Find...
MAXimum
Absolute maximum in the search range (see​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​
FUNCtion:​DOMain:​USER​ )
MINimum
Absolute maximum in the search range
RPEak
Next valid peak to the right of the current marker position
LPEak
Next valid peak to the left
NPEak
Next highest or lowest value among the valid peaks (next peak)
TARGet
Target value (see ​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​TARGet​)
RTARget
Next target value to the right of the current marker position
LTARget
Next target value to the left
BFILter
Bandfilter search. The results are queried using ​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​
BWIDth​.
CALCulate<Chn>:MARKer<Mk>:FUNCtion:RESult?
Returns the result (stimulus and response value) of a search started by means of ​
CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​EXECute​. The search must be executed
before the command is enabled.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
<Mk>
Marker number in the range 1 to 10. This numeric suffix is ignored
and may be set to any value.
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​EXECute​
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Usage:
Query only
Manual operation:
See "Max / Min" on page 198
CALCulate<Chn>:MARKer<Mk>:FUNCtion:SPAN
Sets the sweep span of the sweep range equal to the absolute value of the first coordinate
of the active delta marker <Mk> on trace no. <Chn>.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
<Mk>
Marker number in the range 1 to 10.
Example:
*RST; :CALC:MARK ON; MARK:DELTa ON
Create marker 1 in the center of the current sweep range and
enable the delta mode.
CALC:MARK:X 300MHz
Increase the stimulus value of the delta marker by 300 MHz.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:SPAN
Set the sweep range equal to 300 MHz. The sweep range starts
at the reference marker position, i.e. in the center of the analyzer's
frequency range.
Usage:
Event
Manual operation:
See "Center / Start / Stop / Span = Marker" on page 208
CALCulate<Chn>:MARKer<Mk>:FUNCtion:STARt
CALCulate<Chn>:MARKer<Mk>:FUNCtion:STOP
These command sets the beginning (...STARt) and the end (...STOP) of the sweep
range equal to the stimulus value of the marker <Mk> on trace no. <Chn>.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
<Mk>
Marker number in the range 1 to 10
Example:
*RST; :CALC:MARK ON
Create marker 1 in the center of the current sweep range and
assign it to trace no. 1.
CALC:MARK:FUNC:STAR
Divide the sweep range in half, starting at the current marker position. As an alternative:
CALC:MARK:FUNC:STOP
Divide the sweep range in half, ending at the current marker position.
Usage:
Event
Manual operation:
See "Center / Start / Stop / Span = Marker" on page 208
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CALCulate<Chn>:MARKer<Mk>:MODE <Mode>
Sets marker no. <Mk> to continuous or discrete mode. The marker doesn't have to be
created before (​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>[:​STATe]​ ON), the mode can be
assigned in advance.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
<Mk>
Marker number in the range 1 to 10.
Parameters:
<Mode>
CONTinuous | DISCrete
CONTinuous - marker can be positioned on any point of the trace,
and its response values are obtained by interpolation.
DISCrete - marker can be set to discrete sweep points only.
*RST:
CONT
Example:
Suppose that the active recall set contains an active trace no. 1.
CALC:MARK:MODE DISC; :CALC:MARK2:MODE CONT
Create marker 1 in discrete mode and marker 2 in continuous
mode.
CALC:MARK ON; MARK2 ON
Display the two markers. Due to the different modes the horizontal
positions can be different.
Manual operation:
See "Discrete" on page 196
CALCulate<Chn>:MARKer<Mk>:NAME <MarkerName>
Defines a name for marker no. <Mk>. The marker doesn't have to be created before (​
CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>[:​STATe]​ ON), the name can be assigned in advance.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
<Mk>
Marker number in the range 1 to 10.
Parameters:
<MarkerName>
Marker name (string parameter)
*RST:
'M1' for marker no. 1 etc.
Example:
Suppose that the active recall set contains an active trace no. 1.
CALC:MARK:NAME '&$% 1'; :CALC:MARK ON
Create marker 1 named "&$% 1" and display the marker .
CALC:MARK:REF ON
CALC:MARK:REF:NAME 'Reference'
Display the reference marker and rename it "Reference".
Manual operation:
See "Marker Name" on page 195
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CALCulate<Chn>:MARKer<Mk>:REFerence:MODE <Mode>
Sets the reference marker to continuous or discrete mode. The marker doesn't have to
be created before (​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>[:​STATe]​ ON), the mode can be
assigned in advance.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
<Mk>
Marker number in the range 1 to 10. This numeric suffix is ignored
and may be set to any value.
Parameters:
<Mode>
CONTinuous | DISCrete
CONTinuous - marker can be positioned on any point of the trace,
and its response values are obtained by interpolation.
DISCrete - marker can be set to discrete sweep points only.
*RST:
CONT
Example:
Suppose that the active recall set contains an active trace no. 1.
CALC:MARK:REF:MODE DISC
CALC:MARK2:REF:MODE CONT
Create the reference marker in discrete mode and marker 2 in
continuous mode.
CALC:MARK:REF ON; :CALC:MARK2 ON
Display the two markers. Due to the different modes the horizontal
positions can be different.
Manual operation:
See "Discrete" on page 196
CALCulate<Chn>:MARKer<Mk>:REFerence:NAME <MarkerName>
Defines a name for the reference marker. The marker doesn't have to be created before
(​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>[:​STATe]​ ON), the name can be assigned in
advance.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
<Mk>
Marker number in the range 1 to 10. This numeric suffix is ignored
and may be set to any value.
Parameters:
<MarkerName>
Marker name (string parameter)
*RST:
'R'
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​NAME​
Manual operation:
See "Marker Name" on page 195
CALCulate<Chn>:MARKer<Mk>:REFerence[:STATe] <Boolean>
Creates the reference marker and assigns it to trace no. <Chn>.
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Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
<Mk>
Marker number in the range 1 to 10. This numeric suffix is ignored
and may be set to any value.
Parameters:
<Boolean>
ON | OFF - creates or removes the marker.
*RST:
OFF
Example:
Suppose that the active recall set contains an active trace no. 1.
CALC:MARK:REF ON; :CALC:MARK ON
Create the reference marker and marker 1 and assign them to
trace no. 1. The default position of both markers is the center of
the sweep range.
Manual operation:
See "Mkr Stimulus / On / Delta Mode" on page 193
CALCulate<Chn>:MARKer<Mk>:REFerence:TYPE <Mode>
Sets the reference to normal or fixed mode. The marker must be created before using ​
CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>[:​STATe]​ ON.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
<Mk>
Marker number in the range 1 to 10. This numeric suffix is ignored
and may be set to any value.
Parameters:
<Mode>
NORMal | FIXed
NORMal - response value changes according to the measurement
result.
FIXed - marker keeps its current response value.
*RST:
NORMal
Example:
CALC:MARK:REF ON; :CALC:MARK:REF:TYPE FIX
Create the reference markerand display it in the center of the
sweep range as a fixed marker.
CALC:MARK:REF:X 1GHz
Shift the marker horizontally. The response value remains fixed.
Manual operation:
See "Fixed" on page 196
CALCulate<Chn>:MARKer<Mk>:REFerence:X <MarkerValue>
Defines the stimulus (in Cartesian diagrams: x-axis) value of the reference marker, which
can (but doesn't have to) be displayed using ​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​
REFerence[:​STATe]​ ON.
Suffix:
<Chn>
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Channel number used to identify the active trace.
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<Mk>
Parameters:
<MarkerValue>
Marker number in the range 1 to 10. This numeric suffix is ignored
and may be set to any value.
Stimulus value of the reference marker.
Range:
-9.9E+11 Hz to +9.9E+11 Hz (for frequency sweeps);
-999 dBm to +999 dBm (for power sweeps); 0 s to
127500 s (for time and CW mode sweeps)
*RST:
0 Hz
Default unit: Hz
Example:
Suppose that the active recall set contains an active trace no. 1
and that the sweep range for a frequency sweep starts at 1 GHz.
CALC:MARK:REF ON
Create the reference marker and display it in the center of the
sweep range.
CALC:MARK:REF:X 1GHz
Set the reference marker to the beginning of the sweep range.
CALC:MARK:REF:Y?
Query the measurement value at the reference marker position.
Manual operation:
See "Mkr Stimulus / On / Delta Mode" on page 193
CALCulate<Chn>:MARKer<Mk>:REFerence:Y?
Returns the response (in Cartesian diagrams: y-axis) value of the reference marker. The
reference marker must be created before using ​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​
REFerence[:​STATe]​ON.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
<Mk>
Marker number in the range 1 to 10. This numeric suffix is ignored
and may be set to any value.
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​REFerence:​X​
Usage:
Query only
Manual operation:
See "Ref Mkr" on page 194
CALCulate<Chn>:MARKer:SEARch:BFILter:RESult[:STATe] <Boolean>
Shows or hides the bandfilter search results in the diagram area.
Suffix:
<Chn>
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Channel number used to identify the active trace.
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Parameters:
<Boolean>
ON - show the bandfilter search results. If no bandfilter search has
been initiated before (​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​
FUNCtion:​EXECute​ BFILter), nothing is displayed.
OFF - hide the bandfilter search results.
*RST:
OFF
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​BWIDth​
Manual operation:
See "Result Off" on page 207
CALCulate<Chn>:MARKer:SEARch:BFILter:RESult[:STATe]:AREA
<HorizontalPos>, <VerticalPos>
Moves the bandfilter search info field for the active trace <Chn> to one of nine predefined
positions in the active diagram.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<HorizontalPos>
LEFT | MID | RIGHt
Horizontal position
<VerticalPos>
TOP | MID | BOTTom
Vertical position
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​BWIDth​
Manual operation:
See "Bandpass Ref to Max" on page 205
CALCulate<Chn>:MARKer<Mk>:SEARch:TRACking <Boolean>
Enables or disables the marker tracking mode for marker no. <Mk>. Tracking mode causes the active minimum/maximum or target search of the active marker to be repeated
after each sweep. A marker must be created and a search mode must be active (​
CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​EXECute​ ...) to use this command.
Tip: If the current search mode is a bandfilter search this command enables or disables
bandfilter tracking.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
<Mk>
Marker number in the range 1 to 10. For a bandfilter search
(BFILter) this numeric suffix is ignored and may be set to any
value because the bandfilter search functions always use markers
M1 to M4.
Parameters:
<Boolean>
ON | OFF - enables or disables the marker tracking mode.
*RST:
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Example:
Suppose that the active recall set contains an active trace no. 1.
CALC:MARK ON; :CALC:MARK:FUNC:EXEC MAXimum
Create marker no. 1 and assign them to trace no. 1. Activate a
maximum search for marker no. 1.
CALC:MARK:SEAR:TRAC ON
Enable the tracking mode for the created marker.
Manual operation:
See "Tracking" on page 199
CALCulate<Chn>:MARKer<Mk>:SEARch:FORMat <SearchFormat>
Selects the format in which the target value shall be specified (see ​
CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​TARGet​ on page 417).
Each marker may have a different target format. The table below gives an overview on
how a complex target value z = x + jy is converted.
Target Format
Description
Formula
MLINear
Magnitude of z, unconverted.
|z| = sqrt ( x2 + y2)
MLOGarithmic
Magnitude of z in dB
Mag(z) = 20 log|z| dB
PHASe
Phase of z
φ (z) = arctan (y/x)
UPHase
Unwrapped phase of z comprising Ф(z) = φ (z) + 2k·360°
the complete number of 360°
phase rotations
REAL
Real part of z
Re(z) = x
IMAGinary
Imaginary part of z
Im(z) = y
SWR
(Voltage) Standing Wave Ratio
SWR = (1 + |z|) / (1 – |z|)
DEFault
Identical to trace format.
-
Note: the Smith and Polar traces
use "Lin Mag" as the default format
for target value.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace
<Mk>
Marker number in the range 1 to 10.
Parameters:
<SearchFormat>
MLINear | MLOGarithmic | PHASe | UPHase | REAL | IMAGinary |
SWR | DEFault
Identifies the search format for the target value of the marker. See
table above.
*RST:
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Example:
Suppose channel 1's selected trace is POLar and marker 1 isn't
yet created
:CALCULATE1:MARKER1 ON
Create/enable Marker 1
:CALCulate1:MARKer1:FUNCtion:SELect TARGet
Select TARGet search mode for marker 1
:CALCulate1:MARKer1:SEARch:FORMat?
Query the target format of marker 1. The result is DEF and for polar
diagrams the default target format is "Phase".
:CALCulate1:MARKer1:FUNCtion:TARGet?
Query for the default target value; for "Phase" this is 0 (degrees)
:CALCulate1:MARKer1:SEARch:FORMat MLOGarithmic
Change the target search format to logarithmic magnitude
:CALCulate1:MARKer1:FUNCtion:TARGet?
Query for the default target value; for logarithmic magnitude this
is 0 (dB)
:CALCulate1:MARKer1:FUNCtion:TARGet -3
Set the target value to -3 dB
:CALCulate1:MARKer1:FUNCtion:EXECute
Execute the target search for marker 1
:CALCulate1:MARKer1:FUNCtion:RESult?
Query for the results.
Manual operation:
See "Target Format" on page 202
CALCulate<Chn>:MARKer<Mk>[:STATe] <Boolean>
Creates the marker numbered <Mk> and assigns it to trace no. <Chn>.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
<Mk>
Marker number in the range 1 to 10. If unspecified the numeric
suffix is set to 1.
Parameters:
<Boolean>
ON | OFF – creates or removes the marker.
*RST:
OFF
Example:
Suppose that the active recall set contains an active trace no. 1.
CALC:MARK ON; MARK2 ON
Create markers 1 and 2 and assign them to trace no. 1. The default
position of both markers is the center of the sweep range.
Manual operation:
See "Mkr Stimulus / On / Delta Mode" on page 193
CALCulate<Chn>:MARKer[:STATe]:AREA <HorizontalPos>, <VerticalPos>
Moves the marker info field for the active trace <Chn> to one of nine predefined positions
in the active diagram.
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Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<HorizontalPos>
LEFT | MID | RIGHt
Horizontal position
<VerticalPos>
TOP | MID | BOTTom
Vertical position
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​Y?​
Manual operation:
See "Mkr 1 ... Mkr 10" on page 193
CALCulate<Chn>:MARKer<Mk>:TARGet <TargetSearchVal>
Defines the target value for the target search of marker no. <Mk>, which can be activated
using ​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​FUNCtion:​EXECute​ TARGet.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
<Mk>
Marker number in the range 1 to 10.
Parameters:
<TargetSearchVal>
Target search value of marker no. <Mk>.
The value range and reset value depend on the selected target
format (see ​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>:​SEARch:​
FORMat​ on page 415).
Example:
CALC:MARK ON
Create marker no. 1 and display it in the center of the sweep range.
:CALC:MARK:TARG -10; FUNC:EXEC TARG
Define a target search value of -10 dB and start the target search.
CALC:MARK:X?
Query the stimulus value corresponding to the target search result.
Manual operation:
See "Target Value" on page 202
CALCulate<Chn>:MARKer<Mk>:TYPE <Mode>
Sets marker no. <Mk> to normal or fixed mode. The marker must be created before using
​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>[:​STATe]​ ON.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
<Mk>
Marker number in the range 1 to 10.
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Parameters:
<Mode>
NORMal | FIXed
NORMal - response value changes according to the measurement
result.
FIXed - marker keeps its current response value.
*RST:
NORMal
Example:
CALC:MARK ON; :CALC:MARK:TYPE FIX
Create marker 1and display it in the center of the sweep range as
a fixed marker.
CALC:MARK:X 1GHz
Shift the marker horizontally. The response value remains fixed.
Manual operation:
See "Fixed" on page 196
CALCulate<Chn>:MARKer<Mk>:X <StimulusValue>
Defines the stimulus (in Cartesian diagrams: x-axis) value of the marker no. <Mk>, which
can (but doesn't have to) be created using ​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>[:​
STATe]​ ON.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
<Mk>
Marker number in the range 1 to 10.
Parameters:
<StimulusValue>
Stimulus value of marker no. <Mk>.
Range:
-9.9E+11 Hz to +9.9E+11 Hz (for frequency sweeps)
-999 dBm to +999 dBm (for power sweeps) 0 s to
127500 s for time and CW mode sweeps)
*RST:
0 Hz
Default unit: Hz
Example:
Suppose that the active recall set contains an active trace no. 1
and the sweep range for a frequency sweep starts at 1 GHz.
CALC:MARK ON
Create marker no. 1 and display it in the center of the sweep range.
CALC:MARK:X 1GHz
Set the marker to the beginning of the sweep range.
Manual operation:
See "Mkr Stimulus / On / Delta Mode" on page 193
CALCulate<Chn>:MARKer<Mk>:Y?
Returns the response (in Cartesian diagrams: y-axis) value of marker no. <Mk>. The
marker must be created before using ​CALCulate<Chn>:​MARKer<Mk>[:​STATe]​ON.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
<Mk>
Marker number in the range 1 to 10.
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6.3.1.9
Example:
Suppose that the active recall set contains an active trace no. 1.
CALC:MARK ON
Create marker no. 1 and display it in the center of the sweep range.
CALC:MARK:Y?
Query the measurement value at the marker position.
CALC:MARK:STAT:AREA LEFT, TOP
For a subsequent check at the GUI or a hardcopy, move the info
field to the top left position.
Usage:
Query only
Manual operation:
See "Mkr 1 ... Mkr 10" on page 193
CALCulate:MATH...
The CALCulate:MATH... commands permit processing of measured data in numerical
expression format. The operators are +, -, *, / and use of constants and data arrays are
permitted.
CALCulate<Chn>:​MATH[:​EXPRession]:​SDEFine​..............................................................419
CALCulate<Chn>:​MATH:​FUNCtion​..................................................................................420
CALCulate<Chn>:​MATH:​MEMorize​.................................................................................421
CALCulate<Chn>:​MATH:​STATe​......................................................................................421
CALCulate<Chn>:​MATH:​WUNit[:​STATe]​..........................................................................422
CALCulate<Chn>:MATH[:EXPRession]:SDEFine <Expression>
Defines a general mathematical relation between traces. To calculate and display the
new mathematical trace, the mathematical mode must be switched on (​
CALCulate<Chn>:​MATH:​STATe​ ON).
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<Expression>
Operands, operators and functions; see table below.
Example:
*RST; :CALC:MATH:MEM
Copy the current state of the default trace 'Trc1' to a memory
trace named 'Mem2[Trc1]'. The memory trace is not displayed.
CALC:MATH:SDEF 'Trc1 / Mem2[Trc1]'
Define a mathematical trace, dividing the data trace by the stored
memory trace. The mathematical trace is not displayed.
CALC:MATH:STAT ON
Display the mathematical trace instead of the active data trace.
