Athena II User Manual
init
Athena II User Manual
High Integration SBC with Ethernet and Data Acquisition
Rev 1.07: July 2010
Revision
Date
Comment
1.05
4/14/10
Minor edits
1.06
5/25/10
Minor edits
1.07
7/22/10
Minor edits
FOR TECHNICAL SUPPORT
PLEASE CONTACT:
[email protected]
Copyright 2010
Diamond Systems Corporation
1255 Terra Bella Ave.
Mountain View, CA 94043 USA
Tel 1-650-810-2500
Fax 1-650-810-2525
www.diamondsystems.com
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.
IMPORTANT SAFE HANDLING INFORMATION .............................................................................................................. 6
2.
INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................................................ 8
3.
FUNCTIONAL OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................................ 10
3.1
FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM .......................................................................................................................................... 10
3.2
FUNCTIONAL OVERVIEW................................................................................................................................................... 11
3.2.1
Processor ............................................................................................................................................................ 11
3.2.2
Southbridge ........................................................................................................................................................ 11
3.2.3
Memory .............................................................................................................................................................. 11
3.2.4
Video Features ................................................................................................................................................... 11
3.2.5
Audio .................................................................................................................................................................. 11
3.2.6
Ethernet ............................................................................................................................................................. 11
3.2.7
Data Acquisition ................................................................................................................................................. 12
3.2.8
Standard Peripherals .......................................................................................................................................... 12
3.2.9
Bus Interfaces ..................................................................................................................................................... 13
3.2.10 Power Supply...................................................................................................................................................... 13
3.2.11 Battery Backup ................................................................................................................................................... 13
3.2.12 Watchdog Timer ................................................................................................................................................ 13
4.
BOARD DESCRIPTION ................................................................................................................................................. 14
4.1
CONNECTOR SUMMARY ................................................................................................................................................... 15
4.1.1
Jumper Summary ............................................................................................................................................... 15
5.
CONNECTORS ............................................................................................................................................................. 16
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10
5.11
5.12
5.13
5.14
5.15
5.16
5.17
5.18
6.
PC/104 ISA BUS (J1, J2) ................................................................................................................................................ 16
MAIN I/O (J3) ............................................................................................................................................................... 17
ETHERNET (J4) ............................................................................................................................................................... 20
USB (J5, J21) ............................................................................................................................................................... 20
WATCHDOG TIMER (J6) ................................................................................................................................................... 21
USB0 (J7) .................................................................................................................................................................... 22
IDE (J8) ....................................................................................................................................................................... 22
EXTERNAL BATTERY (J9)................................................................................................................................................... 24
INPUT POWER (J11)........................................................................................................................................................ 24
EXTERNAL AUXILIARY POWER, OUTPUT (J12) ...................................................................................................................... 25
DATA ACQUISITION, DIGITAL I/O (J14) .............................................................................................................................. 26
SPEAKER (J15) ............................................................................................................................................................... 27
AUTO-CALIBRATION REFERENCE VOLTAGE (J17) .................................................................................................................. 28
LCD PANEL, LVDS INTERFACE (J24) .................................................................................................................................. 29
VGA (J25) .................................................................................................................................................................... 30
CPU FAN (J27) .............................................................................................................................................................. 31
LCD BACKLIGHT (J28) ..................................................................................................................................................... 31
CD INPUT (J30) ............................................................................................................................................................. 32
BOARD CONFIGURATION ........................................................................................................................................... 33
6.1
SYSTEM CONFIGURATION (J10) ......................................................................................................................................... 33
6.1.1
Serial Port and A/D IRQ Settings ........................................................................................................................ 34
6.1.2
Erasing CMOS RAM Settings .............................................................................................................................. 35
6.1.3
ATX Power Control Settings ............................................................................................................................... 35
6.2
DAC CONFIGURATION (J13) ............................................................................................................................................. 36
6.2.1
Single-Ended/Differential Input Settings ............................................................................................................ 36
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6.2.2
Unipolar/Bipolar Input Settings ......................................................................................................................... 37
6.2.3
Analog Output Configuration Settings ............................................................................................................... 37
6.3
RS-485 MODE SELECTION (J18) ....................................................................................................................................... 38
7.
SYSTEM OPERATION .................................................................................................................................................. 39
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
8.
SYSTEM RESOURCES ........................................................................................................................................................ 39
CONSOLE REDIRECTION TO A SERIAL PORT ........................................................................................................................... 39
WATCHDOG TIMER ......................................................................................................................................................... 40
FLASH MEMORY ............................................................................................................................................................. 41
BACKUP BATTERY............................................................................................................................................................ 41
SYSTEM RESET................................................................................................................................................................ 41
ON-BOARD VIDEO .......................................................................................................................................................... 41
BIOS ........................................................................................................................................................................... 42
8.1
BIOS SETTINGS .............................................................................................................................................................. 42
8.1.1
Serial Ports ......................................................................................................................................................... 42
8.1.2
Parallel Port ....................................................................................................................................................... 42
8.1.3
LCD Video Settings ............................................................................................................................................. 42
8.1.4
Miscellaneous Settings ....................................................................................................................................... 42
8.2
BIOS CONSOLE REDIRECTION SETTINGS .............................................................................................................................. 44
9.
SYSTEM I/O ................................................................................................................................................................ 45
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
10.
ETHERNET ..................................................................................................................................................................... 45
SERIAL PORTS................................................................................................................................................................. 45
PS/2 PORTS .................................................................................................................................................................. 45
USB PORTS ................................................................................................................................................................... 46
NOTES ON OPERATING SYSTEMS AND BOOTING PROCEDURES ............................................................................. 47
10.1 WINDOWS OPERATING SYSTEM INSTALLATION ISSUES ........................................................................................................... 47
10.1.1 Driver Installation............................................................................................................................................... 47
10.1.2 BIOS Setting for Windows .................................................................................................................................. 47
10.1.3 CompactFlash Under Windows .......................................................................................................................... 47
10.2 DOS OPERATING SYSTEMS INSTALLATION ISSUES .................................................................................................................. 47
10.3 COMPACTFLASH COMPATIBILITY ISSUES UNDER DOS ............................................................................................................ 47
11.
DATA ACQUISITION CIRCUIT................................................................................................................................... 48
11.1 DATA ACQUISITION CIRCUITRY I/O MAP ............................................................................................................................. 49
11.1.1 Overview ............................................................................................................................................................ 49
11.1.2 Register Map Page Summary ............................................................................................................................. 49
11.1.3 Register Map Bit Summary ................................................................................................................................ 50
11.1.4 ................................................................................................................................................................................. 51
11.2 PAGE 0 REGISTER DEFINITIONS .......................................................................................................................................... 52
11.3 PAGE 1 REGISTER DEFINITIONS .......................................................................................................................................... 63
11.4 PAGE 2 REGISTER DEFINITIONS .......................................................................................................................................... 65
12.
ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL INPUT RANGES AND RESOLUTION ........................................................................................ 67
12.1 OVERVIEW..................................................................................................................................................................... 67
12.1.1 Input Range Selection ........................................................................................................................................ 67
12.1.2 Input Range Table .............................................................................................................................................. 67
13.
PERFORMING AN A/D CONVERSION ...................................................................................................................... 68
13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5
13.6
INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................................................... 68
SELECT THE INPUT CHANNEL ............................................................................................................................................. 68
SELECT THE INPUT RANGE................................................................................................................................................. 68
WAIT FOR ANALOG INPUT CIRCUIT TO SETTLE ...................................................................................................................... 68
PERFORM AN A/D CONVERSION ON THE CURRENT CHANNEL .................................................................................................. 68
WAIT FOR THE CONVERSION TO FINISH ............................................................................................................................... 69
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13.7 READ THE DATA FROM THE BOARD..................................................................................................................................... 69
13.8 CONVERT THE NUMERICAL DATA TO A MEANINGFUL VALUE ..................................................................................................... 69
13.8.1 Conversion Formula for Bipolar Input Ranges ................................................................................................... 70
13.8.2 Conversion Formula for Unipolar Input Ranges ................................................................................................. 70
14.
A/D SCAN, INTERRUPT AND FIFO OPERATION ........................................................................................................ 71
15.
DIGITAL-TO-ANALOG OUTPUT RANGES AND RESOLUTION .................................................................................... 73
15.1 DESCRIPTION ................................................................................................................................................................. 73
15.2 RESOLUTION .................................................................................................................................................................. 73
15.3 OUTPUT RANGE SELECTION .............................................................................................................................................. 73
15.4 D/A CONVERSION FORMULAS AND TABLES .......................................................................................................................... 74
15.4.1 D/A Conversion Formulas for Unipolar Output Ranges ..................................................................................... 74
15.4.2 D/A Conversion Formulas for Bipolar Output Ranges ........................................................................................ 75
16.
GENERATING AN ANALOG OUTPUT........................................................................................................................ 76
16.1
16.2
16.3
COMPUTE THE D/A CODE FOR THE DESIRED OUTPUT VOLTAGE ............................................................................................... 76
WRITE THE VALUE TO THE SELECTED OUTPUT CHANNEL REGISTERS .......................................................................................... 76
WAIT FOR THE D/A TO UPDATE......................................................................................................................................... 76
17.
ANALOG CIRCUIT CALIBRATION ............................................................................................................................. 77
18.
DIGITAL I/O OPERATION ........................................................................................................................................ 78
19.
COUNTER/TIMER OPERATION ................................................................................................................................ 79
19.1 COUNTER 0 – A/D SAMPLE CONTROL ................................................................................................................................ 79
19.2 COUNTER 1 – COUNTING/TOTALIZING FUNCTIONS................................................................................................................ 79
19.3 COMMAND SEQUENCES ................................................................................................................................................... 80
19.3.1 Load and Enable (Run) a Counter Sequence ...................................................................................................... 80
19.3.2 Read a Counter Sequence .................................................................................................................................. 80
19.3.3 Disabling the Counter Gate Command............................................................................................................... 80
19.3.4 Clearing a Counter Sequence ............................................................................................................................. 81
20.
WATCHDOG TIMER PROGRAMMING ..................................................................................................................... 82
20.1
20.2
20.3
21.
WATCHDOG TIMER REGISTER DETAILS ................................................................................................................................ 82
EXAMPLE: WATCHDOG TIMER WITH SOFTWARE TRIGGER ..................................................................................................... 84
EXAMPLE: WATCHDOG TIMER WITH HARDWARE TRIGGER .................................................................................................... 84
DATA ACQUISITION SPECIFICATIONS (DATA ACQUISITION UNITS ONLY) ............................................................... 85
21.1
21.2
21.3
21.4
22.
ANALOG INPUTS ............................................................................................................................................................. 85
ANALOG OUTPUTS .......................................................................................................................................................... 85
DIGITAL I/O................................................................................................................................................................... 85
COUNTER/TIMERS .......................................................................................................................................................... 85
FLASHDISK MODULE............................................................................................................................................... 86
22.1
22.2
22.3
22.4
INSTALLING THE FLASHDISK MODULE ................................................................................................................................. 86
CONFIGURATION............................................................................................................................................................. 87
USING THE FLASHDISK WITH ANOTHER IDE DRIVE ................................................................................................................ 87
POWER SUPPLY .............................................................................................................................................................. 87
23.
FLASHDISK PROGRAMMER BOARD ........................................................................................................................ 88
24.
I/O CABLES ............................................................................................................................................................. 89
25.
QUICK START GUIDE ............................................................................................................................................... 90
25.1
25.2
GENERAL SETUP ............................................................................................................................................................. 90
IDE CONFIGURATION....................................................................................................................................................... 90
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25.3
25.4
26.
BOOTING INTO MS-DOS, FREEDOS OR ROM-DOS ............................................................................................................ 91
BOOTING INTO LINUX OR MICROSOFT WINDOWS ................................................................................................................. 91
SPECIFICATIONS ..................................................................................................................................................... 92
26.1
26.2
26.3
26.4
CPU............................................................................................................................................................................. 92
DATA ACQUISITION CIRCUITRY .......................................................................................................................................... 92
POWER SUPPLY .............................................................................................................................................................. 93
GENERAL ....................................................................................................................................................................... 93
27.
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION .................................................................................................................................. 94
28.
BIOS CMOS OPTION LISTING .................................................................................................................................. 95
28.1 VIEWING AND MODIFYING THE BIOS SETTINGS .................................................................................................................... 95
28.2 BIOS SCREEN DESCRIPTIONS............................................................................................................................................. 96
28.2.1 Advanced.......................................................................................................................................................... 100
28.2.2 Security............................................................................................................................................................. 106
28.2.3 Power ............................................................................................................................................................... 106
28.2.4 Boot .................................................................................................................................................................. 107
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1. IMPORTANT SAFE HANDLING INFORMATION
WARNING!
ESD-Sensitive Electronic Equipment
Observe ESD-safe handling procedures when working with this product.
Always use this product in a properly grounded work area and wear appropriate
ESD-preventive clothing and/or accessories.
Always store this product in ESD-protective packaging when not in use.
Safe Handling Precautions
The Helios board contains a high number of I/O connectors with connection to sensitive electronic components.
This creates many opportunities for accidental damage during handling, installation and connection to other
equipment. The list here describes common causes of failure found on boards returned to Diamond Systems for
repair. This information is provided as a source of advice to help you prevent damaging your Diamond (or any
vendor’s) embedded computer boards.
ESD damage – This type of damage is usually almost impossible to detect, because there is no visual sign of
failure or damage. The symptom is that the board eventually simply stops working, because some component
becomes defective. Usually the failure can be identified and the chip can be replaced.
To prevent ESD damage, always follow proper ESD-prevention practices when handling computer boards.
Damage during handling or storage – On some boards we have noticed physical damage from mishandling. A
common observation is that a screwdriver slipped while installing the board, causing a gouge in the PCB surface
and cutting signal traces or damaging components.
Another common observation is damaged board corners, indicating the board was dropped. This may or may not
cause damage to the circuitry, depending on what is near the corner. Most of our boards are designed with at
least 25 mils clearance between the board edge and any component pad, and ground / power planes are at least
20 mils from the edge to avoid possible shorting from this type of damage. However these design rules are not
sufficient to prevent damage in all situations.
A third cause of failure is when a metal screwdriver tip slips, or a screw drops onto the board while it is powered
on, causing a short between a power pin and a signal pin on a component. This can cause overvoltage / power
supply problems described below. To avoid this type of failure, only perform assembly operations when the
system is powered off.
Sometimes boards are stored in racks with slots that grip the edge of the board. This is a common practice for
board manufacturers. However our boards are generally very dense, and if the board has components very close
to the board edge, they can be damaged or even knocked off the board when the board tilts back in the rack.
Diamond recommends that all our boards be stored only in individual ESD-safe packaging. If multiple boards are
stored together, they should be contained in bins with dividers between boards. Do not pile boards on top of each
other or cram too many boards into a small location. This can cause damage to connector pins or fragile
components.
Power supply wired backwards – Our power supplies and boards are not designed to withstand a reverse power
supply connection. This will destroy each IC that is connected to the power supply (i.e. almost all ICs). In this
case, the board will most likely cannot be repaired and must be replaced. A chip destroyed by reverse power or
by excessive power will often have a visible hole on the top or show some deformation on the top surface due to
vaporization inside the package. Check twice before applying power!
Board not installed properly in PC/104 stack – A common error is to install a PC/104 board accidentally shifted by
1 row or 1 column. If the board is installed incorrectly, it is possible for power and ground signals on the bus to
make contact with the wrong pins on the board, which can damage the board. For example, this can damage
components attached to the data bus, because it puts the 12V power supply lines directly on data bus lines.
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Overvoltage on analog input – If a voltage applied to an analog input exceeds the design specification of the
board, the input multiplexor and/or parts behind it can be damaged. Most of our boards will withstand an
erroneous connection of up to 35V on the analog inputs, even when the board is powered off, but not all boards,
and not in all conditions.
Overvoltage on analog output – If an analog output is accidentally connected to another output signal or a power
supply voltage, the output can be damaged. On most of our boards, a short circuit to ground on an analog output
will not cause trouble.
Overvoltage on digital I/O line – If a digital I/O signal is connected to a voltage above the maximum specified
voltage, the digital circuitry can be damaged. On most of our boards the acceptable range of voltages connected
to digital I/O signals is 0-5V, and they can withstand about 0.5V beyond that (-0.5 to 5.5V) before being damaged.
However logic signals at 12V and even 24V are common, and if one of these is connected to a 5V logic chip, the
chip will be damaged, and the damage could even extend past that chip to others in the circuit.
Bent connector pins – This type of problem is often only a cosmetic issue and is easily fixed by bending the pins
back to their proper shape one at a time with needle-nose pliers. The most common cause of bent connector pins
is when a PC/104 board is pulled off the stack by rocking it back and forth left to right, from one end of the
connector to the other. As the board is rocked back and forth it pulls out suddenly, and the pins at the end get
bent significantly. The same situation can occur when pulling a ribbon cable off of a pin header. If the pins are
bent too severely, bending them back can cause them to weaken unacceptably or even break, and the connector
must be replaced.
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2. INTRODUCTION
Athena II is an embedded single-board computer (SBC) in a custom PC/104 small form factor that integrates a
complete embedded PC and data acquisition circuitry into a single board.
The single board Athena computer is a Pentium III class device with onboard central processing, memory and
memory management devices and I/O management for specific functions. The board is larger than the PC-104
PCB format on three sides but uses the PC-104 mounting method and interface specification. The Athena II
board includes the following additional features.
Communicates externally over the ISA bus and I/O ports.
Generates on-board RGB video for CRT display systems.
Contains LVDS formatting to drive a flat panel
Is powered from an externally regulated +5VDC supply.
Four models, shown in the following table, provide various speed, memory size and data acquisition options.
Model
Processor Speed
RAM Size
Data Acquisition
ATHM500-256A
500 MHz
256MB
Yes
ATHM500-256N
500 MHz
256MB
No
ATHM800-256A
800 MHz
256MB
Yes
ATHM800-256N
800 MHz
256MB
No
The Athena II CPU uses the ISA bus, internally, to connect serial ports 1 through 4 and the data acquisition circuit
to the processor. The ISA bus is brought out to an expansion connector to mate with add-on boards. Diamond
Systems manufactures a wide variety of compatible PC/104 add-on boards for analog I/O, digital I/O,
counter/timer functions, serial ports and power supplies.
Description and Features
The Athena II board includes the following key system and data acquisition features.
Processor Section
800MHz Mark CPU with integrated Northbridge, downclocked as needed to reduce power consumption.
256MB RAM, system memory
100MHz memory bus
512KB 16-bit wide integrated flash memory for BIOS and user programs
Advanced 2D/3D video graphics engine with integral MPEG-2 hardware acceleration
33MHz PCI Bus
I/O Section
2 serial ports, 460k baud max
2 serial ports, 115.2k baud max
2 ports 16550-compatible
2 ports 16850-compatible with 128-byte FIFOs. These ports provide RS-232, RS-422 and automatic RS485 half-duplex capability, and RS-422/RS-485 termination
4 USB 1.1 ports.
IDE drive connectors; 44 pin notebook drive or solid-state flash disk connection
10-/100 Base-T full-duplex PCI bus mastering Ethernet
CRT and 24-bit dual channel LVDS flat panel support
PS/2 keyboard and mouse ports
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ATA and UDMA/33 IDE interface.
System status LEDs.
Interface for amplified audio and additional LEDs.
Analog Input
16 single-ended/8 differential inputs, 16-bit resolution
100KHz maximum aggregate A/D sampling rate
Programmable input ranges/gains with maximum range of ±10V / 0-10V
Both bipolar and unipolar input ranges
Autocalibration of both A/D and D/A circuits
10 ppm/°C drift accuracy
Internal and external A/D triggering
2048-byte sample FIFO for reliable high-speed sampling and scan operation
Analog Output
4 analog outputs, 12-bit resolution
±10V and 0-10V output ranges available
±5V and 0-5V output range (optional)
Digital I/O
24 programmable digital I/O lines, 3.3V and 5V logic compatible, -0.5V to +5.5V tolerant
Enhanced output current capability: -8/+12mA max
Counter/Timers
1 24-bit counter/timer for A/D sampling rate control
1 16-bit counter/timer for user counting and timing functions
Programmable gate and count enable
Internal and external clocking capability
System Features
Plug and play BIOS with IDE auto detection, 32-bit IDE access, and LBA support
User-selectable COM1 or COM2 terminal mode
On-board lithium backup battery for real-time-clock and CMOS RAM
ATX power switching capability.
