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Borland International grants you (the licensed owner of the Turbo Pascal Numerical Toolbox) the right to incorporate toolbox routines into your programs. You may distribute your programs that contain Numerical Toolbox routines in executable form without restriction or fee, but you may not give away or sell any part of the actual Numerical Methods Toolbox source code. You are not, of course, restricted from distributing your own source code. Sample programs are provided on the Numerical Methods Toolbox diskettes as examples of how to use the various toolbox features. You may edit or modify these sample programs and incorporate them into the programs that you write. Use of these sample programs is governed by the same conditions and restrictions as outlined in the first paragraph above. WARRANTY With respect to the physical diskette and physical documentation enclosed herein, Borland International, Inc. 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First Edition Printed in USA 987654321 Turbo Pascal Numerical Methods Toolbox~ Copyright © 1986 All Rights Reserved BORLAND INTERNATIONAL, INC. 4585 SCOTTS VALLEY DRIVE SCOTTS VALLEY, CALIFORNIA 95066 USA Table of Contents Introduction ............................................................................................................... 1 Toolbox Functions ...................................................................................................... 1 About this Manual ..................................................................................................... 2 On the Distribution Disks ........................................................................................ 3 System Requirements ................................................................................................ 3 Acknowledgements .................................................................................................... 4 Chapter 1. ROUTINE BEGINNINGS ................................................................. 5 Using the Toolbox: An Example ............................................................................... 5 The Distribution Disks ............................................................................................. 7 Installation .................................................................................................................. 8 The Graphics Demos ............................................................................................... 12 Data Types and Defined Constants ....................................................................... 12 Compiler Directives ................................................................................................ 13 Chapter 2. ROOTS TO EQUATIONS IN ONE VARIABLE .......................... 15 Stopping Criteria ..................................................................................................... 17 Root of a Function Using the Bisection Method (BISECT.lNC) ....................... 18 Description .......................................................................................................... 18 User-Defined Function ...................................................................................... 18 Input Parameters ................................................................................................ 18 Output Parameters ............................................................................................. 19 Syntax of the Procedure Call ............................................................................. 19 Comments ............................................................................................................ 19 Sample Program .................................................................................................. 19 Example .......................................................................................................... 20 Root of a Function Using the Newton-Raphson Method (RAPHSON.lNC) ...... 21 Description ........................................................................................................... 21 User-Defined Functions ..................................................................................... 21 Input Parameters ................................................................................................. 21 Output Parameters ............................................................................................. 22 Syntax of the Procedure Call ............................................................................. 22 Comments ........................................................................................................... 22 Sample Program ................................................................................................. 22 Example .......................................................................................................... 23 Root of a Function Using the Secant Method (SECANT.lNC) ......................... 25 Description .......................................................................................................... 25 User-Defined Function ...................................................................................... 25 Input Parameters ................................................................................................ 25 Output Parameters ............................................................................................. 26 Syntax of the Procedure Call ............................................................................. 26 Comments ......... :................................................................................................. 26 Sample Program ................................................................................................. 26 Example .......................................................................................................... 27 Real Roots of a Real Polynomial Equation Using the Newton-Horner Method with Deflation (NEWTDEFL.lNC) .................................................... 28 Description .......................................................................................................... 28 User-Defined Types ........................................................................................... 28 Input Parameters ................................................................................................ 28 Output Parameters ............................................................................................. 29 Syntax of the Procedure Call ............................................................................. 30 Comments ........................................................................................................... 30 Sample Program ................................................................................................. 30 Input Files ...................................................................................................... 30 Example .......................................................................................................... 30 Complex Roots of a Complex Function Using Miiller's Method (MULLER.INC) ................................................................................................... 33 Description .......................................................................................................... 33 User-Defined Types ........................................................................................... 33 User-Defined Procedure .................................................................................... 33 Input Parameters ................................................................................................ 33 Output Parameters ............................................................................................. 34 Syntax of the Procedure Call ............................................................................. 34 Comments ........................................................................................................... 34 Sample Program ................................................................................................. 35 Example .......................................................................................................... 35 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Complex Roots of a Complex Polynomial Using Laguerre's Method and Deflation (LAGUERRE.INC) ............................................................................................... 37 Description .......................................................................................................... 37 User-Defined Types ............................................................................................ 37 Input Parameters ................................................................................................ 37 Output Parameters ............................................................................................. 38 Syntax of the Procedure Call ............................................................................. 38 Comments ............................................................................................................ 38 Sample Program .................................................................................................. 39 Input Files ...................................................................................................... 39 Example .......................................................................................................... 39 Chapter 3. INTERPOLXfION ............................................................................ 43 Polynomial Interpolation Using Lagrange's Method (LAGRANGE.lNC) ....... .45 Description .......................................................................................................... 45 User-Defined Types ............................................................................................ 45 Input Parameters ................................................................................................ 45 Output Parameters ............................................................................................. 46 Syntax of the Procedure Call ............................................................................. 46 Sample Program .................................................................................................. 46 Input Files ...................................................................................................... 46 Example .......................................................................................................... 47 Interpolation Using Newton's Interpolary Divided-Difference Method (DIVDIF.INC) ....................................................................................................... 49 Description .......................................................................................................... 49 User-Defined Types ............................................................................................ 49 Input Parameters ................................................................................................ 49 Output Parameters ............................................................................................. 90 Syntax of the Procedure Call ............................................................................. 50 Sample Program .................................................................................................. 50 Input Files ...................................................................................................... 50 Example .......................................................................................................... 50 Free Cubic Spline Interpolation (CUBE-FRE.lNC) .: ....................................... 52 Description .......................................................................................................... 52 User-Defined Types ............................................................................................ 52 Input Parameters ................................................................................................ 52 Output Parameters ............................................................................................. 53 Syn tax of the Procedure Call ............................................................................. 53 Sample Program .................................................................................................. 53 Input Files ...................................................................................................... 54 Example .......................................................................................................... 54 Clamped Cubic Spline Interpolation (CUBE_CLA.lNC) .................................. 57 Description .......................................................................................................... 57 User-Defined Types ............................................................................................ 57 Table of Contents III Input Parameters ................................................................................................ 57 Output Parameters ............................................................................................. 58 Syntax of the Procedure Call ............................................................................. 58 Sample Program ................................................................................................. 59 Input Files ...................................................................................................... 59 Example .......................................................................................................... 59 Chapter 4. NUMERICAL DIFFERENTIATION ............................................ 63 First Differentiation Using Two-Point, Three-Point, or Five-Point Formulas (DERIV.INC) ........................................................................................................ 66 Description .......................................................................................................... 66 User-Defined Types ........................................................................................... 66 Input Parameters ................................................................................................ 66 Output Parameters ............................................................................................. 67 Syntax of the Procedure Call ............................................................................. 67 Comments ........................................................................................................... 67 Sample Program ................................................................................................. 68 Input Files ...................................................................................................... 68 Example .......................................................................................................... 68 Second Differentiation Using Three-Point or Five-Point Formulas (DERIV2.INC) ....................................................................................................... 71 Description ........................................................................................................... 71 User-Defined Types ............................................................................................ 71 Input Parameters ................................................................................................. 71 Output Parameters ............................................................................................. 72 Syntax of the Procedure Call ............................................................................. 72 Comments ........................................................................................................... 72 Sample Program ................................................................................................. 73 Input Files ...................................................................................................... 73 Example .......................................................................................................... 73 Differentiation with a Cubic Spline Interpolant (INTERDRV.lNC) ................ 76 Description .......................................................................................................... 76 User-Defined Types .: ......................................................................................... 76 Input Parameters ................................................................................................ 76 Output Parameters ............................................................................................. 77 Syntax of the Pn;)cedure Call ............................................................................. 77 Sample Program ................................................................................................. 77 Input Files ...................................................................................................... 78 Example .......................................................................................................... 78 Differentiation of a User-Defined Function (DERIVFN.lNC) ......................... 80 Description .......................................................................................................... 80 User-Defined Types ........................................................................................... 80 User-Defined Function ...................................................................................... 80 Input Parameters ................................................................................................ 80 IV Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Output Parameters ............................................................................................. 81 Syntax of the Procedure Call ............................................................................. 81 Comments ............................................................................................................ 81 Sample Program .................................................................................................. 81 Input Files ...................................................................................................... 81 Example .......................................................................................................... 82 Second Differentiation of a User-Defined Function (DERIV2FN.INC) .......... 83 Description .......................................................................................................... 83 User-Defined Types ............................................................................................ 83 User-Defined Function ....................................................... ;.............................. 83 Input Parameters ................................................................................................ 83 Output Parameters ............................................................................................. 84 Syntax of the Procedure Call ............................................................................. 84 Comments ............................................................................................................ 84 Sample Program .................................................................................................. 84 Input Files ...................................................................................................... 85 Example .......................................................................................................... 85 Chapter 5. NUMERICAL INTEGRATION ...................................................... 87 Integration Using Simpson's Composite Algorithm (SIMPSON.INC) ............. 89 Description .......................................................................................................... 89 User-Defined Function ...................................................................................... 89 Input Parameters ................................................................................................ 89 Output Parameters ............................................................................................. 90 Syntax of the Procedure Call ............................................................................. 90 Sample Program .................................................................................................. 90 Example .......................................................................................................... 90 Integration Using the Trapezoid Composite Rule (TRAPZOID.INC) .............. 92 Description .......................................................................................................... 92 User-Defined Function ...................................................................................... 92 Input Parameters ................................................................................................ 92 Output Parameters ............................................................................................. 93 Syntax of the Procedure Call ............................................................................. 93 Sample Program .................................................................................................. 93 Example .......................................................................................................... 93 Integration Using Adaptive Quadrature and Simpson's Rule (ADAPSIMP.INC) ................................................................................................. 95 Description .......................................................................................................... 95 User-Defined Function ...................................................................................... 95 Input Parameters ................................................................................................ 95 Output Parameters ............................................................................................. 96 Syntax of the Procedure Call ............................................................................. 96 Comments ............................................................................................................ 96 Sample Program .................................................................................................. 96 Table of Contents v Example .......................................................................................................... 97 Integration Using Adaptive Quadrature and Gaussian Quadrature (ADAPGAUS.INC) ................................................................................................ 98 Description .......................................................................................................... 98 User-Defined Function ...................................................................................... 98 Input Parameters ................................................................................................ 98 Output Parameters ............................................................................................. 99 Syntax of the Procedure Call ............................................................................. 99 Comments ........................................................................................................... 99 Sample Program ................................................................................................ 101 Example ......................................................................................................... 101 Integration Using the Romberg Algorithm (ROMBERG.INC) ........................ 102 Description ......................................................................................................... 102 User-Defined Function ..................................................................................... 102 Input Parameters ............................................................................................... 102 Output Parameters ............................................................................................ 103 Syntax of the Procedure Call ............................................................................ 103 Sample Program ................................................................................................ 103 Example ......................................................................................................... 103 Chapter 6. MATRIX ROUTINES ....................................................................... 105 Determinant of a Matrix (DET.INC) ................................................................... 107 Description ......................................................................................................... 107 User-Defined Types .......................................................................................... 107 Input Parameters ............................................................................................... 107 Output Parameters ............................................................................................ 108 Syntax of the Procedure Call ............................................................................ 108 Sample Program ................................................................................................ 108 Input File ...................................................................................................... 108 Example ......................................................................................................... 109 Inverse of a Matrix (INVERSE.INC) .................................................................. 110 Description ......................................................................................................... 110 User-Defined Types ............................................ ;............................................. 110 Input Parameters ............................................................................................... 110 Output Parameters ............................................................................................ III Syntax of the Procedure Call ............................................................................ III Sample Program ................................................................................................ III Input Files ..................................................................................................... III Example ......................................................................................................... 112 Solving a System of Linear Equations with Gaussian Elimination (GAUSELIM.INC) ............................................................................................... 114 Description ......................................................................................................... 114 User-Defined Types .......................................................................................... 114 Input Parameters ............................................................................................... 114 vi Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Output Parameters ............................................................................................ 115 Syntax of the Procedure Call ............................................................................ 115 Sample Program ................................................................................................. 115 Input File ...................................................................................................... 115 Example ......................................................................................................... 116 Solving a System of Linear Equations with Gaussian Elimination and Partial Pivoting (PARTPIVI'.1 NC) ...................................................................... 117 Description ......................................................................................................... 117 User-Defined Types ........................................................................................... 117 Input Parameters ............................................................................................... 117 Output Parameters ............................................................................................ 118 Syntax of the Procedure Call ........................................................................ :... 118 Sample Program ................................................................................................. 118 Input File ...................................................................................................... 118 Example ......................................................................................................... 119 Solving a System of Linear Equations with Direct Factoring (DIRFACT.INC) .................................................................................................. 120 Description ........................................................................................................ 120 User-Defined Types .......................................................................................... 120 Procedure LU-Decompose Input Parameters ............................................... 121 Procedure LU-Decompose Output Parameters ............................................ 121 Syntax of the Procedure Call ....................................................................... 121 Procedure LU_Solve Input Parameters .......................................................... 121 Procedure LU_Solve Output Parameters ...................................................... 122 Syntax of the Procedure Call ...................................................................... 122 Sample Program ................................................................................................ 122 Input File ..................................................................................................... 122 Example ........................................................................................................ 123 Solving a System of Linear Equations with the Iterative Gauss-Seidel Method (GAUSSIDL.INC) ............................................................................................... 126 Description ........................................................................................................ 126 User-Defined Types .......................................................................................... 126 Input Parameters .............................................................................................. 127 Output Parameters ........................................................................................... 127 Syntax of the Procedure Call ........................................................................... 128 Sample Program ................................................................................................ 128 Input File ..................................................................................................... 128 Example ........................................................................................................ 129 Chapter 7. EIGENVALUES AND EIGENVECTORS .................................... 131 Real Dominant Eigenvalue and Eigenvector of a Real Matrix Using the Power Method (POWER.INC) .......................................................................... 133 Description ........................................................................................................ 133 User-Defined Types .......................................................................................... 133 Table of Contents vii Input Parameters ............................................................................................... 133 Output Parameters ............................................................................................ 134 Syntax of the Procedure Call ............................................................................ 134 Comments .......................................................................................................... 134 Sample Program ................................................................................................ 135 Input File ...................................................................................................... 135 Example ......................................................................................................... 135 Real Eigenvalue and Eigenvector of a Real Matrix Using the Inverse Power Method (INVPOWER.INC) .................................................................... 137 Description ......................................................................................................... 137 User-Defined Types .......................................................................................... 137 Input Parameters ............................................................................................... 137 Output Parameters ............................................................................................ 138 Syntax of the Procedure Call ............................................................................ 138 Comments .......................................................................................................... 139 Sample Program ................................................................................................ 139 Input File ...................................................................................................... 139 Example ......................................................................................................... 140 Real Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of a Real Matrix Using the Power Method and Wielandt's Deflation (WIELANDT.lNC) ................................... 143 Description ......................................................................................................... 143 User-Defined Types .......................................................................................... 143 Input Parameters ............................................................................................... 143 Output Parameters ............................................................................................ 144 Syntax of the Procedure Call ............................................................................ 145 Comments .......................................................................................................... 145 Sample Program ................................................................................................ 146 Input File ...................................................................................................... 146 Example ......................................................................................................... 146 The Complete Eigensystem of a Symmetric Real Matrix Using the Cyclic Jacobi Method (JACOBI.INC) ............................................................................ 149 Description ......................................................................................................... 149 User-Defined Types .......................................................................................... 149 Input Parameters ............................................................................................... 149 Output Parameters ............................................................................................ 150 Syntax of the Procedure Call ............................................................................ 150 Comments .......................................................................................................... 151 Sample Program ................................................................................................ 151 Input File ...................................................................................................... 151 Example ......................................................................................................... 152 Chapter 8. INITIAL VALUE AND BOUNDARY VALUE METHODS ..... 155 Solution to an Initial Value Problem for a First-Order Ordinary Differential Equation Using the Runge-Kutta Method (RUNGE_l.INC) .......................... 159 viii Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Description ........................................................................................................ 159 User-Defined Types .......................................................................................... 159 User-Defined Function .................................................................................... 160 Input Parameters .............................................................................................. 160 Output Parameters ........................................................................................... 160 Syntax of the Procedure Call ............................................................................ 161 Comments ........................................................................................................... 161 Sample Program ................................................................................................. 161 Example ........................................................................................................ 162 Solution to an Initial Value Problem for a First-Order Ordinary Differential Equation Using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg Method (RKF_1.1NC) .............. 163 Description ............................................................ ,........................................... 163 User-Defined Types ................. :........................................................................ 163 User-Defined Function .................................................................................... 163 Input Parameters .............................................................................................. 164 Output Parameters ........................................................................................... 164 Syntax of the Procedure Call ........................................................................... 164 Comments .......................................................................................................... 165 Sample Program ................................................................................................ 165 Example ........................................................................................................ 166 Solution to an Initial Value Problem for a First-Order Ordinary Differential Equation Using the Adams-Bashforth/Adams-Moulton Predictor/Corrector Scheme (ADAMS_l.INC) ................................................................................... 168 Description ........................................................................................................ 168 User-Defined Types .......................................................................................... 169 User-Defined Function .................................................................................... 169 Input Parameters .............................................................................................. 169 Output Parameters ........................................................................................... 169 Syntax of the Procedure Call ........................................................................... 170 Comments .......................................................................................................... 170 Sample Program ............................ :................................................................... 170 Example ......................................................................................................... 171 Solution to an Initial Value Problem for a Second-Order Ordinary Differential Equation Using the Runge-Kutta Method (RUNGE-2.1NC) ......................... 172 Description ........................................................................................................ 172 User-Defined Types .......................................................................................... 173 User-Defined Function .................................................................................... 173 Input Parameters .............................................................................................. 173 Output Parameters ............................................................................................ 174 Syntax of the Procedure Call ................................................................ :........... 174 Comments ................ ;.......................................................................................... 174 Sample Program ................................................................................................ 175 Example ........................................................................................................ 175 Table of Contents ix Solution to an Initial Value Problem for an nth-Order Ordinary Differential Equation Using the Runge-Kutta Method (RUNGE_N.lNC) ........................ 178 Description ......................................................................................................... 178 User-Defined Types .......................................................................................... 180 User-Defined Function ..................................................................................... 180 Input Parameters ............................................................................................... 180 Output Parameters ............................................................................................ 181 Syntax of the Procedure Call ............................................................................ 181 Comments .......................................................................................................... 181 Sample Program ................................................................................................ 182 Example ......................................................................................................... 182 Solution to an Initial Value Problem for a System of Coupled First-Order Ordinary Differential Equations Using the Runge-Kutta Method (RUNGE_Sl.INC) ................................................................................................ 186 Description ............................... ;......................................................................... 186 User-Defined Types .: ........................................................................................ 188 User-Defined Functions ................................................................................... 188 Input Parameters ............................................................................................... 189 Output Parameters ............................................................................................ 189 Syntax of the Procedure Call ............................................................................ 190 Comments .......................................................................................................... 190 Sample Program ................................................................................................ 191 Example ......................................................................................................... 191 Solution to an Initial Value Problem for a System of Coupled Second-Order Ordinary Differential Equations Using the Runge-Kutta Method (RUNGE_S2.INC) ............................................................................................... 196 Description ......................................................................................................... 196 User-Defined Types .......................................................................................... 199 User-Defined Functions ................................................................................... 199 Input Parameters .............................................................................................. 200 Output Parameters ............................................................................................ 201 Syntax of the Procedure Call ............................................................................ 201 Comments .......................................................................................................... 201 Sample Program ............................................................................................... 203 Example ........................................................................................................ 203 Solution to Boundary Value Problem for a Second-Order Ordinary Differential Equation Using the Shooting and Runge-Kutta Methods (SHOOT2.1NC) .. 208 Description ........................................................................................................ 208 User-Defined Types ......................................................................................... 209 User-Defined Function .................................................................................... 209 Input Parameters .............................................................................................. 209 Output Parameters ............................................................................................ 210 Syntax of the Procedure Call ............................................................................ 210 Comments .......................................................................................................... 210 x Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Sample Program ................................................................................................. 211 Example ......................................................................................................... 211 Solution to a Boundary Value Problem for a Second-Order Ordinary Linear Differential Equation Using the Linear Shooting and Runge-Kutta Methods (LINSHOT2.INC) ................................................................................................ 215 Description ......................................................................................................... 215 User-Defined Types ........................................................................................... 216 User-Defined Function ..................................................................................... 216 Input Parameters ............................................................................................... 216 Output Parameters ............................................................................................ 216 Syntax of the Procedure Call ............................................................................ 217 Comments ........................................................................................................... 217 Sample Program ................................................................................................. 218 Example ......................................................................................................... 218 Chapter 9. LEAST.SQUARES APPROXIMATION ........................................ 221 Least-Squares Approximation (LEAST.lNC) ..................................................... 222 Description ........................................................................................................ 222 User-Defined Types .......................................................................................... 223 Input Parameters .............................................................................................. 223 Output Parameters ........................................................................................... 224 Syntax of the Procedure Call ........................................................................... 224 Comments .......................................................................................................... 224 POLY.LSQ .................................................................................................... 224 FOURIER.LSQ ........................................................................................... 225 POWER.LSQ ............................................................................................... 225 EXP.LSQ ...................................................................................................... 225 LOG.LSQ ..................................................................................................... 226 USER.LSQ ................................................................................................... 226 Sample Program ................................................................................................ 227 Input Files .................................................................................................... 227 Example ........................................................................................................ 227 Chapter 10. FAST FOURIER TRANSFORM ROUTINES .......................... 233 The Application Programs .................................................................................... 235 Data Sampling ....................................................................................................... 239 User-Defined Types ............................................................................................... 240 Fast Fourier Transform Algorithms ......................................................... :........... 241 Procedure TestInput ......................................................................................... 241 Description ................................................................................................... 241 Input Parameters ......................................................................................... 241 Output Parameters ...................................................................................... 241 Syntax of the Procedure Call ...................................................................... 241 Procedure MakeSinCosTable ........................................................................... 242 Table of Contents xi Description ................................................................................................... 242 Input Parameters ......................................................................................... 242 Output Parameters ...................................................................................... 242 Syntax of the Procedure Call ...................................................................... 242 Procedure FFT ................................................................................................. 242 Description ................................................................................................... 242 Input Parameters ......................................................................................... 243 Output Parameters ...................................................................................... 243 Syntax of the Procedure Call ...................................................................... 243 Fast Fourier Transform Applications ................................................................... 244 COMPFFT.INC ............................................................................................... 244 Description ................................................................................................... 244 Input Parameters ......................................................................................... 244 Output Parameters ...................................................................................... 244 Syntax of the Procedure Call ...................................................................... 245 Comments .................................................................................................... 245 REALFFT.INC ................................................................................................. 245 Description ................................................................................................... 245 Input Parameters ......................................................................................... 245 Output Parameters ...................................................................................... 246 Syntax of the Procedure Call ...................................................................... 246 Comments .................................................................................................... 246 COMPCNVL.INC ........................................................................................... 246 Description ................................................................................................... 246 Input Parameters ......................................................................................... 247 Output Parameters ...................................................................................... 247 Syntax of the Procedure Call ...................................................................... 247 Comments .................................................................................................... 247 REALCNVL.INC ............................................................................................. 248 Description ................................................................................................... 248 Input Parameters ......................................................................................... 248 Output Parameters ...................................................................................... 248 Syntax of the Procedure Call ...................................................................... 249 Comments .................................................................................................... 249 COMPCORR.INC ........................................................................................... 249 Description ................................................................................................... 249 Input Parameters ......................................................................................... 250 Output Parameters ...................................................................................... 250 Syntax of the Procedure Call ...................................................................... 250 Comments .................................................................................................... 250 REALCORR.INC .............................................................................................. 251 Description .................................................................................................... 251 Input Parameters .......................................................................................... 251 Output Parameters ...................................................................................... 252 xii Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Syntax of the Procedure Call ...................................................................... 252 Comments ..................................................................................................... 252 Sample Program ................................................................................................ 252 Input File ..................................................................................................... 253 Example ........................................................................................................ 253 Chapter 11. GRAPHICS PROGRAMS ............................................................. 261 Function of the Least-Squares Graphics Demonstration Program .................. 262 Function of the Fourier Transform Graphics Demonstration Program ........... 264 Printing ................................................................................................................... 265 Rebuilding LSQIBM.COM ............................................................................. 267 Rebuilding FFTIBM.COM ............................................................................. 268 Rebuilding for the Hercules Card ................................................................... 269 Rebuilding for the EGA Card ......................................................................... 269 Using the Math Coprocessor ........................................................................... 270 REFERENCES ................................................................................................... 271 INDEX .................................................................................................................. 