Manual operation:
See "Data / Mem, Data – Mem" on page 153
Expressions defined via CALCulate<Ch>:MATH[:EXPRession]:SDEFine may contain the following elements:
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Type
Complete List
Description
Operands
<Trace name> |
All traces and memory traces of the active recall set |
activeTrc |
Active trace |
Mem[activeTrc]
Active memory trace assigned to the active trace
e, pi |
Constants |
1, -1.2, 8e9 |
Real values in decimal or exponential format |
1 + 2j, 2 + 1e-9j
Complex numbers
Operators
-+,-,*,/,^
Basic arithmetic operations; ^ for exponentiation
Functions
linMag (), dBMag (), Arg (), Re Mathematical functions with one or two arguments
(), Im (), log (), ln (), tan (), atan
(), sin (), asin (), cos (), acos (),
Constants
Min ( ... , ... ), Max ( ... , ... )
Special Functions
StimVal
Current stimulus value (see description of operators
for User Defined Math)
Brackets
()
Priority of operations in complex expressions
CALCulate<Chn>:MATH:FUNCtion <Mode>
Defines a simple mathematical relation between the active trace and the active memory
trace to calculate a new mathematical trace and displays the mathematical trace.
Note: This command places some restrictions on the mathematical expression and the
operands. Use ​CALCulate<Chn>:​MATH[:​EXPRession]:​SDEFine​ to define general
expressions.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<Mode>
NORMal | ADD | SUBTract | MULTiply | DIVide
NORMal – Math. trace = active data trace
ADD – Math. trace = data + memory
SUBTract – Math. trace = data - memory
MULTiply – Math. trace = data * memory
DIVide – Math. trace = data / memory
*RST:
Example:
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NORMal
*RST; :CALC:MATH:MEM
Copy the current state of the default trace 'Trc1' to a memory
trace named 'Mem2[Trc1]'. The memory trace is not displayed.
CALC:MATH:FUNC DIV
Define a mathematical trace, dividing the data trace by the stored
memory trace. The mathematical trace is displayed instead of the
active data trace.
CALC:MATH:STAT?
The response is 1 (mathematical mode switched on, mathematical
trace displayed).
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Manual operation:
See "Data / Mem, Data – Mem" on page 153
CALCulate<Chn>:MATH:MEMorize
Copies the current state of the active data trace to a memory trace. If a mathematical
trace is active, the data trace associated with the mathematical trace is copied. The
memory trace is named Mem<n>[<Data_Trace>] where <n> counts all data and memory traces in the active recall set in chronological order, and <Data_Trace> is the name
of the associated (copied) data trace.
The exact function of the command depends on the number of memory traces associated
to the active data trace:
●
If no memory trace is associated to the active trace, a new memory trace is generated.
●
If several memory traces are associated to the active trace, the current measurement
data overwrites the last generated or changed memory trace.
Note: To copy a trace to the memory without overwriting an existing memory trace or
define a memory trace name, use ​TRACe:​COPY​
<MemTraceName>,<DataTraceName>. To copy an active mathematical trace use ​
TRACe:​COPY:​MATH​<MemTraceName>,<DataTraceName>
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Example:
*RST; :CALC:MATH:MEM
Copy the current state of the default trace 'Trc1' to a memory
trace named 'Mem2[Trc1]'. The memory trace is not displayed.
DISP:WIND:TRAC2:FEED 'Mem2[Trc1]'
Display the created memory trace in the active diagram area (diagram area no. 1).
Usage:
Event
Manual operation:
See "Data to <Destination>" on page 152
CALCulate<Chn>:MATH:STATe <Boolean>
Activates or deactivates the mathematical mode where the mathematical trace defined
via ​CALCulate<Chn>:​MATH[:​EXPRession]:​SDEFine​ is calculated and displayed
instead of the active data trace. The command is not valid for mathematical traces calculated via ​CALCulate<Chn>:​MATH:​FUNCtion​.
Suffix:
<Chn>
Parameters:
<Boolean>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
ON – display the active data trace.
OFF – display the mathematical trace.
*RST:
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Example:
*RST; :CALC:MATH:MEM
Copy the current state of the default trace 'Trc1' to a memory
trace named 'Mem2[Trc1]'. The memory trace is not displayed.
CALC:MATH:SDEF 'Trc1 / Mem2[Trc1]'
Define a mathematical trace, dividing the data trace by the stored
memory trace. The mathematical trace is not displayed
CALC:MATH:STAT ON
Display the mathematical trace instead of the active data trace.
Manual operation:
See "Trace Math" on page 153
CALCulate<Chn>:MATH:WUNit[:STATe] <Boolean>
Controls the conversion and formatting of the mathematic expression defined via ​
CALCulate<Chn>:​MATH[:​EXPRession]:​SDEFine​ (see ​"Result is Wave Quantity"
on page 156).
Suffix:
<Chn>
Parameters:
<Boolean>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
ON – "Result is Wave Quantity" enabled; the analyzer assumes
that the result of the mathematical expression represents a voltage.
OFF – "Result is Wave Quantity" disabled; the analyzer assumes
that the result of the mathematical expression is dimensionless.
*RST:
6.3.1.10
OFF
Example:
*RST; SWE:TYPE POW
CALC:PAR:SDEF 'Trc1', 'a1'
Reset the instrument, activate a power sweep, and select a wave
quantity a1 for the trace Trc1.
DISP:WIND:TRAC:FEED 'Trc1'
Display the generated trace in the active window.
CALC:MATH:SDEF 'StimVal'; STAT ON
Define a mathematical trace, dividing the data trace by the stored
memory trace. Display the mathematical trace instead of the active
data trace.
CALC:MATH:WUN ON
Take into account that the stimulus value is a voltage (derived from
the source power) rather than a dimensionless quantity. The y-axis
range of the mathematical trace now exactly corresponds to the
power sweep range.
Manual operation:
See "Mathematical Expression" on page 155
CALCulate:PARameter...
The CALCulate:PARameter... commands assign names and measurement parameters to traces. The commands are device-specific.
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CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​CATalog?​............................................................................423
CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​DEFine:​SGRoup​..................................................................423
CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​DELete​...............................................................................425
CALCulate:​PARameter:​DELete:​ALL​.................................................................................425
CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​DELete:​CALL​......................................................................425
CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​DELete:​SGRoup​..................................................................426
CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​MEASure​............................................................................426
CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​SDEFine​.............................................................................427
CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​SELect​................................................................................429
CALCulate<Ch>:PARameter:CATalog?
Returns the trace names and measurement parameters of all traces assigned to a particular channel.
The result is a string containing a comma-separated list of trace names and measurement
parameters, e.g. 'CH4TR1,S11,CH4TR2,S12'. The measurement parameters are
returned according to the naming convention of ​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​
SDEFine​. The order of traces in the list reflects their creation time: The oldest trace is
the first, the newest trace is the last trace in the list.
Suffix:
<Ch>
.
Channel number. If unspecified the numeric suffix is set to 1.
Example:
CALC4:PAR:SDEF 'Ch4Tr1', 'S11'
Create channel 4 and a trace named Ch4Tr1 to measure the input
reflection coefficient S11.
CALC4:PAR:CAT?
Query the traces assigned to channel 4. If Ch4Tr1 is the only trace
assigned to channel 4, the response is 'CH4TR1,S11'.
Usage:
Query only
CALCulate<Ch>:PARameter:DEFine:SGRoup <LogicalPort1>, <LogicalPort2>...
Creates the traces for all S-parameters associated with a group of logical ports (Sparameter group). The traces can be queried using ​CALCulate<Ch>:​DATA:​SGRoup?​
.
Traces must be selected to become active traces; see ​CALCulate<Ch>:​
PARameter:​SELect​.
Note: Each channel can contain a single S-parameter group only. Defining a new Sparameter group deletes the previous one. Use ​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​
DELete:​SGRoup​ on page 426 to delete the current S-group explicitly.
Suffix:
<Ch>
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.
Channel number. <Ch> may be used to reference a previously
defined channel. If <Ch> does not exist, it is generated with default
channel settings.
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Parameters:
<LogicalPort1>
Logical (balanced or unbalanced) port numbers. The port numbers
must be in ascending order, their number is limited by the test ports
of the analyzer. With n logical port numbers, the command generates n2 traces. The traces correspond to the following S-parameters:
S<log_port1><log_port1>, S<log_port1><log_port2> ... S<log_port1><log_port<n>>
...
S<log_port<n>><log_port1>, S<log_port<n>><log_port2>... S<log_port<n>><log_port<n>>,
e.g. S11, S12, S21, S22 for <log_port1> = 1, <log_port2> = 2. If only
one logical port <log_port1> is specified, a single trace with the
reflection coefficient S<log_port1><log_port1> is created.
Trace names
The generated traces are assigned the following trace names:
<Ch_name>_SG_S<log_port1><log_port1>,
<Ch_name>_SG_S<log_port1><log_port2> ...
<Ch_name>_SG_S<log_port1><log_port<n>> ...<Ch_name>_S
G_S<log_port<n>><log_port1>,
<Ch_name>_SG_S<log_port<n>><log_port2>...
<Ch_name>_SG_S<log_port<n>><log_port<n>>,
e.g. Ch1_SG_S11, Ch1_SG_S12, Ch1_SG_S21, Ch1_SG_S22
for <Ch_name> = Ch1, <log_port1> = 1, <log_port2> = 2. The
trace names are displayed in the "Channel Manager" and in the
"Trace Manager" dialogs where they can be changed manually.
The <Ch_name> is defined via
CONFigure:CHANnel<Ch>:NAME '<Ch_name>'.
.Trace names are important for referencing the generated traces;
see program example below.
Range:
*RST:
1 to 4 (depending on instrument model)
NONE (see below)
<LogicalPort2>
Example:
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CALC2:PAR:DEF:SGR 1,2
Create channel 2 and four traces to measure the two-port Sparameters S11, S12, S21, S22. The traces are not displayed.
DISP:WIND:TRAC2:FEED 'Ch2_SG_S11'
DISP:WIND:TRAC3:FEED 'Ch2_SG_S12'
DISP:WIND:TRAC4:FEED 'Ch2_SG_S21'
DISP:WIND:TRAC5:FEED 'Ch2_SG_S22'
Display the four traces in the diagram no. 1.
INIT2:CONT OFF; :INIT2:IMMediate; *OPC
Perform a complete speep in channel no. 2 to ensure the traces
are completely "filled" with data.
CALC2:DATA:SGR? SDAT
Retrieve all four traces as unformatted data (real and imaginary
part at each sweep point). The analyzer first returns the complete
S11 trace, followed by the S12, S21, and S22 traces.
CALC2:PAR:DEL:SGR
Delete the previously created port group.
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Manual operation:
See "All S-Params" on page 114
CALCulate<Ch>:PARameter:DELete <TraceName>
Deletes a trace with a specified trace name and channel.
Suffix:
<Ch>
.
Channel number.
Setting parameters:
<TraceName>
Trace name, e.g. 'Trc4'. See "Rules for trace names" in ​chapter 4.2.4.2, "Trace Manager (Dialog)", on page 148.
Example:
CALCulate4:PARameter:SDEFine 'Ch4Tr1', 'S11'
Create channel 4 and a trace named Ch4Tr1 to measure the input
reflection coefficient S11.
CALCulate4:PAR:CAT?
Query the traces assigned to channel 4. Ch4Tr1 is the only trace
assigned to channel 4, so the response is 'CH4TR1,S11'.
CALCulate4:PARameter:SDEFine 'CH4TR2', 'S21';
SDEFine 'CH4TR3', 'S12'; SDEFine 'CH4TR4',
'S22'
Create three more traces for the remaining 2-port S-parameters.
CALCulate4:PARameter:DELete 'CH4TR1'
Delete the first created trace.
CALCulate4:PARameter:DELete:CALL
Delete the remaining three traces in channel 4.
CALCulate:PARameter:DELete:ALL
Delete all traces, including the default trace Trc1 in channel 1.
Usage:
Setting only
Manual operation:
See "Delete Trace" on page 148
CALCulate:PARameter:DELete:ALL
Deletes all traces in all channels of the active recall set, including the default trace
Trc1 in channel 1. The manual control screen shows "No Trace".
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​DELete​
Usage:
Event
Manual operation:
See "Delete Trace" on page 148
CALCulate<Ch>:PARameter:DELete:CALL
Deletes all traces in channel no. <Ch>.
Suffix:
<Ch>
.
Channel number
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​DELete​
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Usage:
Event
Manual operation:
See "Delete Trace" on page 148
CALCulate<Ch>:PARameter:DELete:SGRoup
Deletes a group of logical ports (S-parameter group), previously defined via ​
CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​DEFine:​SGRoup​.
Suffix:
<Ch>
.
Channel number. <Ch> may be used to reference a previously
defined channel. If <Ch> does not exist, it is generated with default
channel settings.
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​DEFine:​SGRoup​
Usage:
Event
CALCulate<Ch>:PARameter:MEASure <TraceName>[, <Result>]
Assigns a measurement result to an existing trace. The query returns the result assigned
to the specified trace (no second parameter; see example).
Note: To create a new trace and at the same time assign the attributes, use ​
CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​SDEFine​. To display the trace, create a diagram (​
DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​STATe​ ON) and assign the trace to this diagram (​
DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​FEED​); see example below.
Traces must be selected to become active traces; see ​CALCulate<Ch>:​
PARameter:​SELect​. ​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​CATalog?​ returns a list of all
defined traces. You can open the "Trace Manager" dialog to obtain an overview of all
channels and traces, including the traces that are not displayed.
Suffix:
<Ch>
Parameters:
<TraceName>
<Result>
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.
Channel number of an existing channel containing the referenced
trace.
Trace name, string variable, e.g. 'Trc4'. See "Rules for trace
names" in ​"Trace Manager Table" on page 149. Trace names
must be unique across all channels and diagrams.
Measurement parameter (string variable); see ​table 6-4.
A query of a wave quantity 'xy'
returns'xyD<n><Detector>', where <n> numbers the source
(drive) port, and <Detector> denotes the detector setting (SAM
for a "Normal" (sample), AVG for an "AVG Real Imag", AMP for an
AVG Mag Phase detector). A query of a ratio 'x/y' returns
'xD<n>/yD<m><Detector>', where <n> and <m> number the
source ports
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Example:
CALC4:PAR:SDEF 'Ch4Tr1', 'S11'
Create channel 4 and a trace named Ch4Tr1 to measure the input
reflection coefficient S11.
CALC4:PAR:MEAS 'Ch4Tr1', 'a1'
Change the measurement parameter of the trace and measure the
wave quantity a1.
CALC4:PAR:MEAS? 'Ch4Tr1'
Query the measured quantity. The response is 'A1D1SAM'.
Manual operation:
See "S-Parameter" on page 113
CALCulate<Ch>:PARameter:SDEFine <TraceName>, <Result>
Creates a trace and assigns a channel number, a name and a measurement parameter
to it. The trace becomes the active trace in the channel but is not displayed.
Note: To display the trace defined via CALCulate<Ch>:PARameter:SDEFine, create
a diagram (​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​STATe​ON) and assign the trace to this diagram
(​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​FEED​); see example below. ​
CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​MEASure​ changes the measurement result of an existing trace.
To select an existing trace as the active trace, use ​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​
SELect​. You can open the trace manager to obtain an overview of all channels and
traces, including the traces that are not displayed.
Tip: This command has no query form. Use ​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​MEASure​
'TraceName' to query the measurement result of the trace. ​CALCulate<Ch>:​
PARameter:​CATalog?​ returns a list of all defined traces.
Suffix:
<Ch>
.
Channel number. <Ch> may be used to reference a previously
defined channel. If <Ch> does not exist, it is generated with default
channel settings.
Setting parameters:
<TraceName>
Trace name, string variable, e.g. 'Trc4'. See "Rules for trace
names" in ​"Trace Manager Table" on page 149. Trace names
must be unique across all channels and diagrams.
If a trace with the selected trace name already exists, the analyzer
behaves as follows: If the existing trace is assigned to the same
channel as the new trace, it is deleted. The new trace is not automatically assigned to a diagram area; see note above.
If the existing trace is assigned to a different channel, no new trace
can be created. The analyzer returns an error message.
<Result>
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Measurement result (string variable); see list of parameters below.
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Example:
CALC4:PAR:SDEF 'Ch4Tr1', 'S11'
Create channel 4 and a trace named Ch4Tr1 to measure the input
reflection coefficient S11.
DISP:WIND2:STAT ON
Create diagram area no. 2.
DISP:WIND2:TRAC:FEED 'CH4TR1'
Display the generated trace in diagram area no. 2.
Usage:
Setting only
Manual operation:
See "S-Parameter" on page 113
The measurement parameter is selected by means of the keywords in the following table.
The selection depends on the number of test ports of the analyzer, e.g. S44 is not available
on 2-port analyzers.
Table 6-4: Name strings for measurement results
'S11' | 'S12' | ... | 'S0101' | ...
Single-ended S-parameters S<out><in>, where <out> and <in> denote the
numbers of the related (logical) output and input ports. To avoid ambiguities,
<out> and <in> must be either both 1-digit numbers (e.g. 12) or both 2-digit
numbers (e.g. 0102).
'SCD11' |
S-parameters involving balanced ports must be specified in the form
S<m_out><m_in><out><in>, where <m_out> and <m_in> denote the port
modes of the related (logical) output and input ports. All combinations of D
(differential, balanced), C (common, balanced) and S (single-ended, unbalanced) are allowed. Port numbers <out> and <in> like for normal mode Sparameters.
'Y11' | ... | 'YSS11' | ... | 'YCC11' | ... | 'YDD11' | 'Z11' Short-circuit Y-parameters and open-circuit Z-parameters with port modes and
| ... | 'ZSS11' | ... | 'ZCC11' | ... | 'ZDD11' | ...
port numbers like for normal mode S-parameters*).
'Y-S11' | ... | 'Y-SSS11' | ... | 'Y-SCC11' | ... | 'Y-SDD11' S-parameters converted to matched-circuit admittances and impedances with
| 'Z-S11' | ... | 'Z-SSS11' | ... | 'Z-SCC11' | ... | 'Zport modes and port numbers like for normal mode S-parameters.
SDD11' | ...
'A1' | ... | 'A01' | ... | 'B1' | ... | 'B01' | ... | 'A1SAM' |
'A1AVG' | 'A1AMP'
Wave quantities with port numbers like for normal mode S-parameters. The
strings SAM, AVG, AMP appended to the wave quantities denote a normal
(sample, SAM), AVG Real Imag (AVG), or AVG Mag Phase (AMP) detector.
The observation time for average detectors is set via
[SENSe<Ch>:]SWEep:DETector:TIME.
'A1D2' | ... | 'A01D02' | ... | 'B1D2' | ... | 'B01D02' | ... | Wave quantities with port numbers and source port numbers (D<no> for drive
'A1D1SAM' | 'A1D1AVG' | 'A1D1AMP' | ...
port). The strings SAM, AVG, AMP appended to the wave quantities denote a
normal (sample, SAM), AVG Real Imag (AVG), or AVG Mag Phase (AMP)
detector.
