A novel Li-ion battery charger using multi
Analog Integr Circ Sig Process
DOI 10.1007/s10470-016-0778-1
A novel Li-ion battery charger using multi-mode LDO
configuration based on 350 nm HV-CMOS
Hieu M. Nguyen1 • Lam D. Pham1 • Trang Hoang2
Received: 24 October 2015 / Revised: 30 March 2016 / Accepted: 1 June 2016
Ó Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016
Abstract The design of a novel Li-ion battery charger
using multi-mode LDO architecture has been introduced in
this paper. The proposed architecture, using an improved
multi-mode LDO, not only obtains high accuracy but also
reduces power supply noise because of utilizing novel error
amplifier and power buffer configuration; while still consuming low power dissipation. To obtain the low power
consumption, the Schmitt Trigger technique is applied to
the charging controller and an optimized current driven
circuit is proposed. Besides, the PSRR parameter is also
enhanced by adding pre-regulation circuit in multi-mode
LDO circuit. Thus, the proposed Li-ion battery charger
achieves 700 mA operation current with 70.9 % efficiency
but only dissipates 495 mW in power. During the charging
process, the setting time and ripple issues are solved by the
use of soft-start circuit which is integrated into the charging
controller in order to decrease the chip area. Therefore, the
setting time is reduced to 5.5 ls while gaining the load
regulation at approximately 0.019 lV/mA and increasing
PSRR up to 106 dB at DC level. Moreover, the line regulation is also reduced at 1.3 mV/V. The proposed linear
battery charger is designed and implemented, based on
& Hieu M. Nguyen
[email protected]
Lam D. Pham
[email protected]
Trang Hoang
[email protected]
1
Mircoelectronics Lab, Ho Chi Minh City University of
Technology, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
2
Deputy Dean Room, Falculty of Electric and Electronics
Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology,
Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
High-Voltage CMOS process with using 4.5 V power
supply voltage and obtaining 4.2 V battery output voltage.
Keywords Li-ion battery charger Multi-mode LDO Error amplifier Pre-regulation Soft-start circuit Schmitt-Trigger technique Optimized current driven
1 Introduction
Over the past few years, outburst of portable devices trends
to low power in order to increase the operation time. Thus,
not only power management but also battery plays an
important role in the development of mobile devices. With
high performance, Li-ion battery becomes popular and
dominates the mobile battery market. In parallel, requirement of the high efficiency and low complexity Li-ion
battery charger are initially important with the purpose of
reducing the production cost. Thus, there are two popular
types of battery charger basing on switching regulator and
linear regulator. Besides, those charging systems are usually integrated in a single chip so as to reduce the complexity of circuit design due to the development of CMOS
technology. Following this, the battery charger is integrated in a System on Chip in order to reduce the effect of
noise and ripple. Although the switching battery charger
experienced very high efficiency, this type cost many
drawbacks such as high power consumption and worse
noise rejection because of ripple at switching rate [1, 2]. In
addition, the switching battery charger integrated circuit
requires larger die size due to external elements which is
expensive in fabrication. Thus, in spite of medium efficiency achievement, the design of linear battery charger is
still improved and developed by its low complexity
architecture and low cost.
123
Analog Integr Circ Sig Process
Currently, many linear battery charger architectures
aiming to optimize the charging efficiency have been
proposed. A battery charger with compact ramp is introduced in [3] utilizing soft-start circuit for reducing the
setting time. However, the design of soft-start increases
the area and the complexity of charging controller circuit.
In [4–6], charge pump technique is utilized in order to
optimize the power consumption towards potable applications. This design achieves quite low power consumption
but the efficiency is reduced in comparison to other
structures. As regards the implantable devices, a compact
and power efficiency CMOS battery charger are also
proposed [7–11]. In spite of high maximum output current
achievement, the stability and efficiency of this architecture are not sufficient high for battery charger. In contrast,
the using multi-mode LDO technique gains many benefits
because of not only high performance but also the simple
optimization characteristic [12–16]. However, those
designs cost high power consumption and gain low efficiency. Moreover, the accuracy in charging mode is not
really high.