273 Table of Contents xiii xiv Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox I ntroductian The Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox is a reference manual for both the student of numerical analysis and the professional needing efficient routines. An elementary background in calculus and linear algebra is assumed, although many of the algorithms use only high-school-level mathematics. A general knowledge of Turbo Pascal® is also assumed. If you need to brush up on your knowledge of Pascal, we suggest looking at the Turbo Pascal Reference Manual and/or the Turbo Pascal Tutor Manual. Before you begin using a particular routine, read through this brief introductory chapter and then refer to the chapter that interests you. Toolbox Functions The Turbo Pascal Numerical Methods Toolbox provides routines for • Finding solutions to equations • Interpolations • Calculus • l'iumerical derivatives and integrals • Matrix operations: inversions, determinants, and eigenvalues • Differential equations • Least-squares approximations • Fourier transforms About this Manual The major areas in numerical analysis are represented in this Toolbox, with each chapter focusing on a particular problem. Each routine begins with a general description of the implemented algorithm or numerical method. (References to numerical analysis texts are provided for each numerical procedure.) User-supplied types, functions, and input and output parameters are defined, and the syntax of the procedure call is provided. If appropriate, a "Comments" section is also provided. Finally, every algorithm in the Toolbox is accompanied by a general-purpose program that handles all the necessary I/O, while allowing you to try each algorithm without building any code. Handily, these sample programs will often reduce the coding your own application may require. As an example, let's say you want to find the roots to an equation in one variable. First, you would read the introduction to Chapter 2, "Roots to Equations in One Variable," and choose the numerical method best suited to your particular problem. Second, you would run the sample program for the desired numerical method to determine the necessary input and output. Third, you would write a Turbo Pascal function defining your equation, using the function already coded in the sample program as a guide. Fourth, you would run the sample program with your function substituted for the original one. Of course, if these algorithms are to be part of a larger program, you must build all the interfaces to the other parts of the system; but this should only be done after you gain experience with the particular numerical method. Several books are referred to throughout the text; complete references are listed at the back of the book in the section entitled "References." The body of this manual is printed in normal typeface; other typefaces serve to illustrate the following: Alternate This type displays program examples and procedure and function declarations. Italics This type emphasizes certain concepts, first-mentioned terms, and mathematical expressions. Boldface This type marks the reserved words of Turbo Pascal in text and in program examples. 2 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox On the Distribution Disks The routines for this Toolbox are contained on three packed disks. Their contents and general installation instructions are covered in Chapter l. System Requirements All routines will run in standard Turbo Pascal version 3.0. (They will also run in version 2.0, but you must make one change to use the sample programs; see the section entitled "Installation" in Chapter 1.) All sample programs will run on an IBM® PC or compatible machine using DOS 2.0 or greater. A small portion of the Toolbox uses graphics (see Chapter 11). These programs are for PC-DOS users only, requiring either an IBM PC Color Graphics Adapter, an IBM Enhanced Graphics Adapter, or a Hercules Monochrome Graphics Adapter. Recompiling these requires the Turbo Pascal Graphix Toolbox® version 1.06A or later, and Turbo Pascal 3.0. They can also be recompiled for the EGA and several other cards using version 1.07A of the Graphix Toolbox. We strongly recommend that anyone serious about numerical analysis invest in hardware and software to run Turbo Pascal with support for the Intel 8087 numerical processing chip: • Hardware: an 8087 chip plugged into the motherboard of a PC, XT® or equivalent, or an 80287 chip in an AT® or equivalent. • Software: TURBO-87.COM, the version of Turbo Pascal designed to take advantage of the 8087 chip. For machines running the Intel 8088 CPU, the increase in execution speed of programs using real-number arithmetic is often a factor of ten or more, while for 80286 machines, the increase is only about a factor of two (Fried 1985). Perhaps more important than speed is the increase in accuracy -16 significant figures accuracy for Turbo Pascal with 8087 support versus 11 significant figures for standard Turbo. Since round-off errors are a serious concern in numerical analysis, the increased accuracy is of great value. All of the examples in this manual were run using Turbo-87. If you run them without the Turbo-87, you will usually get less accurate answers. Introduction 3 AcktWwlellgements We refer to several products throughout the manual; following is a list of each one and its respective company. • Turbo Pascal, Turbo Pascal Graphix Toolbox, SideKick, SuperKey, and Reflex: The Database Manager are registered trademarks and Turbo Pascal Numerical Methods Toolbox is a trademark of Borland International, Inc. • IBM, XT, and AT are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corp. • MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corp. 4 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox c H A p T E R 1 Routine Beginnings This chapter provides you with everything you need to start using the routines in this Toolbox. We'll discuss how to unpack the disks for use and list the files available once the disks are unpacked. We also briefly discuss data types and defined constants used in the Toolbox, and the setting of compiler directives. First, though, before we thrust you into the middle of numerical madness, let's take a look at one way to use this Toolbox. Using the Toolbox: An Example In late 1986 and early 1987, the America's Cup 12-meter yacht championship was held. The 12-meter yachts are just large sailboats, but the competition is so intense that the only way to be competitive is to use dozens of people, spend millions of dollars, design a special boat, and spend a couple of years training for the race. The race has become so sophisticated that many of the sailboats have on-board computers and other electronic equipment. To keep stride with other challengers, one yacht's crew used personal computers, and of course, Borland software. They used Turbo Pascal to design the boat's hull. They used Reflex: The Analyst® to maintain their databases and to display plots while the boat was sailing. And when it came time to do some mathematical modeling, again they turned to Borland for its inimitable software and chose the Toolbox. 5 Simply speaking, the problem they had was one of "precision monitoring." It takes a crew of very highly skilled sailors to compete in America's Cup races, but even the best skippers cannot act with sufficient precision to win. A typical race lasts for several hours, and the winner usually wins by only a few feet. The electronic equipment on a boat can sense with reasonable accuracy all of the crucial variables: boat velocity, wind velocity, boat direction, boat position, and so on. This data must then be made available to the skipper in a coherent form, and he/she must decide at what angle to place the rudder based on that information. The problem is too complex to rely on intuition alone. Even just displaying the velocity is more complex than you might think at first. When sailing on the ocean, the waves are big enough that the velocity is in constant flux. Fortunately, the fluctuations due to the waves represents a steadily periodic force. By using the Fourier transforms in Chapter 10 of the Toolbox, the crew was able to identify the periodic portion of the velocity and subtract it out. The result: the velocity as a function of time but with the wave fluctuations eliminated. The graph of this modified velocity is much smoother, and allows the skipper to tell much more quickly and accurately whether the boat is accelerating or decelerating. To measure the acceleration quantitatively, the crew used the fact that the acceleration is the derivative of the velocity. They were able to do this easily with the differentiation routines in Chapter 4 of the Toolbox. They were also able to directly measure the distance travelled by using the integration routines in Chapter 5, and the fact that distance is the integral of the speed. Perhaps the most difficult problem in navigating a sailboat is aiming the rudder. You can't just aim the boat in the direction that you want to go, rather you have to pick a direction that you can sail rapidly, depending on the wind direction. An experienced skipper can judge this pretty well, but not well enough. Every boat is a little different, and the best way to handle one boat is not necessarily the best way to handle another. So, the team ran extensive trial races with the boat to gather data on how the boat performed in various circumstances. The data was collected automatically by electronic instruments on board, and stored digitally on floppy disks. They then used Reflex to manage the data and to display graphs. But they lacked the tools to relate their data to the data they would have under actual racing conditions. In order to predict the behavior of their boat in an actual race, the team created a model from their collected data using the least-squares routines in Chapter 9 of the Toolbox. With the least-squares routines, you can create a multiparameter model and then find the values of the parameters that make the model most accurately fit the data. With a mathematical model of the boat's behavior, the team was then able to predict how the boat would perform under circumstances similar but not identical to its practices. 6 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox This, of course, is just one of many applications of this Toolbox. Now, let's go on to the fundamentals. . The Distribution Disks All of the Toolbox routines are contained on three disks. (Note, however, that MS-DOS® users will receive two disks; Disk 3 is for PC-DOS users only.) Each disk has packed files corresponding to chapters in the manual. Use the program UNPACK.EXE to unpack the files, described in the next section, "Installation." The files for each chapter are self-contained and do not require any files from any other chapter, with these exceptions: \ • All files require Turbo Pascal (not included). • Most files require COMMON.INC, located on Disk l. • The files for Chapter 11 require files from Chapters 9 and 10, as well as the Turbo Pascal Craphix Toolbox (not included). The numerical analysis routines are in the files with the .INC suffix. The files with the .PAS suffix are demonstration programs. To run a demonstration program, get into Turbo Pascal and load the .PAS file of your choice. The menus are selfexplanatory. The .DAT files contain input data for specific .PAS files. If you're a PC-DOS user with an IBM color graphics monitor or compatible, you can run LSQIBM.COM or FFfIBM.COM from Disk 3 to see a quick graphic demonstration of the power and usefulness of the Toolbox. These routines require the files SAMP11A.DAT, SAMPllB.DAT, 4X6.FON, 8X8.FON, and ERROR.MSC to be on the current directory. (These files are also on Disk 3.) Contents of the enclosed disks: Disk 1 README README.COM (program to display README file) UNPACK.EXE (installation program to unpack chapters) COMMON.INC (used throughout the Toolbox) COMMON2.INC (for Turbo Pascal 2.0 users) CHAP2 (packed file with routines for Chapter 2) CHAP3 (packed file with routines for Chapter 3) CHAP4 (packed file with routines for Chapter 4) CHAP5 (packed file with routines for Chapter 5) CHAP6 (packed file with routines for Chapter 6) CHAP7 (packed file with routines for Chapter 7) Routine Beginnings 7 Disk 2 UNPACK.EXE (installation program to unpack chapters) CHAP8 (packed file with routines for Chapter 8) CHApg (packed file with routines for Chapter 9) CHAPIO (packed file with routines for Chapter 10) CHAP11 (packed file with routines for Chapter 11; PC-DOS users only) Disk 3 (PC-DOS users only) README README.COM (program to display README file) LSQIBM.COM (requires IBM graphics monitor) FFTIBM.COM (requires IBM graphics monitor) LSQHERC.COM (requires Hercules graphics card) FFTHERC.COM (requires Hercules graphics card) SAMP11A.DAT (data file for LSQ*.COM) SAMP11B.DAT (data file for FFT*.COM) 14X9.FON (from the Graphix Toolbox) 4X6.FON (from the Graphix Toolbox) 8X8.FON (from the Graphix Toolbox) ERROR.MSG (from the Graphix Toolbox) Installation The files CHAP2 through CHAP11 are packed files corresponding to the chapters in this manual. In order to use these files, you must first unpack them with UNPACK.EXE. The syntax is as follows: UNPACK packed-file-name target-drive For example, the files for Chapter 2 can be extracted and put on the current directory on drive C by placing Disk 1 in drive A, changing the logged drive to A by typing A: at the DOS prompt, and then typing UNPACK CHAP2 c: Wildcards are okay to use for the packed file name, and a directory can be specified with the target drive if it ends with a backslash (\). For example, all of the packed files on disk can be placed in a directory C:\NUMERIC by doing the following: UNPACK CHAP* C:\NUMERIC\ if the directory C:\NUMERIC already exists. 8 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox You may wish to copy the packed files onto your hard disk, and then unpack them as you need them. Note: These files are not copy protected. All files are ordinary DOS files; there are no hidden files. The unpacking program only extracts ordinary text files - it will not create directories, modify the distribution disk, create hidden or protected files, or do anything unexpected. Contents of the packed files: CHAP2 (packed file) "Roots to Equation in One Variable" BISECT.lNC N EWTDEFL. PAS BISECT.PAS RAPHSON.lNC LAGUERRE.lNC RAPHSON .PAS LAGUE RRE. PAS RAPHSON2.PAS MULLER.lNC SECANT.lNC MULLERPAS SECANT.PAS NEWTDEFL.lNC CHAP3 (packed file) "Interpolation" CUBE_CLA.lNC SAMPLE3B.DAT CUBE_CLAPAS SAMPLE3C.DAT CUBE-FRE.lNC SAMPLE3D.DAT CUBE_FRE.PAS SAMPLE3E.DAT DIVDIF.INC SAMPLE3F.DAT DIVDI F. PAS SAMPLE3G.DAT LAGRANGE.lNC SAMPLE3H.DAT LAGRANGE. PAS SAMPLE31.DAT SAMPLE3A.DAT CHAP4 (packed file) "Numerical Differentiation" DERIV.lNC DERIV2FN.lNC DERIV.PAS DERIV2FN .PAS DERIV2.1NC INTERDRV.lNC DERIV2.PAS INTERDRV.PAS DERIVFN.lNC SAMPLE4A.DAT DERIVFN.PAS SAMPLE4B.DAT Routine Beginnings 9 CHAP5 (packed file) "Numerical Integration" ADAPGAUS.lNC ROMBERG.PAS ADAPGAUS.PAS SIMPSON.lNC ADAPSIMP.lNC SIMPSON.PAS ADAPSIMP.PAS TRAPZOID.lNC ROMBERG.INC TRAPZOID.PAS CHAP6 (packed file) "Matrix Routines" DET.INC INVERSE.INC DET.PAS INVERSE.PAS DIRFACT.INC PARTPIVT.INC DIRFACT.PAS PARTPIVT.PAS GAUSELIM.INC SAMPLE6A.DAT GAUSELIM.PAS SAMPLE6B.DAT GAUSSIDL.INC SAMPLE6C.DAT GAUSSIDL.PAS SAMPLE6D.DAT CHAP7 (packed file) "Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors" INVPOWER.INC POWERPAS INVPOWERPAS SAMPLE7ADAT JACOBI.INC WIELANDT.lNC JACOBI. PAS WIELANDT.PAS POWER.INC CHAPS (packed file) "Initial Value and Boundary Value Methods" ADAMS_l.INC RUNGE-2.PAS ADAM S_I. PAS RUNGE_N.INC LINSHOT2.1NC RUNGE-N.PAS LINSHOT2.PAS RUNGE_Sl.INC RKF_l.INC RUNGE_Sl.PAS RKF_l.PAS . RUNGE_S2.INC RUNGE_l.INC SHOOT2.INC RUNGE_I. PAS SHOOT2.PAS RUNGE-2.INC 10 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox CHAP9 (packed file) "Least-Squares Approximations" EXP.LSQ POLY.LSQ FOURIERLSQ POWERLSQ LEAST.INC SAMPLE9A.DAT LEAST. PAS USERLSQ LOG.LSQ CHAPIO (packed file) "Fast Fourier Transform Routines" COMPCNVL.INC FFTPROGS.PAS COMPCORRINC REALCNVL.INC COMPFFT.INC REALCORR.INC FFT87B2.INC REALFFT.IN C FFT87B4.INC SAMPIOA.DAT FFTB2.INC SAMPI0B.DAT FFTB4.INC SAMPIOC.DAT CHAPll (packed file) "Graphics Programs" IPC-DOS only FFTDEMO.PAS LEAST.MOD GENERIC.LSQ LSQDEMO.PAS GRAPHIX.EGA GRAPHIX.HGC IOCHECK.INC All sample programs call the include file COMMON.INC from the disk. This file includes procedures that are common to all sample programs. When copying any of the sample programs to a disk, be sure to also copy the file COMMON.INC to that disk or the sample programs will not compile. To use the sample programs with Turbo Pascal version 2.0, rename COMMON2.INC (which is on Disk 1) to COMMON.INC. (You may wish to preserve a copy of tlie original COMMON.INC file by first copying it to a file called COMMON3.INC). If you run the sample programs with version 2.0 and do not make this change, the programs will compile but will handle I/O errors incorrectly. We have made the sample programs general and easy to use. For example, numerical input can originate from the keyboard (where improper input is trapped) or from a text file; output can be sent to the printer, screen, or text file; other refinements are also included. Since, to a beginner, the supporting code may obscure the simplicity of calling the procedure, we have included a minimal sample program for Newton-Raphson's method of root-finding (RAPHSON2.INC). Routine Beginnings II The Graphics Denws Because graphic displays are often an essential part of numerical analysis, we have included two demonstration programs (for PC-DOS users only) that involve display numerical results. As previously stated, graphics hardware is not necessary for this Toolbox, but it is required for these two graphics programs. The programs are built with subsets of the Turbo Pascal Graphix Toolbox; there are separate versions for systems with the Hercules Monochrome Graphics card and the IBM Color Graphics card (or good emulations of these cards). The demonstration programs are on Disk 3. For instructions about how to run or recompile them, see Chapter 11. Data Types and Defined Constants Data types that might be confused with those in the calling program have been prefixed with the letters TN (for Turbo Numerical); for example, TNmatrix or TNvector. You must define these variable types in your top-level program for two reasons. First, you will probably need to use this type in your top-level program, and the type must be defined to have the same scope as the Toolbox procedure. Second, you will want to dimension arrays based on your particular needs. For example, the Lagrange procedure requires the definition type TNvector = array[O .. TNArraySize] of Real; The identifier TNArraySize is never referred to in any of the include files. It should be optimized by the user, although we have set a default value in each of the sample programs. It may be replaced with an integer or byte. TNNearlyZero is the only defined constant that must be changed when standard Turbo Pascal is used (instead of Turbo-87); it should be changed to IE - 7. (Without changing this constant, you will get a syntax error when compiling with standard Turbo Pascal.) For Turbo-87, the default value of this constant is IE -15. (There are a few exceptions to these default values; where appropriate, the "Comments" section of each routine indicates the exceptions.) 12 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Compiler Directives Aside from the usual default values of the compiler directives in standard Turbo Pascal, we have set the compiler directive to {$R + } in all include files that use arrays, and to {$I-} in all sample programs. The first directive checks to see that all array-indexing operations are within the defined bounds and all assignments to scalar and subrange variables are within range. The latter directive disables I/O error-checking. All the sample programs have their own I/O error-checking procedures (loaded in the file COMMON.lNC), so that the {$I-} directive must remain disabled in the sample programs. The array checker {$R +} should always be active, since the performance penalty is slight and the advantages are significant. Routine Beginnings 13 14 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox c H A p T E R 2 Roots to Equations in One Variable The routines in this chapter are for finding the roots of a single equation in one real variable. A typical problem is to solve x * exp(x) - 10 = 0 . In general, the routines find a value of x, where x is a scalar real variable, satisfying f(x) = 0.0 where f is a real-valued function that you program in Pascal. All of the methods are approximate methods, meaning that they find an approximate value of x that makesf(x) close to zero. Because of round-off error, it is usually not possible to find the exact value of x. Furthermore, they are all iterative methods, meaning that you specify some initial guess that is some value for x, which you think is reasonably close to the solution. The routine repeats some calculations that replace the guess x with a more accurate guess until the required level of accuracy is achieved. The bisection method (BISECT.INC) returns an approximation to a root of a real continuous function of the real variable x. This method always converges (as long as the function changes signs at a root), but may do so relatively slowly. The Newton-Raphson method (RAPHSON.INC) also returns an approximation to a root of a real functionf of the real variable x. When this algorithm converges, it is usually faster than the bisection method. If more than one root of a polynomial equation is desired, then use Newton-Horner's method (NEWfDEFL.INC). 15 The secant method (SECANT.lNC) is similar to the Newton-Raphson method, but doesn't require knowledge of the first derivative of the function. Consequently, it is more flexible than the Newton-Raphson method, though somewhat slower. Newton-Horner's method (NEWfDEFL.lNC) applies Newton's method to real polynomials. It also uses deflation techniques to attempt to approximate all the real roots of a real polynomial. Both the Newton-Horner and Newton-Raphson methods are faster than the bisection and secant methods, but are undefined if If'(x)1 < = TNNearlyZero. This is less of a problem on machines with a highprecision math coprocessor, since TNNearlyZero is smaller. The Newton-Horner and Newton-Raphson methods both converge around multiple roots, although convergence is slow. These algorithms depend upon an initial approximation of the root. If the initial approximation is not sufficiently close to the root, the Newton methods may not converge. In some instances, an initial choice may lead to successive iterations that oscillate indefinitely about a value of x usually associated with a relative minimum or relative maximum off. In either case, the bisection method could be used to determine the root or to determine a close approximation to the root that can be employed as an initial approximation in the Newton-Raphson or Newton-Horner methods. Muller's method (MULLER.lNC) returns an approximation to a root (possibly complex) of a complex function of the complex variable x. Although Muller's method can approximate the roots of polynomials, we recommend that you use Newton-Horner's method, the secant method, or (in the case of complex polynomials) Laguerre's method to find the roots of polynomials. Laguerre's method (LAGUERRE.lNC) attempts to approximate all the real and complex roots of a real or complex polynomial. Laguerre's method is very reliable and quick, even when converging to a multiple root. This is the best general method to use with polynomials. A caution when solving polynomial equations: Polynomials can be illconditioned, in the sense that small changes in the coefficients may lead to large changes in the roots. 16 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Stopping Criteria All the root-finding routines use the function TestForRoot to determine if a root has been found. function TestForRoot{X, OldX, V, Tol : Real) : Boolean; (********************************************************************) (* Here are four stopping criteria. If you wish to *) (* change the active criteria, simply comment off the current *) {* criteria (including the appropriate or) and remove the comment *) {* brackets from the criteria (including the appropriate or) you *) (* wish to be active. *) (********************************************************************) begin TestForRoot := (ABS{V) <= TNNearlyZero) (***************************) (* V=O *) or (ABS{X - OldX) < ABS{OldX*Tol)) {* {* {* {* {* {* (* or (ABS{X - OldX) < Tol) or (ABS{V) <= Tol) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) (* (* (* *) *) *) (* relative change in X *) (* (* *) *) (* *) (* *) (* absolute change in X *) (* *) (* *) (* *) (* absolute change in V *) (***************************) end; { procedure TestForRoot } The four separate tests provided by function TestForRoot may be used in any combination. The default criteria tests the absolute value of Y and the relative change in X. If you wish to change the active criteria, simply comment off the current criteria (including the appropriate or) and remove the comment brackets from the criteria (including the appropriate or) you wish to be active. The first criterion simply checks to see if Y is zero (TNNearlyZero is defined at the beginning of the procedure). This criterion should usually be kept active. The second criterion examines the relative change in X between iterations. To avoid division by zero errors, QldX has been multiplied through the inequality. The third criterion checks the absolute change in X between iterations. The fourth criterion determines the absolute difference between Y and the allowable tolerance. Note: The parameter Tol(erance) means something different in each test. Be sure you know which tests are active when you input a value for Tol. Roots to Equations in One Variable 17 Root of a Function Using the Bisection Method (BISECT. INC) Description This method (Burden and Faires 1985, 28 ff.) provides a procedure for finding a root of a real continuous function f, specified by the user on a user-supplied real interval [a,b]. The functionsfia) and fib) must be of opposite signs. The algorithm successively bisects the interval and converges to the root of the function. You must also specify the desired accuracy to which the root should be approximated. User-Defined Function funct;on TNTargetF(x : Real) : Real; The procedure Bisect determines the roots of this function. Input Parameters LeftEnd:Real; Left end of the interval RightEnd:Real; Right end of the interval To 1 : Rea 1 ; Indicates accuracy of solution Maxlter:Real; Maximum number of iterations permitted The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: 1. LeftEnd < RightEnd. 2. TNTargetF(LeftEnd) * TNTargetF(RightEnd) < 0; the endpoints must have opposite signs. 3. Tol > O. 4. MaxIter 18 ~ O. Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Output Pararneters Answer:Real; An approximate root of TNTargetF fAnswer:Real; The value of the function at the value Answer Iter: Integer; Number of iterations to find answer Error:Byte; 0: 1: 2: 3: No error Iter > MaxIter Endpoints are of the same sign LeftErul > RightErul 4: Tol :::;; 0 5: MaxIter < 0 If Error = 1 (maximum number of iterations exceeded), Answer is set to the last x value tested and fAnswer is set to TNTargetF(Answer). If Error> 1, then the other output parameters are not defined. Syntax of the Procedure Call Bisect(LeftEnd, RightEnd, Tol, MaxIter, Answer, fAnswer, Iter, Error); The procedure Bisect determines the roots of function TNTargetF. Comrnents If a root occurs at a relative maximum or relative minimum, the bisection method will be unable to locate that value of p if P does not occur as an endpoint of a subinterval. Convergence is determined with the Boolean function TestForRoot described at the beginning of this chapter. Sample Program The sample program BISECT.PAS provides I/O functions that demonstrate the bisection algorithm. To modify this program for your own function, simply change the definition of function TNTargetF. Note that the file BISECT.INC is included after the function TNTargetF is defined. Roots to Equations in One Variable 19 Example Problem. Determine the solution to the equation cos(x) = x. 1. Write the following code for function TNTargetF into BISECT.PAS: {----------- HERE IS THE FUNCTION ------------} funct;on TNTargetF(x : Real) : Real; beg;n TNTargetF := Cos (x) - x; end; { function TNTargetF } {---------------------------------------------} 2. Run BISECT.PAS: Left endpoint: 0 Right endpoint: 100 Tolerance (> 0, default = 1.000E-08): 1E-6 Maximum number of iterations (>= 0, default = 100)? 100 Direct output to one of the following: (S)creen (P)rinter (F) il e Left endpoint: O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO Right endpoint: 1.00000000000000E+002 Tolerance: 1.00000000000000E-006 Maximum number of iterations: 100 Number of iterations: Calculated root: Value of the function at the calculated root: 20 28 7.39085301756859E-001 -2.82073423951701E-007 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Root of a Function Using the Newton-Haphson Method (RAPHSON.INC) Description This example uses Newton-Raphson's algorithm (Burden and Faires 1985,42 fr.) to find a root of a real user-specified function when the derivative of the function and an initial guess are given. The algorithm constructs the tangent line at each iterate approximation of the root. The intersection of the tangent line with the x-axis provides the next iterate value of the root. You must specify the desired tolerance to which the root should be approximated. User-Defined Functions function TNTargetF(x : Real) : Real; function TNDerivF(x : Real) : Real; The procedure Newton Raphson determines the roots of the function TNTargetF. The function TNDerivF must be the first derivative of function TNTargetF. Input Parameters Guess:Real; User's initial approximation to the root Tol:Real; Tolerance in answer (see "Comments") MaxIter: Integer; Maximum number of iterations permitted The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: 1. Tal> 0 2. MaxIter > 0 Roots to Equations in One Variable 21 Output Parameters Root: Rea 1; Approximate root. Va 1ue: Rea 1; Value of the function at the approximate root. Deri v: Rea 1; Value of the derivative at the approximated root. Iter: Integer; Number of iterations needed to find the root. Error:Byte; 0: 1: 2: 3: 4: No error. Iter < MaxIter. The slope is zero (see "Comments"). Tol :$ O. MaxIter < O. If a root is found, it is returned along with the value of the function at the root (which, of course, should be close to zero) and the value of the derivative at the root. If Error :$ 2, the data from the last iteration is returned. Syntax of the Procedure Call Newton_Raphson{Guess, Tol, MaxIter, Root, Value, Deriv, Iter, Error); Comments Newton's method involves division by the value of the derivative of the function. Should the algorithm attempt to do any calculations at a point where the derivative is less than TNNearlyZero, the routine will stop and return an error message (Error = 2). Convergence is determined with the Boolean function TestForRoot described at the beginning of this chapter. Sample Program The sample program RAPHSON .PAS provides I/O functions that demonstrate the Newton-Raphson algorithm. Note that the file RAPHSON.INC is included after the functions TNTargetF and TNDerivF are defined. The program RAPHSON2.PAS also provides I/O functions that demonstrate the Newton-Raphson method. It is an extremely bare-bones program and is provided 22 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox for the newcomer to Turbo Pascal who wants to see a simple, straightforward application of a Toolbox routine. Example Problem. Determine the solution to the equation cos(x) = x. 1. Code the following two functions into RAPHSON.PAS (or RAPHSON2.PAS): {---------- HERE IS THE FUNCTION -------------} function TNTargetF{x : Real) : Real; begin TNTargetF := Cos (x) - x; end; { function TNTargetF } {---------------------------------------------} {-------- HERE IS THE DERIVATIVE -------------} function TNDerivF{x : Real) : Real; begin TNDerivF := -Sin{x) - 1; end; { function TNDerivF } {---------------------------------------------} 2. Run RAPHSON.PAS: Initial approximation to the root: 0 Tolerance (> 0, default = 1.000E-08): 1E-6 Maximum number of iterations (>= 0, default = 100): 100 Direct output to one of the following: {S)creen {P)rinter {F)i1e Initial approximation: O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO Tolerance: 1.00000000000000E-006 Maximum number of iterations: 100 Number of iterations: Calculated root: Value of the function at the calculated root: Value of the derivative of the function at the calculated root: 5 7.39085133215161E-001 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO -1.67361202918321E+000 Roots to Equations in One Variable 23 Here is the RAPHSON2.PAS version of the same function: Initial approximation to the root: 0 Tolerance: 1E-6 Maximum number of iterations: 100 Error = 0 Number of iterations: Root: Value of the function at the root: Derivative of the function at the root: 24 5 7.39085133215161E-001 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO -1.67361202918321E+000 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Root of a Function Using the Secant Metlwd (SECANT. INC) Description This example uses the secant method (Gerald and Wheatley 1984, 11-13) to find a root of a user-specified real function given two initial real approximations to the root. The secant method constructs a secant through the two points specified by the initial approximations. The intersection of this line and the x-axis is used as the next best approximation to the root. The approximation to the root and its predecessor are used to construct the next secant line. The process continues until a root is approximated with specified accuracy or until a specified number of iterations have been exceeded. User-Defined Function function TNTargetF(x : Real) : Real; The procedure Secant will determine the roots of this function. Input Parameters Guessl:Real; User's first approximation to the root Guess2:Real; User's second approximation to the root Tol:Real; Indicates accuracy in solution MaxIter: Integer; Maximum number of iterations permitted The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: 1. Tal> 0 2. MaxIter;::: 0 Roots to Equations in One Variable 25 Output Parameters Root: Rea 1; Approximate root. Va 1ue: Rea 1; Value of the function at the approximate root. Iter: Integer; Number of iterations needed to find the root. Error:Byte; 0: No error. 1: Iter> Max Iter. 2: The slope is zero (see "Comments"). 3: Tal :s; O. 4: MaxIter < O. If a root is found, it is returned with the value of the function at the root (which, of course, should be nearly zero). If Error :s; 2, then the data from the last iteration is returned. Syntax of the Procedure Call Secant(Guessl, Guess2, Tol, MaxIter, Root, Value, Iter, Error); The procedure Secant determines the roots of the function TNTargetF. Comments The secant algorithm constructs a line through two points and finds the intersection of that line with the x-axis. If the line has a slope whose absolute values are less than TNNearlyZero (that is, the two points have the same y-value), then it has no intersection with the x-axis (or infinitely many if it lies on the x-axis) and the algorithm will no longer continue. If this happens, Error 2 is returned. Error 2 will also be returned if the absolute difference of the two initial approximations (Guessl and Guess2) is less than TNNearlyZero. Convergence is determined with the Boolean function TestForRoat described at the beginning of this chapter. Sample Program The sample program SECANT.PAS provides I/O functions that demonstrate the secant algorithm. Note that the file SECANT.lNC is included after the function TNTargetF is defined. 26 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Example Problem. Determine the solution to the equation cos(x) = x. 1. Write the following code for procedure TNTargetF into SECANT.PAS: {----------- HERE IS THE FUNCTION ------------} function TNTargetF{x : Real) : Real; begin TNTargetF := Cos (x) - x; end; { function TNTargetF } {---------------------------------------------} 2. Run SECANT.PAS: First initial approximation to the root: 0 Second initial approximation to the root: Tolerance (> 0, default = 1.000E-08): 1E-8 Maximum number of iterations (>= 0, default 100): 100 Direct output to one of the following: {S)creen (P)rinter (F) il e First initial approximation: O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO Second initial approximation: 1.00000000000000E+000 Tolerance: 1.00000000000000E-008 Maximum number of iterations: 100 Number of iterations: Calculated root: Value of the function at the calculated root: Roots to Equations in One Variable 6 7.39085133215161E-001 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 27 Real Roots of a Real Polynomial Equation Using the Newton-Horner Metlwd with Deflation (NEWIDEFL.INC) Description This example uses Newton-Horner's algorithm and deflation (see RAPHSON.INC in this chapter for a description of Newton's method). Newton-Horner is the Newton-Raphson method applied to polynomials (Burden and Faires 1985, 42 £I). Deflation is used to find several roots of a user-specified real polynomial given an initial guess specified by the user. This procedure approximates a real root and then removes the corresponding linear factor from the given polynomial. The newly obtained (deflated) polynomial is then analyzed for a real root. This process continues until a quadratic remains, the remaining roots are complex, or the algorithm is unable to approximate the remaining real roots. Should the polynomial contain two complex roots, they may be determined using the quadratic formula. You must specify (at most) the tolerance to which the roots should be approximated. User-Defined Types TNvector = array[O .. TNArraySize] of Real; TNlntVector = array[O .. TNArraySize] of Integer; Input Parameters Ini tDegree: Integer; Degree of user-defined polynomial Ini tPoly:TNvector; Coefficients of user-defined polynomial Guess:Real; User's initial approximation Tol:Real; Indicates accuracy in solution MaxIter:Integer; Maximum number of iterations permitted 28 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: 1. InitDegree > 0 2. Tol > 0 3. Maxlter ~ 0 4. InitDegree =:; TNArraySize TNArraySize fixes an upper bound on the number of elements in each vector. It is used in the type definition of TNvector. TNArraySize is not a variable name and is never referenced by the procedure; hence there is no test for condition 4. If condition 4 is violated, the program will crash with an Index Out of Range error (assuming the directive {$R + } is active). Output Parameters Degree: Integer: Degree of the deflated polynomial (> 2 if some of the roots are not approximated). NumRoots: Integer: Number of roots found. Poly:TNvector; Coefficients of the deflated polynomial. Root:TNvector: Real part of all roots found. Imag:TNvector: Imaginary part of all roots found (nonzero for 2 at most). Value:TNvector: Value of the polynomial at each approximate root. Deriv:TNvector: Value of the derivative at each found root. Iter:TNIntVector: Number of iterations required to find each root. Error:Byte: 0: 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: No error. Maximum number of iterations exceeded. The slope is zero (see "Comments"). Degree =:; O. Tol =:; O. Maxlter < O. If a root is found, it is returned with the value of the polynomial at that root (which should be close to zero) and with the value of the derivative at that root. If the last two roots are complex (only two can be complex, since they are evaluated by the quadratic formula), then the value and derivative at those points are arbitrarily set to zero. If all the roots have not been found, then the unsolved deflated polynomial is also returned. Roots to Equations in One Variable 29 Syntax of the Procedure Call Newt-Horn_Defl(InitDegree, InitPoly, Guess, Tol, MaxIter, Degree, NumRoots, Poly, Root, Imag, Value, Deriv, Iter, Error); Comments Newton's method involves division by the derivative of the function. Should the algorithm attempt to do any calculations at a point where the absolute values of the derivative are less than TNNearlyZero, the routine stops and returns an error message (Error = 2). Convergence is determined with the Boolean function TestForRoot described at the beginning of this chapter. Sample Program The sample program NEWTDEFL.PAS provides I/O functions that demonstrate the Newton-deflation algorithm. Input Files It is possible to input the coefficients from a text file. The format for the text file is as follows: 1. The degree of the polynomial 2. The coefficients in descending order, beginning with the leading coefficient and decreasing to the constant term Spaces or carriage returns can be used to separate the data. It does not matter whether the file ends with a carriage return; for example, the polynomial F(x) =x 3 - 2x could be entered in a text file as 310 -20 Example Problem. Determine the roots to the 7th degree polynomial: Xfi 30 + x5 - 49x·' + 69x3 + 120x2 + 98x - 240 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Run NEWTDEFL.PAS: (K)eyboard or (F)ile input of data? K Degree of the pol ynomi a1 « = 30)? 6 Input the coefficients of the polynomial where Poly[n] is the coefficient of x~n Poly[6] Poly[5] Poly[4] Poly[3] Poly[2] Poly[l] Po 1y [0] 1 1 -49 69 120 98 -240 Initial approximation to the root: 0 Tolerance (> 0, default = 1.000E-08): 1E-8 Maximum number of iterations (>= 0, default 100): 100 Direct output to one of the following: (S)creen (P)rinter (F) i1 e Initial Polynomial: 1.00000000000000E+000 Poly[6]: Poly[5]: 1.00000000000000E+000 Poly[4]: -4.90000000000000E+001 Poly[3]: 6.90000000000000E+001 Poly[2]: 1.20000000000000E+002 Poly[l]: 9.80000000000000E+001 Poly[O]: -2.40000000000000E+002 Initial approximation: O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO Tolerance: 1.00000000000000E-008 Maximum number of iterations: 100 Number of calculated roots: 6 Root 1 Number of iterations: Calculated root: Value of the function at the calculated root: Value of the derivative of the function at the calculated root: 7 3.00000000000000E+000 4.83169060316868E-013 -7.47999999999999E+002 Roots to Equations in One Variable 31 Root 2 Number of iterations: Calculated root: Value of the function at the calculated root: Value of the derivative of the function at the calculated root: Root 3 Number of iterations: Calculated root: Value of the function at the calculated root: Value of the derivative of the function at the calculated root: Root 4 Number of iterations: Calculated root: Value of the function at the calculated root: Value of the derivative of the function at the calculated root: Root 5 Number of iterations: Calculated root: Value of the function at the calculated root: Value of the derivative of the function at the calculated root: Root 6 Number of iterations: Calculated root: Value of the function at the calculated root: Value of the derivative of the function at the calculated root: 32 7 1.00000000000000E+000 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 3.60000000000000E+002 32 -8.00000000000000E+000 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO -6.43500000000000E+004 25 5.00000000000000E+000 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 3.84800000000000E+003 0 -1.00000000000000E+000 + -1.00000000000000E+000i O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 0 -1.00000000000000E+000 + 1.00000000000000E+000i O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Complex Roots of a Complex Function Using Muller's Metlwd (MULLERINC) Description This example uses Muller's method (Burden and Faires 1985, 71-75) to find a possibly complex root of a user-defined complex function. The algorithm finds a root of a parabola defined by three distinct points of the given function. This approximation to the root and its two predecessors are used to construct the next parabola. This is repeated until the convergence criteria is satisfied. Muller's method has the advantage of nearly always converging; however, it is slow because it uses complex arithmetic. You must create a complex function, input an initial guess (which need not be very accurate), the tolerance in the answer, and the maximum number of iterations. User- Defined Types TNcomplex = record Re, Im:Real; end; User- Defined Procedure procedure TNTargetF(x:TNcomplex; var y:TNcomplex); The Muller procedure approximates a complex root of this function. Input Parameters Guess:TNcomplex; An initial guess Tol:Real; Indicates accuracy in solution MaxIter: Integer; Maximum number of iterations Roots to Equations in One Variable 33 The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: 1. Tol > 0 2. MaxIter;::: 0 Output Parameters Answer:TNcomplex; An approximate root of the function yAnswer: TNcomp 1ex; Value of the function at the approximate root Iter:Integer; Number of iterations required to find the root Error:Byte; 0: 1: 2: 3: 4: If Error :5 No error Iter> MaxIter Parabola could not be formed (see "Comments") Tol :5 0 MaxIter < 0 2, then the information from the last iteration is output. Syntax of the Procedure Call Muller(Guess, Tol, MaxIter, Answer, yAnswer, Iter, Error); The procedure Muller approximates a complex root of function TNTargetF. Comments Muller's method involves constructing a parabola from three points. If they all lie on a line whose slope in absolute value is less than TNNearlyZero, then a parabola that intersects the x-axis cannot be constructed. Such a construction will halt the algorithm and return Error = 2. Fortunately, this does not commonly occur. Convergence is determined with the Boolean function TestForRoot described at the beginning of this chapter. Complex arithmetic is used. 34 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Sample Program The sample program MULLERPAS provides I/O functions that demonstrate Miiller' s method. The user-defined function is contained in the procedure TNTargetF. It is necessary to separately define the real and complex parts of the function. To define the complex function F(x), you must code the following definitions: y.Re : = Re[F(x.Re y.Im : = Im[F(x.Re + ix.Im)]; + ix.Im)]; where i is the square root of - 1. For example, the complex function F(x) : = exp(x) would be coded like this: y.Re : = exp(x.Re) y.Im : = exp(x.Re) * cos(x.Im); * sin(X.Im); Note that the procedure TNTargetF is defined before MULLER.lNC is included. Example Problem. Find a solution to the complex equation cos(x) = x. 1. First, code the following procedure TNTargetF into MULLERPAS: (*------------- HERE IS THE FUNCTION ------------------*) procedure TNTargetF(x : TNcomplex; var y : TNcomplex); beg;n { this is the complex function y = Cos (x) - x } y.Re := Cos(x.Re)*(Exp(-x.lm) + Exp(x.lm))/2 - x.Re; y.lm := Sin(x.Re)*(Exp(-x.lm) - Exp(x.lm))/2 - x.lm; end; { procedure TNTargetF } (*-----------------------------------------------------*) 2. Run MULLERPAS: Initial approximation to the root: Re(Approximation)= -4 Im(Approximation)= 4 Tolerance (> 0, default = 1.000E-08): 1E-6 Maximum number of iterations (>= 0, default = 100): 100 Roots to Equations in One Variable 35 Direct output to one of the following: (S}creen (P}rinter (F) il e Initial approximation: -4.00000000000000EtOOO t Tolerance: 1.00000000000000E-006 Maximum number of iterations: 100 Number of iterations: Calculated root: Value of the function at the calculated root: 36 4.00000000000000EtOOOi 18 -9.10998745393294EtOOO t 2.95017086170180EtOOOi -1.42534872793476E-011 t 3.75033337718378E-011i Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Complex Roots of a Complex Polynomial Using Laguerre's Method and Deflation (LAGUERRE.INC) Description This example uses Laguerre's method (Ralston and Rabinowitz 1978, 380-383) and linear deflation to find the possibly complex roots of a complex (or real) polynomial. You must input the coefficients of the polynomial, an initial guess, the tolerance with which to find the answer, and the maximum number of iterations. User-Defined Types TNcomplex = record Re, Im:Real; end; TNIntVector = array[O •• TNArraySize] of Integer; TNCompVector = array[O •• TNArraySize] of TNcomplex; Input Parameters Degree: Integer; Degree of the user's polynomial Poly:TNvector; Coefficients of the user's polynomial InitGuess:TNcompl ex; Initial guess of the root Tol :Real; Indicates accuracy in solution MaxIter: Integer; Maximum number of iterations The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: 1. degree> 0 2. Tol> 0 3. MaxIter ~ 0 4. degree ~ TNArraySize Roots to Equations in One Variable 37 TNArraySize fixes an upper bound on the number of elements in each vector. It is used in the type definition of TNvector. TNArraySize is not a variable name and is never referenced by the procedure; hence there is no test for condition 4. If condition 4 is violated, the program will crash with an Index Out of Range error (assuming the directive {$R + } is enabled). Output Parameters Degree:Integer; Degree of the deflated polynomial Poly:Integer; Coefficients of deflated polynomial NumRoots:Integer; Number of approximate roots Roots :TNCompVector; Approximate roots yRoots :TNCompVector; Value of the polynomial at the approximate root Iter:TNlntVector; Number of iterations required to find each root Error:Byte; 0: No error 1: Iter ~ Max Iter 2: Degree:::;; 0 3: Tal:::;; 0 4: MaxIter < 0 Syntax of the Procedure Call Laguerre(Degree, Poly, InitGuess, Tol, MaxIter, NumRoots, Roots, yRoots, Iter, Error); Comments For some polynomials, certain starting values (Guess) will not yield convergence. If the routine does not converge to a solution, try a different starting value. Note that convergence is slower around multiple roots than around single roots. Convergence is determined with the Boolean function TestForRaat described at the beginning of this chapter. 38 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Sample Program The sample program LAGUERRE.PAS provides I/O routines that demonstrate Laguerre's method. Input Files It is possible to input the coefficients from a text file. The format for the text file is as follows: 1. The degree of the polynomial 2. The real and imaginary parts of the coefficients in descending order, beginning with the leading coefficient and descending to the constant term Spaces or carriage returns can be used to separate the data. It does not matter whether the file ends with a carriage return; for example, the polynomial F(x) = x-l - (2 + 2i)x3 + 4ix2 + (2 - 2i)x -1 where i represents the square root of - 1, could be entered in a text file like this: 410 -2 -2042 -2 -10 Example Problem. Find all the roots to the complex polynomial F(x) = l - (2 + 2i)x3 + 4ix2 + (2 - 2i)x - 1 where i is the square root of - 1. Run LAGUERRE.PAS: (K)eyboard or (F)ile input of data? K Degree of the polynomial «= 30)? 4 Input the coefficients of the polynomial where Poly[n] is the coefficients of x~n Re(Poly[4]) = 1 Im(Poly[4]) = 0 Re(Poly[3]) = -2 Im(Poly[3]) = -2 Re(Poly[2]) Im(Poly[2]) = 0 4 Roots to Equations in One Variable 39 Re{Poly[l]) = 2 Im{Poly[l]) = -2 Re{Poly[O]) = -1 Re{Poly[O]) = 0 Initial approximation: Re{Approximation) = 0 Im{Approximation) = 0 Tolerance (> 0, default = 1.000E-08): 1E-6 Maximum number of iterations (>= 0, default = 100): 100 Direct output to one of the following: {S)creen {P)rinter (F) il e Initial Polynomial: Poly[4]: 1.00000000000000E+000 Poly[3]: -2.00000000000000E+000 Poly[2]: O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO Poly[l]: 2.00000000000000E+000 Poly[O]: -1.00000000000000E+000 + O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOOi + -2.00000000000000E+000i + 4.00000000000000E+000i + -2.00000000000000E+000i + O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOOi Initial approximation: O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO + O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOOi Tolerance: 1.00000000000000E-006 Maximum number of iterations: 100 Root 1 Number of iterations: 14 Calculated root: 9.99999949924438E-001 + 1.30979567319146E-008i Value of the function at the calculated root: -2.44249065417534E-015 + -4.67073566002583E-015i Root 2 Number of iterations: 2 Calculated root: 1.00000001879739E+000 + -3.01914119849697E-009i Value of the function at the calculated root: -3.33066907387547E-016 + -1.03591657956252E-015i Root 3 Number of iterations: 6 Calculated root: 2.54057206426756E-007 + 9.99999844722996E-001i Value of the function at the calculated root: -1.57873714101697E-013 + -8.07179393811825E-014i 40 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Root 4 Number of iterations: 2 Calculated root: -5.97412717946260E-008 + 1.00000003900209E+OOOi Value of the function at the calculated root: -9.32587340685131E-015 + -3.90669101062423E-015i The exact roots of this polynomial are x = 1 x= 1 x = i x = i Roots to Equations in One Variable 41 42 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox c H A p T E R 3 Interpolation Interpolation is useful when some values of a function are known but others are required. For example, suppose values are known for a functionJ(x) at x = 2.3,2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8, and the value ofJ(x) is desired at x = 2.415. The routines in this chapter provide the means to model to given values of J(x) with an appropriate function, so that the function can be evaluated at other arbitrary points. The goal of interpolation is to approximate the value of the function at a specified value of x, given N values of the function at N distinct points. This approximation will be a polynomial determined from the input data. The value of the polynomial at x will be returned as the approximation to the value ofJ(x). The Lagrange method (LAGRANGE.INC) accepts points in any order. The xvalues need not be equally spaced. An interpolating polynomial is explicitly calculated. Although an interpolating polynomial can be useful for computing derivatives (and more), the Lagrange method is a lengthy process. Furthermore, highdegree polynomials may cause significant round-off error in some interpolations. Newton's general divided-difference algorithm (DIVDIF.INC) does not require input to have equally spaced x-values, nor is it necessary that the x-values be in either ascending or descending order. For large amounts of data, the divideddifference routine (DIVDIF.INC) is more accurate than Lagrangian interpolation (LAGRANGE.INC). If there are many input points, the Lagrange (LAGRANGE.INC) and the divided-difference (DIVDIF.INC) methods may result in high-degree polynomials whose oscillatory nature can produce an inaccurate approximation. This is espe- 43 cially true if the interpolation occurs at a value near the midpoint between adjacent input x-values. In such cases, the cubic spline methods (CUBEJ'RE.INC and CUBE_CLA.INC) are preferable. The cubic spline methods require that the x-values be entered in ascending order. The clamped cubic spline method (CUBE_CLA.lNC) may yield more accurate results than the free cubic spline method (CUBEJ'RE.lNC), but requires knowledge of the first derivative of the function at the endpoints of the input data. When this information is not available; the free cubic spline routine should be used. The values at which interpolation is to occur should lie in the closed interval bounded by the extreme values of the input x-values. The preceding methods will not give accurate approximations to values outside this interval (extrapolation). 44 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Polynomial Interpolation Using Lagrange's Metlwd (LAGRANGE. INC) Description This example provides an interpolation algorithm (Burden and Faires 1985, 84 If; Horowitz and Sahni 1984,429-430). Given a set of N data points (x,y), the routine uses Lagrange polynomials to construct a polynomial to fit the data points. The degree of the polynomial is at most N - l. Note: The nature of high-degree polynomials may cause significant error if the algorithm is used with large amounts of data (about N > 25). In such cases, DIV DIF.INC, CUBEJ'RE.INC, or CUBE_CLA.INC should be used. You must supply the data points and the x-values at which interpolation will take place. User- Defined Types TNvector = array[O .. TNArraySize] of Real; TNmatrix = array[O .. TNArraySize] of TNvector; Input Parameters The parameters for Lagrange: NumPoi nts: Integer; Number of data points XData:TNvector; The x-coordinates of the data points YData:TNvector; The y-coordinates of the data points Numlnter: Integer; Number of interpolations Xlnter:TNvector The x-coordinates at which interpolation is to take place The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: 1. The x-coordinates of the data points (Xlnter) must be unique. 2. NumPoints, Numlnter ~ TNArraySize. 3. NumPoints > O. Interpolation 45 TNArraySize fixes an upper bound on the number of elements in each vector. It is used in the type definition of TNvector. TNArraySize is not a variable name and is never referenced by the procedure; hence there is no test for condition 2. If condition 2 is violated, the program will crash with an Index Out of Range error (assuming the directive {$R + } is active). Output Parameters YInter:TNvector; The interpolated values at Xlnter Poly:TNvector; The coefficients of the interpolating polynomial Error:Byte; 0: No error 1: X-values of the data points not unique 2: NumPoints < 1 Syntax of the Procedure Call Lagrange(NumPoints, XData, YData, NumInter, XInter, YInter, Poly, Error); Sample Program The sample program LAGRANGE.PAS provides I/O functions that demonstrate the Lagrange interpolating algorithm. Input Files Data may be entered from a text file. The x and y coordinates should be separated by a space and followed by a carriage return. For example, data values of sqr(x) could be entered in a text file as: 11 24 39 416 525 46 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Example Problem. Construct and use an interpolating polynomial for the cosine function between x = 1 degree and x = 20 degrees. Run LAGRANGE.PAS: (K)eyboard or (F)ile entry of the data points? F File name? SAMPLE3A.DAT (K)eyboard or (F)ile entry of the interpolated points? F File name? SAMPLE3B.DAT Direct output to one of the following: (S)creen (P)rinter (F) il e The data: 1.0000000 2.0000000 3.0000000 4.0000000 5.0000000 6.0000000 7.0000000 8.0000000 9.0000000 10.0000000 11.0000000 12.0000000 13.0000000 14.0000000 15.0000000 16.0000000 17.0000000 18.0000000 19.0000000 20.0000000 9.99847695156391E-001 9.99390827019096E-001 9.98629534754574E-001 9.97564050259824E-001 9.96194698091746E-001 9.94521895368273E-001 9.92546151641322E-001 9.90268068741570E-001 9.87688340595138E-001 9.84807753012208E-001 9.81627183447664E-001 9.78147600733806E-001 9.74370064785235E-001 9.70295726275996E-001 9.65925826289068E-001 9.61261695938319E-001 9.56304755963035E-001 9.51056516295154E-001 9.45518575599317E-001 9.39692620785908E-001 The polynomial: Poly[19]= -1.72986376643586E-028 Poly[18]= 3.57504241395844E-026 Poly[17]= -3.43926153199199E-024 Poly[16]= 2.04507188280402E-022 Poly[15]= -8.41710490427928E-021 Poly[14]= 2.54454663251946E-019 Poly[13]= -5.85115478257286E-018 Poly[12]= 1.04567701944119E-016 Poly[ll]= -1.47131277721604E-015 Poly[10]= 1.64108936708876E-014 Poly[9]= -1.45382580196402E-013 Poly[8]= 1.02034999744286E-012 Poly[7]= -5.63354870368428E-012 Poly[6]= 2.41324946244329E-011 Poly[5]= -7.90989844502363E-011 Interpolation 47 Poly[4] = 4.05827439744465E-009 Poly[3]= -3.31023555675263E-010 Poly[2]= -1.52308331145220E-004 Poly[l]= -2.53687934078865E-010 Poly[O]= 1.00000000007368E+000 X 1.500 2.500 3.500 4.500 5.500 6.500 7.500 8.500 9.500 10.500 11.500 12.500 13.500 14.500 15.500 16.500 17.500 18.500 19.500 20.500 Interpolated Y value 9.99657324975249E-001 9.99048221581889E-001 9.98134798421861E-001 9.96917333733130E-001 9.95396198367178E-001 9.93571855676587E-001 9.91444861373810E-001 9.89015863361917E-001 9.86285601537231E-001 9.83254907563954E-001 9.79924704620830E-001 9.76296007119933E-001 9.72369920397676E-001 9.68147640378107E-001 9.63630453208623E-001 9.58819734868193E-001 9.53716950748226E-001 9.48323655206200E-001 9.42641491092201E-001 9.36672189247006E-001 Actual values 9.99657324975557E-00 1 9.99048221581858E-001 9.98134798421867E-001 9.96917333733128E-001 9.95396198367179E-001 9.93571855676587E-001 9.9144486137381OE-001 9.89015863361917E-001 9.8628560 1537231E-001 9.83254907563955E-001 9.79924704620830E-001 9.76296007119933E-001 9.72369920397677E-001 9.68147640378108E-001 9.63630453208623E-00 1 9.58819734868193E-001 9.53716950748227E-001 9.48323655206199E-001 9.42641491092178E-001 9.36672189248398E-00 1 The data is taken from a function of which the derivative could be computed exactly. Though the actual values in the right-hand column are not displayed on screen, they are shown here to indicate the accuracy of the routine. 