Exposure Time Calculator for LUCIFER - USER MANUAL -

Exposure Time Calculator for LUCIFER - USER MANUAL -
Exposure Time Calculator for LUCIFER
- USER MANUAL Andr´e Germeroth (A.Germeroth(at)lsw.uni-heidelberg.de)
11th January 2011
Abstract
The exposure time calculator (ETC) roughly calculates the exposure
time of LUCIFER at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). There is a
wide choice of different model spectra available (e.g. different main sequence stars). It is also possible to select a blackbody spectrum or a
single-line spectrum as an object spectrum.
The main calculations are written in Python and the user interface is
web-based. The web interface provides an additional graphical output
that shows the SNR versus Wavelength in spectroscopic mode or SNR vs.
exposure time in case of a selected imaging mode.
This document presents the basics of the exposure time calculator. The
formulae of the ETC and the main characteristics of LUCIFER are described in detail.
1
1.1
Basics
List of Abbreviations and Acronyms
AO
CWL
DARK
DIT
e.m.
ETC
EW
FWHM
HTML
LBT
LUCIFER
PSF
QE
RON
SNR
SNRτ
SNRDIT
adaptive optics
central wavelength
dark current
detector integration time
electro magnetic
exposure time calculator
entrance window
full-width at half-maximum
hyper text markup language
Large Binocular Telescope
LBT NIR Spectroscopic Utility with Camera and Integral
Field Unit for Extragalactic Research
point spread function
quantum efficiency
readout noise
signal-to-noise ratio
signal-to-noise ratio for exposure time τ
signal-to-noise ratio for one DIT
1
1.2
1.2.1
The Exposure-Time-Calculator
The Formulae
This program will be used by observers for scheduling their observations with
LUCIFER. The following fixed parameters
• telescope (transmission, light-collecting area, reflectivity, . . . )
• transmission of the instruments (entrance window, lenses, . . . )
• quantum efficiency (QE) of the detector
and user-defined parameters
• object (geometry, spectrum, magnitude)
• camera (scale)
• filter
• grating, slit width (spectroscopic mode)
• atmospheric conditions (airmass, water vapor, sky background, seeing)
• adaptive optics (is loop closed, Strehl ratio)
• exposure parameters (detector integration time, total exposure time)
• signal-to-noise ratio
are used to calculate two auxiliary values:
E
F
F0
:
mag
QE
Tatm
Ttel
Tinst
Tfilt
:
:
:
:
:
:
=
=
Tatm · Ttel · Tinst · Tfilt · QE
F0 · 10
− mag
2.5
(1)
(2)
flux density for Vega at λ = 550 nm
F0 = 3.56 · 10−11 m2W
·nm [FLUX95]
magnitude of the object
quantum efficiency of the detector
transmission of the atmosphere
transmission of the telescope
transmission of the instrument (without any filter and grating)
transmission of the filter used
The number of photons that are detected per second can be calculated with (1),
(2) and the following formula [ESO-HP]:
2
Table 1: Formulae for calculating the number of photons from the source
Observing mode
Imaging
Spectroscopy
N
P
S
τ
:
:
:
:
point source
N
τ
N
τ
=
=
extended source
F·∆i ·E·S
P
F·∆s ·E·S
P
number of photons
energy of one photon
light-collecting area
exposure time
∆i
∆s
Ωi
Ωs
N
τ
N
τ
:
:
:
:
=
=
F·∆i ·E·S·Ωi
P
F·∆s ·E·S·Ωs
P
filter band width
spectral resolution
scale in imaging mode
scale in spectroscopy mode
In the near-infrared regime the SNR for the exposure time DIT is given by
the formula:
SNRDIT = q
NDIT
NDIT + npix · Nsky + DARKDIT + RON2
(3)
DARKDIT : dark current for 1 DIT
npix : number of integration pixels1
Nsky : sky signal for 1 DIT
RON : readout noise
SNRDIT : signal-to-noise ratio for 1 DIT
In imaging mode the user will be asked for the signal-to-noise ratio for the
exposure time τ (SN Rτ ). The ETC calculates the necessary exposure time to
achieve this SN Rτ (see also formula 3):
p
τ = NDIT · DIT
and
SNRτ = SNRDIT · NDIT
(4)
2
SNRτ
→τ =
· DIT
(5)
SNRDIT
τ
DIT
NDIT
SNRτ
SNRDIT
SNR
1.2.2
:
:
:
:
:
:
total exposure time
detector integration time
number of detector integrations
signal-to-noise ratio for exposure time τ
signal-to-noise ratio for one DIT
signal-to-noise ratio for an exposure time of 1 sec
The Telescope
Mirrors
Both LUCIFER instruments are going to be first-light instruments for the
Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) at the bent Gregorian foci. This means, that
1 In
imaging mode npix of a point source is calculated within a 2 FWHM diameter aperture:
2
npix = π seeing
. In spectroscopic mode the program uses npix = 2· seeing
. For an extended
scale
scale
source npix is set to 1 for both dimensions of the source.