Programmable watchdog timer
Power supply: 5VDC operation from the PC/104 bus or a power connector
Extended temperature range operation: -40°C to +85°C
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3. FUNCTIONAL OVERVIEW
3.1
Functional Block Diagram
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3.2
Functional Overview
This section describes the major Athena II subsystems.
3.2.1
Processor
The board uses the VIA Mark integrated processor, with integrated Northbridge, up to the rated processor speed
of 500/800MHz.
An appropriate heat sink is required, depending on the processor speed. The design supports a 5VDC fan with
speed sensing. A connector is provided for this purpose.
3.2.2
Southbridge
The VIA VT82C686 provides the ISA bus, audio, UDMA33/66 IDE, four USB 1.1 ports, two RS-232 ports and a
PS/2 keyboard/mouse interface.
3.2.3
Memory
The 64-bit wide 256MB SDRAM operates at 100MHz for all configurations. No expansion connector is provided
for additional memory.
The board also includes flash memory for BIOS and user program storage. Flash memory is accessible through
the on-board ISA bus.
3.2.4
Video Features
Video circuitry is provided by the VIA Mark chipset.
3.2.5
Audio
The design provides AC97 audio support derived from the Southbridge chip. The Via VT1612A CODEC provides
audio processing.
Audio I/O includes:
Stereo line in
Stereo line out
Mono mic in
Stereo internal line in
The board includes audio power amplifier circuitry for stereo speaker output. The amplifier circuit is powered by
+5VDC from the board. User DC control of volume is also provided, which overrides the software settings.
3.2.6
Ethernet
The board supports 10-/100- Base-T Ethernet. Magnetics are included on the board so that a complete circuit is
provided.
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3.2.7
Data Acquisition
The board provides the following data acquisition capabilities.
Type of I/O
Analog Input
Analog Output
Digital I/O
Counter/Timers
Characteristics
16 single-ended/8 differential inputs,16-bit resolution.
100KHz maximum aggregate A/D sampling rate.
Programmable input ranges/gains:
+/-10V, +/-5V, +/-2.5V, +/-1.25V, 0-10V, 0-5V, 0-2.5V.
A/D FIFO for reliable high-speed sampling and scan operation.
Four analog outputs, 12-bit resolution.
±10V and 0-10V output ranges.
Indefinite short circuit protection on outputs.
24 programmable digital I/O, 3.3V and 5V logic compatible.
One 24-bit counter/timer for A/D sampling rate control.
One 16-bit counter/timer for user counting and timing functions.
On board I2C flash EEROM is provided for auto-calibration value storage.
3.2.8
Standard Peripherals
The board provides the following standard system peripherals.
Peripheral
Serial ports
PS/2 ports
USB ports
IDE ports
Characteristics
Four serial ports
Keyboard and mouse
Four USB 1.1 ports
One 44-pin connector for HDD or compact flashdisk socket
Athena II contains four serial ports. Each port is capable of transmitting at speeds of up to 115.2Kbaud, and uses
a dedicated RS-232 transceiver with ESD protection.
Ports COM1 and COM2 are built into the standard chipset, consisting of standard 16550-type UARTs with 16-byte
FIFOs.
Ports COM3 and COM4 are derived from a dual UART chip, which includes 128-byte FIFOs. These ports may be
operated at speeds up to 460Kbaud with the installation of high-speed drivers as a custom option. COM3 and
COM4 can also be BIOS-selected for RS-232 or RS-485. Termination resistors can be jumper-enabled on these
two ports.
Console redirection feature is incorporated. This feature enables keyboard input and character video output to be
routed to one of the serial ports.
The board contains provision for mounting a solid state IDE flash disk module with capacities ranging from 32MB
and greater. The module mounts onto the board using a 44-pin 2mm pitch header and a hold-down mounting
hole with spacer and screws.
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3.2.9
Bus Interfaces
The PCI bus is generated by the VIA Mark processor module and is used internally for the Ethernet circuit. The
PCI bus is not brought out to a PCI-104 expansion connector.
The Southbridge also provides the ISA bus, which is extended to the PC/-104 interface, ,providing the following
I/O.
Dual UART for 2 serial ports
Data acquisition circuit, including a watchdog timer, analog and digital I/O, and two counter/timers
3.2.10 Power Supply
The power supply needs to supply an input voltage of +5VDC, ±5%, either from the PC/104 bus or from the onboard connectors.
The power supply includes ATX power switching and ACPI power management support.
Note: The ATX power switch does not control the master +5V on the board.
3.2.11 Battery Backup
Athena II contains a backup battery for the real-time clock and BIOS settings. The battery is directly soldered to
o
the board and provides a minimum 7 year backup lifetime at 25 C.
The on-board battery may be replaced with an external battery connected to an external battery connector.
The board can operate with no battery as well by putting a jumper on J10 pins 13 and 14 (CMOS/BAT). In any
operation without a battery, the CMOS contents will not be maintained after rebooting the system.
3.2.12 Watchdog Timer
A watchdog timer (WDT) circuit consists of two cascaded programmable timers, which may be triggered in
hardware or software.
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4. BOARD DESCRIPTION
The figure below shows the Athena II board layout, including connectors, jumper blocks and mounting holes.
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4.1
Connector Summary
The following table lists the connectors on the Athena II board.
Connector
J1
J2
J3
J4
J5
J6
J7
J8
J9
J11
J12
J14
J15
J17
J21
J24
J25
J27
J28
J30
4.1.1
Description
PC/104, ISA bus A,B
PC/104, ISA bus C,D
Main I/O (serial ports, PS/2 keyboard/mouse, parallel port, utility)
Ethernet
USB 0/1
Watchdog/Failsafe Features
USB0 (mini-USB connector)
Primary IDE (44-pin, laptop)
External Battery
Input Power
External Auxiliary Power (output)
Data Acquisition I/O
Audio I/O
Auto-calibration Reference Voltage
USB 2/3
LVDS LCD
VGA
CPU Fan
LCD Backlight Power
CD Input
Jumper Summary
The following table lists the jumpers on the Athena II board.
Jumper
J10
Description
System configuration (SBC features)
J13
Data acquisition circuit configuration
J18
RS-485 Mode Selection, COM 3/4
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5. CONNECTORS
This section describes the on-board Athena II connectors.
Note: All cables mentioned in this chapter are included in Diamond Systems’ cable kit C-ATH-KIT.
Some cables are also available individually.
5.1
PC/104 ISA Bus (J1, J2)
Connectors J1 and J2 carry the ISA bus signals. The following diagram shows the PC/104 A and B pin layout for
J1 and the C and D pin layout for J2.
J1
IOCHCHKSD7
SD6
SD5
SD4
SD3
SD2
SD1
SD0
IOCHRDY
AEN
SA19
SA18
SA17
SA16
SA15
SA14
SA13
SA12
SA11
SA10
SA9
SA8
SA7
SA6
SA5
SA4
SA3
SA2
SA1
SA0
Ground
A1
A2
A3
A4
A5
A6
A7
A8
A9
A10
A11
A12
A13
A14
A15
A16
A17
A18
A19
A20
A21
A22
A23
A24
A25
A26
A27
A28
A29
A30
A31
A32
J2
B1
B2
B3
B4
B5
B6
B7
B8
B9
B10
B11
B12
B13
B14
B15
B16
B17
B18
B19
B20
B21
B22
B23
B24
B25
B26
B27
B28
B29
B30
B31
B32
Athena II User Manual Rev 1.07
Ground
RESETDRV
+5V
IRQ9
-5V
DRQ2
-12V
ENDXFR+12V
Key
SMEMWSMEMRIOWIORDACK3DRQ3
DACK1DRQ1
REFRESHSYSCLK
IRQ7
IRQ6
IRQ5
IRQ4
IRQ3
DACK2TC
BALE
+5V
OSC
Ground
Ground
Ground
SBHELA23
LA22
LA21
LA20
LA19
LA18
LA17
MEMRMEMWSD8
SD9
SD10
SD11
SD12
SD13
SD14
SD15
Key
www.diamondsystems.com
C0
C1
C2
C3
C4
C5
C6
C7
C8
C9
C10
C11
C12
C13
C14
C15
C16
C17
C18
C19
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
D8
D9
D10
D11
D12
D13
D14
D15
D16
D17
D18
D19
Ground
MEMCS16-IOCS16IRQ10
IRQ11
IRQ12
IRQ15
IRQ14
DACK0DRQ0
DACK5DRQ5
DACK6DRQ6
DACK7DRQ7
+5
MASTERGround
Ground
Page 16
5.2
Main I/O (J3)
An 80-pin high-density connector, J3, is provided for access to the user I/O.
supported by this connector.
The following functions are
Two serial ports
Parallel port
Watchdog timer I/O
PS/2 keyboard
PS/2 mouse
IrDA port
ATX Power switch
Reset switch
Power and HDD LEDs
J3 Main I/O Connector
Athena II User Manual Rev 1.07
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Page 17
Cable A
COM1
COM2
DCD1
1
1
STB-
DSR1
2
2
AFD-
RXD1
3
3
PD0
RTS1
4
4
ERR-
TXD1
5
5
PD1
CTS1
6
6
INIT-
DTR1
7
7
PD2
RI1
8
8
SLIN-
GND
9
9
PD3
DCD2
10
10
GND
DSR2
11
11
PD4
RXD2
12
12
GND
RTS2
13
13
PD5
TXD2
14
14
GND
CTS2
15
15
PD6
DTR2
16
16
GND
RI2
17
17
PD7
GND
18
18
GND
DCD3
19
19
ACK-
DSR3
20
20
GND
RXD3
21
21
BUSY
RTS3
22
22
GND
TXD3
23
23
PE
CTS3
24
24
GND
DTR3
25
25
SLCT
RI3
26
26
KB Clk
GND
27
27
KB/MS V-
DCD4
28
28
KB Data
DSR4
29
29
KB/MS V+
RXD4
30
30
MS Clk
RTS4
31
31
KB/MS V-
TXD4
32
32
MS Data
CTS4
33
33
KB/MS V+
DTR4
34
34
GND
RI4
35
35
Reset-
GND
36
36
ATX Power
+5V Out
37
37
KB Lock
Speaker Out
38
38
IR RX
IDE Drive LED
39
39
IR TX
Power LED
40
40
+3VSB
COM3
COM4
Utilities A
Athena II User Manual Rev 1.07
Cable B
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LPT1
KYBD
Mouse
Utilities B
Page 18
Signal Group
COM1-COM4
-
LPT1
-
KYBD,
Mouse
-
Utilities A
Signal
KB Clk
KB/MS VKB Data
KB/MS V+
+5V Out
Speaker Out
IDE Drive LED
Power LED
Utilities B
ResetATX Power
KB Lock
IR RX, IR TX
+3VSB
Description
The signals on these pins are RS-232 level signals and may be
connected directly to RS-232 devices. The pinout of these
signals is designed to allow a 9-pin male IDC connector to be
crimped onto the corresponding ribbon cable wires to provide
the correct pinout for a PC serial port connector (DTE).
The signals on these pins comprise a standard PC parallel
port. The pinout of these signals is designed to allow a 25-pin
female IDC connector to be crimped onto the corresponding
ribbon cable wires to provide the correct pinout for a PC
parallel port connector.
PS/2 signals for keyboard and mouse. (Pins 2 and 6 on the
Mini-Din-6 PS/2 connectors are unused).
Clock pin; connects to pin 5 of the PS/2 connector.
Power pin; connects to pin 3 of the PS/2 connector.
Data pin; connects to pin 1 of the PS/2 connector.
Power pin; connects to pin 4 of the PS/2 connector.
Switched power pin that is turned on and off with the ATX
power switch or with the +5V input.
Referenced to +5V Out. Connect a speaker between this pin
and +5V Out.
Referenced to +5V Out. Does not require a series resistor.
Connect LED directly between this pin and +5V Out.
Referenced to +5V Out. Does not require a series resistor.
Connect LED directly between this pin and +5V Out.
Connection between this pin and Ground will generate a Reset
condition.
When ATX is enabled, a momentary contact between this pin
and ground causes the CPU to turn on, and a contact of 4
seconds or longer will generate a power shutdown. ATX power
control is enabled with a jumper on jumper block J10.
When this pin is connected to Ground, the keyboard and
mouse inputs are ignored.
IrDA pins. Can be connected directly to an IrDA transceiver.
Connected to +5V input power on J11. This pin is not switched
by ATX control. This pin is provided for auxiliary use such as
front panel lighting or other circuitry at the user’s discretion.
Connector J3 mates with Diamond Systems cable no. C-PRZ-01, which consists of a dual-ribbon-cable assembly
with industry-standard connectors at the user end. The SBC mating connector includes integral latches for
enhanced reliability. Each ribbon cable has 40 wires.
Athena II User Manual Rev 1.07
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Page 19
5.3
Ethernet (J4)
Ethernet connectivity is provided by 1x6-pin connector J4. Connector J4 mates with Diamond Systems cable
number C-PRZ-02, which provides a panel-mount RJ-45 jack for connection to standard CAT5 network cables.
J4 Ethernet Connector
5.4
1
Common
2
RX-
3
Common
4
RX+
5
TX-
6
TX+
USB (J5, J21)
Connectors J5 (USB 0/1) and J21 (USB 2/3) provide four USB 1.1 ports.
J5/J21 USB Connectors
(J5-only) Key (pin cut)
1
2
Shield (J5-only)
GND
3
4
GND
USB1/3 D+
5
6
USB0/2 D+
USB1/3 D-
7
8
USB0/2 D-
USB1/3 VCC
9
10 USB0/2 VCC
Signal
VCC
DD+
GND
Definition
+5VDC
Data +
Data Ground
Connectors J5 and J21 mate with Diamond Systems cable no. 698012, which provides two standard USB type A
jacks in a panel-mount housing.
Note: USB0 (J7) shares the J5 USB circuitry. Do not connect USB devices to both USB0 and J5.
Athena II User Manual Rev 1.07
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Page 20
5.5
Watchdog Timer (J6)
J6 Watchdog Timer Access Connector
Connector J6 is used for watchdog timer access..
1
GND
2
WDI
3
WDO
Signal
WDI
Definition
Watchdog Timer Input
WDO
Watchdog Timer Output
GND
0V (ground) power return
path.
Note: The watchdog timer circuit may be programmed either directly as described in this manual, or with
the Diamond Systems Universal Driver software.
Athena II User Manual Rev 1.07
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Page 21
5.6
USB0 (J7)
Connector J7 (USB0) is a mini-USB connector that provides a single, quick and simple on-board USB connection
for simple test and development without requiring an additional cable.
J7 USB0 Connector (end view)
1
VCC
2
D-
3
D+
4
(not used)
5
GND
Signal
VCC
DD+
GND
Definition
+5VDC
Data +
Data Ground
Note: USB0 shares the J5 USB circuitry. Do not connect USB devices to both USB0 and J5.
5.7
IDE (J8)
Connector J8 is a 2x22-pin header used for an IDE connection. An associated mounting hole is provided to install
a flash disk module.
J8 IDE Connector
Athena II User Manual Rev 1.07
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Page 22
Reset -
1
2
Ground
D7
3
4
D8
D6
5
6
D9
D5
7
8
D10
D4
9
10
D11
D3
11
12
D12
D2
13
14
D13
D1
15
16
D14
D0
17
18
D15
Ground
19
20
Key (pin cut)
DRQ
21
22
Ground
IDEIOW-
23
24
Ground
IDEIOR-
25
26
Ground
IORDY
27
28
Ground
DACK-
29
30
Ground
IRQ14
31
32
Pulled low for 16-bit operation
A1
33
34
Not used
A0
35
36
A2
CS0-
37
38
CS1-
LED-
39
40
Ground
+5v
41
42
+5v
Ground
43
44
Not used
Connector J8 mates with Diamond Systems cable no. 698004, and may be used to connect up to two IDE drives
(hard disks, CD-ROMs, or flash disk modules). The 44-pin connector includes power and mates directly with
notebook drives and flash disk modules. To use a standard format hard disk or CD-ROM drive with a 40-pin
connector, an adapter PCB such as Diamond Systems ACC-IDEEXT is required.
Note: Connector J8 supports only up to ATA-33 (UDMA-2). It does not support ATA-66 (UDMA-3 to 5)
transfer modes.
Athena II User Manual Rev 1.07
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Page 23
5.8
External Battery (J9)
Connector J9 is used to connect an external battery for maintaining the Real-Time Clock and the CMOS settings
(BIOS settings for various system configurations). The battery voltage for this input should be 3-3.6VDC. The
current draw averages under 4µA at 3V.
J9 External Battery Connector (end view)
5.9
1
Battery input (+)
2
Ground
Input Power (J11)
Input power for Athena II may be supplied either from an external supply, through J11, or directly through the
PC/104 bus power pins if a PC/104 power supply is used with the CPU.
J11 Input Power Connector
1
+5V In
2
Ground
3
Key (pin cut)
4
+12V In
5
Ground
6
+5V In
7
-12V In
8
-5V In
9
ATX Control
Input power for Athena may be supplied either through J11 from an external supply or directly through the
PC/104 bus power pins if a PC/104 power supply is used with the CPU.
Athena requires only +5VDC input power to operate. All other required voltages are generated on board
with miniature switching regulators. However since the PC/104 bus includes pins for ±5V and ±12V, these
voltages may be supplied through J11 if needed. The +5V and +12V voltages are controlled by the ATX
power manager switches, while -5V and -12V are routed directly to the corresponding pins on PC/104 bus
and are not controlled by the ATX function.
Athena II User Manual Rev 1.07
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Page 24
Make sure that the power supply used has enough current capacity to drive your system. The Athena II
SBC requires up to 2A on the +5V line for the 500MHz configuration (3.0A for the 800MHz configuration.)
If you have a disk drive or other modules connected, you need additional power. In particular, many disk
drives need extra current during startup. If your system fails to boot properly, or if disk accesses do not
work properly, the first thing to check is the power supply voltage level. Many boot-up problems are
caused simply by insufficient voltage due to excess current draw on the +5V supply.
Multiple +5V and Ground pins are provided for extra current carrying capacity if needed. Each pin is rated
at 3A max (15W). For the Athena II SBC and panel I/O board 2A is sufficient, so +5V and Ground require
only a single wire each. In this case the first 4 pins may be connected to a standard 4-pin miniature PC
power connector if desired. Be advised that some voltage will be dropped in the wire depending on the
wire gauge (AWG).
For a larger PC/104 stack the total power requirements should be calculated to determine whether
additional wires are necessary.
ATX control enables the +5V and +12V power to be switched on and off with an external momentary
switch. A short press on the switch will turn on power, and holding the switch on for 4 seconds or longer
will turn off power.
Diamond Systems’ cable no. 698009 mates with J11. It provides 9 color-coded wires with stripped and
tinned leads for connection to user-supplied power sources. When used, make sure the two red +5V
wires are both connected to +5V.
5.10
External Auxiliary Power, Output (J12)
Connector J12 provides switched power for use with external drives. If ATX is enabled, the power is switched ON
and OFF with the ATX input switch. If ATX is not enabled, the power is switched ON and OFF in conjunction with
the external power.
J12 Auxiliary Power Output Connector (end-on view)
1
+5V (switched)
2
GND
3
GND
4
+12V (switched)
Signal
Definition
+5V
This is provided by the on-board power supply, derived from the input
power. It is switched off when the board is powered down.
This is provided by the 12V input pin on the main power connector. It
is switched off when the board is powered down.
These are 0V ground references for the power output voltage rails,
above.
+12V
GND
Diamond Systems cable number 698006 mates with connector J12. This cable provides a standard full-size
power connector for a hard drive or CD-ROM drive and a standard miniature power connector for a floppy drive.
Athena II User Manual Rev 1.07
www.diamondsystems.com
Page 25
5.11
Data Acquisition, Digital I/O (J14)
J14 Digital I/O Connector
Athena II includes a 50-pin header, J14, for all data acquisition I/O.
