RAMMS::ROCKFALL User Manual
RAMMS::ROCKFALL User Manual
RAMMS
rapid mass movements system
A numerical model for rockfall in research and practice
User Manual v1.6
Rockfall
WSL-Institut für Schnee- und Lawinenforschung SLF
WSL Institut pour l‘étude de la neige et des avalanches SLF
WSL Instituto per lo studio della neve e delle valanghe SLF
WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF
Title picture: Rockfall at Viznau (LU), Werner Gerber, 2003
Contributors (alphabetical order)
SLF/WSL:
Perry Bartelt
Claudia Bieler
Yves Bühler
Marc Christen
Lisa Dreier
Werner Gerber
James Glover
Maike Schneider
Centre of Mechanics ETH Zurich:
Christoph Glocker
Remco Leine
Adrian Schweizer
Manuscript update
May 2015
2
Table of Content
1
2
Introduction ........................................................................................................................ 6
1.1
Motivation .................................................................................................................. 6
1.2
RAMMS ........................................................................................................................ 6
1.3
RAMMS::ROCKFALL Model .......................................................................................... 7
Installation and Setup ......................................................................................................... 9
2.1
System requirements .................................................................................................. 9
2.2
Installation ................................................................................................................... 9
2.3
Licensing .................................................................................................................... 16
2.3.1
Personal license request file .............................................................................. 16
2.3.2
Getting the personal license key ..................................................................... 17
2.4
3
Update ....................................................................................................................... 18
Theory ............................................................................................................................... 19
3.1
Overview .................................................................................................................... 19
3.2
Modelling Rock Shape............................................................................................ 21
3.3
Free Flight Motion with Gravity and Gyroscopic Forces ........................................... 23
3.4
Contact forces............................................................................................................ 23
3.5
Friction forces ........................................................................................................... 24
3.6
Impulsive forces (Rebound)...................................................................................... 25
3.7
Contact Friction and Drag ......................................................................................... 26
3.7.1
Coulomb Friction and Slippage......................................................................... 27
3.7.2
Viscoplastic Ground Drag ................................................................................... 29
3.8
Forest/Vegetation...................................................................................................... 30
3.9
Terrain Material ......................................................................................................... 31
3.10 Terrain Model ............................................................................................................ 36
4
Setting up a simulation ..................................................................................................... 37
4.1
Preparations ............................................................................................................. 37
3
4.1.1
Topographic data - Digital Elevation Model (DEM)....................................... 37
4.1.2
Project and Scenarios ........................................................................................ 38
4.2
Preferences .............................................................................................................. 38
4.3
Creating a new project .............................................................................................. 41
4.4
Working with the interface ....................................................................................... 45
4.4.1
Moving, resizing, rotating, viewing ................................................................... 45
4.4.2
Colorbar .............................................................................................................. 47
4.4.3
Changing maps and remote sensing imagery ................................................... 48
4.4.4
How to save input files and program settings .............................................. 48
4.4.5
About RAMMS................................................................................................... 50
4.5
4.5.1
Rockfall starting zone ........................................................................................ 51
4.5.2
Rock builder ....................................................................................................... 54
4.6
Terrain/Forest Input ................................................................................................. 57
4.6.1
Terrain material ................................................................................................. 57
4.6.2
Forested area ................................................................................................... 59
4.7
5
Rock Input ................................................................................................................ 51
Running a simulation .............................................................................................. 60
4.7.1
General ............................................................................................................... 60
4.7.2
Terrain ................................................................................................................ 60
4.7.3
Forest.................................................................................................................. 61
4.7.4
Release ............................................................................................................... 61
4.7.5
Rock .................................................................................................................... 62
4.7.6
Exercise how to run a simulation ....................................................................... 63
4.7.7
Scenario Preparation and Simulation Process ................................................... 67
Results ............................................................................................................................... 71
5.1
Statistic Mode.......................................................................................................... 71
5.1.1
Quantile Values .................................................................................................. 72
5.1.2
Statistic Vocabulary ............................................................................................ 73
5.2
Statistic Mode ............................................................................................................ 75
4
5.2.1
Summary Plot .................................................................................................... 78
5.2.2
Barrier Plot ......................................................................................................... 79
5.2.3
Number of Rocks ................................................................................................ 81
5.2.4
Number of Deposited Rocks............................................................................... 81
5.2.5
Reach probability ............................................................................................... 81
5.3
6
Trajectory Mode ........................................................................................................ 82
5.3.1
Open results in Trajectory Mode ....................................................................... 83
5.3.2
Visualize different parameters ........................................................................... 83
5.3.3
Working with trajectories .................................................................................. 86
5.3.4
Rock Trajectory XY Plot ...................................................................................... 88
5.3.5
Line profile.......................................................................................................... 89
5.3.6
Trajectory Data Log File ..................................................................................... 91
5.3.7
Rock trajectory animation .................................................................................. 92
5.3.8
Creating an image or a GIF animation................................................................ 92
References and further reading .................................................................................... 93
6.1
References ................................................................................................................ 93
6.2
Publications .............................................................................................................. 94
List of figures……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….96
List of tables.……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….99
5
CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION
1
Introduction
1.1 Motivation
Mitigation of natural hazards relies increasingly on numerical process models to predict the area
inundated by rapid geophysical mass movements. These movements include
•
•
•
•
•
snow avalanches,
torrent based debris flows and hillslope debris flows,
mudslides,
ice avalanches and glacier lake outbreaks
rockfalls and rock avalanches.
Process models are used by engineers to predict the speed and reach of these hazardous movements
in complex terrain. The preparation of hazard maps is a primary application. The models are
especially helpful when proposing technical mitigation measures, such as dams and embankments or
rockfall protection barriers. The models allow hazard engineers to optimize limited financial
resources by studying the influence of different hazard scenarios on defense options.
1.2 RAMMS
The RAMMS (RApid Mass Movements System) software system contains three process modules:
•
•
•
RAMMS::AVALANCHE
RAMMS::DEBRISFLOW
RAMMS::ROCKFALL
The RAMMS::AVALANCHE and RAMMS::DEBRISFLOW modules are designed for flow phenomena
containing fast moving particulate debris of snow and rocks. In the avalanche module, the interstitial
fluid is air, whereas in the debris flow module the interstitial fluid is mud. The RAMMS::AVALANCHE
and RAMMS::DEBRISFLOW models are used to calculate the motion of the movement from initiation
to runout in three-dimensional terrain. The models use depth-averaged equations and predict the
slope-parallel velocities and flow heights. This information is sufficient for most engineering
applications. Information in the slope-perpendicular direction (e.g. mass and velocity distribution) is
lost; however, this is seldom of practical interest. Both models require an accurate digital
representation of the terrain. Engineers specify initial conditions (location and size of the release
mass) and friction parameters, depending on terrain (e.g. roughness, vegetation) and material (e.g.
snow, ice or mud content of the debris flow).
The RAMMS::ROCKFALL module is used to study the rigid body motion of falling rocks. The model
predicts rock trajectories in general three-dimensional terrain. Rock trajectories are governed by the
interaction between the rock and ground. The model contains six primary state variables: three
translational speeds and three rotational velocities of the falling rock. From these, kinetic energy,
runout distance and jump heights can be derived. Generalized rock shapes are modeled. Rock
orientation and rotational speed are included in the rock/ground interaction. The RAMMS::ROCKFALL
module is therefore fundamentally different from the RAMMS::AVALANCHE and
RAMMS::DEBRISFLOW modules because it is based on hard-contact, rigid-body Lagrangian
6
CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION
mechanics, not Eulerian flow mechanics. It also differs from existing rockfall modules because the
rock/ground interaction is not governed entirely by simple rebound mechanics, but frictional
(dissipative) rock/ground interactions. These govern the onset of rock jumping. The
RAMMS::ROCKFALL module predicts all rigid-body motions – rock sliding, rolling, jumping and
skipping.
The RAMMS::ROCKFALL module was coupled to the same user-friendly visualization tool used in the
RAMMS::AVALANCHE and RAMMS::DEBRISFLOW modules. The visualization tool allows easy
preparation, execution, visualization and interpretation of simulations.
In all RAMMS modules, new constitutive models have been developed and implemented, thanks to
calibration and verification at full scale test sites such as St. Léonard/Walenstadt (rockfall,
mitigation measures), Vallée de la Sionne (snow avalanches) and Illgraben (debris flow). At present,
two new scientific RAMMS modules are under development: RAMMS::AVAL_EXTENDED and
RAMMS::DBF_EXTENDED.
The RAMMS web page http://ramms.slf.ch provides useful information such as a moderated
discussion forum, frequently asked questions (FAQ) or recent software updates. Please visit this web
page frequently to stay up to date.
1.3 RAMMS::ROCKFALL Model
The RAMMS::ROCKFALL model was developed by the Centre of Mechanics at the ETH Zurich and the
RAMMS program team of the WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche Research SLF. This joint project
was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (Grant: SNF 200021-19613). The Centre of
Mechanics was responsible for the development of the simulation code in close contact with
geological, geophysical and software engineering experts from the SLF/WSL to discuss modeling
issues specific to rockfall mechanics. The SLF/WSL calibrated and validated the simulation code and
provided rock shapes. The RAMMS program team of the SLF/WSL integrated the simulation code in
an extensive and easy-to-use graphical user interface (GUI). This manual describes the features of the
RAMMS program, allowing beginners to get started quickly as well as serving as a reference to
expert users.
1.4
Learning by doing
This manual provides an overview of RAMMS::ROCKFALL. Exercises exemplify different steps in
setting up and running a RAMMS simulation especially in Chapter 4 ‘Setting up a simulation’.
However, to get the most from the manual, we suggest reading it through while simultaneously
having the RAMMS program open, learning by doing. We assume RAMMS users to have a basic level
of familiarity with windows-based programs, commands and general computer terminology. We do
not describe the basics of windows management (such as resizing or minimizing). RAMMS windows,
click options and input masks are similar to other windows based programs and can be used,
closed, reduced or resized in the same way.
7
CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION
DISCLAIMER
RAMMS is intended to be used as a tool to support experienced users. The interpretation of the
simulation results has to be done by a rockfall expert who is familiar with the local as well as with the
topographic and geological situation of the investigation area. In no event shall SLF/WSL be liable for
any damage or lost profits arising, directly or indirectly, from the use of RAMMS. Swiss law applies.
Court of jurisdiction is Davos. If you encounter problems, please contact [email protected]
8
CHAPTER 2 : INSTALLATION AND SETUP
2
Installation and Setup
2.1 System requirements
We recommend the following minimum
RAMMS::ROCKFALL:
•
system
requirements
for
running
Operating System: Windows 7 (64-bit) or Windows 8 (or Windows Virtual Machine
VM)
•
•
•
RAM (memory): 2 GB (more recommended)
CPU: Intel Pentium 1 GHz (multi core recommended), only 64-bit supported!
Hard disk: ca. 185 MB
2.2 Installation
Please download the RAMMS::ROCKFALL setup file “ramms_rock_user_setup_64.zip” from
http://ramms.slf.ch (Downloads section). Please make sure that you have a 64-bit Windows system.
Direct download link: http://ramms.slf.ch/ramms/downloads/ramms_rock_user_setup_64.zip
Please do the following steps before beginning to install RAMMS:
•
•
•
•
•
Click on the path given above or copy the path to any browser. A window pops up and the
automatic download of the file ramms_rock_user_setup_64.zip starts after clicking Yes.
Unzip the file to a temporary location.
You must have Administrator privileges on the target machine. If you do not have such
privileges, the installer cannot modify the system configuration of the machine and the
installation will fail. Note that you do not need Administrator privileges to run RAMMS
afterwards.
Read first, install afterwards! Please read the whole installation process once, before you begin
the installation.
Start the file “ramms<version>_rock_user_setup_64.exe”.
9
CHAPTER 2 : INSTALLATION AND SETUP
Step 1: Welcome
The welcome dialog introduces you to the English setup program and will guide you through the
installation process. Click Next to continue.
Figure 2.1
Installation - welcome dialog window.
Step 2: Readme
Short introduction to RAMMS. Click Next to continue.
Figure 2.2
Installation - readme dialog window.
10
CHAPTER 2 : INSTALLATION AND SETUP
Step 3: Accepting the license agreement
Read the license agreement carefully and accept it by activating the check box in the lower left
corner. If you do not accept the license agreement, you are not able to proceed with the
installation. After accepting the license agreement, click Next to continue the installation.
Figure 2.3
Installation - license agreement dialog window.
Step 4: Select destination directory
Choose your destination directory. This dialog shows the amount of space available on your hard disk
and required for the installation. Click Next to start the installation process.
Figure 2.4
Installation - destination directory dialog window.
11
CHAPTER 2 : INSTALLATION AND SETUP
Step 5: Installing the files
RAMMS is copying the files to the destination location. The window shows the installation
progress.
Figure 2.5
Installation - installing files dialog window.
Step 6: Finished installing the files
RAMMS finished copying the files. Click Next to finish the installation process.
Figure 2.6
Installation - finished installing files dialog window.
12
CHAPTER 2 : INSTALLATION AND SETUP
Step 7: RAMMS installation finished!
RAMMS successfully finished the installation. Click Finish.
Figure 2.7
Installation - finished installation dialog window.
Step 8: Welcome to IDL Visual Studio Merge Modules
To ensure that all important system libraries are installed on your target machine follow the
instructions below:
The welcome dialog introduces you to the English setup program and will guide you through the
installation process of the IDL Visual Studio Merge Modules. Click Next to continue.
Figure 2.8
IDL Visual Studio Merge Modules - welcome dialog window.
13
CHAPTER 2 : INSTALLATION AND SETUP
Step 9: Ready to install the program
Click Next to continue.
Figure 2.9
IDL Visual Studio Merge Modules - ready to install the program.
Step 10: Installing IDL Visual Studio Merge Modules
The wizard is installing the files. Please wait until it is finished.
Figure 2.10
IDL Visual Studio Merge Modules - installing...
14
CHAPTER 2 : INSTALLATION AND SETUP
Step 11: InstallShield Wizard Completed
The wizard completed the installation. Click Finish.
Figure 2.11
Installation - destination directory dialog window.
After having successfully installed RAMMS and the necessary files on your personal computer, you
will notice the RAMMS icon on your desktop (for all users):
Figure 2.12
RAMMS icon.