3
the light is reflected three times before entering the cryostats. If we optimistically assume a reflectivity of 90 % for each mirror, we get a total efficiency of
0.729 at the bent Gregorian foci.
Adaptive Optics (AO)
The LBT will provide a deformable secondary mirror for AO observations. For
this reason the ETC can handle both a seeing-limited PSF and a diffractionlimited PSF (1.2.3). If the loop is closed, different Strehl ratios are possible.
This depends on the environmental conditions (seeing, ...). Therefore the value
of this parameter is continously changeable.
1.2.3
Point-Spread-Function
Diffraction Limited Mode
For comparing the peak intensity of a diffraction-limited optical system with
a real system the Strehl parameter was introduced.
Strehl =
I obs
I theo
(6)
This parameter is the ratio of the observed peak intensity at the detection
plane of a telescope or other imaging system from a point source compared to
the theoretical maximum peak intensity of a perfect imaging system working
at the diffraction limit. In diffraction limited mode the PSF is approximately
composed of two functions:
1. The core: This is an airy function of the telescope multiplied by the Strehl
ratio
2
2 · Bessel(x)
IAiry (r) ∼ Strehl ·
(7)
x
Bessel(x) is the order 1 Bessel function of the first kind.
2. The halo: It is given by a Moffat function (9) multiplied by (1-Strehl)
IMoffat (r) ∼ (1 − Strehl) · Iα,β (r)
(8)
This combined AO-PSF is shown in Figure 1.
Seeing Limited Mode
The simulation uses two different point spread functions. The PSF is approximated by a Moffat function (9) in the seeing-limited case. In contrast to a
Gaussian-shaped function it contains more light in the wings. The parameter
β is responsible for the amount of light in the wings. β = 2.5 is used for point
sources.
−β
β−1
r2
Iα,β (r) =
1
+
(9)
πα2
α2
Iα,β (r)
α
β
r
F W HM
:
:
:
:
:
Intensity at the distance r with parameters α and β
Another parameter (is used to fix the FWHM for a given β)
Parameter to fix the amountpof light in the lobes
Distance
to the center (r = x2 + y 2 )
√
2α 21/β − 1
4
Intensity in arbitrary units
7
6
5
core:
FWHM ∝ λ/D
Flux ∝ Strehl
4
3
halo:
FWHM ∝ Seeing
Flux ∝ 1-Strehl
2
1
0
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
Position on the detector in arbitrary units
Figure 1: Simplified description of an AO-PSF: It is built by a core (Airy
function) and a halo (Moffat function)
1.2.4
Objects
Besides the choice of the source’s size (point source or extended source) the
observer can select one out of three different types of spectra:
1. Model spectrum (stellar, galaxy or uniform template)
2. Blackbody spectrum
3. Gaussian-shaped emission line
In imaging mode the stepping of the spectra is 0.5 nm. This stepping is adjusted
to the spectral resolution in spectroscopic mode.
Template Spectra
6 different model spectra representing various main sequence stars are available. These are [STERNS]: B0V, A0V, F0V, G0V, K0V, M0V (Figure 2).