48 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Interpolation Using Newton's Interpolary Divided-Difference Metlwd (DWDIEINC) Description This example provides an interpolation algorithm. Given a set of data points (x,y), the routine uses Newton's interpolary divided-difference equation to interpolate between the points (Burden and Faires 1985,100-102). The data points must have unique x-values, but these values need not be evenly spaced nor set in any particular order. You must supply the data points and the x-values at which interpolation is to take place. User-Defined Types TNvector = array[O •. TNArraySize] of Real; TNmatrix = array[O •• TNArraySize] of TNvector; Input Parameters NumPoi nts: Integer; Number of data points XData:TNvector; The x-coordinates of the data points YData:TNvector; The y-coordinates of the data points NumInter: Integer; Number of interpolations XInter:TNvector The x-coordinates at which interpolation is to take place The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: 1. The x-coordinates of the data points (Xlnter) must be unique. 2. NumPoints, Numlnter 3. NumPoints > ~ TNArraySize. o. TNArraySize fixes an upper bound on the number of elements in each vector. It is used in the type definition of TNvector. TNArray Size is not a variable name and is never referenced by the procedure; hence there is no test for condition 2. If condition 2 is violated, the program will crash with an Index Out of Range error (assuming the directive {$R + } is active). Interpolation 49 Output Parameters Ylnter:TNvector; The interpolated values at Xlnter Error:Byte; 0: No error 1: X-values of the data points not unique 2: NumPoints < 1 Syntax of the Procedure Call Divided-Difference(NumPoints, XData, YData, Numlnter, Xlnter, Ylnter, Error); Sample Program The sample program DIVDIF.PAS provides I/O functions that demonstrate Newton's interpolary divided-difference algorithm. Input Files Data may be entered from a text file. The x and y coordinates should be separated by a space and followed by a carriage return. For example, data values of sqr(x} could be entered in a text file as 11 24 39 416 525 Example Problem. Interpolate the cosine function between x = Ix and x = 20x. Run DIVDIF.PAS: (K)eyboard or (F)ile entry of the data points? F File name? SAMPLE3C.DAT (K)eyboard or (F)ile entry of the interpolated points? K 50 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Number of points (0-50}?15 Point Point Point Point Point Point Point Point Point Point Point Point Point Point Poi nt 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 7: 8: 9: 10: 11: 12: 13: 14: 15: 1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5 5.5 6.5 7.5 8.5 9.5 10.5 11.5 12.5 13.5 14.5 15.5 Direct output to one of the following: (S}creen (P}rinter (F) il e X 12.000 8.000 1.000 10.000 5.000 15.000 4.000 3.000 7.000 14.000 X 1.500 2.500 3.500 4.500 5.500 6.500 7.500 8.500 9.500 10.500 11. 500 12.500 13.500 14.500 15.500 y 0.9781476 0.9902681 0.9998477 0.9848078 0.9961947 0.9659258 0.9975641 0.9986295 0.9925462 0.9702957 Interpolated Y value 9.99656668284607E-001 9.99047982204853E-001 9.98134846782587E-001 9.96917355869352E-001 9.95396200633579E-001 9.93571893532269E-001 9.91444906399794E-001 9.89015879894104E-001 9.86285623948171E-001 9.83254980952454E-001 9.79924765142406E-001 9.76295923083642E-001 9.72369781236267E-001 9.68147757339141E-001 9.63629212784399E-001 Actual Values 9.99657324975557E-001 9.99048221581858E-001 9.98134798421867E-001 9.96917333733128E-001 9.95396198367179E-001 9.93571855676587E-001 9.9144486137381OE-001 9.890 15863361917E-001 9.86285601537231E-OOI 9.83254907563955E-OOl 9.79924 704620830E-00 1 9.76296007119933E-001 9. 72369920397677E-OO 1 9.68147640378108E-001 9.63630453208623E-OO 1 The data is taken from a function of which the derivative could be computed exactly. Though the values in the right-hand column are not displayed on screen, they are shown here to indicate the accuracy of the routine. Interpolation 51 Free Cubic Spline Interpolation (CUBEJRE.INC) Description This example constructs a smooth curve through a given set of data points. The curve is a cubic spline interpolant with the following properties: 1. It passes through every data point. 2. It is continuous. 3. Its first derivative is continuous. 4. Its second derivative is continuous. The second derivative is assumed to be zero at both endpoints (thus the cubic spline is "free") of the interval determined by the data (Burden and Faires 1985, 117 fI). Cubics that join adjacent data points are of the following form: S[i](x) = CoefO[i] + Coefl[i](x + Coef3[i](x- X[i])3 - x[i]) + Coef2[i](x - x[i]? where i ranges between 1 and the number of data points minus 1, the x[i]' s are the x-coordinates of the input data, and x[i] :5 x < x[i + 1]. The interpolated values of f(x) are found by evaluating the ith cubic polynomial at x, where x[i] :5 x :5 x[i + 1]. User- Defined Types TNvector = array[O •• TNArraySize] of Real; Input Parameters NumPoi nts: Integer; Number of data points XData:TNvector; The x-coordinates of the data points YData: TNvector; The y-coordinates of the data points Numlnter: Integer; Number of interpolations Xlnter:TNvector; X-coordinates of points at which to interpolate 52 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: 1. X data points must be unique. 2. X data points must be in ascending order. 3. NumPoints, Numlnter ~ TNArraySize. 4. NumPoints > 1. TNArraySize fixes an upper bound on the number of elements in each vector. It is used in the type definition of TNvector. TNArraySize is not a variable name and is never referenced by the procedure; hence there is no test for condition 3. If condition 3 is violated, the program will crash with an Index Out of Range error (assuming the directive {$R + } is active). Output Parameters CoefO:TNvector; Coefficient of the constant term Coefl: TNvector; Coefficient of the linear term Coef2:TNvector; Coefficient of the squared term Coef3: TNvector; Coefficient of the cubed term YInter:TNvector; Interpolated values at Xlnter Error:Byte; 0: 1: 2: 3: No error X-values of the data points not unique X-values of the data points not in ascending order NumPoints < 2 Syntax of the Procedure Call CubicSplineFree(NumPoints, XData, YData, Numlnter, Xlnter, CoefO, Coefl, Coef2, Coef3, Ylnter, Error); Sample Program The sample program CUBE-FRE.PAS provides I/O functions that demonstrate the free cubic spline algorithm. Interpolation 53 Input Files Data may be entered from a text file. The x and y coordinates should be separated by a space and followed by a carriage return. For example, data values of sqr(x) could be entered in a text file as 11 24 39 416 525 Example Problem. Construct an interpolating spline for the following figure: 3 2 2 3 4 5 6 Because a cusp occurs at x = 3.55, we will construct two splines, one for each side of the cusp. Run CUBE_FRE.PAS: (K)eyboard or (F)ile entry of the data points? F File name? SAMPLE3D.DAT (K)eyboard or (F)ile entry of the interpolated points? F File name? SAMPLE3E.DAT 54 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Direct output to one of the following: (S)creen (P)rinter (F) il e Data: 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 7: 8: 9: 10: 11: 12: 13: 14: 15: x y 0.0000000000 0.1000000000 0.2000000000 0.6000000000 1.0000000000 1.4000000000 1.8000000000 2.0000000000 2.2000000000 2.6000000000 3.0000000000 3.4000000000 3.4500000000 3.5000000000 3.5500000000 2.8000000000 2.7000000000 2.6000000000 2.2000000000 1.8000000000 1.6000000000 1.4000000000 1.4200000000 1.4000000000 1.5000000000 1.8000000000 2.4000000000 2.6000000000 2.8000000000 2.9000000000 Splines: CoefO 1: 2.800000 2: 2.700000 3: 2.600000 4: 2.200000 5: 1.800000 6: 1.600000 7: 1.400000 8: 1.420000 9: 1.400000 10: 1.500000 11: 1. 800000 12: 2.400000 13: 2.600000 14: 2.800000 Coefl -0.9988332302 -1.0023335396 -0.9918326113 -1.0723397281 -0.7188084763 -0.5524263669 -0.0714860563 0.0406713524 -0.0911993534 0.6158534153 0.6277856923 3.6230038155 4.3322682035 3.0479233704 Interpolated Points: X 1: 0.3000000000 2: 0.5000000000 3: 1.2000000000 4: 1.6000000000 5: 2.1000000000 6: 2.3000000000 7: 2.5000000000 8: 2.7000000000 9: 2.9000000000 10: 3.2000000000 11: 3.3000000000 Interpolation Coef2 0.0000000000 -0.0350030942 0.1400123770 -0.3412801689 1.2251082984 -0.8091530249 2.0115038012 -1.4507167575 0.7913632286 0.9762686929 -0.9464380003 8.4344833084 5.7508044511 -31. 4377011128 Coef3 -0.1166769808 0.5833849040 -0.4010771215 1.3053237227 -1.6952177695 2.3505473551 -5.7703675978 3.7367999767 0.1540878869 -1. 6022555777 7.8174344240 -17 .8911923822 -247.9233704257 209.5846740851 y 2.5018157855 2.3042222482 1. 6916808945 1.4759529845 1.4132967676 1.3989477848 1.4480232575 1.5697457729 1.7293593063 1.9502390938 2.1142270171 55 Second half of the figure: (K)eyboard or (F)ile entry of the data points? F File name? SAMPLE3F.DAT (K)eyboard or (F)ile entry of the interpolated points? F File name? SAMPLE3G.DAT Direct output to one of the following: (S)creen (P)rinter (F) il e Data: 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 7: 8: 9: 10: 11: X y 3.5500000000 3.6000000000 3.6500000000 3.8000000000 4.0000000000 4.3000000000 4.8000000000 5.3000000000 5.6000000000 5.8000000000 6.0000000000 2.9000000000 2.8000000000 2.6500000000 2.5000000000 2.3500000000 2.2000000000 1.9500000000 1.6000000000 1.3000000000 1.2000000000 0.0000000000 Splines: CoefO 1: 2.9000000000 2: 2.8000000000 3: 2.6500000000 4: 2.5000000000 5: 2.3500000000 6: 2.2000000000 7: 1.9500000000 8: 1.6000000000 9: 1.3000000000 10: 1.2000000000 Coefl -1. 6719664279 -2.6560671441 -2.7037649955 -0.4016786037 -0.7704798556 -0.4200828166 -0.4754252188 -1.2782163082 0.1155473174 -3.0330135193 Interpolated Points: X 1: 3.7000000000 2: 3.9000000000 3: 4.1000000000 4: 4.2000000000 5: 4.5000000000 6: 4.6000000000 7: 5.0000000000 8: 5.2000000000 9: 5.5000000000 10: 5.7000000000 11: 5.9000000000 56 Coef2 Coef3 0.0000000000 -131.2134288293 -19.6820143244 256.0671441466 18.7280572976 -49.1308266290 -3.3808146854 8.1960385189 1.5368084259 -2.1173630243 0.4179678583 -0.3688182960 0.2581334916 -1.4145661079 -1.8637156703 9.3036778805 6.5095944222 -47.9366550462 -22.2523986055 37.0873310092 y 2.5554905401 2.4342200313 2.2862027357 2.2404374617 2.1045744477 2.0520666406 1.8539237670 1.7105990402 1.3442375346 1.3287140209 0.7112619930 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Clamped Cubic Spline Interpolation (CUBE_CLAINC) Description Tl1is example constructs a smooth curve through a given set of data points. The curve is a cubic spline interpolant with the following properties: 1. It passes through every data point. 2. It is continuous. 3. Its first derivative is continuous. 4. Its second derivative is continuous. The first derivative at the endpoints of the interval determined by the input data is defined by the user (Burden and Faires 1985, l22 ff.). (This is what makes the cubic spline "clamped.") The cubics that join adjacent data points are of the following form: S[i](x) = CoefO[i] + Coefl[i](x - x[i]) + Coef3[i](x + Coef2[i](x - X[i])2 - x[i]? where i ranges between 1 and the number of data points minus 1, the x[i]' s are the x-coordinates of the input data, and x[i] S x < x[i + 1]. The interpolated values of f(x) are found by evaluating the ith cubic polynomial at x, where x[i] S x S x[i + 1]. User-Defined Types TNvector = array[O .. TNArraySize] of Real; Input Parameters NumPoi nts : Integer; Number of data points XData:TNvector; The x-coordinates of the data points YData:TNvector; The y-coordinates of the data points DerivLE:Real; Derivative of the function at the left endpoint DerivRE:Real; Derivative of the function at the right endpoint Interpolation 57 NumInter: Integer; Number of interpolations XInter:TNvector; X-coordinates of points at which to interpolate The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: 1. X data points must be unique. 2. X data points must be in ascending order. 3. NumPoints, Numlnter S TNArraySize. 4. NumPoints > 1. TNArraySize fixes an upper bound on the number of elements in each vector. It is used in the type definition of TNvector. TNArraySize is not a variable name and is never referenced by the procedure; hence there is no test for condition 3. If condition 3 is violated, the program will crash with an Index Out of Range error (assuming the directive {$R + } is active). Output Parameters CoefO:TNvector; Coefficient of the constant term Coef1:TNvector; Coefficient of the linear term Coef2: TNvector; Coefficient of the squared term Coef3: TNvector; Coefficient of the cubed term YInter:TNvector; Interpolated values at Xlnter Error: Integer; 0: 1: 2: 3: No error X-values of the data points not unique X-values of the data points not in ascending order NumPoints < 2 Syntax of the Procedure Call CubicSplineClamped(NumPoints, XData, YData, DerivLE, DerivRE, NumInter, XInter, CoefO, Coefl, Coef2, Coef3, YInter, Error); 58 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Sample Program The sample program CUBE_CLA.PAS provides I/O functions that demonstrate the clamped cubic spline interpolation algorithm. Input Files Data may be entered from a text file. The x- and y -coordinates should be separated by a space and followed by a carriage return. The last two values in the file must be the derivatives of the function at the endpoints. For example, data values of sqr(x) could be entered in a text file as 11 24 39 416 525 210 Note that the last two values are the derivatives of sqr(x) at the endpoints x and x = 5. =1 Example Problem. Construct an interpolating spline for the following figure: 3 2 2 Interpolation 3 4 5 6 59 Because a cusp occurs at x = 3.55, we will construct two splines, one for each side of the cusp. Run CUBE_CLA.PAS: (K}eyboard or (F}ile entry of the data points? F File name? SAMPLE3H.DAT (K}eyboard or (F}ile entry of the interpolated points? F File name? SAMPLE3E.DAT Direct output to one of the following: (S}creen (P}rinter (F) i1 e x y 0.0000000000 0.1000000000 0.2000000000 0.6000000000 1.0000000000 1.4000000000 1.8000000000 2.0000000000 2.2000000000 2.6000000000 3.0000000000 3.4000000000 3.4500000000 3.5000000000 3.5500000000 2.8000000000 2.7000000000 2.6000000000 2.2000000000 1.8000000000 1.6000000000 1.4000000000 1.4200000000 1.4000000000 1.5000000000 1.8000000000 2.4000000000 2.6000000000 2.8000000000 2.9000000000 Data: 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 7: 8: 9: 10: 11: 12: 13: 14: 15: Derivative at X= Derivative at X= O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 3. 55000000000000E+000 Sp 1i nes: CoefO 1: 2.8000000000 2: 2.7000000000 3: 2.6000000000 4: 2.2000000000 5: 1.8000000000 6: 1.6000000000 7: 1.4000000000 8: 1.4200000000 9: 1.4000000000 10: 1.5000000000 11: 1.8000000000 12: 2.4000000000 13: 2.6000000000 14: 2.8000000000 60 Coefl -1.3333333333 -0.9091317890 -1.0301395105 -1.0620777385 -0.7215495356 -0.5517241193 -0.0715539872 0.0405240212 -0.0905420975 0.6122045428 0.6417239262 3.5708997526 4.4477600660 2.6380599835 -1.33333333333333E+000 3.00000000000000E+000 Coef2 5.7579845570 -1.5159691140 0.3058918989 -0.3857374687 1.2370579761 -0.8124944355 2.0129197658 -1.4525297241 0.7971991306 0.9596674704 -0.8858690121 8.2088085781 9.3283976905 -45.5223993401 Coef3 -24.2465122365 6.0728700429 -0.5763578064 1.3523295373 -1.7079603429 2.3545118344 -5.7757491499 3.7495480911 0.1353902832 -1.5379470688 7.5788979919 7.4639274157 -365.6719802043 655.2239934014 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox y Interpolated Points: X 1: 0.3000000000 2: 0.5000000000 3: 1.2000000000 4: 1.6000000000 5: 2.1000000000 6: 2.3000000000 7: 2.5000000000 8: 2.7000000000 9: 2.9000000000 10: 3.2000000000 11: 3.3000000000 2.4994686101 2.3029267570 1.6915087292 1.4759914934 1.4132766530 1.3990531718 1.4482408301 1.5692791819 1.7285068643 1.9535412087 2.1174192125 Second half of figure: (K)eyboard or (F)ile entry of the data points? F File name? SAMPLE3I.DAT (K)eyboard or (F)ile entry of the interpolated points? F File name? SAMPLE3G.DAT Direct output to one of the following: (S)creen (P)rinter (F)ile Data: 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 7: 8: 9: 10: 11: X y 3.5500000000 3.6000000000 3.6500000000 3.8000000000 4.0000000000 4.3000000000 4.8000000000 5.3000000000 5.6000000000 5.8000000000 6.0000000000 2.9000000000 2.8000000000 2.6500000000 2.5000000000 2.3500000000 2.2000000000 1.9500000000 1.6000000000 1.3000000000 1.2000000000 0.0000000000 Derivative at X= 3.55000000000000EtOOO Derivative at X= 6.00000000000000EtOOO: Sp 1i nes: CoefO 1: 2.9000000000 2: 2.8000000000 3: 2.6500000000 4: 2.5000000000 5: 2.3500000000 6: 2.2000000000 7: 1.9500000000 8: 1.6000000000 9: 1.3000000000 10: 1.2000000000 Interpolation Coefl -4.0000000000 -2.0111665197 -2.9553339213 -0.3238290709 -0.7983524409 -0.3974941891 -0.5494435897 -1.0047314521 -0.7151931996 -0.4462017001 -4.00000000000000EtOOO -1.70000000000000EtOOl Coef2 Coef3 80.2233303937 -804.4666078741 -40.4466607874 413.3998236224 21.5633127559 -56.8516885392 -4.0199470867 9.4454622054 1.6473302365 -2.1760736673 -0.3111360640 0.2122488846 0.0072372629 -0.6167001671 -0.9178129877 3.1119483153 1.8829404961 -4.0348724916 -0.5379829989 -136.1550425028 61 Interpolated Points: X 1: 3.7000000000 2: 3.9000000000 3: 4.1000000000 4: 4.2000000000 5: 4.5000000000 6: 4.6000000000 7: 5.0000000000 8: 5.2000000000 9: 5.5000000000 10: 5.7000000000 11: 5.9000000000 62 y 2.5490351248 2.4368630843 2.2844619846 2.2388141319 2.1097537107 2.0584802174 1.8354671712 1.6919117155 1.3872367766 1.2432752125 1.0138449575 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox c H A p T E R 4 Numerical Differentiation Differentiation is a process used in calculus to quantify the rate of change of a given function. The derivative of a real-valued function of a real variable is another realvalued function of a real variable. For example, suppose you are driving down the freeway in your car and f(t) gives the distance traveled at time t. Typical values might be x f(x) 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 45.0 49.2 54.5 59.8 65.1 70.4 The units are in hours and miles, and the data refers to a trip that started at noon.f(l.O) = 45.0, so the distance traveled by one o'clock is 45.0 miles, andf(l.5) = 70.4, so by half past one you will be 70.4 miles from where you were at noon. The derivative of this distance function gives the velocity function. The car's velocity at one o'clock is the value of the derivative at x = l.0. From the previous data, it is impossible to compute the derivative exactly, but it is possible to approximate the derivative. The car traveled 49.2 - 45.0 = 4.2 miles in the six minutes after one o'clock (1.1 - 1.0 = 0.1 hours = 6 minutes). Thus, the average velocity of the car during thos~ six minutes is 4.2 / 0.1 = 42 miles per hour. This gives an approximation to the velocity at one o'clock. 63 Each method described in this chapter approximates derivatives of a real function of one real variable. The routines DERIV.lNC, DERIV2.1NC, and INTERDRV.lNC compute derivatives of a function that is represented by tabular data. Consequently, their accuracy depends heavily upon the precision and spacing of the data points. The routines DERIVFN.lNC and DERIV2FN.lNC compute derivatives of a user-defined function. Consequently, the accuracy of the values calculated with these routines is limited by the precision of the computer. Differentiation consists of subtracting two very close numbers and dividing by a very small number; hence, it is extremely sensitive to round-off error. The accuracy of the first derivative is approximately the square root of the precision with which real numbers are represented; the accuracy of the second derivative is approximately equal to the fourth root. Thus, the precision of the first derivative will be about IE - 8 when run with the 8087 math coprocessor, or about IE - 4 when run without the 8087 math coprocessor. The precision of the second derivative will be about IE - 4 with the 8087, or IE - 2 without it. The first derivative of a function that is represented by a table of values can be approximated in DERIV.lNC via a two-point formula, a three-point formula, or a five-point formula. The accuracy of the formula increases with the number of points used in the formula. In order to use the five-point formula, however, the domain values of the data points (that is, the x-coordinates) must be equally spaced. This is not required for the two-point and three-point formulas. Derivatives can only be approximated at data points. The second derivative of a function that is represented by a table of values can be approximated in DERIV2.1NC via a three-point formula or a five-point formula. The domain values of the data points must be equally spaced (regardless of whether the three-point formula or five-point formula is used). Second derivatives can only be approximated at data points. The routine INTERDRV.lNC approximates a function by constructing a free cubic spline to a set of data points. Cubic splines avoid the undesirable oscillatory behavior of other interpolating polynomials. The derivative of the cubic spline at a given domain value, which may be different from the input data values, will then approximate the corresponding derivative of the function. The first derivative of a user-supplied function is approximated in DERIV FN.lNC via a three-point formula. The approximation is refined with Richardson extrapolation. The derivative can be approximated at any point within the domain of the function. 64 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox The second derivative of a user-supplied function is approximated in DERIV2FN.INC via a three-point formula. The approximation is refined with Richardson extrapolation. The second derivative can be approximated at any point within the domain of the function. Numerical Differentiation 65 First Differentiation Using Two-Point, Three-Point, or Five-Point Formulas (DERIV.INC) Description This example contains several algorithms for approximating the derivative of a functionj(x), given several data points (x,j(x)). The user must specify whether a two-point, three-point, or five-point formula should be used. Two points are used in the two-point formula, three in the three-point formula, and five in the fivepoint formula. The user must supply the data points (x,j(x)) and the x-values of the data points at which to approximate the derivative. Note: Derivatives can only be approximated at x-values corresponding to input data points. User-Defined Types TNvector = array[l •• TNArraySize] of Real; Input Parameters NumPoi nts : Integer; Number of data points XData : TNvector; X-coordinates of data points YData : TNvector; Y-coordinates of data points Poi nt : Byte; Two-point, three-point, or five-point differentiation NumDeriv : Integer; Number of points at which the derivative is to be approximated XDeriv : TNvector; X-coordinates of data points at which the derivative is to be approximated The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: 1. XData points must be unique. 2. XData points must be entered in ascending order. 3. At least two points are needed for two-point differentiation, three for three-point differentiation, and five for five-point differentiation. 4. Point must equal two, three, or five. 66 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox 5. XData points must be equally spaced for five-point differentiation. 6. XDeriv points must be a subset of the XData points. 7. NumPoints, NumDeriv ::::;; TNArraySize. TNArraySize represents the number of elements in each vector. It is used in the type definition of TNvector. TNArraySize is not a variable name and is never referenced by the procedure; hence there is no test for condition 7. If condition 7 is violated, the program will crash with an Index Out of Range error (assuming the directive {$R + } is active). Output Parameters YDeriv : TNvector; Approximation to the first derivative at the points in XDeriv Error: Byte; 0: No errors 1: WARNINGI Not all the derivatives were computed (see "Comments") 2: X-values not unique 3: X-values not in ascending order 4: Not enough data 5: Point not equal to 2, 3, or 5 6: X-values not equally spaced for the five-point formula Syntax of the Procedure Call First_Derivative(NumPoints, XData, YData, Point, NumDeriv, XDeriv, YDeriv, Error); Comments If an x-value at which the derivative is to be approximated is not among the data points, the value - 9.999999999E35 is arbitrarily assigned to the derivative at that point and Error = 1 is returned. When using five-point differentiation with only five points, there is not enough information to approximate the derivative at the first, second, fourth, or fifth points. Likewise, if only six points are input, there is insufficient information for approximating the derivative at the second and fifth data points. Should an attempt be made to approximate the derivative at any of these points, the value of 9.999999999E35 is arbitrarily assigned the derivative at that point and Error = 1 is returned. Numerical Differentiation 67 Since numerical differentiation is prone to round-off errors, TNNearlyZero is different in this routine. The values of TNNearlyZero are TNNearlyZero = IE - 13 if using the 8087 math coprocessor and TNNearlyZero = IE - 6 if not using the 8087. Sample Program The sample program DERIV.PAS provides I/O functions that demonstrate differentiation with two-point, three-point, and five-point formulas. Input Files Data points may be entered from a text file. The x- and y- coordinates should be separated by a space and followed by a carriage return. For example, data values of sqr(x) could be entered in a text file as 11 24 39 416 525 Derivative points may also be entered from a text file. Every derivative point must be followed by a carriage return. For example, to determine the derivatives of the preceding points, create the following file of derivative points: 1 2 3 4 5 Example Problem. Approximate the first derivative off(x) = sqr(x) * cos (x) at several points between one and two radians. The output from three runs is given. Actual values of the derivatives to eight significant figures are also given. 68 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Run DERrV.PAS: (K)eyboard or (F)ile entry of the data points? F File name? SAMPLE4A.DAT (K)eyboard or (F)ile entry of the derivative pOints? K Number of X values (0-100)? 5 Poi nt Point Point Point Point 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 1.1 1.3 1.5 2.0 2.2 2-, 3-, or 5-point differentiation (default = 5)? 2 Direct output to one of the following: (S)creen (P)rinter (F) il e Input Data: X 1.0000000 1.1000000 1.2000000 1.3000000 1.4000000 1.5000000 1.6000000 1.7000000 1.8000000 1.9000000 2.0000000 y 5.40302305868140E-001 5.48851306924949E-001 5.21795166446410E-001 4.52073020375553E-001 3.33135600084472E-001 1.59158703752332E-001 -7.47507770912994E-002 -3.72360588514066E-001 -7.36134786805602E-001 -1.16707533637725E+000 -1.66458734618857E+000 Output using two-point differentiation: <* --------------------------- *> <* *> WARNING <* --------------------------- *> X 1.100 1.300 1.500 2.000 2.200 Derivative at X 8.54900105680900E-002 -6.97221460708569E-001 -1.73976896332140E+000 -4.97512009811320E+000 No derivative calculated Numerical Differentiation 69 Output using three-point differentiation: <* --------------------------- *> <* *> WARNING <* --------------------------- *> X 1.100 1.300 1.500 2.000 2.200 Derivative at X -9.25356971086502E-002 -9.43297831809691E-001 -2.03943188587886E+000 -5.30797739931155E+000 No derivative calculated Output using five-point differentiation: <* --------------------------- *> <* *> WARNING <* --------------------------- *> X 1.100 1.300 1.500 2.000 2.200 Derivative at X -8.08749392678299E-002 -9.32986606435738E-001 -2.03221450709712E+000 -5.30200229054730E+000 No derivative calculated Actual Values X Derivative at X 1.100 -0.0804494 1.300 -0.9329163 1.500 -2.0321521 2.000 -5.3017771 2.200 -6.5025275 The data is taken from a function of which a derivative could be computed exactly. Though the values in the right-hand columns (under "Actual Values") are not displayed on screen, they are shown here to indicate the accuracy of the routine. The warning signal indicates that some derivatives were not calculated. The derivative is not approximated for x = 2.2 in any of the examples because x = 2.2 is not among the data points. 70 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Second Differentiation Using Three-Point or Five-Point Formulas (DER1V2.INC) Description This example contains two algorithms that approximate the second derivative of a functionf(x) when several data points (x,f(x)) are specified. You decide whether to use a three-point or five-point formula (Gerald and Wheatley 1984, 236-237); three points are used in the three-point formula, and five in the five-point formula. You must supply the data points (x,j(x)) and the x-values of the data points at which the second derivative is to be approximated. The second derivative may only be approximated at x-values that were input as data points. User-Defined Types TNvector = array[l •• TNArraySize] of Real; Input Parameters NumPoints : Integer; Number of data points XData : TNvector; X-coordinates of the data points YData : TNvector; Y-coordinates of the data points Point: Byte; Three-point or five-point differentiation NumDeriv : Integer; Number of points at which the derivative is to be approximated XDeriv : TNvector; X-coordinates of points at which the derivative is to be approximated The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: 1. XData points must be unique. 2. XData points must be entered in ascending order. 3. At least three points for three-point differentiation and five points for fivepoint differentiation. 4. Point must equal 3 or 5. Numerical Differentiation 71 5. XData points must be equally spaced. 6. XDeriv points must be a subset of the XData points. 7. NumPoints, NumDeriv :5 TNArraySize. TNArraySize represents the number of elements in each vector. It is used in the type definition of TNvector. TNArraySize is not a variable name and is never referenced by the procedure; hence there is no test for condition 7. If condition 7 is violated, the program will crash with an Index Out of Range error (assuming the directive {$R + } is active). Output Parameters YDeri v : TNvector; Approximation to the second derivative at the XDeriv points Error : Byte; 0: No errors 1: WARNING! At least one derivative was not approximated (see "Comments") 2: X-values not unique 3: X-values not in increasing order 4: Not enough data 5: Point not equal to 3 or 5 6: X-value points not equally spaced Syntax of the Procedure Call Second-Derivative(NumPoints, XData, YData, Point, NumDeriv, XDeriv, YDeriv, Error); Comments If an x-value at which the second derivative is approximated is not among the data points, the value - 9.9999999E35 is arbitrarily assigned to the derivative at that point and Error = 1 is returned. When using five-point second differentiation with only five data points, there is insufficient information for approximating the second derivative at the second and fourth data points. Should an attempt be made to approximate the second derivative at these points, the value 9.9999999E35 is arbitrarily assigned to the second derivative at that point and Error = 1 is returned. 72 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Since numerical differentiation is extremely prone to round-off error, TNNearlyZero is different in this routine. The values of TNNearlyZero are TNNearlyZero = IE - 13 if using the 8087 math coprocessor and TNNearlyZero = IE - 6 if not using the 8087. Sample Program The sample progam DERIV2.PAS provides I/O functions that demonstrate second-order differentiation with three-point and five-point formulas. Input Files Data points may be entered from a text file. The x- and y-coordinates should be separated by a space and followed by a carriage return. For example, data values of sqr(x) could be entered in a text file as 11 24 39 416 525 Derivative points may also be entered from a text file. Every derivative point must be followed by a carriage return. For example, to determine the second derivatives of the preceding points, create the following file of derivative points: 1 2 3 4 5 Example Problem. Approximate the second derivative of f(x) = sqr(x) * cos(x) at several points between x = 1 and x = 2 radians. The output from two runs is given. Actual values of the second derivatives to eight significant figures are also given. Numerical Differentiation 73 Run DERIV2.PAS: (K)eyboard or (F)ile entry of the data points? F File name? SAMPLE4A.DAT (K)eyboard or (F)ile entry of the derivative points? K Number of X values (0-100)?5 Point Point Point Point Point 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 1.1 1.3 1.5 2.0 2.2 3- or 5-point second differentiation (default = 5)? 3 Direct output to one of the following: (S)creen (P)rinter (F) i 1e Input Data: X 1.0000000 1.1000000 1.2000000 1.3000000 1.4000000 1.5000000 1.6000000 1.7000000 1.8000000 1.9000000 2.0000000 y 5.40302305868140E-001 5.48851306924949E-001 5.21795166446410E-001 4.52073020375553E-001 3.33135600084472E-001 1.59158703752332E-001 -7.47507770912994E-002 -3.72360588514066E-001 -7.36134786805602E-001 -1. 16707533637725E+000 -1.66458734618857E+000 Output using three-point second differentiation: <* --------------------------- *> <* WARNING *> <* --------------------------- *> X 1.100 1.300 1.500 2.000 2.200 74 2nd Derivative at X -3.56051415353479E+000 -4.92152742202240E+000 -5.99325845114913E+000 -6.65714602396721E+000 No 2nd derivative calculated Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Output using five-point second differentiation: <* --------------------------- *> <* *> WARNING <* --------------------------- *> X 1.100 1.300 1.500 2.000 2.200 2nd Derivative at X -3.61167369644119E+000 -4.92756964541465E+000 -6.00263647117236E+000 -6.59765691992321E+000 No 2nd derivative calculated Actual Values 2nd Derivative at X X 1.100 -3.5629714 -4.9275779 1.300 -6.0026542 1.500 -6.4420857 2.000 -5.4434251 2.200 The data is taken from a function of which the derivative could be computed exactly. Though the values in the right-hand columns (under "Actual Values") are not displayed on screen, they are shown here to indicate the accuracy of the routine. The warning signal indicates that some second derivatives were not calculated. The second derivative is not approximated at x = 2.2 for either run because x = 2.2 is not among the input x-value points. Numerical Differentiation 75 Differentiation with a Cubic Spline Interpolant (INTERDRV.INC) Description This example contains an algorithm for approximating the first and second derivatives of a function given several data points (x,f(x)). The algorithm assumes that a free cubic spline interpolant (Burden and Faires 1985, 117-122) is an adequate approximation to the functionf(x), so that the slope of the interpolant at any value x. is an adequate approximation tof'(x). See Chapter 3 (CUBE_FRE.lNC) for mor~ information on free cubic splines. The user must supply the data points (x,f(x)) and the x-values at which to approximate the derivatives. Derivatives may be approximated at any x-value contained in the closed interval determined by the data points. This routine will likely give significant errors if interpolation (Gerald and Wheatley 1984, 227-231) is attempted outside the range of x-values (extrapolation). User-Defined Types TNvector = array[l .• TNArraySize] of Real; Input Parameters NumPoints : Integer; Number of data points XData : TNvector; X-coordinates of data points YData : TNvector; Y-coordinates of data points NumDeriv : Integer; Number of points at which the derivative is to be approximated XDeri v : TNvector; X-coordinates of points at which the derivative is to be approximated 76 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: 1. XData points must be unique. 2. XData points must be in ascending order. 3. NumPoints ~ 2. 4. NumPoints, NumDeriv S TNArraySize. TNArraySize represents the number of elements in each vector. It is used in the type definition of TNvector. TNArray Size is not a variable name and is never referenced by the procedure; hence there is no test for condition 4. If condition 4 is violated, the program will crash with an Index Out of Range error (assuming the directive {$R + } is active). Output Parameters Ylnter : TNvector; Interpolated y-values at the XDeriv points YDeri v : TNvector; Approximation to the first derivative at the x-values in XDeriv YDeriv2 : TNvector; Approximation to the second derivative at the x-values in XDeriv Error: Byte; 0: No errors 1: X-values not unique 2: X-values not in ascending order 3: NumPoints < 2 Syntax of the Procedure Call Interpolate-Derivative(NumPoints, XData, YData, NumDeriv, XDeriv, Ylnter, YDeriv, YDeriv2, Error); Sample Program The sample program INTERDRV.PAS provides I/O functions that demonstrate differentiation with a cubic spline interpolant. Numerical Differentiation 77 Input Files Data points may be entered from a text file. The x- and y-coordinates should be separated by a space and followed by a carriage return. For example, data values of sqr(x) could be entered in a text file as 11 24 39 416 525 Derivative points may also be entered from a text file. Every derivative point must be followed by a carriage return. For example, to determine the derivatives of the preceding points, create the following file of derivative points: 1 2 3 4 5 Example Problem. Determine the first and second derivative ofJ(x) = sqr(x) * cos (x) at several points between one and two radians. Actual values of the derivatives to eight significant figures are given here. Run INTERDRY.PAS: (K)eyboard or (F)ile entry of data points? F File name? SAMPLE4B.DAT (K)eyboard or (F)ile entry of derivative points? K Number of derivative points (0-100)?5 Point Poi nt Point Point Point 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 1.1 1. 3 1.55 1.95 2.20 Direct output to one of the following: (S)creen (P)rinter (F) il e 78 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Input Data: X 1.000 1.100 1.200 1.300 1.400 1.500 1.600 1.700 1.800 1.900 2.000 y 0.5403023 0.54885l3 0.5217952 0.4520730 0.3331356 0.1591587 -0.0747508 -0.3723606 -0.7361348 -1.1670753 -1.6645873 Using free cubic spline interpolation: X Value at X 1.100 5.48851300000000E-001 1.300 4.52073000000000E-001 1.550 4.99429267146238E-002 1.950 -1.41057141673716E+000 2.200 -2.57545316779455E+000 1st Deriv at X -5.86015666816468E-002 -9.31377366861404E-001 -2.33770918101853E+000 -5.01018588841893E+000 -3.43222090956677E+000 2nd Deriv at X -4.32274700 -4.98862501 -6. 19118137 -4.20790661 16.83162644 The data is taken from a function of which the derivative could be computed exactly. The actual values are shown here: X 1.1 1.3 1.55 1.95 2.20 Value at X 0.5488513 0.4520730 0.0499596 -1.4076126 -2.8483454 1st Deriv at X -0.0804494 -0.9329164 -2.3375165 -4.9760746 -6.5025275 2nd Deriv at X -3.5629715 -4.9275779 -6.2070293 -6.5786348 -5.4434252 Note the poor results obtained at values outside the range of input data (x = 2.2). Also note the large error in the second derivatives near the endpoints of the interval determined by the data. Numerical Differentiation 79 Differentiation of a User-Defined Function (DERIVFN.INC) Description Given a user-defined function fix), this example will approximate the first derivative of the function at a set of x values. The formula f' (x) = [f(x + ~X) - f(x - ~X)]/2*~ gives a first approximation to the derivative. Richardson extrapolation is then used to refine the approximation (Burden and Faires 1985,137-152). User- Defined Types TNvector = array[l •• TNArraySize] of Real; User-Defined Function function TNTargetF(X Real) Real; Input Parameters NumDeriv : Integer; Number of points at which the derivative is to be approximated XDeriv : TNvector; X-coordinates of points at which the derivative is to be approximated To 1erance : Real; Indicates accuracy of solution The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: l. NumDeriv::::; TNArraySize 2. Tolerance > TNNearlyZero TNArraySize represents the number of elements in each vector. It is used in the type definition of TNvector. TNArraySize is rwt a variable name and is never referenced by the procedure; hence there is no test for condition 1. If condition 1 is 80 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox violated, the program will crash with an Index Out of Range error (assuming the directive {$R + } is active). Output Parameters YDer;v : TNvector; Approximation to the first derivative at the x-values in XDeriv Error: Byte; 0: No errors 1: Tolerance < TNNearlyZero Syntax of the Procedure Call F;rstDer;vat;ve(NumDer;v, XDer;v, YDer;v, Tolerance, Error}; The procedure FirstDerivative approximates the first derivative of function TNTargetF. Comments Since numerical differentiation is extremely prone to round-off errors, TNNearlyZero is different in this routine. Its values are TNNearlyZero = IE -10 if using the 8087 math coprocessor and TNNearlyZero = IE - 5 if not using the 8087. Sample Program The sample program DERIVFN.PAS provides I/O functions that find the first derivative of a function at a set of points. Input Files Derivative points may be entered from a text file. Every derivative point must be followed by a carriage return. For example, to determine the derivatives at x-values 1 through 5, create the following file of derivative points: 1 2 3 4 5 Numerical Differentiation 81 Example Problem. Determine the first derivative off(x) = sqr(x) * cos(x) at several points between 1 and 2.2. Actual values of the derivatives to eight significant figures are given here. First, write the function into the DERIVFN.PAS program: (* ----- here is the function to differentiate -------------------- *) funct;on TNTargetF(X : Real) : Real; beg;n TNTargetF end; := Sqr(X)*Cos(X); { function TNTargetF } (* ---------------------------------------------------------------- *) Run DERIVFN.PAS: (K)eyboard or (F)ile entry of derivative points? K Number of points (0-100)? 5 Poi nt Point Point Point Point 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 1.1 1.3 1.55 1.95 2.2 Tolerance (> 0, default = 1.000E-02)? 1E-4 Direct output to one of the following: (S)creen (P)rinter (F) il e Tolerance = X 1.100 1.300 1.550 1.950 2.200 1.00000000000000E-004 Derivative at X -8.04494385380506E-002 -9.32916380187812E-001 -2.33751652942968E+000 -4.97607456093019E+000 -6.50252751001358E+000 X 1.1 1.3 1.55 1.95 2.20 Actual Values Value at X 1st Deriv at X 0.5488513 -0.0804494 0.4520730 -0.9329164 0.0499596 -2.3375165 -1.4076126 -4.9760746 -2.8483454 -6.5025275 The data is taken from a function of which the derivative could be calculated exactly. Though the values in the three right-hand columns (under "Actual Values") are not displayed on screen, they are shown here to indicate the accuracy of the routine. 82 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Second Differentiation of a User-Defined Function (DERIV2FN.INC) Description Given a user-defined function fix), this example will approximate the second derivative of the function at a set of x values. The three-point formula f" (x) = [f(x + /lX) - 2f(x) + f(x - AX)]/AX2 gives a first approximation to the second derivative. Richardson extrapolation is then used to refine the approximation (Burden and Faires 1985, 142-152). User-Defined Types TNvector = array[l .. TNArraySize] of Real; User- Defined Function function TNTargetF(X Real) Real; Input Parameters NumDeri v : Integer; Number of points at which the derivative is to be approximated XDeriv : TNvector; X-coordinates of points at which the derivative is to be approximated To 1erance : Real; Indicates accuracy in solution Numerical Differentiation 83 The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: 1. NumDeriv $; TNArraySize 2. Tolerance ~ TNNearlyZero TNArraySize represents the number of elements in each vector. It is used in the type definition of TNvector. TNArraySize is not a variable name and is never referenced by the procedure; hence there is no test for condition 1. If condition 1 is violated, the program will crash with an Index Out of Range error (assuming the directive {$R + } is active}. Output Parameters YDeri v : TNvector; Approximation to the second derivative at the x-values in XDeriv Error: Byte; 0: No errors 1: Tolerance < TNNearlyZero Syntax of the Procedure Call SecondDerivative(NumDeriv, XDeriv, YDeriv, Tolerance, Error); SecondDerivative approximates the derivative of function TNTargetF. Comments Since numerical differentiation is extremely prone to round-off errors, TNNearlyZero is different in this routine. Its values are TNNearlyZero = IE - 4 if using the 8087 math coprocessor and TNNearlyZero = IE - 2 if not using the 8087. Sample Program The sample program DERIV2FN.PAS provides I/O functions that find the second derivative of a function at a set of points. 84 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Input Files Derivative points may be entered from a text file. Every derivative I,Joint must be followed by a carriage return. For example, to determine the second derivatives at x-values 1 through 5, create the following file of derivative points: 1 2 3 4 5 Example Problem. Determine the second derivative of fix) = sqr(x) * cos (x) at several points between 1 and 2.2. Actual values of the derivatives to eight significant figures are given here. First, write the function into the DERIV2FN .PAS program: (* ----- here is the function to differentiate -------------------- *) function TNTargetF(X : Real) : Real; begin TNTargetF end; := Sqr(X)*Cos(X); { function TNTargetF } (* ---------------------------------------------------------------- *) Run DERIV2FN.PAS: (K)eyboard or (F)ile entry of derivative pOints? K Number of points (0-100)? 5 Point Point Point Point Point 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 1.1 1.3 1.55 1.95 2.2 Tolerance (> 0, default = 1.000E-02)? 1E-4 Direct output to one of the following: (S)creen (P)rinter (F)ile Tolerance = 1.00000000000000E-004 Numerical Differentiation 85 X 1.100 1.300 1.550 1.950 2.200 2nd Derivative at X -3.56297143915941E+000 -4.92757787674466E+000 -6.20702925534123E+000 -6.57863484485542E+000 -5.44342524529641E+000 X 1.1 1.3 1.55 1.95 2.20 Actual Values Value at X 2nd Deriv at X 0.5488513 -3.5629715 0.4520730 -4.9275779 0.0499596 -6.2070293 -1.4076126 -6.5786348 -2.8483454 -5.4434252 The data is taken from a function of which the derivative could be calculated exactly. Though the values in the three right-hand columns (under "Actual Values") are not displayed on screen, they are shown here to indicate the accuracy of the routine. 86 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox c H A p T E R 5 Numerical Integration Integration is another concept used in calculus. It is just the opposite of differentiation, for which routines are provided in Chapter 4. Differentiation tells you the changes in a function, where integration tells you how to add those changes to get the original function. Integration is most easily understood in terms of areas under curves. Given a function f(x) and real numbers a and b with a < b, the area under the curve y = f(x) and above the x-axis between x = a and x = b is given by the integral of f(x) from a to b. As with derivatives, the laws of calculus are required to compute integrals exactly. The routines in this chapter provide very accurate approximations. Several methods are described here that approximate the value of a deRnite integral of a real function of one real variable. Both limits of integration must be Rnite. The trapezoid method (TRAPZOID.lNC) and Simpson's method (SIMPSON. INC) return an approximation of the integral when a number of equal length subintervals are speciRed. For a given number of subintervals, Simpson's method is preferre~ over the trapezoid method whenever the function being integrated is sufficiently smooth. It is sometimes possible to approximate the deRnite integral to within a userspeciRed accuracy with fewer function evaluations using adaptive schemes. Adaptive schemes determine the length of each subinterval by the local behavior of the 87 integrand. Simpson's method (ADAPSIMP.INC) and the Gaussian quadrature method (ADAPGAUS.INC) are used with adaptive schemes. The Gaussian quadrature method permits, in some instances, the integrand to possess a singularity at an endpoint of integration, since the function is evaluated at points that are not the endpoints of the interval of integration. The Romberg method (ROMBERG.INC) uses the trapezoid method and Richardson extrapolation to approximate the integral. It returns an approximation within a user-specified accuracy. Except for extremely oscillatory functions or functions that possess an endpoint singularity, this method is fastest and most accurate. If the function oscillates substantially or possesses an endpoint singularity, the adaptive Gaussian quadrature routine is preferred. 88 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Integration Using Simpson's Composite Algorithm (SIMPSON. INC) Description This example uses Simpson's composite algorithm (Burden and Faires 1985, 156167) to approximate the definite integral of a functionJ\x) over an interval [a, b]. The interval is divided into N subintervals of equal length. The curve in each subinterval is approximated by a second-degree Lagrange polynomial. The integral of the resulting polynomial is then calculated. The sum of the integrals of the N Lagrange polynomials approximates the integral of the function! over the interval [a, bJ. You must supply the function, the limits of integration, and the number of subintervals. User- Defined Function function TNTargetF(x : Real) : Real; The procedure Simpson approximates the integral of this function. Input Parameters LowerL i mi t : Rea 1 ; Lower limit of integration UpperLi mit : Real; Upper limit of integration NumIntervals : Integer; Number of subintervals over which to apply Simpson's rule The preceding parameters must satisfy the following condition: NumI ntervals > 0 Numerical Integration 89 Output Parameters Integral: Real; Approximation to the integral of the function Error: Byte; 0: No errors 1: Numlntervals :5 0 Syntax of the Procedure Call Simpson(LowerLimit, UpperLimit, NumIntervals, Integral, Error); Simpson approximates the integral of TNTargetF. Sample Program The sample program SIMPSON.PAS provides I/O functions that demonstrate Simpson's composite algorithm. Example Problem. Approximate the integral exp(3x) composite algorithm. + sqr(x)/3 from 0 to 5 using Simpson's 1. Code function TNTargetF: funct;on TNTargetF(x : Real) : Real; (**************************************************************************) (**** THIS IS THE FUNCTION TO INTEGRATE ****) (**************************************************************************) beg;n TNTargetF .- Exp(3*X) + Sqr(X)/3; end; { function TNTargetF } 90 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox 2. Run SIMPSON.PAS: Lower limit of integration? 0 Upper limit of integration? 5 Number of intervals (> O)? 100 Direct output to one of the following: (S)creen (P)rinter (F) il e Lower limit: O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO Upper limit: 5.00000000000000E+000 Number of intervals: 100 Integral: 1.08968620446199E+006 To eight significant figures, the correct answer is 1,089,686.2. Numerical Integration 91 Integration Using the Trapezoid Composite Rule (TRAPZOID.INC) Description This example uses the trapezoid composite rule (Burden and Faires 1985,154-167) to approximate the definite integral of a function fix) over an interval [a, b]. The interval is divided into N subintervals of equal length. In each subinterval the function is approximated by a straight line. The sum of the integrals of the resulting trapezoids approximates the integral of the function f over the interval [a, b]. You must supply the function, the limits of integration, and the number of subintervals. User-Defined Function funct;on TNTargetF(x : Real) : Real; The procedure Trapezoid approximates the integral of this function. Input Parameters Lower Li mi t : Real; Lower limit of integration UpperLimit : Real; Upper limit of integration NumInterva 1s : Integer; Number of subintervals over which to apply the trapezoid rule The preceding parameters must satisfy the following condition: Numlntervals > 0 92 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Output Parameters Integral: Real; Approximation to the integral of the function Error: Byte; 0: No errors 1: NumI ntervals S 0 Syntax of the Procedure Call Trapezoid(LowerLimit, UpperLimit, NumIntervals, Integral, Error); Trapezoid approximates the integral of TNTargetF. Sample Program The sample program T~APZOID.PAS provides I/O functions that demonstrate the trapezoid composite rule. Example Problem. Approximate the integral exp(3x) zoid composite rule. + sqr(x)/3 from 0 to 5 using the trape- 1. Code function TNTargetF: function TNTargetF(x : Real) : Real; (*****************************************************************************) (**** THIS IS THE FUNCTION TO INTEGRATE ****) (*****************************************************************************) begin TNTargetF .- Exp(3*X) + Sqr(X)/3; { function TNTargetF } end; Numerical Integration 93 2. Run TRAPZOID.PAS: Lower limit of integration? 0 Upper limit of integration? 5 Number of intervals (> O)? 100 Direct output to one of the following: (S)creen (P)rinter (F) il e Lower limit: O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO Upper limit: 5.00000000000000E+000 Number of intervals: 100 Integral: 1.09172838320798E+006 To eight significant figures, the correct answer is 1,091,728.3. 94 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Integration Using Adaptive Quadrature and Simpson's Rule (ADAPSIMP.INC) Description This example contains an algorithm for approximating the definite integral of a functionf(x) over an interval [a,b] within a specified tolerance. By increasing the number of subintervals in regions of large functional variation (adaptive quadrature), the desired degree of accuracy can be reached (Burden and Faires 1985, 153-167). The integral within each subinterval is calculated with Simpson's rule. The adaptive quadrature approximates the integral over a subinterval twice: once over the whole subinterval, and again as the sum of the integral over each half of the subinterval. The algorithm halts when the fractional difference between these two approximations is less than the tolerance. You must supply the function, the limits of integration, and the tolerance with which to approximate the integral. User- Defined Function function TNTargetF(x : Real) : Real; The procedure Adaptive-.Simpson approximates the integral of this function. Input Parameters Lower Limit: Real; Lower limit of integration UpperLi mi t : Real; Upper limit of integration Tolerance: Real; Indicates accuracy in solution MaxInterval s : Integer; Maximum number of subintervals The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: 1. Tolerance > 0 2. Maxlntervals > 0 Numerical Integration 95 Output Parameters Integral: Real; Approximation to the integral of the function NumInterval s : Integer; Number of subintervals used Error : Byte; 0: 1: 2: 3: No errors Tolerance S 0 Maxlntervals s,O Numlntervals ~ Maxlntervals Syntax of the Procedure Call Adaptive-Simpson(LowerLimit, UpperLimit, Tolerance, MaxIntervals, Integral, NumIntervals, Error); Adaptive_Simpson approximates the integral of TNTargetF. Comments Adaptive quadrature is a recursive routine. In order to avoid recursive procedure calls (which slow down the execution), a stack is created on the heap to simulate recursion. Should you attempt to evaluate the integral to a very high degree of accuracy with a large number of subintervals, you may get run-time error $FF, Heap/Stack collision. If this happens, remove any RAM-resident software (for example, SideKick®, SuperKey®, or a print buffer). If the problem remains, the adaptive Simpson routine cannot be used to approximate the integral to the desired accuracy. Adaptive quadrature uses the New/Dispose procedures to manipulate the heap and should not be used in any program that uses Mark/Release to manipulate the heap. Sample Program The sample program ADAPSIMP.PAS provides I/O functions that demonstrate the adaptive quadrature method with Simpson's rule. 96 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Example Problem. Approximate the integral exp(3x) quadrature and Simpson's rule. + sqr(x)/3 from ° to 5 using adaptive 1. Code function TNTargetF: function TNTargetF(x : Real) : Real; (****************************************************************************) (** THIS IS THE FUNCTION TO INTEGRATE ***) (****************************************************************************) begin TNTargetF := Exp(3*X) + Sqr(X)/3; end; { function TNTargetF } 2. Run ADAPSIMP.PAS: Lower limit of integration? 0 Upper limit of integration? 