'B2/A1' | ... 'B02/A01' | ... | 'B2/A1SAM' | 'B2/A1AVG' Ratio of wave quantities with port numbers like for normal mode S-parameters.
| B2/A1AMP' | ...
The strings SAM, AVG, AMP appended to the wave quantities denote a normal
(sample, SAM), AVG Real Imag (AVG), or AVG Mag Phase (AMP) detector.
'B2D1/A1D1' | ... 'B02D01/A01D01' | ... 'B2D1/
Ratio of wave quantities with port numbers and source port numbers (D<no>
A1D1SAM' | 'B2D1/A1D1AVG' 'B2D1/A1D1AMP' | ... for drive port). The strings SAM, AVG, AMP appended to the wave quantities
denote a normal (sample, SAM), AVG Real Imag (AVG), or AVG Mag Phase
(AMP) detector.
'IMB21' | 'IMB12' | 'IMB31' | ...
Imbalance parameter for balanced ports Imb<receive_port><drive_port>. The
indices denote the logical receive port and the logical drive port of the analyzer.
'KFAC21' | 'KFAC12' | ...
Stability factor K (for unbalanced ports only)
'MUF121' | 'MUF112' | ...
Stability factor 1 (for unbalanced ports only)
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'MUF221' | 'MUF212' | ...
Stability factor 2 (for unbalanced ports only)
'Pmtr1D1' | 'Pmtr2D2'
Power sensor measurement using a power meter 'Pmtr<no>' and analyzer
source port 'D1' or 'D2'
*) Selecting a parameter Y...<n><m> or Z...<n><m> sets the range of port numbers to
be considered for the Y and Z-parameter measurement to <n>:<m>.
CALCulate<Ch>:PARameter:SELect <TraceName>
Selects an existing trace as the active trace of the channel. All trace commands without
explicit reference to the trace name act on the active trace (e.g. ​CALCulate<Chn>:​
FORMat​). CALCulate<Ch>:PARameter:SELect is also necessary if the active trace
of a channel has been deleted.
Suffix:
<Ch>
Parameters:
<TraceName>
Example:
6.3.1.11
.
Channel number.
Trace name, e.g. 'Trc4'. See "Rules for trace names" in ​"Trace
Manager Table" on page 149.
CALC4:PAR:SDEF 'Ch4Tr1', 'S11'
Create channel 4 and a trace named Ch4Tr1 to measure the input
reflection coefficient S11. The trace is the active trace in channel
4.
CALC4:PAR:SDEF 'Ch4Tr2', 'S22'
Create another trace named Ch4Tr2 to measure the output reflection coefficient S22. Again this new trace becomes the active trace
in channel 4.
CALC4:PAR:SEL 'Ch4Tr1'
Select the first trace Ch4Tr1 as the active trace.
CALC4:FORM MLIN
Calculate the magnitude of S11 and display it in a linearly scaled
Cartesian diagram.
CALCulate:PHOLd...
The CALCulate:PHOLd... commands control the max hold (peak hold) function.
CALCulate<Chn>:PHOLd <HoldFunc>
Enables, disables, or restarts the max hold and the min hold functions.
Suffix:
<Chn>
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Channel number used to identify the active trace.
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Parameters:
<HoldFunc>
MIN | MAX | OFF
MIN - Enable the min hold function.
MAX - enable the max hold function.
OFF - disable the max hold or min hold function.
*RST:
6.3.1.12
OFF
Example:
*RST; :CALC:PHOL MAX
Reset the instrument and enable the max hold function.
CALC:PHOL OFF; PHOL MAX
Restart max hold.
Manual operation:
See "Hold" on page 172
CALCulate:RIPPle...
The CALCulate:RIPPle... commands define the ripple limits and control the ripple
limit check.
CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​CONTrol:​DOMain​.....................................................................430
CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​DATA​......................................................................................431
CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​DELete:​ALL​..............................................................................432
CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​DISPlay[:​STATe]​......................................................................433
CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​FAIL?​......................................................................................433
CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​RDOMain:​FORMat​....................................................................433
CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​SEGMent:​COUNt?​....................................................................434
CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​SEGMent<Seg>:​LIMit​...............................................................434
CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​SEGMent<Seg>:​RESult?​...........................................................435
CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​SEGMent<Seg>[:​STATe]​...........................................................436
CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​SEGMent<Seg>:​STIMulus:​STARt​..............................................436
CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​SEGMent<Seg>:​STIMulus:​STOP​...............................................436
CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​SOUNd[:​STATe]​.......................................................................437
CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​STATe​.....................................................................................437
CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​STATe:​AREA​...........................................................................437
CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​CLEar​......................................................................................438
CALCulate<Chn>:RIPPle:CONTrol:DOMain <SweepType>
Deletes the existing ripple limit ranges and (re-)defines the physical units of the stimulus
values of the ripple limit lines. The unit of the ripple limit is defined via ​
CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​RDOMain:​FORMat​.
Suffix:
<Chn>
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.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
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Setting parameters:
<SweepType>
FLIN | FLOG | FSEG | FSINgle | TLIN | TLOG | PLIN | PLOG |
PSINgle
Keywords for the units of the stimulus values; frequency, power,
and time units. The selected unit must be compatible with the
sweep type (​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SWEep:​TYPE​ on page 618); otherwise the ripple limit lines cannot be displayed and no ripple limit
check is possible.
*RST:
FLIN
Default unit: Hz (for FLIN, FLOG, FSEG, and FSINgle), s (for TLIN
and TLOG), dBm (for PLIN, PLOG and PSINgle).
Example:
SWE:TYPE POW
Select a power sweep.
CALC:RIPP:CONT:DOM PLIN
Delete all existing ripple limit ranges and select level units for the
ripple limit of the active trace.
CALC:RIPP:DATA 1, -10, -5, 3
Define and enable a ripple limit range in the stimulus range
between -10 dBm and -5 dBm, assigning a ripple limit of 3 dB.
Usage:
Setting only
Manual operation:
See "Add / Insert / Delete / Delete All / Align All" on page 188
CALCulate<Chn>:RIPPle:DATA <RippleLimRange>...
Adds and enables/disables an arbitrary number of ripple limit ranges, assigning the stimulus values and the ripple limits. See ​chapter 3.4.1.2, "Rules for Ripple Test Definition",
on page 61.
Note: This command does not overwrite existing ripple limit ranges. The defined ranges
are appended to the range list as new ranges. Use the
CALCulate<Chn>:RIPPle:SEGMent<Seg>... commands to change existing ripple
limits.
Suffix:
<Chn>
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.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
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Parameters:
<RippleLimRange>
Parameter list in the format <Type>, <StartStimulus>, <StopStimulus>, <RippleLimit>{, <Type>, <StartStimulus>, <StopStimulus>, <RippleLimit>}, where:
<Type> – Boolean identifier for the ripple limit range type. 1 for
ripple limit range on (with limit check). 0 for ripple limit range off:
The range is defined, but no limit check result displayed. The result
is still available via ​CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​
SEGMent<Seg>:​RESult?​.
<StartStimulus> – stimulus value of the first point of the ripple limit
range. The unit is adjusted to the sweep type of the active channel
(​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SWEep:​TYPE​).
<StartStimulus> – stimulus value of the last point of the ripple limit
range. The unit is adjusted to the sweep type.
<RippleLimit> – ripple limit in the range. The unit is adjusted to the
format of the active trace (​CALCulate<Chn>:​FORMat​).
Virtually no restriction for ripple limit ranges.
Range:
*RST:
n/a (no ripple limit line defined after a reset)
Default unit: Stimulus values: Hz for frequency sweeps, dBm for
power sweeps, s for time and CW mode sweeps.
Ripple limit: see above.
Example:
*RST; CALC:RIPP:DATA 1, 1500000000, 2000000000,
3, 1, 2000000000, 3000000000, 5
Define and enable a ripple limit range in the stimulus range
between 1.5 GHz and 2 GHz, assigning a ripple limit of +3 dB.
Define and enable a second ripple limit range in the stimulus range
between 2 GHz and 3 GHz, assigning a ripple limit of +5 dB.
CALC:RIPP:DISP ON
Show the ripple limits in the active diagram.
Manual operation:
See "Add / Insert / Delete / Delete All / Align All" on page 188
CALCulate<Chn>:RIPPle:DELete:ALL
Deletes all ripple limit ranges.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Example:
*RST; CALC:RIPP:DATA 1,1500000000, 2000000000,
3, 1, 2000000000, 3000000000, 5
Define and enable a ripple limit range in the stimulus range
between 1.5 GHz and 2 GHz, assigning a ripple limit of +3 dB.
Define and enable a second ripple limit range in the stimulus range
between 2 GHz and 3 GHz, assigning a ripple limit of +5 dB.
CALC:RIPP:DEL:ALL
Delete both created ripple limit ranges.
Usage:
Event
Manual operation:
See "Add / Insert / Delete / Delete All / Align All" on page 188
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CALCulate<Chn>:RIPPle:DISPlay[:STATe] <Boolean>
Displays or hides all ripple limit lines (including all ranges) associated to the active trace.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<Boolean>
ON | OFF - ripple limit line on or off.
*RST:
OFF
Example:
*RST; CALC:RIPP:DATA 1,1500000000, 2000000000,
3
Define and enable a ripple limit range in the stimulus range
between 1.5 GHz and 2 GHz, assigning a ripple limit of +3 dB.
CALC:RIPP:DISP ON
Show the ripple limit range in the active diagram.
Manual operation:
See "Show Ripple Limits" on page 185
CALCulate<Chn>:RIPPle:FAIL?
Returns a 0 or 1 to indicate whether or not the global ripple limit check has failed.
Tip: Use ​CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​SEGMent<Seg>:​RESult?​ to query the result for
a single ripple limit range.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Example:
*RST; CALC:RIPP:DATA 1, 1500000000, 2000000000,
3
Define and enable a ripple limit range in the stimulus range
between 1.5 GHz and 2 GHz, assigning a ripple limit of +3 dB.
CALC:RIPP:STAT ON; FAIL?
Switch the limit check on and query the result.
CALC:RIPP:STAT:AREA LEFT, TOP
For a subsequent check at the GUI or a hardcopy, move the info
field to the top left position.
Usage:
Query only
Manual operation:
See "Ripple Check" on page 185
CALCulate<Chn>:RIPPle:RDOMain:FORMat <UnitRef>
Deletes the existing ripple limit ranges and (re-)defines the physical unit of the ripple limit.
The units of the stimulus values are defined via ​CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​
CONTrol:​DOMain​.
Suffix:
<Chn>
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.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
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SCPI Command Reference
Setting parameters:
<UnitRef>
COMPlex | MAGNitude | PHASe | REAL | IMAGinary | SWR |
GDELay | L | C
Keyword for the physical unit of the response values; dimensionless numerss, relative power, phase, time, inductance, capacitance units.
*RST:
n/a
Default unit: 1 (U, for COMPlex, REAL, IMAGinary, and SWR); dB
(for MAGNitude), deg (for PHASe), s (for GDELay),
H (Henry, for L), F (Farad, for C).
Example:
*RST; CALC:RIPP:DATA 1, 1500000000, 2000000000,
3
Define and enable a ripple limit range in the stimulus range
between 1.5 GHz and 2 GHz, assigning a ripple limit of +3 dB.
CALC:RIPP:RDOM:FORM COMP
Delete the ripple limit range, select complex units for the ripple
limit.
Usage:
Setting only
CALCulate<Chn>:RIPPle:SEGMent:COUNt?
Queries the number of ripple limit ranges. The response is an integer number.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Example:
*RST; CALC:RIPP:DATA 1, 1500000000, 2000000000,
3, 1, 2000000000, 3000000000, 5
Define and enable a ripple limit range in the stimulus range
between 1.5 GHz and 2 GHz, assigning a ripple limit of +3 dB.
Define and enable a second ripple limit range in the stimulus range
between 2 GHz and 3 GHz, assigning a ripple limit of +5 dB.
CALC:RIPP:SEGM:COUNT?
Query the number of ranges. The response is 2.
Usage:
Query only
Manual operation:
See "Range List" on page 187
CALCulate<Chn>:RIPPle:SEGMent<Seg>:LIMit <Limit>
Defines the ripple limit for ripple limit range no. <Seg>. A range must be created first to
enable this command (e.g. ​CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​DATA​). See ​chapter 3.4.1.2,
"Rules for Ripple Test Definition", on page 61.
Tip: To define several ripple limit ranges with a single command, use ​
CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​DATA​.
Suffix:
<Chn>
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Channel number used to identify the active trace.
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SCPI Command Reference
<Seg>
Parameters:
<Limit>
Number of the ripple limit range.
Ripple limit in the range. The unit is adjusted to the format of the
active trace (​CALCulate<Chn>:​FORMat​).
Range:
Virtually no restriction for ripple limit ranges.
*RST:
n/a (no ripple limit line defined after a reset)
Default unit: See above.
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​SEGMent<Seg>:​STIMulus:​
STARt​
Manual operation:
See "Range List" on page 187
CALCulate<Chn>:RIPPle:SEGMent<Seg>:RESult?
Returns the result of the ripple limit check in the previously defined limit range no.
<Seg>. The response consists of two parameters:
●
<Boolean> – 0 for "passed", 1 for "failed".
●
<Limit> – measured ripple in the limit range. A result is returned even if the limit check
in the range no. <Seg> is disabled; see example below.
A reset deletes all ripple limit ranges. Use CALCulate<Ch>:RIPPle:FAIL? to query
the result for global ripple limit check.
Note: In remote control, the ripple limit check result is calculated once at the end of each
sweep. If the ripple limits are changed, a new sweep is required to obtain updated ripple
limit check results. In single sweep mode (INITiate<Ch>:CONTinuous OFF), the new
sweep must be started explicitly. This behavior is different from manual control where a
changed ripple limit line can directly affect the pass/fail result of the displayed trace.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
<Seg>
Number of the ripple limit range.
Example:
*RST; CALC:RIPP:DATA 1, 1500000000, 2000000000,
3
Define and enable a ripple limit range in the stimulus range
between 1.5 GHz and 2 GHz, assigning a ripple limit of +3 dB.
CALC:RIPP:STAT ON; SEGM:RES?
Enable the limit check and query the result for the created range.
Possible response: 0,0.3529814004.
CALC:RIPP:DATA 0, 2500000000, 3000000000, 3
Define a second ripple limit range with disabled limit check (no limit
check results are displayed in the diagram area).
CALC:RIPP:SEGM2:RES?
Query the result for the second range. Possible response:
0,1.149071925.
Usage:
Query only
Manual operation:
See "Ripple Check" on page 185
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CALCulate<Chn>:RIPPle:SEGMent<Seg>[:STATe] <Boolean>
Enables or disables the limit check in the ripple limit range no. <Seg>.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
<Seg>
Number of the ripple limit range.
Parameters:
<Boolean>
ON | OFF - Limit check on or off. A result is available even if the
limit check is disabled; see example for ​CALCulate<Chn>:​
RIPPle:​SEGMent<Seg>:​RESult?​.
*RST:
n/a (no ripple limit line defined after a reset)
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​SEGMent<Seg>:​STIMulus:​
STARt​
Manual operation:
See "Range List" on page 187
CALCulate<Chn>:RIPPle:SEGMent<Seg>:STIMulus:STARt <FreqPowTime>
CALCulate<Chn>:RIPPle:SEGMent<Seg>:STIMulus:STOP <FreqPowTime>
These commands change the start or stop stimulus values (i.e. the smallest or largest
stimulus values) of a ripple limit range. A range must be created first to enable these
commands (e.g ​CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​DATA​). See ​chapter 3.4.1.2, "Rules for
Ripple Test Definition", on page 61.
Tip: To define several ripple limit ranges with a single command, use ​
CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​DATA​.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
<Seg>
Number of the ripple limit range.
Parameters:
<FreqPowTime>
Frequency, power or time value, according to the sweep type of
the active channel (​[SENSe<Ch>:​]SWEep:​TYPE​).
Range:
Virtually no restriction for ripple limit ranges.
*RST:
n/a (no ripple limit line defined after a reset)
Default unit: Hz for frequency sweeps, dBm for power sweeps, s
for time and CW mode sweeps.
Example:
User Manual 1173.9557.02 ─ 13
*RST; CALC:RIPP:DATA 1,1500000000, 2000000000,3
Define and enable a ripple limit range in the stimulus range
between 1.5 GHz and 2 GHz, assigning a ripple limit of +3 dB.
CALC:RIPP:SEGM:STIM:STAR 1GHZ; STOP 2.5 GHZ; :
CALC:RIPP:SEGM:LIM 5
Change the range to a stimulus range between 1 GHz and 2.5
GHz and a limit of 5 dB.
CALC:RIPP:SEGM:STAT OFF
Disable the limit check in the modified stimulus range.
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SCPI Command Reference
Manual operation:
See "Range List" on page 187
CALCulate<Chn>:RIPPle:SOUNd[:STATe] <Boolean>
Switches the acoustic signal (fail beep) on or off. The fail beep is generated each time
the analyzer detects an exceeded ripple limit.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<Boolean>
ON | OFF - fail beep on or off.
*RST:
OFF
Example:
CALC:RIPP:STAT ON; SOUN ON
Switch the limit check on and activate the fail beep.
Manual operation:
See "Ripple Fail Beep" on page 186
CALCulate<Chn>:RIPPle:STATe <Boolean>
Switches the ripple limit check for the active trace on or off.
Tip: Use ​CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​SEGMent<Seg>[:​STATe]​ to switch the limit
check for a single ripple limit range on or off.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<Boolean>
ON | OFF – ripple limit check on or off.
*RST:
OFF
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​FAIL?​
Manual operation:
See "Ripple Check" on page 185
CALCulate<Chn>:RIPPle:STATe:AREA <HorizontalPos>, <VerticalPos>
Moves the ripple test info field for the active trace <Chn> to one of nine predefined positions in the active diagram.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<HorizontalPos>
LEFT | MID | RIGHt
Horizontal position
<VerticalPos>
TOP | MID | BOTTom
Vertical position
Example:
User Manual 1173.9557.02 ─ 13
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​RIPPle:​FAIL?​
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SCPI Command Reference
Manual operation:
See "Ripple Check" on page 185
CALCulate<Chn>:RIPPle:CLEar
Resets the limit check results for the ripple test.
6.3.1.13
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number
Usage:
Event
Manual operation:
See "Clear Test" on page 186
CALCulate:SMOothing...
The CALCulate:SMOothing... commands provide the settings for trace smoothing.
CALCulate<Chn>:​SMOothing:​APERture​..........................................................................438
CALCulate<Chn>:​SMOothing[:​STATe]​.............................................................................438
CALCulate<Chn>:SMOothing:APERture <SmoothAperture>
Defines how many measurement points are averaged to smooth the trace.