In order to design an accuracy, high efficiency and low
power consumption linear battery charger, an architecture
using multi-mode LDO is proposed in this paper. To obtain
the high accuracy, the P-MOSFET is used as power
MOSFET for controlling charging modes. Those power
MOSFETs are integrated in multi-mode LDO [17] and
controlled directly by the charging controller. In addition,
the pre-regulation circuit is added to the LDO for not only
PSRR enhancement but also line regulation improvement
purposes. The efficiency of linear battery charger depends
on the output voltage which is generated over the constant
voltage mode. Moreover, to reduce the power consumption
of LDO, a proposed power buffer which is optimized driven current is also presented in this paper. With the addition of power buffer, the power consumption can decrease
twice compared to conventional structures. The fast setting
time can be obtained by the addition of soft start circuit
which is mostly used for ripple and noise reduction. Thus,
the proposed battery charger obtains fast setting time
without over voltage generation. Besides, the charging
controller is also added Schmitt Trigger for fast transition
purpose. The proposed linear battery charger is implemented by high voltage 0.35 lm CMOS process which
shows suitable performance in LDO fields.
The remainder of this paper is organized as follows.
Section 2 introduces the overview architecture of proposed
multi-mode linear battery charger. Section 3 describes the
design of proposed multi-mode LDO used in battery
architecture while Sect. 4 covers the charging controller
block. The following section demonstrates the measurement and simulation results of proposed battery charger.
Finally, Sect. 6 draws the conclusion and future works.
123
2 Proposed multi-mode linear battery charger
overview
2.1 Architecture overview
The general architecture of proposed linear charger is
shown in Fig. 1, constitutive of multi-mode LDO, bandgap
reference, soft-start circuit, thermal protection and charged
controller which are integrated totality in a single chip;
utilized for Li-ion battery. Basically, charging current of
battery charger is stipulated in multi-mode LDO that is
controlled by controller system. Besides, the dependence of
controlled signals on battery voltage tends to programmable multi-mode charging which bases on battery
condition. In detail, the charger controller requires a
combination of controlled core, over-voltage and overcurrent in order to improve the charger protection. The
over-temperature, designed off-chip, is modeled as a thermistor to ensure that effects of rising temperature on battery charger are reduced numerously. Reference voltages
which are generated by bandgap reference circuit are utilized in accurate comparator for errors reduction. In addition, a proposed soft-start is added to architecture to
eliminate the overlap voltage at start-up point.
In the realm of battery charging, because charging
algorithm constraints on battery life which is significantly
affected by battery characteristics, the restriction of
charging modes must be based on battery profile. Following the Li-ion battery profile given in [18, 19], Li-ion
charging modes combine to a complex instruction including in trickle current, constant current and constant voltage.
Thus, the multi-mode LDO is used in proposed battery
charger so to control CC-CV charging process. Besides,
charging current and temperature storage condition are also
Fig. 1 Proposed linear battery charger architecture
Analog Integr Circ Sig Process
restricted in charging process. Charging methods are stipulated in limited current which is chosen to be significant in
order to obtain fast charge rate. However, due to battery
life, the charging current is limited under 1 C towards Liion battery [19]. In addition, the increase of operation
temperature tends to the chaos of battery and cell chemistry
resulting in reducing battery life. Thus, the requirement of
thermal detection plays initial role in the design of battery
charger.
The charging algorithm of proposed linear battery
charger, which is shown in Fig. 2, is modified basing on
[14] that is designed for Li-ion battery with range of
capacity from 700 to 1000 mAh. Towards the battery with
capacity of 1000 mAh, the two constant current modes are
remained at 0.3 and 0.7 C, respectively while the voltage
mode is set to be 4.2 V. Initially, battery voltage is feedback to compare with normalized voltage 3 V, if battery
voltage VBAT \3 V, the trickled current mode, is triggered
to charge the battery up to 3 V. Then, the battery is charged
through 0.7 C current constant mode until obtaining 4.2 V.
Finally, the constant voltage mode is triggered to aim to
remain VBAT stable at 4.2 V until the charging current
reduces to 0.02 C for discharging process.
2.2 Multi-mode LDO overview
Multi-mode LDO, combining current constant mode and
voltage constant mode, is designed for multi-level power
control purpose through the use of feedback connected
power MOSFETs. Thus, multi-mode LDO is integrated in
battery charger in order to transit the CC-CV charging
mode through MOSFET switches. The transition modes are
controlled by controller to switch simultaneously current
feedback to voltage feedback and vice versa. In detail, the
Fig. 2 Charging algorithm for proposed Li-ion battery charger
feedback current, which operates as current sense circuit, is
used for CC mode while the voltage feedback, which is
designed as voltage sense circuit, is used toward CV mode.