5 Tolerance (> 0, default = 1.000E-08): 1E-8 Maximum number of subintervals (> 0, default 1000): 1000 Direct output to one of the following: (S)creen (P)rinter (F) il e Lower 1imit: O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO Upper 1imi t: 5.00000000000000E+000 Tolerance: 1.00000000000000E-008 Maximum number of subintervals: 1000 Number of subintervals used: 511 Integral: 1.08968601332498E+006 To eight significant figures, the correct answer is 1,089,686.0. Numerical Integration 97 Integration Using Adaptive Quadrature and Gaussian Quadrature (ADAPGAUS.INC) Description This example contains an algorithm for approximating the integral of a functionf(x) over an interval [a,b] within a specified tolerance. By increasing the number of subintervals in regions of large functional variation (adaptive quadrature), the desired degree of accuracy can be reached. The integral within each subinterval is approximated by applying Gaussian quadrature (Burden and Faires 1985,184-188) with a 16th degree Legendre polynomial. Adaptive quadrature (Burden and Faires 1985, 172-176) approximates the integral over a subinterval twice: once over the whole subinterval, and again as the sum of the integral over each half of the subinterval. The algorithm halts when the fractional difference between these two approximations is less than the tolerance. You must supply the function, the limits of integration, and the tolerance with which to approximate the integral. User- Defined Function funct;on TNTargetF(x : Real) : Real; The procedure Adaptive_Gauss_Quadrature approximates the integral of this function. Input Parameters LowerLimit : Real; Lower ~imit of integration UpperLimit : Real; Upper limit of integration To 1erance.: Real; Indicates accuracy in solution MaxInterval s : Integer; Maximum number of subintervals The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: 1. Tolerance > 0 2. Maxlntervals > 0 98 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Output Parameters Integral: Real; Approximation to the integral of the' function NumIntervals : Integer; Number of subintervals used Error: Byte; 0: 1: 2: 3: No errors Tolerance :5 0 Maxlntervals :5 0 Numlntervals ~ Maxlntervals Syntax of the Procedure Call Adaptive_Gauss_Quadrature(LowerLimit, UpperLimit, Tolerance, MaxIntervals, Integral, NumIntervals, Error); Adaptive_Gauss_Quadrature approximates the integral of TNTargetF. Comments Adaptive quadrature is a recursive routine. In order to avoid recursive procedure calls (which slow down execution), a stack is created on the heap to simulate recursion. Should you attempt to evaluate the integral to a very high degree of accuracy with a large number of subintervals, you may get run-time error $FF, Heap/Stack collision. If this happens, remove any RAM-resident software (for example, SideKick, SuperKey, or a print buffer). If the problem remains, the adaptive Gaussian quadrature routine cannot be used to approximate the integral to the desired accuracy. Adaptive quadrature uses the New/Dispose procedures to manipulate the heap and should not be used in any program that uses Mark/Release to manipulate the heap. Gaussian quadrature uses orthogonal polynomials (in this case, Legendre polynomials) to approximate an integral. Generally, a higher degree polynomial will yield a more accurate result, but will take more time to compute. The 16th degree Legendre polynomial used in ADAPGAUS.lNC is very efficient. The values of its zeros and weight factors follow (Abramowitz and Stegun 1972). Numerical Integration 99 The following condition is satisfied by the numbers that follow it: Integral from -1 to 1 ofJ(x) dx equals Sum from i = 1 to NumLegendreTerms of Legendre[i].Weight * J(Legendre[i].Root) for an arbitrary functionJ(x). Legendre[I] ........................ ............... Root: Weight: Legendre[2] ...................... ................. Root: Weight: Legendre[3] ... .................................... Root: Weight: Legendre[4] ................. ...................... Root: Weight: Legendre[5] ....................................... Root: Weight: Legendre[6] ....................................... Root: Weight: Legendre[7] ....................................... Root: Weight: Legendre[8] ... .................................... Root: Weight: Legendre[9] ....................................... Root: Weight: Legendre[10] ..................................... Root: Weight: Legendre[ll] ..................................... Root: Weight: Legendre[12] ..................................... Root: Weight: Legendre[13] ..................................... Root: Weight: Legendre[14] ..... ; ............................... Root: Weight: Legendre[15] ..................................... Root: Weight: Legendre[16] ..................................... Root: Weight: 100 - 0.0950125098376370440185 0.189450610455068496285 0.281603550778258913230 0.182603415044923588867 0.458016777657227386342 0.169156519395002538189 0.617876244402643748447 0.149595988816576732081 0.755404408355003Q33895 0.124628971255533872052 0.865631202387831743880 0.095158511682492784810 0.944575023073232576078 0.062253523938647892863 0.989400934991649932596 0.027152459411754094852 0.0950125098376370440185 0.189450610455068496285 0.281603550778258913230 0.182603415044923588867 0.458016777657227386342 0.169156519395002538189 0.617876244402643748447 0.149595988816576732081 0.755404408355003033895 0.124628971255533872052 0.865631202387831743880 0.095158511682492784810 0.944575023073232576078 0.062253523938647892863 0.989400934991649932596 0.027152459411754094852 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Sample Program The sample program ADAPGAUS.PAS provides I/O functions that demonstrate the adaptive quadrature method with Gaussian quadrature. Example Problem. Approximate the integral exp(3x) + sqr(x)/3 from quadrature with Gaussian quadrature algorithm. °to 5 using adaptive 1. Code function TNTargetF: funct;on TNTargetF(x : Real) : Real; (*****************************************************************************) (** THIS IS THE FUNCTION TO INTEGRATE ***) (*****************************************************************************) beg;n TNTargetF := Exp(3*X) + Sqr(X)/3; end; { function TNTargetF } 2. Run ADAPGAUS.PAS: Lower limit of integration? 0 Upper limit of integration? 5 Tolerance (> 0, default = 1.000E-08): 1E-8 Maximum number of subintervals (> 0, default 1000): 1000 Direct output to one of the following: (S)creen (P)rinter (F) il e Lower limit: O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 5.00000000000000E+000 Upper 1imit: Tolerance: 1.00000000000000E-008 Maximum number of subintervals: 1000 Number of subintervals used: 1 Integral: 1.08968601304609E+006 To eight significant figures, the correct answer is 1,089,686.0. Numerical Integration 101 Integration Using the Romberg Algorithm (ROMBERG. INC) Description This example contains an algorithm (Burden and Faires 1985,177-182) for approximating the integral of a functionf(x) over an interval [a, b] within a specified tolerance. The trapezoid rule is used to generate a preliminary approximation, and Richardson extrapolation (Burden and Faires 1985,148-152) is subsequently used to improve the approximation. Extrapolation continues until the fractional difference between successive approximations of the integral is less than the tolerance. You must supply the function, the limits of integration, and the tolerance with which to approximate the integral. User- Defined Function funct;on TNTargetF(x : Real) : Real; The procedure Romberg approximates the integral of this function. Input Parameters LowerLi mi t : Real; Lower limit of integration UpperLimit : Real; Upper limit of integration To 1erance : Real; Indicates accuracy in solution Max Iter : Integer; Maximum number of iterations allowed The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: 1. Tolerance > 0 2. MaxIter > 0 102 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Output Paralneters Integral: Real; Approximation to the integral of the function Iter: Integer; Number of iterations Error: Byte; 0: 1: 2: 3: No errors Tolerance :5 0 MaxIter :5 0 Iter;::: MaxIter Syntax of the Procedure Call Romberg(LowerLimit, UpperLimit, Tolerance, MaxIter, Integral, Iter, Error); Romberg approximates the integral of TNTargetF. Sample Program The sample program ROMBERG.PAS provides I/O functions that demonstrate the Romberg algorithm. Example Problem. Approximate the integral exp(3x} berg algorithm. + sqr(x}/3 from 0 to 5 using the Rom- 1. Code function TNTargetF: function TNT~rgetF(x : Real) : Real; (*************************************************************************) (**** THIS IS THE FUNCTION TO INTEGRATE ****) (*************************************************************************) begin TNTargetF := Exp(3*X) + Sqr(X)/3; end; { function TNTargetF } Numerical Integration 103 2. Run ROMBERG.PAS: Lower limit of integration? 0 Upper limit of integration? 5 Tolerance (> 0, default =' 1.000E-08): 1E-8 Maximum number of iterations: (> 0, default = 100) 100 Direct output to one of the following: {S)creen {P)rinter (F) il e Lower 1imit: O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO Upper 1i mit: 5.00000000000000E+000 Tolerance: 1.00000000000000E-008 Maximum number of iterations: 100 Number of iterations: 7 Integral: 1.08968601696675E+006 To eight significant figures, the correct answer is 1,089,686.0. 104 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox c A H p T. E R 6 Matrix Routines This chapter provides routines for dealing with systems of linear equations. An example of a system of linear equations is as follows: 2X+Y+Z=7 X-Y+Z=2 X+Y-Z=O Matrix algebra is a collection of notations that constitutes a technique for handling such systems. With matrix algebra, the preceding system would be written Ax = b where A= [~ 1 -1 1 In Pascal, x and b are represented as one-dimensional arrays, and A is represented as a two-dimensional array. In matrix notation, the solution is given by x = A-I b where A - I is the inverse to A. The determinant is an indicator of whether the matrix can be inverted. For example, the equations 3X - 3Y =4 -2X + 2Y = 5 105 cannot be solved. Even for different values of the right-hand side, the equations can only be solved in certain exceptional cases. (If you change 4 and 5 to 3 and - 2, then there are infinitely many solutions; but there are none if you change 4 and 5 to 3 and - 3.0001.) Following is a description of several routines that operate on matrices and systems of linear equations. The determinant of a square matrix is found via DET.INC. The inverse of a nonsingular matrix is found via INVERSE.INC. The direct techniques implemented to solve a system of N linear equations in N unknowns are Gaussian elimination (GAUSELIM.INC), Gaussian elimination with partial pivoting (PARTPIVT.INC), and direct factorization (DIRFACT.INC) .. The Gauss-Seidel method (GAUSSIDL.INC), an iterative technique that converges to the solution, is seldom used for solving small systems, since the time required for sufficient accuracy exceeds that required for the preceding direct techniques. In general, Gaussian elimination with partial pivoting is the fastest, most accurate algorithm (see Chapter 9, LEAST.INC, for an application of PARTPIVT.INC). The following special cases may warrant the use of one of the other routines: • If you are considering systems where round-off is minimal (that is, small systems whose coefficients are all of nearly the same magnitude), Gaussian elimination without pivoting may be used. It is somewhat faster than its pivoting counterpart (PARTPIVT.INC). • When considering sparse coefficient matrices, the Gaussian elimination routine with partial pivoting is the most efficient and accurate routine. If the matrix is small and the nonzero coefficients do not differ wildly from each other, regular Gaussian elimination (GAUSELIM.INC) can usually be used safely. • For large, dense matrices, the iterative technique (GAUSSIDL.INC) is the most efficient; it creates less round-off error than the direct methods. However, the Gauss-Seidel algorithm has' its own weaknesses (see the section, "Solving a System of Linear Equations with the Iterative Gauss-Seidel Method," for more details). • When it is necessary to solve several systems with the same coefficient matrix but a different vector of· constant terms, the direct factorization method (DIRFACT.INC) is the most efficient. This is because it does not require reduction of the coefficient matrix for each vector of constants. (See Chapter 7 for an application of DIRFACT.INC.) 106 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Determinant of a Matrix (DET.INe) Description The determinant of an N X N matrix can be computed by the following algorithm (Gerald and Wheatley 1984, 110-111): 1. Use elementary row operations to make the matrix upper triangular (that is, all the elements below the main diagonal are zero). 2. Find the product of the main diagonal elements - this will be the determinant. User- Defined Types TNvector = array[l .. TNArraySize] of Real; TNmatrix = array[l .• TNArraySize] of TNvector; Input Parameters Dimen : Integer; Dimension of the data matrix Data: TNmatrix; The square matrix The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: 1. Dimen > 0 2. Dimen S; TNArraySize TNArraySize sets an upper bound on the number of elements in each vector. It is used in the type definition of TNvector and TNmatrix. TNArraySize is not a variable name and is never referenced by the procedure; hence there is no test for condition 2. If condition 2 is violated, the program will crash with an Index Out of Range error. Matrix Routines 107 Output Parameters Det : Rea 1; Determinant of the data matrix Error: Byte; 0: No errors 1: Dimen < 1 Syntax of the Procedure Call Determinant(Dimen, Data, Det, Error); Sample Program The sample program DET.PAS provides I/O functions that demonstrate how to find the determinant of a matrix. Input File Data may be input from a text file. All entries in the text file should be separated by a space or carriage return, and it does not matter if the text file ends with a carriage return. The format of the text file should be like this: 1. The dimension of the matrix 2. The elements of the matrix in row order; that is, [1, 1], [1, 2] ... [1, N], [2, 1] ... [2, N] ... [N, N], where N is the dimension of the matrix For example, a text file containing the matrix could look like this: 2 2 3 -4 0 108 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Example Problem. Find the determinant of the following matrix: -i ! ~ =~:~ 1 [o 2 2 0 1 3 -3.0 -4.0 Run DET.PAS: (K)eyboard or (F)ile input of data? F File name? SAMPLE6A.DAT Direct output to one of the following: (S)creen (P)rinter (F) ile The matrix: 1.00000000 -1.00000000 2.00000000 0.00000000 2.00000000 4.00000000 2.00000000 0.00000000 0.00000000 3.00000000 1.00000000 3.00000000 -1.00000000 -0.50000000 -3.00000000 -4.00000000 Determinant = -2.10000000000000E+001 Matrix Routines 109 Inverse of a Matrix (INVERSE.INC) Description The inverse of an N X N matrix A is an N X N matrix A- \ such that A -lA equals the identity matrix (Burden and Faires 1985, 306-316). Gauss-Jordan elimination (Gerald and Wheatley 1984, 96-98) is used to transform the original matrix into the identity matrix. The same elementary row operations that reduce A to the identity matrix transform the identity matrix into the inverse of the original matrix A. If one or more of the main diagonal elements of the transformed original matrix (that is, after Gauss-Jordan elimination) is zero, then the original matrix A is singular and its inverse does not exist. User- Defined Types TNvector = array[l .• TNArraySize] of Real; TNmatrix = array[l .. TNArraySize] of TNvector; Input Parameters Dimen : Integer; Dimension of the data matrix Data: TNmatrix; The elements of the square matrix The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: 1. Dimen > 0 2. Dimen ~ TNArraySize TNArraySize fixes an upper bound on the number of elements in each vector. It is used in the type definition of TNvector and TNmatrix. TNArraySize is not a variable name and is never referenced by the procedure; hence there is no test for condition 2. If condition 2 is violated, the program will crash with an Index Out of Range error. 110 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Output Paranreters INV : TNmatrix; The inverse of the data matrix Error: Byte; 0: No errors 1: Dimen < 1 2: No inverse exists Syntax of the Procedure Call Inverse(Dimen, Data, INV, Error); Sample Program The sample program INVERSE.PAS provides I/O functions that demonstrate how to find the inverse of a matrix. Input Files Data may be input from a text file. All entries in the text file should be separated by a space or carriage return, and it does not matter if the text file ends with a carriage return. The format of the text file should be as follows: 1. The dimension of the matrix 2. The elements of the matrix in row order; that is, [1, 1], [1, 2] ... [1, N], [2, 1] ... [2, N] ... [N, N], where N is the dimension of the matrix For example, a text file containing the matrix could look like this: 2 2 3 -4 0 Matrix Routines III Example Problem. Invert the following matrix: 1 2 0 -1 4 3 [ 221 003 -1.0] -0.5 -3.0 -4.0 Run INVERSKPAS: (K)eyboard or (F)ile input of data? F File name? SAMPLE6A.DAT Direct output to one of the following: (S)creen (P)rinter (F)ile The matrix: 1.000000000 -1.000000000 2.000000000 0.000000000 2.000000000 0.000000000 -1.000000000 4.000000000 3.000000000 -0.500000000 2.000000000 1.000000000 -3.000000000 0.000000000 3.000000000 -4.000000000 Inverse: -1.952380952 0.190476190 1.571428571 -0.714285714 0.761904762 0.047619048 -0.357142857 0.071428571 -1.904761905 0.380952381 1.142857143 -0.428571429 -1.428571429 0.285714286 0.857142857 -0.571428571 To continue this example, reinvert the matrix just obtained: (K)eyboard or (F)ile input of data? F File name? SAMPLE6B.DAT Direct output to one of the following: (S)creen (P)rinter (F) il e The matrix: -1.952380952 0.761904762 -1.904761905 -1.428571429 0.190476190 1.571428571 -0.714285714 0.047619048 -0.357142857 0.071428571 0.380952381 1.142857143 -0.428571429 0.285714286 0.857142857 -0.571428571 Inverse: 1.000000000 -1.000000000 2.000000000 -0.000000000 112 2.000000000 0.000000000 -1.000000000 4.000000000 3.000000000 -0.500000000 2.000000000 1.000000000 -3.000000000 -0.000000000 3.000000000 -4.000000000 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox The coefficients of the original matrix are returned to fourteen significant figures (only ten are displayed). The coefficients will be less precise if this example is run on a machine without an 8087 math coprocessor. Matrix Routines 113 Solving a System of Linear Equations with Gaussian Elimination (GAUSELIM.INC) Description The solution to a system of N linear equations, AX = B, in N unknowns may be found by simultaneously performing Gaussian elimination (Burden and Faires 1985,291-304) on the matrix containing the coefficients of the equations (the coefficient matrix A) and the vector containing the constant terms of the equations (the constant vector B). First, elementary row operations are used to make A upper triangular (that is, all the elements below the main diagonal are zero). Backward substitution (whereby X[N] is calculated and used to calculate X[N -1], which is then used to calculate X[N - 2], and so on) is then used to compute the solution vector X. If one or more of the elements on the main diagonal of the upper triangular matrix is zero, then no unique solution to the system exists. User- Defined Types TNvector = array[l •• TNArraySize] of Real; TNmatrix = array[l .. TNArraySize] of TNvector; Input Parameters Dimen : Integer; Dimension of the coefficients matrix Coefficients: TNmatrix; The square matrix containing the coefficients of the equations Constants: TNvector; The constant terms of each equation The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: 1. Dimen > 0 2. Dimen:5 TNArraySize TNArraySize sets an upper bound on the number of elements in each vector. It is used in the type definition of TNvector and TNmatrix. TNArraySize is not a variable name and is never referenced by the procedure; hence there is no test for 114 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox condition 2. If condition 2 is violated, the program will crash with an Index Out of Range error. Output Parameters So 1ut ion : TNvector; Solution to the set of equations. Error: Byte; 0: No errors. 1: Dimen < 1. 2: Coefficients matrix is singular; no unique solution exists. Syntax of the Procedure Call Gaussian_Elimination(Dimen, Coefficients, Constants, Solution, Error); Sample Program The sample program GAUSELIM.PAS provides I/O functions that demonstrate how to solve a system of linear equations with Gaussian elmination. Input File Data may be input from a text file. All entries in the text file should be separated by a space or carriage return, and it does not matter if the text file ends with a carriage return. The format of the text file should be as follows: 1. The dimension of the coefficient matrix 2. The elements of the matrix in row order; that is, [1, 1], [1, 2], ... , [1, N], [2, 1], "', [2, N], ... , [N, N], where N is the dimension of the matrix 3. The elements of the constant vector, in the order [l], ... ,[N] Matrix Routines 115 For example, to solve the system 2x + 3y = -4x = 10 10 a text file could be created to look like this: 2 2 3 0 -4 10 10 Example Problem. Solve the following linear system: - w w + 2x + Oy - z + 4x + 3y - 0.5z 2w + 2x + y - 3z = 10.0 = 21.5 = 26.0 3y - 4z = 37.0 Run GAUSELIM.PAS: (K)eyboard or (F)ile input of data? F File name? 5AMPLE6A.DAT Direct output to one of the following: (5) creen (P)rinter (F) il e The coefficients: 1.000000000 -1.000000000 2.000000000 0.000000000 2.000000000 0.000000000 -1.000000000 4.000000000 3.000000000 -0.500000000 2.000000000 1.000000000 -3.000000000 0.000000000 3.000000000 -4.000000000 The constants: 1.00000000000000E+001 2. 15000000000000E+001 2.60000000000000E+001 3.70000000000000E+001 The solution: -1.00000000000000E+000 2.00000000000000E+000 3.00000000000000E+000 -7.00000000000000E+000 116 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Solving a System of Linear Equations with Gaussian Elimination and Partial Pivoting (PARTPIVT.INC) Description The solution to a system of N linear equations, AX = B, in N unknowns may be found by simultaneously performing Gaussian elimination (Burden and Faires 1985, 291-304) on the matrix containing the coefficients of the equations (the coefficient matrix A) and the vector containing the constant terms of the equations (the constant vector B). However, excessive round-off errors can occur when elements on the main diagonal are small compared to the elements below them in the same column. To avoid this, partial pivoting (maximal column pivoting) is performed (Burden and Faires 1985, 324-327); that is, row interchanges are performed so that each main diagonal element is greater than or equal to the elements below it in the same column. (See Chapter 9 for an application of PARTPIVf.lNC.) User-Defined Types TNvector = array[l .. TNArraySize] of Real; TNmatrix = array[l .• TNArraySize] of TNvector; Input Parameters Dimen : Integer; Dimension of the coefficients matrix Coefficients: TNmatrixi The square matrix containing the coefficients of the equations Constants: TNvector; The constant terms of each equation The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: 1. Dimen > 0 2. Dimen::; TNArraySize TNArraySize sets an upper bound on the number of elements in each vector. It is used in the type definition of TNvector and TNmatrix. TNArraySize is not a variable name and is never referenced by the procedure; hence there is no test for Matrix Routines 117 condition 2. If condition 2 is violated, the program will crash with an Index Out of Range error. Output Parameters So 1ut ion : TNvector; Solution to the set of equations. Error : Byte; 0: No errors. 1: Dimen < l. 2: Coefficients matrix is singular; no unique solution exists. Syntax of the Procedure Call Partial_Pivoting(Dimen, Coefficients, Constants, Solution, Error); Sample Program The sample program PARTPIVT.PAS provides I/O functions that demonstrate how to solve a system of linear equation with Gaussian elimination and partial pivoting. Input File Data may be input from a text file. All entries in the text file should be separated by a space or carriage return, and it does not matter if the text file ends with a carriage return. The format of the text file should be as follows: 1. The dimension of the matrix 2. The elements of the matrix in row order; that is, [1, 1], [1, 2], ... , [1, N], [2, 1], ... , [2, N], ... , [N, N], where N is the dimension of the matrix 3. The elements of the constant vector, in the order [l], ... ,[N] 118 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox For example, to solve the system 2x + 3y = 10 -4x = 10 a text file could be created to look like this: 2 2 3 -4 0 10 10 Example Problem. Solve the following linear system: w + 2x + Oy - z = 10 -w + 4x + 3y - 0.5z 2w = 21.5 + 2x + Y - 3z = 26 3y - 4z = 37 Run 'PARTPIVf.PAS: {K)eyboard or {F)ile input of data? F File name? SAMPLE6A.DAT Direct output to one of the following: {S)creen {P)rinter (F) i 1e The coefficients: 1.000000000 -1.000000000 2.000000000 0.000000000 2.000000000 0.000000000 -1.000000000 4.000000000 3.000000000 -0.500000000 2.000000000 1.000000000 -3.000000000 0.000000000 3.000000000 -4.000000000 The constants: 1.00000000000000Et001 2. 15000000000000Et001 2.60000000000000Et001 3.70000000000000Et001 The solution: -1.00000000000000EtOOO 2.00000000000000EtOOO 3.00000000000000EtOOO -7.00000000000000EtOOO Matrix Routines 119 Solving a System of Linear Equations with Direct Factoring (DIRFACT.INC) Description The solution to a system of N linear equations, AX = B, in N unknowns can be computed by factoring the matrix containing the coefficients of the N equations (the coefficient matrix A) into an upper triangular matrix U (that is, all the elements below the main diagonal are zero) and a lower triangular matrix L (that is, all the elements above the main diagonal are zero) such that A = LU. Partial pivoting is used to reduce round-off error. A record of the pivoting permutations are recorded in a permutation matrix P, so that the equation is actually A = PLU. Forward substitution (analogous to backward substitution; see "Solving a System of Linear Equations with Gaussian Elimination") is used to solve the equations LZ = B (actually LZ = PB, where P is the pivoting permutation matrix) and UX = Z (where X is the solution to the N linear equations, and Z is an intermediate solution). If the coefficient matrix cannot be factored into nonsingular triangular matrices, then no unique solution exists. This module includes two procedures to perform this algorithm. Procedure LUJJecompose performs the LV decomposition of a matrix, and procedure LU-.Solve performs forward and backward substitution to solve the linear equations. Both procedures are in the include file DIRFACT.INC. The most efficient way to calculate the solutions to several systems with the same coefficient matrix but different constant vectors is to first decompose the coefficient matrix A into Land U (Burden and Faires 1985, 342-349). Then perform backward substitution on this decomposed matrix and each of the constant vectors B. Thus, the coefficient matrix is decomposed only once. User-Defined Types TNvector = array[l .. TNArraySize] of Real; TNmatrix = array[l •• TNArraySize] of TNvector; 120 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Procedure LU-Decompose Input Parameters Dimension of the coefficients matrix Dimen : Integer; Coefficients: TNmatrix; Square matrix containing the coefficients of the equations The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: l. Dimen > 0 2. Dimen ~ TNArraySize TNArraySize fixes an upper bound on the number of elements in each vector. It is used in the type definition of TNvector and TNmatrix. TNArraySize is not a variable name and is never referenced by the procedure; hence there is no test for condition 2. If condition 2 is violated, the program will crash with an Index Out of Range error. Procedure LU-Decompose Output Parameters Decomp : TNmatrix; The LV decomposition of the coefficients matrix. Permute: TNmatrix; A permutation matrix that records the effects of pivoting. Error: Byte; 0: No errors. 1: Dimen < l. 2: The coefficients matrix is singular. Syntax of the Procedure Call LU_Decompose(Dimen, Coefficients, Decomp, Permute, Error); Procedure LU-Solve Input Parameters Dimen : Integer; Dimension of the coefficients matrix Decomp : TNmatrix; The LV decomposition of the coefficients matrix Constants: TNmatrix; The constant terms of each equation Permute: TNmatri x; Matrix Routines A permutation matrix that records the effects of pivoting 121 The preceding parameters must satisfY the following conditions: 1. Dimen > 0 2. Dimen::; TNArraySize TNArraySize fixes an upper bound on the number of elements in each vector. It is used in the type definition of TNvector and TNmatrix. TNArraySize is not a variable name and is never referenced by the procedure; hence there is no test for condition 2. If condition 2 is violated, the program will crash with an Index Out of Range error. Procedure LU...solve Output Parameters Solution: TNvector; Solution to each system of equations Error: Byte; 0: No errors 1: Dimen < 1 Syntax of the Procedure Call LU_Solve(Dimen, Decomp, Constants, Permute, Solution, Error); Sample Program The sample program DIRFACT.PAS provides I/O functions that demonstrate how to solve a system of linear equations with the method of direct factoring. Input File Data may be input from a text file. All entries in the text file should be separated by a space or carriage return, and it does not matter if the text file ends with a carriage return. The format of the text file should be as follows: l. The dimension of the matrix 2. The elements of the matrix in row order; that is, [1, 1], [1, 2], ... , [1, N], [2, 1], ... , [2, N], ... , [N, N], where N is the dimension of the matrix 3. The elements of the first constant vector, in the order [1], ... ,[N], with each element followed by a carriage return 122 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox 4. The elements of any additional constant vectors, in the order [l], ... ,[N], with each element followed by a carriage return For example, to solve the systems + 3y = 2x 10 2x 3y = 1 -4x = 2 + -4x = 10 a text file could be created to look like this: 2 2 3 -4 0 10 10 1 2 Example Problem. Given the following set of coefficients: 2w + x + 7w + 6x + - 1w - 3x 2w + 2w + 5y - 8z 2y lOy 2y + 2z + z + 4z compute solutions for each of the five constant vectors: [ 17 0 -1~ -15 50 -5 17 14 1 -12 1 -13 84 -51 37 5] 30 -15 10 Run DIRFACT.PAS: (K)eyboard or (F)ile input of data? F File name? SAMPLE6C.DAT Direct output to one of the following: (S)creen. (P)rinter (F) il e Matrix Routines 123 The coefficients: 2.000000000 7.000000000 -1.000000000 2.000000000 1.000000000 5.000000000 -8.000000000 6.000000000 2.000000000 2.000000000 -3.000000000 -10.000000000 4.000000000 2.000000000 2.000000000 1.000000000 The constants: O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 1.70000000000000E+001 -1.00000000000000E+001 7.00000000000000E+000 The solution: 9.99999999999999E-001 1.00000000000000E+000 9.99999999999999E-001 9.99999999999999E-001 The constants: -1.50000000000000E+001 5.00000000000000E+001 -5.00000000000000E+000 1.70000000000000E+001 The solution: 2.00000000000000E+000 4.99999999999999E+000 1.85358974546113E-015 3.00000000000000E+000 The constants: 1.40000000000000E+001 1.00000000000000E+000 -1.20000000000000E+001 1.00000000000000E+000 The solution: 1.00000000000000E+000 -1.00000000000000E+000 1.00000000000000E+000 -1.00000000000000E+000 The constants: -1.30000000000000E+001 8.40000000000000E+001 -5.10000000000000E+001 3.70000000000000E+001 The solution: 3.99999999999999E+000 5.00000000000001E+000 6.00000000000000E+000 7.00000000000000E+000 124 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox The constants: 5.00000000000000E+OOO 3.00000000000000E+OOl -1.50000000000000E+OOl 1.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOl The solution: -1.01506105108586E-015 5.00000000000000E+OOO O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO Matrix Routines 125 Solving a System of Linear Equations with the Iterative Gauss-Seidel Metlwd (GAUSSIDL.INC) Description The solution to a system of N linear equations, AX = B, in N unknowns can be approximated by the Gauss-Seidel iterative technique (Burden and Faires 1985, 424-432). The equation AX = B is transformed into X = TX + C. Given an initial approximation Xo' the sequence Xm = TXm _ 1 + C is generated with the following formula: N i-I I X,Ji] = A[i,j] X",[j] - j=I I (A[i,j] Xm_Jj]) + B[i] j=i+l A[i,i] The algorithm halts when the fractional difference for each element of the vector X between two iterations is less than a specified tolerance. If A is diagonally dominant (that is, each of the diagonal terms is greater than or equal to the sum of the off-diagonal terms in the same row), then the sequence will converge to the solution X. If the matrix A is not diagonally dominant, then the sequence may converge to the solution, but more likely it will not. You must supply the tolerance with which to approximate a solution. User- Defined Types TNvector = array[l .. TNArraySize] of Real; TNmatrix = array[l .. TNArraySize] of TNvector; 126 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Input Parameters Dimension of the coefficients matrix Dimen : Integer; Coeffi ci ents : TNmatri X; The square matrix containing the coefficients of the equa- tions Constants: TNvector; The constant terms of the equation To1 : Real; Indicates accuracy in solution MaxIter : Real; Maximum number of iterations The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: J. Dimen > O. 2. Dimen =::; TNArraySize. 3. Tal> O. 4. MaxIter ~ O. 5. The coefficients matrix may not contain a zero on the main diagonal. TNArraySize sets an upper bound on the number of elements in each vector. It is used in the type definition of TNvector and TNmatrix. TNArraySize is not a variable name and is never referenced by the procedure; hence there is no test for condition 2. If condition 2 is violated, the program will crash with an Index Out of Range error. Output Parameters Solution: TNvector; Solution to the set of equations. Iter: Real; The number of iterations required to find the solution. Error: Byte; 0: 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 7: Matrix Routines No errors. Iter> MaxIter and matrix is not diagonally dominant. Iter > MaxIter and matrix is diagonally dominant. Dimen < 1. Tal =::; O. MaxIter < O. Zero on the diagonal of the coefficients matrix. Sequence is diverging. 127 If the coefficients matrix is diagonally dominant, then the Gauss-Seidel method will converge to a solution. If the coefficients matrix is not diagonally dominant, then the Gauss-Seidel may converge to a solution, but more likely it will not. Error 7 can only occur when the coefficients matrix is not diagonally dominant. If Error 1 is returned, it is likely that convergence is not possible; if Error 2 is returned, convergence is possible but will take more than MaxIter iterations. If the diagonal of the coefficients matrix contains a zero (Error 6), then the Gauss-Seidel method may not be used to solve the system of equations. If the system of equations is under-determined, the Gauss-Seidel method will still converge to a (nonunique) solution. The Gauss-Seidel method cannot distinguish between unique and nonunique solutions. If you suspect that your system of equations is under-determined, use one of the direct methods (for example, GAUSELIM.INC) to attempt a solution; Gaussian elimination will give an error if it is under-determined. Alternatively, you could use DET.INC to find the determinant; if the determinant is zero, then the system is under-determined. Syntax of the Procedure Call Gauss-Seidel(Dimen, Coefficients, Constants, Tol, MaxIter, Solution, Iter, Error); Sample Program The sample program GAUSSIDL.PAS provides I/O functions that demonstrate how to solve a system of linear equations with the iterative Gauss-Seidel method. Input File Data may be input from a text file. All entries in the text file should be separated by a space or carriage return, and it does not matter if the text file ends with a carriage return. The format of the text file should be as follows: l. The dimension of the matrix 2. The elements of the matrix in row order; that is, [1, 1], [1, 2], "', [1, N], [2, 1], ... , [2, N], ... , [N, N], where N is the dimension of the matrix 3. The elements of the first constant vector, in the order [l], ... ,[N] 128 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox For example, to solve the systems 20x 3y = 10 -4y = 10 + a text file could be created to look like this: 2 20 3 o -4 10 10 Example Problem. Solve the following linear system to within a tolerance of IE - 12: 10v + w + 2z = z = 35 Y + z = 4w + lOy + 3z = x + 6y + 25z = 25 46 2x - 4v + SOw + 3y + x + - 2v + 5w - 30x + 6v + - 3v - 2w - 29 - 106 Run GAUSSIDL.PAS: (K)eyboard or (F)ile input of data? F File name? SAMPLE6D.DAT Tolerance (> 0, default = 1.000E-08): 1E-12 Maximum number of iterations (> 0, default = 100): 100 Direct output to one of the following: (S)creen (P)rinter (F)ile The coefficients: 10.000000000 1.000000000 2.000000000 -3.000000000 2.000000000 4.000000000 50.000000000 1.000000000 0.000000000 1.000000000 -2.000000000 5.000000000 -30.000000000 1.000000000 1.000000000 6.000000000 4.000000000 0.000000000 10.000000000 3.000000000 -3.000000000 -2.000000000 -1.000000000 6.000000000 25.000000000 Matrix Routines 129 The constants: -2.90000000000000E+001 3.50000000000000E+001 -2.50000000000000E+001 -4.60000000000000E+001 -1.06000000000000E+002 Tolerance: 1.00000000000000E-012 Maximum number of iterations: 100 Number of iterations: The result: -2.99999999999997E+000 9.99999999999999E-001 9.99999999999998E-001 -1.99999999999999E+000 -4.00000000000000E+000 130 15 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox c H A p T E R 7 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors The routines in this chapter can find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors. A scalar c is an eigenvalue (or characteristic value) of a square matrix A if there is a nonzero vector v satisfying Av = cv The vector v is called the eigenvector corresponding to c. The eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a matrix provide a lot of information about the matrix. If a matrix is written in terms of a basis of eigenvectors, then it is diagonal, meaning. that its only nonzero terms are on the main diagonal. Each procedure in this chapter attempts to approximate at least' one real eigenvalue (and associated eigenvector) of a real square matrix. The eigenvector is normalized so that the element with the largest magnitude is 1. The power method (POWER.INC) approximates the eigenvalue that is largest in magnitude (dominant eigenvalue). The iterative process will converge slowly or not at all if the dominant eigenvalue is not simple or if it has nearly the same magnitude as the next most-dominant eigenvalue. The inverse power method (INVPOWER.INC) approximates the eigenvalue nearest to a user-supplied real value. This process usually converges more rapidly than the power method, and may be used to refine the approximate value of the eigenvalue determined by the latter method (POWER.INC). 131 The Wielandt method (WIELANDT.lNC) attempts to approximate a userspecified number of eigenvalues of a given matrix. The power method (POWER. INC) is first used to approximate the dominant eigenvalue of the matrix. Deflation is employed to form a deflated, square matrix (that is, a square matrix whose dimension is one less than the original matrix). The eigenvalues of the deflated matrix are identical to those of the original matrix except for the determined dominant eigenvalue. Eigenvectors of the remaining eigenvalues from the original matrix are also contained in the deflated matrix. The dominant eigenvalue of the new deflated" matrix is then determined using the power method. Wielandt's method is susceptible to round-off error, thus it may be desirable to use its results as input to the inverse power method (INVPOWER.lNC). The cyclic Jacobi method QACOBI.INC) approximates all the eigenvalues of a symmetric matrix. The iterative process uses orthogonal plane rotations to reduce the given matrix into a diagonal form. Although Jacobi's method is only applicable to symmetric matrices, it is much more efficient and accurate than Wielandt's method. 132 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Real Dominant Eigenvalue and Eigenvector of a Real Matrix Using the Power Method (POWERINC) Description The power method (Burden and Faires 1985, 452-456) approximates the dominant real eigenvalue of a matrix and its associated eigenvector. The dominant eigenvalue is the eigenvalue of the largest absolute magnitude. Given a square matrix A and a real nonzero vector v, a vector w is constructed by the matrix operation Av = w. The vector w is normalized by dividing by its element of the largest absolute magnitude q. If the absolute difference between each of the corresponding elements in wand v is less than a specified tolerance, then the procedure halts. Otherwise, v is set equal to w, and the operation repeats until a solution is found. The magnitude q is the dominant eigenvalue, and w will be the associated eigenvector of the matrix A. You must supply the matrix A, an initial approximation to the eigenvector v, and the tolerance. User-Defined Types TNvector = array[l •• TNArraySize] of Real; TNmatrix = array[l .. TNArraySize] of TNvector; Input Parameters Dimen : Integer; Dimension of the matrix Mat Mat: TNmatrix; The matrix GuessVector : TNvector; Initial approximation to the eigenvector MaxIter : Integer; Maximum number of iterations Tolerance: Real; Indicates accuracy in solution Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors 133 The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: 1. Dimen > 1 2. Dimen S TNArraySize 3. Tolerance> 0 4. MaxIter > 0 TNArraySize fixes an upper bound on the number of elements in each vector. It is used in the type definition of TNvector and TNmatrix. TNArraySize is not a variable name and is never referenced by the procedure; hence there is no test for condition 2. If condition 2 is violated, the program will crash with an Index Out of Range error (assuming the directive {$R + } is active). Output Parameters Eigenval ue : Real; Approximation to the dominant eigenvalue of the matrix Eigenvector: TNvector; Approximate eigenvector associated with the dominant eigenvalue Iter: Integer; Number of iterations required to find the solution Error: Byte; 0: 1: 2: 3: 4: No errors Dimen S 1 Tolerance S 0 MaxIter S 0 Iter;:::: MaxIter Syntax of the Procedure Call Power(Dimen, Mat, GuessVector, MaxIter, Tolerance, Eigenvalue, Eigenvector, Iter, Error); Comments The power method will not converge if the initial approximation (Guess) to the eigenvector is orthogonal to the dominant eigenvector. If the initial approximation is orthogonal, then the power method will converge to a different eigenvector without warning. If you suspect this has happened, run the routine with several different initial approximations. 134 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox The power method may not converge to repeated eigenvalues with linearly dependent eigenvectors. Repeated eigenvalues with linearly independent eigenvectors do not pose a problem. The eigenvectors are normalized such that the element of largest absolute magnitude in each vector is equal to one. Sample Program The sample program POWER.PAS provides I/O functions that demonstrate the power method of approximating eigenvalues. Input File Data may be input from a text file. Entries in the text file should be separated by spaces or carriage returns, and it does not matter if the text file ends with a carriage return. The format of the text file should be as follows: 1. Dimension of the matrix 2. Elements of the matrix, in the order [1, 1], [1, 2], ... , [1, N], ... , [N, 1], ... , [N, N], where N is the dimension of the matrix For example, to find the dominant eigenvalue of the matrix you could first create the following text file: 4 1 2 3 4 Example Problem. Find the dominant eigenvalue of the matrix: [ ~ 1~ ~] 024 using the initial guess (1, 2, 3). Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors 135 Run POWER.PAS: (K)eyboard or (F)ile entry of data? K Dimension of the matrix (1-60)? 3 Matrix[l, Matrix[l, Matrix[l, Matrix[2, Matrix[2, Matrix[2, Matrix[3, Matrix[3, Matrix[3, 1]: 2]: 3]: 1]: 2]: 3]: 1]: 2]: 3]: 2 10 0 0 1 0 0 2 4 Now input an initial guess for the eigenvector: Vector[l]: 1 Vector[2]: 2 Vector[3]: 3 Tolerance (> 0, default = 1.000E-06): 1E-8 Maximum number of iterations (> 0, default 100): 100 Direct output to one of the following: (S)creen (P)rinter (F)ile The matrix: 2.00000000000000E+00 1.00000000000000E+01 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OO O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OO 1.00000000000000E+00 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OO O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OO 2.00000000000000E+00 4.00000000000000E+00 Tolerance: 1.00000000000000E-008 Maximum number of iterations: 100 Number of iterations: 12 The approximate eigenvector: -2.30295155112597E-014 3. 15544362088405E-030 1.00000000000000E+000 The associated eigenvalue: 4.00000000000000E+000 The exact solution is Eigenvalue = 4 Eigenvector = (0, 0, 1) 136 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Real Eigenvalue and Eigenvector of a Real Matrix Using the Inverse Power Method (INVPOWERINC) Description Where the power method converges to the dominant real eigenvalue of a matrix (see POWER.INC), the inverse power method (Burden and Faires 1985, 459-462) converges to the real eigenvalue nearest to a user-supplied real value. Given a square matrix A, an initial approximation p to the eigenvalue, and an initial approximation v to the eigenvector, the linear system (A - pI)w = v (where I is the identity matrix) is solved via LV decomposition (see Chapter 6, "Solving a System of Linear Equations with Direct Factoring"). The vector w is normalized by dividing through by the element q with the largest absolute magnitude. If the absolute difference between each of the corresponding elements in v and w is less than a specified tolerance, then the procedure halts. Otherwise, v is set equal to w, and the previous matrix equation is solved again. The process repeats until a solution is reached. The eigenvalue of A closest to p will be (l/q + p), and w will be the associated eigenvector. You must supply the matrix A, the initial approximations p and v, and the tolerance. User-Defined Types TNvector = array[l •• TNArraySize] of Real; TNmatrix = array[l •• TNArraySize] of TNvector; Input Parameters Dimen : Integer; Dimension of the matrix Mat Mat: TNmatri x; The matrix GuessVector : TNvector; Initial approximation (Guess) of the eigenvector ClosestVal : Real; The approximate eigenvalue Max Iter : Integer; Maximum number of iterations To 1erance : Real; Indicates accuracy of solution Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors 137 The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: 1. Dimen> 1 2. Dimen S TNArray Size 3. Tolerance > 0 4. MaxIter > 0 TNArray Size sets an upper bound on the number of elements in each vector. It is used in the type definition of TNvector and TNmatrix. TNArraySize is not a variable name and is never referenced by the procedure; hence there is no test for condition 2. If condition 2 is violated, the program will crash with an Index Out of Range error (assuming the directive {$R +} is active). Output Parameters Eigenval ue : Real; Approximation to the eigenvalue closest to ClosestVal Eigenvector: TNvector; Approximation to the eigenvector associated with Eigenvalue Iter: Integer; Number of iterations required to find the solution Error : Byte; 0: 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: No errors Dimen S 1 Tolerance S 0 MaxIter S 0 Iter ~ MaxIter Eigenvalue/Eigenvector not calculated (see "Comments") Syntax of the Procedure Call InversePower(Dimen, Mat, GuessVector, ClosestVal, MaxIter, Tolerance, Eigenvalue, Eigenvector, Iter, Error); 138 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Comments The inverse power method approximates the solution of a system of linear equations. If the matrix (Mat - Eigenvalue * I) is singular, where I is the identity rnatrix, the method will not converge to a solution and Error 5 will be returned. If this occurs, run the routine again with a slightly different initial approximation, ClosestVal. The power method may not converge to repeated eigenvalues with linearly dependent eigenvectors. Repeated eigenvalues with linearly independent eigenvectors do not pose a problem. The inverse power method is sensitive to the initial approximation (ClosestVal). If ClosestVal is not close to an eigenvalue or lies midway between two eigenvalues, the algorithm will converge very slowly, if at all. The eigenvectors are normalized such that the element of the largest absolute magnitude in each vector is equal to one. 5mnple Program The sample program INVPOWER.PAS provides I/O functions that demonstrate the inverse power method of approximating eigenvalues. Input File Data may be input from a text file. Entries in the text file should be separated by spaces or carriage returns, and it does not matter if the text file ends with a carriage return. The format of the text file should be as follows: 1. Dimension of the matrix 2. Elements of the matrix, in the order [1, 1], [1, 2], ... , [1, N], "', [N, 1], ... , [N, N], where N is the dimension of the matrix 3. Elements of the initial guess, in the order [1], [2], ... , [N], where N is the dimension of the matrix Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors 139 For example, to find an eigenvalue of the matrix with an initial guess of (11, 10), you could first create the following text file: 4 1 2 3 4 11 10 Example Problem. Suppose you know that two of the eigenvalues of the matrix [ 2 10 0] 010 024 are approximately 1.999 and 0.7. Use the inverse power method with an initial guess of (1, 2, 3) to refine these approximations. Run INVPOWER.PAS with 1.999 as the approximate eigenvalue: (K)eyboard or (F)i1e entry of data? K Dimension of the matrix (1-30)? 3 Matrix[1. Matrix[1. Matrix[1. Matrix[2. Matrix[2. Matrix[2. Matrix[3. Matrix[3. Matrix[3. 1]: 2]: 3]: 1]: 2]: 3]: 1]: 2]: 3]: 2 10 0 0 1 0 0 2 4 Now input an initial guess for the eigenvector: Vector[1]: 1 Vector[2]: 2 Vector[3]: 3 Approximate eigenvalue (default = 5.2857): 1.999 To1 erance (> O. default = 1.0.00E-06): 1E-8 Maximum number of iterations (> O. default = 200): 200 140 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Direct output to one of the following: {S}creen {P}rinter {F)ile The matrix: 2.00000000000000E+000 1.00000000000000E+00I O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 1.00000000000000E+000 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 2.00000000000000E+000 4.00000000000000E+000 Approximate eigenvalue: 1.99900000000000E+000 Tolerance: 1.00000000000000E-008 Maximum number of iterations: 200 Number of iterations: 4 The approximate eigenvector: 1.00000000000000E+000 9. 12736381850482E-014 -5. 13983108970145E-014 The associated eigenvalue: 2.00000000000091E+000 Run INVPOWERPAS with 0.7 as the approximate eigenvalue: {K}eyboard or {F}ile entry of data? K Dimension of the matrix {1-30}? 3 Matrix[l, Matrix[l, Matrix[l, Matrix[2, Matrix[2, Matrix[2, Matrix[3, Matrix[3, Matrix[3, 1]: 2]: 3]: 1]: 2]: 3]: 1]: 2]: 3]: 2 10 0 0 1 0 0 2 4 Now input an initial guess for the eigenvector: Vector[l]: 1 Vector[2]: 2 Vector[3]: 3 Approximate eigenvalue {default = 5.2857}: 0.7 Tolerance {> 0, default = 1.000E-06}: 1E-8 Maximum number of iterations {> 0, default = 200}: 200 Direct output to one of the following: {S}creen {P}rinter {F)ile Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors 141 The matrix: 2.00000000000000E+000 1.00000000000000E+001 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 1.00000000000000E+000 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 2.00000000000000E+000 4.00000000000000E+000 Approximate eigenvalue: 7.00000000000000E-001 Tolerance: 1.00000000000000E-008 Maximum number of iterations: 200 Number of iterations: 12 The approximate eigenvector: 1.00000000000000E+OOO -1.00000002395103E-001 6.66666682633328E-002 The associated eigenvalue: 9.99999976048973E-001 The exact solutions are Eigenvalue Eigenvalue 142 = 2; Eigenvector = (1, 0, 0) = 1; Eigenvector = (1, - 0.1, 2/30) Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Real Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of a Real Matrix Using the Power Method and Wielandt's Deflation (WIELANDT.INC) Description Wielandt's deflation is a technique that approximates each real eigenvalue and related eigenvector of a matrix (Burden and Faires 1985,452-456). Once the dominant real eigenvalue/vector of a matrix has been approximated with the power method (see "Real Dominant Eigenvalue and Eigenvector of a Real Matrix Using the Power Method"), the next most dominant real eigenvalue/vector is approximated by removing the dominant solution. This deflates the matrix. The deflated matrix will have the same eigenvalues as the original matrix (except for the removed ones). The eigenvectors of the deflated matrix will be related to the eigenvectors of the original matrix. (They will not be identical because the dimension of the deflated matrix is less than the dimension of the original matrix.) The power method then approximates the dominant eigenvalue of the deflated matrix. This process is repeated until the appropriate number (user-supplied) of eigenvalues/vectors have been approximated. You must supply the matrix, the number of eigenvalues/vectors to approximate, and the tolerance with which to approximate the eigenvalues/vectors. User-Defined Types TNvector = array[l •. TNArraySize] of Real; TNmatrix = array[l •. TNArraySize] of TNvector; TNIntVector = array[l •. TNArraySize] of Integer; Input Parameters Dimen : Integer; Dimension of the matrix Mat Mat: TNmatrix; The matrix Guess: TNvector; Initial approximation (Guess) of an eigenvector Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors 143 MaxEigens : Integer; Number of eigenvalues/vectors to find (at most, Dimen), (see "Comments") Max Iter : Integer; Maximum number of iterations Tolerance: Real; Indicates accuracy in solution The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: l. Dimen> 1 2. Dimen ::;; TNArray Size 3. Tolerance > 0 4. MaxIter> 0 5. MaxEigens > 0 6. MaxEigens ::;; Dimen TNArraySize sets an upper bound on the number of elements in each vector. It is used in the type definition of TNvector and TNmatrix. TNArraySize is not a variable name and is never referenced by the procedure; hence there is no test for condition 2. If condition 2 is violated, the program will crash with an Index Out of Range error (assuming the directive {$R + } is active). Output Parameters NumEigens : Integer; The number of eigenvectors returned (will be MaxEigens). Ei genva 1ues : TNvector; The first NumEigens eigenvalues of the matrix. ::;; Eigenvectors: TNmatrix; The eigenvectors associated with the eigenvalues. Iter: TNIntVector; Number of iterations required to find each eigenvalue/ vector. Error: Byte; 0: 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: 6: 144 No errors. Dimen ::;; l. Tolerance ::;; O. MaxIter ::;; O. MaxEigens ~ 0, MaxEigens > Dimen. Iter ~ MaxIter. Warning! Not a fatal error! The last two eigenvalues aren't real. Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Syntax of the Procedure Call Wielandt(Dimen, Mat, Guess, MaxEigens, MaxIter, Tolerance, NumEigens, Eigenvalues, Eigenvectors, Iter, Error); Comments It is often unnecessary to determine the complete eigensystem of a matrix. The parameter MaxEigens prevents the routine from approximating more eigenvalues/ vectors than needed. For example, if the four most dominant eigenvalues of a 20 X 20 matrix are desired, set MaxEigens equal to 4. The algorithm will halt when it has approximated the four most dominant eigenvalues, thus saving a considerable amount of time. Note, however, that the dimension of the vector eigenvalues and the matrix eigenvectors must still be TNArraySize (that is, the same as the dimension of the matrix). The power method may not converge to repeated eigenvalues with linearly dependent eigenvectors. Repeated eigenvalues with linearly independent eigenvectors do not pose a problem. The eigenvectors are normalized such that the element of the largest absolute magnitude in each vector is equal to one. This routine stores much information on the heap. If you try to compute all the eigenvalues of a large matrix (say, all 20 of a 20 X 20 matrix), you may get run-time error $FF, Heap/Stack collision. If this happens, the dimension of TNvector and TNmatrix should be reduced as much as possible. If this is not possible, then remove any RAM-resident software (for example, SideKick, SuperKey, or a print buffer). It is difficult to determine why the power method doesn't converge to a particular eigenvector; usually the eigenvalue is complex, or eigenvectors of repeated eigenvalues are linearly dependent. However, when Wielandt's deRation has deRated the matrix to a 2 X 2, it is easy to determine if the eigenvalues of the 2 X 2 are real or complex. If the last two eigenvalues are real, then they (and their associated eigenvectors) are returned; if the last two eigenvalues are complex, Error 6 is returned. (Error 6 is only a warning; it is not a fatal error.) It is returned to give you some information about the undetermined eigenvectors. This procedure uses the New/Dispose procedures to manipulate the heap and should not be used in any program that uses Mark/Release to manipulate the heap. Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors 145 Sample Program The sample program WIELANDT.PAS provides I/O functions that demonstrate Wielandt's method of approximating eigensystems. Input File Data may be input from a text me. Entries in the text me should be separated by spaces or carriage returns, and it does not matter if the text me ends with a carriage return. The format of the text me should be as follows: 1. Dimension of the matrix 2. Elements of the matrix, in the order [1, 1], [1, 2], ... , [1, N], ... , [N, 1], "', [N, N], where N is the dimension of the matrix For example, to find the dominant eigenvalue of the matrix you could first create the following text me: 4 1 2 3 4 Example Problem. Find all real eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the matrix [ 2 100] o 10 o 24 using an initial guess of (1, 2, 3). 146 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Run Wielandt.PAS: (K)eyboard or (F)ile entry of data? K Dimension of the matrix (1-10)? 