Additionally, a new application folder is created in Start → Programs (for all users):
• RAMMS Rockfall → Run RAMMS Rockfall
• RAMMS Rockfall → Uninstall RAMMS Rockfall
Figure 2.13
RAMMS program group
15
CHAPTER 2 : INSTALLATION AND SETUP
2.3 Licensing
Access to RAMMS is controlled by a personal use license. Personal use licenses are time limited
licenses tied to a single personal computer. This method of licensing requires a machine’s unique
host ID to be incorporated into a license request file. After the license request file is sent to
SLF/WSL, you will receive a license key. Entering the license key on a personal computer enables
full RAMMS functionality for the specific personal computer. For more information please visit
http://ramms.slf.ch.
Double-click the RAMMS icon or use Start → Programs → RAMMS Rockfall → Run RAMMS
Rockfall to start RAMMS for the first time. Whenever you start RAMMS, the splash screen below
will pop up:
Figure 2.14
RAMMS start window.
Click on the image. It will disappear and RAMMS will start up. The following dialog window appears:
Figure 2.15
RAMMS licensing window
2.3.1 Personal license request file
Click the button
to create your personal license request file. In Figure 2.16 enter your full
name and the name of your company.
16
CHAPTER 2 : INSTALLATION AND SETUP
Figure 2.16
Enter user name and company name.
In the next dialog window, choose the destination directory of your personal license request file and
save it to your target machine. Your personal license request file should look similar to Figure 2.17.
Figure 2.17
2.3.2
Personal license request file RAMMS_ROCK_request_Muster.txt
Getting the personal license key
You find an order form on the RAMMS web page (Order Form or Demo Order Form) at
http://ramms.slf.ch. Fill in all your personal information, choose the license period, license type
and number of licenses you wish to order, attach your personal license request file(s), accept the
license agreement and click Submit Order.
An order confirmation email is sent to your email address. We then process your order and send
you an invoice. As soon as we received your payment, we will send you your personal license key.
Your personal license key is named similar to ROCK_Muster_Test_RAMMS.txt. Open the file in a
text editor. It should look similar to Figure 2.18.
Figure 2.18
Personal license key file RAMMS_license_Muster Test.txt
17
CHAPTER 2 : INSTALLATION AND SETUP
Now, restart RAMMS (as explained before). The IDL splash screen appears (Figure 2.14) and then
the dialog window of Figure 2.15 shows up (RAMMS - Licensing). Copy the license key (in this
example: ROCKFALL ebei-flhl-ilkq-behe-1i5m) and paste it at the field LICENCE KEY (see Figure
2.15). Notice that there might be the prefix ROCKFALL. This prefix is part of the license key and
has to be inserted as well! If RAMMS accepts your installation key, you successfully finished the
installation.
2.4 Update
When you start RAMMS it will automatically check for updates on the internet. This can lead to an
error message, if your firewall blocks the executable idlrt.exe (this file starts the IDL-Virtual Machine
you need to run RAMMS). Please unblock this file for your firewall. You can also disable the
AutoWebUpdate-function by unchecking Help → Advanced... → AutoWebUpdate. In the same way
you can enable the AutoWebUpdate-function by checking Help → Advanced... → AutoWebUpdate.
18
CHAPTER 3 : THEORY
3
Theory
3.1 Overview
The RAMMS::ROCKFALL model utilizes a hard- contact, rigid-body approach to model rockfall
trajectories in general three-dimensional terrain (Leine et al., 2013). The program is designed to be
used by hazard engineers to predict rockfall velocity and runout for hazard mapping and planning of
rockfall mitigation measures. The calculation engine and user interface were developed as part of a
joint research project between the WSL Institute for Snow and Avalanche SLF and the Institute of
Mechanics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETHZ) between the years 2010-2013. The rockfall
model is the third RAMMS module, following the RAMMS::AVALANCHE and RAMMS::DEBRISFLOW
modules and offers many of the same user-friendly features. The RAMMS::ROCKFALL model was
officially released after a period of calibration and application testing in April, 2015.
To date most rockfall models utilize simple rebound mechanics to describe the complex interaction
between the rock and the ground (Bourrier et al. 2012; Dorren 2003; Dorren and Seijmonsbergen
2003; Schweizer 2015, Volkwein et al. 2011). Rock geometries consisted of simplified shapes, mostly
spheres or ellipsoids. The rock-ground interaction was parameterized using apparent restitution
coefficients to model the rock jumping. To account for the wide variation of possible jump distances
and heights (even in homogenous terrain, see Glover 2015), random, stochastic methods were used
to define the bandwidth of possible restitution coefficients. Rockfall modeling was therefore both
quasi-deterministic and quasi-stochastic.
In RAMMS the rock-ground interaction is parameterized by frictional operators that act at the rock
surface. Compared to rebound models (that employ apparent restitution coefficients to model
entire ground-rock interaction), the hard-contact, rigid-body approach applies contact forces to the
rock’s edges and corner points. The primary advantage of using hard-contact approach is that the
role of rock shape is accounted for in the ground-rock interaction. This facilitates a natural modeling
of the four primary modes of rock motion: sliding, rolling, skipping and jumping – without the use of
random, stochastic methods to define the rebound parameters. All four modes of rock propagation
are modeled in RAMMS. Long and widespread rock runout is generally associated with the jumping
mode; however, rock stopping requires a transition from jumping to a rolling/sliding mode.
Modelling all four modes is essential for a realistic, self-consistent and risk-based rockfall hazard
analysis. The natural variation of jumps is defined automatically by the rock shape and orientation at
impact. The statistical spread of rockfall runout and dispersion is generated only by changing the
initial conditions. Ground parameters are not random: they are deterministic in the sense that one
material type is assigned to describe hardness and the general tendency of the terrain to react to a
rock impact. In RAMMS the clear separation between stochastic initial conditions and deterministic
boundary conditions simplifies and enhances the construction of engineering based hazard scenarios
and the interpretation of model results. At present, the RAMMS rockfall model contains six ground
categories: soft, medium soft, medium, medium hard and hard. A seventh category snow has been
introduced to model rockfall motion on snow in high mountain terrain.
Applying RAMMS to a rockfall problem necessitates that rocks of different shapes and sizes can be
easily specified. In RAMMS::ROCKFALL the rock-body is modelled as a convex hull polyhedron. The
19
CHAPTER 3 : THEORY
shape of rock bodies are user defined by providing a point cloud, defining the surface geometry of
the rock. Shapes can be simple geometric forms, such as equant, platy or columnar. A unique
feature of RAMMS is that real rock geometries obtained from laser scans during field investigations
can be used in a modeling application. Over time, the user can build-up and manage a rockfall library
containing rock shapes representative of different geologic settings. At present, the rocks are
considered indestructible; that is, they do not fragment or change form during the analysis.
Over and above weathering processes, the geometric relationships of rock-mass discontinuities
(joints, fractures, contacts, bedding, asperities and schistosity) govern block shape, size and
release mechanism (Jaboyedoff, 2011). With RAMMS::ROCKFALL preconditioning the shape and
size and number of possible release orientations of detachable rocks is an essential part of the
analysis. The observation that different basic geological settings produce characteristic rock shapes
has been well documented by Fityus et al. 2013, among others. Some commonly encountered rock
shapes and the associated geological setting are given below (Figure 3.1).
Figure 3.1: Photographs of rock masses and their aggregate forms. Top left: An example of equant
cubic rock forms generated in a sequence of sandstones exposed to an extensional deformation
regime, the primary joint sets are near equally spaced and orthogonal to one another. Topright:
The complex joint of this granodioritic rock mass result in highly irregular and angular rock block
forms. Bottom left: The uplifted and folded limestone sequence is well bedded producing
distinguished slabs which detach as pronounced platy rock forms. Bottom right: Distinguished
columnar jointed basalt sequence produces the characteristic elongate rock forms (Glover 2015).
The specification of general rock geometries will be discussed in the next section 3.2.
Another feature of the RAMMS::ROCKFALL model is the inclusion of rock rotations in both the
airborne phase and during the interaction with the ground. The RAMMS::ROCKFALL model includes
20
CHAPTER 3 : THEORY
gyroscopic forces induced by rock rotations. These forces are necessary to model wheel-like rock
skipping and jumping modes that are often responsible for extreme runout. To model ground
interaction considering rocks with arbitrary geometry and rotational speed requires methods to
accurately track the rock orientation relative to the ground. RAMMS::ROCKFALL employs quaternion
algebra for this purpose. This method tracks rotation sequences even when non-linear contact forces
change the translational and rotational direction of the rock. Modelling the rock-ground contacts in
this way permits the entire mechanics of an impact to be simulated deterministically. The moment
arms and torques responsible for how different rock-shapes convert translational movement into
angular momentum and influence rebound heights are computed, and therefore allows an
accurate modeling of rolling, skipping, sliding and jumping.
The three-dimensional motion equations including rock rotations and gyroscopic forces will be
presented in section 3.3.
Complex mountain terrain is modelled using a high resolution digital elevation model (DEM). The
specification of the DEM will be discussed in more detail in section 3.10.
3 . 2 Modelling Rock Shape
Rock bodies are introduced into the simulation domain coordinate frame with origin (O) as a cloud of
points based in a coordinate system of their own with origin (K). The coordinate frame (K) serves to
map the rotations of the rock-body. Points are given in x, y, z format as *.pts files, and can be
artificially generated or gathered from a laser scan of rock deposits (Figure 3.1 and Figure 3.2). A
convex hull of the rock-body’s point cloud is created, in doing so an entirely convex body is created;
concavities are closed over in the process. The next step is to calculate the center-of-mass of the
body, for which the density is assumed homogeneous. Finally the inertial tensor of the body is
calculated finding the three principal moments of inertia; the origin is the rock’s gravity center
(S). The translations of the rock-body in the simulation domain are mapped using coordinate
frame S in relation to O (Figure 3.3). The rock’s mass m is given from its volume calculated from
the convex hull of the point cloud and a density ρ which is user defined (typically 2700 kg m−3 ).
The rock has three translational (linear momentum) and three rotational degrees of freedom
(spin) to describe the rocks mass center position qT = ( X , Y , Z ) any time t in the terrain
coordinate frame O . Rotational motions capture the orientation of the rock’s external geometry
in space. At time t = 0 the rock is released from position q0 = ( X 0 , Y0 , Z 0 ) , which, of course, must
T
be located some distance above the terrain Z 0 > Z m , and thus the release height h0 is
h0 = Z 0 − Z m .
21
CHAPTER 3 : THEORY
Figure 3.2: Laser scans of real rocks are captured in the field. The point cloud representing the
rocks geometry are then used by the rockfall model to create a convex-hull polyhedron
representative of the rock-body.
Figure 3.3: Rock is generated from a point cloud and converted into a rigid-body polyhedral.
22
CHAPTER 3 : THEORY
3.3 Free Flight Motion with Gravity and Gyroscopic Forces
In free flight, the governing equation of motion is (see Leine et al., 2013)
Mu − h(q, u ) = 0
(3.1)
where M is the constant and diagonal mass matrix (containing the mass and three moments
of inertia I ). The vector u contains the rock’s three translational and three rotational velocities.
The rock-body’s motion is governed by a number of forces which can determine its trajectory.
Gravitational force (Fg) acts globally; a drag force (D) is implemented to represent the effects of
trees, undergrowth and soil deformation. Along with gyroscopic forces G which can cause rocks
of irregular shape to become upright and rotate about a rolling axis. All force terms h are a
function of the rock’s position q and velocity u forming the force vector h:
F + D
h ( q, u ) =  g

 G 
(3.2)
3.4 Contact forces
On contact detection between the rock-body and the terrain, contact forces λ and frictional
contact forces (Fc ) act about the point of contact. These forces can be considered as external
forces that change the direction of the falling rock.
The contact of the rigid rock-body is detected by continually measuring the vertical gap length
g N between the rock-body’s corner points (P) and the terrain projections (Q) (Figure 3.4). The
gap length is defined as
g N ( X , Y , Z ) = Z − Z m ( X m. , Ym )
(3.3)
Then, when g N > 0 there is no contact; when g N ≤ 0 there is contact and the contact forces λ ,
acting at the contact point P, are computed. (The contact forces are denoted using the Greek letter
lambda because the contact forces are Lagrangian multipliers that enforce the non-penetration
constraint). Minimal penetration with the terrain is permitted to allow the assessment of the contact
condition (Eq. 3.3).This is a non-physical penetration and purely for numerical purposes.
Contact forces are modeled as hard unilateral constraints with Coulomb friction using nonsmooth contact dynamics approaches (see Acary and Brogliato, 2008, Glocker, 2001 and
Moreau, 1988). For the case of contact, the governing equations of motion now become
Mu − h(q, u ) = λW (q )
(3.4)
23
CHAPTER 3 : THEORY
where the direction of the contact forces is given by W (q ) . There can be a number of active
contact forces depending on the rock-body’s configuration at the point of contact. Ultimately it is
the combination of these forces λ (and force directions W (q ) ) that allows the complex
rotations and trajectory deviations that are inherent to rockfall to be simulated.
Figure 3.4: Contact detection. Definition of gap length, gN.
The advantage of this hard-contact rigid-body approach is that the contact forces are applied
directly about these contact points, respecting the configuration (orientation and kinetics) of the
impact. This is achieved by considering the contact pair (Q, P) within the contact frame C = (n,t1 ,
t2 ) which is attached to the terrain surface at contact point Q (Figure 3.5).
3.5 Friction forces
The contact frame C has a normal contact force component λN and two tangential components
λT1 , λT2 . The contact force λN guarantees the unilaterality of the contact, i.e. the non- penetration
constraint. The tangential force components are due to Coulomb friction and are governed by
the contact laws.
24
CHAPTER 3 : THEORY
Figure 3.5: Contact frame C at point Q detected with the gap function gN.
The normal force component λN is resolved with a contact cone differential inclusion in which the
transient normal force vector over the finite contact period can be computed. Over the contact
period this is a set-valued normal force considering all periods of contact identified with the gap
function gN.
The tangential force component λT is assumed to obey spatial Coulomb’s friction law (see Figure
3.6). Stiction of the contact γT = 0 occurs so long as the magnitude of the tangential force ‖𝑘𝑘𝑇‖
is less than µλN in which λN is the applied normal force and µ the friction coefficient. The direction
is also resolved with a normal cone inclusion projecting a friction disc on to the surface (Figure
3.6). The formulation covers both sticking and sliding cases.
3.6 Impulsive forces (Rebound)
Impulsive contact forces occur whenever the gap function detects contact with negative velocity
𝛾𝑁− < 0 that is to say that the point would theoretically move through the terrain surface if not
treated with the impulsive contact force. This requires a velocity jump such that the post impact
normal velocity is non-negative 𝛾𝑁+ < 0. This impact law is based on Newtonian impact law in which
the relative normal velocities of the contact pair before and after impact are governed by 𝜀𝑁 the
normal restitution coefficient. 𝜀𝑁 = 1 corresponds to complete restitution of normal velocity while a
smaller 𝜀𝑁 dissipates energy. Generally speaking this value is set very low. Newton’s action-reaction
law is always fulfilled.