Their flux densities are normalized to
f(λ = 550 nm) = 3.66 · 10−11 W m−2 nm−1
(10)
In addition, 4 different galaxy template spectra are available (Figure 3 and
[GALAXS]). If a spectrum is allowed to be redshifted the filename must include
the phrase ’galaxy’ at any position.
The transformed spectra are calculated by the definition of the redshift:
z=
z
λ
λ0
:
:
:
λ − λ0
→ λ = (z + 1)λ0
λ0
redshift
measured wavelength
rest wavelength
5
(11)
Flux density / [W/m2/nm]
6e-11
A0V
B0V
F0V
G0V
K0V
M0V
5e-11
4e-11
3e-11
2e-11
1e-11
0
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
2.2
2.4
Wavelength / µm
Figure 2: The six available stellar spectra
Flux density / arbitrary units
3
E0
Sa
Sb
Sc
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
Wavelength / µm
Figure 3: The four available galaxy spectra at redshift z=0.
6
Finally, a uniform spectrum can be used. The first step of creating such a
spectrum (constant flux density for all wavelengths) is to calculate the total flux
(in the given band-pass) for a uniform spectrum with an arbitrary flux density.
After that the flux is calibrated to the target magnitude given by the user.
Blackbody Radiation
The blackbody spectrum is another option that can be chosen. The flux
density is calculated as a function of wavelength (12) for the user-defined temperature (T ).
1
f (λ) ∝
λ5
h
c
k
TBB
:
:
:
:
· exp
hc
kλTBB
(12)
−1
Planck’s constant h = 6, 62607 · 10−34 Js
velocity of light c = 2.9983 · 108 ms
Boltzmann’s constant k = 1, 3807 · 10−23
Blackbody temperature
J
s
After that calculation the flux is normalized to the magnitude given by the
user.
Gaussian-Shaped Emission Line
The last selectable standard spectrum is a gaussian-shaped emission line. The
parameters are: central wavelength, FWHM and total flux. The magnitude of
the source is not a free parameter anymore due to the total flux given by the
user:
(λ−Γ)2
1
f (λ) = FLUX · √ · e− 2σ2
(13)
σ 2π
σ is given by FWHM/2.35, FLUX the total flux and Γ the central wavelength.
1.2.5
Target Magnitude
The input of the source magnitude (available for template spectra or blackbody
only) have to be done in Vega magnitudes.
1.2.6
Entrance Window
LUCIFER is equipped with an entrance window tilted by 15◦ . It reflects the
visible light to a wavefront sensor. Two different coatings are available. The
main parameters are listed in Tab 2 while the plots can be found in Appendix
C:
Table 2: Available entrance windows
Window #1 Window #2
50% cut on
882 nm
955 nm
transmission at 532 nm
0.42%
0.12%
7
1.2.7
Filter
LUCIFER’s ETC uses transmission data of all filters measured by the manufacturer [BARR]. The additional numbers are the identifiers for the filters. They
are stored in wavelength steps of 0.5 nm as well as the previous wavelengthdependent datasets. The transmission curves of these broadband filters are
shown in Figure 4. All available filters (including the narrowband filters) are
shown in Appendix A.
100
Transmission / %
80
60
40
20
0
0.80
1.20
1.60
2.00
Wavelength / µm
z
J
H
K
2.40
Ks
OrderSep
Figure 4: Broadband filters used by LUCIFER
The optical filters U, B, V, R and I can be chosen for the input of the object’s
magnitude only. They are originally described in steps of 10 nm (U) and 20 nm
(B, V, R and I) [FIL-HP]. By linear interpolation the sampling was increased
to 0.5 nm.
1.2.8
Cameras
Three different cameras can be used with LUCIFER. The collimator lenses,
mirrors and each camera results in three total efficiencies for each camera. These
values are shown in Table 3. One can read off the efficiency of each optical
element in [ACC-RE].
