Model 6487 Picoammeter/Voltage Source User's Manual

Model 6487 Picoammeter/Voltage Source User's Manual
Model 6487 Picoammeter/Voltage Source
User’s Manual
A GREATER MEASURE OF CONFIDENCE
WARRANTY
Keithley Instruments, Inc. warrants this product to be free from defects in material and workmanship for a
period of 1 year from date of shipment.
Keithley Instruments, Inc. warrants the following items for 90 days from the date of shipment: probes, cables,
rechargeable batteries, diskettes, and documentation.
During the warranty period, we will, at our option, either repair or replace any product that proves to be defective.
To exercise this warranty, write or call your local Keithley representative, or contact Keithley headquarters in
Cleveland, Ohio. You will be given prompt assistance and return instructions. Send the product, transportation
prepaid, to the indicated service facility. Repairs will be made and the product returned, transportation prepaid.
Repaired or replaced products are warranted for the balance of the original warranty period, or at least 90 days.
LIMITATION OF WARRANTY
This warranty does not apply to defects resulting from product modification without Keithley’s express written
consent, or misuse of any product or part. This warranty also does not apply to fuses, software, non-rechargeable
batteries, damage from battery leakage, or problems arising from normal wear or failure to follow instructions.
THIS WARRANTY IS IN LIEU OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING ANY IMPLIED WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR USE.
THE REMEDIES PROVIDED HEREIN ARE BUYER’S SOLE AND EXCLUSIVE REMEDIES.
NEITHER KEITHLEY INSTRUMENTS, INC. NOR ANY OF ITS EMPLOYEES SHALL BE LIABLE FOR
ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF
THE USE OF ITS INSTRUMENTS AND SOFTWARE EVEN IF KEITHLEY INSTRUMENTS, INC., HAS
BEEN ADVISED IN ADVANCE OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. SUCH EXCLUDED DAMAGES SHALL INCLUDE, BUT ARE NOT LIMITED TO: COSTS OF REMOVAL AND INSTALLATION,
LOSSES SUSTAINED AS THE RESULT OF INJURY TO ANY PERSON, OR DAMAGE TO PROPERTY.
Keithley Instruments, Inc.
28775 Aurora Road • Cleveland, Ohio 44139 • 440-248-0400 • Fax: 440-248-6168
1-888-KEITHLEY (534-8453) • www.keithley.com
Sales Offices:
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11/02
Model 6487 Picoammeter/ Voltage Source
User’s Manual
©2002, Keithley Instruments, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.A.
First Printing, October 2002
Document Number: 6487-900-01 Rev. A
Manual Print History
The print history shown below lists the printing dates of all Revisions and Addenda created
for this manual. The Revision Level letter increases alphabetically as the manual undergoes
subsequent updates. Addenda, which are released between Revisions, contain important
change information that the user should incorporate immediately into the manual. Addenda
are numbered sequentially. When a new Revision is created, all Addenda associated with the
previous Revision of the manual are incorporated into the new Revision of the manual. Each
new Revision includes a revised copy of this print history page.
Revision A (Document Number 6487-900-01) ...............................................................October 2002
All Keithley product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of Keithley Instruments, Inc.
Other brand names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders.
Safety Precautions
The following safety precautions should be observed before using this product and any associated instrumentation. Although
some instruments and accessories would normally be used with non-hazardous voltages, there are situations where hazardous
conditions may be present.
This product is intended for use by qualified personnel who recognize shock hazards and are familiar with the safety precautions
required to avoid possible injury. Read and follow all installation, operation, and maintenance information carefully before using the product. Refer to the manual for complete product specifications.
If the product is used in a manner not specified, the protection provided by the product may be impaired.
The types of product users are:
Responsible body is the individual or group responsible for the use and maintenance of equipment, for ensuring that the equipment is operated within its specifications and operating limits, and for ensuring that operators are adequately trained.
Operators use the product for its intended function. They must be trained in electrical safety procedures and proper use of the
instrument. They must be protected from electric shock and contact with hazardous live circuits.
Maintenance personnel perform routine procedures on the product to keep it operating properly, for example, setting the line
voltage or replacing consumable materials. Maintenance procedures are described in the manual. The procedures explicitly state
if the operator may perform them. Otherwise, they should be performed only by service personnel.
Service personnel are trained to work on live circuits, and perform safe installations and repairs of products. Only properly
trained service personnel may perform installation and service procedures.
Keithley products are designed for use with electrical signals that are rated Installation Category I and Installation Category II,
as described in the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Standard IEC 60664. Most measurement, control, and data
I/O signals are Installation Category I and must not be directly connected to mains voltage or to voltage sources with high transient over-voltages. Installation Category II connections require protection for high transient over-voltages often associated with
local AC mains connections. Assume all measurement, control, and data I/O connections are for connection to Category I sources unless otherwise marked or described in the Manual.
Exercise extreme caution when a shock hazard is present. Lethal voltage may be present on cable connector jacks or test fixtures.
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) states that a shock hazard exists when voltage levels greater than 30V RMS,
42.4V peak, or 60VDC are present. A good safety practice is to expect that hazardous voltage is present in any unknown
circuit before measuring.
Operators of this product must be protected from electric shock at all times. The responsible body must ensure that operators
are prevented access and/or insulated from every connection point. In some cases, connections must be exposed to potential
human contact. Product operators in these circumstances must be trained to protect themselves from the risk of electric shock.
If the circuit is capable of operating at or above 1000 volts, no conductive part of the circuit may be exposed.
Do not connect switching cards directly to unlimited power circuits. They are intended to be used with impedance limited sources. NEVER connect switching cards directly to AC mains. When connecting sources to switching cards, install protective devices to limit fault current and voltage to the card.
Before operating an instrument, make sure the line cord is connected to a properly grounded power receptacle. Inspect the connecting cables, test leads, and jumpers for possible wear, cracks, or breaks before each use.
When installing equipment where access to the main power cord is restricted, such as rack mounting, a separate main input power disconnect device must be provided, in close proximity to the equipment and within easy reach of the operator.
For maximum safety, do not touch the product, test cables, or any other instruments while power is applied to the circuit under
test. ALWAYS remove power from the entire test system and discharge any capacitors before: connecting or disconnecting ca5/02
bles or jumpers, installing or removing switching cards, or making internal changes, such as installing or removing jumpers.
Do not touch any object that could provide a current path to the common side of the circuit under test or power line (earth) ground. Always make measurements with dry hands while standing on a dry, insulated surface capable of withstanding the voltage being measured.
The instrument and accessories must be used in accordance with its specifications and operating instructions or the safety of the
equipment may be impaired.
Do not exceed the maximum signal levels of the instruments and accessories, as defined in the specifications and operating information, and as shown on the instrument or test fixture panels, or switching card.
When fuses are used in a product, replace with same type and rating for continued protection against fire hazard.
Chassis connections must only be used as shield connections for measuring circuits, NOT as safety earth ground connections.
If you are using a test fixture, keep the lid closed while power is applied to the device under test. Safe operation requires the use
of a lid interlock.
If
The
or
!
is present, connect it to safety earth ground using the wire recommended in the user documentation.
symbol on an instrument indicates that the user should refer to the operating instructions located in the manual.
The
symbol on an instrument shows that it can source or measure 1000 volts or more, including the combined effect of
normal and common mode voltages. Use standard safety precautions to avoid personal contact with these voltages.
The WARNING heading in a manual explains dangers that might result in personal injury or death. Always read the associated
information very carefully before performing the indicated procedure.
The CAUTION heading in a manual explains hazards that could damage the instrument. Such damage may invalidate the warranty.
Instrumentation and accessories shall not be connected to humans.
Before performing any maintenance, disconnect the line cord and all test cables.
To maintain protection from electric shock and fire, replacement components in mains circuits, including the power transformer,
test leads, and input jacks, must be purchased from Keithley Instruments. Standard fuses, with applicable national safety approvals, may be used if the rating and type are the same. Other components that are not safety related may be purchased from
other suppliers as long as they are equivalent to the original component. (Note that selected parts should be purchased only
through Keithley Instruments to maintain accuracy and functionality of the product.) If you are unsure about the applicability
of a replacement component, call a Keithley Instruments office for information.
To clean an instrument, use a damp cloth or mild, water based cleaner. Clean the exterior of the instrument only. Do not apply
cleaner directly to the instrument or allow liquids to enter or spill on the instrument. Products that consist of a circuit board with
no case or chassis (e.g., data acquisition board for installation into a computer) should never require cleaning if handled according to instructions. If the board becomes contaminated and operation is affected, the board should be returned to the factory for
proper cleaning/servicing.
Table of Contents
1
Getting Started
Introduction ................................................................................ 1-2
Overview of this manual ............................................................ 1-2
General information ................................................................... 1-2
Warranty information .......................................................... 1-2
Contact information ............................................................ 1-3
Safety symbols and terms ................................................... 1-3
Unpacking and Inspection ................................................... 1-3
Options and accessories ...................................................... 1-4
User’s manual ...................................................................... 1-6
Additional references .......................................................... 1-6
Features ...................................................................................... 1-6
Front and rear panel familiarization ........................................... 1-7
Front panel summary .......................................................... 1-7
Rear panel summary ......................................................... 1-10
Voltage source ................................................................... 1-12
Analog output .................................................................... 1-12
Digital I/O ......................................................................... 1-12
Display .............................................................................. 1-12
Status and error messages ................................................. 1-12
Power-up .................................................................................. 1-13
Line power connection ...................................................... 1-13
Line frequency .................................................................. 1-13
Power-up sequence ........................................................... 1-14
Default settings ......................................................................... 1-15
Saving user setups ............................................................. 1-15
Restoring setups ................................................................ 1-15
Restoring factory default setup ......................................... 1-15
Menu ........................................................................................ 1-18
SCPI programming .................................................................. 1-18
Optional command words ................................................. 1-19
Query commands .............................................................. 1-19
2
Connections
Connection fundamentals ...........................................................
Input connector ...................................................................
Voltage source output connectors .......................................
Maximum input levels ........................................................
Connecting cables and test leads .........................................
2-2
2-2
2-2
2-2
2-3
Basic connections to DUT .......................................................... 2-4
Current measurement connections ...................................... 2-4
Ohms measurement connections ......................................... 2-4
Noise and safety shields ...................................................... 2-5
Using a test fixture ...................................................................... 2-6
General purpose test fixture ................................................. 2-6
Model 8009 resistivity test fixture ....................................... 2-6
Interlock ...................................................................................... 2-8
Interlock connections .......................................................... 2-8
Interlock operation .............................................................. 2-8
Analog output ............................................................................. 2-9
Measurement considerations .................................................... 2-10
3
Measurements and Sourcing Voltage
Measurement overview ............................................................... 3-2
Current measurements ......................................................... 3-2
Voltage source ..................................................................... 3-2
Performance considerations ........................................................ 3-3
Warm-up period ................................................................... 3-3
Voltage offset correction ...................................................... 3-3
Autozero .............................................................................. 3-3
Zero check and zero correct ................................................ 3-3
Current measurements ................................................................ 3-5
Procedure ............................................................................. 3-5
SCPI programming — current measurements .................... 3-7
Programming example — current measurements ............... 3-7
Ohms measurements ................................................................... 3-8
Overview ............................................................................. 3-8
Procedure ............................................................................. 3-8
SCPI programming — ohms measurements ..................... 3-10
Programming example — ohms measurements ................ 3-11
Voltage source operation .......................................................... 3-11
Configuring the voltage source .......................................... 3-11
Sourcing voltage ................................................................ 3-12
Compliance indication ....................................................... 3-12
Open interlock indication .................................................. 3-13
SCPI commands — voltage source ................................... 3-13
Programming example — voltage ..................................... 3-13
4
Range, Units, Digits, Rate, and Filters
Range, units, and digits ..............................................................
Range ..................................................................................
Units ....................................................................................
Digits ...................................................................................
SCPI programming — range and digits ..............................
Rate ............................................................................................
Damping .....................................................................................
Filters .........................................................................................
Median filter ........................................................................
Digital filter ........................................................................
Filter control ........................................................................
5
Relative, mX+b, m/X+b (reciprocal), and log
Relative .......................................................................................
Front panel relative .............................................................
SCPI programming — relative ..........................................
mX+b, m/X+b (reciprocal), and Logarithmic ............................
mX+b and m/X+b ...............................................................
Logarithmic .........................................................................
Configuring math functions ................................................
SCPI programming — mX+b, m/X+b, and log ..................
6
4-2
4-2
4-3
4-3
4-3
4-4
4-4
4-4
4-5
4-5
4-6
5-2
5-2
5-2
5-3
5-3
5-3
5-4
5-4
Buffer and Sweeps
Buffer operations ........................................................................
Store ....................................................................................
Recall ..................................................................................
Buffer timestamp .................................................................
Clear ....................................................................................
Buffer statistics ...................................................................
SCPI programming — buffer ..............................................
Programming example ........................................................
Voltage sweeps ...........................................................................
Front panel sweeps ..............................................................
SCPI programming — sweeps ............................................
Programming example ........................................................
6-2
6-2
6-2
6-2
6-3
6-3
6-4
6-4
6-5
6-5
6-5
6-6
7
Remote Operation and Commands
Selecting and configuring an interface ....................................... 7-2
Interfaces ............................................................................. 7-2
Connections ......................................................................... 7-2
Front panel GPIB operation ................................................ 7-3
Remote commands ..................................................................... 7-4
General bus commands ....................................................... 7-4
Common commands ............................................................ 7-4
Signal oriented commands. ................................................. 7-5
SCPI command subsystems ................................................ 7-6
Programming syntax ........................................................... 7-6
A
Specifications
B
General Measurement Considerations
Measurement considerations .....................................................
Ground loops ......................................................................
Triboelectric effects ............................................................
Piezoelectric and stored charge effects ...............................
Electrochemical effects ......................................................
Humidity .............................................................................
Light ...................................................................................
Electrostatic interference ....................................................
Magnetic fields ...................................................................
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) ..................................
C
B-2
B-2
B-3
B-3
B-4
B-4
B-4
B-4
B-5
B-5
Example Programs
Programming examples .............................................................
1000 readings/second into internal buffer ..........................
900 readings/second to IEEE-488 bus ................................
3000 readings into internal buffer ......................................
C-2
C-2
C-3
C-4
List of Illustrations
1
Getting Started
Figure 1-1
Figure 1-2
Front panel ............................................................................. 1-7
Rear panel ............................................................................ 1-10
2
Connections
Figure 2-1
Figure 2-2
Figure 2-3
Figure 2-4
Figure 2-5
Figure 2-6
Figure 2-7
Figure 2-8
Figure 2-9
Triax input connector ............................................................. 2-2
Maximum input levels ........................................................... 2-3
Basic current measurement connections ................................ 2-4
Basic ohms connections ......................................................... 2-5
Shielding for measurements (unguarded) .............................. 2-6
General purpose test fixture connections ............................... 2-7
Typical connections for measurements using the
Model 8009 test fixture ...................................................... 2-7
Interlock connections ............................................................. 2-9
Typical analog output connections ...................................... 2-10
3
Measurements and Sourcing Voltage
Figure 3-1
Figure 3-2
Connections for current measurements .................................. 3-6
Connections for ohms measurements .................................. 3-10
7
Remote Operation and Commands
Figure 7-1
IEEE-488 and RS-232 connector locations ........................... 7-3
B
General Measurement Considerations
Figure B-1
Figure B-2
Power line ground loops ....................................................... B-2
Eliminating ground loops ..................................................... B-3
List of Tables
1
Getting Started
Table 1-1
Table 1-2
Default settings ..................................................................... 1-16
MENU structure.................................................................... 1-18
2
Connections
Table 2-1
Summary of measurement considerations ............................ 2-11
3
Measurements and Sourcing Voltage
Table 3-1
Table 3-2
Table 3-3
Table 3-4
Table 3-5
Table 3-6
Table 3-7
Basic current measurement capabilities.................................. 3-2
Basic voltage source output capabilities ................................. 3-2
SCPI commands — zero check and zero correct.................... 3-4
SCPI commands — basic current measurements ................... 3-7
SCPI commands — basic ohms measurements.................... 3-10
Voltage source current limits ................................................ 3-12
SCPI commands — voltage source ...................................... 3-13
4
Range, Units, Digits, Rate, and Filters
Table 4-1
Table 4-2
Table 4-3
Measurement ranges ............................................................... 4-2
SCPI commands — range and digits ...................................... 4-3
SCPI commands — filters ...................................................... 4-6
5
Relative, mX+b, m/X+b (reciprocal), and log
Table 5-1
Table 5-2
SCPI commands — relative (null).......................................... 5-2
SCPI commands — mX+b, m/X+b, and log .......................... 5-4
6
Buffer and Sweeps
Table 6-1
Table 6-2
SCPI commands — buffer ...................................................... 6-4
SCPI commands — sweeps .................................................... 6-5
7
Remote Operation and Commands
Table 7-1
Table 7-2
Table 7-3
Table 7-4
General bus commands ...........................................................