25
CHAPTER 3 : THEORY
Figure 3.6: Friction forces at the contact point.
γ N+ + εγ N− = 0
(3.5)
Impulsive normal forces can also induce impulsive tangential forces. While this is mainly seen in
the elastic impacts of superballs (Cross, 1999), and therefore in the rockfall model εT is set at εT
= 0 since these effects are absent.
To determine the resultant force direction acting on the rock-body the configuration of the
impact must be computed. This requires finding the relative velocity between the contact points
P and the terrain Q. Importantly, the velocity of contact point P is composed of the translational
velocity with respect to the body’s center of mass vS and its angular velocity KΩ in the fixed body
frame (K); for which P also has a fixed position vector relative to the center of mass S. That is, the
contact algorithm in the rigid-body approach considers the rotational speed of the rock at
contact. Because the forces are then applied at points away from the center of mass, and with a
direction respecting the impact configuration, to a body with three degrees of translational and
rotational freedom, torques and moment arms can act generating rotations and rebounds that
represent the true mechanics of an impact.
3.7 Contact Friction and Drag
Two physically different forces oppose the motion of a falling rock: sliding friction and drag.
Sliding friction acts at points of the rock’s surface that are in contact with the ground; it is
Coulomb-type friction associated with the distance the rock slides on the ground. When the
rock is no longer in contact, this friction no longer acts. However, because this friction acts on a
point on the rock’s surface, it will generate torques that initiates rotational movements. The
parameterization of the friction force is of great importance because it controls when the rock
26
CHAPTER 3 : THEORY
slides, rolls or jumps. Drag, on the other hand, acts at the rock’s center of mass and therefore
creates no additional rotational moments. It acts in the direction opposite to the rocks
movement (velocity). There are two drag forces in the RAMMS::ROCKFALL model. The first
accounts for vegetation drag; the second accounts for the viscoplastic drag due to terrain
deformation during ground contact.
3.7.1 Coulomb Friction and Slippage
The mechanical contact law considers hard contacts between the rigid-body and the terrain. In
principle, this is only representative of extremely hard rock-on-rock contacts. In reality rockground interaction occurs on a range of different materials with differing deformation
properties. In an extreme case, the rock contact can be with soft soils that easily deforms
under contact. In such contacts there is a compliance of the soft soil terrain and a degree of
penetration and sliding of the rock-body as it ploughs into the earth cover accumulating
material behind it leaving behind distinctive impact scars in the terrain (Figure 3.7).
Figure 3.7: Rock impact scar on soft soil; the scar morphology is tapered widening towards the
accumulation of earth at the scar end were an earth ramp structure is formed. This is modeled
as a climbing friction from the beginning of the scar s = 0 at first contact which tends towards
high friction at the end of the scar.
To simulate ground deformation within the framework of a hard contact model requires
introducing a slip (s) dependent friction that acts during sliding and accounts for the increase in
friction due to material accumulation behind the rock- body as it slides through the impact
(Figure 3.7 and Figure 3.8). The slip dependent friction is an extension of the Coulomb friction
model in which the friction value µ is made dependent on the slip distance (s) travelled by the
center of mass µ(s) (Figure 3.8).
27
CHAPTER 3 : THEORY
Figure 3.8: Sliding friction in RAMMS is governed by a slip-dependent material law. At rock impact
slip is s=0 and sliding friction is given by µmin; with s>0, friction increases according to the
coefficient κ. At some point s the maximum friction µmax is reached. After contact, the friction
exponentially decreases with coefficient β. Therefore β describes the duration of the friction as the
rock is leaving the scar (ramping).
Moreover,
λT = µ ( s)λ N
(3.6)
force λN enforces the non-penetrability constraint; the force λT acts tangentially on the terrain
surface (see Figure 3.6). The dependence of the friction coefficient on the slip distance (s) is:
m ( s ) = m min +
2
π
( m min − m max ) arctan(κs )
(3.7)
where µmin, µmax and κ are parameters of the friction model. The initial friction encountered at the
contact where s = 0 is µmin. Over the slip period, µ tends toward µmax for large slip values, see
Figure 3.8. The parameter κ controls how quickly the friction increases from µmin to µmax. Typically
µmin < µmax meaning that the friction increases the longer the rock is in contact with the ground.
It is entirely possible that there are brittle ground materials where the opposite behavior (µmax
> µmin) is encountered.
28
CHAPTER 3 : THEORY
The slip distance (s) is a transition state variable having a time evolution which is described by a
simple differential equation:
 v
s =  s
− β s
if g N ≤ 0
gN > 0
(3.8)
The parameter β controls how quickly the friction is released as the rock departs the ground scar.
If β is large, friction is immediately removed as the rock moves away from the ground. Conversely,
when β is small, sliding friction can act, even after the rock is no longer in contact with the ground.
The parameter β is linked to the penetration depth of the rock into the ground. Larger
penetration depths (softer materials) are associated with smaller β values.
3.7.2 Viscoplastic Ground Drag
An additional slip dependent drag force is introduced to account for the viscoplastic deformation
that occurs in soft soils under rock impact. Large viscoplastic deformations are also encountered in
harder substrate materials such as scree, where rubbing between scree granules dissipates energy.
Viscoplastic ground drag is given by:
Fv = −
m
C v v s2
2
(3.9)
Ground drag acts when the rock is in contact with the ground (gN < 0) as the rock is sliding on
the terrain surface (s > 0). The drag force Fv is proportional to the square of the rock velocity
v s2 as well as the mass of the rock m . That is, heavier and faster moving rocks will experience
more drag than smaller, slower moving rocks, as they penetrate the ground surface. The drag force
is proportional to the rock’s total kinetic energy. The drag coefficient Cv varies between 0.0 m-1
(hard) and 1.0 m-1 (soft).
29
CHAPTER 3 : THEORY
3.8 Forest/Vegetation
Forest drag is given by (Figure 3.9):
Fdf = −C f v s
θ if Z ≤ Z h
Cf =  f
 0 Z > Zh
(3.10)
The idea behind forest drag is that a resisting force acts on the rock’s center of mass when it is
located below the drag layer height Zh. This force is linearly proportional to the rock velocity v s . The
forest is parameterized by the effective height of the vegetation layer Zh as well as the drag
coefficient θ f . The effective height Zh roughly corresponds to the height of the forest but in some
cases, for example old forests, the drag force in the tree crowns might be negligible and therefore
the effective height could be smaller than the real tree height. The model does not account for a Zdependency in forest structure as it assumes a homogeneous layer with mean drag properties.
Typical values for Zh are between 5 m and 30 m (default value is 30m); typical values for θ f range
between 100 kg/s and 1’000 kg/s. Three different forest types are implemented in
RAMMS::ROCKFALL for now:
•
•
•
Open Forest  20 m2/ha  forest drag = 250 kg/s
Medium Forest  35 m2/ha  forest drag = 500 kg/s
Dense Forest  50 m2/ha  forest drag = 750 kg/s
This model description is a simplified summary of a more complete and detailed explanation
provided by Leine et al. (2013) in which the time stepping methods are also explained. While it is
possible with the rigid-body approach to model multi-body interaction of many particles, and it
would be possible to include a fragmentation law in the model, these features are not yet
implemented in the model and remain as future additions to the model.
30
CHAPTER 3 : THEORY
Figure 3.9: Forest drag
Fdf is implemented to act on the center of gravity of the rock-body at
height Z.
3.9 Terrain Material
The terrain material has considerable influence on the simulation result. Shapefiles are used to
delimit terrain areas with specific terrain materials. Eight predefined terrain categories are listed in
Table 3.1. These are:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Extra Soft
Soft
Medium Soft
Medium
Medium Hard
Hard
Extra Hard
Snow
31
CHAPTER 3 : THEORY
Selection of the appropriate terrain material model is the primary task of the hazard engineer when
using RAMMS. If there is uncertainty about the specific terrain material we recommend the user to
compare the results of different terrain scenarios. Please consider the examples in Table 3.1 as a
preliminary suggestion.
Table 3.1: Ground Categories in RAMMS::ROCKFALL
Category
Picture
Description
Example
Extra Soft
Very wet ground.
Cannot cross
without deep sinkin. No high
vegetation.
Moor, turf, gley
Soft
Soft ground with
many deep soil
layers. Ground
contains no large
rock fragments.
Often very moist.
Foot inundations
remain and are
visible. Wet and
deep surface soil.
Moist meadow
Medium Soft
Rocks penetrate
meadow surface
leaving impact
scars. Soil is deep,
few rock
fragments. Rank
vegetation.
Meadow
32
CHAPTER 3 : THEORY
Medium
Medium Hard
Hard
Meadow is deep,
but contains rock
fragments. The
meadow can be
covered with
vegetation. Soil
structure of a
medium deepness.
Rank vegetation.
Penetration depths
are small. Ground
is flat. Rocky
debris is present.
Shallow surface
soil. Usually little
(initial) vegetation.
Rocks jump over
ground. Mixture of
large and small
rocks. Usually
without any
vegetation.
Meadow
Non-paved
mountain roads,
mountain
meadow, pebble
Rock scree,
pebble, coarse
rock, paved roads
33
CHAPTER 3 : THEORY
Ground is very hard
and is marginally
deformed by rocks.
No vegetation and
no surface soil.
Extra Hard
Bedrock, cliff
Rocks slide on
snow surface.
Snow
Snow
The used parameters for every terrain material are explained in the table below:
Table 3.2: Ground parameters default values.
Terrain
Mu_Min
Mu_Max
Beta
Kappa
Epsilon
Drag
Extra Soft
0.2
2
50
1
0
0.9
Soft
0.25
2
100
1.25
0
0.8
Medium Soft
0.3
2
125
1.5
0
0.7
Medium
0.35
2
150
2
0
0.6
Medium Hard
0.4
2
175
2.5
0
0.5
Hard
0.55
2
185
3
0
0.4
Extra Hard
0.8
2
200
4
0
0.3
Snow
0.1
0.35
150
2
0
0.7
34
CHAPTER 3 : THEORY
With this deterministic modeling approach, the influences of rock-shape on the dynamics and
persistence of runout can be simulated. This is important because the model is highly sensitive to
rock shape, which in the case of rebound approaches has to be treated with stochastic methods
(Bourrier et al., 2009). The role of rock-shape in runout dynamics is crucial in determining the
rotational and rebound behavior. For specific rock-shapes characteristic of geological zones,
distinctive runout behavior such as extreme jump heights and runout distances are observed.
Dynamics of this kind are decisive for hazard mapping and rockfall protection structures; and with
full three-dimensional data of rock position, velocities, rotations and energies (see Table 3.3 for a
full list), rockfall management and the design of protection structures can be optimized. The
listed data (Table 3.3) are available as *.log files which can be generated from simulations. The
application of rigid-body theory to rockfall modeling has advanced the capacity to include detailed
and hazard specific information on rock-shapes and sizes. This allows the inclusion of lithology and
geological setting to establish realistic initial conditions for a hazard simulation.
Table 3.3: RAMMS::ROCKFALL dynamic data.
Data symbol
Description
Units
t
time
s
x
X coordinate CoM (CoM = Center of mass)
m
y
Y coordinate CoM
m
z
Z coordinate CoM
m
p0
Quarternion
p1
Quarternion
p2
Quarternion
p3
Quarternion
vx
Velocity (X) CoM
ms−1
vy
Velocity (Y) CoM
ms−1
vz
Velocity (Z) CoM
ms−1
wx
Angular velocity about inertial axis (X)
rot · s−1
wy
Angular velocity about inertial axis (Y)
rot · s−1
wz
Angular velocity about inertial axis (Z)
rot · s−1
Etot
Total energy
including
potential energy
with
kJ
respects to the lowest point in simulation domain
Ekin
Total kinetic energy
kJ
Ekintrans
Translational kinetic energy
kJ
Ekinrot
Angular kinetic energy
kJ
zt
Height position of lowest point on rock-body’s
m
Fn
surface
Normal contact force
kN
Ft
Tangential contact force
kN
Slippage
Slippage distance
m
µs
Coulomb friction value
µ = tanθ
vres
Absolute velocity
ms−1
wres
Absolute angular velocity
rot · s−1
jumpH
Jump height, plumb-vertical distance of CoM to
m
projDist
the terrain surface
Projected distance traced over ground from release
m
point
35
CHAPTER 3 : THEORY
Data symbol
Description
Units
Jc
Distance to the center of SD
m
J HJ c
Distance between SD at Jc to CoM
m
SD
Distance between two impacts
m
3.10 Terrain Model
The RAMMS::ROCKFALL model simulates the trajectories of falling rocks in three-dimensional
terrain using a high-resolution digital elevation model. The terrain coordinate system is taken
as the simulation frame O. Terrain elevation Zm is specified for each coordinate pair (Xm , Ym ),
for which four coordinate pairs define the vertices of planes constructing the tessellated terrain
surface (Figure 3.10). The planes are flat, while their orientation is different because the Zm elevation of each coordinate pair can differ. The distance between coordinates (Xm , Ym ) defines
the model terrain resolution and therefore the accuracy with which the terrain morphology is
represented. Typically, a resolution between 1 m and 10 m is employed for simulations, as this
accurately models important terrain features such as gullies and cliffs. The properties of each
plane can be varied to take into account variable surface properties, such as hardness and
roughness. For example, forests are defined to be planes with enhanced drag.
Figure 3.10: High resolution three dimensional terrain model, forms simulation frame O in
which the four sided planes form the tessellated terrain surface with which the rock-body can
come into contact with.
36
CHAPTER 4 : SETTING UP A SIMULATION
4
Setting up a simulation
4.1 Preparations
To successfully start a new RAMMS project, a few important preparations are necessary.
Topographic input data (DEM in ASCII format), project boundary coordinates and georeferenced
maps or remote sensing imagery should be prepared in advance (.tif format and .tfw-file, maps
and imagery are not mandatory, but nice to have). Georeferenced datasets have to be in the same
Cartesian coordinate system (e.g. Swiss CH1903 LV03) as the DEM. Polar coordinate systems in
degree (e.g. WGS84 Longitude Latitude) are not supported. For more information about specific
national coordinate systems please contact the national topographic agency in your country.