Suffix:
<Chn>
Parameters:
<SmoothAperture>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Smoothing aperture. A smoothing aperture of n % means that the
smoothing interval for each sweep point i with stimulus value xi is
equal to [xi - span*n/200, xi + span*n/200], and that the result of i
is replaced by the arithmetic mean value of all measurement points
in this interval.
Range:
0.05% to 100%.
*RST:
1
Default unit: %
Example:
*RST; :CALC:SMO ON
Activate smoothing for the default trace.
CALC:SMO:APER 0.5
Reduce the smoothing aperture to 0.5 %.
Manual operation:
See "Aperture" on page 171
CALCulate<Chn>:SMOothing[:STATe] <Boolean>
Enables or disables smoothing for trace no. <Chn>.
Suffix:
<Chn>
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.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
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Parameters:
<Boolean>
ON | OFF - smoothing on or off.
*RST:
6.3.1.14
OFF
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​SMOothing:​APERture​
Manual operation:
See "Smoothing" on page 171
CALCulate:STATistics...
The CALCulate:STATistics... commands evaluate and display statistical and
phase information of the trace.
CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics:​DOMain:​USER​....................................................................439
CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics:​DOMain:​USER:​SHOW​.........................................................440
CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics:​DOMain:​USER:​STARt​.........................................................440
CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics:​DOMain:​USER:​STOP​..........................................................440
CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics:​EPDelay[:​STATe]​................................................................441
CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics:​MMPTpeak[:​STATe]​............................................................441
CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics:​MSTDdev[:​STATe]​..............................................................441
CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics:​NLINear:​COMP:​LEVel​.........................................................441
CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics:​NLINear:​COMP:​RESult?​......................................................441
CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics:​NLINear:​COMP[:​STATe]​......................................................442
CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics:​RESult?​..............................................................................442
CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics:​RMS[:​STATe]​......................................................................443
CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics:​SFLatness[:​STATe]​.............................................................443
CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics[:​STATe]​..............................................................................444
CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics[:​STATe]:​AREA​....................................................................444
CALCulate<Chn>:STATistics:DOMain:USER <EvalRange>
Selects one out of 10 evaluation ranges to be configured with the ​CALCulate<Chn>:​
STATistics:​DOMain:​USER:​SHOW​, ​CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics:​DOMain:​
USER:​STARt​, and ​CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics:​DOMain:​USER:​STOP​ commands.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<EvalRange>
Number of the evaluation range.
Range:
*RST:
User Manual 1173.9557.02 ─ 13
1 to 10. In addition, 0 denotes the (non-configurable)
"Full Span" evaluation range.
0
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Command Reference
SCPI Command Reference
Example:
*RST; :CALC:STAT:DOM:USER?
Query the default evaluation range. The response is zero, i.e. the
evaluation range is equal to the complete sweep range
CALC:STAT:DOM:USER 1
CALC:STAT:DOM:USER:STARt 1GHZ; STOP 2GHZ;
SHOW ON
Select evaluation range no. 1 and define the evaluation range
between 1 GHz and 2 GHz. Display the range limit lines.
Manual operation:
See "Evaluation Range" on page 170
CALCulate<Chn>:STATistics:DOMain:USER:SHOW <Boolean>
Displays or hides range limit lines for the evaluation range selected via ​
CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics:​DOMain:​USER​.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<Boolean>
ON | OFF - range limit lines on or off.
*RST:
OFF
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics:​DOMain:​USER​
Manual operation:
See "Range Limit Lines on" on page 170
CALCulate<Chn>:STATistics:DOMain:USER:STARt <Start>
CALCulate<Chn>:STATistics:DOMain:USER:STOP <Stop>
These commands define the start and stop values of the evaluation range selected via ​
CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics:​DOMain:​USER​.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<Stop>
Start or stop value of the evaluation range.
Range:
*RST:
-1000 GHz to 1000 GHz
Lowest or highest frequency of the analyzer, depending on the analyzer model.
Default unit: Hz
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics:​DOMain:​USER​
Manual operation:
See "Evaluation Range" on page 170
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CALCulate<Chn>:STATistics:EPDelay[:STATe] <Boolean>
CALCulate<Chn>:STATistics:MMPTpeak[:STATe] <Boolean>
CALCulate<Chn>:STATistics:MSTDdev[:STATe] <Boolean>
These commands display or hide the "Phase/El Length" results, the "Min/Max/PeakPeak" results, and the "Mean/Std Dev" results in the diagram area of trace no. <Chn>.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<Boolean>
ON | OFF - statistical info field on or off.
*RST:
OFF
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics[:​STATe]​
Manual operation:
See "Statistical Functions" on page 166
CALCulate<Chn>:STATistics:NLINear:COMP:LEVel <Stop>
Defines the compression value x for the compression point measurement (​
CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics:​NLINear:​COMP:​RESult?​).
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<Stop>
Stop value of the evaluation range.
Range:
+0.01 dBm to +100.00 dBm
*RST:
1 dBm
Default unit: dB
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics:​NLINear:​COMP:​
RESult?​
Manual operation:
See "Compr Point / Value" on page 168
CALCulate<Chn>:STATistics:NLINear:COMP:RESult?
Returns the x-dB compression point of an S-parameter or ratio measured in a power
sweep. The compression value x is set via ​CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics:​
NLINear:​COMP:​LEVel​.
The response contains two numeric values:
●
<Cmp In> – stimulus level at the compression point in dBm.
●
<Cmp Out> – sum of <Cmp In> plus the magnitude of the measured response value
at the compression point in dBm.
Suffix:
<Chn>
User Manual 1173.9557.02 ─ 13
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
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Example:
*RST; SWE:TYPE POW
Select a power sweep with default CW frequency and sweep
range.
CALC:STAT:NLIN:COMP:LEV 2
Define a compression value of 2 dB.
CALC:STAT:NLIN:COMP:RES?
Query the compression point results <Cmp In>, <Cmp Out>. An
execution error message (error no. -200) is returned if no compression point is found.
CALC:STAT:NLIN:COMP ON
Display the compression point result in the diagram area.
Usage:
Query only
Manual operation:
See "Compr Point / Value" on page 168
CALCulate<Chn>:STATistics:NLINear:COMP[:STATe] <Boolean>
Displays or hides the compression point result in the diagram area of trace no. <Chn>.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<Boolean>
ON | OFF - statistical info field on or off.
*RST:
OFF
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics:​NLINear:​COMP:​
RESult?​
Manual operation:
See "Compr Point / Value" on page 168
CALCulate<Chn>:STATistics:RESult? <Result>
Returns a single statistical parameter of the trace no. <Chn> or all parameters. It is not
necessary to display the info field (​CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics[:​STATe]​ON)
before using this command.
Suffix:
<Chn>
User Manual 1173.9557.02 ─ 13
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
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Parameters:
<Result>
MEAN | STDDev | MAX | MIN | RMS | PTPeak | PEAK2p |
ELENgth | PDELay | GAIN | SLOPe | FLATness | ALL
MEAN - return arithmetic mean value of all response values of the
trace in the entire sweep range (or in the evaluation range defined
in manual control).
STDDev - return standard deviation of all response values.
MAX - return the maximum of all response values.
MIN - return the minimum of all response values.
RMS - return the root mean square of all response values.
PTPeak - return the peak-to-peak value (MAX - MIN).
ELENgth - return the electrical length.
PDELay - return the phase delay.
GAIN - return the gain, i.e. the larger of two marker values.
SLOPe - return the slope (difference) between two marker values.
FLATness - return the flatness of the trace between two marker
positions.
ALL - return all statistical values, observing the order used above.
The data is returned as a comma-separated list of real numbers.
The unit is the default unit of the measured parameter (see ​
CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​SDEFine​) but may also depend
on the trace format (linear or logarithmic scale, see ​
CALCulate<Chn>:​FORMat​). If a polar trace format is selected,
then the statistical parameters are calculated from the linear magnitude of the measurement parameter.
Example:
*RST; :CALC:STAT:RES? MAX
Calculate and return the maximum of the default trace showing an
S-parameter on a dB Mag scale.
:CALC:FORM POL; STAT:RES? MAX
Display the trace in a polar diagram and re-calculate the maximum. The result corresponds to the previous result but is converted to a unitless linear value.
Usage:
Query only
Manual operation:
See "Statistical Functions" on page 166
CALCulate<Chn>:STATistics:RMS[:STATe] <Boolean>
CALCulate<Chn>:STATistics:SFLatness[:STATe] <Boolean>
These commands display or hide the "RMS" and the "Flatness/Gain/Slope" results in the
diagram area of trace no. <Chn>.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<Boolean>
ON | OFF - statistical info field on or off.
*RST:
Example:
User Manual 1173.9557.02 ─ 13
OFF
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics[:​STATe]​
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SCPI Command Reference
Manual operation:
See "Flatness / Gain / Slope" on page 168
CALCulate<Chn>:STATistics[:STATe] <Boolean>
Displays or hides all statistical results in the diagram area of trace no. <Chn> except the
compression point results.
Tip: You can display or hide the "Min/Max/Peak-Peak", "Mean/Std Dev/RMS", "Phase/
El Length" and "Flatness/Gain/Slope" results separately; see example below.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<Boolean>
ON | OFF - Statistical info field on or off.
*RST:
OFF
Example:
*RST; :CALC:STAT:MMPT ON
Reset the instrument, hiding all statistical results. Display the "Min/
Max/Peak-Peak" results.
CALC:STAT:MSTD ON
Display the "Mean/Std Dev" results in addition.
CALC:STAT:RMS ON
Display the "RMS" results in addition.
CALC:STAT:EPD ON
Display the "Phase/El Length" results in addition.
CALC:STAT:SFL ON
Display the "Flatness/Gain/Slope" results in addition.
CALC:STAT:STAT:AREA LEFT, TOP
For a subsequent check at the GUI or a hardcopy, move the info
field to the top left position.
...
CALC:STAT OFF
Hide all results.
Manual operation:
See "Statistical Functions" on page 166
CALCulate<Chn>:STATistics[:STATe]:AREA <HorizontalPos>, <VerticalPos>
Moves the statistics info field for the active trace <Chn> to one of nine predefined positions in the active diagram.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<HorizontalPos>
LEFT | MID | RIGHt
Horizontal position
<VerticalPos>
TOP | MID | BOTTom
Vertical position
Example:
User Manual 1173.9557.02 ─ 13
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​STATistics[:​STATe]​
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Manual operation:
6.3.1.15
See "Compr Point / Value" on page 168
CALCulate:TRANsform...
The CALCulate:TRANsform... commands convert measured data from one representation to another and control the transformation into the time domain (with option R&S
ZNC-K2).
CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​COMPlex​..........................................................................445
CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​IMPedance:​RNORmal​........................................................446
CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​CENTer​....................................................................446
CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​DCHebyshev​............................................................447
CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​LPASs​......................................................................447
CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​LPASs:​DCSParam​....................................................447
CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​LPASs:​DCSParam:​CONTinuous​.................................448
CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​LPASs:​DCSParam:​EXTRapolate​................................449
CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​LPFRequency​...........................................................449
CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​RESolution:​EFACtor​..................................................449
CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​SPAN​.......................................................................449
CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​STARt​......................................................................450
CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​STATe​.....................................................................450
CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​STIMulus​..................................................................451
CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​STOP​.......................................................................451
CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME[:​TYPE]​.....................................................................452
CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​WINDow​...................................................................452
CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​XAXis​.......................................................................453
CALCulate<Chn>:TRANsform:COMPlex <Result>
Converts S-parameters into converted (matched-circuit) Y-parameters or Z-parameters
and vice versa, assuming that port no. i is terminated with Z0i so that the three parameter
sets are equivalent and the following formulas apply:
Z ii  Z 0i
Z ij  2 
Yii 
Yij 
1  S ii
1  S ii
Z 0i  Z 0 j
S ij
 Z 0i  Z 0 j , i  j ,
1 1  Sii
 1 / Z ii
Z 0i 1  Sii
Sij
2  Z 0i  Z 0 j  Sij  Z 0i  Z 0 j 
Suffix:
<Chn>
User Manual 1173.9557.02 ─ 13
 1 / Z ij , i  j ,
i, j  1, ..., 99
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
445
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Parameters:
<Result>
S|Y|Z
S-parameters, Y-parameters, Z-parameters
Example:
*RST; CALC:PAR:MEAS 'Trc1'", '"Y-S22'
Select the converted admittance Y <-- S22 as measurement
parameter of the default trace.
CALC:TRAN:COMP S
Convert the converted Y-parameter into an S-parameter.
CALCulate<Chn>:TRANsform:IMPedance:RNORmal <Model>
Selects the theory for the renormalization of port impedances. The selection has an
impact on the conversion formulas for wave quantities and S-parameters.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<Model>
TWAVes | PWAVes
TWAVes - travelling waves
PWAVes - power waves
*RST:
TWAVes
Example:
See ​[SENSe<Ch>:​]PORT<PhyPt>:​ZREFerence​
Manual operation:
See "Renormalization according to Theory of" on page 120
CALCulate<Chn>:TRANsform:TIME:CENTer <CenterTime>
Defines the center time of the diagram in time domain.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<CenterTime>
Center time of the diagram in time domain.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
-99.99999999999 s to +99.99999999999 s
0.1 ns
1.5E-009 s
s
Example:
*RST; :CALC:TRAN:TIME:STAT ON
Reset the instrument, activating a frequency sweep, and enable
the time domain transformation for the default trace.
CALC:TRAN:TIME:CENT 0; SPAN 5ns
Set the center time to 0 ns and the time span to 5 ns.
Manual operation:
See "Time Start / Stop / Center / Span" on page 213
Note: If the x-axis is scaled in distance units (​CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​
XAXis​ DISTance), then the center value is entered in m; the range and default value
changes accordingly.
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CALCulate<Chn>:TRANsform:TIME:DCHebyshev <SidebandSupp>
Sets the sideband suppression for the Dolph-Chebyshev window. The command is only
available if a Dolph-Chebyshev window is active (​CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​
TIME:​WINDow​ DCHebyshev).
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<SidebandSupp>
Sideband suppression
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
10 dB to 120 dB
10 dB
32 dB
dB
Example:
*RST; :CALC:TRAN:TIME:WIND DCH
Reset the instrument and select a Dolph-Chebyshev window for
filtering the data in the frequency domain.
CALC:TRAN:TIME:DCH 25
Set the sideband suppression to 25 dB.
Manual operation:
See "Side Lobe Level" on page 161
CALCulate<Chn>:TRANsform:TIME:LPASs <Algorithm>
Calculates the harmonic grid for low pass time domain transforms according to one of
the three alternative algorithms.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<Algorithm>
KFSTop | KDFRequency | KSDFrequency
KFSTop - keep stop frequency and number of points
KDFRequency - keep frequency gap and number of points
KSDfrequency - keep stop frequency and approximate frequency
gap
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME[:​TYPE]​
Manual operation:
See "Set Harmonic Grid and Keep" on page 162
CALCulate<Chn>:TRANsform:TIME:LPASs:DCSParam <DCValue>
Defines the DC value for low pass transforms. The command is enabled only if the sweep
points are on a harmonic grid (to be set explicitly or using ​CALCulate<Chn>:​
TRANsform:​TIME:​LPASs​).
Suffix:
<Chn>
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.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
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SCPI Command Reference
Parameters:
<DCValue>
DC value of the measured quantity
Range:
*RST:
Depending on the measured quantity (-1 to +1 for Sparameters)
0
Example:
*RST; :CALC:TRAN:TIME:STAT ON
Reset the instrument, activating a frequency sweep with S21 as
measured quantity, and enable the time domain transformation for
the default trace.
CALC:TRAN:TIME LPAS; TIME:STIM STEP
Select a low pass step transformation.
CALC:TRAN:TIME:LPAS KFST
Calculate a harmonic grid, maintaining the stop frequency and the
number of points.
CALC:TRAN:TIME:LPAS:DCSP 0.2
Set the DC value.
CALC:TRAN:TIME:LPAS:DCSP:EXTR; :CALC:TRAN:TIME:
LPAS:DCSP?
Extrapolate the measured trace, overwrite the defined DC value,
and query the new value.
CALC:TRAN:TIME:LPAS:DCSP:CONT ON
Switch over to continuous extrapolation (e.g. because you noticed
a discrepancy between the manually entered DC value and the
extrapolation and assume the extrapolation to be more trustworthy).
CALC:TRAN:TIME:RES:EFAC 3
Select a resolution enhancement factor of 3 in order to improve
the resolution in time domain.
Manual operation:
See "DC Value" on page 162
CALCulate<Chn>:TRANsform:TIME:LPASs:DCSParam:CONTinuous <Boolean>
Determines whether continuous extrapolation for the DC value is enabled.
Suffix:
<Chn>
Parameters:
<Boolean>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
ON - continuous extrapolation enabled
OFF - continuous extrapolation disabled
*RST:
OFF
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​LPASs:​DCSParam​
Manual operation:
See "DC Value" on page 162
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SCPI Command Reference
CALCulate<Chn>:TRANsform:TIME:LPASs:DCSParam:EXTRapolate
Extrapolates the measured trace towards f = 0 and overwrites the current DC value (​
CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​LPASs:​DCSParam​). The command is relevant
for low pass time domain transforms.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​LPASs:​DCSParam​
Usage:
Event
Manual operation:
See "DC Value" on page 162
CALCulate<Chn>:TRANsform:TIME:LPFRequency
Calculates the harmonic grid for low pass time domain transforms, keeping the stop frequency and the number of points.
Tip: Use ​CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​LPASs​ if you wish to use one of the
other algorithms for calculating the grid.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME[:​TYPE]​
Usage:
Event
Manual operation:
See "DC Value" on page 162
CALCulate<Chn>:TRANsform:TIME:RESolution:EFACtor <REfactor>
Defines the resolution enhancement factor for the time domain transform.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<REfactor>
Resolution enhancement factor.
Range:
1 to 10.
Increment: 0.1
*RST:
1 (no resolution enhancement)
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​LPASs:​DCSParam​
Manual operation:
See "Resolution Enh(ancement)" on page 161
CALCulate<Chn>:TRANsform:TIME:SPAN <Span>
Defines the time span of the diagram in time domain.
Suffix:
<Chn>
User Manual 1173.9557.02 ─ 13
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
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SCPI Command Reference
Parameters:
<Span>
Time span of the diagram in time domain.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
2E-012 s to 200 s.
0.1 ns
5E-009 s
s
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​CENTer​
Manual operation:
See "Time Start / Stop / Center / Span" on page 213
Note: If the x-axis is scaled in distance units (​CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​
XAXis​ DISTance), then the span is entered in m; the range and default value changes
accordingly.
CALCulate<Chn>:TRANsform:TIME:STARt <StartTime>
Defines the start time of the diagram in time domain.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<StartTime>
Start time of the diagram.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
-100 s to +99.999999999998 s.
