UN/CEFACT Modeling Methodology (UMM) User Guide

UN/CEFACT Modeling Methodology (UMM) User Guide
CEFACT/TMG/N093
2003-09-22
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UN/CEFACT
United Nations Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business
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UN/CEFACT Modeling Methodology (UMM) User Guide
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CEFACT/TMG/N093
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V20030922
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UN/CEFACT – “UMM User Guide”
Copyright © UN/CEFACT 1995-2003. All Rights Reserved.
CEFACT/TMG/N093
2003-09-22
Table of Contents
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1.0
ABOUT THIS DOCUMENT .........................................................................5
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1.1
Development Status .......................................................................................................................... 5
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1.2
Caveats and Assumptions ................................................................................................................ 5
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1.3
Basics about the UMM USER GUIDE ............................................................................................ 5
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2.0
OVERVIEW OF THE UMM ..........................................................................7
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2.1
UMM Objectives............................................................................................................................... 7
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2.2
Basic Concepts .................................................................................................................................. 7
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2.3
UMM Layers the BOV ..................................................................................................................... 8
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2.4
Business Modeling using UMM..................................................................................................... 10
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3.0
MODELING USING THE UMM..................................................................10
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3.1
UMM Modeling Approach............................................................................................................. 11
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3.2
Administrative Worksheet............................................................................................................. 12
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4.0
BDV WORK AREA....................................................................................13
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4.1
Describe purpose of the BDV work area ...................................................................................... 13
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4.2
Define BDV work area steps and worksheet(s) ............................................................................ 15
4.2.1
Identify and Describe Business Area........................................................................................ 15
4.2.2
Describe Business Area ............................................................................................................ 16
4.2.3
Describe Process Area .............................................................................................................. 17
4.2.4
Identify Business Process ......................................................................................................... 18
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5.0
BRV WORK AREA....................................................................................19
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5.1
Describe purpose of the BRV work area ...................................................................................... 19
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5.2
Define BRV work area steps and worksheet(s) ............................................................................ 20
5.2.1
Business Collaboration with REA ............................................................................................ 20
5.2.1.1 ISO Phases of a Business Process2 ....................................................................................... 21
5.2.1.2 The REA Worksheet............................................................................................................. 22
5.2.2
Business Process....................................................................................................................... 26
5.2.3
Business Collaboration Specification ....................................................................................... 28
5.2.4
Business Process Metric ........................................................................................................... 29
5.2.5
Business Collaboration ............................................................................................................. 30
5.2.6
Business Process Lifecycle....................................................................................................... 32
5.2.7
Business Entity ......................................................................................................................... 34
5.2.8
Business Entity Lifecycle ......................................................................................................... 35
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6.0
BTV WORK AREA ....................................................................................37
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6.1
Describe purpose of the BTV work area ...................................................................................... 37
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Define BTV work area steps and worksheet(s) ............................................................................ 39
6.2
6.2.1
Business Collaboration Protocol (Activity Model)................................................................... 40
Business Transaction ................................................................................................................ 43
6.2.2
6.2.3
Business Information ................................................................................................................ 46
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NORMATIVE REFERENCES .............................................................................47
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APPENDIX A.
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A.1.
REA (Resource-Event-Agent) Introduction ................................................................................. 48
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A.2.
The Basic REA Ontology ............................................................................................................... 48
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A.3.
Adding Commitments to the Basic Exchange Ontology.............................................................. 49
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A.4.
Adding Types to the Basic REA Exchange Ontology .................................................................. 50
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APPENDIX B.
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Introduction to UMM Worksheet Example ............................................................................................. 53
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BDV Example Worksheets ........................................................................................................................ 54
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BRV Example Worksheets ........................................................................................................................ 64
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BTV Example Worksheets......................................................................................................................... 96
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APPENDIX C.
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UMM Data Types ..................................................................................................................................... 118
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Business-related Enumerations ............................................................................................................... 121
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The Business Objects – The basic ones ................................................................................................... 121
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Business Transaction View Notation ...................................................................................................... 122
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APPENDIX D.
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Disclaimer.................................................................................................................................................. 125
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Contact Information................................................................................................................................. 125
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Copyright Statement ................................................................................................................................ 126
REA OVERVIEW......................................................................48
UMM WORKSHEET EXAMPLE ..............................................53
UMM DATA TYPES AND NOTATION...................................118
ADMINISTRATIVE INFORMATION.......................................125
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Table of Figures
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Figure 1 Coupling of Modeling Artifacts to UMM..............................................................................6
Figure 2 Open-edi Reference Model ................................................................................................9
Figure 3 Overview of UMM Worksheets and Models .....................................................................11
Figure 4 Phases of a Business Collaboration from the ISO Open-edi Model ................................21
Figure 5 Business Transaction Pattern Decision Tree ...................................................................43
Figure A-6 Basic REA Ontology .....................................................................................................48
Figure A-7 REA Ontology with Commitments ................................................................................49
Figure A-8 REA Ontology with Types.............................................................................................51
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Table of Tables
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Table 1 - Business Domain View (BDV) Work Area.......................................................................15
Table 2 - Business Requirements View (BRV) Work Area ............................................................20
Table 3 - Business Transaction View (BTV) Work Area.................................................................39
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1.0 About this Document
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1.1 Development Status
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This user guide is approved after completion of the TMG review process which ended 9/21/2003.
See 2.3 for a high level description of the UMM.
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1.2 Caveats and Assumptions
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Applicable UMM-MM Version:
Examples and descriptions provided were developed from the UMM Meta-Model (see Normative
References).
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Library Support
Use of the UMM assumes the availability of supporting Business Content Libraries:
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Business Entity Types Library
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Business Collaboration Patterns Library
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Core Components Library
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• Business Object Library
In the event libraries such as those listed are not available, or the contents of such libraries do not
adequately support a business collaboration to be modeled with reusable models, this user guide
provides the procedures necessary to develop all required business process and information
models.
Normative
The UMM User Guide is a non-normative document, which means that it does not provide a
definitive (from the UN/CEFACT TMG point of view) specification of the UMM. The user guide
may not always provide definitive answers or go into the detail required. In such cases, you will
need to refer to the UN/CEFACT TMG specifications (see Normative References), links, and
references included in the user guide.
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The examples and other explanatory material in this document are provided to assist in the
understanding of the UMM, but they may not always provide definitive answers. Additional
reference to the various specifications listed in the Normative References may be required.
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Required Tools and Syntax
A Business Expert will use worksheets to capture relevant information, according to the UMM
Meta-Model. Technical Modelers will transform the information in the worksheets into UMM
compliant models, using a UML tool and the (graphical) syntax of UML.
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1.3 Basics about the UMM USER GUIDE
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Level of Understanding
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The UMM is targeted to the Modelers and Facilitators working with the business experts to extract
their business knowledge. They need a high-level understanding of the concepts behind OO
modeling, business process modeling, and some rudimentary knowledge of UML in order to
utilize the UMM. See Normative References - Fowler.
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The UMM User Guide provides a high level description of the UMM. Readers of the user guide
should have an understanding of these basic UML diagrams:
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Use Case Diagrams
Activity Diagrams showing Object Flows
Class Diagrams.
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Modeling Approach
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Figure 1 Coupling of Modeling Artifacts to UMM
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The UMM User Guide employs a “step by step” approach, through the use of worksheets, to
capture the business knowledge from business experts in non-technical terms, independent of
any specific modeling tool. At the same time, the UMM User Guide provides an easily
approachable description of the UMM using these same basic steps. The user guide presents a
top-down approach. The user guide should be used alongside the formal descriptions of the UMM
and its supporting specifications (see Normative References).
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Document Structure
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Each major section of the UMM User Guide outlines the process of using the UMM to develop
Business Collaboration Framework worksheets and models.
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Section 2.0 is a brief overview of the major concepts needed to understand the UMM and the
role of participants involved in using this methodology. It describes the worksheet methodology,
which employs a “top-down” approach to capture and organize the information needed to produce
the UMM models. In addition, it provides a brief overview of who is involved in the UMM
processes at various points in the exercise.
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Sections 3.0 through 6.0 cover the step by step approach to working through the UMM to derive
the information that will be used in each subsequent step and ultimately models that can be used
to implement systems and services.
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The Appendix A, REA Overview, provides supplemental information to understand concepts in
regard to completing the REA Worksheet.
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The Appendix B, UMM Worksheet Example, provides a very simple example, “Order from
Catalog”.
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The Appendix C, Data Types and Notation, provides supplemental information to understand
concepts discussed in this document.
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2.0 Overview of the UMM
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2.1 UMM Objectives
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United Nations Centre for Trade Facilitation and Electronic Business (UN/CEFACT) has
developed the UMM which:
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Has a comprehensive business process and business information meta-model as well as a
comprehensive process analysis methodology.
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Retains business acumen that is reusable over generations of implemented technology
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Provides a methodology and supporting components to capture business process
knowledge, independent of the underlying implemented technology
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Helps discover and define a set of reusable process and information descriptions. Patterns
help enforce consistent, reproducible results from the UMM-MM across business domains
and their business domain experts and analysts
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Implements processes that help insure predictable results from a software project
 Facilitates the specification of reusable/reproducible process models, in objects and
interface-specific object behavior descriptions that are technology and protocol insensitive.
 Focuses on technology and protocol independent steps of a software engineering
process.
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Is an extension of UML
 Is a UML profile used to describe the UMM components to specify the business domain specific stereotyping that supports a complete business process and information definition to describe and analyze individual business processes.
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Structures the Business Operational View (BOV) of the Open-edi Reference Model into
layers of “views”.
The UMM can be employed by business analysts to define external and internal Business
Collaboration Frameworks. The UMM can be used to define the Business Collaboration
Framework implemented between two or more parties. The UMM can be employed from the topdown or bottom-up or using both approaches simultaneously. The end result of an integrated use
of the UMM would be a defined Business Collaboration Framework.
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2.2 Basic Concepts
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A business environment may be large and complex. Any basic understanding of this environment
begins with information and documentation. The UMM is an incremental business process and
information model construction methodology that provides levels of specification granularity
suitable for communicating the model to business practitioners, business application integrators,
and network application solution providers. The UMM provides the conceptual framework to
communicate common concepts.
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The following are basic UMM concepts that one should become familiar with before proceeding
further. These and other concepts and terms are defined in the official UN/CEFACT Electronic
Business Glossary (UEB).
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Industry Expert
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Business Expert
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Business Stakeholder
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Business Domain
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Business Process
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Business Collaboration
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Business Process Activity
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Business Collaboration Activity
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Business Interaction Activity
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Business Information
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Business Collaboration Domain
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Business Collaboration Model composed of:
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Business Process Model
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Information Model
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Business Collaboration Pattern
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Business Entity
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State
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State Transition
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Event
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Life Cycle
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Business Transactions
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Business Information
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Business Object
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Open-edi Scenario
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2.3 UMM Layers the BOV
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The UMM is the formal methodology for describing any Open-edi scenario as defined in ISO/IEC
14662, Open-edi Reference Model. The Open-edi Reference Model is depicted in Figure 2.
Examples of an Open-edi scenario are purchasing and inventory management. The primary
scope of the UMM is to provide "a perspective of business transactions limited to those aspects
regarding the making of business decisions and commitments among Persons, which are needed
for the description of a business transaction". The UMM provides a procedure for specifying
(modelling) collaborative business processes (= business collaborations) involving information
exchange in a technology-neutral, implementation-independent manner.
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Figure 2 Open-edi Reference Model
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Specifications related to the Open-edi Functional Service View are mostly outside the scope of
the UMM. Hence, the BOV of a process defines the requirements placed on the information
technology products and services chosen to implement the process described by the Open-edi
scenario.
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The UMM uses four (4) primary views for structuring modeling activities, all of which are
contained within the BOV. The UMM is organized into the following views so that each business
process and information model can be viewed from a number of perspectives. Each view is briefly
described as follows:
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The Business Domain View (BDV) - the partitioning of business domain into business areas,
process areas, and business processes. This view establishes the business context of the
process which is a precursor to evaluating the likelihood of finding reusable, previously
defined, process descriptions or terminology in the UMM libraries.
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The Business Requirements View (BRV) - the view of a business process model that
captures the business scenarios, inputs, outputs, constraints and boundaries for business
processes and their interrelationships within business process collaborations. This view is
how the business domain expert sees and describes the process to be modelled. The BRV is
expressed in the language and concepts of the business domain expert.
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The Business Transaction View (BTV) - the view of a business process model that captures
the semantics of business information entities and their flow of exchange between roles as
they perform business activities. This view is an elaboration on the business requirements
view by the business analyst and is how the business analyst sees the process to be
modelled. This view uses the language and concepts of the business analyst to convey
requirements to the software designer and the business domain expert.
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The Business Service View (BSV) - the view of a business process model that specifies the
component services and agents and their message (information) exchange as interactions
necessary to execute and validate a business collaboration. The BSV is expressed in the
language and technical concepts of the software developer.
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The modeler sees all the views and is responsible for documenting each view in UML and
preparing the output from one view for input to the next. Each UMM view produces a set of UMM
models (deliverables) that are used as input to subsequent workflows.
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The participants in the four UMM views are identified in the following. Depending upon the view,
the roles could be played by different participants
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1. Business Domain View (BDV) Modelling:
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a. Business stakeholders: Executive Management, Business Owners
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b. UMM modelers: Business Analysts, Business Architects
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2. Business Requirements View (BRV) Modeling:
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a. Business stakeholders: Executive Management, Business Owners, Information
Modelers, Process Modelers
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b. UMM modelers: Business Analysts, Business Modelers
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3. Business Transaction View (BTV) Modeling:
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a. Business stakeholders: Business Analysts, Systems Architects, Implementers
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b. UMM modelers: Information Modelers, Process Modelers
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4. Business Service View (BSV) Modeling:
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a. UMM modelers: derived from BTV UMM models
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2.4 Business Modeling using UMM
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The UMM specifies all information that needs to be captured during the analysis of an electronic
commerce based business process. The UMM defines the modelling methodology and resulting
artefacts for use when analysing and defining a business process.
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Within this user guide, Business Process and Business Information Analysis Worksheets are
used as simple business process aids to capture business process and business information
requirements. The worksheets and corresponding usage methodology are derived from the UMM.
The worksheets can be extended for specific vertical industry needs.
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3.0 Modeling using the UMM
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The UMM User Guide illustrates a simplified overview of the use of the UMM. This overview is
provided through the definition of 3 major work areas corresponding to the first 3 UMM views, i.e.,
Business Domain View (BDV), Business Requirements View (BRV) and Business Transaction
View (BTV). Procedures within each of these work areas describe how to populate the
worksheets. The worksheets help collect and organize the information needed to produce the
minimum UMM models for that work area.
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The 4 UMM view, the Business Service View (BSV) models are not defined in the UMM User
Guide as a work area, as these can be determined as a result of completing the procedures
outlined in each of the preceding work areas.
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Each UMM User Guide work area is composed of a set of procedures which build on each other
to define the minimum required UMM models for these 3 views. These procedures are based on
use of the worksheets that are used to create UMM models. A high-level overview of these
worksheets and models can be seen in Figure 3.
th
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  
Library


Business
Business
Processes
Processes
Business
Entities
Lexicon
Core
Components



Business Domain
Business Process
Business Collaboration
Protocol
Business Areas
Business Process Lifecycle
Business Transaction
Business Collaboration
Process Areas
Specification & Metrics
Business Processes
Business Collaboration
Business Information
Business Entity & Lifecycle
REA Elements & Activities

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Figure 3 Overview of UMM Worksheets and Models
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Refer to the UMM Implementation Guide (to be developed) for the necessary guidance to provide
the production rules that transform UMM models to:
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•
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3.1 UMM Modeling Approach
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Top-Down
Building a UMM compliant business model is a top-down modeling activity. The UMM User Guide
takes this approach.
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It starts off with a clear understanding of the specific domain of business activities within which
the entire model exists. It de-emphasizes the use of business documents and transactions to
model this view as that approach may have captured only one part of the required model. An
emphasis is placed on the definition of Business Entities, their state management, and state
lifecycle identification to produce a model that encompasses all instances and can evolve as new
business requirements emerge.
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Bottom-up modeling can be used as a starting point to fill in parts of the worksheets through use
of existing business documents and transactions. It can help identify some model elements.
However, the top-down approach must ultimately be applied in order to produce evolvable and
maintainable models that support reuse and manage loosely coupled business processes
between trading partners on the Internet.
Executable application software for the Business Service Interface
Business document payloads in the required specific messaging technology syntax.
Business Information Dependencies, not Document Exchange
The goal of the UMM is to understand and formalize the dependencies between partner
processes for a problem domain. Historically business partner communication methodologies
(such as EDI) have focused on modeling the business documents being exchanged while the
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UMM instead focuses on modeling the business actions and objects that create and consume
business information.
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Measurability / Traceability
The UMM top-down approach drives out the identification of measurable business objectives and
requirements, which can be verified by stakeholders. The UMM and the production rules in the
UMM Reference Guide ensure the reification of these objectives as they are elaborated down to
their technical realization. Traceability of these objectives is the basis for ultimate ‘success’ or
‘failure’ of the business model when in operation.
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The other benefit from the top-down modeling activity is that it expresses the common semantics
that will be used to describe a public business collaborative process. Previously defined business
processes registered in the UMM Business Component Libraries (Registries) will provide
definitions of business entities and other elements in business collaboration models. These
definitions can be used to validate and categorize the semantics used in the model under
construction. A common vocabulary will emerge which will increase the re-use and integration of
the components stored in the UMM Business Component Libraries.
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This top-down approach also emphasizes re-usability as the UMM artifacts. This approach
emphasizes use of the UMM Business Component Libraries (Registries) to reuse previously
defined components.
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The libraries contain components captured in modeling public, versus private (or enterprise),
collaborative business processes and adhere to the UMM and the production rules outlined in the
UML Reference Guide. Components will be categorized and labeled with appropriate metadata to
support ease of search and location of reusable components. New components must follow the
procedures outlined by the UN/CEFACT for inclusion in this Library.
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Model Production Approach
The UMM has adopted the usage of worksheets as a simple tool to collect and organize the
information needed to produce the minimum UMM models for each work area. UMM models can
be generated through a variety of methods. The worksheets can be used to manually generate
these UMM models. A UML modeler or a Business Process Editor (BPE) tool can be used to
generate these in a more indirect and automated fashion. The process of gathering information
for the various work areas is iterative. As one works through the various views new information
will be discovered and previous worksheets may need to be updated to reflect any changes.
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In gathering the information from business stakeholders to be entered on the worksheets for the
BDV, BRV or BTV work areas, the facilitator may learn information that is required for worksheets
that would be covered at a later time. Vital information should be captured at the time it is
discovered so as not to be lost. Worksheet facilitators should be prepared to keep track of such
information on a notepad, for later transfer to the appropriate worksheets. An example of key
modeling information that could be discovered in any work area is the identity of business entities
and associated parameters such as lifecycles and states. For example, business entity
information discovered in the BDV work area would be noted and entered at a later time in the
Business Entity and Business Entity Lifecycle worksheets in the BRV work area.
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3.2 Administrative Worksheet
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A generic Administrative Worksheet applies to all work areas, i.e., BDV, BRV and BTV, as a
means of capturing information about the source of a model and contact information.
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Worksheet: Business Model Administration Information
Model name
[Provide a representative name for the total model.]
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Analysts/Modelers
[Provide a list of names of people who are participating in the
business process analysis effort. Specify email addresses
between angle brackets such as for John Doe
<[email protected]>]
Model Owner
[Name of the organization sponsoring the analysis activities or
that will own the resultant model. For example, UN/CEFACT.]
Identifier Information
Agency Id
[The identifier of the organization that owns the business
process model (or some subset there of). This is used in
conjunction with the Agency field. This information is case
sensitive; lower case is recommended. Examples are EAN
identifiers and internet domain names.]
Agency
[The name of the agency, which owns or controls the Agency Id
values. This information is used to create the BPINs identifiers.
This information is case sensitive; lower case is recommended.
For example, icann (for ICANN internet domain names) or eann
(for EAN identifiers).]
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4.0 BDV Work Area
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4.1 Describe purpose of the BDV work area
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The BDV is a framework for understanding business area sub-process interrelationships.
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385
386
387
388
389
390
391
392
393
394
Often times a Business Domain Model is useful to define an overall “frame of reference” for
the business processes being identified. It is advised that you use a predefined Industry
Reference Model to help:
Consistently define the business process area boundaries
Achieve business process interoperability with future trading partners also following the
same business reference model for their operating practices.
Also define basic terms accepted by the given industry segment. For example the Supply
Chain Operations Reference (SCOR) model defines a frame of reference for supply
chain. The Telemanagement Forum (TMForum) enhances the Telecom Operations Map.
There also might be a more horizontal view such as the Porter Value Chain (PVC).
The BDV work area worksheets help the user begin to formalize the domain they are trying to
model. The first stage is to identify the “top level parts” (entities) of the business domain and
generally organize the main concepts in the domain. One defines the business terminology and
identifies the business participants as well as which business processes those participants/players interact with. At this stage, i.e., BDV, the goal of the UMM is to:
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•
Understand the structure and dynamics of the business domain,
396
397
•
Ensure that all users, standards developers and software providers have a common
understanding of the business domain,
398
•
Capture the BDV justification,
399
400
•
Identify the stakeholders concerned with the modeled domain, some who will be independent
of the processes within the domain.
401
•
Understand the daily business in the business domain independent of any technical solution,
402
403
404
405
406
407
408
409
410
•
Create categories to help partition the business domain that enables an iteration plan to
complete the model,
A business environment may be large and complex; understanding of this environment starts
from information and documentation provided by business experts. Business experts provide a
categorization and decomposition of the business environment into business areas, process
areas, and business processes. Later on, in the BRV workflow, business processes are further
decomposed into business process activities in order to understand how the stakeholders in this
business environment view the discreet units of work done within their organization. Business
process activities are either one-partner activities or multi-partner activities.