In contrast with the voltage sense which is directly feedback voltage, the current sense replicates the output current
and converts to voltage before acting like voltage sense. In
trickle current mode, only MOSLV turns on while both
MOSLV and MOSHV are driven into constant current
mode. By using the method of two MOSFETs which are
driven simultaneously into saturation region tends to
reduce bias current driven power MOSFETs, which is
resulted in the achievement of low power consumption.
Moreover, the number of state transitions is reduced that
results in the lacking of current glitch and noise appearance. Basically, the positive feedback voltage is normally
implemented by utilizing a couple of resistors (Fig. 3).
2.3 Charging controller overview
The controller, combining a controlled core, a thermal
sense and a voltage comparator, is utilized to lead the
battery charger operation by comparing intrinsic battery
voltage VBAT to reference voltage VREF . Thus, a pre-load
regulation is added to bandgap circuit for generating reference voltages 3 and 4.2 V. In comparison to VREF , logic
levels, which are used for switching charging modes, are
generated by MOSFET switches and logic combination
networks. Besides, the addition of voltage sense circuit and
thermal protection gains many significant advantages. On
the one hand, the utilization of voltage sense circuit ensures
the accuracy of battery voltage which used to compare with
reference voltage, generating high precision in charging
mode transition. On the other hand, the over-temperature
circuit limits the operated temperature range of battery
charger. In addition, in order to reduce the overlap voltage
a soft start-up circuit is also integrated in charging
controller.
Fig. 3 Multi-mode LDO block diagram
123
Analog Integr Circ Sig Process
3 Multi-mode linear regulator (LDO)
The schematic of proposed multi-mode LDO is shown in
Fig. 4 including in four major blocks such as error amplifier, voltage sense, current sense and power MOSFETs.
The multi-mode LDO utilizes two powered MOSFETs in
order to reduce the bias current for trickle current driving
mode. The current sense and voltage sense signals are
respectively feedback to error amplifier by controllable
signal I-V mode which is conducted to pins namely Current
Control and Voltage Control. In general, the circuit is
controlled by three signals denoted as Stop, /1 represented
for I-V mode and /2 represented for power mode. Those
signals are generated from the charging control block. The
bias voltage, used to bias op-amp, power buffer and comparator, is generated by current source which is integrated
in the bandgap reference circuit. However, in order to
optimize the start-up time with the purpose of reducing the
over-shoot voltage, the reference voltage is calibrated by
soft-start circuit before being fed to the error amplifier. In
this section, the design process is separated into three parts
as follow. Initially, the error amplifier is implemented
including op-amp design and switching circuits. Then, the
design of power MOSFETs and buffer is introduced.
Finally, the design of current and voltage sense circuits are
presented before the full multi-mode LDO is connected
completely.
3.1 Current driven error amplifier
This block amplifies the error signal of feedback voltage,
compared to reference voltage, and generates the current
which is utilized to drive the powered MOSFETs. The error
amplifier is controlled directly by charging controller
through CMOS switches. The most important requirement
of current error amplifier is fast switching transition without current glitch generation, for low power consumption
achievement purpose. Thus, the transmission gate is used
for switch implementation because of its low power characteristic and less complex configuration. The schematic of
current driven error amplifier is shown in Fig. 4(a) which is
structured by op-amp, current driven, switching gates,
phase compensated capacitor and switch-off MOSFETs.
The two-stage configuration is chosen to design op-amp
Fig. 4 Proposed Multi-Mode LDO Schematic separated into blocks including in a error amplifier, b voltage sense, c current sense, d power
MOSFETs and e reference
123
Analog Integr Circ Sig Process
due to its high performance regarding to gain and output
range enhancement [20]. The schematic of two-stage opamp, shown in Fig. 5, obtains over 87 dB DC gain and
7.3 MHz unity gain bandwidth with only 300 nA bias
current. The ICMR varies in a wide range between 0.1 and
3.9 V. Transmission gate switches are controlled by the
two signals /1 and /2 following Table 1 where the operation of multi-mode LDO is shown. The phase compensated capacitor is chosen to be 0.1 lF.