0.1 ns
-1E-009 s
s
Example:
*RST; :CALC:TRAN:TIME:STAT ON
Reset the instrument, activating a frequency sweep, and enable
the time domain transformation for the default trace.
CALC:TRAN:TIME:STAR 0; STOP 10 ns
Set the start time to 0 ns and the stop time to 10 ns.
Manual operation:
See "Time Start / Stop / Center / Span" on page 213
Note: If the start frequency entered is greater than the current stop frequency (​
CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​STOP​), the stop frequency is set to the start
frequency plus the minimum frequency span (​CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​
SPAN​). If the x-axis is scaled in distance units (​CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​
TIME:​XAXis​ DISTance), then the start value is entered in m; the range and default
value changes accordingly.
CALCulate<Chn>:TRANsform:TIME:STATe <Boolean>
Determines whether the time domain transformation for trace no. <Chn> is enabled.
Suffix:
<Chn>
User Manual 1173.9557.02 ─ 13
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
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SCPI Command Reference
Parameters:
<Boolean>
ON - time domain representation active.
OFF - frequency domain representation active.
*RST:
OFF
Example:
*RST; :CALC:TRAN:TIME:STAT?
Reset the instrument, activating a frequency sweep, and query
whether the default trace is displayed in the time domain. The
response is 0.
Manual operation:
See "Time Domain" on page 160
CALCulate<Chn>:TRANsform:TIME:STIMulus <Type>
Selects the type of stimulus to be simulated in the low pass transformation process.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<Type>
IMPulse | STEP
IMPulse - impulse response, in bandpass or lowpass mode.
STEP - step response, only in lowpass mode (a bandpass mode
setting ​CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME[:​TYPE]​ BPASs
is automatically changed to lowpass).
*RST:
IMP
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME[:​TYPE]​
Manual operation:
See "Type" on page 160
CALCulate<Chn>:TRANsform:TIME:STOP <StopTime>
Defines the stop time of the diagram in time domain.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<StopTime>
Stop time of the diagram.
Range:
Increment:
*RST:
Default unit:
-99.999999999998 s to +100 s.
0.1 ns
+4E-009 s
s
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​STARt​
Manual operation:
See "Time Start / Stop / Center / Span" on page 213
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SCPI Command Reference
Note: If the stop frequency entered is smaller than the current start frequency (​
CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​STARt​), the start frequency is set to the stop
frequency minus the minimum frequency span (​CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​
TIME:​SPAN​). If the x-axis is scaled in distance units (​CALCulate<Chn>:​
TRANsform:​TIME:​XAXis​ DISTance), then the stop value is entered in m; the range
and default value changes accordingly.
CALCulate<Chn>:TRANsform:TIME[:TYPE] <TransformType>
Selects the time domain transformation type.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<TransformType>
BPASs | LPASs
BPASs - band pass impulse (only impulse response; a step
response ​CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​STIMulus​
STEP is automatically changed to impulse response)
LPASs - low pass (impulse or step response, depending on ​
CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​STIMulus​ setting)
*RST:
BPASs
Example:
*RST; :CALC:TRAN:TIME:STAT ON
Reset the instrument, activating a frequency sweep, and enable
the time domain transformation for the default trace.
CALC:TRAN:TIME LPAS; TIME:STIM STEP
Select a low pass step transformation.
CALC:TRAN:TIME:LPAS KFST
Calculate a harmonic grid, keeping the stop frequency and the
number of points.
Manual operation:
See "Type" on page 160
CALCulate<Chn>:TRANsform:TIME:WINDow <WindowType>
Selects the window type for filtering the data in the frequency domain prior to the time
domain transformation.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<WindowType>
RECT | HAMMing | HANNing | BOHMan | DCHebyshev
RECT - no profiling (rectangle)
HANN - normal profile (Hann)
HAMMing - low first sidelobe (Hamming)
BOHMan - steep falloff (Bohman)
DCHebyshev - arbitrary sidelobes (Dolph-Chebychev)
*RST:
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HANN
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SCPI Command Reference
Example:
See ​CALCulate<Chn>:​TRANsform:​TIME:​DCHebyshev​
Manual operation:
See "Impulse Response" on page 160
CALCulate<Chn>:TRANsform:TIME:XAXis <Unit>
Switches over between the x-axis scaling in time units or distance units.
Suffix:
<Chn>
.
Channel number used to identify the active trace.
Parameters:
<Unit>
TIME | DISTance
TIME - x-axis scaled in time units.
DISTance - x-axis scaled in distance units (Distance = Time * c0 *
Velocity Factor).
Example:
*RST; :CALC:TRAN:TIME:STAT ON
Reset the instrument, activating a frequency sweep, and enable
the time domain transformation for the default trace.
CALC:TRAN:TIME:XAX DIST
Convert the x-axis scaling to distance units.
Manual operation:
See "Time / Distance" on page 214
6.3.2 CONFigure Commands
The CONFigure... commands create and delete channels or traces and assign channel and trace names. The commands are device-specific.
CONFigure:​CHANnel:​CATalog?​......................................................................................454
CONFigure:​CHANnel:​MEASure:​ALL[:​STATe]​...................................................................454
CONFigure:​CHANnel<Ch>:​MEASure[:​STATe]​..................................................................454
CONFigure:​CHANnel<Ch>:​NAME​...................................................................................455
CONFigure:​CHANnel<Ch>:​NAME:​ID?​.............................................................................455
CONFigure:​CHANnel<Ch>[:​STATe]​.................................................................................456
CONFigure:​CHANnel<Ch>:​TRACe:​CATalog?​...................................................................456
CONFigure:​CHANnel<Ch>:​TRACe:​REName​....................................................................456
CONFigure:​TRACe:​CATalog?​.........................................................................................457
CONFigure:​TRACe<Trc>:​CHANnel:​NAME?​.....................................................................457
CONFigure:​TRACe<Trc>:​CHANnel:​NAME:​ID?​.................................................................458
CONFigure:​TRACe<Trc>:​NAME​......................................................................................458
CONFigure:​TRACe<Trc>:​NAME:​ID?​................................................................................458
CONFigure:​TRACe<Trc>:​REName​..................................................................................459
CONFigure:​TRACe:​WINDow?​.........................................................................................459
CONFigure:​TRACe:​WINDow:​TRACe?​.............................................................................459
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CONFigure:CHANnel:CATalog?
Returns the numbers and names of all channels in the current recall set. The response
is a string containing a comma-separated list of channel numbers and names; see example below. If all channels have been deleted the response is an empty string ("").
Example:
*RST; :CONF:CHAN2:STAT ON; NAME 'New Channel'
Create channel 2 and assign the channel name "New Channel".
CONF:CHAN:CAT?
Query all channels and their names. As a default channel no. 1 is
created on *RST, the response is '1,Ch1,2,New_Channel'.
CONF:CHAN:NAME:ID? 'New Channel'
Query the channel number for the channel named "New Channel".
The response is 2.
Usage:
Query only
Manual operation:
See "Channel table" on page 278
CONFigure:CHANnel:MEASure:ALL[:STATe] <Boolean>
Enables or disables the sweep in all channels of the active recall set. This command can
be used in combination with ​CONFigure:​CHANnel<Ch>:​MEASure[:​STATe]​ to optimize the measurement speed.
Parameters:
<Boolean>
ON | OFF
*RST:
ON
Example:
See ​CONFigure:​CHANnel<Ch>:​MEASure[:​STATe]​
Manual operation:
See "Continuous / Single" on page 231
CONFigure:CHANnel<Ch>:MEASure[:STATe] <Boolean>
Enables or disables the sweep in channel no. <Ch>. This command can be used to restrict
the measurement in a subset of channels in order to optimize the measurement speed.
Suffix:
<Ch>
.
Number of an existing channel.
Parameters:
<Boolean>
ON | OFF
*RST:
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Example:
*RST; :CONFigure:CHANnel2 ON; CHANnel3 ON
Create channels 2 and 3, in addition to the default channel no. 1.
The analyzer performs sweeps in all three channels.
CONFigure:CHANnel:MEASure:ALL OFF
Disable the measurement in all channels
CONFigure:CHANnel2:MEASure ON
(Re-)enable the measurement in channel no. 2. The analyzer
measures in channel 2; the channels no. 1 and 3 are not measured.
Manual operation:
See "Continuous / Single" on page 231
CONFigure:CHANnel<Ch>:NAME <ChannelName>
Assigns a name to channel number <Ch>. The channel must be created before (​
CONFigure:​CHANnel<Ch>[:​STATe]​ ON). Moreover it is not possible to assign the
same name to two different channels. ​CONFigure:​CHANnel:​CATalog?​ returns a list
of all defined channels with their names.
Suffix:
<Ch>
.
Number of an existing channel.
Parameters:
<ChannelName>
Channel name, e.g. 'Channel 4'.
*RST:
'Ch1'
Example:
See ​CONFigure:​CHANnel:​CATalog?​
Manual operation:
See "Trace Manager Table" on page 149
CONFigure:CHANnel<Ch>:NAME:ID? <ChannelName>
Queries the channel number (numeric suffix) of a channel with known channel name. A
channel name must be assigned before (​CONFigure:​CHANnel<Ch>:​NAME​
'<ChannelName>'). ​CONFigure:​CHANnel:​CATalog?​ returns a list of all defined
channels with their names.
Suffix:
<Ch>
.
Channel number. This suffix is not relevant and may be omitted
(the command returns the actual channel number).
Parameters:
<ChannelName>
Channel name, e.g. 'Channel 4'.
Example:
See ​CONFigure:​CHANnel:​CATalog?​
Usage:
Query only
Manual operation:
See "Trace Manager Table" on page 149
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CONFigure:CHANnel<Ch>[:STATe] <Boolean>
Creates or deletes channel no. <Ch> and selects it as the active channel. ​
CONFigure:​CHANnel<Ch>:​NAME​ defines the channel name.
A channel created with CONFigure:CHANnel<Ch>[:STATe] ON can be configured
but has no trace assigned so that no measurement can be initiated. Use ​
CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​SDEFine​ "<TraceName>,"<Parameter>" to create
a new channel and a new trace. In remote control it is possible to remove all channels.
This is in contrast to manual control where at least one channel with one diagram area
and one trace must be available.
Suffix:
<Ch>
Parameters:
<Boolean>
.
Number of the channel to be created or deleted.
ON - create channel no. <Ch>. If the channel no. <Ch> exists
already, it is not modified but selected as the active channel.
OFF - delete channel no. <Ch>.
*RST:
ON for channel no. 1 (created on *RST), OFF for all
other channels.
Example:
See ​CONFigure:​CHANnel:​CATalog?​
Manual operation:
See "Add Ch + Trace" on page 277
CONFigure:CHANnel<Ch>:TRACe:CATalog?
Returns the numbers and names of all traces in channel no. <Ch>. The response is a
string containing a comma-separated list of trace numbers and names; see example. If
all traces have been deleted the response is an empty string ("").
Tip: Use ​CONFigure:​TRACe:​CATalog?​ to query the traces in all channels of the active
recall set.
Suffix:
<Ch>
.
Channel number
Example:
See ​CONFigure:​TRACe:​CATalog?​
Usage:
Query only
Manual operation:
See "Trace Manager Table" on page 149
CONFigure:CHANnel<Ch>:TRACe:REName <TraceName>
Assigns a (new) name to the active trace in channel <Ch>.
Suffix:
<Ch>
.
Channel number
Setting parameters:
<TraceName>
Trace name, e.g. 'Trace 4'.
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Example:
*RST; :CONF:CHAN:TRAC:REN 'Testtrace_1'
Reset the analyzer to create a default trace in channel 1 and set
this trace as the active trace. Rename the trace 'Testtrace_1'.
CALC:PAR:SDEF 'Testtrace_2', 'S11'
Create a new trace which will become the active trace in channel
no. 1.
CONF:TRAC:REN 'Testtrace_1', 'Testtrace_3'
Rename the first trace (which is currently not active) 'Testtrace_3'.
Usage:
Setting only
Manual operation:
See "Trace Manager Table" on page 149
CONFigure:TRACe:CATalog?
Returns the numbers and names of all traces in the current recall set. The response is a
string containing a comma-separated list of trace numbers and names, see example
below. If all traces have been deleted the response is an empty string ("").
Tip: Use ​CONFigure:​CHANnel<Ch>:​TRACe:​CATalog?​ to query the traces in a particular channel; see example.
Example:
*RST; :CALC2:PAR:SDEF 'Ch2Trc2', 'S11'
Create channel 2 and a new trace named Ch2Trc2.
CONF:TRAC:CAT?
Query all traces and their names. As a default trace no. 1 is created
upon *RST, the response is '1,Trc1,2,Ch2Trc2'.
CONF:CHAN1:TRAC:CAT?
Query the channels in channel no. 1. The response is
'1,Trc1'.
CONF:TRAC:NAME:ID? 'Ch2Trc2'
Query the trace number for the trace named "Ch2Trc2". The
response is 2.
CONF:TRAC2:NAME?
Query the trace name for trace no. 2. The response is
'Ch2Trc2'.
CONF:TRAC:CHAN:NAME? 'Ch2Trc2'
Query the channel name for trace Ch2Trc2. The response is
'Ch2'.
CONF:TRAC:CHAN:NAME:ID? 'Ch2Trc2'
Query the channel number for trace Ch2Trc2. The response is 2.
Usage:
Query only
Manual operation:
See "Trace Manager Table" on page 149
CONFigure:TRACe<Trc>:CHANnel:NAME? <TraceName>
Queries the channel name for an existing trace named '<TraceName>'.
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Suffix:
<Trc>
.
Trace number. This suffix is ignored; the trace is referenced by its
name.
Parameters:
<TraceName>
Trace name, e.g. 'Ch2Trc2'.
Example:
See ​CONFigure:​TRACe:​CATalog?​
Usage:
Query only
Manual operation:
See "Add Ch + Trace" on page 277
CONFigure:TRACe<Trc>:CHANnel:NAME:ID? <TraceName>
Queries the channel number (numeric suffix) for an existing trace named
'<TraceName>'.
Suffix:
<Trc>
.
Trace number. This suffix is ignored; the trace is referenced by its
name.
Parameters:
<TraceName>
Trace name, e.g. 'Ch2Trc2'.
Example:
See ​CONFigure:​TRACe:​CATalog?​
Usage:
Query only
Manual operation:
See "Add Ch + Trace" on page 277
CONFigure:TRACe<Trc>:NAME <TraceName>
Assigns a name to an existing trace number <Trc>. Note that it is not possible to assign
the same name to two different traces. ​CONFigure:​TRACe:​CATalog?​ returns a list of
all traces in the active recall set with their names.
Suffix:
<Trc>
.
Number of an existing trace.
Parameters:
<TraceName>
Trace name, e.g. 'Ch2Trc2'.
*RST:
Example:
'Trc1'
See ​CONFigure:​TRACe:​CATalog?​
CONFigure:TRACe<Trc>:NAME:ID? <TraceName>
Queries the trace number (numeric suffix) of a trace with known trace name. ​
CONFigure:​TRACe:​CATalog?​ returns a list of all traces in the active recall set with
their names.
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Suffix:
<Trc>
.
Trace number. This suffix is not relevant and may be omitted (the
command returns the actual trace number).
Parameters:
<TraceName>
Trace name, e.g. 'Ch2Trc2'.
Example:
See ​CONFigure:​TRACe:​CATalog?​
Usage:
Query only
CONFigure:TRACe<Trc>:REName <OldTraceName>, <NewTraceName>
Assigns a new name to a trace. The trace does not have to be the active trace.
Suffix:
<Trc>
.
Trace number. This suffix is ignored; the trace is identified via its
<TraceName>
Setting parameters:
<OldTraceName>
String parameter with old trace name, e.g. 'Trc1'
<NewTraceName>
String parameter with new trace name, e.g. 'S11 Trace'
*RST:
n/a
Example:
See ​CONFigure:​CHANnel<Ch>:​TRACe:​REName​
Usage:
Setting only
Manual operation:
See "Trace Manager Table" on page 149
CONFigure:TRACe:WINDow? <TraceName>
Returns the trace number within a diagram which is assigned to the trace
<TraceName> is assigned to. A zero is returned when the trace is not assigned/displayed.
The trace number is equal to the <WndTr> suffix in ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​
TRACe<WndTr>:​FEED​ and similiar commands; see example.
Parameters:
<TraceName>
Trace name (string), e.g. 'Trc1'
Example:
See ​CONFigure:​TRACe:​WINDow:​TRACe?​
Usage:
Query only
Manual operation:
See "Add" on page 150
CONFigure:TRACe:WINDow:TRACe? <TraceName>
Returns the number of the diagram which the trace <TraceName> is assigned to. A zero
is returned when the trace is not assigned/displayed.
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The diagram number is equal to the <Wnd> suffix in ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​
TRACe<WndTr>:​FEED​ and similiar commands; see example.
Parameters:
<TraceName>
Trace name (string), e.g. 'Trc1'
Example:
*RST; :CALC:PAR:SDEF 'Trc2', 'S11'
Create a new trace named Trc2.
CONF:TRAC:WIND:TRAC? 'Trc2'
Query the diagram number for Trc2. The new trace is currently not
displayed, so the response is 0.
DISP:WIND2:STAT ON
Create a new diagram no. 2.
DISP:WIND2:TRAC3:FEED 'Trc2'
Display the trace in the new diagram no. 2, assigning the trace
number 3.
CONF:TRAC:WIND? 'Trc2'
Query the diagram number for Trc2. The the response is 2.
CONF:TRAC:WIND:TRAC? 'Trc2'
Query the trace number for Trc2. The the response is 3.
Usage:
Query only
Manual operation:
See "Add" on page 150
6.3.3 CONTrol Commands
The Control... commands control the USER PORT connector and the Handler I/O
(Universal Interface) connector (option R&S ZN-B14).