Signal oriented commands......................................................
IEEE-488.2 common commands and queries.........................
SCPI command subsystems ....................................................
7-4
7-5
7-5
7-6
1
Getting Started
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Introduction — Description of the Model 6487 Picoammeter.
Overview of this manual — Provides content of this manual.
General information — Covers general information that includes warranty infor-
mation, contact information, safety symbols and terms, inspection, and available
options and accessories.
Features — Summarizes the features of Model 6487.
Front and rear panel familiarization — Summarizes the controls and connectors of
the instrument as well as providing information on the front panel display.
Power-up — Covers line power connection, line voltage setting, fuse replacement,
power line frequency, and the power-up sequence.
Default settings — Covers the five instrument setup configurations available to the
user; three user defined, GPIB defaults, or factory defaults.
SCPI programming — Explains how SCPI commands are presented in this manual.
1-2
Getting Started
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Introduction
The Model 6487 is a high resolution bus-programmable (RS-232 and IEEE-488) picoammeter. The Model 6487 has the following current measurement ranges: 8 ranges (from
20mA down to the 2nA range). The Model 6487 also includes a ±500V DC voltage source
and an ohms function that includes an alternating voltage mode to improve accuracy and
repeatability of very high resistance measurements.
Overview of this manual
This manual describes how to connect, program, and maintain the Model 6487 Picoammeter. The sections of the manual are organized as follows:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Section 1:
Section 2:
Section 3:
Section 4:
Section 5:
Section 6:
Section 7:
Getting Started
Connections
Measurements and Sourcing Voltage
Range, Units, Digits, Rate, and Filters
Relative, mX+b, m/X+b (reciprocal), and log
Buffer and Sweeps
Remote Operation and Commands
Appendices to this manual contain specification and also provide additional information
on specific topics. The appendices are organized as follows:
–
–
–
Appendix A: Specifications
Appendix B: General Measurement Considerations
Appendix C: Example Programs
General information
Warranty information
Warranty information is located at the front of this manual. Should your Model 6487
require warranty service, contact the Keithley representative or authorized repair facility in
your area for further information. When returning the instrument for repair, be sure to fill
out and include the service form at the back of this manual to provide the repair facility
with the necessary information.
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Getting Started
1-3
Contact information
Worldwide phone numbers are listed at the front of this manual. If you have any questions,
please contact your local Keithley representative or call one of our Application Engineers
at 1-800-348-3735 (U.S. and Canada only).
Safety symbols and terms
The following symbols and terms may be found on the instrument or used in this manual:
If
or
is present, connect it to safety earth ground using the wire recommended in
the user documentation.
The ! symbol on an instrument indicates that the user should refer to the operating
instructions located in the manual.
The
symbol on an instrument shows that it can source or measure 1000 volts or more,
including the combined effect of normal and common mode voltages. Use standard safety
precautions to avoid personal contact with these voltages.
The WARNING heading used in this manual explains dangers that might result in personal injury or death. Always read the associated information very carefully before performing the indicated procedure.
The CAUTION heading used in this manual explains hazards that could damage the
instrument. Such damage may invalidate the warranty.
Unpacking and Inspection
Inspection for damage
The Model 6487 was carefully inspected electrically and mechanically before shipment.
After unpacking all items from the shipping carton, check for any obvious signs of physical damage that may have occurred during transit. (There may be a protective film over the
display lens, which can be removed). Report any damage to the shipping agent immediately. Save the original packing carton for possible future shipment. Before removing the
Model 6487 from the bag, observe the handling precautions discussed below.
Handling precautions
•
•
•
Always grasp the Model 6487 by the covers.
After removing the Model 6487 from its anti-static bag, inspect it for any
obvious signs of physical damage. Report any such damage to the shipping agent
immediately.
When the Model 6487 is not installed and connected, keep the unit in its anti-static
bag and store it in the original packing carton.
1-4
Getting Started
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Package content
The following items are included with every Model 6487 order:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Model 6487 Picoammeter with line cord
Protective triax Shield/Cap (CAP-31)
7078-TRX-3 Triax cable
Model 8607 1kV Source Banana cable set
CS-459 4-pin Female Interlock connector
Accessories as ordered
Certificate of calibration
Model 6487 User Manual (P/N 6487-900-00)
Product Information CD-ROM that contains PDFs of the User’s and
Reference Manuals
Options and accessories
Input cables, connectors, and adapters
237-TRX-BAR Barrel Adapter — This is a barrel adapter that allows you to connect
two triax cables together. Both ends of the adapter are terminated with 3-lug female triax
connectors.
Model 237-ALG-2 Triax Cable — This 2m (6.6 ft) low-noise triax cable terminated with
three slot male triax connector on one end and 3 alligator clips on the other.
Model 237-TRX-T Adapter — This is a 3-slot male to dual 3-lug female triax tee adapter
for use with 7078-TRX triax cables. Suitable for use with the Model 6487 V-Source in
high voltage applications.
Model 237-TRX-TBC Connector — This is a 3-lug female triax bulkhead connector
with cap for assembly of custom panels and interface connections. Suitable for use with
the Model 6487 V-Source in high voltage applications.
Models 7078-TRX-3, 7078-TRX-10, and 7078-TRX-20 Triax Cables — These are low
noise triax cables terminated at both ends with 3-slot male triax connectors. The -3 model
is 3 ft. (0.9m) in length, the -10 model is 10 ft. (3m) in length, and the -20 model is 20 ft.
(6m) in length.
Model 7078-TRX-TBC Connector — This is a 3-lug female triax bulkhead connector
with cap for assembly of custom panels and interface connections. Suitable for use with
the Model 6487 V-Source in high voltage applications.
Model 8009 Resistivity Test Fixture — This is a guarded test fixture for measuring volume and surface resistivities. It can accommodate sheet samples with a diameter between
64 and 102mm (2½ to 4 in.) and a thickness of up to 3.175mm (⅛ in.).
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Getting Started
1-5
Model 8606 High Performance Probe Tip Kit — Consists of two spade lugs, two alligator clips, and two spring hook test probes. (The spade lugs and alligator clips are rated at
30V RMS, 42.4V peak; the test probes are rated at 1000V.) These components are
designed to be used with high performance test leads terminated with banana plugs, such
as the Model 8607 High Performance Banana Cables.
Model 8607 High Performance Banana Cables — Consists of two high voltage (1000V)
banana cables. The cables are terminated with banana plugs that have retractable sheaths.
CAP-31 Protective Shield /Cap — For use with 3-lug triax connectors.
Interlock cables and connector
Model 6517-ILC-3 Interlock Cable — Designed to connect the interlock of the Model 6487
to the Model 8009 test fixture.
Model 8002-ILC-3 Interlock Cable — Designed to connect the lid interlock circuit of a
test fixture to the interlock circuit of the Model 6487.
CS-459 4-pin Female Interlock Connector — Allows custom wiring of external circuits
to the Model 6487 interlock.
GPIB, RS-232, and trigger link cables and adapters
Models 7007-1 and 7007-2 shielded GPIB cables — Connects the Model 6487 to the
GPIB bus using shielded cables and connectors to reduce electromagnetic interference
(EMI). Model 7007-1 is lm long; Model 7007-2 is 2m long.
Model 7009-5 shielded RS-232 cable — Connects the Model 6487 to the RS-232 interface using shielded cable and connectors to reduce electromagnetic interference (EMI).
Model 7009-5 is 5 ft. long.
Models 8501-1 and 8501-2 trigger link cables — Connects the Model 6487 to other
instruments with Trigger Link connectors (e.g., Model 7001 Switch System). Model 8501-1
is lm long; Model 8501-2 is 2m long.
Model 8502 trigger link adapter — Lets you connect any of the six trigger link lines of
the Model 6487 to instruments that use the standard BNC trigger connectors.
Model 8503 DIN to BNC trigger cable — Lets you connect trigger link lines one
(Voltmeter Complete) and two (External Trigger) of the Model 6487 to instruments that
use BNC trigger connectors. Model 8503 is lm long.
1-6
Getting Started
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Rack mount kits
Model 4288-1 single fixed rack mount kit — Mounts a single Model 6487 in a standard
19-inch rack.
Model 4288-2 side-by-side rack mount kit — Mounts two instruments (Models 182,
428, 486, 487, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2010, 2400, 2410, 2420, 2430, 6430, 6485, 6487,
6517A, 7001) side-by-side in a standard 19-inch rack.
Model 4288-4 side-by-side rack mount kit — Mounts Model 6487 and a 5.25-inch
instrument (Models 195A, 196, 220, 224, 230, 263, 595, 614, 617, 705, 740, 775A, 6512)
side-by-side in a standard 19-inch rack.
Carrying case
Model 1050 padded carrying case — A carrying case for Model 6487. Includes handles
and shoulder strap.
User’s manual
If an additional Model 6487 user’s manual is required, order the manual package. The
Keithley part number for the manual package is 6487-900-00. The manual package
includes a user’s manual and any pertinent addenda.
Additional references
While reading this document, you may find it helpful to consult the following documentation for reference:
Model 6487 Reference Manual — Supplied in electronic format on the Product Information CD-ROM included with your shipment, this document provides in-depth information
on Model 6487 operation, as well as performance verification, calibration, and routine
maintenance procedures. Check www.keithley.com for details.
Low Level Measurements handbook — Keithley’s guide for effective low current, low
voltage, and high impedance measurements. Check www.keithley.com for details.
Features
The Model 6487 is a high-performance picoammeter capable of measuring current and
resistance. Section 2 contains details on its measurement capabilities (“Connection fundamentals,” page 2-2). Features of Model 6487 Picoammeter include:
•
•
Setup storage — Five instrument setups (three user, GPIB defaults, and factory
defaults) can be saved and recalled.
mX+b, m/X+b (reciprocal—for resistance calculations), and log10 — These
calculations provide mathematical manipulation of readings (Section 5).
Model 6487 User’s Manual
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Getting Started
1-7
Relative — Null offsets or establish baseline values (Section 5).
Buffer — Store up to 3000 points of data in the internal buffer (Section 6).
Limits — Set up to two stages of high and low reading limits to test devices (see
Section 8 of the Reference Manual).
Digital I/O port — Four output lines and one input line to control external circuitry as an interface between limit tests and component handler. (See Section 8 of
the Reference Manual.)
Remote interface — Model 6487 can be controlled using the IEEE-488 interface
(GPIB) or the RS-232 interface (Section 7).
Voltage source — Internal ±500V voltage source is also used for ohms function
(Section 3).
GPIB programming language — When using the GPIB, the instrument can be
programmed using the SCPI or DDC programming language.
Front and rear panel familiarization
Front panel summary
The front panel of Model 6487 is shown in Figure 1-1.
Figure 1-1
Front panel
7
6487 PICOAMMETER /VOLTAGE SOURCE
VOLTAGE
SOURCE
OPERATE
V-SOURCE
I|Ω
CONFIG/
LOCAL
MATH
FILT
ZCHK
REL
OPER
RANGE
1
AUTO
MENU
COMM
DISP
TRIG
LIMIT
DIGITS
RATE
RANGE
POWER
SAVE
2
SETUP
STORE RECALL
AZERO
DAMP
EXIT
ENTER
34
5
6
1-8
Getting Started
NOTE
Model 6487 User’s Manual
To modify a key’s properties, press the CONFIG / LOCAL key (see Special keys
and power switch) and then the key. Not all keys have configurable properties.
1 Special keys and power switch
CONFIG/
LOCAL
When in Local operation, use to configure properties of the next button pressed.
When in Remote operation (REM annunciator lit), cancels GPIB remote mode.
MENU
POWER
Provides access to menu.
Power switch. In position turns 6487 on (I), out position turns it off (O).
2 Function keys
I|Ω
MATH
FILT
ZCHK
REL
OPER
V-SOURCE V-SOURCE Use to toggle between regular current measurements and ohms.
Turns on the selected Math function (selected using the CONFIG >> MATH key
sequence).
Turns on the filtering (selected using the CONFIG >> FILT key sequence).
Use to perform a Zero Check function.
Use to control and configure properties of the rel(ative) function.
Toggles the Vsource state (the Vsource state is displayed by an indicator). (Configured
using the CONFIG >> OPER key sequence.)
Increments voltage source value
Decrements voltage source value
3 Operation keys
COMM
DISP
TRIG
LIMIT
DIGITS
RATE
and SAVE
SETUP
STORE
RECALL
AZERO
DAMP
EXIT
ENTER
Use to control and modify communication properties (GPIB or RS-232).
Use to turn display on/off.
Trigger measurement(s). Takes 6487 out of idle state. Use also to configure trigger
properties.
Use to perform and create limit tests.
Use to set display resolution.
Use to select measurement rate.
Use to control cursor position for making selections or editing values.
Use to save present setup to a memory location.
Use to restore setup to either GPIB or factory defaults, or to a user memory location.
Also use to modify properties of power on defaults to either GPIB or factory defaults,
or to a user memory location.
Use to start buffer and modify the number of readings to store.
Use to display stored readings (including maximum, minimum, peak-to-peak, average, and standard deviation). The and range keys scroll through the buffer, and
the or key toggles between reading number, reading, and timestamp.
Use to control auto zero function (on / off).
Use to control damping function (on / off).
Use to cancel selection and move back to measurement display.
Use to accept selection and move to next choice or back to measurement display.
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Getting Started
1-9
4 Range keys
AUTO
Use to select the next higher measurement range. Also use to modify the upper autorange limit.
Use to select the next lower measurement range. Also use to modify the lower autorange limit.
Enables/disables autorange.
5 Handle
Pull out and rotate to desired position.
6 VOLTAGE SOURCE OPERATE indicator
This indicator will turn on when the voltage source is in operate (voltage source output turned on). It
will also turn on for about 0.7 sec at power-on to indicate that it is functional.
WARNING
Hazardous voltage may be present on the rear panel V-SOURCE
OUTPUT terminals when the operate indicator is on.
7 Display annunciators
* (asterisk)
(more)
AUTO
BUFFER
ERR
FAST
FILT
LSTN
MATH
MED
REL
REM
SLOW
SRQ
STAT
TALK
TIMER
TRIG
MON
SCAN
OCOMP
Readings being stored in buffer.
Indicates additional selections are available.
Autorange enabled.
Recalling readings stored in buffer.
Questionable reading or invalid cal step.
Fast (0.1 PLC) reading rate selected.
MEDIAN and/or AVERAGE filter enabled (also DAMPING enabled).
Instrument addressed to listen over GPIB.
mX+b, m/X+b, or log10 calculation enabled.
Medium (1 PLC) reading rate selected.
Relative enabled for present measurement function.
Instrument in GPIB remote mode.
Slow reading rate selected; 6 PLC for 60Hz or 5 PLC for 50Hz.
Service request over GPIB.
Displaying buffer statistics.
Instrument addressed to talk over GPIB bus.
Timer controlled triggering in use.
External triggering (GPIB or trigger link) selected.
Zero correct enabled.
Voltage sweep armed and ready to run.
Voltage source in compliance.
Getting Started
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Rear panel summary
The rear panel of Model 6487 is shown in Figure 1-2.
Figure 1-2
Rear panel
2
1
3
4
5
6
7
8
MADE IN
U.S.A.
CAT I
IEEE-488
ANALOG OUT
(CHANGE IEEE ADDRESS
WITH FRONT PANEL MENU)
DIGITAL I/O
!
505V PK
505V PK
505V PK
TRIGGER LINK
INPUT
RS-232
V-SOURCE OUTPUT
505V PK TO CHASSIS
LO
!
HI INTERLOCK
505V
MAX
9
120
1-10
FUSE
LINE
630mAT
(SB)
100 VAC
120 VAC
315mAT
(SB)
220 VAC
240 VAC
10
11
LINE RATING
50, 60Hz
50 VA MAX
12
1 INPUT
This standard three-lug female triax connector is used to connect the signal to be measured to the
input of the Model 6487 (Figure 1-3). Mates to a three-slot male triax connector cable.
Figure 1-3
Input connector
CAT I
Chassis Ground
Input Low
Input High
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Getting Started
1-11
2 CHASSIS
This screw terminal is used to connect COMMON to CHASSIS ground via the ground link connector.
3 COMMON
This standard banana connector can be used as input LO or as the common for the ANALOG OUT.
Also can be used as a ground link. Note that there is a 1k(ohm) resistance to input LO from the
ANALOG OUT common.
4 ANALOG OUT
This standard banana connector provides a scaled, inverting output (inverting 2V full scale on all
ranges).