411
412
413
414
415
416
417
Business process activities that are multi-partner activities are by definition business collaboration
activities. Business process activities that are collaborative extend outside the organization.
Business collaboration activities define the scope for business requirements gathering and
specification. Since the business environment includes identification of requirements placed by
one-partner activities on multi-partner activities, the interaction of one-partner activities with multipartner activities needs to be taken into account as well. All of this takes place in the language of
the business environment experts and stakeholders.
418
419
The UN/CEFACT standard Business Domain Model is the BPAWG International Supply Chain
Model.
420
421
According to the UMM the following guidelines are to be used in defining (the boundaries of) a
business area.
422
423
424
425
The stakeholders that have direct or immediate indirect influence on the business domain can
define the business area. A stakeholder is defined as someone or something that is materially
affected by the outcome of the system but may or may not be an actor. Actors are stakeholders
that are involved in the business process and are thus part of the business model.
426
427
428
The business area can be defined by the information passing into or out of the business domain.
Where possible, the domain boundaries should be chosen so that a business process is logically
or organizationally initiated and concluded within them.
429
430
Key business entity classes can help define the business area. (i.e., things that are accessed,
inspected, manipulated, processed, exchanged, and so on, in the business process).
431
432
433
434
435
Business processes identified in the BDV are either business processes within an enterprise, i.e., enterprise business processes (that are candidates for B2B collaboration),
or collaborative business processes, depending on the starting point for the BDV
workflow and the business domain experts on hand to work with the business analyst
in developing the BDV.
436
437
A collaborative business process may derive its requirements from two or more enterprise business processes (from each participating trading partner).
438
439
440
The level of definition is driven by the value to the trading partners, so that they understand the business requirements and objectives, and how each business process fits
into a larger value chain.
441
442
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4.2 Define BDV work area steps and worksheet(s)
444
Steps
1. Identify and Describe
Business Area
Artifacts
Section / Worksheet Name
Diagrams
4.2.1 / Describe Business
Domain Model
2. Identify and Describe
Process Area(s)
4.2.2 / Describe Business
Area
4.2.3 / Describe Process
Area(s)
3. Identify Business
Process(es)
4.2.4 / Identify Business
Process(es)
Business Area/Process Area
Package Diagram
Package diagram identifying
and categorizing Business
Processes within Business
and Process Areas currently
available in a Library(Repository)
4. Identify Business
Processes from the Business
Process Library
BDV Use Case Diagrams for
Library supported Business
Processes
5. Identify and Finalize
Business Processes and
Partners
Final BDV Use Case Diagram
Using Processes from Library
(Processes and Partners
Identified)
445
Table 1 - Business Domain View (BDV) Work Area
446
447
4.2.1 Identify and Describe Business Area
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456
A Business Domain Model is a common business process framework, typically provided by an
industry as a result of an effort to describe processes and their points of interconnection that
make up the end-to-end customer operations process flows. The enhanced Telecom Operations
Map (eTOM) of the TeleManagement Forum represents an excellent example of such a
framework that focuses on processes that are specific to information and communications
services and technologies management. A Business Domain Model for a business environment is
the optimum starting point for finding candidate business processes that require or provide an
opportunity for B2B collaboration .
457
Form: Describe Business Domain Model
Business Domain Model
Name

[Provide a name for the reference model. You can use an existing
reference model such as the Supply Chain Council or the Porter’s
Value Chain or create your own name.]
TeleManagement Forum
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Description
[A brief summary of this domain.]
Industry
[Provide the name of the industry that this business applies to.
Search the business process library for a list of possible industrys. If
the industry does not exist, then provide an appropriate name/label
for the industry.]
Business Areas
[List the business areas within the scope. A business area is a
collection of process areas. A process area is a collection of business
processes. You may wish to refer to the ebXML Catalog of Business
Processes that provides a list of normative categories that may be
used as business areas.]
Business Justification
[Provide the business justification for the collection of business
processes]
Category Schema
[Provide the name of the categorization schema used to categorize
business processes in the industry.]
Stakeholders
[Identify the practitioners that care about the definition of this business
domain. At this level, this is likely to be some participants in an
industry group (perhaps a standards body or an enterprise). These
are the people who will define the BRV.]
References
[Any external supporting documentation.]
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459
460
461
4.2.2 Describe Business Area
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
The first level of decomposition of a Business Domain Model is a Business Area, e.g., market
segments of an enterprise or major operational areas such as Assurance processes within
Customer Relationship Management in the eTOM. (A business area might consist of subbusiness areas). Annex B shows example Business Areas as manufacturing, financial, retail,
transportation and services. However, the Business Area categories of a Business Domain
Model should reflect the business at hand, e.g., structure of the enterprise or common business
process framework of the industry.
469
Form: Describe Business Area
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Business Area Name
[Provide a name for the business area. This should be listed in the
Business Areas section of the Business Domain Model.]
Description
[A brief summary of this functional area.]
Scope
[Provide a high level statement that encapsulates the scope of this
business area.]
Process Areas
[List the process areas within the scope. A process area is a
collection of business processes.]
Objective
[Describe the objective of this business area.]
Business Opportunity
[Describe the business opportunity addressed by this business area.]
Category
[Provide the category identifier used to reference a business area set
of business processes. This should be within the category schema.]
Business Areas
[List any other business areas that may be within the scope this
business area.]
470
471
472
4.2.3 Describe Process Area
473
474
475
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
A Process Area may be another first level decomposition of a Business Domain Model, in a
manner that is orthogonal to the categories chosen for the Business Areas. For example, when
market segments are chosen for Business Areas, Process Areas may be end-to-end processes
within the Business Domain for each Business Area, i.e., five fundamental activities of a business
transaction as presented in ISO/IEC 15944-1: planning, identification, negotiation, actualization
and post-actualization. Annex B shows example Process Areas as marketing, ordering,
distribution, settlement and regulatory. Alternatively a Process Area may be a second level
decomposition of a Business Domain Model, e.g.,Problem Handling within the Customer
Relationship Management – Assurance cell of the eTOM. (A process area might consist of subprocess areas).
483
Form: Describe Process Area
Process Area Name
[Provide a name for the process area. This should be listed in the
Process Areas section of at least one Business Area.]
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Description
[A brief summary of this functional area.]
Objective
[Describe the objective of this process area.]
Scope
[Provide a high level statement that encapsulates the scope of this
process area. The scope of this process area must be within the
scope of the encompassing business area. Typically the scope of the
process area will be more constrained or limited than the scope of the
corresponding business area.]
Business Opportunity
[Describe the business opportunity addressed by this process area.]
Category
[Provide the category identifier used to reference a business area or
process area set of business processes.]
Business Processes
[List the business processes within the scope of this process area.]
Process Areas
[List any other process areas that may be within the scope this
process area.]
484
485
486
4.2.4 Identify Business Process
487
488
489
490
491
492
Identification of Business Processes that require B2B collaboration, or are candidates for B2B
collaborations is a primary objective of the BDV. A Business Process description is specified for
each Business Process identified by this worksheet, using the Business Process worksheet of the
BRV. Thus this worksheet provides a link to the Business Process worksheet. High level
requirements, such as interdependencies with other Business Processes are noted here.
Detailed requirements are left to the Business Process worksheet in the BRV.
493
494
Form: Identify Business Process
Business Process Name
[Name of the business process as identified in the above Process
Area.]
Description
[A plain text explanation of the purpose and behavior of the
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Business Process]
Business Processes
[List any business processes that depend upon, are associated
with, or contained within this business process.]
Business Requirements
[High level requirements, such as interdependencies with other
Business Processes are noted here.]
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496
497
498
5.0 BRV Work Area
499
500
5.1 Describe purpose of the BRV work area
501
502
The BRV is important to show how a business collaboration type of business process fits into the
enterprise views of the participating trading partners
503
504
505
506
507
508
509
510
511
512
513
514
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
Business requirements are expressed with reference to business entities that are affected by a
business collaboration activity, e.g., order, goods transfer. Preconditions and post-conditions of
the atomic business processes and of the business collaboration itself are best expressed by
states of affected business entities, e.g., for order line - pending and order line - fulfilled. In
support of this, business entities must be understood as to the states in which they may exist and
the permitted state transitions in one or more life cycles. Business requirements are also
expressed in terms of events that trigger the state transitions of business entities and of the
business collaboration, e.g., delivery of goods triggers the transition of order line status from
pending to fulfilled.
A business collaboration activity is a predefined set of activities and/or processes of partners that
is initiated by a partner to accomplish an explicitly shared business goal and terminated upon
recognition of one of the agreed conclusions by all the involved partners. Business information is
gathered for the purpose of specifying business collaboration activities in terms of goals,
requirements, and constraints. These are then expressed in formal representations that can be
understood and confirmed by the business environment experts. Business collaboration activities
are specified by a business analyst as business processes, requirements and business object
flow graphs that define the choreography of atomic business processes, referred to as Business
Transactions. The selection of a business collaboration pattern that fits the requirements of a
business collaboration activity, if one is available, optimizes business process and information
model reusability. However, in the absence of a suitable business collaboration pattern, the
selection of pre-specified Business Transaction patterns simplifies and prescribes reusable
components in a business collaboration activity.
525
526
527
528
529
530
531
Business requirements are expressed with reference to business objects that are affected by a
business collaboration activity, e.g., order, goods transfer. Preconditions and post-conditions of
the atomic business processes and of the business collaboration itself are best expressed by
states of affected business objects, e.g., order line - pending and order line - fulfilled. In support
of this, business objects must be understood as to the states in which they may exist and the
permitted state transitions in one or more life cycles. Business requirements are also expressed
in terms of events that trigger the state transitions of business objects and of the business
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collaboration, e.g., delivery of goods triggers the transition of order line status from pending to
fulfilled.
534
535
5.2 Define BRV work area steps and worksheet(s)
536
Steps
1. Describe REA Elements
and Activities of the Business
Process Phases
Artifacts
Section / Worksheet Name
Diagrams
5.2.1 / REA Worksheet
2. Describe each Business
Process (from BDV) in more
detail
5.2.2 / Business Process
3. Identify and describe
Business Collaborations
starting with a large
collaboration and breaking it
down to smaller business
collaborations use cases
which need to be further
described until business
transactions are identified and
described
5.2.3 / Business Collaboration
Specification
4. Define Business
Collaborations
BRV Use Case Diagram with
all identified business
processes and partners
5.2.4 / Business Process
Metric
5.2.5 / Business Collaboration
5.2.6 / Business Process/Collaboration Lifecycle
(Activity Model )
Business Process Activity
Model
Conceptual Business
Information Model
Business Process Use Case
Business Collaboration Use
Case
5. Identify and Describe
Business Entities
5.2.7 / Business Entity
5.2.8 / Business Entity
Lifecycle
Table 2 - Business Requirements View (BRV) Work Area
537
538
539
540
541
5.2.1 Business Collaboration with REA
542
543
544
545
An ontology for a business collaboration or for a business process would list the types of ‘things’
or objects that one would expect to see in a normal occurrence of a collaboration. The
1
collaboration ontology used for UMM is called REA , and is explained in simple overview terms in
Appendix A. Readers unfamiliar with REA terms may want to review this section.
1
REA stands for Resource-Event-Agent, as explained in Appendix A.
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Most straightforwardly, this ontology gives an analyst a candidate set of top-down objects, in the
form of a UML class diagram, to consider for use in the Business Requirements View phase of
the UMM. The worksheet associated with REA analysis assumes that the collaboration being
studied progresses through five phases from start to finish. These phases are illustrated in
Figure 4 and explained below as they are adapted from the ISO Open-edi model.
551
552
5.2.1.1
2
ISO Phases of a Business Process
     
          
        
         
              
553
554
Figure 4 Phases of a Business Collaboration from the ISO Open-edi Model
555
556
557
558
•
Planning: In the Planning Phase, both the buyer and seller are engaged in activities to
decide what action to take for acquiring or selling a good, service, and/or right.
559
560
561
•
Identification: The Identification Phase pertains to all those actions or events whereby
data is interchanged among potential buyers and sellers in order to establish a one-toone linkage.
562
563
564
565
566
567
568
569
•
Negotiation: The Negotiation Phase pertains to all those actions and events involving the
exchange of information following the Identification Phase where a potential buyer and
seller have (1) identified the nature of good(s) and/or service(s) to be provided; and, (2)
identified each other at a level of certainty. The process of negotiation is directed at
achieving an explicit, mutually understood, and agreed upon goal of a business collaboration and associated terms and conditions. This may include such things as the detailed
specification of the good, service, and/or right, quantity, pricing, after sales servicing,
delivery requirements, financing, use of agents and/or third parties, etc.
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
•
Actualization: The Actualization Phase pertains to all activities or events necessary for
the execution of the results of the negotiation for an actual business transaction. Normally the seller produces or assembles the goods, starts providing the services, prepares
and completes the delivery of good, service, and/or right, etc., to the buyer as agreed
according to the terms and conditions agreed upon at the termination of the Negotiation
Phase. Likewise, the buyer begins the transfer of acceptable equivalent value, usually in
money, to the seller providing the good, service, and/or right.
577
578
579
580
•
Post-Actualization: The Post-Actualization Phase includes all of the activities or events
and associated exchanges of information that occur between the buyer and the seller
after the agreed upon good, service, and/or right is deemed to have been delivered.
These can be activities pertaining to warranty coverage, service after sales, post-sales
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financing such as monthly payments or other financial arrangements, consumer complaint handling and redress or some general post-actualization relationships between
buyer and seller.
584
585
586
5.2.1.2
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
The REA worksheet that follows is patterned on the ISO description phases enumerated above.
For parsimony, the elements of the planning and identification phase have been combined, as
have the elements of the actualization and the post actualization phase. The analysis and
requirements dialogue elicited from filling this worksheet out will clarify much of the work to be
done in the remainder of the BRV (such as the Business Collaboration Worksheets and the
Business Entity Worksheets). Users are expected to find themselves going back and reiterating
through all of the worksheets as their requirements analysis becomes clearer and more amplified.
594
595
The Overall Business Process REA Elements part of the worksheet includes a description of
the following:
The REA Worksheet
596
597
o
Business Process Name -- Name the overall business process being modeled from the
BDV analysis above. For example: Order From Catalog or Service Acquisition.
598
599
600
o
Resources -- Identify in general terms the requited resource flows for this collaboration
or business process. For example: Products for Cash, or Services for Credit Card
Charge.
601
602
o
Partners -- Identify the proposed business partners for this business process. For
example: Seller, Buyer, and Shipper.
603
604
The ISO Business Process Phases row headings divide the remainder of the worksheet into
three columns: Planning/Identification, Negotiation, and Actualization/Post-Actualization.
605
606
The Activities Performed row asks for a preliminary list of the tasks needed to complete each of
the ISO process phases. Eventually these may prove to be candidate Business Processes.
607
608
o
Planning/Identification -- Identify the activities involved in preliminary planning and the
subsequent 1-to-1 matching of the reciprocal business partners. For example:
609
o
Request catalog or product list
610
o
Send catalog
611
o
Send availability request
612
613
o
Negotiation -- Identify the activities involved in the normal negotiation and contracting
process among the trading partners. For example:
614
o
Send offer
615
o
Send counter-offer
616
o
Buyer sends contract acceptance
617
618
o
Actualization/Post-Actualization -- Identify the activities involved in the requited
transfers of economic resources between the identified trading partners. For example:
619
o
Send an shipping notice
620
o
Send receiving report
621
o
Send invoice
622
o
Send remittance advice
623
o
Send warranty invocation (post-actualization activity).
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625
626
627
The Business Entities section of the REA worksheet identifies Business Entity candidates and
shows how the identification of these entities flows through the ISO process phases.
o
Collaborative Business Partners:
628
629
630
631
o
In the Planning/Identification phase -- Provide a name for the parties who are
potential business partners in this proposed business process. These candidates
should be identifiable as potential buyers (consumer) or sellers (producer) of resources identified in the cell just below this one in the worksheet.
632
633
634
o
In the Negotiation phase -- Provide additional party names if negotiations and
contracting expand scope of collaboration. For example, the proposed use of a
drop-shipper or monetary agent.
635
636
637
638
o
In the Actualization/Post-Actualization phase – Provide additional party names
if the actualization activities involve expanding the list of partners. For example,
if an agent for the buyer or seller might be used on a non-planned (not in the contract) basis.
639
o
Types of Identified Resources:
640
641
642
643
o
In the Planning/Identification phase -- Provide a name for the types of economic resources to be exchanged in the business process. One of these will almost certainly be monetary in nature. Examples might be materials for cash, digital resources for cash, financial services for credit card charge, etc.
644
645
646
o
In the Negotiation phase -- Provide additional information if negotiation and contracting leads to more specific identification of resource types. For example, materials may be further classified into product groups.
647
648
649
650
651
o
Types of Events, Locations, or Partners To Be Specified (Negotiation phase only) -- If the
proposed exchange of resources from one partner to another has specialized constraints on
the types of events or on the types of location or on the types of partner (often expressed as
roles or specialized skills) needed to fulfill contracted commitments in the exchange, then list
them here. For example:
652
653
o
Event Types: retail vs. wholesale types of purchases or hazardous vs. nonhazardous shipments.
654
655
o
Location Types: an approved receiving facility or a warehouse dock of a certain
width and strength.
656
657
o
Partner Types: approved buyers, bonded cashiers, or appropriately designated
customs authorities.
658
659
660
661
662
663
664
665
666
o
Specific Commitments (Negotiation phase only) – Negotiations for resource exchanges
normally result in the trading partners making specific commitments to each other to perform in the future. These commitments identify the terms of trade to be adhered to in the
form of specifications for the resource types, event types, location types, and partner
types enumerated in the cells above this row in the worksheet. A common example of a
commitment is an order-line item. Commitments should occur in reciprocal pairs. For
example, a commitment to deliver 100 cookies of type chocolate at wholesale pricing to
any approved local store is reciprocated by a commitment to pay from a credit account
two days later.
667
668
669
670
671
o
Specific Contract or Agreement (Negotiation phase only) – A contract bundles
reciprocal commitments. For example, a shipment schedule or a purchase order could a
aggregate a commitment to ship with a commitment to pay. It is also possible here to
specify an Agreement Type if the agreement is an example of a generalized type like a
short-term purchase order or a year-long agreement with periodic releases.
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673
674
675
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o
Exchanged Resources (Actualization phase only) – Identify the actual transferred
economic resources in the exchange. For example, a specific car or a specific piece of
furniture. In many cases, the actualization tagging of resources stops at the type-level of
granularity, in which case the business entity here – Resource – will be congruent with
the Resource Type business entity recognized in the negotiation phase above. This
makes one of the two business entities redundant, so they should be combined.
678
679
680
681
o
Exchange Events (Actualization phase only) -- Identify the names of actual economic
events whose completion effects transfer of the identified economic resources from one
partner to the other. For example, a completed shipment transfers products, and it is
compensated by a later cash payment.
682
683
684
685
o
Actual Location (Actualization phase, although it may apply to negotiation phase on
occasion) – If it is important to note where an economic event occurred, location becomes a candidate business entity. On less frequent occasions, it is sometimes necessary to specify locations for commitments as they are negotiated in that phase.
686
687
688
689
o
Materialized Claim (Actualization phase) -- If the contract or normal business practice
entails specific identification of a partially fulfilled commitment with a materialized claim,
identify that claim as a candidate business entity. For example, an invoice or a receivable.
690
691
692
The Possible Exception Conditions row of the worksheets allows enumeration of exception
conditions that could interrupt the normal process flow from collaboration start to collaboration finish through the ISO phases. For example:
693
694
o
In Planning/Identification, an exception can occur when an identified business partner
is unable to respond to an availability request. This causes a need for re-identification.
695
696
o
In Negotiation, an exception can occur in complete rejection of proposals. This causes
suspension or abandonment of the proposed collaboration.
697
698
o
In Actualization, an exception can occur when a shipped product proves faulty. This
causes a need for warranty invocation.
699
700
701
The Phase Completion Criteria row of the worksheets specifies the state conditions for
completeness of the appropriate ISO business process phase. For example, here are some
state conditions that may apply in most cases.
702
703
o
The Identification phase may be signaled as complete when the Partners are all in
state “identified” and the Resource Types are also all in state “identified.”
704
705
706
707
o
The Negotiation phase may be signaled as complete when the Contract and its bundled
Commitments are all in state “in-force.” This requires as a precondition that the Resource Types (and possibly Event Type, Location Type, and Partner Type as well) be
in state “specified.”
708
709
710
o
The Actualization phase may be signaled as complete when the Economic Events are
in state “complete,” the Economic Resources are in state “transferred,” the Economic
Claim is in state “settled,” and the Commitments are in state “fulfilled.”
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713
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715
When the REA worksheet has been completed, a UMM user analyst may consolidate his or her
analysis by preparing a preliminary UML class diagram that illustrates how the identified set of
candidate business entities fit together. Again, guidance in preparing that diagram can be
obtained with a quick scan of the text in the REA overview of Appendix A.
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717
Form: REA Worksheet
Overall Business
Process REA
Elements
Business Process
Name
Resources
Proposed
Business Partners
ISO Business
Phases
Planning/Identification
Negotiation
Actualization/
Post-Actualization
Activities
Performed
Business Entities
(candidates)
Collaborative
Business
Partners
Types of
Identified
Resources
Types of
Events,
Locations, or
Partners To
Be Specified
Specific
Commitments
(two min.)
Specific
Contract or
Agreement
Exchanged
Resources
(two min.)
Exchanged
Events (two
min.)