DIO A0
1
2
DIO A1
DIO A2
3
4
DIO A3
DIO A4
5
6
DIO A5
DIO A6
7
8
DIO A7
DIO B0
9
10
DIO B1
DIO B2 11
12
DIO B3
DIO B4 13
14
DIO B5
DIO B6 15
16
DIO B7
DIO C0 17
18
DIO C1
DIO C2 19
20
DIO C3
DIO C4/GATE0 21
22
DIO C5/GATE1
DIO C6/CLK1 23
24
DIO C7/OUT0
EXTTRIG 25
26
TOUT1
+5V out 27
28
DGND
VOUT0 29
30
VOUT1
VOUT2 31
32
VOUT3
AGND(Vout) 33
34
AGND(Vin)
VIN0 35
36
VIN8
VIN1 37
38
VIN9
VIN2 39
40
VIN10
VIN3 41
42
VIN11
VIN4 43
44
VIN12
VIN5 45
46
VIN13
VIN6 47
48
VIN14
VIN7 49
50
VIN15
Athena II User Manual Rev 1.07
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Page 26
Signal
Definition
DIO A7-A0
DIO B7-B0
DIO C7-C0
Digital I/O port A; programmable direction.
Digital I/O port B; programmable direction.
Digital I/O port C; programmable direction.
C7-C4 may be configured for counter/timer signals.
External A/D trigger input.
Counter/Timer 1 output.
Analog input channels 7 – 0 in single-ended mode.
High side of input channels 7 – 0 in differential mode.
Analog input channels 15 – 8 in both single-ended mode.
Low side of input channels 7 – 0 in differential mode.
Analog output channels 0 – 3.
Connected to switched +5V supply
(Output only! Do not connect to external supply).
Digital ground (0V - reference); used for digital circuitry only.
Analog ground; used for analog circuitry only.
Vout pin is for analog outputs, Vin pin is for analog inputs.
EXTTRIG
TOUT1
Vin 7/7+ ~ Vin
0/0+
Vin 15/7- ~ Vin
8/0VOUT0-3
+5V out
DGND
AGND
Diamond Systems cable no. C-50-18 provides a standard 50-pin connector at each end and mates with this
header.
5.12
Speaker (J15)
Connector J15 is a 2x5-pin header used to connect speakers.
J15 Speaker Connector
Left headphone, line out
1
2
Right headphone, line out
Audio ground
3
4
Line input, left
Line input, right
5
6
Audio ground
Microphone input
7
8
Power reference for microphone
Key (pin cut)
9
10
Audio ground
The volume control is capable of 32 discrete levels, ranging from a 20dB maximum gain to -85dB (Muted). The
main volume control is the “MID” line, which may be tied to the center tap of a potentiometer with “HIGH” on one
side and “LOW” on the other to give a full range of power control.
Shorting “MID” to “LOW” mutes the speaker audio
Shorting “MID” to “HIGH” provides maximum gain
Default (no connection) provides 10dB of gain
The maximum output power is specified to provide up to two Watts into a 4-Ohm speaker load. Note that this
output power is drawn from the on-board 5V supply.
Athena II User Manual Rev 1.07
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Page 27
The speakers are driven using a Bridged-Tied Load (BTL) amplifier configuration. This is a differential speaker
connection. As such, each speaker should be wired directly to the appropriate pair of connections for that
speaker.
Do not connect the speaker low sides (-) to ground
Do not short the speaker low connections together
5.13
Auto-Calibration Reference Voltage (J17)
Connector J17 is a two-pin header used for auto-calibration.
1
GND
2
AutoCal Reference Value
The Diamond Systems AutoCal routines read the exact voltage calibration values from the AutoCal-Flash. There
are four analog values that need to be measured and stored in the AutoCal flash during manufacturing test.
Those values are produced from a very stable power source.
The values stored to AutoCal flash can be measured at header J17, where pin 1 is ground and pin 2 is one of the
positive values shown in the following table, depending on the selection of the Cal-Mux. The table gives the
approximate values of the four AutoCal values.
Cal-Mux
Value
0
1
2
3
5.5mV
1.2V
2.48V
4.96V
Note: Disconnect the measurement cables after measuring the voltages and before initiating the actual
auto-calibration.
Athena II User Manual Rev 1.07
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Page 28
5.14
LCD Panel, LVDS Interface (J24)
Connector J24 provides access to the internal LVDS LCD display drivers.
backlight to be connected (J28, below) to function correctly.
Note that the LCD also requires the
J24 LCD Panel Connector
Ground
1
2
Ground
LCD1 clock-
3
4
LCD2 clock-
LCD1 clock+
5
6
LCD2 clock+
Ground
7
8
Ground
LCD1 data 0-
9
10
LCD2 data 0-
LCD1 data 0+
11
12
LCD2 data 0+
Ground
13
14
Ground
LCD1 data 2-
15
16
LCD2 data 1-
LCD1 data 2+
17
18
LCD2 data 1+
Ground
19
20
Ground
LCD1 data 1-
21
22
LCD2 clock-
LCD1 data 1+
23
24
LCD2 clock+
Ground
25
26
Ground
VDD (LCD display)
27
28
VDD (LCD display)
VDD (LCD display)
29
30
VDD (LCD display)
Signal
Definition
LCD1 Data 0-2
+/LCD1 Clock +/LCD2 Data 0-2
+/LCD2 Clock +/VDD
Primary Data Channel, bits 0-2 (LVDS Differential signaling)
Ground
Primary Data Channel, Clock (LVDS Differential signaling)
Secondary Data Channel, bits 0-2 (LVDS Differential signaling)
Secondary Data Channel, Clock (LVDS Differential signaling)
+3.3V Switched Power Supply for LCD display (only powered up when
LCD display is active)
Power Ground, 0V
Athena II User Manual Rev 1.07
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Page 29
5.15
VGA (J25)
Connector J25 is a 2x4-pin header for connecting a VGA monitor.
J25 VGA Connector
Pin 1
Red
1
2
Green
Ground
3
4
Blue
DDC data
5
6
HSYNC
DDC clock
7
8
VSYNC
Signal
Definition
Ground
Red
Green
Blue
DDC clock/data
HSYNC
VSYNC
Ground return
RED signal (positive, 0.7Vpp into 75 Ohm load)
GREEN signal (positive, 0.7Vpp into 75 Ohm load)
BLUE signal (positive, 0.7Vpp into 75 Ohm load)
Digital serial I/O signals used for monitor detection (DDC1 specification)
Horizontal sync
Vertical sync
Note: While the DDC serial detection pins are present, a 5V power supply is not provided (the old
“Monitor ID” pins are also not used).
Diamond Systems cable assembly 6981030 provides a female DB15 connection to interface with a standard RGB
monitor.
Athena II User Manual Rev 1.07
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Page 30
5.16
CPU Fan (J27)
Connector J27 is used to connect to the SBC fan.
J27 CPU Fan Connector
Signal
Fan RPM
+5
GND
5.17
1
Fan RPM
2
GND
3
+5v
Definition
TTL signal input that pulses with each revolution of the fan.
Power Supply for optional CPU Fan, if necessary.
Ground
LCD Backlight (J28)
Connector J28 provides the backlight power and control for the optional LCD panel. See the description for
connector J24, above, for details on the LCD data interface.
J28 LCD Backlight Connector (end view)
1
+12v
2
Control
3
Ground
Signal
Definition
+12V
Control
Power supply for LCD Backlight assembly
Output signal (from Athena II) to allow power-down of
backlight
Ground for LCD Backlight assembly
Ground
Athena II User Manual Rev 1.07
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Page 31
Connector J28 provides the backlight power and control for the optional LCD panel. See the description for
connector J24, above, for details on the LCD data interface.
Note: The +12V supply will be removed when the system is powered down. The control signal is used to
allow the system to power-down the backlight when the system enables monitor-power-down during its
power management control. A 12V power supply must be provided either on the J11 input power
connector, or on the 12V pin on the PC/104 connector for the LCD backlight to operate. This voltage is
not generated internally.
5.18
CD Input (J30)
The J30 connector is for a PC-standard CD input cable, which provides the CD Audio Input to the AC97 Sound
circuitry.
J30 CD Input Connector
1
Left CD input
2
Left ground
3
Right ground
4
Right CD input
The connector is an industry-standard CD-IN connector, which is common in most desktop Personal Computers.
Note that the left and right grounds are decoupled but are also tied together on-board. This input is intended for
CD-input only; i.e., no amplified or microphone inputs.
Athena II User Manual Rev 1.07
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Page 32
6. BOARD CONFIGURATION
The Athena II board has the following jumper-selectable configuration options.
Note: Connector J10 is not installed on the standard Athena II board.
Jumper Block
Configuration Functions
J10
J13
System configuration jumper block.
Data acquisition circuit configuration jumper
block.
RS-485 mode selection jumper block.
J18
6.1
System Configuration (J10)
Jumper block J10 is used to configure IRQ levels, ATX power control and CMOS RAM.
J10 Jumper Block with Default Settings
J10
Pin Label
BAT
ATX
3
4
5
6
9
15
Athena II User Manual Rev 1.07
Function
Battery connected:
in - battery connected
(CMOS RAM settings preserved)
out - battery not connected
(CMOS RAM settings erased)
ATX power control
in - ATX-like power control
out - standard (powers up immediately)
IRQ 3; selectable for COM3, COM4
IRQ 4; selectable for COM3, ADC
IRQ 5; selectable for COM3, ADC
IRQ 6; selectable for COM3, ADC
IRQ 9; selectable for COM3
IRQ 15; selectable for COM4
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Page 33
6.1.1
Serial Port and A/D IRQ Settings
COM3, COM4 and A/D IRQ settings can be configured as shown in the following table.
Device
COM3
IRQ3
X
IRQ4
X
IRQ5
X
IRQ6
X
COM4
X
-
-
-
IRQ9
X
(default)
-
A/D
-
X
X
(default)
X
-
IRQ15
X
(default)
-
Note: IRQ4 can only be used for A/D if it is not already used for COM3.
It is possible to set up all three circuits to share either IRQ4 or IRQ5. However, only one device can use the
shared IRQ at a time; the ability for all three devices to run simultaneously is not supported.
Configure the IRQ options as shown in the following jumper settings.
IRQ Configuration Options
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6.1.2
Erasing CMOS RAM Settings
With the jumper in place (enabled, as shown in Figure 3) the SBC powers up with the current settings, or if the
jumper was removed before power up, the SBC will power up with the default BIOS settings.
CMOS RAM Jumper Settings
Follow these steps to clear the CMOS RAM.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Power-down the CPU.
Remove the BAT jumper.
Wait a few seconds.
Insert the BAT jumper.
Power-up the CPU.
Note: Before erasing CMOS RAM, write down any custom BIOS settings.
6.1.3
ATX Power Control Settings
The ATX power control is set using the J10 ATX jumper, shown in Figure 4.
ATX Power Control Jumper Setting
If the ATX jumper is out, ATX works normally, and an external, momentary switch may be used to turn power ON
and OFF. A quick contact turns the power ON, and a long contact (greater than four seconds) turns the power
OFF.
If the ATX jumper is in, the ATX function is bypassed and the system powers up as soon as power is connected.
This is the default setting, as shown in Figure 4.
If the ATX jumper is removed, the battery-backup for CMOS does not function when power is removed.
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6.2
DAC Configuration (J13)
Jumper block J13 is used to configure the A/D and D/A circuits
J13 Jumper Block
.
Jumper Label
SE/DIFF
AD UNIPOL
DA SEL
6.2.1
Configuration Function
A/D single-ended/differential selection.
A/D unipolar/bipolar selection.
D/A unipolar/bipolar selection.
Single-Ended/Differential Input Settings
Athena II can accept both single-ended and differential inputs. A single-ended input uses two wires: input and
ground. The measured input voltage is the difference between these two wires. A differential input uses three
wires: input(+), input(–) and ground. The measured input voltage is the difference between the (+) and (–) inputs.
Differential inputs are frequently used either when the grounds of the input device and the measurement device
(Athena II) are at different voltages, or when a low-level signal is being measured that has its own ground wire. A
differential input also has higher noise immunity than a single-ended input because most noise affects both (+)
and (–) input wires equally, so the noise is canceled out in the measurement. The disadvantage of differential
inputs is that only half as many are available because two input pins are required to produce a single differential
input.
Athena II can be configured for either 16 single-ended inputs, or eight differential inputs, as shown below. The
default setting is single-ended mode.
A/D Single-ended/Differential Selection
If you have a combination of single-ended and differential input signals, select differential mode. Then, to
measure the single-ended signals, connect the signal to the plus (+) input and connect analog ground to the
minus (–) input.
WARNING: The maximum range of voltages that can be applied to an analog input on Athena II without
damage is ±35V. If you connect the analog inputs on Athena to a circuit whose ground potential plus
maximum signal voltage exceeds ±35V, the analog input circuit may be damaged. Check the ground
difference between the input source and Athena II before connecting analog input signals.
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6.2.2
Unipolar/Bipolar Input Settings
The analog inputs can be configured for either unipolar (positive input voltages only), or bipolar (both positive and
negative input voltages). For unipolar inputs, install a jumper as shown below. For bipolar inputs, omit the
jumper. The default configuration is bipolar mode (jumper out).
A/D Unipolar/Bipolar Selection
6.2.3
Analog Output Configuration Settings
The four analog outputs can also be configured for unipolar (positive voltages only) or bipolar (both positive and
negative output voltages). In unipolar mode, the outputs range between 0-10V. In bipolar mode, the outputs
range between ±10V. Install the jumper for unipolar mode, as shown below. The default configuration is bipolar
mode (jumper out).
Analog Output Configuration Selection
If the jumper is in, the outputs resets to the bottom of their range (zero-scale). If the jumper is out, the outputs
resets to the middle of their range (mid-scale). Normally, the D/A is configured to power up to 0V. When the
power is turned on, the device connected to the analog output does not see a step change in voltage. Therefore,
for unipolar mode, the outputs should normally be configured for zero-scale reset, and for bipolar mode the
outputs should be configured for mid-scale reset because 0V is halfway between -10V and +10V, for the ±10V
range.
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6.3
RS-485 Mode Selection (J18)
Jumper block J18 is used to select RS-485 mode for COM3/COM4.
J18 Jumper Block
Note 1: RS-485 mode needs to be set in the BIOS.
Note 2: Echo is enabled when RS-485 is set in half-duplex mode.
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7. SYSTEM OPERATION
7.1
System Resources
The table below lists the system resources utilized by the circuits on Athena II.
Device
Default Address
ISA IRQ
ISA
DMA
Selectable
Addresses
Serial Port COM1
Serial Port COM2
Serial Port COM3
Serial Port COM4
LPT Printer Port
IDE Controller A
A/D Circuit (when applicable)
Watchdog
Timer/Serial Port/FPGA
Ethernet
USB
Sound
Video
I/O 0x3F8 – 0x3FF
I/O 0x2F8 – 0x2FF
I/O 0x3E8 – 0x3EF
I/O 0x2E8 – 0x2EF
I/O 0x378 – 0x37F
I/O 0x1F0 – 0x1F7
I/O 0x280 – 0x28F
I/O 0x25C-0x25F
3.4
3,4
3,4,5,6,9
3,15
5,7
14
4,5,6
–
–
–
–
–
3
–
–
–
2F8, 3E8, 2E8
3F8, 3E8, 2E8
–
–
278, 3BC
–
–
–
OS-dependent
OS-dependent
OS-dependent
OS-dependent
OS-dependent
OS-dependent
OS-dependent
OS-dependent
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Note: In the preceding table, the selectable addresses are declared in CMOS BIOS.
Most of these resources are configurable and, in many cases, the Operating System alters these settings. The
main devices that are subject to this dynamic configuration are on-board Ethernet, sound, video, USB, and any
PC/104-Plus cards that are in the system. These settings may also vary depending on what other devices are
present in the system. For example, adding a PC/104-Plus card may change the on-board Ethernet resources.
The serial port settings for COM3 and COM4 are jumper-selectable (J10), whereas the settings for COM1 and
COM2 are entirely software-configured in the BIOS.
7.2
Console Redirection to a Serial Port
In many applications without a local display and keyboard, it may be necessary to obtain keyboard and monitor
access to the CPU for configuration, file transfer, or other operations. Athena II supports this operation by
enabling keyboard input and character output onto a serial port, referred to as console redirection. A serial port
on another PC can be connected to the serial port on Athena II with a null modem cable, and a terminal emulation
program, such as HyperTerminal, can be used to establish the connection. The terminal program must be
capable of transmitting special characters including F2 (some programs or configurations trap special characters).
The default Athena II BIOS setting disables console redirection.
There are three possible configurations for console redirection:
POST-only (default)
Always On
Disabled
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To modify the console redirection settings:
1. Enter the BIOS.
2. Select the Advanced menu.
3. Select Console Redirection.
4. In Com Port Address, select Disabled to disable the function, On-board COM A for COM1, or On-board
COM B for COM2 (default).
If you select Disabled, you will not be able to enter BIOS again during power-up through the serial port.
To reenter BIOS when console redirection is disabled, you must install a video monitor or LCD and use a
keyboard. Erasing the CMOS RAM returns the BIOS to its default settings. CMOS RAM may be erased by
removing the jumper on the JP10 jumper block.
Note: Before erasing CMOS RAM, write down any custom BIOS settings you have made.
If you selected COMA or COMB, continue with the configuration, as follows.
1. For Console Type, select PC ANSI.
2. You can modify the baud rate and flow control here if desired.
3. At the bottom, for Continue C.R. after POST, select Off (default) to turn off after POST or select On to
remain on always.
4. Exit the BIOS and save your settings.
7.3
Watchdog Timer
Athena II contains a watchdog timer circuit consisting of two programmable timers, WD1 and WD2, cascaded
together. The input to the circuit is WDI and the output is WDO. WDI may be triggered in hardware or in
software. A special “early” version of WDO may be output on the WDO pin. When this signal is connected to
WDI, the watchdog circuit is re-triggered automatically. The watchdog timer block diagram is shown below.
Watchdog Timer Block Diagram
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The duration of each timer is user-programmable. When WD1 is triggered, it begins to count down. When it
reaches zero, it triggers WD2, sets WDO high, and may also generate a user-selectable combination of the
following events.
System Management interrupt (SMI)
Hardware reset
WD2 then begins to count down. When the WD2 counter reaches zero, it unconditionally causes a hardware
reset. The WD2 timer gives external circuits time to respond to the WDO event before the hardware reset occurs.
The watchdog timer circuit is programmed via I/O registers located on Page 0: Base +28-31. The Athena II
watchdog timer is supported in the Diamond Systems Universal Driver software version 5.7 and later.
7.4
Flash Memory
Athena II contains a 512KB, 16-bit wide flash memory chip for storage of BIOS and other system configuration
data.
7.5
Backup Battery
Athena II contains an integrated RTC/CMOS RAM backup battery. This battery has a capacity of 120mAH and
will last over three years in power-off state.
The on-board battery is activated for the first time during initial factory configuration and test.
temperature of the board can affect the total battery life. Storage at 23ºC is recommended.
7.6
Storage
System Reset
Athena II contains a chip to control system reset operation. Reset occurs under the following conditions.
User causes reset with a ground contact on the Reset input
Input voltage drops below 4.75V
Over-current condition on output power line
The ISA Reset signal is an active high pulse with a 200ms duration. The PCI Reset is active low, with a typical
pulse width duration of 200 msec.
7.7
On-Board Video
Using the on-board VIA Mark processor, Athena II integrates all of the support needed for modern media. Refer
to the VIA Technologies, Inc. documentation for the Mark processor, listed in the Additional Information section of
this document.
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8. BIOS
Athena uses a BIOS from Phoenix Technologies modified to support the custom features of the Athena board.
(See the detailed BIOS settings in Chapter 28, BIOS CMOS Option Listing.)
8.1
BIOS Settings
To change the following BIOS settings, press F2 during system startup power on self-test (POST).
8.1.1
Serial Ports
The address and interrupt settings for serial ports COM1 and COM2 may be modified. COM1 and COM2 address
and interrupt settings are configured using the Advanced, Advanced Chipset Control, I/O Chip Device
Configuration menu.
The addresses of COM3 and COM4 are fixed. The IRQ selections for COM3 and COM4 are configured using
jumper block J10.
8.1.2
Parallel Port
The parallel port is configured using the Advanced, I/O Chip Device Configuration menu. The port is set by
default to ECP mode and located at address 0x378, IRQ 7 and DMA 3.
8.1.3
LCD Video Settings
Athena provides direct digital support for LVDS-based LCD interfaces only. As such, there are two settings that
affect this support during BIOS boot.
Boot Video Device – By default, this is set to “AUTO”. With the AUTO setting, the system attempts to identify an
RGB monitor (via DDC). If no RGB monitor is detected, the system enables LCD support. If you choose to use
the LCD display regardless of standard monitor connection (i.e., with both connected at once), set “Boot Video
Device” to “Both”.