3 Matrix[l, Matrix[l, Matrix[l, Matrix[2, Matrix[2, Matrix[2, Matrix[3, Matrix[3, Matrix[3, 1]: 2]: 3]: 1]: 2]: 3]: 1]: 2]: 3]: 2 10 0 0 1 0 0 2 4 Now input an initial guess for the eigenvector: Vector[l]: 1 Vector[2]: 2 Vector[3]: 3 Tolerance (> 0, default = 1.000E-06): 1E-6 Maximum number of eigenvalues/eigenvectors to find «= 3, default 3): 3 Maximum number of iterations (> 0, default = 200): 200 Direct output to one of the following: (S)creen (P)rinter (F) i1 e The matrix: 2.00000000000000E+000 1.00000000000000E+001 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 1.00000000000000E+000 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 2.00000000000000E+000 4.00000000000000E+000 Tolerance: Maximum number of eigenvalues/eigenvectors to ,find: Maximum number of iterations: 200 Number of iterations: The approximate eigenvector: -8.32731765653921E-007 4.60590249431080E-015 1.00000000000000E+000 1.00000000000000E-006 3 10 The associated eigenvalue: 4.00000000000004E+000 Number of iterations: 0 The approximate eigenvector: 1.00000000000000E+000 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors 147 The associated eigenvalue: 2.00000000000000E+000 Number of iterations: 0 The approximate eigenvector: 1.00000000000000E+000 -9.99999888969117E-002 6.66666592646070E-002 The associated eigenvalue: 9.99999999999991E-001 The exact solution is Eigenvalue Eigenvalue Eigenvalue 148 = 4; Eigenvector = (0, 0, 1) = 2; Eigenvector = (1, 0, 0) = 1; Eigenvector = (1, - 0.1, 2/30) Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox The Complete Eigensystem of a Symmetric Real Matrix Using the Cyclic Jacobi Method UACOBI.INC) Description The eigensystem of a symmetric matrix can be computed much more simply and efficiently than the eigensystem of an asymmetric matrix. The cyclic Jacobi method (Atkinson and Harley 1983, 154-160) is an iterative technique for approximating the complete eigensystem of a symmetric matrix to within a given tolerance. It consists of multiplying the matrix A by a series of rotation matrices RI . The rotation matrices are chosen so that the elements of the upper triangular part of A (excluding the diagonal) are systematically annihilated; that is, Rl is chosen so that A[l, 2] becomes zero, R2 is chosen so that A[l, 3] becomes zero, and so on. Since the matrix is symmetric, this will also annihilate the lower triangular part of A. Because each rotation wili probably change the value of elements annihilated in previous rotations, the method is iterative. Eventually, the matrix will be diagonalized. The eigenvalues will be the elements of the main diagonal of the diagonal matrix; the eigenvectors will be the corresponding rows of the matrix created by the product of the rotation matrices RI • User-Defined Types TNvector = array [1. . TNArraySize] of Real; TNmatrix = array[l .• TNArraySize] of TNvector; Input Parameters Dimen : Integer; Dimension of the matrix Mat Mat: TNmatrix; The symmetric matrix MaxIter : Integer; Maximum number of iterations Tolerance: Real; Accuracy in solution Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors 149 The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: 1. Dimen> 1. 2. Dimen :5 TNArraySize. 3. Tolerance > O. 4. MaxIter > O. 5. Mat must be symmetric. TNArraySize sets an upper bound on the number of elements in each vector. It is used in the type definition of TNvector and TNmatrix. TNArraySize is not a variable name and is never referenced by the procedure; hence there is no test for condition 2. If condition 2 is violated, the program will crash with an Index Out of Range error (assuming the directive {$R + } is active). Output Parameters Ei genva 1ues : TNvector; Approximation to the eigenvalues of the matrix Eigenvectors: TNmatrix; Approximation to the eigenvectors associated with the eigenvalues Iter: Integer; Number of iterations required to find eigenvalues/vectors Error: Byte; 0: 1: 2: 3: 4: 5: No errors Dimen :5 1 Tolerance :5 0 MaxIter :5 0 Mat not symmetric Iter 2: MaxIter Syntax of the Procedure Call Jacobi(Dimen, Mat, MaxIter, Tolerance, Eigenvalues, Eigenvectors, Iter, Error); 150 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Comments For symmetric matrices, the Jacobi method is preferred to Wielandt's deRation. Unlike the power (POWER.lNC) and inverse power (INVPOWER.lNC) methods, the efficiency of the Jacobi method is not affected by repeated eigenvalues with linearly dependent eigenvectors. The eigenvectors are normalized such that the element of largest absolute magnitude in each vector is equal to one. Sample Program The sample program JACOBI.PAS provides I/O functions that demonstrate Jacobi's method of approximating the eigensystem of symmetric matrices. Input File Data may be input from a text file. Entries in the text file should be separated by spaces or carriage returns, and it does not matter if the text file ends with a carriage return. The format of the text file should be as follows: 1. Dimension of the matrix 2. Elements of the matrix, in the order [1, 1], [1, 2], "', [1, N], ... , [N, 1], ... , [N, N], where N is the dimension of the matrix For example, to find the dominant eigenvalue of the matrix you could first create the following text file: 4 1 2 2 1 Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors 151 Example Problem. Find the complete eigensystem of the symmetric matrix [ ~ i ={ =~ 1 -3 -1 -1 -3 1 2 2 1 Run JACOBI.PAS: {K)eyboard or {F)ile entry of data? F File name? SAMPLE7A.DAT Tolerance (> 0, default = 1.000E-06): 1E-8 Maximum number of iterations (> 0, default = 200): 200 Direct output to one of the following: {S)creen (P) ri nter (F) il e The matrix: 1.000000000 2.000000000 -3.000000000 -1.000000000 2.000000000 1.000000000 -1.000000000 -3.000000000 -3.000000000 -1.000000000 1.000000000 2.000000000 -1.000000000 -3.000000000 2.000000000 1.000000000 Tolerance: 1.00000000000000E-008 Maximum number of iterations: 200 Number of iterations: The approximate eigenvector: 1.00000000000000E+000 1.00000000000000E+000 -1.00000000000000E+000 -1.00000000000000E+000 4 The associated eigenvalue: 7.00000000000000E+000 The approximate eigenvector: -9.99999999977159E-001 9.99999999977775E-001 1.00000000000000E+000 -9.99999999999384E-001 The associated eigenvalue: 1.00000000000000E+000 The approximate eigenvector: 1.00000000000000E+000 -9.99999556935431E-001 9.99999999977774E-001 -9.99999556913205E-001 152 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox The associated eigenvalue: -2.99999999999990E+000 The approximate eigenvector: 9.99999556935431E-001 9.99999999999384E-001 9.99999556934815E-001 1.00000000000000E+000 The associated eigenvalue: -1.00000000000010E+000 The exact solution is Eigenvalue Eigenvalue Eigenvalue Eigenvalue = = = = 7; 1; - 3; -1; Eigenvector Eigenvector Eigenvector Eigenvector Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors = (1, 1, -1, = (-1, 1, 1, = (1, - 1, 1, = (1, 1, 1, 1) -1) -1) - 1) 153 154 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox c H A p T E R 8 Initial Value and Boundary Value Metlwds A differential equation is like an ordinary equation except that the unknown is a function, and derivatives of the function appear in the equation. For example, f"(x) + f(x) =0 is a differential equation.f"(x) is the second derivative off(x). The solutions are the functions of the form f(x) = a * cos(x) + b * sin(x) The function is uniquely determined by suitable initial conditions, such as f(O) f'(O) = 3 = 4 in which case the solution is f(x) = 3 * cos(x) + 4 * sin(x) The routines in this chapter solve differential equations that are ordinanJ and linear. A differential equation is ordinary if there is only an independent variable (that is, the unknown function is a function of only one variable), and thus the derivatives are ordinary derivatives and not partial derivatives. A differential equation is linear if the unknown function and its derivatives appear linearly in the equation. This chapter describes routines that specifically solve: (1) initial value problems for nth-order ordinary differential equations, (2) initial value problems for systems of coupled first-order and second-order ordinary differential equations, and (3) 155 boundary value problems for second-order ordinary differential equations. Note that these routines work only with ordinary differentiai equations, not partial differential equations. All of the routines in this chapter can solve problems involving nonlinear equations (except the linear-shooting routine LINSHOT 2.1NC). Two one-step techniques that solve initial value problems for first-order ordinary differential equations are implemented. The first technique employs the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method (RUNGE_I.lNC), also known as the classical Runge-Kutta method. The second employs the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method (RKF_l.INC). Each one-step technique approximates the value of the dependent variable at a mesh point, which is a value of the independent variable, by using only the information obtained from the preceding mesh point. The Runge-Ku~ta method employs equally spaced mesh points. On the other hand, the Runge-KuttaFehlberg method varies the spacing of the mesh points in order to control the local truncation error. This produces a corresponding bound on the global error. The Adams-BashforthIAdams-Moulton predictor/corrector method (ADAMS_I. INC) is a multistep method that uses information obtained at several preceding mesh points to approximate the value of the dependent variable at the current mesh point. The procedure employs the Adams-Bashforth four-step method to obtain a predictor. It is subsequently used as input for the Adams-Moulton threestep method to obtain a corrector. The corrector is the approximate value of the solution. Mesh points are equally spaced, and the starting values for the process are determined by the one step, fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. The Runge-Kutta methods are the most reliable and should be used when you are uncertain of the behavior of the differential equation (for example, if the solution to the differential equation is not very smooth). If you want the output to be evenly spaced (in x) or do not require a high degree of accuracy, use the classical Runge-Kutta method. Otherwise, the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method is the best general purpose routine to use, since it provides control over the accuracy of the solution. The Adams-Bashforth/Adams-Moulton method achieves the same accuracy (for equally spaced mesh points) as the fourth-order Runge-Kutta formula, but if is significantly faster. Consequently, the Adams-Bashforth/Adams-Moulton method is the most desirable method if you are reasonably certain that the differential equation is well-behaved. Initial value problems for first-order ordinary differential equations are guaranteed to have a unique solution on the interval a, b if the function x' = f(t, x) 156 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox is continuous over the interval a, h, and if the function satisfies the Lipshitz condition. The Lipshitz condition states that there exists a positive number L such that If(t, x2) - f(t, Xl) I ~ Llx2 - XII for all a ~ t ~ h, - 00 < X < 00. Initial value problems for second-order ordinary differential equations can be solved via a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method (RUNGE--2.INC). This procedure reduces a given differential equation to a system of two, first-order ordinary differential equations. The solution to this system is approximated at equally spaced mesh points with the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. Initial value problems for second-order ordinary differential equations are guaranteed to have a unique solution on the interval a, h if the function x" = f(t, x, x') is continuous over the interval a, h and if the function satisfies the Lipshitz condition. For a second-order differential equation, the Lipshitz condition states that there exists a positive number L such that If(t, x2' X' 2) - f(t, Xl' X' 2) I ~ L( IX2 - XII + Ix'2 - x'II) for all a ~ t ~ h, - 00 < X < 00, - 00 < X < 00. I The Runge-Kutta method can be generalized for any order ordinary differential equation. The file RUNGE_N.INC contains an algorithm that can solve an initial value problem for an nth-order differential equation with the fourth-order RungeKutta formulas. The Lipshitz condition can be generalized for any order ordinary differential equation. (For details, consult the reference book listed in the section, "Solution to an Initial Value Problem for a First-Order Ordinary Differential Equation Using the Runge-Kutta Method.") Although RUNGE-N.INC can be used to solve initial value problems for firstorder and second-order ordinary differential equations, we recommend that RUNGE_l.INC and RUNGE--2.INC be used instead. The notation used by these routines is somewhat simpler than the general case. There is no significant difference in computation time between the general program (RUNGE_N.INC) and the specific programs (RUNGE_l.INC and RUNGE--2.INC). Systems of coupled equations may also be solved with Runge-Kutta techniques. A system of up to ten first-order ordinary differential equations can be solved with' the file RUNGE_Sl.INC. A system of up to ten second-order ordinary differential equations can be solved with the file RUNGE_S2.INC. The algorithms in both these files are based on the classical Runge-Kutta method with uniform spacing between mesh points; hence, they do not allow for accuracy control (as in the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method). (The Lipshitz condition for systems of equations is given in the reference in the sections about RUNGE_Sl.INC and RUNGE_S2.INC.) Initial Value and Boundary Value Methods 157 Boundary value problems for second-order ordinary differential equations (where the value of the dependent variable is specified at the two endpoints of interval) can be solved using slwoting techniques. Shooting techniques converge onto the slope of the function at one boundary. This reduces the boundary value problem to a series of initial value problems. The series concludes when the initial value problem satisfies the boundary condition at the other boundary. If the second-order differential equation is linear (that is, linear in the dependent variable(s), not necessarily linear in the independent variable), the linear-shooting method (LINSHOT2.INC) may be used. A linear combination of solutions to two initial value problems yields the solution to the boundary value problem. If the second-order differential equation is nonlinear, the routine SHOOT2.1NC must be used. The secant method generates a sequence of solutions with different values of the first derivative until the appropriate boundary condition, subject to a desired accuracy, is satisfied. Although SHOOT2.1NC may be used to solve linear boundary value problems, LINSHOT2.1NC is more efficient for the linear case . . Boundary value problems for second-order differential equations are guaranteed to have a unique solution on the interval a, b if the function y" = !(x, y, y') and the two partial derivatives a!lay, apay' are continuous on the interval [a, b]. Furthermore, apay must be positive and apay' must be bounded for all x, y, y' a :5 x :5 b, - 00 < y < 00, - 00 < y" < 00 • The convergence to the appropriate initial value of the first derivative is not assured for nonlinear boundary value problems. A good guess of the derivative boundary condition is often required and may involve considerable trial and error. Interpolation techniques (see Chapter 3) may be used to approximate the solution of values of the independent variable that are not mesh points. 158 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Solution to an Initial Value Problemfor a First-order Ordinary Differential Equation Using the Runge-Kutta Method (RUNGEJ..INC) Description This example uses the Runge-Kutta method (Burden and Faires 1985,220-227) to approximate the solution to a first-order ordinary differential equation with a specified initial condition. Given a function of the form dx/dt = TNTargetF(t, x) which satisfies the conditions given at the beginning of this chapter, and an initial condition x[LowerLimit] = Xlnitial and spacing h = (UpperLimit - LowerLimit)/Numlntervals the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method approximates x in the interval [LowerLimit, UpperLimit]. The fourth-order Runge-Kutta formulas consist of the following: h * TNTargetF(t, x[t]) h * TNTargetF(t + h/2, x[t] + Fl/2) h * TNTargetF(t + h/2, x[t] + F2/2) h * TNTargetF(t + h, x[t] + F3) x[t + 1] = x[t] + (F1 + 2 * F2 + 2 * F3 + F4)/6 F1 F2 F3 F4 = = = = where t ranges from LowerLimit to UpperLimit in steps of h. These formulas give a 4 truncation error of order h • You must supply LowerLimit, UpperLimit, Xlnitial, Numlntervals, and TNTar- getF. User- Defined Types TNvector = array[l .. TNArraySize] of Real; Initial Value and Boundary Value Methods 159 User-Defined Function TNTargetF{t, X : Real) : Real; dx/dt = TNTargetF(t, x) The function TNTargetF(t, x) is a user-defined function that calculates the derivative dx/dt. Input Pararneters LowerLimit : Real; Lower limit of interval UpperL imi t : Real; Upper limit of interval XInitial : Real; Value of X at LowerLimit NumReturn : Integer; Number of (t, x) pairs returned from the procedure NumInterval s : Integer; Number of subintervals used in calculations The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: 1. NumReturn > 0 2. Numlnteroals 3. LowerLimit ¢ ~ NumReturn UpperLimit Output Pararneters TVal ues : TNvector; Values of t between the limits XVal ues : TNvector; Values of X approximated at the values in TValues Error : Byte; 160 0: 1: 2: 3: No errors NumReturn < 1 Numlntervals < NumReturn LowerLimit = UpperLimit Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Syntax of the Procedure Call InitialCondlstOrder(LowerLimit, UpperLimit, Xlnitial, NumReturn, Numlritervals, TValues, XValues, Error); The procedure InitialConditionlstOrder integrates the first-order differential equation. Comments This procedure will compute Numlntervals values in its calculations; however, you will rarely need to use all the values. The vectors TValues and XValues will contain only NumReturn values at roughly equally spaced t-values between the lower and upper limits. (They will be equally spaced only when Numlntervals is a multiple of NumReturn.) Thus, you can ensure a highly accurate solution (by making Numlntervals large) without generating an excessive amount of output (by making NumReturn small). The Runge-Kutta method uses the New/Dispose procedures to manipulate the heap and should not be used in any program that uses Mark/Release to manipulate the heap. Warning: A stiff differential equation occurs when there are at least two very different scales of the independent variable on which the dependent variable{s) is changing; for example, y = x + e - lOOx. The Runge-Kutta method may generate a numerical solution that bears no resemblance to the exact solution of the differential equation. This unstable numerical solution usually grows exponentially and may be oscillatory. However, if the exact solution of the differential equation grows as the independent variable increases, the instability may be difficult to detect. If a suspected instability has been encountered, reduce the interval size (Numlntervals). Sample Program The sample program RUNGE_l.PAS provides I/O functions that demonstrate the Runge-Kutta method of solving initial value problems. Note that the file RUNGE_l.INe is included after the function TNTargetF is defined. Initial Value and Boundary Value Methods 161 Example Problem. Solve the following initial value problem with the Runge-Kutta method: X' = xlt x(l) = 1 + t - 1 I:5t:52 1. Code the equation into the program RUNGE_l.PAS: funct;on TNTargetF(t, X : Real) : Real; (************************************************************************) THIS IS THE FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION ****) (**** (************************************************************************) beg;n TNTargetF := x/t + t - 1 end; { function TNTargetF } 2. Run RUNGE_I.PAS: Lower limit of interval? 1 Upper limit of interval? 2 X value at t = 1.00000000E+00: Number of values to return (1-500)? 10 Number of intervals (>= 10, default = 10)? 100 Direct output to one of the following: (S)creen (P)rinter (F) il e Lower limit: 1.00000000000000E+000 Upper limit: 2.00000000000000E+000 Value of X at 1.0000: 1.00000000000000E+000 Number of intervals: 100 t X 1.00000000 1.10000000 1.20000000 1.30000000 1.40000000 1.50000000 1.60000000 1.70000000 1.80000000 1.90000000 2.00000000 1.00000000000000E+000 1.10515880220649E+000 1.22121413182916E+000 1.34892645616477E+000 1.48893886869362E+000 1.64180233779216E+000 1.80799419315265E+000 1.98793197313186E+000 2. 18198400310574E+000 2.39047761619428E+000 2.61370563879444E+000 The exact solution is x=l X(2) 162 - t * In(t) = 2.6137056 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Solution to an Initial Value Problemfor a First-Order Ordinary Differential Equation Using the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg Method (RKFJ..INC) Description This example uses the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method (Burden and Faires 1985, 230-235) to approximate a solution within a specified tolerance to a first-order ordinary differential equation with a specified initial condition. Where the Runge-Kutta method (see RUNGE_l.INe) uses a constant spacing h, the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method varies the spacing so that the solution can be approximated with accuracy. Given a function of the form dx/dt = TNTargetF(t, x) which satisfies the conditions given at the beginning of this chapter, and an initial condition x[LowerLimit] = Xlnitial both the fourth-order and fifth-order Runge-Kutta formulas are used to approximate x in the interval [LowerLimit, UpperLimit]. The number of subintervals is continually increased until the fractional difference between the results of the 5 fourth-order and fifth-order formulas (which give a truncation error of h4 and h , respectively) in each subinterval is less than the specified tolerance. You must supply LowerLimit, UpperLimit, Tolerance, and TNTargetF. User- Defined Types TNvector = array[l .. TNArraySize] of Real; User- Defined Function TNTargetF(t, X : Real) : Real; dx/dt = TNTargetF(t, x) Initial Value and Boundary Value Methods 163 Input Parameters LowerLimit : Real; Lower limit of interval UpperLimit : Real; Upper limit of interval XInitial : Real; Value of X at LowerLimit To 1erance : Real; Maximum tolerable fractional difference between iterate values NumReturn : Integer; Number of (t, x) values to be returned The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: 1. Tolerance > 0 2. NumReturn > 0 3. LowerLimit ¢ UpperLimit Output Parameters TVal ues : TNvector; Values of t at which X was approximated XVal ues : TNvector; Values of X at the values in TValues Error : Byte; 0: 1: 2: 3: 4: No errors Tolerance :5 0 NumReturn :5 0 LowerLimit = UpperLimit Tolerance not reached Syntax of the Procedure Call RungeKuttaFehlberg{LowerLimit, UpperLimit, XInitial, Tolerance, NumReturn, TValues, XValues, Error); The procedure RungeKuttaFehlberg integrates the first-order differential equation TNTargetF. 164 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Comments This procedure will compute more values in its calculations than it will return in the vectors TValues and XValues. The vectors TValues and XValues will contain only NumReturn values at subintervals between the lower and upper limits. More values will be returned in regions of large functional variation than in regions· of small functional variation. Thus, you can ensure a highly accurate solution (by making the Tolerance small) without generating an excessive amount of output (by making NumReturn small). The Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method improves the accuracy in the solution by reducing the spacing between successive values of t. However, if the Tolerance is too small, the spacing required to reach Tolerance may be beyond the machine's limit of precision. Consequently, the routine will not converge to a solution that meets the required Tolerance and Error 5 will be returned. The Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method uses the New/Dispose procedures to manipulate the heap and should not be used in any program that uses Mark/Release to manipulate the heap. Warning: A stiff differential equation occurs when there are at least two very different scales of the independent variable on which the dependent variable(s) is changing; for example, y = x + e- 1OOx • The Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method may generate a numerical solution that bears no resemblance to the exact solution of the differential equation. This unstable numerical solution usually grows exponentially and may be oscillatory. However, if the exact solution of the differential equation grows as the independent variable increases, the instability may be difficult to detect. If a suspected instability has been encountered, reduce the interval size (NumI ntervals). Sample Program The sample program RKF_l.PAS provides I/O functions that demonstrate the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method of solving initial value problems. Note that the file RKF_l.INC is included after the function TNTargetF is defined. Initial Value and Boundary Value Methods 165 Example Problem. Use the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method to solve the following initial value problem with a tolerance of lE-6: X' = x/t x(l} = 1 +t 1 - 1 $; t $; 2 1. Code the differential equation into the program RKF_l.PAS: function TNTargetF(t, X : Real) : Real; (************************************************************************) (**** THIS IS THE FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION ****) (************************************************************************) begin TNTargetF := x/t + t - 1; end; { function TNTargetF } 2. Run RKF_l.PAS: Lower limit of interval? Upper limit of interval? 2 X value at t = 1.00000000E+00: Number of values to return (1-500)? 10 Tolerance (> 0, default = 1.000E-06)? 1E-6 Direct output to one of the following: (S)creen (P)rinter (F) il e Lower limit: Upper limit: Value of X at 1.0000: Tolerance: t 1.00000000 1.10000000 1.20000000 1.30000000 1.40000000 1.50000000 1.60000000 1.70000000 1.80000000 1.90000000 2.00000000 166 1.00000000000000E+000 2.00000000000000E+000 1.00000000000000E+000 1.00000000000000E-006 X 1.00000000000000E+000 1.10515881708653E+000 1.22121416069278E+000 1.34892649817459E+000 1.48893892310351E+000 1.64180240395245E+000 1.80799427050390E+000 1.98793206119471E+000 2.18198410146987E+000 2.39047772450816E+000 2.61370575675625E+000 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Now solve the same problem with a smaller tolerance, l.OOOE-OB: Lower limit of interval? 1 Upper limit of interval? 2 X value at t = 1.00000000E+00: Number of values to return (1-500)? 10 Tolerance (> 0, default = 1.000E-06)? 1E-8 Direct output to one of the following: {S)creen (P)rinter (F) il e Lower limit: Upper limit: Value of X at 1.0000: Tolerance: X t 1.00000000 1.12208941 1.20585321 1.29271260 1.38286653 1.47648998 1.57374241 1.67477301 1.77972398 1.88873280 2.00193373 1.00000000000000E+000 2.00000000000000E+000 1.00000000000000E+000 1.00000000000000E-008 1.00000000000000E+000 1. 12982837391732E+000 1.22836146826667E+000 1.33921121906568E+000 1.46405185209736E+000 1.60468229863568E+000 1.76304147973215E+000 1.94122165006705E+000 2. 14148082447423E+000 2.36625482837546E+000 2.61816928222327E+000 The exact solution is x= t 2 - t In(t) X(2) = 2.6137056 X(2.00193373) = 2.61B1693 In the first run, a solution could be approximated within tolerance with a spacing of 0.1. In the second run, the algorithm had to vary the spacing in order to approximate a solution within the tolerance. Initial Value and Boundary Value Methods 167 Solution to an Initial Value Problemfor a First-Order Ordinary Differential Equation Using the Adams-Bashforth/Adams-Moulton Predictor/Corrector Scheme (ADAMSJ..INC) Description This example approximates the solution to a first-order ordinary differential equation with a specified initial condition using the four-step Adams-Bashforth/AdamsMoulton formulas (Burden and Faires 1985, 238-247). Runge-Kutta methods are one-step methods, because each calculation uses information from only one previous point. The Adams' formulas use information from four previous points, thus the four-step method. Given a function of the form dx/dt = TNTargetF(t, x) which satisfies the conditions given at the beginning of this chapter, and an initial condition x[LowerLimit] = Xlnitial and spacing h = (UpperLimit - LowerLimit)/Numlntervals the fourth-order Runge-Kutta formula (see RUNGE_l.INC) is used to find approximations at the first three points in the interval [LowerLimit, UpperLimit]. Then the following explicit Adams-Bashforth formula: xJi + 1] = x[i] + h/24 * { 55 * TNTargetF(t[i], x[i]) * TNTargetF(t[i - 1], x[i -1]) + 37 * TNTargetF(t[i - 2], x[i - 2]) - 9 * TNTargetF(t[i - 3], x[i - 3]) } - 59 and the following implicit Adams-Moulton formula: x[i + 1] = x[i] + h/24 * { 9 * TNTargetF(t[i + 1], xJi + 1]) + 19 * TNTargetF(t[i], x[i]) - 5 * TNTargetF(t[i - 1], x[i -1]) + TNTargetF(t[i - 2], x[i - 2]) } approximate (predict) and refine (correct) all other points in the interval. 168 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox You must supply UpperLimit, LowerLimit, Xlnitial, Numlntervals, and TNTargetF. User-Defined Types TNvector = array[l •• TNArraySize] of Real; User- Defined Function TNTargetF(t, X : Real) : Real; dxldt = TNTargetF(t, x) Input Parameters LowerL imi t : Real; Lower limit of interval UpperLimit : Real; Upper limit of interval XInitial : Real; Value of X at LowerLimit NumReturn : Integer; Number of (t, x) values to be returned from the procedure NumInterva 1s : Integer; Number of subintervals to be used in calculations The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: 1. NumReturn > 0 2. Numlntervals ~ NumReturn 3. LowerLimit ~ UpperLimit Output Parameters TVal ues : TNvector; Values of t between the limits XVal ues : TNvector; Values of X determined at the values in TValues Error: Byte; 0: 1: 2: 3: No errors NumReturn < 1 Numlntervals < NumReturn LowerLimit = UpperLimit Initial Value and Boundary Value Methods 169 Syntax of the Procedure Call Adams(LowerLimit, UpperLimit, XInitial, NumReturn, NumIntervals,TValues, XValues, Error); The procedure Adams integrates the first-order differential equation TNTargetF. Comments This procedure will compute Numlntervals values in its calculations; however, you will rarely need to use the values. The vectors TValues and XValues will contain only NumReturn values at roughly equally spaced t-values between the lower and upper limits. (They will be equally spaced only when Numlntervals is a multiple of NumReturn.) Thus, you can ensure a highly accurate solution (by making Numlntervals large) without generating an excessive amount of output (by making NumReturn small). The Adams-Bashforth/Adams-Moulton method uses the New/Dispose procedures to manipulate the heap and should not be used in any program that uses Mark/Release to manipulate the heap. Warning: A stiff differential equation occurs when there are at least two very different scales of the independent variable on which the dependent variable(s) is 1OOx changing; for example, y = x + e- • The Adams-Bashforth/Adams-Moulton method may generate a numerical solution that bears no resemblance to the exact solution of the differential equation. This unstable numerical solution usually grows exponentially and may be oscillatory. However, if the exact solution of the differential equation grows as the independent variable increases, the instability may be difficult to detect. If a suspected instability has been encountered, reduce the interval size (Numlntervals). Sample Program The sample program ADAMS_l.PAS provides I/O functions that demonstrate the Adams-Bashforth/Adams-Moulton predictor/corrector method of solving initial value problems. Note that the file ADAMS_l.lNC is included after the function TNTargetF is defined. 170 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Example Problem. Solve the following initial value problem with the Adams-Bashforth/ Adams-Moulton method: X' = x/t + t - 1 l:5t:52 x(l) = 1 1. Code the differential equation into the program ADAMS_l.PAS: function TNTargetF{t, X : Real} : Real; {**************************************************************************} {**** THIS IS THE FIRST-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION ****} {**************************************************************************} begin TNTargetF := x/t + t - 1; end; { function TNTargetF } 2. Run ADAMS_l.PAS: Lower limit of interval? 1 Upper limit of interval? 2 X value at t = 1.00000000E+00: Number of values to return {1-500}? 10 Number of intervals {>= 10, default = 10}? 100 Direct output to one of the following: {S}creen (P}rinter (F) ile Lower limit: 1.00000000000000E+000 Upper limit: 2.00000000000000E+000 Value of X at 1~0000: 1.00000000000000E+000 Number of intervals: 100 t X 1.00000000000000E+000 1.10515880229293E+000 1.22121413201736E+000 1.34892645643801E+000 1.48893886904034E+000 1.64180233820416E+000 1.80799419362396E+000 1.98793197365806E+000 2. 18198400368348E+000 2.39047761682098E+000 2.61370563946811E+000 1.00000000 1.10000000 1.20000000 1.30000000 1.40000000 1.50000000 1.60000000 1.70000000 1.80000000 1.90000000 2.00000000 The exact solution is X x(2) = t t In(t) = 2.6137056 2 - Initial Value and Boundary Value Methods 171 Solution to an Initial Value Problem/or a Second-Order Ordinary Differential Equation Using the Runge-Kutta Metlwd (RUNGE....2.INC) Description This example approximates the solution to a second-order ordinary differential equation with specified initial conditions using the two variable Runge-Kutta formulas (Burden and Faires 1985, 261-269). Given a function of the form d2x/dt2 = TNTargetF(t, x, x') where x' indicates dx/dt (which satisfies the Lipshitz condition given at the beginning of this chapter), the initial conditions x[LowerLimit] x'[LowerLimit] = InitialValue = InitialDeriv and spacing h = (UpperLimit - LowerLimit)/Numlntervals rewrite the second-order differential equation as two, first-order differential equations: x' = y y' = TNTargetF(t, x, y) Then the fourth-order, two-variable Runge-Kutta method can be used to approximate simultaneously x and y (x and x'). The fourth-order Runge-Kutta formulas for these equations consist of the following: FIx Fly F2x F2y F3x F3y F4x F4y 172 = h * y[t] = h * TNTargetF(t, x[t], y[t]) = h * (y[t] + F1y/2) = h * TNTargetF(t + h/2, x[t] + F1x/2, y[t] + F1y/2) = h * (y[t] + F2y/2) = h * TNTargetF(t + h/2, x[t] + F2x/2, y[t] + F2y/2) = h * (y[t] + F3y) = h * TNTargetF(t + h, x[t] + F3x, y[t] + F3y) Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox * F2x + 2 * F3x + F4x)/6 + 2 * F2y + 2 * F3y + F4y)/6 x[t+ 1] = x[t] + (FIx + 2 y[t + 1] = y[t] + (Fly where t ranges from LowerLimit to UpperLimit in steps of h. These formulas give a truncation error of order h4 • You must supply LowerLimit, UpperLimit, Xlnitial, Numlntervals, and TNTargetF. User- Defined Types TNvector = array[l .. TNArraySize] of Real; User-Defined Function TNTargetF(t, 2 dx /dt 2 x, XPrime : Real) : Real; = TNTargetF(t, x, dx/dt) Input Parameters Lower limit of interval LowerLimit : Real; UpperLimit : Real; Upper limit of interval InitialValue: Real; Value of X at LowerLimit InitialDeriv : Real; Derivative of X at LowerLimit NumReturn : Integer; Number of (t, x) values returned from the procedure NumInterval s : Integer; Number of subintervals used in the calculations The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: 1. NumReturn > 0 2. Numlntervals;::= NumReturn 3. LowerLimit ~ UpperLimit Initial Value and Boundary Value Methods 173 Output Parameters TValues : TNvector; Values of t between the limits XV a1ues : TNvector; Values of X determined at the values in TValues XDeri vVa 1ues : TN vector ; Values of the first derivative of X determined at the values in TValues Error: Byte; 0: 1: 2: 3: No errors NumReturn < 1 Numlntervals < NumReturn LowerLimit = UpperLimit Syntax of the Procedure Call InitialCond2ndOrder(LowerLimit, UpperLimit, InitialValue, InitialDeriv, NumReturn, NumIntervals, TValues, XValues, XDerivValues, Error); The procedure InitialCond2ndOrder integrates the second-order differential equation TNTargetF. Comments This procedure will compute Numlntervals values in its calculations; however, you will rarely need to use all these values. The vectors TValues, XValues, and XDerivValues will contain only NumReturn values at roughly equally spaced t-values between the lower and upper limits. (They will be equally spaced only when Numlntervals is a multiple of NumReturn.) Thus, you can ensure a highly accurate solution (by making Numlntervals large) without generating an excessive amount of output (by making NumReturn small). Warning: A differential equation occurs when there are at least two very different scales of the independent variable on which the dependent variable(s) is changing; for example, y = x + e -IOOx. The Runge-Kutta method may generate a numerical solution that bears no resemblance to the exact solution of the differential equation. This unstable numerical solution usually grows exponentially and may be oscillatory. However, if the exact solution of the differential equation grows as the independent variable increases, the instability may be difficult to detect. If a suspected instability has been encountered, reduce the interval size (Numlntervals). 174 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Sample Program The sample program RUNGE-2.PAS provides I/O functions that demonstrate the Runge-Kutta method of solving initial value problems for second-order ordinary differential equations. Note that the file RUNGE-2.INC is included after the function TNTargetF is defined. Example Problem. A weight with mass m lies on a frictionless table and is connected to a spring with spring constant k: '4-Wall F( w) k m ~ . . It FnctlOn ess surlace If the weight is subject to a driving force F sin(oo t) (00 represents the frequency of the driving force and t is time), the equation of motion of the mass is as follows: m d2x/dt2 + k x = F sin(oo t) Given m = 2kg F=9N k = 32 N/m 00 = 5 cycles/sec x(O) = 0 m dx(O)/dt = -2.5 m/sec find the position and velocity of the block from t = 0 second to t = 2 seconds. 1. Rewrite the preceding second-order differential equation: d 2x/dt2 = F/m sin(oo t) - kim x Initial Value and Boundary Value Methods 175 2. Code this second-order differential equation into the program RUNGE--2.PAS: function TNTargetF(t : Real; X : Real; XPrime : Real) : Real; (*************************************************************************) (**** THIS IS THE SECOND-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION ****) (*************************************************************************) begin TNTargetF := 9/2 * Sin (5 * t) - 32/2 * x; end; { function TNTargetF } 3. Run RUNGE--2.PAS: Lower limit of interval? 0 Upper limit of interval? 2 Enter X value at t = O.OOOOOOOOE+OO: 0 Enter derivative of X at t = O.OOOOOOOOE+OO: -2.5 Number of values to return (1-500)? 10 Number of intervals (>= 10, default = 10)? 100 Direct output to one of the following: (S)creen (P)rinter (F) il e Lower 1imit: O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO Upper 1i mit: 2.00000000000000E+000 Value of X at 0.0000: O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO Value of X' at 0.0000: -2.50000000000000E+000 Number of intervals: 100 t 0.00000000 0.20000000 0.40000000 0.60000000 0.80000000 1.00000000 1.20000000 1.40000000 1.60000000 1.80000000 2.00000000 176 Value of X O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO -4.20735284275848E-001 -4.54648724216734E-001 -7.05605786993375E-002 3.78400378699554E-001 4.79461767300631E-001 1.39708469016311E-001 -3.28491796183335E-001 -4.94677974769030E-001 -2.06059519715175E-001 2. 72008842396951E-001 Derivative of X -2.50000000000000E+000 -1.35075642830665E+000 1.04036531118478E+000 2.47497991717220E+000 1.63411037473655E+000 -7.09151289407567E-001 -2.40042152228323E+000 -1.88475529635974E+000 3.63745224811839E-001 2.27781864414105E+000 2.09767516082021E+000 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox The exact solution is F sin{oo t) x=------- F., cos{oo t) dx/dt = - - - - - - 2 2 m (oo - (0 ) 0 where 000 2 00 = 0 is the natural frequency of the system kim The period of oscillation is given by t = 2 'Tr/oo = 1.257 sec The data is taken from a function of which the derivative could be computed exactly. Following are the actual values: t 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 Values of X O.OOOOOOOOOOOOE + 000 - 4.207354924039E - 001 - 4.546487134128E - 001 -7.056000402993E - 002 3.784012476539E - 001 4.794621373315E - 001 1.397077490994E - 001 - 3.284932993593E - 001 -4.946791233116E - 001 - 2.060592426208E - 001 2.720105554446E - 001 Initial Value and Boundary Value Methods Derivative of X - 2.500000000000E + 000 ...:. 1.350755764670E + 000 1.040367091367E + 000 2.474981241501E + 000 1.634109052159E + 000 -7.091554636580E - 001 - 2.400425716625E + 000 - 1.884755635858E + 000 3.637500845215E - 001 2.277825654711E + 000 2.097678822691E + 000 177 Solution to an Initial Value Problemfor an nth-Order Ordinary Differential Equation Using the Runge-Kutta Metlwd (RUNGE...N.INC) Description This example integrates an nth-order ordinary differential equation with specified initial conditions using the generalized Runge-Kutta formulas· (Burden and Faires 1985,261-269). Given a function of the form dnx/dt" = TNTargetF(t, x, x(l), ... , x(n-l») where xlJ> indicates dJx/dt J, which satisfies the general Lipshitz condition (the Lipshitz condition for first-order and second-order ordinary differential equations is given at the beginning of this chapter, and initial condition x[LowerLimit] = a 1 x(l)[LowerLimit] = a2 x(n-l)[LowerLimit] = an and spacing h = (UpperLimit - LowerLimit)/Numlnteroals rewrite the nth-order differential equation as n first-order differential equations: Y X(l) = X(2) = y(I)I = Y2 X(3) = y(I)2 = Y3 I x(n-I) X(n) = = (1) Y n-2 y(I)n_I = Yn - I = TNTargetF(t, x, YI' Y 2 , ... , Yn-I) Then the fourth-order general Runge-Kutta method can be used to approximate simultaneously the y's (x and its derivatives). 178 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox The general Runge-Kutta formulas for these equations consist of the following: * yJt] h * Yz[t] FIx = h FIY l = FIy z FIYn _ l lI _ F2x F2Y l = h * y _Jt] = h * TNTargetF(t, x[t], yJt], ... , yn_Jt]) = h * (yJt] + Fly/2) = h * (Yz[t] + Fly/2) lI F2y z = h * (yn_Jt] + FIy n_/2) F2Y n_l = h * TNTargetF(t + h/2, x[t] + Flx/2, yl[t] + Fly/2, ... , yn_Jt] + FIy n_/2) lI _ F3x = F3Yl = * (yJt] + F2y/2) h * (Yz[t] + F2y/2) h * (y _Jt] + F2y n_/2) h * TNTargetF(t + h/2, x[t] + F3YIl_2 = h F3Y l II _ F4x F4Yl = lI F2x/2, yJt] + F2y/2, ... , yn_Jt] + F2Yn_/2) = h * (yJt] + F3y) = h * (Yz[t] + F3yz) F4YIl_2 F4Y l = h * (ylI_Jt] + F3YII_) h * TNTargetF(t + h, x[t] + F3x, yJt] + F3y l, ... , yn_Jt] + F3YIl_) x[t + 1] = x[t] + (FIx + 2 yJt+ 1] = yJt] II _ = Y2[t+ 1] = Yz[t] YIl_2[t + 1] ylI)t+ 1] = = * F2x + 2 * F3x + F4x)/6 + (FlYl + 2 * F2Yl + 2 * F3Yl + F4y)/6 + (FIY 2 + 2 * F2y z + 2 * F3y z + F4Y z)/6 y 2[t] + (FIY 2 + 2 ylI_Jt] + (FIY"_l + 2 lI _ II _ * F2y n_z + 2 * F3Y n_2 + * F2Y II _l + 2 * F3Y l + II _ F4YIl_2)/6 F4y n_l)/6 where t ranges from LowerLimit to UpperLimit in steps of h. These formulas give a truncation error of order h-t. Initial Value and Boundary Value Methods 179 You must supply the order, limits, initial values, and TNTargetF. The order may be arbitrarily large. User-Defined Types TNvector = array[O •• TNRowSize] of Real; TNmatrix = array[O •• TNColumnSize] of TNvector; TNRowSize is an upper bound for the number of values returned for a particular variable (NumReturn). TNColumnSize is an upper bound for the order of the differential equation (Order). User-Defined Function TNTargetF(V : TNvector) : Real; The elements of V are defined as V[O] V[l] V[2] V[3] corresporids corresponds corresponds corresponds to t to x to first derivative of x to second derivative of x This is the differential equation: dnx/dt = TNTargetF(t, x, X(l), ... x(n-l») where n is the order of the equation. The procedure Initial Condition integrates this nth-order differential equation. Input Parameters Order: Integer; Order of the differential equation LowerLimit : Real; Lower limit of interval UpperLimit : Real; Upper limit of interval InitialValues : TNvector; Values of X and its derivatives at LowerLimit NumReturn : Integer; Number of (t, x, X(l), ... , X (n») values returned from the procedure NumInterval s : Integer; Number of subintervals used in the calculations 180 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: l. NumReturn > 0 2. Numlntervals 2: NumReturn 3. Order> 0 4. LowerLimit ~ UpperLimit Output Parameters SolutionValues : TNmatrix: Values of t, x and the derivatives of x between the limits Error: Byte: 0: 1: 2: 3: 4: No errors NumReturn < 1 Numlntervals < NumReturn Order < 1 LowerLimit = UpperLimit Syntax of the Procedure Call InitialCondition(Order, LowerLimit, UpperLimit, InitialValues, NumReturn, Numlntervals, SolutionValues, Error): Comments The first row of SolutionValues will be the values of t between the limits, the second row of SolutionValues will be the values of x between the limits, the third row of SolutionValues will be the values of X(l) between the limits, and so on. This procedure will compute Numlntervals values in its calculations; however, you will rarely need to use all those values. The rows of SolutionValues will contain only NumReturn values at roughly equally spaced t-values between the lower and upper limits. (They will be equally spaced only when Numlntervals is a multiple of NumReturn.) Thus, you can ensure a highly accurate solution (by making Numlntervals large) without generating an excessive amount of output (by making NumReturn small). There are no bounds on the order of the differential equation. Initial Value and Boundary Value Methods 181 This routine stores much information on the heap. If you try to solve a highorder differential equation very precisely (that is, both Order and Numlntervals are large), you may get run-time error $FF, Heap/Stack collision. If this happens, the dimension of TNvector and TNmatrix should be reduced as much as possible. If this is not possible, remove any RAM-resident software (for example, SideKick, SuperKey, or a print buffer). The Runge-Kutta method uses the New/Dispose procedures to manipulate the heap and should not be used in any program that uses Mark/Release to manipulate the heap. Warning: A stiff differential equation occurs when there are at least two very different scales of the independent variable on which the dependent variable(s) is changing; for example, y = x + e -100%. The Runge-Kutta method may generate a numerical solution that bears no resemblance to the exact solution of the differential equation. This unstable numerical solution usually grows exponentially and may be oscillatory. However, if the exact solution of the differential equation grows as the independent variable increases, the instability may be difficult to detect. If a suspected instability has been encountered, reduce the interval size (Numlntervals). Sample Program The sample program RUNGE_N.PAS provides I/O functions that demonstrate the Runge-Kutta method of solving initial value problems for high-order ordinary differential equations. Note that the file RUNGE-N.lNC is included after the function TNTargetF is defined. Example Problem. Find the solution to the following fourth-order ordinary differential equation from t = 0 to t = 1: 4 d x(t)/dt = - 4 x(t) d x(t)/dt 3 3 x(O) = 1 dx(O)/dt = - 1 2 2 d x(O)/dt = 2 3 3 d x(O)/dt = - 6 182 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox 1. Code the equation into the program RUNGE_N.PAS: function TNTargetF(V : TNvector) : Real; (***********************************************) (* THIS IS THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION *) (***********************************************) (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* dn x (1) = TNTargetF(t, x, x dt (n-1) , ..• x n where n is the order of the equation. The elements of V are defined: V[O] corresponds to t V[l] corresponds to X V[2] corresponds to 1st derivative of X V[3] corresponds to 2nd derivative of X *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) (***********************************************) begin TNTargetF := -4 * V[l] * V[4]; end; { function TNTargetF } 2. Run RUNGE-N.PAS: Order of the equation (1-10)? 4 Lower limit of interval? 0 Upper limit of interval? Enter X value at Derivative 1 of X at Derivative 2 of X at Derivative 3 of X at t t t t O.OOOOOOOE+OOO: 1 O.OOOOOOOE+OOO: -1 O.OOOOOOOE+OOO: 2 O.OOOOOOOE+OOO: -6 Number of values to return (1-100)? 10 Number of intervals (>= 10, default = 10)? 100 Direct output to one of the following: (S)creen (P)rinter (F) il e Lower limit: O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO Upper limit: 1.00000000000000E+000 Number of intervals: 100 Initial Value and Boundary Value Methods 183 Initial conditions at lower limit: X[l]= X[2]= X[3]= X[4]= t 0.00000000 0.10000000 0.20000000 0.30000000 0.40000000 0.50000000 0.60000000 0.70000000 0.80000000 0.90000000 1.00000000 t 0.00000000 0.10000000 0.20000000 0.30000000 0.40000000 0.50000000 0.60000000 0.70000000 0.80000000 0.90000000 1.00000000 t 0.00000000 0.10000000 0.20000000 0.30000000 0.40000000 0.50000000 0.60000000 0.70000000 0.80000000 0.90000000 1.00000000 t 0.00000000 0.10000000 0.20000000 0.30000000 0.40000000 0.50000000 0.60000000 0.70000000 0.80000000 0.90000000 1.00000000 184 1.00000000000000E+000 -1.00000000000000E+000 2.00000000000000E+000 -6.00000000000000E+000 Value X[l] 1.00000000000000E+000 9.09090909737517E-001 8.33333334189337E-001 7.69230770157394E-001 7.14285715280102E-001 6.66666667788519E-001 6.25000001337168E-001 5.88235295769619E-001 5.55555557625526E-001 5.26315792064849E-001 5.00000003213983E-001 Val ue X[2] -1.00000000000000E+000 -8.26446283273189E-001 -6.94444446826215E-001 -5.91715977923112E-001 -5.10204082090465E-001 -4.44444443661452E-001 -3.90624997971428E-001 -3.46020758007957E-001 -3.08641970911504E-001 -2.77008304743045E-001 -2.49999993429933E-001 Value X[3] 2.00000000000000E+000 1.50262961438149E+000 1. 15740742373768E+000 9.10332288053840E-001 7.28862989793594E-001 5.92592607536865E-001 4.88281263842229E-001 4.07083261374878E-001 3.42935540127152E-001 2.91587706310718E-001 2.50000010753535E-001 Value X[4] -6.00000000000000E+000 -4.09808076056272E+000 -2.89351855059016E+000 -2.10076680857258E+000 -1.56184925333600E+000 -1. 18518520443061E+000 -9.15527359078898E-001 -7. 18382215400418E-001 -5.71559223064178E-001 -4.60401631119694E-001 -3.75000005740567E-001 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox X[I] are X[2] are X[3] are X[4] are the the the the values values values values of x(t}. of dx(t}jdt. 2 of d 2x(t}jdt • 3 of d\(t}jdt • The exact solution is x(t} = (t+ Ifl dx(t}jdt = - (t + I}-2 d 2x(t}jdt2 = 2(t + I}-3 d3x(t}jdt3 = - 6(t + If4 x(I) = 0.5 dx(I}jdt = - 0.25 d2x(I}jdt2 = 0.25 d3x(I}jdt3 = - 0.375 Initial Value and Boundary Value Methods 185 Solution to an Initial Value Problem/or a System 0/ Coupled First-Order Ordinary Differential Equations Using the Runge-Kutta Metlwd (RUNGE-S1.INC) Description This example integrates a system of coupled first-order ordinary differential equations with specified initial conditions using the generalized Runge-Kutta formulas (Burden and Faires 1985, 261-269). Given m first-order ordinary differential equations in the form dx/dt dx/dt = TNTargetF1(t, Xl' X = TNTargetF2(t, Xl' X dx m Idt = TNTargetFm(t, Xl' X 2 2 ' ... , ' ... , 2 xJ xJ ' ... , Xm ) which satisfies the Lipshitz condition (the Lipshitz condition for first-order and second-order ordinary differential equations is given at the beginning of this chapter; consult the previous book reference for details of the Lipshitz condition for systems), and initial conditions xJLowerLimit] = a l xJLowerLimit] = a 2 x.JLowerLimit] = am and spacing h = (UpperLimit - LowerLimit)/Numlnteroals the fourth-order general Runge-Kutta method can be used to approximate simultaneously the xj's. 186 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox The general Runge-Kutta formulas for these equations are as follows: FIxl FIx2 FIx", F2xl = h * TNTargetFI(t, xl[t], x2[t], ... , x.Jt]) = h * TNTargetF2(t, xJt], x2[t], ... , x.Jt]) = h * TNTargetFm(t, xJt], x2[t], "', x.Jt]) = h * TNTargetFI(t + h/2, xl[t] + FIx/2, x2[t] + FIx/2, ... , x.Jt] + FIx,/2) F2x2 = h * TNTargetF2(t + h/2, xJt] + + FIx,/2) FIx/2, x2[t] + FIx/2, ... , x.Jt] F2x", = h * TNTargetFm(t + h/2, xJt] + FIx/2, x2[t] + FIx/2, ... , x.Jt] + FIx,/2) F3x l = h * TNTargetFI(t + h/2, xJt] + F2x/2, x2[t] + F2x/2, ... , x.Jt] + F2x,/2) F3x2 = h * TNTargetF2(t + h/2, xJt] + F2x/2, x2[t] + F2x/2, ... , x.Jt] + F2x,/2) F3x", = h * TNTargetFm(t + h/2, xl[t] + F2x/2, x2[t] + F2x/2, ... , x.Jt] + F2x rn /2) F4xl = h F3x l, x2[t] + F3x 2, ... , x.Jt] + F3x,J F4x2 = * TNTargetFI(t + h, xJt] + h * TNTargetF2(t + h, xJt] + F3x l, x2 [t] + F3x 2 , * TNTargetFm(t + h, xl[t] + F3x l, x2 [t] + F3x2, "', x.Jt] + F3x,,) F4x", = h ... , x.Jt] + F3x",) xJt + 1] = xl[t] + (FIx l + 2*F2x l + 2*F3x l + F4x)/6 xJt + 1] = x2 [t] + (FIx 2 + 2*F2x2 + 2*F3x2 + F4x 2 )/6 xm [t+ 1] = xm [t] + (FIx m + 2*F2x m + 2*F3xm + F4x m )/6 Initial Value and Boundary Value Methods 187 where t ranges from LowerLimit to UpperLimit in steps of h. These formulas give a truncation error of order h4 • You must supply the number of differential equations, the limits, initial values, and TNTargetF's. This procedure can solve a system of up to ten differential equations (see "Comments" for information about how to increase this limit). User-Defined Types TNvector .; array[O .. TNRowSize] of·Real; TNmatrix = array[O •• TNColumnSize] of TNvector; TNRowSize is an upper bound for the number of values returned for a particular variable (NumReturn). TNColumnSize is an upper bound for the number of differential equations (NumEquations). User-Defined Functions function TNTargetFl(V TNvector) Real; function TNTargetF2(V TNvector) Real; function TNTargetF3(V TNvector) Reali function TNTargetF4(V TNvector) Real; function TNTargetF5(V TNvector) Real; function TNTargetF6(V TNvector) Real; function TNTargetF7(V TNvector) Real; function TNTargetF8(V TNvector) Real; function TNTargetF9(V TNvector) Real; function TNTargetF10(V : TNvector) : Real; These are the differential equations: dx/dt = TNTargetFj(t, Xl' X 2 ' ... , x IO ) where j ranges from 1 to 10. 188 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox The elements of the vector V are defined as follows: V[O] = t V[l] = Xl V[2] = X2 V[10] = XlO The procedure defined in RUNGE_Sl.INC solves this system of coupled differential equations (a maximum of ten equations). All ten functions must be defined, even if your system contains less than ten equations. Input Parameters NumEquations : Integer; Number of first-order differential equations LowerL imi t : Real; Lower limit of interval UpperLimit : Real; Upper limit of interval InitialValues: TNvector; Values of Xl' X2 ' ... , at LowerLimit Xm NumReturn : Integer; Number of (t, procedure NumInterval s : Integer; Number of subintervals used in the calculations Xl' X2 ' ... , xJ values returned from the The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: l. NumReturn > 0 2. Numlntervals ~ NumReturn 3. NumEquations > 0 4. LowerLimit ~ UpperLimit Output Parameters SolutionValues : TNmatrix; Values oft, Error: Byte; 0: 1: 2: 3: 4: Xl' X2 ' ... xm between the limits No errors NumReturn < 1 Numlnteroals < NumReturn NumEquations < 1 LowerLimit = UpperLimit Initial Value and Boundary Value Methods 189 Syntax of the Procedure Call InitialConditionSystem(NumEquations, LowerLimit, UpperLimit, InitialValues, NumReturn, Numlntervals, SolutionValues, Error): Comments The first row of SolutionValues will be the values of t between the limits, the second row of SolutionValues will be the values of Xl between the limits, the third row of SolutionValues will be the values of x2 between the limits, and so on. All ten user-defined functions are called from the procedure. If your system has less than ten equations, you must still define all ten functions or the program will not compile. The superfluous functions should be defined as follows (TNTargetFIO is used as an example): funct;on TNTargetF10(V : TNvector} : Real; beg;n end: { function TNTargetF10 } If you need to solve a system with more than ten equations, then edit the include file RUNGE_Sl.lNC. The following line should be added to the end of procedure Step: F[ll] := Spacing * TNTargetFll(CurrentValues}; More statements (for F[12], and so on) may be added as necessary. All new functions (for example, TNTargetFll) must be defined in your top-level program. Note: Before making any changes to the include file, make sure you have a backup copy. This procedure will compute Numlntervals values in its calculations; however, you will rarely need to use these values. The rows of SolutionValues will contain only NumReturn values at roughly equally spaced t-values between the lower and upper limits. (They will be equally spaced only when Numlntervals is a multiple of NumReturn.) Thus, you can ensure a highly accurate solution (by making Numlntervals large) without generating an excessive amount of output (by making NumReturn small). This routine stores much information on the heap. If you try to accurately solve a large system (that is, if both NumEquations and Numlntervals are large), you may get run-time error $FF, Heap/Stack collision. If this happens, the dimension of TNvector and TNmatrix should be reduced as much as possible. If this is not possible, then remove any RAM-resident software (for example, SideKick, SuperKey, or a print buffer). 