Table 3: Efficiencies of the system camera and collimator in different wavelength
regimes
Camera
N1.8
N3.75
N30 (zJ with ADC)
z
0.49
0.57
0.37
J
0.52
0.63
0.43
H
0.57
0.68
0.63
The image scale of each camera is listed in Tab. 4.
8
K
0.61
0.73
0.68
Table 4: Image scale of each camera
Camera
N1.8
N3.75
N30 (zJ with ADC)
1.2.9
Scale [”/pix]
0.25
0.12
0.015
LUCIFER 1 and LUCIFER 2
Both instruments are identical, their detectors, however, have different efficiencies. The efficiency curves are shown in Fig. 5
1
LUCIFER 1
LUCIFER 2
Efficiency
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
2.2
2.4
Wavelength / µm
Figure 5: The efficiency of the two LUCIFER detectors versus the wavelength.
The different detectors are color coded.
1.2.10
Gratings
Three gratings are installed in LUCIFER. All of them were tested for their
efficiencies by the manufacturer. The company measured in a Littrow setup.
LUCIFER reaches about 90% ([FDR-OP]) of the nominal efficiencies because
it is not working under Littrow conditions. See Appendix B for the plots and
ASCII-files.
• High-Dispersion grating (HD-grating) with 210 l/mm.
• H+K-grating with 200 l/mm
• Ks-grating with 150 l/mm
1.2.11
Water vapor in the Atmosphere
The water vapor in the atmosphere is the main reason for absorbing light in the
near-infrared and infrared. The transmission of light for three different watervapor levels in the wavelength range from 0.9 µm to 2.5 µm is shown in Figure 6.
9
The transmittance of the atmosphere for 1 mm, 1.6 mm and 3 mm water vapor
[TRANSA] is displayed. In the ETC three different values for the water vapor
can be selected: 1.0 mm, 1.6 mm and 3.0 mm.
1.0
Air transmittance
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
Wavelength/µm
Figure 6: Transmittance vs. wavelength for three different water vapor levels.
1.2.12
Airmass
The airmass is an additional parameter which influences the transmission. The
ETC allows six different values for the airmass: 1.00; 1.25; 1.50; 1.75; 2.0; 2.5
The Airmass (AM) scales the number of photons from the sky background with
(−0.000278719·AM ·AM ·AM −0.0653841·AM ·AM +1.11979·AM −0.0552132)
1.2.13
Sky Background
The sky background in near-infrared regime can rapidly change within hours or
even minutes. For that reason the observer can choose between three different
possibilities of sky background templates..
Sky Brightness given by the User
The observer can set a brightness of the sky in mag(VEGA)
for the zenith. It
arcsec
is the brightness of the sky for the filter used for the observation. The Airmass
(AM) scales the number of photons from the sky background with
(−0.000278719·AM ·AM ·AM −0.0653841·AM ·AM +1.11979·AM −0.0552132)
Background File
Another option is a file. This file contains data from sky background measurements at Mauna Kea for 1.6 mm water vapor and the selected airmass (see
Fig. 7).
10
600
Photons/sec/nm/arcsec2/m2
1.6 mm H2O, Airmass=1.5
500
400
300
200
100
0
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
2.2
2.4
Wavelength/µm
Figure 7: Sky spectrum measured at Mauna Kea
Theoretical Background Spectrum
A theoretical spectrum is the last possibility for choosing a sky background.
This spectrum is shown in Figure 8.
900
1.6 mm H2O, Airmass=1.5
Photons/sec/nm/arcsec2/m2
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
2.2
2.4
Wavelength/µm
Figure 8: A synthetic spectrum of the sky background
The fundamental parts of this calculation are the OH-line database [OH-LIN,
ROUS00] and the transmission data of the atmosphere [AIRTRA]. The ratio
of intensities for two lines may change during the night or from observation
to observation. This is the reason why it is possibile to change the relative
intensities via an ini-file. The predefined values are adjusted to Mauna Kea’s
night sky spectrum [SKYBA]. For modeling the sky background, we assume:
• OH-line absorption due to the light travel through the atmosphere, scaled
with T
11
• thermal emission of a blackbody with a temperature of 250 K, scaled with
(1-T)
• zodiacal emission (a blackbody spectrum; T=5800 K)
• increasing intensity with larger zenith distances (described by the vanRhijn’s function)
Then the sky background can be described as:
Nsky =
Nsky
T
OH
BBx
R
h
z
1.2.14
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
T · OH + (1 − T) · BB250 K + BB5800 K
s
2
2
R
1 − R+h · sin z
(14)
number of photons from sky background
transmission of the atmosphere
intensity of the OH-line
blackbody with a temperature x
earth radius (∼ 6378 km)
hight of emitting layer (∼ 100 km)
zenith distance
Slit Width and Slit Transmission
Slit Width
Four different slit widths between 0.25 ” and 1.00 ” can be selected. If the width
is smaller than the scale of the camera used the width is set to the scale of the
camera.
Slit Transmission
First of all the program calculates the number of photons reaching the slit. After that it computes the number of photons behind the slit. For a point-like
source it assumes a PSF like a Moffat or a Moffat + Airy disc. The hatched area
in Figure 9 is the relevant area for transmission. The transmitted photons are
split into the pixels 1 - 5 (see bottom of Figure 9). For example: if 18 photons
are passing the hatched area of the slit, the light will be split up to 4.5 pixels.
Pixel 1, 2, 3 and 4 will detect 4 (18/4.5=4) photons each. The fifth pixel will
count 2 photons.
12
Figure 9: Top: Sketch of a slit. The hatched area is used to calculate the
transmission of the slit. Bottom: The calculated photons are split into the
shaded pixels.
13
References
[ESO-HP] Exposure Time Calculators - Formular Book :
http://www.eso.org/observing/etc/doc/gen/formulaBook/
[FLUX95] C. M´egessier
Astronomy and Astrophysics, 296, 771-778, (1995)
[OH-LIN] http://www.eso.org/instruments/isaac/oh/list_v2.0.dat
[ROUS00] P. Rousselot, C. Lidman, J.-G. Cuby, G. Moreels, G. Monnet
Astronomy and Astrophysics, 354, 1134-1150, (2000)
[SKYBA] http://www.gemini.edu/sciops/ObsProcess/obsConstraints/atm-models/
nearIR_skybg_16_15.dat
[AIRTRA] http://unagi.gps.caltech.edu/notes/bfats2002/
[STERNS] A. J. Pickles
Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 110, 863-878, (1998)
[GALAXS] J. Bicker, U. Fritze, C. S. Muller, K. J. Fricke
astro-ph/0309688
[FIL-HP] http://obswww.unige.ch/gcpd/filters/fil08.html
[FIL-PA] H. L. Johnson
Astrophysical Journal 141, 923-942 (1965)
[FDR-OP] W. Seifert, W. Xu
LUCIFER, Final Design Report Optics, LBT-LUCIFER-TRE-009
[ACC-RE] N. Ageorges, A. Germeroth, W. Seifert, Acceptance Test Report,
LBT-LUCIFER-TRE-022
[TRANSA] http://unagi.gps.caltech.edu/notes/bfats2002/
[GRATIN] Richardson Grating Laboratory
http://www.gratinglab.com
[BARR] Barr Assosiates Inc.