5 TRIGGER LINK
Eight-pin micro-DIN connector for sending and receiving trigger pulses among connected instruments. Use a trigger link cable or adapter, such as Models 8501-1, 8501-2, 8502, and 8503.
6 DIGITAL I/O
Male DB-9 connector for digital output lines and component handler signals.
7 RS-232
Female DB-9 connector for RS-232 operation. Use a straight-through (not null modem) DB-9 shielded
cable.
8 IEEE-488
Connector for IEEE-488 (GPIB) operation. Use a shielded cable, such as Models 7007-1 and 7007-2.
9 V-SOURCE OUTPUT HI
This standard banana connector provides HI connection to the 6487’s voltage source.
WARNING
Hazardous voltage may be present on the rear panel V-SOURCE
OUTPUT terminals when the front panel operate indicator is on.
CAUTION
Do not connect external sources to the 6487 voltage source. External
sources may damage the 6487 voltage source.
10 V-SOURCE OUTPUT LO
This standard banana connector provides LO connection to the 6487’s voltage source.
CAUTION
Do not connect external sources to the 6487 voltage source. External
sources may damage the 6487 voltage source.
11 INTERLOCK
This interlock connector provides connection of the 6487’s voltage source with an interlock connector
on a test fixture.
12 Power Module
Contains the AC line receptacle and power line fuse. The instrument can be configured for line voltages of 115V and 230VAC (nominal) at line frequencies of 50 or 60Hz automatically and over the bus.
Changing line voltages requires changing fuses.
1-12
Getting Started
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Voltage source
The Model 6487 voltage source can source up to ±505V DC and is used for the ohms
function. See “Basic connections to DUT,” page 1-4 in Section 2 for full details on voltage
source operation.
Analog output
The Model 6487 has an analog output on the rear panel. The ANALOG OUT provides a
scaled, inverting ±2V output. A full-scale reading corresponds to ±2V output. See “Analog
output,” page 1-9 in Section 2 for full details on analog output operation.
Digital I/O
The Model 6487's Digital I/O port is a male DB-9 connector located on the rear panel. The
four active-low, digital output lines and one input line are used to control external circuitry. For
detailed connection and usage information, refer to Section 8 of the Model 6487 Reference
Manual.
Display
Readings can be displayed in engineering units or scientific notation. Annunciators indicate various states of operation. See “Front panel summary,” page 1-7 for a complete listing of display annunciators. The normal display also includes the voltage source value on
the right.
NOTE
Changing the display resolution is not allowed if displaying readings in scientific notation.
The DISP key can be used to turn the display on or off. The Display and Keys Test allows
you to test display digit segments and annunciators, and check the functionality of front
panel keys. These tests are accessed through the MENU.
Status and error messages
Status and error messages are displayed momentarily. During operation and programming,
you will encounter a number of front panel messages. Typical messages are either of status
or error variety, as listed in Appendix B of the Model 6487 Reference Manual.
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Getting Started
1-13
Power-up
Line power connection
Follow the procedure below to connect the Model 6487 to line power and turn on the
instrument.
1.
Check to see that the line voltage indicated in the window of the fuse holder assembly (Figure 1-2) is correct for the operating voltage in your area. If not, refer to the
procedure in Section 17 of the Model 6487 Reference Manual for setting line voltage and fuse replacement.
CAUTION
2.
3.
Before plugging in the power cord, make sure that the front panel power switch is
in the off (O) position.
Connect the female end of the supplied power cord to the AC receptacle on the rear
panel. Connect the other end of the power cord to a grounded AC outlet.
WARNING
4.
Operating the instrument on an incorrect line voltage may cause damage to the instrument, possibly voiding the warranty.
The power cord supplied with the Model 6487 contains a separate
ground terminal for use with grounded outlets. When proper connections are made, instrument chassis is connected to power line ground
through the ground wire in the power cord. Failure to use a grounded
outlet may result in personal injury or death due to electric shock.
Turn on the instrument by pressing the front panel power switch to the on (I) position.
Line frequency
The Model 6487 operates at line frequencies of 50 or 60Hz. When auto detect is enabled
(factory default), line frequencies are automatically sensed and set accordingly, therefore
there are no switches to set. Use the :SYST:LFR? command (query) to read the line frequency. The factory default setting is auto detect enabled.
If the power line is noisy, auto detect may not be able to lock in on a frequency. If this
occurs, set the frequency manually. This may be accomplished using the front panel or
over the bus. From the front panel, use the MENU/LFREQ selection to change the frequency. Via remote, send the SYST:LFR <freq> command.
1-14
Getting Started
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Power-up sequence
The following power-up sequence occurs when the Model 6487 is turned on:
1.
The Model 6487 performs self-tests on its EPROM and RAM with all digits and
annunciators turned on. At power-up, the VOLTAGE SOURCE OPERATE LED
will come on for 0.7 seconds to indicate that it is functional. If a failure is detected,
the instrument momentarily displays an error message and the ERR annunciator
turns on. Error messages are listed in Appendix B of the Model 6487 Reference
Manual.
NOTE
If a problem develops while the instrument is under warranty, return it to
Keithley Instruments Inc., for repair.
2.
If the instrument passes the self-tests, the firmware revision levels are displayed.
For example:
6487 A01
3.
After the firmware revision levels are displayed, the detected line frequency is
displayed.
For example:
FREQ: 60Hz
4.
5.
After the detected line frequency is displayed, information on the selected remote
interface is displayed:
a.
GPIB — If the GPIB is the selected interface, the instrument will display the
selected language (SCPI or DDC) and primary address.
Examples:
SCPI ADDR: 22
DDC ADDR: 22
b.
RS-232 — If RS-232 is the selected interface, the instrument will display the baud
rate setting. For example:
RS-232: 9600b
If the FACTory setup is selected as the power-on setup, the unit is placed in the
default reading mode after the communication information is displayed. If a setup
other than FACTory is selected, the configured setup will be displayed. For example, if the USR1 setup (User Setup #1) is selected:
USING USR1
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Getting Started
1-15
Default settings
The Model 6487 can be restored to one of five setup configurations; factory default
(FACT), three user-saved (USR0, USR1, and USR2), and bus default (GPIB). As shipped
from the factory, Model 6487 powers up to the factory default settings. Factory default settings provide a general purpose setup for front panel operation, while the bus default
(GPIB) settings do the same for remote operation. Factory and GPIB default settings are
listed in Table 1-1.
The instrument will power up to whichever default setup was saved as the power-on setup.
NOTE
At the factory, the factory default setup is saved into the USR0, USR1, and USR2
setups.
Saving user setups
To save a user setup, configure Model 6487 for the desired measurement application, then
press SAVE and select the desired setup (0 = USR0, 1 = USR1, 2 = USR2). Press ENTER
to complete the process. Use the *SAV command to save setups by remote.
To save the power-on setup, press CONFIG and then SETUP, and select FACT, USR0,
USR1, USR2, or GPIB, and press ENTER. Use the SYST:POS command to save the
power-on setup via remote.
Restoring setups
Press SETUP to display the restore menu, then select the setup (FACT, USR0, USR1,
USR2, or GPIB) and press ENTER. Use the *RCL command to recall setups by remote.
Restoring factory default setup
From the front panel, press SETUP, select FACT, and then press ENTER. Use *RST to
restore GPIB defaults or SYST:PRES to restore front panel defaults via remote.
1-16
Getting Started
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Table 1-1
Default settings
Setting
Factory
GPIB
(:SYStem:PRESet)
(*RST)
Arm Layer (CONFIG ARM):
Arm-In Source Event
Arm Count
Input Trigger Link Line
Source Bypass
Output Trigger Link Line
Output Trigger
IMM
INF
1
NEVER
2
Off
*
1
*
*
*
*
Buffer (STORE):
Count
Damping (DAMP)
Digital Filter (FILT):
Count
Type
Disabled
No effect
On
Off
10
Moving
*
*
*
*
*
*
Display Resolution (DIGITS)
Format byte order
Function
GPIB:
Address
Language
5½-digits
Swapped
Amps
No effect (On at factory)
No effect (22 at factory)
No effect (SCPI at factory)
Limit Tests:
Limit 1 and Limit 2:
HI and LO Values
Disabled
1, -1
*
*
*
Log (MATH)
Median Filter (FILT):
Rank
M/X+B (MATH)
“M” Value
“B” Value
Units
OFF
Off
1
Disabled
1.0
0.0
X
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
Ohms Mode
Range
Rate:
NPLC
Rel:
Rel Value (VAL)
Normal
AUTO
Slow
6.0 (60Hz) or 5.0 (50Hz)
Off
0.0
*
*
*
*
*
*
*The factory (:SYStem:PRESet) and bus (*RST) GPIB defaults are the same.
Bus settings that are different from factory reset are as shown.
*
Normal
*
*
*
*
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Getting Started
Table 1-1 (continued)
Default settings
Setting
Factory
GPIB
(:SYStem:PRESet)
(*RST)
RS-232:
All Settings
Trigger Layer (CONFIG TRIG):
Trig-In Source Event
Trigger Count
Trigger Delay
Input Trigger Link Line
Source Bypass
Output Trigger Link Line
No effect (Off at factory)
No effect
IMM
1
0
1
NEVER
2
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
Units
Voltage Source:
Operate
Amplitude
Range
Current Limit
10V Range Interlock
Sweeps:
Start Voltage
Stop Voltage
Step Voltage
Center Voltage
Span Voltage
Delay
Zero Check
Zero Correct
No effect
*
Off
0V
10V
25mA
Off
*
*
*
*
*
0V
10V
1V
5V
10V
1s
Enabled
Disabled
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*The factory (:SYStem:PRESet) and bus (*RST) GPIB defaults are the same.
Bus settings that are different from factory reset are as shown.
1-17
1-18
Getting Started
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Menu
Many aspects of operation are configured through the menus summarized in Table 1-2.
Refer to the section listed in the table for in-depth information. To access the menu, press
the MENU key. Use the and range keys to scroll through the menu items, and the
and cursor keys to change options. Press ENTER to save any changes made and then
leave the menu. Press EXIT to leave the menu without saving changes.
NOTE
The MENU key is used to access the menu structure. However, if in remote for
IEEE-488 bus operation (REM annunciator is lit), pressing the menu key has no
effect. Press the LOCAL key to place the unit in local operation, then press the
MENU key to access the menu items.
Table 1-2
MENU structure
Menu item
Description
Reference
CAL
Reference Manual
Provides path to the following calibration submenu items:
VOFFSET, COUNT, RUN, VSRC-RUN, DATES, UNLOCK, Section 16
LOCK, and SAVE.
TSTAMP
Timestamp format can be ABSolute or DELTa.
UNITS
Readings can be displayed in ENGineering units or
SCIentific notation.
TEST
Run display or key tests.
SNUM
Displays the unit’s serial number.
LFREQ
Line frequency can be manually set to 50 or 60 Hz, or
AUTOmatically set. The number after AUTO indicates
present detected frequency value.
Section 6
Reference Manual
Section 17
“Line frequency,”
page 1-13
SCPI programming
SCPI programming information is integrated with front panel operation throughout this
manual. SCPI commands are listed in tables and additional information that pertains
exclusively to remote operation is provided after each table. The SCPI tables may reference you to other sections of this manual.
NOTE
SCPI tables in this manual are abridged. That is, they do NOT include most
optional command words and query commands. See the Section 14 of the
Model 6487 Reference Manual for a complete listing of SCPI commands.
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Getting Started
1-19
Optional command words
In order to be in conformance with the IEEE-488.2 standard, the Model 6487 accepts
optional command words. Any command word that is enclosed in brackets ([]) is optional
and does not have to be included in the program message. Programming examples in this
manual use the short form and do not include optional command words for simplicity.
Query commands
Most command words have a query form. A query command is identified by the question
mark (?) that follows the command word. A query command requests (queries) the programmed status of that command. When a query command is sent and Model 6487 is
addressed to talk, the response message is sent to the computer.
1-20
Getting Started
Model 6487 User’s Manual
2
Connections
•
Connection fundamentals — Covers fundamental information about connecting
test circuits to the picoammeter.
•
Basic connections to DUT — Details connecting test circuits to the picoammeter
for both current and ohms measurements.
•
Using a test fixture — Discusses using general test fixtures as well as the Model 8009
test fixture.
•
Interlock — Provides information on using the interlock, which must be used to
optimize safety.
•
Analog output — Covers analog output connections and discusses considerations
when using the analog output.
•
Measurement considerations — Summarizes considerations that could affect
overall measurement accuracy.
2-2
Connections
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Connection fundamentals
The following provides important fundamental information on input connections to the
Model 6487. Typical connection drawings are provided in “Basic connections to DUT,”
page 2-4. More detailed connections for specific measurements are in Section 3.
Input connector
The rear panel INPUT connector is a 3-lug female triax connector (Figure 2-1). Make connections using a male terminated triax cable.
Figure 2-1
Triax input connector
CAT I
Chassis Ground
Input Low
Input High
Voltage source output connectors
The rear panel V-SOURCE OUTPUT HI and LO connectors (see Figure 1-2 in Section 1)
are used to connect the voltage source to the DUT. The voltage source is primarily used for
ohms measurements. See “Ohms measurement connections,” page 2-4 for details.
Maximum input levels
The maximum input levels to the Model 6487 are summarized in Figure 2-2.
Model 6487 User’s Manual
WARNING
Connections
2-3
The maximum safe voltage between the voltage source or ammeter
common and chassis ground (common mode voltage) is 505V peak.
Exceeding this voltage can create a shock hazard.
Figure 2-2
Maximum input levels
Input HI
Max Continuous
Input = 505V Peak
Input LO
505V Peak
505V Peak
Chassis Ground
Connecting cables and test leads
When making precision measurements, you should always use low-noise triax cables for
INPUT connections. As a general rule, always use the shortest possible cable for measurements. When using the voltage source, the test leads must be rated for 505V minimum and
should include safety sheaths. See “Input cables, connectors, and adapters,” page 1-4 in
Section 1 for recommended cables and test leads.
2-4
Connections
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Basic connections to DUT
Current measurement connections
Basic connections for current measurements are shown in Figure 2-3; the DUT is the current to be measured. Circuit high is connected to the center conductor of the input connector and circuit low is connected to the connector’s input LO (inner shield).
Figure 2-3
Basic current measurement connections
6487
HI
DUT
INPUT*
LO
* Maximum Continuous Input: 505V Peak
WARNING
If it is possible for the DUT or external supply to present more than
505V to the input HI, it is imperative that the connection between
input LO and the external voltage source be sufficiently low impedance
and capable of carrying the short-circuit current of the source, in order
that the LO not exceed 505V.
CAUTION
Current limiting resistors are required for DUTs capable of forcing
voltages 505V or greater. Damage to the instrument may result if voltages greater than 505V are forced on the Model 6487 INPUT HI.
Ohms measurement connections
Basic connections for ohms measurements are shown in Figure 2-4; the DUT is the resistance to be measured. Circuit high is connected to the center conductor of the INPUT connector and circuit low is connected to the V-SOURCE OUTPUT HI terminal. Note that
INPUT LO and V-SOURCE OUTPUT LO are connected together externally.
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Connections
2-5
Figure 2-4
Basic ohms connections
6487
HI
INPUT*
DUT
LO
LO
V-SOURCE OUTPUT
HI
* Maximum Continuous Input: 505V Peak
Noise and safety shields
Figure 2-5 shows typical measurement shielding. In (A), a noise shield is used to prevent
unwanted signals from being induced on the picoammeter input. Amps measurements
below 1µA may benefit from effective shielding. Typically, the noise shield is connected
to picoammeter input LO. Additionally, Figure 2-5(B) shows an added safety shield connected to earth ground and Model 6487 chassis. This type of shielding should be used
whenever hazardous voltages will be present in the test circuit.
WARNING
The maximum safe voltage between picoammeter LO and chassis
ground (common mode voltage) is 505V peak. The Model 6487 does
not internally limit the LO-to-chassis voltage. Exceeding 505V can create a shock hazard.
If it is possible for the DUT or external supply to present more than
505V to the input HI, it is imperative that the connection between
input LO and the external voltage source be sufficiently low impedance
and capable of carrying the short-circuit current of the source, in order
that the LO not exceed 505V.
CAUTION
The LO to chassis breakdown voltage is 505V. Exceeding this voltage
may cause damage to the instrument.
2-6
Connections
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Figure 2-5
Shielding for measurements (unguarded)
HI
Metal Noise Shield
Metal Noise Shield
HI
DUT
Chassis
Ground
INPUT
INPUT
LO
A. Noise Shield
LO
Metal Safety
Shield
DUT
Safety
Earth
Ground
B. Safety Shield
Using a test fixture
Whenever possible, use a shielded low-leakage test fixture to make precision measurements
and for safety when high voltages (>30V) are used.