Panel Type – This setting defaults to “7”. Do not alter this setting unless specifically instructed to do so. This
setting affects the LCD display modes supported; mode “7” is the only setting currently supported. Not all LCD
displays are supported.
8.1.4
Miscellaneous Settings
Memory Cache
Unless there is a specific reason to change these settings, it is best to keep these settings as-is. Certain
system functions, such as USB keyboard support under BIOS menus, may be adversely affected by
changes to these settings. These cache settings can make a noticeable difference for low-level BIOS
calls and, as such, can severely limit performance if they are disabled.
Advanced Chipset Control
The following settings should be retained:
Frame Buffer Size: 8MB
AGP Rate: 4X
Expansion Bus Performance: Normal
The Frame Buffer size can be increased for specific applications. Be aware, however, that an increase in this
memory size will result in a decrease in overall system memory available. The AGP rate affects internal video
accesses and does not affect any external bus speeds.
“Expansion Bus Performance” is an adjustment to allow an increase in ISA I/O Access speeds. For applications
where ISA I/O accesses seem to be a limiting factor, this performance may be increased to “Accelerated”. Be
aware that increasing these timings may adversely affect system stability with external add-on PC/104 cards.
This setting has no direct affect on PCI or memory speeds; it only affects ISA PC/104 devices. It is best to leave
this setting at “Normal,” if there are no ISA I/O performance issues.
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Advanced
Installed O/S:
(See Appendix A, BIOS Settings) Select the operating system.
Large Disk Access Mode: (See Appendix A, BIOS Settings) Select the disk access mode.
On-Chip Multifunction Device
USB Device: Enabled/disable USB ports.
Legacy Audio:
“Legacy Audio” only affects DOS-based applications when used with the VIA-supported DOS Drivers.
Enabling this setting will require system I/O, IRQ, and DMA resources. It is strongly recommended that
this setting be left “Disabled.”
PCI and ISA Configuration (from the Advanced menu)
The following settings should be retained:
PCI IRQ Level 1-4:
Auto-select for all
PCI/PNP ISA UMB Region Exclusion: Available for all
Power Management
This setting is only effective under DOS. Otherwise, the OS power management settings pre-empt these
settings. The only power management mode supported by the system is “Power-On Suspend.” Other
suspend modes are not supported and should not be used under any OS. Examples of unsupported
suspend modes include, “Hibernate,” under Windows, and “Suspend-to-Disk” or “Suspend-to-RAM”.
Memory Shadow
These parameters should only be modified by advanced users. These settings can adversely affect
system performance and reliability.
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8.2
BIOS Console Redirection Settings
For applications where the Video interfaces are not used, the textual feedback typically sent to the monitor can be
redirected to a COM port. In this manner, a system can be managed and booted without using a video
connection.
The BIOS allows the following configuration options for Console Redirection to a COM port.
COM port address: Disabled (default), COM port A, or COM port B.
If Console Redirection is enabled here, the associated COM port (with “A” here referring to COM 1 and
“B” referring to COM 2) is enabled regardless of the COM port settings elsewhere.
“Continue CR after POST”: Off (default), or On.
Determines whether or not the system is to wait for a carriage return over the COM port before continuing
(after POST is completed and before OS starts loading).
Baud Rate: 19.2K (default), 300, 1200, 2400, 9600, 38.4K, 57.6K, 115.2K.
Console Connection: Direct (default) or Modem.
Console Type: PC ANSI (default), VT100, VT100 (8-bit), PC-ANSI (7-bit), VT100+, or VT-UTF8.
Flow Control: CTS/RTS (default), XON-XOFF, None.
Number of video Pages to support: 1(default) to 8.
Note: Console Redirection only works for text-based interaction. If the OS enables video and starts
using direct video functions (which would be the case with a Linux X-terminal or Windows, for example),
Console Redirection has no effect and video is then required.
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9. SYSTEM I/O
9.1
Ethernet
The Ethernet chip is the National Semiconductor DP83815 MacPhyter chip, which is connected to the system via
the board’s internal PCI bus.
The Athena II Software CD includes Ethernet drivers for Windows XP, Windows CE, and Linux. The latest drivers
can also be downloaded from National Semiconductor’s website, listed in the Additional Information section of this
document. (Search for “DP83815” to locate the product folder on the website).
A DOS utility program is provided for testing the chip and accessing the configuration EEPROM. Each board is
factory-configured for a unique MAC address using this program. To run the program, boot the computer to DOS
because the program will not run properly in a DOS window. In normal operation this program is not required.
Additional software support includes a packet driver with software to allow a full TCP/IP implementation.
9.2
Serial Ports
Athena II contains four serial ports. Each port is capable of transmitting at speeds up to 115.2Kbaud. Ports
COM1 and COM2 are built into the standard chipset, which are standard 16550 UARTs with 16-byte FIFOs.
Ports COM3 and COM4 are derived from an Exar 16C2850 dual UART chip and include 128-byte FIFOs. These
ports may be operated at speeds to 1.5Mbaud with installation of high-speed drivers, as a custom option.
The serial ports use the following default system resources.
Port
I/O Address Range
IRQ
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
0x3F8 - 0x3FF
0x2F8 - 0x2FF
0x3E8 - 0x3EF
0x2E8 - 0x2EF
4
3
3,4,5,6,9
3,15
The COM1 and COM2 settings may be changed in the system BIOS. Select the Advanced menu, followed by I/O
Device Configuration, to modify the base address and interrupt level.
The addresses of COM3 and COM4 are fixed. The IRQ settings for COM3 and COM4 are selected using jumper
block J10. COM3 can use IRQ3, IRQ4, IRQ5, IRQ6 or IRQ9, and COM4 can use IRQ3 or IRQ15, as described in
the Board Configuration section of this document.
Note: Once these jumper selections are made, the user must update the Serial Port IRQ settings to
match these selections. The IRQ settings are NOT auto detected in the same way as the address
settings.
9.3
PS/2 Ports
Athena II supports two PS/2 ports.
Keyboard
Mouse
The PS/2 ports are accessible using a cable assembly (DSC#C-PRZ-01) attached to connector J3. Support for
these ports is independent of, and in addition to, mouse and keyboard support using the USB ports.
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9.4
USB Ports
Four USB 1.1 ports, USB0 through USB3, are accessible using cable assemblies attached to connector J5.
USB support is intended primarily for the following devices (although any USB-standard device should function).
Keyboard
Mouse
USB Floppy Drive (This is required for Crisis Recovery of boot ROM)
USB flash disk
The BIOS supports the USB keyboard during BIOS initialization screens and legacy emulation for DOS-based
applications.
The USB ports can be used for keyboard and mouse at the same time that the PS/2 keyboard and mouse are
connected.
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10. NOTES ON OPERATING SYSTEMS AND BOOTING PROCEDURES
10.1
Windows Operating System Installation Issues
Windows operating systems installation should follow these steps, or some device drivers may not function
correctly under Windows.
1. Enable CD-ROM support in the BIOS. Change the boot sequence in the BIOS so the system boots from
CD-ROM first.
2. Insert the Windows installation CD into the CD-ROM and restart the computer.
3. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for installing Windows.
10.1.1 Driver Installation
Drivers are provided on a CD. Please, follow the instructions included on the CD to install drivers for the different
operating systems.
10.1.2 BIOS Setting for Windows
When using any version of Windows, the Operating System selection in the BIOS setup menus should be set to
Win98. Also, Legacy Audio must be disabled for Windows to boot properly.
10.1.3 CompactFlash Under Windows
CompactFlash is not directly supported by Windows 98. A special driver may be available (see the vendor of your
specific CompactFlash card for details). Without special drivers, Windows 98 does not recognize the
CompactFlash.
CompactFlash support is built into Windows 2000 and XP.
10.2
DOS Operating Systems Installation Issues
User the following sequence to install DOS operating systems: MS-DOS, FreeDOS and ROM-DOS.
1. Enable the following in BIOS:
o Floppy Drive detection
o Legacy USB support
2. Change the BIOS boot sequence so the system boots through the USB floppy drive.
3. Insert the DOS installation floppy disk into the USB floppy drive and start/restart the system.
4. Install any drivers needed.
Note: For DOS Ethernet, set Operating System to other in the BIOS.
Note: DOS Sound emulation is currently not functional.
10.3
CompactFlash Compatibility Issues Under DOS
CompactFlash is incompatible with some utilities, under some versions of DOS.
CompactFlash with ROM-DOS
The ROM-DOS FDISK utility does not work with CompactFlash drives. The ROM-DOS FORMAT and
SYS do work, however. If CompactFlash already has a DOS partition, the ROM-DOS utilities can be
used to FORMAT the CompactFlash and install operating system files on CompactFlash.
CompactFlash with FreeDOS
The FreeDOS FDISK or FORMAT utility do not work with CompactFlash. However, the FreeDOS SYS
utility is functional with CompactFlash.
CompactFlash with MS-DOS
The MS-DOS FDISK, FORMAT, and SYS utilities are not functional when used with CompactFlash. The
MS-DOS operating system files cannot be installed on CompactFlash flash.
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11. DATA ACQUISITION CIRCUIT
Athena II contains a data acquisition subsystem consisting of A/D, D/A, digital I/O, and counter/timer features.
This subsystem is equivalent to a complete add-on data acquisition module.
The A/D section includes a 16-bit A/D converter, 16 input channels, and a 2048-sample FIFO. Input ranges are
programmable, and the maximum sampling rate is 100KHz. The D/A section includes 4 12-bit D/A channels. The
digital I/O section includes 24 lines with programmable direction. The counter/timer section includes a 24-bit
counter/timer to control A/D sampling rates and a 16-bit counter/timer for user applications.
High-speed A/D sampling is supported with interrupts and a FIFO. The FIFO is used to store a user-selected
number of samples, and the interrupt occurs when the FIFO reaches this threshold. Once the interrupt occurs, an
interrupt routine runs and reads the data out of the FIFO. In this way the interrupt rate is reduced by a factor
equal to the size of the FIFO threshold, enabling a faster A/D sampling rate. The circuit can operate at sampling
rates of up to 100KHz, with an interrupt rate of 6.6-10KHz.
The A/D circuit uses the default (hard wired) setting of I/O base address 280h and IRQ 5. The IRQ setting can be
changed if needed. The interrupt level is changed with jumper block J10 and also with the IRQ number in the
BIOS.
The figure below shows a block diagram of the data acquisition circuit.
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11.1
Data Acquisition Circuitry I/O Map
11.1.1 Overview
The data acquisition circuitry on Athena II occupies 16 bytes in I/O memory space. The default address range is
280h (base address) to 28Fh.
The data acquisition FPGA can be enabled/disabled in the BIOS under the Advanced menu. Scroll down to the
“FPGA Mode” option and select “Enabled” or “Disabled,” accordingly. If the FPGA is disabled you will not be able
to interact with the data acquisition circuit. The FPGA can also be enabled or disabled programmatically through
the CPLD.
11.1.2 Register Map Page Summary
The following table summarizes the DAC register functions. The registers are paged to allow access to enhanced
functions. There are three register pages and the desired page is selected using the A/D gain and scan settings
register, Base+3, bits PG0-PG1, provided the board is in enhanced mode.
Base +
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Page 0
Write Function
Command
Enhanced mode control
A/D channel
A/D gain/page select/scan settings
Interrupt/DMA/counter control
FIFO threshold
DAC LSB
DAC MSB + channel no.
Digital I/O port A
Digital I/O port B
Digital I/O port C
Digital I/O control
Counter/timer D7-0
Counter/timer D15-8
Counter/timer D23-16
Counter/timer control
Read Function
A/D LSB
A/D MSB
A/D channel
A/D gain and status
Interrupt/DMA/counter control
FIFO threshold
FIFO depth
Analog operation status
Digital I/O port A
Digital I/O port B
Digital I/O port C
Digital I/O control
Counter/timer D7-0
Counter/timer D15-8
Counter/timer D23-16
FPGA revision code
Page 1
Base +
12
13
14
15
Write Function
Trim DAC data/EEM data
EEPROM command/Trim DAC
address
Auto-CAL/Trim DAC
Write enable
Base +
12
13
14
15
Write Function
ADC expanded FIFO
ADC control
-
Read Function
EEM data
EEM command address
Trim DAC/EEM/Auto-Cal status
Page 1 select read back check
Page 2
Read Function
ADC expanded FIFO
ADC control
Page 2 select read back check
Note 1: Page 0, registers 0-11 are accessible when Page 1 or Page 2 are selected.
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Note 2: In the following tables, blank bits are not used. Writes to a blank bit have no effect and reads
from a blank bit return a value of zero.
11.1.3 Register Map Bit Summary
Page 0 Write Register Summary
Base +
0
7
STRTAD
6
RSTBRD
5
RSTDA
4
3
RSTFIFO CLRDMA
1
EM7
EM6
EM5
EM4
EM3
2
H3
H2
H1
H0
L3
L2
L1
L0
3
-
-
-
-
-
SCANEN
G1
G0
4
CKSEL1
CKFRQ1
CKFRQ0
ADCLK
DMAEN
TINTE
DINTE
AINTE
5
FT7
FT6
FT5
FT4
FT3
FT2
FT1
FT0
6
2
CLRT
1
CLRD
0
CLRA
EM2
EM1
EM0
DA7-DA0
7
DACH1
DACH0
-
-
DA11
DA10
DA9
DA8
8
A7
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
A0
9
B7
B6
B5
B4
B3
B2
B1
B0
10
C7
C6
C5
C4
C3
C2
C1
C0
11
DIOCTR
-
-
DIRA
DIRCH
-
DIRB
DIRCL
12
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
13
D15
D14
D13
D12
D11
D10
D9
D8
14
D23
D22
D21
D20
D19
D18
D17
D16
15
CTRNO
LATCH
GTDIS
GTEN
CTDIS
CTEN
LOAD
CLR
Page 0 Read Register Summary
Base +
0
7
AD7
6
AD6
5
AD5
4
AD4
3
AD3
2
AD2
1
AD1
0
AD0
1
AD15
AD14
AD13
AD12
AD11
AD10
AD9
AD8
2
H3
H2
H1
H0
L3
L2
L1
L0
3
STS
SD
WAIT
DACBSY
OVF
SCANEN
G1
G0
4
CKSEL1
CKFRQ1
CKFRQ0
ADCLK
DMAEN
TINTE
DINTE
AINTE
5
FT7
FT6
FT5
FT4
FT3
FT2
FT1
FT0
6
FD7
FD6
FD5
FD4
FD3
FD2
FD1
FD0
7
DMAINT
TINT
DINT
AINT
ADCH3
ADCH2
ADCH1
ADCH0
8
A7
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
A0
9
B7
B6
B5
B4
B3
B2
B1
B0
10
C7
C6
C5
C4
C3
C2
C1
C0
11
DIOCTR
-
-
DIRA
DIRCH
-
DIRB
DIRCL
12
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
13
D15
D14
D13
D12
D11
D10
D9
D8
14
D23
D22
D21
D20
D19
D18
D17
D16
15
REV7
REV6
REV5
REV4
REV3
REV2
REV1
REV0
Page 1 Write Register Summary
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Page 50
Base +
12
13
7
6
5
4
3
2
TDAD7-TDAD0 – or - EMM_CD7-EMM_CD0
1
0
EEM_CA7 EEM_CA6 EEM_CA5 EEM_CA4 EEM_CA3 EEM_CA2 EEM_CA1 EEM_CA0
13
-
14
EEMST
-
-
-
TDAA2
TDAA1
TDAA0
0
ADCMEN
TDAST
0
0
0
2
1
0
-
-
-
-
15
WREN7-WREN0
Page 1 Read Register Summary
Base +
12
7
6
0
TDABSY
5
13
14
4
3
EEM_D7-EEM_D0
EEM_CA7-EEM_CA0
EEMBSY ADCMEN
15
PG1ID
11.1.4
Page 2 Write Register Summary
Base +
12
7
-
6
-
5
-
4
-
3
-
2
-
1
-
0
ADCEXF
13
0
0
0
0
UNIBIDI
UNIBIOE
SEDIFDI
SEDIFOE
14
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
15
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Page 2 Read Register Summary
Base +
12
7
0
6
0
5
0
13
0
0
0
0
14
-
-
-
-
15
4
3
ADC_FOF ADC_FF
2
1
ADC_FTF ADC_FE
0
ADCEXF
UNIBIDI
UNIBIOE
SEDIFDI
SEDIFOE
-
-
-
-
PG2ID
ADF_FOF
A/D Converter FIFO overflow. If this bit is set a FIFO overflow has occurred. No new values
are written to the FIFO until this condition is corrected.
ADC_FF
A/D Converter FIFO Full. If this bit is set the FIFO is full.
ADC-FTF
A/D Converter FIFO Threshold Full. If this bit is set the FIFO depth has reached or exceeded
the threshold.
ADC_FE
A/D Converter FIFO EMPTY. If this bit is set the FIFO is empty.
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11.2
Page 0 Register Definitions
Command: Base+0 (Write)
Bit:
7
6
5
Name:
STRTAD
RSTBRD
RSTDA
STRTAD
4
3
RSTFIFO CLRDMA
2
1
0
CLRT
CLRD
CLRA
Start an A/D conversion (trigger the A/D) when in software-trigger mode AINTE = 0 (Base+4,
bit 0). Once the program writes to this bit, the A/D conversion starts and the STS bit
(base+3, bit 7) goes high. The program should then monitor STS and wait for it to go low
(the value of Base+3 is less than 128 or 0x80). When STS goes, low the A/D data at Base+0
and Base+1 may be read.
When AINTE = 1 (Base+4, bit 0), the A/D cannot be triggered by writing to this bit. Instead,
the A/D is triggered by a signal selected by ADCLK (Base+4 bit 5).
RSTBRD
Reset the entire board excluding the D/A. Writing a 1 to this bit causes all on-board registers
to be reset to 0. The effect on the digital I/O is that all ports are reset to input mode, and the
logic state of their pins is determined by the pull-up/pull-down configuration setting selected
by the user. All A/D, counter/timer, interrupt and DMA functions cease. However, the D/A
values remain constant.
RSTDA
Reset the four analog outputs. The analog outputs are reset to either mid-scale or zeroscale, depending on the jumper configuration selected by the user. A separate reset is
provided for the D/A so that the user may reset the board if needed without affecting the
circuitry connected to the analog outputs.
RSTFIFO Reset the FIFO depth to 0. This clears the FIFO, allowing additional A/D conversions to be
stored in the FIFO starting at address 0.
CLRDMA Writing a 1 to this bit resets the DMA interrupt request flip flop.
CLRT
Writing a 1 to this bit resets the timer interrupt request flip flop.
CLRD
Writing a 1 to this bit resets the digital I/O interrupt request flip flop.
CLRA
Writing a 1 to this bit resets the analog interrupt request flip flop.
This register performs various functions. The register bits are not data bits but, instead, command
triggers. Each function is initiated by writing a 1 to a particular bit. Writing a 1 to any bit in this register
does not affect any other bit in this register. For example, to reset the FIFO, write the value 0x10 (16) to
this register to write a 1 to bit 4. No other function of the register will be performed. Multiple actions can
be performed, simultaneously, by writing a 1 to multiple bits, using a single write operation.
The user’s interrupt routine must write to the appropriate bit prior to exiting to reset the interrupt request
flip flop, enabling future interrupts. Otherwise, the interrupt line remains high, indefinitely, and no
additional interrupt requests are generated by the board.
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A/D LSB: Base+0 (Read)
Bit:
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name:
AD7
AD6
AD5
AD4
AD3
AD2
AD1
AD0
AD7-AD0 A/D LSB data. The A/D data must be read LSB first, followed by MSB.
The A/D value is derived by reading two bytes from Base + 0 and Base + 1 and applying the
following formula:
A/D value = (Base+0 value) + ((Base+1 value) * 256)
The value is interpreted as a two’s complement, 16-bit number ranging from –32768 to
+32767. This raw A/D value is converted to the corresponding input voltage and/or the
engineering units represented by that voltage by applying additional application-specific
formulas. Both conversions (conversion to volts and conversion to engineering units) may be
combined into a single formula for efficiency.
A/D MSB: Base+1 (Read)
Bit:
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name:
AD15
AD14
AD13
AD12
AD11
AD10
AD9
AD8
AD15-AD8 A/D MSB data. The A/D data must be read LSB first, followed by MSB.
(Refer to the method for deriving the A/D value described in the Base+0 (Read) description,
above.)