4.1.1 Topographic data - Digital Elevation Model (DEM)
The topographic data is the most important input requirement. How a rock moves (i.e. final
runout distance, jump heights, translational and rotational velocities and total energy content of
the rock) is strongly influenced by the interaction with the terrain. Therefore the simulation results
depend strongly on the resolution and accuracy of the topographic input data. We recommend a
DEM resolution of 5 m or better for meaningful rockfall simulations in complex terrain. However if
such high spatial resolution DEM data is not available, the user has to keep in mind that important
terrain features may not be correctly represented by the DEM. This can lead to unrealistic simulation
results. Before you start a simulation make sure all important terrain features are represented in
the input DEM. RAMMS is able to process the following topographic data:
•
•
ESRI ASCII grid (Figure 4.1)
ASCII X, Y, Z single space data (Figure 4.2)
These data types are also available e.g. from www.swisstopo.ch. Because RAMMS needs the
topographic data as an ESRI ASCII grid, ASCII X, Y, Z data can be converted within RAMMS into an
ESRI ASCII grid. At this stage no other data types are processable. The user must therefore prepare
the topographic data according to this limitation. The header of an ESRI ASCII grid must contain the
information shown in Figure 4.1.
Figure 4.1 Example ESRI ASCII grid.
Figure 4.2 Example ASCII X, Y, Z single space
data.
37
CHAPTER 4 : SETTING UP A SIMULATION
Conversion into ESRI ASCII grid
An ESRI ASCII grid can be created in ArcGIS with the function ArcToolbox → Conversion Tools →
From Raster → Raster to ASCII. In RAMMS it is possible to import ASCII X, Y, Z single space data and
convert the data into an ESRI ASCII grid (using Track → New... → Convert XYZ to ASCII Grid ).
4.1.2 Project and Scenarios
A project is defined for a region of interest. Within a project, one or more scenarios can be
specified and analyzed. For every scenario, a calculation can be executed. A project consists
therefore of different scenarios (input files) with different input parameter files (release and
friction files). The basic topographic input data is the same for every scenario. If you want to
change the topographic input data (e.g. change the input DEM resolution or the project
boundary coordinates) you have to create a new project. Other input parameters (like rock shape,
surface information, end time, time step etc.) can be changed for every scenario.
Figure 4.3 The same project extent (area of interest) can be used to calculate different scenarios
with different input parameters.
4.2 Preferences
To ease the file handling we recommend setting the preferences prior to start with simulations. The
preferences set the path to the working directory and the necessary files such as DEM, maps and
orthoimagery. If the path to the maps and the imagery files is set correctly in the preferences,
RAMMS will automatically open the georeferenced data when you generate a project.
Use Track → Preferences to open the RAMMS preferences window or click the button
resetting the general preferences use Help → Advanced… → Reset General Preferences.
. For
38
CHAPTER 4 : SETTING UP A SIMULATION
Figure 4.4 General tab of RAMMS
preferences.
Figure 4.5 Rockfall tab of RAMMS
preferences.
General Tab
Setting
Purpose
Working Directory
Set your working directory VERY IMPORTANT: DO NOT USE BLANKS
in the working directory path!
Set the folder where you place your georeferenced digital maps
(consists of a .tif file and a corresponding .twf file (world-file).
Set the folder where you place your digital georeferenced
orthophotos (aerial picture, consists of a .tif file and a corresponding
.twf file (world-file).
Set the folder where you place the Digital Elevation Models (format
ASCII grid)
Map Directory
Orthophoto Directory
DEM Directory
Rockfall Tab
Setting
Purpose
Nr of Colorbar Colors
Set default number of colorbar colors.
Rock Magnification *X
GIF-Animation Interval [s]
Set values between 1 and 100 for magnification of the rock size in
the visualization.
Set interval for GIF animation images in seconds.
Background Color
Set background color.
Animation Delay [s]
Set animation delay to the animation speed.
The following exercise Working directory shows how to choose a new working directory. All further
settings can be changed in a similar manner. The settings are saved, until they are changed again
manually.
39
CHAPTER 4 : SETTING UP A SIMULATION
Exercise 4.1 : Working directory
Choosing the right working directory is very useful and saves a lot of time searching for files and
folders.
VERY IMPORTANT: Do NOT use blanks or special characters in the path names!
•
•
Click
(or use Track → Preferences or Ctrl+P) to open the RAMMS preferences window.
Click into the field Working directory. A window pops up where you can choose your new
working directory. Click OK in both windows. Do this also for other directories if necessary.
Figure 4.6 RAMMS preferences
Figure 4.7 Browse for the correct folder.
40
CHAPTER 4 : SETTING UP A SIMULATION
4.3 Creating a new project
A new project is created with the RAMMS Project Wizard, shown in the exercise below. The
Wizard consists of four steps:
Exercise 4.2: How to create a new project
•
•
Click
or Track → New... → Project Wizard to open the RAMMS Project Wizard.
The following window pops up.
Figure 4.8 RAMMS Rockfall Project Wizard Step 1 of 4
41
CHAPTER 4 : SETTING UP A SIMULATION
Continuation of exercise 4.2: How to create a new project
Step 1:
• Enter a project name (1)
• Add some project details (2)
• The project location (3) suggested is the current working directory. To change the location
click into the Location field. A second window appears and you can browse for a different
folder (see figure below, VERY IMPORTANT: Do NOT use BLANKS or special characters in
the project location path!).
• Click Next (4)
Figure 4.9 Step 1 of the RAMMS Project Wizard
Project Information.
Figure 4.10 Window to browse for a new project
location.
Step 2:
• Click into the Select DEM-file field to
browse for the DEM file. Locate your
DEM file in the folder set in the RAMMS
preferences.
• The Grid Resolution field shows you the
dimension of a single grid cell.
• Click Next.
Figure 4.11 Step 2 of the RAMMS Project
Wizard: GIS Information.
42
CHAPTER 4 : SETTING UP A SIMULATION
Continuation of exercise 4.2: How to create a new project
Step 3:
Enter the X- and Y-coordinates of the lower left and upper right corner of your project area,
using the Swiss Coordinate System CH1903 LV03 (or another Cartesian coordinate system), as it is
shown below for the Vallée de la Sionne area.
Figure 4.12 Project coordinates: lower left and
upper right corner of project area.
Figure 4.13 Step 3 of the RAMMS Project
Wizard: Project Boundary Coordinates.
Step 4:
• Check the project summary, especially if
a DEM-file was found.
• To make changes click Previous, to
create the project click Create Project.
• If several matching .tif-files exist,
RAMMS shows a list with all these files.
Figure 4.14 Step 4 of the RAMMS Project
Wizard: Project Summary.
Project creation:
The creation process can take a while. Different status bars will pop up and show the progress of
the project creation process.
43
CHAPTER 4 : SETTING UP A SIMULATION
The following files will be created in the project folder.
Figure 4.15: Files and directories created with a new RAMMS::ROCKFALL project.
Table 4.1: Listing of files and directories created with a new RAMMS::ROCKFALL project.
File / Folder
Purpose
doc (folder)
Folder containing input and output log files
logfiles (folder)
Project creation and calculation log files
output (folder)
Folder containing calculated scenarios
rocks (folder)
Folder to save rock files (.pts)
dhm.asc
ASCII grid with altitude values
dhm.sav
Internal binary file containing DEM information
slope.asc
Calculated slope angles of DEM
curvidl.asc
Calculated planar curvatures of DEM
_.xml
Input file
_.xyz
Topographic data used in RAMMS
44
CHAPTER 4 : SETTING UP A SIMULATION
4.4 Working with the interface
Once the project is created, there are several useful tools which can be helpful when working
with RAMMS. They are explained in the exercises below.
4.4.1 Moving, resizing, rotating, viewing
Exercise 4.3a: Moving and resizing the model
a. Terrain model has a dimension of 100% or smaller:
•
By clicking on the arrow
the model can be moved and resized.
Figure 4.16 Active project with lines and corners for resizing.
•
•
To move the model without changing size or aspect ratio, move the cursor to the
model and check if the cursor turns to . Then click and hold the left mouse
button and drag the model to the desired position.
To resize the model without changing the aspect ratio, use the mouse wheel to zoom
in or out. Alternatively, you can resize the model by changing the percentage value in
the horizontal toolbar
.
b. Terrain model has a dimension > 100%:
•
•
All steps explained above are still possible.
In addition to this, the white hand right next to the rotation button becomes active as
well. After clicking on this so-called view pan button
the model.
, it is also possible to move
45
CHAPTER 4 : SETTING UP A SIMULATION
Exercise 4.3b: Rotating the model
After activating the rotation button
, the model can be rotated along the rotation axis,
by moving the cursor directly on one of the axis until the cursor changes from
Otherwise a freehand rotation in any direction is possible.
to
.
Figure 4.17 “Active” project with rotation axes.
Exercise 4.3c: How to switch between 2D and 3D mode
Click
to switch from 3D to 2D view. This button then changes to
will return to 3D view.
Figure 4.18 3D view of example model.
and by clicking again, you
Figure 4.19 2D view of example model.
In 2D mode you have all possibilities that work for the 3D mode. It works for input files as well as
for simulations. For the following functions of RAMMS it is necessary to switch from 3D to 2D
view:
INPUT:
OUTPUT:
Draw New Release Points
Draw Line Profile
Draw New Release Line
Draw New Polygon Shapefile
46
CHAPTER 4 : SETTING UP A SIMULATION
4.4.2 Colorbar
As soon as a parameter is shown in the project, the colorbar appears on the right side of the
main window. It can be turned on and off by clicking on
. The colorbar can be moved
anywhere in the screen (and can get lost). Use Project → Get Colorbar to find a lost colorbar.
Exercise 4.3d: Editing the colorbar
Changing the minimum and maximum values of the colorbar as well as changing the number
of colors used is done in the panel ROCKFALL (right of the map window) in the tab Display.
•
•
•
•
•
Simply type a new value into the respective
field and hit the return key on the keyboard.
The display will be refreshed.
To view the underlying topography or
image, you can change the transparency.
ATTENTION
Values < x.xxx are not displayed!
The cut off depends on the min and max
values as well as on the number of colors.
Make sure that you have the range of values
you want to display!
Figure 4.20 The Display tab.
Open the editing window by either choosing
Edit → Colorbar Properties or clicking
in
the vertical toolbar.
To change the colorbar properties simply click
into the field you want to change, then click OK.
 Under Edit → Colorbar White Color the textcolor of the colorbar can be changed to white.
This can be useful when changing the
background color of your project to black or
white Track → Preferences → Rockfall Tab →
Background Color.
Figure 4.21 : The Colorbar Properties
window.
47
CHAPTER 4 : SETTING UP A SIMULATION
4.4.3 Changing maps and remote sensing imagery
It is possible to change the map or imagery of a project anytime. Take into account, that the
corresponding .tfw-file (world-file) has to be in the same folder as the actual map (.tif ). If this is not
the case, the map will not be found!
Exercise 4.3e : How to add or change maps
a. Add or change a map:
•
•
Go to Extras → Map… → Add/Change Map or click
.
If more than one map is found, the following window pops up, listing the maps found:
Figure 4.22 Window to choose map image.
•
•
Information on the image dimensions (x-Dim and y-Dim, pixel) and size (in MB) are
provided and might be a selection criterion.
Select the map you wish to add and click Load selected map.
b. Map not found:
• If the question "No map found, continue search?" appears, you either don’t have an
appropriate map, the map-folder directory is set wrong or the map is saved in a different
folder. In the second case click Yes and choose the correct folder.
• Click No to cancel search or click Yes to continue search.
• A window pops up to browse for the correct map location and file.
c. Change remote sensing imagery:
•
Go to Extras → Image… → Add/Change Image or click
.
4.4.4 How to save input files and program settings
Once a project is created, it is saved under the name and location you entered during step 1 of
the RAMMS::ROCKFALL Project Wizard (Figure 4.8). The created input file has the ending .xml. The
second situation, in which the input file is saved automatically, is when a simulation is started.
The saved input file has the same name as the created output file.
48
CHAPTER 4 : SETTING UP A SIMULATION
Exercise 4.3f : How to save input files and program settings manually
a. Input file:
• In case you want to save the input file manually before running a simulation, go to Track
→ Save. This is helpful, when for example a release line was loaded but you wish to close
the project before doing the simulation.
• If you wish to save a copy of your file under a new name, go to Track → Save
•
•
Copy As or click .
A window pops up to choose an old file which should be overwritten or to type in a new
name, then click Save.
Continue working on the original file, not the just saved one.
b. Position settings
• If you have moved and/or or rotated your project for a better view, you can save this
position by going on Extras → Save Active Position.
• You can now get back to this position anytime by choosing Extras → Reload Position.
Exercise 4.3g : How to open an input file
Close any active project file
•
•
•
•
.
Go to Track → Open → Input File or click
.
A window opens to browse for a rockfall input file (.xml).
Click Open after the file name was selected.
The project will be opened.
Exercise 4.3h : How to load an optional shapefile
•
•
•
To load a shapefile go to GIS → Import Shapefile or click
A window opens to browse for a shapefile (.shp).
Click Open after the file was selected.
.
49
CHAPTER 4 : SETTING UP A SIMULATION
Exercise 4.3i : How to open an output file/rockfall simulation
Close any active project file
•
•
•
•
•
.
Go to Track → Open... → Rockfall Scenario or click .
Choose a scenario in the output folder. Click OK. Choose the File Name Filter, click OK. Click
No if you will open only the chosen scenario, Yes if you will open another scenario.
Go to Track → Open... → Rockfall Simulation Files (Ctrl+A)
A window opens to browse for rockfall simulation files (.rts). Click OK.
Go to Track → Open... → Rockfall Trajectories (Ctrl+T)
A window opens to browse for rockfall simulation files (.rts). Click OK.
The simulation(s) will be opened.
4.4.5 About RAMMS
Some information about the RAMMS installation on your computer is found here: Help → About
RAMMS.
Figure 4.23: About RAMMS::ROCKFALL
50
CHAPTER 4 : SETTING UP A SIMULATION
4.5 Rock Input
4.5.1 Rockfall starting zone
A rockfall starting zone can be specified by setting a release point, drawing a release line (containing
many release points) or defining a release area (polygon). The definition and localization of a
rockfall starting zone has a strong impact on the results of RAMMS simulations. Therefore we
recommend using reference information such as photography, GPS measurements or field maps
to define release points, release lines and release areas. This should be done by persons with
experience concerning the topographic, geological and meteorological situation of the
investigation area. The release points, lines and areas can only be drawn in 2D mode.
Release Point
There are two possibilities to set a new release point:
1. Click
or use Input → Release... → Set New Release Point, move the cursor to the
desired position and click with the left mouse button at the position of the release
point.
2. Use Input → Release... → Enter Coordinates (X/Y) to manually enter the coordinates
(X/Y) of a release point.