General purpose test fixture
A general purpose test fixture is shown in Figure 2-6. This test fixture will accommodate a
variety of connection requirements.
Model 8009 resistivity test fixture
This test fixture allows volume resistivity in the range from 103 to 1018Ω-cm and surface
resistivity in the range from 103 to 1017Ω/sq. For typical connections to the Model 6487,
refer to Figure 2-7.
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Connections
2-7
Figure 2-6
General purpose test fixture connections
Metal Chassis
To Voltage A
Source
Insulated
Terminal
Post (6)
DUT
To 6487
Input B
To 6487 A
COMMON
Metal Guard Plate
A
Banana Jacks
B
3-Lug Female Triax Connector
Safety
Earth
Ground
Figure 2-7
Typical connections for measurements using the Model 8009 test fixture
6517-ILC-3 Safety Interlock Cable
Model 6487
Model 8009
MADE IN
U.S.A.
CAT I
IEEE-488
ANALOG OUT
(CHANGE IEEE ADDRESS
WITH FRONT PANEL MENU)
DIGITAL I/O
!
505V PK
505V PK
505V PK
SOURCE
LID
INTERLOCK
TRIGGER LINK
LO
TRIAX
XXX MAX
HI/LO
RS-232
V-SOURCE OUTPUT
505V PK TO CHASSIS
!
HI INTERLOCK
MAX INPUT
XXXXV
505V
MAX
120
METER
INPUT
FUSE
LINE
630mAT
(SB)
100 VAC
120 VAC
315mAT
(SB)
220 VAC
240 VAC
LINE RATING
50, 60Hz
50 VA MAX
7078-TRX-3 Triax Cable
Warning:
8607 Banana Plug Cables
Connect fixture ground to safety earth
ground using safety ground wire supplied
with the test fixture.
2-8
Connections
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Interlock
The Model 6487 has a built-in interlock that works in conjunction with the voltage source.
The interlock prevents the voltage source from being placed in operate on the 50V and
500V ranges, and optionally on the 10V range, to assure safe operation.
Interlock connections
Figure 2-8 shows interlock connections and the pin diagram of the INTERLOCK connector. Typically, the INTERLOCK connector is connected to the same type of connector on
the test fixture. A normally open switch is connected to pins 1 and 2 of the INTERLOCK
connector as shown. When the switch is open, the interlock is asserted, and the voltage
source cannot be placed in operate on the 50V or 500V voltage source ranges and optionally for the 10V range.
WARNING
If the voltage source was operating when the interlock is asserted, the
voltage source will change to a high impedance state, possibly leaving
charged DUT capacitance.
Interlock operation
The interlock is always operational for the 50V and 500V voltage source ranges. To enable
the voltage source output, pins 1 and 2 of the INTERLOCK connector must be shorted
together. For the 10V range, the interlock is optional and can be controlled with instrument programming. See “Voltage source operation,” page 3-11 in Section 3 for details on
programming the interlock operation for the 10V range.
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Connections
2-9
Figure 2-8
Interlock connections
Model 6487
Test Fixture
MADE IN
U.S.A.
CAT I
IEEE-488
ANALOG OUT
(CHANGE IEEE ADDRESS
WITH FRONT PANEL MENU)
DIGITAL I/O
!
505V PK
505V PK
505V PK
TRIGGER LINK
INPUT
RS-232
V-SOURCE OUTPUT
505V PK TO CHASSIS
!
HI INTERLOCK
505V
MAX
120
LO
FUSE
LINE
630mAT
(SB)
100 VAC
120 VAC
315mAT
(SB)
220 VAC
240 VAC
LINE RATING
50, 60Hz
50 VA MAX
Interlock
Connector
Interlock
Cable
Interlock
Connector
Test Fixture
Pin 1
Normally
Open
Switch
Interlock Asserted
(Output Inhibited)
with Open Switch
Pin 2
Interlock
Analog output
The Model 6487 has an analog output on the rear panel. The ANALOG OUT provides a
scaled, inverting ±2V output. A full-scale reading corresponds to ±2V output.
CAUTION
NOTE
Connecting COMMON or ANALOG OUT to earth while floating the
input may damage the instrument.
Analog outputs will be at same potential as the triax inner shield.
Connections for using this output are shown in Figure 2-9. For a full-scale input (i.e. 2mA
on the 2mA range), the output will be -2V. The 2V analog output signal is not corrected
during calibration. Gain errors of up to 2.5% may appear at this output, depending on
range. The output impedance is <100Ω. To minimize the effects of loading, the input
impedance of the device connected to the ANALOG OUT should be as high as possible.
2-10
Connections
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Figure 2-9
Typical analog output connections
MADE IN
U.S.A.
CAT I
IEEE-488
ANALOG OUT
LO
(CHANGE IEEE ADDRESS
WITH FRONT PANEL MENU)
DIGITAL I/O
!
505V PK
505V PK
505V PK
TRIGGER LINK
INPUT
RS-232
V-SOURCE OUTPUT
505V PK TO CHASSIS
!
HI INTERLOCK
505V
MAX
120
LO
FUSE
LINE
630mAT
(SB)
100 VAC
120 VAC
315mAT
(SB)
220 VAC
240 VAC
LINE RATING
50, 60Hz
50 VA MAX
HI
Test Lead
Model 6487 Rear Panel
Measuring Device
(i.e. Chart recorder)
Measurement considerations
There are a variety of factors to consider when making low-level measurements. These considerations are summarized in Table 2-1 and are detailed in Appendix G of the Model 6487
Reference Manual and Appendix B of this manual. For comprehensive information on all
measurement considerations, refer to the Low Level Measurements handbook, which is
available from Keithley Instruments.
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Connections
Table 2-1
Summary of measurement considerations
Considerations
Description
See Model 6487 Reference Manual, Appendix G for details.
Input bias current
Offset current of Model 6487 could affect low current measurements.
Voltage burden
Offset voltage of Model 6487 could cause errors if it is high in
relation to the voltage of the measured circuit.
Noise
Noise generated by source resistance and source capacitance.
See Appendix B for details.
Ground loops
Multiple ground points can create error signals.
Triboelectric effects
Charge currents generated in a cable by friction between a conductor
and the surrounding insulator (i.e., bending a triax cable).
Piezoelectric and stored
charge effects
Currents generated by mechanical stress on certain insulating
materials.
Electrochemical effects
Currents generated by the formation of chemical batteries on a
circuit board caused by ionic contamination.
Humidity
Reduces insulation resistance on PC boards and test connection
insulators.
Light
Light sensitive components must be tested in a light-free
environment.
Electrostatic interference
Charge induced by bringing a charged object near your test circuit.
Magnetic fields
The presence of magnetic fields can generate EMF (voltage).
Electromagnetic interference
(EMI)
EMI from external sources (i.e., radio and TV transmitters) can
affect sensitive measurements.
2-11
2-12
Connections
Model 6487 User’s Manual
3
Measurements and
Sourcing Voltage
•
Measurement overview — Explains the basic measurement and voltage source
capabilities of Model 6487.
•
Performance considerations — Covers warm-up period, voltage offset correction,
auto zero, zero check, and zero correct.
•
Current measurements — Provides a basic procedure to measure current.
•
Ohms measurements — Covers methods to set up and use the ohms measurement
function.
•
Voltage source operation — Discusses configuring and using the voltage source.
3-2
Measurements and Sourcing Voltage
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Measurement overview
Current measurements
The basic current measurement capabilities of the Model 6487 are summarized in
Table 3-1. Accuracy for each measurement function and range is listed in the specifications
(Appendix A).
Table 3-1
Basic current measurement capabilities
Function
Amps
Reading Range
±10fA to ±21mA
Available Ranges
2nA, 20nA, 200nA,
2µA, 20µA, 200µA,
2mA, and 20mA
Voltage source
The basic voltage source output capabilities of the Model 6487 are summarized in
Table 3-2. Accuracy specifications are shown in Appendix A.
Table 3-2
Basic voltage source output capabilities
Function
Source
voltage
Output Range
Available Ranges
±200µV to ±505V
10V, 50V, 500V
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Measurements and Sourcing Voltage
3-3
Performance considerations
Warm-up period
The Model 6487 can be used within one minute after it is turned on. However, the instrument should be turned on and allowed to warm up for at least one hour before use to
achieve rated accuracy. If the instrument has been exposed to extreme temperatures, allow
extra time for the internal temperature to stabilize.
Voltage offset correction
Voltage offset correction should be performed periodically to null input amplifier offsets.
Install the triax shielding cap on the INPUT jack, then use the CAL:VOFFSET selection
in the main MENU. To perform correction via remote, send CAL:UNPR:VOFF.
Autozero
To help maintain stability and accuracy over time and changes in temperature, the Model
6487 periodically measures internal voltages corresponding to offsets (zero) and amplifier
gains; a process known as autozeroing. With autozero disabled, measurement speed
increases up to three times, but measurement accuracy will be reduced. It is recommended
that autozero only be disabled for short periods of time.
To toggle autozero on or off, press the AZERO button. When autozero is enabled, a colon
will be displayed after the reading. Via remote, send SYST:AZER ON (for on) or
SYST:AZER OFF.
Zero check and zero correct
Zero check
When zero check is enabled (on), the input amplifier is reconfigured to shunt the input signal to low. From the front panel, enable/disable zero check by pressing the ZCHK key
(ZEROCHK message displayed). Refer to Table 3-3 for bus commands. Leave zero check
enabled when connecting or disconnecting input signals.
Zero correct
NOTE
The Model 6487 saves a single zero correct value (not one for each range).
For best results, acquire a new zero correct value after changing to the desired
range.
3-4
Measurements and Sourcing Voltage
Model 6487 User’s Manual
The Model 6487 has a zero correct feature to algebraically subtract the voltage offset term
from the measurement. Perform the following steps to algebraically zero correct the
measurement:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Enable zero check by pressing ZCHK (“ZEROCHK” message displayed).
Select the range that will be used for the measurement or select the lowest range.
Press REL to enable zero correct (MON annunciator turns on).
Press ZCHK to disable zero check.
Readings can now be taken from the display. The MON annunciator indicates that
the displayed reading is zero corrected.
To turn off zero correct, press REL again with zero check enabled.
NOTES With regard to the zero correct feature:
•
•
•
•
The Model 6487 will remain zero corrected even if it is upranged. If downranged, re-zero the instrument.
The Model 6487 does not have to be re-zero corrected as long as the ambient
temperature remains stable.
Zero correction cancels the voltage offset term of the amplifier. With zero
correct enabled, the instrument may not display a perfectly zeroed reading.
If the Model 6487 is operating at, or near TCAL, zero correction will have
very little effect. TCAL is the internal temperature of Model 6487 when it was
last calibrated.
SCPI programming — zero check and zero correct
Table 3-3
SCPI commands — zero check and zero correct
Commands
SYST:ZCH <b>
SYST:ZCOR <b>
SYST:ZCOR:ACQ
INIT
Description
Enable (ON) or disable (OFF) zero check.
Enable (ON) or disable (OFF) zero correct.
Acquire zero correct value.
Trigger a reading.
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Measurements and Sourcing Voltage
3-5
Current measurements
Procedure
WARNING
The maximum safe voltage between picoammeter LO and chassis
ground (common mode voltage) is 505V. The Model 6487 does not
internally limit the LO to chassis voltage. Exceeding 505V can create a
shock hazard.
If it is possible for the DUT or external supply to present more than
505V to the input HI, it is imperative that the connection between
input LO and the external voltage source be sufficiently low impedance
and capable of carrying the short-circuit current of the source, in order
that the LO not exceed 505V.
CAUTION
The maximum input voltage and current to Model 6487 is 505V peak
and 21mA. Exceeding either of these values may cause damage to the
instrument that is not covered by the warranty.
Perform the following steps to measure current:
Step 1. Select current function
Press the I|Ω key to make sure the current function is selected.
Step 2. Enable zero check
Zero check should always be enabled before making connection changes. The ZCHK key
toggles zero check on and off.
Step 3. Perform zero correction
To achieve optimum accuracy for low current measurements, it is recommended that you
zero correct the picoammeter. To do so, make sure the 2nA range is selected, then press
the REL key to perform zero correction (MON indicator on).
Step 4. Select a manual measurement range or enable auto range
Use the manual RANGE keys to select a manual measurement range or press AUTO to
enable auto range. With auto range enabled, the instrument will automatically go to the
most sensitive range to make the measurement. See Section 4 for details on range.
Measurements and Sourcing Voltage
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Step 5. Connect the current to be measured to the picoammeter
Basic connections for measurements are shown in Figure 3-1.
WARNING
NOTE
A safety shield is advisable whenever floating measurements are being
made. Connections for the safety shield are shown in Figure 3-1. The
metal safety shield must completely surround the noise shield or floating test circuit, and it must be connected to safety earth ground using
#18 AWG or larger wire.
When not making floating measurements, it is recommended that you ground
measurement LO at only one place in the circuit, such as with the ground link
connection on the rear panel of the 6487. (See “Ground loops,” page B-2.)
Fundamental information on making connections to the picoammeter input is
provided in Section 2.
Step 6. Disable zero check and take a reading from the display
If the readings are noisy, you may want to use filtering to reduce noise. Filtering is covered
in Section 4.
Figure 3-1
Connections for current measurements
Red (HI)
Metal Noise Shield
Green
(Chassis)
Metal Safety Shield
Safety
Earth
Ground
Black (LO)
237-ALG-2
Cable
MADE IN
U.S.A.
CAT I
IEEE-488
ANALOG OUT
(CHANGE IEEE ADDRESS
WITH FRONT PANEL MENU)
DIGITAL I/O
!
505V PK
505V PK
505V PK
TRIGGER LINK
INPUT
RS-232
V-SOURCE OUTPUT
505V PK TO CHASSIS
LO
!
HI INTERLOCK
505V
MAX
120
3-6
FUSE
LINE
630mAT
(SB)
100 VAC
120 VAC
315mAT
(SB)
220 VAC
240 VAC
Model 6487
LINE RATING
50, 60Hz
50 VA MAX
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Measurements and Sourcing Voltage
3-7
SCPI programming — current measurements
Table 3-4
SCPI commands — basic current measurements
Commands*
FUNC ‘CURR’
RANG <Range>
RANG:AUTO <b>
INIT
READ?
Description
Select current function
Select manual range (-0.021 to 0.021A).
Enable (ON) or disable (OFF) auto
range.
Trigger reading.
Trigger and return reading(s).
* Zero correct and zero check commands not included. See Table 3-3.
Programming example — current measurements
The following command sequence will perform one zero corrected current measurement:
*RST
FUNC ‘CURR’
SYST:ZCH ON
RANG 2e-9
INIT
SYST:ZCOR:ACQ
SYST:ZCOR ON
RANG:AUTO ON
SYST:ZCH OFF
READ?
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
Return 6487 to GPIB defaults.
Select current function.
Enable zero check.
Select the 2nA range.
Trigger reading to be used as zero
correction.
Use last reading taken as zero
correct value.
Perform zero correction.
Enable auto range.
Disable zero check.
Trigger and return one reading.
3-8
Measurements and Sourcing Voltage
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Ohms measurements
Overview
To measure ohms with the Model 6487, you must set up the voltage source to the desired
range, value, and current limit (see “Voltage source operation,” page 3-11), choose an
appropriate current measurement range (or use auto range), and enable the ohms function.
With the ohms function enabled, the Model 6487 calculates the measured resistance from
the voltage source value and the measured current: R = V/I. When setting up the voltage
source, choose as high a voltage value as possible for maximum current, keeping in mind
such factors as the power dissipation and voltage coefficient of the resistance being tested.
NOTE
The ohms measurements can be made using either the DC or alternating voltage
modes. Only the DC mode is used in this manual. See Section 3 of the Model 6487
Reference Manual for information on the alternating voltage mode.
Procedure
WARNING
Always turn off the Model 6487’s voltage source before changing voltage source connections to avoid a possible shock hazard.
Perform the following steps to measure resistance:
Step 1. Set up voltage source
Press either of the V-SOURCE adjustment keys, then use a manual RANGE key to set the
voltage source range. Set the voltage and current limit to the desired values. You can skip
the current limit prompt by pressing EXIT after adjusting the voltage.
Step 2. Perform zero correction
To achieve optimum accuracy for high resistance measurements, it is recommended that
you zero correct the picoammeter before enabling the ohms function. To do so, make sure
that zero check and the 2nA range are selected, then press the REL key to perform zero
correction (MON indicator on).
Step 3. Select a manual current range or enable auto range
Use the manual RANGE keys to select a manual current measurement range or press
AUTO to enable auto range. When using manual ranging, choose an appropriate value
based on the voltage source setting and the expected measured resistance: I = V/R.