Actual
Location (if
needed)
Materialized
Claim (if
needed)
Possible
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Exception
Conditions
Phase
Completion
Criteria
(expressed as
entity states if
possible)
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5.2.2 Business Process
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The business process worksheet is the primary vehicle for gathering detailed requirements.
Business requirements are specified as single concept sentences in five categories:
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1) Describe static relationships that must exist between entities, e.g., a Buyer must have a credit
rating,
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2) Describe normal dynamic relationships that must exist between activities, e.g., the company
has the option of doing a credit check on any query made from any Buyer before responding
to a query, Note that the Process Lifecycle worksheet captures dynamic requirements of a
business process or business collaboration, and would suffice for this category.
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3) Describe “exception” conditions, e.g., any time that a Buyer’s credit rating changes, their
product reservations may be deleted,
734
4) System exceptions, e.g., a specific customer account number does not exist,
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5) System administration requirements, e.g., security staff should be able to add/delete partner
and Buyer names while the system is “up.”
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A business process lifecycle is a set of conditions that can be identified for the business process,
i.e., Begins When, Ends When, intermediate points that can be monitored, and points where
exception processing could begin that result in an outcome other than normal completion. The
Lifecycle entry on this worksheet is a link to the Process Lifecycle worksheet where detailed
information would be specified.
742
Form: Business Process
Business Process Name
[Provide a name for the business process. This should be a name
identified on the form “Identify Business Process” and on a
“Describe Process Area” form.]
Description
[A plain text explanation of the purpose and behavior of the
Business Process]
Business Requirements
[The list of business requirements that apply to this business
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process. The format of requirement definition is covered (as shown
in Annex 4, Business process Specification Template, in the UMM).]
Definition
[A set of simple sentences that state actions may be performed as
part of the business process.]
Participants
[List the type of partners involved in the business process. E.g.
manufacturer, supplier, customer]
Preconditions
[Preconditions are the rules defining the conditions that must be true
for the context that this process is conducted within. These rules are
constraints that must be satisfied before instantiating or initializing
the business process thus ensuring that the proper context for the
process has been established.]
Begins When
[Identifies the event(s) from that start this business process.]
Ends When
[[List all the event(s) that causes normal completion of the business
process.]
Exceptions
[List all exception conditions (events) that will cause the business
process to terminate before its normal completion.]
Post-conditions
[Post-conditions are the rules defining the conditions that must be
true for the localized context that exists after the business process
completes. These rules are constraints that must be satisfied after
the business process thus ensuring that the proper update to
context of the parent process has been occurred.]
Supporting Business
Collaborations and/or
Business Processes
[List the business collaborations and business processes that
support (are part of) this business process.]
Lifecycle(s)
[Identify the Lifecycle(s) (Activity Model ) that formalizes the
definition of this Business Process.]
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747
5.2.3 Business Collaboration Specification
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Specify a business collaboration use case description with this worksheet when there are two or
more actors. The Business Collaboration Specification worksheet is an extension of the Business
Process Worksheet, thus many aspects of the description of the Business Process worksheet in
5.2.1 pertain to this worksheet as well. As for the Business Collaboration Specification Type,
whenever there are two or more actors, a business process is a candidate for one of two types of
business collaborations. A business collaboration protocol is a business collaboration at a low
enough level that it can be represented by an activity graph, comprised of business transactions,
each with object states specified as preconditions and post-conditions. Business transactions are
the atomic level business collaborations according to the six BTV patterns. The same Business
Collaboration Specification worksheet is used for these two types of business collaborations.
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Realization is a link to the Business Collaboration worksheet (where additional detail would be
specified) that corresponds to the Business Collaboration Specification worksheet. Supporting
business collaborations are links to other instances of this worksheet for business collaboration
protocols, or business transactions. Metrics is a link to the business process metric worksheet,
which requests detailed information. Business transaction service functions that are prescribed
as part of the BSV are identified here as trigger events for a business transaction.
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Form: Business Collaboration Specification
Business Collaboration
Specification Name
[Provide a name for the Business Collaboration]
Business Collaboration
Specification Type
[Choice between Business Collaboration Protocol or Business
Transaction Specification.]
Description
[A plain text explanation of the purpose and behavior of the Business
Collaboration Specification]
Definition
[A set of simple sentences that state the actions performed as part of
the business process.]
Participants
[List the type of partners involved in the Business Collaboration, e.g.
manufacturer, supplier, customer.]
Preconditions
[Preconditions are the rules for defining the conditions that must be
true for the context that this process is conducted within. These rules
are constraints that must be satisfied before instantiating or initializing
the Business Collaboration thus ensuring that the proper context for
the process has been established.]
Begins When
[Identifies the event(s) from that start this Business Collaboration.]
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Ends When
[List all the event(s) that causes normal completion of the Business
Collaboration.]
Exceptions
[List all exception conditions (events) that will cause the Business
Collaboration to terminate before its normal completion.]
Post-conditions
[Post-conditions are the rules for defining the conditions that must be
true for the localized context that exists after the Business
Collaboration completes. These rules are constraints that must be
satisfied after the business process thus ensuring that the proper
update to context of the parent process has been occurred.]
Realization
What Business Collaboration is use to realize or instantiate this
Business Collaboration Specification
Business Requirements
[The list of business requirements that apply to this Business
Collaboration. The format of requirement definition is covered (as
shown in Annex 4, Business process Specification Template, in the
UMM).]
Supporting Business
Collaborations (including
Business Transactions and
Collaboration Protocols)
[List the business transactions and business collaboration protocols
that support (are part of) this business collaboration.]
Lifecycle(s)
Identification of the Lifecycle(s) (Activity Model) that formalizes this
Business Collaboration.
Metrics
[List of Metrics to be recorded for this business process/collaboration]
Initiating:
Responding:
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5.2.4 Business Process Metric
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Business process metrics are operational or structural measurements that track how a business
process is performing over time. Operational metrics deal directly with dynamic properties of
business while structural metrics deal with static properties. For example, quantity measurements
are a performance count or a measure of the amount of product produced by a single process
case performance. Quality measurements are a determination of the value of the particular
product in relation to some pre-determined quality norm. Time of performance is a measure of
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elapsed time between inception based on preconditions and completion based on post-conditions
being in place.
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Form: Business Process Metric
Business Process Metric
[Provide a name for identification of a Metric or KPI. Metrics are the
rules for defining the conditions for evaluating the localized context
that exists during the Business Collaboration execution. They may
define Key Performance Indicators (KPI) that reflect the achievement
of particular business goals and/or objectives. These KPI’s may also
be the trigger certain events that are used as input to this and other
processes.]
Description
[A plain text explanation of the purpose and behavior of the Business
Process Metric]
Metric
[Provide the business rule that defines this metric.
These rules must be computational in format, e.g. OCL or other formal
notation.]
Start Trigger
[Identifies the event that start the measurement of the metric.
This event may be computational in format, e.g. OCL or other formal
notation.]
End Trigger
[Identifies the event that stops the measurement of the metric.
This event may be computational in format. E.g.: OCL or other formal
notation.]
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5.2.5 Business Collaboration
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A business collaboration is the realization or instantiation of a business collaboration
specification. Thus, an instance of this worksheet is linked to an instance of the Business
Collaboration Specification worksheet. Realization of a business collaboration specification is
accomplished by introducing roles, resources, relationships of roles and resources to activities,
and defining the associations. (This would be done by applying a business collaboration or
business transaction pattern.) New information (over and above that in the Business
Collaboration Specification worksheet) is requested for partner roles and business entities
associated with the business collaboration.
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Form: Business Collaboration
Business Collaboration
Name
[Provide a name for the Business Collaboration. Normally this should
be the same as the BCS that it instantiates, however due to possible
contextual constraints or business rules it may be necessary to
differentiate this collaboration.]
Business Collaboration
Specification
[What Business Collaboration Specification does this Business
Collaboration realize/instantiate?]
Description
[A plain text explanation of the purpose and behavior of the Business
Collaboration Specification]
Participants
[List the type of partners involved in the Business Collaboration. E.g.
manufacturer, supplier, customer]
Preconditions
From BRV Business Collaboration Specification Worksheet
Begins When
From BRV Business Collaboration Specification Worksheet
Ends When
From BRV Business Collaboration Specification Worksheet
Exceptions
From BRV Business Collaboration Specification Worksheet
Post-conditions
From BRV Business Collaboration Specification Worksheet
Partner Roles
[Identify the roles played by each partner.]
Partner
Roles
Business Entities
[Identify the Business Entities associated with this collaboration.]
Supporting Business
Transactions or Business
Collaborations
[List the business transactions or business collaborations that support
(are part of) this business collaboration.]
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5.2.6 Business Process Lifecycle
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This worksheet is used to capture the dynamic requirements, i.e., activity model, for a business
process or business collaboration. Activities indicated here are internal to a business process or
business collaboration.
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Form: Business Process/Collaboration Lifecycle (Activity Model )
Process Lifecycle Name
[Provide a name for this Lifecycle. This name is used to identify the
lifecycle that a Business Process or Business Collaboration is
formally defined by.]
Description
[A plain text explanation of the purpose and behavior of the
Lifecycle.]
Preconditions
[Preconditions are the rules for defining the conditions that must be
true for the context that this process lifecycle is executed within.
These rules are constraints that must be satisfied before
instantiating or initializing the process lifecycle thus ensuring that the
proper context for the process has been established.
These conditions must be a subset of the preconditions defined by
the process that this lifecycle is defining and be computational in
format. E.g.: OCL or other formal notation.]
Begins When
[Identifies the event(s) that start this process lifecycle. For any
lifecycle there is only one starting point, known as a start state. This
list of events is the only one which will instantiate the lifecycle and
cause it to enter into a start state.
These event(s) must be a subset of the event(s) defined by the
process that this lifecycle is defining and be computational in format.
E.g.: OCL or other formal notation.]
States
The following section defines the states or conditions that the
process lifecycle can be in.
Start State
The Start State is a pseudo state in which the initialization and
instantiation of lifecycle artifacts and context occurs.].
State Transition Table
(Start State)
Event: [Identifies the event(s) that start this process lifecycle. For
any lifecycle there is only one starting point, known as a start state.
This list of events is the only one which will instantiate the lifecycle
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and cause it to enter into a condition or state as determined by the
processing of a defined event.]
These event(s) must be a subset of the event(s) defined by the
process that this lifecycle is defining and may be computational in
format. E.g.: OCL or other formal notation.]
Source: [For each event listed above identify the source of the
event as defined by the current lifecycle context].
Rule: [For each event, define the constraint or guard that
indicates the resultant condition or state. If there are multiple
states for a given event there should be a rule for each. This
rule should be computational in format. E.g.: OCL or other
formal notation.].
Transition to: [For each event identify the resulting condition
(state) of the lifecycle. If a particular event can result in more
than one condition or state define the rule that indicates which
condition will be the actual resultant.].
Event
Source
Rule
Transition to
For each state or condition of the lifecycle, repeat the following entries.
State
Name: [Identify a state or condition of this lifecycle.]
Description: [Provide a textual description of this condition/state]
Definition: [Definitions are the rules for defining the localized
conditions that must be true within the context of this process
lifecycle that asserts that this condition has been achieved. If these
rules are not true for this condition, then an invalid or unknown state
has been achieved.
These rules must be computational in format. E.g.: OCL or other
formal notation.]
Actions: [Identify the set of actions that may be performed while in
this state. Define the constraint (rule) that controls the performance
of each action. In the case where no constraint is defined, the action
is always performed.]
Name:
Description:
Definition:
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Actions:
Transitions
Event
State
Source
Rule
Transition to
Rule
Transition to
Name:
Description:
Definition:
Actions:
Transitions
Event
Post-conditions
Source
[Post-conditions are the rules for defining the conditions that must
be true for the localized context that exists after the process lifecycle
completes. These rules are constraints that must be satisfied after
the lifecycle thus ensuring that the proper update to context of the
parent process has occurred.
These constraint(s) must be a subset of the constraint(s) defined by
the process that this lifecycle is defining and be computational in
format. E.g.: OCL or other formal notation.]
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5.2.7 Business Entity
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The entries in this worksheet are self explanatory.
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Form: Business Entity
Business Entity Name:
[Provide the name that this Business Entity is identified by.]
Description:
[A plain text explanation of the purpose and behavior of the Business
Entity.]
Business Entity
Characteristics
Define the set of characteristics or attributes that define the structural
aspects of the Business Entities.
Name
Business Entity Behavior
Type
Constraints
Define the set of operations that affect the behavioral aspects of the
Business Entity.
Name:
[Enter the name of the operation.]
Lifecycle:
[Enter the name of the lifecycle that defines this behavior.]
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5.2.8 Business Entity Lifecycle
811
The entries in this worksheet are self explanatory.
Form: Business Entity Lifecycle
Business Entity
Lifecycle Name
[Name the State Model. Below, in the States section of this worksheet, you can
mention all of the state values and their information requirements]
Business Entity
Name
[Provide a name for the Business Entity]
Description
[A plain text explanation of the purpose and behavior of the lifecycle defined
here.]
States
Start State
The following section defines the states or condition that the lifecycle
can occur.
The Start State is a pseudo state in which the initialization and
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instantiation of lifecycle artifacts and context occurs.
Transitions (Start
State)
Event: [Identifies the event(s) from the start state of this lifecycle. For
any lifecycle there is only one starting point, known as the start state.
This list of events are the only ones that would instantiate the
lifecycle and cause the business entity to enter into a condition or
state as determined by the processing of the defined event.
These event(s) may be computational in format. E.g.: OCL or other
formal notation.]
Source: [For each event listed above identify the source of the event
as defined by the current lifecycle context].
Rule: [For each event, define the constraint or guard that
indicates the resultant condition or state. If there are multiple
states for a given event there should be a rule for each. This rule
should be computational in format. E.g.: OCL or other formal
notation.].
Transition to: [For each event identify the resulting condition
(state) of the lifecycle. If a particular event can result in more than
one condition or state define the rule that indicates which
condition will be the actual resultant.].
Event
Source
Rule
Transition to
For each state or condition of the lifecycle, repeat the following entries.
State
Name: [Identify a state or condition of this lifecycle.]
Description: [Provide a textual description of this condition/state]
Definition: [Definitions are the rules for defining the localized
conditions that must be true within the context of this lifecycle that
assert that this condition has been achieved. If these rules are not
true for this condition, then an invalid or unknown state has been
achieved.
These rules must be computational in format. E.g.: OCL or other
formal notation.]
Actions: [Identify the set of actions that may be performed while in
this state. Defined the constraint that controls the performance of
each action. In the case where no constraint is defined, the action is
always performed.]
Name:
Description:
Definition:
Actions:
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[For each event listed above identify the resulting condition (state) of
the lifecycle. If a particular event can result in more than one
condition or state, define the constraint (rule), that indicates which
condition would be the actual resultant. This constraint should be
computational in format. E.g.: OCL or other formal notation.].
Event
State:
Source
Rule
Transition to
Source
Rule
Transition to
Name:
Description:
Definition:
Actions:
Transitions
Post-conditions
Event
[Post-conditions are the rules for defining the conditions that must be
true for the localized context that exists after the process lifecycle
completes. These rules are constraints that must be satisfied after
the lifecycle, thus ensuring that the proper update to context of the
parent process has occurred.
These constraint(s) must be a subset of the constraint(s) defined by
the process that this lifecycle is defining and be computational in
format. E.g.: OCL or other formal notation.]
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6.0 BTV Work Area
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6.1 Describe purpose of the BTV work area
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The Business Transaction View (BTV) is an elaboration on the business requirements view by the
business analyst and is how the business analyst sees the process to be modeled. In the BRV
use case descriptions for the business collaboration and all included business transactions have
been provided. According to these descriptions a choreography of the business transactions
within the business collaboration must be defined. An activity graph, the so-called business
collaboration protocol, choreographs the business transaction activities. Note, no other activities
are allowed in a business collaboration protocol. Furthermore, the business collaboration protocol
defines the transitions between business transaction activities based on business entity states.
Accordingly, the business collaboration protocol defines the overall choreography of the business
collaboration. The business collaboration protocol worksheet helps to define this step.
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Each activity of the business collaboration protocol is a business transaction activity, which is
further detailed by a business transaction which is by itself an activity graph. There is a 1-to-1
relationship between business transaction activity and business transaction. Thus, the terms
business transaction activity and business transaction are synonyms from a business viewpoint,
but refer to different notations in UML.
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A business transaction is an atomic business process between two business partners, which
involves sending business information from one partner to the other and an optional reply. A
business transaction is made up of a requesting (initiating) business activity performed by the
initiating partner and a responding business activity performed by the responding business
partner. The requesting business activity outputs business information (represented by a object
flow state) that is input to the responding business activity. Business information created by the
responding business activity and returned to the initiating business activity is optional. A business
transaction follows one out of six different business transaction patterns. A worksheet supports
the definition of the corresponding business transaction.
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The purpose of a business transaction is triggering a state transition of a business entity
according to the business requirements. In a collaborative environment both business partners
must align the states of the business entities. Thus, they have to share the views of the business
entities by exchanging business information. It follows that the goal of exchanging business
information is changing the state of a business entity.
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What makes up the business information to satisfy this goal? It seems to be straight forward that
the business information must reference all the business entities changing state as a result of the
exchange. For each of these business entities the minimum information required to change the
state must be identified. Note, here is the big difference to traditional EDI which was based on
business documents carrying a lot of overhead. Additionally, the business information includes
some general information, something like header information that is independent of the business
entities.
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Information about business entities (as well as the general information) is manifested by business
objects. A business objects is a reusable class or a set of associated classes representing a
specific business concept in order to build business information structures. Reusable means that
business objects are not specific to a single business transaction. Therefore, this approach
assumes the existence of a library of business objects. When modeling business information
structures, one will select suitable business objects from this library and customize them to the
needs of the business transaction. Customizing means setting the business objects into the
context of the business transaction.
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Customizing business objects consists of two major tasks. The first task is establishing
relationships, mostly associations, between the selected business objects. The context in which a
business object is associated to another one is notated by an association role. For example: A
party registers its party details including a shipping address and an optional billing address. Two
associations between party and address are established, one with the association role “shipping”
and one with the association role “billing” on the address end of the association. It follows that the
UMM approach of setting business objects in context is based on association roles. Customization based on generalization (e.g. defining subclasses shipping address and billing address of
the superclass address) and enumerated type attributes (e.g. adding an attribute called “type” to
the class address that takes on an enumerated value of billing, shipping, etc.) are not used in
UMM.
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The second task during customization focuses on the attributes of business objects. A re-usable
business object lists a number of attributes that are meaningful in general. However, not all of
these attributes might be valid in a given context. Since the business information exchanged is
always modeled in context, the business information presents a view on the business objects.
This means, one has to select the attributes that apply in the given context, i.e. that are
necessary to change the state of a business entity. Note, if a business object is built by
associated classes, the second task does also apply to the associations between these classes.
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What is the relationship between business objects and core components? Both provide building
blocks that are independent of the transfer syntax. These building blocks are used to structure
information exchanged between business partners. Core components are the result of a bottomup approach. This means that they provide building blocks for business documents as they were
used in traditional EDI. Business Objects follow an object-oriented approach and cover business
logic that is used for business entity changes. This means business objects are the objectoriented representation of core components that follow a top-down approach. It follows that there
will be a lot of business objects and core components that represent the same business concept
and have a considerable overlap in their anatomy. Thus, core components provide an excellent
source in building business objects. Conceptually, business objects refer to core components,
and their customization within a business information refers to a business information entity. This
means, business information entities are not a source for building business objects.
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Annex C defines all the data types for UMM. The data type of any attribute of a business object
must be one out of this list. Furthermore, the annex shows some very basic business objects.
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The Business Information worksheet is provided for documenting the key informational elements
that are important to a transaction. This worksheet is very helpful in achieving document element
level interoperability (particularly in cases where document schemas are used in different
business transactions). Key elements include, but are not limited to, the following:
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•
Information that is necessary or helpful in correlating the exchanged business documents
within the same transaction or across multiple transactions
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902
•
Information that is critical or has proven to be problematic in the past for integration and
interoperability of the services participating in the business transaction
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•
Specification of enumerated data types (code lists) and subsets thereof
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•
Constraints on the values in the business information exchanged
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6.2 Define BTV work area steps and worksheet(s)
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Steps
1. Define a Business
Collaboration Protocol (object
state flow diagram) for each
business collaboration use
case (built by business
transaction activities)
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Artifacts
Section / Worksheet Name
Diagrams
6.2.1 / Business Collaboration
Business Collaboration
Object Flow Diagram
Protocol (Activity Model)
2. For each Business
Transaction activity define a
business transaction activity
graph. Identify requesting
information and optional
responding information
6.2.2 / Business Transaction
3. Create class diagrams by
re-using existing information
structure
6.2.3 / Business Information
Use Case Diagram
Business Transaction
Object Flow Diagram
Final Business Information
Models
Table 3 - Business Transaction View (BTV) Work Area
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910
911
6.2.1 Business Collaboration Protocol (Activity Model)
912
This worksheet is self explanatory.
Form: Business Collaboration Protocol (Activity Model)
Business Collaboration
Protocol
[Provide a name for the Business Collaboration Protocol.]
Description
[A plain text explanation of the purpose and behavior of the Business
Collaboration Protocol]
Preconditions
[Preconditions are the rules for defining the conditions that must be
true for the context that this BCP is executed within. These rules are
constraints that must be satisfied before instantiating or initializing the
BCP thus ensuring that the proper context for the BCP has been
established.
These conditions must be computational in format. E.g.: OCL or
other formal notation.]
Begins When
[Identifies the event(s) from that start this BCP. For any BCP there is
only one starting point, known as a start state. This list of events are
the only ones which will instantiate the BCP and cause it to enter into
a condition or state as determined by the processing of the defined
event.
These event(s) may be computational in format. E.g.: OCL or other
formal notation.]
Business Transaction
Activities
The following section defines the states that the Business
Collaboration Protocol can occur. These states define which
Business Transactions are performed.
Start State
The Start State is a pseudo state in which the initialization and
instantiation of Business Collaboration Protocol artifacts and context
occurs.].
Recognized Events
(Start State)
[Identifies the event(s) from that start this Business Collaboration
Protocol. For any Business Collaboration Protocol there is only one
starting point, known as a start state. This list of events are the only
ones which will instantiate the BCP and cause it to enter into a
condition or state as determined by the processing of a defined
event.
These event(s) may be computational in format. E.g.: OCL or other
formal notation.]
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Transitions (Start
State)
2003-09-22
[For each event listed above identify the resulting Business
Transaction Activity of the Business Collaboration Protocol. If a
particular event can result in more than one Business Transaction
Activity, define the constraint, which indicates which condition will be
the actual resultant.
If more than one constraint qualifies for a particular event, then the
Business Collaboration Protocol process path will fork.
This constraint should be computational in format. E.g.: OCL or other
formal notation.].
State:
Transitions
Event
Source
Event
Source
Rule
Transition to
State
Transitions
Rule
Transition to
For each Business Transaction Activity of the lifecycle, repeat the following entries.
Business
Transaction Activity
Name: [Identify a Business Transaction Activity of this Business
Collaboration Protocol.]
Description: [Provide a textual description of this Business
Transaction Activity]
Definition: [Definitions are the rules for defining the localized
conditions that must be true within the context of this Business
Collaboration Protocol that asserts that this condition has been
achieved. If these rules are not true for this condition, then an invalid
or unknown state has been achieved.
These rules must be computational in format. E.g.: OCL or other
formal notation.]
Action: [Identify the Business Transaction that is performed while in
this Business Transaction Activity.]
Recognized Events
[Identifies the event(s) that are recognized by the Business
Transaction Activity.
These event(s) may be computational in format. E.g.: OCL or other
formal notation.]
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Transitions
2003-09-22
Event:
[For each event listed above
identify the resulting Business
Transaction Activity of the
Business Collaboration Protocol.
If a particular event can result in
more than one Business
Transaction Activity, define the
constraint, which indicates which
condition will be the actual
resultant.
If more than one constraint
qualifies for a particular event,
then the Business Collaboration
Protocol process path will fork.
This constraint should be
computational in format. E.g.:
OCL or other formal notation.]
Associated Business Entity:
Business Transaction
Activity
[Identify any Business Entities
that are affected by this transition
and their defined state.]
Name:
Description:
Definition:
Action:
Recognized Events
Transitions:
Event:
Associated Business Entity:
Post-conditions
[Post-conditions are the rules for defining the conditions that must be
true for the localized context that exists after the Business
Collaboration Protocol completes. These rules are constraints that
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must be satisfied after the Business Collaboration Protocol thus
ensuring that the proper update to context of the parent process has
occurred.
These constraint(s) must be a subset of the constraint(s) defined by
the process that this Business Collaboration Protocol is defining and
be computational in format. E.g.: OCL or other formal notation.]
913
914
6.2.2 Business Transaction
915
916
The follow figure provides simple decision criteria for selection of business transaction patterns.
917
918
Figure 5 Business Transaction Pattern Decision Tree
Form: Business Transaction
Business Transaction
Name
[Provide a name for the Business Transaction.]
Description
[A plain text explanation of the purpose and behavior of the
Business Transaction.]
Select Business
Transaction Pattern:
Select one of:
1) Commercial Transaction
2) Request Confirm
3) Request Response
4) Query Response
5) Information Distribution
6) Notification
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Secure Transport:
[ True or False,]
Non Repudiation Required:
[ True or False]
Authorization Required:
[ True or False]
Time to Perform:
[Specify the time period that this transaction must be completed
within.]
Time to Acknowledge
Receipt:
[Specify the time period that a Receipt Acknowledgement must be
returned by the responding role.]
Time to Acknowledge
Acceptance:
[Specify the time period that a of an Acceptance Acknowledgement
must be returned by the responding role.]
Partner Roles
Initiating/Requesting
Partner Type
[Partner type from collaboration.]
Initiating/Requesting
Activity Role
[These are the roles that a partner must be authorized to play to
issue specific transitions in the transaction (by sending certain
signals).]
Responding Partner Type
[See above.]
Responding Partner Role
[See above.]
Requesting Business Activity
Activity:
Pre-Conditions
[Business rules performed before activity is performed]
Post-Conditions
[Business rules performed after activity is performed]
Number of Retries:
Information Envelope:
Information Type:
Information State:
[Identify the Information Envelope allowed state(s).]
Information Security:
Are Contents Confidential?
[ True or False]
Is the Envelope Tamperproof?
[ True or False]
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Authentication Required?
Business Information
Manifest
[ True or False]
[Enter the name(s) of the Business Information contained in
envelope.]
Business
Information Name
[Enter name]
Information Type:
[Enter type]
Information State:
[Identify the Business Information allowed
state(s).]
Information
Security:
Are Contents
Confidential?
[ True or False]
Is the Envelope
Tamperproof?
[ True or False]
Authentication
Required?
[ True or False]
Responding Business Activity
Activity:
Pre-Conditions
[Business rules performed before action is executed]
Post-Conditions
[Business rules performed after action is executed]
Validation of Request
Required:
[ True or False]
Information Envelope:
[Enter Name]
Information Type:
[Enter Type]
Information State:
[Identify the Information Envelope allowed state(s).]
Information Security:
Are Contents Confidential?
[ True or False]
Is the Envelope Tamperproof?
[ True or False]
Authentication Required?
[ True or False]
Business Information
Manifest List:
[Enter the name of the Business Information contained in
envelope]
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Business
Information Name
[Enter name]
Information Type:
[Enter Type]
Information State:
[Identify the Business Information allowed
state(s).]
Information
Security:
Are Contents
Confidential?
[ True or False]
Is the Envelope
Tamperproof?
[ True or False]
Authentication
Required?
[ True or False]
919
920
6.2.3 Business Information
921
This worksheet is self explanatory.
Form: Business Information
Business Information
Name:
[Provide the name that this Business Information is identified by.]
Description:
[A plain text explanation of the purpose and behavior of the
Business Information.]
Business Information
Characteristics
Define the set of characteristics or attributes that define the
structural aspects of the Business Information.
Name: [Enter the name of the characteristic.]
Type: [Enter the type of the characteristic. e.g. this is referred to
business information.]
Constraints: [The rules for defining the conditions that must be
true for the inclusion and/or validation of this characteristic.
These rules may be computational in format. e.g.: OCL or other
formal notation.]
Characteristics or
Attributes
Business Information
Behavior
Name:
Name
Type
Constraint
Define the set of operations that affect the behavioral aspects of the
Business Information.
[Enter the name of the operation.]
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Lifecycle:
2003-09-22
[Enter the name of the lifecycle that defines this behavior.]
922
923
924
Normative References
925
Specification
Version
URL:
Open-edi Reference Model Standard
ISO/IEC
14662:1997
ISO/IEC 14662:1997(English)
ISO/CEI 14662:1997(Français)
Business agreement semantic
descriptive techniques –
Part 1: Operational aspects of Open-edi
for implementation
ISO/IEC
15944-1:2002
ISO/IEC 15944-1:2002
Reference Guide: The New Generation
of EDIFACT
TMWGN010
R12
The Next Generation of
UN/EDIFACT R12
UMM Meta-Model
UN/CEFACT
TMG N091
UMM Meta-Model
UN/CEFACT eBusiness Glossary (UeB
Glossary)
TBD
UN/CEFACT Electronic Business
Glossary (UEB)
Martin Fowler, UML Distilled: A Brief
Guide to the Standard Object Modeling
Language
2nd Edition
Books by Martin Fowler
926
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927
Appendix A.
REA Overview
928
A.1.
929
930
931
932
933
934
935
936
937
Ontology, according to the most generally accepted e-commerce definition of that word, is a
2
“specification of a conceptualization.” The REA (Resource-Event-Agent) ontology is a
specification of the declarative semantics involved in a business collaboration (or more generally
in a business process). The theory behind REA comes from the field of microeconomics with
specific ties in many instances to the use of economic definitions in the practice of building
enterprise-wide information systems. In the UN/CEFACT work (including the BET and the
BCP&MC specifications), all of the REA ontology definitions are applied to the collaborative
space between enterprises where market exchanges occur in closely synchronized fashion
among two or more trading partners.
938
939
940
941
942
943
944
945
In its most simple form without a high degree of precision, REA can be portrayed as a UML class
diagram with associations and generalizations relating the object classes. The intent of this
appendix is to display REA simply and to explain its basic rationale. To do so, the appendix will
use a set of three figures labeled A-1, A-2, and A-3. The most advanced of the figures (A-3) is a
good overall guide to the BRV semantics, given both here and in the Unified Modeling
Methodology (UMM) of UN/CEFACT. This appendix will also list a series of archival publications
that are freely available at the following website for readers who desire more detailed
explanations (http://www.msu.edu/user/mccarth4/rea-ontology/index.htm).
946
A.2.
947
948
949
950
The Basic REA model was first published in the July 1982 issue of The Accounting Review , the
most prominent, most reliable, and most tightly controlled outlet for theoretical-based accounting
work in the world. Its basic premises have withstood all challenges in the 20 years since, and its
components are used extensively in a variety of educational, practical, and theoretical contexts.
REA (Resource-Event-Agent) Introduction
The Basic REA Ontology
3
951
952
953
954
Figure A-6 illustrates the basic class structure of REA ontology. The left-to-right configuration of
economic Resources, economic Events, and economic Agents (renamed in UMM as “Partner”) in
a typical business collaboration pattern is the source of the model’s REA name.
955
956
Figure A-6 Basic REA Ontology
2
Thomas Gruber (1993) “A Translation Approach to Portable Ontologies,” Knowledge
Acquisition, pp. 199-220
3
William E. McCarthy (1982.) “The REA Accounting Model: A Generalized Framework for
Accounting Systems in A Shared Data Environment.” The Accounting Review (July), pp. 554-578
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957
958
959
960
961
962
963
A successful business collaboration involves first and foremost two types of Economic Events,
each of which details the Economic Resources involved in an exchange between two Trading
Partners. For example, a Supplier (Trading Partner) transfers ownership of an Automobile
(Economic Resource) to a Customer (Trading Partner) in return for which (duality association) the
Customer will provide Money (Economic Resource) to the Supplier. There are two mirror-image
instantiations of the object pattern shown in Figure A-1 where one transfer represents the legal or
economic consideration given for the other.
964
965
966
967
The declarative semantics shown here are central to all trading relationships. Economic
Resources are objects that have value and are under the control of one of the two collaborative
agents. Trading partners always expect requited transfers of resources when they engage in
4
commerce. Hence, Figure A-6 is a pattern for all economic exchanges.
968
A.3.
969
970
971
972
973
In electronic commerce, the actual trading phase of an exchange is accommodated well by the
object structure shown above in Figure A-6. However, trading partners in long-term relationships
need more trusted and predictable structures where both parties contract for their exchange
behavior in advance. The REA ontology accommodates this expansion with the addition of the
classes shown as Economic Commitments, Economic Contract, and Agreement in Figure A-7.
Adding Commitments to the Basic Exchange Ontology
974
975
Figure A-7 REA Ontology with Commitments
976
977
978
979
980
981
982
A Commitment is a promise by a Trading Partner to initiate an Economic Event in the future.
Performing the Economic Events fulfills that Commitment. Commitments should always be
reciprocated by the other Trading Partner who commits to initiate another type of Economic Event
in return. An Economic Contract is a bundle of reciprocating commitments between Trading
Partners who bind themselves to one or more economic exchanges in the future. A contract is a
subtype of the more general object class called Agreement, and Agreements can regulate other
Agreements.
983
In the case of the automobile-for-money exchanges discussed in the prior section, Commitments
4
G. Geerts and W.E. McCarthy (1999). “An Accounting Object Infrastructure For KnowledgeBased Enterprise Models.” IEEE Intelligent Systems & Their Applications (July August 1999), pp.
89-94
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984
985
986
would involve the Customer agreeing to accept delivery of an Automobile on a certain date in
return for which he or she would be contractually obligated to making a series of Cash payments
to the Supplier for that purchase.
987
988
In the bottom part of Figure A-7, two additional objects of the REA ontology are illustrated: Claims
and Locations.
989
990
991
992
993
•
Materialization of Claims is sometimes needed when Trading Partners insist on documentation of partially completed exchanges (for example, when a Customer takes possession of an Automobile before paying for it in full). If needed, Claims can be instantiated by documents like invoices or by accounting artifacts like accounts-receivable. Their
inclusion here is more a matter of business custom than ontological completeness.
994
995
996
•
A Location is another object that is sometimes needed to fill out the specification for a full
economic transfer. Locations simply identify the place where Economic Events take
place.
997
998
The economic and ontological foundations of commitments are explained more completely by
5
Geerts and McCarthy.
999
A.4.
1000
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
Adding Types to the Basic REA Exchange Ontology
The object pattern portrayed in Figure A-7 above is primarily descriptive in the sense that it
illustrates what actually occurred in an economic exchange or what has been committed to. In the
UMM, these descriptive components have been augmented by prescriptive components that
allow the specification of control policies or collaboration patterns. These prescriptive components
6
are enabled by the inclusion of type images of the basic descriptive objects . The class diagram
of Figure A-8 shows these additions.
5
G. Geerts and W.E. McCarthy (2000) “The Ontological Foundation of REA Enterprise
Information Systems, “ paper presented to the Annual Meeting of The American Accounting
Association, August 2000.
6
G. Geerts and W.E. McCarthy (2002) “An Ontological Analysis of the Primitives of the
Extended-REA Enterprise Information Architecture,” The International Journal of Accounting
Information Systems (Vol. 3), pp. 1-16.
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1006
1007
Figure A-8 REA Ontology with Types
1008
The addition of Types to Figure A-8 proceeds in two stages:
1009
1010
1011
1012
1013
1014
1015
1016
•
1017
1018
1019
1020
1021
1022
•
The full design of the Economic Commitment would necessitate associations with between
the commitment and each of the new type-level objects. These are illustrated in the figure
with specifies associations.
In addition to these two groups of additions, there are other REA associations in the UMM (and in
the BET specification and the BCP&MC specification) that are not illustrated here in an effort to
minimize diagram complexity. These include:
1023
•
Partner – responsible -- Contract
1024
•
Partner -- participates – Agreement
1025
•
Agreement Type – typifies - Agreement
1026
•
Partner – participates – Economic Commitment
1027
•
Economic Commitment – reserves – Economic Resource
1028
1029
1030
1031
1032
•
Economic Commitment – destination – Location
The three base descriptive classes – Economic Resource, Economic Event, and Partner
(Economic Agent) – have classes added for their types. These new classes are connected to
the descriptive objects by typifies associations. An example of a Resource Type could be
different models of automobiles. An example of Economic Event Type could be the classes of
retail transaction and wholesale transactions, each with different pricing structures. An
example of Partner Type could be different classes of employees, each type with separate
training requirements. Additionally, the class Location is also typified. An example of Location
Type might be different types of loading docks with different sizes and stress capability levels.
And finally with regard to Figure A-8, the partial integration of the elements of the REA ontology
with the components of the UMM business collaboration framework is illustrated by showing the
class for Business Collaboration (with dotted lines) and some of its associations with REA classes
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1033
1034
1035
1036
1037
1038
2003-09-22
(also illustrated with dotted lines). Outside of its use with the UMM and the attendant
specifications, the REA ontology has a three-level architecture that is explained by Geerts and
7
McCarthy. In the UMM, this three-level architecture is effected by the integration of REA
components within the business collaboration framework and by the connection of the Business
Requirements View (BRV) to the to the Business Domain View (BDV) above it and the Business
Transactions View (BTV) below it.
7
G. Geerts and W.E. McCarthy (2001).“Using Object Templates from the REA Accounting Model
to Engineer Business Processes and Tasks,” The Review of Business Information Systems, vol.
5, no. 4, pp. 89-108.
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1039
2003-09-22
Appendix B. UMM Worksheet Example
1040
1041
Introduction to UMM Worksheet Example
1042
1043
1044
1045
This simple example deals with a start-up business that would like to sell products to the public
using an electronic catalogue. The following is the information that may be gathered by business
analysts and modelers after interviewing various management personnel:
1046
1047
Order From Catalog Business Case
1048
1049
1050
To order from a Seller’s catalogue the Buyer determines whether he has a current catalogue of
the Seller or not. If not, the Buyer sends a request for the catalogue and the Seller returns the
electronic version of the catalogue.
1051
1052
Having the catalogue, the Buyer decides whether he wants to order a product(s) from the
catalogue. If not the transaction is completed.
1053
1054
1055
1056
If the Buyer decides to place an order, he must verify whether he is already registered with the
Seller (since a Seller accepts only registered Buyers). If the Buyer is not already registered, he
sends his Buyer information. After verification of the Buyer information and credit, the Seller
returns a Buyer ID.
1057
1058
1059
1060
1061
Before ordering, the Buyer verifies whether the current price of the product is available. If not, the
Buyer will request a price quote and the Seller returns the price quote. Note that only a
registered Buyer can request a price quote. Note also that a request for a price quote, as well as
orders, may be reviewed and approved by regulatory authorities. On the basis of the price quote
the Buyer decides to order the product(s) or not. If not, the transaction is completed.
1062
1063
1064
1065
If the Buyer wants to order the product(s) (according either to the already known price information
or to the requested price quote) he sends an order to the Seller. Once the order is accepted and
the product is shipped, the Seller will debit the Buyer’s credit card and send the Buyer a shipment
notice.
1066
1067
1068
Until the Buyer has received the ordered product, he can decide to request the order status from
the Seller. The Seller then returns the order status information. The cycle of requesting order
status and sending order status information might be executed multiple times.
1069
When the Buyer receives the ordered product the transaction will be successfully completed.
1070
1071
The whole workflow can be executed multiple times (whenever the product(s), a catalogue or a
price request is needed).
1072
This main workflow does not consider any exceptions in the business case.
1073
1074
It is assumed that the Buyer may not cancel or change an order once an order number has been
issued.
1075
1076
1077
1078
1079
Note: As you work through this example, the process of gathering information for the
various work areas is iterative. As one works through the various views new information
will be discovered and previous worksheets may need to be updated to reflect any
changes.
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1080
1081
1082
1083
The first worksheet is for administrative purposes. A model name is chosen that reflects
the overall purpose of this model so that others can easily determine if it’s appropriate for
their environment.
1084
1085
Worksheet: Business Model Administration Information
Model name
[Provide a representative name for the total model.]
Order From Catalog
Analysts/Modelers
[Provide a list of names of people who are participating in the
business process analysis effort. Specify email addresses
between angle brackets such as for John Doe
<[email protected]>]
TMG User Guide Contributors
Model Owner
[Name of the organization sponsoring the analysis activities or
that will own the resultant model. For example, UN/CEFACT.]
UN/CEFACT
Identifier Information
Agency Id
[The identifier of the organization that owns the business
process model (or some subset there of). This is used in
conjunction with the Agency field. This information is case
sensitive; lower case is recommended. Examples are EAN
identifiers and internet domain names.]
NA
Agency
[The name of the agency, which owns or controls the Agency Id
values. This information is used to create the BPINs identifiers.
This information is case sensitive; lower case is recommended.
For example, icann (for ICANN internet domain names) or eann
(for EAN identifiers).]
NA
1086
1087
BDV Example Worksheets
1088
1089
1090
The following Business Domain Ontology diagram shows the Business Areas and Process
Areas in the Business Domain View. This is only an example to illustrate this model.
1091
1092
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Business Domain View
Process
Marketing
Ordering
Distribution
Settlement
Regulatory
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Process Area
(package)
Financial
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Process Area
(package)
Retail
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Process Area
(package)
Transport
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Process Area
(package)
Services
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Manufacturing
1093
1094
1095
1096
Step 1 - Identify and Describe Business Area(s)
1097
1098
1099
Before focusing on the Business Areas, the entire Business Domain is described, using
the previous diagram as a reference.
1100
1101
Form: Describe Business Domain Model
Business Domain Model
Name
[Provide a name for the reference model. You can use an existing
reference model such as the Supply Chain Council or the Porter’s
Value Chain or create your own name.]
Simplified eBusiness Domain
Description
[A brief summary of this domain.]
Business domain of an enterprise that produces products and
services for Buyers
Industry
[Provide the name of the industry that this business applies to.
Search the business process library for a list of possible industrys. If
the industry does not exist, then provide an appropriate name/label
for the industry.]
eBusiness Retail
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Business Areas
2003-09-22
[List the business areas within the scope. A business area is a
collection of process areas. A process area is a collection of business
processes. You may wish to refer to the ebXML Catalog of Business
Processes that provides a list of normative categories that may be
used as business areas.]
Manufacturing
Retail
Financial
Transport
Services
Business Justification
[Provide the business justification for the collection of business
processes]
Products and services are provided by the enterprise to Buyers
for profit
Category Schema
[Provide the name of the categorization schema used to
categorize business processes in the industry.]
eBusiness Retail
Stakeholders
[Identify the practitioners that care about the definition of this business
domain. At this level, this is likely to be some participants in an
industry group (perhaps a standards body or an enterprise). These
are the people who will define the BRV.]
Seller
Buyer
Stockholders
Enterprise officers who set policy
Bank
Government Agencies
References
[Any external supporting documentation.]
Standard Operating Procedures
Implementation Guide
U.S. Tax Code
1102
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1103
1104
1105
1106
1107
A worksheet is created for each Business Area that needs to be modeled in the business
domain. The example involves a company that sells various products from a catalog so,
in this case, the Business Area is Retailing. Within this Business Area all of the possible
Process Areas are identified by using the Business Domain View diagram.
1108
Form: Describe Business Area
Business Area Name
[Provide a name for the business area. This should be listed in the
Business Areas section of the Business Domain Model.]
Retail
Description
[A brief summary of this functional area.]
Seller’s provision of goods to Buyers.
Scope
[Provide a high level statement that encapsulates the scope of this
business area.]
Seller fulfills commitment to provide goods to a Buyer, and
Buyer fulfills commitment to pay Seller for goods provided
Process Areas
[List the process areas within the scope. A process area is a
collection of business processes.]
Marketing
Ordering
Distribution
Settlement
Regulatory
Objective
[Describe the objective of this business area.]
To enable a Buyer to procure a product from a Seller
Business Opportunity
[Describe the business opportunity addressed by this business area.]
Products are provided by the Seller to a Buyer for profit
Category
[Provide the category identifier used to reference a business area set
of business processes. This should be within the category schema.]
Retail
Business Areas
[List any other business areas that may be within the scope this
business area.]
None
1109
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2003-09-22
Step 2 - Identify and Describe Process Area(s)
1111
1112
1113
1114
1115
In this step, the Process Areas to be modeled are identified and a worksheet is created for
each one. This example involves the ordering of products from a catalog and the payment
of the order using a credit card. As result, the Ordering and Settlement Process Areas will
be modeled.
1116
1117
Form: Describe Process Area
Process Area Name
[Provide a name for the process area. This should be listed in the
Process Areas section of at least one Business Area.]
Ordering
Description
[A brief summary of this functional area.]
The Buyer orders goods with reference to the Seller’s catalogue,
with or without a price quote.
Objective
[Describe the objective of this process area.]
To enable a Buyer to order a product from a Seller’s catalogue.
Scope
[Provide a high level statement that encapsulates the scope of this
process area. The scope of this process area must be within the
scope of the encompassing business area. Typically the scope of the
process area will be more constrained or limited than the scope of the
corresponding business area.]
Seller fulfills commitment to deliver ordered goods to a Buyer,
and Buyer fulfills commitment to pay Seller for ordered goods.
Business Opportunity
[Describe the business opportunity addressed by this process area.]
The process of ordering products from catalogue is a common
way of conducting business. The advantage of this way of
doing business is that the Buyer can look through the Seller’s
products at his favorable place without any need to visit the
store of the Seller. Ordering from catalogue is especially
appropriate for standardized products as well as for products
that can be exactly described by certain product characteristics.
Furthermore, the catalogue itself serves as a marketing
instrument for the Seller.
Category
[Provide the category identifier used to reference a business area or
process area set of business processes.]
Ordering within Retail
Business Processes
[List the business processes within the scope of this process area.]
Obtain Customer ID
Obtain Product List
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Obtain Quote
Place Order
Obtain Order Status
Process Areas
[List any other process areas that may be within the scope this
process area.]
None
1118
1119
1120
1121
Note: Normally, a similar worksheet would also be created for the Settlement Process
Area within this Business Area. This worksheet would contain a Debit Credit Card
business process.
1122
1123
1124
1125
From the Business Domain View, Retail Ordering and Retail Settlement are the Business
Process Areas that are relevant to the business case.
1126
1127
1128
Simplified eCommerce Business Areas/Process Areas within Business Domain
Business Domain View
Process
Marketing
Ordering
Distribution
Settlement
Regulatory
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Process Area
(package)
Financial
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Process Area
(package)
Retail
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Process Area
(package)
Transport
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Process Area
(package)
Services
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Process Area
(package)
Business
Manufacturing
1129
1130
1131
1132
1133
1134
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1135
1136
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1138
The business domain structure is illustrated using a UML package diagram. A package
diagram is used to emphasize the organizational structure of the business areas and the
process areas within them.
1139
1140
Business Area/Process Area Packages
Business Domain View
Order From Catalog - Identify the Area of Business with a Industry Domain
Retail <<Business Area>>
Ordering <<Process Area>>
Settlement <<Process Area>>
1141
1142
1143
1144
1145
Step 3 - Identify Business Process(es)
1146
1147
1148
1149
This worksheet provides a link to the Business Process worksheet in the BRV. High level
requirements, such as interdependencies with other Business Processes are noted here.
Detailed requirements are left to the Business Process worksheet.
1150
Form: Identify Business Process
Business Process Name
[Name of the business process as identified in the above Process
Area.]
Obtain Customer ID
Description
[A plain text explanation of the purpose and behavior of the
Business Process]
The Buyer orders goods mentioned in the catalogue. The
Buyer may request a price quote (e.g. when the unit price
amount of a product is not specified in the catalogue)
before actually placing the order. In this case, the Seller
first returns the price quote. In both cases, the Seller
returns an order confirmation.
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Business Processes
2003-09-22
[List any business processes that depend upon, are associated
with, or contained within this business process.]
none
Business Requirements
[High level requirements, such as interdependencies with other
Business Processes are noted here.]
none
1151
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1153
1154
Note: This worksheet could be created for each business process within the Ordering and
Settlement Process Areas. Keeping in mind that this will be done more specifically in the BRV,
this example details just one of the business processes within the Ordering Process Area. .
1155
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1158
The following is what we have identified as our model after completing the BDV
worksheets.
1159
1160




Business Process
Obtain Product List


Business Process
Debit Credit Card
Business Process
Obtain Customer ID
Business Process
Obtain Quote
Business Process
Place Order
Business Process
Obtain Status
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1162
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The Business Process Area Library (Repository) is searched and business process
models with similar Business and Process Areas, as well as Business Processes, are
found as shown below.
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1169
Identification/Categorization of Business Processes within Business and Process Areas
currently available in a Library (Repository)
Business Domain View
Order From Catalog - Identify/Categorize Business Processes in the Retail Business Process Area Library
Retail <<Business Area>>
Ordering <<Process Area>>
Settlement <<Process Area>>
<<BusinessProcess>>
ObtainProductList
<<BusinessProcess>>
DebitCreditCard
<<BusinessProcess>>
ObtainOrderStatus
<<BusinessProcess>>
OrderWithQuote
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1172
Step 5 - Identify Business Processes from the BP Library
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Looking in more detail at the business process models from the library, the OrderWithQuote business process model is comprised of two business process models which may
be reused – ObtainQuote and PlaceOrder.
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BDV Use Case Diagrams for Library supported Business Processes
Business Domain View
Order From Catalog - Identify Business Processes in the Retail Business Process Area Library
Retail <<Business Area>>
Ordering <<Process Area>>
Buyer
Settlement <<Process Area>>
<<BusinessProcess>>
Seller
OrderWithQuote
<<includes>>
Seller
<<includes>>
<<BusinessProcess>>
ObtainQuote
Buyer
<<BusinessProcess>>
Bank
DebitCreditCard
<<BusinessProcess>>
PlaceOrder
<<BusinessProcess>>
ObtainOrderStatus
Buyer
Seller
Seller
<<BusinessProcess>>
ObtainProductList
1182
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1184
Step 4 - Identify and Finalize Business Processes and Partners
1185
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1188
The relationships between the Business Partners and Business Processes identified from
the library are shown below. This UML Use Case diagram illustrates that the Seller not
only collaborates with the Buyer but with the Bank as well.
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1190
1191
Final BDV Use Case Diagram Using Processes from Library
1192
Business Domain View
Order From Catalog - Final BDV Usecase Diagram using Processes from Library
(Business Processes and Business Parties Identified)
<<BusinessProcess>>
ObtainProductList
<<BusinessProcess>>
DebitCreditCard
<<BusinessProcess>>
Bank
ObtainOrderStatus
Buyer
<<BusinessProcess>>
Seller
OrderWithQuote
<<includes>>
<<includes>>
<<BusinessProcess>>
ObtainQuote
<<BusinessProcess>>
PlaceOrder
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1195
BRV Example Worksheets
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1198
Step 1 - Describe REA Elements and Activities of the Business Process
Phases
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1201
1202
1203
The generic business collaboration pattern of ‘commitment – fulfillment’ is determined at this point
using the REA worksheets. Business requirements identified in completing the REA worksheets
are used as input to the BRV work area.
1204
1205
1206
1207
1208
1209
There are three columns in the REA worksheet that correspond to the five ISO business process
phases. The first column combines both the Planning and Identification phases. At this point in
the business process, the buyer and seller are involved in deciding what needs to take place
before acquiring or selling a good, service, and/or right as well as determining what data needs to
be exchanged to establish their relationship. As in the case of our example, these would be any
business processes which take place prior to those involving price or order commitments.
1210
1211
1212
1213
The Negotiation phase is directed at achieving an explicit, mutually understood, and agreed upon
goal of a business collaboration and associated terms and conditions. This may include such
things as the detailed specification of the good, service, and/or right, quantity, pricing, after sales
servicing, delivery requirements, financing, use of agents and/or third parties, etc. .
1214
1215
1216
In this example the pricing is agreed upon (or not) during the Obtain Price Quote business
process and the Place Order business process contains information such as the product, quantity
and agreed-upon price.
1217
1218
1219
The third column combines the Actualization and Post Actualization Phases. It pertains to all
activities or events necessary to insure that the agreed upon good, service, and/or right is
deemed to have been delivered and reciprocated.
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In this example, once the order is placed the product is shipped, the product is paid for, and in the
meantime the status of the order may be checked.
1222
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1224
Form: REA Worksheet
Overall Business Process
REA Elements
Business Process Name
Order From Catalog
Resources
Product for Credit Card Charge
Proposed Business
Partners
Buyer, Seller, Banker, Shipper
ISO Business Phases
Planning/Identification
Negotiation
Actualization/
Post-Actualization
Activities Performed
Obtain Product List
Obtain Customer ID
Obtain Quote
Place Order
Obtain Order Status
Notify of Shipment
Debit Credit Card
Collaborative Business
Partners
Retailer, Customer, Banker
No additional
partners
Shipper
Types of Identified
Resources
Product List
Product ID with
agreed price
Business Entities
(candidates)
Credit Card Charge
Types of Events,
Locations, or Partners
To Be Specified
Approved Express
Shipper
Specific Commitments
(two min.)
Commitment to ship
product in one
delivery
Commitment to pay
upon notice of
delivery
Specific Contract or
Agreement
Catalog Order
Exchanged Resources
(two min.)
Product for Credit
Card Charge
Exchanged Events (two
min.)
Shipment of Product
Payment by Credit
Card
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Actual Location (if
needed)
Not Needed
Materialized Claim (if
needed)
Not Needed
Possible Exception
Conditions
Rejection of Credit
Price not agreed
upon
Product not Shipped
Phase Completion Criteria
(expressed as entity
states if possible)
Retailer, Customer and
Banker are ‘identified’
Catalog Order and
commitments are
‘in-force’
Shipment and
payment are
‘complete’
Product and Credit
Card are ‘specified’
Credit Card charge
and Product are
‘transferred’
Product and Credit Card are
‘identified’
Approved Shipper
is ‘specified’
Commitments are
‘fulfilled’
1225
1226
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REA Class Diagram of Business Process (see appendix A for class
descriptions)
1229
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1231
Order-fromCatalog
Preliminary
REA Class
Diagram
<<Contract>>
<<PartnerType >>
CatalogOrder
PartnerType
establish
orderNumber
specifies
establish
<<Commitment>>
specifies
roleName
<<Commitment>>
CommitmentToShip
reciprocal
specifies
CommitmentToPay
scheduledDate
projectedDate
<<EconomicResourceType >>
<<EconomicResourceType >>
Product
fulfillment
typifies
fulfillment
productID
CreditCard
accountNumber
agreedPrice
<<EconomicEvent >>
quoteExpiration
duality
Shipment
resourceFlow
Payment
shipmentID
from
retailerAgentFor
expirationDate
<<EconomicEvent >>
resourceFlow
paymentID
to
to
from
customerAgentFor
<<Partner >>
<<Partner >>
<<Partner >>
<<Partner >>
<<Partner >>
Shipper
Retailer
Customer
Partner
Banker
shipToAddress
partyID
name
1232
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Step 2 - Describe each business process (from BDV and REA) in more
detail
1235
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Business Requirements View
Order From Catalog - BRV Use Case Diagram with all identified Business Processes
<<BusinessProcess>>
ObtainProductList
<<BusinessProcess>>
ObtainCustomerID
<<BusinessProcess>>
DebitCreditCard
<<BusinessProcess>>
ObtainQuote
Buyer
Seller
Bank
<<BusinessProcess>>
PlaceOrder
<<BusinessProcess>>
ObtainOrderStatus
1237
1238
1239
1240
1241
1242
This example will be reusing five business processes involving three business partners
from the business process models found in the library. Since the library does not contain
a business process model for Obtain Customer ID, it needs to be created.
1243
1244
1245
Note: In the following worksheets there will be entries that are italicized in ‘California
Navel’ orange. These are entries added later on in the BRV following the discovery of an
additional business process in this example.
1246
1247
Form: Business Process
Business Process Name
[Provide a name for the business process. This should be a name
identified on the form “Identify Business Process” and on a
“Describe Process Area” form.]
Obtain Customer ID
Description
[A plain text explanation of the purpose and behavior of the
Business Process]
A Buyer finds one or more items in a Catalog that the Buyer
needs. However, since the Buyer has never conducted
business with the Seller before, the Seller requires buyer
information before any catalog order can be placed. Upon
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receiving the required buyer information, including verification
of credit, the Seller assigns the Seller’s Buyer ID. This
identification can then be used to receive price quotes on
products offered by the Seller, or to place a catalog order. The
benefit of a Buyer having provided information about itself
prior to ordering is that the amount of information to be
exchanged and the number of steps required to subsequently
request a price quote or place a catalog order are reduced.
This results in saving both the Buyer and the Seller processing
time, reducing the cost of doing business.
Business Requirements
[The list of business requirements that apply to this business
process. The format of requirement definition is covered (as shown
in Annex 4, Business process Specification Template, in the UMM).]
Definition
[A set of simple sentences that state actions may be performed as
part of the business process.]
Obtain Customer ID
Participants
[List the type of partners involved in the business process. E.g.
manufacturer, supplier, customer]
Seller
Buyer
Preconditions
[Preconditions are the rules defining the conditions that must be true
for the context that this process is conducted within. These rules are
constraints that must be satisfied before instantiating or initializing
the business process thus ensuring that the proper context for the
process has been established.]
Valid Catalog on Hand
No Valid Customer ID From This Seller
Begins When
[Identifies the event(s) from that start this business process.]
ID Request
Ends When
[[List all the event(s) that causes normal completion of the business
process.]
Send Response
Exceptions
[List all exception conditions (events) that will cause the business
process to terminate before its normal completion.]
Response Date Exceeded
Post-conditions
[Post-conditions are the rules defining the conditions that must be
true for the localized context that exists after the business process
completes. These rules are constraints that must be satisfied after
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the business process thus ensuring that the proper update to
context of the parent process has been occurred.]
Buyer receives Customer ID or Rejection
Supporting Business
Collaborations and/or
Business Processes
[List the business collaborations and business processes that
support (are part of) this business process.]
Lifecycle(s)
[Identify the Lifecycle(s) (Activity Model) that formalizes the
definition of this Business Process.]
None
None
1248
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1253
Step 3 - Identify and Describe Business Collaborations
1254
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1257
As the first part of this step, three Business Collaborations are identified from the
business processes that have been described thus far. The Order From Catalog Business
Collaboration is composed of the Ordering and Settlement Business Collaborations.
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In next part of this step, starting with the largest of the three collaborations we have
identified, it will be broken down into smaller business collaborations which need to be
further described until business transactions are identified and described.
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1268
The Business Collaboration Specification worksheet is an extension of the Business
Process Worksheet, thus many aspects of the description of the Business Process
worksheet (above) pertain to this worksheet as well.
1269
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1271
1272
1273
1274
1275
There are two types of business collaborations. A business collaboration protocol is a
business collaboration at a low enough level that it can be represented by an activity
graph, comprised of business transactions, each with object states specified as
preconditions and post-conditions. Business transactions are the atomic level business
collaborations according to the six business transaction patterns. The same Business
Collaboration Specification worksheet is used for these two types of business collaborations.
1276
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1279
The largest business process, Order From Catalog, involves two or more actors so it is
considered a business collaboration. Since it can be further broken down into other
business collaborations and/or transactions, it’s a Business Protocol type of collaboration
rather than a Business Transaction type.
1280
1281
The metrics field in this worksheet is a link to the business process metric worksheet,
which requests detailed information.
1282
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1284
1285
There is also a Business Collaboration Specification worksheet for the Ordering Business
Process and its six supporting business collaborations as well as the Settlement Business
Process. To keep this document a reasonable size, the Order From Catalog, Ordering,
and Obtain Customer ID business collaborations will be modeled.
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Form: Business Collaboration Specification
Business Collaboration
Specification Name
[Provide a name for the Business Collaboration]
Business Collaboration
Specification Type
[Choice between Business Collaboration Protocol or Business
Transaction Specification.]
Order from Catalog Specification
Business Collaboration Protocol
Description
[A plain text explanation of the purpose and behavior of the Business
Collaboration Specification]
The Buyer orders goods mentioned in the catalogue. The
Buyer may request a price quote (e.g. when the unit price
amount of a product is not specified in the catalogue) before
actually placing the order. In this case, the Seller first returns
the price quote. In both cases, the Seller returns an order
confirmation. After processing the order the Seller contacts
the Bank and debits the Sellers credit card. At anytime the
Buyer can check the status of his order.
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Definition
[A set of simple sentences that state the actions performed as part of
the business process.]
Participants
[List the type of partners involved in the Business Collaboration, e.g.
manufacturer, supplier, customer.]
Buyer
Seller
Banker
Preconditions
[Preconditions are the rules for defining the conditions that must be
true for the context that this process is conducted within. These rules
are constraints that must be satisfied before instantiating or initializing
the Business Collaboration thus ensuring that the proper context for
the process has been established.]
NA
Begins When
[Identifies the event(s) from that start this Business Collaboration.]
NA
Ends When
[List all the event(s) that causes normal completion of the Business
Collaboration.]
Seller Paid
Product Shipped
Exceptions
[List all exception conditions (events) that will cause the Business
Collaboration to terminate before its normal completion.]
Seller Not Paid
Product not Shipped
Post-conditions
[Post-conditions are the rules for defining the conditions that must be
true for the localized context that exists after the Business
Collaboration completes. These rules are constraints that must be
satisfied after the business process thus ensuring that the proper
update to context of the parent process has been occurred.]
Buyer Notified of Shipment
Seller is Paid
Shipment Notice Received by Buyer
Realization
What Business Collaboration is used to realize or instantiate this
Business Collaboration Specification
Order from Catalog Collaboration
Business Requirements
[The list of business requirements that apply to this Business
Collaboration. The format of requirement definition is covered (as
shown in Annex 4, Business process Specification Template, in the
UMM).]
Process must support both domestic and international sales.
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Price Quote Request against non-current catalogs is not valid.
Supporting Business
Collaborations (including
Business Transactions and
Collaboration Protocols)
Lifecycle(s)
[List the business transactions and business collaboration protocols
that support (are part of) this business collaboration.]
Order Collaboration
Settlement Collaboration
Identification of the Lifecycle(s) (Activity Model) that formalizes this
Business Collaboration.
Order from Catalog Lifecycle
Metrics
[List of Metrics to be recorded for this business process/collaboration]
Initiating: None
Responding: None
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Form: Business Collaboration Specification
Business Collaboration
Specification Name
[Provide a name for the Business Collaboration]
Business Collaboration
Specification Type
[Choice between Business Collaboration Protocol or Business
Transaction Specification.]
Ordering Specification
Business Collaboration Protocol
Description
[A plain text explanation of the purpose and behavior of the Business
Collaboration Specification]
The Buyer orders goods mentioned in the catalogue. The
Buyer may request a price quote (e.g. when the unit price
amount of a product is not specified in the catalogue) before
actually placing the order. In this case, the Seller first returns
the price quote. In both cases, the Seller returns an order
confirmation. At anytime the Buyer can check the status of
his order.
Definition
[A set of simple sentences that state the actions performed as part of
the business process.]
Participants
[List the type of partners involved in the Business Collaboration, e.g.
manufacturer, supplier, customer.]
Buyer
Seller
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Preconditions
2003-09-22
[Preconditions are the rules for defining the conditions that must be
true for the context that this process is conducted within. These rules
are constraints that must be satisfied before instantiating or initializing
the Business Collaboration thus ensuring that the proper context for
the process has been established.]
NA
Begins When
[Identifies the event(s) from that start this Business Collaboration.]
NA
Ends When
[List all the event(s) that causes normal completion of the Business
Collaboration.]
Product Shipped
Buyer Notified of Shipment
Exceptions
[List all exception conditions (events) that will cause the Business
Collaboration to terminate before its normal completion.]
Product not Shipped
Post-conditions
[Post-conditions are the rules for defining the conditions that must be
true for the localized context that exists after the Business
Collaboration completes. These rules are constraints that must be
satisfied after the business process thus ensuring that the proper
update to context of the parent process has been occurred.]
Product Shipped
Buyer Notified of Shipment
Shipment Notice Received by Buyer
Realization
What Business Collaboration is use to realize or instantiate this
Business Collaboration Specification
Ordering Collaboration
Business Requirements
[The list of business requirements that apply to this Business
Collaboration. The format of requirement definition is covered (as
shown in Annex 4, Business process Specification Template, in the
UMM).]
Process must support both domestic and international sales.
Price Quote Request against non-current catalogs is not valid.
Supporting Business
Collaborations (including
Business Transactions and
Collaboration Protocols)
[List the business transactions and business collaboration protocols
that support (are part of) this business collaboration.]
Obtain Product List
Obtain Customer ID
Obtain Price Quote
Place Order
Obtain Status
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Notify Buyer of Shipment
Lifecycle(s)
Identification of the Lifecycle(s) (Activity Model) that formalizes this
Business Collaboration.
Ordering Lifecycle
Metrics
[List of Metrics to be recorded for this business process/collaboration]
Initiating: None
Responding: None
1291
1292
1293
1294
1295
1296
The Obtain Customer ID business process is a business transaction type of collaboration
since it can not be further broken down into other business collaborations and/or
transactions.
1297
1298
Form: Business Collaboration Specification
Business Collaboration
Specification Name
[Provide a name for the Business Collaboration]
Business Collaboration
Specification Type
[Choice between Business Collaboration Protocol or Business
Transaction Specification.]
Obtain Customer ID Specification
Business Transaction Specification
Description
[A plain text explanation of the purpose and behavior of the Business
Collaboration Specification]
A Buyer finds one or more items in a Catalog that the Buyer
needs. However, since the Buyer has never conducted business
with the Seller before, the Seller requires buyer information
before any catalog order can be placed. Upon receiving the
required buyer information, including verification of credit, the
Seller assigns the Seller’s Buyer ID. This identification can then
be used to receive price quotes on products offered by the Seller,
or to place a catalog order. The benefit of a Buyer having
provided information about itself prior to ordering is that the
amount of information to be exchanged and the number of steps
required to subsequently request a price quote or place a catalog
order are reduced. This results in saving both the Buyer and the
Seller processing time, reducing the cost of doing business.
Definition
[A set of simple sentences that state the actions performed as part of
the business process.]
Participants
[List the type of partners involved in the Business Collaboration, e.g.
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manufacturer, supplier, customer.]
Buyer
Seller
Preconditions
[Preconditions are the rules for defining the conditions that must be
true for the context that this process is conducted within. These rules
are constraints that must be satisfied before instantiating or initializing
the Business Collaboration thus ensuring that the proper context for
the process has been established.]
Valid Catalog on Hand
No Valid Customer ID From This Seller
Begins When
[Identifies the event(s) from that start this Business Collaboration.]
ID Request
Ends When
[List all the event(s) that causes normal completion of the Business
Collaboration.]
Send Response
Exceptions
[List all exception conditions (events) that will cause the Business
Collaboration to terminate before its normal completion.]
Response Date Exceeded
Post-conditions
[Post-conditions are the rules for defining the conditions that must be
true for the localized context that exists after the Business
Collaboration completes. These rules are constraints that must be
satisfied after the business process thus ensuring that the proper
update to context of the parent process has been occurred.]
Buyer receives Customer ID or Rejection
Realization
What Business Collaboration is use to realize or instantiate this
Business Collaboration Specification
Obtain Customer ID Collaboration
Business Requirements
[The list of business requirements that apply to this Business
Collaboration. The format of requirement definition is covered (as
shown in Annex 4, Business process Specification Template, in the
UMM).]
Supporting Business
Collaborations (including
Business Transactions and
Collaboration Protocols)
[List the business transactions and business collaboration protocols
that support (are part of) this business collaboration.]
Lifecycle(s)
Obtain Customer ID
Identification of the Lifecycle(s) (Activity Model) that formalizes this
Business Collaboration.
Obtain Customer ID Lifecycle
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Metrics
2003-09-22
[List of Metrics to be recorded for this business process/collaboration]
Initiating: None
Responding: Respond by Date
1299
1300
1301
1302
1303
1304
Business process metrics are operational or structural measurements that track how a
business process is performing over time. The Obtain Customer ID Business Collaboration Specification (above) has a Respond by Date metric that needs that needs to be
elaborated in this next worksheet.
1305
1306
Form: Business Process Metric
Business Process Metric
[Provide a name for identification of a Metric or KPI. Metrics are the
rules for defining the conditions for evaluating the localized context that
exists during the Business Collaboration execution. They may define
Key Performance Indicators (KPI) that reflect the achievement of
particular business goals and/or objectives. These KPI’s may also be
the trigger certain events that are used as input to this and other
processes.]
Respond by Date
Description
[A plain text explanation of the purpose and behavior of the Business
Process Metric]
Date by which the Buyer expects a response to his Request for a
Customer ID.
Metric
[Provide the business rule that defines this metric.
These rules must be computational in format, e.g. OCL or other formal
notation.]
ID Request Date + 5 Business Days
Start Trigger
[Identifies the event that start the measurement of the metric.
This event may be computational in format, e.g. OCL or other formal
notation.]
ID Request
End Trigger
[Identifies the event that stops the measurement of the metric.
This event may be computational in format. E.g.: OCL or other formal
notation.]
Buyer receives Customer ID or Rejection
1307
1308
1309
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1310
1311
2003-09-22
Step 4 - Define Business Collaborations
1312
1313
1314
1315
1316
An instance of this worksheet is linked to an instance of the Business Collaboration
Specification worksheet. New information (over and above that in the Business
Collaboration Specification worksheet) is requested for partner roles and business entities
associated with the business collaboration.
1317
1318
1319
1320
1321
1322
1323
In this example, there should be a Business Collaboration worksheet for Order From
Catalog, Ordering (as well as its six supporting business collaborations) and Settlement.
To keep this document a reasonable size, the Settlement collaboration will be omitted
because it is made up of just one business process, Debit Credit Card, which is simply a
business transaction. Debit Credit Card was discovered in the library and has already
been specified. The Order From Catalog, Ordering, and Obtain Customer ID business
collaborations will be modeled.
1324
1325
Form: Business Collaboration
Business Collaboration
Name
[Provide a name for the Business Collaboration. Normally this should
be the same as the BCS that it instantiates, however due to possible
contextual constraints or business rules it may be necessary to
differentiate this collaboration.]
Order from Catalog Collaboration
Business Collaboration
Specification
[What Business Collaboration Specification does this Business
Collaboration realize/instantiate?]
Order from Catalog Specification
Description
[A plain text explanation of the purpose and behavior of the Business
Collaboration Specification]
The Buyer orders goods mentioned in the catalogue. The Buyer
may request a price quote (e.g. when the unit price amount of a
product is not specified in the catalogue) before actually placing
the order. In this case, the Seller first returns the price quote. In
both cases, the Seller returns an order confirmation.
Participants
[List the type of partners involved in the Business Collaboration. E.g.
manufacturer, supplier, customer]
Buyer
Seller
Banker
Preconditions
From BRV Business Collaboration Specification Worksheet
NA
Begins When
From BRV Business Collaboration Specification Worksheet
NA
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Ends When
2003-09-22
From BRV Business Collaboration Specification Worksheet
Product Shipped
Seller is Paid
Exceptions
From BRV Business Collaboration Specification Worksheet
Seller Not Paid
Product not Shipped
Post-conditions
From BRV Business Collaboration Specification Worksheet
Buyer Notified of Shipment
Shipment Notice Received by Buyer
Seller is Paid
Partner Roles
[Identify the roles played by each partner.]
Partner
Roles
Buyer
Initiator
Seller
Responder
Initiator
Banker
Responder
Business Entities
[Identify the Business Entities associated with this collaboration.]
Supporting Business
Transactions or Business
Collaborations
[List the business transactions or business collaborations that support
(are part of) this business collaboration.]
Ordering Collaboration
Settlement Collaboration
1326
1327
1328
Form: Business Collaboration
Business Collaboration
Name
[Provide a name for the Business Collaboration. Normally this should
be the same as the BCS that it instantiates, however due to possible
contextual constraints or business rules it may be necessary to
differentiate this collaboration.]
Ordering Collaboration
Business Collaboration
Specification
[What Business Collaboration Specification does this Business
Collaboration realize/instantiate?]
Ordering Specification
Description
[A plain text explanation of the purpose and behavior of the Business
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Collaboration Specification]
The Buyer orders goods mentioned in the catalogue. The Buyer
may request a price quote (e.g. when the unit price amount of a
product is not specified in the catalogue) before actually placing
the order. In this case, the Seller first returns the price quote. In
both cases, the Seller returns an order confirmation.
Participants
[List the type of partners involved in the Business Collaboration. E.g.
manufacturer, supplier, customer]
Buyer
Seller
Preconditions
From BRV Business Collaboration Specification Worksheet
NA
Begins When
From BRV Business Collaboration Specification Worksheet
NA
Ends When
From BRV Business Collaboration Specification Worksheet
Product Shipped
Exceptions
From BRV Business Collaboration Specification Worksheet
Product not Shipped
Post-conditions
From BRV Business Collaboration Specification Worksheet
Buyer Notified of Shipment
Shipment Notice Received by Buyer
Partner Roles
[Identify the roles played by each partner.]
Partner
Roles
Buyer
Initiator
Seller
Responder
Initiator
Business Entities
[Identify the Business Entities associated with this collaboration.]
Supporting Business
Transactions or Business
Collaborations
[List the business transactions or business collaborations that support
(are part of) this business collaboration.]
Obtain Customer ID
Obtain Product List
Obtain Quote
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Place Order
Obtain Order Status
Notify Buyer of Shipment
1329
1330
1331
Form: Business Collaboration
Business Collaboration
Name
[Provide a name for the Business Collaboration. Normally this should
be the same as the BCS that it instantiates, however due to possible
contextual constraints or business rules it may be necessary to
differentiate this collaboration.]
Obtain Customer ID Collaboration
Business Collaboration
Specification
[What Business Collaboration Specification does this Business
Collaboration realize/instantiate?]
Obtain Customer ID Specification
Description
[A plain text explanation of the purpose and behavior of the Business
Collaboration Specification]
A Buyer finds one or more items in a Catalog that the Buyer
needs. However, since the Buyer has never conducted business
with the Seller before, the Seller requires buyer information
before any catalog order can be placed. Upon receiving the
required buyer information, including verification of credit, the
Seller assigns the Seller’s Buyer ID. This identification can then
be used to receive price quotes on products offered by the Seller,
or to place a catalog order. The benefit of a Buyer having
provided information about itself prior to ordering is that the
amount of information to be exchanged and the number of steps
required to subsequently request a price quote or place a catalog
order are reduced. This results in saving both the Buyer and the
Seller processing time, reducing the cost of doing business.
Participants
[List the type of partners involved in the Business Collaboration. E.g.
manufacturer, supplier, customer]
Buyer
Seller
Preconditions
From BRV Business Collaboration Specification Worksheet
Valid Catalog on Hand
No Valid Customer ID From This Seller
Begins When
From BRV Business Collaboration Specification Worksheet
ID Request
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Ends When
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From BRV Business Collaboration Specification Worksheet
Send Response
Exceptions
From BRV Business Collaboration Specification Worksheet
Response Date Exceeded
Post-conditions
From BRV Business Collaboration Specification Worksheet
Buyer receives Customer ID or Rejection
Partner Roles
[Identify the roles played by each partner.]
Business Entities
Partner
Roles
Buyer
Initiator
Seller
Responder
[Identify the Business Entities associated with this collaboration.]
Customer Information
Supporting Business
Transactions or Business
Collaborations
[List the business transactions or business collaborations that support
(are part of) this business collaboration.]
NA
1332
1333
1334
1335
1336
1337
1338
1339
1340
A business process lifecycle is a set of conditions that can be identified for a business
process for which a business collaboration protocol can be specified. Such conditions
are Begins When, Ends When, intermediate points that can be monitored, and points
where exception processing could begin that result in an outcome other than normal
completion. This lifecycle was originally identified in the Business Process worksheet
(BRV Step 1).
1341
1342
1343
Again, to keep this document a manageable size, only the lifecycle for the overall Order
From Catalog business collaboration will be shown.
1344
1345
Form: Business Process/Collaboration Lifecycle (Activity Model )
Process Lifecycle Name
[Provide a name for this Lifecycle. This name is used to identify the
lifecycle that a Business Process or Business Collaboration is
formally defined by.]
Order from Catalog Lifecycle
Description
[A plain text explanation of the purpose and behavior of the
Lifecycle.]
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The Buyer orders goods mentioned in the catalogue. The
Buyer may request a price quote (e.g. when the unit price
amount of a product is not specified in the catalogue)
before actually placing the order. In this case, the Seller
first returns the price quote. In both cases, the Seller
returns an order confirmation.
Preconditions
[Preconditions are the rules for defining the conditions that must be
true for the context that this process lifecycle is executed within.
These rules are constraints that must be satisfied before
instantiating or initializing the process lifecycle thus ensuring that the
proper context for the process has been established.
These conditions must be a subset of the preconditions defined by
the process that this lifecycle is defining and be computational in
format. E.g.: OCL or other formal notation.]
None
Begins When
[Identifies the event(s) that start this process lifecycle. For any
lifecycle there is only one starting point, known as a start state. This
list of events is the only one which will instantiate the lifecycle and
cause it to enter into a start state.
These event(s) must be a subset of the event(s) defined by the
process that this lifecycle is defining and be computational in format.
E.g.: OCL or other formal notation.]
NA
States
The following section defines the states or conditions that the
process lifecycle can be in.
Start State
The Start State is a pseudo state in which the initialization and
instantiation of lifecycle artifacts and context occurs.].
State Transition Table
(Start State)
Event: [Identifies the event(s) that start this process lifecycle. For
any lifecycle there is only one starting point, known as a start state.
This list of events is the only one which will instantiate the lifecycle
and cause it to enter into a condition or state as determined by the
processing of a defined event.]
These event(s) must be a subset of the event(s) defined by the
process that this lifecycle is defining and may be computational in
format. E.g.: OCL or other formal notation.]
Source: [For each event listed above identify the source of the
event as defined by the current lifecycle context].
Rule: [For each event, define the constraint or guard that
indicates the resultant condition or state. If there are multiple
states for a given event there should be a rule for each. This
rule should be computational in format. E.g.: OCL or other
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formal notation.].
Transition to: [For each event identify the resulting condition
(state) of the lifecycle. If a particular event can result in more
than one condition or state define the rule that indicates which
condition will be the actual resultant.].
Event
Source
Rule
Transition to
START
Buyer
No Valid Catalog On-Hand
Obtain
Product List
START
Buyer
Valid Catalog On-Hand &&
No Valid Customer ID From
This Seller
Obtain
Customer
ID
START
Buyer
Valid Catalog On-Hand &&
Valid Customer ID From This
Seller && Quote Required
Obtain
Quote
START
Buyer
Valid Catalog On-Hand &&
Valid Customer ID From This
Seller && No Quote Required
Place Order
For each state or condition of the lifecycle, repeat the following entries.
State
Name: [Identify a state or condition of this lifecycle.]
Description: [Provide a textual description of this condition/state]
Definition: [Definitions are the rules for defining the localized
conditions that must be true within the context of this process
lifecycle that asserts that this condition has been achieved. If these
rules are not true for this condition, then an invalid or unknown state
has been achieved.
These rules must be computational in format. E.g.: OCL or other
formal notation.]
Actions: [Identify the set of actions that may be performed while in
this state. Define the constraint (rule) that controls the performance
of each action. In the case where no constraint is defined, the action
is always performed.]
Name: Obtain Product List
Description: Requests a Product Catalog
Definition: NA
Actions: Obtain Product List
Transitions
Event
Source
Rule
Transition to
Request List
Buyer
No Valid
Obtain
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State
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Customer ID
From This
Seller
Customer ID
Request List
Buyer
Valid
Customer ID
From This
Seller &&
Quote
Required
Obtain Quote
Request List
Buyer
Valid
Customer ID
From This
Seller && No
Quote
Required
Place Order
Name: Obtain Customer ID
Description: Request for a Customer ID for quotes and purchases
Definition: NA
Actions: NA
Transitions
State
Event
Source
Rule
Transition to
ID Request
Buyer
Quote
Required
Obtain Quote
ID Request
Buyer
No Quote
Required
Place Order
Name: Obtain Quote
Description: Obtains a Price Quote for subsequent order
placement.
Definition: NA
Actions: Obtain Quote
Transitions
Event
Source
Rule
Transition to
Request
Quote
Buyer
Quote
Accepted
Place Order
Request
Quote
Buyer
Quote
Rejected &&
Re-quote
Request
Obtain Quote
Request
Quote
Buyer
Quote
Rejected
Exit with no
Order
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State
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Name: PlaceOrder
Description: Places an Order for one or more products.
Definition: NA
Actions: PlaceOrder
Transitions
Event
Source
Rule
Transition to
Send Order
Buyer
Shipment
Notice Not
Received
Obtain Order
Status
Product
Shipped
Debit Credit
Card & Notify
Buyer of
Shipment
Accept Order
State
Seller
Name: ObtainOrderStatus
Description: Determine the Order status.
Definition: NA
Actions: Check Order Status
Transitions
State
Event
Source
Rule
Transition to
Check Order
Status
Buyer
Receive
Shipment
Notification
END
Check Order
Status
Buyer
No Shipment
Notice
Received &&
Need Order
Status
Obtain Order
Status
Name: DebitCreditCard
Description: Debit the Buyer’s credit card.
Definition: NA
Actions: Debit Credit Card
Transitions
State
Event
Source
Rule
Transition to
Get
Authorization
from Bank
Seller
Seller is
Paid
END
Name: Notify Buyer of Shipment
Description: Issue shipping order.
Definition: NA
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Actions:
Ship Product
Shipment Notice Sent
Transitions
Post-conditions
Event
Source
Rule
Transition to
Send
Shipment
Notice
Seller
Shipment
Notice Sent
END
[Post-conditions are the rules for defining the conditions that must
be true for the localized context that exists after the process lifecycle
completes. These rules are constraints that must be satisfied after
the lifecycle thus ensuring that the proper update to context of the
parent process has occurred.
These constraint(s) must be a subset of the constraint(s) defined by
the process that this lifecycle is defining and be computational in
format. E.g.: OCL or other formal notation.]
Buyer Notified of Shipment
Seller is Paid
Shipment Notice Received by Buyer
1346
1347
1348
1349
1350
1351
1352
By using the OrderFromCatalog Business Process Lifecycle Worksheet it was also
discovered that the Seller needs to notify the Buyer that the product has been shipped.
This is shown in the following Activity Model for the Order From Catalog collaboration.
1353
1354
1355
1356
At this point one would iterate again through the BRV and add the Notify Buyer of
Shipment business process and adjust the Order From Catalog and Ordering collaborations accordingly. The changes that should be made to these collaborations are italicized
in ‘California Navel’ orange.
1357
1358
1359
1360
1361
Business Process Activity Model
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Business Requirements View
Order from Catalog - Business Process Activity Model
Seller
Buyer
[valid catalog on hand]
[no valid catalog on hand]
ObtainProductList
[got customer ID from this seller]
[no customer ID from this seller]
ObtainCustomerID
[no quote required ]
[quote required]
[requote request]
[exit no order placed]
ObtainQuote
[rejected]
[accepted]
PlaceOrder
[product shipped]
[shipment received]
[order status required]
ObtainOrderStatus
DebitCreditCard
NotifyBuyerOfShipment
[order fulfilled]
1362
1363
1364
1365
1366
1367
Conceptual Business Information Model
1368
1369
1370
1371
1372
1373
1374
1375
1376
1377
1378
1379
1380
1381
1382
The supporting transactions/business collaborations from the Order from Catalog
Collaboration worksheet and information captured in the Order from Catalog Lifecycle
worksheet identify the lifecycle states and conditions required to transition from one
business process state to another. Generally the conditions that are required to complete
a supporting transaction/business collaboration and to transition to another state are
successful exchanges of information between the trading partners. Looking in more detail
at the Obtain Customer ID Collaboration worksheet, exchange of an ID request and
response are identified as essential to the collaboration. Also the Customer Information
business entity is identified as being affected in this collaboration. Thus, one would
assume that information about the customer would be included in the ID request. The
following conceptual business information model captures the business information and
associated information entities that would be envisioned at this point as being included in
the collaboration request and response. It also reflects business information requirements that would have been gathered from the business domain experts as part of
Business Requirements of the Business Process worksheet.
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1387
Business Requirements View
Order From Catalog - Conceptual Business Information Model - ObtainCustomerID
<<BusinessInformation>>
RegistrationRequest
+IdentificationNumber : String
+RespondByDate : Date
CustomerInformation
+Name : String
+Billing
<<BusinessInformation>>
RegistrationResponse
+ReferenceNumber : String
+SellerName : String
resultsIn
+Shipping
CreditCardInformation
+Number : Integer
+IssuerName : String
+HolderName : String
+Type : String
+ValidUntilDate : Date
ResponseInformation
+CustomerID : String
+Status : String
+Reason : String
+Code : String
0..1
Address
+ContactName : String
+Detail[1..*] : String
+ContactPhone : String
1388
1389
1390
1391
The Business Process Use Case now reflects the two new business processes.
1392
1393
Business Process Use Case
1394
Business Requirements View
Order From Catalog - Usecase Diagram
ObtainProductList
ObtainCustomerID
DebitCreditCard
+Responder
+Initiator
+Initiator
Seller
Buyer
+Responder
+Responder
ObtainQuote
PlaceOrder
Bank
+Initiator
ObtainOrderStatus
NotifyBuyerOfShipment
1395
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1396
1397
1398
1399
This Business Collaboration Use Case diagram illustrates that Order From Catalog has
two collaborations – Ordering and Settlement – that use the two new business processes
as well as the existing business processes.
1400
1401
1402
Business Collaboration Use Case
1403
Business Requirements View
Order From Catalog - Business Collaboration
<<Business Collaboration>>
OrderFromCatalog
<<Business Collaboration>>
Ordering
<<Business Collaboration>>
Settlement
ObtainProductList
DebitCreditCard
ObtainCustomerID
ObtainQuote
Buyer
Bank
Seller
PlaceOrder
ObtainOrderStatus
1404
1405
NotifyBuyerOfShipment
1406
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1409
Step 5 – Identify and Describe Business Entities
1410
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1413
Business Entities are the subject of business collaboration activities. It’s a real-world
thing, concept, process or event having business significance that is shared among two or
more trading partners, and which exists in two or more states of at least one lifecycle.