Enhanced Mode Control: Base+1 (Write)
Bit:
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name:
EM7
EM6
EM5
EM4
EM3
EM2
EM1
EM0
EM0-EM7 Enhanced mode control:
0xA5 = Enable enhanced mode.
0xA6 = Disable enhanced mode (default state).
A/D Channel: Base+2 (Read/Write)
Bit:
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name:
H3
H2
H1
H0
L3
L2
L1
L0
H3-H0
High channel of A/D channel scan range.
Ranges from 0 to 15 in single-ended mode, 0 to 7 in differential mode.
L3-L0
Low channel of A/D channel scan range.
Ranges from 0 to 15 in single-ended mode, 0 to 7 in differential mode.
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The high channel must be greater than or equal to the low channel.
When this register is written, the current A/D channel is set to the low channel, so that the next time an
A/D conversion is triggered the low channel will be sampled.
When this register is written, the WAIT bit (Base+3, bit 5) goes high for 10 microseconds to indicate that
the analog input circuit is settling. During this time, an A/D conversion should not be performed because
the data will be inaccurate.
After writing a new gain setting (Base+3), the WAIT bit is also set, and the program must monitor the bit
prior to starting an A/D conversion.
The channel and gain registers can be written to in succession without waiting for the intervening WAIT
signal. Only one WAIT period must be observed between the last triggering condition (write to Base+2 or
Base+3) and the start of an A/D conversion.
The A/D circuit is designed to automatically increment the A/D channel each time a conversion is
generated. This allows the user to avoid needing to write to the A/D channel each time. The A/D channel
rotates through the values between LOW and HIGH. For example, if LOW = 0 and HIGH = 3, the A/D
channels progresses through the following sequence: 0, 1, 2, 3, 0, 1, 2, 3, 0, 1, ….
Reading from this register returns the value previously written to it.
Analog Input Gain/Page Select/Scan Settings: Base+3 (Write)
Bit:
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name:
-
-
PG1
PG0
-
SCANEN
G1
G0
PG1-PG0
Page select (Page 0 - Page 2)
Standard Mode:
00 = Page 0
01 = Page 1
10 = Page 2
Reset and Enhanced Mode:
00 = Page 0
01 = Page 0
10 = Page 0
Note: When the board is in standard mode, only page 0 can be accessed. The page mode can only be
set when the register map is in enhanced mode.
SCANEN
Scan mode enable.
1 = Each A/D trigger causes the board to generate an A/D conversion on each channel in the
range LOW – HIGH. The range is set with the channel register in Base+2.
The STS bit (Base+3, bit 7) stays high during the entire scan.
0 = Each A/D trigger causes the board to generate a single A/D conversion on the current
channel. The internal channel pointer increments to the next channel in the range LOW –
HIGH or resets to LOW, if the current channel is HIGH.
The STS bit (Base+3, bit 7) stays high during the A/D conversion.
G1-G0
Analog input gain. The gain is the ratio of the voltage seen by the A/D converter and the
voltage applied to the input pin. The gain setting is the same for all input channels.
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Page 54
When this register is written, the WAIT bit (Read Base+3, bit 6) goes high for 10 microseconds to indicate
that the analog input circuit is settling. During this time, an A/D conversion should not be performed
because the data will be inaccurate. After writing a new gain setting, the program should monitor the
WAIT bit prior to starting an A/D conversion.
After writing a new channel selection (Base+2), the WAIT bit is also set, and the program must monitor it
prior to starting an A/D conversion.
The channel and gain registers can be written to in succession without waiting for the intervening WAIT
signal. Only one WAIT period must be observed between the last triggering condition (write to Base+2 or
Base+3) and the start of an A/D conversion.
The following table lists the possible analog input ranges.
G1
0
G0
0
Gain
1
Unipolar Range
Invalid
Bipolar Range
±10V
0
1
2
0 - 10V
±5V
1
0
4
0-5V
±2.5V
1
1
8
0 - 2.5V
±1.25V
Analog Input Status: Base+3 (Read)
Bit:
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name:
STS
SD
WAIT
DACBSY
OVF
SCANEN
G1
G0
STS
A/D status.
1 = A/D conversion or scan in progress.
0 = A/D is idle.
If SCANEN = 0, single conversion mode, STS goes high when an A/D conversion is started
and stays high until the conversion is finished. If SCANEN = 1, scan mode enabled, STS
stays high during the entire scan. After starting a conversion in software, the program must
monitor STS and wait for the value to be 0 before reading A/D values from Base+0 and
Base+1.
SD
Single-ended/differential mode indicator.
1 = Single-ended
0 = Differential
WAIT
A/D input circuit status.
1 = A/D circuit is settling on a new value.
0 = ok to start conversion.
WAIT goes high after the channel register (Base+2) or the gain register (Base+3) changes,
and remains high for nine microseconds. The program should monitor this bit after writing to
either the channel or gain register, and wait for the value to become 0 prior to starting an A/D
conversion.
DACBSY
DAC is busy updating indicator (approx. 30 µS)
1 = Busy
0 = Idle
Do not attempt to write to the DAC (Base+6 and Base+7) while the value of this bit is 1.
OVF
FIFO Overflow bit. This bit indicates that the FIFO has overflowed, meaning that the A/D
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Page 55
circuit has attempted to write data to a full FIFO. This condition occurs when data is written
into the FIFO faster than the FIFO is read.
When overflow occurs, the FIFO discards additional data until it is reset. The OVF condition
is sticky, with the bit remaining set until the FIFO is reset, allowing the application program to
determine if overflow has occurred. If overflow occurs, then you must either reduce the
sample rate or increase the efficiency of your interrupt routine and/or operating system.
SCANEN
Scan mode readback. (See Base+3, write, above).
G1-G0
Gain. The gain is the ratio between the input voltage and the voltage seen by the A/D
converter. The A/D always works with a maximum input voltage of 10V. A gain of two
means the maximum input voltage at the connector pin is 5V.
0 = gain of 1
1 = gain of 2
2 = gain of 4
3 = gain of 8
(See the description for register Base+3, write, above).
Interrupt/DMA/Counter Control: Base+4 (Read/Write)
Bit:
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name:
CKSEL1
CKFRQ1
CKFRQ0
ADCLK
DMAEN
TINTE
DINTE
AINTE
CKSEL1
Clock source selection for counter/timer 1.
0 = Internal oscillator, frequency selected by CLKFRQ1
1 = External clock input CLK1 (DIO C pins must be set for ctr/timer signals)
CLFRQ1
Input frequency selection for counter/timer 1 when CKSEL1 = 1.
0 = 10MHz
1 = 100KHz
CKFRQ0
Input frequency selection for counter/timer 0.
0 = 10MHz
1 = 1MHz
ADCLK
A/D trigger select when AINTE = 1.
0 = Internal clock output from counter/timer 0
1 = External clock input EXTTRIG
DMAEN
Enable DMA operation.
1 = Enable
0 = Disable
TINTE
Enable timer interrupts.
1 = Enable
0 = Disable
DINTE
Enable digital I/O interrupts.
1 = Enable
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0 = Disable
AINTE
Enable analog input interrupts.
1 = Enable
0 = Disable
NOTE: When AINTE = 1, the A/D cannot be triggered by writing to Base + 0.
Analog output interrupts are not supported on this board.
Multiple interrupt operations may be performed, simultaneously. All interrupts are at the same interrupt
level. The user’s interrupt routine must monitor the status bits to know which circuit has requested
service. After processing the data but before exiting, the interrupt routine must clear the appropriate
interrupt request bit, using the Base+0 register.
FIFO Threshold: Base+5 (Read/Write)
Bit:
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name:
-
-
FT5
FT4
FT3
FT2
FT1
FT0
FT0-FT5
FIFO threshold. When the number of A/D samples in the FIFO reaches this number, the
board generates an interrupt and sets AINT high (Base+7, bit 4). The interrupt routine is
responsible for reading the correct number of samples out of the FIFO.
The valid range is 1 to 48. A value of 48 is used, if a value greater than 48 is written to this
register. A value of 1 is used, if 0 is written to this register. The interrupt rate is equal to the
total sample rate divided by the FIFO threshold. Generally, for higher sampling rates a
higher threshold should be used to reduce the interrupt rate. However, remember that the
higher the FIFO threshold, the smaller the amount of FIFO space remaining to store data
while waiting for the interrupt routine to respond. If a FIFO overflow condition occurs, lower
the FIFO threshold and/or lower the A/D sampling rate.
DAC LSB: Base+6 (Write)
Bit:
7
6
5
4
Name:
3
2
1
0
DA7-DA0
DA7-DA0 D/A LSB data.
D/A data is an unsigned 12-bit value. This register must be written to before Base+7,
because writing to Base+7 immediately updates the DAC.
A/D FIFO Depth: Base+6 (Read)
Bit:
7
6
Name:
FD7-FD0
5
4
3
2
1
0
FD7-FD0
Current FIFO depth.
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When in 48-sample FIFO mode, this value indicates the number of 16-bit A/D values
currently stored in the FIFO. When in 2048-sample FIFO mode, this value represent the
upper eight bits of an 11-bit value.
DAC MSB + Channel No.: Base+7 (Write)
Bit:
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name:
DACH1
DACH0
-
-
DA11
DA10
DA9
DA8
DACH0-1 D/A channel.
The values written to Base+6 and Base+7 are written to the selected channel, and that
channel is immediately updated. The update takes approximately 20 microseconds because
of the DAC serial interface.
DA8-DA11 D/A bits 8 to 11.
DA11 is the MSB. D/A data is an unsigned 12-bit value.
Analog Operation Status: Base+7 (Read)
Bit:
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name:
DMAINT
TINT
DINT
AINT
ADCH3
ADCH2
ADCH1
ADCH0
DMAINT
DMA interrupt status.
1 = interrupt pending
0 = interrupt not pending
TINT
Timer interrupt status.
1 = interrupt pending
0 = interrupt not pending
DINT
Digital I/O interrupt status
1 = interrupt pending
0 = interrupt not pending
AINT
Analog input interrupt status
1 = interrupt pending
0 = interrupt not pending
ADCH0-3 Current A/D channel. This is the channel sampled on the next conversion.
When any of bits 7–4 are 1, the corresponding circuit is requesting service. The interrupt routine must poll these
bits to determine which circuit needs service and then act accordingly.
Digital I/O Port A: Base+8 (Read/Write)
Bit:
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name:
A7
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A1
A0
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A0-A7
Port A data. The register direction is controlled by bits in the register Base+11, below.
Digital I/O Port B: Base+9 (Read/Write)
Bit:
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name:
B7
B6
B5
B4
B3
B2
B1
B0
B0-B7
Port B data. The register direction is controlled by bits in the register Base+11, below.
Digital I/O Port C: Base+10 (Read/Write)
Bit:
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name:
C7
C6
C5
C4
C3
C2
C1
C0
C0-C7
Port C data. The register direction is controlled by bits in the register Base+11, below.
Digital I/O Control: Base+11 (Read/Write)
Bit:
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name:
DIOCTR
-
-
DIRA
DIRCH
-
DIRB
DIRCL
DIOCTR
Selects counter I/O signals or digital I/O lines C4-C7, on pins 21-24 of J14. If DIOCTR = 0,
the pin direction is as shown in the following table. If DIOCTR = 1, the pin direction is
controlled by the DIRCH bit.
Pin No. DIOCTR = 1 DIOCTR = 0
Pin direction,
for DIOCTR = 0
21
C4
Gate0
Input
22
C5
Gate1
Input
23
C6
Clk1
Input
24
C7
Out0
Output
This bit resets to 1.
DIRA
Port A direction.
0 = output
1 = input
DIRCH
Port C, bits 7-4, direction.
0 = output
1 = input
DIRB
Port B direction.
0 = output
1 = input
DIRCL
Port C, bits 0-3, direction.
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0 = output
1 = input
Counter/Timer Bits 0-7: Base+12 (Read/Write)
Bit:
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name:
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
D0-D7
LSB for counter 0 and counter 1.
When writing to this register, an internal load register is loaded. Upon issuing a Load
command, using Base+15, the selected counter’s LSB register is loaded with this value.
When reading from this register, the LSB value of the most recent Latch command is
returned.
Note: The value returned is NOT the value written to this register.
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Counter/Timer Bits 8-15: Base+13 (Read/Write)
Bit:
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name:
D15
D14
D13
D12
D11
D10
D9
D8
D8-D15
This register is the middle byte for counter 0 and the MSB byte for counter 1.
When writing to this register, an internal load register is loaded. Upon issuing a Load
command, using Base+15, the selected counter’s associated register is loaded with this
value. For counter 0, the middle byte is loaded. For counter 1, the MSB byte is loaded.
When reading from this register, the associated byte of the most recent Latch command is
returned.
Note: The value returned is NOT the value written to this register.
Counter/Timer Bits 16-23: Base+14 (Read/Write)
Bit:
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name:
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
D16-D23
This register is used for 24-bit wide Counter 0, only.
When writing to this register, an internal load register is loaded. Upon issuing a Load
command, using Base+15 for Counter 0, the counter’s MSB register is loaded with this value.
(When issuing a Load command for counter 1, this register is ignored).
When reading from this register, the MSB value of the most recent Latch command for
counter 0 is returned.
Note: The value returned is NOT the value written to this register.
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Counter/Timer Control: Base+15 (Write)
Bit:
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name:
CTRNO
LATCH
GTDIS
GTEN
CTDIS
CTEN
LOAD
CLR
CTRNO
Select counter number: 0 or 1.
LATCH
Latch the selected counter to read its value. T he counter must be latched before it is read.
Reading from registers 12-14 returns the most recently latched value. If you are reading
Counter 1 data, read only Base+12 and Base+13. Any data in Base+14 is from the previous
Counter 0 access.
GTDIS
Disable external gating for the selected counter.
GTEN
Enable external gating for the selected counter. If enabled, the associated gate signal,
GATE0 or GATE1, controls counting on the counter. If the GATEn signal is high, counting is
enabled. If the GATEn signal is low, counting is disabled.
CTDIS
Disable counting on the selected counter. The counter ignores input pulses.
CTEN
Enable counting on the selected counter. The counter decrements with each input pulse.
LOAD
Load the selected counter with the data written to Base+12 through Base+14 or Base+12
and Base+13, depending on which counter is being loaded.
CLR
Clear the current counter, setting its value to 0.
This register is used to control the counter/timers. A counter is selected in bit 7 followed by a 1 written to
any one of bits 6 – 0, to select the desired operation for that counter. The other bits and associated
functions are not affected. Only one operation can be performed at a time.
FPGA Revision Code: Base+15 (Read)
Bit:
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name:
REV7
REV6
REV5
REV4
REV3
REV2
REV1
REV0
REV0-7
Revision code, read as a two-digit hexadecimal value. For example, a value of 0x20 is
revision 2.0
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11.3
Page 1 Register Definitions
Trim DAC data/EEM Data: Base+12 (Write)
Bit:
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name:
TDAD7-TDAD0 - or - EEM_CD7-EEM_CD0
TDAD7TDAD0
TrimDAC data to set the DAC output value to at the selected address. TrimDAC data can
only be written when TDABSY (base+14) is not set. TrimDAC address can be written by
writing to this register or through the EEM mode, (EEM-WriteTDA_Data).
The reset value is zero.
EEM_CD7
EEM_CD0
Data for the command data for the EEPROM. Data can only be written when EEMBSY
(base+14) is cleared.
EEM Data: Base+12 (Read)
Bit:
7
6
5
Name:
4
3
2
1
0
1
0
EEM_D7-EEM_D0
EEM_D7- EEM data pointed to by EEPROM command address register (base+13).
EEM_D0
EEPROM Command/Trim DAC Address: Base+13 (Write)
Bit:
Name:
7
6
5
4
3
EEM_CA7 EEM_CA6 EEM_CA5 EEM_CA4 EEM_CA3 EEM_CA2 EEM_CA1 EEM_CA0
/TDAA2
/TDAA1
/TDAA0
EEM_CA7 EEPROM command address when EEPROM write enable.
EEMBSY (base+14) is cleared.
EEM_CA0
TDAA2TDAA0
2
Can only write data when
TrimDAC address, 8x8 bytes.
0: Q1, DAC1 ADCOFF range adjustment.
1: Q2, DAC2 ADCOFF fine adjustment.
2: Q3, DAC3 ADCFUL range adjustment.
3: Q4, DAC4 ADCFUL fine adjustment.
4: Q5, DAC5 DACOFF range adjustment.
5: Q6, DAC6 DACOFF fine adjustment.
6: Q7, DAC7 DACFUL range adjustment.
7: Q8, DAC8 DACFUL fine adjustment.
TrimDAC address can be written by writing to this register or through the EEM mode ().
TrimDAC data can only be written when TDABSY (base+14) is not set.
Reset value is zero.
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EEM Command Address: Base+13 (Read)
Bit:
7
6
5
4
3
Name:
EEM_CA7-EEM_CA0
EEM_CA7
EEM_CA0
EEPROM command address.
2
1
0
Auto-CAL/Trim DAC: Base+14 (Write)
Bit:
7
Name:
EEMST
6
EEMST
5
4
3
2
1
0
0
ADCMEN
TDAST
0
0
0
Sets the EEPROM read or write command. This flag is only executed when TDAST is set to
zero.
0x10 = write command.
0x11 = read command.
ADCMEN Multiplexer auto-calibrate mode.
Set to enable auto-calibrate mode.
TDAST
TDA start. Set to one to start the TrimDAC.
Note: Write to this register after TrimDAC data end address has been written.
Trim DAC/EEM/Auto-CAL Status: Base+14 (Read)
Bit:
7
6
Name:
0
TDABSY
TDABSY
5
4
EEMBSY ADCMEN
3
2
1
0
-
-
-
-
TrimDAC busy flag.
1 = TrimDAC registers do not accept data, address or the start command.
EEMBSY
EEPROM busy flag.
1 = EEPROM busy.
ADCMEN Multiplexer auto-calibrate mode.
1 = auto-calibrate enabled.
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Write Enable: Base+15 (Write)
Bit:
7
6
5
4
Name:
3
2
1
0
WREN7-WREN0
WREN7/0 EEPROM write enable.
Write the value 0xA5 before starting an EEPROM write command.
Note: This register can only be written when EEMBSY (base+14) is cleared.
Page 1 Select Read Back Check: Base+15 (Read)
Bit:
7
6
5
4
Name:
PGID
11.4
3
2
1
0
PG1ID
Register page 1 ID. This register always contains the value 0xA1.
Page 2 Register Definitions
ADC Expanded FIFO: Base+12 (Read)
Bit:
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name:
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
ADCEXF
ADCEXF
ADC expanded FIFO mode flag.
0 = Not in expanded FIFO mode.
1 = In expanded FIFO mode.
Note: When in expanded FIFO mode, the FIFO threshold and FIFO depth bits represent the
upper eight bits of an 11-bit value.
ADC Expanded FIFO: Base+12 (Write)
Bit:
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name:
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
ADCEXF
ADCEXF
ADC expanded FIFO mode flag.
0 = Not in expanded FIFO mode.
1 = In expanded FIFO mode.
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ADC Control: Base+13 (Read/Write)
Bit:
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Name:
0
0
0
0
UNIBIDI
UNIBIOE
SEDIFDI
SEDIFOE
UNIBIDI
Controls unipolar/bipolar mode setting. When set, this overrides the jumper setting.
UNIBIOE
Output enable. When set, the UNIBIDI value is gated to the output.
SEDIFDI
Controls single-ended/differential mode setting. When set, this overrides the jumper setting.
SEDIFOE Output enable. When set, the SEDIFDI value is gated to the output.
Page 2 Select Read Back Check: Base+15 (Read)
Bit:
7
6
Name:
PGID
5
4
3
2
1
0
PG2ID
Register page 2 ID. This register always contains the value 0xA2.
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12. ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL INPUT RANGES AND RESOLUTION
12.1
Overview
Athena II uses a 16-bit A/D converter. The full range of numerical values for a 16-bit number is 0 - 65535.
However, the A/D converter uses two’s complement notation, so the A/D value is interpreted as a signed integer,
ranging from –32768 to +32767.
The smallest change in input voltage that can be detected is 1/(216), or 1/65536, of the full-scale input range.
This smallest change results in an increase or decrease of 1 in the A/D code, and is referred to as 1 LSB (1 Least
Significant Bit).
The analog inputs on Athena II have three configuration options.
Single-ended or differential mode
Unipolar or bipolar mode
Input range (gain)
The single-ended/differential and unipolar/bipolar modes are configured using jumper block J13, and apply to all
inputs. The input range selection is done in software.