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Measurements and Sourcing Voltage
3-9
Step 4. Connect the resistance to be measured to the picoammeter
Basic connections for ohms measurements are shown in Figure 3-2. Note that both the
picoammeter INPUT and the V-SOURCE OUTPUT jacks are connected to the resistance
under test.
WARNING
A safety shield is advisable whenever measurements are being made
with voltages over 30V DC. Connections for the safety shield are
shown in Figure 3-2. The metal safety shield must completely surround
the noise shield or floating test circuit, and it must be connected to
safety earth ground using #18 AWG or larger wire.
Step 5. Select ohms function
Press the I|Ω key to make sure the ohms function is selected.
Step 6. Turn on voltage source
Press the OPER key to turn on the voltage source output. The VOLTAGE SOURCE
OPERATE indicator will turn on.
Step 7. Disable zero check and take a reading from the display
If the readings are noisy, use filtering to reduce noise. It may be advisable to use the
alternating voltage ohms, or add shielding.
NOTE
For any ohms measurements, the ohms reading is invalid and unknown if the
voltage source is in compliance. Therefore, a value of -9.9e+36 will be returned
over the GPIB, and the message I-LIMIT will be displayed on the front panel for
both normal readings and buffer recall readings for any ohms readings where
the voltage source went into compliance.
Measurements and Sourcing Voltage
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Figure 3-2
Connections for ohms measurements
Red (HI)
Metal Noise Shield
Green
(Chassis)
Metal Safety Shield
DUT
Safety
Earth
Ground
237-ALG-2
Cable
Black (LO)
DUT = Device Under Test.
V-SOURCE
OUTPUT
MADE IN
U.S.A.
CAT I
IEEE-488
ANALOG OUT
(CHANGE IEEE ADDRESS
WITH FRONT PANEL MENU)
DIGITAL I/O
!
505V PK
505V PK
505V PK
TRIGGER LINK
INPUT
RS-232
V-SOURCE OUTPUT
505V PK TO CHASSIS
LO
!
HI INTERLOCK
505V
MAX
120
3-10
FUSE
LINE
630mAT
(SB)
100 VAC
120 VAC
315mAT
(SB)
220 VAC
240 VAC
LINE RATING
50, 60Hz
50 VA MAX
Model 6487
SCPI programming — ohms measurements
Table 3-5
SCPI commands — basic ohms measurements
Commands*
Description
SENS:OHMS ON
RANG <Range>
RANG:AUTO <b>
SOUR:VOLT:RANG <Range>
SOUR:VOLT <Volts>
SOUR:VOLT:ILIM <Current>
SOUR:VOLT:STAT <b>
READ?
Select ohms function.
Select manual current range (-0.021 to 0.021A).
Enable (ON) or disable (OFF) auto current range.
Set voltage source range (10, 50, or 500).
Set output voltage (-505V to +505V).
Set current limit (25µA, 250µA, 2.5mA, or 25mA).
Turn voltage source output ON or OFF.
Trigger and return reading(s).
* Zero correct and zero check commands not included. See Table 3-3.
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Measurements and Sourcing Voltage
3-11
Programming example — ohms measurements
The following command sequence will perform one zero-corrected resistance measurement:
*RST
FORM:ELEM READ,UNIT
SYST:ZCH ON
RANG 2e-9
INIT
SYST:ZCOR:ACQ
SYST:ZCOR ON
RANG:AUTO ON
SOUR:VOLT:RANG 10
SOUR:VOLT 10
SOUR:VOLT:ILIM 2.5e-3
SENS:OHMS ON
SOUR:VOLT:STAT ON
SYST:ZCH OFF
READ?
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
Return 6487 to GPIB defaults.
Measurement, units elements only.
Enable zero check.
Select the 2nA range.
Trigger reading to be used as zero
correction.
Use last reading taken as zero
correct value.
Perform zero correction.
Enable auto current range.
Select 10V source range.
Set voltage source output to 10V.
Set current limit to 2.5mA.
Enable ohms function.
Put voltage source in operate.
Disable zero check.
Trigger and return one reading.
Voltage source operation
Configuring the voltage source
Press CONFIG then OPER to set the voltage source mode. You will first be prompted to
choose DC or SWEEP mode. (Select DC for normal operation. See Section 6 for details
on sweeps.) After the mode is selected, the display shows a full-resolution value of the
voltage source with the left-most position highlighted for editing. (If you do not wish to
change the mode, you can jump right to this voltage edit display by pressing either VSOURCE adjustment arrow). The and arrows are used to select the digit being edited,
and the
V-SOURCE and arrows change the value. The RANGE and arrows change the
voltage source range and indicate the range selected. Note that the V-SOURCE and keys will operate in the same manner as the RANGE and keys if they are not being
used to change the voltage source value.
Voltage values are changed immediately from this configuration by pressing the arrow key.
The digits will not increment beyond the maximum voltage for the selected range.
After the voltage value and range are selected press EXIT to return to normal readings display, or press ENTER to advance to the current limit display. The current limit display
offers different choices depending on the source range (refer to Table 3-6). Pressing
ENTER or EXIT from this display returns you to the normal readings display.
3-12
Measurements and Sourcing Voltage
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Table 3-6
Voltage source current limits
Source Range:
Selectable Current Limit
10.0000V Range
25µA
250µA
2.5mA
50.000V Range
25µA
250µA
2.5mA
500.00V Range
25µA
250µA
2.5mA
25mA
Sourcing voltage
CAUTION
Do not connect external sources to the 6487 voltage source. External
sources may damage the 6487 voltage source.
Turning source on and off
The OPER key will toggle the voltage source state (on/off). The Model 6487 will output
the configured voltage, and the VOLTAGE SOURCE OPERATE indicator will turn on.
OPER (operate) key
The OPER (operate) key will function to turn the voltage source off, even if the instrument
is operating under remote control (REM annunciator on), assuming that the LLO (Local
Lockout) function has not been employed. While in remote, the OPER key will only turn
the source off. To turn it on, the Model 6487 must be in local (see Section 7).
Voltage source off state
The voltage source is not in a high-impedance state when it is turned off. Rather, it is in a
state that acts just like the voltage source was programmed to 0V on the selected range. It
will enter this state on power-up after the VOLTAGE SOURCE OPERATE light blinks. In
contrast, the safety interlock will cause the voltage source to go into a high-impedance
state instead of 0V output, and the source will stay in the high-impedance state until the
operate state is changed to on. The exception is the 10V range where the interlock is
optional. The OPERATE light and front panel display do not indicate the difference
between 0V output and high-impedance output caused by an open interlock. The interlock
status is available by query via remote (see Table 3-7).
Compliance indication
At any time, it is possible that the voltage source will go into compliance (current limit
reached). Should this situation occur, the OCOMP annunciator (Output Compliance) will
flash, and the displayed voltage value (visible when current readings are configured for
readings of less than 6½ digits) will alternate between showing the value and displaying
“CMPL”. If you are in a menu where the voltage source value is not shown on the rightmost four characters of the display, only the flashing OCOMP annunciator will be shown.
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Measurements and Sourcing Voltage
3-13
Open interlock indication
If the interlock is asserted (opened) while the unit is on the 50V or 500V range, the voltage
source will also technically be in compliance. However, there will be no indication of that
status over the front panel or in the status registers. The open interlock takes precedence.
SCPI commands — voltage source
Table 3-7
SCPI commands — voltage source
Command
Description
SOUR:VOLT <Voltage>
SOUR:VOLT:RANG <Range>
SOUR:VOLT:ILIM <Limit>
SOUR:VOLT:STAT <b>
SOUR:VOLT:INT <b>
SOUR:VOLT:INT:FAIL?
Set the source output level (-500 to +500V).
Set source range to one of three ranges: 10, 50, and 500V.
Set the source current limit: 2.5e-5, 2.5e-4, 2.5e-3, or 2.5e-2.1
Enable (ON) or disable (OFF) source output.
Enable (ON) or disable (OFF) interlock for 10V range.2
Query interlock state (1 = asserted); source output cannot be turned on.
1. 2.5e-2 not available for 50V and 500V ranges.
2. See Section 2 for interlock operation.
Programming example — voltage
The following command sequence will output 5V on the 10V range with a 2.5mA limit:
*RST
SOUR:VOLT:RANG 10
SOUR:VOLT 5
SOUR:VOLT:ILIM 2.5e-3
SOUR:VOLT:STAT ON
'
'
'
'
'
Return 6487 to GPIB defaults.
Select 10V source range.
Set voltage source output to 5.
Set current limit to 2.5mA.
Put voltage source in operate.
3-14
Measurements and Sourcing Voltage
Model 6487 User’s Manual
4
Range, Units, Digits,
Rate, and Filters
•
Range, units, and digits — Provides details on measurement range, reading units,
and display resolution selection. Includes the SCPI commands for remote operation.
•
Rate — Provides details on reading rate selection. Includes the SCPI commands
for remote operation.
•
Damping — Provides details on damping rate selection. Includes the SCPI command for remote operation.
•
Filters — Explains how to configure and control the digital and median filters. Includes
the SCPI commands for remote operation.
4-2
Range, Units, Digits, Rate, and Filters
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Range, units, and digits
Range
The ranges for current measurements are listed in Table 4-1.
Table 4-1
Measurement ranges
nA
µA
mA
2nA
20nA
200nA
2µA
20µA
200µA
2mA
20mA
The full scale readings for every measurement range are 5% over range. For example, on
the 20µA range, the maximum input current is ± 21µA. Input values that exceed the maximum readings cause the overflow message OVRFLOW to be displayed.
Manual ranging
To select a range, press the manual RANGE key. The instrument changes one range per
key-press. If the instrument displays the OVRFLOW message on a particular range, select
a higher range until an on-range reading is displayed. Use the lowest range possible without causing an overflow to ensure best accuracy and resolution.
Autoranging
When using autorange, the instrument automatically goes to the most sensitive available
range to measure the applied signal. Up-ranging occurs at 105% of range, while
down-ranging occurs at the range value. The AUTO key toggles the instrument between
manual ranging and autoranging. The AUTO annunciator turns on when autoranging is
selected. To disable autoranging, press AUTO or a manual RANGE key. Pressing AUTO
to disable autoranging leaves the instrument on the present range.
Every time an autorange occurs, a search for every available range of the selected function
is performed. The time it takes to perform the search could slow down range change speed
significantly. Setting upper and/or lower autorange limits can reduce search time.
Autorange limits
Search time for finding the correct amps range can be reduced by setting upper and/or
lower autorange limits. To set upper and/or lower autorange limits, press CONFIG, then
either manual RANGE key (for UPPER or LOWER), then scroll through the available
range limits using the RANGE keys. Press ENTER when the desired range is flashing.
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Range, Units, Digits, Rate, and Filters
4-3
Units
Readings can be displayed using engineering (ENG) units (i.e., 1.236 mΑ) or scientific
(SCI) notation (i.e., 1.236E-03Α). To change units, press the MENU key, select UNITS,
then press ENTER. Select ENG or SCI, then press ENTER.
NOTE
The units setting can only be changed from the front panel (no remote
operation). Scientific notation provides more resolution on small values than
engineering units.
Digits
The DIGITS key sets display resolution for Model 6487. Display resolution can be set
from 3½ to 6½ digits. This single global setting affects display resolution for all measurement ranges. To set display resolution, press (and release) the DIGITS key until the
desired number of digits is displayed.
NOTE
The voltage source value will not be displayed in the 6½ digit display mode.
SCPI programming — range and digits
Table 4-2
SCPI commands — range and digits
Commands
Description
RANG <n>
RANG:AUTO <b>
RANG:AUTO:ULIM <n>
RANG:AUTO:LLIM <n>
Select range: -0.021 to 0.021 (A).
Enable (ON) or disable (OFF) autorange.
Specify upper range limit for autorange: -0.021 to 0.021 (A).
Specify lower range limit for autorange: -0.021 to 0.021 (A).
DISP:DIG <n>
Set display resolution: 4 (3½ digits) to 7 (6½ digits).
Programming example — range and digits
The following command sequence selects the 20mA range and sets display resolution to 3:
*RST
RANG 0.02
DISP:DIG 4
' Restore RST defaults.
' Set to 20mA range.
' Set display resolution to 3-1/2 digits.
4-4
Range, Units, Digits, Rate, and Filters
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Rate
The RATE key selects the integration time of the A/D converter, which is the period of
time the input signal is measured. The integration time affects the amount of reading
noise, as well as the ultimate reading rate of the instrument. The integration time is specified in parameters based on a number of power line cycles (NPLC), where 1 PLC for 60Hz
is 16.67msec (1/60) and 1 PLC for 50Hz (and 400Hz) is 20msec (1/50). The rate setting is
global for all ranges. Therefore, it does not matter what range is presently selected when
you set rate.
To select the rate, either press the RATE key to select SLOW (6 PLC, 60Hz; 5 PLC,
50Hz), MED (1 PLC), or FAST (0.1 PLC), or press CONFIG and then RATE, and then
enter the desired number of PLCs (0.01 to 60, 60Hz; 0.01 to 50, 50Hz).
To set the rate by remote, send :NPLC <plc> with an allowable range or 0.01 to 60 (60Hz),
or 0.01 to 50 (50Hz).
Damping
High capacitance seen at the input will increase reading noise. This capacitance can be
attributed to a long input cable, or to the capacitance of the source, or a combination of both.
Enabling damping (analog filtering) will reduce noise caused by high capacitance for current
measurements. However, damping will also slow down the response of the measurement.
To enable or disable damping from the front panel, simply press the DAMP key. Note that
the FILT annunciator will be on when damping is enabled. Via remote, send DAMP ON or
DAMP OFF. Note that the FILT annunciator is used for both the analog damping filter and
the two types of digital filters.
Filters
Filtering stabilizes noisy measurements caused by noisy input signals. The Model 6487
uses two types of filters: median and digital. The displayed, stored or transmitted reading
is simply the result of the filtering processes. Note that both the median and digital filters
can be in effect at the same time.
With both filters enabled, the median filter operation is performed first. After the median
filter yields a reading, it is sent to the stack of the digital filter. Therefore, a filtered reading
will not be displayed until both filter operations are completed.
The settings for the filter are global and both are controlled with the FILT key. When either
the median or digital filter is enabled, the FILT annunciator is on. Note that the FILT
annunciator is used for both the digital filters and the analog damping filter.
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Range, Units, Digits, Rate, and Filters
4-5
Median filter
The median filter is used to determine the "middle-most" reading from a group of readings
that are arranged according to size. For example, assume the following readings:
20mA, 1mA, 3mA
The readings are rearranged in an ascending order as follows:
1mA, 3mA, 20mA
From the above readings, it is apparent that 3mA is the median (middle-most) reading.
The number of sample readings used for the median calculation is determined by the
selected rank (1 to 5) as follows:
Sample readings = (2 × R) + 1
where; R is the selected rank (1 to 5)
Note that the median filter throws out the oldest of the ranked values, and it is especially
useful for noise characterized by unwanted spikes.
Digital filter
Digital filter types
An additional filter parameter is type (type is either moving or repeating).
Moving Filter — Every time a reading conversion occurs, the readings in the stack are
averaged to yield a single filtered reading. The stack type is first-in, first-out. After the
stack fills, the newest reading conversion replaces the oldest. Note that the instrument does
not wait for the stack to fill before releasing readings.
Repeating Filter — Takes a selected number of reading conversions, averages them, and
yields a reading. It then flushes its stack and starts over.
4-6
Range, Units, Digits, Rate, and Filters
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Filter control
Front panel
Both the median and average filters are controlled by pressing CONFIG then FILT. Select
MEDIAN or AVERAGE, then set appropriate parameters. For the MEDIAN selection,
you can choose ON or OFF and set the RANK. For the AVERAGE filter, you can choose
ON or OFF, COUNT, MOVING or REPEAT.
Once the filter is configured, you can toggle the filter state on or off by pressing FILT. The
FILT annunciator will show when the filter is on.
SCPI commands — filters
Table 4-3
SCPI commands — filters
Commands
Description
MED <b>
MED:RANK <n>
Enable (ON) or disable (OFF) median filter.
Specify median filter rank: 1 to 5.
AVER <b>
AVER:TCON <name>
AVER:COUNt <n>
Enable (ON) or disable (OFF) digital filter.
Select filter control: MOVing or REPeat.
Specify filter count: 2 to 100.
Programming example
The following command sequence configures and enables both filters:
' Median Filter:
MED:RANK 5
MED ON
' Set rank to 5.
' Enable median filter.
' Digital Filter:
AVER:COUN 20
AVER:TCON MOV
AVER ON
' Set filter count to 20.
' Select moving filter.
' Enable digital filter.
5
Relative, mX+b, m/X+b
(reciprocal), and log
•
•
Relative — Explains how to null an offset or establish a baseline value. Includes
the SCPI commands for remote operation.
mX+b, m/X+b (reciprocal), and Logarithmic — Covers these three basic math
operations and includes the SCPI commands for remote operation.
5-2
Relative, mX+b, m/X+b (reciprocal), and log
Mode 6487 User’s Manual
Relative
Relative (Rel) nulls an offset or subtracts a baseline reading from present and future readings. When a Rel value is established, subsequent readings will be the difference between
the actual input and the Rel value.
Displayed (Rel’ed) Reading = Actual Input - Rel Value
A Rel value is the same for all measurement ranges. For example, a Rel value of 1E-6 is
1µA on the 2µA range. It is also 1µA on the 20µA range and the 200µA range. Note
changing ranges does not disable Rel.
Front panel relative
From the front panel, there are two ways to set the Rel value. You can either use the input
reading as the Rel value, or you can manually key in the Rel value.
To use the present reading, first disable zero check, display the reading, then press REL.
The REL annunciator will turn on, and subsequent readings will be the difference between
the actual input and the Rel value. To disable relative, press REL again while zero check is
disabled. To enter a reading, press CONFIG then REL, enter the desired value, then press
ENTER. Relative will be enabled after you enter the value.
NOTE
Separate Rel values are stored for the amps and ohms functions.
SCPI programming — relative
Table 5-1
SCPI commands — relative (null)
Commands
CALC2:FEED <name>
CALC2:NULL:ACQ
CALC2:NULL:OFFS <Rel>
CALC2:NULL:STAT <b>
CALC2:DATA?
CALC2:DATA:LAT?
INIT
Description
Specify reading to Rel: SENS or CALC1.
Use input signal as Rel value.
Specify Rel value: -9.999999e20 to 9.999999e20.
Enable (ON) or disable (OFF) Rel.
Return Rel’ed readings triggered by INIT.
Return only the latest Rel’ed reading.
Trigger one or more readings.
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Relative, mX+b, m/X+b (reciprocal), and log
5-3
Programming example — relative
This program fragment establishes a 1µA baseline for measurements:
CALC2:NULL:OFFS 1e-6
CALC2:NULL:STAT ON
SYST:ZCH OFF
INIT
CALC2:DATA?
'
'
'
'
'
Set Rel value of 1µA.
Enable Rel.
Turn off zero check.
Trigger reading.
Request Rel’ed reading.
mX+b, m/X+b (reciprocal), and Logarithmic
mX+b and m/X+b
The following math operations manipulate normal display readings (X) mathematically
according to the following calculations:
Y = mX+b
Y = m/X+b
where: X is the normal display reading
m and b are user-entered constants for scale factor and offset
Y is the displayed result
NOTE
Changing the “m” or “b” for mX+b also changes it for m/X+b.
Logarithmic
This calculation converts input readings to logarithm base 10 values. The calculation is
performed as follows:
log
10
X = Y
where: X is the input reading
y is the logarithmic result
For example: Assume that exactly 1mA is being measured by the Model 6487.
log 101.000000mA = – 3
NOTE
This calculation uses the absolute value of the normal input reading as the log
of a negative number cannot be computed.
5-4
Relative, mX+b, m/X+b (reciprocal), and log
Mode 6487 User’s Manual
Configuring math functions
To select and configure math functions from the front panel, press CONFIG then MATH.
Select the math function to configure, then enter the required parameters for mX + b and
m/X + b (m, b, and units). Once a math function is selected, simply press the MATH key
to toggle math on or off. The MATH annunciator will turn on to indicate that the math
function is enabled.
SCPI programming — mX+b, m/X+b, and log
Table 5-2
SCPI commands — mX+b, m/X+b, and log
Commands
Description
CALC:FORM <name>
CALC:KMAT:MMF <n>
CALC:KMAT:MBF <n>
CALC:KMAT:MUN <name>
CALC:STAT <b>
CALC:DATA?
CALC:DATA:LAT?
Select math function: MXB, REC, or LOG10.
Set M for mX+b and m/X+b: -9.99999e20 to 9.99999e20.
Set B for mX+b and m/X+b: -9.99999e20 to 9.99999e20.
Set units for mX+b or m/x+b: 1 character: A–Z, ‘[‘=Ω, ‘\’=˚, ‘]’=%.
Enable or disable the selected math function.
Returns all CALC results triggered by the INIT.
Returns only the latest CALC reading.
Programming example — mX+b
This command sequence performs a single mX+b calculation and returns the result:
*RST
CALC:FORM MXB
CALC:KMAT:MMF 2e-3
CALC:KMAT:MBF 5e-4
CALC:STAT ON
SYST:ZCH OFF
INIT
CALC:DATA?
'Restore RST defaults.
'Select mX+b calculation.
'Set scale factor (M) to 2e-3.
'Set offset (B) to 5e-4.
'Enable calculation.
'Disable zero check.
'Perform one measurement and
'calculate mX+b.
'Request mX+b result.
6
Buffer and Sweeps
•
Buffer operations — Explains how to store and recall readings including buffer
statistics.
•
Voltage sweeps — Discusses how to generate sweeps using the voltage source.
6-2
Buffer and Sweeps
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Buffer operations
The Model 6487 has a buffer to store from one to 3,000 readings. It also stores overflow
readings. Each reading includes the voltage source value and a timestamp. The timestamp
for each reading is referenced to the time the measure/store process is started. In addition,
recalled data includes statistical information (maximum, minimum, peak-to-peak, average
and standard deviation).
The buffer fills with the specified number of readings and stops. Readings are placed in the
buffer after any filters and/or math operations have been performed. Math operations
include relative, mX+b, m/X+b, LOG, or limits.
Buffered data is overwritten each time the storage operation is selected. The data is volatile
— it is not saved through a power cycle.
Measurement function changes are permissible during the storage process. Note however,
that the statistics will be based on the readings of the different measurement functions.
Store
To store readings, set up the instrument for the desired configuration, then press CONFIG
followed by STORE. Set the number of readings to store (1-3000) and press ENTER.
Press the STORE key to start data storage. The asterisk (*) annunciator turns on to indicate
that the data storage operation is active. To abort storage while active, press EXIT.
Recall
To view stored readings and buffer statistics, press RECALL, then use the RANGE and
cursor keys to navigate through the reading numbers and buffer statistics, reading values,
voltage source values, and timestamps. (Use the RANGE keys to scroll through statistics
and reading values; use the cursor keys to select among readings, voltage source values,
and timestamps.) The BUFFER annunciator will be on while readings are being recalled.
Press EXIT to return to normal display.
NOTE
If the voltage source was in compliance when the reading was acquired, the
recalled front panel SRC: display will show the voltage value dimmed. Over the
GPIB, a value of -999 returned for the voltage source element indicates that the
source was in compliance.
Buffer timestamp
To change the buffer timestamp format, press MENU, select TSTAMP, then press
ENTER. Select the desired option: ABS (absolute) or DELT (delta). For ABS, each timestamp is referenced to the first reading stored in the buffer. The first reading always has a
timestamp of 0000000.0000. With DELT, each timestamp provides the time between the
readings.
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Buffer and Sweeps
6-3
Clear
To clear the buffer, press CONFIG followed by STORE, then set the reading count to 0
(pressing AUTO will clear the display quickly). Press ENTER with a reading count of 0
displayed to finish clearing the buffer.
Buffer statistics
•
•
•
MIN and MAX provides the minimum and maximum readings stored in the buffer.
It also indicates the buffer location of these readings.
The PK-PK (peak-to-peak) value is the difference between the maximum and
minimum readings stored in the buffer:
PK-PK = MAX - MIN
Average is the mean of the buffer readings. Mean is calculated as follows:
n
y =
Σ -----ni
X
i=1
Where: Xi is a stored reading
n is the number of stored readings
•
The STD DEV value is the standard deviation of the buffered readings. Standard
deviation is calculated as follows:
n
Σ ( Avg – Xi )
y =
2
i =1
-----------------------------------n–1
Where: Xi is a stored reading
n is the number of stored readings
Avg is the mean of the buffer readings.
NOTE
If any readings stored in the buffer are the result of an overflow or overvoltage
condition, the buffer statistics calculation will not be performed. Buffer recall
via front panel operation will show a series of dashes in place of the requested
buffer statistics value. In remote operation, the corresponding buffer statistics
will be represented by the value +9.91e37.
6-4
Buffer and Sweeps
Model 6487 User’s Manual
SCPI programming — buffer
NOTE
When programming the buffer via remote, the trigger count set with the
TRIG:COUN command should normally equal the number of buffer readings to
store set with TRAC:POIN. See Section 7 of the Model 6487 Reference Manual
for details on triggering.
Table 6-1
SCPI commands — buffer
Commands
Description
TRAC:CLE
TRAC:FREE?
TRAC:POIN <n>
TRAC:POIN:ACT?
TRAC:FEED <name>
TRAC:FEED:CONT <name>
TRAC:TST:FORM <name>
TRAC:DATA?
FORM:ELEM <list>
Clear readings from buffer.
Query bytes available and bytes in use.
Specify number of readings to store: 1 to 3000.
Returns number of readings actually stored in buffer.
Select source of readings for buffer: SENS, CALC1, or CALC2.
Select buffer control mode: NEV or NEXT.
Select timestamp format: ABS or DELT.
Read all readings in buffer.
Specify data elements for TRAC:DATA? response message:
READ, UNIT, VSO, TIME, and STAT.
Select buffer statistic: MIN, MAX, MEAN, SDEV, or PKPK.
Read the selected buffer statistic.
CALC3:FORM <name>
CALC3:DATA?
Programming example
The following command sequence stores 20 readings into the buffer and then calculates
the mean average on the buffer readings:
' Select data elements:
*RST
FORM:ELEM READ,TIME
' Return 6487 to RST defaults.
' Select reading and timestamp.
' Store and Recall Readings:
TRIG:COUN 20
' Set trigger model to take to 20
readings.
TRAC:POIN 20
' Set buffer size to 20.
TRAC:FEED SENS
' Store raw input readings.
TRAC:FEED:CONT NEXT
' Start storing readings.
SYST:ZCH OFF
' Turn off zero check.
INIT
' Trigger readings.
TRAC:DATA?
' Request all stored readings.
' Acquire Mean Statistic for Buffer Readings:
CALC3:FORM MEAN
' Select mean statistic.
CALC3:DATA?
' Request mean statistic.
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Buffer and Sweeps
6-5
Voltage sweeps
The Model 6487 voltage source can be used to generate voltage sweeps from a start voltage to a stop voltage at discrete step voltages. The Model 6487 stores readings in the
buffer for later recall, one set of readings per voltage step.
Front panel sweeps
To generate sweeps from the front panel, press CONFIG then OPER, select SWEEP, then
press ENTER. At the prompts, enter the start, stop, and step voltages, and the delay time
(time between each voltage step and measurement). Note that sweeps can be positivegoing or negative-going by programming the start and stop voltages accordingly, but the
programmed step voltage is always positive. The SCAN annunciator will turn on to indicate that the sweep is armed.
To start a sweep, press the TRIG key. The sweep will be performed, and readings will be
stored in the buffer for later recall (see “Recall,” page 6-2). To abort a sweep in progress,
press the EXIT key.
SCPI programming — sweeps
NOTE
When programming sweeps via remote, the arm count may have to be reset to
initiate after *RST. See Section 7 of the Model 6487 Reference Manual for
details on triggering.
Table 6-2
SCPI commands — sweeps
Commands
SOUR:VOLT:SWE:STAR <Volts>
SOUR:VOLT:SWE:STOP <Volts>
SOUR:VOLT:SWE:STEP <Volts>
SOUR:VOLT:SWE:CENT <Volts>
SOUR:VOLT:SWE:SPAN <Volts>
SOUR:VOLT:SWE:DEL <Delay>
SOUR:VOLT:SWE:INIT
SOUR:VOLT:SWE:ABOR
SOUR:VOLT:SWE:STAT?
INIT
Description
Program start voltage: -505V to 505V.
Program stop voltage: -505V to 505V.
Program step voltage: -505V to 505V.
Program center voltage: -505V to 505V.*
Program span voltage: 0V to 1010V.*
Set delay between voltage step and measurement: 0 to 999.9999s.
Arm sweep, put source in operate.
Abort sweep, put source in standby.
Query if sweep still running: 1 = sweep in progress.
Trigger sweep.
* CENTer and SPAN are alternate methods of setting sweep parameters. They are coupled with STARt and STOP commands.
6-6
Buffer and Sweeps
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Programming example
The following command sequence performs a sweep from 1V to 10V in 1V increments:
*RST
SOUR:VOLT:SWE:STAR 1
SOUR:VOLT:SWE:STOP 10
SOUR:VOLT:SWE:STEP 1
SOUR:VOLT:SWE:DEL 0.1
ARM:COUN INF
FORM:ELEM READ,VSO
SOUR:VOLT:SWE:INIT
SYST:ZCH OFF
INIT
TRAC:DATA?
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
Return 6487 to RST defaults.
Start voltage = 1V.
Stop voltage = 10V.
Step voltage = 1V.
0.1s delay.
Reset arm count.
Select reading, voltage source data.
Arm sweep, put source in operate.
Turn off zero check.
Trigger sweep.
Request all stored readings.
7
Remote Operation
and Commands
•
Selecting and configuring an interface — Explains how to select and configure
an interface; GPIB or RS-232.
•
Remote commands — Lists the following types of bus commands: general bus
commands, common commands, signal oriented commands, and SCPI subsystems.
7-2
Remote Operation and Commands
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Selecting and configuring an interface
Interfaces
The Model 6487 supports two built-in remote interfaces: GPIB interface and RS-232
interface. You can use only one interface at a time. At the factory, the GPIB is selected. To
select the interface, press COMM, select RS 232 or GPIB, then press ENTER. The Model
6487 will reset with the new interface selected.
GPIB interface
To configure the GPIB (IEEE-488) interface, press CONFIG then COMM when the GPIB
interface is selected, then select the primary address (0-30; default 22) and language
(SCPI, DDC, or 488.1). The primary address must be the same as that specified in the
computer program, but be sure to avoid address conflicts. Use the SCPI language setting
for most applications. See the Model 6487 Reference Manual for information on the DCC
and 488.1 programming languages.
RS-232 interface
To configure the RS-232 interface, press CONFIG then COMM when the RS-232 interface is selected, then set baud rate, data bits, parity, terminator, and flow control. To assure
proper operation, be sure that interface parameters are the same as those used by the controlling computer.
Connections
GPIB connections
With the power off, connect a shielded GPIB cable (Keithley Model 7007) between the
rear panel IEEE-488 connection (Figure 7-1) and the computer bus connector.
RS-232 connections
With the power off, connect the Model 6487 RS-232 connector (Figure 7-1) to the computer serial port using a straight through shielded RS-232 cable terminated with DB-9
connectors (Keithley Model 7009). Do not use a null modem cable.
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Remote Operation and Commands
7-3
Figure 7-1
IEEE-488 and RS-232 connector locations
RS-232
IEEE-488
MADE IN
U.S.A.
CAT I
IEEE-488
ANALOG OUT
(CHANGE IEEE ADDRESS
WITH FRONT PANEL MENU)
DIGITAL I/O
!
505V PK
505V PK
505V PK
TRIGGER LINK
INPUT
RS-232
V-SOURCE OUTPUT
505V PK TO CHASSIS
!
HI INTERLOCK
FUSE
505V
MAX
120
LO
LINE
630mAT
(SB)
100 VAC
120 VAC
315mAT
(SB)
220 VAC
240 VAC
LINE RATING
50, 60Hz
50 VA MAX
Front panel GPIB operation
Error and status messages
See Appendix B in the Model 6487 Reference Manual for a list of error and status
messages associated with IEEE-488 programming.
GPIB status indicators
REM shows when the instrument is in the remote state, TALK is on when the instrument is
in the talker active state, and LSTN is on when the Model 6487 is in the listener active
state. SRQ shows when the instrument has generated a service request.
LOCAL key
The LOCAL key cancels the remote state and restores local operation of the instrument.
Pressing the LOCAL key also turns off the REM indicator and returns the display to normal if a user-defined message was displayed. If the unit is in LOCAL (not in remote), the
LOCAL key acts as a configure key (see “Front panel summary,” page 1-7.)
If the LLO (Local Lockout) command is in effect, the LOCAL key is also inoperative.
7-4
Remote Operation and Commands
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Remote commands
General bus commands
General bus commands are listed in Table 7-1. These commands are not available for the
RS-232 interface.
Table 7-1
General bus commands
Command
REN
IFC
LLO
GTL
DCL
SDC
GET
SPE, SPD
Effect on Model 6487
Goes into remote when next addressed to listen.
Reset interface; all devices go into talker and listener idle states.
LOCAL key locked out.
Cancel remote; restore front panel operation for Model 6487.
Returns all devices to known conditions.
Returns Model 6487 to known conditions.
Initiates a trigger.
Serial polls Model 6487.
Common commands
Common commands are summarized in Table 7-2.
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Remote Operation and Commands
7-5
Table 7-2
IEEE-488.2 common commands and queries
Mnemonic
*CLS
*ESE <NRf>
*ESE?
*ESR?
*IDN?
*OPC
*OPC?
*OPT?
*RCL <NRf>
*RST
*SAV <NRf>
*SRE <NRf>
*SRE?
*STB?
*TRG
*TST?
*WAI
Name
Description
Clear status
Event enable command
Event enable query
Event status register query
Identification query
Clears all event registers and error queues.
Program the standard event enable register.
Read the standard event enable register.
Read the standard event enable register and clear it.
Returns the manufacturer, model number, serial number, and
firmware revision levels of the unit.
Operation complete command
Set the operation complete bit in the standard event register
after all pending commands have been executed.
Operation complete query
Places an ASCII “1” into the output queue when all pending
selected device operations have been completed.
Option query
Returns model number of any installed options.
Recall command
Returns Model 6487 to the user-saved setup.
Reset command
Returns Model 6487 to the *RST default conditions.
Save command
Saves the present setup as the user-saved setup.
Service request enable command Programs the service request enable register.
Service request enable query
Reads the service request enable register.
Status byte query
Reads the status byte register.
Trigger command
Sends a bus trigger to Model 6487.
Self-test query
Performs a checksum test on ROM and returns the result.
Wait-to-continue command
Wait until all previous commands are executed.
Signal oriented commands.
Signal oriented commands used to make basic measurements are shown in Table 7-3.
Table 7-3
Signal oriented commands
Command
CONFigure[:<function>]
CONFigure?
FETCh?
READ?
MEASure[:<function>]?
Description
Places Model 6487 in a “one-shot” measurement
mode. <function> = CURR[:DC]
Queries the selected function. Returns ‘CURR’.
Requests the latest reading(s).
Performs an INITiate and a :FETCh?.
Performs a CONFigure:<function> and a :READ?.
7-6
Remote Operation and Commands
Model 6487 User’s Manual
SCPI command subsystems
Table 7-4 summarizes the various SCPI subsystems used to program most Model 6487
operations. Detailed lists of commands associated with these subsystems are located in
Section 14 of the Model 6487 Reference Manual.
Table 7-4
SCPI command subsystems
Subsystem
CALCulate[1]
CALCulate2
CALCulate3
CALibration
DISPlay
FORMat
SENSe[1]
SOURce[1]
SOURce2
STATus
SYSTem
TRACe
TRIGger
Function(s)
Math functions.
Limit tests, relative.
Buffer statistics.
Instrument calibration.
Display digits and text messages.
Format of returned remote data.
Current measurements and associated modes.
Voltage source operation.
Digital I/O port.
Instrument status.
Zero check, correct, line frequency, error messages.
Buffer operation and data.
Instrument triggering.
Programming syntax
The following paragraphs cover syntax for both common commands and SCPI commands.
For more information, see the IEEE-488.2 and SCPI standards.
Command words
Program messages are made up of one or more command words. Common commands and
SCPI commands may or may not use a parameter. There must be at least one space
between the command word and its parameter. Some command words are enclosed in
brackets ([ ]). These brackets are used to denote an optional command word that does not
need to be included in the program message.
Common commands and SCPI commands are not case sensitive. You can use upper or
lower case and any case combination. A SCPI command word can be sent in its long-form
or short-form version. The command tables in this manual use the short-form version. You
can send multiple command messages in the same program message as long as they are
separated by semicolons (;).
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Remote Operation and Commands
7-7
The query command requests the presently programmed status. It is identified by the question mark (?) at the end of the fundamental form of the command. Most commands have a
query form.
Each program message must be terminated with an LF (line feed), EOI (end or identify), or
an LF+EOI. Each response is terminated with an LF (line feed) and EOI (end or identify).
Parameter types
The following are some of the common parameter types:
<b>
Boolean — Used to enable or disable an instrument operation. 0 or
OFF disables the operation and 1 or ON enables the operation.
<name>
<NRf>
Name parameter — Select a parameter name from a listed group.
Numeric representation format — A number that can be expressed
as an integer (e.g., 8), a real number (e.g., 23.6), or an exponent
(2.3E6).
<NDN>
Non-decimal numeric — A non-decimal value that can be used to
program status enable registers. A unique header identifies the
format; #B (binary), #H (hexadecimal), and #Q (octal).
<n>
Numeric value — Can consist of an NRf number or one of the following name parameters: DEFault, MINimum, or MAXimum.
When the DEFault parameter is used, the instrument is programmed
to the *RST default value. When the MINimum parameter is used,
the instrument is programmed to the lowest allowable value. When
the MAXimum parameter is used, the instrument is programmed to
the largest allowable value.
Angle brackets < > — Used to denote a parameter type. Do not include the brackets in the
program message.
7-8
Remote Operation and Commands
Model 6487 User’s Manual
A
Specifications
6487 Picoammeter Specifications
5¹⁄₂ DIGIT
ACCURACY (1YR) 1
DEFAULT
±(% RDG. + OFFSET)
RANGE RESOLUTION 18°–28°C, 0–70% RH
2 nA
10 fA
0.3 % + 400 fA
20 nA
100 fA
0.2 % + 1 pA
200 nA
1 pA
0.15 % + 10 pA
2 µA
10 pA
0.15% + 100 pA
20 µA
100 pA
0.1 % + 1 nA
200 µA
1 nA
0.1 % + 10 nA
2 mA
10 nA
0.1 % + 100 nA
20 mA
100 nA
0.1 % + 1 µA
TYPICAL
RMS NOISE 2
20 fA
20 fA
1 pA
1 pA
100 pA
100 pA
10 nA
10 nA
TYPICAL ANALOG
RISE TIME (10% TO 90%)3
DAMPING4
OFF
ON
4 ms
80 ms
4 ms
80 ms
300 µs
1 ms
300 µs
1 ms
110 µs
110 µs
110 µs
110 µs
110 µs
110 µs
110 µs
110 µs
TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENT: 0°–18°C & 28°–50°C. For each °C, add 0.1 × (% rdg + offset) to
accuracy spec.
INPUT VOLTAGE BURDEN: <200µV on all ranges except <1mV on 20mA range.
MAXIMUM INPUT CAPACITANCE: Stable to 10nF on all nA ranges and 2µA range; 1µF on 20µA
and 200µA ranges, and on mA ranges.
MAXIMUM CONTINUOUS INPUT VOLTAGE: 505 VDC
NMRR1: (50 or 60Hz) :60dB
ISOLATION (Ammeter Common or Voltage Source to chassis): Typically >1×1011Ω in parallel
with <1nF.
MAXIMUM COMMON MODE VOLTAGE (Between Chassis and Voltage Source or Ammeter):
505 VDC.
MAXIMUM VOLTAGE BETWEEN VOLTAGE SOURCE AND AMMETER: 505 VDC
ANALOG OUTPUT: Scaled voltage output (inverting 2V full scale on all ranges) 2.5% ±2mV
ANALOG OUTPUT IMPEDANCE3: <100Ω, DC-2kHz.
VOLTAGE SOURCE
Range
(Max)
Step Size
(typical)
Accuracy5
±(% PROG. + OFFSET)
18°C - 28°C, 0 - 70% R.H.
±10.100
200µV
0.1% + 1mV
±50.500
1mV
0.1% + 4mV
±505.00
10mV
0.15% + 40mV
<1.5mV
Noise (p-p)
0.1 - 10 Hz
Temperature
Coefficient
Typical Rise
Time 6,8
(10%-90%)
Typical Fall
Time 7,8
(90%-10%)
<50µV
(0.005% + 20µV) / ˚C
250 µs
150 µs
<150µV
(0.005% + 200µV) / ˚C
250 µs
300 µs
(0.008% + 2mV) / ˚C
4.5 ms
1 ms
SELECTABLE CURRENT LIMIT: 2.5mA, 250µA, 25µA for 50V and 500V ranges, 25mA additional
limit for 10V range. All current limits are -20%/+35% of nominal.
WIDEBAND NOISE9: <30mVp-p 0.1Hz - 20MHz.
TYPICAL TIME STABILITY: ±(0.003% + 1mV) over 24 hours at constant temperature (within 1°C,
between 18°C - 28°C, after 5 minute settling).
OUTPUT RESISTANCE: <2.5Ω.
VOLTAGE SWEEPS: Supports linear voltage sweeps on fixed source range, one current or resistance measurement per step. Maximum sweep rate: 200 steps per second. Maximum step count
3000. Optional delay between step and measure.
RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT (V/I): Used with voltage source; resistance calculated from voltage
setting and measured current. Accuracy is based on voltage source accuracy plus ammeter
accuracy. Typical accuracy better than 0.6% for readings between 1kΩ and 1TΩ.
ALTERNATING VOLTAGE RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT: Offers alternating voltage resistance
measurements for resistances from 109Ω to 1015Ω. Alternates between 0V and user-selectable
voltage up to ±505V.
1
At 1 PLC – limited to 60 rdgs/sec under this condition.
2
At 6 PLC, 1 standard deviation, 100 readings, filter off, capped input – limited to 10 rdgs/sec
under this condition.
3
Measured at analog output with resistive load >2kΩ.
4
Maximum rise time can be up to 25% greater.
5
Accuracy does not include output resistance/load regulation.
6
Rise Time is from 0V to ± full-scale voltage (increasing magnitude).
7
Fall Time is from ± full-scale voltage to 0V (decreasing magnitude).
8
For capacitive loads, add C*∆V/ILimit to Rise Time, and C*∆V/1mA to Fall Time.
9
Measured with LO connected to chassis ground.
REMOTE OPERATION
IEEE-488 BUS IMPLEMENTATION: SCPI (IEEE-488.2, SCPI-1996.0);
DDC (IEEE-488.1).
LANGUAGE EMULATION: Keithley Model 486/487 emulation via
DDC mode.
RS-232 IMPLEMENTATION:
Supports: SCPI 1996.0.
Baud Rates: 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19.2k, 38.4k, 57.6k.
Protocols: Xon/Xoff, 7 or 8 bit ASCII, parity-odd/even/none.
Connector: DB-9 TXD/RXD/GND.
GENERAL
AMMETER INPUT CONNECTOR: Three lug triaxial on rear panel.
ANALOG OUTPUT CONNECTOR: Two banana jacks on rear panel.
VOLTAGE SOURCE OUTPUT CONNECTOR: Two banana jacks on rear
panel.
INTERLOCK CONNECTOR: 4 pin DIN.
TRIGGER LINE: Available, see manual for usage.
DISPLAY: 12 character vacuum fluorescent.
DIGITAL FILTER: Median and averaging (selectable from 2 to 100
readings).
RANGING: Automatic or manual.
AUTORANGING TIME3: <250ms (analog filter off, 1PLC)
OVERRANGE INDICATION: Display reads “OVRFLOW”.
CONVERSION TIME: Selectable 0.01 PLC to 60 PLC (50PLC under
50Hz operation). (Adjustable from 200µs to 1s)
READING RATE:
To internal buffer 1000 readings/second1
To IEEE-488 bus
900 readings/second1, 2
BUFFER: Stores up to 3000 readings.
PROGRAMS: Provide front panel access to IEEE address, choice of
engineering units or scientific notation, and digital calibration.
EMC: Conforms with European Union Directive 89/336/EEC,
EN61326-1.
SAFETY: Conforms with European Union Directive 73/23/EEC,
EN61010-1, CAT I.
ENVIRONMENT:
Operating: 0°–50°C; relative humidity 70% non-condensing, up to
35°C. Above 35°C, derate humidity by 3% for each °C.
Storage: –10°C to +65°C.
WARM-UP: 1 hour to rated accuracy (see manual for recommended
procedure).
POWER: 100–120V or 220–240V, 50–60Hz, (50VA).
PHYSICAL:
Case Dimensions: 90mm high × 214mm wide × 369mm deep (31⁄2 in.
× 83⁄8 in. × 149⁄16 in.).
Working Dimensions: From front of case to rear including power
cord and IEEE-488 connector: 394mm (15.5 inches).
NET WEIGHT: <4.7 kg (<10.3 lbs).
Notes:
1 0.01 PLC, digital filters off, front panel off, auto zero off.
2 Binary transfer mode. IEEE-488.1.
3 Measured from trigger in to meter complete.
Specifications are subject to change without notice.
Rev. A
HW 10/25/02
B
General Measurement
Considerations
B-2
General Measurement Considerations
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Measurement considerations
The following measurement considerations apply to all precision measurements. Table 2-1
lists all measurement considerations and indicates where to find detailed information on
them.
For additional measurement considerations, see Appendix G of the Model 6487 Reference
Manual. For comprehensive information on all measurement considerations, refer to the
Low Level Measurements handbook, which is available from Keithley.
Ground loops
Ground loops that occur in multiple-instrument test setups can create error signals that
cause erratic or erroneous measurements. The configuration shown in Figure B-1 introduces errors in two ways. Large ground currents flowing in one of the wires will encounter
small resistances, either in the wires or at the connecting points. This small resistance
results in voltage drops that can affect the measurement. Even if the ground loop currents
are small, magnetic flux cutting across the large loops formed by the ground leads can
induce sufficient voltages to disturb sensitive measurements.
Figure B-1
Power line ground loops
Signal Leads
Instrument 1
Instrument 2
Instrument 3
Ground
Loop
Current
Power Line Ground
To prevent ground loops, instruments should be connected to ground at only a single point
as shown in Figure B-2. Note that only a single instrument is connected directly to power
line ground. Experimentation is the best way to determine an acceptable arrangement. For
this purpose, measuring instruments should be placed on their lowest ranges. The configuration that results in the lowest noise signal is the one that should be used. A convenient
way to make this connection uses the ground link at the rear of the Model 6487.
Model 6487 User’s Manual
General Measurement Considerations
B-3
Figure B-2
Eliminating ground loops
Instrument 1
Instrument 2
Instrument 3
Power Line Ground
Triboelectric effects
Triboelectric currents are generated by charges created between a conductor and an insulator due to friction. Here, free electrons rub off the conductor and create a charge imbalance
that causes the current flow. For example, bending a triaxial cable causes friction between
the center conductor (HI) and its surrounding insulator resulting in triboelectric currents.
Triboelectric currents can be minimized as follows:
•
Use “low noise” cables. These cables are specially designed to minimize charge
generation and use graphite to reduce friction. The Keithley Model 237 and 7078
cables are low noise.
•
Use the shortest cables possible and secure them (i.e., taping or tying) to a non-vibrating
surface to keep them from moving.
Piezoelectric and stored charge effects
Piezoelectric currents are generated when mechanical stress is applied to certain insulating
materials (i.e., crystalline). In some plastics, pockets of stored charge cause the material to
behave in a similar manner.
When building test fixtures, choose good insulating materials and make connecting structures as rigid as possible. Make sure there are no mechanical stresses on the insulators.
B-4
General Measurement Considerations
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Electrochemical effects
Error currents also arise from electrochemical effects when ionic chemicals create weak
batteries on a circuit board. These batteries could generate a few nanoamps of current
between conductors. Ionic contamination may be the result of body oils, salts, or solder
flux. The problem is further enhanced by high humidity (moisture) that decreases insulation resistance.
When building test fixtures, select insulators that resist water absorption and use the fixture in a moderate humidity environment. Also, be sure that all insulators are kept clean
and free of contamination.
Humidity
Excess humidity can reduce insulation resistance on PC boards and in test connection insulators. Reduction in insulation resistance can, of course, seriously affect high-impedance
measurements. Also, humidity (moisture) can combine with contaminants to produce offset
currents caused by electrochemical effects. To minimize the effects of moisture, keep
humidity to a minimum (ideally <50%) and keep components and connectors in the test
system clean.
Light
Some components, such as semiconductor junctions and MOS capacitors on semiconductor wafers, are excellent light detectors. Consequently, these components must be tested in
a light-free environment. While many test fixtures provide adequate light protection, others may allow sufficient light penetration to affect the test results. Areas to check for light
leaks include doors and door hinges, tubing entry points, and connectors or connector panels. With this in mind, the Model 6487 display may be turned off by sending the
:DISP:ENAB OFF command.
Electrostatic interference
Electrostatic interference occurs when an electrically charged object is brought near an
uncharged object, thus inducing a charge on the previously uncharged object. Usually,
effects of such electrostatic action are not noticeable because low impedance levels allow
the induced charge to dissipate quickly. However, the high impedance levels of many measurements do not allow these charges to decay rapidly and erroneous or unstable readings
may result. These erroneous or unstable readings may be caused in the following ways:
1.
2.
DC electrostatic field can cause undetected errors or noise in the reading.
AC electrostatic fields can cause errors by driving the input preamplifier into
saturation or through rectification that produces DC errors.
Model 6487 User’s Manual
General Measurement Considerations
B-5
Electrostatic interference is first recognizable when hand or body movements near the
experiment cause fluctuations in the reading. Pick-up from AC fields can also be detected
by observing the picoammeter analog output on an oscilloscope. Line frequency signals
on the output are an indication that electrostatic interference is present. Means of minimizing electrostatic interference include:
1.
2.
Shielding. Possibilities include: a shielded room, a shielded booth, shielding the
sensitive circuit, and using shielded cable. The shield should always be connected
to a solid connector that is connected to signal low. If circuit low is floated above
ground, observe safety precautions and avoid touching the shield. Meshed screen
or loosely braided cable could be inadequate for high impedances, or in string
fields. Note, however, that shielding can increase capacitance in the measuring circuit, possibly slowing down response time.
Reduction of electrostatic fields. Moving power lines or other sources away from the
experiment reduces the amount of electrostatic interference seen in the measurement.
Magnetic fields
A magnetic field passing through a loop in a test circuit will generate a magnetic EMF
(voltage) that is proportional to the strength of the field, the loop area, and the rate at
which these factors are changing. Magnetic fields can be minimized by following these
guidelines:
•
•
•
Locate the test circuit as far away as possible from such magnetic field sources as
motors, transformers, and magnets.
Avoid moving any part of the test circuit within the magnetic field.
Minimize the loop area by keeping leads as short as possible and twisting them
together.
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)
The electromagnetic interference characteristics of the Model 6487 comply with the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) requirements of the European Union as denoted by the
CE mark. However, it is still possible for sensitive measurements to be affected by external sources. In these instances, special precautions may be required in the measurement
setup.
Sources of EMI include:
•
•
•
Radio and TV broadcast transmitters.
Communications transmitters, including cellular phones and handheld radios.
Devices incorporating microprocessors and high-speed digital circuits.
•
Impulse sources as in the case of arcing in high-voltage environments.
B-6
General Measurement Considerations
Model 6487 User’s Manual
The effect on instrument performance can be considerable if enough of the unwanted signal is present. The effects of EMI can be seen as an unusually large offset, or, in the case of
impulse sources, erratic variations in the displayed reading.
The instrument and experiment should be kept as far away as possible from any EMI
sources. Additional shielding of the instrument, experiment and test leads will often
reduce EMI to an acceptable level. In extreme cases, a specially constructed screen room
may be required to sufficiently attenuate the troublesome signal.
External filtering of the input signal path may be required. In some cases, a simple onepole filter may be sufficient. In more difficult situations, multiple notch or band-stop filters, tuned to the offending frequency range, may be required. Connecting multiple capacitors of widely different values in parallel will maintain a low impedance across a wide
frequency range. Keep in mind, however, that such filtering may have detrimental effects
(such as increased response time) on the measurement.
C
Example Programs
C-2
Example Programs
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Programming examples
This section contains example programs (pseudo-code) to achieve speed and buffer size
specifications.
1000 readings/second into internal buffer
NOTE
This program configures the Model 6487 to 0.01 PLC, digital filters off, front
panel off, auto-zero off, as well as takes and stores 2000 readings.
*RST
TRIG:DEL 0
TRIG:COUN 2000
NPLC .01
RANG .002
SYST:ZCH OFF
SYST:AZER:STAT OFF
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
DISP:ENAB OFF
*CLS
' Turn display off.
' Clear status model.
TRAC:POIN 2000
TRAC:CLE
TRAC:FEED:CONT NEXT
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
STAT:MEAS:ENAB 512
*SRE 1
*OPC?
Return 6487 to RST defaults.
Set trigger delay to zero seconds.
Set trigger count to 2000.
Set integration rate to .01 PLC.
Use 2mA range.
Turn zero check off.
Turn auto-zero off.
Set buffer size to 2000.
Clear buffer.
Set storage control to start on next
reading.
Enable buffer full measurement event.
Enable SRQ on buffer full measurement
event.
' Operation complete query
' (synchronize completion of commands).
read back result of *opc?
INIT
' Start taking and storing readings.
' Wait for GPIB SRQ line to go true.
DISP:ENAB ON
' Turn display back on.
TRAC:DATA?
read back result
' Request data from buffer.
Model 6487 User’s Manual
Example Programs
C-3
900 readings/second to IEEE-488 bus
This program uses multiple reading queries to get high speed measurements over the bus
in real time. To improve continuity of readings, reduce the trigger count. To improve
throughput, increase the trigger count.
NOTE
This program configures the Model 6487 to 0.01 PLC, digital filters off, front
panel off, auto-zero off, binary transfer, and IEEE-488.1 (language).
Model 6487 must be set to IEEE-488.1 operation from the front panel. Press
CONFIG then COMM, select LANG: 488.1, then press ENTER. See reference
manual for details.
*RST
FORM:ELEM READ
FORM:BORD SWAP
FORM:DATA SRE
TRIG:DEL 0
TRIG:COUN 8
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
Return 6487 to RST defaults.
Return readings only.
Set for swapped byte order.
Return single precision floating .
point binary.
Set trigger delay to zero seconds.
Set trigger count to 8.
NPLC .01
RANG .002
' Set integration rate to .01 PLC.
' Use 2mA range.
SYST:ZCH OFF
SYST:AZER:STAT OFF
' Turn zero check off.
' Turn auto-zero off.
DISP:ENAB OFF
' Turn display off.
*OPC?
' Operation complete query
' (synchronize completion of commands).
read back result of *opc?
for i = 1 to 1000
"talk" the Model 6487.
' In 488.1 mode this will
' automatically do a READ?
' (see Reference manual).
read back the binary data
next i
DISP:ENAB ON
' Turn display back on.
C-4
Example Programs
Model 6487 User’s Manual
3000 readings into internal buffer
NOTE
Due to memory limitations, the maximum product of the trigger count times the
arm count is 2,048. Consequently, two triggers are required to completely fill the
buffer to its 3,000 reading maximum. See Section 7 of the Model 6487 Reference
Manual for triggering details.
*RST
TRIG:DEL 0
TRIG:COUN 1500
NPLC .01
RANG .002
SYST:ZCH OFF
'
'
'
'
'
'
*CLS
' Clear status model.
TRAC:POIN 3000
TRAC:CLE
TRAC:FEED:CONT NEXT
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
STAT:MEAS:ENAB 512
*SRE 1
*OPC?
Return 6487 to RST defaults.
Set trigger delay to zero seconds.
Set trigger count to 1500.
Set integration rate to .01 PLC.
Use 2mA range.
Turn zero check off.
Set buffer size to 3000.
Clear buffer
Set storage control to start on next
reading.
Enable buffer full measurement event.
Enable SRQ on buffer full measurement
event.
' Operation complete query
' (synchronize completion of commands).
read back result of *opc?
INIT
' First trigger to store 1500 readings
' wait for reading storage complete.
INIT
' Take and store last 1500 readings
' wait for GPIB SRQ line to go true.
TRAC:DATA?
' Request data from buffer.
read back result
Index
Digital 1-12, 4-5
filter 4-5
filter control 4-6
DIGITS 1-8
Digits 4-3
DISP 1-8
Display 1-9, 1-12
Symbols
* (asterisk) 1-9
(more) 1-9
Numerics
,,,
and 1-8
E
Electrochemical effects B-4
Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) B-5
Electrostatic interference B-4
engineering 4-3
units 1-12
ENTER 1-8
ERR 1-9
Error
and status messages 7-3
Example C-1
EXIT 1-8
A
Additional references 1-6
Analog 1-12
analog 2-10
ANALOG OUTPUT 1-11
AUTO 1-9
Autoranging 4-2
limits 4-2
Autozero 3-3
AZERO 1-8
F
B
FAST 1-9
Features 1-6
FILT 1-9
Filters 4-4
firmware revision level 1-14
Front 7-3
Front and rear panel 1-7
Front panel 1-7
Front panel GPIB operation 7-6
Function keys 1-8
Basic 2-4, 2-5, 3-2
connections to DUT 2-4
Buffer 1-9, 6-1
C
Cables 1-4
Carrying case 1-6
CHASSIS 1-11
COMM 1-8
Command
words 7-6
Commands 7-1
COMMON 1-11
Common 7-4
Compliance 3-12
CONFIG/LOCAL key 1-8, 7-3
Configuring 5-4
Connections 2-4, 7-2
fundamentals 2-2
Connectors 1-4
Contact information 1-3
Current 3-2
G
General 2-6, 2-7, 7-4
General IEEE-488 bus commands 7-4
General Measurement Considerations B-1
GPIB 7-2
trigger link cables and adapters 1-5
GPIB and trigger link cables and adapters 1-5
GPIB interface 7-2
GPIB status indicators 7-3
Ground link 1-11, B-2
Ground loops B-2
H
D
DAMP 1-8
Default 1-16
Default settings 1-15
detected line frequency 1-14
DIGITAL 1-11
Handle 1-9
Handling precautions 1-3
Humidity B-4
I
N
IEEE 7-3
IEEE-488 1-11
IEEE-488.2 common commands and
queries 7-5
Input 1-10
cables, connectors and adapters 1-4
connector 2-2
Inspection for damage 1-3
Instruction Manual 1-6
Interface
available 7-2
INTERLOCK 1-11
Interlock 2-8, 2-9
Noise and safety shields 2-5
O
Open interlock indication 3-13
OPER 3-12
Operation keys 1-8
Optional command words 1-19
Options and accessories 1-4
Overview of this manual 1-2
P
Package content 1-4
Parameter 7-7
Performance considerations 3-2
Phone number 1-3
Piezoelectric and stored charge effects B-3
POWER 1-8
Power module 1-11
Power-up 1-13
Power-up sequence 1-14
Programming C-2
L
Light B-4
LIMIT 1-8
Line frequency 1-13
Line power connection 1-13
Logarithmic 5-3
Low noise input cables 2-3
LSTN 1-9
Q
M
Magnetic fields B-5
Manual ranging 4-2
MATH 1-9
Maximum 2-3
Maximum input levels 2-2
measurement 2-11
Measurement considerations 2-9, B-2
Measurement overview 2-2, 3-2
Measurement ranges 4-2
Measurements 3-1
MED 1-9
Median filter 4-5
MENU 1-8, 1-18
Menu 1-18
Model 1050 padded carrying case 1-6
Model 4288-1 single fixed rack mount kit 1-6
Model 4288-2 side-by-side rack mount kit 1-6
Model 4288-4 side-by-side rack mount kit 1-6
Model 8502 trigger link adapter 1-5
Model 8503 DIN to BNC trigger cable 1-5
Models 7007-1 and 7007-2 shielded GPIB
cables 1-5
Models 8501-1 and 8501-2 trigger link
cables 1-5
MON 1-9
mX 5-3
mX+b, m/X+b (reciprocal), and
Logarithmic 5-3
Query commands 1-19
R
Rack mount kits 1-6
Range 4-2
keys 1-9
Units, Digits, Rate, and Filters 4-1
Rate 1-8, 4-4
Rear panel 1-10
Rear panel summary 1-10
RECALL 1-8
Recall 6-2
REL 1-8, 1-9
Relative 5-1
Relative, mX+b, m/X+b (Reciprocal), and
Log 5-1
REM 1-9
Remote 7-1
REN (remote enable) 7-6
resistivity 2-6
Response
time 4-6
Restoring 1-15
RS-232 1-11
connections 7-2
RS-232 7-2
RS-232 interface 7-2
S
T
safety shield 3-6, 3-9
Safety symbols and terms 1-3
SAVE 1-8
Saving 1-15
scientific (SCI) 4-3
scientific notation 1-12
SCPI 3-10, 3-13, 4-6, 6-5, 7-6
SCPI commands
amps function 3-7, 3-10
buffer 6-4
SCPI programming
mX+b, m/X+b, and log 5-4
range and digits 4-3
relative 5-2
zero check and zero correct 3-4
select power-on setup 1-15
serial number 1-18
Setting and controlling relative 5-2
SETUP 1-8
Shielding 2-6
Signal 7-5
SLOW 1-9
Sourcing 3-1, 3-12
Special keys and power switch 1-8
Specifications A-1
SRQ 1-9
STAT 1-9
statistics 6-3
Status 1-12
STD DEV 6-3
STORE 1-8
Store 6-2
Sweeps 6-1
sweeps 6-5
TALK 1-9
Test fixture 2-6
TIMER 1-9
timestamps 6-2
Triax 2-2
Triboelectric effects B-3
TRIG 1-8, 1-9
TRIGGER LINK 1-11
U
Units 4-3
Unpacking and Inspection 1-3
user setup 1-15
V
V 1-11
Voltage 1-12, 2-2, 3-2, 3-3, 3-12
W
Warm-up period 3-3
Warranty 1-2
Warranty information 1-2
Z
ZCHK 1-8
Zero 3-3
Service Form
Model No. ______________ Serial No.___________________Date________________
Name and Telephone No. _________________________________________________
Company ______________________________________________________________
List all control settings, describe problem and check boxes that apply to problem. _________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
❑ Intermittent
❑ Analog output follows display
❑ Particular range or function bad; specify
_______________________________
❑ IEEE failure
❑ Obvious problem on power-up
❑ Front panel operational ❑ All ranges or functions are bad
❑ Batteries and fuses are OK
❑ Checked all cables
Display or output (check one)
❑ Drifts
❑ Overload
❑ Unable to zero
❑ Will not read applied input
❑ Calibration only
❑ Certificate of calibration required
(attach any additional sheets as necessary)
❑ Unstable
❑ Data required
Show a block diagram of your measurement including all instruments connected (whether power is turned on or
not). Also, describe signal source.
Where is the measurement being performed? (factory, controlled laboratory, out-of-doors, etc.)_______________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
What power line voltage is used? ___________________ Ambient temperature? ________________________ °F
Relative humidity? ___________________________________________Other?___________________________
Any additional information. (If special modifications have been made by the user, please describe.)
__________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________
Be sure to include your name and phone number on this service form.
Specifications are subject to change without notice.
All Keithley trademarks and trade names are the property of Keithley Instruments, Inc.
All other trademarks and trade names are the property of their respective companies.
Keithley Instruments, Inc.
28775 Aurora Road • Cleveland, Ohio 44139 • 440-248-0400 • Fax: 440-248-6168
1-888-KEITHLEY (534-8453) • www.keithley.com
Sales Offices:
Bergensesteenweg 709 • B-1600 Sint-Pieters-Leeuw • 02-363 00 40 • Fax: 02/363 00 64
Yuan Chen Xin Building, Room 705 • 12 Yumin Road, Dewai, Madian • Beijing 100029 • 8610-8225-1886 • Fax: 8610-8225-1892
Tietäjäntie 2 • 02130 Espoo • Phone: 09-54 75 08 10 • Fax: 09-25 10 51 00
3, allée des Garays • 91127 Palaiseau Cédex • 01-64 53 20 20 • Fax: 01-60 11 77 26
Landsberger Strasse 65 • 82110 Germering • 089/84 93 07-40 • Fax: 089/84 93 07-34
Unit 2 Commerce Park, Brunel Road • Theale • Berkshire RG7 4AB • 0118 929 7500 • Fax: 0118 929 7519
1/5 Eagles Street • Langford Town • Bangalore 560 025, INDIA • 080 212 8027 • Fax : 080 212 8005
Viale San Gimignano, 38 • 20146 Milano • 02-48 39 16 01 • Fax: 02-48 30 22 74
New Pier Takeshiba North Tower 13F • 11-1, Kaigan 1-chome • Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0022 • 81-3-5733-7555 • Fax: 81-3-5733-7556
2FL., URI Building • 2-14 Yangjae-Dong • Seocho-Gu, Seoul 137-888 • 82-2-574-7778 • Fax: 82-2-574-7838
Postbus 559 • 4200 AN Gorinchem • 0183-635333 • Fax: 0183-630821
c/o Regus Business Centre • Frosundaviks Allé 15, 4tr • 169 70 Solna • 08-509 04 600 • Fax: 08-655 26 10
13F-3. No. 6, Lane 99 Pu-Ding Road • Hsinchu, Taiwan, R.O.C. • 886-3-572-9077• Fax: 886-3-572-9031
BELGIUM:
CHINA:
FINLAND:
FRANCE:
GERMANY:
GREAT BRITAIN:
INDIA:
ITALY:
JAPAN:
KOREA:
NETHERLANDS:
SWEDEN:
TAIWAN:
© Copyright 2002 Keithley Instruments, Inc.
Printed in the U.S.A.
11/02
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