Table 1 Logic states for controlling multi-mode LDO
Signal
Logic states
Controlling mode
/1
Low
Constant voltage
High
Constant current
/2
Low
Constant current, MOSHV on
High
Trickle current, MOSHV off
Stop
Low
On
High
Off
3.2 Power MOSFETs and current driven buffer
Power MOSFETs play the most important role on the
design of multi-mode LDO. When LDO operates on regulation region, power MOSFETs is driven into saturation
region. Thus, at the boundary of saturation region, the I-V
mode is triggered and loaded current which can be defined
as MOSFETs saturation current. Through some transformations, the power MOSFETs size can be given as
W
IDmax
¼1
2
L
2 lp COX ðVSGmax VTHP Þ
ð1Þ
CG CGS þ ð1 þ gm Rpar ÞCGD
ð3Þ
with Rpar is parallel resistance and gm is trans-conductance
of MOSFET calculated by
1
VOUT
kðR1 þ R2 Þk
kIDS
ILOAD
sffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi
W
gm ¼ 2lp COX
ID
L
Rpar ¼
ð4Þ
ð5Þ
where IDmax is the maximum current fed through power
MOSFET. Because of current source matching, the transistor unit is chosen to be W/L = 6.5/0.5 lm which theirs
finger and multiplier are respectively f ¼ 30 and m ¼ 500.
The capacitance parameter CG, which impacts on the setting time of current driven buffer, can be calculated by
using BSIM model [21] as follow
where R1 and R2 are the resistors of voltage sense circuit.
Following these, the performance of power MOSFETs
designed on this work is demonstrated in Table 2 where the
total capacitance CG are 235 and 306 pF for MOSLV and
MOSHV , respectively. From the performance of power
MOSFETs described above, the requirement of load current at power buffer output, which its slew rate SR is
chosen to be 1, can be given by
CG ¼ CGS þ ð1 þ gm Rpar ÞCGD þ CGB
IDriveLowPower ¼ SR CGM OSLV
ð6Þ
IDriveHighPower ¼ SR CGMOSLV þ CGMOSHV
ð7Þ
ð2Þ
with CGD ¼ WLD COV and CGB ¼ Leff CGB0 is small compared to CGS so this capacitor can be ignored. Thus, the
capacitor CG is rewritten as
Following this, the low power current is approximately
235 lA and the high power current is about 541 lA. In
order to reduce the power consumption, dynamic bias
current technique, which decreases the replicated drain
Table 2 Power MOSFETs performance
Parameters
Fig. 5 Schematic of op-amp designed for error amplifier
MOSFET types
MOSLV
MOSHV
L (unit)
0.5 lm
0.5 lm
W (unit)
6.5 lm
6.5 lm
F
30
30
M
500
665
CGS
82.2 pF
108 pF
CDS
17.4 pF
22.5 pF
Rpar
3.9 X
2.9 X
gm
2 A/V2
2.9 A/V2
CG
235 pF
306 pF
123
Analog Integr Circ Sig Process
current by adding current sink circuits, is utilized in the
designs of power buffer. As shown in Fig. 6, when
IM8 [ IM7 , the current conducted through M6 is zero
resulted in IMOSLV ¼ IM3 . On the orther hand, if IM8 \IM7 ,
the current which shall be replicated by M7, will be fed to
M6, led to the increase of drain current of MOSLV . Thus,
the current sink can be defined by
IM4
IDriveSink ¼ IM3 þ k IM7 ð8Þ
J
with k and J are the transistor size ratio given by
8
W
>
>
M5
>
>
L
>
>
>
k¼ >
>
W
>
>
M6
<
L
W
>
>
>
M4
>
>
L
>
>
j¼
>
>
W
>
>
:
M10
L
ð9Þ
The maximum current sink can be calculated by
IMaxDriveSink ¼ IM3 þ k IM7
ð10Þ
Thus, with IM3 ¼ 120 lA and IM7 ¼ 30 lA the value of J is
exactly equal 4 by using Eq. (9), whereas k can be calculated through to maximum drain current equation. Because
of IMAXDriveSink ¼ IDriveHighPower , the value of k is calculated
equally 14.