12.1.1 Input Range Selection
You can select a gain setting for the inputs, which causes them to be amplified before they reach the A/D
converter. The gain setting is controlled in software, which allows it to be changed on a channel-by-channel
basis. In general, you should select the highest gain (smallest input range) that allows the A/D converter to read
the full range of voltages over which the input signals will vary. However, a gain that is too high causes the A/D
converter to clip at either the high end or low end, and you will not be able to read the full range of voltages on
your input signals.
12.1.2 Input Range Table
The table below indicates the analog input range for each possible configuration. The polarity is set using jumper
block J13, and the gain is set with the G1 and G0 bits in the register at Base+3. The Gain value in the table is
provided for clarity. Note that the single-ended vs. differential setting has no impact on the input range or the
resolution.
Polarity
G1
G0
Input Range
Resolution 1LSB
Bipolar
Bipolar
Bipolar
Bipolar
Unipolar
Unipolar
Unipolar
Unipolar
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
±10V
±5V
±2.5V
±1.25V
Invalid
0 - 10V
0 - 5V
0 - 2.5V
305µV
153µV
76µV
38µV
Invalid
153µV
76µV
38µV
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13. PERFORMING AN A/D CONVERSION
13.1
Introduction
This chapter describes the steps involved in performing an A/D conversion on a selected input channel using
direct programming (without the driver software). Performing an A/D conversion according to the following steps.
Each step is discussed in detail, below.
5. Select the input channel.
6. Select the input range.
7. Wait for analog input circuit to settle.
8. Initiate an A/D conversion.
9. Wait for the conversion to finish.
10. Read the data from the board.
11. Convert the numerical data to a meaningful value.
13.2
Select the Input Channel
To select the input channel to read, write a low-channel/high-channel pair to the channel register at Base+2. The
low four bits select the low channel, and the high four bits select the high channel. When you write any value to
this register, the current A/D channel is set to the low channel.
For example, to set the board to channel 4 only, write 0x44 to Base+2). To set the board to read channels 0
through 15, write 0xF0 to Base+2.
When you perform an A/D conversion, the current channel automatically increments to the next channel in the
selected range. Therefore, to perform A/D conversions on a group of consecutively-numbered channels, you do
not need to write the input channel prior to each conversion. For example, to read from channels 0 - 2, write 0x20
to base+2. The first conversion is on channel 0, the second will be on channel 1 and the third will be on channel
2. The channel counter wraps around to the beginning so the fourth conversion will be on channel 0, again.
If you are sampling the same channel repeatedly, set both high and low to the same value as in the first example,
above. On subsequent conversions, you do not need to set the channel again.
13.3
Select the Input Range
Select the input range from among the available ranges. If the range is the same as for the previous A/D
conversion it does not need to be set again. Write this value to the input range register at Base+3.
For example, for ±5V range (gain of 2), write 0x01 to Base+3.
13.4
Wait for Analog Input Circuit to Settle
After writing to either the channel register, Base+2, or the input range register, Base+3, allow time for the analog
input circuit to settle before starting an A/D conversion. The board has a built-in 10µS timer to assist with the wait
period. Monitor the WAIT bit at Base+3, bit 5. When the bit value is 1, the circuit is actively settling on the input
signal. When the value is 0, the board is ready to perform A/D conversions.
13.5
Perform an A/D Conversion on the Current Channel
After the above steps are completed, start the A/D conversion by writing to Base+0. This write operation only
triggers the A/D if AINTE = 0 (interrupts are disabled). When AINTE = 1, the A/D can only be triggered by the onboard counter/timer or an external signal. This protects against accidental triggering by software during a longrunning interrupt-based acquisition process.
outp(base,0x80);
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13.6
Wait for the Conversion to Finish
The A/D converter chip takes up to five microseconds to complete one A/D conversion. Most processors and
software can operate fast enough so that if you try to read the A/D converter immediately after starting the
conversion, the read will occur faster than the A/D conversion and return invalid data. Therefore, the A/D
converter provides a status signal to indicate whether it is busy or idle. This bit can be read back from the status
register at Base+3, bit 7. When the A/D converter is busy (performing an A/D conversion), the bit value is 1 and
the program must wait. When the A/D converter is idle (conversion is done and data is available), this bit value is
0 and the program may read the data.
The following statement is a simple example of this operation.
while (inp(base+3) & 0x80);
// Wait for conversion to finish before proceeding
The above example could hang your program if there is a hardware fault and the bit is stuck at 1. A better
solution is to use a loop with a timeout, as shown below.
int checkstatus()
// returns 0 if ok, -1 if error
int i;
for (i = 0; i < 10000; i++)
{
if !(inp(base+3) & 0x80) then return(0);
// conversion completed
}
return(-1);
// conversion did not complete
13.7
Read the Data from the Board
Once the conversion is complete, you can read the data back from the A/D converter. The data is a 16-bit value
and is read back in two 8-bit bytes. The LSB must be read from the board before the MSB because the data is
inserted into the board’s FIFO in that order. Unlike other registers on the board, the A/D data may only be read
one time, because each time a byte is read from the FIFO the internal FIFO pointer advances and that byte is no
longer available. Reading data from an empty FIFO returns unpredictable results.
The following pseudo-code illustrates how to read and construct the 16-bit A/D value.
LSB = inp(base);
MSB = inp(base+1);
Data = MSB * 256 + LSB;
// combine the 2 bytes into a 16-bit value
The final data are interpreted as a 16-bit signed integer in the range -32768 to +32767.
Note: The data range always includes both positive and negative values, even if the board is set to a
unipolar input range. The data must now be converted to volts or other engineering units by using a
conversion formula, as discussed below.
In scan mode, the behavior is the same except when the program initiates a conversion, all channels in the
programmed channel range will be sampled once and the data will be stored in the FIFO. The FIFO depth
register increments by the scan size. When STS goes low, the program should read out the data for all
channels.
13.8
Convert the numerical data to a meaningful value
Once the A/D value is read, it needs to be converted to a meaningful value. The first step is to convert it back to
the actual measured voltage. Afterwards, you may need to convert the voltage to some other engineering units.
For example, the voltage may come from a temperature sensor and the voltage would then need to be converted
to the corresponding temperature, according to the temperature sensor’s characteristics.
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Since there are a large number of possible input devices, this secondary step is not included here. Only
conversion to input voltage is described. However, you can combine both transformations into a single formula if
desired.
To convert the A/D value to the corresponding input voltage, use the following formulas.
13.8.1 Conversion Formula for Bipolar Input Ranges
Input voltage = A/D value / 32768 * Full-scale input range
Example:
Given, Input range is 5V and A/D value is 17761.
Therefore,
Input voltage = 17761 / 32768 * 5V = 2.710V.
For a bipolar input range,
1 LSB = 1/32768 * Full-scale voltage.
The table, below, shows the relationship between A/D code and input voltage for a bipolar input range (VFS = Full
scale input voltage).
A/D Code
Input Voltage Symbolic Formula
-32768
-32767
...
-1
0
1
...
32767
-VFS
-VFS + 1 LSB
...
-1 LSB
0
+1 LSB
...
VFS - 1 LSB
Input Voltage for 5V Range
-5.0000V
-4.9998V
...
-0.00015V
0.0000V
0.00015V
...
4.9998V
13.8.2 Conversion Formula for Unipolar Input Ranges
Input voltage = (A/D value + 32768) / 65536 * Full-scale input range
Example:
Given, Input range is 0-5V and A/D value is 17761.
Therefore,
Input voltage = (17761 + 32768) / 65536 * 5V = 3.855V.
For a unipolar input range, 1 LSB = 1/65536 * Full-scale voltage.
The following table illustrates the relationship between A/D code and input voltage for a unipolar input range (VFS
= Full scale input voltage).
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A/D Code
-32768
-32767
...
-1
0
1
...
32767
Input Voltage Symbolic Formula
Input Voltage for
0V
1 LSB (VFS / 65536)
...
VFS / 2 - 1 LSB
VFS / 2
VFS / 2 + 1 LSB
...
VFS - 1 LSB
5V Range
0.0000V
0.000076V
...
2.4999V
2.5000V
2.5001V
...
4.9999V
14. A/D SCAN, INTERRUPT AND FIFO OPERATION
The control bits SCANEN (scan enable) and AINTE (A/D interrupt enable) in conjunction with the FIFO determine
the behavior of the board during A/D conversions and interrupts.
At the end of an AD conversion, the 16-bit A/D data is latched into the 8-bit FIFO in an interleaved fashion: first
LSB, then MSB. A/D Data is read out of the FIFO with 2 read operations, first Base + 0 (LSB) and then Base + 1
(MSB).
When SCANEN = 1, each time an A/D trigger occurs, the board will perform an A/D conversion on all channels in
the channel range programmed in Base + 2. When SCANEN = 0, each time an A/D trigger occurs, the board will
perform a single A/D conversion and then advance to the next channel and wait for the next trigger.
During interrupt operation (AINTE = 1), the FIFO will fill up with data until it reaches the threshold programmed in
the FIFO threshold register, and then the interrupt request will occur. If AINTE = 0, the FIFO threshold is ignored
and the FIFO continues to fill up.
If the FIFO reaches its limit of 48 samples, then the next time an A/D conversion occurs the Overflow flag OVF
will be set. In this case the FIFO will not accept any more data, and its contents will be preserved and may be
read out. In order to clear the overflow condition, the program must reset the FIFO by writing to the FIFORST bit
in Base + 1, or a hardware reset must occur.
In Scan mode (SCANEN = 1), the FIFO threshold should be set to a number at least equal to the scan size and in
all cases equal to an integral number of scans. For example if the scan size is 8 channels, the FIFO threshold
should be set to 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, or 48, but not less than 8. This way the interrupt will occur at the end of the
scan, and the interrupt routine can read in a complete scan or set of scans each time it runs.
In non-scan mode (SCANEN = 0), the FIFO threshold should be set to a level that minimizes the interrupt rate but
leaves enough time for the interrupt routine to respond before the next A/D conversion occurs. Remember that no
data is available until the interrupt occurs, so if the rate is slow the delay to receive A/D data may be long.
Therefore for slow sample rates the FIFO threshold should be small. If the sample rate is high, the FIFO threshold
should be high to reduce the interrupt rate. However remember that the remaining space in the FIFO determines
the time the interrupt routine has to respond to the interrupt request. If the FIFO threshold is too high, the FIFO
may overflow before the interrupt routine responds. A good rule of thumb is to limit the interrupt rate to no more
than 1,000-2,000 per second in Windows and Linux or 10,000 per second in DOS. Experimentation may be
necessary to determine the optimum FIFO threshold for each application.
The table on the next page describes the board’s behavior for each of the 4 possible cases of AINTE and
SCANEN. The given interrupt software behavior describes the operation of the Diamond Systems Universal
Driver software. If you write your own software or interrupt routine you should conform to the described behavior
for optimum results.
The following table describes the register settings for the A/D operating modes. (LOW and HIGH channels
referenced in the table are the 4-bit channel numbers in Base+2.)
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AINTE
Base+4,
bit 0
0
SCANE
Base+2,
bit 1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
Operation
Single A/D conversions are triggered by write to B+0.
STS stays high during the A/D conversion.
No interrupt occurs.
The user program monitors STS (Base+3, bit 7) and reads A/D data when STS
goes low.
A/D scans are triggered by write to B+0. All channels between LOW and HIGH
are sampled.
STS stays high during the entire scan (multiple A/D conversions).
No interrupt occurs.
The user program monitors STS (Base+3, bit 7) and reads A/D data when STS
goes low.
Single A/D conversions are triggered by the source selected with ADCLK
(Base+4, bit 4).
STS stays high during the A/D conversion.
A/D interrupt occurs when the FIFO reaches its programmed threshold.
The interrupt routine reads the number of samples equal to the FIFO threshold
(Base+5, bits 0-5).
A/D scans are triggered by the source selected with ADCLK (Base+4, bit 4).
STS stays high during the entire scan (multiple A/D conversions).
A/D interrupt occurs when the FIFO reaches its programmed threshold.
The interrupt routine reads the number of samples equal to the FIFO threshold
(Base+5, bits 0-5).
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15. DIGITAL-TO-ANALOG OUTPUT RANGES AND RESOLUTION
15.1
Description
Athena II uses a 4-channel 12-bit D/A converter (DAC) to provide four analog outputs. A 12-bit DAC can
generate output voltages with the precision of a 12-bit binary number. The maximum value of a 12-bit binary
12
number is 2 - 1, or 4095, so the full range of numerical values that the DACs support is 0 - 4095. The value 0
always corresponds to the lowest voltage in the output range, and the value 4095 always corresponds to the
highest voltage minus 1 LSB. The theoretical top end of the range corresponds to an output code of 4096 which
is impossible to achieve.
Note: In this manual, the terms analog output, D/A, and DAC are all used interchangeably to mean the
conversion of digital data originating from the Athena II computer hardware to an analog signal
terminating at an external source.
15.2
Resolution
12
The resolution is the smallest possible change in output voltage. For a 12-bit DAC the resolution is 1/(2 ), or
1/4096, of the full-scale output range. This smallest change results from an increase or decrease of 1 in the D/A
code, so this change is referred to as 1 least significant bit (1 LSB ). The value of this LSB is calculated as
follows.
1 LSB = Output voltage range / 4096
Example:
For, Output range = 0-10V,
Output voltage range = 10V – 0V = 10V
Therefore,
1 LSB = 10V / 4096 = 2.44mV
Example:
For, Output range = 10V;
Output voltage range = 10V – (-10V) = 20V
Therefore,
1 LSB = 20V / 4096 = 4.88mV
15.3
Output Range Selection
Jumper block J13 is used to select the DAC output range. The DACs can be configured for 0-10V or 10V.
Two parameters are configured:
unipolar/bipolar mode
power-up/reset clear mode.
In most cases, for unipolar mode configure the board to reset to zero scale, and for bipolar mode configure the
board for reset to mid-scale. In each case, the DACs reset to 0V.
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15.4
D/A Conversion Formulas and Tables
The formulas below explain how to convert between D/A codes and output voltages.
15.4.1 D/A Conversion Formulas for Unipolar Output Ranges
Output voltage = (D/A code / 4096) * Reference voltage
D/A code = (Output voltage / Reference voltage) * 4096
Example:
For,
Output range in unipolar mode = 0 – 10V,
and,
Full-scale range = 10V – 0V = 10V,
if,
Desired output voltage = 2.000V,
D/A code = 2.000V / 10V * 4096 = 819.2 => 819
Note: the output code is always an integer.
For the unipolar output range 0-10V, 1 LSB = 1/4096 * 10V = 2.44mV.
The following table illustrates the relationship between D/A code and output voltage for a unipolar output range
(VREF = Reference voltage).
D/A Code
Output Voltage Symbolic Formula
Output Voltage for 0-10V Range
0
1
...
2047
2048
2049
...
4095
0V
1 LSB (VREF / 4096)
...
VREF / 2 - 1 LSB
VREF / 2
VREF / 2 + 1 LSB
...
VREF - 1 LSB
0.0000V
0.0024V
...
4.9976V
5.0000V
5.0024V
...
9.9976V
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15.4.2 D/A Conversion Formulas for Bipolar Output Ranges
Output voltage = ((D/A code – 2048) / 2048) * Output reference
D/A code = (Output voltage / Output reference) * 2048 + 2048
Example:
For,
Output range in bipolar mode = ±10V
and,
Full-scale range = 10V – (-10V) = 20V
if,
Desired output voltage = 2.000V
D/A code = 2V / 10V * 2048 + 2048 = 2457.6 => 2458
For the bipolar output range 10V, 1 LSB = 1/4096 * 20V, or 4.88mV.
The following table illustrates the relationship between D/A code and output voltage for a bipolar output range
(VREF = Reference voltage).
D/A Code
Output Voltage Symbolic Formula
Output Voltage for 10V Range
0
1
...
2047
2048
2049
...
4095
-VREF
VREF + 1 LSB
...
-1 LSB
0
+1 LSB
...
VREF - 1 LSB
-10.0000V
-9.9951V
...
-0.0049V
0.0000V
0.0049V
...
9.9951V
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16. GENERATING AN ANALOG OUTPUT
There are three steps involved in performing a D/A conversion, or generating an analog output. Each step is
described in more detail, below. The descriptions use direct programming instead of driver software.
Compute the D/A code for the desired output voltage.
12. Write the value to the selected output channel.
13. Wait for the D/A to update.
16.1
Compute the D/A Code for the Desired Output Voltage
Use the formulas in the preceding section to compute the D/A code required to generate the desired voltage.
Note: The DAC cannot generate the actual full-scale reference voltage; to do so would require an output
code of 4096, which is not possible with a 12-bit number. The maximum output value is 4095. Therefore,
the maximum possible output voltage is always 1 LSB less than the full-scale reference voltage.
16.2
Write the Value to the Selected Output Channel Registers
Use the following formulas to compute the LSB and MSB values.
LSB = D/A Code & 255 ;keep only the low 8 bits
MSB = int(D/A code / 256) ;strip off low 8 bits, keep 4 high bits
Example:
For,
Output code = 1776
Compute,
LSB = 1776 & 255 = 240 (0xF0)
and
MSB = int(1776 / 256) = int(6.9375) = 6
The LSB is an 8-bit number in the range 0-255. The MSB is a 4-bit number in the range 0-15.
The MSB is always rounded down. The truncated portion is accounted for by the LSB.
Write these values to the selected channel. The LSB is written to Base+6. The MSB and channel number are
written to Base+7 (MSB = bits 0-3, channel number,0-3 = bits 6-7).
outp(Base+6, LSB);
outp(Base+7, MSB + channel << 6);
16.3
Wait for the D/A to Update
Writing the MSB and channel number to Base+7 starts the D/A update process for the selected channel. The
update process requires approximately 30 microseconds to transmit the data serially to the D/A chip and update
the D/A circuit in the chip. During this period, no attempt should be made to write to any other channel in the D/A
through addresses Base+6 or Base+7.
The status bit DACBUSY (Base+3, bit 4) indicates if the D/A is busy updating (1) or idle (0). After writing to the
D/A, monitor DACBUSY until it is zero before continuing with the next D/A operation.
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17. ANALOG CIRCUIT CALIBRATION
The Athena II data acquisition circuit contains an advanced autocalibration circuit that can maintain the accuracy
of both A/D and D/A circuits to within the specified tolerances regardless of time and temperature. Autocalibration
is supported in the Diamond Systems Universal Driver software included with the board.
The autocalibration circuit uses an ultra-stable +5V reference voltage IC as the source for its calibration. Both A/D
and D/A circuits are calibrated in the analog domain by using a series of 8-bit “TrimDACs” to adjust the offset and
gain settings of the circuits. The data values driving the DACs are stored in an EEPROM and are loaded
automatically each time the board powers up.
During the autocalibration process, the board will measure the on-board reference and calibrate the A/D circuit by
adjusting the TrimDACs to achieve the best accuracy. Once the A/D circuit is calibrated, the D/A circuit is
calibrated by routing the D/A outputs into the A/D converter and adjusting them as well. The new calibration
values for the TrimDACs are stored back into the EEPROM so they can be automatically recalled thereafter.
A unique feature of Diamond’s autocalibration process is that each analog input range is individually calibrated for
optimum performance. Analog amplifier circuits with 16-bit accuracy exhibit gain and offset errors that vary
depending on the gain setting. The settings that work best for one range may not be sufficient to calibrate
another. If a circuit is calibrated for maximum accuracy in a particular input range, such as +/-5V, changing the
input range to +/-10V or 0-2.5V may introduce errors that exceed the resolution of a 16-bit measurement and will
require calibration again.
To counteract this phenomenon, Diamond’s autocalibration circuit provides for a separate complete set of
calibration settings for each analog input range. During the autocalibration process, each range is calibrated one
at a time, and its set of calibration settings is stored in a separate area of the EEPROM’s memory. One of these
ranges is identified as the “boot range”, and this range’s calibration values are the ones that are automatically
recalled during power-up. You have the option of specifying the boot range, which should be chosen as the range
most commonly used in your application. When you change the input range, you have the option of loading the
calibration values for the new input range to maintain optimum accuracy of your measurements.
The autocalibration process is triggered with a single function call in the Diamond Universal Driver software. The
process takes about 10-20 seconds to calibrate the complete set of analog input ranges and about the same time
for the D/A circuit. Autocalibration can easily be incorporated into your application program, so that you can
calibrate the data acquisition circuit as often as necessary while your system is running.
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18. DIGITAL I/O OPERATION
Athena II contains 24 digital I/O lines organized as three 8-bit I/O ports: Port A, Port B, and Port C. The direction
of each port is programmable, and port C is further divided into two 4-bit halves, each with independent direction.
The port data are accessed at registers Base+8 through Base+10, and the port direction register is located at
Base+11.
Base +
8
7
PA7
6
PA6
5
PA5
4
PA4
3
PA3
2
PA2
1
PA1
0
PA0
9
PB7
PB6
PB5
PB4
PB3
PB2
PB1
PB0
10
PC7
PC6
PC5
PC4
PC3
PC2
PC1
PC0
11
DIOCTR
-
-
DIRA
DIRCH
-
DIRB
DIRCL
The digital I/O lines are located at pins 1 through 24 on the I/O header J14. The lines are 3.3V and 5V logic
compatible. Each output is capable of supplying –8mA in logic 1 state and +12mA in logic 0 state.
DIRA, DIRB, DIRCH, and DIRCL control the direction of ports A, B, C4-7 and C0-3. A direction value of 0 means
output and 1 means input. All ports power up to input mode and the output registers are cleared to zero. When a
port direction is changed to output, its output register is cleared to zero. When a port is in output mode, its value
can be read back.
DIOCTR is used to control the function of lines C7-C4 on the I/O connector.
port C7-C4. When DIOCTR = 0, the lines are used for the counter/timer.
When DIOCTR = 1, the lines are
Pin No.
DIOCTR = 1
DIOCTR = 0
21
C4
Gate0
Pin direction for DIOCTR =
0
Input
22
C5
Gate1
Input
23
C6
Clk1
Input
24
C7
Out0
Output
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19. COUNTER/TIMER OPERATION
Athena II contains two counter/timers that provide various timing functions on the board for A/D timing and user
functions. These counters are controlled with registers in the on-board data acquisition controller FPGA.
19.1
Counter 0 – A/D Sample Control
Counter 0 is a 24-bit, “divide-by-n” counter used for controlling A/D sampling. The counter has a clock input, a
gate input, and an output. The input is a 10MHz or 1MHz clock provided on the board and selected with bit
CKFRQ0 in register Base+4, bit 5. The gate is an optional signal that can be input on pin 21 of I/O header J14
when DIOCTR (Base+11, bit 7) is 1. If this signal is not used, the counter runs freely. The output is a positive
pulse whose frequency is equal to the input clock divided by the 24-bit divisor programmed into the counter. The
output appears on pin 24 of the I/O header when DIOCTR is 1.
The counter operates by counting down from the programmed divisor value. When the counter reaches zero, it
outputs a positive-going pulse equal to one input clock period (100ns or 1µs, depending on the input clock
selected by CKFRQ0). The counter then reloads to the initial load value and repeats the process, indefinitely.
The output frequency can range from 5MHz (10MHz clock, divisor = 2) to 0.06Hz (1MHz clock divided by
16,777,215, or 224-1). The output is fed into the A/D timing circuit and can be selected to trigger A/D conversions
when Base+4 register bits AINTE is 1 and ADCLK is 0. Using the control register at Base+15, the counter can be
loaded, cleared, enabled and disabled. The optional gate can be enabled and disabled, and the counter value
can be latched for reading.
19.2
Counter 1 – Counting/Totalizing Functions
Counter 1 is similar to Counter 0 except that it is a 16-bit counter. Counter 1 also has an input, a gate and an
output. These signals may be user-provided on the I/O header when DIOCTR is 0, or the input may come from
the on-board clock generator. When the on-board clock generator is used, the clock frequency is either 10MHz or
100KHz, as determined by control Base+4 register bit CKFRQ1.
The output is a positive-going pulse that appears on pin 26 of the I/O header. The output pulse occurs when the
counter reaches zero. When the counter reaches zero, it reloads and restarts on the next clock pulse. The
output stays high for the entire time the counter is at zero; i.e., from the input pulse that causes the counter to
reach zero until the input pulse that causes the counter to reload.
When DIOCTR is 0, Counter 1 operates as follows.
It counts positive edges of the signal on pin 23 on the I/O header.
The gate is provided on pin 22. If the signal is high, the counter counts. If the signal is low, the counter
holds its value and ignore input pulses. This pin has a pull-up so the counter can operate without any
external gate signal.
NOTE: When counting external pulses, Counter 1 only updates its read register every fourth pulse. This
behavior is due to the synchronous design of the counter having to contend with the asynchronous input
pulses. The count register contents are correct on the fourth pulse but remain static until four additional
pulses occur on the input.
When DIOCTR is 1, Counter 1 operates as follows.
The counter takes its input from the on-board clock generator based on the value of the Base+4 register
CKFRQ1 bit. There is no gating and the counter runs continuously.
Counter 1 may be used as either a pulse generator or a totalizer/counter. In pulse generator mode, the output
signal on pin 26 is of interest. In totalizer/counter mode, the counter value is of interest and may be read by first
latching the value and then reading it. The width of the pulse is equal to the time period of the selected counters
clock source.
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19.3
Command Sequences
Diamond Systems provides driver software to control the counter/timers on Athena II. The information in this
section is intended as a guide for programmers writing their own code, instead of using the driver, and to give a
better understanding of the counter/timer operation.
The counter control register is located at I/O address base+15.
19.3.1 Load and Enable (Run) a Counter Sequence
14. Write the data to the counter. For counter 0, three bytes are required to load a 24-bit value. For counter
1, two bytes are needed for a 16-bit value. The value is an unsigned integer.
Break the load value into 3 bytes: low, middle, and high, (Two bytes for Counter 1) and write the bytes to
the data registers in any sequence.
Counter 0:
Counter 1:
outp(base+12,low);
outp(base+13,middle);
outp(base+14,high);
outp(base+12,low);
outp(base+13,high);
15. Load the counter.
Counter 0:
Counter 1:
outp(base+15,0x02);
outp(base+15,0x82);
16. Enable the gate if desired. The gating may be enabled or disabled at any time. When gating is disabled,
the counter counts all incoming edges. When gating is enabled, if the gate is high the counter counts all
incoming edges and, if the gate is low, the counter ignores incoming clock edges.
Counter 0:
Counter 1:
outp(base+15,0x10);
outp(base+15,0x90);
17. Enable the counter. A counter may be enabled or disabled at any time. If disabled, the counter ignores
incoming clock edges.
Counter 0:
Counter 1:
outp(base+15,0x04);
outp(base+15,0x84);
19.3.2 Read a Counter Sequence
18. Latch the counter.
Counter 0:
Counter 1:
outp(base+15,0x40);
outp(base+15,0xC0);
19. Read the data.
The value is returned in 3 bytes, low, middle, and high (2 bytes for counter 1).
Counter 0:
Counter 1:
low=inp(base+12);
middle=inp(base+13);
high=inp(base+14);
low=inp(base+12);
high=inp(base+13);
20. Assemble the bytes into the complete counter value.
Counter 0:
Counter 1:
val = high * 216 + middle * 28 + low;
val = high * 28 + low;
19.3.3 Disabling the Counter Gate Command
Disabling the counter gate, as shown below, causes the counter to run continuously.
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Counter 0:
Counter 1:
outp(base+15,0x20);
outp(base+15,0xA0);
19.3.4 Clearing a Counter Sequence
Clear a counter to restart an operation. Normally, a counter is only cleared after stopping (disabling) and reading
the counter. If you clear a counter while it is enabled, it continues to count incoming pulses so the counter value
may not remain at zero.
21. Stop (disable) the counter.
Counter 0:
Counter 1:
outp(base+15,0x08);
outp(base+15,0x88);
22. Read the data (optional).
The value is returned in 3 bytes, low, middle, and high (2 bytes for counter 1).
Counter 0:
Counter 1:
low=inp(base+12);
middle=inp(base+13);
high=inp(base+14);
low=inp(base+12);
high=inp(base+13);
23. Clear the counter.
Counter 0:
Counter 1:
outp(base+15,0x01);
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20. WATCHDOG TIMER PROGRAMMING
Athena II contains a watchdog timer circuit consisting of one programmable timer. The input to the circuit is WDI
and the output is WDO, which appear on connector J6. WDI may be triggered in hardware or in software. A
special “early” version of WDO may be output on the WDO pin. When this signal is connected to WDI, the
watchdog circuit is retriggered automatically.
The watchdog timer duration is user-programmable. When WDT is triggered, it begins to count down. Upon
reaching zero, it generates a user-selectable combination of the following events.
System management interrupt
Hardware reset
The watchdog timer circuit is programmed using I/O registers located at address 0x25C. Detailed programming
information is described, below. The Athena II watchdog timer is supported in the DSC Universal Driver software
version 5.7 and later.
20.1
Watchdog Timer Register Details
The registers in the following table are used to program the watchdog timer.
I/O Address
0x25C
0x25D
0x25E
0x25F
Write Function
Read Function
WDT trigger
WDT, counter
Watchdog control
Chip select enable/disable
None, write-only
None, write-only
Readback
Readback the last bits written
In the tables, below, a blank bit (-) indicates the bit is unused. A blank bit in the read registers reads back as 0 or
1, unknown state.
I/O Address: 0x25C (Write)
Bit:
7
Name:
WDTRIG
6
5
4
-
3
2
WDTRIG
1
0
1
0
-
Writing a 1 triggers an immediate software reload of the watchdog timer.
I/O Address: 0x25D (Write)
Bit:
7
6
5
4
Name:
WDT3
WDT2
WDT1
WDT0
WDT4-7
3
2
-
Writing to bits WDT4-7 loads the watchdog timer with the 4-bit counter value. Use this
register to set the countdown period. Each tick is 145ms, so the period range is 145ms to
2.175 seconds (1 to 15).
I/O Address: 0x25E (Read/Write)
Bit:
7
6
5
4
Name:
WDIEN
WDOEN
WDSMI
WDEDGE
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-
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WDIEN
0 = Disable edges on the WDI pin, retriggering watchdog timer.
1 = Enable edges on the WDI pin retriggering watchdog timer.
WDOEN
0 = Disable edge on WDO pin when watchdog timer reaches 1.
1 = Enable edge on WDO pin when watchdog timer reaches 1.
WDSMI
0 = Disable system management interrupt signal when watchdog timer reaches 0.
1 = Enable system management interrupt signal when watchdog timer reaches 0.
WDEDGE 0 = Falling edge on WDI retriggers watchdog timer, when WDIEN = 1.
1 = Rising edge on WDI retriggers watchdog timer, when WDIEN = 1.
I/O Address: 0x25F (Read/Write)
Bit:
Name:
7
6
COM4EN COM3EN
5
4
FPGAEN
WDEN
3
2
1
0
-
COM4EN COM4 chip select enable.
1 = Enable COM4-CS#.
0 = Disable COM4-CS#.
COM3EN COM3 chip select enable.
1 = Enable COM3-CS#.
0 = Disable COM3-CS#.
FPGAEN
FPGA chip select enable.
1 = Enable FPGA-CS#.
0 = Disable FPGA-CS#.
WDEN
Watchdog enable.
1 = Watchdog timer counter enable.
0 = Watchdog timer counter disable, WDO disable, WDI disable, CPURST# disable,
EXTSMI# disable.
The CPLD initializes all values to zero on power up, and the BIOS enables each resource based on
BIOS settings.
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20.2
Example: Watchdog Timer With Software Trigger
A software trigger relies on a thread of execution to constantly trigger watchdog timer A. If the thread is ever
halted, timer A decrements to zero and starts timer B. Once timer B decrements to 0, the board resets.
In this example we set the watchdog timer to a countdown period of four seconds. Longer timeout periods are
typically be used for a software-based watchdog timer, to accommodate varying software latencies, such as
interrupt latencies and thread pre-emption that may delay the watchdog trigger code.
Setting up the watchdog timer:
outp ( 0x25D, 0xF0 ); // set all 4-bits in Watchdog Timer to 1 (time setting)
outp ( 0x25E, 0x00 ); // WDIEN=0, WDOEN=0, WDSMI=0, WDEDGE=0
BYTE b = inp ( 0x25F ); // read in the register value
b |= 0x10;
// WDEN=1
outp ( 0x25F, b );
// enable Watchdog Timer
outp ( 0x25C, 0x10 ); // trigger Watchdog Timer
Once triggered, the timer will count down. With the timer setup and active, run the watchdog timer trigger in a
continuous thread of code.
while (1)
{
outp(base + 31, 0x80); //trigger watchdog timer
sleep(1000);
//sleep one second
}
If this thread is interrupted for any reason, the board resets four seconds after the last watchdog timer trigger.
20.3
Example: Watchdog Timer With Hardware Trigger
A hardware trigger relies on an external pulse to constantly trigger watchdog timer A. If the external stream of
pulses ever halts, timer A decrements to zero and starts timer B. Once timer B decrements to 0, the board resets.
In this example, we will make use of the T-1 feature of timer A to automatically reset itself unless a physical
connection is broken. The physical connection must be made between WDO and WDI on the data acquisition
header, J9.
Since software is not involved in maintaining the timer, we can set the reset period to a much smaller value. In
this example, the reset pulse travels across the physical connection every 10 milliseconds.
outp ( 0x25D, 0xFF); // set all 4-bits in Watchdog Timer to 1 (time setting)
outp ( 0x25E, 0xF0); // set hardware to trigger the Watchdog Timer
BYTE b = inp ( 0x25F ); // read in the register value
b |= 0x10; // WDEN=1
outp ( 0x25F, b ); // enable Watchdog Timer
When timer A reaches 1, a rising edge flows from WDO to WDI, resetting the timer back to 100 and lowering
WDO.
When the connection from WDO to WDI is broken, the rising edge never reaches WDI and system resets.
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21. DATA ACQUISITION SPECIFICATIONS (DATA ACQUISITION UNITS
ONLY)
21.1
Analog Inputs
No. of inputs: 8 differential or 16 single-ended (user selectable)
A/D resolution: 16 bits (1/65,536 of full scale)
Input ranges,
Bipolar: ±10V, ±5V, ±2.5V, ±1.25V
Unipolar: 0-10V, 0-5V, 0-2.5V
Input bias current: 50nA max
Maximum input voltage: ±10V for linear operation
Over-voltage protection: ±35V on any analog input without damage
Nonlinearity: ±2LSB, no missing codes
Drift: 10PPM/oC typical
Conversion rate: 100,000 samples per second max
Conversion trigger: software trigger, internal pacer clock, or external TTL signal
FIFO: 2048 samples, programmable interrupt threshold
21.2
Analog Outputs
No. of outputs: 4
D/A resolution: 12 bits (1/4096 of full scale)
Output ranges,
Unipolar: 0-10V or user-programmable
Bipolar: ±10V or user-programmable
Output current: ±5mA max per channel
Settling time: 4µS max to ±1/2 LSB
Relative accuracy: ±1 LSB
Nonlinearity: ±1 LSB, monotonic
21.3
Digital I/O
No. of lines: 24
Compatibility: 3.3V and 5V logic compatible
Input voltage: Logic 0: -0.5V min, 0.8V max; Logic 1: 2.0V min, 5.5V max
Input current: ±1µA max
Output voltage: Logic 0: 0.0V min, 0.4V max; Logic 1: 2.4V min, 3.3V max
Output current: Logic 0: 12mA max; Logic 1: -8mA max
I/O capacitance: 10pF max
21.4
Counter/Timers
A/D pacer clock: 24-bit down counter
Clock source: 10MHz, 1MHz or external signal
General purpose: 16-bit down counter
Clock source: 10MHz, 100KHz or external signal
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22. FLASHDISK MODULE
Athena II is designed to accommodate an optional solid-state FlashDisk module. This module contains 128MB to
4GB of solid-state non-volatile memory that operates like an IDE drive without requiring additional driver software
support.
Model
Capacity
FD-128R-XT
FD-256R-XT
FD-512R-XT
FD-1GR-XT
FD-2GR-XT
FD-4GR-XT
128MB
256MB
512MB
1GB
2GB
4GB
FlashDisk Module
22.1
Installing the FlashDisk Module
The FlashDisk module installs directly on the IDE connector, J16, and is held down with a spacer and two screws
onto a mounting hole on the board.
The FlashDisk module contains a jumper for master/slave configuration. For master mode, install the jumper over
pins 1 and 2. For slave mode, install the jumper over pins 2 and 3.
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22.2
Configuration
To configure the CPU to work with the FlashDisk module, enter the BIOS by pressing F2 during startup. Select
the Main menu, and then select IDE Primary Master. Enter the settings shown in the following table.
Setting
Value
Type
Cylinders
Heads
Sectors
Multi Sector Transfer
LBA Mode Control
32 Bit I/O
Transfer Mode
Ultra DMA Mode
User
489 for 32MB flashdisk
4 for 32MB flashdisk
32 for 32MB flashdisk
Disable
Enable
Disable
Fast PIO 1
Disable
Exit the BIOS and save the change. The system will now boot and recognize the FlashDisk module as drive C:.
22.3
Using the FlashDisk with Another IDE Drive
The FlashDisk occupies the board’s 44-pin IDE connector and does not provide a pass-through connector. To
utilize both the FlashDisk and a notebook drive, the Diamond Systems ACC-IDEEXT adapter and cables are
required.
22.4
Power Supply
The 44-pin cable carries power from the CPU to the adapter board and powers the FlashDisk module and any
drive using a 44-pin connector, such as a notebook hard drive.
A drive utilizing a 40-pin connector, such as a CD-ROM or full-size hard drive, requires an external power source
through an additional cable. The power may be provided from the CPU’s power out connector, J12, or from one
of the two 4-pin headers on the ACC-IDEEXT board. Athena II cable no. 698006 may be used with either power
connector to bring power to the drive.
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23. FLASHDISK PROGRAMMER BOARD
The FlashDisk Programmer Board accessory, model number ACC-IDEEXT, may be used for several purposes.
Its primary purpose is to enable the simultaneous connection of both a FlashDisk module and a standard IDE
hard drive or CD-ROM drive, to allow file transfers to/from the FlashDisk. This operation is normally done at
system setup. The board can also be used to enable the simultaneous connection of two drives to the SBC.
Connector J1 connects to the IDE connector on Athena II with a 44-pin ribbon cable (Diamond Systems part
number 698004). Both 40-pin .1-inch spacing, J4, and 44-pin 2mm spacing, J3, headers are provided for the
external hard drive or CD-ROM drive. A dedicated connector, J2, is provided for the FlashDisk module. Any two
devices may be connected simultaneously using this board with proper master/slave jumper configurations on the
devices.
The FlashDisk Programmer Board comes with a 44-wire cable no. (DSC number 698004) and a 40-wire cable no.
(DSC number C-40-18) for connection to external drives. The FlashDisk module is sold separately.
The 44-pin connector (J1, J2 and J3) and mating cable carry power, but the 40-pin connector (J4) and mating
cable do not. Connectors J5 and J6 on the accessory board may be used to provide power to a 44-pin device
attached to the board when the board is attached to a PC via a 40-pin cable. These headers are compatible with
the floppy drive power connector on a standard PC internal power cable.
FlashDisk Programmer Board Layout
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24. I/O CABLES
Diamond Systems offers cable kit C-ATH-KIT with ten cables to connect to all I/O headers on the board, shown in
the figure below. Some cables are also available separately.
Cable Kit C-ATH-KIT
Photo No.
Cable No.
Description
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
6981004
6981006
6981009
6981011
6981012
6981030
6981031
6981032
C-50-18
C-PRZ-01
11
C-PRZ-02
IDE, 44 conductor 2mm ribbon cable
Power output cable
Power input cable
External battery cable
Dual USB cable, ports 0 & 1
VGA cable
Audio cable
Dual USB cable, ports 2 & 3
Data acquisition, 50 conductor .1" ribbon cable
80-wire / 2-cable breakout cable assembly with serial, parallel, PS/2
mouse/keyboard, power, reset, speaker, & LED connectors
Ethernet cable
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25. QUICK START GUIDE
This section describes the steps needed to get your Athena II board up and running, and assumes that you have
also purchased the Athena II Development Kit. The development kit includes all cables described in the previous
section, a power supply, USB floppy drive, mounting hardware, IDE flashdisk and the flashdisk programmer
board. More details about the development kit can be found at the following website:
http://www.diamondsystems.com/products/athenaii#dk
25.1
General Setup
This section describes the initial setup procedures, which are identical regardless of which operating system or
IDE configuration you are using.