CONTrol:​AUXiliary:​C[:​DATA]​...........................................................................................461
CONTrol:​HANDler:​A[:​DATA]​...........................................................................................462
CONTrol:​HANDler:​B[:​DATA]​...........................................................................................462
CONTrol:​HANDler:​C[:​DATA]​...........................................................................................462
CONTrol:​HANDler:​D[:​DATA]​...........................................................................................462
CONTrol:​HANDler:​E[:​DATA]​...........................................................................................462
CONTrol:​HANDler:​F[:​DATA]​............................................................................................462
CONTrol:​HANDler:​G[:​DATA]​...........................................................................................462
CONTrol:​HANDler:​H[:​DATA]​...........................................................................................462
CONTrol:​HANDler:​A:​MODE​............................................................................................463
CONTrol:​HANDler:​B:​MODE​............................................................................................463
CONTrol:​HANDler:​C:​MODE​............................................................................................463
CONTrol:​HANDler:​D:​MODE​............................................................................................463
CONTrol:​HANDler[:​EXTension]:​INDex:​STATe​..................................................................464
CONTrol:​HANDler[:​EXTension]:​RTRigger:​STATe​..............................................................464
CONTrol:​HANDler:​INPut?​...............................................................................................464
CONTrol:​HANDler:​LOGic​................................................................................................465
CONTrol:​HANDler:​OUTPut<Pt>:​USER​............................................................................465
CONTrol:​HANDler:​OUTPut<Pt>[:​DATA]​...........................................................................465
CONTrol:​HANDler:​PASSfail:​LOGic​..................................................................................466
CONTrol:​HANDler:​PASSfail:​MODE​.................................................................................466
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CONTrol:​HANDler:​PASSfail:​POLicy​.................................................................................467
CONTrol:​HANDler:​PASSfail:​SCOPe​................................................................................468
CONTrol:​HANDler:​PASSfail:​STATus?​..............................................................................468
CONTrol:​HANDler:​RESet​................................................................................................468
CONTrol:​HANDler:​SWEepend​.........................................................................................469
CONTrol:AUXiliary:C[:DATA] <DecValue>
Sets or queries a channel-dependent eight-bit decimal value to control eight independent
output signals at the USER PORT connector (lines 8, 9, 10, 11 and lines 16, 17, 18, 19).
The output signals are 3.3 V TTL signals which can be used to differentiate between up
to 255 independent analyzer states. CONTrol:AUXiliary:C[:DATA] itself does not
change the analyzer state.
Channel bit definition and activation
The channel bits have the following properties:
●
After a *RST of the analyzer all channel bits (including the value for the active,
sweeping channel no. 1) are set to zero; no signal is applied to pins 8 to 11 and 16
to 19 of the USER PORT connector.
●
The value defined with CONTrol:AUXiliary:C[:DATA] is assigned to the
active channel (​INSTrument:​NSELect​ <Ch>).
●
The signals at the USER PORT connector reflect the channel bits of the measuring channel, i.e. the channel for which the analyzer performs a sweep. This channel
is not necessarily identical with the active channel.
●
The signals are switched on as soon as a measurement (sweep) in a channel with
non-zero channel bits is started. They are changed whenever a channel with different
channel bits becomes the measuring channel.
●
The signals at the USER PORT connector are maintained after the analyzer enters
the hold state. This happens if all channels use single sweep mode and if all sweep
sequences have been terminated.
●
Pins 16 to 19 may be reserved for monitoring the drive ports 1 to 4 of the analyzer (​
OUTPut:​UPORt:​ECBits​ OFF) . This leaves up to 16 different monitored channel
states.
Tip: A simple application consists of selecting the channel numbers as parameters for
CONTrol:AUXiliary:C[:DATA] and monitor the activity of up to 255 different channels at the USER PORT connector; see example below. You can also use the USER
PORT output signals as channel-dependent trigger signals for external devices. Use ​
OUTPut<Ch>:​UPORt[:​VALue]​ to transfer the eight bit value for an arbitrary channel
<Ch> in binary representation.
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Parameters:
<DecValue>
Decimal value. The values correspond to the following states of
the USER PORT connector:
0 - no signal at any of the no signal at any of the eight pins 8, 9,
10, 11, 16, 17, 18, 19
1 - output signal at pin 8
2 - output signal at pin 9
3 - output signal at pins 8 and 9
...
255 - output signal at pins 8, 9, 10, 11, 16, 17, 18, 19
Range:
*RST:
0 to 255
0 (no signal)
Example:
*RST; :CONT:AUX:C 1
Assign the channel bit value 1 to the active channel no. 1. The
analyzer performs a measurement in channel no. 1, therefore the
output signal at pin 8 is switched on.
CONF:CHAN2:STAT ON; :CONT:AUX:C 2
Create channel no. 2, causing it to become the active channel, and
assign the channel bit value 2. The analyzer performs no measurement in channel no. 2, therefore the output signal is not
changed.
CALC2:PAR:SDEF 'Ch2Tr1', 'S11'
Create a trace named 'Ch2Tr1' and assign it to channel 2. While
the analyzer measures in channel 2, the output signal changes
from pin 8 to pin 9.
Manual operation:
See "Table Columns" on page 229
CONTrol:HANDler:A[:DATA] <DecValue>
CONTrol:HANDler:B[:DATA] <DecValue>
CONTrol:HANDler:C[:DATA] <DecValue>
CONTrol:HANDler:D[:DATA] <DecValue>
CONTrol:HANDler:E[:DATA] <DecValue>
CONTrol:HANDler:F[:DATA] <DecValue>
CONTrol:HANDler:G[:DATA] <DecValue>
CONTrol:HANDler:H[:DATA] <DecValue>
The setting commands write data to ports A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H. To write data to a port,
the port must be configured as an output port (see example). By default, the port lines
have negative logic: A "0" at a pin corresponds to a high signal, a "1" to a low signal. The
logic can be changed using ​CONTrol:​HANDler:​LOGic​POSitive. When writing to port
G, port C must be configured as an output port. When writing to port H, port C and port
D must be configured as output ports (see ​CONTrol:​HANDler:​D:​MODE​).
The queries read data from ports A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H. If the port is an output port, the
queries return the last value that was written to the port.
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Parameters:
<DecValue>
Decimal representation fo an n-bit binary value. The ranges are:
Port A: 0 to 255 (pins A7 ... A0)
Port B: 0 to 255 (pins B7 ... B0)
Port C: 0 to 15 (pins C3 ... C0)
Port D: 0 to 15 (pins D3 ... D0)
Port E: 0 to 255 (pins D3 ... D0 C3 ... C0)
Port F: 0 to 65535 (pins B7 ... B0 A7 ... A0)
Port G: 0 to 1048575 (pins C3 ... C0 B7 ... B0 A7 ... A0)
Port H: 0 to 16777215 (pins D3 ... D0 C3 ... C0 B7 ... B0 A7 ... A0)
The parameters MIN, MAX, DEF are not supported.
Note:*RST or "Preset" do not change the configuration of the Universal Interface. Use ​CONTrol:​HANDler:​RESet​ to restore
default values.
*RST:
Example:
n/a (default: 0 (port A, B, and F); ports C, D, and E
are configured as input ports.)
CONT:HAND:A:MODE OUTP
Configure port A as an output port.
CONT:HAND:A 192
Write data to port A.
CONT:HAND:B:MODE INP
Configure port B as an input port.
CONT:HAND:B?
Read data from port B.
CONTrol:HANDler:A:MODE <Mode>
CONTrol:HANDler:B:MODE <Mode>
CONTrol:HANDler:C:MODE <Mode>
CONTrol:HANDler:D:MODE <Mode>
Controls the direction of the data flow at ports A, B, C, D. The direction at the combined
ports E, F, G, H is according to the configuration at the other ports.
Parameters:
<Mode>
INPut | OUTPut
INPut – Input of data at the port
OUTPut – Output of data at the port
Note:*RST or "Preset" do not change the configuration of the Universal Interface. Use ​CONTrol:​HANDler:​RESet​ to restore
default values.
*RST:
Example:
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n/a (default: Port A and B: OUTPut (also valid for port
F); port C and D: INPut (also valid for port E). Ports
G and H have mixed default modes.)
See ​CONTrol:​HANDler:​A[:​DATA]​
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CONTrol:HANDler[:EXTension]:INDex:STATe <Boolean>
Selects the digital signal that is routed to pin 20 of the Universal Interface connector.
Parameters:
<Boolean>
ON - /INDEX signal at pin 20
OFF - /PORT_B6 signal at pin 20
*RST:
n/a (default: OFF)
Note:*RST or "Preset" do not change the configuration of the Universal Interface. Use ​CONTrol:​HANDler:​RESet​ to restore
default values.
Example:
CONT:HAND:EXT:IND:STAT ON
Route the /INDEX signal to pin 20.
CONT:HAND:EXT:RTR:STAT ON
Route the /READY_FOR_TRIGGER signal to pin 21.
CONT:HAND:RES
Restore the default state: Pins no. 20 and 21 are available for port
B input/output signals.
CONTrol:HANDler[:EXTension]:RTRigger:STATe <Boolean>
Selects the digital signal that is routed to pin 21 of the Universal Interface connector.
Parameters:
<Boolean>
ON - /READY_FOR_TRIGGER
OFF - /PORT_B7 signal at pin 21
Note:*RST or "Preset" do not change the configuration of the Universal Interface. Use ​CONTrol:​HANDler:​RESet​ to restore
default values.
*RST:
Example:
n/a (default: OFF)
See ​CONTrol:​HANDler[:​EXTension]:​INDex:​STATe​
CONTrol:HANDler:INPut? <NumberOfTrans>
Queries whether a high to low transition occurred at the /INPUT 1 line (pin 2) of the
Universal Interface since the last CONTrol:HANDler:INPut? query. A negative pulse
fed to this line also causes the /OUTPUT 1 and /OUTPUT 2 lines (pins 3 and 4) to change
to low.
Parameters:
<NumberOfTrans>
0 – no transition detected since last query.
1 – one or more transitions detected. The query resets the counter
to zero.
*RST:
n/a
Example:
CONTrol:HANDler:INPut?
Query whether a high to low transition occurred.
Usage:
Query only
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CONTrol:HANDler:LOGic <Logic>
Selects the logic of the data ports A to H of the Universal Interface. For output ports, a
change in logic reverses the state of the output lines immediately. For input ports, a
change in logic will be reflected next time when data is read.
Parameters:
<Logic>
POSitive | NEGative
POSitive – 0 = low, 1 = high
NEGative – 0 = high, 1 = low
Note:*RST or "Preset" do not change the configuration of the Universal Interface. Use ​CONTrol:​HANDler:​RESet​ to restore
default values.
*RST:
Example:
n/a (default: NEGative)
CONTrol:HANDler:LOGic POS
Change the logic of the data ports to positive.
CONTrol:HANDler:OUTPut<Pt>:USER <BinValue>
Defines the state of the output ports (pin 3 or 4) of the Universal Interface connector after
the next negative pulse on the /INPUT1 line (pin 2).
Suffix:
<Pt>
Parameters:
<BinValue>
.
Output port number:
1 - /OUTPUT1 (pin 3)
2 - /OUTPUT2 (pin 4)
The parameters MIN, MAX, DEF are not supported.
Note:*RST or "Preset" do not change the configuration of the Universal Interface. Use ​CONTrol:​HANDler:​RESet​ to restore
default values.
0 - high 1 - low
*RST:
Example:
n/a (default: 0)
See ​CONTrol:​HANDler:​OUTPut<Pt>[:​DATA]​
CONTrol:HANDler:OUTPut<Pt>[:DATA] <BinValue>
Writes a 0 or 1 to the output ports (pin 3 or 4) of the Universal Interface connector. The
port lines have negative logic: A "0" corresponds to a high signal, a "1" to a low signal.
The query reads the last value that has been written to the output port.
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Suffix:
<Pt>
Parameters:
<BinValue>
.
Output port number:
1 - /OUTPUT1 (pin 3)
2 - /OUTPUT2 (pin 4)
The parameters MIN, MAX, DEF are not supported.
Note:*RST or "Preset" do not change the configuration of the Universal Interface. Use ​CONTrol:​HANDler:​RESet​ to restore
default values.
0 - high
1 - low
*RST:
Example:
n/a (default: 0)
CONT:HAND:OUTP2:DATA 0
Set the /OUTPUT2 line (pin 4) to 0 (current state of /OUTPUT2).
CONT:HAND:OUTP2:USER 1
Define the next state of the /OUTPUT2 line as 1 (low). /OUTPUT2
will go from 0 to 1 when the analyzer receives a negative pulse on
the /INPUT1 line (pin 2).
CONTrol:HANDler:PASSfail:LOGic <Logic>
Specifies the the logic of the /PASS FAIL line (pin 33) of the Universal Interface.
Parameters:
<Logic>
POSitive | NEGative
POSitive – high meas PASS, low means FAIL
NEGative – low meas PASS, high means FAIL
Note:*RST or "Preset" do not change the configuration of the Universal Interface. Use ​CONTrol:​HANDler:​RESet​ to restore
default values.
*RST:
Example:
n/a (default: POSitive)
See ​CONTrol:​HANDler:​PASSfail:​MODE​
CONTrol:HANDler:PASSfail:MODE <Mode>
Specifies the default logical pass/fail state and the timing of the /PASS FAIL line (pin 33).
The /PASS FAIL STROBE (pin 36) is set after the /PASS FAIL line; see ​chapter 9.1.4.4,
"Timing of Control Signals", on page 749.
If the mode is PASS or FAIL, the /PASS FAIL line is returned to its default state when the
analyzer is ready for a new measurement (/READY FOR TRIGGER).
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Parameters:
<Mode>
NOWait | PASS | FAIL
NOWait – the /PASS FAIL line is set as soon as a failure condition
occurs.
PASS – the line stays in PASS state (as defined by ​CONTrol:​
HANDler:​PASSfail:​LOGic​) until a sweep end condition (determined by ​CONTrol:​HANDler:​PASSfail:​SCOPe​) occurs.
FAIL – the line stays in FAIL state until a sweep end condition
occurs.
Note:*RST or "Preset" do not change the configuration of the Universal Interface. Use ​CONTrol:​HANDler:​RESet​ to restore
default values.
*RST:
Example:
n/a (default: NOWait)
Configure the /SWEEP END (pin 34) and /PASS FAIL (pin 33)
signals:
CONTrol:HANDler:SWEepend GLOBal
Set the /SWEEP END line to low when all sweeps in all channels
are complete.
CONTrol:HANDler:PASSFail:MODE PASS
Set the default state of the /PASS FAIL line to PASS.
CONTrol:HANDler:PASSFail:SCOPe GLOBal
Set the /PASS FAIL line when all sweeps in all channels are complete.
CONTrol:HANDler:PASSFail:LOGic POSitive
Set the /PASS FAIL line to positive logic.
CONTrol:HANDler:PASSFail:POLicy ALLTests
Return pass only if all tests pass.
CONTrol:HANDler:PASSfail:POLicy <Policy>
Specifies how the global pass/fail status (​CONTrol:​HANDler:​PASSfail:​STATus?​
on page 468) is calculated.
Parameters:
<Policy>
ALLTests | ALLMeas
ALLTests – the status is PASS if all limit checks in all measurements (traces) pass.
ALLMeas – the status is PASS if a limit check is defined for all
measurements (traces) and all limit checks pass. It is FAIL if one
or more traces have no associated limit check, or if at least one
limit check fails.
Note:*RST or "Preset" do not change the configuration of the Universal Interface. Use ​CONTrol:​HANDler:​RESet​ to restore
default values.
Example:
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CONTrol:HANDler:PASSfail:SCOPe <Scope>
Specifies the "sweep end" condition that will cause the /PASS FAIL line (pin 33) to report
the status of the global limit check.
Note: This setting is not valid if the pass/fail mode is NOWait (​CONTrol:​HANDler:​
PASSfail:​MODE​NOWait).
Parameters:
<Scope>
GLOBal | CHANnel
CHANnel – when all the sweeps for each channel are complete
GLOBal – when all sweeps in all channels are complete
Note:*RST or "Preset" do not change the configuration of the Universal Interface. Use ​CONTrol:​HANDler:​RESet​ to restore
default values.
*RST:
Example:
n/a (default: GLOBal)
See ​CONTrol:​HANDler:​PASSfail:​MODE​
CONTrol:HANDler:PASSfail:STATus?
Returns the global pass/fail status of the last measurement.
Return values:
<Status>
PASS | FAIL | NONE
PASS – all measurements that are not in single sweep mode (on
hold) have been swept, and all limit checks have been passed.
FAIL – all measurements that are not in single sweep mode (on
hold) have been swept, at least one limit check failed according to
the specified pass/fail policy (​CONTrol:​HANDler:​PASSfail:​
POLicy​).
NONE – no pass/fail status available, e.g. because the measurement is in progress or because no limit check has been defined.
*RST:
n/a
Example:
Preparations: Configure and enable a limit check. Start a measurement and wait until the sweep is complete.
CONTrol:HANDler:PASSfail:STATus?
Query the result of the global limit check.
Usage:
Query only
CONTrol:HANDler:RESet
Restores the default states of the CONTrol:HANDler... commands including the data
port values.
Example:
See ​CONTrol:​HANDler[:​EXTension]:​INDex:​STATe​
Usage:
Event
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CONTrol:HANDler:SWEepend <SweepEnd>
Specifies the event that will cause the /SWEEP END line (pin 34) to go low; see ​chapter 9.1.4.4, "Timing of Control Signals", on page 749.
Parameters:
<SweepEnd>
SWEep | CHANnel | GLOBal
SWEep – every time a sweep is complete
CHANnel – when all the sweeps for each channel are complete
GLOBal – when all sweeps in all channels are complete
Note:*RST or "Preset" do not change the configuration of the Universal Interface. Use ​CONTrol:​HANDler:​RESet​ to restore
default values.
*RST:
Example:
n/a (default: GLOBal)
See ​CONTrol:​HANDler:​PASSfail:​MODE​
6.3.4 DIAGnostic Commands
The DIAGnostic... commands provide access to service and diagnostic routines used
in service, maintenance and repair. In accordance with the SCPI standard all commands
are device-specific.
Service functions are password-protected (​SYSTem:​PASSword[:​CENable]​) and
should be used by an R&S service representative only. Refer to the service manual for
more information.
DIAGnostic:​DEVice:​STATe​.............................................................................................469
DIAGnostic:​SERVice:​RFPower​........................................................................................470
DIAGnostic:​SERVice:​SFUNction​.....................................................................................470
DIAGnostic:DEVice:STATe <Filename>
Generates a system report and writes it to the specified file. See ​chapter 8.1.3, "Obtaining
Technical Support", on page 735.
Setting parameters:
<Filename>
String parameter containing the file name. If no path is specified,
the file is stored to the directory
C:\Users\Public\Documents\Vna\Report; the extension
*.zip is appended automatically.
*RST:
n/a
Example:
DIAG:DEV:STAT 'report_16032011_1120'
Generate a report and store it to
C:\Users\Public\Documents\Vna\Report\
report_16032011_1120. Use the MMEMory... commands to
rename, move, or delete the file.
Usage:
Setting only
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Manual operation:
See "Save... / Print... / Save Report" on page 315
DIAGnostic:SERVice:RFPower <Boolean>
Turns the internal source power at all ports and the power of all external generators on
or off. This command is equivalent to ​OUTPut<Ch>[:​STATe]​ .
Parameters:
<Boolean>
ON | OFF - switch the power on or off.
*RST:
Example:
ON
DIAG:SERV:RFP OFF
Turn off the RF source power.
DIAGnostic:SERVice:SFUNction <SFIdentifier>
Activates a service function (mainly for internal use). Service functions are identified by
groups of numbers, separated by dots.
Parameters:
<SFIdentifier>
Manual operation:
Service function identifier (including the dots) in single or double
quotes (string parameter). This is analogous to manual entry of
the identifier in the "Service Function" dialog.