Save your release point location with Input → Release... → Save Point Location. See exercise 4.4a
below for more details.
Release Line
Draw a new release line by clicking
or use Input → Release... → Draw New Release Line. Draw
the line by clicking points with your left mouse button and finish the line by a click on your right
mouse button.
There are two possibilities to load an existing release line:
1.
2.
Use Input → Release... → Load Existing Release Line
Use the file-tree in the General tab in the ROCKFALL panel on the right side. Click on
the appropriate shapefile to load the release line into the visualization (see Figure
4.24). Click Refresh Tree
to refresh the file-tree.
Figure 4.24 File-tree at the bottom of the right tab.
51
CHAPTER 4 : SETTING UP A SIMULATION
Release Area
Draw a new release area by clicking
or use Input → Polygon Shapefile... → Draw New
Polygon Shapefile. Finish the release polygon with right-click. It is possible to define several
release areas within the same shapefile. There are two possibilities to load existing release areas:
1. Use Input → Polygon Shapefile... → Load Existing Polygon Shapefile
2. Use the file-tree in the General tab in the ROCKFALL panel on the right side. Click on
the appropriate shapefile to load the release area into the visualization. Click Refresh
Tree
to refresh the file-tree.
Exercise 4.4a : How to define a release point
•
•
Switch to 2D mode by clicking
.
Activate the project by clicking on it once.
•
•
Click
.
Click into the project where you want to define your rockfall release point (1).
Figure 4.25 Define a release point and find its coordinates.
•
•
The lower right status bar then displays the position of the release point within the
terrain (2).
To save the coordinates of the release point go to Input → Release → Save Point
Location and enter a file name.
52
CHAPTER 4 : SETTING UP A SIMULATION
Exercise 4.4b : How to load an existing release point
•
Activate the project by clicking on it once.
•
•
Click
. The mouse cursor changes to an arrow.
Click on the project with the middle button. Select release point file .txt and click open.
 The release point appears in the project.
Exercise 4.4c : How to create a new release line
•
•
Switch to 2D mode by clicking
.
Activate the project by clicking on it once.
•
•
Click
.
Click into the project where you want to start drawing the outline of the release
line.
Continue drawing the release line by moving the cursor and clicking the left mouse
button. If you would like to delete one step of the drawing, click the middle mouse
button.
To end the release line, click the right mouse button.
•
•
Figure 4.26 Project with emerging release lines.
Before the release line is created, you have to answer the following questions:
• Add more polylines? You can either answer with Yes and create a second release line
as explained above or answer with No and continue with the next step.
• Choose a new release line file name: e.g. line_rel, the addition _rel helps the user to
run a simulation because the model recognizes the shapefile as a release line.
53
CHAPTER 4 : SETTING UP A SIMULATION
Exercise 4.4d : How to load an existing release line
•
•
Choose Input → Open Point/Line/Area File.
Select the release file (.shp) and click Open.
 The release line appears in the project.
•
Or simply click the name of the selected release
file (.shp) in the file tree in the ROCKFALL panel
(see Figure 4.27). The release line immediately
appears in the project.
Figure 4.27 File Tree.
4.5.2 Rock builder
RAMMS offers the Rock Builder to create realistic point cloud files from predefined rock shapes. We
strongly recommend using the Rock Builder instead of using spheres or cuboids for rockfall
simulations as the rock shape has major impact on the output of the rockfall simulations with
RAMMS. There are already several realistic rock shapes included in the library. Exercise 4.5
demonstrates how to create a realistic rock shape with the Rock Builder tool. The rock mass and
volume for realistic rocks have to be defined in the Rock Builder and have to be saved in the rock .pts
file. You cannot change the rock volume or mass afterwards.
54
CHAPTER 4 : SETTING UP A SIMULATION
Exercise 4.5 : How to create a rock with the Rock Builder
•
Click
to open the Rock Builder.
Figure 4.28 Rock Builder
•
Select a predefined rock shape from the rock library (1) or select a .pts-file of a
rock shape from another source (2).
•
By pressing the left mouse button and moving the mouse you can move the 3D
visualization of the rock interactively and look at it from any direction (3).
•
The rock has predefined initial rock characteristics (4).
When changing the rock density, the Rock Builder automatically calculates the new mass of
the rock. After changing the mass of the rock, click
to adjust the volume and
the dimensions (X/Y/Z) of the rock. Enter a new rock volume and click
adjust the rock mass as well as the rock dimensions (X/Y/Z).
•
to
Enter a file name or use the suggested name and click
to save the new .pts-file (5).
RAMMS automatically creates a rocks folder in your project directory. It’s strongly
55
CHAPTER 4 : SETTING UP A SIMULATION
recommended to save your new rocks in this directory.
•
Click Close to close the Rock Builder window.
Once a rockfall simulation has been finished
and opened in RAMMS, you can find additional
information on the rock for every trajectory in
the ROCKFALL panel, tab Rock, see Figure 4.29.
Use the left mouse to move the visualization rock
in any direction.
Please consider that you have to be in the
trajectory mode and activate a specific
trajectory to get information about the rock.
Figure 4.29 Rock Information
56
CHAPTER 4 : SETTING UP A SIMULATION
4.6 Terrain/Forest Input
After you successfully created a new project and defined the rock input, two more topics have to
be considered before starting a rockfall simulation:
•
•
Terrain Material
Forest areas
4.6.1 Terrain material
Define a global terrain category and optionally draw or import polygon shapefiles for areas with
differing terrain types (from extra soft to extra hard with several steps between). Choose
appropriate filenames for the different shapefiles while generating them so there is no confusion
which shapefile belongs to which terrain type.
Exercise 4.6a below demonstrates how to specify the terrain types. Each terrain category defines
the parameters of the rockfall slippage friction law as well as a ground drag value. The ground drag
value accounts for the viscoplastic drag due to terrain deformation during ground contact. The
terrain classes are described in detail in Table 3.1.
The friction parameters and drag forces should be defined for every terrain material shapefile. The
list below gives an overview on some possible terrain materials. You can choose between the
categories: Snow, Extra Soft, Soft, Medium Soft, Medium, Medium Hard, Hard and Extra Hard.
The used values have a large impact on the simulation results and therefore it is important to
critically think about the chosen parameters. The Exercise 4.6b shows how to define these terrain
material parameters. Table 3.3 gives an overview on the different predefined parameters that are
used for the categories. Please use these parameters with the awareness that they are currently
based on case studies. It remains an ongoing research task to reassure these parameters
rigorously.
ASCII-files exist for every friction parameter µmin, µmax, β (average gradient from µmax to µmin after
ground contact of a rock), κ (average gradient from µmin to µmax after ground contact of a rock) and
drag, if the shapefiles in the friction tab or forest tab are specified. If only the overall terrain material
is specified (and no friction and forest shapefiles) no ASCII-files will be created and used.
57
CHAPTER 4 : SETTING UP A SIMULATION
Exercise 4.6a : How to create a shapefile with specific terrain characterization
•
•
Switch to 2D mode by clicking
.
Activate the project by clicking on the map once.
•
•
•
Click Draw New Polygon Shapefile
.
Click into the project where you want to start drawing the outline of the shapefile.
Continue drawing the shapefile by moving the cursor and clicking the left mouse
button. Finish the polygon by clicking the right mouse button. The polygon will be
closed automatically.
Figure 4.30 Project with emerging polygon shapefile.
Before the polygon shapefile is created, you have to answer the following questions:
• Add more polygons?
You can either answer with Yes and create a second polygon as explained above or answer
with No and continue with the next step.
• Choose a new polygon file name:
Enter a new name, according to the terrain material represented by the polygon(s) (e.g.
bedrock). The ending *.shp is added automatically. The polygon shapefile will now be
created and opened directly.
• Create polygon shapefiles as described above for all the different and important
terrain materials inside the area of interest. These polygons can then be loaded in the
run a simulation dialogue.
• Alternatively you can draw the polygon shapfiles in a GIS software and load them
directly in the Run a simulation dialogue.
58
CHAPTER 4 : SETTING UP A SIMULATION
4.6.2 Forested area
Forest has a major impact on runout and velocities of rockfalls. To include forested areas into a
RAMMS simulations you need to specify the areas as polygon shapefiles as described in Exercise 4.6a.
The same applies for rivers, lakes and swamps. Choose appropriate filenames for the shapefiles (see
Exercise 4.6b below) and specify a forest type for every shapefile. It is possible to consider a gap
while generating really detailed shapefiles on a small scale.
RAMMS::ROCKFALL will apply a linear viscous drag force, which is acting only within the forest areas.
Detailed information about the forest drag forces can be found in Chapter 3.8.
Three different forest types are implemented in RAMMS::ROCKFALL:
•
•
•
Open Forest  20 m2/ha
Medium Forest  35 m2/ha
Dense Forest  50 m2/ha
The difference between the forest types considers the stem wood area per hectare (basal area). The
drag force is calibrated according to the NAIS document (“Nachhaltigkeit und Erfolgskontrolle im
Schutzwald, Frehner et al. 2005). This document describes the silvicultural management of
protection forests for different forest habitats and specific natural hazards. The revised requirement
profile of a rockfall protection forest includes numbers of trees and other information. Please
consider that the rock mass is essential for the protective effect of a forested area.
This simple but efficient forest representation applied in RAMMS::ROCKFALL will be further
developed in the future at SLF/WSL. User feedback or comments are very welcome. Please contact
[email protected] for any ideas or suggestions.
59
CHAPTER 4 : SETTING UP A SIMULATION
Exercise 4.6b : How to create a shapefile to represent a specific surface cover
•
•
Switch to 2D mode by clicking
.
Activate the project by clicking on the map once.
•
•
Click
.
Trace the forest, river, lake or swamp outline by creating as many area polygons as
necessary (proceed as in Exercise 4.6a "How to create a shapefile with specific terrain
characterization.") and name your new shapefile according to the surface cover it
represents (e.g. lake). A new shapefile with the ending *.shp is saved.
Figure 4.31 Project with emerging polygon shapefiles which represent forested areas.
•
Create polygon shapefiles as described above for all the areas with different and
important surface covers inside the area of interest.
4.7 Running a simulation
To run a simulation you have to complete the steps described in the chapters above. If you wish to
take into account different terrain materials and surface covers the corresponding shapefiles have
to be created in advance as described in Exercise 4.6. Release lines and release shapefiles have to be
generated in advance too as shown in Exercise 4.5. Exercise 4.7 “How to run a simulation” leads you
through the required steps to run a rockfall simulation.
The following tabs have to be completed subsequently:
4.7.1 General
In this tab you specify the name of the output folder and the dump step (time interval between
different dumps saved to disk).
4.7.2 Terrain
Here you specify the overall terrain type and load the additional terrain shapefiles, specify their
terrain type and load them to the list. The available terrain types are:
60
CHAPTER 4 : SETTING UP A SIMULATION
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Extra soft
Soft
Medium soft
Medium
Medium hard
Hard
Extra hard
Snow
A detailed description of the terrain types is given in Table 3.1. Please make sure that the selected
shapes are depicted in the list otherwise they will not be considered in the simulation.
4.7.3 Forest
Here you load the forest shapfiles and specify the forest type and/or the type Lake/River/Moor to
stop rocks immediately. The available types are:
•
•
•
•
Open Forest  20 m2/ha
Medium Forest  35 m2/ha
Dense Forest  50 m2/ha
Lake/River/Moor
A detailed description of the terrain types is given in Table 3.1. Please make sure that the selected
shapes are depicted in the list otherwise they will not be considered in the simulation.
4.7.4 Release
Here you specify the release type and load the according shapefile(s):
•
•
•
Point
Line/Multipoint
Area
In the number of points field you can choose how many individual release points are nestled along
the line or polygon.
You can optionally give the rocks initial velocities and initial rotation velocities along all three axis (x,
y, z).
To set the rock offset (initial fall height of the rocks measured from the center of mass) you have two
options. RAMMS can automatically calculate the minimal offset that is necessary to start the rock
(Automatic). Alternatively you can set the rock offset manually. This offset should be high enough so
that the rock is not sticking in the terrain and cannot start.
61
CHAPTER 4 : SETTING UP A SIMULATION
4.7.5 Rock
In the Rock tab you can choose between three different types of rocks:
•
Artificial sphere (defined by the radius)
•
Artificial cuboid (defined by the x, y and z dimension)
•
Real rocks (defined in the Rock Builder)
You can also choose a folder containing different rocks. You have to fill the folder with rocks
generated with the Rock Builder in advance. All rocks in the specified folder will be calculated.
To introduce variability into the rockfall simulation you can specify the number of random initial
orientations of the rocks. This number multiplied with the number of rocks to calculate equals the
number of total simulations to perform. This number is automatically updated and displayed in the
Run ‘XXX’ Simulations button.
62
CHAPTER 4 : SETTING UP A SIMULATION
4.7.6 Exercise how to run a simulation
Exercise 4.7 : How to run a simulation
•
•
To run a simulation choose Run → Run Rockfall Simulation or click
The RAMMS|Run Simulation window opens. Before clicking Run Simulation, you should
check the input parameters.
General Tab:
(1) Select a specific output filename. If
more than one trajectory is simulated,
this filename corresponds to the basic
scenario name. RAMMS automatically
adds the different parameter variations
to this name.
1
(2) Dump step(s) is preset by RAMMS to a
default value of 0.02. This value is twice
the time step. This means the data of
every second time step is saved in the
output. If you want the data of every
time step you need to set the dump step
to 0.01. If you want to save storage
capacity you can set the dump step
higher.
(3) The Stop criterion is set automatically
and depends on rock mass and rock
stop velocity. The rock stop velocity
ROCK_STOP_VEL may be set in RAMMS
via Help → Advanced... → Additional
Preferences... → Edit. Additionally you
may choose an End time (s) to stop
your simulation after a given time. The
simulation stops at the first stop criterion
to reach.
2
3
4
5
Figure 4.32 Tab General
(4) Digital Elevation Model Information shows you which DEM is used for the simulation.
(5) Activate the box Stop at first contact only if you wish to stop your simulation as soon as
the rock reaches the terrain.
63
CHAPTER 4 : SETTING UP A SIMULATION
Terrain Tab
(1) Choose the category of the overall
terrain material of your simulation
area.
(2) Click into the field to select a terrain
material shapefile and choose the
corresponding category of the specific
terrain material.
1
2
(3) Click
for each selected shapefile to
add it to the list (only shapefiles in the
list are considered in the calculation!).
3
4
(4) All defined shapefiles are listed. You can
delete single shapefiles from the list.
Figure 4.33 Tab Terrain
Forest Tab
(1) Click into the field to select a terrain
material shapefile and choose the
corresponding category of the specific
terrain material.