3.3 Current and voltage sense circuits
Voltage sense circuit, shown in Fig. 4(b), operates as a
voltage loop control circuit that is feedback output voltage
to the differential inputs by using serier resistors. The
differential signal is compared to reference voltage and
amplified in order to control the power P-MOSFET.
Because of the requirement of stability characteristic, the
feedback signal of R1 is conducted to the inversion input of
amplifier. This feed-forward is defined as
Fig. 6 Schematic of power buffer
123
R1
Vout ¼ Vref 1 þ
R2
ð11Þ
where R1 and R2 are respectively chosen to be 200 and
505.88 kX in this work.
Similarly, the current sense circuit operates as a voltage
feedback circuit; however, the feedback voltage is converted to current with the purpose of driving the power
MOSFET. Because of voltage–current converter characteristic, the demand to obtain more accuracy and less effect
on the output impedance is very important. Therefore, a
current sense circuit, also demonstrated in Fig. 4(c), is
utilized for the design of multi-mode LDO. Because the
current fed through feedback resistor is significant, sensing
current is less accurate for replica. Thus, basing on the
configuration of dynamic current source, a current sense
using op-amp is implemented in order to increase the
accuracy of replicated current. The current sense structure
shown in Fig. 4(c) ensures the currents fed through M1 and
M2, are equilibrium because op-amp equalizes the drain
voltage between M1 and MOSLV, this results in
VRREF ¼ VREF . When IM1 \IMOSLV , the high voltage will
generate at the op-amp output leading to the increase of
drop voltage of M2 which generates an equilibrium of
drain voltages between M1 and MOSLV. In order to simplify the back-end design, MOSFETs are separated into
fingers and multipliers in which the accuracy of current
mirrors are optimized and the noise are also reduced.
However, this optimization requires a wide range of current
mirror with the purpose of improving the comparison
ability at high voltage. Thus, a modified current sensing
using folded cascode comparator is implemented instead of
the conventional structure introduced in [22]. By utilizing
folded cascode structure, a significantly wide range of
current sensing is achieved to be suitable for battery
charger at 4.2 V. The schematic of folded cascode comparator is shown in Fig. 7 including in an addition of two
stages of push-pull buffer for gain enhancement.
Fig. 7 Schematic of folded cascode comparator
Analog Integr Circ Sig Process
4 Charging controller implementation
4.1 Controller core
The controller core containing an intrinsic LDO is implemented, which is used to generate the battery charger
transition level voltage, a comparator and logic gates. The
accomplish schematic of this core is shown in Fig. 8 which
is separated into blocks by its function. The battery voltage
is feedback and compared to the voltage generated by the
intrinsic LDO, the output voltage is conducted to the SR
Flip-Flop in order to generate the logic level for simultaneously controlling the functional core and latching the
controlled states. Then, the output signal of SR Flip-Flop is
utilized to trigger the multi-mode LDO after driving
through Schmitt-Trigger buffers for capacitance matching
purpose.
The logic states of controller core are shown in Table 3.
At first, the preceding state is designed so that SR Flip-Flop
operates in latching mode as S = R = 1 in order to eliminate the case of previous state looping when the controlled
signals (/1 or /2 ) are triggered from high to low logic
level. In the next stage, the SR Flip-Flop L2 operates in
latching mode at the initial conditions, so the requirement
of initial logic level is essentially important. In order to
solve this problem, a simple low pass filter implemented by
M1, M2 and M3 is placed at the output of L2 to ensure its
output remains stable at high logic level in the initial
conditions. Finally, a Schmitt Trigger buffer is added to
simultaneously obtain fast switching and current glitches
elimination.
Besides, the suspended block is used to interrupt the
battery charger when the temperature increases over range
or there is a lacking of power supply VDD . The power of
logic block is supplied through transistor M4 which is
controlled by VDD . If VDD [ VBAT , the transistor will turn
on resulting in the reduction of over-voltage by decreasing
the start-up time of the controller core. The over-voltage
signal shown in Table 3 , is functionally OR with overthermal signal to generate the Stop, in order to protect the
battery charger.
4.2 Thermal protector
The thermal protector schematic is demonstrated in Fig. 9
where its RT plays as an varistor which its IV characteristic
is modeled as a thermistor. In reality, the thermistor is
implemented off-chip and placed next to the battery for
temperature sensing purpose. This circuit operates as a
window voltage which is utilized to compare with the
voltage of thermistor, the operation temperature range is
set to be into the window voltage for comparison. In this
work, the temperature coefficient, utilized for the model, is
chosen to be -0.013.
4.3 Soft-start circuit
The design of soft-start circuit includes the low pass filter,
on/off channel and comparator. As analyzed in the previous
section, the soft-start circuit reduces the start-up time in
order to gain the slow response for output [23]. A clear
demonstration of soft-start circuit is shown in Fig. 10. At
the start-up, Stop signal is set to be high logic level while
M5 is on. In parallel, MI is off resulting in the discharging
of MOSFET capacitor (MOSCAP) MC . The voltage of
MOSCAP is compared to VREF which is generated from the
reference circuit; the smaller voltage is utilized as reference voltage circuit for the next logic stage. After the
charging process is accomplished, Stop signal turns to low
logic level while M5 is off and MI is on. Thus, MOSCAP is
charged causing the linear increase of capacitor voltage,
which results in the linearity of start-up current. Depending
on the performance, the transistor parameters should be
calculated suitably for optimization purpose. The soft-start
Fig. 8 Controller core implementation
123
Analog Integr Circ Sig Process
Table 3 Power MOSFETs
performance
Signals
Charging modes
Trickle current
Temp
Constant current
Constant voltage
L1
S
1
1
0
–
R
0
1
1
–
U1
1
1
0
–
L2
S
1
1
0
–
R
0
1
1
–
U2
1
0
0
–
Stop
–
–
–
1
Fig. 9 Thermal protector with modeled thermistor RT
Fig. 11 Testbench for multi-mode LDO battery charger analysis with
li-ion battery equivalent model
Fig. 10 Schematic of soft-start circuit
up finishes when VCAP [ VREF which is resulted in the
change reference voltage from VCAP to VREF .
5 Results and discussion
The proposed battery charger based multi-mode LDO is
implemented in 0.35 lm 2P-4M, High Voltage CMOS
process. In order to investigate characteristic, a testbench
as shown in Fig. 11 where an equivalent model of Li-ion
123
battery is also illustrated. There are many Li-ion battery
models such as Thevenin [24], Impedance [25] etc, which
are chosen for evaluation basing on the application. In this
work, the battery model, introduced in [26], is utilized for
DC, AC and Transient analysis. As can be seen in Fig. 11,
the model is a combination of passive device including in
larger value capacitor CCAP which is represented to energy
capacity of Li-ion battery. Besides, RSD is self discharged
resistor which is referred to the loss energy and RS is the
intrinsic resistor of battery. The capacity of battery can be
calculated through to CCAP which is given by
CCAP ¼ 3600 Capacity f1 ðCycleÞ f2 ðTempÞ
ð12Þ
where f1 (Cycle) and f2 (Temp) are the charged/dischared
times and temperature of battery. Thus, if a requirement of
capacity at 500 mAh with the charged/discharged ratio is
set to be 1, the quantities of CCAP and RS will be
approximately 1800 F and 0.08 X, respectively. In parallel,
RTL and RTS can be calculated at 0.06 and 0.05 X while the
values are 700 and 4500 F towards CTS and CTL . Based on
Analog Integr Circ Sig Process
Fig. 12 Transient response of battery charger separated into a load
current, b battery voltage, c power mode and d I-V mode equivalent
model
Li-ion battery model, the transient simulation of multimode battery charger is investigated with 4.5 V normalized
voltage and 2 V battery voltage. The analysis results of
multi-mode battery charger proposed in this work are
shown in Fig. 12(a) and (b) where the maximum current is
respectively 300.9 and 700.2 mA towards trickle current
mode and constant current mode whereas the maximum
voltage of constant voltage mode is 4.205 V. On the other
hand, the minimum value of constant current mode is
significantly lower than the normalized current about 5 mA
while it is only 1 mA regarding to trickle current mode. In
contrast, the battery voltage almost remains stable at
4.205 V. The operation of power mode and I-V mode are
also shown in Fig. 12(c) and (d), the two modes are
designed as a voltage window in order to control the three
modes in LDO circuit including trickle current, constant
current and constant voltage. Besides, power dissipation,
which is used to define the efficiency, plays an important
role on battery charger performance. This power can be
calculated through subtracting input power to output power
given by
PLOSS ¼ ðVIN VOUT ÞILOAD þ PQuiescent
ð13Þ
with PQuiescent is referred to the quiescent power which can
be defined by quiescent current of battery charger. The
simulation results of static power are shown in Fig. 13. In
trickle current mode, with the range of input power varies
from 1.355 to 1.358 W the output power range increases
slightly from 3.131 to 3.154 W while it changes significantly between 0.209 to 2.922 W compared to constant
current mode. Moreover, the output power of proposed
battery charger architecture reduces slightly with an
approximated quantity of 0.2 W towards constant voltage
mode. The architecture has achieved low power consumption because the controller is optimized by using
Schmitt Trigger technique and lower power operational
amplifiers. The summary of I-V characteristic of proposed
multi-mode battery charger is shown in Table 4. Therein,
the accuracy of load current in multi-mode battery charger
Fig. 13 Static power and loss power simulation results
Table 4 Static evaluation of performance of proposed multi-mode battery charger
Charging mode
Stability region
Loss power
Over
current (mA)
Min value
(mA)/(V)
Max value
(mA)/(V)
Error
(%)
Min value
(W)
Max value
(W)
Ratio
(%)
Trickle current
300.29 mA
300.9 mA
0.21 %
0.455
0.745
\54.89
Constant current
695.5 mA
700.2 mA
0.68 %
0.209
1.207
\32.56
700.5
Constant voltage
4.2054 V
4.2055 V
4.7 ppm
*0
0.2
\6.29
707
Setting time
5.5 ls
301
123
Analog Integr Circ Sig Process
obtains a low variation of 0.21 and 0.68 % towards trickle
current mode and constant current mode, respectively.
Simultaneously, this variation is about 4.7 ppm for constant voltage mode compared to conventional structures.
The proposed multi-mode battery charger gains a low over
current with only 700.5 mA for constant current mode and
707 mA for constant voltage mode. Those results can be
acceptable for the design of battery charger based on a
linear regulator. In addition, the novel design obtains a
very fast setting time with only 5.5 ls by utilizing softstart circuit. In order to verify the battery charger operation
under temperature and noise variations, the other considered parameters including PSRR, Temperature Range, and
Line Regulation are simulated. The PSRR is simulated
over the wide range of frequency from 1 Hz to 100 GHz as
shown in Fig. 14. The proposed multi-mode battery charger achieves over 105 dB at DC level over a significant
range frequency of approximated 10 kHz which is much
higher in comparison to other conventional designs of
linear battery charger. Besides, the novel architecture also
obtains positive result of PSRR at high frequency which is
over 40 dB at 100 MHz while operating with very low
power consumption. The operation temperature range is
from 0 to 50 °C, the thermal protection senses the temperature radiation of battery charger and switch off the
charging process when the temperature is over 50 °C. In
addition, the line regulation is also investigated with the
purpose of analyzing the dependence of regulated voltage
on supply voltage to ensure the battery charger stability
characteristic. The simulation result of line regulation
shown in Fig. 15 confirm that proposed multi-mode linear
battery charger obtains very low line regulation with the
variation of 1.3 mV/V over the input voltage range from
3.3 to 15 V.
Fig. 14 PSRR simulation results from 1 Hz to 100 GHz
Fig. 15 Voltage sensitivity simulation result from 0 to 15 V
Table 5 Linear regulator battery charger performance comparison
Parameters
Techology
[APCCS’04]
[16]
[TCAS I’07]
[17]
[ICNC’13]
[11]
[PEDS’13]
[14]
[SBCCI’14]
[27]
This work
CMOS
CMOS
CMOS
CMOS
CMOS
CMOS
0.35 lm
0.35 lm
0.35 lm
0.35 lm
0.35 lm
0.35 lm
VSupply
4.5 V
5V
5V
4.8
4.4 V
4.5 V
VOut
4.2 V
4.2 V
4.2 V
4.2 V
4.1 V
4.2 V
IMAX
312 mA
694 mA
711 mA
350 mA
1000 mA
700 mA
PSRR
–
–
58 [email protected] Hz
–
–
106.4 [email protected] Hz
Load Regulation
38 ppm/mA
–
2.6 lV/mA
–
–
0.019 lV/mA
Line Regulation
0.19 %/V
–
2.6 mV/V
–
–
1.3 mV/V
PLOSS
1.28 W
837 mW
851 mW
–
–
495 mW
Efficient (g)
72.3 %
67.89 %
67.4 %
79.1 %
68.3 %
70.9 %
123
Analog Integr Circ Sig Process
Table 5 summarizes the proposed multi-mode linear
battery charger performance which is compared to other
previous architectures. As can be seen in Table 5, the novel
linear battery charger obtains very low power consumption
with 495 mW while supplying 4.2 V charging voltage.