http://barrassociates.com
14
A
Filter Curves
z filter
J filter
#3002
ED034-2
1.00
0.8
Transmission
0.80
Transmission
#0403
ED044
1.0
0.60
0.40
0.20
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.00
0.80
0.0
0.85
0.90
0.95
1.00
1.05
1.10
1.0
1.1
1.2
Wavelength / µm
H filter
0.8
Transmission
Transmission
1.5
#3902
ED059
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.0
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.9
2.0
2.1
Wavelength / µm
2.3
2.4
2.5
Order-Seperation Filter
#3902
ED046-1
1.0
2.2
Wavelength / µm
Ks filter
ED763-1
ED763-2
1.00
0.80
Transmission
0.8
Transmission
1.4
K filter
#4302
ED024
1.0
1.3
Wavelength / µm
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.60
0.40
0.20
0.0
1.9
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
Wavelength / µm
0.00
1.20
1.40
1.60
1.80
2.00
2.20
Wavelength / µm
Figure 10: Filter curves of broad-band filters
15
2.40
2.60
2.80
Brackett-γ filter
FeII filter
ED477-1
ED477-2
1.00
0.80
Transmission
Transmission
0.80
0.60
0.40
0.20
0.00
2.14
ED468-1
ED468-2
1.00
0.60
0.40
0.20
0.00
2.15
2.16
2.17
2.18
2.19
2.20
1.62
1.63
Wavelength / µm
1.64
H2 filter
HeI 1085-15
Transmission
Transmission
0.80
0.60
0.40
0.20
0.60
0.40
0.20
0.00
2.08
2.10
2.12
2.14
2.16
0.00
1.05
2.18
1.06
Wavelength / µm
1.08
1.09
1.10
1.11
OH-hole filter
J-low
J-high
1.00
1.07
Wavelength / µm
J-low and J-high filter
OH-hole 1
OH-hole 2
1.00
0.80
Transmission
0.80
Transmission
1.67
1.00
0.80
0.60
0.40
0.20
0.00
1.00
1.66
HeI filter
ED469-1
ED469-2
1.00
1.65
Wavelength / µm
0.60
0.40
0.20
1.10
1.20
1.30
1.40
1.50
Wavelength / µm
0.00
1.00
1.05
1.10
1.15
Wavelength / µm
Figure 11: Narrow-band filter curves (Part 1)
16
1.20
1.25
Paschen-β filter
Paschen-γ filter
ED476-1
ED476-3
1.00
0.80
Transmission
0.80
Transmission
ED467-2
ED467-4
1.00
0.60
0.40
0.20
0.60
0.40
0.20
0.00
0.00
1.24
1.26
1.28
1.30
1.32
1.34
1.07
Wavelength / µm
1.08
1.09
Y filter
Y1
Y2
1.00
Transmission
0.80
0.60
0.40
0.20
0.00
0.90
0.95
1.00
1.05
1.10
1.10
Wavelength / µm
1.15
1.20
Wavelength / µm
Figure 12: Narrow-band filter curves (Part 2)
17
1.11
1.12
B
Gratings
HD-grating with 210 lines/mm
H+K-grating with 200 lines/mm
0.9
0.9
5th
4th
3rd
2nd
0.8
1st Order
0.8
0.7
0.6
Efficiency
Efficiency
0.7
Order
Order
Order
Order
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.0
0.0
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
1.0
1.2
Wavelength / µm
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
Wavelength / µm
Ks-grating with 150 lines/mm
0.9
2nd Order
0.8
Efficiency
0.7
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0.0
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
Wavelength / µm
Figure 13: The efficiencies of the gratings vs the wavelength for the Non-Littrow
setup. The different orders of each grating are color coded.
18
C
Entrance Windows
Entrance Window #1
Entrance Window #1
1.00
1.0
0.99
0.98
Transmission
Transmission
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.97
0.96
0.95
0.94
0.93
0.92
0.2
0.91
0.0
0.90
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
0.8
1.0
1.2
Wavelength / µm
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
Wavelength / µm
Figure 14: The measured transmission of the entrance window 1. Left: The
whole transmission curve from zero transmission to full transmission 1. Right:
The transmission curve zoomed-in to a transmission from 0.90 to 1.00.
Entrance Window #2
Entrance Window #2
1.00
1.0
0.99
0.98
Transmission
Transmission
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.97
0.96
0.95
0.94
0.93
0.92
0.2
0.91
0.0
0.90
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
0.8
Wavelength / µm
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2.0
2.2
2.4
Wavelength / µm
Figure 15: The measured transmission of the entrance window 2. Left: The
whole transmission curve from zero transmission to full transmission 1. Right:
The transmission curve zoomed-in to a transmission from 0.90 to 1.00.
19
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