(2) Click
for each selected shapefile.
(3) All defined shapefiles are listed. You can
delete single shapefiles from the list.
2
1
3
Please note: When loading multiple shapefiles
for different terrain materials and surface covers
be aware that the order of specification matters:
the last shapefile dominates the others.
Figure 4.34 Tab Forest
64
CHAPTER 4 : SETTING UP A SIMULATION
Rock Tab → Rock
(1) You can directly go back to the Rock
Builder to change your rocks
1
(2) Choose rock type: Click Rock to run a
simulation with a real rock shape which
you produced before in the Rock Builder
(Exercise 4.5).
2
3
(3) Select the .pts file of the rock you wish
to simulate. A visualization of the
selected rock is then shown in the rock
window. Use your mouse to move the
rock in any direction. The rock’s
characteristics and dimensions are
shown on the right side.
(4) You can select the rocks folder in your
scenario folder. The number of .pts files
in the folder will be shown. On the right
side you can check which rocks the
folder includes. Select a file from the list
to look at the rock in the window.
4
Figure 4.35 Rock Tab → Rock
Rock Tab → Cuboid / Sphere
1
2
(1) Choose rock type: Click Cuboid / Sphere
to run a RAMMS simulation with a
cuboid / sphere.
(2) Specify the volume of the cuboid by
defining the length of the three axes X, Y
and Z (m). Specify the Rock Radius of
your rock sphere. Use your mouse to
move the cuboid / sphere interactively
in any direction. You find the rock
characteristics and dimensions on the
right side of the Rock tab.
Figure 4.36 Rock Tab → Cuboid
1
2
Figure 4.37 Rock Tab → Sphere
65
CHAPTER 4 : SETTING UP A SIMULATION
Release Tab for Point release
(1) Enter the number of
orientation per release point.
random
(2) Choose release type: For a calculation
with a release point, click Point. Rock
position: The coordinates of your
release point are shown automatically.
If not, or if you want to change them,
simply type in the correct values
manually.
(3) Define the Initial Velocity (m/s) and
the Initial Rotational Velocity (rad/s)
of the rock-body at release time. This
can be useful for cases where the values
are known or specific situations should
be simulated.
1
2
(4) Select Rock Z-Offset Automatic:
RAMMS defines the Z-offset so that the
starting of the rock is guaranteed.
Select Rock Z-Offset Manual: Type in a
value (m) to define the release height of
a rock above the terrain. Select Use
Multi to release several rocks at the
same point but different release
heights. Delta specifies the heights (m)
and Steps defines how often Delta is
applied.
3
4
5
Figure 4.38 Tab Release
(5) RUN “XXX” SIMULATIONS shows how
many rocks will be simulated in the
defined scenario. Click on the button
and the simulation will start.
66
CHAPTER 4 : SETTING UP A SIMULATION
Release Tab for Line / Area release
(1) Choose release type: For a calculation
with a release line, click Line. For a
calculation with a release area, click
Area.
(2) Select a release polyline or release area
file you created before. For the rock
starting points within a line, RAMMS
uses the line points specified during the
creation of the release line (see Exercise
4.4c). Within the release area, the
starting points (Grid Points) are
automatically calculated by RAMMS.
(3) The Nr of Grid Points show how many
rocks will be simulated in minimum
(within one orientation). You can vary
the number of used grid points and with
it the number of simulated rocks in
minimum. How to select the number of
random orientations is described in the
Release tab for Point release section.
Figure 4.39 Line Release Tab
Figure 4.40 Area Release Tab
4.7.7 Scenario Preparation and Simulation Process
If the scenario already exists, RAMMS will ask you if you want to overwrite the scenario:
Figure 4.41 Scenario already exists dialogue.
If you click No or Cancel, you will be able to rename your scenario in the General tab. Click Yes, and
the old scenario is deleted (all the files and subdirectories within the scenario folder).
Before RAMMS can start the simulation process, it will show you the following window:
67
CHAPTER 4 : SETTING UP A SIMULATION
Figure 4.42: Rockfall simulation information window.
This window shows the number of planned rockfall simulations (95 in this example, red field), as well
as the number of CPU’s that your PC offers (8, green field). In the field below (blue field) you can
enter the number of CPU’s you want to use simultaneously for this rockfall scenario. The more you
specify, the faster your scenario will be calculated. It is best practice to specify one less than the
number of CPU’s available (if you click OK with an empty field, this will happen).
Scenario Preparation
If you specified both terrain and/or forest shapefiles, RAMMS will gather the data and show one of
the following windows:
Figure 4.43: Scenario Preparation - Gathering Data window.
After that, RAMMS creates all the input files for this scenario…
Figure 4.44: Scenario Preparation - Preparing Scenario window.
…and then starts the simulations:
Figure 4.45: Scenario Preparation - Start Simulation window.
68
CHAPTER 4 : SETTING UP A SIMULATION
For every rock trajectory, RAMMS generates an output file (.rts). After the completion of all
simulations or if the user clicks Cancel, RAMMS will open the simulation files in Statistic Mode, see
next chapter, and present the Scenario Logfile:
Figure 4.46 RAMMS Scenario Logfile
69
CHAPTER 4 : SETTING UP A SIMULATION
If some of the rocks could not release, because the specified Z-offset was not big enough, RAMMS
will show a message like this:
Figure 4.47 Message about rocks that could not release.
70
CHAPTER 5 : RESULTS
5
Results
RAMMS offers a variety of tools and visualizations to interpret the simulation results. There are two
different modes to open simulation results: a) Statistic Mode to visualize a large number of
simulations (> 100) and b) Trajectory Mode to analyze single trajectories in detail. The two modes are
described in this chapter.
5.1 Statistic Mode
In Statistic Mode, we try to answer the following questions:
•
Which cells are affected by which trajectories?
•
How many trajectories fly over a given cell?
•
What are velocity, kinetic energy, jump height and rotational velocity values in a given cell?
•
What is the probability that a rock reaches a given cell?
RAMMS analyses every trajectory and then saves jump height, velocity, kinetic energy and rotational
velocity values in the cells affected by the trajectories.
Example:
We assume that RAMMS has saved 63 values (63 values of jump height, 63 values of velocity, etc. ) in
a given cell, see figure below (showing only part of the 63 values):
Figure 5.1 Trajectory values in a given cell
71
CHAPTER 5 : RESULTS
RAMMS then calculates the following statistic values for this given cell out of the 63 values (e.g. Jump
Height):
•
Mean value (mean) → 3.54 m
•
Median value (50%) → 3.49 m
•
90% Quantile value (90%) → 5.17 m
•
95% Quantile value (95%) → 6.26 m
•
99% Quantile value (99%) → 6.72 m
•
Maximum value (max) → 6.72 m
Figure 5.2 Statistic values of a given cell
5.1.1 Quantile Values
The default quantile values in RAMMS::ROCKFALL are 90%, 95% and 99%. These three values can be
changed by the user, see details below. The Mean, Median and Max values are fixed and cannot be
changed.
How to change the Quantile Values
Use Help → Advanced… → Additional Preferences… → Edit or use the button
Preferences) in the lower left toolbar.
(Additional
72
CHAPTER 5 : RESULTS
……….
Figure 5.3 Additional Preferences: Quantile Values
Find the keyword QUANTILE_VALUES, change the values accordingly and press the Save button.
Changing these values results in adjusted statistical analyses and dropdown menus, according to the
values the user entered (and saved!).
Figure 5.4 Adjusted quantile values in Statistic Mode; Left: Statistic Summary Plot, Right: Quantile
dropdown menu in upper right toolbar of GUI.
5.1.2 Statistic Vocabulary
Probability Density Function (PDF):
Wikipedia: “The probability density function (PDF), or density of a continuous random variable, is a
function that describes the relative likelihood for this random variable to take on a given value. The
probability of the random variable falling within a particular range of values is given by the integral of
this variable’s density over that range—that is, it is given by the area under the density function but
above the horizontal axis and between the lowest and greatest values of the range. The probability
density function is non-negative everywhere, and its integral over the entire space is equal to one.”
73
CHAPTER 5 : RESULTS
Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF):
Wikipedia: “In probability theory and statistics, the cumulative distribution function (CDF), or just
distribution function, describes the probability that a real-valued random variable X with a given
probability distribution will be found to have a value less than or equal to x.”
Boxplot:
Wikipedia: “In descriptive statistics, a box plot or boxplot is a convenient way of graphically depicting
groups of numerical data through their quartiles. Box plots are non-parametric: they display variation
in samples of a statistical population without making any assumptions of the underlying statistical
distribution. The spacings between the different parts of the box indicate the degree of dispersion
(spread) and skewness in the data, and show outliers.”
Minimum Value
Maximum Value
Figure 5.5 Boxplot Explanations (Q1: lower quartile = 25 %, Q3: upper quartile = 75 %, IQR:
interquartile range).
74
CHAPTER 5 : RESULTS
5.2 Statistic Mode
Open a simulation scenario with Track → Open… → Rockfall Scenario or click
then choose a scenario in a project’s output folder.
in the toolbar and
Figure 5.6 Browse for Scenario Folder.
Click OK to choose the selected scenario.
Figure 5.7 The file name filter shows information about the scenario that you are opening.
You can enter a file string or click OK to open all files.
Enter a file name filter for the specific results or click OK, if you are interested in all the simulations
in the scenario folder. Click OK to proceed.
75
CHAPTER 5 : RESULTS
Figure 5.8 Open more Scenarios?
If you would like to open several scenarios, click Yes to choose another scenario from the output
folder. It is important that the scenarios are saved in the same project folder. Click No if you want
to analyze only the results from one scenario.
RAMMS will open the scenario and show the 95%-Quantile of the kinetic Rock Energy (kJ). The 95%Quantile is the default selection of the quantile dropdown menu in the upper right toolbar. You can
change the default selection in the Additional Preferences (Keyword: QUANTILE, values between 0 - 5
correspond to the position of the quantile in the dropdown menu, see Figure 5.4).
The ROCKFALL tab on the right shows useful Statistic Mode information. The trajectory mode should
be OFF – you are in the statistic mode. You find general information about the selected scenario:
•
Nr of Trajectories and Average Slope (=Pauschalgefälle: min, mean, max)
Figure
5.9 StatisticStatistic
Mode information
is shown in the
panel.
(Min, Q1, parameter
Mean,
• 8-Point
information
ofright ROCKFALL
the
selected
Median, Q3, Max, IQR, StdDev).
In Statistic Mode, only Jump Height (H), Rock Velocity (V), Resultant Rotational Rock Velocity and
Kinetic Rock Energy (E) results are available (
).
76
CHAPTER 5 : RESULTS
Figure 5.10 Statistics Mode: Dropdown menu Results
All other results are available in Trajectory Mode only. For the visualization of the parameters you
can choose between the values Mean, Median, 90%, 95%, 99% or Max values. The dropdown is
located in the upper toolbar
.
The menu Statistics offers the following functions:
Figure 5.11 Statistics Mode: Menu Statistics.
•
Summary Plot (statistics summary of the selected parameter)
•
Barrier Plot (statistics of line profile or polygon area of selected parameter)
•
Nr of Rocks
•
Nr of Deposited Rocks
•
Reach Probability (Source)
•
Reach Probability (Total)
77
CHAPTER 5 : RESULTS
In the horizontal toolbar you can find the following functions:
•
Barrier Plot
•
Line Profile
•
Cell Info File
•
Quantile dropdown menu
5.2.1 Summary Plot
Choose the result parameter that you are interested in (e.g. Jump Height, Rock Velocity, Kinetic Rock
Energy or Resultant Rotational Rock Velocity). The results appear in the main window. Exercise 5.1
shows how to produce and analyze a Summary Plot.
Exercise 5.1 : How to analyze the Statistics Summary Plot.
•
Switch to 2D mode by clicking
•
Activate the project by clicking on it once. Be sure that you are in the Statistics Mode
.
(Trajectory Mode = OFF in the right toolbar).
•
Go to Statistics → Summary Plot.
•
A window opens, displaying the Statistics Summary Plot. You can save, print or edit the plot
by clicking one of the buttons on the lower left corner.
.
78
CHAPTER 5 : RESULTS
1
2
3
4
Figure 5.12: Statistics Summary Plot.
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
5.2.2
Data information
Probability Density Function PDF
Boxplot
Cumulative Distribution Function CDF
Barrier Plot
If you need to analyze special areas (region of a dam, planned or realized rockfall nets, etc.) then the
Barrier Plot is a good choice. A Barrier Plot can be created for a line profile or a polygon region (line
profile and polygon are shapefiles).
A Barrier Plot contains the same statistical information as a Summary Plot, but for a certain region of
interest (line or polygon).
Barrier Plot from new Line Profile
Draw a line profile by clicking
(e.g. a dam or places that you are specifically interested in e.g. a
place where several trajectories pass through). RAMMS opens both a Line Profile Plot and the Barrier
Plot for the line:
79
CHAPTER 5 : RESULTS
Figure 5.13 Line Profile Plot
Figure 5.14 Barrier Plot of a line profile. Scenario and line profile name are marked in the upper
right corner (red box).
80
CHAPTER 5 : RESULTS
Barrier Plot from file
Use Statistics → Barrier Plot or the horizontal toolbar button
shapefile you wish to create a Barrier Plot from.
to select a polyline or polygon
A window opens, displaying the Statistics Barrier Plot (see figure above). In the Data information part
of the Barrier Plot you find the information about the selected scenario and the name of either the
polyline or the polygon shapefile. Additionally you will find a statistical summary with the most
important statistic values.
Figure 5.15 Data information part of Barrier Plot
5.2.3 Number of Rocks
Number of rocks that passed through a given cell.
5.2.4 Number of Deposited Rocks
Number of rocks that stopped in a given cell.
5.2.5 Reach probability
Source:
The probability that a rock arrives in a given cell. The release cells (source) feeding a given cell are
taken into account when calculating the Source reach probability.
Total:
Same as above, but release cells are not taken into account; Total reach probability is calculated from
total released rocks.
81
CHAPTER 5 : RESULTS
5.3 Trajectory Mode
To analyze simulation results in more detail, the rocks can be opened in Trajectory Mode. This mode
enables a detailed analysis of single trajectories of specific rocks. No statistic is available in Trajectory
Mode.
Figure 5.16 Rockfall trajectories; different colors depict different kinetic rock energies (KJ).
82
CHAPTER 5 : RESULTS
5.3.1 Open results in Trajectory Mode
Open trajectories with Ctrl+T or go to Track → Open → Rockfall Trajectories. Choose the
trajectories that you are interested in from the output scenario folder and click Open.