1414
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1416
In the first of the next two worksheets, the business significance, attributes, and behavior
of the Customer Information business entity are identified and described. The lifecycle of
the business entity is associated with it’s behavior – Obtain Customer ID.
1417
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1419
The second worksheet goes into more detail by describing the entity’s lifecycle. To avoid
confusion, the lifecycle name Registration Lifecycle was chosen rather than Obtain
Customer ID Lifecycle. The latter already exists as a business process lifecycle name.
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Form: Business Entity
Business Entity Name:
[Provide the name that this Business Entity is identified by.]
Customer Information
Description:
[A plain text explanation of the purpose and behavior of the
Business Entity.]
Information about a prospective Buyer that is required by the
Seller in order for the Seller to register the Buyer and assign a
Buyer ID
Business Entity
Characteristics
Define the set of characteristics or attributes that define the
structural aspects of the Business Entities.
Business Entity Behavior
Name:
Name
Type
Constraints
Party
Business Object
Mandatory
Billing Address
Business Object
Mandatory
Shipping
Address
Business Object
Optional
Account
Business Object
Mandatory
Define the set of operations that affect the behavioral aspects of the
Business Entity.
[Enter the name of the operation.]
Obtain Customer ID
Lifecycle:
[Enter the name of the lifecycle that defines this behavior.]
Registration Lifecycle
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Form: Business Entity Lifecycle
Business Entity
Lifecycle Name
[Name the State Model. Below, in the States section of this worksheet, you can
mention all of the state values and their information requirements]
Registration Lifecycle
Business Entity
Name
[Provide a name for the Business Entity]
Customer Information
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Description
2003-09-22
[A plain text explanation of the purpose and behavior of the lifecycle defined
here.]
This lifecycle supports the creation of Customer Information by a Buyer
and acceptance of the Customer Information by a Seller for the purpose
of registering the Buyer with the Seller.
States
The following section defines the states or condition that the lifecycle
can occur.
Start State
The Start State is a pseudo state in which the initialization and
instantiation of lifecycle artifacts and context occurs.
Transitions (Start
State)
Event: [Identifies the event(s) from the start state of this lifecycle. For
any lifecycle there is only one starting point, known as the start state.
This list of events are the only ones that would instantiate the
lifecycle and cause the business entity to enter into a condition or
state as determined by the processing of the defined event.
These event(s) may be computational in format. E.g.: OCL or other
formal notation.]
Source: [For each event listed above identify the source of the event
as defined by the current lifecycle context].
Rule: [For each event, define the constraint or guard that
indicates the resultant condition or state. If there are multiple
states for a given event there should be a rule for each. This rule
should be computational in format. E.g.: OCL or other formal
notation.].
Transition to: [For each event identify the resulting condition
(state) of the lifecycle. If a particular event can result in more than
one condition or state define the rule that indicates which
condition will be the actual resultant.].
Event
Source
Rule
Transition to
Buyer
determines
to initiate a
relationship
with the
Seller
Buyer
Buyer assembles
Customer
Information such that
it contains required
business entity
characteristics
Pending
For each state or condition of the lifecycle, repeat the following entries.
State
Name: [Identify a state or condition of this lifecycle.]
Description: [Provide a textual description of this condition/state]
Definition: [Definitions are the rules for defining the localized
conditions that must be true within the context of this lifecycle that
assert that this condition has been achieved. If these rules are not
true for this condition, then an invalid or unknown state has been
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achieved.
These rules must be computational in format. E.g.: OCL or other
formal notation.]
Actions: [Identify the set of actions that may be performed while in
this state. Defined the constraint that controls the performance of
each action. In the case where no constraint is defined, the action is
always performed.]
Name: Pending
Description: Customer Information is assembled as an
information entity, ready for submission as a registration
request to the Seller
Definition: All required characteristics of Customer Information
are assembled
Actions: Customer Information may be submitted as a
registration request to the Seller when all required characteristics are assembled and Customer Information Status = Pending
Transitions
State:
[For each event listed above identify the resulting condition (state) of
the lifecycle. If a particular event can result in more than one
condition or state, define the constraint (rule), that indicates which
condition would be the actual resultant. This constraint should be
computational in format. E.g.: OCL or other formal notation.].
Event
Source
Rule
Transition to
Registration
request has
been sent to
the Seller
Buyer
Buyer has
confirmation from
messaging service
that the registration
request has been
sent to the Seller
Tendered
Name: Tendered
Description: Registration request has been submitted to the
Seller
Definition: Buyer has confirmation from messaging service that
the registration request has been sent to the Seller
Actions: Registration request may be received by the Seller
when Customer Information Status = Tendered. Seller
proceeds to evaluate the registration request
Transitions
Event
Source
Rule
Transition to
Registration
Request
accepted by
the Seller
Seller
Registration Request
Is complete and valid
and credit check is
positive
Accepted
Registration
Request
Seller
Registration Request
NonAc-
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rejected by
the Seller
State:
fails for some reason
cepted
Name: Accepted
Description: Buyer Information is complete, credit check is
positive, and Seller’s Buyer ID is assigned
Definition: Buyer Information is complete (all required
characteristics are present) and validated, and credit check with
the bank of Buyer’s credit is positive. Seller’s Buyer ID
assigned = yes
Actions: Registration Response may be received by the Buyer
when Customer Information Status = Accepted
Transitions
State
Event
Source
Rule
Transition to
Buyer
receives
Registration
Response
from the
Seller
Seller
Buyer receives
Registration
Response from the
Seller before timeout
Confirmed
Timeout on
Registration
Request
Seller
Buyer receives no
response on
Registration Request
by Respond by Date
Start
Name: NotAccepted
Description: Buyer Information is incomplete, or credit check is
negative, Seller’s Buyer ID is not assigned.
Definition: Buyer Information is incomplete (required
characteristics are missing or can not be validated,. Or, credit
check with the bank of Buyer’s credit is negative. Seller’s Buyer
ID assigned = no.
Actions: Registration Response may be received by the Buyer
when Customer Information Status = NotAccepted
Transitions:
Event
Source
Rule
Transition to
Buyer
receives
Registration
Response
from the
Seller
Seller
Buyer receives
Registration
Response from the
Seller before timeout
Rejected
Timeout on
Registration
Request
Seller
Buyer receives no
response on
Registration Request
by Respond by Date
Start
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State:
2003-09-22
Name: Confirmed
Description: Buyer receives a positive Registration Response
from the Seller
Definition: A positive Registration Response is received,
including an assigned Seller’s Customer ID
Action: Buyer receives a Registration Response with Customer
Information Status = Accepted and an assigned Seller’s
Customer ID
Transitions
State:
Event
Source
Rule
Transition to
Buyer
receives a
Registration
Response
with
Customer
Information
Status =
Accepted
and an
assigned
Seller’s
Customer ID
Seller
Registration
Response is positive
Success
end
Name: Rejected
Description: Buyer receives a negative Registration Response
from the Seller
Definition: A negative Registration Response is received with
no assigned Seller’s Customer ID
Action: Buyer receives a Registration Response with Customer
Information Status = NotAccepted and no Seller’s Customer ID
Transitions
Post-conditions
Event
Source
Rule
Transition to
Buyer
receives a
Registration
Response
with
Customer
Information
Status =
NotAccepted
and no
Seller’s
Customer ID
Seller
Registration
response is negative
Success
end
[Post-conditions are the rules for defining the conditions that must be
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true for the localized context that exists after the process lifecycle
completes. These rules are constraints that must be satisfied after
the lifecycle, thus ensuring that the proper update to context of the
parent process has occurred.
These constraint(s) must be a subset of the constraint(s) defined by
the process that this lifecycle is defining and be computational in
format. E.g.: OCL or other formal notation.]
If the Registration Response is positive, i.e., Seller’s Buyer ID
has been assigned) Buyer may proceed to ObtainQuote or
PlaceOrder. If the Registration Response is negative, or if a
Registration Response is not received by the Respond by Date,
the Buyer may not proceed to ObtainQuote or PlaceOrder.
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BTV Example Worksheets
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Step 1 - Define a Business Collaboration Protocol
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The following worksheet specifies the choreography of the order from catalog business
collaboration at the BTV level. The states of the collaboration are described through each
business transaction activity in terms of recognized events, state transitions, and
conditions, or rules, that must be satisfied for state transitions for occur. The object flow
graph that follows illustrates the contents of this worksheet for the Obtain Customer ID
business transaction activity.
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Form: Business Collaboration Protocol (Activity Model)
Business Collaboration
Protocol
[Provide a name for the Business Collaboration Protocol.]
Description
[A plain text explanation of the purpose and behavior of the Business
Collaboration Protocol]
Order from Catalog
The Buyer orders goods mentioned in the catalogue. The Buyer
may request a price quote (e.g. when the unit price amount of a
product is not specified in the catalogue) before actually placing
the order. In this case, the Seller first returns the price quote. In
both cases, the Seller returns an order confirmation.
Preconditions
[Preconditions are the rules for defining the conditions that must be
true for the context that this BCP is executed within. These rules are
constraints that must be satisfied before instantiating or initializing the
BCP thus ensuring that the proper context for the BCP has been
established.
These conditions must be computational in format. E.g.: OCL or
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other formal notation.]
none
Begins When
[Identifies the event(s) from that start this BCP. For any BCP there is
only one starting point, known as a start state. This list of events are
the only ones which will instantiate the BCP and cause it to enter into
a condition or state as determined by the processing of the defined
event.
These event(s) may be computational in format. E.g.: OCL or other
formal notation.]
Buyer indicates a need for a product
Business Transaction
Activities
The following section defines the states that the Business
Collaboration Protocol can occur. These states define which
Business Transactions are performed.
Start State
The Start State is a pseudo state in which the initialization and
instantiation of Business Collaboration Protocol artifacts and context
occurs.].
Recognized Events
(Start State)
[Identifies the event(s) from that start this Business Collaboration
Protocol. For any Business Collaboration Protocol there is only one
starting point, known as a start state. This list of events are the only
ones which will instantiate the BCP and cause it to enter into a
condition or state as determined by the processing of a defined
event.
These event(s) may be computational in format. E.g.: OCL or other
formal notation.]
Start with no valid catalog on-hand
Start with valid catalog on-hand and no valid Seller’s Customer
ID
Start with valid catalog on-hand and valid Seller’s Customer ID
and quote required
Start with valid catalog on-hand and valid Seller’s Customer ID
and no quote required.
Transitions (Start
State)
[For each event listed above identify the resulting Business
Transaction Activity of the Business Collaboration Protocol. If a
particular event can result in more than one Business Transaction
Activity, define the constraint, which indicates which condition will be
the actual resultant.
If more than one constraint qualifies for a particular event, then the
Business Collaboration Protocol process path will fork.
This constraint should be computational in format. E.g.: OCL or other
formal notation.].
Start with no valid catalog on-hand – Obtain Product List
Start with valid catalog on-hand and no valid Seller’s Customer
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ID – Obtain Customer ID
Start with valid catalog on-hand and valid Seller’s Customer ID
and quote required – Obtain Quote
Start with valid catalog on-hand and valid Seller’s Customer ID
and no quote required – Place Order
State:
Transitions
State
Transitions
State
Transitions
State
Transitions
Obtain Product List
Event
Source
Rule
Transition to
Request List
Buyer
no valid Seller’s
Customer ID
Obtain
Customer
ID
Request List
Buyer
valid Seller’s
Customer ID on-hand
and quote required
Obtain
Quote
Request List
Buyer
valid Seller’s
Customer ID on-hand
and no quote
required
Place Order
Obtain Customer ID
Event
Source
Rule
Transition to
ID Request
Buyer
Quote
Required
Obtain Quote
ID Request
Buyer
No Quote
Required
Place Order
Obtain Quote
Event
Source
Rule
Transition to
Request
Quote
Buyer
Quote
Accepted
Place Order
Request
Quote
Buyer
Quote
Rejected &&
Re-quote
Request
Obtain Quote
Request
Quote
Buyer
Quote
Rejected
Exit with no
Order
Place Order
Event
Source
Rule
Transition to
Buyer
Buyer
Seller
END
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received
Product
commitment
fulfilled
Buyer Check
for Shipment
Notice
Buyer
Shipment
Notice Not
Received
Obtain Order
Status
Seller
Accepts Order
Seller
Product
Shipped
Debit Credit
Card &&
Notify Buyer
of Shipment
State
Obtain Order Status
Recognized events
Buyer received Product
Product not received by Buyer and Order Status needed
Transitions
Buyer received Product - Buyer End (Seller commitment
fulfilled)
Product not received by Buyer and Order Status needed –
Obtain Order Status
State
Event
Source
Rule
Transition to
Check Order
Status
Buyer
Receive
Shipment
Notification
END
Check Order
Status
Buyer
No Shipment
Notice
Received &&
Need Order
Status
Obtain Order
Status
Debit Credit Card
Transitions
Event
Source
Rule
Transition to
Get
Authorization
from Bank
Seller
Seller is Paid
END
State
Notify Buyer of Shipment
Recognized events
Messaging service acknowledgment that shipment notice sent
Transitions
Event
Source
Rule
Transition to
Send
Shipment
Notice
Seller
Shipment
Notice Sent
END
For each Business Transaction Activity of the lifecycle, repeat the following entries.
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Business
Transaction Activity
2003-09-22
Name: [Identify a Business Transaction Activity of this Business
Collaboration Protocol.]
Obtain Product List
Description: [Provide a textual description of this Business
Transaction Activity]
To order from a Seller’s catalogue the Buyer determines
whether he has a current catalogue of the Seller or not. If
not, the Buyer sends a request for the catalogue and the
Seller returns the electronic version of the catalogue.
Definition: [Definitions are the rules for defining the localized
conditions that must be true within the context of this Business
Collaboration Protocol that asserts that this condition has been
achieved. If these rules are not true for this condition, then an invalid
or unknown state has been achieved.
These rules must be computational in format. E.g.: OCL or other
formal notation.]
No valid catalog on-hand
Action: [Identify the Business Transaction that is performed while in
this Business Transaction Activity.]
Obtain Product List
Recognized Events
[Identifies the event(s) that are recognized by the Business
Transaction Activity.
These event(s) may be computational in format. E.g.: OCL or other
formal notation.]
Seller returns electronic version of the catalog and no valid
Seller’s Customer ID
Seller returns electronic version of the catalog and valid Seller’s
Customer ID, and require a Quote
Seller returns electronic version of the catalog and valid Seller’s
Customer ID, and do not require a Quote
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Transitions
2003-09-22
Event:
Seller returns electronic
version of the catalog and no
valid Seller’s Customer ID
[For each event listed above
identify the resulting Business
Transaction Activity of the
Business Collaboration Protocol.
If a particular event can result in
more than one Business
Transaction Activity, define the
constraint, which indicates which
condition will be the actual
resultant.
If more than one constraint
qualifies for a particular event,
then the Business Collaboration
Protocol process path will fork.
This constraint should be
computational in format. E.g.:
OCL or other formal notation.]
Obtain Customer ID
Seller returns electronic
version of the catalog and
valid Seller’s Customer ID,
and require a Quote
Obtain Quote
Seller returns electronic
version of the catalog and
valid Seller’s Customer ID,
and do not require a Quote
Place Order
Associated Business Entity:
[Identify any Business Entities
that are affected by this transition
and their defined state.]
Product List
Product List transitions from
Request Tendered to Received
or Request Rejected
Business Transaction
Activity
Name: Obtain Customer ID
Description: If the Buyer decides to place an order, he must
verify whether he is already registered with the Seller (since a
Seller accepts only registered Buyers). If the Buyer is not
already registered, he sends his Customer information. After
verification of the Customer information and credit, the Seller
returns a Customer ID.
Definition: No valid Seller’s Customer ID on-hand
Action: Obtain Customer ID
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Recognized Events
2003-09-22
Seller assigned a Seller’s Customer ID and require a Quote
Seller assigned a Seller’s Customer ID and do not require a
Quote
Transitions
Event:
Seller assigned a Seller’s
Customer ID and require a
Quote
Seller assigned a Seller’s
Customer ID and do not
require a Quote
Associated Business Entity:
Customer ID
Business Transaction
Activity
Obtain Quote
Place Order
Customer ID transitions from
Request Tendered to Assigned
or Request Rejected
Name: Obtain Quote
Description: Before ordering, the Buyer verifies whether the
current price of the product is available. If not, the Buyer will
request a price quote and the Seller returns the price quote.
Note that only a registered Buyer can request a price quote.
Definition: Buyer requires a Quote before ordering and has a
valid Seller’s Customer ID
Action: Obtain Quote
Recognized Events:
Seller provides a Price Quote to the Buyer
Seller rejects Buyer’s request for a Price Quote and Buyer rerequests a Price Quote
Seller rejects Buyer’s request for a Price Quote and Buyer
declines to order
Transitions
Event:
Seller provides a Price Quote
to the Buyer
Seller rejects Buyer’s request
for a Price Quote and Buyer
re-requests a Price Quote
Seller rejects Buyer’s request
for a Price Quote and Buyer
declines to order
Place Order
Obtain Quote
Exit with no order
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Associated Business Entity
Price Quote
Business Transaction
Activity
Price Quote transitions from
Request Tendered to Received
or Request Rejected
Name: Place Order
Description: If the Buyer wants to order the product(s)
(according either to the already known price information or to
the requested price quote) he sends an order to the Seller. The
Seller returns an order confirmation
Definition: Buyer determines to place an order and has a valid
Seller’s Customer ID
Action: Place Order
Recognized Events:
Buyer receives product
Buyer fails to receive product by Respond by Date
Seller accepts order
Transactions
Event:
Buyer receives product
Buyer end
Buyer fails to receive product
by Respond by Date
Obtain Order Status
Seller accepts order
Associated Business Entity
Order
Business Transaction
Activity
Notify Buyer of Shipment and
Debit Credit Card
Order transitions from
Tendered to Confirmed or
Rejected
Name: Obtain Order Status
Description: Until the Buyer has received the product, he can
decide to request the order status from the Seller. The Seller
then returns the order status information. The cycle of
requesting order status and sending order status information
might be executed multiple times.
Definition: Product not received by Buyer and Order Status
needed
Action: Obtain Order Status
Recognized Events:
Buyer receives product
Product not received by Buyer and Order Status needed
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Transitions:
2003-09-22
Event:
Buyer receives product
Buyer end
Product not received by
Buyer and Order Status
needed
Obtain Order Status
Associated Business Entity
Order transitions from
confirmed to fulfilled (product
received)
Order
Business Transaction
Activity
Name: Notify Buyer of Shipment
Description: If the order is acceptable as confirmed, the
Seller will ship the Product and notify the Buyer of Shipment
Definition: Messaging service acknowledgment that
shipment notice sent
Action: Notify Buyer of Shipment
Recognized Events;
Messaging service acknowledgment that shipment notice sent
Transitions:
Event:
Messaging service
acknowledgment that
shipment notice sent
Seller End
Associated Business Entity
Goods transfer transitions
from pending to tendered to
accepted to confirmed
Goods Transfer
Business Transaction
Activity
Name: Debit Credit Card
Description: If the order is acceptable as confirmed, the Seller
will debit the Buyer’s credit card
Definition: Messaging service acknowledgment that
authorization for payment sent to the Bank
Action: Debit Credit Card
Recognized Events:
Messaging service acknowledgment that authorization for
payment sent to the Bank
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Transitions:
2003-09-22
Event:
Transfer of funds from the
Bank to the Seller
Seller End
Associated Business Entity
Account transitions from funds
available to authorized
payment to payment
Account
Post-conditions
[Post-conditions are the rules for defining the conditions that must be
true for the localized context that exists after the Business
Collaboration Protocol completes. These rules are constraints that
must be satisfied after the Business Collaboration Protocol thus
ensuring that the proper update to context of the parent process has
occurred.
These constraint(s) must be a subset of the constraint(s) defined by
the process that this Business Collaboration Protocol is defining and
be computational in format. E.g.: OCL or other formal notation.]
Buyer has a valid Product List
Seller’s Customer ID is assigned
Price Quote is received
Buyer’s order is fulfilled
Seller is paid
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Business Collaboration Object Flow Diagram
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Business Transaction View
Order From Catalog - Business Collaboration Protocol (Object Flow Diagram) - ObtainCustomerID
Buyer
Seller
CustomerInformation
[Pending]
SubmitRegistrationRequest
CustomerInformation
[Tendered]
EvaluateRegistrationRequest
[NotAccepted]
CustomerInformation
[NotAccepted]
SubmitRegistrationResponse(Negative)
CustomerInformation
[Rejected]
[Accepted]
CustomerInformation
[Accepted]
SubmitRegistrationResponse(Positive)
CustomerInformation
[Confirmed]
CustomerID
[Assigned]
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Step 2 - For each Business Transaction activity, define a business
transaction activity graph.
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The Business Transaction worksheet that follows specifies the Obtain Customer ID
business transaction activity. Most important is the selection of Request Response as the
business transaction activity pattern to be used for Obtain Customer ID and the
specification of values for critical parameters in the Request Response pattern. Request
Response is chosen according to the criteria as illustrated in Figure 5: a response is
required, the seller does not already have the requested information, i.e., Customer ID,
validation of the request is required before processing, and there is no residual obligation
between the roles to fulfill terms of the contract. A business transaction worksheet would
normally be completed for each business transaction activity. The worksheet is shown
only for Obtain Customer ID for illustrative purposes.
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Form: Business Transaction
Business Transaction
Name
[Provide a name for the Business Transaction.]
Description
[A plain text explanation of the purpose and behavior of the
Business Transaction.]
Obtain Customer ID
If the Buyer decides to place an order, he must verify whether
he is already registered with the Seller (since a Seller accepts
only registered Buyers). If the Buyer is not already registered,
he sends his Buyer information. After verification of the Buyer
information and credit, the Seller returns a Customer ID.