190 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox The Runge-Kutta method uses the New/Dispose procedures to manipulate the heap and should not be used in any program that uses Mark/Release to manipulate the heap. ·Warning: A stiff differential equation occurs when there are at least two very different scales of the independent variable on which the dependent variable(s) is changing; for example, y = x + e- 1OOx • The Runge-Kutta method may generate a numerical solution that bears no resemblance to the exact solution of the differential equation. This unstable numerical solution usually grows exponentially and may be oscillatory. However, if the exact solution of the differential equation grows as the independent variable increases, the instability may be difficult to detect. If a suspected instability has been encountered, reduce the interval size (Numlnter- vals). Sample Program The sample program RUNGE_S1.PAS provides I/O functions that demonstrate the Runge-Kutta method of solving initial value problems for systems of first-order ordinary differential equations. Note that the file RUNGE_S1.INC is included after the TNTargetF functions are defined. Example Problem. A weight with mass m lays on a frictionless table and is connected to a spring with spring constant k: ~Wall F( w) m k Frictionlts surface Initial Value and Boundary Value Methods 191 If the mass is subject to a driving force F sin(w t) (w represents the frequency of the driving force and t is time), the equation of motion of the mass is as follows: 2 m d xldt 2 +kx = F sin(w t) Given m = 2kg F=9N k = 32 N/m w = 5 cycles/sec x(O) = 0 m dx(O)/dt = - 2.5 m/sec find the position and velocity of the block from t = 0 second to t = 2 seconds. 1. Write the second-order ordinary differential equations as a system of two coupled first-order ordinary differential equations: dx/dt dx/dt =x = (F/m) sin(w t) 2 - (kim) Xl 2. Code these equations into the program RUNGE_Sl.PAS: funct;on TNTargetF1(V : TNvector) : Real; (**************************************************) (* THIS IS THE FIRST DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION *) (**************************************************) (* *) (* dx [1] *) (* ----- = TNTargetF1(t, x[1], x[2], ..• x[m]) *) (* dt *) (* *) (* The vector V is defined: *) (* V[O] = t *) (* V[1] = X[1] *) (* V[2] = X[2] *) (* *) (* *) (* *) (* V[m] = X[m] *) (* *) (* where m is the number of coupled equations. *) (**************************************************) beg;n TNTargetFl := V[2]; end; funct;on TNTargetF2{V 192 { function TNTargetF1 } TNvector): Real; Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox (**************************************************) (* THIS IS THE SECOND DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION *) (**************************************************) (* *) (* dx[2] *) (* TNTargetF2(t, x[l], x[2], ... x[m]) *) (* dt *) (* *) (* The vector V is defined: *) (* V[O] t *) (* V[l] X[l] *) (* V[2] X[2] *) (* *) (* *) (* *) (* V[m] X[m] *) (* *) *) (* where m is the number of coupled equations. (**************************************************) begin TNTargetF2 end; 9/2 * Sin(5 * V[O]) - 32/2 * V[l]; { function TNTargetF2 } := function TNTargetF3(V : TNvector) : Real; (**************************************************) (* THIS IS THE THIRD DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION *) (**************************************************) (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* dx[3] TNTargetF3(t, x[l], x[2], ..• x[m]) dt The vector V is defined: V[0] t V[l] V[2] X[l] X[2] V[m] X[m] *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) where m is the number of coupled equations. *) *) (**************************************************) begin end; { function TNTargetF3 } Functions TNTarget4 to TNTargetlO should be defined like the function TNTargetF3. Initial Value and Boundary Value Methods 193 3. Run RUNGE_S1.PAS: Number of first order equations: (1-10)? 2 Lower limit of interval? 0 Upper limit of interval? 2 Enter X[l] value at t = O.OOOOOOOOE+OO: 0 Enter X[2] value at t = O.OOOOOOOOE+OO: -2.5 Number of values to return (1-100)? 10 Number of intervals (> = 10, default=10)? 100 Direct output to one of the following: (S)creen (P)rinter (F) il e Lower limit: O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO Upper limit: 2.00000000000000E+000 Number of intervals: 100 Initial conditions at lower limit: X[l]= O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO X[2]= -2.50000000000000E+000 t 0.00000000 0.20000000 0.40000000 0.60000000 0.80000000 1.00000000 1.20000000 1.40000000 1.60000000 1.80000000 2.00000000 Value X[l] O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO -4.20735284275848E-001 -4.54648724216734E-001 -7.05605786993375E-002 3.78400378699554E-001 4.79461767300631E-001 1.39708469016311E-001 -3.28491796183335E-001 -4.94677974769030E-001 -2.06059519715175E-001 2.72008842396951E-001 t 0.00000000 0.20000000 0.40000000 0.60000000 0.80000000 1.00000000 1.20000000 1.40000000 1.60000000 1.80000000 2.00000000 Value X[2] -2.50000000000000E+000 -1.35075642830665E+000 1.04036531118478E+000 2.47497991717220E+000 1.63411037473655E+000 -7.09151289407567E-001 -2.40042152228323E+000 -1.88475529635974E+000 3.63745224811839E-001 2.27781864414105E+000 2.09767516082021E+000 X[l] are the values of x(t), the position. X[2] are the values of dx(t)/dt, the velocity. 194 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox The exact solution is F sin{w t) x=------- F", cos{w t) dxldt = ------m (wo where 2 wo Ulo 2 - ( 2 ) is the natural frequency of the system: = kim The period of oscillation is given by T = 2 -rrlw = 1.257 sec The data is taken from a function of which the derivative could be computed exactly. The actual values are as follows: t 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 - - Values of X O.OOOOOOOOOOOOE + 000 4.207354924039E - 001 4.546487134128E - 001 7.056000402993E - 002 3.784012476539E -001 4.794621373315E -001 1.397077490994E - 001 3.284932993593E - 001 4.946791233116E - 001 2.060592426208E - 001 2.720105554446E - 001 Initial Value and Boundary Value Methods Derivative of X - 2.500000000000E + 000 - 1.350755764670E + 000 1.040367091367E + 000 2.474981241501E + 000 1.634109052159E + 000 -7.091554636580E - 001 - 2.400425716625E + 000 - 1.884755635858E + 000 3.6375008452l5E - 001 2.277825654711E + 000 2.097678822691E + 000 195 Solution to an Initial Value Problemfor a System of Coupled Second-Order Ordinary Differential Equations Using the Runge-Kutta Metlwd (RUNGE-S2.INC) Description This example integrates a system of coupled second-order ordinary differential equations with specified initial conditions using the generalized Runge-Kutta formulas (Burden and Faires 1985,261-269), Given m coupled second-order ordinary differential equations of the form 2 2 d x/dt = TNTargetF1(t, 2 2 d x/dt = TNTargetF2(t, J X' J Xl' X'I' X2' X' 2' .. ,' Xm ' X' Xl' X'I' X 2' X' 2' .. " Xrn ' 2 2 d x",Idt = TNTargetFm(t, Xl' X'I' X2' X' 2' .. ,' X rn ' X' J where x') indicates dx/dt, which satisfies the Lipshitz condition (the Lipshitz condition for first-order and second-order ordinary differential equations is given at the beginning of this chapter; consult the previous book reference for details of the Lipshitz condition for systems), and initial condition xJLowerLimit] =a l xJLowerLimit] = am x' JLowerLimit] = hI X' 2[LowerLimit] = h2 . x'JLowerLimit] = hm and spacing h = (UpperLimit - LowerLimit)/Numlntervals 196 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox rewrite each of the second-order differential equations as two, first-order differential equations: dx/dt =Y I dy/dt = TNTargetFI(t, Xl' YI' X2' Y2, "', Xm ' dx/dt = Y2 yJ dx/dt = TNTargetF2(t, Xl' YI, X2' Y2, .. ,' Xm ' yJ dx)dt = Ym dx)dt = TNTargetFm(t, Xl' YI, X2' Y2' "', Xm' yJ Then the fourth-order general Runge-Kutta method can be used to approximate the xj's and the yj's simultaneously, The general Runge-Kutta formulas for these equations are as follows: Flxl = h * Yl * TNTargetFI(t, xl[t], yJt], x2[t], y2[t], "', xJt], yJt]) h * Y2 h * TNTargetF2(t, xJt], yJt], x2[t], y2[t], "', xJt], yJt]) FIY I = h Flx2 = FIY2 = Flxm = h * Ym FIY m = h * TNTargetFm(t, xJt], yJt], x2[t], y2[t], .. ,' xJt], yJt]) F2x1 = h * (YI + Fly/2) F2YI = h * NTargetFI(t + h/2, xJt] + Flx/2, yl[t] + Fly/2, x2[t] + Flx/2, Y2[t] + Fly/2, "', xJt] + Flx)2, yJt] + Fly)2) F2x2 = h * (Y2 + Fly/2) F2Y2 = h * NTargetF2(t + h/2, xJt] + Flx/2, yJt] + Fly/2, x2[t] + Flx/2, Y2[t] + Fly/2, .. ,' xJt] + Flx)2, yJt] + Fly)2) F2x m = h * (Yrn + Fly)2) F2Yrn = h * TNTargetFm(t + h/2, xl[t] + Flx/2, yl[t] + Fly/2, x2[t] + Flx/2, Y2[t] + Fly/2, "', x.Jt] + Flx,/2, y.Jt] + Fly,/2) Initial Value and Boundary Value Methods 197 * (Yl + F2y/2) F3Yl ::::: h * TNTargetFI(t + h/2, xl[t] + F2x/2, Yl[t] + F2y/2, X2[t] + F2x/2, Y2[t] + F2y/2, ... , xJt] + F2x)2, yJt] + F2y)2) F3x 2 ::::: h * (Y2 + F2y/2) F3Y2 ::::: h * NTargetF2(t + h/2, xJt] + F2x/2, Yl[t] + F2y/2, X2[t] + F2x/2, Y2[t] + F2y/2, ... , x)t] + F2x)2, yJt] + F2y)2) F3x l ::::: h * (Ym + F2y)2) h * TNTargetFm(t + F3x m ::::: h F3y", ::::: h/2, xl[t] + F2x/2, Yl[t] + F2y/2, X2[t] + F2x/2, Y2[t] + F2y/2, ... , x)t] + F2x)2, y)t] + F2y)2) * (Yl + F3Yl) h * TNTargetFI(t + F4xl ::::: h F4Yl ::::: h, xl[t] + F3x l, yJt] + F3Yl' X2[t] + F3x 2, Y2[t] + F3Y2' ... , X,Jt] + F3x"" yJt] + F3y,J * (Y2 + F3Y2) * TNTargetF2(t + h, xl[t] + F3x l, yJt] + + F3Y2' ... , X.Jt] + F3x"" y"Jt] + F3y,J F4x2 ::::: h F4Y2 ::::: h F3Yl' X2[t] + F3x 2, Y2[t] * (y", + F3y) h * TNTargetFm(t + F4x", ::::: h F4y", ::::: h, xJt] + F3x l, yJt] + F3Yl' X2[t] + F3x 2, Y2[t] + F3Y2' ... , X)t] + F3x"" y,Jt] + F3y) * F2xl + 2 * F3x l + F4x l)/6 + (FlYl + 2 * F2Yl + 2 * F3Yl + F4y)/6 + (Flx 2 + 2 * F2x2 + 2 * F3x2 + F4x2)/6 + (FlY 2 + 2 * F2Y2 + 2 * F3Y2 + F4Y2)/6 xJt + 1] ::::: xJt] + (Flx l + 2 yJt+ 1] ::::: yJt] x2[t + 1] ::::: x2[t] Y2[t + 1] ::::: Y2[t] * F2x + 2 * F3x + F4x )/6 yJt] + (Fly", + 2 * F2y", + 2 * F3y", + F4y,)/6 x [t + 1] ::::: xm [t] + (FIx m + 2 til yJt + 1] ::::: III til m where t ranges from LowerLimit to UpperLimit in steps of h. These formulas give a truncation error of order h4. 198 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox You must supply the number of equations, limits, initial values, and TNTargetF's. This procedure can solve a system of up to ten, second-order ordinary differential equations (see "Comments" for information about how to increase this limit). User-Defined Types TNData = record x : Real; xDeriv : Real; end; { TNData record} TNvector = array[O •• TNRowSize] of TNData; TNmatrix = array[O •• TNColumnSize] of TNvector; TNRowSize is an upper bound for the number of values returned for a particular variable (NumReturn). TNColumnSize is an upper bound for the number of secondorder differential equations (NumEquations). User- Defined Functions function TNTargetFl(V TNvector) Real; function TNTargetF2(V TNvector) Real; function TNTargetF3(V TNvector) Real; function TNTargetF4(V TNvector) Real; function TNTargetF5(V TNvector) Real; function TNTargetF6(V TNvector) Real; function TNTargetF7(V TNvector) Real; function TNTargetF8(V TNvector) Real; function TNTargetF9(V TNvector) Real; function TNTargetFIO(V : TNvector) : Real; Initial Value and Boundary Value Methods 199 Here are the differential equations: 2 d x/dl = TNTargetFj(t, Xl' X'I' X2 ' X' 2' ... , X IO ' X'1O) where j ranges from 1 to 10. The elements of the vector V are defined as follows: V[O].X V[l].x V[l].xDeriv V[2].x V[2].xDeriv =t = x[l] = x'[l] = x[2] = x ' [2] V[10].x = x[10] V[10].xDeriv = x ' [10] The procedure defined in RUNGE_S2.INC solves this system of coupled differential equations (a maximum of ten equations). All ten functions must be defined, even if your system contains less than ten equations. Input Parameters NumEquations : Integer; Number of second-order differential equations LowerLimit : Real; Lower limit of interval UpperLimit : Real; Upper limit of interval InitialValues : TNvector; Values of Xj'S and X'j'S at LowerLimit J values NumReturn : Integer; Number of (t, Xl' X'I' from the procedure NumInterval s : Integer; Number of subintervals used in the calculations 200 X2 ' X' 2' "', Xm ' X' returned Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: 1. NumReturn > 0 2. Numlntervals;::: NumReturn 3. NumEquations > 0 4. LowerLimit ~ UpperLimit Output Parameters SolutionValues : TNmatrix; Values oft, Error: Byte; Xi' and x'} between the limits 0: No errors 1: NumReturn < 1 2: Numlntervals < NumReturn 3: NumEquations < 1 4: LowerLimit = UpperLimit Syntax of the Procedure Call InitialConditionSystem2(NumEquations, LowerLimit, UpperLimit, InitialValues, NumReturn, Numlntervals, SolutionValues, Error); Comments ) The first row of SolutionValues will be the values of t between the . limits, the second row of Solution Values will be the values of Xl and XiI between the limits, the third row of Solution Values will be the values of x2 and x' 2 between the limits, and so on. All ten user-defined functions are called from the procedure. If your system has less than ten equations, you must still define all ten functions or the program will not compile. The superfluous functions should be defined as follows (TNTargetF10 is used as an example): function TNTargetFIO(V : TNvector) : Real; begin end; { function TNTargetFIO } Initial Value and Boundary Value Methods 201 If you need to solve a system with more than ten equations, then edit the include file RUNGE-S2.1NC. The following lines should be added to the end of procedure Step: F[ll].xDeriv := Spacing * CurrentValues[ll].xDeriv; F[ll].x := Spacing * TNTargetFll(CurrentValues); More statements (for F[12], and so on) may be added as necessary. All new functions (for example, TNTargetFll) must be defined in your top-level program. Note: Before making any changes to the include file, make sure you have a backup copy. The procedure will compute Numlntervals values in its calculations; however, you will rarely need to use these values. The rows of SolutionValues will contain only NumReturn values at roughly equally spaced t-values between the lower and upper limits. (They will be equally spaced only when Numlntervals is a multiple of NumReturn.) Thus, you can ensure a highly accurate solution (by making Numlntervals large) without generating an excessive amount of output (by making NumReturn small). This routine stores much information on the heap. If you try to accurately solve a large system (that is, both NumEquations and Numlntervals are large), you may get run-time error $FF, Heap/Stack collision. If this happens, the dimension of TNvector and TNmatrix should be reduced as much as possible. If this is not possible, then remove any RAM-resident software (for example, SideKick, SuperKey, or'a print buffer). The Runge-Kutta method uses the New/Dispose procedures to manipulate the heap and should not be used in any program that uses Mark/Release to manipulate the heap. Warning: A' stiff differential equation occurs when there are at least two very different scales of the independent variable on which the dependent variable(s) is changing; for example, y = x + e- 1oo The Runge-Kutta method may generate a numerical solution that bears no resemblance to the exact solution of the differential equation. This unstable numerical solution usually grows exponentially and may be oscillatory. However, if the exact solution of the differential equation grows as the independent variable increases, the instability may be difficult to detect. If a suspected instability has been encountered, reduce the interval size (Numlntervals). %. 202 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Sample Program The sample program RUNGE_S2.PAS provides I/O functions that demonstrate the Runge-Kutta method of solving initial value problems for systems of first-order ordinary differential equations. Note that the file RUNGE_S2.INC is included after the TNTargetF functions are defined. Example Problem.Two weights of mass m each hang from a pendulum of length l and are connected by a spring with spring constant k: Ceiling k ®-~ y UUUUUUUUUUUU X The equations of motion of these two masses are as follows: m m d 2x/dt2 = -m g x/I - k(x - y) 2 d y/de = -m g y/l + k(x - y) where g is the acceleration due to gravity, t is time, and x and yare the displacements of the two weights from their rest positions. Given m = 2kg k = 32 N/m 2 g = 9.8 m/sec l = 0.6l25 m x(O) = 1 m y(O) = -1 m dx(O)/dt = 0 m/sec dy(O)/dt = 0 m/sec Initial Value and Boundary Value Methods 203 find the positions and velocities of the two weights from t seconds. o second to t 2 1. Rewrite the equations of motion as shown here: d 2xldt2 = - g xll - klm(x - y) d2Yldt2 = - g yll + klm(x - y) 2. Code these equations into the program RUNGE_S2.PAS: function TNTargetFl(V : TNvector) : Real; (*******************************************************) THIS IS THE FIRST DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (* *) (*******************************************************) (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* d2 x[l] TNTargetFl(t, x[l], x'[l], x[2], x'[2], .•• , x [m], x' [m] dt 2 The elements of the vector V are defined: V[O].x = t V[l].x = X[l] V[l].xDeriv X'[l] V[2].x X[2] V[2] .xDeriv = X' [2] V[m].x V[m].xDeriv X[m] X'[m] where m is the number of coupled equations. *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) (*******************************************************) var t Real; begin t := v[O] .x; TNTargetFl .- -9.8 * V[1].x/O.6125 - 32/2 * (V[l].x - V[2].x); { function TNTargetFl } end; 204 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox function TNTargetF2(V : TNvector) : Real; (*******************************************************) (* THIS IS THE SECOND DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION *) (*******************************************************) (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* (* 2 d x[2] TNTargetF2(t, x[l], dt Xl [1], x[2], ... , x [m], x I [m] 2 The elements of the vector V are defined: V[O].x t V[l].x X[l] V[l].xDeriv X' [l] V[2].x X[2] V[2].xDeriv X' [2] V[m] .x V[m].xDeriv X[m] XI[m] where m is the number of coupled equations. Xl [2], *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) (*******************************************************) var t Real; begin t := v[O] .x; TNTargetF2 := -9.8 * V[2].x/O.6125 + 32/2 * (V[l].x - V[2].x); { function TNTargetF2 } end; Initial Value and Boundary Value Methods 205 function TNTargetF3(V : TNvector) : Real; (*******************************************************) (* THIS IS THE THIRD DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION *) (*******************************************************) (* (* 2 (* d x[3] (* TNTargetF3(t, x[l], x'[l], x[2], x'[2], (* ••• , x [m], x' [m] (* dt 2 (* (* (* The elements of the vector V are defined: (* V[O].x t (* V[l].x X[l] (* V[l].xDeriv X'[l] (* V[2].x X[2] (* V[2].xDeriv X'[2] (* (* (* (* V[m].x X[m] (* V[m].xDeriv X'[m] (* (* where m is the number of coupled equations. *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) *) ~) (*******************************************************) var t Real; begin end; { function TNTargetF3 } Functions TNTargetF 4 to TNTargetF10 should be defined like function TNTargetF3. 3. Run RUNGE_S2.PAS: Number of second order equations: (1-20)? 2 Lower limit of interval? 0 Upper limit of interval? Enter Enter Enter Enter X[l] X'[l] X[2] X'[2] value value value value at at at at t O.OOOOOOOOE+OO: t O.OOOOOOOOE+OO: t = O.OOOOOOOOE+OO: t = O.OOOOOOOOE+OO: 0.01 0.00 -0.01 0.00 Number of values to return (1-100)? 10 Number of intervals (>= 10, default=10)? 100 206 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Direct output to one of the following: (S)creen (P)rinter (F)ile Lower limit: O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO Upper limit: 1.00000000000000E+000 Number of intervals: 100 Initial conditions at lower limit: X[l]= 1.00000000000000E-002 X' [l]= O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO X[2]= -1.00000000000000E-002 X' [2]= O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO t 0.00000000 0.10000000 0.20000000 0.30000000 0.40000000 0.50000000 0.60000000 0.70000000 0.80000000 0.90000000 1.00000000 t 0.00000000 0.10000000 0.20000000 0.30000000 0.40000000 0.50000000 0.60000000 0.70000000 0.80000000 0.90000000 1.00000000 Value X[l] 1.00000000000000E-002 7.69447788485895E-003 1.84099813762452E-003 -4.86137387553900E-003 -9.32214486443693E-003 -9.48443369885917E-003 -5.27340834792187E-003 1.36920877108260E-003 7.38047758874091E-003 9.98857556718864E-003 7.99089728515028E-003 Value X[2] -1.00000000000000E-002 -7.69447788485895E-003 -1.84099813762452E-003 4.86137387553900E-003 9.32214486443693E-003 9.48443369885917E-003 5.27340834792187E-003 -1.36920877108260E-003 -7.38047758874091E-003 -9.98857556718864E-003 -7.99089728515028E-003 Deriv X[I] O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO -4.42511063153028E-002 -6.80978317847279E-002 -6.05443464988731E-002 -2.50735962983904E-002 2.19586991271007E-002 5.88657408762406E-002 6.86295294795966E-002 4.67479393932010E-002 3.31066873866277E-003 -4.16531651968366E-002 Deri v X[2] O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 4.42511063153028E-002 6.80978317847279E-002 6.05443464988731E-002 2.50735962983904E-002 -2.19586991271007E-002 -5.88657408762406E-002 -6.86295294795966E-002 -4.67479393932010E-002 -3.31066873866277E-003 4.16531651968366E-002 The weights move in opposite directions; the system is in one of its normal modes. The natural frequency 00 is given by the following: 0 00,,2 00" = gil + 2k/m = 6.928 cycles/sec Thus the period of oscillation, t, is t = 27r/ooo t = 0.9069 sec Initial Value and Boundary Value Methods 207 Solution to Boundary Value Problemfor a Second-Order Ordinary Differential Equation Using the Slwoting and Runge-Kutta Metlwds (SHOOT2.INC) Description This example uses the shooting method to approximate the solution to a secondorder ordinary differential equation with specified boundary conditions (Burden and Faires 1985,526-531). Given a second-order differential equation (Burden and Faires 1985, 261-269) of the form 2 2 d y/dx = TNTargetF(x, y, y') where y' represents dy/dx, which satisfies the conditions given at the beginning of this chapter, boundary conditions y[LowerLimit] = Lowerlnitial y[UpperLimit] = Upperlnitial and spacing h = (UpperLimit - LowerLimit)/Numlntervals and an initial approximation (guess) to the slope at LowerLimit y'[LowerLimit] = InitialSlope the shooting method first solves the second-order initial value problem (using the method described in RUNGE-2.1NC). Based on a comparison of the solution at UpperLimit with the boundary condition Upperlnitial, a new approximation to the slope at LowerLimit is made. In this way, a new "shot" at the solution is made by observing the result of the previous "shot." Subsequent iterations use information from two previous shots and the secant method (see Chapter 2, "Roots of a Function Using the Secant Method") to approximate the slope at LowerLimit. This process is repeated until the fractional difference between successive approximations to the boundary condition at UpperLimit is less than a specified tolerance. You must supply the LowerLimit, UpperLimit, LowerInitial, Upperlnitial, InitialSlope, Numlntervals, Tolerance, and TNTargetF. 208 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox User-Defined Types TNvector = array[l •• TNArraySize] of Real; User-Defined Function TNTargetF(x, y, yPrime : Real) : Real; cfy/dx2 = TNTargetF(x, y, dy/dx) The procedure S/woting integrates this second-order differential equation. Input Parameters LowerLimit : Real; Lower limit of interval UpperLimit : Real; Upper limit of interval LowerInitial : Real; Value of y at LowerLimit UpperInitial : Real; Value of y at UpperLimit InitialSlope: Real; Approximation to the slope at LowerLimit NumReturn : Integer; Number of (x, y, y') values returned from the procedure Tolerance: Real; Indicates accuracy in solution Max Iter : Integer; Maximum number of ilerations NumInterval s : Integer; Number of subintervals used in calculations The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: 1. NumReturn > 0 2. Numlntervals ~ NumReturn 3. LowerLimit;c UpperLimit 4. Tolerance > 0 5. Maxlter > 0 Initial Value and Boundary Value Methods 209 Output Parameters Iter: Integer: Number of iterations required to reach a solution XVal ues : TNvector: Values of x between the limits YValues : TNvector: Values of y determined at values in XValues YDerivValues : TNvector: Values of the first derivative of y determined at values in XValues Error: Byte: 0: No errors 1: NumReturn < 1 2: Numlntervals < NumReturn 3: LowerLimit = UpperLimit 4: Tolerance S 0 5: MaxIter S 0 6: Iter> MaxIter 7: Convergence not possible Syntax of the Procedure Call Shooting(LowerLimit, UpperLimit, LowerInitial, UpperInitial, InitialSlope, NumReturn, Tolerance, MaxIter, NumIntervals, Iter, XValues, YValues, YDerivValues, Error): Comments The parameter Tolerance can be misleading. The shooting method converges to the initial slope, which satisfies the upper boundary condition. Convergence is achieved when the fractional difference between Upperlnitial and the upper boundary approximation is less than Tolerance. This does not mean that every value between the boundaries has been approximated with the same degree of accuracy. To improve the accuracy of the entire approximation, increase the number of intervals. The example demonstrates the different effects of Tolerance and Numlntervals. The shooting algorithm will compute Numlntervals values in its calculations. However, you will rarely need to use all those values. The vectors XValues, YValues, and YDerivValues will contain only NumReturn values at roughly equally spaced t-values between the lower and upper limits. (They will be equally spaced only when Numlntervals is a multiple of NumReturn.) Thus, you can ensure a highly accurate solution (by making Numlntervals large) without generating an excessive amount of output (by making NumReturn small). 210 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Boundary value problems are notoriously difficult to solve. The shooting method is extremely sensitive to the approximation of the initial slope. If the shooting method does not converge onto a solution (Error 7), run the program with a different value of the initial slope InitialSlope. You may also alleviate some stability problems by solving the equation backwards (from UpperLimit to LowerLimit). Considerable trial and error may be involved before a solution is found. The Runge-Kutta method uses the New/Dispose procedures to m~nipulate the heap and should not be used in any program that uses Mark/Release for heap management. Warning: A stiff differential equation occurs when there are at least two very different scales of the independent variable on which the dependent variable(s) is 1OOx changing; for example, y = x + e • The shooting method may generate a numerical solution that bears no resemblance to the exact solution of the differential equation. This unstable numerical solution usually grows exponentially and may be oscillatory. However, if the exact solution of the differential equation grows as the independent variable increases, the instability may be difficult to detect. If a suspected instability has been encountered, reduce the interval size (Numlntervals). Sample Program The sample program SHOOT2.PAS provides I/O functions that demonstrate the shooting method of solving boundary value problems. Note that the file SHOOT 2.1NC is included after the function TNTargetF is defined. Example Problem. Use the nonlinear shooting method to solve the following boundary value problem: Y 1/ = 192 sqr(y/y') 0:5x:51 y(l) = 1 y(2) = 16 Initial Value and Boundary Value Methods 211 1. Code the differential equation into the program: function TNTargetF(x : Real; y : Real; yPrime : Real) : Real; (*******************************************************************) (* THIS IS THE SECOND-ORDER NONLINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION *) (*******************************************************************) begin TNTargetF end; := 192 * Sqr(y/yPrime); {function TNTargetF} 2. Run SHOOT2.PAS: Lower limit of interval? 0 Upper limit of interval? 1 Enter Y value at X = O.OOOOOOOOE+OO: 1 Enter Y value at X = 1.00000000E+00: 16 Enter a guess for the slope at X = O.OOOOOOOOE+OO (default=1.50E+01): 15 Number of points returned (1-500)? 10 Number of intervals (>= 10, default=10)? 10 Tolerance (> 0, default = 1.000E-06)? 1E-12 Maximum number of iterations (> 0, default 100)? 100 Direct output to one of the following: (S)creen (P) ri nter (F) il e Lower limit: O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO Upper limit: 1.00000000000000E+000 Value of Y at 0.0000: 1.00000000000000E+000 Value of Y at 1.0000: 1.60000000000000E+001 Initial slope at 0.0000: 1.50000000000000E+001 NumIntervals: 10 Tolerance: 1.000E-012 Maximum number of iterations: 100 212 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Number of iterations: X O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 1.00000000000000E-001 2.00000000000000E-001 3.00000000000000E-001 4.00000000000000E-001 5.00000000000000E-001 6.00000000000000E-001 7.00000000000000E-001 8.00000000000000E-001 9.00000000000000E-001 1.00000000000000E+000 6 Y Value 1.00000000000000E+000 1.46417721408153E+000 2.07370562259973E+000 2.85621262766442E+000 3.84170902091389E+000 5.06259931530967E+000 6.55368547624580E+000 8.35216836918581E+000 1.04976483580762E+001 1.30321255669365E+001 1.60000000000094E+001 Derivative of Y 4.00053795390884E+000 5.32386904044879E+000 6.91162114244397E+000 8.78752756627335E+000 1.09754927855527E+001 1.34994802016423E+001 1.63834750611955E+001 1.96514712240017E+001 2.33274661179548E+001 2.74354587043771E+001 3. 19994486182108E+001 Now solve the same problem using a smaller spacing, but with a greater tolerance: Lower limit of interval? 0 Upper limit of interval? 1 Enter Y value at X = O.OOOOOOOOE+OO: 1 Enter Y value at X = 1.00000000E+00: 16 Enter a guess for the slope at X = O.OOOOOOOOE+OO (default = 1.50E+01): 15 Number of points returned (1-500)? 10 Number of intervals (>= 10, default = 10)? 100 Tolerance (> 0, default = 1.000E-06)? 1E-6 Maximum number of iterations (> 0, default = 100)? 100 Direct output to one of the following: (S)creen (P)rinter (F) il e Lower 1i mit: O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO Upper 1i mit: 1.00000000000000E+000 Value of Y at 0.0000: 1.00000000000000E+000 Value of Y at 1.0000: 1.60000000000000E+001 Initial slope at 0.0000: 1.50000000000000E+001 NumIntervals: 100 Tolerance: 1.000E-006 Maximum number of iterations: 100 Initial Value and Boundary Value Methods 213 Number of iterations: X O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 1.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE-OOl 2.00000000000000E-OOI 3.00000000000000E-OOI 4.00000000000000E-OOI 5.00000000000000E-OOI 6.00000000000000E-OOI 7.00000000000000E-OOI 8.00000000000000E-OOI 9.00000000000001E-OOI 1.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 5 Y Value 1.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 1.46410005120828E+OOO 2.07360008576235E+OOO 2.85610011557157E+OOO 3.84160014547825E+OOO 5.06250017769403E+OOO 6.55360021337284E+OOO 8.35210025321451E+OOO 1.04976002977125E+OOl 1.30321003472617E+OOl 1.60000004022081E+OOl Derivative of Y 4.00000062625638E+OOO 5.32400035609946E+OOO 6.91200027103432E+OOO 8.78800025750412E+OOO 1.09760002747783E+OOl 1.35000003070170E+OOl 1. 63840003476283E+OOI 1.96520003937080E+OOl 2.33280004439140E+OOI 2.74360004976014E+OOI 3.20000005544507E+OOI The exact solution is y = (x X 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 + It Y Value 1.0000000000 1.4641000000 2.0736000000 2.8561000000 3.8416000000 5.0625000000 6.5536000000 8.3521000000 1.0497600000 1.3032100000 1.6000000000 Derivative ofY 4.000000000 5.324000000 6.912000000 8.788000000 1.097600000 1.350000000 1.638400000 1.965200000 2.332800000 2.743600000 3.200000000 Although the tolerance is smaller (that is, more exacting) in the first case, the accuracy of the approximation is greater in the second case. The spacing in the first case is too large to permit a more accurate approximation. 214 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Solution to a Boundary Value Problem/or a Second-Order Ordinary Linear Differential Equation Using the Linear Shooting and Runge-Kutta Methods (LINSHOT2.INC) Description This example uses the linear shooting method to approximate the solution to a second-order linear ordinary differential equation with specified boundary conditions (Burden and Faires 1985, 519-524). Given a second-order differential equation (Burden and Faires 1985, 261-264) of the form d2y/dx2 = TNTargetF(x, y, y') which is linear in both y and y', where y' represents dy/dx, and which satisfies the conditions given at the beginning of this chapter, boundary conditions y[LowerLimit] = Lowerlnitial y[UpperLimit] = Upperlnitial and spacing h = (UpperLimit - LowerLimit)/Numlntervals the shooting method solves the two initial value problems (see RUNGE-2.INC): y'[LowerLimit] y'[LowerLimit] =0 =1 y[LowerLimit] = Lowerlnitial y[LowerLimit] = Lowerlnitial (These values are particular to this implementation; any other nonidentical set of initial conditions will suffice.) Since neither of these initial values of y' is likely to be correct, the solutions generated are not likely to satisfy the boundary condition at Upperlnitial. However, because of the linearity of the equation, an appropriate linear combination of these two solutions will be a solution to the boundary value problem. The linear shooting method requires that only two initial value problems be solved, where the ordinary shooting method (SHOOT2.INC) requires that an unknown number of initial value problems be solved before the method converges to a solution. You must supply the LowerLimit, UpperLimit, Lowerlnitial, Upperlnitial, Numlntervals, and TNTargetF. Initial Value and Boundary Value Methods 215 User-Defined Types TNvector = array[l •• TNArraySize] of Real; User-Defined Function TNTargetF(x, y, yPrime : Real) : Real; 2 2 d y/dx = TNTargetF(x, y, dy/dx} The procedure LinearSlwoting integrates this second-order differential equation. Input Parameters LowerLimit : Real; Lower limit of interval UpperLimit : Real; Upper li.:nit of interval LowerInitial : Real; Value of y at LowerLimit UpperInitial : Real; Value of y at UpperLimit NumInterval s : Integer; Number of subintervals used in calculations Number of (x, y, y') triples returned from the procedure NumReturn : Integer; The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: 1. NumReturn > 0 2. Numlntervals;::: NumReturn 3. LowerLimit ~ UpperLimit Output Parameters XValues : TNvector; Values of x between the limits YVa 1ues : TN vector ; Values of y determined at values in XValues YDerivVal ues : TNvector; Values of the first derivative of y determined at values in XValues Error: Byte; 216 0: No errors 1: NumReturn < 1 2: Numlntervals < NumReturn 3: LowerLimit = UpperLimit 4: Equation not linear Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Syntax of the Procedure Call LinearShooting(LowerLimit, UpperLimit, LowerInitial, UpperInitial, NumReturn, Numlntervals, XValues, YValues, YDerivValues, Error); Comments If TNTargetF is a nonlinear function, the linear shooting algorithm will usually compute a solution (albeit an incorrect one) without returning an error message. Error 4 (nonlinear equation) will be returned in only a few cases where the two initial value problems happen to yield solutions with the same y-value at x = UpperLimit. The procedure will compute Numlntervals values in its calculations; however, you will rarely need to use these values. The vectors XValues, YValues, and YDerivValues will contain only NumReturn values at roughly evenly spaced intervals between the lower and upper limits. (They will be exactly evenly spaced only when Numlntervals is a multiple of NumReturn.) Thus, you can ensure a highly accurate solution (by making Numlntervals large) without generating an excessive amount of output (by making NumReturn small). The Linear Shooting/Runge Kutta method uses the New/Dispose procedures to manipulate the heap and should not be used in any program that uses Mark/ Release to manipulate the heap. Warning: A stiff differential equation occurs when there are at least two very different scales of the independent variable on which the dependent variable(s) is changing; for example, y = x + e - lOOx. The Runge-Kutta method may generate a numerical solution that bears no resemblance to the exact solution of the differential equation. This unstable numerical solution usually grows exponentially and may be oscillatory. However, if the exact solution of the differential equation grows as the independent variable increases, the instability may be difficult to detect. If a suspected instability has been encountered, reduce the interval size (Numlntervals). Initial Value and Boundary Value Methods 217 Sample Program The sample program LINSHOT2.PAS provides I/O functions that demonstrate the linear shooting method of solving boundary value problems. Note that the file LINSHOT2.1NC is included after the function TNTargetF is defined. Example Problem.Use the linear shooting method to solve the following boundary value problem: y" y(1) y(10) = y' /x - y/sqr(x) +1 1 =x S 10 1 76.974149 1. Code the differential equation into the program LINSHOT2.PAS: funct;on TNTargetF(x : Real; y : Real; yPrime : Real) : Real; (***************************************************************) THIS IS THE SECOND-ORDER DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION (* *) (***************************************************************) beg;n TNTargetF := yPrime/x - y/Sqr(x) + 1; end; { function TNTargetF } 2. Run LINSHOT2.PAS: Lower limit of interval? 1 Upper limit of interval? 10 Enter Y value at X = 1.00000000E+00: 1 Enter Y value at X = 1.00000000E+01: 76.974149 Number of points returned (1-500)? 9 Number of intervals (>= 9, default = 9)? 9 Direct output to one of the following: (S)creen (P)rinter (F)ile Lower limit: 1.00000000000000E+00 Upper limit: 1.00000000000000E+01 Value of Y at 1.0000: 1.00000000000000E+00 Value of Y at 10.0000: 7.69741490000000E+01 NumIntervals: 9.00000000000000E+00 218 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Y Value 1.00000000000000E+000 2.61170356138588E+000 5.70207271413620E+000 1.04528257144925E+001 1.69509897305375E+001 2.52478687612139E+001 3.53773649984557E+001 4.73635728977226E+001 6. 12245068576119E+001 7.69741490000000E+001 X 1.00000000000000E+000 2.00000000000000E+000 3.00000000000000E+000 4.00000000000000E+000 5.00000000000000E+000 6.00000000000000E+000 7.00000000000000E+000 8.00000000000000E+000 9.00000000000000E+000 1.00000000000000E+001 Derivative of Y 1.00042467674563E+000 2.30627678512124E+000 3.90115296191831E+000 5.61367861126495E+000 7.39067355864438E+000 9.20845513089500E+000 1.10543869346579E+001 1.29209245920937E+001 1.48032011472994E+001 1.66978931711222E+001 Now solve the same problem with a spacing of only 0.1: Lower limit of interval? 1 Upper limit of interval? 10 Enter Y value at X = 1.00000000E+00: 1 Enter Y value at X = 1.00000000E+01: 76.974149 Number of pOints returned (1-500)? 9 Number of intervals (>= 9, default = 9)? 90 Direct output to one of the following: (S)creen (P)rinter (F) 11 e Lower limit: Upper limit: Value of Y at 1.0000: Value of Y at 10.0000: NumIntervals: 1.00000000000000E+00 1.00000000000000E+01 1.00000000000000E+00 7.69741490000000E+01 9.00000000000000E+01 X 1.00000000000000E+000 2.00000000000000E+000 3.00000000000000E+000 4.00000000000000E+000 5.00000000000000E+000 6.00000000000000E+000 6.99999999999999E+000 7.99999999999999E+000 8.99999999999999E+000 9.99999999999998E+000 Y Value 1.00000000000000E+000 2.61370547174514E+000 5.70416298088411E+000 1.04548224122436E+001 1.69528103026793E+001 2.52494430584438E+001 3.53786288412165E+001 4.73644675641047E+001 6.12249787166508E+001 7.69741490000000E+001 Derivative of Y 1.00000001942594E+000 2.30685275847028E+000 3.90138768358927E+000 5.61370562650429E+000 7.39056208402440E+000 9.20824053324639E+000 1.10540898579729E+001 1.29205584690303E+001 1.48027754364805E+001 1.66974149235206E+001 The exact solution is = x * x - x * In(x) y(l) = 1 y(10) = 7.6974149 y y'(l) = 1 y'(10) = 16.6974149 The second approximation is more accurate. Initial Value and Boundary Value Methods 219 220 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox c H A p T E R 9 Least-Squares Approximation Given a set of data points, this chapter provides routines to model the data with a function of a given type. The most common application of this concept is linear regression. With linear regression, there is some control variable, say X, and some observed variable, say Y. X and Yare known or suspected to have some linear relationship, say Y=a*X+b but the parameters a and b are unknown. Usually there is some experimental error or some other nonlinear influence on Y, so that there are no values of a and b for which the preceding equation holds exactly. The method of regression provides a formula for a and b in terms of the values of X and Y such that the error is minimized. The error is the sum of squares of the errors (a * X + b - Y) on each data point. Except in certain unusual cases, there is exactly one value for a and one value for b that makes this sum of squares the least possible. This is called the least-squares solution. This concept of least squares also applies' when more variables are presentthen it is often called multiple regression. Using this method, you can find the best model for a given set of data that is linear in a given set of other data sets or functions. Models that are nonlinear variables can also be treated as long as the unknown parameters appear linearly. 221 Least-Squares Approximation (LEAST.INC) Description This model provides a method for finding a least-squares approximation (Cheney and Kincaid 1985, 362--387) to a set of data points (x, y). The approximation must be a linear combination of a set of basis vectors. The functional form of the approximation (polynomial, logarithmic, and so on) is therefore determined by the user, as long as it is represented linearly. (How to represent logarithmic, and other functions linearly is discussed later.) Given a set of m data points (x, y), an m X n matrix (m ;::: n), A, is constructed, where n is the number of basis vectors in the approximation. The elements of the matrix are A[i,j] = V/X j ) where ~(X) is the jth basis vector evaluated at the data value Xli]. A vector Y is constructed that contains the y-values of the data points. The coefficients of the basis vectors that form the least-squares approximation will be the n vector C, such that the Euclidean norm of(AC - Y) (represented by II AC - Y liz) is a minimum. This requirement is converted to the requirement that be a minimum. Here B is an n X n matrix, Z is an n vector, and R is an (m - n) vector. The equations BC = Z are the normal equations. The previous expression will be minimized when C solves the equation Be = Z. Gaussian elimination with partial pivoting (see Chapter 6, "Solving a System of Linear Equations with Gaussian Elimination and Partial Pivoting") is used to solve the normal equations. The goodness offit is indicated by the standard deviation: S.D. = ((Y[i] - F(X[i]))z/(m - n))I/Z where F(X[i]) is the least-squares solution at the point Xli], (Y[i] - F(X[i])) is the residual, and (m - n) is the degree of freedom of the fit. 222 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox User-Defined Types TNColumnVector = array[l .. TNColumnSize] of Real; TNRowVector = array[l .. TNRowSize] of Real; (TNColumnSize will usually be much larger than TNRowSize.) TNmatrix = array[l .. TNColumnSize] of TNRowVector; TNSquareMatrix = array[l .. TNRowSize] of TNRowVector; TNString40 = str1ng[40]; Input Parameters NumPoi nts : Integer; Number of data points XOata : TNCol umnVector; X coordinates of the data points YOata : TNRowVector; Y coordinates of the data points NumTerms : Integer; Number of terms in the least-squares approximation The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: 1. NumPoints > 1. 2. NumTerms:5 NumPoints. 3. NumPoints:5 TNColumnSize. 4. NumTerms:5 TNRowSize. 5. The XData points cannot all be identical. TNColumnSize and TNRowSize set an upper bound on the number of elements in a vector. Neither of these identifiers are variable names and are never referenced by the procedure. If conditions 3 or 4 are violated, the program will crash with an Index Out of Range error (assuming the directive {$R +} is active). Least-Squares Approximation 223 Output Parameters So 1ut ion: TNRowVector; Coefficients of the basis vectors that form the leastsquares approximation YFit : TNColumnVector; Values of the least-squares fit evaluated at the XData values Res i dua 1s : TN Co 1umnVector; Difference between YData and YFit values StandardDevi ation : Real; Square root of the variance-indicates the goodness of fit Error: Byte; 0: 1: 2: 3: 4: No error NumPoints < NumTerms < NumTerms > Least-squares ments") 2 1 NumPoints solution does not exist (see "Com- Syntax of the Procedure Call LeastSquares(NumPoints, XData, YData, NumTerms, Solution, YFit, Residuals, StandardDeviation, Error); Comments The least-squares routine is kept in two modules (include files). One is called LEAST.lNC and must always be included in your top-level program. The choice of the second module will depend upon the functional form (basis vectors) to which you fit the data. Following are the five basis modules included in this package: POLY.LSQ This module uses Chebyshev polynomials to fit a polynomial to the data points. NumTerms must be one greater than the degree of the polynomial (for example, to fit a fourth-degree polynomial, input NumTerms = 5). To get a straight-line leastsquares fit, use this module and fit a curve with only two coefficients. The elements of the Solution vector will be as follows: Solution[j] = aJ 1 s j S NumTerms where a. is the coefficient of Xl-I. } 224 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox FOURIER.LSQ This module will fit a finite Fourier series to the data points. The number of terms in the approximation will be NumTerms. The elements of the Solution vector will be as follows: Solution[j] = Fj _ 1 1 :5 j :5 NumTerms where Fj _ 1 is the (j - l)th term in the Fourier series. Following are the first few terms in the Fourier series: F[O] = 1 F[l] = cos{x) F[2] = sin{x) F[3] = cos{2x) = sin{2x) F[5] = cos{3x) F[6] = sin{3x) F[4] POWER.LSQ This module will fit the function y = al where a and b are real numbers to the data points. A linear equation is obtained by taking the log of both sides, like so: In{y) = In{a) + b * In{x) and expanding on basis vectors 1 and In{x). The x-values of the data points must all be positive, and the y-values of the data points must all have the same sign. The number of coefficients in the approximation will be two regardless of the value of NumTerms (unless NumTerms > NumPoints, in which case Error 3 will occur). The elements of the Solution vector will be as follows: Solution[l] Solution[2] =a =b EXP.LSQ This module will fit the function y = aebx where a and b are real numbers to the data points. A linear equation is obtained by taking the log of both sides, like so: In{y) = In{a) + bx Least-Squares Approximation 225 and expanding on basis vectors 1 and. x. The y-values of the data points must all have the same sign. The number of coefficients in the approximation will be two regardless of the value of NumTerms (unless NumTerms > NumPoints, in which case Error 3 will occur). The elements of the Solution vector will be as follows: Solution[l] Solution[2] =a =b WG.LSQ This module will fit the function y = a In(bx) where a and b are real numbers to the data points. A linear equation is obtained by rewriting the equation: y = a In(b) + a In(x) and expanding on basis vectors 1 and In(x). The x-values of the data points must all have the same sign. The number of coefficients in the approximation will be two regardless of the value of NumTerms (unless NumTerms > NumPoints, in which case Error 3 will occur). The elements of the Solution vector will be as follows: Solution[l] Solution[2] =a =b USERLSQ This module is included if you need a least-squares approximation on a set of basis vectors different from the ones listed earlier. This module allows you to create your own set of basis vectors. The source code contains detailed instructions of how to flesh out the skeleton contained in USER.LSQ. A least-squares solution may not exist for some input data and choice of basis vectors (Error 4). The reasons for this will depend on the module you are using. For example, it is impossible to fit an exponential function (module EXP.LSQ) to data with y-values of differing signs; Error 4 will occur if you try. The same data could be fit with a polynomial and no error would result. Error 4 will also occur if all the x-values of the data are identical. 226 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Sample Program The demonstration program LEAST.PAS contains I/O routines that allow you to run the least-squares approximation routine. Note that there are two include commands: {$I POLY.LSQ} (* load the basis vectors *) {$I LEAST. INC} (* load procedure LeastSquares *) The LEAST.lNC file must always be included after the basis module. To change the basis vectors of the approximation, simply load a different basis module with the first INCLUDE command. Input Files Data may be entered from a text file. The x- and y-coordinates should be separated by a space and followed by a carriage return. For example, data values of sqr(x) could be entered in a text file as 11 24 39 416 525 Example Problem. Given the following data (contained in the file SAMPLE9A.DAT), fit a fourth-degree polynomial and a logarithmic function to the data: O.oooooooOOOOOOOE+OO 0.10000000000000E+00 0.20000000000000E+00 0.30000000000000E+00 0.40000000000000E+00 0.02000000000000E+00 0.04000000000000E+00 0.06000000000000E+00 0.08000000000000E+00 0.12000000000000E+00 0.14000000000000E+00 0.16000000000000E+00 0.18000000000000E+00 0.22000000000000E+00 0.24000000000000E+00 0.26000000000000E+00 0.28000000000000E+00 0.32000000000000E+00 0.34000000000000E+00 0.36000000000000E+00 0.38000000000000E+00 1.33830225764886E-03 4.43184841193803E-02 5.39909665131879E-01 2.41970724519143E+00 3.98942280401433E+00 2.91946925791461E-03 6.11901930113775E-03 1.23221916847303E-02 2. 38408820146486E-02 7.91545158298001E-02 1.35829692336855E-01 2.23945302948430E-01 3.54745928462313E-01 7.89501583008939E-01 1.10920834679455E+00 1.49727465635745E+00 1.94186054983213E+00 2.89691552761483E+00 3.33224602891800E+00 3.68270140303323E+00 3.91042693975456E+00 Least-Squares Approximation 227 (The function is the left-hand side of a Gaussian distribution curve with mean = 0.5 and standard deviation = 0.1.) Note that the points do not have to be in any particular order. First fit the polynomial; include the proper include files in the LEAST. PAS program. {$I POLY.LSQ} {$I LEAST. INC} (* (* load the basis vectors *) load procedure LeastSquares *) Run LEAST.PAS: (K)eyboard or (F)ile entry of data? F File name? SAMPLE9A.DAT Number of terms in the least squares fit «= 21)? 5 Direct output to one of the following: (S)creen (P)rinter (F) il e The Data Points: X Y 0.200 0.300 0.400 0.500 0.100 0.120 0.140 0.160 0.180 0.220 0.240 0.260 0.280 0.320 0.340 0.360 0.380 0.420 0.440 0.460 0.480 0.0443185 0.5399097 2.4197072 3.9894228 0.0013383 0.0029195 0.0061190 0.0123222 0.0238409 0.0791545 0.1358297 0.2239453 0.3547459 0.7895016 1.1092083 1.4972747 1.9418605 2.8969155 3.3322460 3.6827014 3.9104269 *----------------------------------------* Polynomial Least Squares Fit *----------------------------------------* 228 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Coefficients in least squares approximation: Coefficient 0: -3.1905595419E+00 Coefficient 1: 6.4048009604E+Ol Coefficient 2: -4.3900537685E+02 Coefficient 3: 1.2058567475E+03 Coefficient 4: -1.0523352671E+03 X 0.2000 0.3000 0.4000 0.5000 . 0.1000 0.1200 0.1400 0.1600 0.1800 0.2200 0.2400 0.2600 0.2800 0.3200 0.3400 0.3600 0.3800 0.4200 0.4400 0.4600 0.4800 Residual -2.2373626436E-02 7.6662774545E-03 3.1257630399E-03 5.3817492408E-02 -7.6527431486E-02 3.6112933365E-02 7.0143196038E-02 5.5792952845E-02 1.8324176377E-02 -5.2208040084E-02 -6.3208813842E-02 -5.3567238538E-02 -2.7158863898E-02 4.0130211675E-02 5.9792402863E-02 5.9613312500E-02 3.8597096373E-02 -3.3819213604E-02 -5.5957173721E-02 -4.9290447012E-02 -9.0049664504E-03 Least Squares Fit 2.1944857683E-02 5.4757594258E-Ol 2.4228330082E+00 4.0432402964E+00 -7.5189129229E-02 3.9032402623E-02 7.6262215339E-02 6.8115144530E-02 4.2165058391E-02 2.6946475745E-02 7.2620878494E-02 1.7037806441E-Ol 3.2758706456E-Ol 8.2963179468E-Ol 1. 1690007497E +00 1.5568879689E+00 1.9804576462E+00 2.8630963140E+00 3.2762888552E+00 3.6334109560E+00 3.9014219733E+00 Standard Deviation: 5.381534E-02 The fourth-degree polynomial that best fits this data is as follows: y = -1052.34 X4 + 1205.86l - 439.005 x2 + 64.0480 x - 3.19056 Note that a fourth-degree polynomial requires five terms in the fit. Now fit the logarithmic function; include the proper include files in the LEAST. PAS program. {$I LOG.LSQ} {$I LEAST.INC} (* load the basis vectors *) (* load procedure LeastSquares *) Run LEAST. PAS: {K)eyboard of {F)ile entry of data? F File name? SAMPLE9A.DAT Number of terms in the least squares fit (<= 21)? 2 Least-Squares Approximation 229 Direct output to one of the following: (S)creen (P)rinter (F) il e The Data Points: X y 0.200 0.300 0.400 0.500 0.100 0.120 0.140 0.160 0.180 0.220 0.240 0.260 0.280 0.320 0.340 0.360 0.380 0.420 0.440 0.460 0.480 0.0443185 0.5399097 2.4197072 3.9894228 0.0013383 0.0029195 0.0061190 0.0123222 0.0238409 0.0791545 0.1358297 0.2239453 0.3547459 0.7895016 1.1092083 1.4972747 1. 9418605 2.8969155 3.3322460 3.6827014 3.9104269 *----------------------------------------* Logarithmic Least Squares Fit *----------------------------------------* 230 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Coefficients in least squares approximation: Coefficient 0: 2.5984092387E+00 Coefficient 1: 6.0253489685E+00 X 0.2000 0.3000 0.4000 0.5000 0.1000 0.1200 0.1400 0.1600 0.1800 0.2200 0.2400 0.2600 0.2800 0.3200 0.3400 0.3600 0.3800 0.4200 0.4400 0.4600 0.4800 Least Squares Fit 4.8470072529E-01 1.5382650082E+00 2.2857807630E+00 2.8655990283E+00 -1.3163793125E+00 -8.4263329487E-01 -4.4208674425E-01 -9.5117540004E-02 2.1093098801E-01 7.3235557703E-01 9.5844674288E-01 1. 1664304540E+00 1.3589932935E+00 1.7059624977E+00 1.8634900752E+00 2.0120110257E+00 2.1524997930E+00 2.4125575764E+00 2.5334356148E+00 2.6489394853E+00 2.7595267806E+00 Residual 4.4038224117E-01 9.9835534304E-01 -1.3392648216E-01 -1.1238237757E+00 -1.3177176147E+00 -8.4555276412E-01 -4.4820576355E-01 -1.0743973169E-01 1.8709010600E-01 6.5320106120E-01 8.2261705054E-01 9.4248515104E-01 1.0042473650E+00 9.1646091473E-01 7.5428172837E-01 5.1473636940E-01 2.1063924317E-01 -4.8435795124E-01 -7.9881041414E-01 -1.0337619177E+00 -1.1509001591E+00 Standard Deviation : 8.320742E-01 The logarithmic function that bests fits this data is as follows: y = 2.59841 * In(6.02535x) The standard deviation of the polynomial fit is much smaller than that of the logarithmic fit; a fourth-degree polynomial fits this data much better than a logarithmic function. Least-Squares Approximation 231 232 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox c H A p T E R 10 Fast Fourier Transform Routines Fourier transforms are used to analyze periodic phenomena such as waves. A continuous functionfthat has period 2'TT (= 2 * 3.14159265...); that is, satisfies f(x + 2'TT) = f(x) for all x, can be decomposed into sines and cosines: f(x) = a[O] + a[l] * cos(x) + b[l] + b[2] * sin(2x) + ... * sin(x) + a[2] * cos(2x) This is an infinite series where the coefficients get closer and closer to zero. The routines in this chapter can be used to calculate the coefficients. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) is a particular algorithm for computing Fourier transforms efficiently. This chapter includes two kinds of units. One group consists of four variations of the FFT method of calculating discrete Fourier transforms (FFTB2.INC, FFT B4.INC, FFT87B2.INC, FFT87B4.INC), each optimized for certain conditions. All are variations of the original Cooley-Tukey method. The second group consists of six applications (COMPFFT.INC, REALFFT.INC, COMPCNVL.lNC, REAL CNVL.INC, COMPCORR.INC, REALCORR.INC) that can each be used with any of the FFT methods. You can select the FFT method most appropriate to the circumstances and combine it with the appropriate application or integrate it into another program (Brigham 1974; Nussbaumer 1982). In each FFT unit the procedure calls have exactly the same form (although there are different restrictions on the data) so that anyone FFT unit can be combined 233 with any of the application units without rewriting code. Each of these algorithms will compute either a forward or an inverse transform. Each unit contains two procedures needed to prepare for the FFf calculation: procedure Testlnput and procedure MakeSinCosTable. TestInput examines the input data to ensure that it satisfies certain conditions (for example, that there is more than 1 data point). MakeSinCosTable precalculates a table of the nth roots of unity for look up in the FFf calculation. FFfB2.1NC contains a procedure that implements the Cooley-Tukey powers-of two (radix 2 or base 2) Fast Fourier Transforms. It is optimized to reduce the number of real multiplications by taking advantage of the symmetries of certain roots of unity and by using a complex multiplication that requires three real multiplications and three real additions. This algorithm is appropriate when the time for real multiplications is significantly greater than the time for real additions; for example, when running on an 8088 machine with no numeric coprocessor. FFf87B2.1NC implements the same algorithm as FFTB2.1NC. The difference is that the complex multiplications are done with four real multiplications and two real additions. By using this standard form of complex multiplication, storage overhead and assignment statements are reduced. This algorithm is appropriate when the time for a real multiplication is close to the time for a real addition; for example, when running an 8088 machine with an 8087 numeric coprocessor, or an 80286 machine with an 80287 numeric coprocessor. Standard Turbo Pascal uses 6-byte reals; Turbo-87 Pascal (which utilizes the 8087 coprocessor) uses 8-byte reals. Consequently, given the same amount of memory, more data points can be manipulated in Turbo Pascal than in Turbo-87 Pascal. Both FFfB2.INC and FFf87B2.1NC require the number of data points to be a power of two up to a maximum of 4,096 points when in Turbo-87, or 8,192 points when in standard Turbo Pascal. FFfB4.1NC and FFf87B4.1NC implement powers-offour (radix 4 or base 4) Fast Fourier Transforms. The powers-of-four method is the same as the CooleyTukey algorithm except at each stage of reduction a given transform is converted into four transforms each with one fourth the data points of its predecessor (Nussbaumer 1982). When this algorithm is optimized, there are about 25 percent fewer multiplications and slightly fewer additions than in a radix-2 algorithm. The algorithm has the disadvantage of only being applicable to data sets where the number of points is a power of four up to a maximum of 4,096 points whether in Turbo-87 or standard Turbo. A reduction in execution time of about 20 percent is accomplished when FFfB4.1NC or FFf87B4.1NC is used over its B2 counterpart. 