Figure 5.17 Open trajectories dialog window
It is suggested to open only up to 100 single trajectories at one time (e.g. from a specific
scenario). Although it is possible to open more trajectories, it is not recommended, because the
memory usage will increase strongly and the handling of your visualization will get very slow. Control
if the trajectory mode is ON (in the general tab of the right field) and the toolbar shows the number
of trajectories.
The buttons
the simulation.
provide quick access to Jump Height, Velocity and Kinetic Rock Energy of
5.3.2 Visualize different parameters
The drop down menu Results offers the following functions in the trajectory mode:
83
CHAPTER 5 : RESULTS
Figure 5.18 Trajectory Mode: Dropdown menu Results
•
Jump Height
•
Rock Velocity
•
Rotational Rock Velocity  X, Y, Z, Resultant
•
Total Rock Energy (kin + pot)
•
Kinetic Rock Energy
•
Kinetic Rock Energy (translational)
•
Kinetic Rock Energy (rotational)
•
Tangential Contact Force
•
Perpendicular Contact Force
•
Slippage
•
Friction Value
84
CHAPTER 5 : RESULTS
Exercise 5.2a: Displaying calculation values.
Figure 5.19 Results Velocity
Figure 5.20 Results Jump
Height
Figure 5.21 Results Kinetic Rock
Energy
The values of Jump Height, Rock Velocity and Kinetic Rock Energy give a good overview of the
dimension of the rockfall event in the trajectory mode. You can choose the parameters in the
horizontal toolbar under Results.
85
CHAPTER 5 : RESULTS
5.3.3 Working with trajectories
Select a trajectory with the mouse:
Select with mouse
Information is refreshed
Figure 5.22 Trajectory information – General tab. The information (filename, start position of
trajectory, etc.) is refreshed in the General tab on the right side. Additionally, the Rock tab indicates
the rock used for the selected trajectory (see next figure).
86
CHAPTER 5 : RESULTS
Select with mouse
Rock Viewer
Figure 5.23 Trajectory information – Rock tab.
The menu Trajectory offers the following functions:
Figure 5.24 Trajectory Mode: Menu Trajectory.
•
View Trajectory XY Plot
•
View Trajectory Data Log File
•
View Trajectory Standard Output Log File
•
View Input File (xml)
In the horizontal toolbar you can find the following functions:
•
Rock Trajectory XY Plot
•
Line Profile
87
CHAPTER 5 : RESULTS
5.3.4 Rock Trajectory XY Plot
Click on a rock trajectory. You can find the function View Trajectory XY Plot in the horizontal
toolbar (button
) or in the menu Trajectory → View Trajectory XY Plot. If you want to analyze
a trajectory in detail, the XY plot of a trajectory is the way to go. The graph shows the currently
active parameter (you can change it by clicking one of the buttons in the upper horizontal toolbar
or by selecting another result parameter via the Results menu). You can keep the
Trajectory XY Plot by saving it, see Exercise 5.2b below ”How to create a Trajectory XY Plot”.
Exercise 5.2b : How to create a Trajectory XY Plot
•
Switch to 2D mode by clicking
•
Activate the project by clicking on it once. Then click on the specific rock trajectory you want to
.
plot.
•
Go to Trajectory → View Trajectory XY Plot or click
.
Figure 5.25: Trajectory XY Plot.
•
A window opens, displaying the Trajectory XY Plot.
•
You can save, print and modify the plot with the tools in the upper toolbar or open another plot.
Plot explanations:
 Brown line: terrain surface (scale on the left side).

Black line: rock trajectory added to the terrain surface (altitude in m a.s.l., scale on the
left side).

Green line: active parameter (scale on the right side).

Blue dot: actual rock position(according to the dump step shown in your simulation).
88
CHAPTER 5 : RESULTS

Red dots: points of contact (consider the time step of your simulation – missing contact
points are possible if time steps are too large).

Bottom scale: projected profile distance (m).
5.3.5 Line profile
Go to Extras → Profile... → Draw Line Profile or click
to draw a line profile. The line profile
function provides a graph of the currently active parameter along a specific line through the rockfall
area. This is helpful when it is of interest to know the values and maximum values at these places
(e.g. close to a road or dam). Line profiles are saved in the file profile.txt in the project directory. If
you want to keep a line profile, you have to save it, see Exercise 5.2c ”How to draw a line profile”.
Exercise 5.2c : How to draw a line profile
(1) Draw a new line profile:
•
Switch to 2D mode by clicking
•
Activate the project by clicking on it once, then click
.
or choose Extras → Profile… →
Draw New Line Profile.
•
Define the line profile in the same way you specify a new release line (see Exercise 4.4c
“How to create a new release line”). Finish the line profile with a right-click on the mouse
button.
Figure 5.26: Line Profile Plot
•
A window opens, displaying the Line Profile.
89
CHAPTER 5 : RESULTS
Plot explanations:
 Black line: track profile (altitude, scale on the right side).

Red line: active parameter (multiplied by 10) added to the track profile (altitude,
scale on the right side). (You may change the Profile Parameter Exaggeration
under Help → Advanced… → Additional Preferences… → Edit

Grey line: active parameter (scale on the left side).

Bottom scale: projected profile distance (m).
If you change the active parameter or the Min and Max values in the Display tab
•
in RAMMS, the plot will be directly updated. You can start the simulation ( ) and
then watch the time variations in your line profile plot.
To save the coordinates of the points belonging to the line profile, select Extras →
Profile… → Save Line Profile Points and enter a file name.
•
To save the line profile parameter’s data (distance (m) and the active parameter, e.g.
the jump height (m)) at the current dump step, select Extras → Profile… → Export Line
Profile Plot Data and enter a file name.
(2) Load an existing line profile:
•
Switch to 2D mode by clicking
•
Activate the project by clicking on it once, then click
.
or choose Extras → Profile… →
Draw New Line Profile.
•
Click the middle mouse button once.
•
A window pops up and you can browse for the line profile you wish to open.
90
CHAPTER 5 : RESULTS
5.3.6 Trajectory Data Log File
To see the exact values of the simulation results, check the Trajectory Data Log File which
shows the results for every dump step of a single trajectory. After running a simulation click on a
rock trajectory in the trajectory mode and go to Trajectory → View Trajectory Data Log File to
open it. Further information of a simulation run is available under Trajectory → Standard Output
Log File and Trajectory → View Input File (xml).
Figure 5.27 Trajectory Data Log File.
91
CHAPTER 5 : RESULTS
5.3.7 Rock trajectory animation
It is possible to start an animation of all trajectories. Switch to 3D mode by clicking
is working as well).
(2D mode
Start the animation (Alternative: F8)
Pause the animation (Alternative: F8)
Stop/Restart the animation (Alternative: F9)
Change the speed of the animation in the Display tab on the right side (speed slider from fast to
slow).
Figure 5.28 Animation speed control slider.
5.3.8 Creating an image or a GIF animation
Image
It is possible to export your results as an image in different formats (e.g. .png, .jpg, .gif, .tif etc.).
Click
or choose Track → Export… → Image File and define a file name with the corresponding
extension. An image of the visible part in the viewer will then be exported.
GIF animation
Creating a GIF animation is only possible in output mode. Click
or choose Track → Export... → GIF
Animation. Enter a file name and location and wait until the simulation stopped. As soon as the
simulation finished, the GIF animation file is saved. In the Preferences you can define the interval for
the GIF animation (GIF animation interval (s)) in the Rockfall tab.
92
CHAPTER 6 : REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING
6
References and further reading
6.1 References
Maps and aerial images
 All topographic base maps and aerial images are reproduced © 2015 swisstopo(JA100118).
Literature
Acary, V. and Brogliato, B., 2008: Numerical Methods for nonsmooth Dynamical Systems;
Applications in Mechanics and Electronics. In: Dynamics of Non-Smooth Systems. Lecture
Notes in Applied and Computational Mechanics, 35, Springer, Berlin.
Bourrier, F., Dorren, L., Nicot, F., Berger, F., and Darve, F., (2009): Toward objective rockfall
trajectory simulation using a stochastic impact model. Geomorphology, 110(3-4): 68-79.
Bourrier, F., Berger, F., Tardif, P., Dorren, L., and Hungr, O., 2012: Rockfall rebound:
comparison of detailed field experiments and alternative modelling approaches. Earth
Surface Processes and Landforms, 37(6): 656-665.
Cross, R., (1999): The bounce of a ball. American Journal of Physics, 67(3):222–227. [8] Fityus,
S., Giacomini, A., and Buzzi, O., (2013): The significance of geology for the morphology of
potentially unstable rocks. Engineering Geology, 162(0): 43-52.
Dorren, L., 2003: A review of rockfall mechanics and modelling approaches. Progress in
Physical Geography, 27(1):6987.
Dorren, L. K. A. and Seijmonsbergen, A. C. 2003: Comparison of three GIS-based models for
predicting rockfall runout zones at a regional scale. Geomorphology, 56(1-2):49 - 64.
Fityus, S., Giacomini, A., and Buzzi, O. 2013: The significance of geology for the morphology of
potentially unstable rocks. Engineering Geology, 162:43 - 52.
Frehner, M., Wasser, B., Schwitter, R. 2005: Nachhaltigkeit und Erfolgskontrolle im
Schutzwald. Wegleitung für Pflegemassnahmen in Wäldern mit Schutzfunktion. Bern:
Bundesamt für Umwelt. 564p.
Glocker, Ch., 2001: Set-Valued Forces Laws. In: Dynamics of Non-Smooth Systems. Lecture
Notes in Applied and Computational Mechanics, 1, Springer, Berlin.
Glover, J., (2015): Rock-shape and its role in rockfall dynamics. Doctoral thesis, Durham
University.
93
CHAPTER 6 : REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING
Latham, J.-P.; Munjiza, A.; Garcia, X.; Xiang, J. and Guises, R., 2008: Three-dimensional particle
shape acquisition and use of shape library for DEM and FEM/DEM simulation. In:
Minerals Engineerings, Elsevier, 797-805.
Leine, R. I.; Schweizer, A.; Christen, M.; Glover, J.; Bartelt, P. and Gerber, W., 2013:
Simulation of rockfall trajectories with consideration of rock shape. Submitted to
Multibody System Dynamics.
Moreau, J.J., 1988: Unilateral contact and dry friction in finite freedom dynamics. In: NonSmooth Mechanics and Applications, Springer, Berlin, 1-82.
Jaboyedoff, M., (2011): Slope tectonics. Geological Society London.
Schweizer, A. 2015: Ein nichtglattes mechanisches Modell für Steinschlag. Dissertation ETH
Zürich.
Volkwein, A., Schellenberg, K., Labiouse, V., Agliardi, F., Berger, F., Bourrier, F., Dorren, L. K. A.,
Gerber, W., and Jaboyedoff, M. 2011: Rockfall characterisation and structural protection a review. Natural Hazards and Earth System Science, 11(9):2617 - 2651.
6.2 Publications
The development of RAMMS is based on scientific findings published in international scientific
journals. A list of the most important scientific publications about RAMMS and its applications is
given below (chronological order):
•
Bartelt, P.; Bühler, Y.; Buser, O.; Christen, M. and Meier, L., 2012: Modeling massdependent flow regime transitions to predict the stopping and depositional behavior
of snow avalanches. In: J. Geophys. Res., 117, F01015, doi:10.1029/2010JF001957.
•
Christen, M.; Bühler, Y.; Bartelt, P.; Leine, R.; Glover, J.; Schweizer, A.; Graf, C.; McArdell,
B.W.; Gerber, W.; Deubelbeiss, Y.; Feistl, T. and Volkwein, A., 2012: Integral hazard
management using a unified software environment: numerical simulation tool "RAMMS"
for gravitational natural hazards. In: Koboltschnig, G.; Hübl, J.; Braun, J. (eds.) 12th
Congress INTERPRAEVENT, 23-26 April 2012 Grenoble - France. Proceedings. Vol. 1.
Klagenfurt, International Research Society INTERPRAEVENT, 77 -86.
•
Christen, M.; Gerber, W.; Graf, Ch.; Bühler Y.; Bartelt, P.; Glover, J.; McArdell, B.; Feistl,
T.; Steinkogler, W., 2012: Numerische Simulation von gravitativen Naturgefahren mit
"RAMMS" (Rapid Mass Movements). In: Zeitschrift für Wildbach-, Lawinen-, Erosionsund Steinschlagschutz. 169, 282 - 293.
94
CHAPTER 6 : REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING
•
Bühler, Y.; Christen, M.; Kowalski, J. and Bartelt, P., 2011: Sensitivity of snow avalanche
simulations to digital elevation model quality and resolution. In: Annals of Glaciology,
52(58), 7280.
•
Christen, M.; Kowalski, J. and Bartelt, P., 2010: RAMMS: Numerical simulation of dense
snow avalanches in three-dimensional terrain. In: Cold Regions Science and Technology,
63, 1 - 14.
•
Christen, M.; Bartelt, P. and Kowalski, J., 2010: Back calculation of the In den Arelen
avalanche with RAMMS: Interpretation of model results. In: Annals of Glaciology, 51(54),
161 - 168.
•
Sartoris, G. and Bartelt, P., 2000: Upwinded finite difference schemes for dense snow
avalanche modelling. In: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, 32, 799 821.
•
Bartelt, P.; Salm, B. and Gruber U., 1999: Calculating dense-snow avalanche runout using
a Voellmy-fluid model with active/passive longitudinal straining. In: Journal of Glaciology,
45(150), 242 – 254.