Select Business
Transaction Pattern:
Select one of:
7) Commercial Transaction
8) Request Confirm
9) Request Response
10) Query Response
11) Information Distribution
12) Notification
Request Response
Secure Transport:
[ True or False,] True
Non Repudiation Required:
[ True or False] True
Authorization Required:
[ True or False] True
Time to Perform:
[Specify the time period that this transaction must be completed
within.] 2 hours
Time to Acknowledge
Receipt:
[Specify the time period that a Receipt Acknowledgement must be
returned by the responding role.] 10 minutes
Time to Acknowledge
Acceptance:
[Specify the time period that a of an Acceptance Acknowledgement
must be returned by the responding role.]
20 minutes
Partner Roles
Initiating/Requesting
Partner Type
[Partner type from collaboration.]
Initiating/Requesting
Activity Role
[These are the roles that a partner must be authorized to play to
issue specific transitions in the transaction (by sending certain
signals).]
Buyer
Customer
Responding Partner Type
[See above.] Seller
Responding Partner Role
[See above.] Retailer
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Requesting Business Activity
Activity:
Submit Registration Request
Pre-Conditions
[Business rules performed before activity is performed]
No valid Seller’s Customer ID on-hand
Post-Conditions
[Business rules performed after activity is performed]
Buyer has a valid Seller’s Customer ID
Number of Retries:
3
Information Envelope:
Registration Request
Information Type:
Structured Information
Information State:
[Identify the Information Envelope allowed state(s).]
Pending
Tendered
Rejected
Confirmed
Information Security:
Business Information
Manifest
Are Contents Confidential?
[ True or False] True
Is the Envelope Tamperproof?
[ True or False] True
Authentication Required?
[ True or False] True
[Enter the name(s) of the Business Information contained in
envelope.]
Business
Information Name
[Enter name] Registration Request
Information Type:
[Enter type] Structured Information
Information State:
[Identify the Business Information allowed
state(s).] Mandatory
Information
Security:
Are Contents
Confidential?
[ True or False]
Is the Envelope
Tamperproof?
[ True or False]
Authentication
Required?
[ True or False]
True
True
True
Responding Business Activity
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Activity:
Submit Registration Response
Pre-Conditions
[Business rules performed before action is executed]
Registration Request received but not evaluated for complete
and valid information nor credit verified
Post-Conditions
[Business rules performed after action is executed]
Seller’s Buyer ID is assigned if Buyer Information is complete
and credit check is positive
Validation of Request
Required:
[ True or False] True
Information Envelope:
[Enter Name] Registration Response
Information Type:
[Enter Type] Structured Information
Information State:
[Identify the Information Envelope allowed state(s).]
Accepted
Not Accepted
Information Security:
Business Information
Manifest List:
Are Contents Confidential?
[ True or False] True
Is the Envelope Tamperproof?
[ True or False] True
Authentication Required?
[ True or False] True
[Enter the name of the Business Information contained in
envelope]
Business
Information Name
[Enter name] Registration Response
Information Type:
[Enter Type] Structured Information
Information State:
[Identify the Business Information allowed
state(s).] Mandatory
Information
Security:
Are Contents
Confidential?
[ True or False] True
Is the Envelope
Tamperproof?
[ True or False] True
Authentication
Required?
[ True or False] True
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1471
1472
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The BTV Use Case diagram that follows identifies the business transaction pattern
selected for each business transaction activity in the order from catalog collaboration. In
addition, the initiator and responder roles of the trading partners/actors are identified.
1473
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1475
Business Transaction View
Order From Catalog - Usecase Diagram
<<QueryResponseActivity>>
ObtainProductList
<<RequestResponseActivity>>
ObtainCustomerID
+Initiator
+Responder
<<RequestResponseActivity>>
ObtainQuote
+Initiator
Seller
Buyer
<<CommercialTransactionActivity>>
+Responder
PlaceOrder
+Responder
Bank
<<CommercialTransactionActivity>>
DebitCreditCard
+Initiator
<<RequestConfirmActivity>>
ObtainOrderStatus
<<NotificationActivity>>
NotifyBuyerOfShipment
1476
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1482
1483
1484
1485
The Request Response business transaction pattern for Obtain Customer ID is illustrated
to show how this business transaction pattern is instantiated for the example business
transaction activity, in terms of authorized roles of Buyer and Seller, initiating and
responding business activities of Submit Registration Request and Submit Registration
Response, and Registration Request and Registration Response business information.
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Business Transaction View
Order From Catalog - Obtain CustomerID
Define Business Transaction
Seller
Buyer
<<RequestResponseActivity>>
SubmitRegistrationRequest
[SUCCESS]
RegistrationResponse
[CONTROLFAILURE]
RegistrationRequest
<<BusinessAction>>
SubmitRegistrationResponse
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1494
Step 3 - Create class diagrams by re-using existing information structure
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1500
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Business Information worksheets are completed in this illustration for the Registration
Request and Registration Response Business Information for the Obtain Customer ID
business transaction activity. The Final Business Information Model class diagram that
follows illustrates the contents of these worksheets. Only one set of Business Information
is contained in the request and response Information Envelopes, i.e., Registration Request
and Registration Response. Thus the same name is given to the Information Envelopes
and contained Business Information. Information Entities include the Header Information
and Body Information of the Business Information for both the Registration Request and
Registration Response, in that they are structured messages. The Request Header
Information is associated with the Customer Information Business Entity, in that it
contains Information Entities that are required to transition the state of the Customer
Information Business Entity. The Information Entities are shown as specified characteristics or attributes of Business Information in the worksheet, and are illustrated as attributes
of reusable Information Objects in the Final Business Information Model.
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Form: Business Information
Business Information
Name:
[Provide the name that this Business Information is identified by.]
Description:
[A plain text explanation of the purpose and behavior of the
Business Information.]
Registration Request
Information about a prospective Buyer that is required by the
Seller in order for the seller to register the Buyer and assign a
Seller’s Customer ID
Business Information
Characteristics
Define the set of characteristics or attributes that define the
structural aspects of the Business Information.
Name: [Enter the name of the characteristic.]
Type: [Enter the type of the characteristic. e.g. this is referred to
business information.]
Constraints: [The rules for defining the conditions that must be
true for the inclusion and/or validation of this characteristic.
These rules may be computational in format. e.g.: OCL or other
formal notation.]
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Characteristics or
Attributes
2003-09-22
Name
Type
Constraint
Reference Number –
Registration
Request Header
Information
String
Mandatory
Respond by Date Registration
Request Header
Date
Mandatory
Legal Name - Party
String
Mandatory
Short Name - Party
String
Optional
Official Registration
ID - Party
String
Optional
Registration
Authority - Party
String
Optional
Bank Identification
Number - Account
Integer
Mandatory
Account Type Account
String
Mandatory
Account
Identification
Number - Account
Integer
Mandatory
Account Holder Account
String
Mandatory
Balance - Account
Currency
Mandatory
Start Date - Account
Date
Mandatory
End Date - Account
Date
Mandatory
Addressee Address
String
Mandatory for Bill
to Address;
Optional for Ship
to Address if
same as Bill to
Address
Postal Code Address
String
Mandatory for Bill
to Address;
Optional for Ship
to Address if
same as Bill to
Address
Postal Code
Location - Address
String
Phone Number Address
String
Mandatory for Bill
to Address;
Optional for Ship
to Address
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same as Bill to
Copyright © UN/CEFACT 1995-2003. All Rights Reserved.
Address
Mandatory for Bill
to Address;
CEFACT/TMG/N093
Business Information
Behavior
Name:
2003-09-22
Define the set of operations that affect the behavioral aspects of the
Business Information.
[Enter the name of the operation.]
Obtain Customer ID
Lifecycle:
[Enter the name of the lifecycle that defines this behavior.]
Registration Lifecycle
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Form: Business Information
Business Information
Name:
[Provide the name that this Business Information is identified by.]
Description:
[A plain text explanation of the purpose and behavior of the
Business Information.]
Registration Response
After verification of the Customer information and credit, the
Seller returns a Seller’s Customer ID.
Business Information
Characteristics
Define the set of characteristics or attributes that define the
structural aspects of the Business Information.
Name: [Enter the name of the characteristic.]
Type: [Enter the type of the characteristic. e.g. this is referred to
business information.]
Constraints: [The rules for defining the conditions that must be
true for the inclusion and/or validation of this characteristic.
These rules may be computational in format. e.g.: OCL or other
formal notation.]
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Characteristics or
Attributes
Business Information
Behavior
Name:
2003-09-22
Name
Type
Constraint
Reference Number –
Registration
Request Header
Information
String
Mandatory
Status –
Registration Body
Information
String
Mandatory
Reason –
Registration Body
Information
String
Mandatory
Code – Registration
Body Information
String
Mandatory
Customer ID –
Registration Body
Information
String
Mandatory
Define the set of operations that affect the behavioral aspects of the
Business Information.
[Enter the name of the operation.]
Obtain Customer ID
Lifecycle:
[Enter the name of the lifecycle that defines this behavior.]
Registration Lifecycle
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Final Business Information Models
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Registration Request
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Business Transaction View
Order From Catalog - Final Business InformationModel - ObtainCustomerID
RegistrationRequest
<<BusinessService>>
BuyerSystem
+SubmitRegistrationRequest()
<<instantiates>>
<<InformationEnvelope>>
RegistrationRequestEnvelope
<<BusinessInformation>>
RegistrationRequest
+RegistrationRequestHeader
<<BusinessObject>>
HeaderInformation
+ReferenceID : String
+RespondByDate : Date
<<BusinessObject>>
Account
+BankID : Integer
+AccountType : String
+AccountID : Integer
+AccountHolder : String
+StartDate : Date
+EndDate : Date
<<BusinessEntity>>
CustomerInformation
+Buyer
+CreditCard
1..*
<<BusinessObject>>
Party
+LegalName : String
+ShortName[0..1] : String
+OfficialRegistrationIDNumber : String
+OfficialRegistrationAuthority : String
+Balance
<<BusinessObject>>
Amount
+Value : Real
+Currency
+Billing
<<BusinessObject>>
Address
+Addressee : String
+PostalCodeID : String
+PostalCodeLocation[0..1] : String
+Country : Country
-GeographicalRegion[0..1] : GeographicalRegion
<<BusinessObject>>
AddressLine
+Key : AddressLineType
+Detail : String
<<enumeration>>
Country
<<enumeration>>
Currency
<<enumeration>>
AmountType
-Balance
-...
0..*
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+Shipping
0..1
<<enumeration>>
AccountType
-CreditCard
-...
<<enumeration>>
PartyType
-Buyer
-...
<<BusinessObject>>
Contact
+PhoneNumber : String
+MobileNumber[0..1] : String
+FaxNumber[0..1] : String
+EmailAddress[0..1] : String
<<enumeration>>
AddressType
-Billing
-Shipping
-...
<<enumeration>>
GeographicalRegion
<<enumeration>>
AddressLineType
-StreetName
-StreetNumber
-HouseNumber
-BuildingIdentifier
-Floor
-...
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Registration Response
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Business Transaction View
Order From Catalog - Final Business Information Model - ObtainCustomerID
RegistrationResponse
<<BusinessService>>
SellerService
+SubmitRegistrationResponse()
<<instantiates>>
<<InformationEnvelope>>
RegistrationResponseEnvelope
<<BusinessInformation>>
RegistrationResponse
+RegistrationResponseHeader
<<BusinessObject>>
HeaderInformation
+ReferenceID : String
+RegistrationRequestHeader
<<BusinessObject>>
HeaderInformation
+ReferenceID : String
<<BusinessEntity>>
CustomerInformation
0..1
<<BusinessObject>>
RegistrationDetails
+Status : RegistrationStatus
+ReasonCode[0..1] : RegistrationRejection
+ReasonText[0..1] : String
<<enumeration>>
PartyType
-Customer
-...
<<enumeration>>
RegistrationStatus
-Approved
-Rejected
+Customer
<<BusinessObject>>
Party
+PartyID : String
<<enumeration>>
RegistrationRejection
-AccountExpired
-CreditLimitToLow
-MissingInformation
-...
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Appendix C. UMM Data Types and Notation
1531
UMM Data Types
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1537
1538
1539
In UML a data type is defined as “A descriptor of a set of values that lack identity and whose
operations do not have side effects. Data types include primitive pre-defined types and userdefinable types. Pre-defined types include numbers, string and time. User-definable types include
enumerations. An enumeration is a user-defined data type whose instances are a set of userspecified named enumeration literals. The literals have a relative order but no algebra is defined
on them.” UML avoids specifying the syntax for constructing type expressions because they are
so language-dependent. It is assumed that the name of a class or simple data type will map into a
simple Classifier reference. In the UML Meta-Model data type is defined as follows:
1540
Da ta Typ e
Prim itive
Enumeration
Programm ingLanguageData
Type
expression : T ypeExpression
1541
1542
Fig. 1
1543
1544
1545
1546
1547
1548
1549
1550
Since UMM focuses on the Business Operational View, it is independent of any language used as
transfer-syntax or as programming language to build B2B applications. As a consequence, UMM
also avoids specifying syntax for constructing type expressions. The UMM set of data types is
depicted in Fig. 2. These types must be used in UMM-compliant models. It is assumed that
language-specific mappings will be defined to map UMM data types to transfer-syntaxes and
programming languages. In addition to these data types UMM defines an additional set of
enumerations that are relevant in a business environment. These data types are depicted in
Fig. 3.
<<Primitive>>
Character
<<Primitive>>
String
<<enumeration>>
Country
<<Primitive>>
Integer
<<Primitive>>
Date
<<enumeration>>
Boolean
0 : false
1 : true
<<Primitive>>
Real
<<Primitive>>
UnsignedInteger
<<Primitive>>
Time
BusinessRule
<<enumeration>>
Currency
<<enumeration>>
UnitOfMeasure
language : String = OCL
name : String
1552
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
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Boolean
1554
Boolean defines an enumeration that denotes a logical condition. Its enumeration literals are:
1555
true
The Boolean condition is satisfied.
1556
false
The Boolean condition is not satisfied.
1557
Business Rule
1558
1559
1560
1561
A Business Rule is an expression that defines a statement that will evaluate to a (possibly empty)
set of instances when executed in a context. An Expression does not modify the environment in
which it is evaluated. An expression contains an expression string and the name of an
interpretation language with which to evaluate the string.
1562
Attributes:
1563
1564
1565
1566
1567
1568
language
body
1569
1570
Character is a classifier element that is an instance of Primitive. An instance of Character defines
a single character. Note, the data type String defines text consisting of multiple characters.
1571
Date
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1575
1576
Date is a classifier element that is an instance of Primitive, representing the predefined type of
date. Note, the type of date is limited to Year, Month and Date and is not able to capture time
aspects, which are handled by the data type Time. Instance of Date follow the format YYYY-MMDD (Date Part in ISO 8601). However, a date is always subject to implementation considerations,
and must be mapped to the date format of the FSV technology of choice.
1577
Integer
1578
1579
Integer is a classifier element that is an instance of Primitive, representing the predefined type of
integers. An instance of Integer is an element in the (infinite) set of integers (…-2, -1, 0, 1, 2…).
1580
Real
1581
1582
1583
Real is a classifier element that is an instance of Primitive, representing the predefined type of
reals. An instance of Real is an element in either the set of rational numbers or the set of
irrational numbers.
1584
String
1585
1586
String is a classifier element that is an instance of Primitive. An instance of String defines a piece
of text.
1587
Time
1588
1589
1590
1591
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1593
Time is a classifier element that is an instance of Primitive, representing the predefined type of
time. Note, the type of time is limited to Hours, Minutes, Seconds and the time off-set. It is not
able to capture date aspects, which are handled by the data type Date. Instance of Time follow
the format hh:mm:ss+hh:mm (Time Part in ISO 8601). However, a time is always subject to
implementation considerations, and must be mapped to the time format of the FSV technology of
choice.
1594
UnsignedInteger
Names the language in which the business rule body is represented. In UMM the value of
language is fixed to “OCL”, since all business rules must be represented in the Object Constraint Language.
The text of the business rule expressed in the Object Constraint Language.
Character
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UnsignedInteger is a classifier element that is an instance of Primitive. It defines a data type
whose range is the non-negative integers.
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Business-related Enumerations
1600
Country
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1602
Country defines an enumeration of all countries. Its enumeration literals refer to the set of ISO
3166 3-digit numeric codes.
1603
Currency
1604
1605
Currency defines an enumeration of all currencies. Its enumeration literals refer to the set of ISO
4217 3-digit numeric codes.
1606
UnitOfMeasure
1607
1608
1609
UnitOfMeasure defines an enumeration of units of measure used in international trade. Its
enumeration literals refer to UN/ECE Recommendation 20.
1610
The Business Objects – The basic ones
1611
<<BusinessObject>>
Amount
value : Real
currency : Currency
<<BusinessObject>>
DateTime
date : Date
time : Time
<<BusinessObject>>
Measurement
value : Real
unit : UnitOfMeasure
<<BusinessObject>>
Period
startDate : Date
startTime : Time
endDate : Date
endTime : Time
1612
Amount
1613
1614
Amount is a business object used to define a number of monetary units specified in a currency
where the unit of currency is explicit or implied.
1615
Attributes:
1616
1617
1618
1619
1620
1621
value
Real
currency
Currency
The number of monetary units as an instance of Real. Note, that
the number of decimal places must be limited to two.
The currency as an element of the enumeration of Currency
(referencing ISO 4217)
DateTime
1622
DateTime is a business object used to define both a date and a time.
1623
Attributes:
1624
1625
1626
1627
date
time
1628
1629
1630
Measurement is a business object used to define the measurement of an object. The
measurement contains a real number determined by measuring an object along with the specified
unit of measure.
1631
Attributes:
1632
1633
value
Date
Time
The date as an instance of Date.
The time as an instance of Time.
Measurement
Real
The numeric value as an instance of real determined by
measuring an object.
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UnitOfMeasure
2003-09-22
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1635
1636
1637
unit
1638
1639
Period is a business object used to define a period starting on a date or/time and ending on a
date/or time.
1640
Attributes:
1641
1642
1643
1644
1645
startingDate
startingTime
endingDate
EndingTime
The type of unit of measure as an element of the enumeration of
UnitOfMeasure (referencing UN/ECE Rec. 20)
Period
Date
Time
Date
Time
The starting date of a period as an instance of Date.
The starting time of a period as an instance of Time.
The ending date of a period as an instance of Date.
The ending time of a period as an instance of Time.
1646
1647
1648
1649
1650
1651
Business Transaction View Notation
1652
1653
1654
An information envelope includes the business information exchanged between partners in a
business transaction.
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1656
1657
1658
1659
1660
1661
1662
The business information is composed of the business entities that change their state as a result
of the exchange. The change in state of a business entity is based on information that affects the
business entity. This information is modelled by assembling business objects. E.g. the business
entity “CustomerInformation” is composed of a business object “Party” that assembles further
business objects. Furthermore, the business information might include information that is
independent of the exchanged business entities. This information is also modelled by business
objects. Candidates for the latter case might be a business object “Document” that carries the
attributes “DocumentID” and “DocumentCreationDate”.
1663
1664
1665
1666
1667
1668
1669
This approach assumes the existence of a library of re-usable business objects. A reference
source to develop new reusable business objects is Core Components. These Core Components
provide the business semantics that will be used to develop the business object attributes and
relationships that apply in a given context. It should be noted that the class diagram associated
with Core Components represent semantic relationships and most likely are not identical to the
business object class diagram which follows strict UML object oriented modelling principles,
concepts and rules.
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1671
How do we set a re-usable business object in context?
1672
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1674
(a) Generalization
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1676
1677
1678
(b) Association role
1679
1680
1681
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(c) Enumeration
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1685
In order to re-use a given business object in a class diagram modelling business information and
to set it in context the approach using association roles (b) is the preferred way.
1686
1687
1688
1689
1690
We do not use the generalization approach (a) to set re-usable business objects in context.
However, the generalization approach might be used to define new business objects in case of
extending a more general one by adding new attributes. E.g. a general business object
“ProductOrService” might have a sub-class (=new business object) “FlightProduct” extending the
general one by flight specific attributes.
1691
1692
1693
We do not use the approach based on enumerations (c), since it is a very bad modelling
technique to intermix the schema level and the instance level, i.e. part of the schema information
is expressed by an instance of an enumeration.
1694
However one problem with the association role approach is that the following is not allowed:
1695
1696
1697
1698
1699
1700
There is a maximum of 1 association role per each end of an association. If two qualifiers that are
orthogonal to each other define the context in which a business object is used, the approach
using association roles (b) fails.
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Appendix D. Administrative Information
1702
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1704
1705
1706
1707
1708
Disclaimer
The views and specification expressed in this document are those of the
authors and are not necessarily those of their employers. The authors
and their employers specifically disclaim responsibility for any problems
arising from correct or incorrect implementation or use of this design.
1709
1710
1711
Contact Information
1712
1713
TMG Chair:
1714
Klaus-Dieter Naujok
1715
1716
1717
Global e-Business Advisory Council
e-mail: [email protected]
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Copyright Statement
1719
1720
Copyright © UN/CEFACT 1995-2003. All Rights Reserved.
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1726
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1728
This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to others, and derivative works
that comment on or otherwise explain it or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied,
published and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any kind, provided that the
above copyright notice and this paragraph are included on all such copies and derivative works.
However, this document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing the copyright
notice or references to UN/CEFACT except as required to translate it into languages other than
English.
1729
1730
The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be revoked by
1731
UN/CEFACT or its successors or assigns.
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This document and the information contained herein is provided on an "AS
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IS" basis and UN/CEFACT DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION
HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
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UN/CEFACT – “UMM User Guide”
Copyright © UN/CEFACT 1995-2003. All Rights Reserved.
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