See "Password" on page 316
6.3.5 DISPlay Commands
The DISPlay... commands control the selection and presentation of graphical and
trace information on the screen.
Trace display
Traces are generally identified by a string parameter defining the trace name (e.g. ​
CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​SELect​ <TraceName>). In the DISPlay... subsystem, traces are assigned to diagrams (​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​
FEED​ <TraceName>). While this assignment is valid, the trace is identified by the numeric
suffix <Wnd>, and the trace name is not needed.
Units for DISPlay... commands
The DISPlay... subsystem contains commands to define particular points in the diagram, e.g. to set the scale or a reference value. This requires the entry of a numeric value
and a physical unit, depending on the parameter type displayed. The following table lists
the physical units accepted by the analyzer.
Power
DBM, DB, DBW, W, MW, UW, NW, PW
Voltage
V, MV, UV, NV, PV, DBV, DBMV, DBUV
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Phase
DEG, KDEG, MDEG, UDEG, NDEG, PDEG
Group delay
S, MS, US, NS, PS
Impedance
OHM, GOHM, MOHM, KOHM
Admittance
SIE, MSIE, USIE, NSIE
Inductance
H, MH, UH, NH, PH, FH
Capacitance
F, MF, UF, NF, PF, FF
Dimensionless
UNIT, MUNIT, UUNIT, NUNIT, PUNIT, FUNIT
DISPlay:​ANNotation:​CHANnel[:​STATe]​............................................................................472
DISPlay:​ANNotation:​FREQuency[:​STATe]​........................................................................472
DISPlay:​ANNotation:​TRACe[:​STATe]​...............................................................................472
DISPlay:​CMAP:​LIMit:​FCOLorize[:​STATe]​.........................................................................472
DISPlay:​CMAP:​LIMit:​FSYMbol[:​STATe]​...........................................................................472
DISPlay:​CMAP:​LIMit[:​STATe]​..........................................................................................472
DISPlay:​CMAP:​MARKer[:​STATe]​....................................................................................473
DISPlay:​CMAP<DispEl>:​RGB​.........................................................................................473
DISPlay:​CMAP:​TRACe:​COLor[:​STATe]​............................................................................475
DISPlay:​CMAP:​TRACe:​RGB​...........................................................................................476
DISPlay:​LAYout​.............................................................................................................476
DISPlay:​LAYout:​APPLy​..................................................................................................477
DISPlay:​LAYout:​DEFine​.................................................................................................477
DISPlay:​LAYout:​EXECute​...............................................................................................478
DISPlay:​LAYout:​GRID​....................................................................................................479
DISPlay:​LAYout:​JOIN​.....................................................................................................479
DISPlay:​RFSize​.............................................................................................................479
DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​CATalog?​...............................................................................480
DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​MAXimize​...............................................................................480
DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​OVERview[:​STATe]​.................................................................481
DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​NAME​....................................................................................481
DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​STATe​....................................................................................482
DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TITLe:​DATA​............................................................................482
DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TITLe[:​STATe]​........................................................................482
DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​CATalog?​......................................................483
DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​DELete​..........................................................483
DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​EFEed​...........................................................484
DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​FEED​............................................................484
DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​SHOW​...........................................................485
DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​X:​OFFSet​......................................................486
DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​Y:​OFFSet​......................................................486
DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​AUTO​............................................487
DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​PDIVision​......................................488
DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​RLEVel​..........................................488
DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​RPOSition​......................................489
DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​BOTTom​........................................490
DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​TOP​..............................................490
DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​ZOOM[:​STATe]​..............................................491
DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​ZOOM:​STARt​.................................................492
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DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​ZOOM:​STOP​.................................................492
DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​ZOOM:​BOTTom​.............................................493
DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​ZOOM:​TOP​...................................................493
DISPlay:ANNotation:CHANnel[:STATe] <Boolean>
DISPlay:ANNotation:FREQuency[:STATe] <Boolean>
DISPlay:ANNotation:TRACe[:STATe] <Boolean>
Shows or hides the channel list(s), all frequency stimulus values, or the trace list(s) in the
diagrams.
Parameters:
<Boolean>
ON | OFF - show or hide information element(s).
*RST:
ON
Example:
*RST; :DISP:ANN:TRAC OFF; CHAN ON; FREQ OFF
Create diagram area no. 1 (with default trace) and hide the trace
list. Keep the channel list but hide the swept frequency range.
Manual operation:
See "Trace Info" on page 302
DISPlay:CMAP:LIMit:FCOLorize[:STATe] <Boolean>
Assigns a different trace color to failed trace segments ("Colorize Trace when Failed").
Parameters:
<Boolean>
ON | OFF - colorize trace or keep original trace color.
*RST:
n/a (a *RST does not affect the setting). In the factory
configuration, OFF is preset.
Example:
See ​DISPlay:​CMAP:​LIMit[:​STATe]​
Manual operation:
See "Limit Test > Colorize Trace when Failed" on page 304
DISPlay:CMAP:LIMit:FSYMbol[:STATe] <Boolean>
Displays or hides the limit fail symbols (colored squares) on the trace.
Parameters:
<Boolean>
ON | OFF - show or hide symbols.
*RST:
n/a (a *RST does not affect the setting). In the factory
configuration, ON is preset.
Example:
See ​DISPlay:​CMAP:​LIMit[:​STATe]​
Manual operation:
See "Limit Test > Show Limit Fail Symbols" on page 304
DISPlay:CMAP:LIMit[:STATe] <Boolean>
Displays all limit lines either with individually configured colors or with the color of the
associated trace(s). The colors of all display elements are defined via ​DISPlay:​
CMAP<DispEl>:​RGB​.
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.
Parameters:
<Boolean>
ON - the limit line colors are defined via
DISPlay:CMAP<DispEl>:RGB where <DispEl> = 9 ... 12. The
limit line colors are independent of the trace colors.
OFF - all limit lines have the color of the associated trace.
*RST:
n/a (a *RST does not affect the setting). In the factory
configuration, OFF is preset.
Example:
DISP:CMAP:LIMit OFF
Use the trace colors for all limit lines associated with each trace.
Subsequent limit line color definitions will be ignored until individual limit settings are enabled again.
DISPlay:CMAP:LIMit:FCOLorize:STATe ON
Assign a different trace color to failed trace sections.
DISPlay:CMAP:LIMit:FSYMbol:STATe OFF
Remove the limit fail symbols from the trace.
Manual operation:
See "Limit Test > Use Trc Color for Limit Lines" on page 305
DISPlay:CMAP:MARKer[:STATe] <Boolean>
Displays all markers with the same color or display each marker with the color of the
associated trace. The colors of all display elements are defined via
DISPlay:CMAP<DispEl>:RGB <Red>, <Green>, <Blue> ...
Parameters:
<Boolean>
ON - all markers have the same color, to be defined via ​
DISPlay:​CMAP<DispEl>:​RGB​ <Red>, <Green>, <Blue>.
The marker color is independent of the trace colors.
OFF - each marker has the color of the associated trace.
Example:
See ​DISPlay:​CMAP<DispEl>:​RGB​
Manual operation:
See "General > Same Color all Markers" on page 306
DISPlay:CMAP<DispEl>:RGB <Red>, <Green>, <Blue>[, <TraceStyle>,
<TraceWidth>]
Defines the color of all display elements based on the Red/Green/Blue color model.
Suffix:
<DispEl>
Parameters:
<Red>
.
Number of the display element. The display elements corresponding to the numbers 1 to 20 are listed below.
Red content of the defined color.
Range:
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0 (zero intensity, corresponding to a 0 in the 24-bit
color model) to 1 (full intensity, corresponding to 255
in the 24-bit color model).
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<Green>
Green content of the defined color.
Range:
<Blue>
0 (zero intensity, corresponding to a 0 in the 24-bit
color model) to 1 (full intensity, corresponding to 255
in the 24-bit color model).
Blue content of the defined color.
Range:
<TraceStyle>
0 (zero intensity, corresponding to a 0 in the 24-bit
color model) to 1 (full intensity, corresponding to 255
in the 24-bit color model).
SOLid | DASHed | DOTTed | DDOTted | DDDotted
Optional trace style, only for traces (<DispEl> > 12): One of the
string parameters SOLid | DASHed | DOTTed | DDOTted |
DDDotted.
<TraceWidth>
Optional trace width, only for traces (<DispEl> > 12).
Range:
1 to 20
Example:
*RST; :DISP:CMAP:MARK ON; :CALC:MARK ON
Create diagram area no. 1 (with default trace showing the Sparameter S21) and a marker M1.
CALC:PAR:SDEF 'Trc2', 'S11'
DISP:WIND:TRAC2:FEED 'TRC2'
Create a new trace named Trc2 and display the trace in diagram
area no. 1. Note that the new trace automatically becomes the
active trace.
CALC:MARK2 ON
Assign a marker M2 to the trace. Both markers are displayed with
the same color.
DISP:CMAP13:RGB 1,0,0; :DISP:CMAP14:RGB 0,1,0
Color the first trace red, the second trace green.
DISP:CMAP6:RGB?
Query the marker color. The marker color depends on the settings
made in previous sessions; it is not reset. A possible response is
0,0,0 for black markers.
DISP:CMAP:MARK OFF
Change the marker colors: M1 turns red, M2 turns green.
Manual operation:
See "Element" on page 304
The numeric suffixes <DispEl> denote the following display elements:
<DispEl>
Display Element
1
Background
2
Text
3
Selected Text
4
Grid
5
Reference Line
6
Same Color for all Markers
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<DispEl>
Display Element
7
Horizontal Line / Vertical Range Lines
8
Diagram Title
9
Limit Fail Trace Color
10
Limit Line Type Off
11
Limit Line Type Upper
12
Limit Line Type Lower
13
Trace 1 (see also ​DISPlay:​CMAP:​TRACe:​RGB​)
14
Trace 2
15
Trace 3
16
Trace 4
17
Trace 5
18
Trace 6
19
Trace 7
20
Trace 8
DISPlay:CMAP:TRACe:COLor[:STATe] <Boolean>
Defines the trace color schemes in different diagram areas.
Parameters:
<Boolean>
Example:
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OFF - independent color scheme in new diagram area. Moved
traces change their color.
ON - color scheme in new diagram area continues the previous
color scheme. Moved traces keep their color.
*RST; :DISP:CMAP13:RGB 1,0,0
Create diagram area no. 1 (with default trace showing the Sparameter S21) and color the trace red.
DISP:CMAP:TRAC:COL OFF; :DISP:WIND2:STAT ON
Select independent color schemes for new diagram areas. Create
a new diagram area no. 2.
CALC:PAR:SDEF 'Trc2', 'S11'; :DISP:WIND2:TRAC2:
FEED 'TRC2'
Create a new trace named Trc2 and display the trace in a new
diagram area no. 2. The new trace is red like the first trace.
DISP:CMAP:TRAC:COL ON; :DISP:WIND3:STAT ON
Continue the same color scheme in new diagram areas. Create a
new diagram area no. 3.
CALC:PAR:SDEF 'Trc3', 'S22'; :DISP:WIND3:TRAC3:
FEED 'Trc3'
Create a new trace named Trc3 and display the trace in a new
diagram area no. 3. The new trace is not red.
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Manual operation:
See "General > Trace Colors per Diagram" on page 305
DISPlay:CMAP:TRACe:RGB <TraceName>, <Red>, <Green>, <Blue>[, <TraceStyle>,
<TraceWidth>]
Defines the color of a trace referenced by its name, based on the Red/Green/Blue color
model. Use the generalized command ​DISPlay:​CMAP<DispEl>:​RGB​ to define the
color of other display elements.
Parameters:
<TraceName>
Trace name, string parameter
<Red>
Red content of the defined color.
Range:
<Green>
Green content of the defined color.
Range:
<Blue>
0 (zero intensity, corresponding to a 0 in the 24-bit
color model) to 1 (full intensity, corresponding to 255
in the 24-bit color model).
Blue content of the defined color.
Range:
<TraceStyle>
0 (zero intensity, corresponding to a 0 in the 24-bit
color model) to 1 (full intensity, corresponding to 255
in the 24-bit color model).
0 (zero intensity, corresponding to a 0 in the 24-bit
color model) to 1 (full intensity, corresponding to 255
in the 24-bit color model).
SOLid | DASHed | DOTTed | DDOTted | DDDotted
Optional trace style, only for traces (<DispEl> > 12): One of the
string parameters SOLid | DASHed | DOTTed | DDOTted |
DDDotted.
<TraceWidth>
Optional trace width, only for traces (<DispEl> > 12).
Range:
1 to 20
Example:
*RST; :DISP:CMAP:TRAC:RGB 'Trc1', 1, 0, 0
Color the default trace 'Trc1' red.
See also DISPlay:CMAP<DispEl>:RGB
Manual operation:
See "Properties" on page 304
DISPlay:LAYout <LayoutMode>
Arranges the diagrams in the screen, leaving the diagram contents unchanged.
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Parameters:
<LayoutMode>
LINeup | STACk | HORizontal | VERTical | GRID
LINeup – the diagrams are arranged side by side.
STACk – the diagrams are arranged one on top of the other.
HORizontal – the diagrams are arranged in horizontal rows.
VERTical – the diagrams are arranged in vertical rows.
GRID – the diagrams are arranged as a rectangular matrix. The
number of rows and columns is as defined with command ​
DISPlay:​LAYout:​GRID​.
Example:
See ​DISPlay:​LAYout:​GRID​
Manual operation:
See "Split Type / Diagrams / Rows / Columns" on page 300
DISPlay:LAYout:APPLy <LayoutId>
Selects a previously defined layout for display in the analyzer screen.
Parameters:
<LayoutId>
Integer value 1, 2 ...
Current number, as defined by ​DISPlay:​LAYout:​DEFine​.
Example:
See ​Creating Diagrams
Manual operation:
See "Additional Functionality: SCPI Commands" on page 301
DISPlay:LAYout:DEFine <LayoutId>, <LayoutFormatMode>, <LayoutData>
DISPlay:LAYout:DEFine? <LayoutId>
Creates a horizontal or vertical display layout and provides it with an identifier (<LayoutId>).
Layouts are defined row by row (horizontal layouts) or column by column (vertical layouts).
●
A horizontal layout consists of N rows, each of height hi (i = 1 to N). The heights are
defined in units relative to the total height of the screen, i.e. their sum h1 + h2 + ...
hN must be equal to 1.00.
Each row contains a selectable number of diagrams with independent widths wij (j =
1, 2 ...M(i)). The sum of the widths in each row must also match the screen width,
hence wi1 + wi2 + ... wiM(i) = 1.00 for all rows (i = 1 to N).
The <LayoutData> string for horizontal layouts reads 'h1,w11,w12 ...
w1M(1);h2,w12,w22 ... w2M(2); ... ;hN, wN1,wN2 ... wNM(N)'.
A semicolon separates different rows, a comma separates different diagram widths
within a row.
●
The definition of a vertical layout is analogous, however, the role of rows and columns
is interchanged.
The query returns the layout data in an alternative, executable format. The executable
format is also used by ​DISPlay:​LAYout:​EXECute​.
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Use ​DISPlay:​LAYout:​JOIN​ or ​DISPlay:​LAYout:​EXECute​ to create more complicated (nested) layouts.
Note: The maximum number of diagrams in a layout is 256.
Parameters:
<LayoutFormatMode>HORizontal | VERTical
Horizontal or vertical layout; see above.
<LayoutData>
String parameter defining the number of diagrams and their position (easy format); see above.
Parameters for setting and query:
<LayoutId>
Integer value 1, 2 ...
Current number, used by other DISPlay:LAYout... commands to reference the created layout.
Example:
See ​Creating Diagrams
Manual operation:
See "Additional Functionality: SCPI Commands" on page 301
DISPlay:LAYout:EXECute <LayoutData>
Creates and displays a horizontal or vertical display layout. The query returns the layout
data of the currently displayed layout (the last layout selected via ​DISPlay:​LAYout:​
APPLy​) in executable format.
The executable format is an extension of the easy format used by ​DISPlay:​LAYout:​
DEFine​.
●
The <LayoutData> string consists of two parts: <LayoutData> = '(<StartFormat>,<RepeatFormat1>,<Repeat Format2> ...). The <StartFormat> descriptor distinguishes between horizontal and vertical layouts and defines the number of rows or
columns. A <RepeatFormat> descriptor follows for each row or colum in the layout.
The <RepeatFormat> descriptors can be nested in order to describe joined layouts;
refer to ​Creating Diagrams for an easy example.
●
For a horizontal layout with N rows, each of height hi (i = 1 ... N) and filled with M(i)
diagrams with independent widths wij (j = 1, 2 ...M(i)), the data string is composed as
follows:
<StartFormat> = N,1,0.00,0.00
<RepeatFormati> = (1,M(i),1.00,hi[wi1,1.00], [wi2,1.00] ... [wiM(i),1.00])
●
For a vertical layout with N columns, each of width wi (i = 1 ... N) and filled with M(i)
diagrams with independent heights hij (j = 1, 2 ...M(i)), the data string is composed as
follows:
<StartFormat> = 1,N,0.00,0.00
<RepeatFormati> = (M(i),1,wi,1.00,[1.00,hi1], [1.00,hi2] ... [1.00,hiM(i)])
Note: The maximum number of diagrams in a layout is 256.
Parameters:
<LayoutData>
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String parameter defining the number of diagrams and their position (executable format); see above.
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Example:
See ​Creating Diagrams
Manual operation:
See "Additional Functionality: SCPI Commands" on page 301
DISPlay:LAYout:GRID <Rows>, <Columns>
Defines the number of rows and columns if DISPlay:LAYout GRID is set.
Parameters:
<Rows>
Range:
*RST:
1 to 16
1
<Columns>
Range:
*RST:
1 to 16
1
Example:
DISPlay:LAYout GRID
Select te split type where the diagrams are arranged in rows and
columns.
DISPlay:LAYout:GRID 2,2
Arrange 4 diagrams in two rows and two columns.
Manual operation:
See "Split Type / Diagrams / Rows / Columns" on page 300
DISPlay:LAYout:JOIN <MainLayoutId>, <DiagramNumber>, <SubLayoutId>
Creates a nested layout, inserting a sub-layout into one of the diagrams of a main layout.
Main layout and sub-layout must be defined previously, preferably using ​DISPlay:​
LAYout:​DEFine​.
Note: The maximum number of joined levels within a layout is 16.
Setting parameters:
<MainLayoutId>
Integer value 1, 2 ...
Current number of main layout, as defined by ​DISPlay:​
LAYout:​DEFine​.
<DiagramNumber>
Integer value 1, 2 ...
Diagram number in the main layout
<SubLayoutId>
Integer value 1, 2 ...
Current number of sub-layout, as defined by ​DISPlay:​
LAYout:​DEFine​.