234 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox FFTB4.INC performs complex multiplication with three real multiplications and three real additions and thus is most appropriate when multiplications take much more time than additions. FFT87B4.INC performs complex multiplication with four real multiplications and two additions and thus is most appropriate with a numeric coprocessor. Table 10-1 shows the recommended use of the four FFT algorithms for optimal performance. Table 10-1 Number of Points Four Fast Fourier TransJorms Without Coprocessor With Coprocessor FFfB2.1NC FFfB4.1NC FFf&7B2.1NC FFf87B4.1NC Although each of the algorithms is most efficient under different sets of circumstances, all four FFT algorithms will work whether you have a math coprocessor or not. The sample program defaults to the Turbo-87 radix-2 algorithm (FFT87B2.IN C). The Application Programs There are six application programs that use the basic FFT routines contained in the previously mentioned include files (COMPFFT.INC, REALFFT.lNC, COMPCNVL.lNC, REALCNVL.INC, COMPCORR.INC, and REALCORR.INC). Fast Fourier Transforms are particularly useful for analyzing periodic signals. Such a signal is represented by a function J satisfying J(t + T) = J(t) where t is time and T is the period. Under mild hypotheses,J can be expanded into a Fourier series such as the following: oc J(t) = N- 112 I 11= - F(n) exp (2'Ti' i n tiT) oc where i is the square root of - 1. The term exp (2'Ti' i n tiT) is a sinusoid of period Tin and frequency niT, and its coefficient F(n) gives the strength of that frequency component in the original signal. Fast Fourier Transform Routines 235 To analyze a signal on a digital computer, the signal must be discretized. Let x(n) be computed by discretizing the function f at N equidistant points in one period. Thus, let x(n) = f(nTIN) n = 0,1, ... N - 1 Once we restrict attention to N points; it only makes sense to represent the signal in terms of N of the functions exp (2'TT i n tiT) since the rest are redundant. For example: exp (2'TT i ( -1) tiT) = exp (2'TT i (N -1) tiT) for t = nTIN, n = 0,1, ... N - 1. The Fourier series for the signal is then a finite sum, and has the form N-I x(n) = N- 1/2 I X(k) exp (2'TT i k nlN) k'" 0 (The factor of N- I12 is a matter of convention. Some books do not include it in this formula, resulting in a factor of liN in the formula for X that follows.) The formula for the coefficients X(k) is as follows: I N-I X(k) = N- 1/2 x(n) exp (-i 2'TT n kiN) n'" 0 This formula for X makes sense for any integer k. X is then periodic, satisfying X(k + N) = X(k) ° for all k. In formulas and programs, it is more convenient to let k run from t9 N - 1, but for analyzing signals it makes more sense to think of k as running from (- N/2) to (N/2 - 1). This is because values of k near zero represent the low frequency information, and values of k near or greater than N12 represent frequencies that are so high that the discretization is too coarse to realize them accurately anyway. Therefore, if k is between N12 and N, X(k) should be thought of as the coefficient of exp (2'TT i (k - N) tiT) rather than exp (2'TT i k tiT) In other words, negative frequencies are represented on the right half of the transform. 236 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox COMPFFT.lNC simply takes the complex Fast Fourier Transform of a set of complex data points. The complex Fourier transform is defined as N-I Xf = N- I12 L xn exp (- 21T if n/N) f = O.. N - 1 ,,= 0 where i is the square root of - 1. The inverse Fourier transform (which may also be calculated with COMPFFT.lNC) is defined as N-I xn = N- 1I2 L~ exp ( - 21T if n/N) n = O..N - 1 f= 0 where the bar stands for complex conjugation. REALFFT.lNC provides a procedure that is optimized for a discrete Fourier transform with all real data. It proceeds by mapping the N real data points onto N /2 complex points, applying one of the FFT routines, then reconstructing the N points of the desired transform. This reduces the computation time by about 25 percent compared to applying the complex FFT routine to the N real data points. REALFFT.lNC can be used with any of the given FFT methods, but note that if a radix-4 method is used (FFTB4.1NC or FFT87B4.1NC), N/2 must be a power of four; so N must be of the form 2 * 4k. COMPCNVL.lNC provides a procedure for calculating convolutions of two complex vectors (Brigham 1974; Nussbaumer 1982). The discrete. ~onvolution of two complex functions x and h is defined by m = 0,1, ... N - 1 ,,= 0 where subscripts are taken modulo N (circular convolution). The basic theorem that allows us to calculate these effectively using FFTs is shown in the following: y In = X H In In m = 0,1, ... N - 1 where capital letters indicate the transforms of the functions represented by lowercase letters. Thus the procedure 'for convolution works like this: 1. Transform both given data sets using FFTs. 2. Multiply the resulting transforms.point by point. 3. Find the inverse transform of this product using FFTs. Fast Fourier Transform Routines 237 REALCNVL.INC provides a procedure for calculating convolutions of two real vectors (Brigham 1984; Nussbaumer 1982). This procedure is exactly the same as the previous procedure (COMPCNVL.INC) for complex convolution except that only one forward Fourier transform need be performed. The procedure is as follows: 1. Given two real vectors XReal and HReal, combine them into a complex vector XReal plus iHReal, where i is the square root of - 1. 2. Transform this complex vector. 3. Extract the transforms of the two real functions from the transform of the complex function (using the symmetry Xf = X_ f , where the bar stands for complex conjugation). 4. Multiply the resulting transforms point by point. 5. Find the inverse transform of this product using FFTs. REALCNVL.INC is about 25 percent faster than its complex counterpart for the same set of real data. COMPCORR.INC provides a procedure for calculating the crosscorrelation of two discrete complex functions or the autocorrelation of one discrete complex function (Brigham 1974). If x and h are the given discrete functions, then their correlation is defined as N - 1 Cm =L " . m = 0,1, ... N - 1 xn hn+m n = 0 where subscripts are taken modulo N (circular convolution). This can be computed using FFTs with a method analogous to that used in COMPCNVL.INC: c m = Xm H N-m m = 0,1, ... N - 1 Commonly x and h are real functions; in which case the preceding formula reduces to C = X Ii , where the bar stands for complex conjugation. Thus the procedure fo; correGtio~ works like this: 1. Transform both given data sets using FFTs. 2. Multiply each element of the transform of the first data set by the appropriate element of the transform of the second data. 3. Find the inverse transform of this product using FFTs. REALCORR.INC provides a procedure for calculating the crosscorrelation of two discrete real functions or the autocorrelation of one discrete real function (Brigham 1974). This procedure is exactly the same as the previous procedure for 238 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox complex correlation except that only one forward Fourier transform need be performed. The procedure is as follows: 1. Given two real vectors XReal and HReal, combine them into a complex vector XReal + iHReal, where i is the square root of - 1. 2. Transform this complex vector. 3. Extract the transforms of the two real vectors from the transform of the complex vector (using the symmetry Xf = X_ f , where the bar stands for complex conjugation). . 4. Multiply each element of the transform of the first data set by the appropriate element of the transform of the second data. 5. Find the inverse transform of this product using FFTs. Anyone of the FFT include files can be used with any of the applications. Data Sampling While sampling theory is beyond the scope of this Toolbox, we would like to mention several common problems associated with data sampling (Brigham 1974; Press et al. 1986, Ch.12). The most common frustration is aliasing. A Fourier transform only represents frequencies up to a certain limit (called the Nyquist limit, or Nyquist frequency), which is given by half the sampling rate. (For example, if a signal is sampled sixty times a second, the Nyquist frequency will be 30 Hz.) 'A sample containing frequencies greater than this limit will not be properly transformed. The high frequencies will falsely contribute to the transform. This contribution will be indistinguishable from a contribution of a frequency below the Nyquist frequency. There are several ways to combat aliasing. Increasing the sampling rate will increase the Nyquist frequency and thus reduce aliasing effects. It is also possible to pass the signal through a low pass filter, thus eliminating the high frequencies before sampling. If the Fourier transform of a signal does not converge to zero at the Nyquist frequency, the transform has very likely been aliased. The Fourier transform assumes that the sample represents a periodic function and that the sample is an integer multiple of one period. If the latter condition is not true, spurious frequencies will show up in the transform. For example, if a sine wave is sampled from 0 to 270 degrees (instead of the full period), a sharp boundary is created because the sine of 0 does not equal the sine of 270. High frequencies will be introduced into the transform to account for that sharp boundary. Fast Fourier Transform Routines 239 The assumption of periodicity can cause problems when convolving or correlat. ing two signals that are not periodic. The convolution of each point in a signal affects the points surrounding it (the nature and extent of the affect depends on the particular convolving function). The assumption of periodicity means that the convolution at one end of the signal will affect the other end of the signal. This "end effect" can be eliminated by padding the data (on either end) with a sufficient number of zeros. User-Defined Types TNvector = TNvectorPtr array[O .. TNArraySize] of Real; = ~TNvector; These user-defined types are different from others in this Toolbox, because they involve pointers. Pointers are used to transcend the limitations imposed by the 64K data segment size of Turbo Pascal. One array of 8,000 elements uses the entire data segment (in Turbo-87). However, it is possible to store these arrays on the heap, and to point to them with pointers that only require 4 bytes. The size of the heap (and hence the maximum size and number of TNvectors) is determined by the amount of memory in the machine. 240 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Fast Fourier Transform Algorithms The following documentation generally applies to all four FFT algorithms (FFTB2.INC, FFTB4.INC, FFT87B2.INC, FFT87B4.INC). When a difference between the radix-2 and radix-4 algorithms needs to be described, the radix-4 information will be placed in brackets following the radix-2 information (for example, the number of points must be a power of two [four]). The following describes the three procedures contained in each of the include files. Procedure TestInput Description This example determines the number of data points in terms of a power of two [four]. If the number of data points is not a power of two [four], then an error is returned. Input Parameters NumPoi nts : Integer; Number of data points The preceding parameter must satisfy the following conditions: 1. NumPoints ~ 2. 2. NumPoints must be a power of two [four]. Output Parameters NumberOfBits : Byte; Number of data points as a power of two [four] Error: Byte; 0: No errors 1: NumPoints < 2 2: NumPoints not a power of two [four] Syntax of the Procedure Call TestInput(NumPoints, NumberOfBits, Error); Fast Fourier Transform Routines 241 Procedure MakeSinCosTable Description This example creates a look-up table ofNumPoints/2 [3/4 NumPoints] roots of unity. The roots of unity are defined as follows: Rootn = exp ( - i 2'TT n/NumPoints n = O..NumPoints/2 [3/4 NumPoints] where i is the square root of -1. These values are stored in two tables: SinTable, containing the imaginary parts of the roots of unity, and CosTable, containing the real parts of the roots of unity. It is faster to look up these values in a table than to calculate them in the FFf procedure. Input Pararneters NumPoints : Integer; Number of data points The preceding parameter must satisfy the following conditions: 1. NumPoints ~ 2. 2. NumPoints must be a power of two [four]. Output Pararneters Si nTabl e : TNvectorPtr; Table of sine values CosTabl e : TNvectorPtr; Table of cosine values Syntax of the Procedure Call MakeSinCosTable(NumPoints, SinTable, CosTable); Procedure FFT Description This example implements the particular variation of the Cooley-Tukey algorithm. The Fast Fourier Transform of the data XReal, Xlmag is made in place and is thus returned in the vectors XReal, Xlmag. The inverse transform of the data can also be calculated with this procedure. 242 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox It is essential that procedures TestInput and MakeSinCosTable be called before procedure FFT is called. TestInput will flag any errors in the data (for example, number of points that are not a power of two [four]), and MakeSinCosTable generates a table of sine and cosine values referenced by FFT. TestInput and MakeSinCosTable need only be called once, even if several calls to FFT are made within the same program (for example, when computing the discrete convolution), as long as the number of data points is unchanged. If the number of data points changes between two calls of FFT, TestInput and MakeSinCosTable must be called again. (Interested readers are urged to consult the references given in the beginning of the chapter for details about the Cooley-Tukey algorithm.) Input Parameters NumberOfBi ts : Byte; Number of data points as a power of two [four] NumPoi nts : Integer; Number of data points Inverse: Boolean; FALSE equals forward transform; TRUE equals inverse transform XRea 1 ': TNvectorPt r; Pointer to real values of the data points XImag : TNvectorPtr; Pointer to imaginary values of the data points SinTable: TNvectorPtr; Table of sine values CosTable : TNvectorptr: Table of cosine values The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: 1. NumPoints;::: 2. 2. NumPoints must be a power of two [four]. Output Parameters XReal : TNvectorPtr; Pointer to real values of the discrete Fourier transform of the input data XImag : TNvectorPtr; Pointer to imaginary values of the discrete Fourier transform of the input data Syntax of the Procedure Call FFT(NumberOfBits, NumPoints, Inverse, XReal, XImag, SinTable, CosTable); Fast Fourier Transform Routines 243 Fast Fourier Transform Applications Each of the six application programs calls the three procedures contained within FFT algorithm files. COMPFFT.INC Description This example is the most basic application, performing a complex Fast Fourier Transform. It simply calls Testlnput, MakeSinCosTable, and FFT sequentially; thus accomplishing an in-place transformation of the complex data XReal, Xlmag. Input Parameters NumPoints : Integer; Number of data points FALSE equals forward transform; TRUE equals inverse transform Inverse: Boolean; XReal : TNvectorPtr; Pointer to real values of the data points XImag : TNvectorPtr; Pointer to imaginary values of the data points The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: 1. NumPoints ~ 2. 2. NumPoints must be a power of two [four]. Output Parameters XReal : TNvectorptr; Pointer to real values of the discrete Fourier transform of the input data XImag : TNvectorPtr; Pointer to imaginary values of the discrete Fourier transform of the input data Error: Byte; 244 0: No errors 1: NumPoints < 2 2: NumPoints not a power of two [four] Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Syntax of the Procedure Call Comp1exFFT(NumPoints, Inverse, XRea1, XImag, Error); Comments The complex Fast Fourier method uses the New/Dispose procedures to manipulate the heap and should not be used in any program that uses Mark/Release to manipulate the heap. REALFFT.INC Description This example performs a complex Fast Fourier Transform of real data. The NumPoints real data points are first mapped onto NumPoints/2 complex data points. A complex Fast Fourier Transform of these complex points is performed by calling TestInput, Make Sin Cos Table , and FFT. The NumPoints/2 transform is then mapped onto NumPoints complex points. The real part of the transformation will be even, and the imaginary part of the transformation will be odd. If you are implementing this application with a radix-4 algorithm, be sure that the number of real data points (NumPoints) is twice the power of four. Input Parameters NumPoints : Integer; Number of data points FALSE equals forward transform; TRUE equals inverse transform XReal : TNvectorPtr; Pointer to real values of the data points Inverse: Boo1 ean; The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: 1. NumPoints ~ 4. 2. NumPoints must be a power of two (twice a power of four for a radix-4 algorithm). At least four data points are required, because this algorithm transforms the real vector to a complex vector half the size. If only two real data points were entered, the routine would have to take the transform of a single complex point. Fast Fourier Transform Routines 245 Output Parameters XRea 1 : TNvectorPt r; Pointer to real values of the Fourier transform of the input data XImag : TNvectorPtr; Pointer to imaginary values of the Fourier transform of the input data 0: No errors 1: NumPoints < 4 2: NumPoints not a power of two [twice a power of four] Error: Byte; Syntax of the Procedure Call RealFFT{NumPoints, Inverse, XReal, XImag, Error); Comments This method uses the New/Dispose procedures to manipulate the heap and should not be used in any program that uses Mark/Release to manipulate the heap. COMPCNVL.INC Description The calculation of the convolution of two complex vectors is facilitated with a Fast Fourier Transform routine. The discrete convolution of two functions x and h is defined by N-I Ym = IX 1\ n hm _ n m = 0,1, ... N - 1 = 0 where subscripts are taken modulo N (circular convolution). The basic theorem that allows us to calculate these effectively using FFTs is as follows: m = 0,1, ... N - 1 246 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox where capital letters indicate the transforms of the functions represented by lowercase letters. Thus the procedure for convolution works like this: 1. Transform both given data sets using FFTs. 2. Multiply the resulting transforms point by point. 3. Find the inverse transform of this product using FFTs. Input Parameters NumPoints : Integer; Number of data points XReal : TNvectorPtr; Pointer to real values of the first set of data points XImag : TNvectorptr; Pointer to imaginary values of the first set of data points HReal : TNvectorptr; Pointer to real values of the second set of data points HImag : TNvectorptr; Pointer to imaginary values of the second set of data points The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: 1. NumPoints ~ 2. 2. NumPoints must be a power of two [four]. Output Parameters XReal : TNvectorptr; Pointer to real values of the convolution of XReal, Xlmag and HReal, Hlmag XImag : TNvectorptr; Pointer to imaginary values of the convolution of XReal, Xlmag and HReal, Hlmag Error: Byte; 0: No errors 1: NumPoints < 2 2: NumPoints not a power of two [four] Syntax of the Procedure Call ComplexConvolution(NumPoints, XReal, XImag, HReal, HImag, Error); Comments This method uses the New/Dispose procedures to manipulate the heap and should not be used in any program that uses Mark/Release to manipulate the heap. Fast Fourier Transform Routines 247 REALCNVL.INC Description The calculation of the convolution of two real vectors is facilitated with a Fast Fourier Transform routine. This procedure is exactly the same as the previous procedure for complex convolution (COMPCNVL.lNC) except that only one Fourier transform need be performed. The procedure is as follows: 1. Given two real vectors XReal and HReal, combine them into a complex vector XReal + iHReal, where i is the square root of -1. 2. Transform this complex vector. 3. Extract the transforms of the two real functions from the transform of the complex function (using the symmetry Xf = X_ f , where the bar stands for complex conjugation). 4. Multiply the resulting transforms point by point. 5. Find the inverse transform of this product using FFTs. REALCNVL.lNC is about 25 percent faster than its complex counterpart for the same set of real data. Input Parameters NumPoints : Integer; Number of data points XReal : TNvectorPtr; Pointer to real values of the first set of data points HReal : TNvectorptr; Pointer to real values of the second set of data points The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: 1. NumPoints ~ 2. 2. NumPoints must be a power of two [four]' Output Parameters XReal : TNvectorPtr; Pointer to real values of the convolution of XReal and HReal XImag : TNvectorPtr; Pointer to imaginary values of the convolution of XReal and HReal Error: Byte; 248 0: No errors 1: NumPoints < 2 2: NumPoints not a power of two [four] Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Syntax of the Procedure Call RealConvolution(NumPoints, XReal, Xlmag, HReal, Error); Comments This method uses the New/Dispose procedures to manipulate the heap and should not be used in any program that uses Mark/Release to manipulate the heap. COMPCORR.INC Description The calculation of the correlation of two complex vectors is facilitated with a Fast Fourier Transform routine. The discrete correlation of two complex functions x and h is defined by N-l Ym = "'xh m+n L n 11 m = 0,1, ... N - 1 = 0 where subscripts are taken modulo N (circular correlation). The basic theorem that allows us to calculate these effectively using FFTs is as follows: ym =X m H N-m m = 0,1, ... N - 1 where capital letters indicate the transforms of the functions represented by lowercase letters and - indicates the complex conjugate. (Commonly x and h are real functions, in which case the preceding formula reduces to the more familiar expression Grn = Xm H,1l' where the bar stands for complex conjugation. (See REAL CORR.INC for a real version of correlation.) Thus the procedure for correlation works like this: 1. Transform both given data sets using FFTs. 2. Multiply each element of the transform of the first data set by the appropriate element of the transform of the second data. 3. Find the inverse transform of this product using FFTs. If the functions x and h are different, the correlation is called crosscorrelation; if the functions x and h are the same, the correlation is called autocorrelation. Fast Fourier Transform Routines 249 Input Parameters NumPo; nts : Integer; Number of data points Auto : Boolean; FALSE equals crosscorrelation; TRUE equals autocorrelation XReal : TNvectorPtr; Pointer to real values of the first set of data points XImag : TNvectorptr; Pointer to imaginary values of the first set of data points HReal : TNvectorPtr; Pointer to real values of the second set of data points (for cross- correlation) HImag : TNvectorPtr; Pointer to imaginary values of the second set of data points (for crosscorrelation) The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: 1. NumPoints;;::: 2. 2. NumPoints must be a power of two [four]. Output Parameters XReal : TNvectorptr; Pointer to real values of the correlation of XReal, Xlmag and HReal, Hlmag (or the autocorrelation of XReal, Xlmag if Auto = TRUE) Xlmag : TNvectorPtr; Pointer to imaginary values of the correlation of XReal, Xlmag and HReal, Hlmag (or the autocorrelation of XReal, Xlmag if Auto = TRUE) Error: Byte; 0: No errors 1: NumPoints < 2 2: NumPoints not a power of two [four] Syntax of the Procedure Call ComplexCorrelation(NumPoints. Auto. XReal. Xlmag. HReal. HImag. Error): Comments If you are performing an autocorrelation of the vector XReal, Xlmag, then set Auto = TRUE. In this case, the vector HReal, Hlmag will not contain any information but must still be passed into the procedure. Autocorrelations are faster to compute, since only one forward transformation must be made, as opposed to two for crosscorrelation. 250 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox This method uses the New/Dispose procedures to manipulate the heap and should not be used in any program that uses Mark/Release to manipulate the heap. REALCORR.INC Description The calculation of the convolution of two real vectors is facilitated with a Fast Fourier Transform routine. This procedure is exactly the same as the previous procedure for complex correlation (COMPCORR.INC) except that only one forward Fourier transform need be performed. The procedure is as follows: 1. Given two real vectors XReal and HReal, combine them into a complex vector XReal + iHReal, where i is the square root of· - 1. 2. Transform this complex vector. 3. Extract the transforms of the two real vectors from the transform of the complex vector (using the symmetry Xf = X_ f , where the bar stands for complex conjugation). 4. Multiply each element of the transform of the first data set by the appropriate element of the transform of the second data. 5. Find the inverse transform of this product using FFTs. Input Parameters NumPoi nts : Integer; Number of data points Auto: Bool ean; FALSE equals crosscorrelation; TRUE equals autocorrelation XRea 1 : TNvectorPtr; Pointer to real values of the first set of data points HRea 1 : TNvectorPtr; Pointer to real values of the second set of data points (for crosscorrelation) The preceding parameters must satisfy the following conditions: 1. NumPoints 2! 2. 2. NumPoints must be a power of two [four]. Fast Fourier Transform Routines 251 Output Parameters XReal : TNvectorptr; Pointer to real values of the correlation of XReal and HReal (or the autocorrelation of XReal if Auto = TRUE) Xlmag : TNvectorPtr; Pointer to imaginary values of the correlation of XReal and HReal (or the autocorrelation of XReal if Auto = TRUE) Error : Byte; 0: No errors 1: NumPoints < 2 2: NumPoints not a power of two [four] Syntax of the Procedure Call RealCorrelation(NumPoints, Auto, XRe31, Xlmag, HReal, Error); Comments If you are performing an autocorrelation of the vector XReal, then set Auto equal to TRUE. In this case, the vector HReal will not contain any information but must still be passed into the procedure. Autocorrelations are faster to compute, since only one forward transformation must be made, as opposed to two for crosscorrelation. This method uses the New/Dispose procedures to manipulate the heap and should not be used in any program that uses Mark/Release to manipulate the heap. Sample Program The sample program FFTPROGS.PAS provides I/O functions that demonstrate any of the application programs. The FFT algorithm routines are included with the following statements: (*{$I FFTB2.INC} {*{$I FFTB4. INC} {$I FFT87B2.INC} (*{$I FFT87B4.INC} (* (* (* (* radix radix radix radix 2, 4, 2, 4, 8088 8088 8087 8087 version *) version *) version *) version*) As you can see, three of the include statements must be commented-off so that only one file is included. To change which file is included, simply comment-off the one that is currently active (in this example that would be FFT87B2.INC) and remove the comment symbol (* from the include file of your choice. 252 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Input File Data may be entered from a text file. The real and imaginary parts of a complex number should be separated by a space and followed by a carriage return. Real numbers should each be followed by a carriage return. The application files COMPFFT.lNC, COMPCNVL.lNC, and COMP CORR.lNC expect data to be in complex form. A data file containing a four-point complex square wave could look like this: 00 11 11 00 The application files REALFFT.lNC, REALCNVL.lNC, and REAL CORR.INC expect data to be in real form. A data file containing a four-point real square wave could look like this: o 1 1 o Example Problem. Perform a Fourier transform and an autocorrelation of a 32-point square wave. Also, convolve and crosscorrelate this square wave with a saw-tooth wave (assume you are working in Turbo-87). 1. First, make sure that the FFT file FFT87B2.1NC is included in FFTPROGS.PAS: (*{$I FFTB2. INC} (*{$I FFTB4.INC} {$I FFT87B2.INC} (*{$I FFT87B4.INC} (* (* (* (* radix radix radix radix 2, 4, 2, 4, 8088 8088 8087 8087 version version version version *) *) *) *) The input data file SAMPI0A.DAT is as follows (note that this is in real format): o o o o o o o o Fast Fourier Transform Routines 253 o o o 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 o o o o o o o o o o 2. Run FFTPROGS.PAS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Real Fast Fourier Transform Real Convolution Real Autocorrelation Real Crosscorrelation Complex Fast Fourier Transform Complex Convolution Complex Autocorrelation Complex Crosscorrelation Select a number (1-8): 1 ********* Real Fast Fourier Transform ********* (F)orward or (I)nverse transform? F Enter data from (K)eyboard or (F)ile? F File name? SAMPI0A.DAT Direct output to one of the following: (S)creen (P)rinter (F) il e 254 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Results of Real Fourier 1.94454364826301E+OOO -1.59057003804788E+OOO 7.53417436515731E-OOI 5.96901852132470E-002 -4.26776695296637E-OOI 2.89883706652938E-OOI 6.20757203331860E-002 -2.66655959906343E-OOI 1.76776695296637E-OOI 6.63840517512576E-002 -2.08522329739913E-OOI 1.27160952826887E-OOI 7.32233047033632E-002 -1.83841625879619E-OOI 1.00135954077543E-OOI 8.37351650164209E-002 -1.76776695296637E-OOI 8.37351650164209E-002 1.00135954077543E-OOI -1.83841625879619E-OOI 7.32233047033632E-002 1.27160952826887E-OOI -2.08522329739913E-OOI 6.63840517512576E-002 1.76776695296637E-OOI -2.66655959906343E-OOI 6.20757203331860E-002 2.89883706652938E-OOI -4.26776695296637E-OOI 5.96901852132470E-002 7.53417436515731E-OOI -1.59057003804788E+OOO Transform: O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO -3.14018491736755E-OI6 5.88784672006416E-OI7 -2.94392336003208E-OI6 3.92523114670944E-OI7 -2.94392336003208E-OI6 7.85046229341887E-OI7 -5.39719282672548E-OI7 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 2.06074635202245E-OI6 1.76635401601925E-OI6 -1. 17756934401283E-016 -1.37383090134830E-OI6 -6.86915450674151E-OI7 2.74766180269661E-OI6 1.37383090134830E-OI6 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO -1.37383090134830E-OI6 -2.74766180269661E-OI6 6.86915450674151E-OI7 1.37383090134830E-OI6 1. 17756934401283E-016 -1.76635401601925E-016 -2.06074635202245E-OI6 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 5.39719282672548E-OI7 -7.85046229341887E-OI7 2.94392336003208E-OI6 -3.92523114670944E-OI7 2.94392336003208E-OI6 -5.88784672006416E-OI7 3.14018491736755E-OI6 Note that the transform of the even real-square wave is an even real function. If you take the inverse transform of this data, you should get back the original square wave. 3. Run FFfPROGS.PAS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Real Fast Fourier Transform Real Convolution Real Autocorrelation Real Crosscorrelation Complex Fast Fourier Transform Complex Convolution Complex Autocorrelation Complex Crosscorrelation Select a number (1-8): 5 ********* Complex Fast Fourier Transform ********* (F)orward or (I)nverse transform? I Enter data from (K)eyboard or (F)ile? F File name? SAMPI0B.DAT Fast Fourier Transform Routines 255 Direct output to one of the following: (S)creen (P)rinter (F) il e Results of Complex Fourier Transform: 1.88411095042053E-015 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 1.72710170455215E-015 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 2.04112019628891E-015 -3.92523114670944E-017 2.04112019628891E-015 -1.19825492681322E-016 1.17756934401283E-015 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 1.09906472107864E-015 -3. 14264671746203E-016 1.02325930356393E-015 1.53635757788210E-016 1.02243303999922E-015 -3.53529506016654E-017 1.07086707894778E-015 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 3.60019188480208E-016 2.56022496768081E-016 -3.89233270203019E-017 1.57501605887274E-016 1.00000000000000E+000 4.33843984418077E-016 1.00000000000000E+000 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 1.00000000000000E+000 4.71273917614581E-016 1.00000000000000E+000 2.94392336003208E-016 1.00000000000000E+000 5.69158516272868E-016 9.99999999999999E-001 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 1.00000000000000E+000 3.92523114670944E-017 1.00000000000000E+000 3.92523114670944E-017 9.99999999999999E-001 -4. 13208697471334E-017 1.00000000000000E+000 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 1.00000000000000E+000 1. 56763065858929E-016 -8. 12038283536641E-017 -1.53635757788210E-016 2.33640926947802E-016 -2.78665541135090E-016 9.70253117341126E-016 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 1.21007327020357E-015 -2.95274808235175E-016 4.31446441691246E-016 -1.57501605887274E-016 1.80560632748634E-015 -2.72697621989622E-016 9.42055475210265E-016 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 2.04112019628891E-015 -3.13772311727307E-016 1.80560632748634E-015 -2.94392336003208E-016 1.96261557335472E-015 -2.55140024536113E-016 You get back the original square wave, accurate to 15 significant figures. The autocorrelation of a square wave is simply a triangle. Let's take the autocorrelation of the square wave. 4. Run FFTPROGS.PAS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Real Fast Fourier Transform Real Convolution Real Autocorrelation Real Crosscorrelation Complex Fast Fourier Transform Complex Convolution Complex Autocorrelation Complex Crosscorrelation Select a number (1-8): 3 ********* Real Autocorrelation ********* 256 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Enter data from (K)eyboard or (F)ile? F File name? SAMP10A.DAT Direct output to one of the following: (S)creen (P)rinter (F) il e Results of Autocorrelation: 1.94454364826301E+OOO -6.89287897017933E-016 1.76776695296637E+OOO -5.49532360539321E-016 1.59099025766973E+OOO -6.55792559089139E-016 1.41421356237309E+OOO -4. 17055809337878E-016 1.23743686707646E+OOO -4.44089209850063E-016 1.06066017177982E+OOO -2.74766180269661E-016 8.83883476483184E-001 -3.84393694788862E-016 7.07106781186547E-001 -1. 17756934401283E-016 5.30330085889910E-001 5.37799391805346E-017 3.53553390593274E-001 -1.96261557335472E-016 1.76776695296637E-001 -1.88132137453390E-016 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO -9.32242397343491E-017 -3.92523114670944E-016 4.44089209850063E-016 2.35513868802566E-016 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 4.71027737605132E-016 -1.06260198549818E-016 4.71027737605132E-016 -1.66822323735151E-016 1.57009245868377E-016 5.81728018656864E-016 -3.14018491736755E-016 3.92523114670944E-016 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 6.00281407857881E-016 -1.57009245868377E-016 2.89485797069821E-016 -3.92523114670944E-016 4.44089209850063E-016 -3. 14018491736755E-016 1. 17756934401283E-016 1.76776695296636E-001 4.39904846020120E-016 3.53553390593273E-001 -1.96261557335472E-017 5.30330085889910E-001 5.37799391805346E-017 7.07106781186547E-001 3.53270803203849E-016 8.83883476483184E-001 2.43643288684648E-016 1.06066017177982E+OOO 2.20794252002406E-016 1.23743686707646E+OOO -4. 44089209850063E-016 1.41421356237309E+OOO 1.57009245868377E-016 1.59099025766973E+OOO 5.07490473185598E-017 1.76776695296637E+OOO 3.04205413869981E-016 Keeping in mind that this is a periodic function (see "Data Sampling"), you can see that this is a triangle wave. Let's now convolve the square wave with a saw-tooth wave. The input file for the saw-tooth wave (SAMPIOC.DAT) is as follows: o o o o o o Fast Fourier Transform Routines 257 o o o o o 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 o o o o o o o o o o 5. Run FFTPROGS.PAS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. B. Real Fast Fourier Transform Real Convolution Real Autocorrelation Real Crosscorrelation Complex Fast Fourier Transform Complex Convolution Complex Autocorrelation Complex Crosscorrelation Select a number (I-B): 2 ********* Real Convolution ********* Enter data from (K)eyboard or (F)ile? F The first function: File name? SAMPI0A.DAT 258 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox The second function: File name? SAMP10C.DAT Direct output to one of the following: (S)creen (P)rinter (F) i1 e Results of Real Convolution~ 1. 16672618895780E+001 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 1. 14904851942814E+001 1.09906472107864E-015 1. 11369318036881E+001 6.28036983473510E-016 1.06066017177982E+001 4.71027737605132E-016 9.89949493661168E+000 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 9.01561146012848E+000 7.85046229341887E-016 7.95495128834866E+000 -6.28036983473510E-016 6.71751442127220E+000 1.57009245868377E-016 5.30330085889910E+000 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 3.71231060122936E+000 -1.96261557335472E-015 1.94454364826299E+000 -2.11962481922310E-015 -1.85270910124685E-014 -2.98317567149917E-015 -2.04112019628891E-014 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO -1.13046657025232E-014 -3.29719416323593E-015 -1.44448506198907E-014 -3.45420340910430E-015 -9.42055475210265E-015 -3.45420340910430E-015 ~1.50728876033642E-014 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO -1.38168136364172E-014 -4.71027737605132E-016 -1.38168136364172E-014 -6.28036983473510E-016 -1.13046657025232E-014 -1.57009245868377E-016 -1. 13046657025232E-014 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO -5.02429586778808E-015 -1.09906472107864E-015 1.76776695296632E-001 6.28036983473510E-016 5.30330085889907E-001 -2.04112019628891E-015 1.06066017177982E+000 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 1.76776695296637E+000 1.33457858988121E-015 2.65165042944956E+000 2.11962481922310E-015 3.71231060122938E+000 2.66915717976242E-015 4.94974746830584E+000 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 6.36396103067893E+000 3.61121265497268E-015 7.95495128834867E+000 3.45420340910430E-015 9.72271824131504E+000 5.33831435952483E-015 Now let's crosscorrelate the square wave with the saw-tooth wave. 6. Run FFTPROGS.PAS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Real Fast Fourier Transform Real Convolution Real Autocorrelation Real Crosscorrelation Complex Fast Fourier Transform Complex Convolution Complex Autocorrelation Complex Crosscorrelation Select a number (1-8): 4 ********* Real Crosscorrelation ********* Fast Fourier Transform Routines 259 Enter data from {K)eyboard or {F)ile? F The first function: File name? SAMPI0A.DAT The second function: File name? SAMPI0C.DAT Direct output to one of the following: {S)creen {P)rinter (F) il e Results of Real Crosscorrelation: 1.16672618895780E+001 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 9.72271824131504E+000 -6.67289294940604E-016 7.95495128834866E+000 -7.85046229341887E-016 6.36396103067893E+000 -9.02803163743171E-016 4.94974746830583E+000 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 3.71231060122937E+000 -1.49158783574959E-015 2.65165042944954E+000 -2.04112019628891E-015 1.76776695296636E+000 -1.72710170455215E-015 1.06066017177981E+000 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 5.30330085889897E-001 -2.62990486829532E-015 1. 76776695296621E-001 -3.29719416323593E-015 -1.38168136364172E-014 -2.86541873709789E-015 -1.63289615703113E-014 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO -1.06766287190497E-014 -3.06168029443336E-015 -1.25607396694702E-014 -3. 14018491736755E-015 -1.00485917355762E-014 -4.39625888431457E-015 -1. 13046657025232E-014 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO -9.42055475210265E-015 -3. 53270803203849E-016 -5.02429586778808E-015 7.85046229341887E-016 -5.02429586778808E-015 -2.74766180269661E-016 -5.33831435952483E-015 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO -3.76822190084106E-015 -5.49532360539321E-016 1.94454364826300E+000 2.04112019628891E-015 3.71231060122937E+000 4.71027737605132E-016 5.30330085889911E+000 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 6.71751442127221E+000 3. 65046496643978E-015 7.95495128834867E+000 3.29719416323593E-015 9.01561146012849E+000 4.04298808111072E-015 9.89949493661168E+000 O.OOOOOOOOOOOOOOE+OOO 1.06066017177982E+001 5.10280049072227E-015 1.11369318036881E+001 3. 14018491736755E-015 1. 14904851942814E+001 5.65233285126159E-015 260 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox c H A p T E R n Graphics Programs The programs in this chapter can only be run by those users with PC-DOS. There are some programs that graphically demonstrate the usefulness of the least-squares routines in Chapter 9 and the Fourier transforms in Chapter 10. A graphics monitor is required. Each program reads a data set from an input file, and uses this Toolbox to display the results. You will see curves being fitted to data using the least-squares routines and also see a signal being transformed into its Fourier spectrum. The programs LSQIBM.COM and FFTIBM.COM graphically illustrate the power and utility of the Turbo Pascal Numerical Methods Toolbox. To run them, you'll need an IBM Color Graphics Adapter (CGA) or a suitable clone. (The programs LSQHERC.COM AND FFTHERC.COM can be used to graphically illustrate the Toolbox on a Hercules Monochrome Graphics Adapter or compatible.) And to print, you'll need an Epson or IBM compatible dot-matrix printer. As explained in this chapter, these programs can be recompiled to run on other hardware, including the IBM Enhanced Graphics Adapter (EGA) in its high resolution mode. The programs can also be recompiled to take advantage of the 8087 (or 80287) math coprocessor. 261 Function of the Least-Squares Graphics Demonstration Program The program LSQIBM.COM demonstrates the least-squares capabilities of the Toolbox. To run it, you must have • 4x6.FON (Graphix fonts) • 8x8.FON (Graphix fonts) • ERROR.MSG (Graphix error messages) • LSQIBM.COM • SAMPllA.DAT (Input data file) on the current directory. (The first three files are identical to those in the Graphix Toolbox.) By default the input is a file called SAMPllA.DAT that has X and Y values (in ASCII form) separated by carriage returns. Running LSQIBM.COM will provide five different least-squares fits to the input data. The different fits are based on the function forms: logarithm, exponential, polynomial, power law, and finite Fourier series. The fits are displayed graphically on the screen and can be printed on an Epson or compatible printer. The first plot shows the input data from SAMPllA.DAT along with three curves. The three curves are the graphs of the power function Y = aX b the exponential function Y = a exp (bX) and the logarithm function Y = a In(bX) The header to the plot tells which curve corresponds to which function. The next plot shows the same input data plotted with a five-term Fourier series: Y= a + b * cos(x) + c * sin(x) + d * cos(2X) + e * sin(2X) and a five-term polynomial (that is, a polynomial of degree four). The coefficients are found using the routines from Chapter 9, and they give the least-square error among all functions of that form. (In some cases, the problem is transformed into a linear problem, and the error is actually the least for the transformed problem but possibly not exactly the least for the original problem.) Again, the header to the plot tells which curve corresponds to which function. 262 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Finally, a bar chart shows the error for each function. The data is not at all periodic, so the Fourier series model is the worst. The five-degree polynomial gives the best fit, but it is not much better than the fit obtained by using power, exponential, or logarithm functions. Pressing the space bar allows you to cycle through the different screens. Pressing I]l exits the program. PressingIJDsends a hard copy to the printer (see the section entitled "Printing"). You can use your own data to run the program by running LSQDEMO with two file names, such as LSQIBM LSQIN.DAT L~QOUT.DAT The input data from LSQIN.DAT along with the least-squares fits and coefficients are output to a text file called LSQOUT.DAT. A default output data file can easily be arranged by changing a constant WriteToFile in LSQDEMO.PAS and recompiling it. (See the section, "Rebuilding LSQIBM.COM; to recompile it, and the comment in LSQDEMO.PAS next to the constant WriteToFile.) Graphics Programs 263 Function of the Fourier Transform Graphics Demonstration Program The program FFfIBM.COM demonstrates the Fourier capabilities of the Toolbox. To run it, you must have • 4x6.FON (Graphix fonts) • 8x8.FON (Graphix fonts) • ERROR.MSG (Graphix error messages) • FFTIBM.COM • SAMPllB.DAT (Input data file) on the current directory. (The first three files are identical to those in the Graphix Toolbox.) By default the input is a file called SAMPllB.DAT that has 1,024 real values (in ASCII form) separated by carriage returns. These represent sample points from a two-second signal sampled at a rate of 512 points per second. The program will display four FFT transforms at the following sampling rates: 8 per second (16 points), 32 per second (64 points), 128 per second (256 points), and 512 per second (1,024 points). For the last two samplings, the default data yields the same transforms, demonstrating that a sample rate higher than twice the highest frequency adds no new information (the Nyquist limit). The transforms are shown on a scale of - 64 to + 63 cycles per second. In addition to the transforms, the program displays the inverse transform over the original data, illustrating the degree to which information is lost at different sampling rates. The header tells which curve is the original data and which is the inverse transform. Pressing the space bar cycles through the four plots. To the right of each plot is two smaller plots that show the coefficients for the real and imaginary parts of the Fourier transform. Some information about the sample and the transform appears after each plot. The graphs that appear on the screen can be printed on an Epson or compatible printer. You can use your own data to run the program by running FFfDEMO with two file names on the command line, such as FFTIBM FFTIN.DAT FFTOUT.DAT The 1,024 complex points of the 1,024-point FFTwill be written into the output file FFfOUT.DAT, with one complex number per line. The real and imaginary parts are separated by a space. 264 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox A default output data file can easily be arranged by changing the constant WriteToFile in FFTDEMO.PAS and recompiling it. (See the section, "Rebuilding FFfIBM.COM; to recompile it, and the comment in FFfDEMO.PAS next to Write ToFile.) Printing Both LSQIBM.COM and FFfIBM.COM provide the capability to print the graphs that appear on the screen. If you run these programs on the default data sets, the printouts will look just like the ones displayed here (see Figure 11-1,11-2, and 11-3). This is particularly useful when you would like a permanent, visual record of your program results. Figure 11-1 LSQIBM.COM Least-square fits of power, exponential, and logarithmic functions to data in SAMPllA.DAT. Note: This was run without an 8087. Graphics Programs 265 POWER EXP LOG S-,OUR. S-POLY. '.11 Figure 11-2 LSQIBM.COM Sum of squares of residuals for five fits. Left side displays bar graph comparing various fits. Right side depicts same data fitted by 5th degree polynomial and a partial Fourier series. Note: This was run without an 8087. Ti.e interval = 2 seconds. Sople rate = 32 per second. TransFor. tI.e = 8.7 seconds. IllYerse tI.e = 8.5 seconds. Press (SPACE) to continue. (Q) to quit Figure 11-3 FFTIBM.COM Graph depicts data ofSAMPllB.DAT. Upper right-hand side displays real transform coefficients. Mid right-hand side displays imaginary coefficients. Dotted lines represent inverse transform of the Fourier transform, superimposed over original data. Inverse transform is not identical to original data because of coarseness of sample rate. Note: This was run without an 8087. 266 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox To get a printout, merely pressl]lfor Hardcopy at the menu prompt. An Epson or IBM compatible dot-matrix printer is required. (You cannot get a graphics printout on a daisy-wheel printer.) If your printer is not Epson-compatible and the Hardcopy command is not functioning properly, you can rebuild the program with a different printer mode. (See the instructions that follow for rebuilding the program.) Both LSQDEMO.PAS and FFfDEMO.PAS have a constant called PrintMode near the beginning of the file. Setting PrintMode to the value 1 will allow printing on the largest number of printers, but a mode value of 4 will give the best looking output from a color display to an Epson printer. The default value is 6, since that gives good results for the Color Graphics Adapter, Hercules, and Enhanced Graphics Adapter. You can also use the DOS program GRAPHICS.COM, which enables the I PrtSc I key to print the screen in graphics mode. Rebuilding LSQIBM.COM The sources to LSQIBM.COM are provided. To recompile, you need Turbo Pascal (version 3.0) and Turbo Graphix Toolbox (version 1.06A or later), as well as this Toolbox. To rebuild LSQIBM.COM, the following files are needed: From CHAP9: EXP.LSQ (for the exponential model) FOURIER.LSQ (Fourier series) LOG.LSQ (logarithmic) POLY.LSQ (polynomial) POWER.LSQ (power law) From CHAPll: GENERIC.LSQ IOCHECK.lNC (a modification of COMMON.lNC) LEAST.MOD (a modification of LEAST.lNC from Chapter 9) LSQDEMO.PAS From Turbo Pascal: (These files are not included in this Toolbox.) TURBO.COM or TURBO-87.COM (the Turbo Pascal compiler) TURBO.MSG (compiler error messages) Graphics Programs 267 From the Turbo Pascal Graphix Toolbox (version 1.06A or later): (These files are not included in this Toolbox.) AXIS.HGH FINDWRLD.HGH GRAPHIX.SYS (a copy of GRAPHIX.IBM) HATCH.HGH HISTOGRM.HGH KERNEL.SYS POLYGON.HGH TYPEDEF.SYS WINDOWS.SYS Once you have all of these files on the current directory, enter Turbo Pascal and compile LSQDEMO.PAS to disk. The resulting LSQDEMO.COM should be renamed LSQIBM.COM to distinguish it from the Hercules version. Rebuilding FFTIBM.COM The sources to FFTIBM.COM are provided. To recompile, you need Turbo Pascal (version 3.0) and Turbo Graphix Toolbox (version 1.06A or later), as well as this Toolbox. To rebuild FFTIBM.COM, the following files are needed: From CHAPIO: COMPFFT.lNC FFTB2.1NC REALFFT.lNC From CHAPll: 4X6.FON (originally from the Graphix Toolbox) 8X8.FON (originally from the Graphix Toolbox) ERROR.MSG (originally from the Graphix Toolbox) FFTDEMO.PAS IOCHECK.lNC (a modification of COMMON.INC) From Turbo Pascal: (These files are not included in this Toolbox.) TURBO.COM or TURBO-87.COM (the Turbo Pascal compiler) TURBO.MSG (compiler error messages) 268 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox From the Turbo Pascal Graphix Toolbox (version 1.06A or later): (These files are not included in this Toolbox.) AXIS.HGH FINDWRLD.HGH GRAPHIX.SYS (a copy of GRAPHIX.lBM) KERNEL.SYS POLYGON.HGH TYPEDEF.SYS (with MaxPlotGlb changed to the value 1,024) WINDOWS.SYS The system constant MaxPlotGlb in the file TYPEDEF.SYS must be changed to have the value 1,024 instead of 100. Without this change, FFTDEMO will terminate with an error message. Once you have all of these files on the current directory, enter Turbo Pascal and compile FFTDEMO.PAS to disk. The resulting FFTDEMO.COM should be renamed FFTIBM.COM to distinguish it from the Hercules version. Rebuilding for the Hercules Card To recompile for the Hercules graphics card, simply copy GRAPHIX.HGC to GRAPHIX.SYS, as explained in the Turbo Pascal Graphix Toolbox. The font file 14X9.FON is also required from the Graphix Toolbox, and the version of the Graphix Toolbox must be 1.07A or later. (You can use version 1.06A of the Graphix Toolbox if you're using the copy of GRAPHIX.HGC accompanying the other CHAPll files.) The resulting files LSQDEMO.COM and FFTDEMO.COM should be renamed to LSQHERC.COM and FFTHERC.COM to distinguish them from the IBM CGA versions. Rebuilding for the EGA Card To recompile for the IBM Enhanced Graphics Adapter (EGA), you must copy GRAPHIX.EGA to GRAPHIX.SYS. A copy of GRAPHIX.EGA is included with this Toolbox since many users purchased copies of the Turbo Graphix Toolbox before support for the EGA was added. LSQIBM.COM and FFTIBM.COM will run on machines with an EGA card. However, to take advantage of the higher resolution offerred by this card, you must copy GRAPHIX.EGA and recompile. Graphics Programs 269 Release 1.07A of the Graphics Toolbox also supports other graphics hardware. LSQDEMO and FFTDEMO can be recompiled for any of these systems. Using the Math Coprocessor To recompile to take advantage of the math coprocessor, you must use TURBO87.COM instead of TURBO.COM. Some increased performance in the FFr demo program will be obtained ifFFfB2.1NC is replaced by FFT87B2.INC from Chapter 10 of the Toolbox. 270 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox References Abramowitz, Milton, and Irene A. Stegun, eds. Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables. Washington; D.C.: National Bureau of Standards Applied Mathematics Series, 55, 1972. Atkinson, L.V., and P.J. Harley. An Introduction to Numerical Methods with Pascal. Reading: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1983. This is an excellent text for learning numerical methods, with an emphasis on the implementation of various numerical algorithms. Brigham, E. Oran. The Fast Fourier Transform. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1974. A very complete, easy-to-read text on the use and implementation of the fast Fourier transform algorithm . .The next three texts are excellent for learning numerical analysis, emphasizing the mathematical theory underlying the algorithms in this toolbox. Burden, Richard L., and J. Douglas Faires. Numerical Analysis, 3rd ed. Boston: Prindle, Weber & Schmidt, 1985. Cheney, Ward, and David Kincaid. Numerical Mathematics and Computing, 2nd ed. Monterey: Brooks/Cole Publishing Co., 1985. Dahlquist, Germund, and Ake Bjorck. Numerical Methods, trans. Ned Anderson. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1974. Fried, Stephen S. "Evaluating 8087 Performance on the IBM PC." Byte. Vol. 9, Number 9 (Special Issue), 1985, pp.l97-208. 271 Gerald, Curtis F., and Patrick O. Wheatley. Applied Numerical Analysis, 3rd ed. Reading: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1984. This is another excellent source for learning numerical analysis. Press, William H., Brian P. Flannery, Saul A. Teukolsky, and William T. Vetterling. Numerical Recipes: The Art of Scientific Computing. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1986. This book is user-oriented, discusses many of the subtle problems encountered when implementing numerical methods, and has program listings in Turbo Pascal. Ralston, Anthony, and Philip Rabinowitz. A First Course in Numerical AnalysiS. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1978. A well-written mathematics text that is a step more sophisticated than the preceding ones. 272 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Index 273 $FF error, 145, 190,202 A ADAMS_l.INC, 156, 168-170 ADAMS_l.PAS, 170-171 Adams-Bashforth/Adams-Moulton predictor-corrector method, 156, 168-171 Adams-Bashforth formula, 168 Adams-Moulton formula, 168 ADAPGAUS.INC, 88, 98-100 ADAPGAUS.PAS, 101 ADAPSIMP.INC, 88, 95-96 ADAPSIMP.PAS, 96-97 Adaptive schemes, 87 quadrature, 95-101 Aliasing, 239 B Backward substitution, 114, 120 Basis vectors, 222 BISECT.INC, 18-19 Bisection method, 15 root of a function using, 18-20 BISECT.PAS, 19-20 Boundary value problems, 155-156, 158 using Linear Shooting/Runge-Kutta methods, 215-219 using Shooting/Runge-Kutta methods, 208-214 C Chebyshev polynomials, 224 Color Graphics Adapter, 3, 12 for graphics demos, 261, 267 COMMON.INC,7, 11, 13 COMPCNVL.INC, 233, 235, 237-238 application, 246-247 . COMPCORR.INC, 233, 235, 238 application, 249-250 COMPFFT.INC, 233, 235, 237 application, 244-245 Compiler directives, 13 Convergence, rate of, 15-16 Cooley-Tukey method, 233-234 Coprocessor, 3, 270 CUBE_CLA.lNC, 57-58 CUBE_CLAPAS, 59-62 CUBEJRE.lNC, 52-53 CUBEJRE.PAS, 53-56 274 Cubic spline methods clamped, 44, 57-62 free, 44,52-56, 64,76-79 Cyclic Jacobi method, 132, 149-153 D Data sampling, 239-240 Data types, 12 Defined constants, 12 Deflation, 16 and Laguerre, 37-41 and Newton-Horner, 28-32 of a matrix, 132, 143-148 DERIV2FN.lNC, 64-65, 83-84 DERIV2FN.PAS, 84-86 DERIV2.1NC, 64, 71-73 DERIV2.PAS, 73-75 Derivative, 63 approximation of, 64-86 DERIVFN .INC, 64, 80-81 DERIVFN .PAS, 81-82 DERIV.INC, 64, 66-68 DERIV.PAS, 68-70 Determinant of a matrix, 105-109 DET.INC, 106-108, 128 DET.PAS, 108-109 Diagonally dominant, 126 Diagonal matrix, 131 Differential equations first-order, 159-171 coupled,186-195 linear, 155 nth order, 157, 178-185 ordinary, 155 second-order, 158, 172-177, 192, 208-219 coupled, 196-207 stiff, 161 systems of, 157 Direct factorization of matrices, 106, 120-125 DIRFACT.lNC. 106, 120-122 DIRFACT.PAS, 122-125 Distribution disks, 7-11 DIVDIF.lNC, 49-50 DIVDIF.PAS, 50-51 E Eigensystem, 149 Eigenvalue, 131-132 Eigenvector, 131 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Enhanced Graphics Adapter, 3, 261, 267 rebuilding for, 269-270 EXP.LSQ, 225-226, 267 F Fast Fourier Transform, 233 algorithms, 241-243 applications, 244-260 sample program, 252-260 FFT87B2.1NC, 233-235 algorithms, 241-243 with the math coprocessor, 270 FFT87B4.1NC, 233-235, algorithms, 241-243 and REALFFT.lNC, 237 FFTB2.1NC, 233"'-234 algorithms, 241-243 rebuilding for FFTIBM.COM, 268 with the math coprocessor, 270 FFTB4.1NC, 233-235 algorithms, 241-243 and REALFFT.lNC, 237 FFTDEMO.COM, 269 FFTDEMO.PAS, 264-269 FFTHERC.COM,261 FFTIBM.COM, 261 graphics demo, 264-266 rebuilding, 268-269 FFT procedure, 242-243 FFTPROGS.PAS, 252-260 Forward substitution, 120 Forward transform, 234 FOURIERLSQ, 225, 267 Fourier series, 225 in graphics programs, 262 Fourier transform, 3, 233-260 in graphics demo, 264-265 G GAUSELIM.lNC, 106, 114-115 GAUSELIM.PAS, 115-116 Gaussian elimination, 106 with partial pivoting, 106, 117-119 Gaussian quadrature, 88 using Legendre polynomials, 98-101 GAUSSIDL.INC, 106, 126-127 GAUSSIDL.PAS, 128-130 Gauss-Jordan elimination, 110 Gauss-Seidel iterative method, 106, 126-130 GENERIC.LSQ, 267 Goodness of fit, 222 Index Graphics demo programs, 12, 262-267 printing, 265-267 , system requirements, 3,261 GRAPHICS.COM, 267 GRAPHICS.EGA, 269 H Heap/Stack collision, 145, 190, 202 Hercules Monochrome Graphics Adapter, 3,12,261 rebuilding for, 269 I Initial value problems, 155-157 Adams-Bashforth/Adams-Moul ton, 168-171 Runge-Kutta order five, 163-167 Runge-Kutta order four, 159-167, 172-207 Installation, 8-11 Integration, 87-104 INTERDRV.INC, 64, 76-77 INTERDRV.PAS, 77-79 Interpolation, 43, 158 cubic splines, 52-62 Lagrange polynomials, 45-48 Newton's divided-difference method, 49-51 INVERSE.lNC, 106, 110-111 Inverse of a matrix, 105-106, 110-113 INVERSKPAS, 111-113 Inverse power method, 131-132, 137-142 Inverse transform, 234 INVPOWER.INC, 131-132, 137-139 INVPOWERPAS, 139-142 IOCHECK.lNC, 267 Iterative methods, 15 cyclic Jacobi, 149-153 Gauss-Seidel, 106 J JACOBI.INC, 132, 149-151 JACOBI.PAS, 151-153 L LAGRANGE.INC, 45-46 Lagrange method, 43, 45-48 LAGRANGE.PAS, 46-48 LAGUERRE.INC, 37-38 LAGUERRKPAS, 39-41 275 Laguerre's method, 16 finding roots of complex polynomial, 37-41 LEAST.IN C, 106, 222-226 LEAST. MOD, 267 LEAST.PAS, 227-231 Least-squares approximation, 222-231 Least-squares solution graphics demo, 262-263 linear regression, 221 multiple regression, 221 Linear equations, 105-106 differential, 155 with direct factoring, l20-125 with Gaussian elimination, 114-119 LINSHOT2.1NC, 156, 158, 215-218 LINSHOT2.PAS, 218-219 Lipshitz condition, 157 LOG.LSQ, 226 LSQDEMO.COM, 268 LSQDEMO.PAS, 263 rebuilding for EGA, 269 rebuilding for printing, 265-267 LSQHERC.COM, 261 rebuilding for Hercules, 269 LSQIBM.COM, 261-263 graphics demo, 265-267 rebuilding, 267 rebuilding for EGA, 269 LUJ)ecompose, l20-l21 LU_Solve, l20-l22 M MakeSinCosTable, 242-243 Mark/Release, 96, 99, 145 in Adams-Bashforth/Adams-Moulton, 170 in complex fast Fourier, 245-252 in Linear Shooting/Runge-Kutta, 217 in Runge-Kutta, 161, 182, 191, 202, 211 in Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg, 165 Matrix algebra, 105 diagonal, 131 direct factorization, 106, l20 identity, 139 nonsingular, 106, l20-l25 orthogonal, 134 permutation, l20 rotation, 149 square, 106, 131-133, 137 symmetric, 132, 149-153 276 Mesh points, 156 MULLERINC, 33-35 MULLERPAS, 35-36 Muller's method, 16 finding roots of complex function, 33-36 N New/Dispose, 96, 99, 145 in Adams-Bashforth/Adams-Moulton, 170 in complex fast Fourier, 245-252 in Linear Shooting/Runge-Kutta, 217 in Runge-Kutta, 161, 182, 191,202,211 in Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg, 165 NEWTDEFL.INC, 28-30 NEWTDEFL.PAS, 30-32 Newton-Horner method, 15-16 with deflation, 28-32 Newton-Raphson method, 15-16 root of a function using, 21-24 Newton's general divided-difference algorithm, 43, 49-51 Nonlinear shooting method, 158, 208-214 Numerical differentiation, 63-65 five-point formulas, 64, 66-75 three-point formulas, 64, 66-75 two-point formulas, 64, 66-70 Nyquist frequency, 239, 264 p Partial pivoting, 106, 117 and direct factoring, l20 PARTPIVT.INC, 106, 117-118 PARTPIVT. PAS , 118-119 POLY.LSQ, 224, 267 Polynomials Lagrange, 89 Legendre, 98-100 methods to approximate roots of, 16, 25-41 POWERINC, 131-135 POWERLSQ, 225, 267 Power method, 131-136 and Wielandt's deflation, 143-148 POWERPAS, 135-136 Powers-of-four, 234 Powers-of-two, 234 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox R RAPHSON2.INC, 11 RAPHSON.INC, 9, 21-22 RAPHSON .PAS, 22-24 REALCNVL.INC, 233, 235, 238 application, 248-249 REALCORR.INC, 233, 235,238 application, 251-252 REALFFf.INC, 233, 235, 237 application, 245-246 Richardson extrapolation and numerical integration, 64, 80-82 and Romberg method, 88, 102-104 numerical integration, 64, 80-82 RKF_l.INC, 156, 163-165 RKF_l.PAS, 165-167 Romberg algorithm, 102-104 ROMBERG.INC, 88, 102-103 Romberg method, 88 using trapezoidal rule, 102-104 ROMBERG.PAS, 103-104 Roots of an equation, 15-42 Rotation matrix, 149-153 Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg, 156, 163-167 RUNGE_l.INC, 156-157, 159-161 RUNGE_l.PAS, 161-162 RUNGE-2.INC, 157, 172-175 RUNGE-2.PAS, 175-177 Runge-Kutta formulas, 179, 187-188, 197-199 Runge-Kutta methods, 156 fifth-order, 163 fourth-order, 156-157, 159-168, 172-186 RUNGE-N.INC, 157, 178-182 RUNGE-N .PAS, 182-185 RUNGE-Sl.INC, 157, 186-191 RUNGE-Sl.PAS, 191-195 RUNGE_S2.INC, 157, 196-203 RUNGE-S2.PAS, 203-207 SideKick, 96, 99, 145, 190, 202 SIMPSON .INC, 87, 89-90 SIMPSON.PAS, 90-91 Simpson's method, 87-97 Splines (see Cubic spline methods) SuperKe~96, 99,145, 190, 202 System requirements, 3 T TestForRoot, 17 TestInput, 241, 243 TNArraySize,12 TN complex, 33-34 TNCompVector, 37-38 TNIntVector, 28-29 TNNeariyZero, 12, 16-17 TNTargetF, 18 TN vector, 12 Trapezoid composite rule, 92-94 Trapezoid method, 87-88 TRAPZOID.lNC, 87, 92-93 TRAPZOID.PAS, 93-94 Turbo-87, 3-4, 12 TURBO-87.COM, 267-268, 270 TURBO.COM, 267-268, 270 TURBO.MSG, 267-268 Turbo Pascal, 1-3, 11 rebuilding with, 267-268 Turbo Pascal Graphix Toolbox, 3, 12 in graphics demos, 267-268 rebuilding, 267-269 U UNPACK.EXE,7-8 USER.LSQ, 226 w WIELANDT.INC, 132, 143-145 Wielandt method, 132 with deflation, 143-148 S SECANT.INC, 25-26 Secant method, 16 in nonlinear equations, 158, 208-214 root of a function using, 25-27 SECANT.PAS, 26-27 SHOOT2.INC, 158, 208-211 SHOOT2.PAS, 211-214 Shooting method, 158 linear, 215-219 nonlinear, 208-214 Index 277 278 Turbo Numerical Methods Toolbox Borland Software =i 3:-0 ¥J' BORLAND INTERNATIONAL 4585 Scotts Valley Drive, Scotts Valley, CA 95066 Available at better dealers nat1onwide. To order by credit card, call (800) 255-8008; CA (BOO) 742-1133; CANADA (800) 237-1136. "11,rll.fll 11E IEBI1" IJ.J IR.IIJ : IIRSAIIIIER ® Whether you're running WordStar,® Lotus,® dBASE,® or any other program, SideKick puts all these desktop accessories at your fingertips-Instantly! A full-screen WordStar-like Editor to jot down notes and edit files up to 25 pages long. A Phone Directory for names, addresses, and telephone numbers. Finding a name or a number is a snap. An Autodialer for all your phone calls. It will look up and dial telephone numbers for you. (A modem is required to use this function.) All the SideKick windows stacked up over Lotus 1-2-3.From bottom to top: SideKick's "Menu Window," ASCII Table, Notepad, Calculator, Appointment Calendar, Monthly Calendar, and Phone Dialer. A Monthly Calendar from 1901 through 2099. Appointment Calendar to remind you of important meetings and appointments. A full-featured Calculator ideal for business use. It also performs decimal to hexadecimal to binary conversions. An ASCII Table for easy reference. Here's SideKick running over Lotus 1-2-3. In the SideKick Notepad you'll notice data that's been imported directly from the Lotus screen. In the upper right you can see the Calculator. The Critics' Choice "In a simple, beautiful implementation of WordStar's block copy commands, SideKick can transport all or any part of the display screen (even an area overlaid by the notepad display) to the notepad." -Charles Petzold, PC MAGAZINE "SideKick deserves a place in every PC." -Gary Ray, PC WEEK "SideKick is by far the best we've seen. It is also the least expensive." -Ron Mansfield, ENTREPRENEUR "If you use a PC, get SideKick. You'll soon become dependent on it." -Jerry Pournelle, BYTE Suggested Retail Price: $84.95 (not copy protected) Minimum system configuration: IBM PC, XT, AT, PCjr and true compatibles. PC-DOS (MS-DOS) 2.0 or greater. 128K RAM. One disk drive. A Hayes-compatible modem, IBM PCjr internal modem, or AT&T Modem 4000 is required for the autodialer function. SideKick is a registered trademark of BorlCJld International. Inc. dBASE is a registered trademark of Ashton-Tate. IBM. XT. AT. and PCjr are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corp. AT&T is a registered trademark of AmericCJl Telephone & Telegraph Company. Lotus and 1-2-3 are registered trademarks of Lotus Development Corp WordStar is a registered trademark of MicroPro International Corp. Hayes is a trademark of Hayes Microcomputer Products, Inc. Copyright 1987 Borland International BOR0060C The Organizer For The Computer Age! Traveling SideKick is BinderWare,@ both a binder you take with you when you travel and a software program-which includes a Report Generator-that generates and prints out all the information you'll need to take with you. Information like your phone list, your client list, your address book, your calendar, and your appointments. The appointment or calendar files you'r~ already using in your SideKick8 can automatically be used by your Traveling SideKick. You don't waste time and effort reentering information that's already there. One keystroke prints out a form like your address book. No need to change printer paper; you simply punch three holes, fold and clip the form into your Traveling SideKick binder, and you're on your way. Because Traveling SideKick is CAD (Computer-Age Designed), you don't fool around with low-tech tools like scissors, tape, or staples. And because Traveling SideKick is electronic, it works this year, next year, and all the "next years" after that. Old-fashioned daytime organizers are history in 365 days. What's inside Traveling SideKick What the software program and its Report Generator do for you before you go-and when you get back Belore you go: • Prints out your calendar, appointments, addresses, phone directory, and whatever other information you need from your data files When you return: • Lets you quickly and easily enter all the new names you obtained while you were away into your SideKick data files It can also: • Sort your address book by contact, zip code or company name • Print mailing labels • Print information selectively • Search files for existing addresses or calendar engagements Suggested Retail Price: $69.95 (not copy protected) Minimum system configuration: IBM PC, XT, AT, Portable, PCjr, 3270 and true compatibles. PC·DOS (MS·DOS) 2.0 or later. 256K RAM mimimum. BORLAND INTERNATIONAL SideKick. BinderWare and Traveling SideKick are registered trademarks of Borland International. Inc. IBM. AT. XT. and PCjr are registered trademarks 01 International Business Machines Corp. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corp. Copyright 1987 Borland Inlernational BOR 0083A RAM-resident Increased productivity for IBM8PCs Dr compatibles SuperKey's simple macros are electronic shortcuts to success. By letting you reduce a lengthy paragraph into a single keystroke of your choice, SuperKey eliminates repetition. SuperKey turns 1,000 keystrokes into 1! SuperKey can record lengthy keystroke sequences and play them back at the touch of a single key. Instantly. Like magic. In fact, with Super Key's simple macros, you can turn "Dear Customer: Thank you for your inquiry. We are pleased to let you know that shipment will be made within 24 hours. Sincerely," into the one keystroke of your choice! SuperKey keeps your confidential files-confidential! Without encryption, your files are open secrets. Anyone can walk up to your PC and read your confidential files (tax returns, business plans, customer lists, personal letters, etc.). With SuperKey you can encrypt any file, even while running another program. As long as you keep the password secret, only you can decode your file correctly. SuperKey also implements the U.S. government Data Encryption Standard (DES). ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ RAM resident-accepts new macro files even while running other programs Pull-down menus Superfast file encryption Choice of two encryption schemes On-line context-sensitive help One-finger mode reduces key commands to single keystroke Screen OFF/ON blanks out and restores screen to protect against "burn in" Partial or complete reorganization of keyboard ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Keyboard buffer increases 16 character keyboard "type-ahead" buffer to 128 characters Real-time delay causes macro playback to pause for specified interval Transparent display macros allow creation of menus on top of application programs Data entry and format control using "fixed" or "variable" fields Command stack recalls last 256 characters entered Suggested Retail Price: $99.95 (not copy protected) Minimum system configuration: IBM PC. Xl. AT. PCjr. and true compatibles: PC-DOS (MS-DOS) 2.0 or greater. 128K RAM. One disk drive. SuperKey is a registered trademark 01 Borland Internationat. Inc. IBM. XT, AT. and PCjr are registered trademarks 01 International Business Machines Corp. MS-DOS is a registered trademark 01 Microsoft Corp. BOR 0062C If you use an IBM® PC, you need T U R B 0 Lightning® Turbo Lightning teams up with the Random House Concise Word List to check your spelling as you type! Turbo Lightning, using the BO,OOO-word Random House Dictionary, checks your spelling as you type. If you misspell a word, it alerts you with a "beep." At the touch of a key, Turbo Lightning opens a window on top of your application program and suggests the correct spelling. Just press one key and the misspelled word is instantly replaced with the correct word. Turbo Lightning works hand-in-hand with the Random House Thesaurus to give you instant access to synonyms Turbo Lightning lets you choose just the right word from a list of alternates, so you don't say the same thing the same way every time. Once Turbo Lightning opens the Thesaurus window, you see a list of alternate words; select the word you want, press ENTER and your new word will instantly replace the original word. Pure magic! II you ever write a word, think a word, or say a word, you need Turbo Lightning You can teach Turbo Lightning new words You can teach your new Turbo Lightning your name, business associates' names, street names, addresses, correct capitalizations, and any specialized words you use frequently. Teach Turbo Lightning once, and it knows forever. " The Turbo Lightning Proofreader . Turbo Lightning is the engine that powers Borland's Turbo Lightning Libraryf'J Turbo Lightning brings electronic power to the Random House Concise Word List and Random House Thesaurus. They're at your fingertips-even while you're running other programs. Turbo Lightning will also "drive" soon-to-be-released encyclopedias, extended thesauruses, specialized dictionaries, and many other popular reference works. You get a head start with this first volume in the Turbo Lightning Library. The Turbo Lightning Thesaurus Suggested Retail Price: $99.95 (not copy protected) Minimum system configuration: IBM PC, XT, AT, PCjr, and true compatibles with 2 lIoppy disk drives. PC·DOS (MS·DOS) 2.0 or greater. 256K RAM. Hard disk recommended. BORLAND INTERNATIONAL Turbo Lightning and Turbo Lightning Library are registered trademarks of Bortand tnternational, Inc. IBM. XT, AT, and PCjr are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corp, Random House is a registered trademark of Random House, Inc, Copyright 1987 Borland International BOR 0070B Your Development Toolbox and Technical Reference Manual for Thrbo [email protected]) l I G H T N N I G Lightning Word Wizard includes complete, commented Turbo Pascal® source code and all the technical information you'll need to understand and work with Turbo Lightning's "engine." More than 20 fully documented Turbo Pascal procedures reveal powerful Turbo Lightning engine calls. Harness the full power of the complete and authoritative Random House® Concise Word List and Random House Thesaurus. Turbo Lightning's "Reference Manual" The ultimate collection of word games and crossword solvers! Developers can use the versatile on-line examples to harness Turbo Lightning's power to do rapid word searches. Lightning Word Wizard is the forerunner of the database access systems that will incorporate " and engineer the Turbo Lightning Library® of electronic reference works. The excitement, challenge, competition, and education of four games and three solver utilities-puzzles, scrambles, spellsearches, synonym-seekings, hidden words, crossword solutions, and more. You and your friends (up to four people total) can set the difficulty level and contest the highspeed smarts of Lightning Word Wizard! Turbo Lightning-Critics' Choice "Lightning's good enough to make programmers and users cheer, executives of other software companies weep." Jim Seymour, PC Week "The real future of Lightning clearly lies not with the spelling checker and thesaurus currently included, but with other uses of its powerful look-up engine." Ted Silveira, Profiles "This newest product from Borland has it all." Don Roy, Computing Now! Minimum system configuration: IBM PC. XT. AT. PCjr. Portable. and true compatibles. 256K RAM minimum. PC·DOS (MS·DOS) 2.0 or greater. Turbo Lightning software required. Optional-Turbo Pascal 3.0 or greater to edit and compile Turbo Pascal source code. Suggested Retail Price: $69.95 (not copy protected) Turbo Pascal, Turbo Lightning and Turbo Lightning Library are registered trademarks and Lightning Word Wizard is a trademark of Borland International, Inc. Random House is a registered trademark of Random House, Inc. IBM, XT, AT, and PCjr are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corp. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corp. CqJyright 1987 Borland International BOR00878 I 'EEI Ell TIE DATABASE ~r'~II: .ANABEI ® The high-performance database manager that's so advanced it's easy to use! Lets you organize, analyze and report information faster than ever before! If you manage mailing lists, customer files, or even your company's budgets-Reflex is the database manager for you! Reflex is the acclaimed, high-performance database manager you've been waiting for. Reflex extends database management with business graphics. Because a picture is often worth a 1000 words, Reflex lets you extract critical information buried in mountains of data. With Reflex, when you look, you see. The REPORT VIEW allows you to generate everything from mailing labels to sophisticated reports. You can use database files created with Reflex or transferred from Lotus 1-2-3,8 dBASE,8 PFS: File,8 and other applications. Reflex: The Critics' Choice "... if you use a PC, you should know about Reflex ... may be the best bargain in software today." Jerry Pournelle, BYTE "Everyone agrees that Reflex is the best-looking database they've ever seen." Adam B. Green, Info World liThe next generation of software has officially arrived." Peter Norton, PC Week Reflex: don't use your PC without it! Join hundreds of thousands of enthusiastic Reflex users and experience the power and ease of use of Borland's award-winning Reflex. Suggested Retail Price: $149.95 (not copy protected) Minimum system configuration: IBM PC, Xl, AT, and true compatibles. 384K RAM minimum. IBM Color Graphics Adapter, Hercules Monochrome Graphics CArd, or equivalent. PC·DOS (MS· DOS) 2.0 or greater. Hard disk and mouse optional. Lotus 1·2·3, dBASE, or PFS: File optional. Reflex is a trademark of Bortand/Analytica tnc. Lotus 1-2-3 is a registered trademark of Lotus Development Corporation. dBASE is a registered trademark of Ashton-Tate. PFS: Fite is a registered trademark of Software Publishing Corporation. IBM. XT. AT, and IBM Color Graphics Adapter are registered trademarks of International BUSiness Machines Corporation. Hercules Graphics Card is a trademark of Hercules Computer Technology. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corp. Copyright 1987 Borland International BOA 0066C REILEX: TIE WIIISII"· Includes 22 "instant templates" covering a broad range of business applications (listed below). Also shows you how to customize databases, graphs, crosstabs, and reports. It's an invaluable analytical tool and an important addition to another one of our best sellers, Reflex: The Database Manager. Fast-start tutorial examples: Learn [email protected]) as you work with practical business applications. The Reflex Workshop Disk supplies databases and reports large enough to illustrate the power and variety of Reflex features. Instructions in each Reflex Workshop chapter take you through a step-by-step analysis of sample data. You then follow simple steps to adapt the files to your own needs. 22 practical business applications: Workshop's 22 "instant templates" give you a wide range of analytical tools: Administration • Tracking Manufacturing Quality Assurance • • • • • Scheduling Appointments Planning Conference Facilities Managing a Project Creating a Mailing System Managing Employment Applications Sales and Marketing • • • • Researching Store Check Inventory Tracking Sales Leads Summarizing Sales Trends Analyzing Trends Production and Operations • Summarizing Repair Turnaround • Analyzing Product Costs Accounting and Financial Planning • Tracking Petty Cash • Entering Purchase Orders • Organizing Outgoing Purchase Orders • Analyzing Accounts Receivable • Maintaining Letters of Credit • Reporting Business Expenses • Managing Debits and Credits • Examining Leased Inventory Trends • Tracking Fixed Assets • Planning Commercial Real Estate Investment Whether you're a newcomer learning Reflex basics or an experienced "power user" looking for tips, Reflex: The Workshop will help you quickly become an expert database analyst. Minimum system configuration: IBM PC, AT, and XT, and true compatibles. PC-DOS (MS-DOS) 2.0 or greater. 384K RAM minimum. Requires Rellex: The Database Manager, and IBM Color Graphics Adapter, Hercules Monochrome Graphics Card or equivalent. Suggested Retail Price: $69.95 (not copy protected) Reflex is a registered trademark and Reflex: The Workshop is a trademark of Borland/Analytica, Inc. IBM, AT, and Xl are registered trademarks 01 International Business Machines Corp. Hercules is a trademark 01 Hercules Computer Technology. MS-DOS is a registered trademark 01 Microsoft Corp. Copyright 1987 Borland International BOA 0088B Version 3.0 with 8087 support and BCD reals Free MicroCaic Spreadsheet With Commented Source Code! FEATURES: THE CRITICS' CHOICE: One-Step Compile: No hunting &fishing expeditions! Turbo finds the errors, takes you to them, lets you correct them, and instantly recompiles. You're off and running in record time. "Language deal of the century ... Turbo Pascal: it introduces a new programming environment and runs like magic." -Jell Duntemann, PC Magazine "Most Pascal compilers barely fit on a disk, but Turbo Pascal packs an editor, compiler, linker, and run-time library into just 39K bytes of random access memory." -Dave Garland, Popular Computing Built-in Interactive Editor: WordStar~like easy editing lets you debug quickly. Automatic Overlays: Fits big programs into small amounts of memory. MicroCalc: A sample spreadsheet on your disk with ready-to-compile source code. IBM~ PC Version: Supports Turtle Graphics, color, sound, full tree directories, window routines, input/output redirection, and much more. "What I think the computer industry is headed for: well-documented, standard, plenty of good features, and a reasonable price." -Jerry Pournelle, BYTE LOOK AT TURBO NOW! @' More than 500,000 users worldwide. @' Turbo Pascal is the de facto industry standard. @' Turbo Pascal wins PC MAGAZINE'S award for technical excellence. @' Turbo Pascal named "Most Significant Product of the Year" by PC WEEK. @' Turbo Pascal 3.0-the fastest Pascal development environment on the planet, period. Suggested Retail Price: $99.95; CP/M~-80 version without 8081 and BCD: $69.95 Features lor 16-bit Systems: 8087 math co-processor support for intensive calculations. Binary Coded Decimals (BCD): eliminates round-off error! Amust for any serious business application. Minimum system configuration: 128K RAM minimum. Includes 8087 &BCD features for 16-bit MS-DOS 2.0 or later and CP/M-86 1.1 or later. CP/M-80 version 2.2 or later 48K RAM minimum (8087 and BCD features not available). 8087 version requires 8087 or 80287 co-processor. Turbo Pascal is a registered trademark of Bor1and International. Inc. CP/M is a registered trademark of Digital Research Inc. IBM is a registered tradermrk of International Business Machines Corp. MS-DOS is a registered tradermrk of Micr~ft Corp. VlbrdStar is a registered trademark of MicroPro International. Copyright 1987 Borland International BOA 00619 VERSION 2.0 Learn Pascal From The Folks Who Created The Turbo Pascal® Family Borland International proudly presents Turbo Tutor, the perfect complement to your Turbo Pascal compiler. Turbo Tutor is really for everyoneeven if you've never programmed before. And if you're already proficient, Turbo Tutor can sharpen up the fine paints. The manual and program disk focus on the whole spectrum of Turbo Pascal programming techniques. • For the Novice: It gives you a concise history of Pascal, tells you how to write a simple program, and defines the basic programming terms you need to know. • Programmer's Guide: The heart of Turbo Pascal. The manual covers the fine points of every aspect of Turbo Pascal programming: program structure, data types, control structures, procedures and functions, scalar types, arrays, strings, pointers, sets, files, and records. • Advanced Concepts: If you're an expert, you'll love the sections detailing such topics as linked lists, trees, and graphs. You'll also find sample program examples for PC-DOS and [email protected]) 10,000 lines of commented source code, demonstrations of 20 Turbo Pascal features, multiplechoice quizzes, an interactive on-line tutor, and more! Turbo Tutor may be the only reference work about Pascal and programming you'll ever need! Suggested Retail Price: $39.95 (not copy protected) Minimum system configuration: Turbo Pascal 3.0. PC-DOS (MS-DOS) 2.0 or later. 192K RAM minimum (CP/M-80 version 2.2 or later: 64K RAM minimum). Turbo Pascal and Turbo Tutor are regislered tademarks of Borland International Inc. CP1M is a registered trademark of Digital Research Inc. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corp. Copyright 1987 Borland International BOR 0064C Is The Perfect Complement To Turbo Pascal® It contains a complete library of Pascal procedures that allows you to sort and search your data and build powerful database applications. It's another set of tools from Borland that will give even the beginning programmer the expert's edge. THE TOOLS YOU NEED! TURBO ACCESS Using B+ trees: The best way to organize and search your data. Makes it possible to access records in a file using key words instead of numbers. Now available with complete source code on disk, ready to be included in your programs. TURBO SORT: The fastest way to sort data using the QUICKSORT algorithm-the method preferred by knowledgeable professionals. Includes source code. GINST (General Installation Program): Gets your programs up and running on other terminals. This feature alone will save hours of work and research. Adds tremendous value to all your programs. GET STARTED RIGHT AWAY.-FREE DATABASE! Included on every Toolbox diskette is the source code to a working database which demonstrates the power and simplicity of our Turbo Access search system. Modify it to suit your individual needs or just compile it and run. THE CRITICS' CHOICE! liThe tools include a B+ tree search and a sorting system. I've seen stuff like this, but not as well thought out, sell for hundreds of dollars." -Jerry Pournelle, BYTE MAGAZINE liThe Turbo Database Toolbox is solid enough and useful enough to come recommended." -Jeff Duntemann, PC TECH JOURNAL Suggested Retail Price: $69.95 (not copy protected) Minimum system conliguration: 128K RAM and one disk drive (CP/M·80: 48K). 16·bit systems: Turbo Pascal 2.0 or greater lor MS·DOS or PC·DOS 2.0 or greater. Turbo Pascal 2.1 or greater lor CP/M·86 1.0 or greater. 8·bit systems: Turbo Pascal 2.0 or greater lor CP/M·80 2.2 or greater. BORLAND INTERNATIONAL Turbo Pascal and Turbo Database Toolbox are registered trademarks of Borland International Inc. CP1M is a registered trademark of Dignal Research. Inc. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corp. Copyright 1987 Borland International BOR 00630 7VRBO MS'CAl. GRAPHlx200tsox® A Library of Graphics Routines for Use with Turbo Pasca/® High-resolution graphics for your IBM" PC, AT," XT," PCjr", true PC compatibles, and the Heath Zenith Z-100:" Comes complete with graphics window management. Even if you're new to Turbo Pascal programming, the Turbo Pascal Graphix Toolbox will get you started right away. It's a collection of tools that will get you right into the fascinating world of high-resolution business graphics, including graphics window management. You get immediate, satisfying results. And we keep Royalty out of American business because you don't pay any-even if you distribute your own compiled programs that include all or part of the Turbo Pascal Graphix Toolbox procedures. What you get includes: • Complete commented source code on disk. • Tools for drawing simple graphics. • Tools for drawing complex graphics, including curves with optional smoothing. • Routines that let you store and restore graphic images to and from disk. • Tools allowing you to send screen images to Epsone-compatible printers. • • • • Full graphics window management. Two different font styles for graphic labeling. Choice of line-drawing styles. Routines that will let you Quickly plot functions and model experimental data. • And much, much more ... "While most people only talk about low-cost personal computer software, Borland has been doing something about it. And Borland provides good technical support as part of the price." John Markov & Paul Freiberger, syndicated columnists. II you ever plan to create Turbo Pascal programs that make use of business graphics or scientific graphics, you need the Turbo Pascal Graphix Toolbox. Suggested Retail Price: $69.95 (not copy protected) Minimum system configuration: IBM PC, Xl, AT, PCjr, true compatibles and the Heath Zenith Z-100. Turbo Pascal 3.0 or later. 192K RAM minimum. Two disk drives and an IBM Color Graphics Adapter (CGA), IBM Enhanced Graphics Adapter (EGA), Hercules Graphics Card or compatible. BORLAND INTERNATIONAL Turbo Pascal and Turbo Graphix Toolbox are registered trademarks 01 Borland International. Inc. IBM. XT. AT. and PCjr are registered trademarks 01 International Business Machines Corporation. Hercules Graphics Card is a trademark 01 Hercules Computer Technology. Heath Zenith Z-1 00 is a trademark 01 Zenith Data Systems Epson is a registered trademark 01 Epson Corp. Copyright 1987 Borland Intemational BOR 0068C 2VRBO PASCAl. .EDJ2OR 2totsox® It's All You Need To Build Your Own Text Editor Or Word Processor Build your own lightning-fast editor and incorporate it into your Turbo Pascale programs. Turbo Editor Toolbox gives you easy-to-install modules. Now you can integrate a fast and powerful editor into your own programs. You get the source code, the manual, and the know-how. Create your own word processor. We provide all the editing routines. You plug in the features you want. You could build aWordStar e -like editor with pull-down menus like Microsoft'se Word, and make it work as fast as WordPerfect.e To demonstrate the tremendous power of Turbo Editor Toolbox, we give you the source code for two sample editors: Simple Editor MicroStar A complete editor ready to include in your programs. With windows, block commands, and memory-mapped screen routines. A full-blown text editor with a complete pull-down menu user interface, plus a lot more. Modify MicroStar's pull-down menu system and include it in your Turbo Pascal programs. The Turbo Editor Toolbox gives you all the standard features you would expect to find in any word processor: • , • • • • • Wordwrap UN-delete last line Auto-indent Find and Find/Replace with options Set left and right margin Block mark, move, and copy Tab, insert and overstrike modes, centering, etc. MicroStar's pull-down menus. And Turbo Editor Toolbox has features that word processors selling for several hundred dollars can't begin to match. Just to name a few: [3" [3" [3" RAM-based editor. You can edit very large files and yet editing is lightning fast. Memory-mapped screen routines. Instant paging, scrolling, and text display. Keyboard installation. Change control keys from WordStar-like commands to any that you prefer. [3" [3" Multiple windows. See and edit up to eight documents-or up to eight parts of the same document-all at the same time. Multitasking. Automatically save your text. Plug in a digital clock, an appointment alarm-see how it's done with MicroStar's "background" printing. Best of all, source code is included for everything in the Editor Toolbox. Suggested Retail Price: $69.95 (not copy protected) Minimum system configuration: IBM PC, XT, AT, 3270, PCjr, and true compatibles. PC-DOS (MS-DOS) 2.0 or greater. 192K RAM. You must be using Turbo Pascal 3.0 for IBM and compatibles. Turbo Pascal and Turbo Editor Toolbox are registered trademarks of Borland International. Inc. WordStar is a registered trademark of MicroPro International Corp. Word and MS-DOS are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corp. WordPerfect is a trademark of Satellite Software International. IBM, XT, AT, and PCjr are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corp. BOR 0067B ® Secrets And Strategies 01 The Masters Are Revealed For The First Time Explore the world of state-of-the-art computer games with Turbo GameWorks. Using easy-to-understand examples, Turbo GameWorks teaches you techniques to quickly create your own computer games using Turbo Pascal.8 Or, for instant excitement, play the three great computer games we've included on disk-compiled and ready to run. TURBO CHESS Test your chess-playing skills against your computer challenger. With Turbo GameWorks, you're on your way to becoming a master chess player. Explore the complete Turbo Pascal source code and discover the secrets of Turbo Chess. "What impressed me the most was the fact that with this program you can become a computer chess analyst. You can add new variations to the program at any time and make the program play stronger and stronger chess. There's no limit to the fun and enjoyment of playing Turbo GameWorks Chess, and most important of all, with this chess program there's no limit to how it can help you improve your game." -George Koltanowski, Dean of American Chess, former President of the United Chess Federation, and syndicated chess columnist. TURBO BRIDGE Now play the world's most popular card game-bridge. Play one-on-one with your computer or against up to three other opponents. With Turbo Pascal source code, you can even program your own bidding or scoring conventions. "There has never been a bridge program written which plays at the expert level, and the ambitious user will enjoy tackling that challenge, with the format already structured in the program. And for the inexperienced player, the bridge program provides an easy-to-follow format that allows the user to start right out playing. The user can 'play bridge' against real competition without having to gather three other people." -Kit Woolsey, writer of several articles and books on bridge, and twice champion of the Blue Ribbon Pairs. TURBO GO-MOKU Prepare for battle when you challenge your computer to a game of Go-Moku-the exciting strategy game also known as Pente." In this battle of wits, you and the computer take turns placing X's and D's on a grid of 19X19 squares until five pieces are lined up in a row. Vary the game if you like, using the source code available on your disk. Suggested Retail Price: $69.95 (not copy protected) Minimum system configuration: IBM PC, XT, AT, Portable, 3270, PClr, and true compatibles. PC·DOS (MS·DOS) 2.0 or later. 192K RAM minimum. To edit and compile the Turbo Pascal source code, you must be using Turbo Pascal 3.0 for IBM PCs and compatibles. ~ " BORLAND '# I N T ERN A T ION A L Turbo Pascal and Turbo GameWorks are registered trademarks of Borland International. Inc. Pente is a registered trademark of Parker Brothers. IBM. XT. AT. and PCjr are registered trademarks of International Business Machiles Corporation. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corporation. Copyright 1987 Borland International BOR0065C TURBO the natural language of ArtiflCiallntelrlgenCe Turbo Prolog brings fifth-generation supercomputer power to your IBM®PC! Turbo Prolog takes Turbo Prolog provides programming into a new, a fully integrated pronatural, and logical gramming environment environment like Borland's Turbo With Turbo Prolog, Pascal,® the de facto because of its natural, worldwide standard. logical approach, both You get the people new to programming complete Turbo and professional programmers Prolog programming can build powerful applicasystem tions such as expert systems, You get the 2DD-page customized knowledge manual you're holding, bases, natural language software that includes interfaces, and smart L.~ ~<.<".~";; ~_~ the lightning-fast Turbo information management systems. Prolog six-pass Turbo Prolog is a declarative language which compiler and interactive editor, and the uses deductive reasoning to solve free GeoBase natural query language programming problems. database, which includes commented source code on disk, ready to compile. (GeoBase is a complete database designed Turbo Prolog's development system and developed around U.S. geography. ncludes: You can modify it or use it "as is.") ••• _____ ] A complete Prolog compiler that is a variation of the Clocks in and Mellish Edinburgh standard Prolog. ] A full-screen interactive editor. ] Support for both graphic and text windows. ] All the tools that let you build your own expert systems and AI applications with unprecedented ease. -.=.., -~ BORLAND INTERNATIONAL _ _ _.............,,,,-, Minimum system configuration: IBM PC, XT, AT, Portable, 3270, PCjr and true compatibles. PC-DOS (MS-DOS) 2.0 or later. 384K RAM minimum. Suggested Retail Price: $99.95 (not copy protected) Turbo Prolog is a trademark and Turbo Pascal is a registered trademark of Borland International. Inc. IBM. AT. XT. and PCjr are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corp. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corp. Copyright 1987 Borland International BOR 0016D ""II ""L"STM 11111111 Enhances Turbo Prolog with more than 80 tools and over 8,000 lines 01 source code Turbo Prolog, the natural language of Artificial Intelligence, is the most popular AI package in the world with more than 100,000 users. Our new Turbo Prolog Toolbox extends its possibilities. The Turbo Prolog Toolbox enhances Turbo Prolog-our 5th-generation computer programming language that brings supercomputer power to your IBM PC and compatibles-with its more than 80 tools and over 8,000 lines of source code that can be incorporated into your programs, quite easily. Turbo Prolog Toolbox features include: & Business graphics generation: boxes, circles, ellipses, bar charts, pie charts, scaled graphics & Complete communications package: supports XModem protocol & File transfers from Reflex,~ dBASE III,~ Lotus 1-2-3,~ Symphony~ & A unique parser generator: construct your own compiler or query language & Sophisticated user -interface design tools & 40 example programs & Easy-to-use screen editor: design your screen layout and 1/0 & Calculated fields definition & Over 8,000 lines of source code you can incorporate into your own programs Suggested Retail Price: $99.95 (not copy protected) Minimum system configuration: iBM PC, XT, AT or true compatibles. PC-DOS (MS-DOS) 2.0 or later. Requires Turbo Prolog 1.10 or higher. Dual-floppy disk drive or hard disk. 512K. Turbo Prolog Toolbox and Turbo Prolog are trademarks of Borland International, Inc. Reflex is a registered trademark of Borland/Analytica, Inc. dBASE III is a registered trademark of Ashton-Tate. Lotus 1-2-3 and Symphony are registered trademarks of Lotus Development Corp. IBM, XT. and AT are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corp. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corp. BOR 0240 1UIIII IABIC® The high-speed BASIC you've been waiting for! You probably know us for our Turbo Pascale and Turbo Pr%g.'" Well, we've done it again! We've created Turbo Basic, because BASIC doesn't have to be slow. If BASIC taught you how to walk, Turbo Basic will teach you how to run! With Turbo Basic, your only speed is "Full Speed Ahead"! Turbo Basic is a complete development environment with a lightning fast compiler, an interactive editor and a trace debugging system. And because Turbo Basic is also compatible with BASICA, chances are that you already know how to use Turbo Basic. . Turbo Basic ends the basic confusion There's now one standard: Turbo Basic. And because Turbo Basic is a Borland product, the price is right, the quality is there, and the power is at your fingertips. Turbo Basic is part of the fast-growing Borland family of programming languages we call the "Turbo Family." And hundreds of thousands of users are already using Borland's languages. So, welcome to a whole new generation of smart PC users! Free spreadsheet included with source code! Yes, we've included MicroCalc, our sample spreadsheet, complete with source code. So you can get started right away with a "real program." You can compile and run it "as is," or modify it. A technical look at Turbo Basic executable program, with separate windows for editing, messages, tracing, and execution B Compile and run-time errors place you in source code where error occurred coprocessor integration. Software emulation B Access to local, static and global variables if no 8087 present B New long integer (32-bit) data type B Program size limited only by available memory (no 64K limitation) B Full 80-bit precision B EGA and CGA support B Pull-down menus B Full integration of the compiler, editor, and B Full window management B Full recursion supported B Standard IEEE floating-point format B Floating-point support, with full 8087 Suggested Retail Price: $99.95 (not copy protected) Minimum system configuration: IBM PC. AT. XT or true compatibles. 256K. One floppy drive. PC-DOS (MS-DOS) 2.0 or lalel. Turbo Basic and Turbo Pascal are registered trademarks and Turbo Prolog is a trademark of Borland International. Inc. IBM. AT. and XT are regislered trademarks of International Business Machines Corp. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsolt Corp. Copyright 1987 Borland International BOR 0265A Includes tree MicroCalc spreadsheet with source code A complete interactive development environment With Turbo C, you can expect what only Borland delivers: Quality, Speed, Power and Price. And with its compilation speed of more than 7000 lines a minute, Turbo C makes everything else look like an exercise in slow motion. Turbo C: The C compiler for both amateurs and professionals If you're just beginning and you've "kinda wanted to learn C," now's your chance to do it the easy way. Turbo C's got everything to get you going. If you're already programming in C, switching to Turbo C will considerably increase your productivity and help make your programs both smaller and faster. Turbo C: a complete interactive development environment Like Turbo Pascale and Turbo Prolog,'" Turbo C comes with an interactive editor that will show you syntax errors right in your source code. Developing, debugging, and running a Turbo C program is a snap! Technical Specifications [iY' Development Environment: A powerful "Make" is line code, linkable object modules and assembler. included so that managing Turbo C program The object module format is compatible with the development is easy. Borland's fast "Turbo PC-DOS linker. Supports small, medium, compact, Linker" is also included. Also includes pull-down large, and huge memory model libraries. Can mix menus and windows. Can run from the environmodels with near and far pointers. Includes ment or generate an executable file. floating point emulator (utilizes 8087/80287 if [iY' Links with relocatable object modules created installed). using Borland's Turbo Prolog into a [Y' Interactive Editor: The system includes a powerful, single program. interactive full-screen text editor. If the compiler [iY' ANSI C compatible. detects an error, the editor automatically positions ~ Start-up routine ~ource ~ode included .. the cursor appropriately in the source code. ~ Both. co~mand line and Integrated enVIronment versions Included. [Y' Compiler: One-pass compiler generating native in- "Sieve" benchmark (25 Iterations) Turbo C Microsoft PJ C Compile time 3.89 16.37 13.90 Compl7e and link time 9.94 29.06 27.79 Execution time 5.77 274 9.51 13.79 Object code size 297 Price $99.95 $450.00 301 $500.00 Lattice C Benchmark run on a 6 Mhz IBM AT using Turbo eversion 1.0 and the Turbo Linker version 1.0; Microsoft eversion 4.0 and the MS overlay linker version 3.51; Lattice eversion 3.1 and the MS object linker version 3.05. Suggested Retail Price: $99.95* (not copy protected) ·Introductory offer good through July 1. 1987. Minimum system configuration: IBM PC, XT, AT and true compatibles. PC-DOS (MS-DOS) 2.0 or later. One floppy drive. 320K. Turbo C and Turbo Pascal are registered traoomarks and Turbo Prolog is a trademark 01 Borland International. Inc. Microsoft C and MS-DOS ere registered trademarks 01 Microsoft Corp. lattice C is a registered trademark 01 lattice. Inc. IBM, Xl, and AT are registered trademarks 01 International Business Machines Corp. BOA 0243 EIIIEIA: "E BllfJlE'u The solution to your most complex equations-in seconds! If you're a scientist, engineer, financial analyst, student, teacher, or any other professional working with equations, Eureka: The Solver can do your Algebra, Trigonometry and Calculus problems in a snap. Eureka also handles maximization and minimization problems, plots functions, generates reports, and saves an incredible amount of time. Even if you're not a computer specialist, Eureka can help you solve your real-world mathematical problems fast, without having to learn numerical approximation techniques. Using Borland's famous pull-down menu design and context-sensitive help screens, Eureka is easy to learn and easy to use-as simple as a hand-held calculator. X + exp(X) = 10 solved instantly instead 01 eventually! Imagine you have to "solve for X," where X + exp(X) = 10, and you don't have Eureka: The Solver. What you do have is a problem, because it's going to take a lot of time guessing at "X." With Eureka, there's no guessing, no dancing in the dark-you get the right answer, right now. (Ps: X = 2.0705799, and Eureka solved that one in .4 of a second!) How to use Eureka: The Solver It's easy. You can then tell Eureka to 1. Enter your equation into the • Evaluate your solution full-screen editor • Plot a graph 2. Select the "Solve" command • Generate a report, then send the output 3. Look at the answer to your printer, disk file or screen 4. You're done , • Or all of the above Some 01 Eureka's key leatures You can key in: ~ A formula or formulas ~ A series of equations-and solve for all variables ~ Constraints (like X has to be < or = 2) ~ A function to plot ~ Unit conversions ~ Maximization and minimization problems ~ Interest Rate/Present Value calculations ~ Variables we call "What happens?," like "What happens if I change this variable to 21 and that variable to 27?" Minimum system configuration: IBM PC, AT, XT, Portable, 3270 and true compatibles. PC-DOS (MS-DOS) 2.0 and later. 384K. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Eureka: The Solver includes A full-screen editor Pull-down menus Context-sensitive Help On-screen calculator Automatic 8087 math co-processor chip support Powerful financial functions Built-in and user-defined math and financial functions Ability to generate reports complete with plots and lists Polynomial finder Inequality solutions Suggested Retail Price: $99.95* (not copy protected) Eureka: The Solver is a trademark of Borla1d International, Inc. IBM, AT, and XT are registered trademarks of International Business Machnes Corp. MS-DOS is a registered trademark of Microsoft Corp. Copyright 1987 Borland International BOR 0221A 'Introductory price expires July 1, 1987 "II'EII'PI® IJJ Ift'lIJ : IIRSAIIIIER THE BEBKTllfI Release 2.0 Macintosh™ The most complete and comprehensive collection of desk accessories available for your Macintosh! Thousands of users already know that SideKick is the best collection of desk accessories available for the Macintosh. With our new Release 2.0, the best just got better. We've just added two powerful high-performance tools to SideKick-Outlook": The Outliner and MacPlan'": The Spreadsheet. They work in perfect harmony with each other and while you run other programs! Outlook: The Outliner • II's the desk accessory with more power than a stand-alone outliner • A great desktop publishing tool, Outlook lets you incorporate both text and graphics into your outlines • Works hand-in-hand with MacPlan • Allows you to work on several outlines at the same time • • • • • MacPlan: The Spreadsheet Integrates spreadsheets and graphs Does both formulas and straight numbers Graph types include bar charts, stacked bar charts, pie charts and line graphs Includes 12 example templates free! Pastes graphics and data right into Outlook creating professional memos and reports, complete with headers and footers. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ SideKick: The Desktop Organizer, Release 2.0 now includes Outlook: The Outliner MacPlan: The Spreadsheet Mini word processor Calendar Phone Log Analog clock Alarm system Calculator Report generator Telecommunications (new version now supports XModem file transfer protocol) ~~s ~ • 1367'1: II 2'361~ Tot.IR.YfO~H o 1'!i.94'S SaluB III '" • em ExplIf'Is.c [] 0319iLJ,bor []I <4.E.6S1 H.-.... iII's ~ 6.,,1a Ovtrtlt" 0" IJ • 18'£ Tot.,ExpfOSK '" 1845'1: ".tPro(11 MacPlan does both spreadsheets and business graphs. Paste them into your Outlook files and generate professional reports. Suggested Retail Price: $99.95 (not copy protected) Minimum system configurations: Macintosh 512K or Macintosh Plus with one disk drive. One BOOK or two 400K drives are recommended. With one 400K drive, a limited number of desk accessories will be installable per disk. SideKick is a registered trademark and Outlook and MacPlan are trademarks of Borland International, Inc. Macintosh is a trademark of Mcintosh Laboratory, Inc. licensed to Apple Computer, Inc. Copyright 1987 Borland International BOR 00690 'I £IIEI;• IAIIASEI 111 IIA1AIA" ~.] The easy-to-use relational database that thinks like a spreadsheet. Rellex lor the Mac lets you crunch numbers by entering lormulas and link databases by drawing on-screen lines. 5 free ready-to-use templates are included on the examples disk: • A client billing application set up for a law office, but easily customized by any professional who bills time. • A parts explosion application that breaks down an object into its component parts for cost analysis. • A sample 1040 tax application with Schedule A, Schedule 8, and Schedule 0, each contained in a separate report document. • A portfolio analysis application with linked databases of stock purchases, sales, and dividend payments. • A checkbook application. Reflex for the Mac accomplishes all of these tasks without programming-using spreadsheet-like formulas. Some other Reflex for the Mac features are: • Visual database design. • "What you see is what you get" report and form layout with pictures. • Automatic restructuring of database files when data types are changed, or fields are added and deleted. • Display formats which include General, Decimal, Scientific, Dollars, Percent. • Data types which include variable length text, number, integer, automatically incremented sequence number, date, time, and logical. • Up to 255 fields per record. • Up to 16 files simultaneously open. • Up to 16 Mac fonts and styles are selectable for individual fields and labels. • file Edit form.t OllCrlb. D,"'''' S•• n .. Milt Window OltlB . . IOUflr"llw <om""'''I.'''' Compon.ntOfl.llg ~:;: IO_ltnembl MII_ .. p,rt ISP.~t .1 ___ I.to. "Peru.S After opening the "Overview" window, you draw link lines between databases directly onto your Macintosh screen. The link lines you draw establish both visual and electronic relationships between your databases. You can have multiple windows open simultaneously to view all members 01 a linked set-which are interactive and truly relational. Critic's Choice "... a powerful relational database ... uses a visual approach to information management." InfoWorld "... gives you a lot of freedom in report design; you can even import graphics." A+ Magazine ". '.' bridges the gap between the pretty programs and the power programs." Stewart Alsop, PC Letter Suggested Retail Price: $99.95* (not copy protected) Minimum syslem configuration: Macirtosh 512K or Macintosh Plus with one disk drive. Second external drive recommended. Reflex is a registered trademark of BorlandiAnalytica. Inc. MaCintosh is a trademark of MCintosh Laboratory. Inc. and is used with express permission of as owner. Copyright 1987 Borland Internationat 'Introductory price expires July 1. 1987 BOR0149A The ultimate Pascal development environment Borland's new Turbo Pascal for the Mac is so incredibly fast that it can compile 1,420 lines of source code in the 7.1 seconds it took you to read this! And reading the rest of this takes about 5 minutes, which is plenty of time for Turbo Pascal for the Mac to compile at least 60,000 more lines of source code! Turbo Pascal for the Mac does both Windows and "Units" The separate compilation of routines offered by Turbo Pascal for the Mac creates modules called "Units," which can be linked to any Turbo Pascal program. This "modular pathway" gives you "pieces" which can then be integrated into larger programs. You get a more efficient use of memory and a reduction in the time it takes to develop large programs. Turbo Pascal for the Mac is so compatible with Lisae that they should be living together Routines from Macintosh Programmer's Workshop Pascal and Inside Macintosh can be compiled and run with only the subtlest changes. Turbo Pascal for the Mac is also compatible with the Hierarchical File System of the Macintosh. The 27-second Guide to Turbo Pascal for the Mac • Compilation speed of more than 12,000 lines per minute • "Unit" structure lets you create programs in modular form • Multiple editing windows-up to 8 at once • Compilation options include compiling to disk or memory, or compile and run • No need to switch between programs to compile or run a program • Streamlined development and debugging • Compatibility with Macintosh Programmer's Workshop Pascal (with minimal changes) • Compatibility with Hierarchical File System of your Mac • Ability to define default volume and folder names used in compiler directives • Search and change features in the editor speed up and simplify alteration of routines • Ability to use all available Macintosh memory without limit • "Units" included to call all the routines provided by Macintosh Toolbox Suggested Retail Price: $99.95* (not copy protected) ·Introductory price expires July 1. 1987 Minimum system configuration: Macintosh 512K or Macintosh Plus with one disk drive. Turbo Pascal and SideKick are registered trademarks of Borland International, Inc. and Reflex is a registered trademark of Borlandl Analytica, Inc. Macintosh is a trademark 01 Mcintosh Laboratories, Inc. licensed to Apple Computer with its express permission. Lisa is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc. Inside Macintosh is a copyright of Apple Computer, Inc. Copyright 1987 Borland International BOR 0167A - Borland Software OllD.Bll fODAY _________ j j J J I I I I ==:115,~O BORLAND -: L IIIIi INTERNATIONAL 4585 Scotts Valley Drive Scotts Valley, California I I ~ 95066 I' Ii In To Orde~ ,.- ..., California By Credit call Card, ' ... , ' (800) Call 742-1133 (800) In Canada call 255- 8008 (800) 237-1136 r I' I' 'i 'I' i I i --------11 BOA 0234 I I I I NOTES NOTES NOTES , ew from Borland's Scientific & Engineering Division, Turbo Pascal Numerical Methods Toolbox implements the latest high-level mathematical methods to solve common scientific and engineering problems. Fast. So every time you need to calculate an integral, work with Fourier Transforms or incorporate any of the classical numerical analysis tools into your programs, you don't have to reinvent the wheel. Because the Numerical Methods Toolbox is a complete collection of Turbo Pascal routines and programs that gives you applied state-of-the-art math tools. It also includes two graphics demo programs, Least Squares Fit and Fast Fourier Transforms, to give you the picture along with the numbers. The Numerical Methods Toolbox is a must for you if you're involved with any type of scientific or engineering computing. Because it comes with complete source code, you have total control of your application. What Numerical Methods Toolbox will do for you now: • Find solutions to equations • Interpolations I • Calculus: numerical derivatives and integrals • Matrix operations: inversions, determinants and eigenvalues • Differential equations • Least squares approximations • Fourier transforms 5 free ways to look at "Least Squares Fit"! As well as a free demo "Fast Fourier Transforms," you also get "Least Squares Fit" in 5 different forms-which gives you 5 different methods of fitting curves to a collection of data pOints. You instantly get the picture 1 The 5 different forms are: 1. Power 4. 5-term Fourier 2. Exponential 5. 5-term 3. Logarithm Polynomial They're all ready to compile and run "as is." To modify or add graphics to your own programs, you simply add Turbo Graphix Toolbox" to your software library. Our Numerical Methods Toolbox is designed to work hand-in-hand with our Turbo Graphix Toolbox to make professional graphics in your own programs an instant part of the picture! Minimum s,stem conllgul.don: IBM PC. XT, AT and true compatibles. PC-DOS (MS-OOSI 2.0 or later 256K. Turbo Pascal 2.0 or later. The graphics modules reQuire a graphics monilor with an IBM CGA. IBM EGA, or Hercules compatible adapter card, and reQuire the Turbo Graph~ Toolbox. MS-DOS generic version will not support Turbo Graphix Toolbox routines. An 8087 or 80287 numeric co-processor is not reQuired, bul recommended lor optimal perlormance. Turbo Pascal Numerical Methods Toolbox ~ a trademark and Turbo Pascal and Turbo Graphix Toolbox are registered trademarks 01 Borland International, Inc. IBM, XT, and AT are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corp. MS-DOS is a registered trademark 01 Microso" Corp. Hercules is a trademark 01 Hercules Compuler TechnOlogy. Apple is a registered trademark 01 Apple Computer, Inc. Macintosh is a trademark 01 Mcintosh Laboralory. Inc. licensed 10 Apple Computer. Copyright 1986 Borland Inlernational BOA 0224

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