This result is two times smaller than the power consumption introduced in [17] and three times smaller compared to
[16]. The achieved maximum current is approximated
700 mA which is similar to previous works. Especially, the
battery charger obtains very high PSRR which is over
106.4 dB at 10 Hz because of using proposed LDO with
PRSS enhancement basing pre-regulation technique.
Besides, with only 1.3 mV/V line regulation, the proposed
battery charger gains high accuracy and stability. Thus, the
battery charger in this work obtains 70.9 % in efficiency
which is acceptable towards the linear regulator
configuration.
6 Conclusion
A fast setting, high accuracy Li-ion battery charger based
on multi-mode LDO configuration has been proposed and
implemented with high-voltage 0.35 lm CMOS process in
this works. The architecture, integrating the modified
multi-mode LDO which is improved in accuracy by the use
of novel error amplifier and power buffer, has achieved the
high precision in charging mode. The charging process is
separated into three modes including trickle current, constant current and constant voltage which are controlled by a
novel low power charging controller. To obtain low power,
the driven current in error amplifier and power buffer are
optimized while the Schmitt Trigger technique is applied to
the charging controller. Thus, the proposed linear battery
charger obtains 700 mA with 70.9 % efficiency while only
consumes 495 mW power. Beside, a soft-start circuit is
added to the charging controller in order to reduce the over
voltage and setting time of battery charger. Basing on those
techniques, the architecture achieves 5.5 ls setting time
with the load regulation is approximated 0.019 lV/mA.
Moreover, the addition of pre-regulation in multi-mode
LDO increases the PSRR to 106 dB at DC level, much
better in comparison to conventional architectures. The
novel Li-ion battery charger is designed well-suit for
portable devices and the proposed multi-mode LDO can be
integrated in analog and mixed signal systems such as
multi-channel A/D converter or power management systems. The physical design should be designed in the future
and the experiment measurement of battery charger basing
on multi-mode LDO will be also implemented. Besides,
some techniques should be utilized for improving the
charging efficiency.
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Hieu M. Nguyen received the
B.S. degrees in Electronics and
Telecommunication Engineering from Ho Chi Minh City
University of Technology in
2014. During 2013–2014, he
joined Integrated Circuit Design
Research and Education Center
where he studied about Analog
and RF integrated circuit
design. He also received Award
of Best Student in Analog IC
Design for the design of 24-Bit
Delta Sigma ADC. He presently
works
as
Teaching
and
Research Assistant at Department of Electronics Engineering, Faculty
123
of Electricals–Electronics Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City University
of Technology. His current research focus is mainly on low power,
high speed, high performance analog, mix-signal and RF integrated
circuit design.
Lam D. Pham was born in
Vung Tau city, Vietnam. He
received the Bachelor of Engineering, and Master of Science
degree in Electronics-Telecommunication Engineering from
Ho Chi Minh City University of
Technology in 2009 and 2012,
respectively.
During
2009–2012, he joined Renesas
Vietnam Company as system
level design engineer. Currently, he is lecturer at Faculty
of Electricals–Electronics Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City
University of Technology. His research focuses on Network on Chip,
Speech Recognizer, IC architecture.
Trang Hoang was born in Nha
Trang city, Vietnam. He
received the Bachelor of Engineering, and Master of Science
degree in Electronics-Telecommunication Engineering from
Ho Chi Minh City University of
Technology in 2002 and 2004,
respectively. He received the
Ph.D. degree in Microelectronics-MEMS from CEA-LETI and
University Joseph Fourier,
France,
in
2009.
From
2009–2010, he did the postdoctorate research in Orange
Lab-France Telecom. Since 2010, he is lecturer at Faculty of Electricals–Electronics Engineering, Ho Chi Minh City University of
Technology. His field of research interest is in the domain of FPGA
implementation, Speech Recognizer, IC architecture, MEMS,
fabrication.
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