*RST:
n/a
Example:
See ​Creating Diagrams
Usage:
Setting only
Manual operation:
See "Additional Functionality: SCPI Commands" on page 301
DISPlay:RFSize <RelFontSize>
Defines the size of the fonts in the diagram on a relative scale.
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Parameters:
<RelFontSize>
Relative font size
Range:
80 % to 170 %
*RST:
100 %
Default unit: percent
Example:
*RST; :DISP:RFS 80
Use smaller fonts to gain more space for the traces in the diagram.
Manual operation:
See "Font Size" on page 303
DISPlay[:WINDow<Wnd>]:CATalog?
Returns the numbers and names of all diagrams in the current recall set.
The response is a string containing a comma-separated list of diagram area numbers
and names, see example below. If all diagram areas have been deleted, the response is
an empty string ("").
Suffix:
<Wnd>
.
Number of a diagram. This suffix is ignored; the command returns
a list of all diagrams.
Example:
*RST; :DISP:WIND2:STAT ON
Create diagram no. 2.
DISP:WIND2:NAME 'S11 Test Diagram'
Assign a name to the new diagram.
DISP:CAT?
Query all diagrams and their names. As a default diagram no. 1 is
created upon *RST, the response is ''1,1,2,S11 Test
Diagram'. The first diagram is not named; its default name is
equal to the diagram number.
CALC:PAR:SDEF 'Win2_Tr1', 'S11'
Create a trace named Win2_Tr1 to measure the input reflection
coefficient S11.
DISP:WIND2:TRAC9:FEED 'Win2_Tr1'
Display the generated trace in diagram area no. 2, assigning the
trace number 9 to it.
DISP:WIND2:TRAC:CAT?
Query all traces in diagram area no. 2. The response is
'9,Win2_Tr1'.
Usage:
Query only
Manual operation:
See "Title" on page 296
DISPlay[:WINDow<Wnd>]:MAXimize <Boolean>
Maximizes all diagram areas in the active recall set or restores the previous display configuration.
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Suffix:
<Wnd>
Parameters:
<Boolean>
.
Number of the diagram area to become the active diagram area.
DISPlay:WINDow<Wnd>:MAXimize acts on all diagrams of the
current recall set, however, the diagram no. <Wnd> is displayed
on top of the others.
ON | OFF - maximize all diagram areas or restore the previous
display configuration.
*RST:
OFF
Example:
*RST; :DISP:WIND2:STAT ON
Create diagram areas no. 1 (with default trace) and 2 (with no
trace).
DISP:WIND2:MAXimize ON
Maximize the diagram areas, placing area no. 2 on top.
Manual operation:
See "Maximize" on page 296
DISPlay[:WINDow<Wnd>]:OVERview[:STATe] <Boolean>
Enables the zoom function with an additional overview window for the diagram no.
<Wnd> or removes the overview window from a diagram.
Suffix:
<Wnd>
Parameters:
<Boolean>
.
Number of the zoomed diagram area
ON – activate the zoom window with overview window
OFF – remove the overview window
*RST:
OFF
Example:
See ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​ZOOM[:​
STATe]​
Manual operation:
See "Overview Select" on page 146
DISPlay[:WINDow<Wnd>]:NAME <Name>
Defines a name for diagram area <Wnd>. The name appears in the list of diagram areas,
to be queried by ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​CATalog?​.
Suffix:
<Wnd>
.
Number of the diagram area.
Parameters:
<Name>
String variable for the name.
Example:
See ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​CATalog?​
Manual operation:
See "Title" on page 296
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DISPlay[:WINDow<Wnd>]:STATe <Boolean>
Creates or deletes a diagram area, identified by its area number <Wnd>.
Suffix:
<Wnd>
.
Number of the diagram area to be created or deleted.
Parameters:
<Boolean>
ON | OFF - creates or deletes diagram area no. <Wnd>.
*RST:
-
Example:
CALC4:PAR:SDEF 'Ch4Tr1', 'S11'
Create channel 4 and a trace named Ch4Tr1 to measure the input
reflection coefficient S11.
DISP:WIND2:STAT ON
Create diagram area no. 2.
DISP:WIND2:TRAC9:FEED 'CH4TR1'
Display the generated trace in diagram area no. 2, assigning the
trace number 9 to it.
Manual operation:
See "Add Trace + Diag" on page 148
DISPlay[:WINDow<Wnd>]:TITLe:DATA <Title>
Defines a title for diagram area <Wnd>.
Suffix:
<Wnd>
Parameters:
<Title>
.
Number of the diagram area.
String variable for the title. The length of the title is practically
unlimited but should be kept short enough to be displayed in the
diagrams.
Example:
*RST; :DISP:WIND:TITL:DATA 'S21 Test Diagram'
Define a title for the default diagram area. The title is displayed
below the top of the diagram area.
DISP:WIND:TITL OFF; TITL:DATA?
Hide the title. The title is no longer displayed but still defined so it
can be displayed again.
Manual operation:
See "Title" on page 296
DISPlay[:WINDow<Wnd>]:TITLe[:STATe] <Boolean>
Displays or hides the title for area number <Wnd>, defined by means of
DISPlay:WINDow<Wnd>:TITLe:DATA.
Suffix:
<Wnd>
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Number of the diagram area.
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Parameters:
<Boolean>
ON | OFF - displays or hides the title.
*RST:
ON
Example:
See ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TITLe:​DATA​
Manual operation:
See "Title" on page 296
DISPlay[:WINDow<Wnd>]:TRACe<WndTr>:CATalog?
Returns the numbers and names of all traces in diagram area no. <Wnd>.
Suffix:
<Wnd>
.
Number of a diagram area.
<WndTr>
Trace number used to distinguish the traces of the same diagram
area <Wnd>. This suffix is ignored; the command returns a list of
all traces.
Example:
See ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​CATalog?​
Usage:
Query only
Manual operation:
See "Title" on page 296
DISPlay[:WINDow<Wnd>]:TRACe<WndTr>:DELete
Releases the assignment between a trace and a diagram area, as defined by means of ​
DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​FEED​<TraceName> and expressed by
the <WndTr> suffix. The trace itself is not deleted; this must be done via ​
CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​DELete​<TraceName>.
Suffix:
<Wnd>
.
Number of an existing diagram area (defined by means of ​
DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​STATe​ON).
<WndTr>
Trace number used to distinguish the traces of the same diagram
area <Wnd>.
Example:
CALC4:PAR:SDEF 'Ch4Tr1', 'S11'
Create channel 4 and a trace named Ch4Tr1 to measure the input
reflection coefficient S11.
DISP:WIND2:STAT ON
Create diagram area no. 2.
DISP:WIND2:TRAC9:FEED 'CH4TR1'
Display the generated trace in diagram area no. 2, assigning the
trace number 9 to it.
DISP:WIND2:TRAC9:DELete
Release the assignment between trace no. 9 and window no. 2.
The trace can still be referenced with its trace name Ch4Tr1.
Usage:
Event
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DISPlay[:WINDow<Wnd>]:TRACe<WndTr>:EFEed <TraceName>
Assigns an existing trace (​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​SDEFine​<TraceName>) to
a diagram area <Wnd>, and displays the trace. Use ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​
TRACe<WndTr>:​FEED​ to assign the trace to a diagram area using a numeric suffix (e.g.
in order to use the ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​Y:​OFFSet​ command).
Tip: You can open the "Trace Manager" dialog to obtain an overview of all channels and
traces, including the traces that are not displayed.
Suffix:
<Wnd>
.
Number of an existing diagram area (defined by means of ​
DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​STATe​ON).
<WndTr>
Trace number. This suffix is ignored; the trace is referenced by its
name.
Setting parameters:
<TraceName>
String parameter for the trace name, e.g. 'Trc4'.
Example:
CALC4:PAR:SDEF 'Ch4Tr1', 'S11'
Create channel 4 and a trace named Ch4Tr1 to measure the input
reflection coefficient S11.
DISP:WIND2:STAT ON
Create diagram area no. 2.
DISP:WIND2:TRAC:EFE 'CH4TR1'
Display the generated trace in diagram area no. 2. No trace number is assigned.
Usage:
Setting only
Manual operation:
See "Add" on page 150
DISPlay[:WINDow<Wnd>]:TRACe<WndTr>:FEED <TraceName>
Assigns an existing trace (​CALCulate<Ch>:​PARameter:​SDEFine​) to a diagram area,
using the <WndTr> suffix, and displays the trace. Use ​DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​
TRACe<WndTr>:​EFEed​ to assign the trace to a diagram area without using a numeric
suffix.
Tip: A trace can be assigned to a diagram only once. If a attempt is made to assign the
same trace a second time (e.g. by typing DISP:WIND2:TRAC8:FEED 'CH4TR1' after
executing the program example below) an error message -114,"Header suffix out of
range" is generated. You can open the "Trace Manager" dialog to obtain an overview of
all channels and traces, including the traces that are not displayed.
Suffix:
<Wnd>
.
Number of an existing diagram area (defined by means of ​
DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​STATe​ ON).
<WndTr>
Trace number used to distinguish the traces of the same diagram
area <Wnd>.
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Parameters:
<TraceName>
String parameter for the trace name, e.g. 'Trc4'.
Example:
CALC4:PAR:SDEF 'Ch4Tr1', 'S11'
Create channel 4 and a trace named Ch4Tr1 to measure the input
reflection coefficient S11.
DISP:WIND2:STAT ON
Create diagram area no. 2.
DISP:WIND2:TRAC9:FEED 'CH4TR1'
Display the generated trace in diagram area no. 2, assigning the
trace number 9 to it.
Manual operation:
See "Add Trace" on page 148
DISPlay[:WINDow<Wnd>]:TRACe<WndTr>:SHOW <TraceName>[, <Boolean>]
Displays or hides an existing trace, identified by its trace name <Trace_Name>, or a
group of traces.
Tip: You can open the trace manager to obtain an overview of all channels and traces,
including the traces that are not displayed.
Suffix:
<Wnd>
.
Number of a diagram area. This suffix is ignored; the command
affects traces in all diagram areas.
<WndTr>
Trace number. This suffix is ignored; the trace is referenced by its
name.
Parameters:
<TraceName>
DALL – all data traces
MALL – all memory traces
<string> – single trace identified by its trace name (string parameter), e.g. 'Trc4'.
<Boolean>
ON | OFF – display or hide traces.
Example:
*RST; :DISP:TRAC:SHOW? 'Trc1'
Reset the analyzer, creating the default trace 'Trc1'. The trace is
displayed; the query returns 1.
CALC4:PAR:SDEF 'Ch4Tr1', 'S11'
Create channel 4 and a trace named Ch4Tr1 to measure the input
reflection coefficient S11.
DISP:WIND2:STAT ON; :DISP:WIND2:TRAC:FEED
'CH4TR1'
Create diagram area no. 2 and display the generated trace in the
diagram area.
DISP:TRAC:SHOW DALL, OFF
Hide both traces in both diagrams.
DISP:TRAC:SHOW? DALL
Query whether all data traces are displayed. The response 0
means that at least one trace is hidden.
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Manual operation:
See "Show <Destination>" on page 153
DISPlay[:WINDow<Wnd>]:TRACe<WndTr>:X:OFFSet <StimulusOffset>
Shifts the trace <WndTr> in horizontal direction, leaving the positions of all markers
unchanged.
Suffix:
<Wnd>
.
Number of an existing diagram area (defined by means of ​
DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​STATe​ ON).
<WndTr>
Existing trace number, assigned by means of ​DISPlay[:​
WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​FEED​.
Parameters:
<StimulusOffset>
Stimulus offset value.
Range:
-1000 GHz to +1000 GHz. The range and unit
depends on the sweep type.
*RST:
0
Default unit: Hz
Example:
*RST; :DISP:WIND:TRAC:X:OFFS 1MHZ; :DISP:WIND:
TRAC:Y:OFFS 10
Create the default trace and shift it horizontally by 1 MHz, vertically
by 10 dB.
Manual operation:
See "Shift Trace > Stimulus" on page 172
DISPlay[:WINDow<Wnd>]:TRACe<WndTr>:Y:OFFSet <MagnitudeFactor>[,
<PhaseFactor>, <RealPart>, <ImaginaryPart>]
Modifies all points of the trace <WndTr> by means of an added and/or a multiplied complex constant. The response values M of the trace are transformed according to:
Suffix:
<Wnd>
.
Number of an existing diagram area (defined by means of ​
DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​STATe​ ON).
<WndTr>
Existing trace number, assigned by means of ​DISPlay[:​
WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​FEED​.
Parameters:
<MagnitudeFactor>
Multiplied magnitude factor
Range:
-300 dB to + 300 dB
*RST:
0 dB
Default unit: dB
<PhaseFactor>
Multiplied phase factor, optional for setting command but returned
by query
Range:
-3.4*1038 deg to +3.4*1038 deg
*RST:
0 deg
Default unit: deg
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<RealPart>
Real and imaginary part of added complex constant, optional for
setting command but returned by query
Range:
*RST:
-3.4*1038 to +3.4*1038
0
<ImaginaryPart>
Example:
*RST; :DISP:WIND:TRAC:X:OFFS 1MHZ; :DISP:WIND:
TRAC:Y:OFFS 10
Create the default trace and shift it horizontally by 1 MHz, vertically
by 10 dB.
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:OFFS?
Query all response offset values. The response is 10,0,0,0.
Manual operation:
See "Shift Trace > Mag / Phase / Real / Imag" on page 172
DISPlay[:WINDow<Wnd>]:TRACe<WndTr>:Y[:SCALe]:AUTO <Activate>[,
<TraceName>]
Displays the entire trace in the diagram area, leaving an appropriate display margin. The
trace can be referenced either by its number <WndTr> or by its name <TraceName>.
Suffix:
<Wnd>
.
Number of an existing diagram area (defined by means of ​
DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​STATe​ON). This suffix is ignored if
the optional <TraceName> parameter is used.
<WndTr>
Existing trace number, assigned by means of ​DISPlay[:​
WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​FEED​. This suffix is ignored if
the optional <TraceName> parameter is used.
Setting parameters:
<Activate>
ONCE
Activate the autoscale function.
<TraceName>
Optional string parameter for the trace name, e.g. 'Trc4'. If this
optional parameter is present, both numeric suffixes are ignored
(trace names must be unique across different channels and windows).
Example:
*RST; DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:PDIV?; RLEV?
Query the value between two grid lines and the reference value
for the default trace. The response is 10;0.
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:AUTO ONCE; PDIV?; RLEV?
or:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:AUTO ONCE, 'Trc1'; PDIV?;
RLEV?
Autoscale the default trace and query the scaling parameters
again. In general both values have changed.
Usage:
Setting only
Manual operation:
See "Auto Scale Trace" on page 143
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DISPlay[:WINDow<Wnd>]:TRACe<WndTr>:Y[:SCALe]:PDIVision <VerticalDiv>[,
<TraceName>]
Sets the value between two grid lines (value “per division”) for the diagram area <Wnd>.
When a new PDIVision value is entered, the current RLEVel is kept the same, while
the top and bottom scaling is adjusted for the new PDIVision value.
Suffix:
<Wnd>
.
Number of an existing diagram area (defined by means of ​
DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​STATe​ ON). This suffix is ignored if
the optional <TraceName> parameter is used.
<WndTr>
Existing trace number, assigned by means of ​DISPlay[:​
WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​FEED​. This suffix is ignored if
the optional <TraceName> parameter is used.
Parameters:
<VerticalDiv>
Value and unit for the vertical diagram divisions. Range and unit
depend on the measured quantity, see ​"Units for DISPlay... commands" on page 470.
*RST:
Depending on the measured quantity. The default
reference level for an S-parameter displayed in a dB
Mag diagram is 10 dB.
Default unit: dB
<TraceName>
Optional string parameter for the trace name, e.g. 'Trc4'. If this
optional parameter is present, both numeric suffixes are ignored
(trace names must be unique across different channels and windows).
Example:
CALC4:PAR:SDEF 'Ch4Tr1', 'S11'
Create channel 4 and a trace named Ch4Tr1 to measure the input
reflection coefficient S11.
DISP:WIND2:STAT ON
Create diagram area no. 2.
DISP:WIND2:TRAC9:FEED 'CH4TR1'
Display the generated trace in diagram area no. 2, assigning the
trace number 9 to it.
DISP:WIND2:TRAC9:Y:PDIV 5
or:
DISP:WIND2:TRAC:Y:PDIV 5, 'CH4TR1'
Set the value per division to 5 dB.
Manual operation:
See "Scale/Div" on page 143
DISPlay[:WINDow<Wnd>]:TRACe<WndTr>:Y[:SCALe]:RLEVel <RefLevel>[,
<TraceName>]
Sets the reference level (or reference value) for a particular displayed trace. Setting a
new reference level does not affect the value of PDIVision. The trace can be referenced
either by its number <WndTr> or by its name <TraceName>.
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Suffix:
<Wnd>
.
Number of an existing diagram area (defined by means of ​
DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​STATe​ ON). This suffix is ignored if
the optional <TraceName> parameter is used.
<WndTr>
Existing trace number, assigned by means of ​DISPlay[:​
WINDow<Wnd>]:​TRACe<WndTr>:​FEED​. This suffix is ignored if
the optional <TraceName> parameter is used.
Parameters:
<RefLevel>
Value and unit for the reference level (or reference value, if the
trace does not show a level). Range and unit depend on the measured quantity, see ​"Units for DISPlay... commands"
on page 470.
*RST:
Depending on the measured quantity. The default
reference level for an S-parameter displayed in a dB
Mag diagram is 0 dB.
Default unit: dB
<TraceName>
Optional string parameter for the trace name, e.g. 'Trc4'. If this
optional parameter is present, both numeric suffixes are ignored
(trace names must be unique across different channels and windows).
Example:
CALC4:PAR:SDEF 'Ch4Tr1', 'S11'
Create channel 4 and a trace named Ch4Tr1 to measure the input
reflection coefficient S11.
DISP:WIND2:STAT ON
Create diagram area no. 2.
DISP:WIND2:TRAC9:FEED 'CH4TR1'
Display the generated trace in diagram area no. 2, assigning the
trace number 9 to it.
DISP:WIND2:TRAC9:Y:RLEV -10
or:
DISP:WIND2:TRAC:Y:RLEV -10, 'CH4TR1'
Change the reference level to -10 dB.
Manual operation:
See "Ref Value" on page 143
DISPlay[:WINDow<Wnd>]:TRACe<WndTr>:Y[:SCALe]:RPOSition <RefPosition>[,
<TraceName>]
Sets the point on the y-axis to be used as the reference position as a percentage of the
length of the y-axis. The reference position is the point on the y-axis which should equal
the RLEVel.
Suffix:
<Wnd>
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Number of an existing diagram area (defined by means of ​
DISPlay[:​WINDow<Wnd>]:​STATe​ ON). This suffix is ignored if
the optional <TraceName> parameter is used