1. Remove the Athena II single board computer from its packaging.
2. Install the mounting kit standoffs into the PC/104 mounting holes located at each corner of the board.
This ensures that the board will not touch the surface beneath it, and helps redistribute the force when
you push connectors onto the board.
3. Attach the high-density ribbon cable, C-PRZ-01, to locking connector J3. Be sure the cable is inserted
snugly and the connector has locked. If you have a PS/2 mouse and keyboard, attach them to the
corresponding connectors on C-PRZ-01.
4. Attach the VGA cable, 6981030, to connector J25. Connect your monitor VGA cable to the DB9 socket.
5. Take the power supply out of its packaging. (Do not plug it into the wall yet). Plug the 9-pin connector
into the J11 connector on the board, immediately below the PC/104 bus. Be sure the red wire, +5 VDC,
goes to pin 1.
6. (Optional for Ethernet) Plug cable C-PRZ-02 into connector J4. You can use the RJ-45 socket on the CPRZ-02 cable to patch Athena II into your network.
7. (Optional for USB Devices) You will need to connect the USB cables if you are going to use a USB
floppy, keyboard or mouse. Plug USB cable 6981012 into connector J5. If you need 3 or 4 USB sockets,
connect cable 6981032 to connector J21.
25.2
IDE Configuration
Athena II has a single IDE channel that can support up to two devices simultaneously (Master and Slave). IDE
devices connect through J8, which is a 44-pin, laptop IDE connector. The following are a few example setups.
1. Connect one IDE flashdisk connected directly to J8.
2. Connect one laptop IDE hard drive directly to J8 through a 44-pin ribbon cable. This cable is available in
the cable kit (cable 6981004).
3. Use cable 6981004 to connect an IDE flashdisk programmer board to J8. You can then connect other
40-pin or 44-pin IDE compatible devices to the programmer board. Use cable 6981006, attached to J12,
to provide power from the Athena II board to 40-pin devices. Remember, the Athena II cannot generate
12VDC. You will need to supply your own 12VDC line to the IDE device, or through the Athena II power
input connector.
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25.3
Booting into MS-DOS, FreeDOS or ROM-DOS
This section describes how to boot into a DOS-based operating system using a bootable floppy disk.
1. Plug the USB floppy drive into one of the USB terminals of cable 6981012. (Refer to step 7, above.)
2. Insert your DOS-based boot disk into the USB floppy drive.
3. Connect the power supply to the wall (to provide power to Athena II).
4. At this point the Athena II will boot and you should see the BIOS power-on self test. Press F2 to enter
BIOS configuration.
5. Under the “Advanced” menu, scroll to “Legacy USB Support” and enable it. (Without enabling this option,
the BIOS will not boot from a disk in the USB floppy drive).
6. Reboot the system to boot from your floppy disk.
25.4
Booting into Linux or Microsoft Windows
This section describes how to setup the Athena II board in preparation for a Linux or Windows install, from an
installation CD-ROM onto a laptop IDE hard drive.
1. Connect the IDE FlashDisk programmer board to J8.
2. Connect a CD-ROM drive jumpered for the slave position to the IDE FlashDisk programmer board
through the 40-pin cable.
3. Connect power to the CD-ROM drive using cable 6981006 attached to J12. Be sure that an external
12VDC source is being supplied to J11.
4. Connect a laptop hard drive jumpered for master position to the second slot of the 44-pin cable.
5. Boot the Athena II by plugging the power supply into the wall.
6. Press F2 at the power-on self test to go to the BIOS configuration screen.
7. Go to the “Boot” menu and confirm that the CD-ROM drive is first boot device.
8. Insert the boot CD for your operating system into the CD-ROM drive.
9. Save the BIOS settings and reboot.
10. You should now be able to install your OS.
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26. SPECIFICATIONS
26.1
CPU
Processor:
VIA Mark CoreFusion
Speed:
500 or 800MHz
Power consumption:
10W
Cooling:
Heat sink with fan
Operating Temperature: -40ºC to +85ºC on most models, -40ºC to +71ºC on two models
Chipset: VIA VT8606 (Mark internal) and 82C686B
System Bus: 100MHz
SDRAM memory: 256MB 533MHz DDR2 soldered on-board
Bus interface: PC/104 (ISA)
Display type: CRT and/or 18-bit dual channel LVDS flat panel
CRT resolution: 1600 x 1200
Flat Panel Resolution : UXGA 1600 x 1200
Video memory: 32MB UMA
USB ports: 4 USB 1.1
Serial ports: 2 RS-232 and 2 RS-232/485
Networking: 10/100Base-T Ethernet
Mass storage interfaces: 1 IDE UDMA 33 with flashdisk interface
Keyboard/mouse: PS/2
Audio: AC ’97, Line-in, Line-Out,, Mic
26.2
Data Acquisition Circuitry
Analog inputs: 16 single-ended, 8 differential; user selectable
A/D resolution: 16 bits
Bipolar ranges: ±10V, ±5V, ±2.5V, ±1.25V
Sample rate: 100KHz maximum total
Unipolar ranges: 0-10V, 0-5V, 0-2.5V, 0-1.25V
Input bias current: 100pA max
Protection: ±35V on any analog input without damage
Input Impedance: 10^13 ohms
Relative accuracy: ±2 LSB after autocalibration
Nonlinearity: ±3LSB, no missing codes
Conversion rate: 100,000 samples/sec. max
On-board FIFO: 2048 samples, programmable threshold
A/D and D/A Calibration: Automatic using on-board microcontroller and temperature sensor
Analog Outputs: 4, 12-bit resolution
Output ranges: ±5V, ±10V, 0-5V, 0-10V
Output current: ±5mA max per channel
Settling time: 7µS max to 0.01%
Relative accuracy: ±1 LSB
Nonlinearity: ±1 LSB, monotonic
Reset: Reset to zero-scale or mid-scale (jumper selectable)
Waveform buffer: 1,024 samples
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Digital I/O lines: 24 programmable direction in 8-bit ports
Input voltage: Logic 0: 0.0V min, 0.8V; max Logic 1: 2.0V min, 5.0V max
Input current: ±1µA max
Output voltage: Logic 0: 0.0V min, 0.33V; max Logic 1: 2.4V min, 5.0V max
Output current: Logic 0: 12mA max per line Logic 1: -4mA max per line
A/D Pacer clock: 24-bit down counter (source: 10MHz, 1MHz or external signal)
General purpose: 16-bit down counter (source: 10MHz, 100KHz or external signal)
26.3
Power Supply
Input Voltage: +5VDC ±5%
26.4
General
Shock: IEC68-2-27
Vibration: MIL-STD-810E 514.4
Dimensions: 4.18 x 4.48 in. (106 x 114mm)
Weight: 4.7oz.(133g) without heatsink
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Page 93
27. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
Additional information can be found at the following websites:
Diamond Systems Corporation: http://www.diamondsystems.com/
VIA Technologies, Inc.: http://www.via.com.tw/en/products/processors/corefusion/mark/index.jsp
National Semiconductor Corporation: http://www.national.com
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28. BIOS CMOS OPTION LISTING
This section describes the steps for modifying the BIOS settings and describes the BIOS screens.
28.1
Viewing and Modifying the BIOS Settings
During board startup, pressing function key <F2> to enter BIOS setup mode.
The main page displays the following menu options:
Main
Advanced
Security
Power
Boot
Exit
Select the menu option to view or modify the BIOS settings for the desired configuration area. The screens
displayed for each area are described, below.
The following keyboard controls are available on any page for navigating the screen, as displayed at the bottom of
each page.
Key
Function
F1
Esc
up-/down-arrow
left-/right-arrow
plus/minus symbols (+/-)
Enter
F9
F10
Help.
Exit current screen.
Select setup item.
Select menu item.
Change values.
Execute command.
Save default values.
Save changes and exit BIOS setup mode.
At any time, select Exit to exit BIOS setup mode. Use the up/down arrow keys, followed by carriage return, to
apply one of the following exit actions.
Exit Action
Description
Exit Saving Changes
Exit Discarding Changes
Load Setup Default
Discard Changes
Save Changes
Exit BIOS setup mode saving any changes made.
Exit BIOS setup mode discarding any changes made
Load default BIOS settings, without exiting BIOS setup mode.
Discard any changes made, without exiting BIOS setup mode.
Save any changes made, without exiting BIOS setup mode.
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28.2
BIOS Screen Descriptions
This section describes the screen displays for each BIOS setup area.
Where “Change Not Allowed” is indicated, it is because the configuration item is not supported by the current
hardware version. The configuration item is displayed for future expansion.
Main
Configuration Item
System Time
System Date
Legacy Diskette A:
Legacy Diskette B:
Primary Master
Primary Slave
Secondary Master
Secondary Slave
Memory Shadow
Memory Cache
Quick Boot Mode
Floppy Check
System Summary
Screen
System Memory
Extended Memory
Default
Value or
User Entry
Optional
Values
Comments
Change
Not
Allowed
00:00:00
-
-
00/00/00
DISABLED
DISABLED
ENABLED
DISABLED
DISABLED
ENABLED
ENABLED
DISABLED
ENABLED
ENABLED
Hours:minutes:seconds;
24-hour
format.
Month/day/year.
See Primary Master HDD Setup.
See Primary Slave HDD Setup.
See Secondary Master HDD Setup.
See Secondary Slave HDD Setup.
See Memory Shadow Setup.
See Memory Cache Setup.
-
X
X
X
X
-
640KB
xxxxxxxKB
-
Determined by the BIOS.
X
X
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Primary Master HDD Setup
Configuration Item
Default
Value or
User Entry
Optional
Values
Device Type
AUTO
Cylinders
Heads
Sectors
Maximum Capacity
Total Sector
xxxxxx
xxxxxx
xxxxxx
xxxxxx
xxxxxx
CDROM
User
ATAPI
-
Maximum Capacity
xxxxxx
-
DISABLE
DISABLE
DISABLE
DISABLE
DISABLE
DISABLE
ENABLE
-
Multi-Sector Transfers
LBA Mode Control
32 bit I/O
Transfer Mode
Ultra DMA Mode
Smart Monitoring
Comments
Change
Not
Allowed
Type of device.
-
Number of cylinders; CHS format.
Number of heads; CHS format.
Number of sectors; CHS format.
Always calculated by the BIOS.
Total number of sectors; LBA
format. Always calculated by the
BIOS.
Maximum capacity; LBA format.
Always calculated by the BIOS.
-
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Primary Slave HDD Setup
This screen is the same as the Primary Master HDD Setup screen.
Secondary Master HDD Setup
This screen is the same as the Primary Master HDD Setup screen.
Secondary Slave HDD Setup
This screen is the same as the Primary Master HDD Setup screen.
Memory Shadow
Configuration Item
System shadow
Video shadow
Default
Value or
User Entry
Optional
Values
Comments
Change
Not
Allowed
Enabled
Enabled
Disabled
-
X
-
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Memory Cache
Configuration Item
Default
Value or
User Entry
Optional
Values
Comments
Change
Not
Allowed
Memory Cache
Cache System BIOS
Area
Cache Video BIOS Area
Base 0-512KB
Enabled
Write-Protect
Disabled
Uncached
-
-
Write-Protect
Write-Back
-
-
Base 512-640KB
Write-Back
-
-
Extended Memory Area
Write-Back
-
-
Cache A000-AFFF
Disabled
-
-
Cache B000-BFFF
Disabled
-
-
Cache C800-CBFF
Disabled
-
-
Cache CC00-CFFF
Disabled
-
-
Cache D000-D3FF
Disabled
-
-
Cache D400-D7FF
Disabled
-
-
Cache D800-DBFF
Disabled
-
-
Cache DC00-DFFF
Disabled
Uncached
Uncached
Write-Through
Write-Protect
Uncached
Write-Through
Write-Protect
Uncached
Write-Through
Write-Protect
USWC
Write-Through
Write-Protect
Write-Back
USWC
Write-Through
Write-Protect
Write-Back
USWC
Write-Through
Write-Protect
Write-Back
USWC
Write-Through
Write-Protect
Write-Back
USWC
Write-Through
Write-Protect
Write-Back
USWC
Write-Through
Write-Protect
Write-Back
USWC
Write-Through
Write-Protect
Write-Back
USWC
Write-Through
Write-Protect
Write-Back
-
-
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Cache E000-E3FF
Disabled
Cache E400-E7FF
Disabled
Cache E800-EBFF
Disabled
Cache EC00-EFFF
Disabled
Athena II User Manual Rev 1.07
USWC
Write-Through
Write-Protect
Write-Back
USWC
Write-Through
Write-Protect
Write-Back
USWC
Write-Through
Write-Protect
Write-Back
USWC
Write-Through
Write-Protect
Write-Back
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-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
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28.2.1 Advanced
Note: Setting items on this menu to incorrect values may cause your system to malfunction.
Configuration Item
Default
Value or
User Entry
Optional
Values
PCI Configuration
Advanced Chipset
Control
I/O Device Configuration
PS/2 Mouse
-
-
Auto Detect
Disabled
Enabled
Enabled
Enabled
Both
0-F
Disabled
Primary
Secondary
Disabled
-
LAN
FPGA Mode
Boot Video Device
LCD Panel Type
Local Bus IDE Adapter
Disabled
Disabled
Auto
7
Both
Legacy USB Support
On-chip Multi-function
Device
Large Disk Access Mode
Installed O/S
Enabled
DOS
Win98
Reset Configuration
Data
Console Redirection
Hardware Monitor
Athena II User Manual Rev 1.07
No
Other
Other
Win95
WinME
Win2000
Yes
-
-
Comments
Change
Not
Allowed
See PCI Configuration.
See Advanced Chipset Control.
-
See I/O Device Configuration.
-
-
-
-
-
-
See
On-chip
Device.
Multi-function
-
-
-
-
See Console Redirection.
See Hardware Monitor.
www.diamondsystems.com
-
Page 100
PCI Configuration
Configuration Item
Default
Value or
User Entry
Optional Values
Comments
Change
Not
Allowed
PCI/PNP ISA UMB
Region Exclusion
-
-
-
PCI/PNP ISA IRQ
Resource Exclusion
-
-
PCI/PNP ISA DMA
Resource Exclusion
-
-
PCI IRQ Line 1
Disabled
PCI IRQ Line 2
Disabled
-
-
PCI IRQ Line 3
Disabled
-
-
PCI IRQ Line 4
Disabled
Auto Select
3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,
11,12,13,14,15
Auto Select
3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,
11,12,13,14,15
Auto Select
3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,
11,12,13,14,15
Auto Select
3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,
11,12,13,14,15
See
PCI/PNP ISA UMB Region
Exclusion.
See
PCI/PNP ISA IRQ Resource
Exclusion.
See
PCI/PNP ISA DMA
Resource Exclusion.
-
-
-
-
-
-
PCI/PNP ISA UMB Region Exclusion
Configuration Item
Default
Value or
User Entry
Optional Values
Comments
Change
Not
Allowed
C800-CBFF
CC00-CFFF
D000-D3FF
D400-D7FF
D800-DBFF
DC00-DFFF
Available
Available
Available
Available
Available
Available
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
-
-
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Page 101
PCI/PNP ISA IRQ Resource Exclusion
Configuration Item
IRQ3
IRQ4
IRQ5
IRQ7
IRQ8
IRQ10
IRQ11
IRQ15
Default
Value or
User Entry
Optional
Values
Comments
Change
Not
Allowed
Available
Available
Available
Available
Available
Available
Available
Available
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
-
-
PCI/PNP ISA DMA Resource Exclusion
Configuration Item
Default
Value or
User Entry
Optional
Values
Comments
Change
Not
Allowed
DMA0
DMA1
DMA2
DMA3
DMA4
DMA5
DMA6
DMA7
Available
Available
Available
Available
Available
Available
Available
Available
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
Reserved
-
-
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Page 102
Advanced Chipset Control
Configuration Item
Default
Value or
User Entry
Optional
Values
PCI Delayed Transaction
Aperture Size
Enabled
64M
Frame Buffer Size
8MB
AGP Rate
4X
Expansion Bus
Performance
Normal
Disabled
2M, 4M, 8M,
16M, 32M,
128M, 256M
None
2MB, 4MB,
16MB, 32MB
1X
2X
Accelerated
Turbo
Athena II User Manual Rev 1.07
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Comments
Change
Not
Allowed
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Page 103
I/O Device Configuration
Configuration Item
Default
Value or
User Entry
Serial Port 1
Enabled
Base I/O Address
Interrupt
Mode
3F8
IRQ4
Normal
Serial Port 2
Enabled
Base I/O Address
Interrupt
Mode
2F8
IRQ3
Normal
Serial Port 3
Base I/O Address
Interrupt
Enabled
3E8
IRQ9
Mode
Serial Port 4
Base I/O Address
Interrupt
Mode
Parallel Port
RS232
Enabled
2E8
IRQ15
RS232
Enabled
Mode
ECP
Base I/O Address
Interrupt
DMA Channel
Data Acquisition IRQ
378
IRQ7
DMA3
IRQ5
Athena II User Manual Rev 1.07
Optional Values
Comments
Change
Not
Allowed
Auto
Disabled
2F8, 3E8, 2E8
IRQ3
IrDA
ASK_IR
Auto
Disabled
3F8, 3E8, 2E8
IRQ4
IrDA
ASK_IR
Disabled
IRQ3,
IRQ4,
IRQ5, IRQ6
RS485
Disabled
IRQ3
RS485
Auto
Disabled
EPP
Uni-directional
278, 3BC
IRQ5
DMA1
Disabled
IRQ4, IRQ6
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
X
-
-
X
-
-
-
-
-
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Page 104
On-chip Multi-function Device
Configuration Item
Default
Value or
User Entry
Optional
Values
Comments
Change
Not
Allowed
Enabled
Enabled
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
Disabled
Enabled
Enabled
Enabled
Enabled
USB ports 2 and 3.
-
-
Default
Value or
User Entry
Optional
Values
Comments
Change
Not
Allowed
On-Chip USB 2 Device
Onboard Audio
Legacy Audio
Sound Blaster
MPU-401
Joystick
Console Redirection
Configuration Item
Continue C.R. after
POST
Baud Rate
Off
On
-
-
19.2Kbps
-
-
Console Connection
Console Type
Direct
PC ANSI
-
-
Flow Control
None
-
-
COM Port Address
Disabled
-
-
# of Video Pages to
Support
1
300, 1200,
2400, 9600,
38.4k, 57.6k,
115.2k (bps)
Modem
VT100,
VT100 8bit,
Pc-ANSI 7bit,
VT100+,
VT-UTF8
XON-XOFF
CTS-RTS
COM PORT 1
COM PORT 2
2-8
-
Hardware Monitor
Configuration Item
Vcore
V(2.5V)
V(3.3V)
CPUTEMP1
CPU FAN SPEED
Default
Value or
User Entry
Optional
Values
xx.xx V
xx.xx V
xx.xx V
-
-
Athena II User Manual Rev 1.07
Comments
Change
Not
Allowed
Set by CPU.
Set by CPU.
Set by CPU.
Set by CPU.
(RPM) Set by CPU.
www.diamondsystems.com
X
X
X
X
X
Page 105
28.2.2 Security
Configuration Item
Supervisor Password Is
User Password Is
Set Supervisor
Password
Set User Password
Default
Value or
User Entry
Optional Values
Comments
Change
Not
Allowed
***...***
-
Field is clear.
Field is clear.
Enter password.
X
X
-
***...***
-
Enter password.
-
Default
Value or
User Entry
Optional Values
Comments
Change
Not
Allowed
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
Only active when LAN is
enabled.
-
-
28.2.3 Power
Configuration Item
Power Savings
Disabled
Idle Mode
Standby Timeout
Off
Off
Auto Suspend Timeout
Off
Hard Disk Timeout
Disabled
Video Timeout
Disabled
Resume on LAN
On
Customized
Max Power Savings
On
1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16
minutes
5, 10, 15, 20, 30,
40, 60 minutes
10, 15, 30, 45 sec.
1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15
min.
10, 15, 30, 45 sec.
1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15
min.
Off
Resume on Time
Resume Time
Off
00:00:00
On
-
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-
28.2.4 Boot
Configuration Item
Default
Value or
Change
Not
Allowed
Optional Values
Comments
Disabled
Customized
Max Power Savings
-
-
Hard Drive
CD ROM
USB HDD/Floppy
Disk
Removable Device
The order is selectable
using the up/down arrow
keys.
User Entry
Power Savings
Boot Sequence
Athena II User Manual Rev 1.07
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Page 107
-
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