95
List of Figures
FIGURE 2.1
INSTALLATION - WELCOME DIALOG WINDOW. .......................................................................... 10
FIGURE 2.2
INSTALLATION - README DIALOG WINDOW. ........................................................................... 10
FIGURE 2.3
INSTALLATION - LICENSE AGREEMENT DIALOG WINDOW........................................................ 11
FIGURE 2.4
INSTALLATION - DESTINATION DIRECTORY DIALOG WINDOW................................................. 11
FIGURE 2.5
INSTALLATION - INSTALLING FILES DIALOG WINDOW. .............................................................. 12
FIGURE 2.6
INSTALLATION - FINISHED INSTALLING FILES DIALOG WINDOW. .............................................. 12
FIGURE 2.7
INSTALLATION - FINISHED INSTALLATION DIALOG WINDOW. .................................................. 13
FIGURE 2.8
IDL VISUAL STUDIO MERGE MODULES - WELCOME DIALOG WINDOW. ................................... 13
FIGURE 2.9
IDL VISUAL STUDIO MERGE MODULES - READY TO INSTALL THE PROGRAM.......................... 14
FIGURE 2.10
IDL VISUAL STUDIO MERGE MODULES - INSTALLING... ............................................................. 14
FIGURE 2.11
INSTALLATION - DESTINATION DIRECTORY DIALOG WINDOW................................................. 15
FIGURE 2.12
RAMMS ICON. ............................................................................................................................. 15
FIGURE 2.13
RAMMS PROGRAM GROUP ........................................................................................................ 15
FIGURE 2.14
RAMMS START WINDOW............................................................................................................ 16
FIGURE 2.15
RAMMS LICENSING WINDOW..................................................................................................... 16
FIGURE 2.16
ENTER USER NAME AND COMPANY NAME. ............................................................................... 17
FIGURE 2.17
PERSONAL LICENSE REQUEST FILE RAMMS_ROCK_REQUEST_MUSTER.TXT ............................. 17
FIGURE 2.18
PERSONAL LICENSE KEY FILE RAMMS_LICENSE_MUSTER TEST.TXT ........................................ 17
FIGURE 3.1: PHOTOGRAPHS OF ROCK MASSES AND THEIR AGGREGATE FORMS. TOP LEFT: AN EXAMPLE OF
EQUANT CUBIC ROCK FORMS GENERATED IN A SEQUENCE OF SANDSTONES EXPOSED TO AN
EXTENSIONAL DEFORMATION REGIME, THE PRIMARY JOINT SETS ARE NEAR EQUALLY SPACED AND
ORTHOGONAL TO ONE ANOTHER. TOPRIGHT: THE COMPLEX JOINT OF THIS GRANODIORITIC ROCK MASS
RESULT IN HIGHLY IRREGULAR AND ANGULAR ROCK BLOCK FORMS. BOTTOM LEFT: THE UPLIFTED AND
FOLDED LIMESTONE SEQUENCE IS WELL BEDDED PRODUCING DISTINGUISHED SLABS WHICH DETACH AS
PRONOUNCED PLATY ROCK FORMS. BOTTOM RIGHT: DISTINGUISHED COLUMNAR JOINTED BASALT
SEQUENCE PRODUCES THE CHARACTERISTIC ELONGATE ROCK FORMS (GLOVER 2015). ........................... 20
FIGURE 3.2: LASER SCANS OF REAL ROCKS ARE CAPTURED IN THE FIELD. THE POINT CLOUD REPRESENTING
THE ROCKS GEOMETRY ARE THEN USED BY THE ROCKFALL MODEL TO CREATE A CONVEX-HULL
POLYHEDRON REPRESENTATIVE OF THE ROCK-BODY. ............................................................................... 22
FIGURE 3.3: ROCK IS GENERATED FROM A POINT CLOUD AND CONVERTED INTO A RIGID-BODY
POLYHEDRAL. ............................................................................................................................................... 22
FIGURE 3.4: CONTACT DETECTION. DEFINITION OF GAP LENGTH, GN. ................................................................ 24
FIGURE 3.5: CONTACT FRAME C AT POINT Q DETECTED WITH THE GAP FUNCTION GN. .................................. 25
FIGURE 3.6: FRICTION FORCES AT THE CONTACT POINT. .................................................................................... 26
FIGURE 3.7: ROCK IMPACT SCAR ON SOFT SOIL; THE SCAR MORPHOLOGY IS TAPERED WIDENING TOWARDS
THE ACCUMULATION OF EARTH AT THE SCAR END WERE AN EARTH RAMP STRUCTURE IS FORMED.
96
THIS IS MODELED AS A CLIMBING FRICTION FROM THE BEGINNING OF THE SCAR S = 0 AT FIRST
CONTACT WHICH TENDS TOWARDS HIGH FRICTION AT THE END OF THE SCAR. ................................... 27
FIGURE 3.8:
SLIDING FRICTION IN RAMMS IS GOVERNED BY A SLIP-DEPENDENT MATERIAL LAW. AT ROCK
IMPACT SLIP IS S=0 AND SLIDING FRICTION IS GIVEN BY µMIN; WITH S>0, FRICTION INCREASES ACCORDING
TO THE COEFFICIENT κ. AT SOME POINT S THE MAXIMUM FRICTION µMAX IS REACHED. AFTER CONTACT,
THE FRICTION EXPONENTIALLY DECREASES WITH COEFFICIENT β. THEREFORE β DESCRIBES THE
DURATION OF THE FRICTION AS THE ROCK IS LEAVING THE SCAR (RAMPING). .......................................... 28
FIGURE 3.9: FOREST DRAG
Fdf IS IMPLEMENTED TO ACT ON THE CENTER OF GRAVITY OF THE ROCK-BODY AT
HEIGHT Z. ...................................................................................................................................................... 31
FIGURE 3.10: HIGH RESOLUTION THREE DIMENSIONAL TERRAIN MODEL, FORMS SIMULATION FRAME O IN
WHICH THE FOUR SIDED PLANES FORM THE TESSELLATED TERRAIN SURFACE WITH WHICH THE ROCKBODY CAN COME INTO CONTACT WITH. ................................................................................................... 36
FIGURE 4.1 EXAMPLE ESRI ASCII GRID. ................................................................................................................. 37
FIGURE 4.2 EXAMPLE ASCII X, Y, Z SINGLE SPACE DATA. ...................................................................................... 37
FIGURE 4.3 THE SAME PROJECT EXTENT (AREA OF INTEREST) CAN BE USED TO CALCULATE DIFFERENT
SCENARIOS WITH DIFFERENT INPUT PARAMETERS. .................................................................................. 38
FIGURE 4.4 GENERAL TAB OF RAMMS PREFERENCES. ......................................................................................... 39
FIGURE 4.5 ROCKFALL TAB OF RAMMS PREFERENCES. ........................................................................................ 39
FIGURE 4.6 RAMMS PREFERENCES ....................................................................................................................... 40
FIGURE 4.7 BROWSE FOR THE CORRECT FOLDER. ................................................................................................ 40
FIGURE 4.8 RAMMS ROCKFALL PROJECT WIZARD STEP 1 OF 4 ............................................................................ 41
FIGURE 4.9 STEP 1 OF THE RAMMS PROJECT WIZARD PROJECT INFORMATION. ................................................ 42
FIGURE 4.10 WINDOW TO BROWSE FOR A NEW PROJECT LOCATION. ................................................................ 42
FIGURE 4.11 STEP 2 OF THE RAMMS PROJECT WIZARD: GIS INFORMATION. ...................................................... 42
FIGURE 4.12 PROJECT COORDINATES: LOWER LEFT AND UPPER RIGHT CORNER OF PROJECT AREA. ................. 43
FIGURE 4.13 STEP 3 OF THE RAMMS PROJECT WIZARD: PROJECT BOUNDARY COORDINATES. .......................... 43
FIGURE 4.14 STEP 4 OF THE RAMMS PROJECT WIZARD: PROJECT SUMMARY. .................................................... 43
FIGURE 4.15: FILES AND DIRECTORIES CREATED WITH A NEW RAMMS::ROCKFALL PROJECT. ............................ 44
FIGURE 4.16 ACTIVE PROJECT WITH LINES AND CORNERS FOR RESIZING. ........................................................... 45
FIGURE 4.17 “ACTIVE” PROJECT WITH ROTATION AXES. ...................................................................................... 46
FIGURE 4.18 3D VIEW OF EXAMPLE MODEL. ........................................................................................................ 46
FIGURE 4.19 2D VIEW OF EXAMPLE MODEL. ........................................................................................................ 46
FIGURE 4.20 THE DISPLAY TAB. ............................................................................................................................. 47
FIGURE 4.21 : THE COLORBAR PROPERTIES WINDOW. ........................................................................................ 47
FIGURE 4.22 WINDOW TO CHOOSE MAP IMAGE. ................................................................................................ 48
FIGURE 4.23: ABOUT RAMMS::ROCKFALL............................................................................................................. 50
FIGURE 4.24 FILE-TREE AT THE BOTTOM OF THE RIGHT TAB. .............................................................................. 51
97
FIGURE 4.25 DEFINE A RELEASE POINT AND FIND ITS COORDINATES. ................................................................. 52
FIGURE 4.26 PROJECT WITH EMERGING RELEASE LINES. ..................................................................................... 53
FIGURE 4.27 FILE TREE. ......................................................................................................................................... 54
FIGURE 4.28 ROCK BUILDER .................................................................................................................................. 55
FIGURE 4.29 ROCK INFORMATION ........................................................................................................................ 56
FIGURE 4.30 PROJECT WITH EMERGING POLYGON SHAPEFILE. ........................................................................... 58
FIGURE 4.31 PROJECT WITH EMERGING POLYGON SHAPEFILES WHICH REPRESENT FORESTED AREAS. ............ 60
FIGURE 4.32 TAB GENERAL ................................................................................................................................... 63
FIGURE 4.33 TAB TERRAIN .................................................................................................................................... 64
FIGURE 4.34 TAB FOREST ...................................................................................................................................... 64
FIGURE 4.35 ROCK TAB → ROCK ........................................................................................................................... 65
FIGURE 4.36 ROCK TAB → CUBOID ....................................................................................................................... 65
FIGURE 4.37 ROCK TAB → SPHERE........................................................................................................................ 65
FIGURE 4.38 TAB RELEASE ..................................................................................................................................... 66
FIGURE 4.39 LINE RELEASE TAB............................................................................................................................. 67
FIGURE 4.40 AREA RELEASE TAB ........................................................................................................................... 67
FIGURE 4.41 SCENARIO ALREADY EXISTS DIALOGUE. ........................................................................................... 67
FIGURE 4.42: ROCKFALL SIMULATION INFORMATION WINDOW. ........................................................................ 68
FIGURE 4.43: SCENARIO PREPARATION - GATHERING DATA WINDOW. .............................................................. 68
FIGURE 4.44: SCENARIO PREPARATION - PREPARING SCENARIO WINDOW. ....................................................... 68
FIGURE 4.45: SCENARIO PREPARATION - START SIMULATION WINDOW............................................................. 68
FIGURE 4.46 RAMMS SCENARIO LOGFILE ............................................................................................................. 69
FIGURE 4.47 MESSAGE ABOUT ROCKS THAT COULD NOT RELEASE. .................................................................... 70
FIGURE 5.1 TRAJECTORY VALUES IN A GIVEN CELL ............................................................................................... 71
FIGURE 5.2 STATISTIC VALUES OF A GIVEN CELL .................................................................................................. 72
FIGURE 5.3 ADDITIONAL PREFERENCES: QUANTILE VALUES ................................................................................ 73
FIGURE 5.4 ADJUSTED QUANTILE VALUES IN STATISTIC MODE; LEFT: STATISTIC SUMMARY PLOT, RIGHT:
QUANTILE DROPDOWN MENU IN UPPER RIGHT TOOLBAR OF GUI. ............................................................ 73
FIGURE 5.5 BOXPLOT EXPLANATIONS (Q1: LOWER QUARTILE = 25 %, Q3: UPPER QUARTILE = 75 %, IQR:
INTERQUARTILE RANGE). ............................................................................................................................. 74
FIGURE 5.6 BROWSE FOR SCENARIO FOLDER. ...................................................................................................... 75
FIGURE 5.7 THE FILE NAME FILTER SHOWS INFORMATION ABOUT THE SCENARIO THAT YOU ARE OPENING.
YOU CAN ENTER A FILE STRING OR CLICK OK TO OPEN ALL FILES................................................................ 75
FIGURE 5.8 OPEN MORE SCENARIOS? .................................................................................................................. 76
FIGURE 5.9 STATISTIC MODE INFORMATION IS SHOWN IN THE RIGHT ROCKFALL PANEL. (MIN, Q1, MEAN,
MEDIAN, Q3, MAX, IQR, STDDEV). ............................................................................................................... 76
FIGURE 5.10 STATISTICS MODE: DROPDOWN MENU RESULTS ............................................................................ 77
FIGURE 5.11 STATISTICS MODE: MENU STATISTICS. ............................................................................................. 77
98
FIGURE 5.12: STATISTICS SUMMARY PLOT. .......................................................................................................... 79
FIGURE 5.13 LINE PROFILE PLOT ........................................................................................................................... 80
FIGURE 5.14 BARRIER PLOT OF A LINE PROFILE. SCENARIO AND LINE PROFILE NAME ARE MARKED IN THE
UPPER RIGHT CORNER (RED BOX). ............................................................................................................... 80
FIGURE 5.15 DATA INFORMATION PART OF BARRIER PLOT ................................................................................. 81
FIGURE 5.16 ROCKFALL TRAJECTORIES; DIFFERENT COLORS DEPICT DIFFERENT KINETIC ROCK ENERGIES (KJ). . 82
FIGURE 5.17 OPEN TRAJECTORIES DIALOG WINDOW .......................................................................................... 83
FIGURE 5.18 TRAJECTORY MODE: DROPDOWN MENU RESULTS ......................................................................... 84
FIGURE 5.19 RESULTS VELOCITY ........................................................................................................................... 85
FIGURE 5.20 RESULTS JUMP HEIGHT .................................................................................................................... 85
FIGURE 5.21 RESULTS KINETIC ROCK ENERGY ...................................................................................................... 85
FIGURE 5.22 TRAJECTORY INFORMATION – GENERAL TAB. THE INFORMATION (FILENAME, START POSITION OF
TRAJECTORY, ETC.) IS REFRESHED IN THE GENERAL TAB ON THE RIGHT SIDE. ADDITIONALLY, THE ROCK
TAB INDICATES THE ROCK USED FOR THE SELECTED TRAJECTORY (SEE NEXT FIGURE). .............................. 86
FIGURE 5.23 TRAJECTORY INFORMATION – ROCK TAB. ....................................................................................... 87
FIGURE 5.24 TRAJECTORY MODE: MENU TRAJECTORY. ....................................................................................... 87
FIGURE 5.25: TRAJECTORY XY PLOT. ..................................................................................................................... 88
FIGURE 5.26: LINE PROFILE PLOT .......................................................................................................................... 89
FIGURE 5.27 TRAJECTORY DATA LOG FILE. ........................................................................................................... 91
FIGURE 5.28 ANIMATION SPEED CONTROL SLIDER. ............................................................................................. 92
List of tables
TABLE 3.1: GROUND CATEGORIES IN RAMMS::ROCKFALL.................................................................................... 32
TABLE 3.2: GROUND PARAMETERS DEFAULT VALUES. ......................................................................................... 34
TABLE 3.3: RAMMS::ROCKFALL DYNAMIC DATA. ................................................................................................. 35
TABLE 4.1: LISTING OF FILES AND DIRECTORIES CREATED WITH A NEW RAMMS::ROCKFALL PROJECT. ............. 44
99
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement