R&S ESR EMI Test Receiver User Manual

R&S ESR EMI Test Receiver User Manual
R&S®ESR
EMI Test Receiver
User Manual
(;ÙÔÒ2)
User Manual
Test & Measurement
1175.7068.02 ─ 06
This manual covers the following products:
● R&S ESR3 (1316.3003.03)
●
R&S ESR7 (1316.3003.07)
●
R&S ESR26 (1316.3003.26)
●
R&S FSV-B9
●
R&S ESR-B50 (1316.3584.02)
●
R&S ESR-K53 (1316.3590.02)
●
R&S ESR-K56 (1316.3610.02)
The contents of this manual correspond to firmware version 1.79 or higher.
© 2013 Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG
Mühldorfstr. 15, 81671 München, Germany
Phone: +49 89 41 29 - 0
Fax: +49 89 41 29 12 164
E-mail: [email protected]
Internet: www.rohde-schwarz.com
Subject to change – Data without tolerance limits is not binding.
R&S® is a registered trademark of Rohde & Schwarz GmbH & Co. KG.
Trade names are trademarks of the owners.
The following abbreviations are used throughout this manual: R&S®ESR is abbreviated as R&S ESR.
R&S®ESR
Contents
Contents
1 Preface.................................................................................................... 9
1.1
Documentation Overview............................................................................................. 9
1.2
Conventions Used in the Documentation................................................................. 10
1.2.1
Typographical Conventions...........................................................................................10
1.2.2
Conventions for Procedure Descriptions.......................................................................11
1.3
How to Use the Help System......................................................................................11
2 Measurement Modes............................................................................13
2.1
Receiver Mode............................................................................................................. 13
2.2
Spectrum Mode........................................................................................................... 13
2.3
I/Q Analyzer Mode....................................................................................................... 14
2.4
Real Time Mode........................................................................................................... 14
2.5
Measurement Mode Root Menus (HOME Key)......................................................... 14
3 Receiver Mode......................................................................................15
3.1
Measurements and Result Displays.......................................................................... 15
3.1.1
Bargraph Measurement................................................................................................ 15
3.1.2
IF Spectrum Analysis.................................................................................................... 16
3.1.3
Scans............................................................................................................................ 17
3.1.4
Peak List and Data Reduction.......................................................................................21
3.1.5
Final Measurement....................................................................................................... 23
3.1.6
Spectrogram..................................................................................................................24
3.1.7
Measurement Control....................................................................................................28
3.2
Measurement Basics.................................................................................................. 38
3.2.1
Measurement Bandwidth.............................................................................................. 38
3.2.2
Measurement Time....................................................................................................... 39
3.2.3
Detectors.......................................................................................................................40
3.2.4
Trace Modes................................................................................................................. 44
3.2.5
AF Demodulation.......................................................................................................... 46
3.2.6
V-Networks Control (LISN)............................................................................................46
3.2.7
Transducers.................................................................................................................. 47
3.2.8
Preamplifier................................................................................................................... 49
3.2.9
Exported Peak List........................................................................................................ 49
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
3
R&S®ESR
Contents
3.2.10
Formats for Returned Values: ASCII Format and Binary Format..................................50
3.3
Common Measurement Settings............................................................................... 51
3.3.1
Defining the Frequency and Span.................................................................................52
3.3.2
Configuring the Level Display and the RF Input............................................................54
3.3.3
Selecting the Bandwidth................................................................................................57
3.3.4
Configuring the Scan.....................................................................................................58
3.3.5
Configuring the Trigger ................................................................................................ 58
3.3.6
Controlling Inputs and Outputs......................................................................................59
3.3.7
Test Automation............................................................................................................ 60
3.4
Common Analysis Functions.....................................................................................70
3.4.1
Trace Configuration.......................................................................................................70
3.4.2
Markers......................................................................................................................... 72
3.4.3
(Limit) Lines...................................................................................................................81
4 Spectrum Measurements.................................................................... 93
4.1
Measurements............................................................................................................. 93
4.1.1
Power Measurements – MEAS Key..............................................................................93
4.1.2
Measurement Configuration – MEAS CONFIG Key................................................... 212
4.1.3
Performing Measurements – RUN SINGLE/RUN CONT Keys...................................212
4.2
Configuration.............................................................................................................213
4.2.1
Initializing the Configuration – PRESET Key.............................................................. 213
4.2.2
Selecting the Frequency and Span – FREQ Key........................................................215
4.2.3
Setting the Frequency Span – SPAN Key...................................................................221
4.2.4
Setting the Level Display and Configuring the RF Input – AMPT Key........................ 222
4.2.5
Defining Automatic Settings – AUTO SET Key...........................................................228
4.2.6
Setting the Bandwidths and Sweep Time – BW Key.................................................. 231
4.2.7
Configuring the Sweep Mode – SWEEP Key..............................................................240
4.2.8
Triggering the Sweep – TRIG Key.............................................................................. 245
4.2.9
Input/Output Configuration – INPUT/OUTPUT Key.................................................... 254
4.3
Analysis..................................................................................................................... 258
4.3.1
Trace Configuration.....................................................................................................258
4.3.2
Spectrogram................................................................................................................272
4.3.3
Markers....................................................................................................................... 276
4.3.4
Lines............................................................................................................................299
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
4
R&S®ESR
Contents
4.4
Advanced Measurement Examples......................................................................... 300
4.4.1
Test Setup...................................................................................................................300
4.4.2
Measurement of Harmonics........................................................................................ 301
4.4.3
Measuring the Spectra of Complex Signals................................................................ 303
4.4.4
Measuring Signals in the Vicinity of Noise.................................................................. 306
4.4.5
Noise Measurements.................................................................................................. 311
4.4.6
Measurements on Modulated Signals.........................................................................318
5 I/Q Analyzer........................................................................................ 328
5.1
Softkeys and Parameters of the I/Q Analyzer Menu.............................................. 329
5.2
Softkeys of the Amplitude Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode......................................... 333
5.3
Softkeys of the Marker To Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode......................................... 337
5.4
Softkeys of the Trigger Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode.............................................. 337
5.5
Working with I/Q Data............................................................................................... 341
5.5.1
Sample Rate and Maximum Usable Bandwidth (RF Input).........................................342
6 Tracking Generator............................................................................ 344
6.1
Softkeys of the Tracking Generator Menu.............................................................. 344
6.2
Configuring Tracking Generators............................................................................348
6.2.1
Internal Tracking Generator........................................................................................ 349
6.3
Tracking Generator Functions................................................................................. 350
6.3.1
Calibration mechanism................................................................................................350
6.3.2
Calibrating for transmission and reflection measurement........................................... 351
6.3.3
Transmission measurement........................................................................................352
6.3.4
Reflection measurement............................................................................................. 352
6.3.5
Normalization.............................................................................................................. 353
6.3.6
Modulation (internal Tracking Generator only)............................................................356
6.4
Displayed Information and Errors........................................................................... 358
7 System Configuration........................................................................360
7.1
Manual Operation – Local Menu.............................................................................. 360
7.2
User-Defined Menu – USER key.............................................................................. 361
7.3
Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration – SETUP Key............................... 362
7.3.1
Softkeys of the Setup Menu........................................................................................ 362
7.3.2
Activating or Deactivating the LXI Class C Functionality............................................ 385
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
5
R&S®ESR
Contents
7.3.3
LXI Class C Functionality............................................................................................ 386
8 Data Management.............................................................................. 387
8.1
Saving and Recalling Settings Files – SAVE/RCL Key.......................................... 387
8.1.1
Softkeys of the SAVE/RCL Menu................................................................................387
8.1.2
File Selection Dialog Boxes........................................................................................ 393
8.1.3
Importing and Exporting I/Q Data................................................................................396
8.2
Measurement Documentation – PRINT Key........................................................... 401
9 Remote Control.................................................................................. 404
9.1
Remote Control - Basics.......................................................................................... 404
9.1.1
Remote Control Interfaces and Protocols................................................................... 404
9.1.2
Starting a Remote Control Session.............................................................................412
9.1.3
Returning to Manual Operation................................................................................... 413
9.1.4
SCPI Command Structure...........................................................................................413
9.1.5
Command Sequence and Synchronization.................................................................421
9.1.6
Status Reporting System............................................................................................ 424
9.1.7
General Programming Recommendations..................................................................441
9.1.8
The IECWIN Tool........................................................................................................ 441
9.2
Selecting the Operating Mode................................................................................. 443
9.3
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode.................................................................... 444
9.3.1
Measurements and Result Displays............................................................................444
9.3.2
Defining the Frequency............................................................................................... 472
9.3.3
Configuring the Vertical Axis....................................................................................... 474
9.3.4
Selecting the Bandwidth..............................................................................................478
9.3.5
Controlling Inputs and Outputs....................................................................................480
9.3.6
Test Automation.......................................................................................................... 481
9.3.7
Working with Markers..................................................................................................496
9.3.8
Limit Lines................................................................................................................... 513
9.4
Remote Commands in Spectrum Analyzer Mode.................................................. 528
9.4.1
Measurements and Result Displays............................................................................528
9.4.2
Configuring Spectrum Measurements.........................................................................631
9.4.3
Analyzing Spectrum Measurements........................................................................... 657
9.5
Remote Commands in I/Q Analyzer Mode.............................................................. 699
9.5.1
Using the I/Q Analyzer................................................................................................ 699
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
6
R&S®ESR
Contents
9.5.2
I/Q Gating....................................................................................................................710
9.6
Remote Commands to Control the Tracking Generator........................................711
9.7
Common Commands................................................................................................ 718
9.8
System Configuration............................................................................................... 722
9.8.1
General System Configuration.................................................................................... 722
9.8.2
Checking the System Configuration............................................................................727
9.8.3
Controlling In- and Ouputs.......................................................................................... 730
9.8.4
Configuring the Reference Frequency........................................................................ 732
9.8.5
Calibrating the R&S ESR............................................................................................ 734
9.8.6
Using Service Functions............................................................................................. 736
9.9
Data Management..................................................................................................... 738
9.9.1
Managing Data Files................................................................................................... 738
9.9.2
Saving and Restoring Customized Data..................................................................... 744
9.10
Using Transducers....................................................................................................748
9.11
Documentation.......................................................................................................... 755
9.12
Display Configuration............................................................................................... 764
9.12.1
Controlling Display Elements...................................................................................... 764
9.12.2
Selecting Items to Store and Restore......................................................................... 772
9.13
Network Connection................................................................................................. 775
9.13.1
Configuring Network Connections...............................................................................775
9.13.2
Emulating HP Instruments.......................................................................................... 778
9.14
Status Register.......................................................................................................... 781
9.14.1
General Status Register Commands.......................................................................... 781
9.14.2
Reading out the EVENt Part....................................................................................... 782
9.14.3
Reading Out the CONDition Part................................................................................ 782
9.14.4
Controlling the ENABle Part........................................................................................782
9.14.5
Controlling the Negative Transition Part..................................................................... 783
9.14.6
Controlling the Positive Transition Part....................................................................... 783
9.15
Remote Control – Programming Examples............................................................ 784
9.15.1
Service Request..........................................................................................................785
9.15.2
Using Marker and Delta Marker.................................................................................. 792
9.15.3
Limit Lines and Limit Test........................................................................................... 795
9.15.4
Measuring the Channel and Adjacent Channel Power............................................... 797
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
7
R&S®ESR
Contents
9.15.5
Occupied Bandwidth Measurement............................................................................ 800
9.15.6
Time Domain Power Measurement.............................................................................801
9.15.7
Fast Power Measurement on Power Ramps.............................................................. 801
9.15.8
Fast Level Measurement Using Frequency Lists........................................................ 805
9.15.9
Level Correction of Transducers................................................................................. 807
9.15.10
Measuring the Magnitude and Phase of a Signal....................................................... 808
9.15.11
Reading and Writing Files........................................................................................... 810
9.15.12
Spectrum Emission Mask Measurement.....................................................................811
9.15.13
Spurious Emissions Measurement..............................................................................815
9.15.14
Averaging I/Q Data......................................................................................................818
9.15.15
Using IQ Gating...........................................................................................................819
9.15.16
Usage of Four Spectrum Instances.............................................................................824
9.16
GPIB Commands of HP Models 856xE, 8566A/B, 8568A/B and 8594E................ 826
9.16.1
GPIB Languages.........................................................................................................826
9.16.2
Command Set of Models 8560E, 8561E, 8562E, 8563E, 8564E, 8565E, 8566A/B,
8568A/B, 8591E, 8594E, 71100C, 71200C, and 71209A........................................... 828
9.16.3
Special Features of the Syntax Parsing Algorithms for 8566A and 8568A Models.... 851
9.16.4
Special Behavior of Commands..................................................................................852
9.16.5
Model-Dependent Default Settings............................................................................. 853
9.16.6
Data Output Formats...................................................................................................854
9.16.7
Trace Data Output Formats........................................................................................ 854
9.16.8
Trace Data Input Formats........................................................................................... 855
9.16.9
GPIB Status Reporting................................................................................................855
List of Commands..............................................................................856
Index....................................................................................................872
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
8
R&S®ESR
Preface
Documentation Overview
1 Preface
1.1 Documentation Overview
The user documentation for the R&S ESR is divided as follows:
●
Quick Start Guide
●
Operating Manuals for base unit and options
●
Service Manual
●
Online Help
●
Release Notes
Quick Start Guide
This manual is delivered with the instrument in printed form and in PDF format on the
CD. It provides the information needed to set up and start working with the instrument.
Basic operations and basic measurements are described. Also a brief introduction to
remote control is given. The manual includes general information (e.g. Safety Instructions) and the following chapters:
Chapter 1
Introduction, General information
Chapter 2
Front and Rear Panel
Chapter 3
Preparing for Use
Chapter 4
Firmware Update and Installation of Firmware Options
Chapter 5
Basic Operations
Chapter 6
Basic Measurement Examples
Chapter 7
Brief Introduction to Remote Control
Appendix
Printer Interface
Appendix
LAN Interface
Operating Manuals
The Operating Manuals are a supplement to the Quick Start Guide. Operating Manuals
are provided for the base unit and each additional (software) option.
The Operating Manual for the base unit provides basic information on operating the
R&S ESR in general, and the "Spectrum" mode in particular. Furthermore, the software
options that enhance the basic functionality for various measurement modes are
described here. The set of measurement examples in the Quick Start Guide is expanded by more advanced measurement examples. In addition to the brief introduction to
remote control in the Quick Start Guide, a description of the basic analyzer commands
and programming examples is given. Information on maintenance, instrument interfaces and error messages is also provided.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
9
R&S®ESR
Preface
Conventions Used in the Documentation
In the individual option manuals, the specific instrument functions of the option are
described in detail. For additional information on default settings and parameters, refer
to the data sheets. Basic information on operating the R&S ESR is not included in the
option manuals.
These manuals are available in PDF format on the CD delivered with the instrument.
Service Manual
This manual is available in PDF format on the CD delivered with the instrument. It
describes how to check compliance with rated specifications, instrument function,
repair, troubleshooting and fault elimination. It contains all information required for
repairing the R&S ESR by replacing modules. The manual includes the following chapters:
Chapter 1
Performance Test
Chapter 2
Adjustment
Chapter 3
Repair
Chapter 4
Software Update / Installing Options
Chapter 5
Documents
Release Notes
The release notes describe the installation of the firmware, new and modified functions, eliminated problems, and last minute changes to the documentation. The corresponding firmware version is indicated on the title page of the release notes. The current release notes are provided in the Internet.
1.2 Conventions Used in the Documentation
1.2.1 Typographical Conventions
The following text markers are used throughout this documentation:
Convention
Description
"Graphical user interface elements"
All names of graphical user interface elements on the screen, such as
dialog boxes, menus, options, buttons, and softkeys are enclosed by
quotation marks.
KEYS
Key names are written in capital letters.
File names, commands,
program code
File names, commands, coding samples and screen output are distinguished by their font.
Input
Input to be entered by the user is displayed in italics.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
10
R&S®ESR
Preface
How to Use the Help System
Convention
Description
Links
Links that you can click are displayed in blue font.
"References"
References to other parts of the documentation are enclosed by quotation marks.
1.2.2 Conventions for Procedure Descriptions
When describing how to operate the instrument, several alternative methods may be
available to perform the same task. In this case, the procedure using the touchscreen
is described. Any elements that can be activated by touching can also be clicked using
an additionally connected mouse. The alternative procedure using the keys on the
instrument or the on-screen keyboard is only described if it deviates from the standard
operating procedures.
The term "select" may refer to any of the described methods, i.e. using a finger on the
touchscreen, a mouse pointer in the display, or a key on the instrument or on a keyboard.
1.3 How to Use the Help System
Calling context-sensitive and general help
► To display the general help dialog box, press the HELP key on the front panel.
The help dialog box "View" tab is displayed. A topic containing information about
the current menu or the currently opened dialog box and its function is displayed.
For standard Windows dialog boxes (e.g. File Properties, Print dialog etc.), no contextsensitive help is available.
► If the help is already displayed, press the softkey for which you want to display
help.
A topic containing information about the softkey and its function is displayed.
If a softkey opens a submenu and you press the softkey a second time, the submenu
of the softkey is displayed.
Contents of the help dialog box
The help dialog box contains four tabs:
●
"Contents" - contains a table of help contents
●
"View" - contains a specific help topic
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
11
R&S®ESR
Preface
How to Use the Help System
●
"Index" - contains index entries to search for help topics
●
"Zoom" - contains zoom functions for the help display
To change between these tabs, press the tab on the touchscreen.
Navigating in the table of contents
●
To move through the displayed contents entries, use the UP ARROW and DOWN
ARROW keys. Entries that contain further entries are marked with a plus sign.
●
To display a help topic, press the ENTER key. The "View" tab with the corresponding help topic is displayed.
●
To change to the next tab, press the tab on the touchscreen.
Navigating in the help topics
●
To scroll through a page, use the rotary knob or the UP ARROW and DOWN
ARROW keys.
●
To jump to the linked topic, press the link text on the touchscreen.
Searching for a topic
1. Change to the "Index" tab.
2. Enter the first characters of the topic you are interested in. The entries starting with
these characters are displayed.
3. Change the focus by pressing the ENTER key.
4. Select the suitable keyword by using the UP ARROW or DOWN ARROW keys or
the rotary knob.
5. Press the ENTER key to display the help topic.
The "View" tab with the corresponding help topic is displayed.
Changing the zoom
1. Change to the "Zoom" tab.
2. Set the zoom using the rotary knob. Four settings are available: 1-4. The smallest
size is selected by number 1, the largest size is selected by number 4.
Closing the help window
► Press the ESC key or a function key on the front panel.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
12
R&S®ESR
Measurement Modes
Receiver Mode
2 Measurement Modes
The R&S ESR provides several measurement modes for different analysis tasks.
When you activate a measurement mode, a new measurement channel is created. The
channel determines the settings for that measurement mode. Each channel is displayed in a separate tab on the screen.
SCPI command:
INSTrument[:​SELect]​ on page 444
To change the measurement mode
1. Press the MODE key.
A menu with the currently available measurement modes is displayed.
2. To activate a different mode, press the corresponding softkey.
2.1 Receiver Mode
In Receiver mode, the R&S ESR measures the signal level at a particular frequency. It
also provides tools (e.g. detectors or bandwidths) necessary to measure the signal
according to EMC standards. The Receiver mode is the default mode of the R&S ESR.
The R&S ESR also provides function for IF analysis if you have equipped your
R&S ESR with firmware application R&S ESR-K53. IF analysis is not a separate measurement mode but is integrated into the Receiver mode.
For more information on functionality available for the Receiver mode see chapter 3,
"Receiver Mode", on page 15.
SCPI command:
INST REC
2.2 Spectrum Mode
In Spectrum mode the provided functions correspond to those of a conventional spectrum analyzer. The analyzer measures the frequency spectrum of the RF input signal
over the selected frequency range with the selected resolution and sweep time, or, for
a fixed frequency, displays the waveform of the video signal.
The Spectrum mode also provides spectrogram measurements. The spectrogram is
not a separate measurement mode, but rather a trace evaluation mode. Note also that
the Spectrogram available in Spectrum mode is independent of that available in real
time mode. It provides similar functionality but uses different data acquisition methods.
For more information on functionality available for the Spectrum mode see chapter 4,
"Spectrum Measurements", on page 93.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
13
R&S®ESR
Measurement Modes
I/Q Analyzer Mode
SCPI command:
INST SAN
2.3 I/Q Analyzer Mode
The I/Q Analyzer mode provides measurement and display functions for digital I/Q signals.
For more information on functionality available for the I/Q Analyzer see chapter 5, "I/Q
Analyzer", on page 328.
SCPI command:
TRACe<n>:​IQ[:​STATe]​ on page 709
2.4 Real Time Mode
In Real Time mode, the R&S ESR performs measurements in the frequency spectrum
of a test signal without losing any signal data. You can evaluate the measurement
results in several result displays that are designed for the realtime analysis and complement one another.
Real Time analysis is available with firmware application R&S ESR-K55 and hardware
option R&S ESR-B50.
For more information on functionality available for the Real Time mode see the separate User Manual available for download on the internet (http://www2.rohdeschwarz.com/product/ESR.html).
SCPI command:
INST RTIM
2.5 Measurement Mode Root Menus (HOME Key)
The HOME key provides a quick access to the root menu of the current measurement
mode.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
14
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Measurements and Result Displays
3 Receiver Mode
In receiver mode, the R&S ESR measures the level at the set frequency with a
selected bandwidth and measurement time. Signal weighting is by means of detectors.
A frequency scan can be performed after setting the start and stop frequency and the
step width. Scan subranges are defined in a table.
Functions for data reduction and the control of line impedance simulating network are
available.
Preselection is always switched on in receiver mode.
3.1 Measurements and Result Displays
The R&S ESR provides several types of measurements.
●
The bargraph result display shows the signal level on a single frequency.
●
Fast prescans together with several data reduction methods are used to reduce the
amount of data in the final measurements. The final measurement is then performed only on frequencies that have a high interferer level.
●
The final measurement may be either automatic or in interactive mode. Automatic
control functions for line impedance stabilization networks (LISN) are available.
●
Time domain scans (option R&S ESR-K53) reduce the required overall measurement times enormously by using fast fourier transform (FFT) of frequency sections.
Time domain scan may even eliminate the need for preliminary measurements.
●
In addition, fixed frequency mode for click analysis and IF spectrum analysis mode
for manual tuning are available.
●
The spectrogramm result display provides an additional data evaluation method by
showing the signals over time.
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Bargraph Measurement.......................................................................................... 15
IF Spectrum Analysis.............................................................................................. 16
Scans...................................................................................................................... 17
Peak List and Data Reduction.................................................................................21
Final Measurement................................................................................................. 23
Spectrogram............................................................................................................24
Measurement Control..............................................................................................28
3.1.1 Bargraph Measurement
The bargraph result display shows the signal level on a single frequency. It is a basic
result display that indicates the signal level numerically and graphically.
The length of the bar represents the signal level at the current receiver frequency evaluated with the currently selected detector.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
15
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Measurements and Result Displays
Up to four bargraphs with different detector weighting can be displayed simultaneously.
The R&S ESR assigns a different color to each detector. This provides an easy way to
compare the signal level with different weighting factors.
1
2
3
4
5
=
=
=
=
=
current level unit
current receiver frequency
detectors
measured levels (numerically)
measured levels (graphically)
The results in the bargraph are shown upon entering the receiver mode. Either single
or continuous measurement can be selected. The level range is always 100 dB, the
unit of the displayed signal level can be selected.
An enabled maxhold function shows the maximum level that has been measured for
each active detector in addition to the live results. If a new maximum has been found,
the result indication is updated accordingly. The display keeps the overall maximum
level even after changing the frequency until a reset of the maxhold function.
1 = maximum levels; note that the maximum and quasipeak peaks have been measured at frequency different to the current receiver frequency
3.1.2 IF Spectrum Analysis
The IF spectrum analysis is a very comfortable means for exact frequency tuning of the
receiver and for identification of signals and of their bandwidth.
In IF spectrum analysis, the spectrum of the RF input signal is displayed in the vicinity
of the receiver frequency. The center frequency of the displayed spectrum is always
the current receive frequency.
The IF analysis provides a fast overview of the assignment of the spectrum adjacent to
the measuring channel proper, or, with a large resolution bandwidth, the spectral distribution of a modulated signal in the channel. Interference of the received useful signal
can also be detected quickly, whether it is CW interference appearing as unmodulated
carrier or pulse-like interference which is represented in the form of narrow horizontal
lines on the screen.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
16
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Measurements and Result Displays
The accuracy of the frequency axis corresponds to the reference used (internal or
external). The frequency display range (span) can be selected between 1 kHz and
10 MHz in steps of 1, 2 and 5. With the bandwidths 10 Hz to 100 kHz in steps of 1, 3,
10 the frequency resolution can be matched to the span.
In contrast to normal spectrum analyzer operation, the measured values are determined using FFT from samples recorded from the A/D-converter. Thus the receiver
stays tuned to the center frequency. It may continue to measure with the selected measurement time and display the signal level with the bargraph. For example, the quasipeak level measured with one second measurement time may be displayed in the
upper half of the display while in the lower half the spectrum may be refreshed every
few milliseconds.
The measurement time of the bargraph may be longer than the measurement time of
the IF analysis. If the measurement time of the bargraph is set to a smaller value then
the measurement time of the IF analysis, the bargraph will as often be refreshed as the
display of the IF analysis.
The level display of the IF analysis is unweighted. It is independent of the selected
detector for the bargraph measurement, e.g. average or quasi peak. A maximum of
three traces can be displayed in parallel. The display mode "Clear / Write", "Max Hold",
"Min Hold", "Average", "View" or "Blank" may be selected independent for each trace.
The displayed level values do have the full accuracy of the instrument only at the center frequency. At all other frequencies, the level is typically lower due to the frequency
response of the IF filter and the preselector.
The IF display does switch on the 6 dB EMI resolution bandwidth filters for the bargraph measurement. 3 dB or channel filters are not possible in the IF analysis mode.
The maximum span for the IF analysis is limited to ten times the selected resolution
bandwidth for the bar graph measurement. This is due to the dynamic range of the bar
graph measurement.
3.1.3 Scans
In scan mode, the R&S ESR measures in a predefined frequency range with selectable
step width and measurement time for each frequency.
A scan is either based on the current receiver settings or on the settings defined in the
"Scan Table" (see chapter 3.1.3.3, "The Scan Table", on page 19).
Transducer factors or transducer sets and limit lines can be defined and displayed separately and are not part of the scan data record.
The scanned frequency range is defined by the start and stop frequency set independently of the scan table. A scan table can thus be defined for each measurement task.
The scan can be performed as a single scan or continuously. In the case of single scan
it is stopped when the stop frequency is reached. The continuous scan can be interrupted or terminated any time.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
17
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Measurements and Result Displays
The maximal number of measured frequencies is limited to 4.000.000 per detector.
The data can be stored for postprocessing. If the scan subranges are defined so that
more than the possible values would be measured, a respective message is output
upon the scan start. Afterwards the scan is performed up to the maximum value.
Fig. 3-1: Scan on selected frequencies showing gaps in the trace
The R&S ESR offers three types of scans:
3.1.3.1
●
Stepped scan in the frequency domain
In stepped scan mode, step width and frequency spacing (step mode) can be
selected.
●
Time domain scan in the frequency domain
In time domain measurement systems, up to 30 MHz of the spectrum at the
receiver input are measured in parallel by using fast fourier transform (FFT) of frequency sections. Time Domain scans require options R&S ESR-K53 and
R&S ESR-B50.
●
Fixed frequency scan on a single frequency
This scan is carried out on a fixed frequency. It is used to examine the time characteristics of interferences, e.g. click analysis.
●
●
●
●
Stepped Scans in the Frequency Domain...............................................................18
Time Domain Scans in the Frequency Domain.......................................................19
The Scan Table.......................................................................................................19
Scan on a Fixed Frequency.................................................................................... 21
Stepped Scans in the Frequency Domain
In stepped scan mode, the step width and the frequency spacing (step mode) can be
selected. Linear, logarithmic or automatic frequency spacing is available. In automatic
mode, the step width is selected so that it is always smaller than the bandwidth.
EMI measurements may involve much time. Time saving procedures are explained in
chapter 3.1.4, "Peak List and Data Reduction", on page 21. They reduced the total
measurement time by reducing the number of quasipeak measurements to a minimum.
Nevertheless, this time is still very long, often in the order of hours, especially for the
CISPR radiated emissions tests. A way out of this situation can be time-domain meas-
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
18
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Measurements and Result Displays
urements, see chapter 3.1.3.2, "Time Domain Scans in the Frequency Domain",
on page 19.
3.1.3.2
Time Domain Scans in the Frequency Domain
Time Domain scan are available with firmware application R&S ESR-K53 and hardware option R&S ESR-B50. Measurement results fully comply with CISPR 16-1-1
standards.
Time domain scan reduce the overall measurement time enormously. For applications
like voltage tests, no preliminary measurement for data reduction is required, because
the final measurement with the quasipeak detector is already fast enough. For more
time consuming tests like field strength test with mast and turn table, prescans are still
recommended. However, due to the increased measurement speed both in prescan
and final scan, the overall measurement still is considerably reduced.
Whereas in conventional EMI measurement systems, only the spectrum within the
measurement bandwidth can be measured during a certain measurement time of e.g.
100 ms, in this measurement systems, large parts of the spectrum at the receiver input
can be measured in parallel using fast fourier transform (FFT) of frequency sections.
For measurements with prescan, the prescan is used to get a detailed overview of the
emission spectrum. The prescan result is then analyzed and the critical frequencies
can be determined. On the critical frequencies, if further maximization with antenna
mast and turntable movement is needed, the R&S ESR can be used in its conventional
measurement function with quasipeak and/or average detection.
3.1.3.3
The Scan Table
Either the current receiver settings or the settings defined in the Scan table are used
for stepped or time domain scans.
In the scan table, up to 10 subranges can be defined within one scan. They need not
be next to each other. The subranges are then scanned by R&S ESR one after the
other. Measurement ranges should not overlap. The parameters to be measured in
each subrange can be selected independently. For more information on the available
range parameters see chapter 3.3.7.2, "Scan Table", on page 62.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
19
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Measurements and Result Displays
Example:
The graph below shows a scan performed in four subranges. The scan start at the start
frequency of subrange 1. Between subrange 2 and 3 is a frequency gap, where no
measurement is performed. In subrange 4, the part of the frequency range that is outside the overall scan range is also not considered for the scan results.
Range Start
= Start frequency of the scan range. To avoid overlapping scan ranges, the stop frequency of
the previous scan range is adjusted if necessary.
Range Stop = Stop frequency of the scan range. To avoid overlapping scan ranges, the start range of the
next scan range is adjusted if necessary.
Stepsize
= Frequency stepsize within the scan range. If you define a stepsize that is larger than the
range itself, the R&S ESR only measures the start and stop frequencies of the scan range.
The step size is available if the Step Mode is either linear or logarithmic. If the step mode is
linear, the step size is a value in Hz. If the step mode is logarithmic, the step size is a percentage.
Res BW
= Measurement bandwidth used within the scan range, see chapter 3.2.1, "Measurement
Bandwidth", on page 38
Meas Time
= Measurement time for the scan range, see chapter 3.2.2, "Measurement Time",
on page 39
Auto Ranging = Turns automatic selection of the input attenuation on and off, see Auto Range (On Off)
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
20
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Measurements and Result Displays
RF Attenuation
Preamplifier
RF Input
3.1.3.4
= Attenuation level at the RF input.
= Turns the preamplifier on and off. If you select "Auto", the preamplifier is also considered in
the auto ranging process.
= Selects the RF input.
Scan on a Fixed Frequency
Fixed frequency scans are scans in the time domain, i.e. at a fixed frequency. Time
domain analysis is generally used to examine the time characteristics of interferences.
Evaluating the detected voltage with an oscilloscope is useful in order to correctly set
the receiver measurement time. By doing so, you can determine whether and how
strongly a narrowband interference fluctuates and whether it is amplitude-modulated or
pulsed. You can also determine the pulse rate of a broadband interference. You can
set the measurement time to a value that is greater than or equal to the reciprocal of
the pulse rate.
Click rate analysis
A special application for fixed frequency scans is click rate analysis. Clicks are short
and occasional interferences or pulses that usually occur in thermostat-controlled, software-controlled or other electrically controlled devices like washing machines or air
conditioning devices.
The click characteristics of such a device are subject to the occurrence of successive
pulses whose individual pulse heights cannot be assigned exactly by using the time
constants of quasipeak weighting. This can be critical for these measurements,
because it can lead to limits being exceeded. Using time domain analysis, you are able
to determine the length, repetition rate and level of the clicks.
Because of their irregularity, different limits have to be applied than for periodic interferences. These limits are defined by the CISPR 14-1 and EN 55014-1 standards. Both
standards define limits for RFI voltage with click rate weighting in the range from
150 kHz to 30 MHz.
You can perform this task according to the standards with the R&S ESR. It meets the
requirements of the standards regarding the accuracy of pulse length measurements
with pulse lengths of 10 ms or more. With a memory capacity of 2 million values per
trace, it also has a large enough memory to completely record maximum peak and
quasipeak data for at least 2 hours with a measurement time of 5 ms for each value
that has been measured.
3.1.4 Peak List and Data Reduction
Peak List
The Peak Search function of the R&S ESR can be used to create a peak list containing
only the measurement values of high interferers. In a fast prescan the signal is measured against a limit line, and the level values above the set margin are written into the
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
21
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Measurements and Result Displays
peak list. The resulting peak list then is used for the final measurement where only the
frequencies in the peak list are measured with the required detector.
If the scan uses the detector stipulated by the specifications, the peak list already provides the final measurement data.
Data Reduction using the Peak List
EMI measurements may involve much time because the time constants of up to 160
ms prescribed by the standard for the quasipeak weighting lead to long measurement
times per each value. In addition, some standards stipulate procedures for finding local
EMI maxima such as shifting the absorbing clamp, variation of the test antenna height
and rotating the DUT. Measuring with quasipeak weighting at each frequency and for
each setting of the test configuration would lead to unacceptably long measurement
times. For this reason, a method is used which reduces the time-consuming measurements to a minimum with an optimum reliability of detection.
The interference spectrum is first pre-analyzed in a fast prescan to optimize the duration of the measurement. Data reduction follows so that the time-consuming final measurement is performed only at critical frequencies.
Several data reduction methods are used:
●
Generating subrange maxima (search method "Subranges").
The whole frequency range is divided into equidistant frequency subranges. A
selectable number of subrange maxima are determined for each subrange. In the
final measurement, the interference spectrum is further analyzed at frequencies
with the highest interference level of a frequency subrange.
1 = Subrange
2 = Subrange maximum
3 = Limit line
●
Determination of a specific number of peak values relative to the limit lines with the
level values being independent of their frequency spectral distribution (search
method "Peaks").
Determining the level maxima irrespective of their distribution in the frequency
spectrum is suitable for measurement regulations that demand determination of the
relatively highest level irrespective of the distribution in the measured frequency
range, e.g. FCC.
If the prescan is performed in parallel with several detectors, typically Peak and Average, the maxima are determined separately for the two detectors so that the distribution of narrowband and wideband sources of interference can be taken into account.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
22
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Measurements and Result Displays
For example, the frequency of the maximum determined with the average detector can
be used for the final measurement performed with the CISPR Avg detector and the frequency found in the prescan carried out with the peak detector is taken for the final
measurement using the quasipeak detector.
Consideration of the limit lines ensures that the final measurement is not performed at
frequencies at which the inference level is far below the limit value. A margin below the
limit line can be defined (in dB). Peak values measured in the margin area are also
considered in the final measurement. The margin is valid for all limit lines. Each limit
line is allocated to a trace, i.e. different limit lines are taken for the different detectors.
If no limit lines are activated, the measurement procedure is as if all measured values
would exceed the limit line.
Data Reduction by Editing the Peak List
As an alternative method, it is possible to preset a list of frequencies at which the final
measurements are performed. A typical application is, for example, the statistical
analysis of several units.
The peak list can be either edited manually or can be filled with desired values by
adopting the marker values.
3.1.5 Final Measurement
A final measurement is performed after data reduction, thus reducing the overall measurement time.
The final measurement analyzes only the data that still remains after the preliminary
measurement stages, in other words those frequencies that have been collected in the
peak list. Detectors defined for the final measurement replace those that have been
used during preliminary measurements.
Because the peak list contains a manageable set of frequencies only, the final measurement is also usable in combination with a configuration that requires long measurement times. It is then still possible to perform the measurement in a reasonable
time frame.
During the final measurement, the R&S ESR performs a measurement on each frequency in the peak list. When done, it updates the preliminary results in the peak list
with those found during the final measurement.
Automatic vs interactive final measurements
The R&S ESR provides two methods to perform a final measurement: an automatic
and interactive final measurement.
An automatic final measurement measures all frequencies in the peak list automatically. The measurement can be interrupted or aborted, or the measurement mode can
be switched to interactive. Measurement settings can not be changed. The advantage
is that the measurement runs on its own.
Control of the final measurement is possible in interactive final measurement mode.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
23
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Measurements and Result Displays
In interactive final measurement mode, the R&S ESR stops on each frequency of the
peak list. If required, the frequency can be fine tuned, e.g. if the interferer has shifted.
For fine tuning, the bargraph display can be used to find the new peak value. The level
measurement is performed only after initialization by the user.
It is possible to start with an automatic measurement and later change into interactive
mode. Likewise, it is possible to start measuring in interactive mode and later change
into automatic mode.
3.1.6 Spectrogram
In receiver mode, the R&S ESR provides a spectrogram result display for scans and
for IF analysis. For both result displays, the spectrogram allows you to view and evaluate the signal characteristics over time.
3.1.6.1
How a Spectrogram Works
A spectrogram shows the spectral density of a signal in the frequency domain and over
time simultaneously. It provides an overview of the spectrum over time and so allows
for an easy detection of anomalies and interfering signals.
The horizontal axis represents the frequency span. The vertical axis represents time.
Time in the spectrogram runs chronologically from top to bottom. Therefore, the top of
the diagram is the most recently recorded data. A spectrogram also shows the power
levels that have been measured. To display the level information, the R&S ESR maps
different colors to each power level that has been measured.
Creating a spectrogram consists of several stages.
●
Data acquisition based on the scan or the IF analysis
●
Result coloring
●
Data processing
The stages occur simultaneously.
Data acquisition
The spectrogram uses the traces of the scan or the IF analysis as its data basis. The
data capture process is therefore the same as that of these two measurements.
Note that if you use the Scan or IF Analysis result displays, the R&S ESR saves spectrogram data even if the spectrogram result display is off.
After the data has been captured, the R&S ESR transforms the data of the traces into
the spectrogram result display.
Result coloring
To get the final looks of the spectrogram, the R&S ESR applies colors to visualize the
power levels in a two dimensional diagram.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
24
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Measurements and Result Displays
Each color in the spectrogram corresponds to a particular power level that is shown in
the color map in the title bar of the result display. The color the R&S ESR assigns to
each power level depends on:
●
the color scheme you have selected
●
the (customized) color mapping settings
In the default configuration, the R&S ESR displays low power levels in 'cold' colors
(blue, green etc.) and higher power levels in 'warm' colors (red, yellow etc.).
For more information, see chapter 3.1.6.2, "Color Map", on page 25.
Data processing
Now that the data is available, the R&S ESR processes the data to display it in the
spectrogram result display.
To understand the structure and contents of the spectrogram, it is best to look at it in
combination with the scan or IF analysis result display. The data that is shown in the
spectrogram is always based on the data of the scan or IF analysis trace.
The spectrogram is made up out of a number of horizontal lines, each one a pixel high,
that are called (time) frames.
●
When you use a spectrogram in combination with a scan, each frame corresponds
to a single sweep of the frequency range you are scanning.
●
When you use a spectrogram in combination with IF analysis, a single sweep may
consist of several frames. The exact number of frames depends on the measurement time of the bargraph.
In the default state, a frame is added to the spectrogram after a sweep is done. As the
spectrogram in the R&S ESR runs from top to bottom, the outdated frame(s) move
down one position, so that the most recently recorded frame is always on top of the
diagram.
The number of frames the R&S ESR can display simultaneously is only limited by the
vertical screen size. The number of frames the R&S ESR stores in its memory is bigger. The maximum number of frames you can record is 100.000. The actual number,
however, depends on the measurement configuration. With markers, you can navigate
to any frame that has been saved.
Note that the contents of the spectrograms for scan and IF analysis are independent
from one another: the R&S ESR saves the data you have already recorded and the
current configuration when you switch to another result display. It keeps the data until
you start a new measurement or the capture buffer is full.
3.1.6.2
Color Map
Colors are an important part of the spectrogram. Therefore, the R&S ESR provides
various ways to customize the display for best viewing results.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
25
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Measurements and Result Displays
Selecting the color scheme
Before adjusting the details of the color map, you should select the color scheme you
are most comfortable with. You can select from four different color schemes:
●
The "Hot" color scheme shows the results in colors ranging from blue to red. Blue
colors indicate low probabilities or levels respectively. Red colors indicate high
ones.
●
The "Cold" color scheme shows the results in colors ranging from red to blue. Red
colors indicate low probabilities or levels respectively. Blue colors indicate high
ones.
The "Cold" color scheme is the inverse "Hot" color scheme.
●
The "Radar" color scheme shows the colors ranging from black over green to light
turquoise with shades of green in between. Dark colors indicate low probabilities or
levels respectively. Light colors indicate high ones.
●
The "Grayscale" color scheme shows the results in shades of gray. Dark grays
indicate low probabilities or levels respectively. Light grays indicate high ones.
If a result lies outside the defined range of the color map, it is colored in black at the
lower end of the color range. On the upper end of the color range it is always the lightest color possible, regardless of differences in amplitude (e.g. black and blue in case of
the "Cold" scheme).
Defining the Range of the Color Map
The current configuration could be a color map that you can optimize for better visualization of the measured signal, for example if the results cover only a small part of the
color map. In the resulting trace, it would be hard to distinguish between values that
are close together.
There are several ways to optimize the distribution of the colors over the results and
then get the best viewing results.
Note that the following examples are based on the "Hot" color scheme.
The easiest way to adjust the colors is to use the color range sliders in the "Color Mapping" dialog.
In the histogram that is in the background of the color curve pane (grey bars), you can
observe the distribution of measurement results. If no significant shifts in result distribution occur after evaluating this for a time, you can adjust the color map to the overall
shape of the measurement results. To do so and still cover the whole signal, move the
sliders in a way that the first and last bar of the histogram are still inside the range. You
can optimize the display further, if you suppress the noise by excluding the lower 10 to
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
26
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Measurements and Result Displays
20 dB of the distribution. Note that the color map has to cover at least 10% of the
range of the horizontal axis.
Alternatively, you can set the range in the numeric input field. In that field, you have to
enter the distance from the right and left border as a percentage.
Example:
The color map starts at -100 dBm and ends at 0 dBm (i.e. a range of 100 dB). You,
however, want the color map to start at -90 dBm. To do so, you have to enter 10% in
the Start field. The R&S ESR shifts the start point 10% to the right, to -90 dBm.
In the spectrogram, cutting the range as far as possible is also a good way if you want
to observe and put the focus on signals with a certain amplitude only. Then, only those
signal amplitudes that you really want see are displayed. The rest of the display
remains dark (or light, depending on the color scheme). It is also a good way to eliminate noise from the display. In the spectrogram you can do this easily by excluding the
corresponding power levels at the low end of the power level distribution.
Fig. 3-2: Spectrogram that shows the peaks of a pulsed signal only
Adjusting the reference level and level range
Changing the reference level and level range also affects the color scheme in the
spectrogram.
Make sure, however, that you never adjust in a way that could overload the R&S ESR.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
27
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Measurements and Result Displays
3.1.7 Measurement Control
Measurements in receiver mode allow you to control the course of the measurement.
This way, you can make use of the automated test sequences but still be able to
change the setup once the test sequence is already running.
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
3.1.7.1
Running Scans and Measurements........................................................................ 28
Selecting the Result Display................................................................................... 28
Bargraph Control.....................................................................................................29
Scan Control........................................................................................................... 30
Final Measurement Control.....................................................................................31
Measurement Settings............................................................................................ 34
Spectrogram Configuration..................................................................................... 36
Running Scans and Measurements
The RUN SINGLE and RUN CONT hardkeys initiate scans and measurements.
●
RUN SINGLE starts a single scan or measurement. A single measurement lasts
until the defined frequency range has been measured once under the configured
conditions. When it has finished, the measurement stops.
In case of measurements in the time domain, a single measurement lasts until the
defined measurement time has passed.
●
RUN CONT starts a continuous scan or measurement. A continuous measurement
lasts until it is interrupted or stopped.
SCPI command:
INITiate<n>:​CONTinuous​ on page 448
INITiate<n>[:​IMMediate]​ on page 449
3.1.7.2
Selecting the Result Display
The R&S ESR allows you to display the results in various combinations.
You can display up to three results simultaneously, for example the Bargraph, the
Scan diagram and the Spectrogram.
The "Meas" menu contains the basic measurement settings and the selection of result
displays.
► Press the MEAS key.
The R&S ESR opens the "Meas" menu.
► Press the "More Display Options" softkey.
The submenu contains more result displays.
Note that the Spectrogram is available for the Scan display and the IF Analysis. To add
the Spectrogram, either Scan or IF Analysis have to be turned on already. If you are
using the Scan and IF Analysis simultaneously, the Spectrogram is unavailable.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
28
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Measurements and Result Displays
The Spectrogram of the Scan is independent of the Spectrogram available for IF
Analysis and vice versa. Therefore you should regard the two Spectrograms as separate result displays. For more information see chapter 3.1.6, "Spectrogram",
on page 24.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​FEED​ on page 445
Bargraph + Scan
Shows the Bargraph and Scan result displays.
Bargraph + IF Analysis
Shows the Bargraph and IF Analysis result displays.
Bargraph
Turns the Bargraph result display on and off.
IF Analysis
Turns the IF Analysis result display on and off.
Scan
Turns the Scan result display on and off.
Spectrogram
Turns the Spectrogram result display on and off.
3.1.7.3
Bargraph Control
The "Measurement Configuration" menu contains functionality to configure the bargraph.
SCPI commands:
Querying the signal level:
"Querying bargraph results" on page 452
Querying the upper and lower value of the bargraph scale:
DISPlay:​BARGraph:​LEVel:​LOWer?​ on page 445
DISPlay:​BARGraph:​LEVel:​UPPer?​ on page 445
Continuous Bargraph / Single Bargraph....................................................................... 29
Bargraph Maxhold.........................................................................................................30
Maxhold Reset.............................................................................................................. 30
Continuous Bargraph / Single Bargraph
Selects single or continuous bargraph measurements.
Continuous bargraph measurements continuously evaluate the signal level at the
receiver frequency.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
29
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Measurements and Result Displays
A single bargraph measurement evaluates the signal level at the receiver frequency
once and then stops.
Remote command:
INITiate<n>:​CONTinuous​ on page 448
Bargraph Maxhold
Turns the maxhold bargraph on and off. The maxhold bargraph shows the highest level
that has been measured.
Remote command:
DISPlay:​BARGraph:​PHOLd​ on page 446
Maxhold Reset
Resets the maxhold bargraph.
After reset, collection of maximum values starts again.
Remote command:
DISPlay:​BARGraph:​PHOLd:​RESet​ on page 446
3.1.7.4
Scan Control
At the start of a scan, the R&S ESR opens a softkey menu to control the measurement.
Interrupting a scan
The R&S ESR allows to interrupt a scan any time. If you interrupt it, the scan stops
immediately. The scan stops at the frequency at which it was interrupted until it is continued. While the scan is stopped, the receiver settings can be changed, e.g. for a
detailed analysis of the recorded trace. You have two options to continue the scan or
you can abort it.
●
Continue at a set receiver frequency - "Continue at Rec Frequency".
The receiver frequency can be set to a frequency that was already measured. As
soon as the "Continue at Rec Frequency" softkey is pressed, the scan restarts at
this frequency. This function can be used repeat part of the measurement.
●
Continue at the hold frequency - "Continue at Hold"
Resumes the scan at the frequency it has been interrupted.
●
Stop the scan - "Abort Scan"
Aborts the scan.
Hold Scan......................................................................................................................30
Continue at Rec Frequency.......................................................................................... 31
Continue at Hold........................................................................................................... 31
Stop Scan......................................................................................................................31
Hold Scan
Interrupts the scan and opens a submenu that contains functionality to control the
scan.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
30
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Measurements and Result Displays
Data that has already been collected is kept in the memory.
Remote command:
HOLD​ on page 448
Continue at Rec Frequency
Resumes the scan at a set receiver frequency.
After "Hold", the receiver frequency can be set to a frequency that was already measured, i.e. which is lower than the frequency at which the scan was interrupted. As
soon as the "Continue at Rec Frequency" softkey is pressed, the scan restarts at this
frequency. This function can be used repeat part of the measurement.
If a frequency is set that is higher than the frequency at which the scan was interrupted
the scan continues at the frequency at which it was interrupted.
The scan is continued with the settings in the scan table.
Remote command:
HOLD​ on page 448
[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer​ on page 472
INITiate<n>[:​IMMediate]​ on page 449
Continue at Hold
Resumes the scan at the frequency it was interrupted.
The scan is continued with the settings in the scan table.
Remote command:
INITiate<n>:​CONMeas​ on page 448
Stop Scan
Aborts the scan.
Data that has already been collected is lost.
Remote command:
ABORt ​ on page 447
3.1.7.5
Final Measurement Control
The final measurement is started in the "Test Automation" menu . The R&S ESR provides two methods to perform a final measurement: an automatic and interactive final
measurement.
At the start of a final measurement, the R&S ESR opens a softkey menu to control the
measurement.
The measurement configuration is as defined in the scan table.
Sequence for automatic final measurements
Generally, the automatic final measurements requires no interactions. however, the
measurement can be interrupted, e.g. to change the mode or to analyze the signal in
detail.
► Press the "Hold Final Measurement" softkey.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
31
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Measurements and Result Displays
The R&S ESR interrupts the measurement. While the measurement is interrupted,
the receiver settings can be changed in order to examine the signal in detail.
The interruption also changes the contents of the "Measurement" menu. Several
actions are available:
●
Switch the mode of the final measurement ("Automatic" or "Interactive").
●
Resume the final measurement ("Measure").
The final measurement starts or continues at the next entry of the peak list.
●
Abort the final measurement ("Stop Final Measurement").
The collected data is lost.
After all frequencies in the peak list have been measured, the R&S ESR opens the
"Final Peak List" with the results for the final measurement.
Sequence for interactive final measurements
For an interactive final measurement, the R&S ESR initiates the following sequence.
1. The R&S ESR tunes to the first frequency in the peak list (or the next frequency).
2. The R&S ESR stops the measurement and positions a marker on the frequency.
3. If required, the frequency can be fine tuned, e.g. if the interferer has shifted. For
fine tuning, the bargraph display can be used to find the new peak value.
In addition, you have several options:
●
●
●
Skip the current frequency ("Skip Frequency")
Positions the marker on the next frequency in the peak list without performing a
final measurement on the current frequency.
Get maxhold result for the current frequency ("Get Maxhold")
Writes the maximum level that has been measured on this frequency during the
prescan to the final peak list without performing a final measurement.
Stop the final measurement ("Stop Final Meas")
4. The level measurement on the current frequency is initiated after you press the
"Measure" softkey.
5. After the final measurement on the current frequency is done, the R&S ESR replaces the scan result in the peak list with the result of the final measurement. If the
frequency has drifted compared to the one of the prescan, it also updates the frequency in the peak list.
6. The R&S ESR moves to the next frequency in the peak list, positions the marker
on that frequency etc.
7. After all frequencies in the peak list are finished, the R&S ESR opens the "Final
Peak List" with the results for the final measurement.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
32
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Measurements and Result Displays
Note that it is possible to start with an automatic measurement and later change into
interactive mode. Likewise, it is possible to start measuring in interactive mode and
later change into automatic mode.
Hold Final Measurement............................................................................................... 33
Automatic Final............................................................................................................. 33
Interactive Final.............................................................................................................33
Skip Frequency............................................................................................................. 33
Get Maxhold..................................................................................................................33
Measure........................................................................................................................ 33
Stop Final Measurement............................................................................................... 34
Hold Final Measurement
Interrupts the final measurement and opens a submenu that contains functionality to
control the final measurement.
Data that has already been collected is kept in the memory.
Remote command:
HOLD​ on page 448
Automatic Final
Selects an automatic final measurement.
See also chapter 3.1.5, "Final Measurement", on page 23.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]FMEasurement:​AUTO​ on page 450
Interactive Final
Selects interactive final measurements.
See also chapter 3.1.5, "Final Measurement", on page 23.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]FMEasurement:​AUTO​ on page 450
Skip Frequency
Skips the peak list entry the final measurement is due to measure next and proceeds
with the next peak.
Available for interactive final measurements.
Remote command:
Get Maxhold
Uses the highest level that was measured during the scan for the final results instead
of the signal level measured during the final measurement.
Remote command:
Measure
Initiates a final measurement on the current peak.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
33
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Measurements and Result Displays
Available for interactive final measurements.
Remote command:
Stop Final Measurement
Aborts the final measurement.
Data that has already been collected is lost.
Remote command:
ABORt ​ on page 447
3.1.7.6
Measurement Settings
The "Meas" menu contains the basic measurement settings and the selection of result
displays (chapter 3.1.7.2, "Selecting the Result Display", on page 28).
► Press the MEAS key.
The R&S ESR opens the "Measurement" menu.
Receiver Frequency...................................................................................................... 34
Bargraph Detector.........................................................................................................34
└ Couple to Scan Trace..................................................................................... 35
Measurement Time....................................................................................................... 35
Demod...........................................................................................................................35
└ Demod (On Off).............................................................................................. 35
└ AM / FM.......................................................................................................... 35
└ Squelch........................................................................................................... 35
Add To Peak List...........................................................................................................35
Test Automation............................................................................................................ 36
Receiver Frequency
Defines the receiver frequency.
The tuning frequency has to be set to at least twice the IF bandwidth.
When the tuning frequency is lower than twice the IF bandwidth, the IF bandwidth is
automatically reduced so that this condition is met again.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer​ on page 472
Bargraph Detector
Opens a submenu to select the detector for the bargraph result display.
Each detector you select adds another bargraph to the result display. Up to four bargraphs at the same time are possible.
For more information see chapter 3.2.3, "Detectors", on page 40.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]DETector:​RECeiver[:​FUNCtion]​ on page 446
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
34
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Measurements and Result Displays
Couple to Scan Trace ← Bargraph Detector
Couples or decouples the bargraph detector and scan detectors.
If on, the R&S ESR does as follows.
●
●
●
Turns on a scan detector for every active bargraph.
If you add a new bargraph detector, the corresponding scan trace is automatically
turned on.
Matches the scan trace number to the number of the bargraph.
Matches the color of the scan trace to a particular bargraph detector.
If you couple bargraph and scan trace, the R&S ESR replaces the detectors of all other
active scan traces with the new detector type.
Remote command:
DISPlay:​BARGraph:​TCOupling​ on page 446
Measurement Time
Defines the measurement time for a scan and the bargraph.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TIME​ on page 447
Demod
Opens a submenu to configure AM or FM demodulation.
Demod (On Off) ← Demod
Turns demodulation at the receiver frequency on and off.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]DEMod​ on page 455
AM / FM ← Demod
Selects AM or FM demodulation.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]DEMod​ on page 455
Squelch ← Demod
Defines the minimum level for the signal to be demodulated.
For more information see chapter 3.2.5, "AF Demodulation", on page 46.
Remote command:
Turning on the squelch:
[SENSe:​]DEMod:​SQUelch[:​STATe]​ on page 456
Defining a squelch level:
[SENSe:​]DEMod:​SQUelch:​LEVel​ on page 455
Add To Peak List
Adds the current receiver frequency to the peak list.
Remote command:
-
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
35
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Measurements and Result Displays
Test Automation
Opens a dialog box to configure automated test sequences.
For more information see chapter 3.3.7, "Test Automation", on page 60.
Remote command:
3.1.7.7
Spectrogram Configuration
The "MeasConfig" menu contains functionality to configure the spectrogram.
The R&S ESR provides two spectrograms in receiver mode: one for scans and one for
IF analysis. You can configure the spectrograms independently from one another. The
R&S ESR saves the settings accordingly.
► Press the MEAS CONFIG key.
The R&S ESR opens the "MeasConfig" menu.
Clear Spectrogram........................................................................................................ 36
History Depth................................................................................................................ 36
Color Mapping...............................................................................................................36
Trace to Spectrogram................................................................................................... 37
Clear Spectrogram
Clears the contents of the spectrogram.
If you clear the spectrogram of either scan or IF analysis, the other one remains in the
internal memory of the R&S ESR.
History Depth
Defines the amount of frames that the R&S ESR is able to store in its memory.
The R&S ESR can store a maximum of 100.000 frames. However, the actual size of
the history buffer depends on the measurement configuration.
Using markers, you can recall the traces to any of the frames in the history buffer. The
R&S ESR shows the trace to the frame the marker is currently on.
Color Mapping
Opens a dialog box to define the color map of the spectrogram.
For more information see chapter 3.1.6.2, "Color Map", on page 25.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
36
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Measurements and Result Displays
1 = Color map: shows the current color distribution
2 = Preview pane: shows a preview of the histogram / spectrogram with any changes that you make to the
color scheme
3 = Color curve pane: graphic representation of all settings available to customize the color scheme
4 = Color curve in its linear form
5 = Color range start and stop sliders: define the range of the color map; percentages for the histogram or
amplitudes for the spectrogram
6 = Color curve slider: adjusts the focus of the color curve
7 = Histogram: shows the distribution of measured values
8 = Scale of the horizontal axis (value range): in the spectrogram this is linear, in the histogram it is the
function of the density
9 = Color range start and stop: numerical input to define the range of the color map
10 = Color curve: numerical input to define the shape of the color curve
11 = Color scheme selection
12 = Truncate: if active, only shows the results inside the value range; only available for the persistence
spectrum
13 = Auto button: automatically sets the value range of the color map
14 = Default button: resets the color settings
15 = Close button: closes the dialog box
Remote command:
See "Configuring Spectrograms" on page 456
Trace to Spectrogram
Selects the trace the spectrogram is coupled to.
The availability depends on how many traces you are have turned on in the scan or IF
analysis. You cannot assign a spectrogram to a "Blank" trace.
Remote command:
CALCulate:​SGRam:​TRACe​ on page 459
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
37
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Measurement Basics
3.2 Measurement Basics
Measurement basics explain various terms and principles used in the context of EMI
measurements. They also assist you in finding the right configuration for your measurement tasks.
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Measurement Bandwidth........................................................................................ 38
Measurement Time................................................................................................. 39
Detectors.................................................................................................................40
Trace Modes........................................................................................................... 44
AF Demodulation.................................................................................................... 46
V-Networks Control (LISN)......................................................................................46
Transducers............................................................................................................ 47
Preamplifier............................................................................................................. 49
Exported Peak List.................................................................................................. 49
Formats for Returned Values: ASCII Format and Binary Format............................50
3.2.1 Measurement Bandwidth
The measurement bandwidth ("RES BW") defines the bandwidth of the resolution filter.
The RF signal is evaluated and displayed according to the bandpass characteristics of
the resolution filter.
The receiver mode supports the following types of resolution filter.
●
Filters with a 3 dB bandwidth (normal filters).
The R&S ESR provides bandwidths from 10 Hz to 10 MHz with a stepsize of
1-2-3-5-10-...
●
Filters with a 6 dB bandwidth (EMI filters).
The 6 dB bandwidths are designed and required for EMI tests and measurements.
The R&S ESR provides the following bandwidths that comply to commercial and
military standards:
– 10 Hz (with option R&S ESR-B29)
–
100 Hz (with option R&S ESR-B29)
–
200 Hz (CISPR bandwidth)
–
1 kHz (with option R&S ESR-B29)
–
9 kHz (CISPR bandwidth)
–
100 kHz (with option R&S ESR-B29)
–
120 kHz (CISPR bandwidth)
–
1 MHz (CISPR bandwidth)
Note that the available bandwidth is limited by the current receiver frequency. The
measurement bandwidth must be less than or equal to half of the current receiver frequency:
BW ≤ fin / 2
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
38
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Measurement Basics
Additional 6 dB bandwidths
Installing option R&S ESR-B29 adds additional 6 dB bandwidths that are specified for
and comply to MIL, DO and automotive standards.
The resolution filters are implemented as digital Gaussian bandpass filters. Concerning
the attenuation characteristic, the filters behave like analog filters, but their measurement speed is much higher than the measurement speed of comparable analog filters.
This is due to the fact that the transient response can be compensated because the
filters have an accurately defined behavior.
The highest sensitivity is obtained at the smallest bandwidth (10 Hz). If the bandwidth
is increased, the reduction in sensitivity is proportional to the change in bandwidth.
Increasing the bandwidth by a factor of 3 increases the displayed noise by approx.
5 dB (4.77 dB precisely). If the bandwidth is increased by a factor of 10, the displayed
noise increases by a factor of 10, i.e. 10 dB.
The higher spectral resolution with smaller bandwidths leads to longer measurement
times at each frequency, because the measurement time has to allow the resolution filters to settle during a sweep at all signal levels and frequencies to be displayed.
For large measurement bandwidths, signal parts that are very far away (e.g. from a different signal) are considered in the measurement and distort the results. The displayed
noise increases.
For small measurement bandwidths, the measurement time increases.
Bandwidths and detectors
If you use the Quasipeak, CISPR Average or RMS Average detector, the R&S ESR by
default couples the resolution bandwidth to the receiver frequency.
If you need a different bandwidth, you can decouple the bandwidth from the frequency.
When decoupled, you can select any of the supported CISPR bandwidths.
3.2.2 Measurement Time
The measurement time is the time during which the R&S ESR measures the input signal and forms a measurement result weighted by the selected detector. The measurement time does not include settling times of the synthesizer and the IF filter. The
R&S ESR automatically waits until transients are over.
The measurement time can be set in the range from 50 µs to 100 s.
The measurement time has the following restrictions.
●
When you use the Quasipeak detector, the minimum measurement time is 0.5 ms.
●
When you use the CISPR Average or RMS Average detector, the minimum measurement time depends on the CISPR band.
– 50 ms for Band A
–
1 ms for Band B
–
100 µs for Bands C/D/E
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
39
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Measurement Basics
●
When you use the Max Peak, Min Peak, Average or RMS detectors, the minimum
measurement time depends on the selected resolution bandwidth.
Table 3-1: Smallest possible measurement time for Max Peak, min Peak, Average or RMS detectors
Bandwidth
Max and Min Peak
Average and RMS
≤ 100 Hz
10 ms
1s
100 Hz
1 ms
100 ms
200 Hz to 500 Hz
1 ms
50 ms
1 kHz to 5 kHz
100 µs
10 ms
9 kHz to 50 kHz
100 µs
1 ms
≥ 100 kHz
50 µs
100 µs
Measurement time for time domain scans in the frequency domain
The available measurement times for time domain scans depend on the resolution
bandwidth.
Table 3-2: Possible measurement times for time domain scans
Resolution bandwidth
Min. measurement time
Max. measurement time
10 Hz to 50 Hz
10 ms
100 s
100 Hz to 500 Hz
1 ms
100 s
1 kHz to 30 kHz
100 µs
100 s
50 kHz
100 µs
50 s
100 kHz to 120 kHz
10 µs
30 s
200 kHz
10 µs
16 s
300 kHz
10 µs
10 s
500 kHz
10 µs
6s
1 MHz
10 µs
3s
3.2.3 Detectors
The task of the detector is to determine which of the samples that have been recorded
are displayed for each sweep point. The result obtained from the selected detector for
a sweep point is displayed as the signal level at this frequency point in the trace.
The detectors of the R&S ESR are implemented as digital devices. All detectors work
in parallel in the background, which means that the measurement speed is independent of the detector combination used for different traces.
The receiver mode of the R&S ESR provides several detectors, including detectors
that are especially designed for and required by EMI applications.
You can use several detectors at the same time. The combined use of several detectors (multiple detection) is important for EMI measurements. This is due to specifica-
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
40
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Measurement Basics
tions in the standards, for example commercial standards specifiy limits for quasipeak
and average values. In that case, multiple detection requires only one measurement.
The R&S ESR allows you to use different detectors for the bargraph, scan and final
measurement.
Maximum and Minimum peak detector
The max/min detector yields the maximum/minimum level occurred during the set measurement time. The peak detector is reset at the beginning of each measurement.
Regarding measurement time,
●
unmodulated signals can be measured with the shortest possible measurement
time.
●
for pulses, the selected measurement time must be long enough for at least one
pulse to occur during the measurement time.
The peak detectors are digital detectors. Therefore, discharging is irrelevant even with
long measurement times.
Average detector
The average detector yields the average level of the samples of the samples measured
during the set measurement time.
With average detection selected, the video voltage (envelope of IF signal) is averaged
during the measurement time. Averaging is digital, i.e. the digitized values of the video
voltage are summed up and divided by the number of samples at the end of the measurement time. This corresponds to a filtering with a rectangular window in the time
domain and a filtering with sin x/x characteristic in the frequency domain.
With modulated signals the measurement time is determined by the lowest modulation
frequency to be averaged. With pulse signals, the selected measurement time should
be long enough for sufficient number of pulses (>10) to occur in the measurement window for averaging.
Regarding measurement time,
●
with unmodulated signals the shortest possible measurement time can be selected.
●
with modulated signals the measurement time is determined by the lowest modulation frequency to be averaged.
●
with pulse signals, the selected measurement time should be long enough for sufficient number of pulses (>10) to occur in the measurement window for averaging.
RMS detector
The RMS detector evaluates the root mean square (RMS) value over the specified
measurement time and displays the resulting value. The integration time is the specified measurement time.
Regarding measurement time,
●
with unmodulated signals the shortest possible measurement time can be selected.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
41
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Measurement Basics
●
with modulated signals the measurement time is determined by the lowest modulation frequency to be averaged.
●
with pulse signals, the selected measurement time should be long enough for sufficient number of pulses (>10) to occur in the measurement window for averaging.
RMS detector and VBW
If the RMS detector is selected, the video bandwidth in the hardware is bypassed.
Thus, duplicate trace averaging with small VBWs and RMS detector no longer occurs.
However, the VBW is still considered when calculating the measurement time. This
leads to a longer sweep time for small VBW values. Thus, you can reduce the VBW
value to achieve more stable trace curves even when using an RMS detector. Normally, if the RMS detector is used the measurement time should be increased to get
more stable traces.
Sample detector
The sample detector displays the instantaneous value of the level at a pixel. It routes
through the sampled data without any further evaluation.
The sample detector is used for IF analysis and for noise or phase noise marker calculation in analyzer mode. However, it is unreliable if the displayed span is much wider
than the resolution bandwidth or if the tuning steps of the local oscillator are too large.
Quasipeak detector
The quasipeak detector yields the maximum detected value weighted to CISPR 16-1-1
that was detected during the measurement time.
Depending on the set frequency, the R&S ESR automatically selects the detectors and
IF bandwidths defined for bands A, B and C/D listed in the following table:
Band A
Band B
Band C/D
Frequency range
< 150 kHz
150 kHz to 30 MHz
> 30 MHz
Resolution bandwidth
200 Hz
9 kHz
120 kHz
Charge time constant
45 ms
1 ms
1 ms
Discharge time constant
500 ms
160 ms
550 ms
Time constant of the
mechanical device
160 ms
160 ms
100 ms
The coupling of the resolution bandwidth to the frequency range with activated quasipeak detector can be cancelled using the "CISPR RBW uncoupled" softkey.
Regarding measurement time, the relatively long time constants used with quasipeak
detectors entail long measurement times to obtain correct results.
●
With unknown signals the measurement time should be at least 1 s. This ensures
correct weighting of pulses down to a pulse frequency of 5 Hz.
●
With known signals much shorter measurement times can be used.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
42
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Measurement Basics
After internal switching, the R&S ESRwaits until the measurement result has stabilized before it starts the actual measurement. Since the level does not change during a frequency scan, known signals (e.g. broadband RFI) can be correctly measured with a much shorter measurement time.
CISPR Average detector
The CISPR Average detector yields a weighted average signal level according to
CISPR 16-1-1. The average value according to CISPR 16-1-1 is the maximum value of
the linear average during the set measurement time.
The detector is used, for example, to measure pulsed sinusoidal signals with a low
pulse frequency. It is calibrated with the rms value of an unmodulated sinusoidal signal. Averaging is with lowpass filters of the 2nd order (simulation of a mechanical
instrument).
The lowpass time constants and the IF bandwidths are fixed depending on the frequency. The main parameters are listed in the following table:
Band A
Band B
Band C/D
Band E
Frequency range
< 150 kHz
150 kHz to 30 MHz
30 MHz to 1 GHz
> 1 GHz
Resolution bandwidth
200 Hz
9 kHz
120 kHz
1 MHz
Time constant of
the mechanical
device
160 ms
160 ms
100 ms
100 ms
The coupling of the resolution bandwidth to the frequency range with activated CISPR
average detector can be cancelled using the "CISPR RBW uncoupled" softkey.
Regarding measurement time, the relatively long time constants used with CISPR
average and RMS average detector result in long measurement times in order to
obtain a correct measurement result.
●
With unknown signals the measurement time should be at least 1 s. This ensures
correct weighting of pulses down to a pulse frequency of 5 Hz.
●
With unmodulated sinusoidal signals as well as signals with high modulation frequency much shorter measurement times can be used.
●
Slowly fluctuating signals or pulse signals require longer measurement times.
Measurement times shorter than 20 ms
With measurement times shorter than 20 ms the detector weighting changes to plain
average weighting.
When you change the receiver frequency or the attenuation, the R&S ESR waits until
the the lowpass filter has settled before starting the measurement. The measurement
time in that case depends on the resolution bandwidth and the characteristics of the
signal.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
43
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Measurement Basics
RMS Average detector
The RMS Average detector is a combination of the RMS detector (for pulse repetition
frequencies above a corner frequency) and the Average detector (for pulse repetition
frequencies below the corner frequency). It thus achieves a pulse response curve with
the following characteristics: 10 dB/decade above the corner frequency and 20 dB/
decade below the corner frequency. The average value is determined by lowpass filters of the 2nd order (simulation of a mechanical instrument).
The detector is used, for example, to measure broadband emissions and may replace
the quasipeak detector in the future.
The filter bandwidth and time constants of the detector are coupled to the receiver frequency.
Table 3-3: RMS Average detector
Band A
Band B
Band C/D
Band E
Frequency range
< 150 kHz
150 kHz to 30 MHz
30 MHz to 1 GHz
> 1 GHz
Resolution bandwidth
200 Hz
9 kHz
120 kHz
1 MHz
Time constant of
the mechanical
device
160 ms
160 ms
100 ms
100 ms
Corner frequency
10 Hz
100 Hz
100 Hz
1 kHz
Regarding measurement time, see CISPR Average detector.
Measurement times shorter than 20 ms
With measurement times shorter than 20 ms the detector weighting changes to plain
RMS weighting.
3.2.4 Trace Modes
The traces can be activated individually for a measurement or frozen after a measurement has been performed. Traces that are not active are not visible. Each time the
trace mode is changed, the selected trace memory is cleared.
Note that in Spectrum mode, the Max Hold and Min Hold modes are unavailable for
statistics measurements.
Clear Write
Overwrite mode: the trace is overwritten by each sweep. This is the default setting.
All available detectors can be selected.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:MODE WRIT, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​MODE​
on page 491
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
44
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Measurement Basics
Max Hold
The maximum value is determined over several sweeps and displayed. The R&S ESR
saves the sweep result in the trace memory only if the new value is greater than the
previous one.
This mode is especially useful with modulated or pulsed signals. The signal spectrum
is filled up upon each sweep until all signal components are detected in a kind of envelope.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:MODE MAXH, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​MODE​
on page 491
Min Hold
The minimum value is determined from several measurements and displayed. The
R&S ESR saves the smallest of the previously stored/currently measured values in the
trace memory.
This mode is useful e.g. for making an unmodulated carrier in a composite signal visible. Noise, interference signals or modulated signals are suppressed whereas a CW
signal is recognized by its constant level.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:MODE MINH, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​MODE​
on page 491
View
The current contents of the trace memory are frozen and displayed.
Note: If a trace is frozen, the instrument settings, apart from level range and reference
level (see below), can be changed without impact on the displayed trace. The fact that
the displayed trace no longer matches the current instrument setting is indicated by the
icon on the tab label.
If the level range or reference level is changed, the R&S ESR automatically adapts the
measured data to the changed display range. This allows an amplitude zoom to be
made after the measurement in order to show details of the trace.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:MODE VIEW, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​MODE​
on page 491
Blank
Hides the selected trace.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC OFF, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>[:​STATe]​ on page 660
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
45
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Measurement Basics
3.2.5 AF Demodulation
Risk of hearing damage when using headphones
To protect your hearing, make sure that the volume setting is not too high before putting on the headphones.
The volume for the headphones is controlled using the rotary knob next to the "AF Output" interface on the front panel of the instrument or with the SYSTem:​SPEaker:​
VOLume​ command.
The R&S ESR provides demodulators for AM and FM signals. With these demodulators, a displayed signal can be identified and monitor acoustically through the use of
the internal loudspeaker or with headphones.
The R&S ESR demodulates the signal on the receiver frequency in a bandwidth corresponding to the resolution bandwidth to the audio output.
A squelch function that is linked to the video trigger defines the level that the signal
must at least have to be demodulated. If you turn the squelch on, the R&S ESR automatically turns on the video trigger. The squelch level and trigger level are the same.
3.2.6 V-Networks Control (LISN)
For measurements with power lines, the R&S ESR provides functionality to directly
control a line impedance stabilization network (LISN). The configuration is then taken
into account in the scan and final measurement.
You can connect the LISN to the userport that controls the phases during the scan and
the final measurement. The R&S ESR supports several V-networks.
●
Four-line V-networks
– ESH2-Z5
–
●
ENV4200
Two-line V-networks
– ESH3-Z5
–
ENV216
For the ENV 216 network, a 150 kHz high pass filter is available for protection of the
input.
After selecting the type of network, you can define the phase you want to test for interferences. Phase N and L1 are available for two-line networks. Four-line networks in
addition have access to phase L2 and L3.
●
During scans, you can control several phases simultaneously.
●
During final measurements the R&S ESR supports the control of several phases.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
46
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Measurement Basics
When you select more than one phase, the R&S ESR measures all phase combinations and determines the maximum value.
For an automatic phase selection with the networks, a connection between the
R&S ESR and network has to be established with a control line. The following illustrations show the right PIN assignment.
Fig. 3-3: Connection from R&S ESR to R&S ESH2-Z5
Fig. 3-4: Connection from R&S ESR to R&S ESH3-Z5 or ENV216
Fig. 3-5: Connection from R&S ESR to R&S ENV4200
To control the phase selection and PE simulating network of the V-Networks
R&S ESH2-Z5, R&S ESH3-Z5 and R&S ENV4200, the +5 V supply voltage and some
control lines have to be routed through the wall of the shielded room.
You can also use a direct connection without a filter, e.g. when you use the R&S ESR
in a shielded room. In that case, you can use the following cables.
●
R&S ESH2-Z5: EZ-5, EZ-13, EZ14
●
R&S ESH3-Z5: EZ-6, EZ-14
●
R&S ENV216: EZ14
●
R&S ENV4200: EZ-14, EZ-21
3.2.7 Transducers
A transducer is often connected ahead of the R&S ESR both during the measurement
of useful signals and EMI and converts the useful or interference variable such as field
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
47
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Measurement Basics
strength, current or RFI voltage into a voltage across 50 Ω. Because most transducers
such as antennas, probes or current probes have a characteristic frequency response,
it is necessary to correct the measurement results by the frequency characteristics of
the transducer. These characteristics are defined in a transducer factor or transducer
sets. The transducer factor can be stored in the R&S ESR and automatically has the
correct unit during level measurement.
If a transducer is switched on it is considered as part of the unit during the measurement, i.e. the measured values are displayed in the correct unit and magnitude. When
working with two measurement windows, the transducer is always assigned to two windows.
The R&S ESR distinguishes between transducer factor and transducer set.
A transducer factor takes the frequency response of a single transfer element, e.g. an
antenna into consideration. A transducer set can summarize different transducer factors in several subranges (several transducer factors at the same time), e.g. an
antenna, a cable and a diplexer.
Transducer factors
A transducer factor takes the frequency response of a single transfer element into
account. It consists of a series of reference values defined with frequency, transducer
factor and the unit. For the measurement between frequency values linear or logarithmic interpolation of the transducer factor can be chosen. The transducer factor may
consist of up to 625 reference values.
Transducer sets
Several transducer factors can be compiled in a transducer set provided that all factors
have the same unit or unit "dB". The frequency range covered by a set can be subdivided into max. 10 subranges (each with up to 4 transducer factors) which follow each
other without a gap, i.e. the stop frequency of a subrange is the start frequency of the
next subrange.
The transducer factors used in a subrange have to fully cover the subrange.
The definition of a transducer set is recommended if different transducers are used in
the frequency range to be measured or if a cable attenuation or an amplifier has to be
taken into consideration.
If a transducer set is defined during a frequency sweep, the latter can be stopped at
the interface between two transducer ranges and the user is asked to exchange the
transducer.
A message informs that the limit has been reached. It is possible either to continue the
sweep by confirming the message or to switch off the transducer. With the automatic
switchover of the transducer used, the frequency sweep is not interrupted.
Transducer management
The R&S ESR provides functionality to store and use the transducer factors during a
measurement.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
48
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Measurement Basics
For more information on creating and managing transducer factors see "Transducer"
on page 365.
3.2.8 Preamplifier
Switching on the preamplifer reduces the noise figure of the R&S ESR, thus increasing
the sensitivity. The preamplifier follows the preselection filters so that the risk of an
overload by strong out-of-band signals is reduced to a minimum. For frequencies
between 100 Hz to 7 GHz, the signal level of the subsequent mixer is 20 dB higher so
that the maximum input level is reduced by the gain of the preamplifier. For frequencies above 7 GHz, the gain is 30 dB.
The use of the preamplifier is recommended when measurements with a maximum
sensitivity are to be performed. If the measurement should be performed at maximum
dynamic range, the preamplifier should be switched off.
The gain of the preamplifier is automatically considered in the level display. The disadvantage of a poorer large-signal immunity (intermodulation) is reduced by the connected preselector.
3.2.9 Exported Peak List
When you export the (final) peak list, the results are saved in an ASCII file. The contents of the file are split into several section.
●
The header contains general information about the measurement and instrument
settings and characteristics.
It consists of three columns, separated by a semicolon: parameter name; numeric
value; unit
●
The data section contains information about the evaluation of the data and the contents of the peak list.
The data section always starts with Trace <n> [Final]:.
Table 3-4: Example of an exported peak list with a description of the contents
Type;ESR-7;
instrument model and type
Version;1.76;
Firmware version
Date;07.May 12;
Date of the export
Mode;Receiver;
Operating mode
Start;150000.000000;Hz
Start frequency
Stop;1000000000.000000;Hz
Stop frequency
x-axis;log;
X-axis scaling
Scan count;1;
Number of scans in a single measurement
Transducer;Antenna;;;;;;;
Active transducer(s)
Scan <x>:
Results for scan range <x>
Start;150000.000000;Hz
Start frequency of scan range <x>
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
49
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Measurement Basics
Stop;30000000.000000;Hz
Stop frequency of scan range <x>
Step;4000.000000;Hz
Frequency stepsize in scan range <x>
RBW;9000.000000;Hz
Resolution bandwidth in scan range <x>
Meas time;0.001000;s
Measurement time in scan range <x>
Auto ranging;OFF;
Autoranging state for scn range <x>
RF Att;10.000000;dB
RF attenuation level in scan range <x>
Auto Preamp;OFF;
Auto preamplification state for scan range <x>
Preamp;0.000000;dB
Preamplification state for scan range <x>
TRACE <x> FINAL
Peak list contents for trace <x> after scan [or final
measurement]
Trace Mode;CLR/WRITE;
Trace mode for trace <x>
Detector;QUASI PEAK;
Detector for trace <x>
x-Unit;Hz;
Unit of the x-axis
y-Unit;dBµV;
Unit of the y-axis
Final Meas Time;1.000000;s
Final measurement time
Margin;6.000000;dB
Margin of the peaks
Value;26;
Number of result values
1;2150000.000000;84.210000;;;
Peak list entries:
1;6150000.000000;84.210000;;;
<Trace>;<Frequency>;<Level>;<DeltaLimit>;<Phase>;<Unused>
etc.
3.2.10 Formats for Returned Values: ASCII Format and Binary Format
ASCII Format (FORMat ASCII)
The command reads out a list of comma separated values (CSV) of the measured values in floating point format.
Reading out data in binary format is quicker than in ASCII format. Thus, binary format
is recommended for large amounts of data.
Binary Format (FORMat REAL,32)
The command reads out binary data (Definite Length Block Data according to IEEE
488.2), each measurement value being formatted in 32 Bit IEEE 754 Floating-PointFormat.
Depending on the number of samples to be transferred, 2 different kinds of syntax are
used:
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
50
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Measurement Settings
For <1010 samples:
The schema of the result string is as follows:
#<NoOfDigits><NoOfDataBytes><value1><value2>…<value n>, with
#
Header prefix, 1 byte
<NoOfDigits>
Number of digits of the following number of data bytes (= 4 in the example), 1 byte
<NoOfDataBytes>
Number of following data bytes in decimal form (= 1024 in the example), 1...9 bytes
<Value>
Data values, each one is a 4-byte floating point value
Example:
#41024<value1><value2>…<value 256>
4: the following number of data bytes has 4 digits
1024: 1024 Bytes of following data; float: 4 Bytes / value => 1024 / 4 = 256 values (128
I and 128 Q values)
<value x>: 4 Byte values, must be interpreted as float
For ≧1010 samples:
The schema of the result string is as follows:
#(<NoOfDataBytes>)<value1><value2>…<value n>, with
#
Header prefix, 1 byte
(
1 byte
<NoOfDataBytes>
number of following data bytes (= 1024 in the example), 10 bytes
)
1 byte
<Value>
Data values, each one is a 4-byte floating point value
Example:
#(1677721600)<value 1><value 2> ... <value 419430400>
(1677721600): 1677721600 Bytes of following data; float: 4 Bytes / value ==>
1677721600/ 4 = 419430400 values (200Ms I and 200Ms Q values)
<value x>: 4 Byte values, must be interpreted as float
3.3 Common Measurement Settings
●
●
●
●
Defining the Frequency and Span...........................................................................52
Configuring the Level Display and the RF Input......................................................54
Selecting the Bandwidth..........................................................................................57
Configuring the Scan...............................................................................................58
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
51
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Measurement Settings
●
●
●
Configuring the Trigger .......................................................................................... 58
Controlling Inputs and Outputs................................................................................59
Test Automation...................................................................................................... 60
3.3.1 Defining the Frequency and Span
The frequency and span settings define the scope of the signal to be analyzed. The
settings are available in the FREQ and SPAN menus.
Span settings and signal tracking are only available for IF Analysis (firmware application R&S ESR-K56).
Receiver Frequency...................................................................................................... 52
Stepsize........................................................................................................................ 52
Start / Stop Frequency.................................................................................................. 53
IF Span Manual.............................................................................................................53
Full Span....................................................................................................................... 53
Last Span...................................................................................................................... 53
Signal Track.................................................................................................................. 53
Receiver Frequency
Defines the receiver frequency.
The tuning frequency has to be set to at least twice the IF bandwidth.
When the tuning frequency is lower than twice the IF bandwidth, the IF bandwidth is
automatically reduced so that this condition is met again.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer​ on page 472
Stepsize
Opens a submenu to define the receiver frequency step size.
By default, the frequency step size is coupled to the receiver frequency. Alternatively,
you can define a custom step size.
"Auto Coarse"
The step size is coupled to the receiver frequency.
When you change the frequency with the rotary knob, the R&S ESR
increases or decreases the 4th digit of the receiver frequency.
When you change the frequency with the cursor keys, the R&S ESR
increases or decreases the 2nd digit of the receiver frequency.
"Auto Fine"
The step size is coupled to the receiver frequency.
When you change the frequency with the rotary knob, the R&S ESR
increases or decreases the 7th digit of the receiver frequency.
When you change the frequency with the cursor keys, the R&S ESR
increases or decreases the 5th digit of the receiver frequency.
"Stepsize Man- The step size is a fixed custom value.
ual"
When you change the frequency with the rotary knob, the R&S ESR
increases or decreases the frequency by 1 % of the manual step size.
When you change the frequency with the cursor keys, the R&S ESR
increases or decreases the frequency by the manual step size.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
52
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Measurement Settings
"Stepsize =
Freq"
The step size is equal to the current receiver frequency.
Defining a step size equal to the receiver frequency is useful during
measurements of the harmonic content of a signal. Each change of
the receiver frequency with the cursor key or the rotary knob selects
the next harmonic.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP​ on page 473
Start / Stop Frequency
Defines the start and stop frequency for the scan.
The range for the start frequency is fmin to (fmax - 10 Hz).
The range for the stop frequency is (fmin + 10 Hz) to fmax.
fmin and fmax are defined in the datasheet.
Remote command:
Start frequency:
[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​STARt​ on page 473
Stop frequency:
[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​STOP​ on page 474
IF Span Manual
Defines the span for IF spectrum analysis.
The receiver (center) frequency is kept constant. Possible span values are in the range
from 10 kHz to 10 MHz.
Available for IF Analysis (firmware application R&S ESR-K56).
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​SPAN​ on page 634
Full Span
Restores the span to the full available frequency range.
The full span is specified in the data sheet.
In receiver mode, full span is available for IF Analysis and is limited to 10 MHz.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​SPAN:​FULL​ on page 634
Last Span
Sets the span to the previous value. With this function e.g. a fast change between
overview measurement and detailed measurement is possible.
Remote command:
Signal Track
Opens a submenu to define and enable the signal tracking:
●
●
●
search bandwidth
threshold value
trace
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
53
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Measurement Settings
Signal tracking is available for IF analysis and is defined in the FREQ menu. After each
sweep the center frequency is set to the maximum signal found within the searched
bandwidth. If no maximum signal above the set threshold value is found in the
searched bandwidth, the track mechanism stops.
For a description of the softkeys of the submenu, see "Signal Track (span > 0)"
on page 218.
3.3.2 Configuring the Level Display and the RF Input
The settings to define the level display range for the scan and to configure the RF input
are available in the AMPT menu.
RF Atten Manual........................................................................................................... 54
Preamp On/Off.............................................................................................................. 54
10 dB Min...................................................................................................................... 55
Auto Range (On Off)..................................................................................................... 55
Auto Preamp (On Off)................................................................................................... 55
Unit................................................................................................................................55
Grid Range / Grid Min Level..........................................................................................56
Input 50 Ω/75 Ω ............................................................................................................56
RF Atten Manual
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the attenuation, irrespective of the reference level.
The RF attenuation defines the level at the input mixer according to the formula:
levelmixer = levelinput – RF attenuation + RF preamplifier gain
You can attenuate the signal in 5 dB steps. The range is specified in the data sheet. If
the current reference level is not comaptible to the RF attenuation, the reference level
is adjusted accordingly.
Note that receiver mode, an attenuation of 10 dB or less is possible only if you turn 10
dB Min off.
Note: The maximum mixer level allowed is 0 dBm. Mixer levels above this value may
lead to incorrect measurement results, which are indicated by the "OVLD" status display. The increased mixer level allows for an improved signal, but also increases the
risk of overloading the instrument.
When measuring spurious emissions in spectrum mode, this softkey automatically
opens the "Sweep List" dialog box, see "Sweep List dialog box" on page 160.
Remote command:
INPut:​ATTenuation​ on page 476
Preamp On/Off
Switches the preamplifier on and off.
Remote command:
INPut:​GAIN:​STATe ​ on page 477
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
54
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Measurement Settings
10 dB Min
Determines whether the 10 dB setting of the attenuator may be used in the manual or
automatic setting of the attenuator.
If on, the attenuation level is always at least 10 dB to protect the input mixer and avoid
accidental setting of 0 dB, especially if you measure DUTs with high RFI voltage.
"10dB Min" ON is the default value, i.e. an RF attenuation of at least 10 dB is always
set on the R&S ESR to protect the input mixer.
An attenuation of 0 dB cannot be set manually either. This avoids 0 dB being switched
on inadvertently, particularly when DUTs with high RFI voltage are measured.
Remote command:
INPut:​ATTenuation:​PROTection[:​STATe]​ on page 477
Auto Range (On Off)
Turns automatic configuration of the attenuation level on and off.
If off, the R&S ESR uses the manual RF attenuation that you have defined.
If on, the R&S ESR defines an attenuation level that results in a good S/N ration without overloading the receiver stages. Note that it is possible that the R&S ESR does not
utilize the maximum possible dynamic range. However, measurement results are still
valid in that case, because it is ensured that performing scans does not result in an
overload.
NOTICE! Risk of damage to the input mixer. If you apply a 0 dB RF attenuation in combination with auto ranging, make sure that the signal level at the RF input does not
exceed the allowed limits.
Exceeding the limit might damage the input mixer.
Do not use a 0 dB attenuation under any circumstances when you measure RFI voltage (or unknown signals) in combination with an artificial network, because such a test
setup generates very high pulses during phase switching.
Remote command:
INPut:​ATTenuation:​AUTO​ on page 477
Auto Preamp (On Off)
Turns automatic selection of the preamplifier state on and off.
If on, the R&S ESR considers the preamplifier in the autorange process.The preamplifier is cut in when the RF attenuation is reduced to the minimum settable value.
If off, the preamplifier is not considered in the autorange procedure.
Remote command:
INPut:​GAIN:​AUTO​ on page 477
Unit
Opens a submenu to select the display unit.
The receiver mode supports the following units.
●
●
●
●
dBm
dBpW
dBmV
dBµV
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
55
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Measurement Settings
●
●
dBµA
dBpT
The default unit is dBµV.
In general, the R&S ESR measures the signal voltage at the RF input. The level display is calibrated in RMS values of an unmodulated sine wave signal. Via the known
input impedance (50 Ω or 75 Ω), conversion to other units is possible.
The conversion from one unit to another is also possible if you are using a transducer.
The conversion to 1 MHz is done with the pulse bandwidth of the selected resolution
bandwidth according to the following equation.
Bimp MHz 
 dBV 
P
 20  log
 PdBV 

1MHz 
 MHz 
with
P  display level
Bimp  resolution bandwidth
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​UNIT:​POWer​ on page 474
Grid Range / Grid Min Level
Defines the scale of the vertical diagram axis.
The display ranges go from 10 to 200 dB in 10-dB steps. Invalid entries are rounded off
to the nearest valid value.
"Grid Range"
Defines the level display range for the scan diagram.
"Grid Min
Level"
Defines the minimum level of the display range.
Remote command:
Defining the range of the grid:
DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​ on page 654
Defining the minimum level displayed on the axis:
DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​BOTTom​ on page 474
Input 50 Ω/75 Ω
Uses 50 Ω or 75 Ω as reference impedance for the measured levels. Default setting is
50 Ω.
The setting 75 Ω should be selected if the 50 Ω input impedance is transformed to a
higher impedance using a 75 Ω adapter of the RAZ type (= 25 Ω in series to the input
impedance of the instrument). The correction value in this case is 1.76 dB = 10 log (75
Ω/50 Ω).
All levels specified in this Operating Manual refer to the default setting of the instrument (50 Ω).
Remote command:
INPut:​IMPedance​ on page 478
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
56
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Measurement Settings
3.3.3 Selecting the Bandwidth
The bandwith settings are available in the BW menu.
Res BW Manual............................................................................................................ 57
CISPR RBW Uncoupled................................................................................................57
Filter Type..................................................................................................................... 57
IF Analysis RBW........................................................................................................... 58
Res BW Manual
Opens an input field to define the measurement or resolution bandwidth.
The R&S ESR supports a selected set of resolution bandwidths. If you enter a number
that is not supported, the R&S ESR rounds the value up to next available bandwidth.
You can also select some bandwidths directly with the corresponding softkeys in the
"Bandwidth" menu.
For more information see chapter 3.2.1, "Measurement Bandwidth", on page 38.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]​ on page 478
CISPR RBW Uncoupled
Cancels the coupling of the IF bandwidth to the frequency range with the activated
quasipeak detector, CISPR Average or RMS average detector.
See also chapter 3.2.3, "Detectors", on page 40.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​AUTO​ on page 479
Filter Type
Selects the filter type.
The available resolution bandwidths depend on the filter selection.
The R&S ESR provides the following filter types:
●
●
●
●
EMI CISPR / MIL
Gaussian filter with a 6 bandwidth. 6 dB bandwidths that comply with CISPR and
MIL standards are available.
CISPR only
Gaussian filter with a 6 bandwidth. 6 dB bandwidths that comply with CISPR standards are available.
MIL Std only
Gaussian filter with a 6 bandwidth. 6 dB bandwidths that comply with military
standards are available.
3 dB Bandwidth
Gaussian filter with a 3 dB bandwidth.
6 dB bandwidths correspond approximately to the pulse bandwidth..
3 dB bandwidths correspond approximately to the noise bandwidth.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​TYPE​ on page 479
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
57
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Measurement Settings
IF Analysis RBW
Selects the resolution bandwidth for IF spectrum analysis
Available for IF Analysis (firmware application R&S ESR-K56).
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]BANDwidth:​IF​ on page 478
3.3.4 Configuring the Scan
The following settings for configuring the scan are available in the SWEEP menu.
Functions to configure measurements described described elsewhere:
●
"Fixed Frequency" on page 61
Run Continuous / Run Single........................................................................................58
Edit Scan Table.............................................................................................................58
Freq Axis (Lin Log)........................................................................................................58
Run Continuous / Run Single
Initiates a continuous or single measurement.
See also chapter 3.1.7.1, "Running Scans and Measurements", on page 28.
Remote command:
Selecting single and continuous measurements:
INITiate<n>:​CONTinuous​ on page 448
Initiating a measurement:
INITiate<n>[:​IMMediate]​ on page 449
Edit Scan Table
Opens a dialog box to create or edit a scan table.
For more information see chapter 3.1.3.3, "The Scan Table", on page 19
Freq Axis (Lin Log)
Switches between linear and logarithmic frequency axis.
Remote command:
DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​X:​SPACing​ on page 472
3.3.5 Configuring the Trigger
The trigger settings are available in the TRIG menu.
External......................................................................................................................... 59
Free Run....................................................................................................................... 59
Video............................................................................................................................. 59
Trigger Polarity..............................................................................................................59
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
58
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Measurement Settings
External
Selects an external trigger source.
The external trigger source is a TTL signal fed in at the EXT TRIG/GATE IN interface
on the rear panel.
Remote command:
TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 648
Free Run
Selects free run mode. In free run mode, a measurement is not triggered. Once a measurement is completed, another is started immediately.
Remote command:
TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 648
Video
Selects the video trigger. The trigger event is a certain voltage level.
For the video triggering mode, a level line showing the trigger threshold is displayed.
Using the level line, the threshold can be adjusted between 0% and100% of the diagram height.
Video mode is only available in the time domain.
Remote command:
TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 648
TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​LEVel:​VIDeo​ on page 648
Trigger Polarity
Selects the polarity of the trigger source.
The scan starts after a positive or negative edge of the trigger signal. The default setting is "Pos".
The trigger polarity is unavailable for the free run trigger source.
Remote command:
TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SLOPe​ on page 648
3.3.6 Controlling Inputs and Outputs
The input/output settings are available in the INPUT/OUTPUT menu.
For information on the LISN control see chapter 3.3.7.6, "LISN Settings", on page 69.
Input (AC/DC)................................................................................................................59
Input (1 2)......................................................................................................................60
Input (AC/DC)
Toggles the RF input of the R&S ESR between AC and DC coupling.
Remote command:
INPut:​COUPling​ on page 480
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
59
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Measurement Settings
Input (1 2)
Selects the RF input the signal is applied to.
The first RF Input supports a frequency range from 9 kHz to fmax and an attenuation
range from 0 dB to 75 dB. The second RF Input is a pulse-resistant input. It supports a
frequency range from 9 kHz to 1 GHz and an attenuation range from 10 dB to 75 dB.
Attenuation levels smaller than 10 dB are not possible at RF Input 2.
With option R&S ESR-B29, the minimum frequency is extended to 20 Hz at both RF
inputs.
Remote command:
INPut:​TYPE​ on page 480
3.3.7 Test Automation
The test automation settings are availbale in the MEAS and MEAS CONFIG menu.
The Test Automation dialog box contains functionality to configure automated test
sequences.
It is made up of several tabs, each of which contains the settings for one of the stages
in an automated test sequence (see alsochapter 3.1, "Measurements and Result Displays", on page 15).
The "Peak Search" and "Run Final Test" buttons at the bottom of each of the tabs initiate the corresponding measurement function.
SCPI command:
CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch[:​IMMediate]​ on page 488
INITiate<n>:​FMEasurement​ on page 450
Peak Search
In addition to the "Peak Search" button, you can initiate a peak search with the PEAK
SEARCH key on the R&S ESR front panel.
3.3.7.1
Overview
The "Overview" tab in the "Test Automation" dialog box contains general functions to
configure automated test sequences.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
60
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Measurement Settings
The main part of the "Overview" tab represents a complete test sequence (scan, peak
search and final measurement).
●
The
●
The
item includes (blue state) or excludes (grey state) the peak search and later
stages from the test sequence.
●
The
●
The
item includes (blue state) or excludes (grey state) the final measurement
from the test sequence. Note that if you include the final measurement, the
R&S ESR automatically includes the peak search in the test sequence.
●
The
item opens the Trace / Final Meas tab.
●
The
item opens the peak list after the scan or the final measurement.
item opens the Scan Table tab.
item opens the Peak Search tab.
Below the diagram, frequency domain or time domain analysis is selected, the source
for the scan parameter settings is determined, and the number of scans set.
Fixed Frequency
Selects time domain analysis (fixed frequency measurement mode, see also chapter 3.1.3.4, "Scan on a Fixed Frequency", on page 21).
The overall measurement time for time domain analysis can be defined in a data entry
field. The range is 10 µs to 10.000 s. The value entered is rounded to next integer that
is a multiple of the measurement time of a single bar graph measurement. The minimum value also depends on the set measurement time of a single bar graph measurement and is at least twice this value.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​MODE​ on page 473
[SENSe:​]SCAN:​TDOMain​ on page 455
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
61
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Measurement Settings
Scan Count
Defines the number of scans performed in a single scan or the number of scans included in calculating the moving average in a continuous scan.
Remote command:
Defining the scan count:
[SENSe:​]SWEep:​COUNt​ on page 481
Querying the number of started scans:
[SENSe:​]SWEep:​COUNt:​CURRent​ on page 481
Scan Parameter
Selects the configuration the scan is based on.
"Scan Table"
The scan is performed based on the settings defineds of the scan
table.
"Current"
The scan is performed based on the current setting of the R&S ESR.
Remote command:
not supported
3.3.7.2
Scan Table
The "Scan Table" tab in the "Test Automation" dialog box contains the scan table were
parameters for the individual subranges can be set.
Start / Stop Frequency.................................................................................................. 63
Step Mode.....................................................................................................................63
Time Domain Scan (On Off)..........................................................................................63
Adjust Axis.................................................................................................................... 63
Insert Range Before / After........................................................................................... 63
Delete Range................................................................................................................ 64
Range 1 to 10................................................................................................................64
Prev / Next Range.........................................................................................................64
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
62
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Measurement Settings
Start / Stop Frequency
Defines the start and stop frequency for the scan.
The range for the start frequency is fmin to (fmax - 10 Hz).
The range for the stop frequency is (fmin + 10 Hz) to fmax.
fmin and fmax are defined in the datasheet.
Remote command:
Start frequency:
[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​STARt​ on page 473
Stop frequency:
[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​STOP​ on page 474
Step Mode
Selects the mode for frequency steps.
Note that the frequency stepsize for time domain scans (R&S ESR-K53) is always
selected automatically.
"AUTO"
Linear frequency steps.
The stepsize is coupled to the current resolution bandwidth and is
about a third of the resolution bandwidth. In this way, the probability
to detect all signals in the scan range is very good.
"LIN"
Linear frequency steps.
The stepsize is fix and depends on the Stepsize.
"LOG"
Logarithmic frequency steps.
The stepsize is a percentage of the current frequency.
Remote command:
[[SENSe:​]SWEep:​SPACing​ on page 486
Time Domain Scan (On Off)
Turns the time domain scan on and off.
For more information see chapter 3.1.3.2, "Time Domain Scans in the Frequency
Domain", on page 19.
Note that time domain scans are available with option R&S ESR-K53.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​MODE​ on page 473
Adjust Axis
Adjusts the scale of the horizontal axis if the overall scan range is different than the
scan range defined by the scan subranges.
Remote command:
not supported
Insert Range Before / After
Inserts a new scan range before or after the currently selected range.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
63
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Measurement Settings
Except for the start and stop frequencies, the configuration of the new scan range is
the same as the one that has been selected previously. The selected range is highlighted in orange.
Remote command:
The suffix at SCAN<range> of the commands listed in chapter 9.3.6.2, "Scan Table",
on page 483 defines the ranges.
Delete Range
Deletes the currently selected scan range.
Remote command:
not supported
Range 1 to 10
Configures the currently selected scan range.
You can use and configure up to 10 individual scan ranges. For each range you can
customize the following parameters.
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Range Start / Range Stop
Frequency Stepsize
Resolution Bandwidth
Meas Time
Auto Ranging
RF Attenuation
Preamplifier
Receiver Input
For more information see chapter 3.1.3.3, "The Scan Table", on page 19.
Remote command:
See chapter 9.3.6.2, "Scan Table", on page 483
RF input:
INPut:​TYPE​ on page 480
Prev / Next Range
Selects the scan range to the left or right of the currently selected scan range.
Remote command:
not supported
3.3.7.3
Peak Search
The "Peak Search" tab in the "Test Automation" dialog box contains functionality to
control the peak search.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
64
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Measurement Settings
Peak Search Mode (Peaks Subranges)........................................................................65
No Of Peaks..................................................................................................................65
No of Subranges / Peaks per Subrange....................................................................... 65
Peak Excursion............................................................................................................. 66
Margin........................................................................................................................... 66
Select Limit Line............................................................................................................66
Peak Search Mode (Peaks Subranges)
Selects the peak search mode.
"Peaks"
Looks for a particular number of peaks over the complete scan range.
"Subranges"
Divides the scan range into smaller subranges and looks for a particular number of peaks in each subrange.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch:​METHod​ on page 488
No Of Peaks
Defines the number of peaks the R&S ESR looks for during a peak search.
The range is from 1 to 500 peaks.
The number of peaks only takes effect if the peak search mode is "Peaks".
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch:​SUBRanges​ on page 489
No of Subranges / Peaks per Subrange
Defines the number of subranges for a subrange peak search and the number of
peaks that the R&S ESR looks for in each subrange.
Note that the maximum number of peaks is 500. Thus, the maximum number of peaks
per subrange depends on the number of subranges you have defined.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
65
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Measurement Settings
These parameters only take effect if the peak search mode is "Subranges".
Remote command:
Number of subranges:
CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch:​SUBRanges​ on page 489
Peaks per subrange:
CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch:​SUBRanges:​PCOunt​ on page 489
Peak Excursion
Defines the relative signal level to determine a peak during a peak search.
For more information see chapter 3.1.4, "Peak List and Data Reduction", on page 21.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​PEXCursion​ on page 487
Margin
Defines an additional level margin relative to a limit line that is considered during a
peak search.
For more information see chapter 3.1.4, "Peak List and Data Reduction", on page 21.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch:​MARGin​ on page 488
Select Limit Line
Applies one or more limit lines for the peak search.
For more information on limit lines see chapter 3.4.3, "(Limit) Lines", on page 81.
"Assign to
Trace"
Assigns the limit line to one or more traces.
"Deselect all
Traces"
"Limitcheck
(On Off)"
3.3.7.4
Turns the limit check on and off.
Peak Lists
The peak list dialog box is available for the prescan results and the final measurement
results. Both dialog boxes contain the same elements.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
66
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Measurement Settings
Peak List....................................................................................................................... 67
Insert Frequency........................................................................................................... 67
Delete Frequency..........................................................................................................67
Sort by Delta Limit.........................................................................................................67
Symbols (On Off).......................................................................................................... 68
Peak List Export............................................................................................................ 68
Peak List
Contains information about the peaks that were found during the peak search.
●
●
●
●
Trace / Detector
Shows the number of trace that the peak is on and the detector with which the
peak has been measured.
Frequency
Shows the frequency of the peak level.
Level
Shows the signal level of the peak. The unit depends on the one you have
selected.
Delta Limit
Shows the distance of the peak to a limit line. The delta limit is only calculated if
you have activated a limit line and have assigned it to one more traces.
Insert Frequency
Adds a new frequency to the peak list that is considered in the next scan.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch:​ADD​ on page 487
Delete Frequency
Deletes the currently selected peak list table row (grey highlighting).
Remote command:
not supported
Sort by Delta Limit
Sort the entries of the peak list according to the delta limit results.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
67
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Measurement Settings
The delta limit is the distance of a peak to a limit line, if one has been assigned.
Remote command:
not supported
Symbols (On Off)
Turns the labels on the peak position in the diagram on and off.
The peak labels have a different color and shape depending on the trace they are on.
Trace 1, for example, has red crosses as the peak label. By default they are on.
Remote command:
DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​SYMBol​ on page 490
Peak List Export
Opens a dialog box to export and save the contents of the peak list in ASCII format to
a *.dat file.
The file consists of a header and the results of the scan or the final measurement.
●
●
The header is a list of general instrument settings and characteristics. It consists of
three columns, each column separated by a semicolon: <parameter>;<value>;<unit>.
The results are split into several data sections, one for each active trace. The data
section begins with the entry Trace <x> [Final]:, followed by the trace charactersistics and the peak list data itself.
For a description of the data see chapter 4.3.1.6, "ASCII File Export Format",
on page 271 .
By default, decimal places are separated by a point in the exported list. If required, you
can use a comma instead of a point as the decimal separator.
Remote command:
Export the peak list of the scan results:
MMEMory:​STORe:​PEAKlist​ on page 491
Export the peak list of the final measurement:
MMEMory:​STORe:​FINal​ on page 490
Select the decimal separator:
FORMat:​DEXPort:​DSEParator​ on page 661
3.3.7.5
Trace / Final Meas
The Trace / Final Meas tab in the Test Automation dialog box contains functionality to
configure the traces for the scan and the final measurement.
Final Measurement Time.............................................................................................. 68
Interactive Mode............................................................................................................69
Trace 1 to 6................................................................................................................... 69
Final Measurement Time
Defines the measurement time for the final measurement.
For more information see chapter 3.2.2, "Measurement Time", on page 39.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
68
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Measurement Settings
Interactive Mode
Turns interactive final measurements on and off.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]FMEasurement:​AUTO​ on page 450
Trace 1 to 6
Selects the characteristics of each trace.
In addition to the trace mode, you can select a detector for the scan and the final measurement. For more information see
●
●
●
●
chapter 3.1.3, "Scans", on page 17
chapter 3.1.5, "Final Measurement", on page 23
chapter 3.2.4, "Trace Modes", on page 44
chapter 3.2.3, "Detectors", on page 40
Remote command:
Trace mode:
DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​MODE​ on page 491
Scan detector:
[SENSe:​][WINDow:​]DETector<trace>[:​FUNCtion]​ on page 491
Final measurement detector:
[SENSe:​]DETector<t>:​FMEasurement​ on page 450
3.3.7.6
LISN Settings
The "LISN Settings" tab in the "Test Automation" dialog box contains functionality to
control line impedance networks.
LISN Type..................................................................................................................... 70
Prescan Phase..............................................................................................................70
Final Test Phase........................................................................................................... 70
150 kHz Highpass Filter................................................................................................ 70
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
69
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Analysis Functions
LISN Type
Selects the V-network to be controlled via the user port.
For more information see chapter 3.2.6, "V-Networks Control (LISN)", on page 46.
Remote command:
For the scan:
INPut:​LISN[:​TYPE]​ on page 495
For the final measurement:
[SENSe:​]FMEasurement:​LISN[:​TYPE]​ on page 493
Prescan Phase
Selects the phase of the network you want to control during the scan.
During the scan, you can control more than one phase at a time.
For more information see chapter 3.2.6, "V-Networks Control (LISN)", on page 46.
Remote command:
INPut:​LISN:​PHASe​ on page 494
Final Test Phase
Selects the phase of the network you want to control during the final measurement.
During the final measurement you can control more than one phase.
For more information see chapter 3.2.6, "V-Networks Control (LISN)", on page 46.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]FMEasurement:​LISN:​PHASe​ on page 493
150 kHz Highpass Filter
Turns the highpass filter avaiable with the R&S ENV216 network on and off.
For more information see chapter 3.2.6, "V-Networks Control (LISN)", on page 46.
Remote command:
Highpass filter for the scan:
INPut:​LISN:​FILTer:​HPAS[:​STATe]​ on page 494
Highpass filter for the final measurement:
[SENSe:​]FMEasurement:​LISN:​FILTer:​HPAS[:​STATe]​ on page 493
3.4 Common Analysis Functions
3.4.1 Trace Configuration
The TRACE key is used to configure the data acquisition for measurement and the
analysis of the measurement data.
The R&S ESR is capable of displaying up to six different traces at a time in a diagram.
A trace consists of a maximum of 691 displayed measurement points on the horizontal
axis (frequency or time). If more measured values than measurement points are available, several measured values are combined in one displayed measurement point.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
70
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Analysis Functions
The trace functions include the following:
●
Display mode of the trace
For details on trace modes see chapter 3.2.4, "Trace Modes", on page 44.
●
Evaluation of individual measurement points of a trace. For details on detectors
see chapter 3.2.3, "Detectors", on page 40.
To open the Trace menu
●
Press the TRACE key.
The "Trace" menu is displayed.
Further information
●
chapter 3.2.4, "Trace Modes", on page 44
●
chapter 3.2.3, "Detectors", on page 40
●
chapter 4.3.1.6, "ASCII File Export Format", on page 271
Tasks
●
chapter 4.3.1.2, "Configuring Traces", on page 267
●
chapter 4.3.1.3, "Specifying the Trace Settings", on page 268
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Trace" menu. It is possible that
your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available
with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is provided in the
corresponding softkey description.
Trace 1 - 6.....................................................................................................................71
More Traces.................................................................................................................. 71
Copy Trace....................................................................................................................72
Trace Wizard.................................................................................................................72
ASCII Trace Export....................................................................................................... 72
Decim Sep.....................................................................................................................72
Trace 1 - 6
Opens a submenu to select the trace mode and detector (for both scan and final measurement).
For more information see chapter 3.2.3, "Detectors", on page 40 and chapter 3.2.4,
"Trace Modes", on page 44.
Remote command:
Selecting the trace mode:
DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​MODE​ on page 491
Selecting the detector for the scan:
[SENSe:​][WINDow:​]DETector<trace>[:​FUNCtion]​ on page 663
Selecting the detector for the final measurement:
[SENSe:​]DETector<t>:​FMEasurement​ on page 450
More Traces
Opens a submenu to select one of the traces not currently displayed in the main menu.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
71
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Analysis Functions
Copy Trace
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of the trace memory in which the currently selected trace will be copied.
Remote command:
TRACe<n>:​COPY​ on page 664
Trace Wizard
Opens the "Trace Wizard" dialog box.
For more information see chapter 3.3.7.5, "Trace / Final Meas", on page 68.
ASCII Trace Export
Opens the "ASCII Trace Export Name" dialog box and saves the active trace in ASCII
format to the specified file and directory.
The file consists of the header containing important scaling parameters and a data section containing the trace data. For details on an ASCII file see chapter 4.3.1.6, "ASCII
File Export Format", on page 271.
This format can be processed by spreadsheet calculation programs, e.g. MS-Excel. It
is necessary to define ';' as a separator for the data import. Different language versions
of evaluation programs may require a different handling of the decimal point. It is therefore possible to select between separators '.' (decimal point) and ',' (comma) using the
"Decim Sep" softkey (see "Decim Sep" on page 72).
Remote command:
FORMat:​DEXPort:​DSEParator​ on page 661
MMEMory:​STORe<n>:​TRACe​ on page 661
Decim Sep
Selects the decimal separator with floating-point numerals for the ASCII Trace export
to support evaluation programs (e.g. MS-Excel) in different languages. The values '.'
(decimal point) and ',' (comma) can be set.
Remote command:
FORMat:​DEXPort:​DSEParator​ on page 661
3.4.2 Markers
3.4.2.1
Controlling Markers
The markers are used for marking points on traces, reading out measurement results
and for selecting a display section quickly. The R&S ESR provides 16 markers per
trace.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
72
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Analysis Functions
Fig. 3-6: Marker types
All markers can be used either as markers or delta markers. The marker that can be
moved by the user is defined in the following as the active marker. Temporary markers
are used in addition to the markers and delta markers to evaluate the measurement
results. They disappear when the associated function is deactivated.
The measurement results of the active marker (also called marker values) are displayed in the marker field, which is located at the upper right corner of the diagram, or
in a separate table beneath the diagram. The marker information includes the following:
●
marker type (M1 in the example)
●
trace in square brackets ([1] in the example)
●
level (-33.09 dBm in the example)
●
marker location (3 GHz in the example)
Fig. 3-7: Marker values
The MKR key is used to select and position the absolute and relative measurement
markers (markers and delta markers). In addition, the functions for the frequency counter, a fixed reference point for relative measurement markers, and for enlargement of
the measurement area are assigned to this key.
To open the Marker menu
●
Press the MKR key.
The "Marker" menu is displayed. If no marker is active, marker 1 is activated and a
peak search on the trace is carried out. Otherwise, the edit dialog box for the last
activated marker is opened and the current frequency/time value is displayed.
Further information
●
"Displayed Marker Information" on page 280
●
chapter 3.4.2.2, "Positioning Markers", on page 77.
Tasks
●
"Basic Marker Functions" on page 278
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
73
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Analysis Functions
Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta
The "Marker X" softkey activates the corresponding marker and opens an edit dialog
box to enter a value for the marker to be set to. Pressing the softkey again deactivates
the selected marker.
If a marker value is changed using the rotary knob, the step size is defined via the
Stepsize Standard or Stepsize Sweep Points softkeys.
Marker 1 is always the reference marker for relative measurements. If activated, markers 2 to 16 are delta markers that refer to marker 1. These markers can be converted
into markers with absolute value display using the "Marker Norm/Delta" softkey. If
marker 1 is the active marker, pressing the "Marker Norm/Delta" softkey switches on
an additional delta marker.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>[:​STATe]​ on page 503
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X​ on page 504
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​Y​ on page 505
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>[:​STATe]​ on page 510
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​X​ on page 511
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​X:​RELative​ on page 511
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​Y​ on page 512
More Markers
Opens a sub-menu to select one of up to 16 available markers. See "Marker 1 / Marker
2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta" on page 74.
Marker to Trace
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of the trace on which the marker is to be
placed.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​TRACe​ on page 504
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​TRACe​ on page 510
Marker Wizard
Opens a configuration dialog for markers. The marker wizard allows you to configure
and activate up to 16 different markers in one dialog. The first 8 markers are displayed
on one tab, the last 8 markers on a second tab. For each marker, the following settings
are available:
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
74
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Analysis Functions
"Selected/
State"
When you press the "Selected" or "State" field the corresponding
marker is activated and the marker row is highlighted.
"Normal/Delta"
Defines whether it is a normal marker or delta marker. For delta
markers you can define a reference marker.
"Ref. Marker"
Reference marker for delta markers. The marker values for the delta
marker are indicated relative to the specified reference marker.
The reference marker can either be another active marker, or a fixed
reference marker ("FXD", see "Ref Fixed" on page 289).
"Trace"
Trace for which the marker is to be set.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>[:​STATe]​ on page 503
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>[:​STATe]​ on page 510
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​TRACe​ on page 504
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​TRACe​ on page 510
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MREF​ on page 678
All Marker Off ← Marker Wizard
Switches all markers off. It also switches off all functions and displays that are associated with the markers/delta markers.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​AOFF​ on page 500
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
75
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Analysis Functions
All Marker Off
Switches all markers off. It also switches off all functions and displays that are associated with the markers/delta markers.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​AOFF​ on page 500
Marker Table
Defines how the marker information is displayed.
For more information, see Displayed Marker Information.
"On"
Displays the marker information in a table in a separate area beneath
the diagram.
"Off"
Displays the marker information within the diagram area.
"Aut"
(Default) The marker table is displayed automatically if more than 2
markers are active, and removed if only 1 or 2 markers are active.
This helps keep the information in the display clear.
Remote command:
DISPlay:​MTABle​ on page 677
Marker Info (On Off)
Turns the numerical marker information in the diagram area on and off.
Remote command:
DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​MINFo:​STATe​ on page 499
Tune to Marker
Defines the marker frequency as the new center frequency.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​CENTer​ on page 496
Marker Track
Turns marker frequency tracking on and off.
If on, the R&S ESR changes the center frequency to the marker frequency when you
change the marker position.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​COUPled[:​STATe]​ on page 496
Settings Coupled
Couples or decouples the receiver settings to the scan range settings when you use
"Marker Tracking".
If on, the R&S ESR changes the receiver settings according to the scan range the
marker frequency is currently in.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​SCOupled[:​STATe]​ on page 497
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
76
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Analysis Functions
3.4.2.2
Positioning Markers
The MKR ➙ key is used for search functions of measurement markers, assignment of
the marker frequency as center frequency, restriction of the search area and characterization of maxima and minima. For details on markers in general, see chapter 3.4.2.1,
"Controlling Markers", on page 72.
To open the Marker To menu
●
Press the MKR -> key.
The "Marker To" menu is displayed. If no marker is active, marker 1 will be activated and a peak search on the trace carried out. Otherwise, the edit dialog box for
the last activated marker is opened and the current frequency/time value is displayed.
Further information
●
"Effect of Different Peak Excursion Settings (Example)" on page 284
Tasks
●
"Searching for a Maximum" on page 283
●
"Searching for a Minimum" on page 283
●
"Specifying the Search Limits" on page 283
●
"Specifying the Search Range" on page 283
●
"Examining a Signal at the Center in Detail" on page 283
●
"Specifying the Suitable Peak Excursion" on page 284
Select Marker (No)
Opens a submenu to select one of 16 markers and define whether the marker is a normal or a delta marker (see "Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker
Norm/Delta" on page 74). "(No)" indicates the number of the currently active marker.
Peak
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the highest maximum of the trace.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MAXimum[:​PEAK]​ on page 501
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MAXimum[:​PEAK]​ on page 507
Next Peak
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next maximum of the selected trace.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MAXimum:​NEXT​ on page 500
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MAXimum:​NEXT​ on page 507
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
77
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Analysis Functions
Min
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the minimum of the selected trace.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MINimum[:​PEAK]​ on page 502
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MINimum[:​PEAK]​ on page 509
Next Min
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next minimum of the selected trace.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MINimum:​NEXT​ on page 502
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MINimum:​NEXT​ on page 508
Next Mode
Selects the mode of the Next Peak or Next Min softkey.
Three settings are available:
"<"
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next maximum/minimum
left to the marker of the selected trace.
"abs"
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next lower maximum/
higher minimum of the selected trace.
">"
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next maximum/minimum
right to the marker of the selected trace.
Remote command:
Next Peak:
CALC:MARK:MAX:LEFT (<): CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MAXimum:​LEFT​
on page 500
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MAXimum:​LEFT​ on page 507
CALC:MARK:MAX:RIGH (>): CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MAXimum:​RIGHt​
on page 501
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MAXimum:​RIGHt​ on page 508
CALC:DELT:MAX:NEXT (abs): CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MAXimum:​NEXT​
on page 500
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MAXimum:​NEXT​ on page 507
Next Min:
CALC:MARK:MIN:LEFT (>): CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MINimum:​LEFT​
on page 502
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MINimum:​LEFT​ on page 508
CALC:MARK:MIN:RIGH (>): CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MINimum:​RIGHt​
on page 503
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MINimum:​RIGHt​ on page 509
CALC:MARK:MIN:NEXT (abs): CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MINimum:​NEXT​
on page 502
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MINimum:​NEXT​ on page 508
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
78
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Analysis Functions
Search Limits
Opens a submenu to set the limits for maximum or minimum search in the x and y
direction.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SLIMits[:​STATe]​ on page 499
Left Limit ← Search Limits
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for the lower limit (left vertical line: S1 for
span > 0; T1 for zero span). The search is performed between the lines of the left and
right limit (see also Right Limit softkey).
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SLIMits:​LEFT​ on page 498
Right Limit ← Search Limits
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for the upper limit (left vertical line: S2 for
span > 0; T2 for zero span). The search is performed between the lines of the left and
right limit (see also Left Limit softkey). If no value is set, the upper limit corresponds to
the stop frequency.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SLIMits:​RIGHT​ on page 498
Threshold ← Search Limits
Opens an edit dialog box to define the threshold line. The threshold line represents the
lower level limit for a "Peak" search and the upper level limit for a "Min" search.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​THReshold:​STATe​ on page 677
CALCulate<n>:​THReshold​ on page 676
Use Zoom Limits ← Search Limits
Restricts the marker search to the zoomed area.
Note that the marker zoom is only available in Spectrum mode.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SLIMits:​ZOOM​ on page 675
Search Lim Off ← Search Limits
Deactivates all limits of the search range.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SLIMits[:​STATe]​ on page 499
CALCulate<n>:​THReshold:​STATe​ on page 677
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
79
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Analysis Functions
Peak Excursion
Opens an edit dialog box for level measurements to enter the minimum level value by
which a signal must rise or fall so that it will be identified as a maximum or a minimum
by the search functions. Entries from 0 dB to 80 dB are allowed; the resolution is 0.1
dB. The default setting for the peak excursion is 6 dB.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​PEXCursion​ on page 487
3.4.2.3
Markers in Spectrograms
In addition to the marker functionality described above, spectrograms support the following marker positioning functionality.
Search Mode.................................................................................................................80
└ Next Mode X................................................................................................... 80
└ Next Mode Y................................................................................................... 80
└ Marker Search Type....................................................................................... 81
└ Select Search Area......................................................................................... 81
Search Mode
Opens a submenu to select the marker search mode.
Next Mode X ← Search Mode
Sets the search mode for the marker peak search if a search in the x-direction is
active. Three modes are available:
"<"
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next maximum/minimum
left of the marker of the selected trace.
"abs"
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next lower maximum/
higher minimum of the selected trace.
">"
Sets the active marker/delta marker to the next maximum/minimum
right of the marker of the selected trace.
Remote command:
See chapter 9.3.1.8, "Spectrogram Control", on page 456
Next Mode Y ← Search Mode
Sets the search mode for the marker peak search if a search in the y direction is
active. Three modes are available:
"up"
Places the active marker or deltamarker to the next peak value above
the current marker position.
"abs"
Places the active marker or deltamarker to the next peak either to the
left or to the right of the current position.
"dn"
Places the active marker or deltamarker to the next peak value below
the current marker position.
Remote command:
See chapter 9.3.1.8, "Spectrogram Control", on page 456
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
80
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Analysis Functions
Marker Search Type ← Search Mode
Opens a dialog box to select the marker search direction.
●
●
●
X Search
Performs a search in the currently selected frame.
Y Search
Performs a search on the marker frequency (span > 0) or time (span = 0) over all
captured frames.
XY Search
Performs a search in the frequency domain (span >0) or time domain (span=0) and
over all captured frames at the same time.
An XY Search is possible for searches that are independent on direction (< and >)
Select Search Area ← Search Mode
Opens a dialog box to specify the search area.
●
●
Visible
Performs a search in the visible Spectrogram area only.
Note that if the Spectrogram is not visible for any reason (e.g. if the Spectrum Analyzer is in full screen mode), the search area is the data stored in the memory.
Memory
Performs a search over all captured frames that are stored in the memory of the
R&S ESR
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​SGRam:​SARea​ on page 461
3.4.3 (Limit) Lines
The LINES key is used to configure limit and display lines.
To open the Lines menu
●
Press the LINES key.
The "Lines" menu and the "Select Limit Line" dialog box are displayed. For details on
the "Select Limit Line" dialog box refer to chapter 3.4.3.5, "Selecting a Limit Line",
on page 88.
Menu and softkey description
●
chapter 3.4.3.1, "Softkeys of the Lines Menu", on page 82
Further information
●
chapter 3.4.3.2, "Display Lines", on page 86
●
chapter 3.4.3.3, "Limit Lines (Frequency/Time Lines)", on page 87
Tasks
●
chapter 3.4.3.4, "Working with Lines", on page 87
●
chapter 3.4.3.5, "Selecting a Limit Line", on page 88
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
81
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Analysis Functions
3.4.3.1
●
chapter 3.4.3.6, "Creating a New Limit Line", on page 89
●
chapter 3.4.3.7, "Editing an Existing Limit Line", on page 91
●
chapter 3.4.3.8, "Creating a New Limit Line Based upon an Existing Limit Line",
on page 91
●
chapter 3.4.3.9, "Activating/Deactivating a Limit Line", on page 92
Softkeys of the Lines Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Lines" menu.
Further information
●
chapter 3.4.3.2, "Display Lines", on page 86
●
chapter 3.4.3.3, "Limit Lines (Frequency/Time Lines)", on page 87
Tasks
●
chapter 3.4.3.4, "Working with Lines", on page 87
●
chapter 3.4.3.5, "Selecting a Limit Line", on page 88
●
chapter 3.4.3.6, "Creating a New Limit Line", on page 89
●
chapter 3.4.3.7, "Editing an Existing Limit Line", on page 91
●
chapter 3.4.3.8, "Creating a New Limit Line Based upon an Existing Limit Line",
on page 91
●
chapter 3.4.3.9, "Activating/Deactivating a Limit Line", on page 92
Select Traces to check..................................................................................................83
Deselect All................................................................................................................... 83
New............................................................................................................................... 83
└ Edit Name....................................................................................................... 83
└ Edit Comment................................................................................................. 83
└ Edit Margin......................................................................................................83
└ Edit Value........................................................................................................83
└ Insert Value.....................................................................................................84
└ Delete Value................................................................................................... 84
└ Save Limit Line............................................................................................... 84
Edit................................................................................................................................ 84
Copy to..........................................................................................................................84
Delete............................................................................................................................84
X Offset......................................................................................................................... 84
Y Offset......................................................................................................................... 85
Display Lines.................................................................................................................85
└ Display Line 1 / Display Line 2........................................................................85
└ Frequency Line 1 / Frequency Line 2 ............................................................ 85
└ Time Line 1 / Time Line 2............................................................................... 86
└ Tuned Frequency (On Off)..............................................................................86
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
82
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Analysis Functions
Select Traces to check
Opens a dialog box to activate the selected limit line for a trace. One limit line can be
activated for several traces simultaneously. For details see also chapter 3.4.3.9, "Activating/Deactivating a Limit Line", on page 92.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​TRACe​ on page 516
CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​STATe​ on page 528
Deselect All
Deactivates the selected limit line for all assigned traces. For details see also chapter 3.4.3.9, "Activating/Deactivating a Limit Line", on page 92.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​STATe​ on page 528
New
Opens the "Edit Limit Line" dialog box and a submenu to define a new limit line. For
details see also chapter 3.4.3.3, "Limit Lines (Frequency/Time Lines)", on page 87
and chapter 3.4.3.5, "Selecting a Limit Line", on page 88.
Edit Name ← New
Sets the focus on the "Name" field to enter or change the limit line name. All names
must be compatible with the Windows XP conventions for file names. The limit line
data are stored under this name. The instrument stores all limit lines with LIM as extension.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​LOWer:​MODE​ on page 521
Edit Comment ← New
Sets the focus on the "Comment" field to enter or change a comment for the limit line.
The text must not exceed 40 characters.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​COMMent​ on page 515
Edit Margin ← New
Sets the focus on the "Margin" field to enter or change a margin for the limit line. The
default setting is 0 dB (i.e. no margin).
Edit Value ← New
Opens an edit dialog box to change an existing x or y value, depending on the selected
column. The softkey is only available if an existing value is selected.
The desired data points are entered in ascending order (two repeated frequencies/time
values are permitted).
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​CONTrol[:​DATA]​ on page 518
CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​UPPer[:​DATA]​ on page 523
CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​LOWer[:​DATA]​ on page 520
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
83
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Analysis Functions
Insert Value ← New
Creates an empty line above the selected data point to enter a new data point.
It is also possible to add a data point at the end of the list, if the focus is set below the
last entry line of the list.
The data points are entered in ascending order (two repeated frequencies/time values
are permitted). If the entered values are not in accordance with the ascending order
rule, an error message is displayed and the values are discarded.
Delete Value ← New
Deletes the selected data point (x and y value). All succeeding data points are shifted
up accordingly. This softkey is only available if an existing value is selected.
Save Limit Line ← New
Saves the currently edited limit line under the name defined in the "Name" field.
Edit
Opens a submenu to edit limit lines. For details see also chapter 3.4.3.3, "Limit Lines
(Frequency/Time Lines)", on page 87 and chapter 3.4.3.7, "Editing an Existing Limit
Line", on page 91.
The submenu contains the same commands as the "New" menu, see "New"
on page 83.
Remote command:
see "Using Display Lines" on page 671
Copy to
Copies the data of the selected limit line and displays it in the "Edit Limit Line" dialog
box. If the limit line is edited and saved under a new name, a new limit line can be
easily generated by parallel translation or editing of an existing limit line.
For details see also chapter 3.4.3.3, "Limit Lines (Frequency/Time Lines)",
on page 87 and chapter 3.4.3.8, "Creating a New Limit Line Based upon an Existing
Limit Line", on page 91.
The submenu contains the same commands as the "New" menu, see "New"
on page 83.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​COPY​ on page 515
Delete
Deletes the selected limit line.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​DELete​ on page 516
X Offset
Horizontally shifts a limit line that has been specified for relative frequencies or times
(x-axis). The softkey opens an edit dialog box in which the value for shifting can be
entered numerically or via the rotary knob.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
84
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Analysis Functions
Note: This softkey does not have any effect on limit lines that represent absolute values for the x-axis.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​CONTrol:​OFFSet​ on page 519
Y Offset
Vertically shifts a limit line that has relative values for the y-axis (levels or linear units
such as volt). The softkey opens an edit dialog box in which the value for shifting can
be entered numerically or via the rotary knob.
Note: This softkey does not have any effect on limit lines that represent absolute values for the y-axis.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​LOWer:​OFFSet​ on page 521
CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​UPPer:​OFFSet​ on page 525
Display Lines
Opens a submenu to enable, disable and set display lines. Which softkeys are available depends on the display mode (frequency or time range).
For details see also chapter 3.4.3.2, "Display Lines", on page 86 and chapter 3.4.3.4,
"Working with Lines", on page 87.
The submenu contains the following functions:
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
"Display Line 1 / Display Line 2" on page 85
"Display Line 1 / Display Line 2" on page 85
"Frequency Line 1 / Frequency Line 2 " on page 85
"Frequency Line 1 / Frequency Line 2 " on page 85
"Time Line 1 / Time Line 2" on page 86
"Time Line 1 / Time Line 2" on page 86
"Tuned Frequency (On Off)" on page 86
Display Line 1 / Display Line 2 ← Display Lines
Enables or disables the level lines 1/2 and opens an edit dialog box to enter the position of the lines.
For details see also chapter 3.4.3.2, "Display Lines", on page 86 and chapter 3.4.3.4,
"Working with Lines", on page 87.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​DLINe<k>​ on page 513
CALCulate<n>:​DLINe<k>:​STATe​ on page 513
Frequency Line 1 / Frequency Line 2 ← Display Lines
Enables or disables the frequency lines 1/2 (span > 0) and opens an edit dialog box to
enter the position of the lines.
For details see also chapter 3.4.3.2, "Display Lines", on page 86 and chapter 3.4.3.4,
"Working with Lines", on page 87.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​FLINe<k>​ on page 514
CALCulate<n>:​FLINe<k>:​STATe​ on page 514
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
85
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Analysis Functions
Time Line 1 / Time Line 2 ← Display Lines
Enables or disables the time lines 1/2 (zero span) and opens an edit dialog box to
enter the position of the lines.
For details see also chapter 3.4.3.2, "Display Lines", on page 86 and chapter 3.4.3.4,
"Working with Lines", on page 87.
Note that time lines are only available in Spectrum mode.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​TLINe<Line>​ on page 672
CALCulate<n>:​TLINe<Line>:​STATe​ on page 672
Tuned Frequency (On Off) ← Display Lines
Turns a frequency line coupled to the receiver frequency on and off.
The line that marks the receiver frequency is a green line labeled "TF".
Available for the Scan result display.
Remote command:
CALCulate:​TFLine:​STATe​ on page 514
3.4.3.2
Display Lines
Display lines help to evaluate a trace – as do markers. The function of a display line is
comparable to that of a ruler that can be shifted on the trace in order to mark absolute
values. They are used exclusively to visually mark relevant frequencies or points in
time (span = 0), as well as constant level values. It is not possible to check automatically whether the points are below or above the marked level values.
For details on setting and switching the display lines on/off see chapter 3.4.3.4, "Working with Lines", on page 87.
Two different types of display lines are provided:
●
Two horizontal level lines for marking levels – Display Line 1 and 2
The level lines are continuous horizontal lines across the entire width of a diagram
and can be shifted in y direction.
●
Two vertical frequency or time lines for marking frequencies or points in time – Frequency/Time Line 1 and 2
The frequency or time lines are continuous vertical lines across the entire height of
the diagram and can be shifted in x direction.
Lables
Each line is identified by one of the following abbreviations in the display:
●
D1: Display Line 1
●
D2: Display Line 2
●
F1: Frequency Line 1
●
F2: Frequency Line 2
●
T1: Time Line 1
●
T2: Time Line 2
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
86
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Analysis Functions
3.4.3.3
Limit Lines (Frequency/Time Lines)
Limit lines are used to define amplitude curves or spectral distribution boundaries on
the display screen which are not to be exceeded. They indicate, for example, the upper
limits for interference radiation or spurious waves which are allowed from a device
under test (DUT). For transmission of information in TDMA systems (e.g. GSM), the
amplitude of the bursts in a timeslot must adhere to a curve that falls within a specified
tolerance band. The lower and upper limits may each be specified by a limit line. Then,
the amplitude curve can be controlled either visually or automatically for any violations
of the upper or lower limits (GO/NOGO test).
The instrument supports limit lines with a maximum of 50 data points. 8 of the limit
lines stored in the instrument can be activated simultaneously. The number of limit
lines stored in the instrument is only limited by the capacity of the flash disk used.
Which softkeys are available depends on the display mode (frequency or time range).
For details see also chapter 3.4.3.5, "Selecting a Limit Line", on page 88.
Limit lines are compatible with the current measurement settings, if the following
applies:
●
The x unit of the limit line has to be identical to the current setting.
●
The y unit of the limit line has to be identical to the current setting with the exception of dB based units; all dB based units are compatible with each other.
At the time of entry, the R&S ESR immediately checks that all limit lines are in accordance with the following guidelines:
3.4.3.4
●
The frequencies/times for each data point must be entered in ascending order,
however, for any single frequency/time, two data points may be entered (vertical
segment of a limit line).
●
The data points are allocated in order of ascending frequency/time. Gaps are not
allowed. If gaps are desired, two separate limit lines must be defined and then both
enabled.
●
The entered frequencies/times need not necessarily be selectable in R&S ESR. A
limit line may also exceed the specified frequency or time range. The minimum frequency for a data point is -200 GHz, the maximum frequency is 200 GHz. For the
time range representation, negative times may also be entered. The allowed range
is -1000 s to +1000 s.
Working with Lines
If a line is switched on, the softkey is highlighted.
Switching a line on or off
1. Press the Display Lines softkey.
2. Press the softkey for the required line, e.g. Display Line 1 / Display Line 2.
An edit dialog box is opened to enter the position of the line. If the line was
switched off, it is switched on. If it was switched on, it remains switched on.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
87
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Analysis Functions
3. If another softkey is pressed, the edit dialog box for the line is closed, but the line
remains switched on (softkey with highlighted background).
4. When you press the Display Line 1 / Display Line 2 softkey for the second time, the
edit dialog box for the line is opened again.
5. When you press the Display Line 1 / Display Line 2 softkey the third time, the line
is switched off (softkey without highlighted background).
3.4.3.5
Selecting a Limit Line
●
To display the "Select Limit Line" dialog box, press the LINES key.
All limit lines saved in the default directory and all subdirectories are displayed. For
each limit line, the following information is given:
"Unit"
unit of the y-axis
"Traces"
selected traces to check
"Show"
limit line displayed in the measurement diagram or hidden
"Compatible"
compatibility of the limit line to the current measurement settings
"Offset"
user-definable X- and Y-offset for the limit line
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
88
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Analysis Functions
●
3.4.3.6
To display only the limit lines that are compatible, activate the "Show compatible"
option. For details on compatibility refer to chapter 3.4.3.3, "Limit Lines (Frequency/
Time Lines)", on page 87.
Creating a New Limit Line
Press the New softkey to define a new limit line.
The "Edit Limit Line" dialog box is displayed. For more details on limit lines refer also to
chapter 3.4.3.3, "Limit Lines (Frequency/Time Lines)", on page 87. The following settings can be defined:
Setting
Description
Name
The name under which the limit line is to be stored in the main directory.
To save the limit line in an existing subdirectory, enter the relative path. A new
subdirectory can only be created using the FILE key (for details refer to "Save
File / Recall File" on page 388.
Comment
Optional description
Threshold
Absolute threshold value that works as a lower limit for the relative limit values
(only for relative scaling of the y-axis).
Margin
A fixed distance to the limit line.
Margins are not as strict as limits and belong to the valid value range, but violation is also indicated in the display.
Position
Position of data point
Value
Value of data point
X-Axis:
Span setting
●
●
"Hz" for span > 0 Hz
"s" for zero span
Scale mode
●
Absolute: The frequencies or times are interpreted as absolute physical
units.
Relative: In the data point table, the frequencies are referred to the currently set center frequency. In the zero span mode, the left boundary of the
diagram constitutes the reference.
Relative scaling is always suitable if masks for bursts are to be defined in
zero span or if masks for modulated signals are required for span > 0 Hz.
●
Scale
●
●
Linear
Logarithmic
Y-Axis:
Scale unit
Unit of the y-axis
Scale mode
●
●
Absolute: The limit values refer to absolute levels or voltages.
Relative: The limit values refer to the reference level (Ref Level). Limit values with the unit dB are always relative values.
Limit type
●
●
Upper limit
Lower limit
In addition, the following functions are available for the limit line:
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
89
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Analysis Functions
Defining a threshold
If the scaling of the y-axis is relative, you can define an absolute threshold value that
works as a lower limit for the relative limit values (see figure below).
► Enter a value in the "Threshold" field of the "Edit Limit Line" dialog box.
The function is especially useful for mobile radio applications provided the limit values
are defined in relation to the carrier power as long as they are above an absolute limit
value.
Defining a margin
A margin is similar to a limit, but less strict and it still belongs to the valid data range. It
can be used as a warning that the limit is almost reached. The margin is not indicated
by a separate line in the display.
► Enter a value in the "Margin" field of the "Edit limit Line" dialog box.
If the limit line is defined as an upper limit, the margin is below the limit line. If the
limit line is defined as a lower limit, the margin is above the limit line.
Entering a new data point
1. Press the "Insert value" button in the dialog, or select an existing data point in the
table and press the Insert Value softkey.
2. Enter the new position (x) and value (y) in the edit dialog box.
Changing a data point
1. Press on the data point to be changed in the table.
2. Enter the new position (x) and value (y) in the edit dialog box.
Deleting a data point
1. Press on the data point to be deleted in the table.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
90
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Analysis Functions
2. Press the "Delete" button in the dialog.
Shifting a limit line horizontally
► Select the "Shift x" button and enter a shift width for the x value in the edit dialog
box.
Shifting a limit line vertically
► Select the "Shift y" button and enter a shift width for the y value in the edit dialog
box.
Saving the limit line settings
► Press the "Save" button in the dialog.
If an existing name is used, a message box is displayed. You have to confirm
before the limit line is overwritten.
3.4.3.7
Editing an Existing Limit Line
In the "Select Limit Line" dialog box, select the limit line you want to change. For
details see also chapter 3.4.3.5, "Selecting a Limit Line", on page 88.
Note that any changes to the special limit lines for spurious and SEM measurements
are automatically overwritten when the sweep list settings are changed.
1. Press the "Edit" on page 84 softkey.
2. Edit the data as described in chapter 3.4.3.6, "Creating a New Limit Line",
on page 89.
3. Save the limit line ( "Save Limit Line" on page 84 softkey).
3.4.3.8
Creating a New Limit Line Based upon an Existing Limit Line
1. In the "Select Limit Line" dialog box, select the limit line you want to use as a basis
for a new limit line. For details see also chapter 3.4.3.5, "Selecting a Limit Line",
on page 88.
2. Press the Copy to softkey to transfer the data of the limit line into the "Edit Limit
Line" dialog box.
3. Press the Edit Name softkey and enter a new name.
4. To shift the complete limit line parallel in the horizontal direction, select the "Shift x"
button and enter an x shift value. In this manner, a new limit line can be easily generated based upon an existing limit line which has been shifted horizontally.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
91
R&S®ESR
Receiver Mode
Common Analysis Functions
5. To shift the complete limit line parallel in the vertical direction, select the "Shift y"
button and enter a y shift value. In this manner, a new limit line can be easily generated based upon an existing limit line which has been shifted vertically.
6. If required, edit the data as described in chapter 3.4.3.5, "Selecting a Limit Line",
on page 88.
7. Save the limit line ( Save Limit Line softkey).
3.4.3.9
Activating/Deactivating a Limit Line
Prerequisites:
The x- and y-units of limit line and current measurement setting have to be compatible.
For details refer to chapter 3.4.3.3, "Limit Lines (Frequency/Time Lines)", on page 87.
The limit line has to consist of 2 or more data points.
1. In the "Select Limit Line" dialog box, select the limit line you want to activate/deactivate. For details see also chapter 3.4.3.5, "Selecting a Limit Line", on page 88.
2. To activate or deactivate a limit line for a trace, press the "Select Traces to check"
on page 83 softkey and select or deselect the trace(s) to which this limit line
applies.
3. To deactivate the limit line for all traces, press the "Deselect All" on page 83 softkey.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
92
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
4 Spectrum Measurements
You can also perform conventional spectrum analysis with the R&S ESR.
When you start the R&S ESR for the first time or after a preset, it starts in receiver
mode. If it is inactive, press the MODE key and select the "Spectrum" softkey in the
corresponding menu to enter the spectrum mode.
This chapter of the manual describes all functionality that is available in spectrum
mode.
●
chapter 4.1, "Measurements", on page 93
This section describes how to configure and perform specific measurements that
are available in Spectrum mode.
Measurement examples are provided in the Quick Start Guide, chapter 5 "Basic
Measurement Examples" and the Operating Manual, chapter "Advanced Measurement Examples".
●
chapter 4.3, "Analysis", on page 258
This section decribes the tools that are available to analyze measurement results.
●
chapter 4.2, "Configuration", on page 213
This section describes general measurement parameters. The general measurement parameters apply to all measurements performed in Spectrum mode.
4.1 Measurements
In the Spectrum mode, the R&S ESR provides a variety of different measurement functions.
The individual functions are described in detail in the following sections.
4.1.1 Power Measurements – MEAS Key
With its power measurement functions, the R&S ESR is able to measure all the necessary parameters with high accuracy in a wide dynamic range.
A modulated carrier is almost always used (except e.g. SSB-AM) for high-frequency
transmission of information. Due to the information modulated upon the carrier, the latter covers a spectrum which is defined by the modulation, the transmission data rate
and the signal filtering. Within a transmission band each carrier is assigned a channel
taking into account these parameters. In order to ensure error-free transmission, each
transmitter must be conforming to the specified parameters. These include among others:
●
the output power
●
the occupied bandwidth, i.e. the bandwidth which must contain a defined percentage of the power
●
the power dissipation allowed in the adjacent channels
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
93
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
The MEAS key is used for complex measurement functions as power measurements,
occupied bandwidth, signal statistic, carrier to noise spacing, AM modulation depth,
third-order intercept point, harmonics and spurious emissions. For measurement
examples refer to the Quick Start Guide, "Basic Measurement Examples".
The following measurements can be performed:
●
Channel power and adjacent-channel power with span > 0 and with a single or several carriers ("CH Power ACLR" softkey, for details see chapter 4.1.1.2, "Measuring Channel Power and Adjacent-Channel Power", on page 97)
●
Carrier-to-noise ratio ("C/N C/NO" softkey, for details see chapter 4.1.1.3, "Measuring the Carrier-to-Noise Ratio", on page 120)
●
Occupied bandwidth ("OBW" softkey, for details see chapter 4.1.1.4, "Measuring
the Occupied Bandwidth", on page 123)
●
Spectrum Emission Mask measurements ("Spectrum Emission Mask" softkey, for
details see chapter 4.1.1.5, "Measuring with Spectrum Emission Masks",
on page 126)
●
Spurious Emissions measurements ("Spurious Emissions" softkey, for details see
chapter 4.1.1.6, "Measuring Spurious Emissions", on page 154)
●
Power in zero span ("Time Domain Power" softkey, for details see chapter 4.1.1.7,
"Measuring the Power in Zero Span", on page 165).
●
EMI Measurement softkey, for details see chapter 4.1.1.8, "Performing EMI Measurements", on page 168
●
CISPR APD softkey, for details see chapter 4.1.1.9, "CISPR APD Measurement
(Amplitude Probability Distribution)", on page 178
●
Amplitude probability distribution ("APD" and "CCDF" softkeys, for details see
chapter 4.1.1.10, "Calculating Signal Amplitude Statistics", on page 183)
●
3rd order intercept ("TOI" softkey, for details see chapter 4.1.1.11, "Measuring the
Third Order Intercept Point (TOI)", on page 201)
●
Modulation depth ("AM Mod Depth" softkey, for details see chapter 4.1.1.12,
"Measuring the AM Modulation Depth", on page 207)
●
Harmonic Distortion measurements ("Harmonic Distortion" softkey, for details see
chapter 4.1.1.13, "Measuring Harmonic Distortion", on page 208)
To open the power measurement menu
●
4.1.1.1
Press the MEAS key.
The measurement menu for spectrum analysis is displayed (see chapter 4.1.1.1,
"Softkeys of the Power Measurement Menu", on page 94).
Softkeys of the Power Measurement Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the power measurement menu. It is
possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is
only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is
provided in the corresponding softkey description.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
94
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Ch Power ACLR............................................................................................................95
C/N, C/No (span > 0).....................................................................................................95
OBW (span > 0)............................................................................................................ 95
Spectrum Emission Mask..............................................................................................95
Spurious Emissions.......................................................................................................96
Time Domain Power (zero span).................................................................................. 96
All Functions Off............................................................................................................96
APD...............................................................................................................................96
CCDF............................................................................................................................ 96
TOI................................................................................................................................ 96
AM Mod Depth.............................................................................................................. 96
Harmonic Distortion.......................................................................................................97
All Functions Off............................................................................................................97
Ch Power ACLR
Activates the active channel or adjacent-channel power measurement either for a single carrier signal or for several carrier signals, depending on the current measurement
configuration, and opens a submenu to configure the channel power measurement.
For details see chapter 4.1.1.2, "Measuring Channel Power and Adjacent-Channel
Power", on page 97.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​SELect​ on page 529
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​RESult?​ on page 530
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer[:​STATe]​ on page 533
C/N, C/No (span > 0)
Opens a submenu to configure the carrier/noise ratio measurement. Measurements
without (C/N) and measurements with reference to the bandwidth (C/No) are possible.
For details see chapter 4.1.1.3, "Measuring the Carrier-to-Noise Ratio", on page 120.
OBW (span > 0)
Activates measurement of the occupied bandwidth according to the current configuration and opens a submenu to configure the measurement. For details see chapter 4.1.1.4, "Measuring the Occupied Bandwidth", on page 123.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​SELect​ on page 529
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​RESult?​ on page 530
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer[:​STATe]​ on page 533
Spectrum Emission Mask
Opens a submenu to configure the Spectrum Emission Mask measurement.
The Spectrum Emission Mask (SEM) measurement defines a measurement that monitors compliance with a spectral mask.
For details see chapter 4.1.1.5, "Measuring with Spectrum Emission Masks",
on page 126.
Remote command:
SENS:SWE:MODE ESP, see [SENSe:​]SWEep:​MODE​ on page 570
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
95
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Spurious Emissions
Opens a submenu to configure the Spurious Emissions measurement.
The Spurious Emissions measurement defines a measurement that monitors unwanted RF products outside the assigned frequency band generated by an amplifier.
For details see chapter 4.1.1.6, "Measuring Spurious Emissions", on page 154.
Remote command:
SENS:SWE:MODE LIST, see [SENSe:​]SWEep:​MODE​ on page 570
Time Domain Power (zero span)
Activates the power measurement in zero span and opens a submenu to configure the
power measurement. For details see chapter 4.1.1.7, "Measuring the Power in Zero
Span", on page 165.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​SUMMary[:​STATe]​ on page 610
All Functions Off
Switches off all power measurement functions.
APD
Activates the function to measure the amplitude probability density (APD) and opens a
submenu.
For details see chapter 4.1.1.10, "Calculating Signal Amplitude Statistics",
on page 183.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​APD[:​STATe]​ on page 601
CCDF
Activates the function to measure the complementary cumulative distribution function
(CCDF) and opens a submenu.
For details see chapter 4.1.1.10, "Calculating Signal Amplitude Statistics",
on page 183.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​CCDF[:​STATe]​ on page 601
TOI
Opens a submenu and activates the measurement of the 3rd order intercept point.
For details see chapter 4.1.1.11, "Measuring the Third Order Intercept Point (TOI)",
on page 201.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​TOI[:​STATe]​ on page 599
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​TOI:​RESult?​ on page 600
AM Mod Depth
Opens a submenu and activates the measurement of the AM modulation depth. An
AM-modulated carrier is required on the screen to ensure correct operation.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
96
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
For details see chapter 4.1.1.12, "Measuring the AM Modulation Depth", on page 207.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​MDEPth[:​STATe]​ on page 594
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​MDEPth:​RESult?​ on page 594
Harmonic Distortion
Opens a submenu to determine the settings for harmonics measurement and activates
the harmonic distortion measurement.
For details see chapter 4.1.1.13, "Measuring Harmonic Distortion", on page 208.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​HARMonics[:​STATe]​ on page 598
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​HARMonics:​DISTortion?​ on page 596
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​HARMonics:​LIST?​ on page 596
All Functions Off
Switches off all power measurement functions.
4.1.1.2
Measuring Channel Power and Adjacent-Channel Power
Measuring the power in channels adjacent to the carrier or transmission channel is
useful to detect interference. The results are displayed as a bar chart for the individual
channels.
●
●
●
●
●
●
About Channel Power Measurements.................................................................... 97
Channel Power Measurement Results..................................................................101
Configuring and Performing Channel Power Measurements................................102
Softkeys for Channel and Adjacent-Channel Power Measurements.................... 107
Predefined CP/ACLR Standards...........................................................................117
Optimized Settings for CP/ACLR Test Parameters...............................................119
About Channel Power Measurements
Measuring channel power and adjacent channel power is one of the most important
tasks in the field of digital transmission for a signal analyzer with the necessary test
routines. While, theoretically, channel power could be measured at highest accuracy
with a power meter, its low selectivity means that it is not suitable for measuring adjacent channel power as an absolute value or relative to the transmit channel power. The
power in the adjacent channels can only be measured with a selective power meter.
A signal analyzer cannot be classified as a true power meter, because it displays the IF
envelope voltage. However, it is calibrated such as to correctly display the power of a
pure sine wave signal irrespective of the selected detector. This calibration cannot be
applied for non-sinusoidal signals. Assuming that the digitally modulated signal has a
Gaussian amplitude distribution, the signal power within the selected resolution bandwidth can be obtained using correction factors. These correction factors are normally
used by the signal analyzer's internal power measurement routines in order to determine the signal power from IF envelope measurements. These factors apply if and only
if the assumption of a Gaussian amplitude distribution is correct.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
97
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Apart from this common method, the R&S ESR also has a true power detector, i.e. an
RMS detector. It correctly displays the power of the test signal within the selected resolution bandwidth irrespective of the amplitude distribution, without additional correction
factors being required. The absolute measurement uncertainty of the R&S ESR is < 1.5
dB and a relative measurement uncertainty of < 0.5 dB (each with a confidence level of
95 %).
Measurement Methods
The channel power is defined as the integration of the power across the channel bandwidth.
The Adjacent Channel Power Ratio (ACPR), also known as the Adjacent Channel
Leakage Power Ratio (ACLR), is defined as the ratio between the total power of the
adjacent channel to the carrier channel's power. An ACLR measurement with several
carrier (transmission) channels (TX channels) is also possible and is referred to as a
"multi-carrier ACLR measurement".
There are two possible methods for measuring channel and adjacent channel power
with a signal analyzer:
●
IBW method (Integration Bandwidth Method)
●
Zero-span method (Fast ACLR), i.e. using a channel filter
●
●
IBW method............................................................................................................ 98
Fast ACLR...............................................................................................................99
IBW method
When measuring the channel power, the R&S ESR integrates the linear power which
corresponds to the levels of the pixels within the selected channel. The signal analyzer
uses a resolution bandwidth which is far smaller than the channel bandwidth. When
sweeping over the channel, the channel filter is formed by the passband characteristics
of the resolution bandwidth (see figure 4-1).
Fig. 4-1: Approximating the channel filter by sweeping with a small resolution bandwidth
The following steps are performed:
1. The linear power of all the trace pixels within the channel is calculated.
Pi = 10(Li/10)
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
98
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
where Pi = power of the trace pixel i
Li = displayed level of trace point i
2. The powers of all trace pixels within the channel are summed up and the sum is
divided by the number of trace pixels in the channel.
3. The result is multiplied by the quotient of the selected channel bandwidth and the
noise bandwidth of the resolution filter (RBW).
Since the power calculation is performed by integrating the trace within the channel
bandwidth, this method is called the IBW method (Integration Bandwidth method).
Fast ACLR
Using Fast ACLR, the R&S ESR sets the center frequency to the different channel center frequencies consecutively and measures the power with the selected measurement
time (= sweep time/number of channels).
The RBW filters suitable for the selected standard and frequency offset are automatically used (e.g. root raised cos with IS 136).
The RMS detector is used for obtaining correct power measurement results. Therefore
no software correction factors are required.
Measurement Repeatability
The repeatability of the results, especially in the narrow adjacent channels, strongly
depends on the measurement time for a given resolution bandwidth. A longer sweep
time may increase the probability that the measured value converges to the true value
of the adjacent channel power, but obviously increases measurement time.
The integrated bandwidth method (IBW) calculates channel power and ACLR from the
trace data obtained during a continuous sweep over the selected span. Most parts of
this sweep are neither part of the channel itself nor the defined adjacent channels.
Therefore, most of the samples taken during the sweeptime cannot be used for channel power or ACLR calculation.
To obtain a high repeatability with short measurement times, the R&S ESR offers a
"Fast ACLR" mode. In the Fast ACLR mode, the R&S ESR measures the power of
each channel at the defined channel bandwidth, while being tuned to the center frequency of the channel in question. The digital implementation of the resolution bandwidths makes it possible to select filter characteristics that are precisely tailored to the
signal. In case of CDMA2000, the power in the useful channel is measured with a
bandwidth of 1.23 MHz and that of the adjacent channels with a bandwidth of 30 kHz.
Therefore the R&S ESR changes from one channel to the other and measures the
power at a bandwidth of 1.23 MHz or 30 kHz using the RMS detector. The power of the
frequency range between the channels of interest is not measured in Fast ACLR
mode, because it is not required for channel power or ACLR calculation. The measurement time per channel is set with the sweep time. It is equal to the selected measurement time divided by the selected number of channels.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
99
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Fig. 4-2: Measuring the channel power and adjacent channel power ratio for CDMA2000 1X signals
with zero span (Fast ACP)
Assuming a measurement with five channels (1 channel plus 2 lower and 2 upper adjacent channels) and a sweep time of 100 ms, a measurement time per channel of 20
ms is required. The number of effective samples taken into account for power calculation in one channel is the product of sweeptime in channel times the selected resolution bandwidth.
Assuming a sweeptime of 100 ms, there are (30 kHz / 4.19 MHz) * 100 ms * 10 kHz ≈
7 samples. Whereas in Fast ACLR mode, there are (100 ms / 5) * 30 kHz ≈ 600 samples. Comparing these numbers explains the increase of repeatability with a 95% confidence level (2δ) from ± 2.8 dB to ± 0.34 dB for a sweeptime of 100 ms (as shown in
figure 4-3 and ).
For the same repeatability, the sweep time would have to be set to 8.5 s with the integration method. The figure 4-4 shows the standard deviation of the results as a function of the sweep time.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
100
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Fig. 4-3: Repeatability of adjacent channel power measurement on CDMA2000 standard signals if the
integration bandwidth method is used
The figure 4-4 shows the repeatability of power measurements in the transmit channel
and of relative power measurements in the adjacent channels as a function of sweep
time. The standard deviation of measurement results is calculated from 100 consecutive measurements. Take scaling into account if comparing power values.
Fig. 4-4: Repeatability of adjacent channel power measurements on CDMA2000 signals in the fast
ACP mode
Channel Power Measurement Results
For channel or adjacent-channel power measurements, the individual channels are
indicated by different colored bars in the diagram. The height of each bar corresponds
to the measured power of that channel. In addition, the name of the channel ("Adj",
"Alt1", "TX1", etc. or a user-defined name) is indicated above the bar (separated by a
line which has no further meaning).
Results are provided for the TX channel and the number of defined adjacent channels
above and below the TX channel. If more than one TX channel is defined, the carrier
channel to which the relative adjacent-channel power values should be referenced
must be defined.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
101
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
The measured power values for the TX and adjacent channels are also output as a
table in the second screen. Which powers are measured depends on the number of
configured channels, see "# of Adj Chan" on page 108.
For each channel, the following values are displayed:
Label
Description
Channel
Channel name as specified in the "Channel Settings" (see "Names" on page 112).
Bandwidth
Configured channel bandwidth (see "Bandwidth" on page 110)
Offset
Offset of the channel to the TX channel (Configured channel spacing, see "Spacing"
on page 111)
Power
The measured power values for the TX and lower and upper adjacent channels. The
powers of the transmission channels are output in dBm or dBm/Hz, or in dBc, relative
to the specified reference TX channel.
(Lower/Upper)
Retrieving Results via Remote Control
All or specific channel power measurement results can be retrieved using the
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​RESult?​ command from a remote
computer.
Alternatively, the results can be output as channel power density, i.e. in reference to
the measurement bandwidth (see CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​
RESult:​PHZ​ on page 555).
In addition, the TRACe<n>:​DATA​ command queries the trace data. In case of channel
power measurements, the trace data is the power levels that have been measured for
each sweep point (max. 691).
Configuring and Performing Channel Power Measurements
Predefined standards contain the main measurement settings for standard measurements. When such a standard is loaded, the required channel settings are automatically set on the R&S ESR. However, the settings can be changed, and measurements
with user-defined configurations are also possible.
Once the channels have been set up, other instrument settings such as the used filter
bandwidths, frequency span and detector and trace settings can be optimized automatically (see "Adjust Settings" on page 114).
For an overview of the softkeys and menus see "Softkeys for Channel and AdjacentChannel Power Measurements" on page 107.
Selecting a Predefined Standard
Predefined standards contain the main measurement settings for standard measurements. When such a standard is loaded, the required channel settings are automatically set on the R&S ESR.
The selected standard defines the following settings:
●
"Bandwidth" on page 110
●
"Spacing" on page 111
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
102
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
●
Detector, see "Optimized Settings for CP/ACLR Test Parameters" on page 119
●
Trace averaging, see "Average Mode" on page 264
●
RBW, see "Optimized Settings for CP/ACLR Test Parameters" on page 119
●
"Weighting Filter" on page 112
► Select a predefined standard via the CP/ACLR Standard softkey.
Setting up the Channels
Channel definition is the basis for measuring power levels in certain frequency ranges.
Usually, the power levels in one or more carrier (TX) channels and possibly the adjacent channels are of interest. Up to 18 carrier channels and up to 12 adjacent channels
can be defined.
In the R&S ESR's display, only the first neighboring channel of the carrier (TX) channel
is labelled "Adj" (adjacent) channel; all others are labelled "Alt" (alternate) channels. In
this manual, "adjacent" refers to both adjacent and alternate channels.
When an ACLR measurement is started by pressing the "Ch Power ACLR" softkey, all
settings including the channel bandwidths and channel spacings are set according to
the selected standard and can be adjusted afterwards.
Channel setup consists of the following settings:
●
The number of transmission (TX) and adjacent channels
●
The bandwidth of each channel
●
For multi-carrier ACLR measurements: which TX channel is used as a reference
("ACLR Reference")
●
The spacing between the individual channels
●
Optionally: the names of the channels displayed in the diagram and result table
●
Optionally: the influence of individual channels on the total measurement result
("Weighting Filter")
●
Optionally: limits for a limit check on the measured power levels
Changes to an existing standard can be stored as a user-defined standard, see "UserDefined Configurations" on page 106.
► In the "Ch Power" menu, press Channel Setup, then press the Channel Setup softkey to configure the channels in the "Channel Setup" dialog box.
In the "Channel Setup" dialog box you define the channel settings for all channels,
independent of the defined number of used TX or adjacent channels.
●
●
●
Defining Channel Bandwidths...............................................................................104
Defining Channel Spacings...................................................................................104
Configuring a Limit Check..................................................................................... 105
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
103
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Defining Channel Bandwidths
The transmission-channel bandwidth is normally defined by the transmission standard.
The correct bandwidth is set automatically for the selected standard (see "Optimized
Settings for CP/ACLR Test Parameters" on page 119).
For measurements that require channel bandwidths which deviate from those defined
in the selected standard, use the IBW method (see Fast ACLR (On/Off) softkey). With
the IBW method, the channel bandwidth borders are right and left of the channel center
frequency. Thus, you can visually check whether the entire power of the signal under
test is within the selected channel bandwidth.
► In the "Channel Setup" dialog box, select the "Bandwidth" tab to define the channel
bandwidths.
The value entered for any TX channel is automatically also defined for all subsequent TX channels. Thus, only one value needs to be entered if all TX channels
have the same bandwidth.
The value entered for any ADJ or ALT channel is automatically also defined for all
alternate (ALT) channels. Thus, only one value needs to be entered if all adjacent
channels have the same bandwidth.
Defining Channel Spacings
Channel spacings are normally defined by the selected standard but can be changed.
If the spacings are not equal, the channel distribution according to the center frequency
is as follows:
Odd number of TX channels
The middle TX channel is centered to center frequency.
Even number of TX channels
The two TX channels in the middle are used to calculate the frequency between those two channels. This frequency is aligned to
the center frequency.
► In the "Channel Setup" dialog box, select the "Spacing" tab to define the channel
spacings.
The value entered for any TX channel is automatically also defined for all subsequent TX channels. Thus, only one value needs to be entered if all TX channels
have the same spacing.
If the channel spacing for the adjacent or an alternate channel is changed, all
higher alternate channel spacings are multiplied by the same factor (new spacing
value/old spacing value). The lower adjacent-channel spacings remain unchanged.
Only one value needs to be entered for equal channel spacing.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
104
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Example: Defining channel spacing
In the default setting, the adjacent channels have the following spacing: 20 kHz
("ADJ"), 40 kHz ("ALT1"), 60 kHz ("ALT2"), 80 kHz ("ALT3"), 100 kHz ("ALT4"), …
If the spacing of the first adjacent channel ("ADJ") is set to 40 kHz, the spacing of all
other adjacent channels is multiplied by factor 2 to result in 80 kHz ("ALT1"), 120 kHz
("ALT2"), 160 kHz ("ALT3"), …
If, starting from the default setting, the spacing of the 5th adjacent channel ("ALT4") is
set to 150 kHz, the spacing of all higher adjacent channels is multiplied by factor 1.5 to
result in 180 kHz ("ALT5"), 210 kHz ("ALT6"), 240 kHz ("ALT7"), …
For the R&S ESR, the channel spacing is defined as the distance between the center
frequency of the adjacent channel and the center frequency of the transmission channel. The definition of the adjacent-channel spacing in standards IS95C and CDMA
2000 is different. These standards define the adjacent-channel spacing from the center
of the transmission channel to the closest border of the adjacent channel. This definition is also used for the R&S ESR if the standards marked with an asterisk *) are
selected.
Configuring a Limit Check
During an ACLR measurement, the power values can be checked whether they
exceed user-defined limits. A relative or absolute limit can be defined, or both. Both
limit types are considered, regardless whether the measured levels are absolute or relative values. The check of both limit values can be activated independently. If any
active limit value is exceeded, the measured value is displayed in red and marked by a
preceding asterisk in the result table.
To configure a limit check
1. In the "Channel Setup" dialog box, select the "Limits" tab to define a limit check.
2. For each channel, define a relative or absolute value that should not be exceeded.
3. Select the channels to be included in the limit check by activating the "Check"
option.
4. Activate limit checking for the selected channels by setting "Limit Checking" to On.
Performing a Channel Power Measurement
A channel power measurement is started automatically according to the currently
selected standard when you press the "Ch Power ACLR" softkey in the MEAS menu.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
105
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
► To start a new measurement after changing the settings, press the RUN SINGLE
or RUN CONT hardkeys.
Alternatively, you can save your settings as a user standard (see "User-Defined
Configurations" on page 106), then select that standard and start the measurement as usual by pressing the "Ch Power ACLR" softkey.
The configured measurement is performed (depending on the number of defined channels, see "# of Adj Chan" on page 108) and the results are displayed in the graphic
and the result table.
User-Defined Configurations
You can define measurement configurations independently of a predefinded standard
and save the current ACLR configuration as a "user standard" in an xml file. You can
then load the file and thus the settings again at a later time.
User-defined standards are not supported for "Fast ACLR" and Multi-Carrier ACLR
measurements.
Compatibility to R&S FSP
User standards created on an analyzer of the R&S FSP family are compatible to the
R&S ESR. User standards created on an R&S ESR, however, are not necessarily
compatible to the analyzers of the R&S FSP family and may not work there.
To store a user-defined configuration
1. Select the "User Standard" softkey in the "Ch Power" menu.
2. Press "Save".
3. Define a file name for the user standard and select its storage location.
By default, the xml file is stored in C:\R_S\Instr\acp_std\. However, you can
define any other storage location.
4. Press "Save".
The following parameter definitions are saved:
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
"# of Adj Chan" on page 108
Channel spacing and adjacent-channel spacing, see "Spacing" on page 111
Channel bandwidth of transmission (Tx), adjacent (Adj) and alternate (Alt)
channels, see "Bandwidth" on page 110
Resolution bandwidth, see "Res BW Auto" on page 232
Video bandwidth, see "Video BW Auto" on page 233
Detector, see "Detector" on page 262
ACLR limits and their state, see "Limits" on page 112
Sweep time and sweep time coupling, see "Sweep Time" on page 115
Trace and power mode, see "Select Trace" on page 114 and "Power Mode"
on page 114
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
106
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
To load a user-defined configuration
► Press "User Standard > Load" and select the user standard file.
Softkeys for Channel and Adjacent-Channel Power Measurements
Ch Power ACLR..........................................................................................................107
└ CP/ACLR Standard.......................................................................................108
└ CP/ACLR Settings........................................................................................ 108
└ # of TX Chan.......................................................................................108
└ # of Adj Chan...................................................................................... 108
└ Channel Setup.................................................................................... 109
└ Bandwidth.................................................................................110
└ ACLR Reference............................................................ 110
└ Spacing.....................................................................................111
└ Names...................................................................................... 112
└ Weighting Filter.........................................................................112
└ Limits........................................................................................ 112
└ Limit Checking................................................................113
└ Relative Limit..................................................................113
└ Absolute Limit.................................................................113
└ Check............................................................................. 113
└ Chan Pwr/Hz.......................................................................................113
└ Power Mode........................................................................................114
└ Clear/Write................................................................................114
└ Max Hold.................................................................................. 114
└ Select Trace........................................................................................114
└ ACLR (Abs/Rel).................................................................................. 114
└ Adjust Settings....................................................................................114
└ Sweep Time.................................................................................................. 115
└ Fast ACLR (On/Off)...................................................................................... 115
└ Set CP Reference......................................................................................... 115
└ User Standard...............................................................................................116
└ Load....................................................................................................116
└ Save....................................................................................................116
└ Delete................................................................................................. 117
└ Noise Correction........................................................................................... 117
└ Adjust Ref Lvl................................................................................................117
Ch Power ACLR
Activates the active channel or adjacent-channel power measurement either for a single carrier signal or for several carrier signals, depending on the current measurement
configuration, and opens a submenu to configure the channel power measurement.
With default settings the measurement is performed by integrating the powers at the
display points within the specified channels (IBW method).
If several TX cahnnels (carriers) are activated, the number of measured values is
increased to ensure that adjacent-channel powers are measured with adequate accuracy.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
107
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
For general information on performing channel or adjacent-channel power measurements, see chapter 4.1.1.2, "Measuring Channel Power and Adjacent-Channel Power",
on page 97.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​SELect​ on page 529
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​RESult?​ on page 530
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer[:​STATe]​ on page 533
CP/ACLR Standard ← Ch Power ACLR
Opens an edit dialog box to select the settings according to predefined standards. For
details on the available standards see "Predefined CP/ACLR Standards" on page 117.
By default no standard is set.
The selection of the standard influences the following parameters (see "Optimized Settings for CP/ACLR Test Parameters" on page 119):
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
channel spacing and adjacent-channel spacing
channel bandwidth, adjacent-channel bandwidth, and type of filtering
resolution bandwidth
video bandwidth
detector
# of adjacent channels
trace averaging (switched off)
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​PRESet​ on page 537
CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Opens a submenu to configure the channel power and adjacent channel power measurement independently of the predefined standards (for details see also "Predefined
CP/ACLR Standards" on page 117 and "Optimized Settings for CP/ACLR Test Parameters" on page 119).
# of TX Chan ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of carrier signals to be taken into
account in channel and adjacent-channel power measurements. Values from 1 to 18
are allowed.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​TXCHannel:​COUNt​ on page 542
# of Adj Chan ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of adjacent channels to be considered in
the adjacent-channel power measurement. Values from 0 to 12 are allowed.
The following measurements are performed depending on the number of the channels:
0
Only the channel powers are measured.
1
The channel powers and the power of the upper and lower adjacent channel are measured.
2
The channel powers, the power of the upper and lower adjacent channel, and of the next higher
and lower channel (alternate channel 1) are measured.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
108
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
3
The channel power, the power of the upper and lower adjacent channel, the power of the next
higher and lower channel (alternate channel 1), and of the next but one higher and lower adjacent channel (alternate channel 2) are measured.
…
…
12
The channel power, the power of the upper and lower adjacent channel, and the power of the all
higher and lower channels (alternate channel 1 to 11) are measured.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​ACPairs​ on page 539
Channel Setup ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Opens a dialog to define the channel settings for all channels, independant of the
defined number of used TX or adjacent channels.
The dialog contains the following tabs:
●
●
●
●
●
"Bandwidth" on page 110
"Spacing" on page 111
"Names" on page 112
"Weighting Filter" on page 112
"Limits" on page 112
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
109
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Bandwidth ← Channel Setup ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Define the channel bandwidths for the transmission channels and the adjacent channels. "TX" is only available for the multi-carrier ACLR measurement. When you change
the bandwidth for one channel, the value is automatically also defined for all subsequent channels of the same type.
The transmission-channel bandwidth is normally defined by the transmission standard.
The correct bandwidth is set automatically for the selected standard (see "Optimized
Settings for CP/ACLR Test Parameters" on page 119).
●
●
Measurements in zero span (see Fast ACLR (On/Off) softkey) are performed in the
zero span mode. The channel limits are indicated by vertical lines. For measurements requiring channel bandwidths deviating from those defined in the selected
standard the IBW method is to be used.
With the IBW method (see Fast ACLR (On/Off) softkey), the channel bandwidth
limits are marked by two vertical lines right and left of the channel center frequency. Thus you can visually check whether the entire power of the signal under
test is within the selected channel bandwidth.
If measuring according to the IBW method ("Fast ACLR Off"), the bandwidths of
the different adjacent channels are to be entered numerically. Since all adjacent
channels often have the same bandwidth, the other alternate channels are set to
the bandwidth of the adjacent channel when it is changed. Thus, only one value
needs to be entered in case of equal adjacent channel bandwidths.
For details on available channel filters see chapter 4.2.6.3, "Selecting the Appropriate
Filter Type", on page 237.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​CHANnel<channel>]​
on page 540
[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​BANDwidth|BWIDth:​ACHannel​ on page 539
[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​BANDwidth|BWIDth:​ALTernate<channel>​
on page 539
ACLR Reference ← Bandwidth ← Channel Setup ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch
Power ACLR
Select the transmission channel to which the relative adjacent-channel power values
should be referenced.
TX Channel 1
Transmission channel 1 is used.
Min Power TX Channel
The transmission channel with the lowest power is used as a reference channel.
Max Power TX Channel
The transmission channel with the highest power is used as a reference channel.
Lowest & Highest Channel
The outer left-hand transmission channel is the reference channel
for the lower adjacent channels, the outer right-hand transmission
channel that for the upper adjacent channels.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​REFerence:​TXCHannel:​MANual​ on page 546
[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​REFerence:​TXCHannel:​AUTO​ on page 545
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
110
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Spacing ← Channel Setup ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Define the channel spacings for the TX channels and for the adjacent channels.
●
TX channels (left column)
TX1-2
spacing between the first and the second carrier
TX2-3
spacing between the second and the third carrier
…
…
The spacings between all adjacent TX channels can be defined separately. When you
change the spacing for one channel, the value is automatically also defined for all subsequent TX channels in order to set up a system with equal TX channel spacing
quickly. For different spacings, a setup from top to bottom is necessary.
If the spacings are not equal, the channel distribution according to the center frequency
is as follows:
Odd number of TX channels
The middle TX channel is centered to center frequency.
Even number of TX channels
The two TX channels in the middle are used to calculate the frequency between those two channels. This frequency is aligned to
the center frequency.
●
Adjacent channels (right column)
Since all the adjacent channels often have the same distance to each other, the
modification of the adjacent-channel spacing (ADJ) causes a change in all higher
adjacent-channel spacings (ALT1, ALT2, …): they are all multiplied by the same
factor (new spacing value/old spacing value). Thus only one value needs to be
entered in case of equal channel spacing. A modification of a higher adjacentchannel spacing (ALT1, ALT2, …) causes a change by the same factor in all higher
adjacent-channel spacings, while the lower adjacent-channel spacings remain
unchanged.
Example:
In the default setting, the adjacent channels have the following spacing: 20 kHz
("ADJ"), 40 kHz ("ALT1"), 60 kHz ("ALT2"), 80 kHz ("ALT3"), 100 kHz ("ALT4"), …
If the spacing of the first adjacent channel ("ADJ") is set to 40 kHz, the spacing of
all other adjacent channels is multiplied by factor 2 to result in 80 kHz ("ALT1"),
120 kHz ("ALT2"), 160 kHz ("ALT3"), …
If, starting from the default setting, the spacing of the 5th adjacent channel ("ALT4")
is set to 150 kHz, the spacing of all higher adjacent channels is multiplied by factor
1.5 to result in 180 kHz ("ALT5"), 210 kHz ("ALT6"), 240 kHz ("ALT7"), …
If a ACLR or MC-ACLR measurement is started, all settings according to the standard including the channel bandwidths and channel spacings are set and can be
adjusted afterwards.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​SPACing:​CHANnel<channel>​ on page 542
[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​SPACing[:​ACHannel]​ on page 541
[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​SPACing:​ALTernate<channel>​ on page 542
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
111
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Names ← Channel Setup ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Define user-specific channel names for each channel. The names defined here are displayed in the result diagram and result table.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​NAME:​ACHannel​ on page 540
[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​NAME:​ALTernate<channel>​ on page 541
[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​NAME:​CHANnel<channel>​ on page 541
Weighting Filter ← Channel Setup ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Define weighting filters for all channels. Weighting filters are not available for all supported standards and cannot always be defined manually where they are available.
The dialog contains the following fields:
Field
Description
Channel
●
●
●
Active
Activates/Deactivates the weighting filter for the selected and any subsequent channels of
the same type
Alpha
Defines the alpha value for the weighting filter for the selected and any subsequent channels of the same type
TX 1-18: TX channels
ADJ: Adjacent channel
ALT1-11: Alternate channels
Remote command:
POW:ACH:FILT:CHAN1 ON, see [SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​FILTer[:​STATe]:​
CHANnel<channel>​ on page 544
Activates the weighting filter for TX channel 1.
POW:ACH:FILT:ALPH:CHAN1 0,35 see [SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​FILTer:​
ALPHa:​CHANnel<channel>​ on page 544
Sets the alpha value for the weighting filter for TX channel 1 to 0,35.
POW:ACH:FILT:ACH ON see [SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​FILTer[:​STATe]:​
ACHannel​ on page 544
Activates the weighting filter for the adjacent channel.
POW:ACH:FILT:ALPH:ACH 0,35 see [SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​FILTer:​
ALPHa:​ACHannel​ on page 543
Sets the alpha value for the weighting filter for the adjacent channel to 0,35.
POW:ACH:FILT:ALT1 ON see [SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​FILTer[:​STATe]:​
ALTernate<channel>​ on page 544
Activates the alpha value for the weighting filter for the alternate channel 1.
POW:ACH:FILT:ALPH:ALT1 0,35 see [SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​FILTer:​
ALPHa:​ALTernate<channel>​ on page 543
Sets the alpha value for the weighting filter for the alternate channel 1 to 0,35.
Limits ← Channel Setup ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Activate and define the limits for the ACLR measurement.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
112
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Limit Checking ← Limits ← Channel Setup ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power
ACLR
Activate or deactivate limit checking for the ACLR measurement.
The following rules apply for the limits:
●
●
●
A separate limit can be defined for each adjacent channel. The limit applies to both
the upper and the lower adjacent channel.
A relative and/or absolute limit can be defined. The check of both limit values can
be activated independently.
The R&S ESR checks adherence to the limits irrespective of whether the limits are
absolute or relative or whether the measurement is carried out with absolute or relative levels. If both limits are active and if the higher of both limit values is exceeded, the measured value is marked by a preceding asterisk.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​ACPower[:​STATe]​ on page 554
CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​ACPower:​ACHannel:​RESult​ on page 549
CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​ACPower:​ALTernate<channel>[:​RELative]​
on page 552
Relative Limit ← Limits ← Channel Setup ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power
ACLR
Defines a limit relative to the carrier signal.
Remote command:
CALC:LIM:ACP ON, see CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​ACPower[:​STATe]​
on page 554
CALC:LIM:ACP:<adjacent-channel> 0dBc,0dBc
CALC:LIM:ACP:<adjacent-channel>:STAT ON
Absolute Limit ← Limits ← Channel Setup ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power
ACLR
Defines an absolute limit.
Remote command:
CALC:LIM:ACP ON, see CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​ACPower[:​STATe]​
on page 554
CALC:LIM:ACP:<adjacent-channel>:ABS -10dBm,-10dBm
CALC:LIM:ACP:<adjacent-channel>:ABS:STAT ON, see CALCulate<n>:​
LIMit<k>:​ACPower:​ACHannel:​ABSolute:​STATe​ on page 547
Check ← Limits ← Channel Setup ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Activate or deactivate the limit to be considered during a limit check. The check of both
limit values can be activated independently.
Chan Pwr/Hz ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
If deactivated, the channel power is displayed in dBm. If activated, the channel power
density is displayed instead. Thus, the absolute unit of the channel power is switched
from dBm to dBm/Hz. The channel power density in dBm/Hz corresponds to the power
inside a bandwidth of 1 Hz and is calculated as follows:
"channel power density = channel power – log10(channel bandwidth)"
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
113
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
By means of this function it is possible e.g. to measure the signal/noise power density
or use the additional functions "ACLR (Abs/Rel)" on page 114 and "ACLR Reference"
on page 110 to obtain the signal to noise ratio.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​RESult:​PHZ​ on page 555
Power Mode ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Opens a submenu to select the power mode.
Clear/Write ← Power Mode ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
If this mode is activated, the channel power and the adjacent channel powers are calculated directly from the current trace (default mode).
Remote command:
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:MODE WRIT, see CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​
POWer:​MODE​ on page 533
Max Hold ← Power Mode ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
If this mode is activated, the power values are calculated from the current trace and
compared with the previous power value using a maximum algorithm. The higher value
is retained. If activated, the enhancement label "Pwr Max" is displayed.
Remote command:
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:MODE MAXH, see CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​
POWer:​MODE​ on page 533
Select Trace ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the trace number on which the CP/ACLR measurement is to be performed. Only activated traces can be selected.
For details on trace modes see chapter 3.2.4, "Trace Modes", on page 44.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]POWer:​TRACe​ on page 534
ACLR (Abs/Rel) ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Switches between absolute and relative power measurement in the adjacent channels.
Abs
The absolute power in the adjacent channels is displayed in the unit of the y-axis, e.g. in dBm,
dBµV.
Rel
The level of the adjacent channels is displayed relative to the level of the transmission channel
in dBc.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​MODE​ on page 555
Adjust Settings ← CP/ACLR Settings ← Ch Power ACLR
Automatically optimizes all instrument settings for the selected channel configuration
(channel bandwidth, channel spacing) within a specific frequency range (channel bandwidth). The adjustment is carried out only once. If necessary, the instrument settings
can be changed later.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
114
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
For details on the settings of span, resolution bandwidth, video bandwidth, detector
and trace averaging see "Optimized Settings for CP/ACLR Test Parameters"
on page 119.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​PRESet​ on page 534
Sweep Time ← Ch Power ACLR
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the sweep time. With the RMS detector, a longer
sweep time increases the stability of the measurement results.
The function of this softkey is identical to the Sweeptime Manual softkey in the "Bandwidth" menu.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TIME​ on page 644
Fast ACLR (On/Off) ← Ch Power ACLR
Switches between the IBW method ("Fast ACLR Off") and the zero span method ("Fast
ACLR On").
When switched on, the R&S ESR sets the center frequency consecutively to the different channel center frequencies and measures the power with the selected measurement time (= sweep time/number of channels). The RBW filters suitable for the
selected standard and frequency offset are automatically used (e.g. root raised cos
with IS 136). For details on available channel filters see chapter 4.2.6.3, "Selecting the
Appropriate Filter Type", on page 237.
The RMS detector is used for obtaining correct power measurement results. Therefore
this requires no software correction factors.
Measured values are output as a list. The powers of the transmission channels are output in dBm, the powers of the adjacent channels in dBm.
The sweep time is selected depending on the desired reproducibility of results. Reproducibility increases with sweep time since power measurement is then performed over
a longer time period. As a general approach, it can be assumed that approx. 500 noncorrelated measured values are required for a reproducibility of 0.5 dB (99 % of the
measurements are within 0.5 dB of the true measured value). This holds true for white
noise. The measured values are considered as non-correlated if their time interval corresponds to the reciprocal of the measured bandwidth.
With IS 136 the measurement bandwidth is approx. 25 kHz, i.e. measured values at an
interval of 40 µs are considered as non-correlated. A measurement time of 40 ms is
thus required per channel for 1000 measured values. This is the default sweep time
which the R&S ESR sets in coupled mode. Approx. 5000 measured values are
required for a reproducibility of 0.1 dB (99 %), i.e. the measurement time is to be
increased to 200 ms.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]POWer:​HSPeed​ on page 556
Set CP Reference ← Ch Power ACLR
Defines the currently measured channel power as the reference value if channel power
measurement is activated. The reference value is displayed in the "Tx1 (Ref) Power"
field; the default value is 0 dBm.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
115
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
The softkey is available only for multi carrier ACLR measurements.
In adjacent-channel power measurement with one or several carrier signals, the power
is always referenced to a transmission channel, i.e. no value is displayed for "Tx1 (Ref)
Power".
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​REFerence:​AUTO ONCE​ on page 545
User Standard ← Ch Power ACLR
Opens a submenu to configure customized standards.
Load ← User Standard ← Ch Power ACLR
Opens a dialog to select and load a user defined ACLR standard.
Note: Compatibility to R&S FSP. User standards created on an analyzer of the R&S
FSP family are compatible to the R&S FSV. User standards created on an R&S FSV,
however, are not necessarily compatible to the analyzers of the R&S FSP family and
may not work there.
Remote command:
Querying available standards:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​STANdard:​CATalog?​
on page 538
Loading a standard:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​PRESet​ on page 537
Save ← User Standard ← Ch Power ACLR
Saves the current ACLR configuration in an xml file in order for you to use it again at a
later time. You can define the drive, path and file name in the corresponding dialog.
The default location is C:\R_S\Instr\acp_std\.
Note that the ACLR user standard is not supported by Fast ACLR and Multi Carrier
ACLR measurements.
If you create your own standard, you can customize the following parameters:
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
number of adjacent channels
channel bandwidth of transmission (Tx), adjacent (Adj) and alternate (Alt) channels
channel spacings
resolution and video bandwidth
ACLR limits and their state
sweep time and sweep time coupling
detector
trace mode
Remote command:
Configuring channels:
see "Configuring ACLR Channels" on page 538 and "Defining Weighting Filters"
on page 543
Saving custom channel configurations:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​STANdard:​SAVE​ on page 538
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
116
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Delete ← User Standard ← Ch Power ACLR
Deletes the user standard that you select in the corresponding dialog box. Note that
the R&S ESR deletes the file without further notice.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​STANdard:​DELete​ on page 538
Noise Correction ← Ch Power ACLR
If activated, the results are corrected by the instrument's inherent noise, which increases the dynamic range.
"ON"
A reference measurement of the instrument's inherent noise is carried
out. The noise power measured is then subtracted from the power in
the channel that is being examined.
The inherent noise of the instrument depends on the selected center
frequency, resolution bandwidth and level setting. Therefore, the correction function is disabled whenever one of these parameters is
changed. A disable message is displayed on the screen. Noise correction must be switched on again manually after the change.
"OFF"
No noise correction is performed.
"AUTO"
Noise correction is performed. After a parameter change, noise correction is restarted automatically and a new correction measurement
is performed.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]POWer:​NCORrection​ on page 556
Adjust Ref Lvl ← Ch Power ACLR
Adjusts the reference level to the measured channel power. This ensures that the settings of the RF attenuation and the reference level are optimally adjusted to the signal
level without overloading the R&S ESR or limiting the dynamic range by a too small
S/N ratio.
For details on manual settings see "Optimized Settings for CP/ACLR Test Parameters"
on page 119.
The reference level is not influenced by the selection of a standard. To achieve an optimum dynamic range, the reference level has to be set in a way that places the signal
maximum close to the reference level without forcing an overload message. Since the
measurement bandwidth for channel power measurements is significantly lower than
the signal bandwidth, the signal path may be overloaded although the trace is still significantly below the reference level.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​PRESet:​RLEVel​ on page 535
Predefined CP/ACLR Standards
When using predefined standards for ACLR measurement, the test parameters for the
channel and adjacent-channel measurements are configured automatically. The available standards are listed below.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
117
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Predefined standards are selected using the "CP/ACLR Standard" softkey or the
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:PRES command.
Standard
GUI-Parameter
SCPI-Parameter
EUTRA/LTE Square
EUTRA/LTE Square
EUTRa
EUTRA/LTE Square/RRC
EUTRA/LTE Square/RRC
REUTRa
W-CDMA 3.84 MHz forward
W-CDMA 3GPP FWD
FW3G
W-CDMA 3.84 MHz reverse
W-CDMA 3GPP REV
RW3G
CDMA IS95A forward
CDMA IS95A FWD
F8CD | FIS95a
CDMA IS95A reverse
CDMA IS95A REV
R8CD | RIS95a
CDMA IS95C Class 0 forward*)
CDMA IS95C Class 0 FWD
FIS95c0
CDMA IS95C Class 0 reverse*)
CDMA IS95C Class 0 REV
RIS95c0
CDMA J-STD008 forward
CDMA J-STD008 FWD
F19C | FJ008
CDMA J-STD008 reverse
CDMA J-STD008 REV
R19C | RJ008
CDMA IS95C Class 1 forward*)
CDMA IS95C Class 1 FWD
FIS95c1
CDMA IS95C Class 1 reverse*)
CDMA IS95C Class 1 REV
RIS95c1
CDMA 2000
CDMA 2000
S2CD
TD-SCDMA forward
TD SCDMA FWD
FTCD | TCDMa
TD-SCDMA reverse
TD SCDMA REV
RTCD
WLAN 802.11A
WLAN 802.11A
AWLan
WLAN 802.11B
WLAN 802.11B
BWLan
WiMAX
WiMAX
WiMAX
WIBRO
WIBRO
WIBRO
GSM
GSM
GSM
RFID 14443
RFID 14443
RFID14443
TETRA
TETRA
TETRA
PDC
PDC
PDC
PHS
PHS
PHS
CDPD
CDPD
CDPD
APCO-25 Phase 2
APCO-25 P2
PAPCo25
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
118
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
For the R&S ESR, the channel spacing is defined as the distance between the center
frequency of the adjacent channel and the center frequency of the transmission channel. The definition of the adjacent-channel spacing in standards IS95C and CDMA
2000 is different. These standards define the adjacent-channel spacing from the center
of the transmission channel to the closest border of the adjacent channel. This definition is also used for the R&S ESR if the standards marked with an asterisk *) are
selected.
Optimized Settings for CP/ACLR Test Parameters
The "Adjust Settings" softkey (see "Adjust Settings" on page 114) automatically optimizes all instrument settings for the selected channel configuration, as described in the
following:
●
Frequency span
The frequency span must at least cover the channels to be measured plus a measurement margin of approx. 10 %.
If the frequency span is large in comparison to the channel bandwidth (or the adjacent-channel bandwidths) being examined, only a few points on the trace are available per channel. This reduces the accuracy of the waveform calculation for the
channel filter used, which has a negative effect on the measurement accuracy. It is
therefore strongly recommended that the formulas mentioned be taken into consideration when selecting the frequency span.
For channel power measurements the Adjust Settings softkey sets the frequency
span as follows:
"(No. of transmission channels – 1) x transmission channel spacing + 2 x transmission channel bandwidth + measurement margin"
For adjacent-channel power measurements, the Adjust Settings softkey sets the
frequency span as a function of the number of transmission channels, the transmission channel spacing, the adjacent-channel spacing, and the bandwidth of one
of adjacent-channels ADJ, ALT1 or ALT2, whichever is furthest away from the
transmission channels:
"(No. of transmission channels – 1) x transmission channel spacing + 2 x (adjacent-channel spacing + adjacent-channel bandwidth) + measurement margin"
The measurement margin is approx. 10 % of the value obtained by adding the
channel spacing and the channel bandwidth.
●
Resolution bandwidth (RBW)
To ensure both, acceptable measurement speed and required selection (to suppress spectral components outside the channel to be measured, especially of the
adjacent channels), the resolution bandwidth must not be selected too small or too
large. As a general approach, the resolution bandwidth is to be set to values
between 1% and 4% of the channel bandwidth.
A larger resolution bandwidth can be selected if the spectrum within the channel to
be measured and around it has a flat characteristic. In the standard setting, e.g. for
standard IS95A REV at an adjacent channel bandwidth of 30 kHz, a resolution
bandwidth of 30 kHz is used. This yields correct results since the spectrum in the
neighborhood of the adjacent channels normally has a constant level.
With the exception of the IS95 CDMA standards, the Adjust Settings softkey sets
the resolution bandwidth (RBW) as a function of the channel bandwidth:
"RBW ≤ 1/40 of channel bandwidth"
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
119
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
The maximum possible resolution bandwidth (with respect to the requirement RBW
≤ 1/40) resulting from the available RBW steps (1, 3) is selected.
●
Video bandwidth (VBW)
For a correct power measurement, the video signal must not be limited in bandwidth. A restricted bandwidth of the logarithmic video signal would cause signal
averaging and thus result in a too low indication of the power (-2.51 dB at very low
video bandwidths). The video bandwidth should therefore be selected at least three
times the resolution bandwidth:
"VBW ≥ 3 x RBW"
The Adjust Settings softkey sets the video bandwidth (VBW) as a function of the
channel bandwidth (see formula above) and the smallest possible VBW with regard
to the available step size will be selected.
●
Detector
The Adjust Settings softkey selects the RMS detector. This detector is selected
since it correctly indicates the power irrespective of the characteristics of the signal
to be measured. The whole IF envelope is used to calculate the power for each
measurement point. The IF envelope is digitized using a sampling frequency which
is at least five times the resolution bandwidth which has been selected. Based on
the sample values, the power is calculated for each measurement point using the
following formula:
where:
"si = linear digitized video voltage at the output of the A/D converter"
"N = number of A/D converter values per measurement point"
"PRMS = power represented by a measurement point"
When the power has been calculated, the power units are converted into decibels
and the value is displayed as a measurement point.
In principle, the sample detector would be possible as well. Due to the limited number of measurement points used to calculate the power in the channel, the sample
detector would yield less stable results.
4.1.1.3
●
Trace averaging
The Adjust Settings softkey switches off this function. Averaging, which is often
performed to stabilize the measurement results, leads to a too low level indication
and should therefore be avoided. The reduction in the displayed power depends on
the number of averages and the signal characteristics in the channel to be measured.
●
Reference level
The Adjust Settings softkey does not influence the reference level. It can be adjusted separately using the "Adjust Ref Lvl" softkey (see "Adjust Ref Lvl"
on page 117).
Measuring the Carrier-to-Noise Ratio
The R&S ESR can easily determine the carrier-to-noise ratio, also normalized to a 1
Hz bandwidth.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
120
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
The largest signal in the frequency span is the carrier. It is searched when the C/N or
C/NO function is activated (see "C/N, C/No" on page 122) and is marked using a fixed
reference marker ("FXD").
To determine the noise power, a channel at the defined center frequency is examined.
The bandwidth of the channel is defined by the "Channel Bandwidth" setting. The
power within this channel is integrated to obtain the noise power level. (If the carrier is
within this channel, an extra step is required to determine the correct noise power
level, see below.)
The noise power of the channel is subtracted from the maximum carrier signal level,
and in the case of a C/NO measurement, it is referred to a 1 Hz bandwidth.
For this measurement, the RMS detector is activated.
The carrier-to-noise measurements are only available in the frequency domain (span
>0).
There are two methods to measure the carrier-to-noise ratio:
●
The carrier is outside the examined channel: In this case, it is sufficient to switch
on the desired measurement function and to set the channel bandwidth. The carrier/noise ratio is displayed on the screen.
●
The carrier is inside the examined channel: In this case, the measurement must be
performed in two steps:
– First, perform the reference measurement by switching on either the C/N or the
C/NO measurement and waiting for the end of the next measurement run. The
fixed reference marker is set to the maximum of the measured carrier signal.
–
Then, switch off the carrier so that only the noise of the test setup is active in
the channel. The carrier-to-noise ratio is displayed after the subsequent measurement has been completed.
The frequency span should be set to approximately 4 times the channel bandwidth in
order to measure the carrier-to-noise ratio correctly. This setting is defined automatically by the "Adjust Settings" function.
To determine the carrier-to-noise ratio
1. Press the "C/N, C/NO" softkey to configure the carrier-to-noise ratio measurement.
2. To change the channel bandwidth to be examined, press the "Channel Bandwidth"
softkey.
3. To optimize the settings for the selected channel configuration, press the "Adjust
Settings" softkey.
4. To activate the measurements without reference to the bandwidth, press the "C/N"
softkey.
To activate the measurements with reference to the bandwidth, press the "C/NO"
softkey .
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
121
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
5. If the carrier signal is located within the examined channel bandwidth, switch off
the carrier signal so that only the noise is displayed in the channel and perform a
second measurement.
The carrier-to-noise ratio is displayed after the measurement has been completed.
Measurement results
As a result of the carrier-to-noise measurement the evaluated bandwidth and the calculated C/N ratio are indicated beneath the diagram.
You can also query the determined carrier-to-noise ratio via the remote command
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? CN or CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? CN0, see
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​RESult?​ on page 530.
Softkeys for Carrier-to-Noise Ratio Measurements
C/N, C/No....................................................................................................................122
└ C/N................................................................................................................122
└ C/No..............................................................................................................122
└ Channel Bandwidth ......................................................................................123
└ Adjust Settings ............................................................................................. 123
C/N, C/No
Opens a submenu to configure the carrier/noise ratio measurement. Measurements
without (C/N) and measurements with reference to the bandwidth (C/No) are possible.
Carrier-to-noise measurements are not available in zero span mode.
For general information on performing carrier-to-noise ratio measurements see chapter 4.1.1.3, "Measuring the Carrier-to-Noise Ratio", on page 120.
C/N ← C/N, C/No
Switches the measurement of the carrier/noise ratio on or off. If no marker is active,
marker 1 is activated.
The measurement is performed on the trace that marker 1 is assigned to. To shift
marker 1 and measure another trace, use the Marker to Trace softkey in the "Marker
To" menu.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​SELect​ on page 529
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​RESult?​ on page 530
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer[:​STATe]​ on page 533
C/No ← C/N, C/No
Switches the measurement of the carrier/noise ratio with reference to a 1 Hz bandwidth
on or off. If no marker is active, marker 1 is activated.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
122
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
The measurement is performed on the trace that marker 1 is assigned to. To shift
marker 1 and measure another trace, use the Marker to Trace softkey in the "Marker
To" menu.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​SELect​ on page 529
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​RESult?​ on page 530
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer[:​STATe]​ on page 533
Channel Bandwidth ← C/N, C/No
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the measurement channel bandwidth for each channel.
The default setting is 14 kHz.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​ACPairs​ on page 539
Adjust Settings ← C/N, C/No
Enables the RMS detector (see also chapter 4.3.1.5, "Detector Overview",
on page 270) and adjusts the span to the selected channel bandwidth according to:
"4 x channel bandwidth + measurement margin"
The adjustment is performed once; if necessary, the setting can be changed later on.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​PRESet​ on page 534
4.1.1.4
Measuring the Occupied Bandwidth
An important characteristic of a modulated signal is its occupied bandwidth. In a radio
communications system for instance the occupied bandwidth must be limited to enable
distortion-free transmission in adjacent channels. The occupied bandwidth is defined
as the bandwidth containing a defined percentage of the total transmitted power. A percentage between 10 % and 99.9 % can be set.
The measurement principle is the following: The bandwidth containing 99% of the signal power is to be determined, for example. The routine first calculates the total power
of all displayed points of the trace. In the next step, the points from the right edge of
the trace are summed up until 0.5 % of the total power is reached. Auxiliary marker 1 is
positioned at the corresponding frequency. Then the points from the left edge of the
trace are summed up until 0.5 % of the power is reached. Auxiliary marker 2 is positioned at this point. 99 % of the power is now between the two markers. The distance
between the two frequency markers is the occupied bandwidth which is displayed in
the marker field.
To ensure correct power measurement, especially for noise signals, and to obtain the
correct occupied bandwidth, the following prerequisites and settings are necessary:
●
Only the signal to be measured is displayed on the screen. An additional signal
would falsify the measurement.
●
RBW << occupied bandwidth
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
123
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
(approx. 1/20 of occupied bandwidth, for voice communication type 300 Hz or 1
kHz)
●
VBW ≥ 3 x RBW
●
RMS detector
●
Span ≥ 2 to 3 x occupied bandwidth
Some of the measurement specifications (e.g. PDC, RCR STD-27B) require measurement of the occupied bandwidth using a peak detector. The detector setting of the
R&S ESR has to be changed accordingly then.
A remote control programming example is described in chapter 9.15.5, "Occupied
Bandwidth Measurement", on page 800.
To determine the occupied bandwidth
1. Press the OBW softkey to activate the measurement of the occupied bandwidth.
The corresponding submenu is displayed.
2. Press the "% Power Bandwidth" softkey to enter the percentage of power (see "%
Power Bandwidth (span > 0)" on page 125).
3. To change the channel bandwidth for the transmission channel, press the "Channel
Bandwidth" softkey (see "Channel Bandwidth (span > 0)" on page 125).
4. To optimize the settings for the selected channel configuration, press the Adjust
Settings softkey. For details see also "Optimized Settings for CP/ACLR Test
Parameters" on page 119.
5. To adjust the reference level to the measured total power after the first sweep,
press the Adjust Ref Lvl softkey.
Measurement results
As a result of the OBW measurement the occupied bandwidth ("Occ BW") is indicated
in the marker results. Furthermore, the marker at the center frequency and the temporary markers are indicated.
The OBW calculation is repeated if the Search Limits are changed, without performing
a new sweep. Thus, the OBW for a multi-carrier signal can be determined using only
one sweep.
The determined occupied bandwidth can also be queried using the remote command
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? OBW or CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? AOBW. While
the OBW parameter returns only the occupied bandwidth, the AOBW parameter also
returns the position and level of the temporary markers T1 and T2 used to calculate the
occupied bandwidth.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
124
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Softkeys for Occupied Bandwidth (OBW) Measurements
OBW............................................................................................................................125
└ % Power Bandwidth (span > 0).................................................................... 125
└ Channel Bandwidth (span > 0)..................................................................... 125
└ Adjust Ref Lvl (span > 0).............................................................................. 125
└ Adjust Settings.............................................................................................. 126
OBW
Activates measurement of the occupied bandwidth according to the current configuration and opens a submenu to configure the measurement. The occupied bandwidth is
displayed in the marker display field and marked on the trace by temporary markers.
For details see chapter 4.1.1.4, "Measuring the Occupied Bandwidth", on page 123.
This measurement is not available in zero span.
The measurement is performed on the trace with marker 1. In order to evaluate
another trace, marker 1 must be placed on another trace (see the Marker to Trace softkey in the "Marker" menu).
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​SELect​ on page 529
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​RESult?​ on page 530
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer[:​STATe]​ on page 533
% Power Bandwidth (span > 0) ← OBW
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the percentage of total power in the displayed frequency range which defines the occupied bandwidth. Values from 10% to 99.9% are
allowed.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]POWer:​BANDwidth|BWIDth​ on page 558
Channel Bandwidth (span > 0) ← OBW
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the channel bandwidth for the transmission channel.
The specified channel bandwidth is used for optimization of the test parameters (for
details see "Optimized Settings for CP/ACLR Test Parameters" on page 119). The
default setting is 14 kHz.
For measurements in line with a specific transmission standard, the bandwidth specified by the standard for the transmission channel must be entered.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​CHANnel<channel>]​
on page 540
Adjust Ref Lvl (span > 0) ← OBW
Adjusts the reference level to the measured total power of the signal. the softkey is
activated after the first sweep with active measurement of the occupied bandwidth has
been completed and the total power of the signal is thus known.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
125
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Adjusting the reference level ensures that the signal path will not be overloaded and
the dynamic range not limited by too low a reference level. Since the measurement
bandwidth for channel power measurements is significantly lower than the signal bandwidth, the signal path may be overloaded although the trace is distinctly below the reference level. If the measured channel power is equal to the reference level, the signal
path cannot be overloaded.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​PRESet:​RLEVel​ on page 535
Adjust Settings ← OBW
Automatically optimizes all instrument settings for the selected channel configuration
(channel bandwidth, channel spacing) within a specific frequency range (channel bandwidth). The adjustment is carried out only once. If necessary, the instrument settings
can be changed later.
For details on the settings of span, resolution bandwidth, video bandwidth, detector
and trace averaging see "Optimized Settings for CP/ACLR Test Parameters"
on page 119.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​PRESet​ on page 534
4.1.1.5
Measuring with Spectrum Emission Masks
The Spectrum Emission Mask (SEM) measurement defines a measurement that monitors compliance with a spectral mask. The SEM measurement is used to measure the
excess emissions of a TX channel that would interfere to other channels or to other
systems.
The SEM measurement of the base unit allows a flexible definition of all parameters in
the SEM measurement. It is performed using the Spectrum Emission Mask softkey in
the "Measurement" menu. Most parameters are defined in the "Sweep List" dialog box
(see "Sweep List dialog box" on page 129). After a preset, the sweep list contains a
set of default ranges and parameters. For each range, you can change the parameters. For information on other SEM settings, see the description of the corresponding
softkeys ("Spectrum Emission Mask" on page 128).
If you want a parameter set to be available permanently, you can create an XML file for
this configuration and, if necessary, export this file to another application (for details
refer to "Format Description of Spectrum Emission Mask XML Files" on page 146 and
"ASCII File Export Format (Spectrum Emission Mask)" on page 151).
Some predefined XML files are provided that contain ranges and parameters according
to the selected standard (see "Provided XML Files for the Spectrum Emission Mask
Measurement" on page 143).
In order to improve the performance of the FSV for spectrum emission mask measurements, a "Fast SEM" mode is available. For details see "Fast Spectrum Emission Mask
Measurements" on page 152.
Monitoring compliance of the spectrum is supported by a special limit check for SEM
measurements, see "Working with Limit Lines in SEM Measurements" on page 141.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
126
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
A remote control programming example is described in chapter 9.15.12, "Spectrum
Emission Mask Measurement", on page 811.
Softkeys for Spectrum Emission Mask (SEM) Measurements....................................127
Result Evaluation........................................................................................................ 138
Ranges and Range Settings....................................................................................... 140
Working with Limit Lines in SEM Measurements........................................................ 141
Provided XML Files for the Spectrum Emission Mask Measurement......................... 143
Format Description of Spectrum Emission Mask XML Files....................................... 146
ASCII File Export Format (Spectrum Emission Mask)................................................ 151
Fast Spectrum Emission Mask Measurements...........................................................152
Softkeys for Spectrum Emission Mask (SEM) Measurements
Spectrum Emission Mask............................................................................................128
└ Sweep List.................................................................................................... 129
└ Sweep List dialog box.........................................................................129
└ Range Start / Range Stop........................................................ 129
└ Fast SEM..................................................................................129
└ Filter Type.................................................................................130
└ RBW......................................................................................... 130
└ VBW......................................................................................... 130
└ Sweep Time Mode....................................................................130
└ Sweep Time..............................................................................130
└ Ref. Level................................................................................. 130
└ RF Att. Mode............................................................................ 130
└ RF Attenuator........................................................................... 130
└ Preamp..................................................................................... 131
└ Transd. Factor.......................................................................... 131
└ Limit Check 1-4.........................................................................131
└ Abs Limit Start.......................................................................... 131
└ Abs Limit Stop.......................................................................... 131
└ Rel Limit Start........................................................................... 132
└ Rel Limit Stop........................................................................... 132
└ Close Sweep List................................................................................ 132
└ Insert before Range............................................................................ 132
└ Insert after Range............................................................................... 132
└ Delete Range......................................................................................133
└ Symmetric Setup................................................................................ 133
└ Edit Reference Range........................................................................ 133
└ List Evaluation...............................................................................................134
└ List Evaluation (On/Off)...................................................................... 134
└ Margin.................................................................................................134
└ Show Peaks........................................................................................134
└ Save Evaluation List........................................................................... 134
└ ASCII File Export...................................................................... 135
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
127
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
└ Decim Sep................................................................................ 135
└ Edit Reference Range...................................................................................135
└ Edit Power Classes.......................................................................................136
└ Used Power Classes.......................................................................... 136
└ PMin/PMax......................................................................................... 137
└ Sweep List.......................................................................................... 137
└ Add/Remove....................................................................................... 137
└ Load Standard.............................................................................................. 137
└ Save As Standard......................................................................................... 137
└ Meas Start/Stop............................................................................................ 138
└ Restore Standard Files................................................................................. 138
Spectrum Emission Mask
Opens a submenu to configure the Spectrum Emission Mask measurement.
The Spectrum Emission Mask (SEM) measurement defines a measurement that monitors compliance with a spectral mask. The SEM measurement of the base unit allows a
flexible definition of all parameters in the SEM measurement.
For general information on performing SEM measurements, see chapter 4.1.1.5,
"Measuring with Spectrum Emission Masks", on page 126.
Remote command:
SENS:SWE:MODE ESP, see [SENSe:​]SWEep:​MODE​ on page 570
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
128
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Opens a submenu to edit the sweep list and displays the "Sweep List" dialog box.
Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
After a preset, the sweep list contains a set of default ranges and parameters. For
each range, you can change the parameters listed below. To insert or delete ranges,
use the "Insert Before Range", "Insert After Range", "Delete Range" softkeys. The
measurement results are not updated during editing but on closing the dialog box ("Edit
Sweep List/ Close Sweep List" softkey, see "Close Sweep List" on page 132).
The changes of the sweep list are only kept until you load another parameter set (by
pressing PRESET or by loading an XML file). If you want a parameter set to be available permanently, create an XML file for this configuration (for details refer to "Format
Description of Spectrum Emission Mask XML Files" on page 146).
If you load one of the provided XML files ("Load Standard" softkey, see "Load Standard" on page 137), the sweep list contains ranges and parameters according to the
selected standard. For further details refer also to "Provided XML Files for the Spectrum Emission Mask Measurement" on page 143.
Note: If you edit the sweep list, always follow the rules and consider the limitations
described in "Ranges and Range Settings" on page 140.
Range Start / Range Stop ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum
Emission Mask
Sets the start frequency/stop frequency of the selected range. Follow the rules described in "Ranges and Range Settings" on page 140.
In order to change the start/stop frequency of the first/last range, select the appropriate
span with the SPAN key. If you set a span that is smaller than the overall span of the
ranges, the measurement includes only the ranges that lie within the defined span and
have a minimum span of 20 Hz. The first and last ranges are adapted to the given
span as long as the minimum span of 20 Hz is not violated.
Frequency values for each range have to be defined relative to the center frequency.
The reference range has to be centered on the center frequency. The minimum span
of the reference range is given by the current TX Bandwidth.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>[:​FREQuency]:​STARt​ on page 574
[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>[:​FREQuency]:​STOP​ on page 574
Fast SEM ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Activates "Fast SEM" mode for all ranges in the sweep list. For details see "Fast Spectrum Emission Mask Measurements" on page 152.
Note: If "Fast SEM" mode is deactivated while Symmetric Setup mode is on, "Symmetrical Setup" mode is automatically also deactivated.
If "Fast SEM" mode is activated while "Symmetrical Setup" mode is on, not all range
settings can be set automatically.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​HighSPeed​ on page 571
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
129
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Filter Type ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Sets the filter type for this range. For details on filters see also chapter 4.2.6.3, "Selecting the Appropriate Filter Type", on page 237.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​FILTer:​TYPE​ on page 573
RBW ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Sets the RBW value for this range.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​BANDwidth[:​RESolution]​ on page 572
VBW ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Sets the VBW value for this range.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​BANDwidth:​VIDeo​ on page 572
Sweep Time Mode ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission
Mask
Activates or deactivates the auto mode for the sweep time.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​SWEep:​TIME:​AUTO​ on page 579
Sweep Time ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Sets the sweep time value for the range.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​SWEep:​TIME​ on page 579
Ref. Level ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Sets the reference level for the range.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​RLEVel​ on page 578
RF Att. Mode ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission
Mask
Activates or deactivates the auto mode for RF attenuation.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​INPut:​ATTenuation:​AUTO​ on page 575
RF Attenuator ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission
Mask
Sets the attenuation value for that range.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​INPut:​ATTenuation​ on page 575
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
130
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Preamp ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Switches the preamplifier on or off.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​INPut:​GAIN:​STATe​ on page 575
Transd. Factor ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission
Mask
Sets a transducer for the specified range. You can only choose a transducer that fulfills
the following conditions:
●
●
●
The transducer overlaps or equals the span of the range.
The x-axis is linear.
The unit is dB.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​TRANsducer​ on page 579
Limit Check 1-4 ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission
Mask
Sets the type of limit check for all ranges.
For details on limit checks see "Working with Limit Lines in SEM Measurements"
on page 141.
For details on limit checks see the base unit description "Working with Lines in SEM".
The limit state affects the availability of all limit settings ("Abs Limit Start" on page 131,
"Abs Limit Stop" on page 131, "Rel Limit Start" on page 132, "Rel Limit Stop"
on page 132).
Depending on the number of active power classes (see "Power Class" dialog box), the
number of limits that can be set varies. Up to four limits are possible. The sweep list is
extended accordingly.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​LIMit<source>:​STATe​ on page 578
CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​FAIL?​ on page 527
Abs Limit Start ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission
Mask
Sets an absolute limit value at the start frequency of the range [dBm].
This parameter is only available if the limit check is set accordingly (see "Limit Check
1-4" on page 131).
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​LIMit<source>:​ABSolute:​STARt​
on page 576
Abs Limit Stop ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission
Mask
Sets an absolute limit value at the stop frequency of the range [dBm].
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
131
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
This parameter is only available if the limit check is set accordingly (see "Limit Check
1-4" on page 131).
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​LIMit<source>:​ABSolute:​STOP​
on page 577
Rel Limit Start ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission
Mask
Sets a relative limit value at the start frequency of the range [dBc].
This parameter is only available if the limit check is set accordingly (see "Limit Check
1-4" on page 131).
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​LIMit<source>:​RELative:​STARt​
on page 577
Rel Limit Stop ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission
Mask
Sets a relative limit value at the stop frequency of the range [dBc].
This parameter is only available if the limit check is set accordingly (see "Sweep List
dialog box" on page 129).
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​LIMit<source>:​RELative:​STOP​
on page 577
Close Sweep List ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Closes the "Sweep List" dialog box and updates the measurement results.
Insert before Range ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Inserts a new range to the left of the currently focused range. The range numbers of
the currently focused range and all higher ranges are increased accordingly. The maximum number of ranges is 20.
For further details refer to "Ranges and Range Settings" on page 140.
Remote command:
ESP:RANG3:INS BEF, see [SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​INSert​
on page 576
Insert after Range ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Inserts a new range to the right of the currently focused range. The range numbers of
all higher ranges are increased accordingly. The maximum number of ranges is 20.
For further details refer to "Ranges and Range Settings" on page 140.
Remote command:
ESP:RANG1:INS AFT, see [SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​INSert​
on page 576
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
132
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Delete Range ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Deletes the currently focused range, if possible. The range numbers are updated
accordingly. For further details refer to "Ranges and Range Settings" on page 140.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RANGe<range>:​DELete​ on page 573
Symmetric Setup ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
If activated, the current sweep list configuration is changed to define a symmetrical
setup regarding the reference range. The number of ranges to the left of the reference
range is reflected to the right, i.e. any missing ranges on the right are inserted, while
superfluous ranges are removed. The values in the ranges to the right of the reference
range are adapted symmetrically to those in the left ranges.
Any changes to the range settings in active "Symmetric Setup" mode lead to symmetrical changes in the other ranges (where possible). In particular, this means:
●
●
●
Inserting ranges: a symmetrical range is inserted on the other side of the reference
range
Deleting ranges: the symmetrical range on the other side of the reference range is
also deleted
Editing range settings: the settings in the symmetrical range are adapted accordingly
Note: If "Fast SEM" mode is deactivated while "Symmetric Setup" mode is on, "Sym
Setup" mode is automatically also deactivated.
If "Fast SEM" mode is activated while "Symmetric Setup" mode is on, not all range settings can be set automatically.
Edit Reference Range ← Sweep List ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Opens the "Reference Range" dialog box to edit the additional settings used for SEM
measurements.
Two different power reference types are supported:
●
●
"Peak Power"
Measures the highest peak within the reference range.
"Channel Power"
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
133
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
●
●
●
Measures the channel power within the reference range (integral bandwidth
method).
If the "Channel Power" reference power type is activated, the dialog box is extended to define additional settings:
"Tx Bandwidth"
Defines the bandwidth used for measuring the channel power:
minimum span ≤ value ≤ span of reference range
"RRC Filter State"
Activates or deactivates the use of an RRC filter.
"RRC Filter Settings"
Sets the alpha value of the RRC filter. This window is only available if the RRC filter is activated.
For further details refer to "Ranges and Range Settings" on page 140.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RTYPe​ on page 581
[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​BWID​ on page 580
[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​FILTer[:​RRC][:​STATe]​ on page 581
[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​FILTer[:​RRC]:​ALPHa​ on page 580
List Evaluation ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Opens a submenu to edit the list evaluation settings.
List Evaluation (On/Off) ← List Evaluation ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Activates or deactivates the list evaluation.
Remote command:
Turning list evaluation on and off:
CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch:​AUTO​ on page 567
Querying list evaluation results:
TRACe<n>:​DATA​ on page 535
Margin ← List Evaluation ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the margin used for the limit check/peak search.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch:​MARGin​ on page 488
Show Peaks ← List Evaluation ← Spectrum Emission Mask
In the diagram, marks all peaks with blue squares that have been listed during an
active list evaluation.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​ESPectrum:​PSEarch|:​PEAKsearch:​PSHow​ on page 587
Save Evaluation List ← List Evaluation ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Opens the "ASCII File Export Name" dialog box to save the result in ASCII format to a
specified file and directory. For further details refer also to the "ASCII File Export" softkey ("ASCII File Export" on page 135).
Remote command:
MMEMory:​STORe<n>:​LIST​ on page 586
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
134
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
ASCII File Export ← Save Evaluation List ← List Evaluation ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Opens the "ASCII File Export Name" dialog box and saves the active peak list in ASCII
format to the specified file and directory.
The file consists of the header containing important scaling parameters and a data section containing the marker data. For details on an ASCII file see chapter 4.3.1.6, "ASCII
File Export Format", on page 271.
This format can be processed by spreadsheet calculation programs, e.g. MS-Excel. It
is necessary to define ';' as a separator for the data import. Different language versions
of evaluation programs may require a different handling of the decimal point. It is therefore possible to select between separators '.' (decimal point) and ',' (comma) using the
"Decim Sep" softkey (see "Decim Sep" on page 72).
An example of an output file for Spectrum Emission Mask measurements is given in
"ASCII File Export Format (Spectrum Emission Mask)" on page 151.
Remote command:
FORMat:​DEXPort:​DSEParator​ on page 661
MMEMory:​STORe<n>:​LIST​ on page 586
Decim Sep ← Save Evaluation List ← List Evaluation ← Spectrum Emission
Mask
Selects the decimal separator with floating-point numerals for the ASCII Trace export
to support evaluation programs (e.g. MS-Excel) in different languages. The values '.'
(decimal point) and ',' (comma) can be set.
Remote command:
FORMat:​DEXPort:​DSEParator​ on page 661
Edit Reference Range ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Opens the "Reference Range" dialog box to edit the additional settings used for SEM
measurements.
Two different power reference types are supported:
●
"Peak Power"
Measures the highest peak within the reference range.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
135
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
●
●
●
●
"Channel Power"
Measures the channel power within the reference range (integral bandwidth
method).
If the "Channel Power" reference power type is activated, the dialog box is extended to define additional settings:
"Tx Bandwidth"
Defines the bandwidth used for measuring the channel power:
minimum span ≤ value ≤ span of reference range
"RRC Filter State"
Activates or deactivates the use of an RRC filter.
"RRC Filter Settings"
Sets the alpha value of the RRC filter. This window is only available if the RRC filter is activated.
For further details refer to "Ranges and Range Settings" on page 140.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​RTYPe​ on page 581
[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​BWID​ on page 580
[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​FILTer[:​RRC][:​STATe]​ on page 581
[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​FILTer[:​RRC]:​ALPHa​ on page 580
Edit Power Classes ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Opens a dialog box to modify the power class settings.
Used Power Classes ← Edit Power Classes ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Choose the power classes to be used from this dropdown menu. It is only possible to
select either one of the defined power classes or all of the defined power classes
together.
Only power classes for which limits are defined are available for selection.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
136
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
If "All" is selected, the power class that corresponds to the currently measured power
in the reference range is used. The limits assigned to that power class are applied (see
"PMin/PMax" on page 137).
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​ESPectrum:​PCLass<Class>[:​EXCLusive]​
on page 583
To define all limits in one step:
CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​ESPectrum:​PCLass<Class>:​LIMit[:​STATe]​
on page 584
PMin/PMax ← Edit Power Classes ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Defines the level limits for each power class. The range always starts at -200 dBm (INF) and always stops at 200 dBm (+INF). These fields cannot be modified. If more
than one Power Class is defined, the value of "PMin" must be equal to the value of
"PMax" of the last Power Class and vice versa.
Note that the power level may be equal to the lower limit, but must be lower than the
upper limit:
Pmin≦P<Pmax
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​ESPectrum:​PCLass<Class>:​MINimum​ on page 585
CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​ESPectrum:​PCLass<Class>:​MAXimum​ on page 584
Sweep List ← Edit Power Classes ← Spectrum Emission Mask
See "Sweep List" on page 129
Add/Remove ← Edit Power Classes ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Activates or deactivates power classes to be defined. Up to four power classes can be
defined. The number of active power classes affects the availability of the items of the
Used Power Classes dropdown menu.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​ESPectrum:​PCLass<Class>[:​EXCLusive]​
on page 583
Load Standard ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Opens a dialog box to select an XML file which includes the desired standard specification. For details on the provided XML files refer to "Provided XML Files for the Spectrum Emission Mask Measurement" on page 143.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​PRESet[:​STANdard]​ on page 569
Save As Standard ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Opens the "Save As Standard" dialog box, in which the currently used SEM settings
and parameters can be saved and exported into an *.xml file. Enter the name of the file
in the "File name" field. For details on the structure and contents of the XML file refer to
"Format Description of Spectrum Emission Mask XML Files" on page 146.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​PRESet:​STORe​ on page 569
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
137
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Meas Start/Stop ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Aborts/restarts the current measurement and displays the status:
"Start"
The measurement is currently running.
"Stop"
The measurement has been stopped, or, in single sweep mode, the
end of the sweep has been reached.
Remote command:
ABORt ​ on page 447
INITiate<n>:​ESPectrum​ on page 570
Restore Standard Files ← Spectrum Emission Mask
Copies the XML files from the C:\R_S\instr\sem_backup folder to the C:
\R_S\instr\sem_std folder. Files of the same name are overwritten.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​PRESet:​RESTore​ on page 569
Result Evaluation
As a result of the Spectrum Emission Mask measurement, the measured signal levels,
the result of the limit check (mask monitoring) and the defined limit line are displayed in
a diagram (see also "Working with Limit Lines in SEM Measurements" on page 141).
Furthermore, the TX channel power "P" is indicated in relation to the defined power
class ranges.
Example:
For example, "P<31" is indicated if the lowest power class is defined from infinity to 31
and the power is currently 17 dBm.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
138
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
In addition to the graphical results of the SEM measurement displayed in the diagram,
a result table is displayed to evaluate the limit check results (see also "Working with
Limit Lines in SEM Measurements" on page 141).
The following information is provided in the result table:
Label
Description
General Information
Standard
Loaded standard settings
Tx Power
Tx channel power
Tx Bandwidth
Tx channel bandwidth
RBW
RBW for the Tx channel
Range results
Range Low
Frequency range start for range the peak value belongs to
Range Up
Frequency range stop for range the peak value belongs to
RBW
RBW of the range
Frequency
Frequency
Power Abs
Absolute power level
Power Rel
Power level relative to the TX channel power
ΔLimit
Deviation of the power level from the defined limit
In which detail the data is displayed in the result table can be defined in the List Evaluation menu. By default, one peak per range is displayed. However, you can change the
settings to display only peaks that exceed a threshold ("Margin").
In addition to listing the peaks in the list evaluation, detected peaks can be indicated by
blue squares in the diagram ("Show Peaks").
Furthermore, you can save the evaluation list to a file ("Save Evaluation List").
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
139
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Retrieving Results via Remote Control
The measurement results of the spectrum emission mask test can be retrieved using
the CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​FAIL?​ command from a remote computer.
The power result for the reference range can be queried using
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? CPOW, the peak power for the reference range using
CALC:MARK:FUNC:POW:RES? PPOW.
For details see CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​POWer:​RESult?​
on page 530.
Ranges and Range Settings
In the Spectrum Emission Mask measurements, a range defines a segment for which
you can define the following parameters separately:
●
Start and stop frequency
●
RBW
●
VBW
●
Sweep time
●
Sweep points
●
Reference level
●
Attenuator settings
●
Limit values
Via the sweep list, you define the ranges and their settings. For details on settings refer
to "Sweep List dialog box" on page 129.
For details on defining the limits (masks) see "Working with Limit Lines in SEM Measurements" on page 141.
For details on defining the limits (masks) see the base unit description "Working with
Lines in SEM".
The following rules apply to ranges:
●
The minimum span of a range is 20 Hz.
●
The individual ranges must not overlap (but need not directly follow one another).
●
The maximum number of ranges is 20.
●
A minimum of three ranges is mandatory.
●
The reference range cannot be deleted (it is marked in blue color).
●
The reference range has to be centered on the center frequency.
●
The minimum span of the reference range is given by the current TX Bandwidth.
●
Frequency values for each range have to be defined relative to the center frequency.
In order to change the start frequency of the first range or the stop frequency of the last
range, select the appropriate span with the SPAN key. If you set a span that is smaller
than the overall span of the ranges, the measurement includes only the ranges that lie
within the defined span and have a minimum span of 20 Hz. The first and last ranges
are adapted to the given span as long as the minimum span of 20 Hz is not violated.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
140
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Symmetrical ranges
You can easily define a sweep list with symmetrical range settings, i.e. the ranges to
the left and right of the center range are defined symmectrically. In the "Sweep List"
menu, select the "Symmetrical Setup" softkey to activate symmetrical setup mode. The
current sweep list configuration is changed to define a symmetrical setup regarding the
reference range. The number of ranges to the left of the reference range is reflected to
the right, i.e. any missing ranges on the right are inserted, while superfluous ranges
are removed. The values in the ranges to the right of the reference range are adapted
symmetrically to those in the left ranges.
For details see "Symmetric Setup" on page 133.
Symmetrical ranges fulfull the conditions required for "Fast SEM" mode (see "Fast
Spectrum Emission Mask Measurements" on page 152).
Working with Limit Lines in SEM Measurements
Using the R&S ESR, the spectrum emission mask is defined using limit lines. Limit
lines allow you to check the measured data against specified limit values. Generally, it
is possible to define limit lines for any measurement in Spectrum mode using the
LINES key. For SEM measurements, however, special limit lines are available via the
"Sweep List", and it is strongly recommended that you use only these limit line definitions.
In the "Sweep List" you can define a limit line for each power class that varies its level
according to the specified frequency ranges. Distinguished limit lines
("_SEM_LINE_ABS<0...3>"/"_SEM_LINE_REL<0...3>") are automatically defined for
each power class according to the current "Sweep List" settings every time the settings
change.
The limit line defined for the current power class is indicated by a red line in the display, and the result of the limit check is indicated at the top of the diagram. Note that
only "Pass" or "Fail" is indicated; a "margin" function as for general limit lines is not
available.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
141
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
The indicated limit line depends on the settings in the "Sweep List". Several types of
limit checks are possible:
Limit check type
Pass/fail criteria
Indicated limit line
Absolute
Absolute power levels may not
exceed limit line
Defined by the "Abs Limit Start"/ "Abs Limit
Stop" values for each range
Relative
Power deviations relative to the TX
channel power may not exceed limit
line
Defined by the "Rel Limit Start"/ "Rel Limit
Stop" values (relative to the center frequency)
for each range
Abs and Rel
Only if the power exceeds both the
absolute and the relative limits, the
check fails.
The less strict (higher) limit line is displayed
for each range.
Abs or Rel
If the power exceeds either the
absolute or the relative limits, the
check fails.
The stricter (lower) limit line is displayed for
each range.
The largest deviations of the power from the limit line for each range are displayed in
the evaluation list. Furthermore, the absolute powers for those values, as well as the
relative deviation from the TX channel power are displayed. Values that exceed the
limit are indicated in red and by an asterisk (*).
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
142
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Although a margin functionality is not available for the limit check, a margin (threshold)
for the peak values to be displayed in the evaluation list can be defined in the list evaluation settings. For details see "Result Evaluation" on page 138.
Provided XML Files for the Spectrum Emission Mask Measurement
You can change the settings manually or via XML files. The XML files offer a quick way
to change the configuration. A set of ready-made XML files for different standards is
already provided. For details see table 4-1. You can also create and use your own
XML files (for details see "Format Description of Spectrum Emission Mask XML Files"
on page 146). All XML files are stored under "C:\r_s\instr\sem_std". Use the
"Load Standard" softkey for quick access to the available XML files (see "Load Standard" on page 137).
Table 4-1: Provided XML files
Path
XML file name
Displayed standard characteristics*
cdma2000\DL
default0.xml
CDMA2000 BC0 DL
default1.xml
CDMA2000 BC1 DL
default0.xml
CDMA2000 BC0 UL
default1.xml
CDMA2000 BC1 UL
PowerClass_31_39.xml
W-CDMA 3GPP (31,39)dBm DL
PowerClass_39_43.xml
W-CDMA 3GPP (39,43)dBm DL
PowerClass_43_INF.xml
W-CDMA 3GPP (43,INF)dBm
DL
cdma2000\UL
WCDMA\3GPP\DL
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
143
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Path
XML file name
Displayed standard characteristics*
PowerClass_negINF_31.xml
W-CDMA 3GPP (-INF,31)dBm
DL
PowerClass_29_40.xml
WiBro TTA (29,40)dBm DL
PowerClass_40_INF.xml
WiBro TTA (40,INF)dBm DL
PowerClass_negINF_29.xml
WiBro TTA (-INF,29)dBm DL
PowerClass_23_INF.xml
WiBro TTA (23,INF)dBm UL
PowerClass_negINF_23.xml
WiBro TTA (23,INF)dBm UL
System_Type_E.xml
WIMAX System Type E DL
System_Type_F.xml
WIMAX System Type F DL
System_Type_G.xml
WIMAX System Type G DL
10MHz.xml
WIMAX 10MHz DL
20MHz.xml
WIMAX 20MHz DL
System_Type_E.xml
WIMAX System Type E UL
System_Type_F.xml
WIMAX System Type F UL
System_Type_G.xml
WIMAX System Type G UL
10MHz.xml
WIMAX 10MHz UL
20MHz.xml
WIMAX 20MHz UL
ETSI.xml
IEEE 802.11
IEEE.xml
IEEE 802.11
ETSI.xml
IEEE 802.11a
IEEE.xml
IEEE 802.11a
WLAN\802_11b
IEEE.xml
IEEE 802.11b
WLAN\802_11j_10MHz
ETSI.xml
IEEE.802.11j
IEEE.xml
IEEE.802.11j
ETSI.xml
IEEE 802.11j
IEEE.xml
IEEE 802.11j
WIBRO\DL
WIBRO\UL
WIMAX\DL\ETSI\…MHz (1.75
MHz, 2.00 MHz, 3.5 MHz, 7.00
MHz, 14.00 MHz, 28 MHz)
WIMAX\DL\IEEE
WIMAX\UL\ETSI…MHz (1.75
MHz, 2.00 MHz, 3.5 MHz, 7.00
MHz, 14.00 MHz, 28 MHz)
WIMAX\UL\IEEE
WLAN\802_11_TURBO
WLAN\802_11a
WLAN\802_11j_20MHz
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryA\
BW_01_4_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xm LTE Cat. A >1GHz DL
l
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryA\
BW_01_4_MHz__CFlower1GHz.xml
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryA\
BW_03_0_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xm LTE Cat. A >1GHz DL
l
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryA\
BW_03_0_MHz__CFlower1GHz.xml
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
LTE Cat. A <1GHz DL
LTE Cat. A <1GHz DL
144
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Path
XML file name
Displayed standard characteristics*
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryA\
BW_05_0_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xm LTE Cat. A >1GHz DL
l
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryA\
BW_05_0_MHz__CFlower1GHz.xml
LTE Cat. A <1GHz DL
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryA\
BW_10_0_MHz__Cfhigher1GHz.xml
LTE Cat. A >1GHz DL
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryA\
BW_10_0_MHz__Cflower1GHz.xml
LTE Cat. A >1GHz DL
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryA\
BW_15_0_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xm LTE Cat. A >1GHz DL
l
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryA\
BW_15_0_MHz__CFlower1GHz.xml
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryA\
BW_20_0_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xm LTE Cat. A >1GHz DL
l
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryA\
BW_20_0_MHz__CFlower1GHz.xml
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryB\
BW_01_4_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xm LTE Cat. B >1GHz DL
l
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryB\
BW_01_4_MHz__CFlower1GHz.xml
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryB\
BW_03_0_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xm LTE Cat. B >1GHz DL
l
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryB\
BW_03_0_MHz__CFlower1GHz.xml
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryB\
BW_05_0_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xm LTE Cat. B >1GHz DL
l
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryB\
BW_05_0_MHz__CFlower1GHz.xml
LTE Cat. B <1GHz DL
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryB\
BW_10_0_MHz__Cfhigher1GHz.xml
LTE Cat. B >1GHz DL
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryB\
BW_10_0_MHz__Cflower1GHz.xml
LTE Cat. B >1GHz DL
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryB\
BW_15_0_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xm LTE Cat. B >1GHz DL
l
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryB\
BW_15_0_MHz__CFlower1GHz.xml
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryB\
BW_20_0_MHz__CFhigher1GHz.xm LTE Cat. B >1GHz DL
l
EUTRA-LTE\DL\CategoryB\
BW_20_0_MHz__CFlower1GHz.xml
LTE Cat. B <1GHz DL
EUTRA-LTE\UL\Standard\
BW_05_0_MHz.xml
LTE UL
EUTRA-LTE\UL\Standard\
BW_10_0_MHz.xml
LTE UL
EUTRA-LTE\UL\Standard\
BW_15_0_MHz.xml
LTE UL
EUTRA-LTE\UL\Standard\
BW_20_0_MHz.xml
LTE UL
LTE Cat. A <1GHz DL
LTE Cat. A <1GHz DL
LTE Cat. B <1GHz DL
LTE Cat. B <1GHz DL
LTE Cat. B <1GHz DL
*Used abbreviations:
BC: band class
UL: uplink
DL: downlink
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
145
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
TTA: Telecommunications Technology Association
Format Description of Spectrum Emission Mask XML Files
The files for importing range settings are in XML format and therefore obey the rules of
the XML standard. Below, the child nodes, attributes, and structure defined for the data
import is described. Build your own XML files according to these conventions because
the R&S ESR can only interpret XML files of a known structure. For example files look
in the C:\r_s\instr\sem_std directory.
Fig. 4-5: Example Spectrum emission mask standard file (PowerClass_39_43.xml)
Be sure to follow the structure exactly as shown below or else the R&S ESR is not able
to interpret the XML file and error messages are shown on the screen. Therefore, we
recommend you make a copy of an existing file (see Save As Standard softkey) and
edit the copy of the file.
Alternatively, edit the settings using the "Spectrum Emission Mask" softkey and the
Sweep List dialog box and save the XML file with the Save As Standard softkey afterwards. This way, no modifications have to be done in the XML file itself.
Basically, the file consists of three elements that can be defined:
●
The "BaseFormat" element
●
The "PowerClass" element
●
The "Range" element
The "BaseFormat" element
It carries information about basic settings. In this element only the "ReferencePower"
child node has any effects on the measurement itself. The other attributes and child
nodes are used to display information about the Spectrum Emission Mask Standard on
the measurement screen. The child nodes and attributes of this element are shown in
table 4-2.
In the example above (PowerClass_39_43.xml under
C:\r_s\instr\sem_std\WCDMA\3GPP, see figure 4-5), these attributes are defined
as follows:
●
Standard="W-CDMA 3GPP"
●
LinkDirection="DL"
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
146
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
●
PowerClass="(39,43)dBm"
The "PowerClass" element
It is embedded in the "BaseFormat" element and contains settings information about
the power classes. Up to four different power classes can be defined. For details refer
to the "Sweep List" softkey ("Sweep List" on page 129) and the corresponding parameter description. The child nodes and attributes of this element are shown in table 4-3.
The "Range" element
This element is embedded in the "PowerClass" element. It contains the settings information of the range. There have to be at least three defined ranges: one reference
range and at least one range to either side of the reference range. The maximum number of ranges is 20. Note that the R&S ESR uses the same ranges in each power
class. Therefore, the contents of the ranges of each defined power class have to be
identical to the first power class. An exception are the Start and Stop values of the two
Limit nodes that are used to determine the power class. Note also, that there are two
Limit nodes to be defined: one that gives the limit in absolute values and one in relative
values. Make sure units for the Start and Stop nodes are identical for each Limit node.
For details refer to the "Sweep List" softkey ("Sweep List" on page 129) and the corresponding parameter description. The child nodes and attributes of this element are
shown in table 4-4.
The following tables show the child nodes and attributes of each element and show if a
child node or attribute is mandatory for the R&S ESR to interpret the file or not. Since
the hierarchy of the XML can not be seen in the tables, either view one of the default
files already stored on the R&S ESR in the "C:\r_s\instr\sem_std" directory or
check the structure as shown below.
Below, a basic example of the structure of the file is shown, containing all mandatory
attributes and child nodes. Note that the "PowerClass" element and the range element
are themselves elements of the "BaseFormat" element and are to be inserted where
noted. The separation is done here simply for reasons of a better overview. Also, no
example values are given here to allow a quick reference to the tables above. Italic font
shows the placeholders for the values.
●
The "BaseFormat" element is structured as follows:
– <RS_SEM_ACP_FileFormat Version=""1.0.0.0"">
<Name>"Standard"</Name>
<Instrument>
<Type>"Instrument Type"</Type>
<Application>"Application"</Application>
</Instrument>
<LinkDirection Name=""Name"">
<ReferencePower>
<Method>"Method"</Method>
</ReferencePower>
<PowerClass Index=""n"">
<!-- For contents of the PowerClass node see
table 4-3 -->
<!-- Define up to four PowerClass nodes -->
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
147
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
</PowerClass>
</LinkDirection>
</RS_SEM_ACP_File>
●
The "PowerClass" element is structured as follows:
– <PowerClass Index=""n"">
<StartPower Unit=""dBm"" InclusiveFlag=""true"" Value=""StartPowerValue""/>
<StopPower Unit=""dBm"" InclusiveFlag=""false"" Value=""StopPowerValue""/>
<DefaultLimitFailMode>"Limit Fail Mode"</DefaultLimitFailMode>
<Range Index=""n"">
<!-- For contents of the Range node see table 4-4 -->
<!-- Define up to twenty Range nodes -->
</Range>
…
</PowerClass>
●
The "Range" element is structured as follows:
– <Range Index=""n"">
<Name=""Name"">
<ChannelType>"Channel Type"</Channel Type>
<WeightingFilter>
<Type>"FilterType"</Type>
<RollOffFactor>"Factor"</RollOffFactor>
<Bandwith>"Bandwidth"</Bandwidth>
</WeightingFilter>
<FrequencyRange>
<Start>"RangeStart"</Start>
<Stop>"RangeStop"</Stop>
</FrequencyRange>
<Limit>
<Start Unit=""Unit"" Value=""Value""/>
<Stop Unit=""Unit"" Value=""Value""/>
</Limit>
<Limit>
<Start Unit=""Unit"" Value=""Value""/>
<Stop Unit=""Unit"" Value=""Value""/>
</Limit>
<RBW Bandwidth=""Bandwidth"" Type=""FilterType""/>
<VBW Bandwidth=""Bandwidth""/>
<Detector>"Detector"</Detector>
<Sweep Mode=""SweepMode"" Time=""SweepTime""/>
<Amplitude>
<ReferenceLevel Unit=""dBm"" Value=""Value""/>
<RFAttenuation Mode=""Auto"" Unit=""dB"" Value=""Value""/>
<Preamplifier State=""State""/>
</Amplitude>
</Range>
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
148
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Table 4-2: Attributes and child nodes of the BaseFormat element
Child Node
Attribute
Value
FileFormatVersion
1.0.0.0
Date
YYYY-MM-DD
HH:MM:SS
Date in ISO 8601 format
No
<string>
Name of the standard
Yes
Type
FSL
Name of the instrument
No
Application
SA | K72 | K82
Name of the application
No
Name
Downlink | Uplink |
None
Yes
ShortName
DL | UL
No
Name
Instrument
LinkDirection
Parameter Description
Yes
ReferencePower
Method
Mand.
Yes
TX Channel Power |
Yes
TX Channel Peak
Power
ReferenceChannel
<string>
No
Table 4-3: Attributes and child nodes of the PowerClass element
Child Node
Attribute
Value
Parameter Description
StartPower
Value
<power in dBm>
The start power must be equal Yes
to the stop power of the previous power class. The StartPower value of the first range
is -200
Unit
dBm
Yes
InclusiveFlag
true
Yes
Value
<power in dBm>
Unit
dBm
InclusiveFlag
false
Yes
Absolute | Relative
| Absolute and Relative | Absolute or
Relative
Yes
StopPower
DefaultLimitFailMode
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
The stop power must be equal
to the start power of the next
power class. The StopPower
value of the last range is 200
Mand.
Yes
149
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Table 4-4: Attributes and child nodes of the Range element (normal ranges)
Child Node
Attribute
Value
Parameter Description
Mand.
Index
0…19
Inde XE s are continuous
and have to start with 0
Yes
Name
<string>
Name of the range
Only if ReferenceChannel contains a name and
the range is the
reference range
ShortName
<string>
Short name of the range
No
ChannelType
TX | Adjacent
Yes
WeightingFilter
Only if ReferencePower method
is TX Channel
Power and the
range is the reference range
Type
RRC | CFilter
Type of the weighting filter
Yes
Roll Off Factor
0…1
Excess bandwidth of the filter
Only if the filter
type is RRC
Bandwidth
<bandwidth in Hz>
Filter bandwidth
Only if the filter
type is RRC
FrequencyRange
Yes
Start
<frequency in Hz>
Start value of the range
Yes
Stop
<frequency in Hz>
Stop value of the range
Yes
Limit
dBm/Hz | dBm |
dBc | dBr | dB
A Range must contain
exactly two limit nodes; one
of the limit nodes has to
have a relative unit (e.g.
dBc), the other one must
have an absolute unit (e.g.
dBm)
Yes
Value
<numeric_value>
Power limit at start frequency
Yes
Unit
dBm/Hz | dBm |
dBc | dBr | dB
Sets the unit of the start
value
Value
<numeric_value>
Power limit at stop frequency
Unit
dBm/Hz | dBm |
dBc | dBr | dB
Sets the unit of the stop
value
Absolute | Relative
| Absolute and Relative | Absolute or
Relative
If used, it has to be identical
to DefaultLimitFailMode
No
<bandwidth in Hz>
"RBW" on page 130
Yes
Start
Stop
LimitFailMode
RBW
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
Bandwidth
150
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Child Node
VBW
Attribute
Value
Type
NORM | PULS |
CFIL | RRC
Bandwidth
<bandwidth in Hz>
"VBW" on page 130
Yes
NEG | POS |
SAMP | RMS |
AVER | QUAS
If used, it has to be identical
in all ranges.
No
Mode
Manual | Auto
"Sweep Time Mode"
on page 130
Yes
Time
<time in sec>
"Sweep Time" on page 130
No
Detector
Sweep
Parameter Description
No
Amplitude
ReferenceLevel
RFAttenuation
Preamplifier
Mand.
No
Value
<power in dBm>
"Ref. Level" on page 130
Yes, if the ReferenceLevel child
node is used
Unit
dBm
Defines dBm as unit
Yes, if the ReferenceLevel node
is used
Mode
Manual | Auto
"RF Att. Mode" on page 130
Yes, if the ReferenceLevel child
node is used
ON | OFF
"Preamp" on page 131
Yes
ASCII File Export Format (Spectrum Emission Mask)
The first part of the file lists information about the signal analyzer and the general
setup. For a detailed description refer to chapter 4.3.1.6, "ASCII File Export Format",
on page 271.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
151
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
File contents
Description
RefType; CPOWER;
reference range setup, for details see "Edit
Reference Range" on page 133
TxBandwidth;9540000;Hz
Filter State; ON;
Alpha;0.22;
PeaksPerRange;1;
evaluation list information
Values;4;
0;-22500000;-9270000;1000000;2986455000;-74.762840
270996094;
information about each peak:
-10.576210021972656;-45.762840270996094;PASS;
<start frequency>;
1;-9270000;-4770000;100000;2991405000;-100.1769561
7675781;
<stop frequency>;
-35.990325927734375;-1.490325927734375;PASS
3;4770000;9270000;100000;3005445000;-100.17695617
675781;
<range number>;
<resolution bandwidth of range>;
<frequency of peak>;
<absolute power in dBm of peak>;
-35.990325927734375;-1.490325927734375;PASS;
<relative power in dBc of peak
4;9270000;22500000;1000000;3018225000;-74.7628402
70996094;
(related to the channel power)>;
-10.576210021972656;-45.762840270996094;PASS;
(positive value means above the limit)>;
<distance to the limit line in dB
<limit fail (pass = 0, fail =1)>;
Fast Spectrum Emission Mask Measurements
In order to improve the performance of the R&S ESR for spectrum emission mask
measurements, a "Fast SEM" mode is available. If this mode is activated, several consecutive ranges with identical sweep settings are combined to one sweep internally,
which makes the measurement considerably more efficient. The displayed results
remain unchanged and still consist of several ranges. Thus, measurement settings that
apply only to the results, such as limits or transducer factors, can nevertheless be
defined individually for each range.
Prerequisites
"Fast SEM" mode is available if the following criteria apply:
●
The frequency ranges are consecutive, without frequency gaps
●
The following sweep settings are identical:
– "Filter Type", see "Filter Type" on page 130
–
"RBW", see "RBW" on page 130
–
"VBW", see "VBW" on page 130
–
"Sweep Time Mode", see "Sweep Time Mode" on page 130
–
"Ref Level", see "Ref. Level" on page 130
–
"Rf Att. Mode", see "RF Att. Mode" on page 130
–
"RF Attenuator", see "RF Att. Mode" on page 130
–
"Preamp", see "Preamp" on page 131
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
152
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Activating Fast SEM mode
"Fast SEM" mode is activated in the sweep list (see "Fast SEM" on page 129) or using
a remote command. Activating the mode for one range automatically activates it for all
ranges in the sweep list.
In the provided XML files for the Spectrum Emission Mask measurement, "Fast SEM"
mode is activated by default.
SCPI command:
[SENSe:​]ESPectrum:​HighSPeed​ on page 571
Consequences
When the "Fast SEM" mode is activated, the ranges for which these criteria apply are
displayed as one single range. The sweep time is defined as the sum of the individual
sweep times, initially, but can be changed. When the "Fast SEM" mode is deactivated,
the originally defined individual sweep times are reset.
If "Symmetrical Setup" mode is active when "Fast SEM" mode is activated, not all
sweep list settings can be configured symmetrically automatically (see also "Symmetric
Setup" on page 133).
Any other changes to the sweep settings of the combined range are applied to each
included range and remain changed even after deactivating "Fast SEM" mode.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
153
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Example
Fig. 4-6: Sweep list using Fast SEM mode
In figure 4-6, a sweep list is shown for which Fast SEM is activated. The formerly 5
separately defined ranges are combined to 2 sweep ranges internally.
4.1.1.6
Measuring Spurious Emissions
The Spurious Emissions measurement defines a measurement that monitors unwanted RF products outside the assigned frequency band generated by an amplifier. The
spurious emissions are usually measured across a wide frequency range. The Spurious Emissions measurement allows a flexible definition of all parameters. A result table
indicates the largest deviations of the absolute power from the limit line for each range,
and the results can be checked against defined limits automatically.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
154
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Spurious Emissions measurements are performed using the "Spurious Emissions"
softkey in the "Measurement" menu (see "Spurious Emissions" on page 160).
Most parameters are defined in the "Sweep List" dialog box (see "Sweep List dialog
box" on page 160). For information on other parameters, see the corresponding softkeys ("Spurious Emissions" on page 160).
Conditions for ranges
The following rules apply to ranges:
●
The minimum span of a range is 20 Hz.
●
The individual ranges must not overlap (but need not directly follow one another).
●
The maximum number of ranges is 20.
●
The maximum number of sweep points in all ranges is limited to 100001.
In order to change the start/stop frequency of the first/last range, select the appropriate
span with the SPAN key. If you set a span that is smaller than the overall span of the
ranges, the measurement includes only the ranges that lie within the defined span and
have a minimum span of 20 Hz. The first and last ranges are adapted to the given
span as long as the minimum span of 20 Hz is not violated.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
155
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Defining ranges by remote control
In Spurious Emissions measurements, there are no remote commands to insert new
ranges between existing ranges directly. However, you can delete or re-define the
existing ranges to create the required order.
A remote command example for defining parameters and ranges in spurious emissions
measurements can be found in chapter 7 "Remote Control – Programming Examples"
of the Operating manual on the CD-ROM.
Result Evaluation
In addition to the graphical results of the spurious measurement displayed in the diagram, a result table can be displayed to evaluate the limit check results (see also
"Working with Limit Lines in Spurious Measurements" on page 157). Which data is
displayed in the evaluation list can be defined in the "List Evaluation" menu (see "List
Evaluation" on page 164).
The following information is provided in the evaluation list:
Column
Description
Range Low
Frequency range start for range the peak value
belongs to
Range Up
Frequency range stop for range the peak value
belongs to
RBW
RBW of the range
Frequency
Frequency at the peak value
Power Abs
Absolute power level at the peak value
ΔLimit
Deviation of the absolute power level from the
defined limit for the peak value
By default, one peak per range is displayed. However, you can change the settings to:
●
Display all peaks ("Details ON")
●
Display a certain number of peaks per range ("Details ON" + "Peaks per Range")
●
Display only peaks that exceed a threshold ("Margin")
In addition to listing the peaks in the list evaluation, detected peaks can be indicated by
blue squares in the diagram ("Show Peaks").
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
156
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Furthermore, you can save the evaluation list to a file ("Save Evaluation List").
Retrieving Results via Remote Control
The spurious measurement results can be retrieved using the CALC:PSE? command
from a remote computer (see CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch[:​
IMMediate]​ for a detailed description).
In addition, the TRACe<n>:​DATA​ command queries the trace data. In case of spurious
emission measurements, the trace data is the power levels that have been measured
for each sweep point (max. 691).
Working with Limit Lines in Spurious Measurements
Limit lines allow you to check the measured data against specified limit values. Generally, it is possible to define limit lines for any measurement in Spectrum mode using the
LINES key. For Spurious measurements, however, a special limit line is available via
the "Sweep List", and it is strongly recommended that you use only this limit line definition.
In the "Sweep List" you can define a limit line that varies its level according to the
specified frequency ranges. A distinguished limit line ("_SPURIOUS_LINE_ABS") is
automatically defined according to the current "Sweep List" settings every time the settings change.
If a limit check is activated in the "Sweep List", the "_SPURIOUS_LINE_ABS" limit line
is indicated by a red line in the display, and the result of the limit check is indicated at
the top of the diagram. Note that only "Pass" or "Fail" is indicated; a "margin" function
as for general limit lines is not available. Also, only absolute limits can be checked, not
relative ones.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
157
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
As for general limit lines, the results of each limit line check are displayed (here:
"_SPURIOUS_LINE_ABS"), as well as the combined result for all defined limit lines
("Limit Check").
In addition to the limit line itself, the largest deviations of the absolute power from the
limit line for each range are displayed in the evaluation list if the limit check is activated. Values that exceed the limit are indicated in red and by an asterisk (*).
Although a margin functionality is not available for the limit check, a margin (threshold)
for the peak values to be displayed in the evaluation list can be defined in the list evaluation settings. Furthermore, you can define how many peaks per range are listed. For
details see "Result Evaluation" on page 156.
To define a limit check for spurious measurements
The limit check is defined in the "Sweep List" dialog box, see "Sweep List dialog box"
on page 160 for details.
1. Press the MEAS CONFIG key to open the main "Spurious" menu.
2. Press the "Sweep List" softkey to open the "Sweep List" dialog box.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
158
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
3. In the "Sweep List" dialog box, define the limit line for each range using the "Abs
Limit Start" and "Abs Limit Stop" settings.
The limit values are absolute values for the absolute power level.
4. Set the "Limit Check" setting to "Absolute" to activate the limit check.
5. Close the "Sweep List" dialog box.
The limit line and the result of the limit check are displayed in the diagram and the
result table displays the largest deviations from the limit for each range.
6. To reduce the number of displayed delta values, change the margin (threshold) for
peak detection in the list evaluation. By default, this value is very high (200 dB), so
that initially all peaks are detected.
In the "Spurious" menu, press "List Evaluation > Margin" and enter a value in dB.
Only delta values that exceed this margin are displayed in the result table.
Softkeys for Spurious Emissions Measurement
Spurious Emissions.....................................................................................................160
└ Sweep List.................................................................................................... 160
└ Sweep List dialog box.........................................................................160
└ Range Start / Range Stop........................................................ 160
└ Filter Type.................................................................................161
└ RBW......................................................................................... 161
└ VBW......................................................................................... 161
└ Sweep Time Mode....................................................................161
└ Sweep Time..............................................................................161
└ Detector.................................................................................... 161
└ Ref. Level................................................................................. 161
└ RF Att. Mode............................................................................ 161
└ RF Attenuator........................................................................... 162
└ Preamp..................................................................................... 162
└ Sweep Points............................................................................162
└ Stop After Sweep......................................................................162
└ Transd. Factor.......................................................................... 162
└ Limit Check 1-4.........................................................................162
└ Abs Limit Start.......................................................................... 162
└ Abs Limit Stop.......................................................................... 163
└ Close Sweep List................................................................................ 163
└ Insert before Range............................................................................ 163
└ Insert after Range............................................................................... 163
└ Delete Range......................................................................................163
└ Adjust Ref Lvl (span > 0).................................................................... 163
└ Adjust X-Axis...................................................................................... 164
└ List Evaluation...............................................................................................164
└ List Evaluation (On/Off)...................................................................... 164
└ Details On/Off..................................................................................... 164
└ Margin.................................................................................................164
└ Peaks per Range................................................................................ 164
└ Show Peaks........................................................................................164
└ Save Evaluation List........................................................................... 164
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
159
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
└ ASCII File Export...................................................................... 165
└ Decim Sep................................................................................ 165
└ Adjust Ref Lvl (span > 0).............................................................................. 165
└ Adjust X-Axis.................................................................................................165
└ Meas Start/Stop............................................................................................ 165
Spurious Emissions
Opens a submenu to configure the Spurious Emissions measurement and immediately
starts a measurement.
For general information on performing Spurious Emissions measurements see chapter 4.1.1.6, "Measuring Spurious Emissions", on page 154.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]SWEep:​MODE​ on page 570
Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Opens a submenu to edit the sweep list and displays the "Sweep List" dialog box.
Note: If you edit the sweep list, always follow the rules described in chapter 4.1.1.6,
"Measuring Spurious Emissions", on page 154.
Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
After a preset, the sweep list contains a set of default ranges and parameters. For
each range, you can change the parameters listed below. To insert or delete ranges,
use the "Insert Before Range", "Insert After Range", "Delete Range" softkeys. The
measurement results are not updated during editing but on closing the dialog box.
For details and limitations regarding spurious emissions configuration, see chapter 4.1.1.6, "Measuring Spurious Emissions", on page 154.
Range Start / Range Stop ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious
Emissions
Sets the start frequency/stop frequency of the selected range. Follow the rules described in chapter 4.1.1.6, "Measuring Spurious Emissions", on page 154.
In order to change the start/stop frequency of the first/last range, select the appropriate
span with the SPAN key. If you set a span that is smaller than the overall span of the
ranges, the measurement includes only the ranges that lie within the defined span and
have a minimum span of 20 Hz. The first and last ranges are adapted to the given
span as long as the minimum span of 20 Hz is not violated.
Frequency values for each range have to be defined relative to the center frequency.
The reference range has to be centered on the center frequency. The minimum span
of the reference range is given by the current TX Bandwidth.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>[:​FREQuency]:​STARt​ on page 562
[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>[:​FREQuency]:​STOP​ on page 563
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
160
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Filter Type ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Sets the filter type for this range. For details on filters see also chapter 4.2.6.3, "Selecting the Appropriate Filter Type", on page 237.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​FILTer:​TYPE​ on page 562
RBW ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Sets the RBW value for this range.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​BANDwidth[:​RESolution]​ on page 559
VBW ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Sets the VBW value for this range.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​BANDwidth:​VIDeo​ on page 560
Sweep Time Mode ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Activates or deactivates the auto mode for the sweep time.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​SWEep:​TIME:​AUTO​ on page 566
Sweep Time ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Sets the sweep time value for the range.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​SWEep:​TIME​ on page 566
Detector ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Sets the detector for the range. For details refer to chapter 4.3.1.5, "Detector Overview", on page 270.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​DETector​ on page 561
Ref. Level ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Sets the reference level for the range.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​RLEVel​ on page 565
RF Att. Mode ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Activates or deactivates the auto mode for RF attenuation.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​INPut:​ATTenuation:​AUTO​ on page 563
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
161
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
RF Attenuator ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Sets the attenuation value for that range.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​INPut:​ATTenuation​ on page 563
Preamp ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Switches the preamplifier on or off.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​INPut:​GAIN:​STATe​ on page 564
Sweep Points ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Sets the number of sweep points for the specified range.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​POINts​ on page 565
Stop After Sweep ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
This command configures the sweep behavior.
"ON"
The R&S ESR stops after one range is swept and continues only if
you confirm (a message box is displayed).
"OFF"
The R&S ESR sweeps all ranges in one go.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​BREak​ on page 560
Transd. Factor ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Sets a transducer for the specified range. You can only choose a transducer that fulfills
the following conditions:
●
●
●
The transducer overlaps or equals the span of the range.
The x-axis is linear.
The unit is dB.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​TRANsducer​ on page 566
Limit Check 1-4 ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Sets the type of limit check for all ranges. Possible states are:
Absolute
Checks the absolute limits defined.
None
No limit check performed.
The limit settings are only available if limit check is activated ("Absolute"). If activated,
the limit line and the results of the check are indicated in the diagram.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​LIMit:​STATe​ on page 564
CALCulate<n>:​LIMit<k>:​FAIL?​ on page 527
Abs Limit Start ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Sets an absolute limit value at the start frequency of the range [dBm].
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
162
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
This parameter is only available if the limit check is set to "Absolute" (see "Limit Check
1-4" on page 162).
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​LIMit:​STARt​ on page 564
Abs Limit Stop ← Sweep List dialog box ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Sets an absolute limit value at the stop frequency of the range [dBm].
This parameter is only available if the limit check is set to "Absolute" (see "Limit Check
1-4" on page 162).
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​LIMit:​STOP​ on page 565
Close Sweep List ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Closes the "Sweep List" dialog box and updates the measurement results.
Insert before Range ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Inserts a new range to the left of the currently focused range. The range numbers of
the currently focused range and all higher ranges are increased accordingly. The maximum number of ranges is 20.
For further details refer to "Ranges and Range Settings" on page 140.
Insert after Range ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Inserts a new range to the right of the currently focused range. The range numbers of
all higher ranges are increased accordingly. The maximum number of ranges is 20.
For further details refer to "Ranges and Range Settings" on page 140.
Delete Range ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Deletes the currently focused range, if possible. The range numbers are updated
accordingly. For further details refer to "Ranges and Range Settings" on page 140.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]LIST:​RANGe<range>:​DELete​ on page 561
Adjust Ref Lvl (span > 0) ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Adjusts the reference level to the measured total power of the signal. The softkey is
activated after the first sweep with active measurement of the occupied bandwidth has
been completed and the total power of the signal is thus known.
Adjusting the reference level ensures that the signal path will not be overloaded and
the dynamic range not limited by too low a reference level. Since the measurement
bandwidth for channel power measurements is significantly lower than the signal bandwidth, the signal path may be overloaded although the trace is distinctly below the reference level. If the measured channel power is equal to the reference level, the signal
path cannot be overloaded.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​PRESet:​RLEVel​ on page 535
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
163
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Adjust X-Axis ← Sweep List ← Spurious Emissions
Adjusts the frequency axis of measurement diagram automatically so that the start frequency matches the start frequency of the first sweep range, and the stop frequency of
the last sweep range.
List Evaluation ← Spurious Emissions
Opens a submenu to edit the list evaluation settings.
For more information on list evaluation see "Result Evaluation" on page 156.
List Evaluation (On/Off) ← List Evaluation ← Spurious Emissions
Activates or deactivates the list evaluation.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch:​AUTO​ on page 567
TRACe<n>:​DATA​ on page 535
Details On/Off ← List Evaluation ← Spurious Emissions
Configures the list contents.
On
Displays the whole list contents.
Off
Displays only the highest peaks (one peak per range).
Margin ← List Evaluation ← Spurious Emissions
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the margin used for the limit check/peak search.
Only peaks that exceed the limit and are larger than the specified margin are indicated
in the evaluation list.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch:​MARGin​ on page 488
Peaks per Range ← List Evaluation ← Spurious Emissions
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of peaks per range that are stored in the
list. Once the selected number of peaks has been reached, the peak search is stopped
in the current range and continued in the next range. The maximum value is 50.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch:​SUBRanges​ on page 568
Show Peaks ← List Evaluation ← Spurious Emissions
In the diagram, marks all peaks with blue squares that have been listed during an
active list evaluation.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch:​PSHow​ on page 567
Save Evaluation List ← List Evaluation ← Spurious Emissions
Opens the "ASCII File Export Name" dialog box and a submenu to save the result in
ASCII format to a specified file and directory.
Remote command:
MMEMory:​STORe<n>:​LIST​ on page 586
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
164
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
ASCII File Export ← Save Evaluation List ← List Evaluation ← Spurious Emissions
Saves the evaluation list in ASCII format to a specified file and directory.
Remote command:
MMEMory:​STORe<n>:​LIST​ on page 586
Decim Sep ← Save Evaluation List ← List Evaluation ← Spurious Emissions
Selects the decimal separator with floating-point numerals for the ASCII Trace export
to support evaluation programs (e.g. MS-Excel) in different languages. The values '.'
(decimal point) and ',' (comma) can be set.
Remote command:
FORMat:​DEXPort:​DSEParator​ on page 661
Adjust Ref Lvl (span > 0) ← Spurious Emissions
Adjusts the reference level to the measured total power of the signal. The softkey is
activated after the first sweep with active measurement of the occupied bandwidth has
been completed and the total power of the signal is thus known.
Adjusting the reference level ensures that the signal path will not be overloaded and
the dynamic range not limited by too low a reference level. Since the measurement
bandwidth for channel power measurements is significantly lower than the signal bandwidth, the signal path may be overloaded although the trace is distinctly below the reference level. If the measured channel power is equal to the reference level, the signal
path cannot be overloaded.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]POWer:​ACHannel:​PRESet:​RLEVel​ on page 535
Adjust X-Axis ← Spurious Emissions
Adjusts the frequency axis of measurement diagram automatically so that the start frequency matches the start frequency of the first sweep range, and the stop frequency of
the last sweep range.
Meas Start/Stop ← Spurious Emissions
Aborts/restarts the current measurement and displays the status:
4.1.1.7
"Start"
The measurement is currently running.
"Stop"
The measurement has been stopped, or, in single sweep mode, the
end of the sweep has been reached.
Measuring the Power in Zero Span
Using the power measurement function, the R&S ESR determines the power of the
signal in zero span by summing up the power at the individual measurement points
and dividing the result by the number of measurement points. Thus it is possible to
measure the power of TDMA signals during transmission, for example, or during the
muting phase. Both the mean power and the RMS power can be measured.
For this measurement, the sample detector is activated.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
165
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Measurement results
Several different power results can be determined simultaneously:
Mode
Description
Peak
Peak value from the points of the displayed trace or a segment
thereof.
RMS
RMS value from the points of the displayed trace or a segment
thereof.
Mean
Mean value from the points of the displayed trace or a segment
thereof. The linear mean value of the equivalent voltages is calculated.
For example to measure the mean power during a GSM burst
Std Dev
The standard deviation of the measurement points from the mean
value.
The result is displayed in the marker results, indicated by "Power" and the selected
power mode, e.g. "RMS". The measured values are updated after each sweep or averaged over a user-defined number of sweeps (trace averaging).
You can query the measurement results with the commands described in "Retrieving
Measurement Results" on page 611.
Restricting the measurement range using limit lines
The range of the measured signal to be evaluated for the power measurement can be
restricted using limit lines. The left and right limit lines (S1, S2) define the evaluation
range and are indicated by vertical red lines in the diagram. If activated, the power
results are only calculated from the levels within the limit lines.
For example, if both the on and off phase of a burst signal are displayed, the measurement range can be limited to the transmission or to the muting phase. The ratio
between signal and noise power of a TDMA signal for instance can be measured using
a measurement as a reference value and then varying the measurement range.
To measure the power in the time domain
1. Press the "Time Domain Power" softkey to activate the power measurement.
2. Select the type of power measurement using the "Peak","Mean","RMS" or "Std
Dev" softkeys.
3. To limit the power evaluation range, switch on the limits ("Limits (On/Off)" softkey)
and enter the limits using the "Left Limit" and "Right Limit" softkeys.
Softkeys for Time Domain Power Measurements
Time Domain Power....................................................................................................167
└ Peak..............................................................................................................167
└ RMS.............................................................................................................. 167
└ Mean............................................................................................................. 167
└ Std Dev......................................................................................................... 167
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
166
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
└ Limits (On/Off)...............................................................................................167
└ Left Limit....................................................................................................... 168
└ Right Limit..................................................................................................... 168
Time Domain Power
Activates the power measurement in zero span and opens a submenu to configure the
power measurement. For more details see also chapter 4.1.1.7, "Measuring the Power
in Zero Span", on page 165.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​SUMMary[:​STATe]​ on page 610
Peak ← Time Domain Power
Activates the calculation of the peak value from the points of the displayed trace or a
segment thereof.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​SUMMary:​PPEak[:​STATe]​ on page 615
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​SUMMary:​PPEak:​RESult?​ on page 615
RMS ← Time Domain Power
Activates the calculation of the RMS value from the points of the displayed trace or a
segment thereof.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​SUMMary:​RMS[:​STATe]​ on page 617
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​SUMMary:​RMS:​RESult?​ on page 617
Mean ← Time Domain Power
Activates the calculation of the mean value from the points of the displayed trace or a
segment thereof. The linear mean value of the equivalent voltages is calculated.
This can be used for instance to measure the mean power during a GSM burst.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​SUMMary:​MEAN[:​STATe]​ on page 613
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​SUMMary:​MEAN:​RESult?​ on page 612
Std Dev ← Time Domain Power
Activates the calculation of the standard deviation of measurement points from the
mean value and displays them as measured value. The measurement of the mean
power is automatically switched on at the same time.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​SUMMary:​SDEViation[:​STATe]​
on page 619
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​SUMMary:​SDEViation:​RESult?​
on page 619
Limits (On/Off) ← Time Domain Power
Switches the limitation of the evaluation range on or off. Default setting is off.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
167
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
If switched off, the evaluation range is not limited. If switched on, the evaluation range
is defined by the left and right limit. If only one limit is set, it corresponds to the left limit
and the right limit is defined by the stop frequency. If the second limit is also set, it
defines the right limit.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SLIMits[:​STATe]​ on page 499
Left Limit ← Time Domain Power
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for line 1.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SLIMits:​LEFT​ on page 498
Right Limit ← Time Domain Power
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for line 2.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SLIMits:​RIGHT​ on page 498
4.1.1.8
Performing EMI Measurements
The R&S ESR features EMI measurement functionality in Spectrum mode. This functionality is suitable for measurements according to EMS standards.
The EMI functionality is integrated into the measurement and marker functions that are
available in Spectrum mode.
Measurement Background
EMI measurements can be very time-consuming, especially if weighting detectors are
required by the standard. In addition, EMC standards specify various procedures to
locate local EMI maxima. Such procedures include movements of an absorbing clamp,
variations in the height of the test antenna or the rotation of the DUT.
Covering all test setups with one of the (slow) EMI weighting detectors over the
required frequency range would lead to unacceptable measurement times.
Splitting the measurement procedure into several stages eliminates this problem.
The first stage, or peak search, is used to get a rough idea about the location of peak
powers that may indicate interference over the required frequency range. You can use
a detector that allows for a fast sweep time, e.g. the peak detector.
During the second stage, or final evaluation, the analyzer performs the actual EMC
test, with detectors designed for and required by EMC standards. To keep measurement times brief, the analyzer measures only those frequencies you have marked with
markers or delta markers. You can assign a different detector to every marker and thus
test a particular frequency easily for compliance.
Selecting a Detector
For more information on EMI detectors see chapter 3.2.3, "Detectors", on page 40.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
168
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Selecting the Measurement Bandwidth
For more information on the measurement bandwidth in EMI test setups see chapter 3.2.1, "Measurement Bandwidth", on page 38.
Setting the Number of Sweep Points
The number of sweep points defines the number of measurement values collected during one sweep. Thus, increasing the sweep points also increases the accuracy of the
results regarding the frequency resolution.
Because EMI measurements often cover a large frequency range you should define an
adequate number of sweep points, especially when performing the measurement on a
logarithmic axis. Like on a linear axis, the distance from one sweep point to the next is
calculated graphically on a logarithmic axis, and is not based on the frequency itself.
Thus, the frequency resolution between two sweep points deteriorates with higher frequencies.
The resolution bandwidth should cover at least one sweep point (more is better). If this
condition is not met, signals or interferences could be missed during final evaluation of
narrowband interferers.
Example:
Linear axis:
In case of a linear axis, the distance between the sweep points is equal, e.g. 200 kHz.
Logarithmic axis:
In case of a logarithmic axis, the distance between sweep points is variable. In the
spectrum from 10 Hz to 100 Hz, the distance is a few Hz. Between 100 MHz and
1 GHz, the distance is several MHz.
The R&S ESR supports a maximum of 200000 sweep points. This number is based on
typical bands measured with a single resolution bandwidth. There are sufficient sweep
points to make sure that a signal is found when doing the final evaluation. Even when
covering 30 MHz to 1 GHz with logarithmic scaling and 120 kHz RBW.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
169
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Controlling V-Networks
For more information on Line Impedance Stability Networks see chapter 3.2.6, "V-Networks Control (LISN)", on page 46.
Using Transducer Factors
For more information on transducer factors see chapter 3.2.7, "Transducers",
on page 47.
Performing a Peak Search
The purpose of a peak search is to find signals with a high interference level quickly.
Usually the peak search is done with a fast detector like the peak or average detector.
The marker peak search is the basis for a possible final evaluation of interferences with
the detectors specific to EMI measurements.
You can control markers in the Marker Configuration dialog box or turn them on with
the "Marker <x>" softkey. The results of the peak search are summarized in the Marker
Table.
There are two ways to perform a peak search, automatic and manual.
Automatic peak search
By default, the automatic peak search starts as soon as you turn on the EMI measurement marker. During the peak search, the application looks for the strongest peaks in
the frequency range you are measuring and positions a marker on those peaks. When
a limit line is assigned to the trace, the level difference between the trace and the limit
line determines the peak search. The number of peaks it will find during the search
depends on the number of markers you have turned on. You can use up to 16 markers
simultaneously.
The first marker is always on the most powerful peak while the last marker is always on
the least powerful peak. If the application finds a more powerful peak, it will move one
of the markers to that position and adjust the order of the other markers.
The application allows you to distribute markers among several traces. If you do so,
the marker with the lowest number assigned to a particular trace will be positioned on
the most powerful peak of the corresponding trace.
Manual peak search
If you turn the automatic peak search off, you can put the markers manually to any frequency you need more information about. You can change the marker position with the
rotary knob, the cursor keys or position it to a particular frequency with the number
keys.
Setting markers is the same as setting markers in normal spectrum mode. For more
information see the manual of the base unit.
Searching for peaks over several traces
You can measure on six traces with a different weighting detector simultaneously.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
170
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
In that case, the application searches for peaks on all traces separately, given that you
have assigned at least one marker to that trace.
A typical selection for EMI measurement is to use the peak and the average detector. If
the premeasurement is done, the application would look for peaks on the peak trace
and the average trace separately so that the distribution of narrowband and wideband
sources of interference can be taken into account.
For example, the frequency of the maximum determined with the average detector can
be used for the final measurement performed with this detector and the frequency
found in the premeasurement carried out with the peak detector is taken for the final
measurement using the quasipeak detector.
Measuring at the Marker Position
Finding peaks with the help of a peak search reduces data to be evaluated and thus
measurement time.
The R&S ESR performs the final evaluation automatically if the EMI measurement
marker is turned on. The measurement at the marker frequency starts immediately
after the marker has been set. The advantage of an immediate final evaluation is that it
eliminates the risk of measurement errors based on frequency drifts of the disturbance
signal.
The measurement at the marker frequency may have a different detector during the
peak search. This way, the measurement consumes much less time because detectors
with a long measurement time are needed only at the critical frequency.
The application also allows you to use multiple detectors for the final evaluation. The
advantage of multiple detection is that you will only need one test run to see if the
results comply with the limits specified in a standard. You can select and assign detectors for EMI markers in the "Marker Configuration" on page 174 dialog box.
As EMC tests often require special measurement times, you can also specify a dwell
time for the measurement with the EMI markers.
The application shows the results in the Marker Table.
Defining a Dwell Time for the Final Measurement
The dwell time defines for how long the R&S ESR measures the signal at the frequencies of the marker positions. Thus the dwell time defines the amount of data that is
included in the detection of the displayed results. As each detector needs a different
period of time to fully charge and discharge, the minimum dwell time should not be
shorter than the slowest detector in use.
Evaluating the Results
For more information on functionality to evaluate measurement results see chapter 3.2.5, "AF Demodulation", on page 46 and chapter 3.4.3, "(Limit) Lines",
on page 81.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
171
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Configuration and Analysis
Measurement Configuration
The reference section contains an overview of all functions that are part of the chapter
and lists the associated elements of the user interface.
For a list and description of supported detectors see chapter 3.2.3, "Detectors",
on page 40.
Filter Type
Opens a submenu to select the filter type.
When measuring Spurious Emissions, using this softkey automatically opens the
"Sweep List" dialog (see "Sweep List dialog box" on page 160).
The submenu contains the following softkeys:
●
●
●
●
●
●
Normal (3 dB)
CISPR (6 dB)
MIL Std (6 dB)
Note that the 6 dB bandwidths are available only with option R&S FSV-K54.
Channel
RRC
5-Pole (not available for sweep type "FFT")
For detailed information on filters see chapter 4.2.6.3, "Selecting the Appropriate Filter
Type", on page 237 and chapter 4.2.6.4, "List of Available RRC and Channel Filters",
on page 238.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​TYPE​ on page 479
Res BW CISPR / CISPR (6 dB)
Selects the measurement bandwidth for commercial EMC standards according to
CISPR.
If you select the bandwidth with the "Res BW CISPR" softkey, the R&S ESR automatically changes the filter type to a 6 dB bandwidth.
For more information see chapter 3.2.1, "Measurement Bandwidth", on page 38.
Remote command:
Filter type:
[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​TYPE​ on page 479
Filter bandwidth:
[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]​ on page 478
Res BW Mil Std / MIL Std (6 dB)
Selects the measurement bandwidths for military EMC standards.
If you select the bandwidth with the "Res BW Mil Std" softkey, the R&S ESR automatically changes the filter type to a 6 dB bandwidth.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
172
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
For more information see chapter 3.2.1, "Measurement Bandwidth", on page 38.
Remote command:
Filter type:
[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​TYPE​ on page 479
Filter bandwidth:
[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]​ on page 478
Sweep Points
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of measured values collected during a
single measurement.
For more information see "Setting the Number of Sweep Points" on page 169.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]SWEep:​POINts​ on page 643
Freq (Lin Log)
Turns logarithmic scaling of the frequency axis on and off.
By default, the frequency axis has linear scaling. Logarithmic scaling of the frequency
axis, however, is common for EMI measurements over large frequency ranges as it
enhances the resolution of the lower frequencies. On the other hand, high frequencies
get more crowded and become harder to distinguish.
Because it shows the lower frequencies more clearly, logarithmic scaling is used for
tests that focus on those frequencies, for example acoustic tests and measurements.
Remote command:
DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​X:​SPACing​ on page 472
LISN Control
Opens a dialog box to control a LISN.
The dialog box contains the following elements.
●
●
LISN
Selects the V-network that you have in use. The R&S FSV-K54 supports
– two two-line networks (ESH3-Z5 and ENV 216)
– two four line nwtworks (ESH2-Z5 and ENV 4200)
Phase
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
173
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
●
Selects the phase to be measured. Phase N and L1 are included in all four LISN.
Phase L2 and L3 are only included in four-line networks.
You can select one phase for a measurement only.
150 kHz HP
Turns on a 150 kHz highpass filter. The filter is available for the ENV 216 network
only.
For more information see chapter 3.2.6, "V-Networks Control (LISN)", on page 46.
Remote command:
LISN type:
INPut:​LISN[:​TYPE]​ on page 495
Phase:
INPut:​LISN:​PHASe​ on page 494
Highpass filter:
INPut:​LISN:​FILTer:​HPAS[:​STATe]​ on page 494
Peak Search
The reference section contains an overview of all functions that are part of the chapter
and lists the associated elements of the user interface.
Auto Peak Search
Turns the automatic marker peak search on and off.
For more information see "Performing a Peak Search" on page 170.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FMEasurement:​PSEarch:​AUTO​
on page 590
Marker Configuration
To make the process of configuring markers as easy as possible, the R&S FSV-K54
features a "Marker Configuration" dialog box that contains all marker characteristics
necessary to perform successful EMI measurements.
The dialog box is made up out of two tabs. The first tab controls markers 1 to 8, the
second tab controls markers 9 to 16.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
174
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
●
●
●
●
●
Selected
Selects one of the markers. The currently selected marker is highlighted in orange
color. The label indicates the marker type and its number.
State
Turns the marker on and off.
Type
Selects the marker type.
The first marker always is a normal marker (abbreviated 'N'). Normal markers
determine absolute signal levels. In the diagram area, they are drawn as a triangle
pointing up ( ).
If you add more markers, these will be delta markers by default (abbreviated 'D').
Delta markers show signal levels in relation to another (normal) marker, by default
in relation to the first marker. If necessary, you can still change the reference
marker in the "Ref" column. In the diagram area, delta markers are drawn as a triangle pointing down ( ).
When performing EMI measurements however, you usually want to have absolute
marker readouts for all markers that you are using.
Ref
Selects the reference marker for delta markers.
By default, the reference marker for all delta markers is the first marker.
This is active only for delta markers.
Trace
Selects the trace number the marker is positioned on.
You can place markers on any of the active traces. The R&S FSV-K54 supports
the use of up to four traces.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
175
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
●
●
●
●
Detector
Selects the detector for the final measurement.
For more information see chapter 3.2.3, "Detectors", on page 40.
Auto Peak
Turns automatic peak search for all markers on and off.
For more information see "Performing a Peak Search" on page 170.
Dwell Time
Sets the dwell time for all markers.
For more information see "Measuring at the Marker Position" on page 171.
All Markers Off
Turns all markers off.
Remote command:
Reference marker:
CALCulate<n>:DELTamarker<m>:MREF
Trace:
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​TRACe​ on page 510
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​TRACe​ on page 504
Detector:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FMEasurement:​DETector​ on page 589
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​FUNCtion:​FMEasurement:​DETector​
on page 588
Auto peak:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FMEasurement:​PSEarch:​AUTO​
on page 590
Dwell time:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FMEasurement:​DWELl​ on page 589
All marker off:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​AOFF​ on page 500
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​AOFF​ on page 506
See also the documentation of the base unit for information on how to remotely work
with markers in general.
Final Evaluation
The reference section contains an overview of all functions that are part of the chapter
and lists the associated elements of the user interface.
Dwell Time
Sets the dwell time for the EMI marker measurement.
For more information see "Measuring at the Marker Position" on page 171.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FMEasurement:​DWELl​ on page 589
Marker Table
If more than two markers have been activated, the application adds a marker table to
the display below the diagram area. The size of the table depends on the number of
markers that are active. It contains the following information for every marker.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
176
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Type
Shows the marker type. The marker type is either a normal marker (N) or delta
marker (D).
Ref
Shows the reference marker. Applicable only for delta markers.
Trace
Trace number the marker is positioned on. You can turn on a maximum of six
traces at the same time. Each trace has a different color.
Frequency
Frequency of a peak that was detected during the peak search. For normal markers this is a absolute value, for delta markers this is a relative value. The corresponding reference marker for delta markers is indicated in the "Ref" column.
Level
Signal level at the marker position according to the trace detector. For normal
markers this is an absolute value, for delta markers this is a relative value. The corresponding reference marker for delta markers is indicated in the "Ref" column.
The unit for absolute markers depends on the selected unit. The unit for relative
markers is dB.
Detector
Detector that has been assigned to the EMI measurement marker.
ΔLimit
Shows the distance of the marker level to all active limit lines.
The order of results depends on the order in that you have loaded the limit lines
and is the same as the order in the status register.
The result is either a relative value in dB or three dashes (- - -). In case of three
dashes the marker is either
– on a different trace than the limit line or
– on a horizontal position that is not covered by the limit line.
The delta limit is shown only if you have assigned a detector to the measurement
marker.
Result
Shows the signal level at the marker position according to the detector assigned to
the corresponding marker. The result is only displayed after the final measurement
is done. The overall measurement time depends on the dwell time.
If a limit line is active, the result can have three colors.
– green indicates that the marker has passed the limit check.
– yellow indicates that the marker is in the margins of the limit line.
– red and a star (*) indicate that the marker has failed the limit check.
For more information on limit lines see the documentation of the base unit.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
177
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
The result is shown only if you have assigned a detector to the measurement marker.
Remote command:
Detector:
ΔLimit:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FMEasurement:​LIMit<k>:​DELTa?​
on page 592
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FMEasurement:​LIMit<k>:​
CONDition ?​ on page 592
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​FUNCtion:​FMEasurement:​LIMit<k>:​
DELTa?​ on page 591
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​FUNCtion:​FMEasurement:​LIMit<k>:​
CONDition ?​ on page 590
Result:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FMEasurement:​RESult?​ on page 593
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​FUNCtion:​FMEasurement:​RESult?​
on page 591
4.1.1.9
CISPR APD Measurement (Amplitude Probability Distribution)
The Amplitude Probability Distribution (APD) is a statistical measurement that shows
the "cumulative distribution of the probability of time that the amplitude of disturbance
exceeds a specified level" (CISPR 16-1-1, Amendement 1:2005). So, basically, the
measurement determines the likelihood that a disturbance is above a specified level at
a particular frequency (the measurement is usually performed on a fixed frequency).
The amplitude of the disturbance is expressed in terms of the corresponding field
strength or voltage at the receiver input.
The APD is measured at the output of the envelope detector. Therefore, the APD
yields the probability information over the entire disturbance envelope within the measurement bandwidth and a particular period of time.
The APD function has the following advantages.
●
It provides an alternative way to present peak and average measurements (for
example for microwave ovens in accordance with CISPR 11).
●
It is able to calculate true average values.
●
It shows high sensitivity and allows you to measure, for example, a single impulse.
●
It allows you to measure unsteady levels.
APD vs CISPR APD
Note that the R&S ESR also provides an APD measurement for general purposes.
This general APD function does not comply with CISPR 16-1-1 in various aspects and
cannot be used for CISPR APD measurements.
●
●
●
CISPR specifications vs R&S ESR specifications.................................................179
Examples of CISPR APD...................................................................................... 179
Softkeys for CISPR APD Measurements.............................................................. 182
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
178
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
CISPR specifications vs R&S ESR specifications
The following table compares the characteristics of the R&S ESR against the CISPR
specifications for APD measurements.
CISPR 16-1-1
R&S ESR
Dynamic range of the amplitude
> 60 dB
> 75 dB
Amplitude accuracy
better than ±2.7 dB
< 0.2 dB (typical)
Maximum measurement time
≥ 2 min
2 min (no dead time)
Minimum measurable probability
10-7
10-7
Amplitude level assignment
min. 2 amplitude levels with a resolution of 0.25 dB or better
691 levels with a resolution of
0.145 dB
Sampling rate
≥10 MSamples
16 MSamples (with RBW = 1
MHz)
(using an RBW of 1 MHz)
4.0 MSamples (with RBW = 120
kHz)
0.26 MSamples (with RBW = 9
kHz
5.8 kSamples (with RBW = 200
Hz)
Display resolution of APD measurement data
< 0.25 dB
Default: 0.145 dB for range = 100
dB
Min. 0.00145 dB for range = 1 dB
●
Use the intermittent measurement if the dead time is < 1 % of the total measurement time.
●
Measure the probabilities corresponding to all pre-assigned levels simultaneously.
●
The R&S ESR records the probability of time for each of the 625 disturbance levels.
Examples of CISPR APD
APD of the inherent noise of the R&S ESR
The following example shows the APD of the inherent noise of the R&S ESR (input terminated by 50 Ω.
The example is based on the following configuration.
Center frequency
100 MHz
Span
Zero span (0 Hz)
Unit
dBm
Reference Level
-30 dBm
Attenuation
20 dB
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
179
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
RBW
1 MHz (EMI)
VBW
10 MHz
Sweep time
100 ms
Detector
Auto Peak
All other settings are in their default (preset) state.
The first picture shows the resulting noise characteristics in the time domain (zero
span). The x-axis shows the time. The y-axis shows the level of the "signal" in dBm.
Pmax is the highest level that has been measured, Pmin is the lowest level.
The second picture shows the corresponding CISPR APD function. Here, the x-axis
represents the disturbance levels in dBm. The scale of the axis is arbitrary. By default,
its range is a 100 of the unit you are working with. The end point of the x-axis represents the reference level.
The y-axis represents the statistical frequency that a particular level value will turn up
with. The y-axis is a logarithmic axis by default. Like the x-axis, its scale is arbitrary.
As you can see, the probability that levels above Pmax will occur is zero. With falling
level values, the probability that a particular level occurs increases (until Pmin has been
reached). Because the noise has no spikes, the APD curve is falling (more or less)
smoothly.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
180
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
APD of a pulse signal
The following example shows the APD of a pulse signal. The pulse period is 100 ms
and the pulse width is 1 ms, so the pulse is transmitted within 1 % of the time.
The example is based on the following configuration.
Center frequency
200 MHz
Span
Zero span (0 Hz)
Unit
dBm
Reference Level
-10 dBm
Attenuation
20 dB
RBW
1 MHz (EMI)
VBW
10 MHz
Sweep time
100 ms
Detector
Auto Peak
All other settings are in their default (preset) state.
Again, the first picture shows the resulting signal characteristics in the time domain
(zero span). The x-axis shows the time. The y-axis shows the level of the signal. Pmax
is the highest level that has been measured, Pmin is the lowest level (not shown completely).
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
181
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
The second picture shows the corresponding CISPR APD function.
The probability of time at 10e-2 corresponds to the duty cycle of 1 %. The maximum
level of -20.145 dBm corresponds to the peak level that has been measured in spectrum mode.
Softkeys for CISPR APD Measurements
Functions to configure CISPR APD measurements described elsewhere:
●
"Percent Marker" on page 193
●
"Res BW Manual" on page 57
●
"Scaling" on page 188
●
"Adjust Settings" on page 191
Acquisition Time..........................................................................................................182
Acquisition Time
Defines the measurement time for CISPR APD measurements.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TIME​ on page 447
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
182
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
4.1.1.10
Calculating Signal Amplitude Statistics
To measure the amplitude distribution, the R&S ESR has simple measurement functions to determine both the APD = Amplitude Probability Distribution and CCDF =
Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function.
To determine the amplitude distribution
► To activate and configure the measurement of the amplitude probability distribution
(APD), press the "APD" softkey (see "APD" on page 96).
To activate and configure the measurement of the complementary cumulative distribution (CCDF), press the "CCDF" softkey (see "CCDF" on page 96).
Only one of the signal statistic functions can be switched on at a time. When a statistic
function is switched on, the R&S ESR is set into zero span mode automatically. The
R&S ESR measures the statistics of the signal applied to the RF input with the defined
resolution bandwidth. To avoid affecting the peak amplitudes the video bandwidth is
automatically set to 10 times the resolution bandwidth. The sample detector is used for
detecting the video voltage.
About the Statistical Measurements............................................................................183
Result Evaluation........................................................................................................ 184
Softkeys for APD Measurements................................................................................ 187
Softkeys for CCDF Measurements............................................................................. 192
Defining Gated Triggering for APD and CCDF........................................................... 198
About the Statistical Measurements
Digital modulated signals are similar to white noise within the transmit channel, but are
different in their amplitude distribution. In order to transmit the modulated signal without
distortion all amplitudes of the signal have to be transmitted linearly, e.g. from the output power amplifier. Most critical are the peak amplitude values. Degradation in transmit quality caused by a transmitter two port network is dependent on the amplitude of
the peak values as well as on their probability.
If modulation types are used that do not have a constant zero span envelope, the
transmitter has to handle peak amplitudes that are greater than the average power.
This includes all modulation types that involve amplitude modulation, QPSK for example. CDMA transmission modes in particular may have power peaks that are large
compared to the average power.
For signals of this kind, the transmitter must provide large reserves for the peak power
to prevent signal compression and thus an increase of the bit error rate at the receiver.
The peak power or the crest factor of a signal is therefore an important transmitter
design criterion. The crest factor is defined as the peak power/mean power ratio or,
logarithmically, as the peak level minus the average level of the signal. To reduce
power consumption and cut costs, transmitters are not designed for the largest power
that could ever occur, but for a power that has a specified probability of being exceeded (e.g. 0.01 %).
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
183
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
The probability of amplitude values can be measured with the APD function (Amplitude
Probability Distribution). During a selectable measurement time all occurring amplitude
values are assigned to an amplitude range. The number of amplitude values in the
specific ranges is counted and the result is displayed as a histogram.
Alternatively, the Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function (CCDF) can be displayed. It shows the probability that the mean signal power amplitude will be exceeded
in percent.
Bandwidth selection
When the amplitude distribution is measured, the resolution bandwidth must be set so
that the complete spectrum of the signal to be measured falls within the bandwidth.
This is the only way of ensuring that all the amplitudes will pass through the IF filter
without being distorted. If the selected resolution bandwidth is too small for a digitally
modulated signal, the amplitude distribution at the output of the IF filter becomes a
Gaussian distribution according to the central limit theorem and thus corresponds to a
white noise signal. The true amplitude distribution of the signal therefore cannot be
determined.
Selecting the number of samples
For statistics measurements with the R&S ESR, the number of samples to be measured is defined instead of the sweep time. Since only statistically independent samples contribute to statistics, the acquisition or sweep time is calculated automatically
and displayed in the channel bar (AQT). The samples are statistically independent if
the time difference is at least 1/RBW. The acquisition time AQT is, therefore,
expressed as follows:
AQT = NSamples/RBW
Statistic measurements on pulsed signals
Statistic measurements on pulsed signals can be performed using a gated trigger. An
external frame trigger is required as a time (frame) reference. For details see "Defining
Gated Triggering for APD and CCDF" on page 198.
Result Evaluation
Amplitude Probability Distribution (APD)
As a result of the APD function (Amplitude Probability Distribution), the probability of
measured amplitude values is displayed. During a selectable measurement time all
occurring amplitude values are assigned to an amplitude range. The number of amplitude values in the specific ranges is counted and the result is displayed as a histogram. Each bar of the histogram represents the percentage of measured amplitudes
within the specific amplitude range. The x-axis is scaled in absolute values in dBm.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
184
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Fig. 4-7: Amplitude probability distribution of white noise
In addition to the histogram, a result table is displayed containing the following information:
●
Number of samples used for calculation
●
For each displayed trace:
– Mean amplitude
–
Peak amplitude
–
Crest factor
Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function (CCDF)
The Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function (CCDF) shows the probability
that the mean signal power amplitude will be exceeded in percent. The level above the
mean power is plotted along the x-axis of the graph. The origin of the axis corresponds
to the mean power level. The probability that a level will be exceeded is plotted along
the y-axis.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
185
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Fig. 4-8: CCDF of white noise
A red line indicates the ideal Gaussian distribution for the measured amplitude range
(white noise).
The displayed amplitude range is indicated as "Mean Pwr + <x dB>"
In addition to the histogram, a result table is displayed containing the following information:
●
Number of samples used for calculation
●
For each displayed trace:
Mean
Mean power
Peak
Peak power
Crest
Crest factor (peak power – mean power)
0,01 %
Level values over 0,01 % above mean power
0,1 %
Level values over 0,1 % above mean power
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
186
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
1%
Level values over 1 % above mean power
10 %
Level values over 10 % above mean power
Softkeys for APD Measurements
APD.............................................................................................................................187
└ Res BW.........................................................................................................187
└ # of Samples................................................................................................. 188
└ Scaling.......................................................................................................... 188
└ x-Axis Ref Level..................................................................................188
└ x-Axis Range...................................................................................... 188
└ Range Log 100 dB....................................................................188
└ Range Log 50 dB......................................................................189
└ Range Log 10 dB......................................................................189
└ Range Log 5 dB........................................................................189
└ Range Log 1 dB........................................................................189
└ Range Log Manual................................................................... 190
└ Range Linear %........................................................................190
└ Range Lin. Unit.........................................................................190
└ y-Axis Max Value................................................................................ 190
└ y-Axis Min Value................................................................................. 190
└ y-Unit % / Abs..................................................................................... 191
└ Default Settings.................................................................................. 191
└ Adjust Settings....................................................................................191
└ Gated Trigger (On/Off)..................................................................................191
└ Gate Ranges.................................................................................................191
└ Adjust Settings.............................................................................................. 192
APD
Activates the function to measure the amplitude probability density (APD) and opens a
submenu.
For general information on calculating signal statistics see chapter 4.1.1.10, "Calculating Signal Amplitude Statistics", on page 183.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​APD[:​STATe]​ on page 601
Res BW ← APD
Opens an edit dialog box to set the resolution bandwidth directly.
For correct measurement of the signal statistics the resolution bandwidth has to be
wider than the signal bandwidth in order to measure the actual peaks of the signal
amplitude correctly. In order not to influence the peak amplitudes the video bandwidth
is automatically set to 10 MHz. The sample detector is used for detecting the video
voltage.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]​ on page 478
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
187
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
# of Samples ← APD
Opens an edit dialog box to set the number of power measurements that are taken into
account for the statistics.
Apart from the number of measurements the overall measurement time depends also
on the set resolution bandwidth as the resolution bandwidth directly influences the
sampling rate.
For details see "Selecting the number of samples" on page 184.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​NSAMples​ on page 602
Scaling ← APD
Opens a submenu to change the scaling parameters of x- and y-axis.
x-Axis Ref Level ← Scaling ← APD
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the reference level in the currently active unit (dBm,
dBµV, etc). The function of this softkey is identical to the "Ref Level" softkey in the
"Amplitude" menu (see "Ref Level" on page 223).
For the APD function this value is mapped to the right diagram border. For the CCDF
function there is no direct representation of this value on the diagram as the x-axis is
scaled relatively to the measured mean power.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​X:​RLEVel​ on page 607
x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← APD
Opens the "Range" submenu to select a value for the level range to be covered by the
statistics measurement selected.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​X:​RANGe​ on page 606
Range Log 100 dB ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← APD
Sets the level display range to 100 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 475
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 100DB, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 654
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
188
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Range Log 50 dB ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← APD
Sets the level display range to 50 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 475
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 50DB, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 654
Range Log 10 dB ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← APD
Sets the level display range to 10 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 475
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 10DB, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 654
Range Log 5 dB ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← APD
Sets the level display range to 5 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 475
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 5DB, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 654
Range Log 1 dB ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← APD
Sets the level display range to 1 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 475
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 1DB, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 654
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
189
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Range Log Manual ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← APD
Opens an edit dialog box to define the display range of a logarithmic level axis manually.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 475
Display range:
DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​ on page 654
Range Linear % ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← APD
Selects linear scaling for the level axis in %.
The grid is divided into decadal sections.
Markers are displayed in the selected unit ("Unit" softkey). Delta markers are displayed
in % referenced to the voltage value at the position of marker 1. This is the default setting for linear scaling.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:Y:SPAC LIN, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​SPACing​
on page 475
Range Lin. Unit ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← APD
Selects linear scaling in dB for the level display range, i.e. the horizontal lines are
labeled in dB.
Markers are displayed in the selected unit ("Unit" softkey). Delta markers are displayed
in dB referenced to the power value at the position of marker 1.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:Y:SPAC LDB, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​SPACing​
on page 475
y-Axis Max Value ← Scaling ← APD
Opens an edit dialog box to define the upper limit of the displayed probability range.
Values on the y-axis are normalized which means that the maximum value is 1.0. The
y-axis scaling is defined via the y-Unit % / Abs softkey. The distance between max and
min value must be at least one decade.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​Y:​UPPer​ on page 608
y-Axis Min Value ← Scaling ← APD
Opens an edit dialog box to define the lower limit of the displayed probability range.
Values in the range 1e-9 < value < 0.1 are allowed. The y-axis scaling is defined via the
y-Unit % / Abs softkey. The distance between max and min value must be at least one
decade.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​Y:​LOWer​ on page 607
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
190
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
y-Unit % / Abs ← Scaling ← APD
Defines the scaling type of the y-axis. The default value is absolute scaling.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​Y:​UNIT​ on page 607
Default Settings ← Scaling ← APD
Resets the x- and y-axis scalings to their preset values.
x-axis ref level:
-10 dBm
x-axis range APD:
100 dB
x-axis range CCDF:
20 dB
y-axis upper limit:
1.0
y-axis lower limit:
1E-6
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​PRESet​ on page 605
Adjust Settings ← Scaling ← APD
Adjusts the level settings according to the measured difference between peak and minimum power for APD measurement or peak and mean power for CCDF measurement
in order to obtain maximum power resolution. Adjusts the reference level to the current
input signal. For details see also the Adjust Ref Lvl softkey.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​AUTO ONCE​ on page 606
Gated Trigger (On/Off) ← APD
Activates and deactivates the gating for statistics functions for the ACP and the CCDF
channel. The trigger source is changed to "EXTERN" if this function is switched on.
The gate ranges are defined using the "Gate Ranges" on page 191 softkey.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe​ on page 650
[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​ on page 652
Gate Ranges ← APD
Opens a dialog to configure up to 3 gate ranges for each trace.
For details on configuration, see "Defining Gated Triggering for APD and CCDF"
on page 198.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
191
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Remote command:
SWE:EGAT ON (see [SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe​ on page 650)
Switches on the external gate mode.
SWE:EGAT:TRAC1:COMM "SlotA" (see [SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​TRACe<k>:​
COMMent​ on page 603)
Adds a comment to trace 1.
SWE:EGAT:TRAC1:STAT1 ON (see [SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​TRACe<k>[:​
STATe<range>]​ on page 604)
Activates tracing for range 1 of trace 1.
SWE:EGAT:TRAC1:STAR1 3ms (see [SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​TRACe<k>:​
STARt<range>​ on page 604)
Sets the starting point for range 1 on trace 1 at 3 ms.
SWE:EGAT:TRAC1:STop1 5ms (see [SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​TRACe<k>:​
STOP<range>​ on page 605)
Sets the stopping point for range 1 on trace 1 at 5 ms.
SWE:EGAT:TRAC1:PER 5ms (see [SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​TRACe<k>:​ PERiod​
on page 604)
Defines the period for gated triggering to 5 ms.
Adjust Settings ← APD
Adjusts the level settings according to the measured difference between peak and minimum power for APD measurement or peak and mean power for CCDF measurement
in order to obtain maximum power resolution. Adjusts the reference level to the current
input signal. For details see also the Adjust Ref Lvl softkey.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​AUTO ONCE​ on page 606
Softkeys for CCDF Measurements
CCDF.......................................................................................................................... 193
└ Percent Marker............................................................................................. 193
└ Res BW.........................................................................................................194
└ # of Samples................................................................................................. 194
└ Scaling.......................................................................................................... 194
└ x-Axis Ref Level..................................................................................194
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
192
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
└ x-Axis Range...................................................................................... 194
└ Range Log 100 dB....................................................................195
└ Range Log 50 dB......................................................................195
└ Range Log 10 dB......................................................................195
└ Range Log 5 dB........................................................................195
└ Range Log 1 dB........................................................................196
└ Range Log Manual................................................................... 196
└ Range Linear %........................................................................196
└ Range Lin. Unit.........................................................................196
└ y-Axis Max Value................................................................................ 196
└ y-Axis Min Value................................................................................. 197
└ y-Unit % / Abs..................................................................................... 197
└ Default Settings.................................................................................. 197
└ Adjust Settings....................................................................................197
└ Gated Trigger (On/Off)..................................................................................197
└ Gate Ranges.................................................................................................197
└ Adjust Settings.............................................................................................. 198
CCDF
Activates the function to measure the complementary cumulative distribution function
(CCDF) and opens a submenu.
After a CCDF measurement, the results are displayed in a table beneath the diagram.
Mean
Mean power
Peak
Peak power
Crest
Crest factor (peak power – mean power)
0,01 %
Level values over 0,01 % above mean power
0,1 %
Level values over 0,1 % above mean power
1%
Level values over 1 % above mean power
10 %
Level values over 10 % above mean power
In addition, a red reference line indicating the calculated Gauss distribution is displayed.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​CCDF[:​STATe]​ on page 601
Activates the CCDF measurement.
CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​CCDF:​X<Trace>​ on page 602
Reads out the level values for 1 % probability.
Percent Marker ← CCDF
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a probability value and to position marker 1. Thus,
the power which is exceeded with a given probability can be determined very easily. If
marker 1 is deactivated, it will be switched on automatically.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
193
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
As all markers, the percent marker can be moved simply by touching it with a finger or
mouse cursor and dragging it to the desired position.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​Y:​PERCent​ on page 676
Res BW ← CCDF
Opens an edit dialog box to set the resolution bandwidth directly.
For correct measurement of the signal statistics the resolution bandwidth has to be
wider than the signal bandwidth in order to measure the actual peaks of the signal
amplitude correctly. In order not to influence the peak amplitudes the video bandwidth
is automatically set to 10 MHz. The sample detector is used for detecting the video
voltage.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]​ on page 478
# of Samples ← CCDF
Opens an edit dialog box to set the number of power measurements that are taken into
account for the statistics.
Apart from the number of measurements the overall measurement time depends also
on the set resolution bandwidth as the resolution bandwidth directly influences the
sampling rate.
For details see "Selecting the number of samples" on page 184.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​NSAMples​ on page 602
Scaling ← CCDF
Opens a submenu to change the scaling parameters of x- and y-axis.
x-Axis Ref Level ← Scaling ← CCDF
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the reference level in the currently active unit (dBm,
dBµV, etc). The function of this softkey is identical to the "Ref Level" softkey in the
"Amplitude" menu (see "Ref Level" on page 223).
For the APD function this value is mapped to the right diagram border. For the CCDF
function there is no direct representation of this value on the diagram as the x-axis is
scaled relatively to the measured mean power.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​X:​RLEVel​ on page 607
x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← CCDF
Opens the "Range" submenu to select a value for the level range to be covered by the
statistics measurement selected.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​X:​RANGe​ on page 606
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
194
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Range Log 100 dB ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← CCDF
Sets the level display range to 100 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 475
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 100DB, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 654
Range Log 50 dB ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← CCDF
Sets the level display range to 50 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 475
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 50DB, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 654
Range Log 10 dB ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← CCDF
Sets the level display range to 10 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 475
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 10DB, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 654
Range Log 5 dB ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← CCDF
Sets the level display range to 5 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 475
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 5DB, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 654
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
195
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Range Log 1 dB ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← CCDF
Sets the level display range to 1 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 475
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 1DB, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 654
Range Log Manual ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← CCDF
Opens an edit dialog box to define the display range of a logarithmic level axis manually.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 475
Display range:
DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​ on page 654
Range Linear % ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← CCDF
Selects linear scaling for the level axis in %.
The grid is divided into decadal sections.
Markers are displayed in the selected unit ("Unit" softkey). Delta markers are displayed
in % referenced to the voltage value at the position of marker 1. This is the default setting for linear scaling.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:Y:SPAC LIN, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​SPACing​
on page 475
Range Lin. Unit ← x-Axis Range ← Scaling ← CCDF
Selects linear scaling in dB for the level display range, i.e. the horizontal lines are
labeled in dB.
Markers are displayed in the selected unit ("Unit" softkey). Delta markers are displayed
in dB referenced to the power value at the position of marker 1.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:Y:SPAC LDB, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​SPACing​
on page 475
y-Axis Max Value ← Scaling ← CCDF
Opens an edit dialog box to define the upper limit of the displayed probability range.
Values on the y-axis are normalized which means that the maximum value is 1.0. The
y-axis scaling is defined via the y-Unit % / Abs softkey. The distance between max and
min value must be at least one decade.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​Y:​UPPer​ on page 608
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
196
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
y-Axis Min Value ← Scaling ← CCDF
Opens an edit dialog box to define the lower limit of the displayed probability range.
Values in the range 1e-9 < value < 0.1 are allowed. The y-axis scaling is defined via the
y-Unit % / Abs softkey. The distance between max and min value must be at least one
decade.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​Y:​LOWer​ on page 607
y-Unit % / Abs ← Scaling ← CCDF
Defines the scaling type of the y-axis. The default value is absolute scaling.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​Y:​UNIT​ on page 607
Default Settings ← Scaling ← CCDF
Resets the x- and y-axis scalings to their preset values.
x-axis ref level:
-10 dBm
x-axis range APD:
100 dB
x-axis range CCDF:
20 dB
y-axis upper limit:
1.0
y-axis lower limit:
1E-6
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​PRESet​ on page 605
Adjust Settings ← Scaling ← CCDF
Adjusts the level settings according to the measured difference between peak and minimum power for APD measurement or peak and mean power for CCDF measurement
in order to obtain maximum power resolution. Adjusts the reference level to the current
input signal. For details see also the Adjust Ref Lvl softkey.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​AUTO ONCE​ on page 606
Gated Trigger (On/Off) ← CCDF
Activates and deactivates the gating for statistics functions for the ACP and the CCDF
channel. The trigger source is changed to "EXTERN" if this function is switched on.
The gate ranges are defined using the "Gate Ranges" on page 191 softkey.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe​ on page 650
[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​ on page 652
Gate Ranges ← CCDF
Opens a dialog to configure up to 3 gate ranges for each trace.
For details on configuration, see "Defining Gated Triggering for APD and CCDF"
on page 198.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
197
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Remote command:
SWE:EGAT ON (see [SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe​ on page 650)
Switches on the external gate mode.
SWE:EGAT:TRAC1:COMM "SlotA" (see [SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​TRACe<k>:​
COMMent​ on page 603)
Adds a comment to trace 1.
SWE:EGAT:TRAC1:STAT1 ON (see [SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​TRACe<k>[:​
STATe<range>]​ on page 604)
Activates tracing for range 1 of trace 1.
SWE:EGAT:TRAC1:STAR1 3ms (see [SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​TRACe<k>:​
STARt<range>​ on page 604)
Sets the starting point for range 1 on trace 1 at 3 ms.
SWE:EGAT:TRAC1:STop1 5ms (see [SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​TRACe<k>:​
STOP<range>​ on page 605)
Sets the stopping point for range 1 on trace 1 at 5 ms.
SWE:EGAT:TRAC1:PER 5ms (see [SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​TRACe<k>:​ PERiod​
on page 604)
Defines the period for gated triggering to 5 ms.
Adjust Settings ← CCDF
Adjusts the level settings according to the measured difference between peak and minimum power for APD measurement or peak and mean power for CCDF measurement
in order to obtain maximum power resolution. Adjusts the reference level to the current
input signal. For details see also the Adjust Ref Lvl softkey.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​STATistics:​SCALe:​AUTO ONCE​ on page 606
Defining Gated Triggering for APD and CCDF
Statistic measurements on pulsed signals can be performed using GATED TRIGGER.
An external frame trigger is required as a time (frame) reference.
The gate ranges define the part of the I/Q capture data taken into account for the statistics calculation. These ranges are defined relative to a reference point T=0. The gate
interval is repeated for each period until the end of the I/Q capture buffer.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
198
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
The reference point T=0 is defined by the external trigger event and the instrument's
trigger offset.
For each trace you can define up to 3 separate ranges of a single period to be traced.
Defining gated triggering
1. Press the "Gated Trigger" softkey to activate gated triggering (see "Gated Trigger
(On/Off)" on page 191).
2. Press the "Gate Ranges" softkey to open the "Gate Ranges" dialog (see "Gate
Ranges" on page 191).
3. Define the length of the period to be analyzed in the "Period" field.
Note: The period is the same for all traces. If you change the period for one trace,
it is automatically changed for all traces.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
199
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Make sure the defined period is not longer than the acquisition time of the current
measurement. Keep in mind that the acquisition time depends on the bandwidth
and the number of samples settings (see "Selecting the number of samples"
on page 184). The current acquisition time is indicated as "AQT" in the channel
bar.
4. Optionally, define a description of the trace in the "Comment" field.
5. Activate tracing for the range by selecting "On" in the "Range <number> Use" field
for the corresponding range and trace.
The start and stop time edit fields are ready for input.
Note: The time values have full numerical resolution and are only rounded for display.
6. Define the starting point of the range within the period.
7. Define the stopping point for the range within the period. Make sure the value for
the stopping time is smaller than the length of the period.
8. To define further ranges for the same period in the same trace, repeat steps 5- 7
for the same trace.
To define further ranges for the same period in a different trace, repeat steps 4- 7
for a different trace.
9. If necessary, activate the configured traces in the "Trace" menu.
Gated statistics configuration example
A statistics evaluation has to be done over the useful part of the signal between t3 and
t4. The period of the GSM signal is 4.61536 ms
t1: External positive trigger slope
t2: Begin of burst (after 25 µs)
t3: Begin of useful part, to be used for statistics (after 40 µs)
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
200
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
t4: End of useful part, to be used for statistics (after 578 µs)
t5: End of burst (after 602 µs)
The instrument has to be configured as follows:
4.1.1.11
Trigger Offset
t2 – t1 = 25 µs
now the gate ranges are relative to t2
Range1 Start
t3 – t2 = 15 µs
start of range 1 relative to t2
Range1 End
t4 – t2 = 553 µs
end of range 1 relative to t2
Measuring the Third Order Intercept Point (TOI)
In order to measure the third order intercept point (TOI), a two-tone signal with equal
carrier levels is expected at the R&S ESR input. Marker 1 and marker 2 (both normal
markers) are set to the maximum of the two signals. Marker 3 and marker 4 are placed
on the intermodulation products.
The R&S ESR calculates the third order intercept point from the level difference
between the first 2 markers and the markers 3 and 4 and displays it in the marker field.
The third order intercept point is measured using the "TOI" softkey, see "TOI"
on page 96.
About TOI Measurement
If several signals are applied to a transmission two-port device with nonlinear characteristic, intermodulation products appear at its output at the sums and differences of
the signals. The nonlinear characteristic produces harmonics of the useful signals
which intermodulate at the characteristic. The intermodulation products of lower order
have a special effect since their level is largest and they are near the useful signals.
The intermodulation product of third order causes the highest interference. It is the
intermodulation product generated from one of the useful signals and the 2nd harmonic
of the second useful signal in case of two-tone modulation.
The frequencies of the intermodulation products are above and below the useful signals. The figure 4-9 shows intermodulation products PI1 and PI2 generated by the two
useful signals PU1 and PU2.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
201
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Fig. 4-9: Intermodulation products PU1 and PU2
The intermodulation product at fI2 is generated by mixing the 2nd harmonic of useful
signal PU2 and signal PU1, the intermodulation product at fI1 by mixing the 2nd harmonic
of useful signal PU1 and signal PU2.
fi1 = 2 × fu1 – fu2 (6)
fi2 = 2 × fu2 – fu1 (7)
Dependency on level of useful signals
The level of the intermodulation products depends on the level of the useful signals. If
the two useful signals are increased by 1 dB, the level of the intermodulation products
increases by 3 dB, which means that spacing aD3 between intermodulation signals and
useful signals are reduced by 2 dB. This is illustrated in figure 4-10.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
202
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Fig. 4-10: Dependency of intermodulation level on useful signal level
The useful signals at the two-port output increase proportionally with the input level as
long as the two-port is in the linear range. A level change of 1 dB at the input causes a
level change of 1 dB at the output. Beyond a certain input level, the two-port goes into
compression and the output level stops increasing. The intermodulation products of the
third order increase three times as much as the useful signals. The intercept point is
the fictitious level where the two lines intersect. It cannot be measured directly since
the useful level is previously limited by the maximum two-port output power.
Calculation method
It can be calculated from the known line slopes and the measured spacing aD3 at a
given level according to the following formula:
IP3 
aD 3
 PN
2
The 3rd order intercept point (TOI), for example, is calculated for an intermodulation of
60 dB and an input level PU of -20 dBm according to the following formula:
IP3 
60
 (20dBm)  10dBm
2
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
203
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Intermodulation-free dynamic range
The "Intermodulation-free dynamic range", i.e. the level range in which no internal
intermodulation products are generated if two-tone signals are measured, is determined by the 3rd order intercept point, the phase noise and the thermal noise of the signal analyzer. At high signal levels, the range is determined by intermodulation products. At low signal levels, intermodulation products disappear below the noise floor, i.e.
the noise floor and the phase noise of the signal analyzer determine the range. The
noise floor and the phase noise depend on the resolution bandwidth that has been
selected. At the smallest resolution bandwidth, the noise floor and phase noise are at a
minimum and so the maximum range is obtained. However, a large increase in sweep
time is required for small resolution bandwidths. It is, therefore, best to select the largest resolution bandwidth possible to obtain the range that is required. Since phase
noise decreases as the carrier-offset increases, its influence decreases with increasing
frequency offset from the useful signals.
The following diagrams illustrate the intermodulation-free dynamic range as a function
of the selected bandwidth and of the level at the input mixer (= signal level – set RF
attenuation) at different useful signal offsets.
Fig. 4-11: Intermodulation-free range of the R&S ESR as a function of level at the input mixer and the
set resolution bandwidth
(Useful signal offset = 1 MHz, DANL = -145 dBm/Hz, TOI = 15 dBm; typical values at 2
GHz)
The optimum mixer level, i.e. the level at which the intermodulation distance is at its
maximum, depends on the bandwidth. At a resolution bandwidth of 10 Hz, it is approx.
-35 dBm and at 1 kHz increases to approx. -30 dBm.
Phase noise has a considerable influence on the intermodulation-free range at carrier
offsets between 10 and 100 kHz ( figure 4-11). At greater bandwidths, the influence of
the phase noise is greater than it would be with small bandwidths. The optimum mixer
level at the bandwidths under consideration becomes almost independent of bandwidth
and is approx. -40 dBm.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
204
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Fig. 4-12: Intermodulation-free dynamic range of the R&S ESR as a function of level at the input
mixer and of the selected resolution bandwidth
(Useful signal offset = 10 to 100 kHz, DANL = -145 dBm/Hz, TOI = 15 dBm; typical values at 2 GHz).
If the intermodulation products of a DUT with a very high dynamic range are to be
measured and the resolution bandwidth to be used is therefore very small, it is best to
measure the levels of the useful signals and those of the intermodulation products separately using a small span. The measurement time will be reduced- in particular if the
offset of the useful signals is large. To find signals reliably when frequency span is
small, it is best to synchronize the signal sources and the R&S ESR.
Measurement Results
As a result of the TOI measurement, the following values are displayed in the marker
area of the diagram:
Label
Description
TOI
Third-order intercept point
M1
Maximum of first useful signal
M2
Maximum of second useful signal
M3
First intermodulation product
M4
Second intermodulation product
Remote command
The TOI can also be queried using the remote command CALCulate<n>:​
MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​TOI:​RESult?​ on page 600.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
205
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Softkeys for TOI Measurements
TOI.............................................................................................................................. 206
└ Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta............ 206
└ Search Signals..............................................................................................206
TOI
Opens a submenu and activates the measurement of the 3rd order intercept point.
A two-tone signal with equal carrier levels is expected at the R&S ESR input. Marker 1
and marker 2 (both normal markers) are set to the maximum of the two signals. Marker
3 and marker 4 are placed on the intermodulation products.
The R&S ESR calculates the third order intercept point from the level difference
between the first 2 markers and the markers 3 and 4 and displays it in the marker field.
For general information on measuring the TOI see chapter 4.1.1.11, "Measuring the
Third Order Intercept Point (TOI)", on page 201.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​TOI[:​STATe]​ on page 599
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​TOI:​RESult?​ on page 600
Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta ← TOI
The "Marker X" softkey activates the corresponding marker and opens an edit dialog
box to enter a value for the marker to be set to. Pressing the softkey again deactivates
the selected marker.
If a marker value is changed using the rotary knob, the step size is defined via the
Stepsize Standard or Stepsize Sweep Points softkeys.
Marker 1 is always the reference marker for relative measurements. If activated, markers 2 to 16 are delta markers that refer to marker 1. These markers can be converted
into markers with absolute value display using the "Marker Norm/Delta" softkey. If
marker 1 is the active marker, pressing the "Marker Norm/Delta" softkey switches on
an additional delta marker.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>[:​STATe]​ on page 503
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X​ on page 504
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​Y​ on page 505
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>[:​STATe]​ on page 510
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​X​ on page 511
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​X:​RELative​ on page 511
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​Y​ on page 512
Search Signals ← TOI
Activates all markers.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​TOI:​SEARchsignal ONCE​ on page 599
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
206
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
4.1.1.12
Measuring the AM Modulation Depth
The AM modulation depth, also known as a modulation index, indicates by how much
the modulated signal varies around the carrier amplitude. It is defined as:
MDepth = peak signal amplitude / unmodulated carrier amplitude
So for MDepth = 0.5, for example, the carrier amplitude varies by 50% above and
below its unmodulated level, and for h = 1.0 it varies by 100%.
You can measure the modulation depth of a modulated signal using the AM Mod Depth
function.
When this function is activated, marker 1 is set to the peak level, which is considered
to be the carrier level. Deltamarkers 2 and 3 are automatically set symmetrically to the
carrier on the adjacent peak values of the trace. The markers can be adjusted manually, if necessary.
The R&S ESR calculates the power at the marker positions from the measured levels.
The AM modulation depth is calculated as the ratio between the power values at the
reference marker and at the delta markers. If the powers of the two AM side bands are
unequal, the mean value of the two power values is used for AM modulation depth calculation.
A remote control programming example is described in chapter 9.15.2.3, "Measuring
the AM Modulation Depth", on page 794 and a example of how to perform the measurement manually in the Quick Start Guide in chapter "Measurement Examples".
Measurement results
The AM modulation depth in percent is displayed as a result of the measurement, indicated in the marker results as "MDepth".
It can also be queried using the remote command CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​
FUNCtion:​MDEPth:​RESult?​ on page 594.
Softkeys for AM Modulation Depth Measurements
AM Mod Depth............................................................................................................ 207
└ Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta............ 208
└ Search Signals..............................................................................................208
AM Mod Depth
Activates the measurement of the AM modulation depth. An AM-modulated carrier is
required on the screen to ensure correct operation.
When this function is activated, marker 1 is set to the peak level, which is considered
to be the carrier level. Deltamarkers 2 and 3 are automatically set symmetrically to the
carrier on the adjacent peak values of the trace. An edit dialog box is displayed for deltamarker 2 in order to adjust the position manually.
When the position of deltamarker 2 is changed, deltamarker 3 is moved symmetrically
with respect to the reference marker 1.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
207
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
Deltamarker 3, on the other hand, can be moved for fine adjustment irrespective of
marker 2.
Marker 1 can also be moved manually for re-adjustment without affecting the position
of the deltamarkers.
For general information on measuring the AM modulation depth see chapter 4.1.1.12,
"Measuring the AM Modulation Depth", on page 207.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​MDEPth[:​STATe]​ on page 594
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​MDEPth:​RESult?​ on page 594
Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta ← AM Mod
Depth
The "Marker X" softkey activates the corresponding marker and opens an edit dialog
box to enter a value for the marker to be set to. Pressing the softkey again deactivates
the selected marker.
If a marker value is changed using the rotary knob, the step size is defined via the
Stepsize Standard or Stepsize Sweep Points softkeys.
Marker 1 is always the reference marker for relative measurements. If activated, markers 2 to 16 are delta markers that refer to marker 1. These markers can be converted
into markers with absolute value display using the "Marker Norm/Delta" softkey. If
marker 1 is the active marker, pressing the "Marker Norm/Delta" softkey switches on
an additional delta marker.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>[:​STATe]​ on page 503
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X​ on page 504
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​Y​ on page 505
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>[:​STATe]​ on page 510
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​X​ on page 511
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​X:​RELative​ on page 511
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​Y​ on page 512
Search Signals ← AM Mod Depth
Activates all markers.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​MDEPth:​SEARchsignal ONCE​
on page 593
4.1.1.13
Measuring Harmonic Distortion
The harmonics and their distortion can be measured using the "Harmonic Distortion"
on page 97 function.
With this measurement it is possible to measure the harmonics e.g. from a VCO easily.
In addition the THD (total harmonic distortion) is calculated in % and dB.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
208
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
With span > 0 Hz, an automatic search for the first harmonic is carried out within the
set frequency range. Also the level is adjusted. In zero span, the center frequency is
unchanged.
As a result, the zero span sweeps on all harmonics are shown, as well as the RMS
values and the THD (total harmonic distortion).
About Harmonics Distortion Measurement
Measuring the harmonics of a signal is a frequent problem which can be solved best
using a signal analyzer. In general, every signal contains harmonics which are larger
than others. Harmonics are particularly critical regarding high-power transmitters such
as transceivers because large harmonics can interfere with other radio services.
Harmonics are generated by nonlinear characteristics. They can often be reduced by
low pass filters. Since the signal analyzer has a nonlinear characteristic, e.g. in its first
mixer, measures must be taken to ensure that harmonics produced in the signal analyzer do not cause spurious results. If necessary, the fundamental wave must be selectively attenuated with respect to the other harmonics with a high pass filter.
Obtainable dynamic range
When harmonics are being measured, the obtainable dynamic range depends on the
second harmonic intercept of the signal analyzer. The second harmonic intercept is the
virtual input level at the RF input mixer at which the level of the 2nd harmonic becomes
equal to the level of the fundamental wave. In practice, however, applying a level of
this magnitude would damage the mixer. Nevertheless, the available dynamic range for
measuring the harmonic distance of a DUT can be calculated relatively easily using the
second harmonic intercept.
As shown in figure 4-13, the level of the 2nd harmonic drops by 20 dB if the level of the
fundamental wave is reduced by 10 dB.
Fig. 4-13: Extrapolation of the 1st and 2nd harmonics to the 2nd harmonic intercept at 40 dBm
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
209
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
The following formula for the obtainable harmonic distortion d2 in dB is derived from the
straight-line equations and the given intercept point:
d2 = S.H.I – PI (1)
where:
d2
=
harmonic distortion
PI
=
mixer level/dBm
S.H.I.
=
second harmonic intercept
The mixer level is the RF level applied to the RF input minus the set RF attenuation.
The formula for the internally generated level P1 at the 2nd harmonic in dBm is:
P1 = 2 * PI – S.H.I. (2)
The lower measurement limit for the harmonic is the noise floor of the signal analyzer.
The harmonic of the measured DUT should – if sufficiently averaged by means of a
video filter – be at least 4 dB above the noise floor so that the measurement error due
to the input noise is less than 1 dB.
The following rules for measuring high harmonic ratios can be derived:
●
Select the smallest possible IF bandwidth for a minimal noise floor.
●
Select an RF attenuation which is high enough to just measure the harmonic ratio.
The maximum harmonic distortion is obtained if the level of the harmonic equals the
intrinsic noise level of the receiver. The level applied to the mixer, according to (2), is:
At a resolution bandwidth of 10 Hz (noise level -143 dBm, S.H.I. = 40 dBm), the optimum mixer level is – 51.5 dBm. According to (1) a maximum measurable harmonic distortion of 91.5 dB minus a minimum S/N ratio of 4 dB is obtained.
If the harmonic emerges from noise sufficiently (approx. >15 dB), it is easy to check (by
changing the RF attenuation) whether the harmonics originate from the DUT or are
generated internally by the signal analyzer. If a harmonic originates from the DUT, its
level remains constant if the RF attenuation is increased by 10 dB. Only the displayed
noise is increased by 10 dB due to the additional attenuation. If the harmonic is exclusively generated by the signal analyzer, the level of the harmonic is reduced by 20 dB
or is lost in noise. If both – the DUT and the signal analyzer – contribute to the harmonic, the reduction in the harmonic level is correspondingly smaller.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
210
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
High-Sensitivity Harmonics Measurements
If harmonics have very small levels, the resolution bandwidth required to measure
them must be reduced considerably. The sweep time is, therefore, also increased considerably. In this case, the measurement of individual harmonics is carried out with the
R&S ESR set to a small span. Only the frequency range around the harmonics will
then be measured with a small resolution bandwidth.
Measurement Results
As a result of the harmonics distortion measurement, the zero span sweeps on all
detected harmonics are shown in the diagram, separated by red display lines. This provides a very good overview of the measurement.
In addition, a result table is displayed providing the following information:
●
1st harmonic frequency
●
THD (total harmonic distortion), relative and absolute values
●
For each detected harmonic:
– Frequency
–
RBW
–
Power
The results can also be queried using the remote commands:
THD: CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​HARMonics:​DISTortion?​
on page 596
List of harmonics: CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​HARMonics:​LIST?​
on page 596
Softkeys for Harmonic Distortion Measurements
Harmonic Distortion.....................................................................................................211
└ No. of Harmonics.......................................................................................... 212
└ Harmonic Sweep Time..................................................................................212
└ Harmonic RBW Auto.....................................................................................212
└ Adjust Settings.............................................................................................. 212
Harmonic Distortion
Opens a submenu to determine the settings for harmonics measurement and activates
the harmonic distortion measurement.
With this measurement you can measure the harmonics of a signal. In addition the
THD (total harmonic distortion) is calculated in % and dB.
With span > 0 Hz, an automatic search for the first harmonic is carried out within the
set frequency range. Also the level is adjusted. In zero span, the center frequency is
unchanged.
In the upper window, the zero span sweeps on all harmonics are shown, separated by
display lines. In the lower window, the mean RMS results are displayed in numerical
values. The THD values are displayed in the marker field.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
211
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Measurements
For details see chapter 4.1.1.13, "Measuring Harmonic Distortion", on page 208.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​HARMonics[:​STATe]​ on page 598
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​HARMonics:​DISTortion?​ on page 596
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​HARMonics:​LIST?​ on page 596
No. of Harmonics ← Harmonic Distortion
Sets the number of harmonics that shall be measured. The range is from 1 to 26.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​HARMonics:​NHARmonics​ on page 597
Harmonic Sweep Time ← Harmonic Distortion
For details refer to the Sweeptime Manual softkey in the "Bandwidth" menu.
Harmonic RBW Auto ← Harmonic Distortion
Enables/disables the automatic adjustment of the resolution bandwidth for filter types
Normal (3dB) (Gaussian) and 5-Pole filters. The automatic adjustment is carried out
according to:
"RBWn = RBW1 * n"
If RBWn is not available, the next higher value is used.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​HARMonics:​BANDwidth:​AUTO​
on page 595
Adjust Settings ← Harmonic Distortion
Activates the frequency search in the frequency range that was set before starting the
harmonic measurement (if harmonic measurement was with span > 0) and adjusts the
level.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​HARMonics:​PRESet​ on page 597
4.1.2 Measurement Configuration – MEAS CONFIG Key
The MEAS CONFIG key displays the submenu of the currently activated and running
measurement function, e.g. the submenu of "TOI" or "Harmonic Distortion" (see chapter 4.1.1, "Power Measurements – MEAS Key", on page 93, for quick access to the
measurement configuration. If no measurement function is activated, this key has no
effect.
4.1.3 Performing Measurements – RUN SINGLE/RUN CONT Keys
The RUN SINGLE and RUN CONT keys are used to start measurement tasks.
●
RUN SINGLE switches to single sweep mode and performs a single sweep, just as
the Single Sweep softkey in the "Sweep" menu does.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
212
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
●
RUN CONT switches to continuous sweep mode and starts sweeping, just as the
Continuous Sweep softkey in the "Sweep" menu does.
4.2 Configuration
Basic measurement settings that are common to many measurement tasks are described here. If you are performing a specific measurement task or using an operating
mode other than Spectrum mode, be sure to check the specific measurement or mode
description for settings that may deviate from these common settings.
4.2.1 Initializing the Configuration – PRESET Key
The PRESET key resets the instrument to the default setting and therefore provides a
defined initial state as a known starting point for measurements.
If the "local lockout" function is active in the remote control mode, the PRESET key is
disabled.
Further information
●
chapter 4.2.1.2, "Initial Configuration", on page 214
Task
●
4.2.1.1
chapter 4.2.1.1, "Presetting the Instrument", on page 213
Presetting the Instrument
1. Define the data set for the presetting:
a) To retrieve the originally provided settings file (see chapter 4.2.1.2, "Initial Configuration", on page 214), deactivate the "Startup Recall" softkey in the "SAVE/
RCL" menu.
b) To retrieve a customized settings file, in the "File" menu, activate the "Startup
Recall" softkey, press the "Startup Recall Setup" softkey, and select the corresponding file.
For details refer to chapter 8.1, "Saving and Recalling Settings Files –
SAVE/RCL Key", on page 387.
2. Press the PRESET key to perform a preset.
Remote: *RST or SYSTem:​PRESet​
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
213
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
After you use the PRESET function, the history of previous actions is deleted, i.e. any
actions performed previously cannot be undone or redone using the UNDO/REDO
keys.
4.2.1.2
Initial Configuration
The initial configuration is selected such that the RF input is always protected against
overload, provided that the applied signal levels are in the allowed range for the instrument.
The parameter set of the initial configuration can be customized using the "Startup
Recall" softkey in the "Save/Rcl" menu. For further information refer to chapter 8.1,
"Saving and Recalling Settings Files – SAVE/RCL Key", on page 387.
Table 4-5: Initial configuration
Parameter
Setting
mode
Spectrum
sweep mode
auto
center frequency
fmax/2
center frequency step size
0.1 * span
span
R&S ESR3: 3.6 GHz
R&S ESR7: 7 GHz
RF attenuation
0 dB
reference level
-10 dBm
level range
100 dB log
level unit
dBm
sweep time
auto
resolution bandwidth
auto (3 MHz)
video bandwidth
auto (3 MHz)
FFT filters
off
span/RBW
100
RBW/VBW
1
sweep
cont
trigger
free run
trace 1
clr write
trace 2/3/4/5/6
blank
detector
auto peak
frequency offset
0 Hz
reference level offset
0 dB
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
214
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
Parameter
Setting
reference level position
100 %
grid
abs
cal correction
on
noise source
off
input
RF
4.2.2 Selecting the Frequency and Span – FREQ Key
The FREQ key is used to configure the frequency axis, to set the frequency offset and
the signal track function. You can configure the frequency axis either by the start and
stop frequency or the center frequency and the span.
To open the Frequency menu
●
Press the FREQ key.
The "Frequency" menu is displayed. The "Frequency Center" edit dialog box is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
●
chapter 4.2.2.1, "Softkeys of the Frequency Menu", on page 215
Tasks
4.2.2.1
●
chapter 4.2.2.2, "Specifying the Frequency Axis by the Start and Stop Frequency",
on page 219
●
chapter 4.2.2.3, "Specifying the Frequency Axis by the Center Frequency and the
Span", on page 219
●
chapter 4.2.2.4, "Specifying the Step Size for the Arrow Keys and the Rotary
Knob", on page 220
●
chapter 4.2.2.5, "Modifying the Frequency Axis by an Offset", on page 220
●
chapter 4.2.2.6, "Tracking Signals (Span > 0)", on page 220
Softkeys of the Frequency Menu
The following chapter describes all softkeys available in the "Frequency" menu. It is
possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is
only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is
provided in the corresponding softkey description.
Center......................................................................................................................... 216
CF Stepsize.................................................................................................................216
└ 0.1*Span (span > 0)......................................................................................216
└ 0.1*RBW (span > 0)......................................................................................216
└ 0.5*Span (span > 0)......................................................................................217
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
215
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
└ 0.5*RBW (span > 0)......................................................................................217
└ x*Span (span > 0)......................................................................................... 217
└ x*RBW (span > 0)......................................................................................... 217
└ =Center......................................................................................................... 217
└ =Marker.........................................................................................................218
└ Manual.......................................................................................................... 218
Start.............................................................................................................................218
Stop.............................................................................................................................218
Frequency Offset.........................................................................................................218
Signal Track (span > 0)............................................................................................... 218
└ Track On/Off (span > 0)................................................................................ 219
└ Track BW (span > 0).....................................................................................219
└ Track Threshold (span > 0)...........................................................................219
└ Select Trace (span > 0)................................................................................ 219
Center
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the center frequency. The allowed range of values
for the center frequency depends on the frequency span.
span > 0: spanmin/2 ≤ fcenter ≤ fmax – spanmin/2
span = 0: 0 Hz ≤ fcenter ≤ fmax
fmax and spanmin are specified in the data sheet.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer​ on page 631
CF Stepsize
Opens a submenu to set the step size of the center frequency.
The step size defines the value by which the center frequency is increased or
decreased when the arrow keys are pressed. When you use the rotary knob the center
frequency changes in steps of 10% of the "Center Frequency Stepsize".
The step size can be set to a fraction of the span (span > 0) or a fraction of the resolution bandwidth (span = 0) or it can be set to a fixed value manually.
Apart from the =Center, =Marker and Manual softkeys, the other softkeys are displayed depending on the selected frequency span.
0.1*Span (span > 0) ← CF Stepsize
Sets the step size for the center frequency to 10 % of the span.
Remote command:
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK SPAN, see [SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP:​LINK​
on page 632
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 10PCT, see [SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP:​
LINK:​FACTor​ on page 633
0.1*RBW (span > 0) ← CF Stepsize
Sets the step size for the center frequency to 10 % of the resolution bandwidth.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
216
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
This is the default setting.
Remote command:
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK RBW, see [SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP:​LINK​
on page 632
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 10PCT, see [SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP:​
LINK:​FACTor​ on page 633
0.5*Span (span > 0) ← CF Stepsize
Sets the step size for the center frequency to 50 % of the span.
Remote command:
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK SPAN, see [SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP:​LINK​
on page 632
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 50PCT, see [SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP:​
LINK:​FACTor​ on page 633
0.5*RBW (span > 0) ← CF Stepsize
Sets the step size for the center frequency to 50 % of the resolution bandwidth.
Remote command:
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK RBW, see [SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP:​LINK​
on page 632
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 50PCT, see [SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP:​
LINK:​FACTor​ on page 633
x*Span (span > 0) ← CF Stepsize
Opens an edit dialog box to set the step size for the center frequency as a percentage
(%) of the span.
Remote command:
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK SPAN, see [SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP:​LINK​
on page 632
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 20PCT, see [SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP:​
LINK​ on page 632
x*RBW (span > 0) ← CF Stepsize
Opens an edit dialog box to set the step size for the center frequency as a percentage
(%) of the resolution bandwidth. Values between 1 % and 100 % in steps of 1 % are
allowed. The default setting is 10 %.
Remote command:
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK RBW, see [SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP:​LINK​
on page 632
FREQ:CENT:STEP:LINK:FACT 20PCT, see [SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP:​
LINK​ on page 632
=Center ← CF Stepsize
Sets the step size to the value of the center frequency and removes the coupling of the
step size to span or resolution bandwidth.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
217
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
This function is especially useful for measurements of the signal harmonics. In this
case, each stroke of the arrow key selects the center frequency of another harmonic.
=Marker ← CF Stepsize
Sets the step size to the value of the current marker and removes the coupling of the
step size to span or resolution bandwidth.
This function is especially useful for measurements of the signal harmonics. In this
case, each stroke of the arrow key selects the center frequency of another harmonic.
Manual ← CF Stepsize
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a fixed step size for the center frequency.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer:​STEP​ on page 473
Start
Opens an edit dialog box to define the start frequency. The following range of values is
allowed:
fmin ≤ fstart ≤ fmax – spanmin
fmin, fmax and spanmin are specified in the data sheet.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​STARt​ on page 634
Stop
Opens an edit dialog box to define the stop frequency. The following range of values
for the stop frequency is allowed:
fmin + spanmin ≤ fstop ≤ fmax
f min , f max and spanmin are specified in the data sheet.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​STOP​ on page 634
Frequency Offset
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a frequency offset that shifts the displayed frequency
range by the specified offset.
The softkey indicates the current frequency offset. The allowed values range from
-100 GHz to 100 GHz. The default setting is 0 Hz.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​OFFSet​ on page 633
Signal Track (span > 0)
Opens a submenu to define the signal tracking characteristics:
●
●
●
search bandwidth
threshold value
trace
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
218
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
The search bandwidth and the threshold value are shown in the diagram by two vertical lines and one horizontal line, which are labeled as "TRK". After each sweep the
center frequency is set to the maximum signal found within the searched bandwidth. If
no maximum signal above the set threshold value is found in the searched bandwidth,
the track mechanism stops.
The submenu contains the following softkeys:
●
●
●
●
"Track On/Off (span > 0)" on page 219
"Track BW (span > 0)" on page 219
"Track Threshold (span > 0)" on page 219
"Select Trace (span > 0)" on page 219
Track On/Off (span > 0) ← Signal Track (span > 0)
Switches the signal tracking on and off.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​STRack[:​STATe]​ on page 635
Track BW (span > 0) ← Signal Track (span > 0)
Opens an edit dialog box to set the search bandwidth for signal tracking. The frequency range is calculated as a function of the center frequency.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​STRack:​BANDwidth|BWIDth​
on page 635
Track Threshold (span > 0) ← Signal Track (span > 0)
Opens an edit dialog box to set the threshold value for signal tracking.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​STRack:​THReshold​ on page 636
Select Trace (span > 0) ← Signal Track (span > 0)
Opens an edit dialog box to select the trace on which the signal is tracked.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​STRack:​TRACe​ on page 636
4.2.2.2
Specifying the Frequency Axis by the Start and Stop Frequency
1. Press the Start softkey and enter a start frequency.
2. Press the Stop softkey and enter a stop frequency.
4.2.2.3
Specifying the Frequency Axis by the Center Frequency and the Span
1. Press the FREQ key and enter a center frequency in the "Frequency Center" edit
dialog box.
2. Press the SPAN key and enter the bandwidth you want to analyze.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
219
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
Entering a value of 0 Hz causes a change to the zero span analysis mode.
4.2.2.4
Specifying the Step Size for the Arrow Keys and the Rotary Knob
1. Press the CF Stepsize softkey.
The available softkeys depend on the selected frequency span (zero span or
span > 0).
2. To define the step size of the center frequency:
a) If span > 0:
Press "0.1*Span", "0.5*Span" or "x*Span" to define the step size for the center
frequency as percentage of the span (see CF Stepsize).
b) If span = 0:
Press "0.1*RBW", "0.5*RBW", or "x*RBW" to define the step size for the center
frequency as percentage of the resolution bandwidth (see CF Stepsize).
c) Press the =Center softkey to set the step size to the value of the center frequency and remove the dependency of the step size to span or resolution
bandwidth.
d) Press the =Marker softkey to set the step size to the value of the marker and
remove the dependency of the step size to span or resolution bandwidth.
e) Press the Manual softkey and enter a fixed step size for the center frequency.
The step size assigned to arrow keys corresponds to the selected value.
The step size of the rotary knob is always 10 % of it.
4.2.2.5
Modifying the Frequency Axis by an Offset
●
4.2.2.6
Press the Frequency Offset softkey and enter the offset to shift the displayed frequency span.
Tracking Signals (Span > 0)
Note that signal tracking is available for frequency spans > 0.
●
Press the Signal Track (span > 0) softkey to open the submenu and start and stop
signal tracking with specified parameters.
●
Press the Track On/Off (span > 0) softkey to switch signal tracking on or off.
●
Press the Track BW (span > 0) softkey and enter a bandwidth for signal tracking.
●
Press the Track Threshold (span > 0) softkey and enter the threshold for signal
tracking.
●
Press the Select Trace (span > 0) softkey and select the trace for signal tracking.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
220
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
4.2.3 Setting the Frequency Span – SPAN Key
The SPAN key is used to set the frequency span to be analyzed.
To open the Span menu
●
Press the SPAN key.
The "Span" menu is displayed. For span > 0 an edit dialog box to enter the frequency is displayed. For zero span, an edit dialog box to enter the sweep time is
displayed.
Menu and softkey description
●
chapter 4.2.3.1, "Softkeys of the Span Menu", on page 221
Task
●
4.2.3.1
chapter 4.2.3.2, "Specifying the Span (Alternatives)", on page 222
Softkeys of the Span Menu
The following chapter describes all softkeys available in the "Span" menu. It is possible
that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only
available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is provided in the corresponding softkey description.
Functions to configure the span described elsewhere:
●
"Last Span" on page 53
●
"Full Span" on page 53
Span Manual............................................................................................................... 221
Zero Span................................................................................................................... 221
Span Manual
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the frequency span. The center frequency remains
the same when you change the span.
The following range is allowed:
span = 0: 0 Hz
span >0: spanmin ≤ f span ≤ f max
fmax and spanmin are specified in the data sheet.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​SPAN​ on page 634
Zero Span
Sets the span to 0 Hz (zero span). The x-axis becomes the time axis with the grid lines
corresponding to 1/10 of the current sweep time ("SWT").
Remote command:
FREQ:SPAN 0Hz, see [SENSe:​]FREQuency:​SPAN​ on page 634
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
221
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
4.2.3.2
Specifying the Span (Alternatives)
1. To set the span, use the Span Manual, Full Span, Zero Span and Last Span softkeys.
2. To define a frequency range, use the Start and Stop softkeys of the "Frequency"
menu.
3. In zero span, the span corresponds to the sweep time. In that case, press the
Sweeptime Manual softkey and enter a sweep time.
4.2.4 Setting the Level Display and Configuring the RF Input – AMPT Key
The AMPT key is used to set the reference level, the level range and unit, the scaling
and the RF attenuation.
To open the amplitude menu
●
Press the AMPT key.
The "Amplitude" menu is displayed. The "Reference Level" dialog box is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
●
chapter 4.2.4.1, "Softkeys of the Amplitude Menu", on page 222
Tasks
●
4.2.4.1
chapter 4.2.4.2, "Specifying the Amplitude", on page 227
Softkeys of the Amplitude Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Amplitude" menu. It is possible
that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only
available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is provided in the corresponding softkey description.
Functions to configure the amplitude described elsewhere:
●
"RF Atten Manual" on page 54
Ref Level..................................................................................................................... 223
Range..........................................................................................................................223
└ Range Log 100 dB........................................................................................ 223
└ Range Log 50 dB.......................................................................................... 223
└ Range Log 10 dB.......................................................................................... 224
└ Range Log 5 dB............................................................................................ 224
└ Range Log 1 dB............................................................................................ 224
└ Range Log Manual........................................................................................224
└ Range Linear %............................................................................................ 224
└ Range Lin. Unit............................................................................................. 225
Unit..............................................................................................................................225
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
222
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
Preamp On/Off............................................................................................................ 225
RF Atten Auto..............................................................................................................225
Ref Level Offset.......................................................................................................... 226
Ref Level Position....................................................................................................... 226
Grid Abs/Rel ...............................................................................................................226
Noise Correction......................................................................................................... 226
Input (AC/DC)..............................................................................................................227
Input 50 Ω/75 Ω ..........................................................................................................227
Ref Level
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the reference level in the current unit (dBm, dBµV,
etc).
The reference level is the maximum value the AD converter can handle without distortion of the measured value. Signal levels above this value will not be measured correctly, which is indicated by the "IFOVL" status display.
Remote command:
DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​RLEVel​ on page 656
Range
Opens a submenu to define the display range of the level axis.
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Range Log 100 dB
Range Log 50 dB
Range Log 10 dB
Range Log 5 dB
Range Log 1 dB
Range Log Manual
Range Linear %
Range Lin. Unit
Range Log 100 dB ← Range
Sets the level display range to 100 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 475
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 100DB, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 654
Range Log 50 dB ← Range
Sets the level display range to 50 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 475
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 50DB, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 654
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
223
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
Range Log 10 dB ← Range
Sets the level display range to 10 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 475
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 10DB, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 654
Range Log 5 dB ← Range
Sets the level display range to 5 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 475
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 5DB, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 654
Range Log 1 dB ← Range
Sets the level display range to 1 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 475
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 1DB, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 654
Range Log Manual ← Range
Opens an edit dialog box to define the display range of a logarithmic level axis manually.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 475
Display range:
DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​ on page 654
Range Linear % ← Range
Selects linear scaling for the level axis in %.
The grid is divided into decadal sections.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
224
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
Markers are displayed in the selected unit ("Unit" softkey). Delta markers are displayed
in % referenced to the voltage value at the position of marker 1. This is the default setting for linear scaling.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:Y:SPAC LIN, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​SPACing​
on page 475
Range Lin. Unit ← Range
Selects linear scaling in dB for the level display range, i.e. the horizontal lines are
labeled in dB.
Markers are displayed in the selected unit ("Unit" softkey). Delta markers are displayed
in dB referenced to the power value at the position of marker 1.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:Y:SPAC LDB, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​SPACing​
on page 475
Unit
Opens the "Unit" submenu to select the unit for the level axis.
The default setting in spectrum mode is dBm.
If a transducer is switched on, the softkey is not available.
In general, the signal analyzer measures the signal voltage at the RF input. The level
display is calibrated in RMS values of an unmodulated sine wave signal. In the default
state, the level is displayed at a power of 1 mW (= dBm). Via the known input impedance (50 Ω or 75 Ω), conversion to other units is possible. The following units are
available and directly convertible:
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
dBm
dBmV
dBμV
dBμA
dBpW
Volt
Ampere
Watt
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​UNIT:​POWer​ on page 653
Preamp On/Off
Switches the preamplifier on and off.
Remote command:
INPut:​GAIN:​STATe ​ on page 477
RF Atten Auto
Sets the RF attenuation automatically as a function of the selected reference level.
This ensures that the optimum RF attenuation is always used. It is the default setting.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
225
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
When measuring spurious emissions, using this softkey automatically opens the
"Sweep List" dialog, see "Sweep List dialog box" on page 160.
Remote command:
INPut:​ATTenuation:​AUTO​ on page 657
Ref Level Offset
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the arithmetic level offset. This offset is added to the
measured level irrespective of the selected unit. The scaling of the y-axis is changed
accordingly. The setting range is ±200 dB in 0.1 dB steps.
Remote command:
DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​RLEVel:​OFFSet​ on page 656
Ref Level Position
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the reference level position, i.e. the position of the
maximum AD converter value on the level axis. The setting range is from -200 to
+200 %, 0 % corresponding to the lower and 100 % to the upper limit of the diagram.
Remote command:
DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​RPOSition​ on page 656
Grid Abs/Rel
Switches between absolute and relative scaling of the level axis (not available with
"Linear" range).
"Abs"
Absolute scaling: The labeling of the level lines refers to the absolute
value of the reference level. Absolute scaling is the default setting.
"Rel"
Relative scaling: The upper line of the grid is always at 0 dB. The
scaling is in dB whereas the reference level is always in the set unit
(for details on unit settings see the "Unit" softkey).
Remote command:
DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​MODE​ on page 655
Noise Correction
If activated, the results are corrected by the instrument's inherent noise, which increases the dynamic range.
"ON"
A reference measurement of the instrument's inherent noise is carried
out. The noise power measured is then subtracted from the power in
the channel that is being examined.
The inherent noise of the instrument depends on the selected center
frequency, resolution bandwidth and level setting. Therefore, the correction function is disabled whenever one of these parameters is
changed. A disable message is displayed on the screen. Noise correction must be switched on again manually after the change.
"OFF"
No noise correction is performed.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
226
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
"AUTO"
Noise correction is performed. After a parameter change, noise correction is restarted automatically and a new correction measurement
is performed.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]POWer:​NCORrection​ on page 556
Input (AC/DC)
Toggles the RF input of the R&S ESR between AC and DC coupling.
Remote command:
INPut:​COUPling​ on page 480
Input 50 Ω/75 Ω
Uses 50 Ω or 75 Ω as reference impedance for the measured levels. Default setting is
50 Ω.
The setting 75 Ω should be selected if the 50 Ω input impedance is transformed to a
higher impedance using a 75 Ω adapter of the RAZ type (= 25 Ω in series to the input
impedance of the instrument). The correction value in this case is 1.76 dB = 10 log (75
Ω/50 Ω).
All levels specified in this Operating Manual refer to the default setting of the instrument (50 Ω).
Remote command:
INPut:​IMPedance​ on page 478
4.2.4.2
Specifying the Amplitude
1. Set the reference level, offset and position using the "Ref Level", "Ref Level Offset"
and "Ref Level Position" softkeys (see "Ref Level" on page 223, "Ref Level Offset"
on page 226 and "Ref Level Position" on page 226).
2. Select the level range and the unit for the level axis using the "Range" and "Unit"
softkeys (see "Range" on page 223 and "Unit" on page 225).
3. Set the scaling using the "Ref Level Position" and/or "Grid Abs/Rel" softkeys (see
"Ref Level Position" on page 226 and "Grid Abs/Rel " on page 226).
4. Set the attenuation using the "RF Atten Manual" or "RF Atten Auto" (see "RF Atten
Manual" on page 54 and "RF Atten Auto" on page 225.
5. Define the RF input coupling using the "Input (AC/DC)" softkey, or a reference
impedance using the "Input (50Ω/75Ω)" softkey (see "Input (AC/DC)" on page 59,
"Input 50 Ω/75 Ω " on page 56).
6. Activate or deactivate the RF Preamplifier using the "Preamp" softkey (see "Preamp On/Off" on page 54).
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
227
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
4.2.5 Defining Automatic Settings – AUTO SET Key
The "Auto Set" menu allows you define automatic settings for measurements quickly.
To open the Auto Set menu
●
Press the AUTO SET key.
The "Auto Set" menu is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
●
4.2.5.1
chapter 4.2.5.1, "Softkeys of the Auto Set Menu", on page 228
Softkeys of the Auto Set Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Auto Set" menu. It is possible
that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only
available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is provided in the corresponding softkey description.
Adjusting settings automatically during triggered measurements
When you select an auto adjust function a measurement is performed to determine the
optimal settings. If you select an auto adjust funtion for a triggered measurement, you
can select how the R&S ESR should behave:
●
(default:) The measurement for adjustment waits for the next trigger
●
The measurement for adjustment is performed without waiting for a trigger.
The trigger source is temporarily set to "Free Run". After the measurement is completed, the original trigger source is restored. The trigger level is adjusted as follows:
– For IF Power and RF Power triggers:
Trigger Level = Reference Level - 15 dB
–
For Video trigger:
Trigger Level = 85 %
SCPI command:
[SENSe:​]ADJust:​CONFigure:​TRIG​ on page 638
Auto All........................................................................................................................229
Auto Freq.................................................................................................................... 229
Auto Level................................................................................................................... 229
Settings....................................................................................................................... 229
└ Meas Time Manual....................................................................................... 229
└ Meas Time Auto............................................................................................229
└ Upper Level Hysteresis.................................................................................230
└ Lower Level Hysteresis.................................................................................230
Sweep Type................................................................................................................ 230
└ FFT............................................................................................................... 230
└ Auto...............................................................................................................230
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
228
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
└ FFT Filter Mode............................................................................................ 230
└ Auto.................................................................................................... 230
└ Narrow................................................................................................ 231
Auto All
Performs all automatic settings.
●
●
"Auto Freq" on page 229
"Auto Level" on page 229
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]ADJust:​ALL​ on page 637
Auto Freq
Defines the center frequency automatically by determining the highest frequency level
in the frequency span. This function uses the signal counter; thus it is intended for use
with sinusoidal signals.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]ADJust:​FREQuency​ on page 638
Auto Level
Defines the optimal reference level for the current measurement automatically.
The measurement time for automatic leveling can be defined using the Settings softkey.
You can define a threshold that the signal must exceed before the reference level is
adjusted, see "Upper Level Hysteresis" on page 230 and "Lower Level Hysteresis"
on page 230.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]ADJust:​LEVel​ on page 639
Settings
Opens a submenu to define settings for automatic leveling.
Possible settings are:
●
●
"Meas Time Manual" on page 229
"Meas Time Auto" on page 229
Meas Time Manual ← Settings
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the duration of the level measurement in seconds.
The level measurement is used to determine the optimal reference level automatically
(see the "Auto Level" softkey, "Auto Level" on page 229). The default value is 1 ms.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]ADJust:​CONFigure:​LEVel:​DURation​ on page 637
Meas Time Auto ← Settings
The level measurement is used to determine the optimal reference level automatically
(see the Auto Level softkey).
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
229
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
Upper Level Hysteresis ← Settings
Defines an upper threshold the signal must exceed before the reference level is automatically adjusted when the "Auto Level" function is performed.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]ADJust:​CONFiguration:​HYSTeresis:​UPPer​ on page 637
Lower Level Hysteresis ← Settings
Defines a lower threshold the signal must exceed before the reference level is automatically adjusted when the "Auto Level" function is performed.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]ADJust:​CONFiguration:​HYSTeresis:​LOWer​ on page 637
Sweep Type
Opens a submenu to define the sweep type.
Selecting the sweep type is not available for the I/Q analyzer.
In frequency sweep mode, the analyzer provides several possible methods of sweeping:
●
●
"FFT" on page 230 (not available with 5-Pole filters, channel filters or RRC filters,
see chapter 4.2.6.3, "Selecting the Appropriate Filter Type", on page 237)
"Auto" on page 230
FFT ← Sweep Type
Sets the Sweep Type to FFT mode.
The FFT sweep mode samples on a defined frequency value and transforms it to the
spectrum by fast Fourier transformation (FFT).
FFT is not available when using 5-Pole filters, Channel filters or RRC filters. In this
case, sweep mode is used.
Remote command:
SWE:TYPE FFT, see [SENSe:​]SWEep:​TYPE​ on page 644
Auto ← Sweep Type
Selects the sweep type automatically. Supported sweep types are either FFT sweeps
or analog frequency sweeps.
Remote command:
SWE:TYPE AUTO, see [SENSe:​]SWEep:​TYPE​ on page 644
FFT Filter Mode ← Sweep Type
Defines the filter mode to be used for FFT filters by defining the partial span size. The
partial span is the span which is covered by one FFT analysis.
Auto ← FFT Filter Mode ← Sweep Type
The firmware determines whether to use wide or narrow filters to obtain the best measurement results.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​FFT​ on page 640
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
230
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
Narrow ← FFT Filter Mode ← Sweep Type
For an RBW ≤ 10kHz, the FFT filters with the smaller partial span are used. This allows
you to perform measurements near a carrier with a reduced reference level due to a
narrower analog prefilter.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​FFT​ on page 640
4.2.6 Setting the Bandwidths and Sweep Time – BW Key
The BW key is used to set the resolution bandwidth, video bandwidth (VBW) and
sweep time (SWT). The values available for resolution bandwidth and video bandwidth
depend on the selected filter type. For details on channel filters see also chapter 4.2.6.4, "List of Available RRC and Channel Filters", on page 238 .
To open the bandwidth menu
●
Press the BW key.
The "Bandwidth" menu is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
●
chapter 4.2.6.1, "Softkeys of the Bandwidth Menu", on page 231
Further information
●
chapter 4.2.6.4, "List of Available RRC and Channel Filters", on page 238
●
table 4-6
Tasks
4.2.6.1
●
chapter 4.2.6.2, "Specifying the Bandwidth", on page 237
●
chapter 4.2.6.3, "Selecting the Appropriate Filter Type", on page 237
Softkeys of the Bandwidth Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Bandwidth" menu. It is possible
that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only
available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is provided in the corresponding softkey description.
For Spurious Emission Measurements, the settings are defined in the "Sweep List" dialog, see "Sweep List dialog box" on page 160.
Res BW Manual.......................................................................................................... 232
Res BW Auto...............................................................................................................232
Video BW Manual....................................................................................................... 232
Video BW Auto............................................................................................................233
Sweeptime Manual......................................................................................................233
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
231
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
Sweeptime Auto.......................................................................................................... 234
Sweep Type................................................................................................................ 234
└ FFT............................................................................................................... 234
└ Auto...............................................................................................................234
└ FFT Filter Mode............................................................................................ 234
└ Auto.................................................................................................... 235
└ Narrow................................................................................................ 235
Coupling Ratio.............................................................................................................235
└ RBW/VBW Sine [1/1].................................................................................... 235
└ RBW/VBW Pulse [.1].................................................................................... 235
└ RBW/VBW Noise [10]................................................................................... 235
└ RBW/VBW Manual........................................................................................236
└ Span/RBW Auto [100]...................................................................................236
└ Span/RBW Manual....................................................................................... 236
└ Default Coupling........................................................................................... 236
Filter Type................................................................................................................... 236
Res BW Manual
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for the resolution bandwidth. The available
resolution bandwidths are specified in the data sheet.
For details on the correlation between resolution bandwidth and filter type refer to
chapter 4.2.6.3, "Selecting the Appropriate Filter Type", on page 237.
Numeric input is always rounded to the nearest possible bandwidth. For rotary knob or
UP/DNARROW key inputs, the bandwidth is adjusted in steps either upwards or downwards.
The manual input mode of the resolution bandwidth is indicated by a green bullet next
to the "RBW" display in the channel bar.
When measuring Spurious Emissions, using this softkey automatically opens the
"Sweep List" dialog (see "Sweep List dialog box" on page 160).
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​AUTO​ on page 639
[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]​ on page 478
Res BW Auto
Couples the resolution bandwidth to the selected span (for span > 0). If you change the
span, the resolution bandwidth is automatically adjusted.
This setting is recommended if you need the ideal resolution bandwidth in relation to a
particular span.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​AUTO​ on page 639
Video BW Manual
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the video bandwidth. The available video bandwidths
are specified in the data sheet.
Numeric input is always rounded to the nearest possible bandwidth. For rotary knob or
UP/DOWN key inputs, the bandwidth is adjusted in steps either upwards or downwards.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
232
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
The manual input mode of the video bandwidth is indicated by a green bullet next to
the "VBW" display in the channel bar.
Note: RMS detector and VBW.
If an RMS detector is used, the video bandwidth in the hardware is bypassed. Thus,
duplicate trace averaging with small VBWs and RMS detector no longer occurs. However, the VBW is still considered when calculating the sweep time. This leads to a longer sweep time for small VBW values. Thus, you can reduce the VBW value to achieve
more stable trace curves even when using an RMS detector. Normally, if the RMS
detector is used the sweep time should be increased to get more stable trace curves.
For details on detectors see chapter 4.3.1.5, "Detector Overview", on page 270.
When measuring Spurious Emissions, using this softkey automatically opens the
"Sweep List" dialog (see "Sweep List dialog box" on page 160).
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth:​VIDeo:​AUTO​ on page 641
[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth:​VIDeo​ on page 641
Video BW Auto
Couples the video bandwidth to the resolution bandwidth. If you change the resolution
bandwidth, the video bandwidth is automatically adjusted.
This setting is recommended if a minimum sweep time is required for a selected resolution bandwidth. Narrow video bandwidths result in longer sweep times due to the longer settling time. Wide bandwidths reduce the signal/noise ratio.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth:​VIDeo:​AUTO​ on page 641
Sweeptime Manual
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the sweep time.
Sweep time
absolute max. sweep time value:
16000 s
absolute min. sweep time value:
zero span: 1 μs
span > 0: depends on device model (refer to data sheet)
Allowed values depend on the ratio of span to RBW and RBW to VBW. For details
refer to the data sheet.
Numeric input is always rounded to the nearest possible sweep time. For rotary knob
or UPARROW/DNARROW key inputs, the sweep time is adjusted in steps either
downwards or upwards.
The manual input mode of the sweep time is indicated by a green bullet next to the
"SWT" display in the channel bar. If the selected sweep time is too short for the
selected bandwidth and span, level measurement errors will occur due to a too short
settling time for the resolution or video filters. In this case, the R&S ESR displays the
error message "UNCAL" and marks the indicated sweep time with a red bullet.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
233
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
When measuring Spurious Emissions, using this softkey automatically opens the
"Sweep List" dialog, see "Sweep List dialog box" on page 160.
Remote command:
SWE:TIME:AUTO OFF, see [SENSe:​]SWEep:​TIME:​AUTO​ on page 644
[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TIME​ on page 644
Sweeptime Auto
Couples the sweep time to the span, video bandwidth (VBW) and resolution bandwidth
(RBW) (not available for zero span). If you change the span, resolution bandwidth or
video bandwidth, the sweep time is automatically adjusted.
The R&S ESR always selects the shortest sweep time that is possible without falsifying
the signal. The maximum level error is < 0.1 dB, compared to using a longer sweep
time.
When measuring Spurious Emissions, using this softkey automatically opens the
"Sweep List" dialog, see "Sweep List dialog box" on page 160.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TIME:​AUTO​ on page 644
Sweep Type
Opens a submenu to define the sweep type.
Selecting the sweep type is not available for the I/Q analyzer.
In frequency sweep mode, the analyzer provides several possible methods of sweeping:
●
●
"FFT" on page 230 (not available with 5-Pole filters, channel filters or RRC filters,
see chapter 4.2.6.3, "Selecting the Appropriate Filter Type", on page 237)
"Auto" on page 230
FFT ← Sweep Type
Sets the Sweep Type to FFT mode.
The FFT sweep mode samples on a defined frequency value and transforms it to the
spectrum by fast Fourier transformation (FFT).
FFT is not available when using 5-Pole filters, Channel filters or RRC filters. In this
case, sweep mode is used.
Remote command:
SWE:TYPE FFT, see [SENSe:​]SWEep:​TYPE​ on page 644
Auto ← Sweep Type
Selects the sweep type automatically. Supported sweep types are either FFT sweeps
or analog frequency sweeps.
Remote command:
SWE:TYPE AUTO, see [SENSe:​]SWEep:​TYPE​ on page 644
FFT Filter Mode ← Sweep Type
Defines the filter mode to be used for FFT filters by defining the partial span size. The
partial span is the span which is covered by one FFT analysis.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
234
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
Auto ← FFT Filter Mode ← Sweep Type
The firmware determines whether to use wide or narrow filters to obtain the best measurement results.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​FFT​ on page 640
Narrow ← FFT Filter Mode ← Sweep Type
For an RBW ≤ 10kHz, the FFT filters with the smaller partial span are used. This allows
you to perform measurements near a carrier with a reduced reference level due to a
narrower analog prefilter.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​FFT​ on page 640
Coupling Ratio
Opens a submenu to select the coupling ratios for functions coupled to the bandwidth.
RBW/VBW Sine [1/1] ← Coupling Ratio
Sets the following coupling ratio:
"video bandwidth = resolution bandwidth"
This is the default setting for the coupling ratio resolution bandwidth/video bandwidth.
This is the coupling ratio recommended if sinusoidal signals are to be measured.
This setting takes effect if you define the video bandwidth automatically (Video BW
Auto).
Remote command:
BAND:VID:RAT 1, see [SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth:​VIDeo:​RATio​
on page 641
RBW/VBW Pulse [.1] ← Coupling Ratio
Sets the following coupling ratio:
"video bandwidth = 10 × resolution bandwidth or"
"video bandwidth = 10 MHz (= max. VBW)."
This coupling ratio is recommended whenever the amplitudes of pulsed signals are to
be measured correctly. The IF filter is exclusively responsible for pulse shaping. No
additional evaluation is performed by the video filter.
This setting takes effect if you define the video bandwidth automatically (Video BW
Auto).
Remote command:
BAND:VID:RAT 10, see [SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth:​VIDeo:​RATio​
on page 641
RBW/VBW Noise [10] ← Coupling Ratio
Sets the following coupling ratio:
"video bandwidth = resolution bandwidth/10"
At this coupling ratio, noise and pulsed signals are suppressed in the video domain.
For noise signals, the average value is displayed.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
235
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
This setting takes effect if you define the video bandwidth automatically (Video BW
Auto).
Remote command:
BAND:VID:RAT 0.1, see [SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth:​VIDeo:​RATio​
on page 641
RBW/VBW Manual ← Coupling Ratio
Activates the manual input of the coupling ratio.
The resolution bandwidth/video bandwidth ratio can be set in the range 0.001 to 1000.
This setting takes effect if you define the video bandwidth automatically (Video BW
Auto).
Remote command:
BAND:VID:RAT 10, see [SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth:​VIDeo:​RATio​
on page 641
Span/RBW Auto [100] ← Coupling Ratio
Sets the following coupling ratio:
"resolution bandwidth = span/100"
This coupling ratio is the default setting of the R&S ESR.
This setting takes effect if you define the resolution bandwidth automatically (Res BW
Auto).
Remote command:
BAND:VID:RAT 0.001, see [SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth:​VIDeo:​RATio​
on page 641
Span/RBW Manual ← Coupling Ratio
Activates the manual input of the coupling ratio.
This setting takes effect if you define the resolution bandwidth automatically (Res BW
Auto).
The span/resolution bandwidth ratio can be set in the range 1 to 10000.
Remote command:
BAND:RAT 0.1, see [SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​RATio​
on page 640
Default Coupling ← Coupling Ratio
Sets all coupled functions to the default state ("AUTO").
In addition, the ratio "RBW/VBW" is set to "SINE [1/1]" and the ratio "SPAN/RBW" to
100.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​AUTO​ on page 639
[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth:​VIDeo:​AUTO​ on page 641
[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TIME:​AUTO​ on page 644
Filter Type
Opens a submenu to select the filter type.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
236
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
When measuring Spurious Emissions, using this softkey automatically opens the
"Sweep List" dialog (see "Sweep List dialog box" on page 160).
The submenu contains the following softkeys:
●
●
●
●
●
●
Normal (3 dB)
CISPR (6 dB)
MIL Std (6 dB)
Note that the 6 dB bandwidths are available only with option R&S FSV-K54.
Channel
RRC
5-Pole (not available for sweep type "FFT")
For detailed information on filters see chapter 4.2.6.3, "Selecting the Appropriate Filter
Type", on page 237 and chapter 4.2.6.4, "List of Available RRC and Channel Filters",
on page 238.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​TYPE​ on page 479
4.2.6.2
Specifying the Bandwidth
1. Set the resolution bandwidth using the Res BW Manual or Res BW Auto softkey.
2. Set the video bandwidth using the Video BW Manual or Video BW Auto softkey.
3. Set the sweep time using the Sweeptime Manual or Sweeptime Auto softkey.
4. Press the Filter Type softkey and select the appropriate filters.
4.2.6.3
Selecting the Appropriate Filter Type
All resolution bandwidths are realized with digital filters.
The video filters are responsible for smoothing the displayed trace. Using video bandwidths that are small compared to the resolution bandwidth, only the signal average is
displayed and noise peaks and pulsed signals are repressed. If pulsed signals are to
be measured, it is advisable to use a video bandwidth that is large compared to the
resolution bandwidth (VBW * 10 x RBW) for the amplitudes of pulses to be measured
correctly.
The following filter types are available:
●
Normal (3dB) (Gaussian) filters
The Gaussian filters are set by default. The available bandwidths are specified in
the data sheet.
●
CISPR (6 dB) filters
For more information see chapter 3.2.1, "Measurement Bandwidth", on page 38.
●
MIL Std (6 dB) filters
For more information see chapter 3.2.1, "Measurement Bandwidth", on page 38.
●
Channel filters
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
237
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
For details see chapter 4.2.6.4, "List of Available RRC and Channel Filters",
on page 238 .
Channel filters do not support FFT mode.
4.2.6.4
●
RRC filters
For details see chapter 4.2.6.4, "List of Available RRC and Channel Filters",
on page 238 .
RRC filters do not support FFT mode.
●
5-Pole filters
The available bandwidths are specified in the data sheet.
5-Pole filters do not support FFT mode.
List of Available RRC and Channel Filters
For power measurement a number of especially steep-edged channel filters are available (see the following table). The indicated filter bandwidth is the 3 dB bandwidth. For
RRC filters, the fixed roll-off factor (a) is also indicated.
Table 4-6: Filter types
Filter Bandwidth
Filter Type
100 Hz
CFILter
200 Hz
CFILter
300 Hz
CFILter
500 Hz
CFILter
1 kHz
CFILter
1.5 kHz
CFILter
2 kHz
CFILter
2.4 kHz
CFILter
2.7 kHz
CFILter
3 kHz
CFILter
3.4 kHz
CFILter
4 kHz
CFILter
4.5 kHz
CFILter
5 kHz
CFILter
6 kHz
CFILter
6 kHz, a=0.2
RRC
APCO
8.5 kHz
CFILter
ETS300 113 (12.5 kHz channels)
9 kHz
CFILter
AM Radio
10 kHz
CFILter
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
Application
A0
SSB
DAB, Satellite
238
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
Filter Bandwidth
Filter Type
Application
12.5 kHz
CFILter
CDMAone
14 kHz
CFILter
ETS300 113 (20 kHz channels)
15 kHz
CFILter
16 kHz
CFILter
ETS300 113 (25 kHz channels)
18 kHz, a=0.35
RRC
TETRA
20 kHz
CFILter
21 kHz
CFILter
PDC
24.3 kHz, a=0.35
RRC
IS 136
25 kHz
CFILter
30 kHz
CFILter
50 kHz
CFILter
100 kHz
CFILter
150 kHz
CFILter
FM Radio
192 kHz
CFILter
PHS
200 kHz
CFILter
300 kHz
CFILter
500 kHz
CFILter
J.83 (8-VSB DVB, USA)
1 MHz
CFILter
CDMAone
1.228 MHz
CFILter
CDMAone
1.28 MHz, a=0.22
RRC
1.5 MHz
CFILter
2 MHz
CFILter
3 MHz
CFILter
3.75 MHz
CFILter
3.84 MHz, a=0.22
RRC
W-CDMA 3GPP
4.096 MHz, a=0.22
RRC
W-CDMA NTT DOCoMo
5 MHz
CFILter
20 MHz
CFILter
28 MHz
CFILter
40 MHz
CFILter
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
CDPD, CDMAone
DAB
239
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
4.2.7 Configuring the Sweep Mode – SWEEP Key
The SWEEP key is used to configure the sweep mode. Continuous sweep or single
sweep is possible. The sweep time and the number of measured values are set.
To open the Sweep menu
●
Press the SWEEP key.
The "Sweep" menu is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
●
chapter 4.2.7.1, "Softkeys of the Sweep Menu", on page 240
Task
●
4.2.7.1
chapter 4.2.7.2, "Specifying the Sweep Settings", on page 245
Softkeys of the Sweep Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Sweep" menu. It is possible that
your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available
with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is provided in the
corresponding softkey description.
Continuous Sweep...................................................................................................... 240
Single Sweep.............................................................................................................. 241
Continue Single Sweep...............................................................................................241
Sweeptime Manual......................................................................................................241
Sweeptime Auto.......................................................................................................... 241
Sweep Type................................................................................................................ 242
└ FFT............................................................................................................... 242
└ Auto...............................................................................................................242
└ FFT Filter Mode............................................................................................ 242
└ Auto.................................................................................................... 242
└ Narrow................................................................................................ 243
Sweep Count...............................................................................................................243
Sweep Points.............................................................................................................. 243
Select Frame...............................................................................................................243
Continue Frame (On Off)............................................................................................ 244
Frame Count............................................................................................................... 244
Spectrogram Clear...................................................................................................... 244
Continuous Sweep
Sets the continuous sweep mode: the sweep takes place continuously according to the
trigger settings. This is the default setting.
The trace averaging is determined by the sweep count value (see the "Sweep Count"
softkey, "Sweep Count" on page 243).
Remote command:
INITiate<n>:​CONTinuous​ on page 448
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
240
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
Single Sweep
Sets the single sweep mode: after triggering, starts the number of sweeps that are
defined by using the Sweep Count softkey. The measurement stops after the defined
number of sweeps has been performed.
Remote command:
INITiate<n>:​CONTinuous​ on page 448
Continue Single Sweep
Repeats the number of sweeps set by using the Sweep Count softkey, without deleting
the trace of the last measurement.
This is particularly of interest when using the trace configurations "Average" or "Max
Hold" to take previously recorded measurements into account for averaging/maximum
search.
For details on trace configuration refer to chapter 4.3.1, "Trace Configuration",
on page 258.
Remote command:
INITiate<n>:​CONMeas​ on page 642
Sweeptime Manual
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the sweep time.
Sweep time
absolute max. sweep time value:
16000 s
absolute min. sweep time value:
zero span: 1 μs
span > 0: depends on device model (refer to data sheet)
Allowed values depend on the ratio of span to RBW and RBW to VBW. For details
refer to the data sheet.
Numeric input is always rounded to the nearest possible sweep time. For rotary knob
or UPARROW/DNARROW key inputs, the sweep time is adjusted in steps either
downwards or upwards.
The manual input mode of the sweep time is indicated by a green bullet next to the
"SWT" display in the channel bar. If the selected sweep time is too short for the
selected bandwidth and span, level measurement errors will occur due to a too short
settling time for the resolution or video filters. In this case, the R&S ESR displays the
error message "UNCAL" and marks the indicated sweep time with a red bullet.
When measuring Spurious Emissions, using this softkey automatically opens the
"Sweep List" dialog, see "Sweep List dialog box" on page 160.
Remote command:
SWE:TIME:AUTO OFF, see [SENSe:​]SWEep:​TIME:​AUTO​ on page 644
[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TIME​ on page 644
Sweeptime Auto
Couples the sweep time to the span, video bandwidth (VBW) and resolution bandwidth
(RBW) (not available for zero span). If you change the span, resolution bandwidth or
video bandwidth, the sweep time is automatically adjusted.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
241
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
The R&S ESR always selects the shortest sweep time that is possible without falsifying
the signal. The maximum level error is < 0.1 dB, compared to using a longer sweep
time.
When measuring Spurious Emissions, using this softkey automatically opens the
"Sweep List" dialog, see "Sweep List dialog box" on page 160.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TIME:​AUTO​ on page 644
Sweep Type
Opens a submenu to define the sweep type.
Selecting the sweep type is not available for the I/Q analyzer.
In frequency sweep mode, the analyzer provides several possible methods of sweeping:
●
●
"FFT" on page 230 (not available with 5-Pole filters, channel filters or RRC filters,
see chapter 4.2.6.3, "Selecting the Appropriate Filter Type", on page 237)
"Auto" on page 230
FFT ← Sweep Type
Sets the Sweep Type to FFT mode.
The FFT sweep mode samples on a defined frequency value and transforms it to the
spectrum by fast Fourier transformation (FFT).
FFT is not available when using 5-Pole filters, Channel filters or RRC filters. In this
case, sweep mode is used.
Remote command:
SWE:TYPE FFT, see [SENSe:​]SWEep:​TYPE​ on page 644
Auto ← Sweep Type
Selects the sweep type automatically. Supported sweep types are either FFT sweeps
or analog frequency sweeps.
Remote command:
SWE:TYPE AUTO, see [SENSe:​]SWEep:​TYPE​ on page 644
FFT Filter Mode ← Sweep Type
Defines the filter mode to be used for FFT filters by defining the partial span size. The
partial span is the span which is covered by one FFT analysis.
Auto ← FFT Filter Mode ← Sweep Type
The firmware determines whether to use wide or narrow filters to obtain the best measurement results.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​FFT​ on page 640
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
242
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
Narrow ← FFT Filter Mode ← Sweep Type
For an RBW ≤ 10kHz, the FFT filters with the smaller partial span are used. This allows
you to perform measurements near a carrier with a reduced reference level due to a
narrower analog prefilter.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​FFT​ on page 640
Sweep Count
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of sweeps to be performed in the single
sweep mode. Values from 0 to 32767 are allowed. If the values 0 or 1 are set, one
sweep is performed. The sweep count is applied to all the traces in a diagram.
If the trace configurations "Average", "Max Hold" or "Min Hold" are set, the sweep
count value also determines the number of averaging or maximum search procedures.
In continuous sweep mode, if sweep count = 0 (default), averaging is performed over
10 sweeps. For sweep count =1, no averaging, maxhold or minhold operations are performed.
For details on trace configuration see chapter 4.3.1, "Trace Configuration",
on page 258.
Example:
●
●
●
●
Press the TRACE key > Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6 softkey
> "Max Hold" on page 45 softkey.
Press the SWEEP key > "Sweep Count" softkey.
In the "Average Sweep Count" dialog box, enter 10.
Press the "Single Sweep" on page 241 softkey:
R&S ESR performs the "Max Hold" function over 10 sweeps.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]SWEep:​COUNt​ on page 643
Sweep Points
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the number of measured values to be collected during one sweep.
●
●
Entry via rotary knob:
– In the range from 101 to 1001, the sweep points are increased or decreased in
steps of 100 points.
– In the range from 1001 to 32001, the sweep points are increased or decreased
in steps of 1000 points.
Entry via keypad:
All values in the defined range can be set.
The default value is 691 sweep points.
When measuring spurious emissions, using this softkey automatically opens the
"Sweep List" dialog, see "Sweep List dialog box" on page 160.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]SWEep:​POINts​ on page 643
Select Frame
For spectrogram measurements only.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
243
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
Opens a dialog box to select a specific frame and loads the corresponding trace from
the memory.
Note that activating a marker or changing the position of the active marker automatically selects the frame that belongs to that marker.
This softkey is available in single sweep mode or if the sweep is stopped.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​SGRam:​FRAMe:​SELect​ on page 669
Continue Frame (On Off)
For spectrogram measurements only.
Determines whether the results of the last measurement are deleted before starting a
new measurement.
●
●
On
Repeats the single sweep measurement without deleting the spectrogram results
of the last measurement. One of the following trace modes is to be used: Max
Hold, Min Hold, Average.
Off
Deletes the last measurement results before performing a single sweep measurement.
This softkey is available in single sweep mode.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​SGRam:​CONT​ on page 668
Frame Count
For spectrogram measurements only.
Opens a dialog box to set the number of frames to be captured in a single sweep.
Therefore, the frame count defines the number of traces the R&S ESR plots in the
Spectrogram result display in a single sweep. The maximum number of possible
frames depends on the history depth (see CALCulate<n>:​SGRam:​HDEPth​
on page 458).
The sweep count, on the other hand, determines how many sweeps are combined in
one frame in the Spectrogram, i.e. how many sweeps the R&S ESR performs to plot
one trace in the Spectrogram result display (see "Sweep Count" on page 243).
This softkey is available in single sweep mode.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​SGRam:​FRAMe:​COUNt​ on page 668
Spectrogram Clear
For spectrogram measurements only.
Resets the Spectrogram result display and clears its history buffer.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​SGRam:​CLEar[:​IMMediate]​ on page 457
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
244
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
4.2.7.2
Specifying the Sweep Settings
1. Press the Sweep Count softkey and enter the sweep count.
2. Press the Sweeptime Manual or Sweeptime Auto softkey to set the sweep time.
3. Press the Sweep Type softkey to select the sweep type.
4. Press the Sweep Points softkey and enter the number of sweep points.
5. Press the Continuous Sweep or Single Sweep softkey to select the sweep mode.
6. Press the Continue Single Sweep softkey to repeat the single sweep.
4.2.8 Triggering the Sweep – TRIG Key
The TRIG key is used to select trigger mode, trigger threshold, trigger delay, trigger
polarity and for gated sweep the gate configuration.
To open the Trigger menu
●
Press the TRIG key.
The "Trigger" menu is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
●
chapter 4.2.8.1, "Softkeys of the Trigger Menu", on page 245
Tasks
4.2.8.1
●
chapter 4.2.8.2, "Specifying the Trigger Settings", on page 251
●
chapter 4.2.8.3, "Using Gated Sweep Operation", on page 252
Softkeys of the Trigger Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Trigger" menu. It is possible
that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only
available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is provided in the corresponding softkey description.
Trg/Gate Source..........................................................................................................246
└ Free Run....................................................................................................... 246
└ External.........................................................................................................246
└ Video.............................................................................................................246
└ RF Power...................................................................................................... 247
└ IF Power/BB Power.......................................................................................247
└ Time.............................................................................................................. 248
Trg/Gate Level............................................................................................................ 248
Trg/Gate Polarity......................................................................................................... 248
Trigger Offset.............................................................................................................. 248
Repetition Interval....................................................................................................... 249
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
245
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
Trigger Hysteresis....................................................................................................... 249
Trigger Holdoff............................................................................................................ 249
Gated Trigger.............................................................................................................. 249
Gate Settings.............................................................................................................. 250
└ Gate Mode (Lvl/Edge)...................................................................................250
└ Gate Delay.................................................................................................... 250
└ Gate Length (Gate Mode Edge)....................................................................251
└ Trg/Gate Source........................................................................................... 251
└ Trg/Gate Level.............................................................................................. 251
└ Trg/Gate Polarity...........................................................................................251
└ Sweep Time.................................................................................................. 251
└ Res BW Manual............................................................................................ 251
Trg/Gate Source
Opens the "Trigger/Gate Source" dialog box to select the trigger/gate mode.
As gate modes, all modes except "Power Sensor" are available. For details see also
chapter 4.2.8.3, "Using Gated Sweep Operation", on page 252.
The default setting is "Free Run". If a trigger mode other than "Free Run" has been set,
the enhancement label "TRG" is displayed and the trigger source is indicated.
Note: When triggering or gating is activated, the squelch funciton is automatically disabled (see "Squelch" on page 291).
Remote command:
TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 648
[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​ on page 652
Free Run ← Trg/Gate Source
The start of a sweep is not triggered. Once a measurement is completed, another is
started immediately.
Remote command:
TRIG:SOUR IMM, see TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 648
External ← Trg/Gate Source
Defines triggering via a TTL signal at the "EXT TRIG/GATE IN" input connector on the
rear panel.
Remote command:
TRIG:SOUR EXT, see TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 648
SWE:EGAT:SOUR EXT for gated triggering, see [SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​
on page 652
Video ← Trg/Gate Source
Defines triggering by the displayed voltage.
A horizontal trigger line is shown in the diagram. It is used to set the trigger threshold
from 0 % to 100 % of the diagram height.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
246
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
Video mode is only available in the time domain.
Remote command:
TRIG:SOUR VID, see TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 648
SWE:EGAT:SOUR VID for gated triggering, see [SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​
on page 652
RF Power ← Trg/Gate Source
Defines triggering of the measurement via signals which are outside the measurement
channel.
In RF Power trigger mode the instrument uses a level detector at the first intermediate
frequency. The detector threshold can be selected in a range between - 50 dBm and
-10 dBm at the input mixer. The resulting trigger level at the RF input lies within the
following range:
(-24dBm + RF Att ) ≤ Triggerlevel ≤ (+5dBm + RF Att), max. 30 dBm, for Preamp =
OFF
(-40dBm + RF Att ) ≤ Triggerlevel ≤ (-11dBm + RF Att), max. 30 dBm, for Preamp =
ON
with
500 MHz ≤ InputSignal ≤ 7 GHz
Note: If input values outside of this range occur (e.g. for fullspan measurements), the
sweep may be aborted and a message indicating the allowed input values is displayed
in the status bar.
A Trigger Offset, Trg/Gate Polarity and Trigger Holdoff can be defined for the RF trigger to improve the trigger stability, but no hysteresis.
Remote command:
TRIG:SOUR RFP, see TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 648
SWE:EGAT:SOUR RFP for gated triggering, see [SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​
on page 652
IF Power/BB Power ← Trg/Gate Source
For this purpose, the R&S ESR uses a level detector at the second intermediate frequency.
The available trigger levels depend on the RF attenuation and preamplification. A reference level offset, if defined, is also considered.
For details on available trigger levels and trigger bandwidths see the data sheet.
The bandwidth at the intermediate frequency depends on the RBW and sweep type:
Sweep mode:
● RBW > 500 kHz: 40 MHz, nominal
● RBW ≤ 500 kHz: 6 MHz, nominal
FFT mode:
● RBW > 20 kHz: 40 MHz, nominal
● RBW ≤ 20 kHz: 6 MHz, nominal
Note: Be aware that in auto sweep type mode, due to a possible change in sweep
types, the bandwidth may vary considerably for the same RBW setting.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
247
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
The R&S ESR is triggered as soon as the trigger level is exceeded around the selected
frequency (= start frequency in the frequency sweep).
Thus, the measurement of spurious emissions, e.g. for pulsed carriers, is possible
even if the carrier lies outside the selected frequency span.
Remote command:
TRIG:SOUR IFP, see TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 648
SWE:EGAT:SOUR IFP for gated triggering, see [SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​
on page 652
Time ← Trg/Gate Source
Opens an edit dialog box to define a repetition interval in which the measurement is
triggered. The shortest interval is 2 ms.
Remote command:
TRIG:SOUR TIMETRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 648
Trg/Gate Level
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the trigger/gate level.
For details see also chapter 4.2.8.3, "Using Gated Sweep Operation", on page 252.
In the trigger modes "Time" and "Power Sensor", this softkey is not available.
Remote command:
TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​LEVel:​IFPower​ on page 647
TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​LEVel:​VIDeo​ on page 648
Trg/Gate Polarity
Sets the polarity of the trigger/gate source.
The sweep starts after a positive or negative edge of the trigger signal. The default setting is "Pos". The setting applies to all trigger modes with the exception of the "Free
Run", "Power Sensor" and "Time" mode.
For details also see chapter 4.2.8.3, "Using Gated Sweep Operation", on page 252.
"Pos"
Level triggering: the sweep is stopped by the logic "0" signal and
restarted by the logical "1" signal after the gate delay time has
elapsed.
"Neg"
Edge triggering: the sweep is continued on a "0" to "1" transition for
the gate length duration after the gate delay time has elapsed.
Remote command:
TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SLOPe​ on page 648
[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​POLarity​ on page 651
Trigger Offset
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the time offset between the trigger signal and the
start of the sweep.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
248
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
offset > 0:
Start of the sweep is delayed
offset < 0:
Sweep starts earlier (pre-trigger)
Only possible for span = 0 (e.g. I/Q Analyzer mode) and gated trigger
switched off
Maximum allowed range limited by the sweep time:
pretriggermax = sweep time
In the "External" or "IF Power" trigger mode, a common input signal is used for both
trigger and gate. Therefore, changes to the gate delay will affect the trigger delay (trigger offset) as well.
Tip: To determine the trigger point in the sample (for "External" or "IF Power" trigger
mode), use the TRACe<n>:​IQ:​TPISample?​ command.
In the "Time" trigger mode, this softkey is not available.
Remote command:
TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​HOLDoff[:​TIME]​ on page 646
Repetition Interval
Opens an edit dialog box to define a repetition interval in which the measurement is
triggered. The shortest interval is 2 ms. This softkey is only available if the trigger
source "Time" is selected (see "Time" on page 248).
Remote command:
TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​TIME:​RINTerval​ on page 650
Trigger Hysteresis
Defines the value for the trigger hysteresis for "IF power" or "RF Power" trigger sources. The hysteresis in dB is the value the input signal must stay below the power trigger level in order to allow a trigger to start the measurement. The range of the value is
between 3 dB and 50 dB with a step width of 1 dB.
Remote command:
TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​IFPower:​HYSTeresis​ on page 646
Trigger Holdoff
Defines the value for the trigger holdoff. The holdoff value in s is the time which must
pass before triggering, in case another trigger event happens.
This softkey is only available if "IFPower", "RF Power" or "BBPower" is the selected
trigger source.
Remote command:
TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​IFPower:​HOLDoff​ on page 646
Gated Trigger
Switches the sweep mode with gate on or off.
This softkey requires the following "Trigger Mode" (see "Trg/Gate Source"
on page 246):
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
249
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
span > 0
External or IF Power/BB PowerIF Power
span = 0
External or IF Power/BB PowerIF Power or Video
If a different mode is active, the IF Power/BB Power trigger mode is automatically
selected.
Note: When triggering or gating is activated, the squelch function is automatically disabled (see "Squelch" on page 291).
If the gate is switched on, a gate signal applied to the rear panel connector "EXT TRIGGER/GATE" or the internal IF power detector controls the sweep of the analyzer.
In the trigger mode Time, this softkey is not available.
For details also see chapter 4.2.8.3, "Using Gated Sweep Operation", on page 252.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe​ on page 650
[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​ on page 652
Gate Settings
Opens a submenu to make all the settings required for gated sweep operation.
In the "Time" trigger mode, this softkey is not available.
For details also see chapter 4.2.8.3, "Using Gated Sweep Operation", on page 252.
Gate Mode (Lvl/Edge) ← Gate Settings
Sets the gate mode. As settings level-triggered or edge-triggered gate mode can be
selected.
For details also see chapter 4.2.8.3, "Using Gated Sweep Operation", on page 252.
"Edge"
Edge-triggered gate mode
"Lvl"
Level-triggered gate mode
This mode is not supported when using R&S Power Sensors as
power triggers ("Trg/Gate Source" = Power Sensor or External).
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​TYPE​ on page 652
Gate Delay ← Gate Settings
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the gate delay time between the gate signal and the
continuation of the sweep. The delay position on the time axis in relation to the sweep
is indicated by a line labeled "GD".
This is useful for e.g. taking into account a delay between the gate signal and the stabilization of an RF carrier.
As a common input signal is used for both trigger and gate when selecting the "External" or "IF Power" trigger mode, changes to the gate delay will affect the trigger delay
(trigger offset) as well.
For details also see chapter 4.2.8.3, "Using Gated Sweep Operation", on page 252.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​HOLDoff​ on page 651
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
250
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
Gate Length (Gate Mode Edge) ← Gate Settings
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the gate length. The gate length in relation to the
sweep is indicated by a line labeled "GL".
The length of the gate signal defines if the sweep is to be interrupted. Only in the edgetriggered mode the gate length can be set, while in the level-triggered the gate length
depends on the length of the gate signal.
For details also see chapter 4.2.8.3, "Using Gated Sweep Operation", on page 252.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​LENGth​ on page 651
Trg/Gate Source ← Gate Settings
See "Trg/Gate Source" on page 246.
Trg/Gate Level ← Gate Settings
See "Trg/Gate Level" on page 248.
Trg/Gate Polarity ← Gate Settings
See "Trg/Gate Polarity" on page 248.
Sweep Time ← Gate Settings
Opens an edit dialog box to change the sweep time in order to obtain a higher resolution for positioning gate delay and gate length. When leaving the "Gate Settings" submenu, the original sweep time is retrieved.
For details also see chapter 4.2.8.3, "Using Gated Sweep Operation", on page 252.
Res BW Manual ← Gate Settings
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for the resolution bandwidth. The available
resolution bandwidths are specified in the data sheet.
For details on the correlation between resolution bandwidth and filter type refer to
chapter 4.2.6.3, "Selecting the Appropriate Filter Type", on page 237.
Numeric input is always rounded to the nearest possible bandwidth. For rotary knob or
UP/DNARROW key inputs, the bandwidth is adjusted in steps either upwards or downwards.
The manual input mode of the resolution bandwidth is indicated by a green bullet next
to the "RBW" display in the channel bar.
When measuring Spurious Emissions, using this softkey automatically opens the
"Sweep List" dialog (see "Sweep List dialog box" on page 160).
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]:​AUTO​ on page 639
[SENSe:​]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:​RESolution]​ on page 478
4.2.8.2
Specifying the Trigger Settings
1. Press the "Trg/Gate Source" softkey to select the trigger mode (for details see
"Trg/Gate Source" on page 246.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
251
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
2. Press the Trg/Gate Level softkey to set the trigger level.
3. Press the Trigger Offset softkey to set the trigger offset. In addition, a Trigger Hysteresis and Trigger Holdoff can be defined via the corresponding softkeys.
For details on gated sweep operation, see chapter 4.2.8.3, "Using Gated Sweep Operation", on page 252.
4.2.8.3
Using Gated Sweep Operation
By using a gate in sweep mode and stopping the measurement while the gate signal is
inactive, the spectrum for pulsed RF carriers can be displayed without the superposition of frequency components generated during switching. Similarly, the spectrum can
also be examined for an inactive carrier. The sweep can be controlled by an external
gate or by the internal power trigger.
Gated sweep operation is also possible for span = 0. This enables – e.g. in burst signals – level variations of individual slots to be displayed versus time.
1. Press the Gate Settings softkey to define the settings of the gate mode.
At the center frequency a transition to zero span is made and the time parameters
gate delay and gate length are displayed as vertical lines to adjust them easily.
When quitting the Gate Settings submenu, the original span is retrieved so the
desired measurement can be performed with the accurately set gate.
2. Setting the parameters gate delay and gate length highly accurate, press the
Sweep Time softkey to alter the x-axis in a way that the signal range concerned
(e.g. one full burst) is displayed.
3. Press the Gate Delay softkey to set the sampling time in a way that the desired
portion of the signal is shown.
4. Press the Gate Mode (Lvl/Edge) softkey to set the gate mode.
5. If the "Edge" gate mode has been selected, press the Gate Length (Gate Mode
Edge) softkey to set the sampling duration in a way that the desired portion of the
signal is shown.
6. Press the Trg/Gate Polarity softkey to set the polarity of the trigger source.
7. Press the Gated Trigger softkey to activate the gated sweep mode.
To indicate that a gate is used for the sweep, the enhancement label "GAT" is displayed on the screen. This label appears to the right of the window for which the
gate is configured.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
252
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
Fig. 4-14: TDMA signal with GATE OFF
Fig. 4-15: Timing diagram for GATE, GATE DELAY and GATE LENGTH
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
253
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
Fig. 4-16: TDMA signal with GATE ON
4.2.9 Input/Output Configuration – INPUT/OUTPUT Key
The INPUT/OUTPUT key is used to configure input and output sources for measurement functions.
4.2.9.1
Softkeys of the Input/Output Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Input/Output" menu. It is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only
available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is provided in the corresponding softkey description.
Input (AC/DC)..............................................................................................................255
Preselector (On Off).................................................................................................... 255
Noise Source...............................................................................................................255
Video Output............................................................................................................... 255
Trigger Out.................................................................................................................. 255
Probe Config............................................................................................................... 255
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
254
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
Input (AC/DC)
Toggles the RF input of the R&S ESR between AC and DC coupling.
Remote command:
INPut:​COUPling​ on page 480
Preselector (On Off)
Turns the preselector on and off.
Remote command:
INPut:​PRESelection:​STATe​ on page 732
Noise Source
Switches the supply voltage for an external noise source on or off. For details on connectors refer to the Quick Start Guide, "Front and Rear Panel" chapter.
Remote command:
DIAGnostic<n>:​SERVice:​NSOurce​ on page 730
Video Output
Sends a video output signal according to the measured level to the connector on the
rear panel of the R&S ESR.
Note: Video output does not return valid values in IQ or FFT mode.
Remote command:
OUTP:IF VID , see OUTPut:​IF[:​SOURce]​ on page 731
Trigger Out
Sets the Trigger Out port to low or high. Thus, you can trigger an additional device via
the external trigger port, for example.
Remote command:
OUTPut:​TRIGger​ on page 731
Probe Config
Opens an edit dialog box to activate and configure a connected probe which is to provide an input signal. It is only available if a probe is connected to the instrument's RF
INPUT and USB connectors.
For details see chapter 4.2.9.2, "Using Active Probes for Input", on page 255.
Remote command:
PROBe[:​STATe]​ on page 631
PROBe:​SETup:​MODE​ on page 630
4.2.9.2
Using Active Probes for Input
When the input from the device under test requires high impedance, an active probe
can be connected between the device and the R&S ESR.
The R&S ESR supports active probes from the R&S RT-ZS series when using the new
probe adapter RT-ZA9.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
255
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
When the probe has been connected to and recognized by the R&S ESR, a predefined "Generic Probe" transducer factor with 20 dB is automatically activated and the
unit of the spectrum analyzer is changed to dBμV. (The same applies after presetting
the instrument.) Then the system is ready to analyze circuit points that cannot be loaded with the 50 Ω of the analyzer input, but require a higher impedance.
Optionally, the probe can be deactivated while remaining connected to the R&S ESR,
for instance to analyze the digital input from the probe without considering the transducer factor.
All RT probes (except for ZS10E) have a micro button. The action for the micro button
can be defined. Currently, either a single sweep or no action can be performed when
the button is pressed. By default, when you press the probe's micro button, the
R&S ESR is set to single sweep mode and a single sweep is performed. This allows
you to start a measurement whilst applying the probe to a certain pin on the board
under test.
When using RT probes, consider the following:
●
Active probes require operating power from the instrument and have a proprietary
interface to the instrument.
●
The probe is automatically recognized by the instrument, no adjustment is
required.
●
Connections should be as short as possible to keep the usable bandwidth high.
●
Observe the operating voltage range.
For more information on RT probes, refer to the probe's documentation.
Connecting Active Probes
In order to use active probes with an R&S ESR, an RT-ZA9 adapter is required. The
RT-ZA9 provides an interface between the probe's BNC socket and and the analyzer's
N-socket and provides the necessary supply voltages for the probe via the USB connection. Using this adapter, the following probes are currently supported:
●
R&S RT-ZS10
●
RT-ZS10E
●
RT-ZS20
●
RT-ZS30
To connect an active probe, proceed as follows:
1. Connect the adapter to the RF Input connector on the R&S ESR.
2. Connect the adapter's USB cable to a USB connector on the R&S ESR.
3. Connect the probe to the adapter.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
256
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Configuration
Once the probe and adapter have been connected to the R&S ESR correctly and the
analyzer has recognized the probe, the "Generic Probe" transducer is activated and
you can start a measurement.
To determine whether the probe has been connected properly and recognized by the
R&S ESR, use the remote control command PROB:SET:STAT? (see PROBe:​SETup:​
STATe?​ on page 630).
To perform a measurement with the probe
► Place the probe on the required position on the test equipment, then press the
micro button on the probe to perform a single sweep measurement.
Probe Configuration
Principally, the probe is automatically recognized by the instrument and no further
adjustment is required. However, you can switch off the probe while leaving it connected, and you can configure which action is to be performed when the probe's micro button is pressed.
To display the "Probe Configuration" dialog box, select the INPUT/OUTPUT key and
then the "Probe Config" softkey.
The following settings are available:
State............................................................................................................................258
Name...........................................................................................................................258
Serial Number............................................................................................................. 258
Part number................................................................................................................ 258
Micro Button Action..................................................................................................... 258
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
257
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
State
Activates a connected probe. Use this command to switch off the probe and measure
the digital input without considering the transducer factor of the probe.
Remote command:
PROBe[:​STATe]​ on page 631
Name
Indicates the name of the connected probe.
Remote command:
PROBe:​SETup:​NAME?​ on page 630
Serial Number
Indicates the serial number of the connected probe.
Remote command:
PROBe:​ID:​SRNumber?​ on page 630
Part number
Indicates the material part number of the connected probe.
Remote command:
PROBe:​ID:​PARTnumber?​ on page 630
Micro Button Action
Defines which action is taken when the probe's micro button is pressed.
"RunSingle"
A single sweep is performed.
"No Action"
No action is taken.
Remote command:
PROBe:​SETup:​MODE​ on page 630
4.3 Analysis
General methods and basic settings to display and analyze measurements. If you are
performing a specific measurement task or using an operating mode other than Spectrum mode, be sure to check the specific measurement or mode description for settings and functions that may deviate from these general ones.
●
●
●
●
Trace Configuration...............................................................................................258
Spectrogram..........................................................................................................272
Markers................................................................................................................. 276
Lines......................................................................................................................299
4.3.1 Trace Configuration
The TRACE key is used to configure the data acquisition for measurement and the
analysis of the measurement data.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
258
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
The R&S ESR is capable of displaying up to six different traces at a time in a diagram.
A trace consists of a maximum of 691 displayed measurement points on the horizontal
axis (frequency or time). If more measured values than measurement points are available, several measured values are combined in one displayed measurement point.
The trace functions include the following:
●
Display mode of the trace
For details on trace modes see chapter 3.2.4, "Trace Modes", on page 44.
●
Evaluation of the trace as a whole
For details on averaging see chapter 4.3.1.4, "Description of the Averaging
Method", on page 269.
●
Evaluation of individual measurement points of a trace. For details on detectors
see chapter 4.3.1.5, "Detector Overview", on page 270.
To open the Trace menu
●
Press the TRACE key.
The "Trace" menu is displayed. The "Trace Configuration" dialog box is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
●
chapter 4.3.1.1, "Softkeys of the Trace Menu", on page 259
Further information
●
chapter 3.2.4, "Trace Modes", on page 44
●
chapter 4.3.1.5, "Detector Overview", on page 270
●
chapter 4.3.1.6, "ASCII File Export Format", on page 271
Tasks
4.3.1.1
●
chapter 4.3.1.2, "Configuring Traces", on page 267
●
chapter 4.3.1.3, "Specifying the Trace Settings", on page 268
Softkeys of the Trace Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Trace" menu. It is possible that
your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available
with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is provided in the
corresponding softkey description.
Functions to configure traces described elsewhere:
●
"More Traces" on page 71
●
"Copy Trace" on page 72
●
"Trace Wizard" on page 72
●
"ASCII Trace Export" on page 72
●
"Decim Sep" on page 72
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
259
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
Functions to configure traces exclusive in Spectrum mode
Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6...................................................... 260
└ Clear Write.................................................................................................... 260
└ Max Hold.......................................................................................................261
└ Min Hold........................................................................................................261
└ Average.........................................................................................................261
└ View.............................................................................................................. 261
└ Blank............................................................................................................. 262
└ Hold/Cont...................................................................................................... 262
└ Detector........................................................................................................ 262
└ Auto Select......................................................................................... 262
└ Auto Peak........................................................................................... 263
└ Positive Peak...................................................................................... 263
└ Negative Peak.................................................................................... 263
└ Sample................................................................................................263
└ RMS....................................................................................................263
└ Average.............................................................................................. 263
└ Quasipeak...........................................................................................264
└ CISPR Average.................................................................................. 264
└ RMS Average..................................................................................... 264
Average Mode.............................................................................................................264
└ Lin................................................................................................................. 264
└ Log................................................................................................................ 265
└ Power............................................................................................................265
Trace Math.................................................................................................................. 265
Trace Math Mode........................................................................................................ 265
└ Lin................................................................................................................. 266
└ Log................................................................................................................ 266
└ Power............................................................................................................266
Trace Math Position.................................................................................................... 266
Trace Math Off............................................................................................................ 266
Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Selects the active trace (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) and opens the "Trace Mode" submenu for the
selected trace.
In the default state, trace 1 is in Clear Write mode. The other traces are turned off. For
details see chapter 3.2.4, "Trace Modes", on page 44.
Tip: To configure several traces in one step, use the functionality of the Trace Configuration dialog box. To access the dialog box, press the Trace Wizard softkey.
Remote command:
Selected via numeric suffix of:TRACe<1...6> commands
Clear Write ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Overwrite mode: the trace is overwritten by each sweep. This is the default setting.
All available detectors can be selected.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:MODE WRIT, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​MODE​
on page 491
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
260
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
Max Hold ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
The maximum value is determined over several sweeps and displayed. The R&S ESR
saves the sweep result in the trace memory only if the new value is greater than the
previous one.
This mode is especially useful with modulated or pulsed signals. The signal spectrum
is filled up upon each sweep until all signal components are detected in a kind of envelope.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:MODE MAXH, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​MODE​
on page 491
Min Hold ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
The minimum value is determined from several measurements and displayed. The
R&S ESR saves the smallest of the previously stored/currently measured values in the
trace memory.
This mode is useful e.g. for making an unmodulated carrier in a composite signal visible. Noise, interference signals or modulated signals are suppressed whereas a CW
signal is recognized by its constant level.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:MODE MINH, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​MODE​
on page 491
Average ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
The average is formed over several sweeps. The Sweep Count determines the number
of averaging procedures.
All available detectors can be selected. If the detector is automatically selected, the
sample detector is used (see chapter 4.3.1.5, "Detector Overview", on page 270).
This mode is not available for statistics measurements.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:MODE AVER, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​MODE​
on page 491
View ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
The current contents of the trace memory are frozen and displayed.
Note: If a trace is frozen, the instrument settings, apart from level range and reference
level (see below), can be changed without impact on the displayed trace. The fact that
the displayed trace no longer matches the current instrument setting is indicated by the
icon on the tab label.
If the level range or reference level is changed, the R&S ESR automatically adapts the
measured data to the changed display range. This allows an amplitude zoom to be
made after the measurement in order to show details of the trace.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:MODE VIEW, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​MODE​
on page 491
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
261
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
Blank ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Hides the selected trace.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC OFF, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>[:​STATe]​ on page 660
Hold/Cont ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Switches the reset of the traces in Min Hold, Max Hold and Average mode after some
specific parameter changes have been made on and off. The default setting is off.
Normally, the measurement is started anew after parameter changes, before the measurement results are evaluated (e.g. using a marker). In all cases that require a new
measurement after parameter changes, the trace is reset automatically to avoid false
results (e.g. with span changes). For applications that require no reset after parameter
changes, the automatic reset can be switched off.
Remote command:
DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​MODE:​HCONtinuous​ on page 660
Detector ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Opens a submenu to select the detector manually, or activate automatic selection.
Note: When measuring spurious emissions, using this softkey automatically opens the
Sweep List dialog, see "Sweep List dialog box" on page 160.
If a detector was selected manually, the "MAN" indicator is highlighted.
If "AUTO" is selected, the detector is defined automatically, depending on the selected
trace mode:
Trace mode
Detector
Clear Write
Auto Peak
Max Hold
Positive Peak
Min Hold
Negative Peak
Average
Sample Peak
View
–
Blank
–
Auto Select ← Detector ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Selects the best detector for the selected trace and filter mode. This is the default setting.
Trace mode
Detector
Clear/Write
Auto Peak
Average
Sample
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
262
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
Trace mode
Detector
Max Hold
Max Peak
Min Hold
Min Peak
Remote command:
[SENSe:​][WINDow:​]DETector<trace>[:​FUNCtion]:​AUTO​ on page 664
Auto Peak ← Detector ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Selects the "Auto Peak" detector.
The "Auto Peak" detector determines the maximum and minimum value within a measurement point. The Auto Peak detector is not available for SEM measurements.
Remote command:
DET APE, see [SENSe:​][WINDow:​]DETector<trace>[:​FUNCtion]​
on page 663
Positive Peak ← Detector ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Selects the "Positive Peak" detector.
Remote command:
DET POS, see [SENSe:​][WINDow:​]DETector<trace>[:​FUNCtion]​
on page 663
Negative Peak ← Detector ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Selects the "Negative Peak" detector.
Remote command:
DET NEG, see [SENSe:​][WINDow:​]DETector<trace>[:​FUNCtion]​
on page 663
Sample ← Detector ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Selects the "Sample" detector.
Remote command:
DET SAMP, see [SENSe:​][WINDow:​]DETector<trace>[:​FUNCtion]​
on page 663
RMS ← Detector ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Selects the "RMS" detector.
Remote command:
DET RMS, see [SENSe:​][WINDow:​]DETector<trace>[:​FUNCtion]​
on page 663
Average ← Detector ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Selects the "Average" detector.
Remote command:
DET AVER, see [SENSe:​][WINDow:​]DETector<trace>[:​FUNCtion]​
on page 663
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
263
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
Quasipeak ← Detector ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Selects the "Quasipeak" detector.
Remote command:
DET QPE, see [SENSe:​][WINDow:​]DETector<trace>[:​FUNCtion]​
on page 663
CISPR Average ← Detector ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Selects the "CISPR Average" detector.
Remote command:
DET CAV, see [SENSe:​][WINDow:​]DETector<trace>[:​FUNCtion]​
on page 663
RMS Average ← Detector ← Trace 1/Trace 2/Trace 3/Trace 4/Trace 5/Trace 6
Selects the "RMS Average" detector.
Remote command:
DET CRMS, see [SENSe:​][WINDow:​]DETector<trace>[:​FUNCtion]​
on page 663
Average Mode
Opens a submenu to select the averaging method for the average trace mode. The following methods are available:
●
●
●
Lin
Log
Power
Logarithmic averaging is recommended to display signals with a low signal to noise
ratio. While positive peak values are decreased in logarithmic averaging due to the
characteristics involved, it is also true that negative peaks are increased relative to the
average value. If the distorted amplitude distribution is averaged, a value is obtained
that is smaller than the actual average value. The difference is -2.5 dB.
This low average value is usually corrected in noise power measurements by a 2.5 dB
factor. Therefore the R&S ESR offers the selection of linear averaging. The trace data
is converted to linear values prior to averaging, then averaged and reconverted to logarithmic values. After these conversions the data is displayed on the screen. The average value is always correctly displayed irrespective of the signal characteristic.
In case of stationary sinusoidal signals both logarithmic and linear averaging has the
same results.
Lin ← Average Mode
Activates linear averaging. Linear averaging means that the power level values are
converted into linear units prior to averaging. After the averaging, the data is converted
back into its original unit.
This softkey takes effect if the grid is set to a linear scale (see "Range Linear" softkey,
"Range Linear %" on page 190). In this case, the averaging is done in two ways
(depending on the set unit – see "Unit" softkey):
●
The unit is set to either W or dBm: the data is converted into W prior to averaging,
i.e. averaging is done in W.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
264
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
●
The unit is set to either V, A, dBmV, dBµV, dBµA or dBpW: the data is converted
into V prior to averaging, i.e. averaging is done in V.
Remote command:
SENS:AVER1:TYPE LIN, see [SENSe:​]AVERage<n>:​TYPE​ on page 663
Log ← Average Mode
Activates logarithmic averaging.
This averaging method only takes effect if the grid is set to a logarithmic scale
("Range" softkey), i.e. the unit of the data is dBm. In this case the values are averaged
in dBm. Otherwise (i.e. with linear scaling), the behavior is the same as with linear
averaging (see Lin softkey). For further information on logarithmic scaling refer to the
"Average Mode" softkey.
Remote command:
SENS:AVER1:TYPE VID, see [SENSe:​]AVERage<n>:​TYPE​ on page 663
Power ← Average Mode
Activates linear power averaging.
The power level values are converted into unit Watt prior to averaging. After the averaging, the data is converted back into its original unit.
Unlike the linear mode, the averaging is always done in W.
Remote command:
SENS:AVER1:TYPE POW, see [SENSe:​]AVERage<n>:​TYPE​ on page 663
Trace Math
Opens the "Trace Mathematics" dialog box to define which trace is subtracted from
trace 1. The result is displayed in trace 1 and refers to the zero point defined with the
Trace Math Position softkey. The following subtractions can be performed:
"T1"->"T1"-"T2"
Subtracts trace 2 from trace 1.
"T1"->"T1"-"T3"
Subtracts trace 3 from trace 1
"T1"->"T1"-"T4"
Subtracts trace 4 from trace 1
"T1"->"T1"-"T5"
Subtracts trace 5 from trace 1
"T1"->"T1"-"T6"
Subtracts trace 6 from trace 1
To switch off the trace math, use the Trace Math Off softkey.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MATH[:​EXPression][:​DEFine]​ on page 658
CALCulate<n>:​MATH:​STATe​ on page 659
Trace Math Mode
Opens a submenu to select the mode for the trace math calculations.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
265
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
Lin ← Trace Math Mode
Activates linear subtraction, which means that the power level values are converted
into linear units prior to subtraction. After the subtraction, the data is converted back
into its original unit.
This softkey takes effect if the grid is set to a linear scale (see Range softkey). In this
case, subtraction is done in two ways (depending on the set unit – see Unit softkey):
●
●
The unit is set to either W or dBm: the data is converted into W prior to subtraction,
i.e. averaging is done in W.
The unit is set to either V, A, dBmV, dBµV, dBµA or dBpW: the data is converted
into V prior to subtraction, i.e. subtraction is done in V.
Remote command:
CALC:MATH:MODE LIN, see CALCulate<n>:​MATH:​MODE​ on page 659
Log ← Trace Math Mode
Activates logarithmic subtraction.
This subtraction method only takes effect if the grid is set to a logarithmic scale (see
Range softkey), i.e. the unit of the data is dBm. In this case the values are subtracted
in dBm. Otherwise (i.e. with linear scaling) the behavior is the same as with linear subtraction (see Lin softkey). For further information on logarithmic scaling refer to the
Average Mode softkey.
Remote command:
CALC:MATH:MODE LOG, see CALCulate<n>:​MATH:​MODE​ on page 659
Power ← Trace Math Mode
Activates linear power subtraction.
The power level values are converted into unit Watt prior to subtraction. After the subtraction, the data is converted back into its original unit.
Unlike the linear mode, the subtraction is always done in W.
Remote command:
CALC:MATH:MODE POW, see CALCulate<n>:​MATH:​MODE​ on page 659
Trace Math Position
Opens an edit dialog box to define the zero point in % of the diagram height. The range
of values extends from -100 % to +200 %.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MATH:​POSition​ on page 659
Trace Math Off
Deactivates any previously selected trace math functions.
Remote command:
CALC:MATH:STAT OFF, see CALCulate<n>:​MATH:​STATe​ on page 659
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
266
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
4.3.1.2
Configuring Traces
1. To open the trace wizard, press the TRACE key and then the "Trace Wizard" softkey (see "Trace Wizard" on page 72).
Tip: Context-sensitive menus for traces. Traces have context-sensitive menus. If
you right-click on a trace in the display or a trace setting in the information channel
bar (or touch it for about 1 second), a menu is displayed which corresponds to the
softkey functions available for traces. This is useful, for example, when the softkey
display is hidden.
If a menu entry contains an arrow to the right of it, a submenu is available for that
entry.
To close the menu, press the ESC key or click in the display outside of the menu.
2. For each trace you can define the following settings:
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
267
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
Display Mode
●
●
●
●
●
●
Clear Write
Max Hold
Min Hold
Average
View
Blank
For details see chapter 3.2.4, "Trace Modes", on page 44.
Detector Auto Select
Activates automatic detector selection (see Auto Select softkey). If
activated, the "Trace Detector" setting is ignored.
Trace Detector
Defines a specific trace detector. If one of the following settings is
defined, the "Detector Auto Select" option is deactivated.
"Auto Select" on page 262
●
"Auto Peak" on page 263
●
"Positive Peak" on page 263
●
"Negative Peak" on page 263
●
"Sample" on page 263
●
"RMS" on page 263
●
"Average" on page 263
●
3. To configure several traces to predefined display modes in one step, press the button for the required function:
Preset All Traces
Trace 1: Clear Write
Trace 2-6: Blank
Select Max | Avg | Min
Trace 1: Max Hold
Trace 2: Average
Trace 3: Min Hold
Trace 4-6: Blank
Select Max | ClrWrite | Min
Trace 1: Max Hold
Trace 2: Clear Write
Trace 3: Min Hold
Trace 4-6: Blank
For details see chapter 3.2.4, "Trace Modes", on page 44.
4.3.1.3
Specifying the Trace Settings
1. To configure one or more traces, see chapter 4.3.1.2, "Configuring Traces",
on page 267.
2. To select the trace mode for the selected trace, press the softkey for the corresponding trace (for details see chapter 3.2.4, "Trace Modes", on page 44).
3. To select a detector, press the Auto Select softkey for automatic detector selection,
or press the Detector softkey (for details see chapter 4.3.1.5, "Detector Overview",
on page 270).
4. To change the sweep count setting, which also determines trace averaging, press
the Sweep Count softkey.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
268
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
5. To deactivate the reset of the traces in "Min Hold" and "Max Hold" mode after
some specific parameter changes, press the Trace Math softkey.
6. To copy a trace into another trace memory, press the Copy Trace softkey.
Upon copying, the contents of the selected memory are overwritten and the new
contents are displayed in the View mode.
7. To export the active trace in ASCII format:
a) Press the "More" softkey.
b) If necessary, press the Decim Sep softkey to change the decimal separator
with floating-point numerals.
c) Press the ASCII File Export softkey to enter the ASCII file export name.
The active trace is saved in ASCII format on the harddisk on or an external
storage device.
4.3.1.4
Description of the Averaging Method
Averaging is carried out over the measurement points derived from the measurement
samples. Several measured values may be combined in a measurement point. This
means that with linear level display the average is formed over linear amplitude values.
The sweep mode (continuous or single sweep, for details see chapter 4.2.7, "Configuring the Sweep Mode – SWEEP Key", on page 240) and running averaging apply to the
average display analogously. In principle, two methods for calculating the average are
used: continuous averaging and averaging over the selected number of sweeps.
●
sweep count > 1
Depending on the relation of the following two parameters, two different situations
exist:
n = number of sweeps performed since measurement start
c = sweep count (number of sweeps forming one statistics cycle)
– n≤c
In single sweep or continuous sweep mode during the first statistics cycle,
averaging over the selected number of sweeps is performed. The average
trace "n" is calculated at each measurement point according to:
Fig. 4-17: Equation 1
with Avg = average trace; Curr = current trace
Until the first statistics cycle is completed (n < c), a preliminary average is displayed which represents the arithmetic mean value over all measured sweeps.
With n increasing, the displayed trace is increasingly smoothed since there are
more single sweeps for averaging.
When the first statistics cycle is completed (n = c), the average trace is saved
in the trace memory.
–
n>c
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
269
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
In continuous sweep mode after the first statistics cycle, continuous averaging
is performed. The average trace "n" is calculated at each measurement point
according to:
Fig. 4-18: Equation 2
with Avg = average trace; Curr = current trace
In single sweep mode, the same formula is valid if the Continue Single Sweep
softkey is pressed.
●
sweep count = 0
In continuous sweep mode, a continuous average is calculated according to figure 4-18 with c = 10:
Fig. 4-19: Equation 3
with Avg = average trace; Curr = current trace
Due to the weighting between the current trace and the average trace, past values
have practically no influence on the displayed trace after about ten sweeps. With
this setting, signal noise is effectively reduced without need for restarting the averaging process after a change of the signal.
●
4.3.1.5
sweep count = 1
The current trace is displayed. No averaging is performed. This is a special case of
figure 4-17 with n = 0.
Detector Overview
The measurement detector for the individual display modes can be selected directly by
the user or set automatically by the R&S ESR. The detector activated for the specific
trace is indicated in the corresponding trace display field by an abbreviation.
For more information on available detectors see chapter 3.2.3, "Detectors",
on page 40.
All detectors work in parallel in the background, which means that the measurement
speed is independent of the detector combination used for different traces.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
270
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
Number of measured values
During a frequency sweep, the R&S ESR increments the first local oscillator in steps
that are smaller than approximately 1/10 of the bandwidth. This ensures that the oscillator step speed is conform to the hardware settling times and does not affect the precision of the measured power.
The number of measured values taken during a sweep is independent of the number of
oscillator steps. It is always selected as a multiple or a fraction of 691 (= default number of trace points displayed on the screen). Choosing less then 691 measured values
(e.g. 125 or 251) will lead to an interpolated measurement curve, choosing more than
691 points (e.g. 1001, 2001 …) will result in several measured values being overlaid at
the same frequency position.
RMS detector and VBW
If the RMS detector is selected, the video bandwidth in the hardware is bypassed.
Thus, duplicate trace averaging with small VBWs and RMS detector no longer occurs.
However, the VBW is still considered when calculating the sweep time. This leads to a
longer sweep time for small VBW values. Thus, you can reduce the VBW value to achieve more stable trace curves even when using an RMS detector. Normally, if the RMS
detector is used the sweep time should be increased to get more stable trace curves.
4.3.1.6
ASCII File Export Format
The data of the file header consist of three columns, each separated by a semicolon:
parameter name; numeric value; basic unit. The data section starts with the keyword
"Trace <n>" (<n> = number of stored trace), followed by the measured data in one or
several columns (depending on measurement) which are also separated by a semicolon.
File contents: header and data section
Description
Date;01.Apr 2010;
Date of data set storage
Screen;A;
Instrument mode
Points per Symbol;4;
Points per symbol
x Axis Start;-13;sym;
Start value of the x axis
x Axis Stop;135;sym;
Stop value of the x axis
Ref value y axis;-10.00;dBm;
Y axis reference value
Ref value position;100;%;
Y axis reference position
Trace;1;
Trace number
Meas;Result;
Result type
Meas Signal;Magnitude;
Result display
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
271
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
File contents: header and data section
Description
Demodulator;Offset QPSK;
Demodulation type
ResultMode;Trace;
Result mode
x unit;sym;
Unit of the x axis
y unit;dBm;
Unit of the y axis
Trace Mode;Clear Write;
Trace mode
Values;592;
Number of results
<values>
List of results
4.3.2 Spectrogram
The spectrogram is a graphical overview of changes in the frequency and amplitude
over time.
The spectrogram uses the configuration of the Spectrum mode and vice versa.
Note that not all measurements of the Spectrum mode support a spectrogram result
display.
Menus and softkeys
The main menu of the Spectrogram result display is part of the "Trace" menu in Spectrum mode. For more information see .
Some special functions supported by the spectrogram are available in the "Sweep"
menu in Spectrum mode. For more information see chapter 4.2.7.1, "Softkeys of the
Sweep Menu", on page 240.
4.3.2.1
Working with Spectrograms
Functions of the spectrogram described elsewhere:
●
chapter 3.1.6, "Spectrogram", on page 24
General Information
This section provides some basic information about using the firmware application and
about performing measurements with the firmware application.
Screen Layout
The Spectrogram view is divided into two screens: the spectrum analyzer result display
(upper screen) and the spectrogram result display (lower screen).
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
272
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
Fig. 4-20: Screen layout of the spectrogram result display
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
Spectrum result display
Spectrogram result display
Frame indicator
Time stamp / frame number
Color map
Marker
Deltamarker
Marker list
●
Spectrum Analyzer result display (1 in figure 4-20)
This result display is the same as the Spectrum Analyzer with the x-axis representing the frequency span or time (span = 0) and the y-axis the power level. Configure
and use this display in the same way as you would in Spectrum Analyzer mode.
All traces are available and you can view those traces just like in the base unit (see
chapter 3.2.4, "Trace Modes", on page 44). The trace modes View and Blank are
not available for trace 1.
While performing a measurement the trace is updated continuously. You can also
restore the trace to a point that has already been recorded by selecting a specific
frame (see "Select Frame" on page 243). This is possible in Single Sweep mode or
if the sweep has been stopped.
●
Spectrogram result display (2)
The data displayed in the Spectrogram is always based on the data of trace 1 in
the Spectrum Analyzer result display. The Spectrogram can handle measurements
in the frequency domain (span > 0) as well as measurements in the time domain
(span = 0)
The Spectrogram is a cartesian diagram. The x-axis shows the power distribution
of a measured signal over a specified frequency or time range. Different power levels are displayed in different colors. The y-axis represents the time with the top of
the diagram being the current timeframe (the measurement runs from top to bottom). Each line (or trace) of the y-axis represents one captured frame. The frames
are sorted in chronological order. One frame is equal to a certain number of sweep
points, depending on the dimension of the x-axis. If there are more measurement
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
273
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
values than measurement points, several measured values are combined in one
measurement point using the selected detector (see chapter 4.3.1.5, "Detector
Overview", on page 270). Frames are sorted in chronological order, beginning with
the most recently recorded frame or frame number 0 at the top of the diagram.
After that and below frame 0 is the frame recorded before the current frame (frame
-1) and so on until the maximum number of captured frames is reached. The maximum number of frames that you can capture is summarized in the table below (see
table 4-7. A marker in the form of an arrow (3) on the left and right border of the
Spectrogram indicates the currently selected frame.
The actual number of the currently selected frame is shown below the diagram (4).
If the time stamp is active, the R&S ESR shows the time stamp instead of the
frame number (see Time Stamp (On Off).
Below the diagram there is also a color map (5) that shows the power levels corresponding to the displayed colors. The minimum value of the y-axis is on the left of
the color map. The maximum value is on the right of the map. You can also change
the color scheme in use (see Color Mapping. The colors corresponding to the
power levels, however, are always assigned automatically.
Markers and deltamarkers (6) (7) take the form of diamonds in the Spectrogram.
They are only displayed in the Spectrogram, if the marker position is inside the visible area of the spectrogram. If more than two markers are active, it is possible to
display a Marker Table at the bottom of the display (8).
Table 4-7: Correlation between number of sweep points and number of frames stored in the history
buffer
Sweep Points
Max. History Depth
≤1250
20000
2001
12488
4001
6247
8.001
3124
16.001
1562
32.001
781
Markers and Marker Values
In the Spectrum Analyzer result display, the markers and their frequency and level values (1) are displayed in the marker field just like in the base unit (see chapter 3.4.2,
"Markers", on page 72). In addition to the base unit functionality, the frame number is
displayed to indicate the position of the marker in time (2).
In the Spectrogram result display, you can activate up to 16 markers or deltamarkers at
the same time. Any marker can be assigned to a different frame. Therefore, in addition
to the frequency (1) you can set the frame number (2) when activating a new marker. If
no frame number is specified, the marker is positioned on the currently selected frame.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
274
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
In the Spectrogram result display all markers are visible that are positioned on a visible
frame.
In the Spectrum Analyzer result display, only the markers positioned on the currently
selected frame are visible. In Continuous Sweep mode this means that only markers
positioned on frame 0 are visible. To view markers that are positioned on a frame other
than frame 0 in the Spectrum Analyzer result display, it is necessary to stop the measurement and select the corresponding frame.
4.3.2.2
Softkeys of the Spectrogram Menu
Softkeys of the Spectrogram Menu
The following chapter describes all softkeys available in the "Spectrogram" menu. It is
possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is
only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is
delivered in the corresponding softkey description.
To display the "Spectrogram" menu, press the TRACE key and then select the "Spectogram" softkey.
Spectrogram................................................................................................................275
└ Spectrogram (On Off)................................................................................... 275
└ History Depth................................................................................................ 275
└ Color Mapping...............................................................................................276
└ Time Stamp (On Off).....................................................................................276
└ Clear Spectrogram........................................................................................276
Spectrogram
Opens the submenu for the spectrogram view.
Spectrogram (On Off) ← Spectrogram
Activates and deactivates the Spectrogram result display
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​SGRam[:​STATe]​ on page 669
History Depth ← Spectrogram
Sets the number of frames that the R&S ESR stores in its memory. The maximum
number of frames depends on the Sweep Points (see "General Information"
on page 272).
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
275
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
If the memory is full, the R&S ESR deletes the oldest frames stored in the memory and
replaces them with the new data.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​SGRam:​HDEPth​ on page 458
Color Mapping ← Spectrogram
Displays the "Color Mapping" dialog box to configure the display of the spectrogram
(assignment of colors to power levels).
For more information see chapter 3.1.6.2, "Color Map", on page 25.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​SGRam:​COLor​ on page 667
DISPlay:​WINDow:​SGRam:​COLor:​LOWer​ on page 457
DISPlay:​WINDow:​SGRam:​COLor:​UPPer​ on page 457
Time Stamp (On Off) ← Spectrogram
Activates and deactivates the time stamp. The time stamp shows the system time
while the measurement is running. In single sweep mode or if the sweep is stopped,
the time stamp shows the time and date of the end of the sweep.
When active, the time stamp replaces the display of the frame number.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​SGRam:​TSTamp[:​STATe]​ on page 669
Clear Spectrogram ← Spectrogram
Resets the Spectrogram result display and clears the history buffer.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​SGRam:​CLEar[:​IMMediate]​ on page 457
4.3.3 Markers
4.3.3.1
Controlling Markers
The markers are used for marking points on traces, reading out measurement results
and for selecting a display section quickly. The R&S ESR provides 16 markers per
trace.
To open the Marker menu
●
Press the MKR key.
The "Marker" menu is displayed. If no marker is active, marker 1 is activated and a
peak search on the trace is carried out. Otherwise, the edit dialog box for the last
activated marker is opened and the current frequency/time value is displayed.
Further information
●
"Displayed Marker Information" on page 280
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
276
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
●
chapter 3.4.2.2, "Positioning Markers", on page 77.
Tasks
●
"Basic Marker Functions" on page 278
Softkeys of the Marker Menu
Functions to control markers described elsewhere:
●
"Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta" on page 74
●
"Marker to Trace" on page 74
●
"Marker Wizard" on page 74
●
"All Marker Off" on page 75
●
"Marker Table" on page 76
●
"Marker Info (On Off)" on page 76
Functions to control markers exclusive in Spectrum mode
Marker Stepsize.......................................................................................................... 277
└ Stepsize Standard.........................................................................................277
└ Stepsize Sweep Points................................................................................. 277
Marker Zoom (span > 0)..............................................................................................278
Link Mkr1 and Delta1.................................................................................................. 278
Marker Stepsize
Opens a submenu to set the step size of all markers and delta markers.
Default value for the marker step size is Stepsize Sweep Points.
Stepsize Standard ← Marker Stepsize
Moves the marker or delta marker from one measurement point to the next, if the
marker or delta marker value is changed via the rotary knob ( "Marker 1 / Marker 2 /
Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta" softkeys, see "Marker 1 / Marker 2 /
Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta" on page 74). If more measured values
than measurement points exist, it is not possible to read out all measured values. In
this case, use the Stepsize Sweep Points softkey.
Remote command:
CALC:MARK:X:SSIZ STAN (see CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SSIZe​
on page 675)
Stepsize Sweep Points ← Marker Stepsize
Moves the marker or delta marker from one measured value to the next, if the marker
or delta marker value is changed via the rotary knob ( "Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 /
… Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta" softkeys, see "Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / …
Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta" on page 74). If more measured values than measurement points exist, every single measured value is accessible and its value is displayed
in the marker field.
The number of measured values is defined in the ""Sweep"" menu via the Sweep
Points softkey.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
277
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
This functionality is not available for statistical measurements (APD and CCDF).
Remote command:
CALC:MARK:X:SSIZ POIN (see CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SSIZe​
on page 675)
Marker Zoom (span > 0)
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a display range for the zoom. The area around
marker 1 is expanded accordingly and more details of the result can be seen. If no
marker is activated, marker 1 is switched on and set on the largest signal.
The following sweep is stopped at the position of the reference marker. The frequency
of the signal is counted and the measured frequency becomes the new center frequency. The zoomed display range is then configured and the new settings are used
by the R&S ESR for further measurements.
If the display has not yet been switched to the new frequency display range and you
press the softkey, the procedure is aborted. If an instrument setting is changed during
this operation, the procedure is also aborted.
This function is not available in I/Q Analyzer mode.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​ZOOM​ on page 497
Link Mkr1 and Delta1
The delta marker 1 is linked to marker 1, so if the x-axis value of the marker 1 is
changed, the delta marker 1 will follow on the same x-position. The link is off by
default.
You can set the two markers on different traces to measure the difference (e.g.
between a max hold trace and a min hold trace or between a measurement and a reference trace).
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​LINK​ on page 506
Basic Marker Functions
●
To open the "Marker" menu, press the MKR key.
Marker 1 is activated and positioned on the maximum value of the trace as a normal marker. If several traces are displayed, the marker is set to the maximum value
(peak) of the trace which has the lowest number (1 to 3) and is not frozen (View
mode). In case a marker is already located there, the new marker is set to the frequency of the next lowest level (next peak).
●
To change marker settings quickly, right-click on the marker in the display (or touch
it for about 1 second). A context-sensitive menu is displayed which corresponds to
the softkey functions available for markers.
●
To configure and activate several markers at once, select the "Marker Wizard" to
open a configuration dialog for all markers.
●
To change to another trace, press the "Marker to Trace" softkey ("Marker to Trace"
on page 74) and enter the number of the trace on which the marker is to be placed.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
278
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
The marker changes to the selected trace, but remains on the previous frequency
or time. If a trace is turned off, the corresponding markers and marker functions are
also deactivated.
●
To switch to another marker, click on the marker label in the diagram. Alternatively,
select the corresponding softkey. If necessary, select the More Markers softkey
first to open a submenu that contains all marker numbers.
●
To move the marker to a different position, click the marker label in the diagram
and then drag it to the new position. When a marker label is selected, a vertical line
is displayed which indicates the marker's current x-value.
●
To switch on a delta marker, select the softkey for the corresponding marker, then
press the "Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta"
("Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta" on page 74)
until "Delta" is highlighted.
The selected marker is switched on as a delta marker. The frequency and level of
the marker are displayed in relation to marker 1 in the marker field.
●
To change the marker type of a marker, select the softkey for the corresponding
marker, then press the "Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker
Norm/Delta" softkey ("Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker
Norm/Delta" on page 74).
For a normal marker, the frequency and level are displayed as absolute values in
the marker field. For a delta marker, the frequency and level of the marker are displayed in relation to marker 1 in the marker field.
●
To switch off a marker, press the corresponding softkey again.
The marker is deactivated. Marker 1 becomes the active marker for entry. The frequency and level of marker 1 are displayed in the marker field.
●
To switch off all markers, press the All Marker Off softkey.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
279
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
●
To change the stepsize between one measured value and the next when the
marker or delta marker value is changed via the rotary knob, press either the
Stepsize Standard softkey or the Stepsize Sweep Points softkey.
●
To zoom into the display around a marker, press the "Marker Zoom (span > 0)"
on page 278 softkey and enter a span.
●
To link the delta marker1 to marker1, so if the x-axis value of the marker 1 is
changed, the delta marker 1 follows on the same x-position, press the Link Mkr1
and Delta1 softkey.
Displayed Marker Information
The following additional information is displayed within the diagram grid or in a marker
table beneath the diagram. The marker table is displayed automatically if more than 2
markers are active. You can hide or show the table using the Marker Table softkey.
Marker information in Diagram Grid
The x and y axis positions of the last 2 markers or delta markers that were set, as well
as their index, are displayed within the diagram grid, if available. The value in the
square brackets after the index indicates the trace to which the marker is assigned.
(Example: M1[1) defines marker 1 on trace 1.) For more than 2 markers, a separate
marker table is displayed beneath the diagram.
If applicable, the active measurement function for the marker and its main results are
indicated, as well. The functions are indicated with the following abbreviations:
FXD
Reference fixed marker active
PHNoise
Phase noise measurement active
CNT
Frequency counter active
TRK
Signal track active
NOIse
Noise measurement active
MDepth
Measurement of the AM modulation depth active
TOI
TOI measurement active
Occ BW
Occupied bandwidth
Marker Information in Marker Table
In addition to the marker information displayed within the diagram grid, a separate
marker table may be displayed beneath the diagram. This table provides the following
information for all active markers:
No.
Serial number
Type
Marker type: N (normal), D (delta), T (temporary, internal)
Dgr
Diagram number
Trc
Trace to which the marker is assigned
Stimulus
x-value of the marker
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
280
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
4.3.3.2
Response
y-value of the marker
Func
Activated marker or measurement function
Func.Result
Result of the active marker or measurement function
Positioning Markers (MKR➙ Key)
The MKR➙ key is used for search functions of measurement markers, assignment of
the marker frequency as center frequency, restriction of the search area and characterization of maxima and minima. For details on markers in general, see chapter 4.3.3.1,
"Controlling Markers", on page 276.
To open the Marker To menu
●
Press the MKR➙ key.
The "Marker To" menu is displayed. If no marker is active, marker 1 will be activated and a peak search on the trace carried out. Otherwise, the edit dialog box for
the last activated marker is opened and the current frequency/time value is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
●
"Softkeys of the Marker To Menu" on page 281
Further information
●
"Effect of Different Peak Excursion Settings (Example)" on page 284
Tasks
●
"Searching for a Maximum" on page 283
●
"Searching for a Minimum" on page 283
●
"Specifying the Search Limits" on page 283
●
"Specifying the Search Range" on page 283
●
"Examining a Signal at the Center in Detail" on page 283
●
"Specifying the Suitable Peak Excursion" on page 284
Softkeys of the Marker To Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Marker To" menu. It is possible
that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only
available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is provided in the corresponding softkey description.
Functions to position markers decribed elsewhere:
●
"Select Marker (No)" on page 77
●
"Peak" on page 77
●
"Next Peak" on page 77
●
"Marker to Trace" on page 74
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
281
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
●
"Min" on page 78
●
"Next Min" on page 78
●
"Next Mode" on page 78
●
"Search Limits" on page 79
●
"Peak Excursion" on page 80
●
Spectrogram: chapter 3.4.2.3, "Markers in Spectrograms", on page 80
Functions to position markers exclusive in Spectrum mode
Center =Mkr Freq (span > 0).......................................................................................282
Ref Lvl =Mkr Lvl.......................................................................................................... 282
Auto Max Peak/Auto Min Peak................................................................................... 282
Exclude LO..................................................................................................................282
Center =Mkr Freq (span > 0)
Sets the center frequency to the current marker or delta marker frequency. A signal
can thus be set to as center frequency, for example to examine it in detail with a
smaller span.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​CENTer​ on page 496
Ref Lvl =Mkr Lvl
Sets the reference level to the current marker level.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​REFerence​ on page 673
Auto Max Peak/Auto Min Peak
Adds an automatic peak search action for marker 1 at the end of each particular
sweep. This function may be used during adjustments of a device under test to keep
track of the current peak marker position and level.
The current marker search limit settings (Left Limit, Right Limit, Threshold softkeys) are
taken into account.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MAXimum:​AUTO​ on page 674
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MINimum:​AUTO​ on page 674
Exclude LO
Switches the frequency range limit for the marker search functions on or off.
"ON"
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
The minimum frequency included in the peak search range is ≥ 5 ×
resolution bandwidth (RBW).
Due to the interference by the first local oscillator to the first intermediate frequency at the input mixer, the LO is represented as a signal at 0 Hz. To avoid the peak marker jumping to the LO signal at 0
Hz, this frequency is excluded from the peak search.
282
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
"OFF"
No restriction to the search range. The frequency 0 Hz is included in
the marker search functions.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​LOEXclude​ on page 674
Searching for a Maximum
●
To search for the highest maximum, press the Peak softkey.
●
To define the search mode for the next maximum, use the Next Mode softkey.
●
To start the search, press the Next Peak softkey.
You can define an automatic peak search action for marker 1 at the end of each particular sweep using the Auto Max Peak/Auto Min Peak softkey.
Searching for a Minimum
●
To search for the minimum, press the Min softkey.
●
To define the search mode for the next minimum, use the Next Mode softkey.
●
To start the search, press the Next Min softkey.
You can define an automatic peak search action for marker 1 at the end of each particular sweep using the Auto Max Peak/Auto Min Peak softkey.
Specifying the Search Limits
●
To define the lower limit, press the Left Limit softkey.
●
To define the upper limit, press the Right Limit softkey.
●
To define the threshold, press the Threshold softkey.
●
To switch the search limits off, press the Search Lim Off softkey.
Specifying the Search Range
●
Press the Exclude LO softkey to deactivate the "Exclude LO" mode in order to
include the frequency down to 0 Hz in the marker search functions.
Examining a Signal at the Center in Detail
1. Press the PRESET key to set the R&S ESR to the default setting.
2. Press the MKR -> key to open the "Marker To" menu.
3. Marker 1 is activated and set to the largest signal of the trace.
4. Press the Center =Mkr Freq (span > 0) softkey to set to the marker frequency.
5. The span is adapted in such a way that the minimum frequency (= 0 Hz) or the
maximum frequency is not exceeded.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
283
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
6. Press the Ref Lvl =Mkr Lvl softkey to set the reference level to the measured
marker level.
7. Press the SPAN key.
8. The edit dialog box to enter a frequency span is displayed.
9. Reduce the span, e.g. using the rotary knob.
Specifying the Suitable Peak Excursion
1. If the Peak Excursion softkey is used, the default value is sufficient, since, in this
mode, the next lower maximum or next higher minimum will always be detected.
2. If the < or > of the softkey Next Mode is used, the 6 dB level change set as a
default value may already be attained by the inherent noise of the instrument. To
avoid identifying noise peaks as maxima or minima, enter a peak excursion value
that is higher than the difference between the highest and the lowest value measured for the displayed inherent noise.
Effect of Different Peak Excursion Settings (Example)
The following figure shows a trace to be examined.
Fig. 4-21: Trace example
The following table lists the signals as indicated by the marker numbers in the diagram
above, as well as the minimum of the amplitude decrease to both sides of the signal:
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
284
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
Signal #
Min. amplitude decrease to both sides of the signal
1
30 dB
2
29.85 dB
3
7 dB
4
7 dB
The detected signals and their order are different depending on the peak excursion
setting and the peak search method (whether the next lower maximum or the next relative maximum is searched). The following results are obtained. All tests start with the
marker set to signal 1 by pressing the Peak softkey.
●
40 dB peak excursion
Result: With both methods apart from signal 1 no signal is detected, as the signal
level does not decrease by more than 30 dB to either side of any signal.
Next lower maximum
Next relative maximum
Next Mode abs: signal 1
Next Mode <: signal 1
(no further signal detected)
(no further signal detected)
Next Mode >: signal 1
(no further signal detected)
●
20 dB peak excursion
Result: With both methods apart from signal 1 signal 2 is detected, as the signal
level decreases at least by 29.85 dB to either side of this signal, which is now
greater than the peak excursion.
Next lower maximum
Next relative maximum
Next Mode abs: signal 2
Next Mode <: signal 1
(no further signal detected)
Next Mode abs: signal 2
Next Mode >: signal 2
(no further signal detected)
Next Mode >: signal 2
(no further signal detected)
●
6 dB peak excursion
Result: With both methods all signals are detected.
Next lower maximum
Next relative maximum
Next Mode abs: signal 2
Next Mode <: signal 3
Next Mode abs: signal 3
Next Mode >: signal 1
Next Mode abs: signal 4
Next Mode >: signal 2
Next Mode >: signal 4
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
285
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
4.3.3.3
Performing Peak Searches with Markers – PEAK SEARCH Key
The PEAK SEARCH key is used to perform a peak search with the currently active
marker. If no marker is active, marker 1 is activated in normal mode and set as the
peak.
If the selected diagram does not support markers, this key is ignored.
4.3.3.4
Measuring with Markers (MKR FUNC Key)
The MKR FUNC key provides various functions for markers, e.g.
●
Phase Noise measurements
●
Setting reference points
●
Marker demodulation
●
Defining Marker peak lists
●
Signal counts
●
Measuring the power for a band around the marker
To open the marker function menu
●
Press the MKR FUNC key.
The "Mkr Func" (marker function) menu is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
●
"Softkeys of the Marker Function Menu" on page 286
Further information
●
"AF Demodulation" on page 295
●
"Frequency Measurement with the Frequency Counter" on page 296
●
"Measurement of Noise Density" on page 296
●
"Measurement example for Phase Noise Auto Peak Search" on page 298
Tasks
●
"Setting a Fixed Reference Point (Phase Noise Measurement)" on page 295
●
"Setting the Demodulation Mode and Duration" on page 295
●
"Performing Band Power Measurements" on page 298
Softkeys of the Marker Function Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the marker function menu. It is possible that your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is
only available with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is
provided in the corresponding softkey description.
Select Marker (No)...................................................................................................... 287
Signal Count................................................................................................................287
Noise Meas On/Off......................................................................................................288
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
286
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
Phase Noise................................................................................................................288
└ Phase Noise On/Off...................................................................................... 288
└ Ref Point Level..............................................................................................288
└ Ref Point Frequency (span > 0)/Ref Point Time (zero span)........................288
└ Peak Search................................................................................................. 289
└ Ph. Noise Auto Peak Search........................................................................ 289
└ Select Marker (No)........................................................................................289
Ref Fixed.....................................................................................................................289
└ Ref. Fixed On/Off.......................................................................................... 289
└ Ref Point Level..............................................................................................289
└ Ref Point Frequency (span > 0)/Ref Point Time (zero span)........................290
└ Peak Search................................................................................................. 290
Marker Demod............................................................................................................ 290
└ Mkr Demod On/Off........................................................................................290
└ AM.................................................................................................................290
└ FM.................................................................................................................290
└ Mkr Stop Time...............................................................................................290
└ Continuous Demod (span > 0)......................................................................291
└ Squelch......................................................................................................... 291
└ Squelch Level............................................................................................... 291
n dB down................................................................................................................... 291
Marker Peak List......................................................................................................... 292
└ Peak List On/Off............................................................................................292
└ Sort Mode Freq/Lvl....................................................................................... 292
└ Max Peak Count........................................................................................... 292
└ Peak Excursion............................................................................................. 293
└ Left Limit....................................................................................................... 293
└ Right Limit..................................................................................................... 293
└ Threshold...................................................................................................... 293
└ ASCII File Export.......................................................................................... 293
└ Decim Sep.................................................................................................... 294
└ Marker Number............................................................................................. 294
Band Power.................................................................................................................294
└ Select Marker (No)........................................................................................294
└ Band Power On/Off.......................................................................................294
└ Span..............................................................................................................294
└ Power............................................................................................................294
└ Density.......................................................................................................... 295
Select Marker (No)
Opens a submenu to select one of 16 markers and define whether the marker is a normal or a delta marker (see "Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker
Norm/Delta" on page 74). "(No)" indicates the number of the currently active marker.
See "Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta" on page 74.
Signal Count
Switches the frequency counter on or off, and opens an edit dialog box to define the
resolution of the frequency counter, if enabled. The frequency is counted at the position of the reference marker (marker 1). If no marker is activate, marker 1 is switched
on and positioned on the largest signal.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
287
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
The sweep stops at the reference marker until the frequency counter has delivered a
result. The result is displayed in the marker field (see figure 3-6), labeled with [Tx
CNT].
For more information see "Frequency Measurement with the Frequency Counter"
on page 296.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​COUNt​ on page 681
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​COUNt:​FREQuency?​ on page 682
Noise Meas On/Off
Switches the noise measurement for the active marker on or off. The corresponding
marker becomes the normal marker.
For more information on noise measurement see "Measurement of Noise Density"
on page 296.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​NOISe[:​STATe]​ on page 683
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​NOISe:​RESult​ on page 683
Phase Noise
This softkey opens a submenu that contains functionality to configure and perform
phase noise measurements.
Phase Noise On/Off ← Phase Noise
Switches the phase noise measurement with all active delta markers on and off. The
correction values for the bandwidth and the log amplifier are taken into account in the
measurement.
Marker 1 is activated, if necessary, and a peak search is performed. If marker 1 is activated, its position becomes the reference point for the measurement.
Deltamarker 2 is activated and can be used to read out the phase noise value at a
given frequency offset.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​FUNCtion:​PNOise[:​STATe]​ on page 685
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​FUNCtion:​PNOise:​RESult?​ on page 684
Ref Point Level ← Phase Noise
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a reference level value. All relative level values of the
delta markers refer to this reference level.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​FUNCtion:​FIXed:​RPOint:​Y​ on page 679
Ref Point Frequency (span > 0)/Ref Point Time (zero span) ← Phase Noise
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a frequency reference or time value. All relative frequency or time values of the delta markers refer to this frequency reference. For phase
noise measurement, input of reference time is not possible.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​FUNCtion:​FIXed:​RPOint:​X​ on page 679
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
288
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
Peak Search ← Phase Noise
Sets the maximum value of the selected trace as the reference point.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​FUNCtion:​FIXed:​RPOint:​MAXimum[:​PEAK]​
on page 678
Ph. Noise Auto Peak Search ← Phase Noise
Activates an automatic peak search for the reference fixed marker 1 at the end of each
particular sweep.
This function can be used to track a drifting source during a phase noise measurement. The delta marker 2, which shows the phase noise measurement result, keeps
the delta frequency value. Therefore the phase noise measurement leads to reliable
results in a certain offset although the source is drifting. Only if the marker 2 reaches
the border of the span, the delta marker value is adjusted to be within the span. In
these cases, select a larger span.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​FUNCtion:​PNOise:​AUTO​ on page 684
Select Marker (No) ← Phase Noise
Opens a submenu to select one of 16 markers and define whether the marker is a normal or a delta marker (see "Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker
Norm/Delta" on page 74). "(No)" indicates the number of the currently active marker.
See "Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta" on page 74.
Ref Fixed
Opens a submenu to set all values of a reference point. Instead of using the current
values of the reference marker (marker 1) as reference point for the delta markers,
level and frequency or time are set to fixed values and used as reference point.
Ref. Fixed On/Off ← Ref Fixed
Switches the relative measurement to a fixed reference value on or off. The level and
frequency or time values of marker 1 immediately become the reference point, but can
be altered using the corresponding softkeys ("Ref Point Level" on page 288, "Ref Point
Frequency (span > 0)/Ref Point Time (zero span)" on page 288 and "Peak Search"
on page 289).
When set to ON, all delta markers which previously referenced marker 1 are automatically set to reference the fixed marker.
The reference marker assignment can be changed using the "Marker Wizard" (see
"Marker Wizard" on page 74).
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​FUNCtion:​FIXed[:​STATe]​ on page 680
Ref Point Level ← Ref Fixed
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a reference level value. All relative level values of the
delta markers refer to this reference level.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​FUNCtion:​FIXed:​RPOint:​Y​ on page 679
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
289
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
Ref Point Frequency (span > 0)/Ref Point Time (zero span) ← Ref Fixed
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a frequency reference or time value. All relative frequency or time values of the delta markers refer to this frequency reference. For phase
noise measurement, input of reference time is not possible.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​FUNCtion:​FIXed:​RPOint:​X​ on page 679
Peak Search ← Ref Fixed
Sets the maximum value of the selected trace as the reference point.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​FUNCtion:​FIXed:​RPOint:​MAXimum[:​PEAK]​
on page 678
Marker Demod
The marker demodulation function sends the AM data at the current marker frequency
(in a bandwidth corresponding to the RBW) to the audio output. The "Marker Demod"
softkey opens a submenu to set the demodulation output settings.
For more information see "AF Demodulation" on page 295.
Marker demodulation is not available for Spectrum Emission Mask measurements.
Mkr Demod On/Off ← Marker Demod
Switches the demodulation output on or off.
For more information see "AF Demodulation" on page 295.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​DEModulation[:​STATe]​ on page 687
AM ← Marker Demod
Sets AM as the output demodulation mode. This is the default setting.
For more information see "AF Demodulation" on page 295.
Remote command:
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:DEM:SEL AM, see CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​
DEModulation:​SELect​ on page 686
FM ← Marker Demod
Sets FM as the output demodulation mode. Default setting is AM.
For more information see "AF Demodulation" on page 295.
Remote command:
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:DEM:SEL FM, see CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​
DEModulation:​SELect​ on page 686
Mkr Stop Time ← Marker Demod
Opens an edit dialog box to define how long demodulation should be output for span >
0.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
290
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
For more information see "AF Demodulation" on page 295.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​DEModulation:​HOLDoff​ on page 686
Continuous Demod (span > 0) ← Marker Demod
Switches the continuous demodulation on or off. If the sweep time is long enough, the
set frequency range can be monitored acoustically.
For more information see "AF Demodulation" on page 295.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​DEModulation:​CONTinuous​
on page 685
Squelch ← Marker Demod
Activates the squelch function, i.e. the audible AF is cut off below a defined threshold
level. Thus, you avoid hearing noise at the audio output when no signal is available.
The squelch function activates the video trigger function (see "Video" on page 246)
and deactivates any other trigger or gating settings. The squelch level and trigger level
are set to the same value.
The trigger source in the channel information bar is indicated as "SQL" for squelch.
The squelch level is indicated by a red line in the diagram.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]DEMod:​SQUelch[:​STATe]​ on page 456
Squelch Level ← Marker Demod
Defines the level threshold below which the audible AF is cut off if squelching is
enabled. The video trigger level is set to the same value.
The squelch level is indicated by a red line in the diagram.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]DEMod:​SQUelch:​LEVel​ on page 455
n dB down
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value to define the level spacing of the two temporary markers to the right and left of marker 1 (default setting: 3 dB). Activates the temporary markers T1 and T2. The values of the temporary markers (T1, T2) and the
entered value (ndB) are displayed in the marker field.
If a positive value is entered, the markers T1 and T2 are placed below the active reference marker. If a negative value (e.g. for notch filter measurements) is entered, the
markers T1 and T2 are placed above the active reference marker. Marker T1 is placed
to the left and marker T2 to the right of the reference marker.
In the marker table, the following results are displayed:
Span setting
Parameter name
Description
span > 0
Bw
frequency spacing of the two temporary markers
Q factor
quality of the displayed bandwidth value (Bw)
PWid
pulse width between the two temporary markers
span = 0
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
291
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
If it is not possible to form the frequency spacing for the n dB value (e.g. because of
noise display), dashes instead of a measured value are displayed.
Remote command:
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:NDBD:STAT ON, see CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​
NDBDown:​STATe​ on page 689
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:NDBD 3dB, see CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​
NDBDown​ on page 687
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:NDBD:RES? , see CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​
NDBDown:​RESult?​ on page 689
CALC:MARK:FUNC:NDBD:QFAC?, see CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​
NDBDown:​QFACtor​ on page 688
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:NDBD:FREQ? (span > 0), see CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​
FUNCtion:​NDBDown:​FREQuency?​ on page 688
CALC:MARK1:FUNC:NDBD:TIME? (span = 0), see CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​
FUNCtion:​NDBDown:​TIME?​ on page 690
Marker Peak List
Opens the "Peak List" submenu to define criteria for the sort order and the contents of
the peak list. For each listed peak the frequency ("Stimulus") and level ("Response")
values are given. In addition, the peaks are indicated in the trace display. A maximum
of 50 entries are listed.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FPEaks:​COUNt?​ on page 691
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FPEaks:​X​ on page 694
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FPEaks:​Y?​ on page 695
Peak List On/Off ← Marker Peak List
Activates/deactivates the marker peak list. If activated, the peak list is displayed and
the peaks are indicated in the trace display.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FPEaks:​STAT​ on page 694
Sort Mode Freq/Lvl ← Marker Peak List
Defines the criteria for sorting:
"Freq"
sorting in ascending order of frequency values (span > 0) or time values (span = 0)
"Lvl"
sorting in ascending order of the level
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FPEaks:​SORT​ on page 693
Max Peak Count ← Marker Peak List
Defines the maximum number of peaks to be determined and displayed.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FPEaks:​LIST:​SIZE​ on page 693
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
292
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
Peak Excursion ← Marker Peak List
Opens an edit dialog box for level measurements to enter the minimum level value by
which a signal must rise or fall so that it will be identified as a maximum or a minimum
by the search functions. Entries from 0 dB to 80 dB are allowed; the resolution is 0.1
dB. The default setting for the peak excursion is 6 dB.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​PEXCursion​ on page 487
Left Limit ← Marker Peak List
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for the lower limit (left vertical line: S1 for
span > 0; T1 for zero span). The search is performed between the lines of the left and
right limit (see also Right Limit softkey).
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SLIMits:​LEFT​ on page 498
Right Limit ← Marker Peak List
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a value for the upper limit (left vertical line: S2 for
span > 0; T2 for zero span). The search is performed between the lines of the left and
right limit (see also Left Limit softkey). If no value is set, the upper limit corresponds to
the stop frequency.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SLIMits:​RIGHT​ on page 498
Threshold ← Marker Peak List
Opens an edit dialog box to define the threshold line. The threshold line represents the
lower level limit for a "Peak" search and the upper level limit for a "Min" search.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​THReshold:​STATe​ on page 677
CALCulate<n>:​THReshold​ on page 676
ASCII File Export ← Marker Peak List
Opens the "ASCII File Export Name" dialog box and saves the active peak list in ASCII
format to the specified file and directory.
The file consists of the header containing important scaling parameters and a data section containing the marker data. For details on an ASCII file see chapter 4.3.1.6, "ASCII
File Export Format", on page 271.
This format can be processed by spreadsheet calculation programs, e.g. MS-Excel. It
is necessary to define ';' as a separator for the data import. Different language versions
of evaluation programs may require a different handling of the decimal point. It is therefore possible to select between separators '.' (decimal point) and ',' (comma) using the
"Decim Sep" softkey (see "Decim Sep" on page 72).
An example of an output file for Spectrum Emission Mask measurements is given in
"ASCII File Export Format (Spectrum Emission Mask)" on page 151.
Remote command:
FORMat:​DEXPort:​DSEParator​ on page 661
MMEMory:​STORe<n>:​LIST​ on page 586
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
293
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
Decim Sep ← Marker Peak List
Selects the decimal separator with floating-point numerals for the ASCII Trace export
to support evaluation programs (e.g. MS-Excel) in different languages. The values '.'
(decimal point) and ',' (comma) can be set.
Remote command:
FORMat:​DEXPort:​DSEParator​ on page 661
Marker Number ← Marker Peak List
If enabled, the determined peaks are indicated by their corresponding marker number
in the trace display.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​FPEaks:​ANN:​LAB:​STAT​ on page 691
Band Power
Opens a submenu to activate and configure a band power marker. Band power markers allow you to measure the integrated power for a defined span (band) around a
marker. The result can be displayed either as a power (dBm) or density (dBm/Hz). The
span is indicated by lines in the diagram.
Band power markers are only available for standard frequency measurements in Spectrum mode.
For more information see "Performing Band Power Measurements" on page 298.
Select Marker (No) ← Band Power
Opens a submenu to select one of 16 markers and define whether the marker is a normal or a delta marker (see "Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker
Norm/Delta" on page 74). "(No)" indicates the number of the currently active marker.
See "Marker 1 / Marker 2 / Marker 3 / … Marker 16,/ Marker Norm/Delta" on page 74.
Band Power On/Off ← Band Power
Activates or deactivates the band power marker. When switched to on, if no marker is
active yet, marker 1 is activated. Otherwise, the currently active marker is used as a
band power marker (all other marker functions for this marker are deactivated). All
markers can be defined as band power markers, each with a different span.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​BPOWer[:​STATe]​ on page 697
Span ← Band Power
Defines the span (band) around the marker for which the power is measured. The span
is indicated by lines in the diagram.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​BPOWer:​SPAN​ on page 696
Power ← Band Power
Selects the power mode for the band power marker, i.e. the result is displayed in dBm.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​BPOWer:​MODE​ on page 695
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​BPOWer:​RESult?​ on page 696
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
294
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
Density ← Band Power
Selects the density mode for the band power marker, i.e. the result is displayed in
dBm/Hz.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​BPOWer:​MODE​ on page 695
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​FUNCtion:​BPOWer:​RESult?​ on page 696
Setting a Fixed Reference Point (Phase Noise Measurement)
1. Press the Phase Noise softkey.
The submenu with the Phase Noise On/Off softkey switched on is displayed. The
level and frequency or time values of marker 1 immediately become the reference
point.
2. Setting the maximum of the selected trace as reference point, press the Peak
Search softkey.
3. To define the values for the reference point, proceed as follows:
a) Press the Ref Fixed softkey.
b) Press the Ref Point Level softkey and enter a reference level value.
c) If span > 0, press the Ref Point Frequency (span > 0)/Ref Point Time (zero
span) softkey and enter a frequency reference value.
d) If span = 0, press the "Ref Point Time" softkey and enter a reference time value
(see "Ref Point Frequency (span > 0)/Ref Point Time (zero span)"
on page 288).
Setting the Demodulation Mode and Duration
1. Press the Marker Demod softkey.
The submenu with the Mkr Demod On/Off softkey switched on is displayed.
2. To change the demodulation mode, press the AM or FM softkey.
3. For details see "AF Demodulation" on page 295.
4. To modify the demodulation time for span > 0, press the Mkr Stop Time softkey.
5. To change to continuous demodulation for span > 0, press the Continuous Demod
(span > 0) softkey.
AF Demodulation
The R&S ESR provides demodulators for AM and FM signals. With these demodulators, a displayed signal can be identified acoustically by using headphones.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
295
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
Risk of hearing damage
To protect your hearing, make sure that the volume setting is not too high before putting on the headphones.
The volume for the headphones is controlled using the rotary knob next to the "AF Output" interface on the front panel of the instrument.
For span > 0, the demodulation is not continuous. The frequency at which the demodulation takes place is determined by the active marker. The demodulation bandwidth
corresponds to the RBW. If the level of the selected frequency is above the threshold
line, the sweep stops for the selected time (stop time) and the RF signal is demodulated. For span = 0, the demodulation is continuously active irrespective of the stop time
set.
Frequency Measurement with the Frequency Counter
In order to accurately determine the frequency of a signal, the R&S ESR is equipped
with a frequency counter which measures the frequency of the RF signal at the intermediate frequency. Using the measured IF, the R&S ESR calculates the frequency of
the RF input signal by applying the known frequency conversion factors.
The frequency measurement uncertainty depends only upon the accuracy of the frequency reference used (external or internal reference). Although the R&S ESR always
operates synchronously irrespective of the set span, the frequency counter delivers a
more exact result than a measurement performed with a marker. This is due to the following:
●
The marker measures only the position of the point on the trace and infers from
this value the signal frequency. The trace, however, contains only a limited number
of points. Depending upon the selected span, each point may contain many measurement values, which therefore limits the frequency resolution.
●
The resolution with which the frequency can be measured with a marker is dependant on the selected resolution bandwidth, which in return affects the necessary
measurement time. For this reason, the bandwidth is normally defined as wide as
possible and the sweep time as short as possible. This results in a loss of frequency resolution. For the measurement with the frequency counter, the sweep is
stopped at the reference marker, the frequency is counted with the desired resolution and then the sweep is allowed to continue.
In I/Q Analyzer mode (see chapter 5, "I/Q Analyzer", on page 328), the resolution
with which the frequency can be measured with a marker is always the filter bandwidth, which is derived from the defined sample rate.
Measurement of Noise Density
During noise measurement, the noise power density is measured at the position of the
marker. For span = 0, all points of the trace are used to determine the noise power
density. For span > 0, two points to the right and left of the marker are used for the
measurement to obtain a stable result.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
296
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
The noise power density is indicated in the marker field. With logarithmic amplitude
units (dBm, dBmV, dBmµV, dBµA), the noise power density is output in dBm/Hz, i.e. as
level in 1 Hz bandwidth with reference to 1 mW. With linear amplitude units (V, A, W),
the noise voltage density is evaluated in µV/Hz, the noise current density in µA/Hz or
the noise power density in µW/Hz.
In the default setting, the R&S ESR uses the sample detector for the noise function.
With the sample detector, the trace can additionally be set to AVERAGE to stabilize
the measured values. With RMS detector used, trace averaging must not be used
since in this case it produces too low noise levels which cannot be corrected. Instead,
the sweep time can be increased to obtain stable measurement results.
Prerequisite settings
The following settings have to be made to ensure that the power density measurement
yields correct values:
●
Detector: Sample or RMS
●
Video bandwidth:
≤ 0.1 resolution bandwidth with sample detector
≥ 3 x resolution bandwidth with RMS detector
●
Trace averaging:
With the sample detector, the trace can additionally be set to average to stabilize
the measured values. With RMS detector used, trace averaging must not be used
since in this case it produces too low noise levels which cannot be corrected.
Instead, the sweep time can be increased to obtain stable measurement results.
Correction factors
The R&S ESR uses the following correction factors to evaluate the noise density from
the marker level:
●
Since the noise power is indicated with reference to 1 Hz bandwidth, the bandwidth
correction value is deducted from the marker level. It is 10 x lg (1 Hz/BWNoise),
where BWNoise is the noise or power bandwidth of the set resolution filter (RBW).
●
RMS detector: With the exception of bandwidth correction, no further corrections
are required since this detector already indicates the power with every point of the
trace.
●
Sample detector: As a result of video filter averaging and trace averaging, 1.05 dB
is added to the marker level. This is the difference between the average value and
the RMS value of white noise. With a logarithmic level axis, 1.45 dB is added additionally. Logarithmic averaging is thus fully taken into account which yields a value
that is 1.45 dB lower than that of linear averaging.
●
To allow a more stable noise display the adjacent (symmetric to the measurement
frequency) points of the trace are averaged.
●
For span > 0, the measured values are averaged versus time (after a sweep).
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
297
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
The R&S ESR noise figure can be calculated from the measured power density level. It
is calculated by deducting the set RF attenuation (RF Att) from the displayed noise
level and adding 174 to the result.
Measurement example for Phase Noise Auto Peak Search
The phase noise of a CW signal at 100 MHz with 0 dBm level is to be measured at 800
kHz from the carrier.
1. PRESET
The R&S FSP is set to the default setting.
2. FREQ > "CENTER": 100 MHz
The center frequency is set to 100 MHz.
3. SPAN: 2 MHz
The span is set to 2 MHz.
4. AMPT: 0 dBm
The reference level is set to 0 dBm.
5. MKR FCTN > "MARKER 1"
Marker 1 is switched on and positioned at the maximum of the displayed trace.
6. "PHASE NOISE": 800 kHz
The phase noise measurement is switched on. The delta marker is positioned on
the main marker and the measured phase noise value is displayed in the marker
info field. The sample detector is used and the video bandwidth is set to 3 × RBW.
When the phase noise measurement function is enabled, the entry of the delta
marker frequency is activated. It can be entered directly.
Performing Band Power Measurements
Band power markers allow you to measure the integrated power (similar to ACP measurements) for a defined span (band) around a marker. By default, 5 % of the current
span is used. The span is indicated by colored lines in the diagram. The result can be
displayed either as a power (dBm) or density (dBm/Hz).
Band power markers are only available for standard frequency measurements in Spectrum mode (not zero span, I/Q Analyzer etc.).
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
298
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Analysis
All markers can be defined as band power markers, each with a different span. When a
band power marker is activated, if no marker is active yet, marker 1 is activated. Otherwise, the currently active marker is used as a band power marker (all other marker
functions for this marker are deactivated).
If the detector mode for the marker trace is set to "AutoSelect", the RMS detector is
used.
1. In the MKR FUNC menu, press "Band Power".
2. In the "Band Power" menu, press "Span" and enter the width of the band around
the marker for which the power is to be measured.
3. To display the measurement result in dBm/Hz, press "Density". By default, the
result is displayed as a power in dBm.
4. Press "Band Power On" to activate the band power marker.
The measurement results are displayed as usual in the marker table or in the diagram.
4.3.4 Lines
The LINES key is used to configure limit and display lines.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
299
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Advanced Measurement Examples
To open the Lines menu
●
Press the LINES key.
The "Lines" menu and the "Select Limit Line" dialog box are displayed. For details on
the "Select Limit Line" dialog box refer to chapter 3.4.3.5, "Selecting a Limit Line",
on page 88.
Menu and softkey description
●
chapter 3.4.3.1, "Softkeys of the Lines Menu", on page 82
Further information
●
chapter 3.4.3.2, "Display Lines", on page 86
●
chapter 3.4.3.3, "Limit Lines (Frequency/Time Lines)", on page 87
Tasks
●
chapter 3.4.3.4, "Working with Lines", on page 87
●
chapter 3.4.3.5, "Selecting a Limit Line", on page 88
●
chapter 3.4.3.6, "Creating a New Limit Line", on page 89
●
chapter 3.4.3.7, "Editing an Existing Limit Line", on page 91
●
chapter 3.4.3.8, "Creating a New Limit Line Based upon an Existing Limit Line",
on page 91
●
chapter 3.4.3.9, "Activating/Deactivating a Limit Line", on page 92
4.4 Advanced Measurement Examples
This chapter explains how to operate the R&S ESR in spectrum mode using typical
measurements as examples. Additional background information on the settings is
given. For more detailed information on all available softkeys and the corresponding
instrument functions, see chapter 4, "Spectrum Measurements", on page 93.
●
●
●
●
●
●
Test Setup.............................................................................................................300
Measurement of Harmonics.................................................................................. 301
Measuring the Spectra of Complex Signals.......................................................... 303
Measuring Signals in the Vicinity of Noise............................................................ 306
Noise Measurements............................................................................................ 311
Measurements on Modulated Signals...................................................................318
4.4.1 Test Setup
All of the following examples are based on the standard settings of the R&S ESR.
These are set with the PRESET key. A complete listing of the standard settings can be
found in chapter "Instrument Functions", section "Initializing the Configuration – PRESET Key".
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
300
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Advanced Measurement Examples
In the following examples, a signal generator is used as a signal source. The RF output
of the signal generator is connected to the RF input of R&S ESR.
If a 64 MHz signal is required for the test setup, as an alternative to the signal generator, the internal 64 MHz reference generator can be used:
1. Switch on the internal reference generator.
a)
b)
c)
d)
Press the SETUP key.
Press the "More" key.
Press the "Service" softkey.
Press the "Input RF/Cal" softkey, until "Cal" is highlighted.
The internal 64 MHz reference generator is now on. The R&S ESR's RF input
is switched off.
2. Switch on the RF input again for normal operation of the R&S ESR. Two ways are
possible:
a) Press the PRESET key.
or:
b) Press the SETUP key.
c) Press the "Service" softkey.
d) Press the "Input RF/Cal" softkey, until "RF" is highlighted.
The internal signal path of the R&S ESR is switched back to the RF input in order
to resume normal operation.
4.4.2 Measurement of Harmonics
Signal generator settings (e.g. R&S ESR SMU):
Frequency:
128 MHz
Level:
- 25 dBm
Procedure on the R&S ESR:
1. Set the R&S ESR to its default state by pressing the PRESET key.
2. Set the center frequency to 128 MHz and the span to 100 kHz.
3. Switch on the marker by pressing the MKR key.
The marker is positioned on the trace maximum.
4. Set the measured signal frequency and the measured level as reference values.
a) Press the MKR FUNC key
b) Press the "Ref Fixed" softkey.
The position of the marker becomes the reference point. The reference point
level is indicated by a horizontal line, the reference point frequency with a vertical line. At the same time, the delta marker 2 is switched on.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
301
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Advanced Measurement Examples
Fig. 4-22: Fundamental wave and the frequency and level reference point
5. Make the step size for the center frequency equal to the signal frequency
a) Press the FREQ key.
b) Press the "CF-Stepsize" softkey and press the "= Marker" softkey in the submenu.
The step size for the center frequency is now equal to the marker frequency.
6. Set the center frequency to the second harmonic of the signal.
a) Press the FREQ key.
b) Press the UPARROW key once.
The center frequency is set to the second harmonic.
7. Place the delta marker on the second harmonic.
a) Press the MKR -> key.
b) Press the "Peak" softkey.
The delta marker moves to the maximum of the second harmonic. The displayed
level result is relative to the reference point level (= fundamental wave level).
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
302
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Advanced Measurement Examples
Fig. 4-23: Measuring the level difference between the fundamental wave (= reference point level) and
the 2nd harmonic
The other harmonics are measured with steps 5 and 6, the center frequency being
incremented or decremented in steps of 128 MHz using the UPARROW or DNARROW
key.
4.4.3 Measuring the Spectra of Complex Signals
4.4.3.1
Separating Signals by Selecting an Appropriate Resolution Bandwidth
A basic feature of a signal analyzer is being able to separate the spectral components
of a mixture of signals. The resolution at which the individual components can be separated is determined by the resolution bandwidth. Selecting a resolution bandwidth that
is too large may make it impossible to distinguish between spectral components, i.e.
they are displayed as a single component.
An RF sinusoidal signal is displayed by means of the passband characteristic of the
resolution filter (RBW) that has been set. Its specified bandwidth is the 3 dB bandwidth
of the filter.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
303
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Advanced Measurement Examples
Two signals with the same amplitude can be resolved if the resolution bandwidth is
smaller than or equal to the frequency spacing of the signal. If the resolution bandwidth
is equal to the frequency spacing, the spectrum display screen shows a level drop of 3
dB precisely in the center of the two signals. Decreasing the resolution bandwidth
makes the level drop larger, which thus makes the individual signals clearer.
If there are large level differences between signals, the resolution is determined by
selectivity as well as by the resolution bandwidth that has been selected. The measure
of selectivity used for signal analyzers is the ratio of the 60 dB bandwidth to the 3 dB
bandwidth (= shape factor).
For the R&S ESR, the shape factor for bandwidths is < 5, i.e. the 60 dB bandwidth of
the 30 kHz filter is <150 kHz.
The higher spectral resolution with smaller bandwidths is won by longer sweep times
for the same span. The sweep time has to allow the resolution filters to settle during a
sweep at all signal levels and frequencies to be displayed.
4.4.3.2
Intermodulation Measurements
If several signals are applied to a transmission two-port device with nonlinear characteristic, intermodulation products appear at its output at the sums and differences of
the signals. The nonlinear characteristic produces harmonics of the useful signals
which intermodulate at the characteristic. The intermodulation products of lower order
have a special effect since their level is largest and they are near the useful signals.
The intermodulation product of third order causes the highest interference. It is the
intermodulation product generated from one of the useful signals and the 2nd harmonic
of the second useful signal in case of two-tone modulation.
Measurement Example – Measuring the R&S ESR's Intrinsic Intermodulation
Test setup:
Signal generator settings (e.g. R&S ESR SMU):
Level
Frequency
Signal generator 1
-4 dBm
999.7 MHz
Signal generator 2
-4 dBm
1000.3 MHz
Setting up the measurement
1. Set the R&S ESR to its default settings by pressing the PRESET key.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
304
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Advanced Measurement Examples
The R&S ESR is in its default state.
2. Set center frequency to 1 GHz and the frequency span to 3 MHz.
3. Set the reference level to -10 dBm and RF attenuation to 0 dB.
4. Set the resolution bandwidth to 10 kHz.
The noise is reduced, the trace is smoothed further and the intermodulation products can be clearly seen.
5. Set the VBW to "1 kHz".
Measuring intermodulation using the 3rd order intercept (TOI)measurement function
1. Press the MEAS key and then the "TOI" softkey.
The R&S ESR activates four markers to measure the intermodulation distance.
Two markers are positioned on the useful signals and two on the intermodulation
products. The 3rd order intercept is calculated from the level difference between the
useful signals and the intermodulation products. It is then displayed on the screen:
Fig. 4-24: Result of intrinsic intermodulation measurement on the R&S ESR.
The 3rd order intercept (TOI) is displayed at the top right corner of the grid.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
305
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Advanced Measurement Examples
2. The level of a signal analyzer's intrinsic intermodulation products depends on the
RF level of the useful signals at the input mixer. When the RF attenuation is added,
the mixer level is reduced and the intermodulation distance is increased. With an
additional RF attenuation of 10 dB, the levels of the intermodulation products are
reduced by 20 dB. The noise level is, however, increased by 10 dB.
Increase the RF attenuation to 20 dB to reduce intermodulation products.
The R&S ESR's intrinsic intermodulation products disappear below the noise floor.
4.4.4 Measuring Signals in the Vicinity of Noise
The minimum signal level a signal analyzer can measure is limited by its intrinsic noise.
Small signals can be swamped by noise and therefore cannot be measured. For signals that are just above the intrinsic noise, the accuracy of the level measurement is
influenced by the intrinsic noise of the signal analyzer.
The displayed noise level of a signal analyzer depends on its noise figure, the selected
RF attenuation, the selected reference level, the selected resolution and video bandwidth and the detector. The effect of the different parameters is explained in the following.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
306
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Advanced Measurement Examples
Impact of the RF attenuation setting
The sensitivity of a signal analyzer is directly influenced by the selected RF attenuation. The highest sensitivity is obtained at a RF attenuation of 0 dB. The attenuation
can be set in 10 dB steps up to 70 dB. Each additional 10 dB step reduces the sensitivity by 10 dB, i.e. the displayed noise is increased by 10 dB.
Impact of the resolution bandwidth
The sensitivity of a signal analyzer also directly depends on the selected bandwidth.
The highest sensitivity is obtained at the smallest bandwidth (1 Hz). If the bandwidth is
increased, the reduction in sensitivity is proportional to the change in bandwidth. The
R&S ESR has bandwidth settings in 1, 2, 3, 5 sequence. Increasing the bandwidth by a
factor of 3 increases the displayed noise by approx. 5 dB (4.77 dB precisely). If the
bandwidth is increased by a factor of 10, the displayed noise increases by a factor of
10, i.e. 10 dB.
Impact of the video bandwidth
The displayed noise of a signal analyzer is also influenced by the selected video bandwidth. If the video bandwidth is considerably smaller than the resolution bandwidth,
noise spikes are suppressed, i.e. the trace becomes much smoother. The level of a
sine wave signal is not influenced by the video bandwidth. A sine wave signal can
therefore be freed from noise by using a video bandwidth that is small compared with
the resolution bandwidth, and thus be measured more accurately.
Impact of the detector
Noise is evaluated differently by the different detectors. The noise display is therefore
influenced by the choice of detector. Sine wave signals are weighted in the same way
by all detectors, i.e. the level display for a sine wave RF signal does not depend on the
selected detector, provided that the signal-to-noise ratio is high enough. The measurement accuracy for signals in the vicinity of intrinsic signal analyzer noise is also influenced by the detector which has been selected. For details on the detectors of the
R&S ESR refer to chapter "Instrument Functions", section "Detector overview" or the
Online Help.
4.4.4.1
Measurement Example – Measuring Level at Low S/N Ratios
The example shows the different factors influencing the S/N ratio.
Signal generator settings (e.g. R&S ESR SMU):
Frequency:
128 MHz
Level:
- 90 dBm
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S ESR to its default state by pressing the PRESET key.
The R&S ESR is in its default state.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
307
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Advanced Measurement Examples
2. Set the center frequency to 128 MHz and the frequency span to 100 MHz:
a) Press the FREQ key and enter "128 MHz".
b) Press the SPAN key and enter "100 MHz".
Fig. 4-25: Sine wave signal with low S/N ratio. The signal is measured with the auto peak
detector and is completely hidden in the intrinsic noise of the R&S ESR.
3. To suppress noise spikes the trace can be averaged.
a) Press the TRACE key.
b) Press the "Trace Wizard" softkey.
The Trace Wizard dialog box opens.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
308
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Advanced Measurement Examples
c) Select "Average" in the "Trace Mode" drop-down menu of the selected trace.
The traces of consecutive sweeps are averaged. To perform averaging, the
R&S ESR automatically switches on the sample detector. The RF signal, therefore, can be more clearly distinguished from noise.
Fig. 4-26: RF sine wave signal with low S/N ratio if the trace is averaged.
4. Instead of trace averaging, a video filter that is narrower than the resolution bandwidth can be selected:
a) Press the TRACE key.
b) Press the "Trace Wizard" softkey.
The Trace Wizard dialog box opens.
c) Select "Clear Write" in the "Trace Mode" drop-down menu of the selected
trace.
d) Press the BW key.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
309
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Advanced Measurement Examples
e) Press the "Video BW Manual" softkey and enter "10 kHz".
The RF signal can be more clearly distinguished from noise.
Fig. 4-27: RF sine wave signal with low S/N ratio if a smaller video bandwidth is selected.
5. By reducing the resolution bandwidth by a factor of 10, the noise is reduced by 10
dB:
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
310
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Advanced Measurement Examples
a) In the "Bandwidth" menu press the "Res BW Manual" softkey and enter "100
kHz".
The displayed noise is reduced by approx. 10 dB. The signal, therefore,
emerges from noise by about 10 dB. Compared to the previous setting, the
video bandwidth has remained the same, i.e. it has increased relative to the
smaller resolution bandwidth. The averaging effect of the video bandwidth is
therefore reduced. The trace will be noisier.
Fig. 4-28: Reference signal at a smaller resolution bandwidth
4.4.5 Noise Measurements
Noise measurements play an important role in signal analysis. Noise e.g. affects the
sensitivity of radio communication systems and their components.
Noise power is specified either as the total power in the transmission channel or as the
power referred to a bandwidth of 1 Hz. The sources of noise are, for example, amplifier
noise or noise generated by oscillators used for the frequency conversion of useful signals in receivers or transmitters. The noise at the output of an amplifier is determined
by its noise figure and gain.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
311
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Advanced Measurement Examples
The noise of an oscillator is determined by phase noise near the oscillator frequency
and by thermal noise of the active elements far from the oscillator frequency. Phase
noise can mask weak signals near the oscillator frequency and make them impossible
to detect.
4.4.5.1
Measuring Noise Power Density
To measure noise power referred to a bandwidth of 1 Hz at a certain frequency, the
R&S ESR provides marker function. This marker function calculates the noise power
density from the measured marker level.
Measurement Example – Measuring the Intrinsic Noise Power Density of the
R&S ESR at 1 GHz and Calculating the R&S ESR's Noise Figure
Test setup:
► Connect no signal to the RF input; terminate RF input with 50 Ω.
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S ESR to its default state by pressing the PRESET key.
The R&S ESR is in its default state.
2. Set the center frequency to 1.234 GHz and the span to 1 MHz.
a) Press the FREQ key and enter "1.234 GHz".
b) Press the SPAN key and enter "1 MHz".
3. Switch on the marker and set the marker frequency to 1.234 GHz by pressing the
MKR key and entering "1.234 GHz".
4. Switch on the noise marker function by switching on the "Noise Meas" softkey.
a) Press the MKR FUNC key.
b) Switch the "Noise Meas" softkey to "On"
The R&S ESR displays the noise power at 1 GHz in dBm (1Hz).
Note: Since noise is random, a sufficiently long measurement time has to be
selected to obtain stable measurement results. This can be achieved by averaging
the trace or by selecting a very small video bandwidth relative to the resolution
bandwidth.
5. The measurement result is stabilized by averaging the trace.
a) Press the TRACE key.
b) Press the "Trace Wizard" softkey.
The Trace Wizard dialog box opens.
c) Select "Average" in the "Trace Mode" drop-down menu of the selected trace.
The R&S ESR performs sliding averaging over 10 traces from consecutive sweeps.
The measurement result becomes more stable.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
312
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Advanced Measurement Examples
Conversion to other reference bandwidths
The result of the noise measurement can be referred to other bandwidths by simple
conversion. This is done by adding 10 × log (BW) to the measurement result, BW
being the new reference bandwidth.
Example:
A noise power of -150 dBm (1 Hz) is to be referred to a bandwidth of 1 kHz.
P[1kHz] = -150 + 10 × log (1000) = -150 +30 = -120 dBm (1 kHz)
Calculation method for noise power
If the noise marker is switched on, the R&S ESR automatically activates the sample
detector. The video bandwidth is set to 1/10 of the selected resolution bandwidth
(RBW).
To calculate the noise, the R&S ESR takes an average over 17 adjacent pixels (the
pixel on which the marker is positioned and 8 pixels to the left, 8 pixels to the right of
the marker). The measurement result is stabilized by video filtering and averaging over
17 pixels.
Since both video filtering and averaging over 17 trace points is performed in the log
display mode, the result would be 2.51 dB too low (difference between logarithmic
noise average and noise power). The R&S ESR, therefore, corrects the noise figure by
2.51 dB.
To standardize the measurement result to a bandwidth of 1 Hz, the result is also corrected by -10 × log (RBWnoise), with RBWnoise being the power bandwidth of the
selected resolution filter (RBW).
Detector selection
The noise power density is measured in the default setting with the sample detector
and using averaging. Other detectors that can be used to perform a measurement giving true results are the average detector or the RMS detector. If the average detector is
used, the linear video voltage is averaged and displayed as a pixel. If the RMS detector is used, the squared video voltage is averaged and displayed as a pixel. The averaging time depends on the selected sweep time (=SWT/501). An increase in the sweep
time gives a longer averaging time per pixel and thus stabilizes the measurement
result. The R&S ESR automatically corrects the measurement result of the noise
marker display depending on the selected detector (+1.05 dB for the average detector,
0 dΒ for the RMS detector). It is assumed that the video bandwidth is set to at least
three times the resolution bandwidth. While the average or RMS detector is being
switched on, the R&S ESR sets the video bandwidth to a suitable value.
The Pos Peak, Neg Peak, Auto Peak and Quasi Peak detectors are not suitable for
measuring noise power density.
Determining the noise figure
The noise figure of amplifiers or of the R&S ESR alone can be obtained from the noise
power display. Based on the known thermal noise power of a 50 Ω resistor at room
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
313
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Advanced Measurement Examples
temperature (-174 dBm (1Hz)) and the measured noise power Pnoise the noise figure
(NF) is obtained as follows:
NF = Pnoise + 174 – g,
where g = gain of DUT in dB
Example:
The measured internal noise power of the R&S ESR at an attenuation of 0 dB is found
to be -143 dBm/1 Hz. The noise figure of the R&S ESR is obtained as follows
NF = -143 + 174 = 31 dB
If noise power is measured at the output of an amplifier, for example, the sum of the
internal noise power and the noise power at the output of the DUT is measured. The
noise power of the DUT can be obtained by subtracting the internal noise power from
the total power (subtraction of linear noise powers). By means of the following diagram,
the noise level of the DUT can be estimated from the level difference between the total
and the internal noise level.
Fig. 4-29: Correction factor for measured noise power as a function of the ratio of total power to the
intrinsic noise power of the signal analyzer
4.4.5.2
Measurement of Noise Power within a Transmission Channel
Noise in any bandwidth can be measured with the channel power measurement functions. Thus the noise power in a communication channel can be determined, for example. If the noise spectrum within the channel bandwidth is flat, the noise marker from
the previous example can be used to determine the noise power in the channel by considering the channel bandwidth. If, however, phase noise and noise that normally
increases towards the carrier is dominant in the channel to be measured, or if there are
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
314
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Advanced Measurement Examples
discrete spurious signals in the channel, the channel power measurement method
must be used to obtain correct measurement results.
Measurement Example – Measuring the Intrinsic Noise of the R&S ESR at 1 GHz
in a 1.23 MHz Channel Bandwidth with the Channel Power Function
Test setup:
► Leave the RF input of the R&S ESR open-circuited or terminate it with 50 Ω.
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S ESR to its default state by pressing the PRESET key.
The R&S ESR is in its default state.
2. Set the center frequency to 1 GHz and the span to 1 MHz.
3. To obtain maximum sensitivity, set RF attenuation on the R&S ESR to 0 dB.
4. Set the "Sweep Type" to "Sweep".
5. Switch on and configure the channel power measurement.
a) Press the MEAS key.
b) Press the "Ch Power/ACLR" softkey.
The R&S ESR activates the channel or adjacent channel power measurement
according to the currently set configuration.
c) Press the "CP/ACLR Settings" softkey.
d) Press the "Channel Settings" softkey.
e) Press the "Channel Bandwidth" softkey and enter 1.23 MHz.
The R&S ESR displays the 1.23 MHz channel as two vertical lines which are
symmetrical to the center frequency.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
315
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Advanced Measurement Examples
f)
Press the "Adjust Settings" softkey.
The settings for the frequency span, the bandwidth (RBW and VBW) and the
detector are automatically set to the optimum values required for the measurement.
Fig. 4-30: Measurement of the R&S ESR's intrinsic noise power in a 1.23 MHz channel bandwidth.
6. Stabilize the measurement result by increasing the sweep time.
In the "Ch Power ACLR" menu, press the "Sweep Time" softkey and enter 1 s.
The trace becomes much smoother because of the RMS detector and the channel
power measurement display is much more stable.
4.4.5.3
Measuring Phase Noise
The R&S ESR has an easy-to-use marker function for phase noise measurements.
This marker function indicates the phase noise of an RF oscillator at any carrier in dBc
in a bandwidth of 1 Hz.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
316
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Advanced Measurement Examples
Measurement Example – Measuring the Phase Noise of a Signal Generator at a
Carrier Offset of 10 kHz
Test setup:
Signal generator settings (e.g. R&S ESR SMU):
Frequency:
100 MHz
Level:
0 dBm
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S ESR to its default state by pressing the PRESET key.
R&S ESR is in its default state.
2. Set the center frequency to 100 MHz and the span to 50 kHz.
a) Press the FREQ key and enter "100 MHz".
b) Press the SPAN key and enter "50 kHz".
3. Set the R&S ESR's reference level to 0 dBm (=signal generator level) by pressing
the AMPT key and enter "0 dBm".
4. Enable phase noise measurement.
a) Press the MKR FUNC key.
b) Press the "Phase Noise" softkey.
The R&S ESR activates phase noise measurement. Marker 1 (=main marker)
and marker 2 (= delta marker) are positioned on the signal maximum. The position of the marker is the reference (level and frequency) for the phase noise
measurement. A horizontal line represents the level of the reference point and
a vertical line the frequency of the reference point. The dialog box for the delta
marker is displayed so that the frequency offset at which the phase noise is to
be measured can be entered directly.
5. Set the frequency offset to 10 kHz for determining phase noise by entering "10
kHz".
The R&S ESR displays the phase noise at a frequency offset of 10 kHz. The magnitude of the phase noise in dBc/Hz is displayed in the delta marker output field at
the top right of the screen (Phn2).
6. Stabilize the measurement result by activating trace averaging.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
317
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Advanced Measurement Examples
Fig. 4-31: Measuring phase noise with the phase-noise marker function
The frequency offset can be varied by moving the marker with the rotary knob or by
entering a new frequency offset as a number.
4.4.6 Measurements on Modulated Signals
4.4.6.1
Measuring Channel Power and Adjacent Channel Power
Measuring channel power and adjacent channel power is one of the most important
tasks in the field of digital transmission for a signal analyzer with the necessary test
routines. While, theoretically, channel power could be measured at highest accuracy
with a power meter, its low selectivity means that it is not suitable for measuring adjacent channel power as an absolute value or relative to the transmit channel power. The
power in the adjacent channels can only be measured with a selective power meter.
A signal analyzer cannot be classified as a true power meter, because it displays the IF
envelope voltage. However, it is calibrated such as to correctly display the power of a
pure sine wave signal irrespective of the selected detector. This calibration cannot be
applied for non-sinusoidal signals. Assuming that the digitally modulated signal has a
Gaussian amplitude distribution, the signal power within the selected resolution band-
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
318
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Advanced Measurement Examples
width can be obtained using correction factors. These correction factors are normally
used by the signal analyzer's internal power measurement routines in order to determine the signal power from IF envelope measurements. These factors apply if and only
if the assumption of a Gaussian amplitude distribution is correct.
Apart from this common method, the R&S ESR also has a true power detector, i.e. an
RMS detector. It correctly displays the power of the test signal within the selected resolution bandwidth irrespective of the amplitude distribution, without additional correction
factors being required. The absolute measurement uncertainty of the FSV is < 1.5 dB
and a relative measurement uncertainty of < 0.5 dB (each with a confidence level of 95
%).
There are two possible methods for measuring channel and adjacent channel power
with a signal analyzer:
1. IBW method (Integration Bandwidth Method)
The signal analyzer measures with a resolution bandwidth that is less than the
channel bandwidth and integrates the level values of the trace versus the channel
bandwidth. This method is described in "Measurement Example – Measuring the
Intrinsic Noise of the R&S ESR at 1 GHz in a 1.23 MHz Channel Bandwidth with
the Channel Power Function" on page 315.
2. Using a channel filter
For a detailed description, refer to the following section.
Measurements using a channel filter
In this case, the signal analyzer makes zero span measurements using an IF filter that
corresponds to the channel bandwidth. The power is measured at the output of the IF
filter. Until now, this method has not been used for signal analyzers, because channel
filters were not available and the resolution bandwidths, optimized for the sweep, did
not have a sufficient selectivity. The method was reserved for special receivers optimized for a particular transmission method.
The R&S ESR has test routines for simple channel and adjacent channel power measurements. These routines give quick results without any complex or tedious setting
procedures.
Measurement Example 1 – ACPR Measurement on an CDMA2000 Signal
Test setup:
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
319
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Advanced Measurement Examples
Signal generator settings (e.g. R&S ESR SMU):
Frequency:
850 MHz
Level:
0 dBm
Modulation:
CDMA2000
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S ESR to its default state by pressing the PRESET key.
The R&S ESR is in its default state.
2. Press the FREQ key and enter "850 MHz" as the center frequency.
3. Press the SPAN key and enter "4 MHz".
4. Set the reference level to +10 dBm by pressing the AMPT key and enter "10 dBm".
5. Configure the adjacent channel power for the CDMA2000 standard (more precisely: CDMA2000 1X).
a)
b)
c)
d)
Press the MEAS key.
Press the "Ch Power ACLR" softkey.
Press the "CP/ACLR Standard" softkey.
In the standards list, mark CDMA2000.
The R&S ESR sets the channel configuration according to the 2000 standard with
2 adjacent channels above and 2 below the transmit channel. The spectrum is displayed in the upper part of the screen, the numeric values of the results and the
channel configuration in the lower part of the screen. The various channels are represented by vertical lines on the graph.
The frequency span, resolution bandwidth, video bandwidth and detector are
selected automatically to give correct results. To obtain stable results – especially
in the adjacent channels (30 kHz bandwidth) which are narrow in comparison with
the transmission channel bandwidth (1.23 MHz) – the RMS detector is used.
6. Set the optimal reference level and RF attenuation for the applied signal level by
pressing the "Adjust Ref Level" softkey.
7. Activate "Fast ACP" mode to increase the repeatability of results by pressing the
"Fast ACP" softkey (for details see below).
The R&S ESR sets the optimal RF attenuation and the reference level based on
the transmission channel power to obtain the maximum dynamic range. The figure 4-32 shows the result of the measurement.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
320
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Advanced Measurement Examples
Fig. 4-32: Adjacent channel power measurement on a CDMA2000 1x signal
Measurement Example 2 – Measuring Adjacent Channel Power of a W-CDMA
Uplink Signal
Test setup:
Signal generator settings (e.g. R&S ESR SMU):
Frequency:
1950 MHz
Level:
4 dBm
Modulation:
3 GPP W-CDMA Reverse Link
Procedure:
1. Set the R&S ESR to its default state by pressing the PRESET key.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
321
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Advanced Measurement Examples
The R&S ESR is in its default state.
2. Set the center frequency to 1950 MHz by pressing the FREQ key and entering
"1950 MHz".
3. Switch on the ACLR measurement for W-CDMA.
a)
b)
c)
d)
Press the MEAS key.
Press the "Ch Power ACLR" softkey.
Press the "CP/ACLR Standard" softkey.
In the standards list, select W-CDMA 3GPP REV.
The R&S ESR sets the channel configuration to the 3GPP W-CDMA standard
for mobiles with two adjacent channels above and below the transmit channel.
The frequency span, the resolution and video bandwidth and the detector are
automatically set to the correct values. The spectrum is displayed in the upper
part of the screen and the channel power, the level ratios of the adjacent channel powers and the channel configuration in the lower part of the screen. The
individual channels are displayed as vertical lines on the graph.
4. Set the optimum reference level and the RF attenuation for the applied signal level.
a) Press the "Adjust Ref Level" softkey.
The R&S ESR sets the optimum RF attenuation and the reference level for the
power in the transmission channel to obtain the maximum dynamic range. The
following figure shows the result of the measurement.
Fig. 4-33: Measuring the relative adjacent channel power on a W-CDMA uplink signal
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
322
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Advanced Measurement Examples
5. Set up the adjacent channel power measurement with the fast ACLR mode.
a) Set "Fast ACLR" softkey to "On".
b) Press the "Adjust Ref Level" softkey.
The R&S ESR measures the power of the individual channels with zero span.
A root raised cosine filter with the parameters α = 0.22 and chip rate 3.84 Mcps
(= receive filter for 3GPP W-CDMA) is used as channel filter.
Fig. 4-34: Measuring the adjacent channel power of a W-CDMA signal with the fast ACLR mode
Optimum Level Setting for ACP Measurements on W-CDMA Signals
The dynamic range for ACPR measurements is limited by the thermal noise floor, the
phase noise and the intermodulation (spectral regrowth) of the signal analyzer. The
power values produced by the R&S ESR due to these factors accumulate linearly.
They depend on the applied level at the input mixer. The three factors are shown in the
figure below for the adjacent channel (5 MHz carrier offset).
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
323
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Advanced Measurement Examples
Fig. 4-35: The R&S ESR's dynamic range for adjacent channel power measurements on W-CDMA
uplink signals is a function of the mixer level.
The level of the W-CDMA signal at the input mixer is shown on the horizontal axis, i.e.
the measured signal level minus the selected RF attenuation. The individual components which contribute to the power in the adjacent channel and the resulting relative
level (total ACPR) in the adjacent channel are displayed on the vertical axis. The optimum mixer level is -18 dBm. The relative adjacent channel power (ACPR) at an optimum mixer level is -77 dBc. Since, at a given signal level, the mixer level is set in 5 dB
steps with the 5 dB RF attenuator, the optimum 10 dB range spreads from -17 dBm to
-22 dBm. In this range, the obtainable dynamic range with noise correction is 77 dB.
To set the attenuation parameter manually, the following method is recommended:
► Set the RF attenuation so that the mixer level (= measured channel power – RF
attenuation) is between -16 dBm and -22 dBm.
This method is automated with the "Adjust Ref Level" function. Especially in remote
control mode, e.g. in production environments, it is best to correctly set the attenuation
parameters prior to the measurement, as the time required for automatic setting can be
saved.
To measure the R&S ESR's intrinsic dynamic range for W-CDMA adjacent channel
power measurements, a filter which suppresses the adjacent channel power is
required at the output of the transmitter. A SAW filter with a bandwidth of 4 MHz, for
example, can be used.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
324
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Advanced Measurement Examples
4.4.6.2
Amplitude Distribution Measurements
If modulation types are used that do not have a constant zero span envelope, the
transmitter has to handle peak amplitudes that are greater than the average power.
This includes all modulation types that involve amplitude modulation –QPSK for example. CDMA transmission modes in particular may have power peaks that are large
compared to the average power.
For signals of this kind, the transmitter must provide large reserves for the peak power
to prevent signal compression and thus an increase of the bit error rate at the receiver.
The peak power or the crest factor of a signal is therefore an important transmitter
design criterion. The crest factor is defined as the peak power/mean power ratio or,
logarithmically, as the peak level minus the average level of the signal.
To reduce power consumption and cut costs, transmitters are not designed for the largest power that could ever occur, but for a power that has a specified probability of
being exceeded (e.g. 0.01 %).
To measure the amplitude distribution, the R&S ESR has simple measurement functions to determine both the APD = Amplitude Probability Distribution and CCDF =
Complementary Cumulative Distribution Function.
In the APD display mode, the probability of occurrence of a certain level is plotted
against the level.
In the CCDF display mode, the probability that the mean signal power will be exceeded
is shown in percent.
Measurement Example – Measuring the APD and CCDF of White Noise Generated by the R&S ESR
1. Set the R&S ESR to its default state by pressing the PRESET key.
The R&S ESR is in its default state.
2. Configure the R&S ESR for APD measurement
a) Press the AMPT key and enter "-60 dBm".
The R&S ESR's intrinsic noise is displayed at the top of the screen.
b) Press the MEAS key.
c) Press the "More" softkey.
d) Press the "APD" softkey.
The R&S ESR sets the frequency span to 0 Hz and measures the amplitude
probability distribution (APD). The number of uncorrelated level measurements
used for the measurement is 100000. The mean power and the peak power are
displayed in dBm. The crest factor (peak power – mean power) is output as
well.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
325
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Advanced Measurement Examples
Fig. 4-36: Amplitude probability distribution of white noise
3. Switch to the CCDF display mode.
a) Press the "UP" key.
b) Press the "CCDF" softkey.
The CCDF display mode is switched on.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
326
R&S®ESR
Spectrum Measurements
Advanced Measurement Examples
Fig. 4-37: CCDF of white noise
The CCDF trace indicates the probability that a level will exceed the mean power. The
level above the mean power is plotted along the x-axis of the graph. The origin of the
axis corresponds to the mean power level. The probability that a level will be exceeded
is plotted along the y-axis.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
327
R&S®ESR
I/Q Analyzer
5 I/Q Analyzer
The I/Q Analyzer provides functions to capture, visualize and evaluate I/Q data. These
functions include:
●
capturing data from the RF input
●
displaying I/Q data in various result types, e.g. separate Real/Imag diagrams or as
an I/Q-vector
Menu and softkey description
The "I/Q Analyzer" menu is displayed when you select the "I/Q Analyzer" softkey in the
MODE menu. The same menu is displayed when you press the MEAS or MEAS
CONFIG keys in "I/Q Analyzer" mode. For details see chapter 5.1, "Softkeys and
Parameters of the I/Q Analyzer Menu", on page 329.
The "Amplitude" menu, which is displayed when you select the AMPT key, is described
in see chapter 5.2, "Softkeys of the Amplitude Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode",
on page 333.
The "Input/Output" menu, which is displayed when you select the INPUT/OUTPUT key,
as well as the "Save/Recall" menu (SAVE/RCL key) contain the same functions in I/Q
Analyzer mode as in "Spectrum" mode (see chapter 4.2.9, "Input/Output Configuration
– INPUT/OUTPUT Key", on page 254).
The "Marker" menu is identical to the one in Spectrum mode for display modes "Magnitude","Real/Imag" and "Spectrum" (except for "Marker Zoom"), see "Display Config"
on page 330. For the other display modes this menu is not available.
The "Marker To" menu is identical to the one in Spectrum mode. For the "I/Q" display
mode, an additional function is available, see chapter 5.3, "Softkeys of the Marker To
Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode", on page 337.
The "Trace" menu is identical to the one in Spectrum mode, except in "I/Q Vector" display mode. In this case, only 1 trace is available and no detector can be selected (see
chapter 4.3.1.1, "Softkeys of the Trace Menu", on page 259).
The "Trigger" menu, which is displayed when you select the TRIG key, is described in
see chapter 5.4, "Softkeys of the Trigger Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode", on page 337.
The "Span", "BW", and "Lines" menus are not available in this mode. All other menus
are identical to those described for "Spectrum" mode (see chapter 4.2, "Configuration",
on page 213 and chapter 4.3, "Analysis", on page 258.
Remote Control
Measurements with the I/Q Analyzer can also be performed via remote control.
For more information see chapter 9.5, "Remote Commands in I/Q Analyzer Mode",
on page 699.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
328
R&S®ESR
I/Q Analyzer
Softkeys and Parameters of the I/Q Analyzer Menu
Further information
●
Some general information on working with I/Q data can be found in chapter 5.5,
"Working with I/Q Data", on page 341.
5.1 Softkeys and Parameters of the I/Q Analyzer Menu
This section describes the softkeys and parameters of the "I/Q Analyzer" submenu
which is displayed when you select the "I/Q Analyzer" softkey in the MODE menu. The
same menu is displayed when you press the MEAS or MEAS CONFIG keys in "I/Q
Analyzer" mode.
I/Q Analyzer................................................................................................................ 329
└ Signal Source................................................................................................329
└ Input Path........................................................................................... 329
└ Level............................................................................................................. 329
└ Reference Level..................................................................................330
└ Preamp On/Off....................................................................................330
└ Data Acquisition............................................................................................ 330
└ Sample Rate....................................................................................... 330
└ Filter BW............................................................................................. 330
└ Meas Time.......................................................................................... 330
└ Record Length.................................................................................... 330
└ Display Config...............................................................................................330
I/Q Analyzer
Starts the I/Q Analyzer evaluation mode and opens the submenu for the I/Q analyzer,
which allows you to configure and display measurements of I/Q data, e.g. digital baseband signals.
Remote command:
Starting I/Q Analyzer:
TRACe<n>:​IQ[:​STATe]​ on page 709
Selecting evaluation mode:
TRACe<n>:​IQ:​EVAL​ on page 709
Selecting the I/Q Analyzer display configuration
CALCulate<n>:​FORMat​ on page 699
Signal Source ← I/Q Analyzer
Opens a dialog box to select the signal source.
Input Path ← Signal Source ← I/Q Analyzer
The input path is always "RF Radio Frequency".
Level ← I/Q Analyzer
Opens a dialog box to define the level settings.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
329
R&S®ESR
I/Q Analyzer
Softkeys and Parameters of the I/Q Analyzer Menu
Reference Level ← Level ← I/Q Analyzer
Specifies the reference level for the I/Q measurement.
Remote command:
DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​RVALue​ on page 700
Preamp On/Off ← Level ← I/Q Analyzer
Switches the preamplifier on and off.
Remote command:
INPut:​GAIN:​STATe ​ on page 477
Data Acquisition ← I/Q Analyzer
Opens a dialog box to configure data acquisition in I/Q Analyzer mode.
Sample Rate ← Data Acquisition ← I/Q Analyzer
Defines the I/Q data sample rate of the R&S ESR.
Remote command:
TRACe<n>:​IQ:​SRATe​ on page 703
Filter BW ← Data Acquisition ← I/Q Analyzer
Displays the flat, usable bandwidth of the final I/Q data.
Remote command:
TRACe<n>:​IQ:​BWIDth​ on page 701
Meas Time ← Data Acquisition ← I/Q Analyzer
Defines the I/Q acquisition time. By default, the measurement time is calculated as the
number of I/Q samples ("Record Length") divided by the sample rate. If you change the
measurement time, the Record Length is automatically changed, as well.
For details on the maximum number of samples see also chapter 5.5, "Working with
I/Q Data", on page 341.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]SWEep:​TIME​ on page 644
Record Length ← Data Acquisition ← I/Q Analyzer
Defines the number of I/Q samples to record. By default, the number of sweep points is
used. The record length is calculated as the measurement time multiplied by the sample rate. If you change the record length, the Meas Time is automatically changed, as
well.
Remote command:
TRACe<n>:​IQ:​RLENgth​ on page 701
TRACe<n>:​IQ:​SET​ on page 701
Display Config ← I/Q Analyzer
Opens a selection list to specify the result display configuration. The following displays
are available:
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
330
R&S®ESR
I/Q Analyzer
Softkeys and Parameters of the I/Q Analyzer Menu
"Magnitude"
Shows the values in time domain
"Spectrum"
Displays the frequency spectrum of the captured I/Q samples.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
331
R&S®ESR
I/Q Analyzer
Softkeys and Parameters of the I/Q Analyzer Menu
"I/Q-Vector"
Displays the captured samples in an I/Q-plot. The samples are connected by a line.
"Real/Imag
(I/Q)"
Displays the I and Q values in separate diagrams.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​FORMat​ on page 699
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
332
R&S®ESR
I/Q Analyzer
Softkeys of the Amplitude Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode
5.2 Softkeys of the Amplitude Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode
In I/Q Analyzer mode, the "Amplitude" menu, which is displayed when you select the
AMPT key, contains the following functions.
If the display configuration for the I/Q Analyzer is set to "I/Q Vector" or "Real/Imag (I/
Q)", the Range and Unit functions are not available.
Ref Level..................................................................................................................... 333
Range..........................................................................................................................333
└ Range Log 100 dB........................................................................................ 334
└ Range Log 50 dB.......................................................................................... 334
└ Range Log 10 dB.......................................................................................... 334
└ Range Log 5 dB............................................................................................ 334
└ Range Log 1 dB............................................................................................ 335
└ Range Log Manual........................................................................................335
└ Range Linear %............................................................................................ 335
└ Range Lin. Unit............................................................................................. 335
Unit..............................................................................................................................335
Y-Axis Max.................................................................................................................. 336
Ref Level Offset.......................................................................................................... 336
Ref Level Position....................................................................................................... 336
Grid Abs/Rel ...............................................................................................................336
Ref Level
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the reference level in the current unit (dBm, dBµV,
etc).
The reference level is the maximum value the AD converter can handle without distortion of the measured value. Signal levels above this value will not be measured correctly, which is indicated by the "IFOVL" status display.
Remote command:
DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​RLEVel​ on page 656
Range
Opens a submenu to define the display range of the level axis.
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Range Log 100 dB
Range Log 50 dB
Range Log 10 dB
Range Log 5 dB
Range Log 1 dB
Range Log Manual
Range Linear %
Range Lin. Unit
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
333
R&S®ESR
I/Q Analyzer
Softkeys of the Amplitude Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode
Range Log 100 dB ← Range
Sets the level display range to 100 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 475
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 100DB, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 654
Range Log 50 dB ← Range
Sets the level display range to 50 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 475
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 50DB, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 654
Range Log 10 dB ← Range
Sets the level display range to 10 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 475
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 10DB, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 654
Range Log 5 dB ← Range
Sets the level display range to 5 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 475
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 5DB, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 654
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
334
R&S®ESR
I/Q Analyzer
Softkeys of the Amplitude Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode
Range Log 1 dB ← Range
Sets the level display range to 1 dB.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 475
Display range:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y 1DB, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​
on page 654
Range Log Manual ← Range
Opens an edit dialog box to define the display range of a logarithmic level axis manually.
Remote command:
Logarithmic scaling:
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:SPAC LOG, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​
SPACing​ on page 475
Display range:
DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]​ on page 654
Range Linear % ← Range
Selects linear scaling for the level axis in %.
The grid is divided into decadal sections.
Markers are displayed in the selected unit ("Unit" softkey). Delta markers are displayed
in % referenced to the voltage value at the position of marker 1. This is the default setting for linear scaling.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:Y:SPAC LIN, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​SPACing​
on page 475
Range Lin. Unit ← Range
Selects linear scaling in dB for the level display range, i.e. the horizontal lines are
labeled in dB.
Markers are displayed in the selected unit ("Unit" softkey). Delta markers are displayed
in dB referenced to the power value at the position of marker 1.
Remote command:
DISP:TRAC:Y:SPAC LDB, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y:​SPACing​
on page 475
Unit
Opens the "Unit" submenu to select the unit for the level axis.
The default setting in spectrum mode is dBm.
If a transducer is switched on, the softkey is not available.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
335
R&S®ESR
I/Q Analyzer
Softkeys of the Amplitude Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode
In general, the signal analyzer measures the signal voltage at the RF input. The level
display is calibrated in RMS values of an unmodulated sine wave signal. In the default
state, the level is displayed at a power of 1 mW (= dBm). Via the known input impedance (50 Ω or 75 Ω), conversion to other units is possible. The following units are
available and directly convertible:
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
dBm
dBmV
dBμV
dBμA
dBpW
Volt
Ampere
Watt
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​UNIT:​POWer​ on page 653
Y-Axis Max
Opens an edit dialog box to specify the maximum value of the y-axis in either direction
(in Volts). Thus, the y-axis scale starts at -<Y-AxisMax> and ends at +<Y-AxisMax>.
This command is only available if the display configuration for the I/Q Analyzer is set to
"I/Q Vector" or "Real/Imag (I/Q)", see "Display Config" on page 330.
Ref Level Offset
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the arithmetic level offset. This offset is added to the
measured level irrespective of the selected unit. The scaling of the y-axis is changed
accordingly. The setting range is ±200 dB in 0.1 dB steps.
Remote command:
DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​RLEVel:​OFFSet​ on page 656
Ref Level Position
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the reference level position, i.e. the position of the
maximum AD converter value on the level axis. The setting range is from -200 to
+200 %, 0 % corresponding to the lower and 100 % to the upper limit of the diagram.
Remote command:
DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​RPOSition​ on page 656
Grid Abs/Rel
Switches between absolute and relative scaling of the level axis (not available with
"Linear" range).
"Abs"
Absolute scaling: The labeling of the level lines refers to the absolute
value of the reference level. Absolute scaling is the default setting.
"Rel"
Relative scaling: The upper line of the grid is always at 0 dB. The
scaling is in dB whereas the reference level is always in the set unit
(for details on unit settings see the "Unit" softkey).
Remote command:
DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​MODE​ on page 655
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
336
R&S®ESR
I/Q Analyzer
Softkeys of the Marker To Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode
5.3 Softkeys of the Marker To Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode
In I/Q Analyzer mode, The "Marker To" menu is identical to the one in Spectrum mode
(see "Softkeys of the Marker To Menu" on page 281). For the "Real/Imag (I/Q)" display
mode, however, an additional function is available.
Search Settings
Opens a dialog box to define which data is used for marker search functions.
Note: The search settings apply to all markers, not only the currently selected one.
"Search Real"
Marker search functions are performed on the real trace of the I/Q
measurement.
"Search Imag"
Marker search functions are performed on the imaginary trace of the
I/Q measurement.
"Search Magnitude"
Marker search functions are performed on the magnitude of the I and
Q data.
Remote command:
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​SEARch​ on page 700
5.4 Softkeys of the Trigger Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode
In I/Q Analyzer mode, the "Trigger" menu, which is displayed when you select the
TRIG key, contains the following functions:
Trg/Gate Source..........................................................................................................337
└ Free Run....................................................................................................... 338
└ External.........................................................................................................338
└ Video.............................................................................................................338
└ RF Power...................................................................................................... 338
└ IF Power/BB Power.......................................................................................339
└ Time.............................................................................................................. 339
Trigger Level............................................................................................................... 339
Trigger Polarity............................................................................................................340
Trigger Offset.............................................................................................................. 340
Repetition Interval....................................................................................................... 340
Trigger Hysteresis....................................................................................................... 341
Trigger Holdoff............................................................................................................ 341
Trg/Gate Source
Opens the "Trigger/Gate Source" dialog box to select the trigger/gate mode.
As gate modes, all modes except "Power Sensor" are available. For details see also
chapter 4.2.8.3, "Using Gated Sweep Operation", on page 252.
The default setting is "Free Run". If a trigger mode other than "Free Run" has been set,
the enhancement label "TRG" is displayed and the trigger source is indicated.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
337
R&S®ESR
I/Q Analyzer
Softkeys of the Trigger Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode
Note: When triggering or gating is activated, the squelch funciton is automatically disabled (see "Squelch" on page 291).
Remote command:
TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 648
[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​ on page 652
Free Run ← Trg/Gate Source
The start of a sweep is not triggered. Once a measurement is completed, another is
started immediately.
Remote command:
TRIG:SOUR IMM, see TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 648
External ← Trg/Gate Source
Defines triggering via a TTL signal at the "EXT TRIG/GATE IN" input connector on the
rear panel.
Remote command:
TRIG:SOUR EXT, see TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 648
SWE:EGAT:SOUR EXT for gated triggering, see [SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​
on page 652
Video ← Trg/Gate Source
Defines triggering by the displayed voltage.
A horizontal trigger line is shown in the diagram. It is used to set the trigger threshold
from 0 % to 100 % of the diagram height.
Video mode is only available in the time domain.
Remote command:
TRIG:SOUR VID, see TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 648
SWE:EGAT:SOUR VID for gated triggering, see [SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​
on page 652
RF Power ← Trg/Gate Source
Defines triggering of the measurement via signals which are outside the measurement
channel.
In RF Power trigger mode the instrument uses a level detector at the first intermediate
frequency. The detector threshold can be selected in a range between - 50 dBm and
-10 dBm at the input mixer. The resulting trigger level at the RF input lies within the
following range:
(-24dBm + RF Att ) ≤ Triggerlevel ≤ (+5dBm + RF Att), max. 30 dBm, for Preamp =
OFF
(-40dBm + RF Att ) ≤ Triggerlevel ≤ (-11dBm + RF Att), max. 30 dBm, for Preamp =
ON
with
500 MHz ≤ InputSignal ≤ 7 GHz
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
338
R&S®ESR
I/Q Analyzer
Softkeys of the Trigger Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode
Note: If input values outside of this range occur (e.g. for fullspan measurements), the
sweep may be aborted and a message indicating the allowed input values is displayed
in the status bar.
A Trigger Offset, Trg/Gate Polarity and Trigger Holdoff can be defined for the RF trigger to improve the trigger stability, but no hysteresis.
Remote command:
TRIG:SOUR RFP, see TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 648
SWE:EGAT:SOUR RFP for gated triggering, see [SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​
on page 652
IF Power/BB Power ← Trg/Gate Source
For this purpose, the R&S ESR uses a level detector at the second intermediate frequency.
The available trigger levels depend on the RF attenuation and preamplification. A reference level offset, if defined, is also considered.
For details on available trigger levels and trigger bandwidths see the data sheet.
The bandwidth at the intermediate frequency depends on the RBW and sweep type:
Sweep mode:
● RBW > 500 kHz: 40 MHz, nominal
● RBW ≤ 500 kHz: 6 MHz, nominal
FFT mode:
● RBW > 20 kHz: 40 MHz, nominal
● RBW ≤ 20 kHz: 6 MHz, nominal
Note: Be aware that in auto sweep type mode, due to a possible change in sweep
types, the bandwidth may vary considerably for the same RBW setting.
The R&S ESR is triggered as soon as the trigger level is exceeded around the selected
frequency (= start frequency in the frequency sweep).
Thus, the measurement of spurious emissions, e.g. for pulsed carriers, is possible
even if the carrier lies outside the selected frequency span.
Remote command:
TRIG:SOUR IFP, see TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 648
SWE:EGAT:SOUR IFP for gated triggering, see [SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​SOURce​
on page 652
Time ← Trg/Gate Source
Opens an edit dialog box to define a repetition interval in which the measurement is
triggered. The shortest interval is 2 ms.
Remote command:
TRIG:SOUR TIMETRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SOURce​ on page 648
Trigger Level
Defines the trigger level as a numeric value.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
339
R&S®ESR
I/Q Analyzer
Softkeys of the Trigger Menu in I/Q Analyzer Mode
In the trigger mode "Time", this softkey is not available.
Remote command:
TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​LEVel:​IFPower​ on page 647
TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​LEVel:​VIDeo​ on page 648
Trigger Polarity
Sets the polarity of the trigger source.
The sweep starts after a positive or negative edge of the trigger signal. The default setting is "Pos". The setting applies to all modes with the exception of the "Free Run" and
"Time" mode.
"Pos"
Level triggering: the sweep is stopped by the logic "0" signal and
restarted by the logical "1" signal after the gate delay time has
elapsed.
"Neg"
Edge triggering: the sweep is continued on a "0" to "1" transition for
the gate length duration after the gate delay time has elapsed.
Remote command:
TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​SLOPe​ on page 648
[SENSe:​]SWEep:​EGATe:​POLarity​ on page 651
Trigger Offset
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the time offset between the trigger signal and the
start of the sweep.
offset > 0:
Start of the sweep is delayed
offset < 0:
Sweep starts earlier (pre-trigger)
Only possible for span = 0 (e.g. I/Q Analyzer mode) and gated trigger
switched off
Maximum allowed range limited by the sweep time:
pretriggermax = sweep time
In the "External" or "IF Power" trigger mode, a common input signal is used for both
trigger and gate. Therefore, changes to the gate delay will affect the trigger delay (trigger offset) as well.
Tip: To determine the trigger point in the sample (for "External" or "IF Power" trigger
mode), use the TRACe<n>:​IQ:​TPISample?​ command.
In the "Time" trigger mode, this softkey is not available.
Remote command:
TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​HOLDoff[:​TIME]​ on page 646
Repetition Interval
Opens an edit dialog box to define a repetition interval in which the measurement is
triggered. The shortest interval is 2 ms. This softkey is only available if the trigger
source "Time" is selected (see "Time" on page 248).
Remote command:
TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​TIME:​RINTerval​ on page 650
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
340
R&S®ESR
I/Q Analyzer
Working with I/Q Data
Trigger Hysteresis
Defines the value for the trigger hysteresis for "IF power" or "RF Power" trigger sources. The hysteresis in dB is the value the input signal must stay below the power trigger level in order to allow a trigger to start the measurement. The range of the value is
between 3 dB and 50 dB with a step width of 1 dB.
Remote command:
TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​IFPower:​HYSTeresis​ on page 646
Trigger Holdoff
Defines the value for the trigger holdoff. The holdoff value in s is the time which must
pass before triggering, in case another trigger event happens.
This softkey is only available if "IFPower", "RF Power" or "BBPower" is the selected
trigger source.
Remote command:
TRIGger<n>[:​SEQuence]:​IFPower:​HOLDoff​ on page 646
5.5 Working with I/Q Data
This section describes I/Q data processing of RF input, e.g. in the I/Q Analyzer.
The block diagram in figure 5-1 shows the analyzer hardware for active RF input from
the IF section to the processor.
The A/D converter samples the IF signal at a rate of 128 MHz. The digital signal is
down-converted to the complex baseband, lowpass-filtered, and the sample rate is
reduced. The continuously adjustable sample rates are realized using an optimal decimation filter and subsequent resampling on the set sample rate.
The I/Q data is written to a single memory, the data acquisition is hardware-triggered.
Fig. 5-1: Block diagram illustrating the R&S ESR signal processing
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
341
R&S®ESR
I/Q Analyzer
Working with I/Q Data
Maximum number of samples
The maximum number of samples for RF input is 200 MS.
5.5.1 Sample Rate and Maximum Usable Bandwidth (RF Input)
Definitions
●
Input sample rate (ISR): the sample rate of the useful data provided by the connected instrument to the R&S ESR input
●
(User, Output) Sample rate (SR): the sample rate that is defined by the user (e.g.
in the "Data Aquisition" dialog box in the "I/Q Analyzer" application) and which is
used as the basis for analysis or output
●
Usable I/Q (Analysis) bandwidth: the bandwidth range in which the signal
remains undistorted in regard to amplitude characteristic and group delay; this
range can be used for accurate analysis by the R&S ESR
For the I/Q data acquisition, digital decimation filters are used internally. The passband
of these digital filters determines the maximum usable I/Q bandwidth. In consequence,
signals within the usable I/Q bandwidth (passband) remain unchanged, while signals
outside the usable I/Q bandwidth (passband) are suppressed. Usually, the suppressed
signals are noise, artifacts, and the second IF side band. If frequencies of interest to
you are also suppressed, you should try to increase the output sample rate, since this
increases the maximum usable I/Q bandwidth.
Relationship between sample rate and usable bandwidth
The diagram figure 5-2 shows the maximum usable I/Q bandwidths depending on the
user sample rates.
As a rule, the usable bandwidth is proportional to the output sample. Yet, when the I/Q
bandwidth reaches the bandwidth of the analog IF filter (at very high sample rates), the
curve breaks.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
342
R&S®ESR
I/Q Analyzer
Working with I/Q Data
Fig. 5-2: Relation between maximum usable bandwidth and sample rate (RF input)
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
343
R&S®ESR
Tracking Generator
Softkeys of the Tracking Generator Menu
6 Tracking Generator
Equipped with option R&S FSV-B9, an internal tracking generator emits a signal at the
exact input frequency of the analyzer during operation. The generated signal is sent to
the DUT, thus allowing the analyzer to control the input frequency of the device
directly.
Tracking generator control is available in "Spectrum" and "I/Q Analyzer" mode for frequency, time or I/Q measurements. Special measurement functions are not available
with tracking generator control. The corresponding softkeys in the "Measurement"
menu are deactivated in this case.
Menu and softkey description
●
chapter 6.1, "Softkeys of the Tracking Generator Menu", on page 344
Further information
6.1 Softkeys of the Tracking Generator Menu
The "Tracking Generator" menu is displayed when you press the INPUT/OUPUT key
and then "Tracking Generator".
This softkey is only available if the R&S FSV option Tracking Generator (B9) is installed. The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Tracking Generator" menu.
As long as a tracking generator is active, the HOME key also displays the "Tracking
Generator" menu.
Source RF Internal (On/ Off)....................................................................................... 345
Source Power..............................................................................................................345
Source Cal.................................................................................................................. 345
└ Calibrate Transmission................................................................................. 345
└ Calibrate Reflection Short............................................................................. 345
└ Calibrate Reflection Open.............................................................................345
└ Normalize......................................................................................................346
└ Reference Value Position............................................................................. 346
└ Reference Value........................................................................................... 346
└ Recall............................................................................................................ 346
Modulation...................................................................................................................346
└ External AM.................................................................................................. 347
└ External FM...................................................................................................347
└ External I/Q................................................................................................... 347
└ Modulation OFF............................................................................................ 347
Power Sweep.............................................................................................................. 347
└ Power Sweep (On /Off).................................................................................348
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
344
R&S®ESR
Tracking Generator
Softkeys of the Tracking Generator Menu
└ Power Sweep Start....................................................................................... 348
└ Power Sweep Stop....................................................................................... 348
Source Config............................................................................................................. 348
Source RF Internal (On/ Off)
Switches the selected tracking generator on or off. Default setting is off. The currently
selected generator is indicated on the softkey.
Remote command:
OUTPut[:​STATe]​ on page 712
Activates the internal tracking generator (B9).
Source Power
Opens an edit dialog box to quickly change the output power of the currently selected
tracking generator, alternatively to the "Tracking Generator configuration" dialog box
(see "Source Config" on page 348 softkey).
The default output power is -20 dBm. The range is specified in the data sheet.
Remote command:
SOURce<n>:​POWer[:​LEVel][:​IMMediate][:​AMPLitude]​ on page 716
Source Cal
Opens a submenu to configure calibration for transmission and reflection measurement
for tracking generators. For details on the test setups see chapter 6.3.2, "Calibrating for
transmission and reflection measurement", on page 351.
Calibrate Transmission ← Source Cal
Starts a sweep that records a reference trace. This trace is used to calculate the difference for the normalized values.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]CORRection:​METHod​ on page 713
Selects the transmission method and starts the sweep to record a reference trace.
Calibrate Reflection Short ← Source Cal
Starts a sweep as a reference trace for short-circuit calibration.
If both calibrations (open circuit, short circuit) are carried out, the calibration curve is
calculated by averaging the two measurements and stored in the memory. The order of
the two calibration measurements is irrelevant.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]CORRection:​METHod​ on page 713
Selects the reflection method.
[SENSe:​]CORRection:​COLLect[:​ACQuire]​ on page 712
Starts the sweep for short-circuit calibration.
Calibrate Reflection Open ← Source Cal
Starts a sweep as a reference trace for the open-circuit calibration.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
345
R&S®ESR
Tracking Generator
Softkeys of the Tracking Generator Menu
If both calibrations (open circuit, short circuit) are carried out, the calibration curve is
calculated by averaging the two measurements and stored in the memory. The order of
the two calibration measurements is irrelevant.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]CORRection:​METHod​ on page 713
Selects the reflection method.
[SENSe:​]CORRection:​COLLect[:​ACQuire]​ on page 712
Starts the sweep for open-circuit calibration.
Normalize ← Source Cal
Switches the normalization on or off. The softkey is only available if the memory contains a reference trace. For details on normalization see chapter 6.3.5, "Normalization",
on page 353.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]CORRection[:​STATe]​ on page 713
Reference Value Position ← Source Cal
Switches the reference line on or off. The reference line marks the reference position
at which the normalization result (calculated difference to a reference trace) is displayed. For details on the reference line see chapter 6.3.5, "Normalization",
on page 353.
Remote command:
DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​RPOSition​ on page 656
Reference Value ← Source Cal
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a position value that shifts the reference line vertically. By default, the reference line corresponds to a difference of 0 dB between the
currently measured trace and the reference trace.
If a 10 dB attenuation is inserted into the signal path between DUT and R&S ESR
input, for example after a source calibration, the measurement trace is moved down by
10 dB. Entering a reference value of -10 dB will also shift the reference line down by 10
dB and place the measurement trace on the reference line. The deviation from the
nominal power level can be displayed with higher resolution (e.g. 1 dB/div). The power
is still displayed in absolute values.
Remote command:
DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​SCALe]:​RVALue​ on page 700
Recall ← Source Cal
Restores the settings that were used during source calibration. This can be useful if
instrument settings were changed after calibration (e.g. center frequency, frequency
deviation, reference level, etc).
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]CORRection:​RECall​ on page 713
Modulation
Opens a submenu to define modulation settings. This submenu contains the following
commands:
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
346
R&S®ESR
Tracking Generator
Softkeys of the Tracking Generator Menu
●
●
●
●
"External AM" on page 347
"External FM" on page 347
"External I/Q" on page 347
"Modulation OFF" on page 347
External AM ← Modulation
Activates an AM modulation of the tracking generator output signal.
The modulation signal is applied to the TG IN I/AM connector. An input voltage of 1 V
corresponds to 100 % amplitude modulation.
Switching on an external AM disables the active I/Q modulation.
Remote command:
SOURce<n>:​AM:​STATe​ on page 714
External FM ← Modulation
Activates the FM modulation of the tracking generator output signal. The modulation
signal is applied to the TG IN Q/FM connector. Switching on an external FM disables
the active I/Q modulation.
Remote command:
SOURce<n>:​FM:​STATe​ on page 715
SOURce<n>:​FM:​DEViation​ on page 715
External I/Q ← Modulation
Activates the external I/Q modulation of the tracking generator output signal. The signals for modulation are applied to the two input connectors TG IN I and TG IN Q at the
rear panel of the unit. The input voltage range is ±1 V into 50 Ω. Switching on an external I/Q modulation disables the active AM or FM modulation.
Remote command:
SOURce<n>:​DM:​STATe​ on page 714
Modulation OFF ← Modulation
Deactivates external modulation of the tracking generator output signal.
Remote command:
SOURce<n>:​AM:​STATe​ on page 714
SOURce<n>:​DM:​STATe​ on page 714
SOURce<n>:​FM:​STATe​ on page 715
Power Sweep
Opens a submenu to define power sweep settings.
This submenu contains the following commands:
●
●
●
"Power Sweep (On /Off)" on page 348
"Power Sweep Start" on page 348
"Power Sweep Stop" on page 348
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
347
R&S®ESR
Tracking Generator
Configuring Tracking Generators
Power Sweep (On /Off) ← Power Sweep
Activates or deactivates the power sweep. If the power sweep is on, the analyzer is set
to zero span mode (span = 0Hz). During the sweep time of the zero span, the power at
the internal tracking generator is changed linearly from start power to stop power. The
start and stop power for the power sweep are displayed in the diagram header ("INT
TG <start power>… <stop power>", see also chapter 6.4, "Displayed Information and
Errors", on page 358.
The start power can be set between -30 dBm and +0 dBm.
The stop value can also be be set between -30 dBm and +0 dBm and may be smaller
than the start value.
The difference between the start and stop values may not exceed 10 dB.
Remote command:
SOURce<n>:​POWer:​MODE​ on page 717
Power Sweep Start ← Power Sweep
Defines the start power of the power sweep.
The start power can be set between -30 dBm and +0 dBm.
The difference between the start and stop values may not exceed 10 dB.
Remote command:
SOURce<n>:​POWer:​STARt​ on page 717
Power Sweep Stop ← Power Sweep
Defines the stop power of the power sweep.
The stop power can be set between -30 dBm and +0 dBm.
The difference between the start and stop values may not exceed 10 dB.
Remote command:
SOURce<n>:​POWer:​STOP​ on page 717
Source Config
Opens the "Tracking Generator Configuration" dialog, see chapter 6.2, "Configuring
Tracking Generators", on page 348.
6.2 Configuring Tracking Generators
The "Tracking Generator Configuration" dialog box is opened via the "Source Config"
softkey in the "Tracking Generator" menu.
This dialox box allows you to define measurement settings.
●
chapter 6.2.1, "Internal Tracking Generator", on page 349
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
348
R&S®ESR
Tracking Generator
Configuring Tracking Generators
6.2.1 Internal Tracking Generator
The internal tracking generator is configured in the "Internal" tab of the "tracking Generator Configuration" dialog box.
In the top half of the dialog box, the measurement configurations can be defined. In the
lower half of the dialog box, the capabilities of the internal tracking generator are displayed for reference only.
The configuration dialog box contains the following fields:
Select
Selects the internal tracking generator as the current tracking generator source. "Internal" is displayed as the source on the "Source RF" softkey. All tracking generator functions are performed with the currently selected source.
Note: Note that the generator is not automatically activated when it is selected. To activate the currently selected generator, click the "Source RF On" softkey.
Source Power
The tracking generator output power. The default output power is -20 dBm. The range
is specified in the data sheet.
Remote command:
SOURce<n>:​POWer[:​LEVel][:​IMMediate][:​AMPLitude]​ on page 716
Power Offset
Constant level offset for the tracking generator. Values from -200 dB to +200 dB in 1
dB steps are allowed. The default setting is 0 dB. Offsets are indicated by the
enhancement label "LVL" in the diagram header (see also chapter 6.4, "Displayed
Information and Errors", on page 358).
With this offset, attenuators or amplifiers at the output connector of the tracking generator can be taken into account for the displayed output power values on screen or during data entry, for example. Positive offsets apply to an amplifier and negative offsets
to an attenuator subsequent to the tracking generator.
Remote command:
SOURce<n>:​POWer[:​LEVel][:​IMMediate]:​OFFSet​ on page 716
Frequency Offset
Constant frequency offset between the output signal of the tracking generator and the
input frequency of the R&S ESR. Possible offsets are in a range of ±1 GHz in 0.1 Hz
steps.
The default setting is 0 Hz. Offsets <> 0 Hz are marked with the enhancement label
"FRQ" in the diagram header (see also chapter 6.4, "Displayed Information and
Errors", on page 358).
If a positive frequency offset is entered, the tracking generator generates an output signal above the receive frequency of the R&S ESR. In case of a negative frequency offset it generates a signal below the receive frequency of the R&S ESR. The output frequency of the tracking generator is calculated as follows:
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
349
R&S®ESR
Tracking Generator
Tracking Generator Functions
Tracking generator frequency = receive frequency + frequency offset.
Remote command:
SOURce<n>:​FREQuency:​OFFSet​ on page 715
Result Frequency Start
For reference only: The start frequency for the generator, calculated from the configured generator frequency and the start value defined for the analyzer.
Result Frequency Stop
For reference only: The stop frequency for the generator, calculated from the configured generator frequency and the stop value defined for the analyzer.
Frequency Min.
For reference only: Lower frequency limit for the generator.
Frequency Max.
For reference only: Upper frequency limit for the generator.
Power Min.
For reference only: Lower power limit for the generator.
Power Max.
For reference only: Upper power limit for the generator.
6.3 Tracking Generator Functions
The following functions are available if the R&S ESR Tracking Generator (R&S FSVB9) is installed.
●
chapter 6.3.1, "Calibration mechanism", on page 350
●
chapter 6.3.2, "Calibrating for transmission and reflection measurement",
on page 351
●
chapter 6.3.3, "Transmission measurement", on page 352
●
chapter 6.3.4, "Reflection measurement", on page 352
●
chapter 6.3.5, "Normalization", on page 353
●
chapter 6.3.6, "Modulation (internal Tracking Generator only)", on page 356
6.3.1 Calibration mechanism
Calibration means calculating the difference between the currently measured power
and a reference curve, independent of the selected type of measurement (transmission/reflection). The hardware settings used for measuring the reference curve are
included in the reference dataset.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
350
R&S®ESR
Tracking Generator
Tracking Generator Functions
Even with normalization switched on, the instrument settings can be changed in a wide
area without stopping the normalization. This reduces the necessity to carry out a new
normalization to a minimum.
Therefore, the reference dataset (trace with n measured values, where n is the number
of Sweep Points) is stored internally as a table of n points (frequency/level).
Differences in level settings between the reference curve and the current instrument
settings are taken into account automatically. If the span is reduced, a linear interpolation of the intermediate values is applied. If the span increases, the values at the left or
right border of the reference dataset are extrapolated to the current start or stop frequency, i.e. the reference dataset is extended by constant values.
An enhancement label is used to mark the different levels of measurement accuracy.
This enhancement label is displayed at the right diagram border if normalization is
switched on and a deviation from the reference setting occurs. Three accuracy levels
are defined:
Table 6-1: Measurement accuracy levels
Accuracy
Enhancement label
Reason/Limitation
high
NOR
No difference between reference setting and measurement
medium
APX (approximation)
Change of the following settings:
coupling (RBW, VBW, SWT)
●
reference level, RF attenuation
●
start or stop frequency
●
output level of tracking generator
●
detector (max. peak, min. peak, sample, etc.)
●
change of frequency:
●
max. 691 points within the set sweep limits (corresponds to a
doubling of the span)
–
Aborted normalization
More than 500 extrapolated points within the current sweep
limits (in case of span doubling)
At a reference level of -10 dBm and at a tracking generator output level of the same
value, the R&S ESR operates without overrange reserve. That means the R&S ESR is
in danger of being overloaded if a signal is applied whose amplitude is higher than the
reference line. In this case, either the message "OVLD" for overload or "IFOVL" for
exceeded display range (clipping of the trace at the upper diagram border = overrange)
is displayed in the status line.
Overloading can be avoided as follows:
●
Reducing the output level of the tracking generator ( "Source Config" on page 348
softkey in the Tracking Generator menu)
●
Increasing the reference level (Ref Level softkey in the "Amplitude" menu)
6.3.2 Calibrating for transmission and reflection measurement
Prerequisite: The instrument is in tracking generator measurement mode.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
351
R&S®ESR
Tracking Generator
Tracking Generator Functions
1. To enter the generator output level, press the "Source Power" on page 345 softkey.
2. To enter a constant level offset for the tracking generator, press the "Source Config" on page 348 softkey and enter a "Power Offset".
3. To open the submenu for calibration, press the "Source Cal" on page 345 softkey.
4. To record a reference trace for transmission measurement, press the "Calibrate
Transmission" on page 345 softkey.
The recording of the reference trace and the completion of the calibration sweep
are indicated by message bo XE s.
5. To record a reference trace for reflection measurement, press the "Calibrate
Reflection Short" on page 345 or "Calibrate Reflection Open" on page 345 softkey.
The recording of the reference trace and the completion of the calibration sweep
are indicated by message bo XE s.
6. To switch on the normalization, press the "Normalize" on page 346 softkey.
7. To display the reference line, press the "Reference Value Position" on page 346
softkey.
8. To enter a value to shift the reference line, press the "Reference Value"
on page 346 softkey.
9. To restore the settings used for source calibration, press the "Recall" on page 346
softkey.
6.3.3 Transmission measurement
This measurement yields the transmission characteristics of a two-port network. The
internal or external tracking generator serves as a signal source. It is connected to the
input connector of the DUT. The input of the R&S ESR is fed from the output of the
DUT. A calibration can be carried out to compensate for the effects of the test setup
(e.g. frequency response of connecting cables).
Fig. 6-1: Test setup for transmission measurement
6.3.4 Reflection measurement
Scalar reflection measurements can be carried out by means of a reflection-coefficient
measurement bridge.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
352
R&S®ESR
Tracking Generator
Tracking Generator Functions
Fig. 6-2: Test setup for reflection measurement
6.3.5 Normalization
The "NORMALIZE" softkey switches normalization on or off. The softkey is only available if the memory contains a correction trace.
You can shift the relative reference point within the grid using the "Reference Value
Position" on page 346 softkey. Thus, the trace can be shifted from the top grid margin
to the middle of the grid:
Fig. 6-3: Normalized display
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
353
R&S®ESR
Tracking Generator
Tracking Generator Functions
CORR ON, see [SENSe:​]CORRection[:​STATe]​ on page 713
Fig. 6-4: Normalized measurement, shifted with Reference Value Position= 50%
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:RPOS 10PCT, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​
SCALe]:​RPOSition​ on page 656
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
354
R&S®ESR
Tracking Generator
Tracking Generator Functions
Fig. 6-5: Measurement with Reference Value: +10dB and Reference Value Position = 50%
After the reference line has been shifted by entering +10 dB as the "Reference Value"
on page 346, deviations from the nominal value can be displayed with high resolution
(e.g. 2 dB/Div.). The absolute measured values are still displayed; in the above example, 2 dB below nominal value (reference line) = 8 dB attenuation.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
355
R&S®ESR
Tracking Generator
Tracking Generator Functions
Fig. 6-6: Measurement of a 10-dB attenuator pad with 2dB/Div
DISP:WIND:TRAC:Y:RVAL +10dB, see DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>:​Y[:​
SCALe]:​RVALue​ on page 700
6.3.6 Modulation (internal Tracking Generator only)
The time characteristics of the tracking generator output signal can be influenced by
means of external signals (input voltage range -1 V to +1 V).
Two BNC connectors at the rear panel are available as signal inputs. Their function
changes depending on the selected modulation:
●
TG IN I/AMand
●
TG IN Q/FM
The modulation modes can be combined with each other and with the frequency offset
function up to a certain degree. The following table shows which modulation modes are
possible at the same time and which ones can be combined with the frequency offset
function.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
356
R&S®ESR
Tracking Generator
Tracking Generator Functions
Table 6-2: Simultaneous modes of modulation (tracking generator)
Modulation
Frequency offset
Frequency offset
EXT AM
●
EXT FM
●
EXT I/Q
●
EXT AM
EXT FM
EXT I/Q
●
●
●
●
●
● = can be combined
External AM
The "External AM" on page 347 softkey activates an AM modulation of the tracking
generator output signal.
The modulation signal is applied to the TG IN I/AM connector. An input voltage of 1 V
corresponds to 100% amplitude modulation.
Switching on an external AM disables the active I/Q modulation.
External FM
The "External FM" on page 347 softkey activates the FM modulation of the tracking
generator output signal.
The modulation frequency range is 1 kHz to 100 kHz, the deviation can be set in 1decade steps in the range of 100 Hz to 10 MHz at an input voltage of 1 V. The phase
deviation h should not exceed the value 100.
Phase deviation h = deviation/modulation frequency
The modulation signal is applied to the TG IN Q/FM connector.
Switching on an external FM disables the active I/Q modulation.
External IQ
The "External I/Q" on page 347 softkey activates the external I/Q modulation of the
tracking generator.
The signals for modulation are applied to the two input connectors TG IN I and TG IN
Q at the rear panel of the unit. The input voltage range is ±1 V into 50 Ω.
Switching on an external I/Q modulation disables the active external AM or FM.
Functional description of the quadrature modulator:
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
357
R&S®ESR
Tracking Generator
Displayed Information and Errors
Fig. 6-7: I/Q modulation
I/Q modulation is performed by means of the built-in quadrature modulator. The RF
signal is divided into two orthogonal I and Q components (in phase and quadrature
phase). Amplitude and phase are controlled in each path by the I and Q modulation
signal. By adding the two components an RF output signal is generated that can be
controlled in amplitude and phase.
Remote command:
SOURce<n>:​DM:​STATe​ on page 714
6.4 Displayed Information and Errors
Diagram header
In Tracking Generator measurement mode, some additional information is displayed in
the diagram header.
Label
Description
INT TG: <source power>
Internal tracking generator active
INT TG: <start power>… <stop power>
Internal tracking generator with power sweep active
EXT TG <1|2>: <source power>
External tracking generator (1 or 2) active
LVL
Power Offset (see chapter 6.2, "Configuring Tracking Generators", on page 348
FRQ
Frequency Offset (see chapter 6.2, "Configuring Tracking Generators", on page 348
Measurement accuracy levels
NOR
Normalization on;
No difference between reference setting and measurement
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
358
R&S®ESR
Tracking Generator
Displayed Information and Errors
Label
Description
APX (approximation)
Normalization on;
Deviation from the reference setting occurs
-
Aborted normalization
For details on measurement accuracy levels, see chapter 6.3.5, "Normalization",
on page 353.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
359
R&S®ESR
System Configuration
Manual Operation – Local Menu
7 System Configuration
7.1 Manual Operation – Local Menu
When switched on, the instrument is always in the manual measurement mode and
can be operated via the front panel. As soon as the instrument receives a remote command, it is switched to the remote control mode.
In remote control mode, all keys of the instrument except the PRESET key are disabled, see chapter 7.3, "Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration – SETUP Key",
on page 362. The "LOCAL" softkey and the Display Update (On/Off) softkey are displayed. Depending on the setting of the Display Update (On/Off) softkey, the diagrams,
traces and display fields are displayed or hidden. For further details on the Display
Update (On/Off) softkey refer to chapter 7.3, "Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration – SETUP Key", on page 362.
For details on remote control refer to chapter 5 "Remote Control – Basics".
The change to manual operation consists of:
●
Enabling the Front Panel Keys
Returning to manual mode enables all inactive keys. The main softkey menu of the
current mode is displayed.
●
Displaying the measurement diagrams again.
The diagrams, traces and display fields are displayed again.
●
Generating the "OPERATION COMPLETE" message
If, at the time of pressing the "LOCAL" softkey, the synchronization mechanism via
*OPC, *OPC? or *WAI is active, the currently running measurement procedure is
aborted and synchronization is achieved by setting the corresponding bits in the
registers of the status reporting system.
●
Setting Bit 6 (User Request) of the Event Status Register
With a corresponding configuration of the status reporting system, this bit immediately causes the generation of a service request (SRQ) to inform the control software that the user wishes to return to front panel control. For example this can be
used to interrupt the control program and to correct instrument settings manually.
This bit is set each time the "LOCAL" softkey is pressed.
To return to manual operation
► Press the "LOCAL" softkey.
The instrument switches from remote to manual operation, but only if the local lockout function has not been activated in the remote control mode.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
360
R&S®ESR
System Configuration
User-Defined Menu – USER key
7.2 User-Defined Menu – USER key
The USER key displays a user-defined menu. The softkeys displayed here can be
labelled and assigned to user-defined settings files as required.
To open the user-defined menu
► Press the USER key.
The "User" menu is displayed.
Softkeys of the User menu
The "User" menu contains 8 user-definable softkeys as well as a "User Preference
Setup" softkey that allows you to define them. Pressing one of the user-definable softkeys has the same effect as the Save File / Recall File function for a pre-defined settings file. The definitions for these softkeys remain unchanged even after a reset function and after updating the firmware.
"User Preference Setup" softkey
Opens an "ApplicationManager" dialog to set up the user-defined softkeys.
For each user-definable softkey (1–8), you can define a key label and assign a settings
file that is to be loaded when the softkey is selected.
SCPI command:
MMEMory:​USER<Softkey>​ on page 774
To define the key label
1. Click into the table entry for the corresponding softkey.
2. Enter a label for the softkey.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
361
R&S®ESR
System Configuration
Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration – SETUP Key
3. Press ENTER.
To assign a settings file
1. Click into the table entry for the corresponding softkey.
2. In the file selection dialog, select a stored settings file to be recalled when the softkey is selected.
3. Click "Select".
The selected file is displayed in the "ApplicationManager" dialog.
To store the softkey settings
► Click "Save" to store the user-defined softkey definitions.
7.3 Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration –
SETUP Key
The SETUP key is used to set or display the default settings of the instrument: reference frequency, noise source, level correction values, date, time, LAN interface, firmware update and enabling of options, information about instrument configuration and
service support functions. For further details refer also to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use".
To open the Setup menu
► Press the SETUP key.
The "Setup" menu is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
●
chapter 7.3.1, "Softkeys of the Setup Menu", on page 362
Further information
●
chapter 7.3.3, "LXI Class C Functionality", on page 386
Tasks
●
chapter 7.3.2, "Activating or Deactivating the LXI Class C Functionality",
on page 385
7.3.1 Softkeys of the Setup Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Setup" menu. It is possible that
your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
362
R&S®ESR
System Configuration
Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration – SETUP Key
with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in
the corresponding softkey description.
Reference Int/Ext........................................................................................................ 364
Handle missing Ext. Ref..............................................................................................365
└ Show Error Flag............................................................................................ 365
└ Auto select Reference...................................................................................365
Transducer.................................................................................................................. 365
└ Using transducer factors or transducer sets................................................. 366
└ Defining characteristics of a transducer factor..............................................366
└ Managing transducer sets.............................................................................368
Alignment.................................................................................................................... 369
└ Self Alignment...............................................................................................369
└ Show Align Results....................................................................................... 369
└ Touch Screen Alignment...............................................................................370
General Setup............................................................................................................. 370
└ Configure Network........................................................................................ 370
└ Network Address...........................................................................................370
└ Computer Name................................................................................. 370
└ IP Address.......................................................................................... 370
└ Subnet Mask.......................................................................................371
└ DHCP (On/Off)....................................................................................371
└ LXI.................................................................................................................371
└ Info......................................................................................................371
└ Password............................................................................................ 371
└ Description..........................................................................................371
└ LAN Reset.......................................................................................... 372
└ GPIB............................................................................................................. 372
└ GPIB Address..................................................................................... 372
└ ID String Factory.................................................................................372
└ ID String User..................................................................................... 372
└ Compatibility Mode............................................................................. 372
└ Mode Default............................................................................ 373
└ Mode R&S FSP........................................................................ 373
└ Mode R&S FSU........................................................................ 373
└ GPIB Language........................................................................ 373
└ IF Gain (Norm/Puls)..................................................................374
└ Sweep Repeat (On/Off)............................................................ 374
└ Coupling (FSx/HP)....................................................................374
└ REV String Factory...................................................................375
└ REV String User....................................................................... 375
└ Display Update (On/Off)..................................................................... 375
└ GPIB Terminator LFEOI/EOI.............................................................. 375
└ *IDN Format Leg./New........................................................................375
└ I/O Logging (On/Off)........................................................................... 376
└ Time+Date.................................................................................................... 376
└ Configure Monitor......................................................................................... 376
└ Soft Frontpanel............................................................................................. 376
Display Setup.............................................................................................................. 377
└ Tool Bar State (On/Off)................................................................................. 377
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
363
R&S®ESR
System Configuration
Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration – SETUP Key
└
└
└
└
└
└
└
Screen Title (On/Off).....................................................................................378
Time+Date (On/Off)...................................................................................... 378
Time+Date Format (US/DE)......................................................................... 378
Print Logo (On/Off)........................................................................................378
Annotation (On/Off).......................................................................................378
Theme Selection........................................................................................... 378
Screen Colors............................................................................................... 378
└ Select Screen Color Set..................................................................... 379
└ Color (On/Off)..................................................................................... 379
└ Select Object...................................................................................... 379
└ Predefined Colors............................................................................... 379
└ User Defined Colors........................................................................... 379
└ Set to Default...................................................................................... 380
└ Print Colors................................................................................................... 380
└ Select Print Color Set......................................................................... 380
└ Color (On/Off)..................................................................................... 380
└ Display Pwr Save (On/Off)............................................................................381
System Info................................................................................................................. 381
└ Hardware Info............................................................................................... 381
└ Versions+Options......................................................................................... 381
└ System Messages.........................................................................................382
└ Clear All Messages....................................................................................... 382
Firmware Update.........................................................................................................382
Option Licenses.......................................................................................................... 382
└ Install Option................................................................................................. 383
└ Install Option by XML....................................................................................383
Application Setup Recovery........................................................................................ 383
Preset Receiver...........................................................................................................383
Preset Spectrum......................................................................................................... 383
Service........................................................................................................................ 384
└ Input Source..................................................................................................384
└ RF....................................................................................................... 384
└ Calibration Frequency RF...................................................................384
└ Reset Password............................................................................................384
└ Selftest.......................................................................................................... 384
└ Selftest Results............................................................................................. 385
└ Password...................................................................................................... 385
└ Service Function........................................................................................... 385
Reference Int/Ext
Switches between the internal and external reference signal source. The default setting
is internal reference. It is important that the external reference signal is deactivated
when switching from external to internal reference to avoid interactions. When an
external reference is used, "EXT REF" is displayed in the status bar.
If the reference signal is missing after switching to an external reference, the message
"NO REF" is displayed to indicate that no synchronization is performed.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
364
R&S®ESR
System Configuration
Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration – SETUP Key
The R&S ESR can use the internal reference source or an external reference source
as frequency standard from which all internal oscillators are derived. A 10 MHz crystal
oscillator is used as internal reference source. In the external reference setting, all
internal oscillators of the R&S ESR are synchronized to the external reference frequency, which can be set from 1–20 MHz in 100 kHz steps. For details on connectors
refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 1 "Front and Rear Panel".
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]ROSCillator:​SOURce​ on page 733
Handle missing Ext. Ref
If an external reference is selected but none is available, there are different ways the
instrument can react. This command opens a submenu to select the preferred method
of handling a missing external reference. By default, an error flag is displayed in the
status bar of the display.
The submenu contains the following commands:
●
●
"Show Error Flag" on page 365
"Auto select Reference" on page 365
Show Error Flag ← Handle missing Ext. Ref
If this option is selected, an error flag is displayed in the status bar of the display when
an external reference is selected but none is available.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]ROSCillator:​SOURce​ on page 733
Auto select Reference ← Handle missing Ext. Ref
If this option is selected, the instrument automatically switches back to the internal reference if no external reference is available. Note that you must re-activate the external
reference if it becomes available again at a later time.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]ROSCillator:​SOURce​ on page 733
Transducer
Opens a dialog box that contains functionality to work with transducer factors or transducer sets.
Basically, the dialog box contains three elements.
●
A list of available transducer factors or transducer sets.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
365
R&S®ESR
System Configuration
Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration – SETUP Key
●
●
The list shows the name of the transducer factor or set, its unit and its state.
A button to filter the transducer factors that are displayed in the list.
The filter is available for transducer factor selection.
A line that shows the comment of a transducer factor or set.
A comment is displayed only if one has been defined.
For more information on using transducer factors and sets see chapter 3.2.7, "Transducers", on page 47.
For more information on designing transducer factors and sets see
● "Defining characteristics of a transducer factor" on page 366
● "Managing transducer sets" on page 368
Using transducer factors or transducer sets ← Transducer
The "(Factor Set)" softkey selects if you want to use a transducer factor or set.
The label of the currently selected type of transducer is highlighted.
To actually include the transducer in the measurement, you first have to select one and
turn it on with the "Active (On Off)" softkey. When the transducer factor is active, all
amplitude settings and outputs take on the unit of the transducer factor. It will no longer
be possible to select another unit. An exception is in case the transducer has the unit
dB.
The name of the active transducer is displayed in the channel bar. To indicate the progress of the measurement, the diagram area also contains a green vertical line with the
label "TF".
Note that you can turn on up to eight transducer factors at the same time. If you want
to use more transducer factors in the same measurement, you have to combine them
in a transducer set.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TRANsducer:​SELect​ on page 751
[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TRANsducer[:​STATe]​ on page 751
[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TSET:​SELect​ on page 754
[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TSET[:​STATe]​ on page 754
Defining characteristics of a transducer factor ← Transducer
Before you can define the characteristics of a transducer factor, make sure that you
are actually using a transducer factor (➙"(Factor Set)" softkey).
You can define the characteristics in several ways:
● Edit a transducer factor that already exists (➙"Edit" softkey).
● Create a new transducer factor (➙"New" softkey).
● Create a new transducer factor based on an existing one ➙("Copy To" softkey).
Each of the three options opens a dialog box that contains the functionality to characterize a transducer factor.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
366
R&S®ESR
System Configuration
Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration – SETUP Key
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
Name and comment of the transducer factor (➙"Edit Name" softkey)
Unit of the transducer factor (➙"Edit Unit" softkey)
Linear or logarithmic scaling of the frequency axis (➙"Edit Name" softkey)
Table of data points and graphical preview of the transducer factor (➙"Edit Value" softkey)
Button to insert a data point in the table (➙"Insert Value" softkey)
Button to delete a data point from the table (➙"Delete Value" softkey)
Button to shift all data points of the transducer factor horizontally by a certain amount
Button to shift all data points of the transducer factor vertically by a certain amount
Button to save and store the transducer factor on the internal hard disk of the R&S ESR (➙"Save Factor"
softkey)
Note that there are softkeys for several elements of the dialog box as mentioned in the
legend above.
A transducer factor may consist of up to 625 data points. Each data point is a pair of
values: the first value describes the frequency, the second value describes the level for
that frequency.
Frequencies have to be entered in ascending order and may not overlap.
When you save the transducer factor, the R&S ESR uses the name of the transducer
factor as the file name. The file type is *.tdf. If a transducer factor of the same name
already exists, the R&S ESR will ask before it overwrites the existing file.
The transducer factors and sets are stored in separate but fix directories on the internal
memory of the R&S ESR. You can create subdirectories for a more concise file structure and display their contents with the "Show Directories" softkey (you have to select
the directory first, though).
It is possible to delete a transducer factor at any time, if you do not need it anymore (➙
"Delete" softkey).
Dynamic range with active transducers
The shift of the trace caused by the transducer factor by a certain amount deteriorates
the dynamic range of the measurement results.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
367
R&S®ESR
System Configuration
Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration – SETUP Key
To restore the original dynamic range, you have to compensate for the transducer factor. You can do this by adjusting the reference level accordingly. If you turn on the
automatic adjustment of the reference level (➙"Ref Level Adjust (Man Auto)" softkey),
the R&S ESR restores the original dynamic range as best as possible by chagning the
reference level by the maximum level shift defined in the active transducer factor.
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TRANsducer:​SELect​ on page 751
[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TRANsducer:​COMMent​ on page 750
[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TRANsducer:​UNIT​ on page 752
[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TRANsducer:​SCALing​ on page 751
[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TRANsducer:​DATA​ on page 750
[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TRANsducer:​DELete​ on page 751
[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TRANsducer:​ADJust:​RLEVel[:​STATe]​ on page 749
Managing transducer sets ← Transducer
Before you can define the contents of a transducer set, make sure that you are actually
using a transducer set (➙"(Factor Set)" softkey).
You can define the contents in several ways:
● Edit a transducer set that already exists (➙"Edit" softkey).
● Create a new transducer set (➙"New" softkey).
● Create a new transducer set based on an existing one (➙"Copy To" softkey).
Each of the three options opens a dialog box that contains the functionality to define a
transducer set.
1
2
3
4
5
6
=
=
=
=
=
=
Name and comment of the transducer set
Unit of the transducer set
Button to turn the transducer break on and off
Table of transducer set ranges and corresponding frequencies and transducer factors
Start and stop frequency of the currently selected range
List of transducer ranges
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
368
R&S®ESR
System Configuration
Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration – SETUP Key
For more information on using and designing transducer sets see "Transducer sets"
on page 48.
Opening the dialog box also opens an additional softkey menu that contains functionality that you need to design a transducer set.
This softkey menu provides the function to
●
●
●
●
●
●
insert ranges up to a maximum of 10 (➙"Insert Range" softkey)
delete ranges that already exist (➙"Delete Range" softkey)
add up to eight transducer factors to a range (➙"Add Factor" softkey)
replace a transducer factor that has been assigned with another one (➙"Change
Factor)" softkey)
remove a transducer factor from the transducer set (➙"Remove Factor" softkey)
save the contents of the transducer set (➙"Save Set" softkey)
Remote command:
[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TSET:​SELect​ on page 754
[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TSET:​COMMent​ on page 753
[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TSET:​UNIT​ on page 755
[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TSET:​BREak​ on page 752
[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TSET:​RANGe<range>​ on page 754
[SENSe:​]CORRection:​TSET:​DELete​ on page 753
Alignment
Opens a submenu with the available functions for recording, displaying and activating
the data for self alignment.
The correction data and characteristics required for the alignment are determined by
comparison of the results at different settings with the known characteristics of the
high-precision calibration signal source at 65.83 MHz. The correction data are stored
as a file on flash disk and can be displayed using the "Show Align Results"
on page 369 softkey.
The submenu contains the following commands:
●
●
●
"Self Alignment" on page 369
"Show Align Results" on page 369
"Touch Screen Alignment" on page 370
Self Alignment ← Alignment
Starts the recording of correction data of the instrument. If the correction data acquisition has failed or if the correction values are deactivated, a corresponding message is
displayed in the status field.
As long as the self alignment data is collected the procedure can be cancelled using
the "Abort" button.
Remote command:
*CAL?​ on page 718
Show Align Results ← Alignment
Opens a dialog box that displays the correction data of the alignment:
●
●
date and time of last correction data record
overall results of correction data record
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
369
R&S®ESR
System Configuration
Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration – SETUP Key
●
list of found correction values according to function/module
The results are classified as follows:
PASSED
calibration successful without any restrictions
CHECK
deviation of correction value larger than expected, correction could however be performed
FAILED
deviations of correction value too large, no correction was possible. The found correction data are not applicable.
Remote command:
CALibration:​RESult?​ on page 734
Touch Screen Alignment ← Alignment
Displays a touch screen alignment dialog.
When the device is delivered, the touch screen is initially aligned. However, it may
become necessary to adjust the alignment later, e.g. after an image update or after
exchanging a hard disk. If you notice that touching a specific point on the screen does
not achieve the correct response, you may try adjusting the alignment, as well. .
Using a finger or any other pointing device, press the 4 markers on the screen.
The touch screen is aligned according to the executed pointing operations.
General Setup
Opens a submenu for all general settings such as IP address and LAN settings, date
and time, remote control (optional) and measurement display.
Configure Network ← General Setup
Opens the "Network Connections" dialog box to change the LAN settings. For details
refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use" and appendix B "LAN
Interface".
Network Address ← General Setup
Opens a submenu to configure the internet protocol properties and the computer
name.
Computer Name ← Network Address ← General Setup
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the computer name via the keypad. The naming conventions of Windows apply. If too many characters and/or numbers are entered, in the
status line, an according message is displayed. For step-by-step instructions refer to
the Quick Start Guide, appendix B "LAN Interface".
IP Address ← Network Address ← General Setup
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the IP address via the keypad. The TCP/IP protocol
is preinstalled with the IP address 10.0.0.10. If the DHCP server is available ("DHCP
On"), the dialog box entry is read-only.
The IP address consists of four number blocks separated by dots. Each block contains
3 numbers in maximum (e.g. 100.100.100.100), but also one or two numbers are
allowed in a block (as an example see the preinstalled address). For step-by-step
instructions refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use".
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
370
R&S®ESR
System Configuration
Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration – SETUP Key
Subnet Mask ← Network Address ← General Setup
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the subnet mask via the keypad. The TCP/IP protocol is preinstalled with the subnet mask 255.255.255.0. If the DHCP server is available
("DHCP On"), the dialog box entry is read-only.
The subnet mask consists of four number blocks separated by dots. Each block contains 3 numbers in maximum (e.g. 100.100.100.100), but also one or two numbers are
allowed in a block (as an example see the preinstalled address). For step-by-step
instructions refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use".
DHCP (On/Off) ← Network Address ← General Setup
Switches between DHCP server available (On) or not available (Off). If a DHCP server
is available in the network, the IP address and subnet mask of the instrument are
obtained automatically from the DHCP server. For further details refer to the Quick
Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use".
LXI ← General Setup
Opens the LXI submenu containing the following softkeys:
●
●
●
●
"Info" on page 371
"Password" on page 371
"Description" on page 371
"LAN Reset" on page 372
LXI functionality is available only for user accounts with administrator rights.
Info ← LXI ← General Setup
Shows the current parameters of LXI class C, including the current version, class and
various computer parameters like the computer name or IP address.
While active, the dialog is not updated.
LXI functionality is available only for user accounts with administrator rights.
Remote command:
SYSTem:​LXI:​INFo?​ on page 777
Password ← LXI ← General Setup
Shows the currently set password. You can also change the current password using
this softkey.
The password is required to change settings via the web browser (e.g. IP parameter).
An empty password is not valid, i.e. you must enter a password.
By default, the password is LxiWebIfc.
LXI functionality is available only for user accounts with administrator rights.
Remote command:
SYSTem:​LXI:​PASSword​ on page 778
Description ← LXI ← General Setup
Opens a dialog box to view or change the LXI instrument description. This description
is used on some of the LXI web sites.
By default, the description is "Signal Analyzer".
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
371
R&S®ESR
System Configuration
Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration – SETUP Key
LXI functionality is available only for user accounts with administrator rights.
Remote command:
SYSTem:​LXI:​MDEScription​ on page 777
LAN Reset ← LXI ← General Setup
Resets the LAN configuration to a state required by the LXI standard. For example, the
TCP/IP mode is set to DHCP and Dynamic DNS and ICMP Ping are enabled. In addition, the R&S ESR sets the password and the instrument description to their initial
states (see "Password" on page 371 and "Description" on page 371 softkeys).
Only user accounts with administrator rights can reset the LAN configuration.
Remote command:
SYSTem:​LXI:​LANReset​ on page 777
GPIB ← General Setup
Opens a submenu to set the parameters of the remote control interface.
GPIB Address ← GPIB ← General Setup
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the GPIB address. Values from 0 to 30 are allowed.
The default address is 20.
Remote command:
SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​GPIB[:​SELF]:​ADDRess​ on page 776
ID String Factory ← GPIB ← General Setup
Selects the default response to the *IDN? query.
Remote command:
SYSTem:​IDENtify:​FACTory​ on page 729
ID String User ← GPIB ← General Setup
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a user-defined response to the *IDN? query. Max. 36
characters are allowed.
Remote command:
SYSTem:​IDENtify[:​STRing]​ on page 729
Compatibility Mode ← GPIB ← General Setup
Sets the R&S ESR in a state compatible to previous R&S devices, enabling the usage
of existing external control applications. In particular, the number of measurement
points and available bandwidths are adjusted to those of other devices.
Furthermore, some special GPIB settings are available in order to emulate HP models
(see chapter 9.16, "GPIB Commands of HP Models 856xE, 8566A/B, 8568A/B and
8594E", on page 826):
●
●
●
●
"GPIB Language" on page 373
"IF Gain (Norm/Puls)" on page 374
"Sweep Repeat (On/Off)" on page 374
"Coupling (FSx/HP)" on page 374
"Default"
Standard R&S ESR operation, see "Mode Default" on page 373
"R&S FSP"
Compatible to R&S FSP, see "Mode R&S FSP" on page 373
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
372
R&S®ESR
System Configuration
Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration – SETUP Key
"R&S FSU"
Compatible to R&S FSU, see "Mode R&S FSU" on page 373
Remote command:
SYSTem:​COMPatible​ on page 723
Mode Default ← Compatibility Mode ← GPIB ← General Setup
Resets the number of measurement points and available bandwidths to default
R&S ESR values.
Remote command:
SYST:COMP DEF, see SYSTem:​COMPatible​ on page 723
Mode R&S FSP ← Compatibility Mode ← GPIB ← General Setup
Sets the number of measurement points and available bandwidths as in R&S FSP
devices.
Remote command:
SYST:COMP FSP, see SYSTem:​COMPatible​ on page 723
Mode R&S FSU ← Compatibility Mode ← GPIB ← General Setup
Sets the number of measurement points and available bandwidths as in R&S FSU
devices.
Remote command:
SYST:COMP FSU, see SYSTem:​COMPatible​ on page 723
GPIB Language ← Compatibility Mode ← GPIB ← General Setup
Opens a list of selectable remote-control languages:
Language
Comment
SCPI
71100C
Compatible to 8566A/B
71200C
Compatible to 8566A/B
71209A
Compatible to 8566A/B
8560E
8561E
8562E
8563E
8564E
8565E
8566A
Command sets A and B are available. Command sets A and B differ in the rules
regarding the command structure.
8566B
8568A
Command sets A and B are available. Command sets A and B differ in the rules
regarding the command structure.
8568A_DC
Uses DC input coupling by default if supported by the instrument
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
373
R&S®ESR
System Configuration
Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration – SETUP Key
Language
Comment
8568B
Command sets A and B are available. Command sets A and B differ in the rules
regarding the command structure.
8568B_DC
Uses DC input coupling by default if supported by the instrument
8591E
Compatible to 8594E
8594E
Command sets A and B are available. Command sets A and B differ in the rules
regarding the command structure.
For details on the GPIB languages, see chapter 9.16, "GPIB Commands of HP Models
856xE, 8566A/B, 8568A/B and 8594E", on page 826.
Remote command:
SYSTem:​LANGuage​ on page 779
IF Gain (Norm/Puls) ← Compatibility Mode ← GPIB ← General Setup
Configures the internal IF gain settings in HP emulation mode due to the application
needs. This setting is only taken into account for resolution bandwidth < 300 kHz.
NORM
Optimized for high dynamic range, overload limit is close to reference level.
PULS
Optimized for pulsed signals, overload limit up to 10 dB above reference level.
This softkey is only available if a HP language is selected via the "GPIB Language"
softkey (see "GPIB Language" on page 373).
Remote command:
SYSTem:​IFGain:​MODE​ on page 780
Sweep Repeat (On/Off) ← Compatibility Mode ← GPIB ← General Setup
Controls a repeated sweep of the E1 and MKPK HI HP model commands (for details
on the commands refer to "GPIB Language" on page 373). If the repeated sweep is
OFF, the marker is set without sweeping before.
Note: In single sweep mode, switch off this softkey before you set the marker via the
E1 and MKPK HI commands in order to avoid sweeping again.
This softkey is only available if a HP language is selected via the "GPIB Language"
softkey (see "GPIB Language" on page 373).
Remote command:
SYSTem:​RSW​ on page 779
Coupling (FSx/HP) ← Compatibility Mode ← GPIB ← General Setup
Controls the default coupling ratios in the HP emulation mode for:
●
●
span and resolution bandwidth (Span/RBW) and
resolution bandwidth and video bandwidth (RBW/VBW)
For FSP(=FSV), the standard parameter coupling of the instrument is used. As a
result, in most cases a shorter sweeptime is used than in case of HP.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
374
R&S®ESR
System Configuration
Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration – SETUP Key
This softkey is only available if a HP language is selected via the "GPIB Language"
softkey (see "GPIB Language" on page 373).
Remote command:
SYSTem:​HPCoupling​ on page 780
REV String Factory ← Compatibility Mode ← GPIB ← General Setup
Selects the default response to the REV? query for the revision number (HP emulation
only, see chapter 9.16, "GPIB Commands of HP Models 856xE, 8566A/B, 8568A/B
and 8594E", on page 826).
Remote command:
SYSTem:​REVision:​FACTory​ on page 778
REV String User ← Compatibility Mode ← GPIB ← General Setup
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a user-defined revision number in response to the
REV? query (HP emulation only, see chapter 9.16, "GPIB Commands of HP Models
856xE, 8566A/B, 8568A/B and 8594E", on page 826). Max. 36 characters are allowed.
Remote command:
SYSTem:​REVision[:​STRing]​ on page 778
Display Update (On/Off) ← GPIB ← General Setup
Defines whether the instrument display is switched off when changing from manual
operation to remote control. In remote control mode, this softkey is displayed in the
local menu.
Remote command:
SYSTem:​DISPlay:​UPDate​ on page 724
GPIB Terminator LFEOI/EOI ← GPIB ← General Setup
Changes the GPIB receive terminator.
According to the standard, the terminator in ASCII is <LF> and/or <EOI>. For binary
data transfers (e.g. trace data) from the control computer to the instrument, the binary
code used for <LF> might be included in the binary data block, and therefore should
not be interpreted as a terminator in this particular case. This can be avoided by
changing the receive terminator to EOI.
Remote command:
SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​GPIB[:​SELF]:​RTERminator​ on page 776
*IDN Format Leg./New ← GPIB ← General Setup
Defines the response format to the *IDN? remote command (see *IDN?​
on page 719). This function is intended for re-use of existing control programs
together with the R&S ESR.
"Leg"
Legacy format, compatible to the R&S FSP/FSU/FSQ family
e.g. Rohde&Schwarz,FSV-7,100005/007,1.61
"New"
R&S ESR format
e.g. Rohde&Schwarz,FSV-7,1307.9002K07/100005,1.61
Remote command:
SYSTem:​FORMat:​IDENt​ on page 724
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
375
R&S®ESR
System Configuration
Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration – SETUP Key
I/O Logging (On/Off) ← GPIB ← General Setup
Activates or deactivates the SCPI log function. All remote control commands received
by the R&S ESR are recorded in the following log file:
C:\R_S\Instr\scpilogging\ScpiLog.txt
Logging the commands may be extremely useful for debug purposes, e.g. in order to
find misspelled keywords in control programs.
Remote command:
SYSTem:​CLOGging​ on page 723
Time+Date ← General Setup
Opens an edit dialog box to enter time and date for the internal real time clock. For
details refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use".
Remote command:
SYSTem:​TIME​ on page 726
SYSTem:​DATE​ on page 727
Configure Monitor ← General Setup
Determines and displays the configuration of a connected external monitor, if available.
In the configuration dialog box, you can switch from the internal monitor (laptop icon) to
the external monitor (monitor icon), or both (double monitor icon). For external, the
R&S ESR display is disabled (turns dark). The screen content formerly displayed on
the R&S ESR is displayed on the external screen.
For further details refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use".
Soft Frontpanel ← General Setup
Activates or deactivates the display of the instrument emulation.
deactivated
Only the measurement screen is displayed. This is the setting for working at the
R&S ESR.
activated
In addition to the measurement screen, the whole front panel is displayed, i.e. the
hardkeys and other hardware controls of the device are simulated on the screen.
This is the setting for working at a computer with XP Remote Desktop or at an external monitor.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
376
R&S®ESR
System Configuration
Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration – SETUP Key
Fig. 7-1: Soft Frontpanel
Alternatively to this softkey, you can use the F6 key.
Remote command:
SYSTem:​DISPlay:​FPANel​ on page 726
Display Setup
Opens a submenu to define the display settings.
The following display settings are available:
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
"Tool Bar State (On/Off)" on page 377
"Screen Title (On/Off)" on page 378
"Time+Date (On/Off)" on page 378
"Time+Date Format (US/DE)" on page 378
"Print Logo (On/Off)" on page 378
"Annotation (On/Off)" on page 378
"Theme Selection" on page 378
"Screen Colors" on page 378
"Print Colors" on page 380
"Display Pwr Save (On/Off)" on page 381
Tool Bar State (On/Off) ← Display Setup
Displays or removes the tool bar above the diagram for standard file functions.
Remote command:
DISPlay:​TBAR[STATe]​ on page 768
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
377
R&S®ESR
System Configuration
Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration – SETUP Key
Screen Title (On/Off) ← Display Setup
Activates/deactivates the display of a diagram title (if available) and opens an edit dialog box to enter a new title for the active diagram. Max. 20 characters are allowed.
Remote command:
DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TEXT[:​DATA]​ on page 770
DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TIME​ on page 771
Time+Date (On/Off) ← Display Setup
Activates/deactivates the display of date and time beneath the diagram.
Remote command:
DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TIME​ on page 771
Time+Date Format (US/DE) ← Display Setup
Switches the time and date display on the screen between US and German (DE).
Remote command:
DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TIME:​FORMat​ on page 771
Print Logo (On/Off) ← Display Setup
Activates/deactivates the display of the Rohde & Schwarz company logo in the upper
left corner.
Remote command:
DISPlay:​LOGO​ on page 766
Annotation (On/Off) ← Display Setup
Activates/deactivates the display of the frequency information in the diagram footer.
For example to protect confidential data it can be useful to hide the frequency information.
Remote command:
DISPlay:​ANNotation:​FREQuency​ on page 765
Theme Selection ← Display Setup
Opens a selection list of available themes for the screen display. The theme defines
the colors used for keys and screen elements, for example. The default theme is "BlueOcean".
Remote command:
DISPlay:​THEMe:​SELect​ on page 768
Screen Colors ← Display Setup
Opens a submenu to configure the screen colors. For details on screen colors refer to
the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use".
The submenu contains the following commands:
●
●
●
●
●
"Select Screen Color Set" on page 379
"Color (On/Off)" on page 379
"Select Object" on page 379
"Predefined Colors" on page 379
"User Defined Colors" on page 379
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
378
R&S®ESR
System Configuration
Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration – SETUP Key
●
"Set to Default" on page 380
Remote command:
DISPlay:​CMAP<item>:​HSL​ on page 765
Select Screen Color Set ← Screen Colors ← Display Setup
Opens the "Select Screen Color Set" dialog box to select default or user defined color
settings.
If one of the default settings is selected ("Default Colors 1"/"2"), the default settings for
brightness, color tint and color saturation for all display screen elements are restored.
The default color schemes provide optimum visibility of all picture elements at an angle
of vision from above or below. Default setting is "Default Colors 1".
If "User Defined Colors" is selected, a user-defined color set can be defined. For stepby-step instruction refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use".
Remote command:
DISPlay:​CMAP<item>:​DEFault​ on page 765
Color (On/Off) ← Screen Colors ← Display Setup
Switches from color display to black-and-white display and back. The default setting is
color display.
Select Object ← Screen Colors ← Display Setup
Opens the "Color Setup" dialog box to select the color settings for a selected object.
The "Selected Object" list is displayed to select the object. For setting the color the predefined colors are displayed.
Remote command:
DISPlay:​CMAP<item>:​HSL​ on page 765
HCOPy:​CMAP<item>:​HSL​ on page 758
Predefined Colors ← Screen Colors ← Display Setup
In the "Color Setup" dialog box, displays the "Predefined Colors" (alternatively to the
"Predefined Colors" button). This softkey is only available if, in the "Select Color Set"
dialog box, the "User Defined Colors" option is selected or the "Color Setup" dialog box
is displayed. For further details refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for
Use".
Remote command:
DISPlay:​CMAP<item>:​PDEFined​ on page 766
HCOPy:​CMAP<item>:​PDEFined​ on page 759
User Defined Colors ← Screen Colors ← Display Setup
In the "Color Setup" dialog box, displays the "User Defined Colors" (alternatively to the
"User Defined Colors" button). This softkey is only available if, in the "Select Color Set"
dialog box, the "User Defined Colors" option is selected or the "Color Setup" dialog box
is displayed. For further details refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for
Use".
Remote command:
DISPlay:​CMAP<item>:​HSL​ on page 765
HCOPy:​CMAP<item>:​HSL​ on page 758
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
379
R&S®ESR
System Configuration
Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration – SETUP Key
Set to Default ← Screen Colors ← Display Setup
Opens the "Set to Default" dialog box to select one of the factory default color settings.
Remote command:
DISPlay:​CMAP<item>:​DEFault​ on page 765
HCOPy:​CMAP<item>:​DEFault​ on page 757
Print Colors ← Display Setup
Opens a submenu to select the colors for the printout. To facilitate color selection, the
selected color combination is displayed when the menu is entered. The previous colors
are restored when the menu is exited. For details on screen colors refer to the Quick
Start Guide, chapter 2 "Preparing for Use".
The submenu contains the following commands:
●
●
●
●
●
●
"Select Print Color Set" on page 380
"Color (On/Off)" on page 380
"Select Object" on page 403
"Predefined Colors" on page 403
"User Defined Colors" on page 403
"Set to Default" on page 403
Remote command:
HCOPy:​CMAP<item>:​HSL​ on page 758
Select Print Color Set ← Print Colors ← Display Setup
Opens the "Select Print Color Set" dialog box to select the color settings for printout.
Screen Colors (Print)
Selects the current screen colors for the printout. The background is
always printed in white and the grid in black.
Screen Colors (Hardcopy)
Selects the current screen colors without any changes for a hardcopy. The output format is set via the "Device Setup" on page 402
softkey in the "Print" menu.
Optimized Colors
Selects an optimized color setting for the printout to improve the visibility of the colors (default setting). Trace 1 is blue, trace 2 black,
trace 3 green, and the markers are turquoise. The background is
always printed in white and the grid in black.
User Defined Colors
Enables the softkeys to define colors for the printout.
Remote command:
HCOPy:​CMAP<item>:​DEFault​ on page 757
Color (On/Off) ← Print Colors ← Display Setup
Switches from color printout to black-and-white printout and back. All colored areas are
printed in white and all colored lines in black. This improves the contrast. The default
setting is color printout, provided that the selected printer can produce color printouts.
Remote command:
HCOPy:​DEVice:​COLor​ on page 760
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
380
R&S®ESR
System Configuration
Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration – SETUP Key
Display Pwr Save (On/Off) ← Display Setup
Switches the power-save mode for the display (On/Off) and opens an edit dialog box to
enter the time for the power-save function to respond. After the elapse of this time the
display is completely switched off, i.e. including backlighting. This mode is recommended when the instrument is exclusively operated in remote control.
For details on the power-save mode for the display refer to the Quick Start Guide,
chapter 2 "Preparing for Use".
Remote command:
DISPlay:​PSAVe[:​STATe]​ on page 767
DISPlay:​PSAVe:​HOLDoff​ on page 767
System Info
Opens a submenu to display detailed information on module data, device statistics and
system messages.
The submenu contains the following commands:
●
●
●
●
"Hardware Info" on page 381
"Versions+Options" on page 381
"System Messages" on page 382
"Clear All Messages" on page 382
Hardware Info ← System Info
Opens a dialog box that displays hardware information, e.g. on the frontend and motherboard. Every listed component is described by its serial number, order number,
model information, hardware code, and hardware revision.
Remote command:
DIAGnostic<n>:​SERVice:​HWINfo?​ on page 728
Versions+Options ← System Info
Opens a dialog box that displays a list of hardware and firmware information, including:
Label
Description
Device ID
Unique ID of the device
Instrument Firmware
Installed firmware version
BIOS
Installed BIOS version
CPLD
CPLD version
MB-FPGA
Motherboard FPGA version
Data Sheet Version
Data sheet version of the basic device
<option>
Installed hardware and firmware options
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
381
R&S®ESR
System Configuration
Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration – SETUP Key
For details on options refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 2 "Checking the Supplied
Items".
Remote command:
*IDN?​ on page 719
*OPT?​ on page 720
SYSTem:​DEVice:​ID?/SYSTem:​DID?​ on page 727
System Messages ← System Info
Opens the "System Messages" dialog box that displays the generated system messages in the order of their occurrence. The most recent messages are placed at the
top of the list. Messages that have occurred since the last display of system messages
menu are marked with an asterisk '*'. The following information is available:
No
device-specific error code
Message
brief description of the message
Component
hardware messages: name of the affected module
software messages: name of the affected software
Date/Time
date and time of the occurrence of the message
If the number of error messages exceeds the capacity of the error buffer, "Message
buffer overflow" is displayed. To delete messages see "Clear All Messages"
on page 382 softkey.
Remote command:
SYSTem:​ERRor:​LIST?​ on page 729
Clear All Messages ← System Info
Deletes all system messages. The softkey is only available if the "System Messages"
dialog box is displayed.
Remote command:
SYSTem:​ERRor:​CLEar:​ALL​ on page 729
Firmware Update
Opens the "Firmware Update" dialog box.
Enter the name of or browse for the firmware installation file and press the "Execute"
button. For details on installation refer to the Quick Start Guide, chapter 3 "Firmware
Update and Installation of Firmware Options".
Only user accounts with administrator rights can perform a firmware update.
Remote command:
SYSTem:​FIRMware:​UPDate​ on page 724
Option Licenses
Opens a submenu to install options. For details on options refer to the Quick Start
Guide, chapter 3 "Firmware Update and Installation of Firmware Options".
The submenu contains the following commands:
●
"Install Option" on page 383
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
382
R&S®ESR
System Configuration
Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration – SETUP Key
●
"Install Option by XML" on page 383
Only user accounts with administrator rights are able to install options.
Install Option ← Option Licenses
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the license key for the option that you want to install.
If an option is about to expire, a message box is displayed to inform you. You can then
use this softkey to enter a new license key.
If an option has already expired, a message box appears for you to confirm. In this
case, all instrument functions are unavailable (including remote control) until the
R&S ESR is rebooted. You must then use the "Install Option" softkey to enter the new
license key.
For more information about the option in question refer to the System Info softkey in
the "Setup" menu.
Only user accounts with administrator rights are able to install options.
Install Option by XML ← Option Licenses
Opens an edit dialog to install an additional option to the R&S ESR using an XML file.
Enter or browse for the name of an XML file on the instrument that contains the option
key and press "Select".
Only user accounts with administrator rights are able to install options.
Application Setup Recovery
Controls instrument behavior when switching between measurement applications, e.g.
from "Spectrum" to "Analog Demod" and back.
If this softkey is activated, the current instrument settings are stored when you switch
to a different application. When you switch back to the previous application, the corresponding instrument settings are restored. Thus, the settings of the individual applications are independant of each other.
If the softkey is deactivated (default), only a few parameters of the current instrument
setting are passed between applications (e.g. center frequency, level settings).
Note that this setting is not deactivated during a preset operation, i.e. you must deactivate it manually, if necessary.
Remote command:
SYSTem:​APPLication:​SRECovery[:​STATe]​ on page 723
Preset Receiver
Selects the default settings defined for the Receiver mode to be restored when you
perform an instrument preset.
Remote command:
SYSTem:​PRESet:​COMPatible​ on page 725
Preset Spectrum
Selects the default settings defined for the Spectrum mode to be restored when you
perform an instrument preset.
Remote command:
SYSTem:​PRESet:​COMPatible​ on page 725
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
383
R&S®ESR
System Configuration
Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration – SETUP Key
Service
Opens a submenu that contains additional functions for maintenance and/or troubleshooting.
NOTICE! Risk of incorrect operation due to Service functions. The service functions
are not necessary for normal measurement operation. However, incorrect use can
affect correct operation and/or data integrity of the R&S ESR.
Therefore, many of the functions can only be used after entering a password. They are
described in the instrument service manual.
The submenu contains the following commands:
●
●
●
●
●
●
"Input Source" on page 384
"Reset Password" on page 384
"Selftest" on page 384
"Selftest Results" on page 385
"Password" on page 385
"Service Function" on page 385
Only user accounts with administrator rights are able to use service functions.
Input Source ← Service
Opens a submenu to select the input source for measurement.
The submenu contains the following options:
●
●
"RF" on page 384
"Calibration Frequency RF" on page 384
RF ← Input Source ← Service
Switches the input of the R&S ESR to the RF input connector (normal position). This is
the default setting.
Remote command:
DIAGnostic<n>:​SERVice:​INPut[:​SELect]​ on page 735
Calibration Frequency RF ← Input Source ← Service
Opens an edit dialog box to set the generator frequency for the internal calibration.
Remote command:
DIAGnostic<n>:​SERVice:​INPut:​PULSed:​CFRequency​ on page 735
Reset Password ← Service
Deactivates all set passwords.
Remote command:
SYSTem:​PASSword:​RESet​ on page 738
Selftest ← Service
Initiates the self test of the instrument modules to identify a defective module in case of
failure. All modules are checked consecutively and the test result is displayed.
Remote command:
*TST?​ on page 721
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
384
R&S®ESR
System Configuration
Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration – SETUP Key
Selftest Results ← Service
Opens the "Selftest Result" dialog box that contains the test results. In case of failure a
short description of the failed test, the defective module, the associated value range
and the corresponding test results are indicated.
Remote command:
DIAGnostic<n>:​SERVice:​STESt:​RESult?​ on page 736
Password ← Service
Opens an edit dialog box to enter the password. This ensures that the service functions are only used by authorized personnel.
Remote command:
SYSTem:​PASSword[:​CENable]​ on page 738
Service Function ← Service
Opens the "Service Function" dialog box to start special service functions. For further
information refer to the service manual.
Remote command:
DIAGnostic<n>:​SERVice:​SFUNction​ on page 737
7.3.2 Activating or Deactivating the LXI Class C Functionality
1. In the Windows XP "Start" menu, select the "LXI" entry and press the ENTER key.
An LXI configuration dialog box is displayed.
2. Press the "Rescan" button.
3. Press the "Save" button.
The instrument reboots and after the reboot LXI is active.
4. To deactivate the LXI Class C functionality perform step 1 and 2 again.
An LXI configuration dialog box is displayed.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
385
R&S®ESR
System Configuration
Instrument Setup and Interface Configuration – SETUP Key
5. Press the "Turn LXI Off" button.
7.3.3 LXI Class C Functionality
If the LXI Class C functionality is installed and enabled (default state is off; see chapter 7.3.1, "Softkeys of the Setup Menu", on page 362), the instrument can be accessed
via any web browser (e.g. the Microsoft Internet Explorer) to perform the following
tasks:
●
modifying network configurations
●
modifying device configurations
●
monitoring connections from the device to other devices
To change settings, in the web browser, open the "http://<instrument-hostname>" or
"http://<instrument-ip-address>" page. The password to change LAN configurations is
LxiWeb.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
386
R&S®ESR
Data Management
Saving and Recalling Settings Files – SAVE/RCL Key
8 Data Management
8.1 Saving and Recalling Settings Files – SAVE/RCL Key
The SAVE/RCL key is used to store and recall an instrument configuration.
The "Save/Recall" menu enables the user to save or recall the configuration file from
the instrument’s internal storage, a memory stick or a network drive. The file can also
include various settings used by the options installed on the instrument. Measurement
results can also be stored; however, it is strongly recommended that you use the "Print
Screen" or "Trace Export" functions instead.
When recalling a saved configuration file, the following restrictions apply:
●
Configuration files cannot be transferred from an R&S ESR with a larger frequency
range to one with a smaller frequency range
●
Configuration files created on a R&S ESR with certain options in use will not work
on an R&S ESR without these options
●
Files created with newer firmware versions may not work with a previous version
To open the Save/Recall menu
► Press the SAVE/RCL key.
The "Save/Recall" menu is displayed.
Menu and softkey description
●
chapter 8.1.1, "Softkeys of the SAVE/RCL Menu", on page 387
Further information
●
chapter 8.1.2, "File Selection Dialog Boxes", on page 393
●
chapter 8.1.3, "Importing and Exporting I/Q Data", on page 396
8.1.1 Softkeys of the SAVE/RCL Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Save/Recall" menu.
Save............................................................................................................................ 388
└ Save File / Recall File................................................................................... 388
└ Select Path....................................................................................................389
└ Select File..................................................................................................... 389
└ Edit File Name.............................................................................................. 389
└ Edit Comment............................................................................................... 389
└ Select Items.................................................................................................. 389
└ Select Items........................................................................................ 389
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
387
R&S®ESR
Data Management
Saving and Recalling Settings Files – SAVE/RCL Key
└ Enable all Items.................................................................................. 389
└ Disable all Items................................................................................. 389
└ Delete File.....................................................................................................389
Recall.......................................................................................................................... 390
Startup Recall..............................................................................................................390
└ Startup Recall (On/Off)................................................................................. 390
└ Select Dataset...............................................................................................390
ScreenShot................................................................................................................. 390
Export..........................................................................................................................390
└ ASCII Trace Export....................................................................................... 390
└ Decim Sep.................................................................................................... 391
└ IQ Export.......................................................................................................391
Import.......................................................................................................................... 391
└ IQ Import....................................................................................................... 391
File Manager............................................................................................................... 391
└ Edit Path....................................................................................................... 392
└ New Folder....................................................................................................392
└ Copy..............................................................................................................392
└ Rename........................................................................................................ 392
└ Cut................................................................................................................ 392
└ Paste.............................................................................................................392
└ Delete............................................................................................................392
└ Sort Mode..................................................................................................... 392
└ Name.................................................................................................. 392
└ Date.................................................................................................... 392
└ Extension............................................................................................ 393
└ Size.....................................................................................................393
└ File Lists (1/2)............................................................................................... 393
└ Current File List (1/2).................................................................................... 393
└ Network Drive............................................................................................... 393
└ Map Network Drive............................................................................. 393
└ Disconnect Network Drive.................................................................. 393
Save
Opens the "Save" dialog box to define which measurement settings and results to
store. To navigate in the dialog box and define/enter data, use the corresponding softkeys.
For details see also chapter 8.1.2, "File Selection Dialog Boxes", on page 393.
Save File / Recall File ← Save
Saves the settings file with the defined file name ("Save" dialog box), or recalls the
selected settings file ("Recall" dialog box).
You can assign stored settings files to user-definable softkeys in the "User" menu for
easy access, see chapter 7.2, "User-Defined Menu – USER key", on page 361 .
Remote command:
MMEMory:​STORe<n>:​STATe​ on page 747
MMEMory:​STORe<n>:​STATe:​NEXT​ on page 747
MMEMory:​LOAD:​STATe​ on page 745
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
388
R&S®ESR
Data Management
Saving and Recalling Settings Files – SAVE/RCL Key
Select Path ← Save
Opens the directory list to select the drive and folder for the settings file to be stored or
loaded. The default path is C:\r_s\instr\user.
Select File ← Save
Sets the focus on the "Files" list.
Remote command:
MMEMory:​CATalog?​ on page 739
Edit File Name ← Save
Sets the focus on the "File Name" field.
Edit Comment ← Save
Sets the focus on the "Comment" field to enter a comment for the settings file. Max. 60
characters are allowed.
Select Items ← Save
Displays the submenu for selecting the items to be stored or loaded.
Select Items ← Select Items ← Save
Sets the focus on the items list. Which items are available depends on the installed
options.
In the "Save" dialog box, all items that can be saved are displayed.
In the "Recall" dialog box, the items saved in the selected file are displayed.
Remote command:
MMEMory:​SELect[:​ITEM]:​HWSettings​ on page 772
MMEMory:​SELect[:​ITEM]:​LINes:​ALL​ on page 773
MMEMory:​SELect[:​ITEM]:​TRACe[:​ACTive]​ on page 774
MMEMory:​SELect[:​ITEM]:​TRANsducer:​ALL​ on page 774
Enable all Items ← Select Items ← Save
Selects all items for saving or loading.
Remote command:
MMEMory:​SELect[:​ITEM]:​ALL​ on page 772
Disable all Items ← Select Items ← Save
Selects none of the items for saving or loading.
Remote command:
MMEMory:​SELect[:​ITEM]:​NONE​ on page 773
Delete File ← Save
Deletes the selected settings file.
Remote command:
MMEMory:​CLEar:​STATe 1,​ on page 744
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
389
R&S®ESR
Data Management
Saving and Recalling Settings Files – SAVE/RCL Key
Recall
Opens the "Recall" dialog box to load a settings file. To navigate in the dialog box, use
the corresponding softkeys.
For details see also chapter 8.1.2, "File Selection Dialog Boxes", on page 393.
Path
Directory from which the settings file is loaded. The default path for user
settings files is C:\r_s\instr\user
Files
List of stored settings files
File Name
Name of settings file
Comment
Comment of the settings file
[Items]
Items saved in the settings file
Note: After you use the "Recall" function, the history of previous actions is deleted, i.e.
any actions performed previously cannot be undone or redone using the UNDO/REDO
keys.
Remote command:
MMEMory:​LOAD:​STATe​ on page 745
Startup Recall
Opens a submenu to activate or deactivate and set up the startup recall function.
Startup Recall (On/Off) ← Startup Recall
Activates or deactivates the startup recall function. If activated, the settings stored in
the file selected via the Select Dataset softkey are loaded when booting or for preset. If
deactivated, the default settings are loaded.
Remote command:
MMEMory:​LOAD:​AUTO​ on page 745
Select Dataset ← Startup Recall
Opens the "Startup Recall" dialog box to select the settings file for the startup recall
function.
ScreenShot
Saves the current measurement screen as a file (screenshot). This function can also
be performed via the "Screenshot" icon in the toolbar, if available.
Remote command:
HCOPy[:​IMMediate<1|2>]​ on page 762
Export
Opens a submenu to configure data export.
ASCII Trace Export ← Export
Opens the "ASCII Trace Export Name" dialog box and saves the active trace in ASCII
format to the specified file and directory.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
390
R&S®ESR
Data Management
Saving and Recalling Settings Files – SAVE/RCL Key
The file consists of the header containing important scaling parameters and a data section containing the trace data. For details on an ASCII file see chapter 4.3.1.6, "ASCII
File Export Format", on page 271.
This format can be processed by spreadsheet calculation programs, e.g. MS-Excel. It
is necessary to define ';' as a separator for the data import. Different language versions
of evaluation programs may require a different handling of the decimal point. It is therefore possible to select between separators '.' (decimal point) and ',' (comma) using the
"Decim Sep" softkey (see "Decim Sep" on page 72).
Remote command:
FORMat:​DEXPort:​DSEParator​ on page 661
MMEMory:​STORe<n>:​TRACe​ on page 661
Decim Sep ← Export
Selects the decimal separator with floating-point numerals for the ASCII Trace export
to support evaluation programs (e.g. MS-Excel) in different languages. The values '.'
(decimal point) and ',' (comma) can be set.
Remote command:
FORMat:​DEXPort:​DSEParator​ on page 661
IQ Export ← Export
Opens a file selection dialog box to select an export file to which the IQ data will be
stored. This function is only available in single sweep mode.
For details see chapter 8.1.3, "Importing and Exporting I/Q Data", on page 396.
Remote command:
MMEMory:​STORe:​IQ:​STATe​ on page 746
MMEMory:​STORe:​IQ:​COMM​ on page 746
Import
Provides functions to import data.
IQ Import ← Import
Opens a file selection dialog box to select an import file that contains IQ data. This
function is only available in single sweep mode.
For details see chapter 8.1.3, "Importing and Exporting I/Q Data", on page 396.
Remote command:
MMEMory:​LOAD:​IQ:​STATe​ on page 700
File Manager
Opens the "File Manager" dialog box and a submenu to manage mass storage media
and files. In the upper left corner, the current drive is displayed. Below the folders and
subfolders of the current directory are displayed.
For details on navigation see also chapter 8.1.2, "File Selection Dialog Boxes",
on page 393.
The following tasks can be performed:
●
●
copying files from flash disk to other media
copying files into another directory
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
391
R&S®ESR
Data Management
Saving and Recalling Settings Files – SAVE/RCL Key
●
renaming and deleting files
Edit Path ← File Manager
Opens the directory list to select the drive and folder for the file to be stored or loaded.
The default path is C:\r_s\instr\user.
Remote command:
MMEMory:​MSIS​ on page 743
MMEMory:​CDIRectory​ on page 740
New Folder ← File Manager
Creates a new folder and opens an edit dialog box to enter name and path (absolute or
relative to the current directory) of the new folder.
Remote command:
MMEMory:​MDIRectory​ on page 742
Copy ← File Manager
Copies the selected item to the clipboard. The item can be copied later using the Paste
softkey.
Remote command:
MMEMory:​COPY​ on page 741
Rename ← File Manager
Opens an edit dialog box to enter a new file or folder name.
Remote command:
MMEMory:​MOVE​ on page 742
Cut ← File Manager
Copies the selected file to the clipboard. If the file is later copied to a different directory
using the Paste softkey, it is deleted in the current directory.
Paste ← File Manager
Copies a file from the clipboard to the currently selected directory.
Delete ← File Manager
Deletes the selected item after confirmation.
Remote command:
MMEMory:​DELete​ on page 742
MMEMory:​RDIRectory​ on page 744
Sort Mode ← File Manager
Opens a submenu to select the sorting mode for the displayed files. The entry for the
next higher directory level ("..") and the folders are always located at the top of the list.
Name ← Sort Mode ← File Manager
Sorts the displayed files in alphabetical order of the file names.
Date ← Sort Mode ← File Manager
Sorts the displayed files in respect to the date.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
392
R&S®ESR
Data Management
Saving and Recalling Settings Files – SAVE/RCL Key
Extension ← Sort Mode ← File Manager
Sorts the displayed files in respect to the extension.
Size ← Sort Mode ← File Manager
Sorts the displayed files in respect to the size.
File Lists (1/2) ← File Manager
Splits the screen to copy files from one directory to the other. The focus between the
two panes is switched using the FIELD RIGHT and FIELD LEFT keys.
Current File List (1/2) ← File Manager
Changes the focus to the selected file list.
Network Drive ← File Manager
Opens the "Map Network Drive" dialog box and submenu.
Map Network Drive ← Network Drive ← File Manager
Sets the focus on the "Drive" list.
Remote command:
MMEMory:​NETWork:​MAP​ on page 775
MMEMory:​NETWork:​USEDdrives?​ on page 776
MMEMory:​NETWork:​UNUSeddrives?​ on page 776
Disconnect Network Drive ← Network Drive ← File Manager
Opens the "Disconnect Network Drive" dialog box. In the "Drive" list, select the drive
you want to disconnect and confirm with "OK".
Remote command:
MMEMory:​NETWork:​DISConnect​ on page 775
8.1.2 File Selection Dialog Boxes
The "Save" and "Recall" dialog boxes are used to save and recall settings and data
files. The "File Manager" allows you to copy, delete or rename data files on the
R&S ESR. These and other file selection dialog boxes are very similar.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
393
R&S®ESR
Data Management
Saving and Recalling Settings Files – SAVE/RCL Key
Drive
The data is stored on the internal flash disk or, if selected, on a memory stick or network drive. The mass media are assigned to the volume names as follows:
Drive
Designation
Comment
C
operating system, firmware and stored instrument
settings
for customer data
A
USB floppy drive
if connected
D
USB memory stick or USB CD-ROM
if connected
E …Z
additional USB mass storage devices or mounted
LAN volumes
if connected
Path
The current path contains the drive and the complete file path to the currently selected
folder.
To set the focus on the "Path" list, press the Select Path/ Edit Path softkey.
Files
This list contains the files and folders contained in the currently selected path.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
394
R&S®ESR
Data Management
Saving and Recalling Settings Files – SAVE/RCL Key
To set the focus on the "Files" list, press the Select File softkey.
File Name
The "File Name" field contains the name of the data file without the path or extension.
To set the focus on "File Name" field, press the Edit File Name softkey.
In the "Save" dialog box, the field already contains a suggestion for a new name: the
file name used in the last saving process is used, extended by an index. For example,
if the name last used was test_004, the new name test_005 is suggested, but only
if this name is not in use. You can change the suggested name as you like.
By default, the name of a settings file consists of a base name followed by an underscore and three numbers, e.g. limit_lines_005. In the example, the base name is
limit_lines. The base name can contain characters, numbers and underscores.
The file extension dfl is added automatically.
Comment
The comment is optional and may contain a description for the data file.
To set the focus on the "Comment" field, press the Edit Comment softkey.
Items
When saving data files you can select which data and settings are stored; when recalling such files, this field indicates which items were included during storage. In the "File
Manager", this field is not available.
Which items are available depends on the installed options. The following items may
be included:
Item
Description
Current Settings
Current measurement settings
All Transducers
Transducer factors for all active transducers.
All Traces
All active traces; R&S FSV-K30 only: also calibration data
All Limit Lines
All limit lines (Note: information on which limit lines are active is stored with
the "Current Settings")
Spectrograms
Spectrogram trace data (only available if spectrogram display is currently
active, R&S FSV-K14 only)
Noise - ENR
Data in "ENR Settings" dialog box (R&S FSV-K30 only)
Noise - Loss Settings
Data in "Loss Settings" dialog box (R&S FSV-K30 only)
Noise - Calibration data
Results from calibration measurement (R&S FSV-K30 only)
K40 Results
All current phase noise trace results (R&S FSV-K40 only)
WLAN Results
Stores the trace and table results for WLAN measurements(R&S FSV-K91
only)
WLAN IQ Data
Stores the measured I/Q data (R&S FSV-K91 only)
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
395
R&S®ESR
Data Management
Saving and Recalling Settings Files – SAVE/RCL Key
Item
Description
WLAN User Limits
Stores any limit values modified in the table of results for WLAN measurements (R&S FSV-K91 only)
WiMAX Results
Stores the trace and table results for WiMAX measurements(R&S FSV-K93
only)
8.1.3 Importing and Exporting I/Q Data
In addition to instrument settings and displayed traces, also captured I/Q data can be
exported to a file on the R&S ESR. The stored data can then be imported again at a
later time, also by different applications, for further processing.
As opposed to storing trace data, which may be averaged or restricted to peak values,
I/Q data is stored as it was captured, without further processing. The data is stored as
complex values in 32-bit floating-point format. The I/Q data is stored in a packed format
with the file extension .iq.tar.
The IQ Import and IQ Export functions are available from the "Save/Recall" menu,
which is displayed when you press the SAVE/RCL key on the front panel.
They can also be performed remotely using the following commands:
MMEMory:​STORe:​IQ:​STATe​ on page 746
MMEMory:​LOAD:​IQ:​STATe​ on page 700
8.1.3.1
iq-tar File Format Specification
I/Q data is stored in a compressed format with the file extension .iq.tar.
An .iq.tar file contains I/Q data in binary format together with meta information that
describes the nature and the source of data, e.g. the sample rate. The objective of
the .iq.tar file format is to separate I/Q data from the meta information while still
having both inside one file. In addition, the file format allows you to preview the I/Q
data in a web browser, and allows you to include user-specific data.
Contained files
An iq-tar file must contain the following files:
●
I/Q parameter XML file, e.g. xyz.xml
Contains meta information about the I/Q data (e.g. sample rate). The filename can
be defined freely, but there must be only one single I/Q parameter XML file inside
an iq-tar file.
●
I/Q data binary file, e.g. xyz.complex.float32
Contains the binary I/Q data of all channels. There must be only one single I/Q
data binary file inside an iq-tar file.
Optionally, an iq-tar file can contain the following file:
●
I/Q preview XSLT file, e.g. open_IqTar_xml_file_in_web_browser.xslt
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
396
R&S®ESR
Data Management
Saving and Recalling Settings Files – SAVE/RCL Key
Contains a stylesheet to display the I/Q parameter XML file and a preview of the
I/Q data in a web browser.
I/Q Parameter XML File Specification
The content of the I/Q parameter XML file must comply with the XML schema
RsIqTar.xsd available at: http://www.rohde-schwarz.com/file/RsIqTar.xsd.
In particular, the order of the XML elements must be respected, i.e. iq-tar uses an
"ordered XML schema". For your own implementation of the iq-tar file format make
sure to validate your XML file against the given schema.
The following example shows an I/Q parameter XML file. The XML elements and attributes are explained in the following sections.
Sample I/Q parameter XML file: xyz.xml
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<?xml-stylesheet type="text/xsl"
href="open_IqTar_xml_file_in_web_browser.xslt"?>
<RS_IQ_TAR_FileFormat fileFormatVersion="1"
xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="RsIqTar.xsd"
xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance">
<Name>FSV-K10</Name>
<Comment>Here is a comment</Comment>
<DateTime>2011-01-24T14:02:49</DateTime>
<Samples>68751</Samples>
<Clock unit="Hz">6.5e+006</Clock>
<Format>complex</Format>
<DataType>float32</DataType>
<ScalingFactor unit="V">1</ScalingFactor>
<NumberOfChannels>1</NumberOfChannels>
<DataFilename>xyz.complex.float32</DataFilename>
<UserData>
<UserDefinedElement>Example</UserDefinedElement>
</UserData>
<PreviewData>...</PreviewData>
</RS_IQ_TAR_FileFormat>
Element
Description
RS_IQ_TAR_FileFormat
The root element of the XML file. It must contain the attribute
fileFormatVersion that contains the number of the file format definition.
Currently, fileFormatVersion "2" is used.
Name
Optional: describes the device or application that created the file.
Comment
Optional: contains text that further describes the contents of the file.
DateTime
Contains the date and time of the creation of the file. Its type is xs:dateTime
(see RsIqTar.xsd).
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
397
R&S®ESR
Data Management
Saving and Recalling Settings Files – SAVE/RCL Key
Element
Description
Samples
Contains the number of samples of the I/Q data. For multi-channel signals all
channels have the same number of samples. One sample can be:
A complex number represented as a pair of I and Q values
●
A complex number represented as a pair of magnitude and phase values
●
A real number represented as a single real value
●
See also Format element.
Clock
Contains the clock frequency in Hz, i.e. the sample rate of the I/Q data. A signal
generator typically outputs the I/Q data at a rate that equals the clock frequency.
If the I/Q data was captured with a signal analyzer, the signal analyzer used the
clock frequency as the sample rate. The attribute unit must be set to "Hz".
Format
Specifies how the binary data is saved in the I/Q data binary file (see
DataFilename element). Every sample must be in the same format. The format can be one of the following:
Complex: Complex number in cartesian format, i.e. I and Q values inter●
leaved. I and Q are unitless
Real: Real number (unitless)
●
Polar: Complex number in polar format, i.e. magnitude (unitless) and phase
●
(rad) values interleaved. Requires DataType = float32 or float64
DataType
Specifies the binary format used for samples in the I/Q data binary file (see
DataFilename element and "I/Q Data Binary File" on page 400). The following data types are allowed:
int8: 8 bit signed integer data
●
int16: 16 bit signed integer data
●
int32: 32 bit signed integer data
●
float32: 32 bit floating point data (IEEE 754)
●
float64: 64 bit floating point data (IEEE 754)
●
ScalingFactor
Optional: describes how the binary data can be transformed into values in the
unit Volt. The binary I/Q data itself has no unit. To get an I/Q sample in the unit
Volt the saved samples have to be multiplied by the value of the
ScalingFactor. For polar data only the magnitude value has to be multiplied.
For multi-channel signals the ScalingFactor must be applied to all channels.
The ScalingFactor must be > 0. If the ScalingFactor element is not
defined, a value of 1 V is assumed.
NumberOfChannels
Optional: specifies the number of channels, e.g. of a MIMO signal, contained in
the I/Q data binary file. For multi-channels, the I/Q samples of the channels are
expected to be interleaved within the I/Q data file (see "I/Q Data Binary File"
on page 400). If the NumberOfChannels element is not defined, one channel
is assumed.
DataFilename
Contains the filename of the I/Q data binary file that is part of the iq-tar file.
It is recommended that the filename uses the following convention:
<xyz>.<Format>.<Channels>ch.<Type>
●
●
●
●
<xyz> = a valid Windows file name
<Format> = complex, polar or real (see Format element)
<Channels> = Number of channels (see NumberOfChannels element)
<Type> = float32, float64, int8, int16, int32 or int64 (see DataType element)
Examples:
●
●
●
●
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
xyz.complex.1ch.float32
xyz.polar.1ch.float64
xyz.real.1ch.int16
xyz.complex.16ch.int8
398
R&S®ESR
Data Management
Saving and Recalling Settings Files – SAVE/RCL Key
Element
Description
UserData
Optional: contains user, application or device-specific XML data which is not
part of the iq-tar specification. This element can be used to store additional
information, e.g. the hardware configuration. It is recommended that you add
user data as XML content.
PreviewData
Optional: contains further XML elements that provide a preview of the I/Q data.
The preview data is determined by the routine that saves an iq-tar file (e.g.
R&S ESR). For the definition of this element refer to the RsIqTar.xsd
schema. Note that the preview can be only displayed by current web browsers
that have JavaScript enabled and if the XSLT stylesheet
open_IqTar_xml_file_in_web_browser.xslt is available.
Example: ScalingFactor
Data stored as int16 and a desired full scale voltage of 1 V
ScalingFactor = 1 V / maximum int16 value = 1 V / 215 = 3.0517578125e-5 V
Numerical value
Numerical value x ScalingFactor
Minimum (negative) int16 value
- 215 = - 32768
-1 V
Maximum (positive) int16 value
215-1= 32767
0.999969482421875 V
Example: PreviewData in XML
<PreviewData>
<ArrayOfChannel length="1">
<Channel>
<PowerVsTime>
<Min>
<ArrayOfFloat length="256">
<float>-95</float>
<float>-94</float>
...
<float>-93</float>
</ArrayOfFloat>
</Min>
<Max>
<ArrayOfFloat length="256">
<float>0</float>
<float>-41</float>
...
<float>0</float>
</ArrayOfFloat>
</Max>
</PowerVsTime>
<Spectrum>
<Min>
<ArrayOfFloat length="256">
<float>-107</float>
<float>-96</float>
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
399
R&S®ESR
Data Management
Saving and Recalling Settings Files – SAVE/RCL Key
...
<float>-94</float>
</ArrayOfFloat>
</Min>
<Max>
<ArrayOfFloat length="256">
<float>-25</float>
<float>1</float>
...
<float>1</float>
</ArrayOfFloat>
</Max>
</Spectrum>
</Channel>
</ArrayOfChannel>
</PreviewData>
I/Q Data Binary File
The I/Q data is saved in binary format according to the format and data type specified
in the XML file (see Format element and DataType element). To allow reading and
writing of streamed I/Q data all data is interleaved, i.e. complex values are interleaved
pairs of I and Q values and multi-channel signals contain interleaved (complex) samples for channel 1, channel 2, channel 3 etc.
Example: NumberOfChannels - Element ordering for complex cartesian data
Complex data: I[channel no][time index], Q[channel no][time index]
I[0][0], Q[0][0],
// Channel 0, Complex sample 0
I[1][0], Q[1][0],
// Channel 1, Complex sample 0
I[2][0], Q[2][0],
// Channel 2, Complex sample 0
I[0][1], Q[0][1],
// Channel 0, Complex sample 1
I[1][1], Q[1][1],
// Channel 1, Complex sample 1
I[2][1], Q[2][1],
// Channel 2, Complex sample 1
I[0][2], Q[0][2],
// Channel 0, Complex sample 2
I[1][2], Q[1][2],
// Channel 1, Complex sample 2
I[2][2], Q[2][2],
// Channel 2, Complex sample 2
I[0][3], Q[0][3],
// Channel 0, Complex sample 3
I[1][3], Q[1][3],
// Channel 1, Complex sample 3
I[2][3], Q[2][3],
// Channel 2, Complex sample 3
...
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
400
R&S®ESR
Data Management
Measurement Documentation – PRINT Key
8.2 Measurement Documentation – PRINT Key
The PRINT key is used to select and configure the printer and to customize the screen
printout. For detailed information on printer selection and installation refer to the Quick
Start Guide.
To open the Print menu
► Press the PRINT key.
The "Print" menu is displayed.
Softkeys of the Print Menu
The following table shows all softkeys available in the "Print" menu. It is possible that
your instrument configuration does not provide all softkeys. If a softkey is only available
with a special option, model or (measurement) mode, this information is delivered in
the corresponding softkey description.
Print Screen................................................................................................................ 401
Device Setup...............................................................................................................402
Device (1/2).................................................................................................................402
Colors..........................................................................................................................402
└ Select Print Color Set....................................................................................402
└ Color (On/Off)............................................................................................... 402
└ Select Object.................................................................................................403
└ Predefined Colors......................................................................................... 403
└ User Defined Colors......................................................................................403
└ Set to Default................................................................................................ 403
Comment.....................................................................................................................403
Install Printer............................................................................................................... 403
Print Screen
Starts to printout all test results displayed on the screen: diagrams, traces, markers,
marker lists, limit lines etc. Comments, title, date, and time are included at the bottom
margin of the printout. All displayed items belonging to the instrument software (softkeys, tables, dialog boxes) are not printed out.
The output is defined via the "Device Setup" on page 402 softkey. If the output is
saved in a file, the file name used in the last saving process is counted up to the next
unused name. If you use a file name that already exists, upon saving, a message is
displayed. Selecting "Yes" overwrites the existing file, selecting "No" aborts the saving
process. For further details on the file name and an example, refer to the "Save/
Recall" menu, "Edit File Name" on page 389 softkey.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
401
R&S®ESR
Data Management
Measurement Documentation – PRINT Key
Path
Directory in which the file is stored. The default path is C:\r_s\instr\user
Files
List of the existing files in the same format
File Name
Name of the file
Remote command:
HCOPy[:​IMMediate<1|2>]​ on page 762
HCOPy[:​IMMediate<1|2>]:​NEXT​ on page 762
HCOPy:​ITEM:​ALL​ on page 761
Device Setup
Opens the "Hardcopy Setup" dialog box to define the output: image file, clipboard, or
the printer. The dialog box consists of two tabs which are selected via the "Device
(1/2)" on page 402 softkey.
For further information refer to the Quick Start Guide.
Remote command:
HCOPy:​DEVice:​LANGuage<1|2>​ on page 760
HCOPy:​DESTination<1|2>​ on page 759
HCOPy:​PAGE:​ORIentation<1|2>​ on page 761
HCOPy:​TDSTamp:​STATe<1|2>​ on page 762
SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​PRINter:​ENUMerate:​FIRSt?​ on page 763
SYSTem:​COMMunicate:​PRINter:​ENUMerate[:​NEXT]?​ on page 763
Device (1/2)
Selects the tab of the device in the "Device Setup" dialog box. The analyzer is able to
manage two print settings independently of each other. For each device the print setting is displayed on the corresponding tab of the "Device Setup" dialog box ( "Device
Setup" on page 402 softkey).
For further information refer to the Quick Start Guide.
Colors
Opens a submenu to define the colors to be used. For details see "Print Colors"
on page 380 softkey of the "Setup" menu.
The submenu contains the following commands:
●
●
●
●
●
●
"Select Print Color Set" on page 402
"Color (On/Off)" on page 402
"Select Object" on page 403
"Predefined Colors" on page 403
"User Defined Colors" on page 403
"Set to Default" on page 403
Select Print Color Set ← Colors
For details see "Select Print Color Set" on page 380 softkey of the "Setup" menu.
Color (On/Off) ← Colors
For details see "Color (On/Off)" on page 379 softkey of the "Setup" menu.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
402
R&S®ESR
Data Management
Measurement Documentation – PRINT Key
Select Object ← Colors
For details see "Select Object" on page 379 softkey of the "Setup" menu.
Predefined Colors ← Colors
For details see "Predefined Colors" on page 379 softkey of the "Setup" menu.
User Defined Colors ← Colors
For details see "User Defined Colors" on page 379 softkey of the "Setup" menu.
Set to Default ← Colors
For details see "Set to Default" on page 380 softkey of the "Setup" menu.
Comment
Opens dialog box to enter a comment. Max. 120 characters are allowed. 60 characters
fit in one line. In the first line, at any point a manual line-feed can be forced by entering
"@".
Date and time are inserted automatically. The comment is printed below the diagram
area, but not displayed on the screen. If a comment should not be printed, it must be
deleted.
For details on the alphanumeric entries refer to the Quick Start Guide, "Basic Operations".
Remote command:
HCOPy:​ITEM:​WINDow:​TEXT​ on page 761
Install Printer
Opens the "Printers and Faxes" window to install a new printer. All printers that are
already installed are displayed.
For further information refer to the Quick Start Guide, appendix 1, "Printer Interface".
Only user accounts with administrator rights can install a printer.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
403
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Control - Basics
9 Remote Control
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Remote Control - Basics....................................................................................... 404
Selecting the Operating Mode...............................................................................443
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode................................................................. 444
Remote Commands in Spectrum Analyzer Mode................................................. 528
Remote Commands in I/Q Analyzer Mode............................................................699
Remote Commands to Control the Tracking Generator........................................711
Common Commands............................................................................................ 718
System Configuration............................................................................................722
Data Management.................................................................................................738
Using Transducers................................................................................................ 748
Documentation......................................................................................................755
Display Configuration............................................................................................ 764
Network Connection..............................................................................................775
Status Register......................................................................................................781
Remote Control – Programming Examples...........................................................784
GPIB Commands of HP Models 856xE, 8566A/B, 8568A/B and 8594E.............. 826
9.1 Remote Control - Basics
This chapter provides basic information on operating an instrument via remote control.
The computer that is used for remote operation is called "controller" here.
9.1.1 Remote Control Interfaces and Protocols
The instrument supports different interfaces for remote control. The following table
gives an overview.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
404
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Control - Basics
Table 9-1: Remote control interfaces and protocols
Interface
Protocols, VISA*)
address string
Remarks
Local Area
Network
(LAN)
Protocols:
A LAN connector is located on the rear panel of the instrument.
●
●
●
The interface is based on TCP/IP and supports various protocols.
VXI-11
RSIB
simple telnet (Raw
Ethernet)
VISA*) address string:
TCPIP::host
address[::LAN device
name][::INSTR]
GPIB (IEC/
IEEE Bus
Interface)
VISA*) address string:
GPIB::primary
address[::INSTR]
(no secondary address)
For a description of the protocols refer to:
"VXI-11 Protocol" on page 408
●
"RSIB Protocol" on page 408
●
"Telnet Protocol" on page 409
●
A GPIB bus interface according to the IEC 625.1/IEEE 488.1
standard is located on the rear panel of the instrument.
For a description of the interface refer to chapter 9.1.1.4, "GPIB
Interface (IEC 625/IEEE 418 Bus Interface)", on page 409.
*)
VISA is a standardized software interface library providing input and output functions to communicate
with instruments. A VISA installation on the controller is a prerequisite for remote control using the indicated interfaces (see also chapter 9.1.1.1, "VISA Libraries", on page 405).
Within this interface description, the term GPIB is used as a synonym for the IEC/IEEE
bus interface.
SCPI (Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments)
SCPI commands - messages - are used for remote control. Commands that are not
taken from the SCPI standard follow the SCPI syntax rules. The instrument supports
the SCPI version 1999. The SCPI standard is based on standard IEEE 488.2 and aims
at the standardization of device-specific commands, error handling and the status registers. The tutorial "Automatic Measurement Control - A tutorial on SCPI and IEEE
488.2" from John M. Pieper (R&S order number 0002.3536.00) offers detailed information on concepts and definitions of SCPI.
The requirements that the SCPI standard places on command syntax, error handling
and configuration of the status registers are explained in detail in the following sections. Tables provide a fast overview of the bit assignment in the status registers. The
tables are supplemented by a comprehensive description of the status registers.
9.1.1.1
VISA Libraries
VISA is a standardized software interface library providing input and output functions to
communicate with instruments. The I/O channel (LAN or TCP/IP, USB, GPIB,...) is
selected at initialization time by means of the channel–specific address string ("VISA
resource string") indicated in table 9-1, or by an appropriately defined VISA alias (short
name). A VISA installation is a prerequisite for remote control using the VXI-11 and
RSIB protocols. The necessary VISA library is available as a separate product. For
details contact your local R&S sales representative.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
405
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Control - Basics
For more information on VISA refer to the user documentation.
9.1.1.2
Messages
The messages transferred on the data lines are divided into the following categories:
●
Interface messages
Interface messages are transmitted to the instrument on the data lines, with the
attention line being active (LOW). They are used to communicate between the controller and the instrument. Interface messages can only be sent by instruments that
have GPIB bus functionality. For details see the sections for the required interface.
●
Instrument messages
Instrument messages are employed in the same way for all interfaces, if not indicated otherwise in the description. Structure and syntax of the instrument messages
are described in chapter 9.1.4, "SCPI Command Structure", on page 413. A
detailed description of all messages available for the instrument is provided in the
chapter "Remote Control Commands".
There are different types of instrument messages, depending on the direction they
are sent:
– Commands
–
Instrument responses
Commands
Commands (program messages) are messages the controller sends to the instrument.
They operate the instrument functions and request information. The commands are
subdivided according to two criteria:
●
According to the effect they have on the instrument:
– Setting commands cause instrument settings such as a reset of the instrument or setting the frequency.
–
●
Queries cause data to be provided for remote control, e.g. for identification of
the instrument or polling a parameter value. Queries are formed by directly
appending a question mark to the command header.
According to their definition in standards:
– Common commands: their function and syntax are precisely defined in standard IEEE 488.2. They are employed identically on all instruments (if implemented). They refer to functions such as management of the standardized status
registers, reset and self test.
–
Instrument control commands refer to functions depending on the features of
the instrument such as frequency settings. Many of these commands have also
been standardized by the SCPI committee. These commands are marked as
"SCPI confirmed" in the command reference chapters. Commands without this
SCPI label are device-specific; however, their syntax follows SCPI rules as permitted by the standard.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
406
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Control - Basics
Instrument responses
Instrument responses (response messages and service requests) are messages the
instrument sends to the controller after a query. They can contain measurement
results, instrument settings and information on the instrument status.
9.1.1.3
LAN Interface
To be integrated in a LAN, the instrument is equipped with a LAN interface, consisting
of a connector, a network interface card and protocols. The network card can be operated with a 10 MHz Ethernet IEEE 802.3 or a 100 MHz Ethernet IEEE 802.3u interface. For remote control via a network, the PC and the instrument must be connected
via the LAN interface to a common network with TCP/IP network protocol. They are
connected using a commercial RJ45 cable (shielded or unshielded twisted pair category 5). The TCP/IP network protocol and the associated network services are preconfigured on the instrument. Software for instrument control and the VISA program library
must be installed on the controller.
VISA library
Instrument access via VXI-11 or RSIB protocols is usually achieved from high level
programming platforms using VISA as an intermediate abstraction layer. VISA encapsulates the low level VXI, RSIB or even GPIB function calls and thus makes the transport interface transparent for the user. See chapter 9.1.1.1, "VISA Libraries",
on page 405 for details.
IP address
Only the IP address or the computer name (LAN device name) is required to set up the
connection. The IP address/computer name is part of the "visa resource string" used
by the programs to identify and control the instrument.
The visa resource string has the form:
TCPIP::host address[::LAN device name][::INSTR]
where:
●
TCPIP designates the network protocol used
●
host address is the IP address of the device
The IP address for the R&S ESR is factory-set to 10.0.0.10, subnet mask
255.255.255.0.
●
LAN device name is the computer name of the instrument (alternative to IP
address)
●
INSTR indicates that the VXI-11 protocol is used
Example:
Instrument has the IP address 192.1.2.3; the valid resource string is:
TCPIP::192.1.2.3::INSTR
The instrument name is RSFSV; the valid resource string is:
TCPIP::RSFSV::INSTR
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
407
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Control - Basics
Identifying instruments in a network
If several instruments are connected to the network, each instrument has its own IP
address and associated resource string. The controller identifies these instruments by
means of the resource string.
For details on configuring the LAN connection, see "Setting Up a Network (LAN) Connection" in the Quick Start Guide.
VXI-11 Protocol
The VXI-11 standard is based on the ONC RPC (Open Network Computing Remote
Procedure Call) protocol which in turn relies on TCP/IP as the network/transport layer.
The TCP/IP network protocol and the associated network services are preconfigured.
TCP/IP ensures connection-oriented communication, where the order of the
exchanged messages is adhered to and interrupted links are identified. With this protocol, messages cannot be lost.
RSIB Protocol
The R&S defined RSIB protocol uses the TCP/IP protocol for communication with the
instrument. Remote control over RSIB is done on a message level basis using the
SCPI command set of the instrument. The RSIB protocol allows you to control the
instrument for example via Visual C++- and Visual Basic programs, via the Windows
applications Word and Excel, as well as via National Instruments LabView, LabWindows/CVI, Agilent VEE and others. The control applications run on an external computer
in the network.
RSIB Interface Functions
The library functions are adapted to the interface functions of National Instruments for
GPIB programming. The functions supported by the libraries are listed in the following
table.
Function
Description
RSDLLibfind()
Provides a handle for access to a device.
RSDLLibwrt()
Sends a zero-terminated string to a device.
RSDLLilwrt()
Sends a certain number of bytes to a device.
RSDLLibwrtf()
Sends the contents of a file to a device.
RSDLLibrd()
Reads data from a device into a string.
RSDLLilrd()
Reads a certain number of bytes from a device.
RSDLLibrdf()
Reads data from a device into a file.
RSDLLibtmo()
Sets timeout for RSIB functions.
RSDLLibsre()
Switches a device to the local or remote state.
RSDLLibloc()
Temporarily switches a device to the local state.
RSDLLibeot()
Enables/disables the END message for write operations.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
408
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Control - Basics
Function
Description
RSDLLibrsp()
Performs a serial poll and provides the status byte.
RSDLLibonl()
Sets the device online/offline.
RSDLLTestSrq()
Checks whether a device has generated an SRQ.
RSDLLWaitSrq()
Waits until a device generates an SRQ.
RSDLLSwapBytes
Swaps the byte sequence for binary numericdisplay (only required for
non-Intel platforms).
Telnet Protocol
As an alternative to remote control the instrument can use a simple telnet protocol (port
5025). Unlike using the VXI-11 protocol, no VISA installation is necessary on the
remote controller side. This protocol is sometimes also referred to as "socket communication" or "Raw Ethernet mode". To control the instrument, only a Telnet program is
required. The Telnet program is part of every operating system.
9.1.1.4
GPIB Interface (IEC 625/IEEE 418 Bus Interface)
To be able to control the instrument via the GPIB bus, the instrument and the controller
must be linked by a GPIB bus cable. A GPIB bus card, the card drivers and the program libraries for the programming language used must be provided in the controller.
The controller must address the instrument with the GPIB bus address (see "GPIB
Instrument Address" on page 411).
Notes and Conditions
In connection with the GPIB interface, note the following:
●
Up to 15 instruments can be connected
●
The total cable length is restricted to a maximum of 15 m or 2 m times the number
of devices, whichever is less; the cable lenth between two instruments should not
exceed 2 m.
●
A wired "OR"-connection is used if several instruments are connected in parallel.
●
Any connected IEC-bus cables should be terminated by an instrument or controller.
GPIB Interface Messages
Interface messages are transmitted to the instrument on the data lines, with the attention line (ATN) being active (LOW). They are used for communication between the
controller and the instrument and can only be sent by a computer which has the function of a GPIB bus controller. GPIB interface messages can be further subdivided into:
●
Universal commands: act on all instruments connected to the GPIB bus without
previous addressing
●
Addressed commands: only act on instruments previously addressed as listeners
The following figure provides an overview of the available communication lines used by
the GPIB interface.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
409
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Control - Basics
Fig. 9-1: Communication lines used by the GPIB interface
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
410
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Control - Basics
Universal Commands
Universal commands are encoded in the range 10 through 1F hex. They affect all
instruments connected to the bus and do not require addressing.
Command
Effect on the instrument
DCL (Device Clear)
Aborts the processing of the commands just received and sets the command processing software to a defined initial state. Does not change the
instrument settings.
IFC (Interface Clear) *)
Resets the interfaces to the default setting.
LLO (Local Lockout)
The LOC/IEC ADDR key is disabled.
SPE (Serial Poll Enable)
Ready for serial poll.
SPD (Serial Poll Disable)
End of serial poll.
PPU (Parallel Poll Unconfigure)
End of the parallel-poll state.
*) IFC is not a real universal command, it is sent via a separate line; however, it also affects all instruments
connected to the bus and does not require addressing
Addressed Commands
Addressed commands are encoded in the range 00 through 0F hex. They only affect
instruments addressed as listeners.
Command
Effect on the instrument
GET (Group Execute Trigger)
Triggers a previously active instrument function (e.g. a sweep).
The effect of the command is the same as with that of a pulse at
the external trigger signal input.
GTL (Go to Local)
Transition to the "local" state (manual control).
Transition to the "remote" state (remote control).
PPC (Parallel Poll Configure)
Configures the instrument for parallel poll.
SDC (Selected Device Clear)
Aborts the processing of the commands just received and sets the
command processing software to a defined initial state. Does not
change the instrument setting.
GPIB Instrument Address
In order to operate the instrument via remote control, it must be addressed using the
GPIB address. The remote control address is factory-set to 20, but it can be changed if
it does not fit in the network environment. For remote control, addresses 0 through 30
are allowed. The GPIB address is maintained after a reset of the instrument settings.
Setting the GPIB address
1. On the R&S ESR, press the SETUP key.
2. Press the "General Setup" softkey.
3. Press the "GPIB" softkey.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
411
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Control - Basics
The submenu for setting the parameters of the remote control interface is displayed.
4. Press the "GPIB Address" softkey.
The edit dialog box for the GPIB address is displayed.
5. Enter a value between 0 and 30.
Remote command: SYST:COMM:GPIB:ADDR 18
9.1.2 Starting a Remote Control Session
When you switch on the instrument, it is always in manual operation state ("local"
state) and can be operated via the front panel.
Starting remote control
1. Send an addressed command (GTR - Go to Remote) from a controller to the instrument.
The instrument is switched to remote control ("remote" state). Operation via the
front panel is disabled. Only the "Local" softkey is displayed to return to manual
operation. The instrument remains in the remote state until it is reset to the manual
state via the instrument or via remote control interfaces. Switching from manual
operation to remote control and vice versa does not affect the other instrument settings.
2. During program execution, send the SYSTem:DISPlay:UPDate ON command to
activate the display of results.
The changes in the device settings and the recorded measurement values are displayed on the instrument screen.
3. To obtain optimum performance during remote control, send the
SYSTem:DISPlay:UPDate OFF command to hide the display of results and diagrams again (default setting in remote control).
4. To prevent unintentional return to manual operation, disable the keys of the instrument using the universal command LLO.
Switching to manual mode is only possible via remote control then. This function is
only available for the GPIB interface.
5. To enable the keys of the R&S ESR again, switch the instrument to local mode
(GTL - Go to Local), i.e. deactivate the REN line of the remote control interface.
If the instrument is operated exclusively in remote control, it is recommended that you
switch on the power-save mode for the display. For more details on this mode refer to
the Quick Start Guide.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
412
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Control - Basics
9.1.3 Returning to Manual Operation
Before you switch back to manual operation, all remote command processing must be
completed. Otherwise, the instrument will switch back to remote control immediately.
► Press the "Local" softkey or the PRESET key, or use the following GPIB command:
status = viGpibControlREN(vi, VI_GPIB_REN_ADDRESS_GTL)
9.1.4 SCPI Command Structure
SCPI commands consist of a so-called header and, in most cases, one or more parameters. The header and the parameters are separated by a "white space" (ASCII code 0
to 9, 11 to 32 decimal, e.g. blank). The headers may consist of several mnemonics
(keywords). Queries are formed by appending a question mark directly to the header.
The commands can be either device-specific or device-independent (common commands). Common and device-specific commands differ in their syntax.
9.1.4.1
Syntax for Common Commands
Common (=device-independent) commands consist of a header preceded by an asterisk (*) and possibly one or more parameters.
Examples:
*RST
RESET
Resets the instrument.
*ESE
EVENT STATUS ENABLE
Sets the bits of the event status enable
registers.
*ESR?
EVENT STATUS QUERY
Queries the contents of the event status
register.
*IDN?
IDENTIFICATION QUERY
Queries the instrument identification
string.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
413
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Control - Basics
9.1.4.2
Syntax for Device-Specific Commands
Not all commands used in the following examples are necessarily implemented in the
instrument.
For demonstration purposes only, assume the existence of the following commands for
this section:
●
DISPlay[:WINDow<1...4>]:MAXimize <Boolean>
●
FORMat:READings:DATA <type>[,<length>]
●
HCOPy:DEVice:COLor <Boolean>
●
HCOPy:DEVice:CMAP:COLor:RGB <red>,<green>,<blue>
●
HCOPy[:IMMediate]
●
HCOPy:ITEM:ALL
●
HCOPy:ITEM:LABel <string>
●
HCOPy:PAGE:DIMensions:QUADrant[<N>]
●
HCOPy:PAGE:ORIentation LANDscape | PORTrait
●
HCOPy:PAGE:SCALe <numeric value>
●
MMEMory:COPY <file_source>,<file_destination>
●
SENSE:BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution] <numeric_value>
●
SENSe:FREQuency:STOP <numeric value>
●
SENSe:LIST:FREQuency <numeric_value>{,<numeric_value>}
Long and short form
The mnemonics feature a long form and a short form. The short form is marked by
upper case letters, the long form corresponds to the complete word. Either the short
form or the long form can be entered; other abbreviations are not permitted.
Example:
HCOPy:DEVice:COLor ON is equivalent to HCOP:DEV:COL ON.
Case-insensitivity
Upper case and lower case notation only serves to distinguish the two forms in the
manual, the instrument itself is case-insensitive.
Numeric suffixes
If a command can be applied to multiple instances of an object, e.g. specific channels
or sources, the required instances can be specified by a suffix added to the command.
Numeric suffixes are indicated by angular brackets (<1...4>, <n>, <i>) and are replaced
by a single value in the command. Entries without a suffix are interpreted as having the
suffix 1.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
414
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Control - Basics
Example:
Definition: HCOPy:PAGE:DIMensions:QUADrant[<N>]
Command: HCOP:PAGE:DIM:QUAD2
This command refers to the quadrant 2.
Different numbering in remote control
For remote control, the suffix may differ from the number of the corresponding selection used in manual operation. SCPI prescribes that suffix counting starts with 1. Suffix
1 is the default state and used when no specific suffix is specified.
Some standards define a fixed numbering, starting with 0. If the numbering differs in
manual operation and remote control, it is indicated for the corresponding command.
Optional mnemonics
Some command systems permit certain mnemonics to be inserted into the header or
omitted. These mnemonics are marked by square brackets in the description. The
instrument must recognize the long command to comply with the SCPI standard. Some
commands are considerably shortened by these optional mnemonics.
Example:
Definition: HCOPy[:IMMediate]
Command: HCOP:IMM is equivalent to HCOP
Optional mnemonics with numeric suffixes
Do not omit an optional mnemonic if it includes a numeric suffix that is relevant for the
effect of the command.
Example:
Definition:DISPlay[:WINDow<1...4>]:MAXimize <Boolean>
Command: DISP:MAX ON refers to window 1.
In order to refer to a window other than 1, you must include the optional WINDow
parameter with the suffix for the required window.
DISP:WIND2:MAX ON refers to window 2.
Parameters
Parameters must be separated from the header by a "white space". If several parameters are specified in a command, they are separated by a comma (,). For a description
of the parameter types, refer to chapter 9.1.4.3, "SCPI Parameters", on page 416.
Example:
Definition:HCOPy:DEVice:CMAP:COLor:RGB <red>,<green>,<blue>
Command:HCOP:DEV:CMAP:COL:RGB 3,32,44
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
415
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Control - Basics
Special characters
|
Parameters
A vertical stroke in parameter definitions indicates alternative possibilities in the sense of "or". The
effect of the command differs, depending on which parameter is used.
Example:
Definition:HCOPy:PAGE:ORIentation LANDscape | PORTrait
Command HCOP:PAGE:ORI LAND specifies landscape orientation
Command HCOP:PAGE:ORI PORT specifies portrait orientation
Mnemonics
A selection of mnemonics with an identical effect exists for several commands. These mnemonics are
indicated in the same line; they are separated by a vertical stroke. Only one of these mnemonics
needs to be included in the header of the command. The effect of the command is independent of
which of the mnemonics is used.
Example:
DefinitionSENSE:BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution] <numeric_value>
The two following commands with identical meaning can be created:
SENS:BAND:RES 1
SENS:BWID:RES 1
[]
Mnemonics in square brackets are optional and may be inserted into the header or omitted.
Example: HCOPy[:IMMediate]
HCOP:IMM is equivalent to HCOP
{}
Parameters in curly brackets are optional and can be inserted once or several times, or omitted.
Example: SENSe:LIST:FREQuency <numeric_value>{,<numeric_value>}
The following are valid commands:
SENS:LIST:FREQ 10
SENS:LIST:FREQ 10,20
SENS:LIST:FREQ 10,20,30,40
9.1.4.3
SCPI Parameters
Many commands are supplemented by a parameter or a list of parameters. The
parameters must be separated from the header by a "white space" (ASCII code 0 to 9,
11 to 32 decimal, e.g. blank). Allowed parameters are:
●
Numeric values
●
Special numeric values
●
Boolean parameters
●
Text
●
Character strings
●
Block data
The parameters required for each command and the allowed range of values are
specified in the command description.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
416
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Control - Basics
Numeric values
Numeric values can be entered in any form, i.e. with sign, decimal point and exponent.
Values exceeding the resolution of the instrument are rounded up or down. The mantissa may comprise up to 255 characters, the exponent must lie inside the value range
-32000 to 32000. The exponent is introduced by an "E" or "e". Entry of the exponent
alone is not allowed. In the case of physical quantities, the unit can be entered.
Allowed unit prefixes are G (giga), MA (mega), MOHM and MHZ are also allowed), K
(kilo), M (milli), U (micro) and N (nano). If the unit is missing, the basic unit is used.
Example: SENS:FREQ:STOP 1.5GHz = SENS:FREQ:STOP 1.5E9
Units
For physical quantities, the unit can be entered. Allowed unit prefixes are:
●
G (giga)
●
MA (mega), MOHM, MHZ
●
K (kilo)
●
M (milli)
●
U (micro)
●
N (nano)
If the unit is missing, the basic unit is used.
Example:
SENSe:FREQ:STOP 1.5GHz = SENSe:FREQ:STOP 1.5E9
Some settings allow relative values to be stated in percent. According to SCPI, this unit
is represented by the PCT string.
Example:
HCOP:PAGE:SCAL 90PCT
Special numeric values
The texts listed below are interpreted as special numeric values. In the case of a
query, the numeric value is provided.
●
MIN/MAX
MINimum and MAXimum denote the minimum and maximum value.
●
DEF
DEFault denotes a preset value which has been stored in the EPROM. This value
conforms to the default setting, as it is called by the *RST command.
●
UP/DOWN
UP, DOWN increases or reduces the numeric value by one step. The step width
can be specified via an allocated step command for each parameter which can be
set via UP, DOWN.
●
INF/NINF
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
417
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Control - Basics
INFinity, Negative INFinity (NINF) represent the numeric values 9.9E37 or -9.9E37,
respectively. INF and NINF are only sent as instrument responses.
●
NAN
Not A Number (NAN) represents the value 9.91E37. NAN is only sent as a instrument response. This value is not defined. Possible causes are the division of zero
by zero, the subtraction of infinite from infinite and the representation of missing
values.
Example:
Setting command: SENSe:LIST:FREQ MAXimum
Query: SENS:LIST:FREQ?, Response: 3.5E9
Queries for special numeric values
The numeric values associated to MAXimum/MINimum/DEFault can be queried by
adding the corresponding mnemonics to the command. They must be entered following the quotation mark.
Example: SENSe:LIST:FREQ? MAXimum
Returns the maximum numeric value as a result.
Boolean Parameters
Boolean parameters represent two states. The "ON" state (logically true) is represented by "ON" or a numeric value 1. The "OFF" state (logically untrue) is represented by
"OFF" or the numeric value 0. The numeric values are provided as the response for a
query.
Example:
Setting command: HCOPy:DEV:COL ON
Query: HCOPy:DEV:COL?
Response: 1
Text parameters
Text parameters observe the syntactic rules for mnemonics, i.e. they can be entered
using a short or long form. Like any parameter, they have to be separated from the
header by a white space. In the case of a query, the short form of the text is provided.
Example:
Setting command: HCOPy:PAGE:ORIentation LANDscape
Query: HCOP:PAGE:ORI?
Response: LAND
Character strings
Strings must always be entered in quotation marks (' or ").
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
418
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Control - Basics
Example:
HCOP:ITEM:LABel "Test1" or HCOP:ITEM:LABel 'Test1'
Block data
Block data is a format which is suitable for the transmission of large amounts of data. A
command using a block data parameter has the following structure:
Example:
FORMat:READings:DATA #45168xxxxxxxx
The ASCII character # introduces the data block. The next number indicates how many
of the following digits describe the length of the data block. In the example the 4 following digits indicate the length to be 5168 bytes. The data bytes follow. During the transmission of these data bytes all end or other control signs are ignored until all bytes are
transmitted.
#0 specifies a data block of indefinite length. The use of the indefinite format requires a
NL^END message to terminate the data block. This format is useful when the length of
the transmission is not known or if speed or other considerations prevent segmentation
of the data into blocks of definite length.
9.1.4.4
Overview of Syntax Elements
The following table provides an overview of the syntax elements:
:
The colon separates the mnemonics of a command. In a command line the separating semicolon marks the uppermost command level.
;
The semicolon separates two commands of a command line. It does not alter the path.
,
The comma separates several parameters of a command.
?
The question mark forms a query.
*
The asterisk marks a common command.
''
Quotation marks introduce a string and terminate it (both single and double quotation marks are
possible).
"
#
The hash symbol introduces binary, octal, hexadecimal and block data.
Binary: #B10110
●
Octal: #O7612
●
Hexa: #HF3A7
●
Block: #21312
●
A "white space" (ASCII-Code 0 to 9, 11 to 32 decimal, e.g. blank) separates the header from the
parameters.
9.1.4.5
Structure of a command line
A command line may consist of one or several commands. It is terminated by one of
the following:
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
419
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Control - Basics
●
a <New Line>
●
a <New Line> with EOI
●
an EOI together with the last data byte
Several commands in a command line must be separated by a semicolon ";". If the
next command belongs to a different command system, the semicolon is followed by a
colon.
Example:
MMEM:COPY "Test1","MeasurementXY";:HCOP:ITEM ALL
This command line contains two commands. The first command belongs to the MMEM
system, the second command belongs to the HCOP system.
If the successive commands belong to the same system, having one or several levels
in common, the command line can be abbreviated. To this end, the second command
after the semicolon starts with the level that lies below the common levels. The colon
following the semicolon must be omitted in this case.
Example:
HCOP:ITEM ALL;:HCOP:IMM
This command line contains two commands. Both commands are part of the HCOP
command system, i.e. they have one level in common.
When abbreviating the command line, the second command begins with the level
below HCOP. The colon after the semicolon is omitted. The abbreviated form of the
command line reads as follows:
HCOP:ITEM ALL;IMM
A new command line always begins with the complete path.
Example:
HCOP:ITEM ALL
HCOP:IMM
9.1.4.6
Responses to Queries
A query is defined for each setting command unless explicitly specified otherwise. It is
formed by adding a question mark to the associated setting command. According to
SCPI, the responses to queries are partly subject to stricter rules than in standard
IEEE 488.2.
●
The requested parameter is transmitted without a header.
Example: HCOP:PAGE:ORI?, Response: LAND
●
Maximum values, minimum values and all other quantities that are requested via a
special text parameter are returned as numeric values.
Example: SENSe:FREQuency:STOP? MAX, Response: 3.5E9
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
420
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Control - Basics
●
Numeric values are output without a unit. Physical quantities are referred to the
basic units or to the units set using the Unit command. The response 3.5E9 in
the previous example stands for 3.5 GHz.
●
Truth values (Boolean values) are returned as 0 (for OFF) and 1 (for ON).
Example:
Setting command: HCOPy:DEV:COL ON
Query: HCOPy:DEV:COL?
Response: 1
●
Text (character data) is returned in a short form.
Example:
Setting command: HCOPy:PAGE:ORIentation LANDscape
Query: HCOP:PAGE:ORI?
Response: LAND
9.1.5 Command Sequence and Synchronization
IEEE 488.2 defines a distinction between overlapped and sequential commands:
●
A sequential command is one which finishes executing before the next command
starts executing. Commands that are processed quickly are usually implemented
as sequential commands.
●
An overlapping command is one which does not automatically finish executing
before the next command starts executing. Usually, overlapping commands take
longer to process and allow the program to do other tasks while being executed. If
overlapping commands do have to be executed in a defined order, e.g. in order to
avoid wrong measurement results, they must be serviced sequentially. This is
called synchronization between the controller and the instrument.
Setting commands within one command line, even though they may be implemented
as sequential commands, are not necessarily serviced in the order in which they have
been received. In order to make sure that commands are actually carried out in a certain order, each command must be sent in a separate command line.
Example: Commands and queries in one message
The response to a query combined in a program message with commands that affect
the queried value is not predictable.
The following commands always return the specified result:
:FREQ:STAR 1GHZ;SPAN 100 :FREQ:STAR?
Result:
1000000000 (1 GHz)
Whereas the result for the following commands is not specified by SCPI:
:FREQ:STAR 1GHz;STAR?;SPAN 1000000
The result could be the value of STARt before the command was sent since the instrument might defer executing the individual commands until a program message terminator is received. The result could also be 1 GHz if the instrument executes commands
as they are received.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
421
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Control - Basics
As a general rule, send commands and queries in different program messages.
Example: Overlapping command with *OPC
The instrument implements INITiate[:IMMediate] as an overlapped command.
Assuming that INITiate[:IMMediate] takes longer to execute than *OPC, sending
the following command sequence results in initiating a sweep and, after some time,
setting the OPC bit in the ESR:
INIT; *OPC.
Sending the following commands still initiates a sweep:
INIT; *OPC; *CLS
However, since the operation is still pending when the instrument executes *CLS, forcing it into the "Operation Complete Command Idle" State (OCIS), *OPC is effectively
skipped. The OPC bit is not set until the instrument executes another *OPC command.
The following list includes the commands for which a synchronization via *OPC,
*OPC? or *WAI is mandatory:
9.1.5.1
Command
Purpose
INIT
start measurement
INIT:CONM
continue measurement
CALC:MARK:FUNC:ZOOM
zoom frequency range around marker 1
CALC:STAT:SCAL:AUTO ONCE
optimize level settings for signal statistic measurement functions
[SENS:]POW:ACH:PRES:RLEV
optimize level settings for adjacent channel power measurements
Preventing Overlapping Execution
To prevent an overlapping execution of commands, one of the commands *OPC,
*OPC? or *WAI can be used. All three commands cause a certain action only to be
carried out after the hardware has been set. By suitable programming, the controller
can be forced to wait for the corresponding action to occur.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
422
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Control - Basics
Table 9-2: Synchronization using *OPC, *OPC? and *WAI
Command
Action
Programming the controller
*OPC
Sets the Operation Complete bit in the ESR
after all previous commands have been executed.
●
●
●
*OPC?
Stops command processing until 1 is
returned. This is only the case after the Operation Complete bit has been set in the ESR.
This bit indicates that the previous setting has
been completed.
Sending *OPC? directly after the command
whose processing should be terminated
before other commands can be executed.
*WAI
Stops further command processing until all
commands sent before *WAI have been executed.
Sending *WAI directly after the command
whose processing should be terminated
before other commands are executed.
Setting bit 0 in the ESE
Setting bit 5 in the SRE
Waiting for service request (SRQ)
Command synchronization using *WAI or *OPC? appended to an overlapped command is a good choice if the overlapped command takes only little time to process. The
two synchronization techniques simply block overlapped execution of the command.
For time consuming overlapped commands it is usually desirable to allow the controller
or the instrument to do other useful work while waiting for command execution. Use
one of the following methods:
*OPC with a service request
1. Set the OPC mask bit (bit no. 0) in the ESE: *ESE 1
2. Set bit no. 5 in the SRE: *SRE 32 to enable ESB service request.
3. Send the overlapped command with *OPC
4. Wait for a service request
The service request indicates that the overlapped command has finished.
*OPC? with a service request
1. Set bit no. 4 in the SRE: *SRE 16 to enable MAV service request.
2. Send the overlapped command with *OPC?
3. Wait for a service request
The service request indicates that the overlapped command has finished.
Event Status Register (ESE)
1. Set the OPC mask bit (bit no. 0) in the ESE: *ESE 1
2. Send the overlapped command without *OPC, *OPC? or *WAI
3. Poll the operation complete state periodically (by means of a timer) using the
sequence: *OPC; *ESR?
A return value (LSB) of 1 indicates that the overlapped command has finished.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
423
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Control - Basics
*OPC? with short timeout
1. Send the overlapped command without *OPC, *OPC? or *WAI
2. Poll the operation complete state periodically (by means of a timer) using the
sequence: <short timeout>; *OPC?
3. A return value (LSB) of 1 indicates that the overlapped command has finished. In
case of a timeout, the operation is ongoing.
4. Reset timeout to former value
5. Clear the error queue with SYStem:ERRor? to remove the "-410, Query interrupted" entries.
Using several threads in the controller application
As an alternative, provided the programming environment of the controller application
supports threads, separate threads can be used for the application GUI and for controlling the instrument(s) via SCPI.
A thread waiting for a *OPC? thus will not block the GUI or the communication with
other instruments.
9.1.6 Status Reporting System
The status reporting system stores all information on the current operating state of the
instrument, and on errors which have occurred. This information is stored in the status
registers and in the error queue. Both can be queried via GPIB bus or LAN interface
(STATus... commands).
9.1.6.1
Hierarchy of Status Registers
●
STB, SRE
The STatus Byte (STB) register and its associated mask register Service Request
Enable (SRE) form the highest level of the status reporting system. The STB provides a rough overview of the instrument status, collecting the information of the
lower-level registers.
●
ESR, SCPI registers
The STB receives its information from the following registers:
– The Event Status Register (ESR) with the associated mask register standard
Event Status Enable (ESE)
–
The STATus:OPERation and STATus:QUEStionable registers which are
defined by SCPI and contain detailed information on the instrument
●
IST, PPE
The IST flag ("Individual STatus"), like the SRQ, combines the entire instrument
status in a single bit. The PPE fulfills the same function for the IST flag as the SRE
for the service request.
●
Output buffer
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
424
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Control - Basics
The output buffer contains the messages the instrument returns to the controller. It
is not part of the status reporting system but determines the value of the MAV bit in
the STB and thus is represented in the overview.
All status registers have the same internal structure.
SRE, ESE
The service request enable register SRE can be used as ENABle part of the STB if the
STB is structured according to SCPI. By analogy, the ESE can be used as the ENABle
part of the ESR.
9.1.6.2
Structure of a SCPI Status Register
Each standard SCPI register consists of 5 parts. Each part has a width of 16 bits and
has different functions. The individual bits are independent of each other, i.e. each
hardware status is assigned a bit number which is valid for all five parts. Bit 15 (the
most significant bit) is set to zero for all parts. Thus the contents of the register parts
can be processed by the controller as positive integers.
Fig. 9-2: The status-register model
Description of the five status register parts
The five parts of a SCPI register have different properties and functions:
●
CONDition
The CONDition part is written into directly by the hardware or the sum bit of the
next lower register. Its contents reflect the current instrument status. This register
part can only be read, but not written into or cleared. Its contents are not affected
by reading.
●
PTRansition / NTRansition
The two transition register parts define which state transition of the CONDition
part (none, 0 to 1, 1 to 0 or both) is stored in the EVENt part.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
425
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Control - Basics
The Positive-TRansition part acts as a transition filter. When a bit of the
CONDition part is changed from 0 to 1, the associated PTR bit decides whether
the EVENt bit is set to 1.
– PTR bit =1: the EVENt bit is set.
–
PTR bit =0: the EVENt bit is not set.
This part can be written into and read as required. Its contents are not affected by
reading.
The Negative-TRansition part also acts as a transition filter. When a bit of the
CONDition part is changed from 1 to 0, the associated NTR bit decides whether
the EVENt bit is set to 1.
– NTR bit =1: the EVENt bit is set.
–
NTR bit =0: the EVENt bit is not set.
This part can be written into and read as required. Its contents are not affected by
reading.
●
EVENt
The EVENt part indicates whether an event has occurred since the last reading, it
is the "memory" of the condition part. It only indicates events passed on by the
transition filters. It is permanently updated by the instrument. This part can only be
read by the user. Reading the register clears it. This part is often equated with the
entire register.
●
ENABle
The ENABle part determines whether the associated EVENt bit contributes to the
sum bit (see below). Each bit of the EVENt part is "ANDed" with the associated
ENABle bit (symbol '&'). The results of all logical operations of this part are passed
on to the sum bit via an "OR" function (symbol '+').
ENABle bit = 0: the associated EVENt bit does not contribute to the sum bit
ENABle bit = 1: if the associated EVENt bit is "1", the sum bit is set to "1" as well.
This part can be written into and read by the user as required. Its contents are not
affected by reading.
Sum bit
The sum bit is obtained from the EVENt and ENABle part for each register. The result
is then entered into a bit of the CONDition part of the higher-order register.
The instrument automatically generates the sum bit for each register. Thus an event
can lead to a service request throughout all levels of the hierarchy.
9.1.6.3
Contents of the Status Register
This chapter provides information on the contents of each status register the meaning
for all bits that are used available for each operating mode.
Status Registers in Receiver Mode
This chapter contains the description of the registers and bits specific to spectrum
mode.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
426
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Control - Basics
Fig. 9-3: Overview of status registers in receiver mode
Status Byte (STB) and Service Request Enable Register (SRE)
The STatus Byte (STB) is already defined in IEEE 488.2. It provides a rough overview of the instrument status by collecting the pieces of information of the lower registers. A special feature is that bit 6 acts as the sum bit of the remaining bits of the status
byte.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
427
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Control - Basics
The STB can thus be compared with the CONDition part of an SCPI register and
assumes the highest level within the SCPI hierarchy.
The STB is read using the command *STB?​ or a serial poll.
The STatus Byte (STB) is linked to the Service Request Enable (SRE) register.
Each bit of the STB is assigned a bit in the SRE. Bit 6 of the SRE is ignored. If a bit is
set in the SRE and the associated bit in the STB changes from 0 to 1, a service
request (SRQ) is generated. The SRE can be set using the command *SRE​ and read
using the command *SRE?.
Table 9-3: Meaning of the bits used in the status byte
Bit No.
Meaning
0...1
Not used
2
Error Queue not empty
The bit is set when an entry is made in the error queue. If this bit is enabled by the SRE, each
entry of the error queue generates a service request. Thus an error can be recognized and
specified in greater detail by polling the error queue. The poll provides an informative error message. This procedure is to be recommended since it considerably reduces the problems
involved with remote control.
3
QUEStionable status register summary bit
The bit is set if an EVENt bit is set in the QUEStionable status register and the associated
ENABle bit is set to 1. A set bit indicates a questionable instrument status, which can be specified in greater detail by querying the STATus:QUEStionable status register.
4
MAV bit (message available)
The bit is set if a message is available in the output queue which can be read. This bit can be
used to enable data to be automatically read from the instrument to the controller.
5
ESB bit
Sum bit of the event status register. It is set if one of the bits in the event status register is set
and enabled in the event status enable register. Setting of this bit indicates a serious error which
can be specified in greater detail by polling the event status register.
6
MSS bit (master status summary bit)
The bit is set if the instrument triggers a service request. This is the case if one of the other bits
of this registers is set together with its mask bit in the service request enable register SRE.
7
STATus:OPERation status register summary bit
The bit is set if an EVENt bit is set in the OPERation status register and the associated
ENABle bit is set to 1. A set bit indicates that the instrument is just performing an action. The
type of action can be determined by querying the STATus:OPERation status register.
IST Flag and Parallel Poll Enable Register (PPE)
As with the SRQ, the IST flag combines the entire status information in a single bit. It
can be read by means of a parallel poll (see "Parallel Poll" on page 439) or using the
command *IST?​.
The parallel poll enable register (PPE) determines which bits of the STB contribute to
the IST flag. The bits of the STB are "ANDed" with the corresponding bits of the PPE,
with bit 6 being used as well in contrast to the SRE. The IST flag results from the
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
428
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Control - Basics
"ORing" of all results. The PPE can be set using commands *PRE​ and read using command *PRE?.
Event Status Register (ESR) and Event Status Enable Register (ESE)
The Event Status Register (ESR) is the source for the registers on the highest levels
and is similar to the EVENt part of a SCPI register. It is defined by IEEE 488.2. You
can read out the ESR with *ESR?​.
The corresponding ENABle part of the ESR is the Event Status Enable mask register
(ESE). The ESE is directly linked to the ESR. You can control the ESE with *ESE​.
Table 9-4: Meaning of the bits used in the event status register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
Operation Complete
This bit is set on receipt of the command *OPC exactly when all previous commands have been
executed.
1
Unused
2
Query Error
This bit is set if either the controller wants to read data from the instrument without having sent a
query, or if it does not fetch requested data and sends new instructions to the instrument
instead. The cause is often a query which is faulty and hence cannot be executed.
3
Device-dependent Error
This bit is set if a device-dependent error occurs.
The R&S ESR adds a number to the error queue. The number is either in the range between
-300 and -399 or greater than 0. If the number is positive, it indicates the error type in greater
detail.
4
Execution Error
This bit is set if a received command is syntactically correct but cannot be performed for other
reasons. An error message with a number between -200 and -300, which denotes the error in
greater detail, is entered into the error queue.
5
Command Error
This bit is set if a remote command is undefined or has a incorrect syntax.
The R&S ESR adds a number to the error queue. The number is in the range between -100 and
-200 and indicates the error type in greater detail.
6
User Request
This bit is set when you press the "Local" softkey.
7
Power On (supply voltage on)
This bit is set when you turn on the instrument.
STATus:OPERation Register
The STATus:OPERation register contains information about actions the R&S ESR is
currently executing. It also contains information about the actions the R&S ESR has
executed since the last reading.
You can read out the state of the register with STATus:​OPERation:​CONDition?​ or
STATus:​OPERation[:​EVENt]?​.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
429
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Control - Basics
Table 9-5: Meaning of the bits used in the STATus:OPERation register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
CALibrating
This bit is set as long as the instrument is performing a calibration.
1 to 7
Not used
8
HardCOPy in progress
This bit is set while the instrument is printing a hardcopy.
9
SCAN results available
This bit is set when a block of scan results is available.
Note that this function must be enabled by TRACe:FEED:CONTol ALWays.
10
Sweep Break
This bit is set when the end of a scan range is reached.
To proceed, you have to use the INITiate:CONMeas command.
11
Not used
12
Threshold signal active
13 to 14
Not used
15
This bit is always 0.
STATus:QUEStionable Register
The STATus:QUEStionable register contains information about states that may occur if
the R&S ESR is operated without meeting the specifications.
You can read out the state of the register with STATus:​QUEStionable:​CONDition?​
and STATus:​QUEStionable[:​EVENt]?​.
Table 9-6: Meaning of the bits used in the STATus:QUEStionable register
Bit No.
Meaning
0-2
These bits are not used
3
POWer
This bit is set if a questionable power occurs (see "STATus:QUEStionable:POWer Register"
on page 433).
4
TEMPerature
This bit is set if a questionable temperature occurs.
5
FREQuency
The bit is set if a frequency is questionable (see "STATus:QUEStionable:FREQuency Register"
on page 431).
6-7
Not used
8
CALibration
The bit is set if a measurement is performed unaligned ("UNCAL" display)
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
430
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Control - Basics
Bit No.
Meaning
9
LIMit (device-specific)
This bit is set if a limit value is violated (see "STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit Register"
on page 431)
10
LMARgin (device-specific)
This bit is set if a margin is violated (see "STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin Register"
on page 432)
11
Not used
12
ACPLimit (device-specific)
This bit is set if a limit for the adjacent channel power measurement is violated (see "STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit Register" on page 437)
13
TRANsducer break
This bit is set if a transducer break occurs and indicates the next range.
14
Not used
15
This bit is always 0.
STATus:QUEStionable:FREQuency Register
The STATus:QUEStionable:FREQuency register contains information about the condition of the local oscillator and the reference frequency.
You can read out the register with STATus:​QUEStionable:​FREQuency:​
CONDition?​ or STATus:​QUEStionable:​FREQuency[:​EVENt]?​.
Table 9-7: Meaning of the bits used in the STATus:QUEStionable:FREQuency register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
OVEN COLD
This bit is set if the reference oscillator has not yet attained its operating temperature. "OCXO"
is displayed.
1
LO UNLocked
This bit is set if the local oscillator no longer locks. "LOUNL" is displayed.
2 to 7
Unused
8
EXTernalREFerence
This bit is set if you have selected an external reference oscillator but did not connect a useable
external reference source.
In that case the synthesizer can not lock. The frequency in all probability is not accurate.
9 to 14
Unused
15
This bit is always 0.
STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit Register
The STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit register contains information about the results of a
limit check when you are working with limit lines.
The number of LIMit registers depends on the number of measurement windows available in any operating mode.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
431
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Control - Basics
You can read out the register with STATus:​QUEStionable:​LIMit<n>:​
CONDition?​ or STATus:​QUEStionable:​LIMit<n>[:​EVENt]?​.
Table 9-8: Meaning of the bits used in the STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
LIMit 1 FAIL
This bit is set if limit line 1 is violated.
1
LIMit 2 FAIL
This bit is set if limit line 2 is violated.
2
LIMit 3 FAIL
This bit is set if limit line 3 is violated.
3
LIMit 4 FAIL
This bit is set if limit line 4 is violated.
4
LIMit 5 FAIL
This bit is set if limit line 5 is violated.
5
LIMit 6 FAIL
This bit is set if limit line 6 is violated.
6
LIMit 7 FAIL
This bit is set if limit line 7 is violated.
7
LIMit 8 FAIL
This bit is set if limit line 8 is violated.
8 to 14
Unused
15
This bit is always 0.
STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin Register
This register contains information about the observance of limit margins.
You can read out the register with STATus:​QUEStionable:​LMARgin<n>:​
CONDition?​ or STATus:​QUEStionable:​LMARgin<n>[:​EVENt]?​.
Table 9-9: Meaning of the bits used in the STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
LMARgin 1 FAIL
This bit is set if limit margin 1 is violated.
1
LMARgin 2 FAIL
This bit is set if limit margin 2 is violated.
2
LMARgin 3 FAIL
This bit is set if limit margin 3 is violated.
3
LMARgin 4 FAIL
This bit is set if limit margin 4 is violated.
4
LMARgin 5 FAIL
This bit is set if limit margin 5 is violated.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
432
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Control - Basics
Bit No.
Meaning
5
LMARgin 6 FAIL
This bit is set if limit margin 6 is violated.
6
LMARgin 7 FAIL
This bit is set if limit margin 7 is violated.
7
LMARgin 8 FAIL
This bit is set if limit margin 8 is violated.
8 to 14
Not used
15
This bit is always 0.
STATus:QUEStionable:POWer Register
The STATus:QUEStionable:POWer register contains information about possible overload situations that may occur during operation of the R&S ESR.
You can read out the registers with STATus:​QUEStionable:​POWer:​CONDition?​ or
STATus:​QUEStionable:​POWer[:​EVENt]?​.
Table 9-10: Meaning of the bits used in the STATus:QUEStionable:POWer register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
OVERload
This bit is set if an overload occurs at the RF input.
The R&S ESR displays the enhancement label "OVLD".
1
UNDerload
This bit is set if an underload occurs at the RF input.
The R&S ESR displays the enhancement label "UNLD".
2
IF_OVerload
This bit is set if an overload occurs in the IF path.
The R&S ESR displays the enhancement label "IFOVL".
3 to 14
Unused
15
This bit is always 0.
STATus:QUEStionable:TRANsducer Register
The STATus:QUEStionable:TRANsducer register contains information about transducer breaks.
It indicates that a transducer break has been reached. It also indicates the next range
that is to be swept. You can continue the sweep with INITiate<n>:​CONMeas​.
You can read out the registers with STATus:​QUEStionable:​TRANsducer:​
CONDition?​ or STATus:​QUEStionable:​TRANsducer[:​EVENt]?​ on page 782.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
433
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Control - Basics
Table 9-11: Meaning of the bits used in the STATus:QUEStionable:TRANsducer register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
Range 1
This bit is set if subrange 1 has been reached.
1
Range 2
This bit is set if subrange 2 has been reached.
2
Range 3
This bit is set if subrange 3 has been reached.
3
Range 4
This bit is set if subrange 4 has been reached.
4
Range 5
This bit is set if subrange 5 has been reached.
5
Range 6
This bit is set if subrange 6 has been reached.
6
Range 7
This bit is set if subrange 7 has been reached.
7
Range 8
This bit is set if subrange 8 has been reached.
8
Range 9
This bit is set if subrange 9 has been reached.
9
Range 10
This bit is set if subrange 10 has been reached.
10 to 13
Unused
14
Subrange limit
This bit is set when the transducer is at the point of changeover from one subrange to another.
15
This bit is always 0.
Status Registers in Spectrum Mode
This chapter contains the description of the registers and bits specific to spectrum
mode. For a comprehensive description of the other status registers see "Status Registers in Receiver Mode" on page 426.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
434
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Control - Basics
Fig. 9-4: Overview of status registers in spectrum mode
STATus:OPERation Register
The STATus:OPERation register contains information on current activities of the
R&S ESR. It also contains information on activities that have been executed since the
last read out.
You can read out the register with STATus:​OPERation:​CONDition?​ or STATus:​
OPERation[:​EVENt]?​.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
435
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Control - Basics
Table 9-12: Meaning of the bits used in the STATus:OPERation register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
CALibrating
This bit is set as long as the instrument is performing a calibration.
1-2
Not used
3
SWEeping
Sweep is being performed; identical to bit 4
4
MEASuring
Measurement is being performed; identical to bit 3
5
Waiting for TRIgger
Instrument is ready to trigger and waiting for trigger signal
6-7
Not used
8
HardCOPy in progress
This bit is set while the instrument is printing a hardcopy.
9
Not used
10
Stop after Range
This bit is set when a range in the sweep list has been completed if "Stop after Range" has
been activated.
11-14
Not used
15
This bit is always 0.
STATus:QUEStionable Register
The STATus:QUEStionable register contains information on instrument states that do
not meet the specifications.
You can read out the register with STATus:​QUEStionable:​CONDition?​ or
STATus:​QUEStionable[:​EVENt]?​.
Table 9-13: Meaning of the bits used in the STATus:QUEStionable register
Bit No.
Meaning
0-2
Unused
3
POWer
This bit is set if the measured power level is questionable.
The STATus:QUEStionable:POWer Register provides more information on the error type.
4
TEMPerature
This bit is set if the temperature is questionable.
5
FREQuency
This bit is set if there is anything wrong with the frequency of the local oscillator or the reference
frequency.
The STATus:QUEStionable:FREQuency Register provides more information on the error type.
6-7
Unused
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
436
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Control - Basics
Bit No.
Meaning
8
CALibration
This bit is set if the R&S ESR is unaligned ("UNCAL" display)
9
LIMit (device-specific)
This bit is set if a limit value is violated.
The STATus:QUEStionable:LIMit Register provides more information on the error type.
10
LMARgin (device-specific)
This bit is set if a margin is violated.
The STATus:QUEStionable:LMARgin Register provides more information on the error type.
11
Not used
12
ACPLimit (device-specific)
This bit is set if a limit during ACLR measurements is violated.
The STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit Register provides more information on the error type.
13 - 14
Not used
15
This bit is always 0.
STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit Register
The STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit register contains information about the results of
a limit check during ACLR measurements.
You can read out the register with STATus:​QUEStionable:​ACPLimit:​
CONDition?​ or STATus:​QUEStionable:​ACPLimit[:​EVENt]?​.
Table 9-14: Meaning of the bits used in the STATus:QUEStionable:ACPLimit register
Bit No.
Meaning
0
ADJ UPPer FAIL
This bit is set if the limit is exceeded in the upper adjacent channel
1
ADJ LOWer FAIL
This bit is set if the limit is exceeded in the lower adjacent channel.
2
ALT1 UPPer FAIL
This bit is set if the limit is exceeded in the upper 1st alternate channel.
3
ALT1 LOWer FAIL
This bit is set if the limit is exceeded in the lower 1st alternate channel.
4
ALT2 UPPer FAIL
This bit is set if the limit is exceeded in the upper 2nd alternate channel.
5
ALT2 LOWer FAIL
This bit is set if the limit is exceeded in the lower 2nd alternate channel.
6
ALT3 … 11 LOWer/UPPer FAIL
This bit is set if the limit is exceeded in one of the lower or upper alternate channels 3 … 11.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
437
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Control - Basics
9.1.6.4
Bit No.
Meaning
7 to 14
Unused
15
This bit is always 0.
Application of the Status Reporting System
The purpose of the status reporting system is to monitor the status of one or several
devices in a measuring system. To do this and react appropriately, the controller must
receive and evaluate the information of all devices. The following standard methods
are used:
●
Service request (SRQ) initiated by the instrument
●
Serial poll of all devices in the bus system, initiated by the controller in order to
find out who sent a SRQ and why
●
Parallel poll of all devices
●
Query of a specific instrument status by means of commands
●
Query of the error queue
Service Request
Use of the command *OPC to generate an SRQ at the end of a sweep
1. CALL InstrWrite(analyzer, "*ESE 1") 'Set bit 0 in the ESE (Operation
Complete)
2. CALL InstrWrite(analyzer, "*SRE 32") 'Set bit 5 in the SRE (ESB)
3. CALL InstrWrite(analyzer, "*INIT;*OPC") ' Generate an SRQ after
operation complete
After its settings have been completed, the instrument generates an SRQ.
The SRQ is the only possibility for the instrument to become active on its own. Each
controller program should cause the instrument to initiate a service request if errors
occur. The program should react appropriately to the service request.
A detailed example for a service request routine can be found in chapter 9.15.1, "Service Request", on page 785.
Serial Poll
In a serial poll, just as with command *STB, the status byte of an instrument is queried.
However, the query is realized via interface messages and is thus clearly faster.
The serial poll method is defined in IEEE 488.1 and used to be the only standard possibility for different instruments to poll the status byte. The method also works for
instruments which do not adhere to SCPI or IEEE 488.2.
The serial poll is mainly used to obtain a fast overview of the state of several instruments connected to the controller.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
438
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Control - Basics
Parallel Poll
In a parallel poll, up to eight instruments are simultaneously requested by the controller
using a single command to transmit 1 bit of information each on the data lines, i.e., to
set the data line allocated to each instrument to a logical "0" or "1".
In addition to the SRE register, which determines the conditions under which an SRQ
is generated, there is a Parallel Poll Enable register (PPE) which is ANDed with the
STB bit by bit, considering bit 6 as well. This register is ANDed with the STB bit by bit,
considering bit 6 as well. The results are ORed, the result is possibly inverted and then
sent as a response to the parallel poll of the controller. The result can also be queried
without parallel poll using the command *IST?​.
The instrument first has to be set for the parallel poll using the command PPC. This
command allocates a data line to the instrument and determines whether the response
is to be inverted. The parallel poll itself is executed using PPE.
The parallel poll method is mainly used to find out quickly which one of the instruments
connected to the controller has sent a service request. To this effect, SRE and PPE
must be set to the same value.
Query of an instrument status
Each part of any status register can be read using queries. There are two types of
commands:
●
The common commands *ESR?, *IDN?, *IST?, *STB? query the higher-level
registers.
●
The commands of the STATus system query the SCPI registers
(STATus:QUEStionable...)
The returned value is always a decimal number that represents the bit pattern of the
queried register. This number is evaluated by the controller program.
Queries are usually used after an SRQ in order to obtain more detailed information on
the cause of the SRQ.
Decimal representation of a bit pattern
The STB and ESR registers contain 8 bits, the SCPI registers 16 bits. The contents of
a status register are specified and transferred as a single decimal number. To make
this possible, each bit is assigned a weighted value. The decimal number is calculated
as the sum of the weighted values of all bits in the register that are set to 1.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
439
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Control - Basics
Example:
The decimal value 40 = 32 + 8 indicates that bits no. 3 and 5 in the status register (e.g.
the QUEStionable status summary bit and the ESB bit in the STatus Byte ) are set.
Error Queue
Each error state in the instrument leads to an entry in the error queue. The entries of
the error queue are detailed plain text error messages that can be looked up in the
Error Log or queried via remote control using SYSTem:ERRor[:NEXT]? or
SYSTem:ERRor:ALL?. Each call of SYSTem:ERRor[:NEXT]? provides one entry
from the error queue. If no error messages are stored there any more, the instrument
responds with 0, "No error".
The error queue should be queried after every SRQ in the controller program as the
entries describe the cause of an error more precisely than the status registers. Especially in the test phase of a controller program the error queue should be queried regularly since faulty commands from the controller to the instrument are recorded there as
well.
9.1.6.5
Reset Values of the Status Reporting System
The following table contains the different commands and events causing the status
reporting system to be reset. None of the commands, except *RST​ and
SYSTem:PRESet, influence the functional instrument settings. In particular, DCL does
not change the instrument settings.
Table 9-15: Resetting the status reporting system
Event
Switching on supply
voltage
DCL,
SDC
Power-On-StatusClear
(Device
Clear,
Selected
Device
Clear)
*RST or
STASYSTus:PRETem:PRE- Set
Set
*CLS
Effect
0
1
Clear STB, ESR
-
yes
-
-
-
yes
Clear SRE, ESE
-
yes
-
-
-
-
Clear PPE
-
yes
-
-
-
-
Clear EVENt parts of the registers
-
yes
-
-
-
yes
Clear ENABle parts of all
OPERation and QUEStionable
registers;
-
yes
-
-
yes
-
-
yes
-
-
yes
-
Clear error queue
yes
yes
-
-
-
yes
Clear output buffer
yes
yes
yes
1)
1)
1)
Fill ENABle parts of all other
registers with "1".
Fill PTRansition parts with "1";
Clear NTRansition parts
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
440
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Control - Basics
Event
Switching on supply
voltage
DCL,
SDC
Power-On-StatusClear
(Device
Clear,
Selected
Device
Clear)
Effect
0
1
Clear command processing
and input buffer
yes
yes
yes
*RST or
STASYSTus:PRETem:PRE- Set
Set
*CLS
-
-
-
1) The first command in a command line that immediately follows a <PROGRAM MESSAGE TERMINATOR> clears the output buffer.
9.1.7 General Programming Recommendations
Initial instrument status before changing settings
Manual operation is designed for maximum possible operating convenience. In contrast, the priority of remote control is the "predictability" of the instrument status. Thus,
when a command attempts to define incompatible settings, the command is ignored
and the instrument status remains unchanged, i.e. other settings are not automatically
adapted. Therefore, control programs should always define an initial instrument status
(e.g. using the *RST command) and then implement the required settings.
Command sequence
As a general rule, send commands and queries in different program messages. Otherwise, the result of the query may vary depending on which operation is performed first
(see also Preventing Overlapping Execution).
Reacting to malfunctions
The service request is the only possibility for the instrument to become active on its
own. Each controller program should instruct the instrument to initiate a service
request in case of malfunction. The program should react appropriately to the service
request.
Error queues
The error queue should be queried after every service request in the controller program as the entries describe the cause of an error more precisely than the status registers. Especially in the test phase of a controller program the error queue should be
queried regularly since faulty commands from the controller to the instrument are
recorded there as well.
9.1.8 The IECWIN Tool
The R&S ESR is delivered with IECWIN installed, an auxiliary tool provided free of
charge by R&S. IECWIN is a program to send SCPI commands to a measuring instrument either interactively or from a command script.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
441
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Control - Basics
The R&S IECWIN32 tool is provided free of charge. The functionality may change in a
future version without notice.
IECWIN offers the following features:
●
Connection to instrument via several interfaces/protocols (GPIB, VISA, named pipe
(if IECWIN is run on the instrument itself), RSIB)
●
Interactive command entry
●
Browsing available commands on the instrument
●
Error checking following every command
●
Execution of command scripts
●
Storing binary data to a file
●
Reading binary data from a file
●
Generation of a log file
For command scripts, IECWIN offers the following features:
●
Synchronization with the instrument on every command
●
Checking expected result for query commands (as string or numeric value)
●
Checking for expected errors codes
●
Optional pause on error
●
Nested command scripts
●
Single step mode
●
Conditional execution, based on the *IDN and *OPT strings
You can use the IECWIN to try out the programming examples provided in the
R&S ESR User Manuals.
Starting IECWIN
IECWIN is available from the Windows task bar on the R&S ESR, or by executing the
following file:
You can also copy the program to any Windows PC or laptop. Simply copy the
iecwin32.exe, iecwin.chm and rsib32.dll files from the location above to the
same folder on the target computer.
When the tool is started, a "Connection settings" dialog box is displayed. Define the
connection from the computer the IECWIN tool is installed on to the R&S ESR you
want to control. If you are using the tool directly on the R&S ESR, you can use an NT
Pipe (COM Parser) connection, which requires no further configuration. For help on
setting up other connection types, check the tool's online help (by clicking the "Help"
button in the dialog box).
The IECWIN offers an online help with extensive information on how to work with the
tool.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
442
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Selecting the Operating Mode
9.2 Selecting the Operating Mode
INSTrument:CREate[:NEW]............................................................................................ 443
INSTrument:DELete....................................................................................................... 443
INSTrument[:SELect]......................................................................................................444
INSTrument:CREate[:NEW] <ChannelType>, <ChannelName>
This command adds an additional spectrum display. You can add up to three additional
spectrum displays.
Also see
●
INSTrument[:​SELect]​ on page 444
●
INSTrument:​DELete​ on page 443
●
Remote program example: chapter 9.15.16, "Usage of Four Spectrum Instances",
on page 824
Parameters:
<ChannelType>
<ChannelName>
SANalyzer
The channel type is always SANalyzer to indicate that you add
a new spectrum display.
Sets the name of the additional spectrum display.
Spectrum 2 | Spectrum 3 | Spectrum 4
The names of the spectrum displays you add have to be
Spectrum 2 for the second spectrum display, Spectrum 3 for
the third and Spectrum 4 for the fourth.
Example:
INST:CRE SAN, Spectrum 2
Adds a second spectrum display.
INSTrument:DELete <ChannelName>
This command deletes a spectrum display.
Also see
●
INSTrument:​CREate[:​NEW]​ on page 443
●
Remote program example: chapter 9.15.16, "Usage of Four Spectrum Instances",
on page 824
Parameters:
<ChannelName>
Selects the spectrum display you want to delete.
Spectrum 2 | Spectrum 3 | Spectrum 4
A spectrum display must exist in order to be able delete it.
Example:
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
INST:DEL Spectrum 4
Deletes the fourth spectrum display.
443
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
INSTrument[:SELect] <Mode> | <ChannelName>
This command activates a new measurement channel with the defined channel type,
or selects an existing measurement channel with the specified name.
●
INSTrument:​CREate[:​NEW]​ on page 443
●
Remote program example: chapter 9.15.16, "Usage of Four Spectrum Instances",
on page 824
Parameters:
<Mode>
RECeiver
Receiver mode
RTIMe
Realtime mode
SANalyzer
Spectrum mode
Spectrum 2 | Spectrum 3 | Spectrum 4
Selects one of the additional spectrum displays. The first spectrum display is always active. You can select it with SANalyzer.
A spectrum display must exist in order to be able to select it.
*RST:
SANalyzer
9.3 Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
The following remote commands configure and perform EMI measurements. They are
available in receiver mode only.
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Measurements and Result Displays......................................................................444
Defining the Frequency.........................................................................................472
Configuring the Vertical Axis................................................................................. 474
Selecting the Bandwidth........................................................................................478
Controlling Inputs and Outputs..............................................................................480
Test Automation....................................................................................................481
Working with Markers............................................................................................496
Limit Lines.............................................................................................................513
9.3.1 Measurements and Result Displays
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
●
Display Configuration............................................................................................ 445
Bargraph Control...................................................................................................445
Scan Control......................................................................................................... 447
Final Measurements and Automated Test Sequence Control.............................. 449
Trace Data and Result Query............................................................................... 451
Fixed Frequency Scans........................................................................................ 454
Demodulating Analog Signals...............................................................................455
Spectrogram Control............................................................................................. 456
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
444
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
9.3.1.1
Display Configuration
CALCulate<n>:FEED..................................................................................................... 445
CALCulate<n>:FEED <ResultDisplay>
This command selects the result display.
Suffix:
<n>
Parameters:
<ResultDisplay>
.
1...3
Selects the measurement window.
'NONE'
Removes the window selected with the suffix <n>.
'XTIM:SPECtrum'
Selects the IF analysis result display.
'XTIM:BARGraph'
Selects the bargraph.
Note that the Bargraph always has to be in window 1.
'XFRequency[:SPECtrum]'
Selects the scan result display.
'XFRequency:SGRam'
Selects the spectrogram result display.
Note that you can add a spectrogram only if you have already
turned on either Scan or IF Analysis. If you are displaying Scan
and IF Analysis simultaneously, the Spectrogram is unavailable.
9.3.1.2
Bargraph Control
DISPlay:BARGraph:LEVel:LOWer?................................................................................. 445
DISPlay:BARGraph:LEVel:UPPer?.................................................................................. 445
DISPlay:BARGraph:PHOLd............................................................................................ 446
DISPlay:BARGraph:PHOLd:RESet.................................................................................. 446
DISPlay:BARGraph:TCOupling........................................................................................446
[SENSe:]DETector:RECeiver[:FUNCtion]..........................................................................446
[SENSe:]SWEep:TIME................................................................................................... 447
DISPlay:BARGraph:LEVel:LOWer?
This command queries the minimum level of the bargraph.
Example:
:DISP:BARG:LEV:LOW?
Usage:
Query only
DISPlay:BARGraph:LEVel:UPPer?
This command queries the maximum level of the bargraph.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
445
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
Example:
:DISP:BARG:LEV:UPP?
Usage:
Query only
DISPlay:BARGraph:PHOLd <State>
This command switches the indication of the maxhold value of the bar graph measurement on or off.
Parameters:
<State>
ON
OFF
*RST:
OFF
Example:
:DISP:BARG:PHOL ON
Manual operation:
See "Bargraph Maxhold" on page 30
DISPlay:BARGraph:PHOLd:RESet
This command resets the maxhold value of the numeric indication of the bargraph
measurement.
Example:
:DISP:BARG:PHOL:RES
Usage:
Event
Manual operation:
See "Maxhold Reset" on page 30
DISPlay:BARGraph:TCOupling <State>
This command couples or decouples the bargraph detector and scan trace detector.
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
Example:
DISP:BARG:TCO ON
Couples the type and color of bargraph and scan trace.
Manual operation:
See "Couple to Scan Trace" on page 35
[SENSe:]DETector:RECeiver[:FUNCtion] <Detector>, [<Detector>, <Detector>]
This command selects the detector for the bargraph measurement.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
446
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
Parameters:
<Detector>,
[<Detector>,
<Detector>]
You can select up to three detectors, one for each active bargraph.
AVERage
Selects the Average detector.
CAVerage
Selects the CISPR Average detector.
CRMS
Selects the CISPR RMS detector.
NEGative
Selects the Min Peak detector.
POSitive
Selects the Max Peak detector.
QPEak
Selects the Quasipeak detector.
RMS
Selects the RMS detector.
*RST:
AVERage
Example:
DET:REC POS,AVER,QPE
Selects the peak, average and quasipeak detectors.
Manual operation:
See "Bargraph Detector" on page 34
[SENSe:]SWEep:TIME <Time>
This command defines the measurement or acquisition time for bargraph measurements, scans and CISPR APD measurements.
Parameters:
<Time>
9.3.1.3
Range:
10 µs to 100 s
Example:
SWE:TIME 10s
Defines a measurement time of 10 s.
Manual operation:
See "Measurement Time" on page 35
See "Acquisition Time" on page 182
Scan Control
ABORt ......................................................................................................................... 447
HOLD........................................................................................................................... 448
INITiate<n>:CONMeas................................................................................................... 448
INITiate<n>:CONTinuous................................................................................................448
INITiate<n>[:IMMediate]..................................................................................................449
ABORt
This command stops a measurement and resets the trigger system.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
447
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
Example:
ABOR;INIT:IMM
Aborts the measurement and restarts it.
Usage:
SCPI confirmed
Manual operation:
See "Stop Scan" on page 31
See "Stop Final Measurement" on page 34
See "Meas Start/Stop" on page 138
HOLD
This command interrupts a running scan measurement.
To resume the scan, use INITiate<n>[:​IMMediate]​.
Example:
HOLD
Interrupts the scan.
Manual operation:
See "Hold Scan" on page 30
See "Continue at Rec Frequency" on page 31
See "Hold Final Measurement" on page 33
INITiate<n>:CONMeas
This command resumes a scan that was interrupted by a transducer stop at the current
reciever frequency.
If the scan was interrupted by the HOLD​ command, you have to resume it with
INITiate<n>[:​IMMediate]​ on page 449.
Example:
INIT2:CONT OFF
Selects single scan mode.
SWE:COUN 20
Forms an average over 20 scans.
INIT2;*WAI
Starts the measurement and waits for the end of the 20 scans.
INIT2:CONM;*WAI
Continues the measurement (next 20 sequences) and waits for
the end.
Usage:
Event
Manual operation:
See "Continue at Hold" on page 31
INITiate<n>:CONTinuous <State>
This command turns single measurements on and off.
The measurement starts immediately.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
448
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
Parameters:
<State>
ON
Continuous measurements.
OFF
Single measurements.
Example:
INIT2:CONT OFF
Turns on a single measurement.
Manual operation:
See "Continuous Bargraph / Single Bargraph" on page 29
See "Run Continuous / Run Single" on page 58
See "Continuous Sweep" on page 240
See "Single Sweep" on page 241
INITiate<n>[:IMMediate]
The command initiates a new measurement.
In case of a single measurement, the R&S ESR stops measuring when it has reached
the end frequency. When you start a continuous measurement, it stops only if you
abort it deliberately.
If you are using trace modes MAXHold, MINHold and AVERage, previous results are
reset when you restart the measurement.
In single sweep mode, you can synchronize to the end of the measurement with *OPC,
*OPC? or *WAI. In continuous sweep mode, synchronization to the end of the measurement is not possible. Thus, it is not recommended that you use continuous sweep
mode in remote control, as results like trace data or markers are only valid after a single sweep end synchronization.
9.3.1.4
Example:
INIT2:CONT OFF
Selects single measurement mode.
SWE:COUN 20
Forms an average over 20 measurements.
INIT2;*WAI
Starts the measurement and waits for the end of the complete
measurement.
Usage:
Event
Manual operation:
See "Continue at Rec Frequency" on page 31
See "Run Continuous / Run Single" on page 58
Final Measurements and Automated Test Sequence Control
INITiate<n>:EMITest...................................................................................................... 450
INITiate<n>:FMEasurement............................................................................................ 450
[SENSe:]DETector<t>:FMEasurement..............................................................................450
[SENSe:]FMEasurement:AUTO.......................................................................................450
[SENSe:]FMEasurement:TIME........................................................................................ 451
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
449
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
INITiate<n>:EMITest
This command initiates an automated test sequence.
The sequence consists of a scan, a peak search and a final measurement.
Example:
INIT2:EMIT
Starts the test sequence.
Usage:
Event
INITiate<n>:FMEasurement
This command initiates a final measurement based on the peak list.
Example:
INIT2:FME
Starts the final measurement.
Usage:
Event
[SENSe:]DETector<t>:FMEasurement <Detector>
This command selects the detector for the final measurement.
Parameters:
<Detector>
AVERage
Selects the Average detector.
CAVerage
Selects the CISPR Average detector.
CRMS
Selects the CISPR RMS detector.
NEGative
Selects the Min Peak detector.
POSitive
Selects the Max Peak detector.
QPEak
Selects the Quasipeak detector.
RMS
Selects the RMS detector.
*RST:
QPEak
Example:
DET:FME POS
Manual operation:
See "Trace 1 to 6" on page 69
See "Trace 1 - 6" on page 71
[SENSe:]FMEasurement:AUTO <State>
This command turns automatic final measurements on and off.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
450
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
Parameters:
<State>
ON
Turns on automatic final measurement.
OFF
Turns on interactive final measurement.
*RST:
ON
Example:
FME:AUTO ON
Manual operation:
See "Automatic Final" on page 33
See "Interactive Final" on page 33
See "Interactive Mode" on page 69
[SENSe:]FMEasurement:TIME <Time>
This command defines the time each frequency in the peak list is measured during the
final measurement.
Parameters:
<Time>
Example:
9.3.1.5
*RST:
1s
FME:TIME 1us
Defines a measurement time of 1 µs.
Trace Data and Result Query
This section contains information on the TRACe:DATA command and a detailed
description of the characteristics of that command. Basically, the command queries the
results of the current measurement. The command supports various SCPI parameters
in combination with the query. Each SCPI parameter returns a different aspect of the
measurement.
The format of the return values is either in ASCII or binary characters and depends on
the format you have set with FORMat[:​DATA]​ on page 661.
Querying trace data
The SCPI parameters TRACE1 | ... | TRACE6 return the trace data for the corresponding trace.
Example:
TRAC? TRACE1
The number of results depends on the currently selected number of sweep points. For
each sweep point, the command returns one level value. The unit depends on the
measurement and on the unit you have currently set.
The trace has to be active for the command to work.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
451
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
Querying bargraph results
The SCPI parameters SINGLE and PHOLD return the results of the bargraph measurement.
SINGLE returns the current bargraph results for each active bargraph detector.
The order of detectors is as shown in the user interface: maximum peak, minimum
peak, quasipeak, average, RMS. Inactive detectors are ignored.
Example:
TRAC? SINGLE
PHOLD returns the bargraph maxhold results for each active bargraph detector.
Each result is made up out of two values:
●
Absolute level
●
Frequency
The order of detectors is as shown in the user interface: maximum peak, minimum
peak, quasipeak, average, RMS. Inactive detectors are ignored.
Example:
TRAC? PHOLD
Querying scan characteristics
The SCPI parameter SCAN returns the scan characteristics while the scan is running.
The amount of returned results depends on the scan settings.
The type of returned data is as follows:
●
4 byte, trace status:
➙ bit 0 to 9 represent the subscan
➙ bit 10 represents the last block of a subscan
➙ bit 11 represents the last block of the last subscan
➙ bit 12 represents the last of all blocks (for multiple scans after the last scan)
●
4 byte, number n of measurement results contained in one trace
●
4 byte, bit 0 represents the state of trace 1 (0/1)
●
4 byte, bit 0 represents the state of trace 2 (0/1)
●
4 byte, bit 0 represents the state of trace 3 (0/1)
●
4 byte, bit 0 represents the state of trace 4 (0/1)
Note:
If more than 4 traces are active, the state of trace 5 and 6 is indicated by an additional bit (bit 8) in the UINT32 field of trace 1 and 2.
●
n*4 byte, measurement results for trace 1; only if trace 1 is active
●
n*4 byte, measurement results for trace 2; only if trace 2 is active
●
n*4 byte, measurement results for trace 3; only if trace 3 is active
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
452
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
●
n*4 byte, measurement results for trace 4; only if trace 4 is active
●
n*4 byte, measurement results for trace 5; only if trace 5 is active
●
n*4 byte, measurement results for trace 6; only if trace 6 is active
●
n*1 byte, status information for each measurement result
➙ bit 2 represents overrange for trace 1 to trace 6
The data is always returned in binary format (FORM REAL,32).
Note that the SCAN parameter only works while the scan is actually running.
Example:
TRAC? SCAN
Querying results for a peak search
The SCPI parameters PLIST1 | ... | PLIST6 returns the results of a peak search for a
particular trace or detector (1 to 6).
Each result is made up out of three values:
●
4 byte, frequency
●
4 byte, absolute level
●
4 byte, Delta between absolute level and limit line value at corresponding frequency
If no limit line is active, the delta value is set to 0.0
The trace has to be active for the command to work.
Example:
TRAC? PLIST3
Querying results for the final measurement
The SCPI parameters FINAL1 | ... | FINAL6 return the results of the final measurement for a particular trace or detector (1 to 6).
Each result is made up out of three values:
●
4 byte, frequency
●
4 byte, absolute level
●
4 byte, Delta between absolute level and limit line value at corresponding frequency
If no limit line is active, the delta value is set to 0.0
The trace has to be active for the command to work.
Querying the status of the measurement results
The SCPI parameter STATUS returns the status information for each measurement
result. Thus, the number of returned values depends on the number of measurement
results n. For each measurement result, the parameter queries 1 byte of status information.
➙ bit 2 represents overrange for trace 1 to trace 6
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
453
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
Note that the SCAN parameter only works while the scan is actually running.
Example:
TRAC? STATUS
Querying spectrogram data
The SCPI parameter SGRam returns the contents of the spectrogram.
For every frame (horizontal line) in the spectrogram, the command returns the power
levels that have been measured, one for each sweep or measurement point. The number of frames depends on the size of the history depth. The power level depends on
the unit you have currently set.
TRACe[:DATA] <ResultType>
This command queries current trace data and measurement results.
The data format depends on FORMat[:DATA].
Query parameters:
<Trace>
TRACE1 | ... | TRACE6
See "Querying trace data" on page 451.
FINAL1 | ... | FINAL6
See "Querying results for the final measurement" on page 453.
PLIST1 | ... | PLIST6
See "Querying results for a peak search" on page 453.
PHOLD
See "Querying bargraph results" on page 452.
SCAN
See "Querying scan characteristics" on page 452.
SGRam
See "Querying spectrogram data" on page 454
SINGLE
See "Querying bargraph results" on page 452.
STATUS
See "Querying scan characteristics" on page 452.
Return values:
<TraceData>
Example:
9.3.1.6
For more information see tables below.
TRAC? TRACE1
Queries the level for each trace point of trace 1.
Fixed Frequency Scans
Commands useful to configure the fixed frequency scans described elsewhere:
●
[SENSe:​]FREQuency:​MODE​ on page 473
[SENSe:]SCAN:TDOMain............................................................................................... 455
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
454
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
[SENSe:]SCAN:TDOMain <Time>
This command defines the measurement time for fixed frequency scans.
Parameters:
<Time>
Measurement time in seconds.
The range indicated eblow is the maximum range. The actual
range depends on the measurement time defined with [SENSe:​
]SWEep:​TIME​ on page 447.
Range:
9.3.1.7
10 ms to 10000 s
Example:
SCAN:TDOM 100 s
Defines a measurement time of 100 s.
Manual operation:
See "Fixed Frequency" on page 61
Demodulating Analog Signals
[SENSe:]DEMod............................................................................................................ 455
[SENSe:]DEMod:SQUelch:LEVel.....................................................................................455
[SENSe:]DEMod:SQUelch[:STATe]................................................................................. 456
[SENSe:]DEMod <Demod>
This command turns analog demodulation at the receiver frequency on and off and
selects the type of analog demodulation.
Parameters:
<Demod>
OFF
Turns demodulation off.
AM
Turns AM demodulation on.
FM
Turns FM demodulation on.
*RST:
OFF
Example:
DEM FM
Turns FM demodulation on.
Manual operation:
See "Demod (On Off)" on page 35
See "AM / FM" on page 35
[SENSe:]DEMod:SQUelch:LEVel <Threshold>
This command defines the threshold for selective demodulation. Squelching must be
active for this command to work (see [SENSe:​]DEMod:​SQUelch[:​STATe]​).
All signals below the threshold are not demodulated.
This command in only available if the R&S ESR option B3 (Audio Demodulation) is
installed.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
455
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
Parameters:
<Threshold>
The threshold level as a percentage of the display height.
Range:
*RST:
0 to 100
60
Example:
DEM:SQU:LEV 80
Sets the squelch level to 80% of the displayed signal.
Usage:
SCPI confirmed
Manual operation:
See "Squelch" on page 35
See "Squelch Level" on page 291
[SENSe:]DEMod:SQUelch[:STATe] <State>
This command turns selective demodulation at the marker position on and off.
A video trigger is automatically activated with the same level as the squelch level, any
other trigger or gate settings are deactivated.
This command in only available if the R&S ESR option B3 (Audio Demodulation) is
installed.
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
*RST:
9.3.1.8
OFF
Example:
DEM:SQU ON
Signals below the level threshold are not sent to the audio output.
Usage:
SCPI confirmed
Manual operation:
See "Squelch" on page 35
See "Squelch" on page 291
Spectrogram Control
●
●
●
Configuring Spectrograms.................................................................................... 456
Using Markers....................................................................................................... 460
Using Deltamarkers...............................................................................................466
Configuring Spectrograms
CALCulate<n>:SGRam:CLEar[:IMMediate].......................................................................457
DISPlay:WINDow:SGRam:COLor:DEFault....................................................................... 457
DISPlay:WINDow:SGRam:COLor:LOWer.........................................................................457
DISPlay:WINDow:SGRam:COLor:SHAPe........................................................................ 457
DISPlay:WINDow:SGRam:COLor:UPPer..........................................................................457
DISPlay:WINDow:SGRam:COLor[:STYLe]....................................................................... 458
CALCulate<n>:SGRam:HDEPth...................................................................................... 458
CALCulate:SGRam:TRACe.............................................................................................459
CALCulate<n>:SGRam:TSTamp:DATA?.......................................................................... 459
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
456
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
CALCulate<n>:SGRam:CLEar[:IMMediate]
This command resets the Spectrogram result display and clears the history buffer.
Suffix:
<n>
.
1...4
Selects the measurement window.
Example:
CALC:SGR:CLE
Resets the result display and clears the memory.
Usage:
Event
Manual operation:
See "Spectrogram Clear" on page 244
See "Clear Spectrogram" on page 276
DISPlay:WINDow:SGRam:COLor:DEFault
This command sets the color settings for the spectrogram result display to its default
state.
Usage:
Event
DISPlay:WINDow:SGRam:COLor:LOWer <Percentage>
This command sets the lower percentage boundary of the spectrogram.
Parameters:
<Percentage>
Statistical frequency percentage.
Range:
0 to 66
*RST:
0
Default unit: %
Example:
DISP:WIND:SGR:COL:LOW 10
Sets the start of the color map to 10%.
Manual operation:
See "Color Mapping" on page 276
DISPlay:WINDow:SGRam:COLor:SHAPe <Shape>
This command defines the shape and focus of the color curve for the spectrogram
result display.
Parameters:
<Shape>
Shape of the color curve.
Range:
*RST:
-1 to 1
0
DISPlay:WINDow:SGRam:COLor:UPPer <Percentage>
This command sets the upper percentage boundary of the spectrogram.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
457
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
Parameters:
<Percentage>
Statistical frequency percentage.
Range:
0 to 66
*RST:
0
Default unit: %
Example:
DISP:WIND:SGR:COL:UPP 95
Sets the start of the color map to 95%.
Manual operation:
See "Color Mapping" on page 276
DISPlay:WINDow:SGRam:COLor[:STYLe] <ColorScheme>
This command sets the color scheme for the spectrogram.
Parameters:
<ColorScheme>
HOT
Uses a color range from blue to red. Blue colors indicate low levels, red colors indicate high ones.
COLD
Uses a color range from red to blue. Red colors indicate low levels, blue colors indicate high ones.
RADar
Uses a color range from black over green to light turquoise with
shades of green in between. Dark colors indicate low levels, light
colors indicate high ones.
GRAYscale
Shows the results in shades of gray. Dark gray indicates low levels, light gray indicates high ones.
*RST:
Example:
HOT
DISP:WIND:SGR:COL GRAY
Changes the color scheme of the spectrogram to black and
white.
CALCulate<n>:SGRam:HDEPth <HistoryDepth>
This command sets the number of frames to be stored in the R&S ESR's memory.
Suffix:
<n>
Parameters:
<HistoryDepth>
.
1...4
Selects the measurement window.
The maximum number of frames depends on the number of
sweep points.
Range:
781 to 20000
Increment: 1
*RST:
3000
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
458
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
Example:
CALC:SGR:HDEP 1500
Sets the history depth to 1500.
Manual operation:
See "Frame Count" on page 244
See "History Depth" on page 275
CALCulate:SGRam:TRACe <Trace>
This command selects the trace the spectrogram is based on.
Parameters:
<Trace>
Number of the trace. The range depends on the result display.
Scans support six traces, IF Analysis supports three traces.
Example:
CALC:SGR:TRAC 2
Assigns trace two to the spectrogram.
Manual operation:
See "Trace to Spectrogram" on page 37
CALCulate<n>:SGRam:TSTamp:DATA? <Mode>
This command queries the time stamp of the frames.
All available frame results are returned by TRACe<n>:​DATA​ on page 535.
Suffix:
<n>
Query parameters:
<Mode>
.
1...4
Selects the measurement window.
CURRent
Returns the time stamp of the current frame.
ALL
Returns the time stamps of all frames. The result are sorted in
descending order, beginning with the current frame.
Return values:
<TimeStamp>
Example:
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
The return values consist of four values for each frame.
The first value is the date of the measurement in seconds that
have passed since 01.01.1970 in seconds. For a better resolution the second value shows the additional milliseconds. This
value is also displayed on screen.
These numbers are appropiate for relative uses, but you can
also calculate the absolute date and time as displayed on the
screen.
The third and fourth value are reserved for future uses.
If the Spectrogram is empty, the command returns '0,0,0,0'
CALC:SGR:TST ON
Activates the time stamp.
CALC:SGR:TST:DATA? ALL
Returns the time stamp of all frames sorted in a descending
order.
459
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
Usage:
Query only
Using Markers
Commands useful to work with markers in the spectrogram described elsewhere:
●
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MAXimum:​LEFT​ on page 500
●
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MAXimum:​NEXT​ on page 500
●
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MAXimum[:​PEAK]​ on page 501
●
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MAXimum:​RIGHt​ on page 501
●
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MINimum:​LEFT​ on page 502
●
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MINimum:​NEXT​ on page 502
●
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MINimum[:​PEAK]​ on page 502
●
CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​MINimum:​RIGHt​ on page 503
Command exclusive to position markers in the spectrogram:
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:SGRam:FRAMe................................................................... 460
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:SGRam:SARea....................................................................461
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:SGRam:XY:MAXimum[:PEAK]...............................................461
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:SGRam:XY:MINimum[:PEAK]................................................462
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:SGRam:Y:MAXimum:ABOVe................................................ 462
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:SGRam:Y:MAXimum:BELow................................................. 463
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:SGRam:Y:MAXimum:NEXT...................................................463
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:SGRam:Y:MAXimum[:PEAK].................................................464
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:SGRam:Y:MINimum:ABOVe................................................. 464
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:SGRam:Y:MINimum:BELow.................................................. 464
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:SGRam:Y:MINimum:NEXT....................................................465
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:SGRam:Y:MINimum[:PEAK]..................................................465
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:SGRam:FRAMe <Frame> | <Time>
This command positions the marker on a particular frame.
The command is available for the spectrogram.
Suffix:
<n>
.
1...4
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
1...16
Selects the marker.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
460
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
Parameters:
<Frame> | <Time>
<Frame> (if time stamp is off)
Defines the frame to place the marker on. The range is {0...number of recorded frames-1}
Note that in receiver mode, it is not possible to select a frame,
only a time.
<time> (if time stamp is on)
Defines the distance of the marker in seconds to the last measured frame (frame 0).
Example:
CALC:MARK:SGR:FRAM -20
Sets the marker on the 20th frame before the present.
CALC:MARK2:SGR:FRAM 2 s
Sets second marker on the frame 2 seconds ago.
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:SGRam:SARea <SearchArea>
This command defines the marker search area.
The command is available for the spectrogram.
Suffix:
<n>
.
1...4
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
1...16
Selects the marker.
Parameters:
<SearchArea>
VISible
Performs a search in the visible frames.
Note that VISible is ignored if Spectrogram is not visible for any
reason (e.g. if the Spectrum Analyzer is in full screen mode or
display update is inactive).
MEMory
Performs a search over all frames in the memory.
*RST:
VISible
Example:
CALC:DELT:SGR:SAR MEM
Performs a search over all frames in the memory.
Manual operation:
See "Select Search Area" on page 81
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:SGRam:XY:MAXimum[:PEAK]
This command positions the specified marker on the current peak level of the spectrogram. The possible position depends on the marker search area.
The command is available for the spectrogram.
For more information, see CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​SGRam:​SARea​ on page 461.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
461
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
Suffix:
<n>
.
1...4
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
1...16
Selects the marker.
Example:
CALC:MARK2:SGR:SAR VIS
CALC:MARK2:SGR:XY:MAX
Activates and positions marker 2 on the peak level in the visible
Spectrogram.
Usage:
Event
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:SGRam:XY:MINimum[:PEAK]
This command positions the specified marker on the current minimum level of the
spectrogram. The possible position depends on the marker search area.
The command is available for the spectrogram.
For more information, seeCALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​SGRam:​SARea​ on page 461 .
Suffix:
<n>
.
1...4
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
1...16
Selects the marker.
Example:
CALC:MARK3:SGR:SAR VIS
CALC:MARK3:SGR:XY:MIN
Activates and positions marker 3 on the minimum level in the
visible Spectrogram.
Usage:
Event
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:SGRam:Y:MAXimum:ABOVe
This command positions the specified marker on the next peak level of the vertical
axis. The search includes only frames above the current marker position. It does not
change the horizontal position of the marker.
The command is available for the spectrogram.
Suffix:
<n>
.
1...4
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
1...16
Selects the marker.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
462
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
Example:
CALC:MARK2:SGR:Y:MAX
Activates and positions marker 2 on the peak level of the y-axis.
CALC:MARK2:SGR:Y:MAX:ABV
Positions marker 2 on the next higher level found in the diagram
area above the current marker position.
Usage:
Event
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:SGRam:Y:MAXimum:BELow
This command positions the specified marker on the next peak level of the vertical
axis. The search includes only frames below the current marker position. It does not
change the horizontal position of the marker.
The command is available for the spectrogram.
Suffix:
<n>
.
1...4
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
1...16
Selects the marker.
Example:
CALC:MARK2:SGR:Y:MAX
Activates and positions marker 2 on the peak level of the y-axis.
CALC:MARK2:SGR:Y:MAX:BEL
Positions marker 2 on the next higher level found in the diagram
area below the current marker position.
Usage:
Event
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:SGRam:Y:MAXimum:NEXT
This command positions the specified marker on the next peak level of the vertical
axis. The search includes frames above and below the current marker position. It does
not change the horizontal position of the marker.
The command is available for the spectrogram.
Suffix:
<n>
.
1...4
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
1...16
Selects the marker.
Example:
CALC:MARK2:SGR:Y:MAX
Activates and positions marker 2 on the peak level of the y-axis.
CALC:MARK2:SGR:Y:MAX:NEXT
Positions marker 2 on the next higher level.
Usage:
Event
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
463
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:SGRam:Y:MAXimum[:PEAK]
This command positions the specified marker on the current peak level of the vertical
axis. The search is performed over all frames. It does not change the horizontal position of the marker.
The command is available for the spectrogram.
Suffix:
<n>
.
1...4
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
1...16
Selects the marker.
Example:
CALC:MARK2:SGR:Y:MAX
Activates and positions marker 2 on the peak level of the y-axis.
Usage:
Event
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:SGRam:Y:MINimum:ABOVe
This command positions the specified marker on the next minimum level of the vertical
axis. The search includes only frames above the current marker position. It does not
change the horizontal position of the marker.
The command is available for the spectrogram.
Suffix:
<n>
.
1...4
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
1...16
Selects the marker.
Example:
CALC:MARK2:SGR:Y:MIN
Activates and positions marker 2 on the minimum level of the yaxis.
CALC:MARK2:SGR:Y:MIN:ABOV
Positions marker 2 on the next minimum level found in the diagram area above the current marker position.
Usage:
Event
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:SGRam:Y:MINimum:BELow
This command positions the specified marker on the next minimum level of the vertical
axis. The search includes only frames below the current marker position. It does not
change the horizontal position of the marker.
The command is available for the spectrogram.
Suffix:
<n>
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
.
1...4
Selects the measurement window.
464
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
<m>
1...16
Selects the marker.
Example:
CALC:MARK2:SGR:Y:MIN
Activates and positions marker 2 on the minimum level of the yaxis.
CALC:MARK2:SGR:Y:MAX:BEL
Positions marker 2 on the next minimum level found in the diagram area below the current marker position.
Usage:
Event
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:SGRam:Y:MINimum:NEXT
This command positions the specified marker on the next minimum level of the vertical
axis. The search includes frames above and below the current marker position. It does
not change the horizontal position of the marker.
The command is available for the spectrogram.
Suffix:
<n>
.
1...4
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
1...16
Selects the marker.
Example:
CALC:MARK2:SGR:Y:MIN
Activates and positions marker 2 on the minimum level of the yaxis.
CALC:MARK2:SGR:Y:MIN:NEXT
Positions marker 2 on the next minimum level.
Usage:
Event
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:SGRam:Y:MINimum[:PEAK]
This command positions the specified marker on the current minimum level of the vertical axis. The search is performed over all captured frames. It does not change the horizontal position of the delta marker.
The command is available for the spectrogram.
Suffix:
<n>
.
1...4
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
1...16
Selects the marker.
Example:
CALC:MARK2:SGR:Y:MIN
Activates and positions marker 2 on the minimum level of the yaxis.
Usage:
Event
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
465
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
Using Deltamarkers
Commands useful to work with markers in the spectrogram described elsewhere:
●
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MAXimum:​LEFT​ on page 507
●
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MAXimum:​NEXT​ on page 507
●
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MAXimum[:​PEAK]​ on page 507
●
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MAXimum:​RIGHt​ on page 508
●
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MINimum:​LEFT​ on page 508
●
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MINimum:​NEXT​ on page 508
●
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MINimum[:​PEAK]​ on page 509
●
CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​MINimum:​RIGHt​ on page 509
Command exclusive to position markers in the spectrogram:
CALCulate<n>:DELTamarker<m>:SGRam:FRAMe........................................................... 466
CALCulate<n>:DELTamarker<m>:SGRam:SARea............................................................467
CALCulate<n>:DELTamarker<m>:SGRam:XY:MAXimum[:PEAK].......................................467
CALCulate<n>:DELTamarker<m>:SGRam:XY:MINimum[:PEAK]........................................468
CALCulate<n>:DELTamarker<m>:SGRam:Y:MAXimum:ABOVe........................................ 468
CALCulate<n>:DELTamarker<m>:SGRam:Y:MAXimum:BELow......................................... 469
CALCulate<n>:DELTamarker<m>:SGRam:Y:MAXimum:NEXT...........................................469
CALCulate<n>:DELTamarker<m>:SGRam:Y:MAXimum[:PEAK].........................................470
CALCulate<n>:DELTamarker<m>:SGRam:Y:MINimum:ABOVe..........................................470
CALCulate<n>:DELTamarker<m>:SGRam:Y:MINimum:BELow.......................................... 470
CALCulate<n>:DELTamarker<m>:SGRam:Y:MINimum:NEXT............................................471
CALCulate<n>:DELTamarker<m>:SGRam:Y:MINimum[:PEAK]..........................................471
CALCulate<n>:DELTamarker<m>:SGRam:FRAMe <Frame> | <Time>
This command positions the delta marker on a particular frame. The frame is relative to
the position of marker 1.
The command is available for the spectrogram.
Suffix:
<n>
.
1...4
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
1...16
Selects the marker.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
466
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
Parameters:
<Frame> | <Time>
<Frame> (if time stamp is off)
Defines the distance of the deltamarker in frames and in relation
to the position of marker 1.
Note that in receiver mode, it is not possible to select a frame,
only a time.
<time> (if time stamp is on)
Defines the distance of the deltamarker in seconds and in relation to the position of marker 1. The reference is the time stamp
of marker 1.
Example:
CALC:DELT4:SGR:FRAM -20
Sets fourth deltamarker 20 frames below marker 1.
CALC:DELT4:SGR:FRAM 2 s
Sets fourth deltamarker 2 seconds above the position of marker
1.
CALCulate<n>:DELTamarker<m>:SGRam:SARea <SearchArea>
This command defines the deltamarker search area.
The command is available for the spectrogram.
Suffix:
<n>
.
1...4
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
1...16
Selects the marker.
Parameters:
<SearchArea>
VISible
Performs a search in the visible frames.
Note that VISible is ignored if Spectrogram is not visible for any
reason (e.g. if the Spectrum Analyzer is in full screen mode or
display update is inactive).
MEMory
Performs a search over all frames in the memory.
*RST:
Example:
VISible
CALC:DELT:SGR:SAR MEM
Performs a search over all frames in the memory.
CALCulate<n>:DELTamarker<m>:SGRam:XY:MAXimum[:PEAK]
This command positions the specified delta marker on the current peak level of the
spectrogram. The possible position depends on the deltamarker search area.
The command is available for the spectrogram.
For more information, see CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​SGRam:​SARea​
on page 467.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
467
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
Suffix:
<n>
.
1...4
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
1...16
Selects the marker.
Example:
CALC:DELT2:SGR:SAR VIS
CALC:DELT2:SGR:XY:MAX
Activates and positions delta marker 2 on the peak level in the
visible Spectrogram.
Usage:
Event
CALCulate<n>:DELTamarker<m>:SGRam:XY:MINimum[:PEAK]
This command positions the specified delta marker on the current minimum level of the
spectrogram. The possible position depends on the deltamarker search area.
The command is available for the spectrogram.
For more information, see CALCulate<n>:​DELTamarker<m>:​SGRam:​SARea​
on page 467.
Suffix:
<n>
.
1...4
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
1...16
Selects the marker.
Example:
CALC:DELT3:SGR:SAR VIS
CALC:DELT3:SGR:XY:MIN
Activates and positions delta marker 3 on the minimum level in
the visible Spectrogram.
Usage:
Event
CALCulate<n>:DELTamarker<m>:SGRam:Y:MAXimum:ABOVe
This command positions the specified delta marker on the next peak level of the vertical axis. The search includes only frames above the current marker position. It does
not change the horizontal position of the delta marker.
The command is available for the spectrogram.
Suffix:
<n>
.
1...4
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
1...16
Selects the marker.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
468
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
Example:
CALC:DELT2:SGR:Y:MAX
Activates and positions delta marker 2 on the peak level of the yaxis.
CALC:DELT2:SGR:Y:MAX:ABOV
Positions delta marker 2 on the next higher level found in the
diagram area above the current marker position.
Usage:
Event
CALCulate<n>:DELTamarker<m>:SGRam:Y:MAXimum:BELow
This command positions the specified delta marker on the next peak level of the vertical axis. The search includes only frames below the current marker position. It does
not change the horizontal position of the delta marker.
The command is available for the spectrogram.
Suffix:
<n>
.
1...4
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
1...16
Selects the marker.
Example:
CALC:DELT2:SGR:Y:MAX
Activates and positions delta marker 2 on the peak level of the yaxis.
CALC:DELT2:SGR:Y:MAX:BEL
Positions delta marker 2 on the next higher level found in the
diagram area below the current marker position.
Usage:
Event
CALCulate<n>:DELTamarker<m>:SGRam:Y:MAXimum:NEXT
This command positions the specified delta marker on the next peak level of the vertical axis. The search includes frames above and below the current marker position. It
does not change the horizontal position of the delta marker.
The command is available for the spectrogram.
Suffix:
<n>
.
1...4
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
1...16
Selects the marker.
Example:
CALC:DELT2:SGR:Y:MAX
Activates and positions delta marker 2 on the peak level of the yaxis.
CALC:DELT2:SGR:Y:MAX:NEXT
Positions delta marker 2 on the next higher level.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
469
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
Usage:
Event
CALCulate<n>:DELTamarker<m>:SGRam:Y:MAXimum[:PEAK]
This command positions the specified delta marker on the current peak level of the vertical axis. The search is performed over all frames. It does not change the horizontal
position of the deltamarker.
The command is available for the spectrogram.
Suffix:
<n>
.
1...4
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
1...16
Selects the marker.
Example:
CALC:DELT2:SGR:Y:MAX
Activates and positions delta marker 2 on the peak level of the yaxis.
Usage:
Event
CALCulate<n>:DELTamarker<m>:SGRam:Y:MINimum:ABOVe
This command positions the specified delta marker on the next minimum level of the
vertical axis. The search includes only frames above the current marker position. It
does not change the horizontal position of the delta marker.
The command is available for the spectrogram.
Suffix:
<n>
.
1...4
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
1...16
Selects the marker.
Example:
CALC:DELT2:SGR:Y:MIN
Activates and positions delta marker 2 on the minimum level of
the y-axis.
CALC:DELT2:SGR:Y:MIN:ABOV
Positions delta marker 2 on the next minimum level found in the
diagram area above the current marker position.
Usage:
Event
CALCulate<n>:DELTamarker<m>:SGRam:Y:MINimum:BELow
This command positions the specified delta marker on the next minimum level of the
vertical axis. The search includes only frames below the current marker position. It
does not change the horizontal position of the delta marker.
The command is available for the spectrogram.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
470
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
Suffix:
<n>
.
1...4
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
1...16
Selects the marker.
Example:
CALC:DELT2:SGR:Y:MIN
Activates and positions delta marker 2 on the minimum level of
the y-axis.
CALC:DELT2:SGR:Y:MAX:BEL
Positions delta marker 2 on the next minimum level found in the
diagram area below the current marker position.
Usage:
Event
CALCulate<n>:DELTamarker<m>:SGRam:Y:MINimum:NEXT
This command positions the specified delta marker on the next minimum level of the
vertical axis. The search includes frames above and below the current marker position.
It does not change the horizontal position of the delta marker.
The command is available for the spectrogram.
Suffix:
<n>
.
1...4
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
1...16
Selects the marker.
Example:
CALC:DELT2:SGR:Y:MIN
Activates and positions delta marker 2 on the minimum level of
the y-axis.
CALC:DELT2:SGR:Y:MIN:NEXT
Positions delta marker 2 on the next minimum level.
Usage:
Event
CALCulate<n>:DELTamarker<m>:SGRam:Y:MINimum[:PEAK]
This command positions the specified delta marker on the current minimum level of the
vertical axis. The search is performed over all captured frames. It does not change the
horizontal position of the delta marker.
The command is available for the spectrogram.
Suffix:
<n>
.
1...4
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
1...16
Selects the marker.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
471
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
Example:
CALC:DELT2:SGR:Y:MIN
Activates and positions delta marker 2 on the minimum level of
the y-axis.
Usage:
Event
9.3.2 Defining the Frequency
DISPlay[:WINDow<n>]:TRACe<t>:X:SPACing.................................................................. 472
[SENSe:]FREQuency:CENTer.........................................................................................472
[SENSe:]FREQuency:CENTer:STEP............................................................................... 473
[SENSe:]FREQuency:MODE...........................................................................................473
[SENSe:]FREQuency:STARt...........................................................................................473
[SENSe:]FREQuency:STOP............................................................................................474
DISPlay[:WINDow<n>]:TRACe<t>:X:SPACing <Scale>
This command selects the scale of the frequency axis.
Parameters:
<Scale>
LINear
Linear scale of the frequency axis.
LOGarithmic
Logarithmic scale of the frequency axis.
*RST:
LOGarithmic
Example:
DISP:TRAC:X:SPAC LIN
Selects linear scale for the frequency axis.
Manual operation:
See "Freq Axis (Lin Log)" on page 58
See "Freq (Lin Log)" on page 173
[SENSe:]FREQuency:CENTer <Frequency>
This command defines the receiver frequency for measurements in the frequency or
time domain.
Parameters:
<Frequency>
0 to fmax
Range:
*RST:
0 Hz to fmax
fmax /2
Example:
FREQ:CENT 100MHz
Defines a receiver frequency of 100 MHz.
Manual operation:
See "Continue at Rec Frequency" on page 31
See "Receiver Frequency" on page 34
See "Receiver Frequency" on page 34
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
472
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
[SENSe:]FREQuency:CENTer:STEP <StepSize>
This command defines the center frequency step size.
Parameters:
<StepSize>
Range:
1 to fmax
*RST:
0.1 x <span value>
Default unit: Hz
Example:
FREQ:CENT:STEP 120 MHz
Manual operation:
See "Stepsize" on page 52
See "Manual" on page 218
[SENSe:]FREQuency:MODE <Mode>
This command selects the scan mode.
Parameters:
<Mode>
CW
Selects fixed frequency scans.
Define the frequency with [SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer​
on page 472.
SCAN
Selects the stepped scans in the frequency domain.
In the frequency domain, define the frequency with:
• [SENSe:​]FREQuency:​STARt​ on page 473
• [SENSe:​]FREQuency:​STOP​ on page 474
• [SENSe:​]SCAN<range>:​STARt​ on page 485
• [SENSe:​]SCAN<range>:​STOP​ on page 486
• [SENSe:​]FREQuency:​SPAN​ on page 634
• [SENSe:​]FREQuency:​CENTer​ on page 472
TDOMain
Selects time domain scans in the frequency domain. See SCAN
on how to define the frequency.
Time domain scans are available with options R&S ESR-B50
and R&S ESR-K53.
*RST:
TDOMain
Example:
FREQ:MODE TDOM
Selects time domain scans.
Manual operation:
See "Fixed Frequency" on page 61
See "Time Domain Scan (On Off)" on page 63
[SENSe:]FREQuency:STARt <Start>
This command defines the start frequency for scans in the frequency domain.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
473
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
Parameters:
<Start>
Range:
*RST:
0 Hz to fmax
0 Hz
Example:
FREQ:STAR 20MHz
Manual operation:
See "Start / Stop Frequency" on page 53
See "Start / Stop Frequency" on page 53
[SENSe:]FREQuency:STOP <Stop>
This command defines the stop frequency for scans in the time domain.
Parameters:
<Stop>
Range:
*RST:
0 Hz to fmax
fmax
Example:
FREQ:STOP 20MHz
Manual operation:
See "Start / Stop Frequency" on page 53
See "Start / Stop Frequency" on page 53
9.3.3 Configuring the Vertical Axis
CALCulate<n>:UNIT:POWer........................................................................................... 474
DISPlay[:WINDow<n>]:TRACe<t>:Y[:SCALe]:BOTTom..................................................... 474
DISPlay[:WINDow<n>]:TRACe<t>:Y:SPACing.................................................................. 475
INPut:ATTenuation.........................................................................................................476
INPut:ATTenuation:AUTO...............................................................................................477
INPut:ATTenuation:PROTection[:STATe]......................................................................... 477
INPut:GAIN:AUTO......................................................................................................... 477
INPut:GAIN:STATe ....................................................................................................... 477
INPut:IMPedance...........................................................................................................478
CALCulate<n>:UNIT:POWer <Power>
This command selects the unit for measurement results.
Parameters:
<Power>
DBM | V | A | W | DBPW | DBUV | DBMV | DBUA | DBPT |
DBUV_M | DBUA_M
*RST:
dBm
Example:
CALC:UNIT:POW DBM
Selects dBm as the unit for signal levels.
Manual operation:
See "Unit" on page 55
DISPlay[:WINDow<n>]:TRACe<t>:Y[:SCALe]:BOTTom <Level>
This command defines the minimum level displayed on the vertical diagram axis.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
474
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
Parameters:
<Level>
Minimum displayed level. The unit depends on the one you have
selected.
Example:
DISP:TRAC:Y:BOTT -20
The minimum grid level is set to -20 dBuV (pre-condition: the
default unit has not been changed)
Manual operation:
See "Grid Range / Grid Min Level" on page 56
DISPlay[:WINDow<n>]:TRACe<t>:Y:SPACing <ScalingType>
This command selects the scaling of the y-axis.
Suffix:
<n>
.
Selects the measurement window.
<t>
irrelevant
Parameters:
<ScalingType>
LOGarithmic
Logarithmic scaling.
LINear
Linear scaling in %.
LDB
Linear scaling in dB.
*RST:
Example:
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
LOGarithmic
DISP:TRAC:Y:SPAC LIN
Select a linear scale.
475
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
Manual operation:
See "Range Log 100 dB" on page 188
See "Range Log 50 dB" on page 189
See "Range Log 10 dB" on page 189
See "Range Log 5 dB" on page 189
See "Range Log 1 dB" on page 189
See "Range Log Manual" on page 190
See "Range Linear %" on page 190
See "Range Lin. Unit" on page 190
See "Range Log 100 dB" on page 188
See "Range Log 50 dB" on page 189
See "Range Log 10 dB" on page 189
See "Range Log 5 dB" on page 189
See "Range Log 1 dB" on page 189
See "Range Log Manual" on page 190
See "Range Linear %" on page 190
See "Range Lin. Unit" on page 190
See "Range Log 100 dB" on page 188
See "Range Log 50 dB" on page 189
See "Range Log 10 dB" on page 189
See "Range Log 5 dB" on page 189
See "Range Log 1 dB" on page 189
See "Range Log Manual" on page 190
See "Range Linear %" on page 190
See "Range Lin. Unit" on page 190
See "Range Log 100 dB" on page 188
See "Range Log 50 dB" on page 189
See "Range Log 10 dB" on page 189
See "Range Log 5 dB" on page 189
See "Range Log 1 dB" on page 189
See "Range Log Manual" on page 190
See "Range Linear %" on page 190
See "Range Lin. Unit" on page 190
INPut:ATTenuation <Attenuation>
This command defines the attenuation level at the RF input.
To protect the input mixer, attenuation levels of 10 dB or less are possible only if you
have turned the input protection off with INPut:​ATTenuation:​PROTection[:​
STATe]​.
Parameters:
<Attenuation>
Range:
0 dB to 75 dB
Increment: 5 dB
*RST:
10 dB
Example:
INP:ATT 40dB
Defines an attenuation level of 40 dB.
Manual operation:
See "RF Atten Manual" on page 54
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
476
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
INPut:ATTenuation:AUTO <State>
This command turns automatic configuration of the attenuation on and off.
If on, the R&S ESR selects an attenuation that results in a good signal-to-noise ratio
without overloading the receiver.
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
*RST:
ON
Example:
INP:ATT:AUTO ON
Turns the auto ranging function on.
Manual operation:
See "Auto Range (On Off)" on page 55
INPut:ATTenuation:PROTection[:STATe] <State>
This command turns the availability of attenuation levels of 10 dB or less on and off.
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
Example:
INP:ATT:PROT ON
Manual operation:
See "10 dB Min" on page 55
INPut:GAIN:AUTO <State>
Turns automatic selection of the preamplifier state on and off.
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
Example:
:INP:GAIN:AUTO ON
Includes the preamplifier into the auto range function
Manual operation:
See "Auto Preamp (On Off)" on page 55
INPut:GAIN:STATe <State>
This command turns the 20 dB preamplifier on and off.
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
*RST:
Example:
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
OFF
INP:GAIN:STAT ON
Turns the preamplifier on.
477
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
Manual operation:
See "Preamp On/Off" on page 54
See "Preamp On/Off" on page 54
See "Preamp On/Off" on page 54
INPut:IMPedance <Impedance>
This command selects the nominal input impedance.
75 Ω should be selected if the 50 Ω input impedance is transformed to a higher impedance using a 75 Ω adapter of the RAZ type (= 25 Ω in series to the input impedance
of the instrument). The correction value in this case is 1.76 dB = 10 log (75Ω/50Ω).
Parameters:
<Impedance>
50 | 75
*RST:
50 Ω
Example:
INP:IMP 75
Manual operation:
See "Input 50 Ω/75 Ω " on page 56
See "Input 50 Ω/75 Ω " on page 56
9.3.4 Selecting the Bandwidth
[SENSe:]BANDwidth:IF...................................................................................................478
[SENSe:]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution]....................................................................... 478
[SENSe:]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution]:AUTO..............................................................479
[SENSe:]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution]:TYPE.............................................................. 479
[SENSe:]BANDwidth:IF <Bandwidth>
This command defines the resolution bandwidth for IF analysis.
Parameters:
<Bandwidth>
Resolution filter bandwidth with a 6 dB bandwidth in the range
from 10 Hz to 100 kHz in steps of 1-3-10-....
The available bandwidths depend on the current frequency
span.
*RST:
3 kHz
Example:
BAND:IF 10KHZ
Defines a resolution bandwidth of 10 kHz.
Manual operation:
See "IF Analysis RBW" on page 58
[SENSe:]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution] <Bandwidth>
This command defines the resolution bandwidth.
The available bandwidths depend on the selected filter type. For more information see
chapter 3.2.1, "Measurement Bandwidth", on page 38.
A change of the resolution bandwidth automatically turns the coupling to the span off.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
478
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
Parameters:
<Bandwidth>
refer to data sheet
*RST:
(AUTO is set to ON)
Example:
BAND 1 MHz
Sets the resolution bandwidth to 1 MHz
Manual operation:
See "Res BW Manual" on page 57
See "Res BW CISPR / CISPR (6 dB)" on page 172
See "Res BW Mil Std / MIL Std (6 dB)" on page 172
See "Res BW" on page 187
See "Res BW" on page 187
See "Res BW Manual" on page 232
See "Res BW Manual" on page 232
[SENSe:]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution]:AUTO <State>
This command couples or decouples the resolution bandwidth to the selected frequency.
The resolution bandwidth is coupled to the frequency only if you have selected the
Quasipeak, CISPR Average or CISPR RMS detector.
For more information see chapter 3.2.1, "Measurement Bandwidth", on page 38.
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
*RST:
ON
Example:
BAND:AUTO OFF
Decouples the measurement bandwidth from the frequency
range.
Manual operation:
See "CISPR RBW Uncoupled" on page 57
[SENSe:]BANDwidth|BWIDth[:RESolution]:TYPE <FilterType>
This command selects the type of resolution filter.
For detailed information on filters see chapter 4.2.6.3, "Selecting the Appropriate Filter
Type", on page 237 and chapter 4.2.6.4, "List of Available RRC and Channel Filters",
on page 238.
When changing the filter type, the next larger filter bandwidth is selected if the same
filter bandwidth is not available for the new filter type.
5 Pole filters are not available when using the sweep type "FFT".
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
479
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
Parameters:
<FilterType>
NORMal
Gaussian filters
CFILter
Channel filters
RRC
RRC filters
P5
5 Pole filters
CISPr (PULSe)
6 dB CISPR filter (commercial EMI standards)
Note: when the filter type is queried, the CISPR filter returns
'PULS'.
*RST:
NORMal
Example:
BAND:TYPE NORM
Manual operation:
See "Filter Type" on page 57
See "Filter Type" on page 172
See "Res BW CISPR / CISPR (6 dB)" on page 172
See "Res BW Mil Std / MIL Std (6 dB)" on page 172
See "Filter Type" on page 172
9.3.5 Controlling Inputs and Outputs
INPut:COUPling.............................................................................................................480
INPut:TYPE...................................................................................................................480
INPut:COUPling <CouplingType>
Toggles the RF input of the R&S ESR between AC and DC coupling.
Parameters:
<CouplingType>
AC | DC
*RST:
AC
Example:
INP:COUP:DC
Manual operation:
See "Input (AC/DC)" on page 59
See "Input (AC/DC)" on page 59
See "Input (AC/DC)" on page 59
INPut:TYPE <Input>
The command selects the signal source.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
480
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
Parameters:
<Input>
INPUT1
Selects RF input 1.
INPUT2
Selects RF input 2.
*RST:
INPUT1
Example:
INP:TYPE INPUT1
Selects RF input 1.
Manual operation:
See "Input (1 2)" on page 60
See "Range 1 to 10" on page 64
9.3.6 Test Automation
●
●
●
●
●
●
9.3.6.1
General Scan Configuration..................................................................................481
Scan Table............................................................................................................483
Peak Search..........................................................................................................487
Peak Lists..............................................................................................................490
Trace Configuration...............................................................................................491
LISN Settings........................................................................................................ 492
General Scan Configuration
[SENSe:]SWEep:COUNt.................................................................................................481
[SENSe:]SWEep:COUNt:CURRent..................................................................................481
TRACe<n>:FEED:CONTrol<t>........................................................................................ 482
TRACe<n>:POINts.........................................................................................................482
[SENSe:]SWEep:COUNt <SweepCount>
This command defines the number of scans performed during a single sweep.
Parameters:
<SweepCount>
Range:
*RST:
0 to 32767
0
Example:
SWE:COUN 64
Sets the number of sweeps to 64.
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches to single-sweep mode.
INIT;*WAI
Starts a sweep and waits for its end.
Manual operation:
See "Scan Count" on page 62
[SENSe:]SWEep:COUNt:CURRent
This command queries the number of scans that have started in single scan mode with
more than one scan (SENSe:SWEep:COUNt > 1).
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
481
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
Example:
SWE:COUNt 64
sets scan count to 64
INIT:CONT OFF
switches to single scan mode
INIT
starts a scan (without waiting for the scan end!)
SWE:COUN:CURR?
queries the number of started scans
Manual operation:
See "Scan Count" on page 62
TRACe<n>:FEED:CONTrol<t> <Occasion>
This command turns block data transmission during a scan on and off.
The availability of data is reported in the STATus:OPERation-Register.
The block size depends on scan time and the upper limit defined by TRACe<n>:​
POINts​ on page 482.
Suffix:
<n>
.
irrelevant
<t>
Selects a trace.
Parameters:
<Occasion>
ALWays
Block data transmission is on.
NEVer
Block data transmission is off.
*RST:
Example:
NEVer
TRAC:FEED:CONT ALW
Switches to single sweep mode.
TRACe<n>:POINts LIMit, <Points>
This command defines the maximum number of measurement pointsthat are transferred in one block after using TRAC? SCAN.
The total amount of bytes which is transferred depends on the number of active traces.
Suffix:
<n>
Parameters:
<Points>
Example:
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
.
irrelevant
Range:
*RST:
1 to 10000
1000
TRAC:POIN LIM, 8000
Transfers a maximum of 8000 measurement values per trace
with a single query.
482
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
9.3.6.2
Scan Table
[SENSe:]SCAN<range>:BANDwidth:RESolution............................................................... 483
[SENSe:]SCAN<range>:INPut:ATTenuation..................................................................... 483
[SENSe:]SCAN<range>:INPut:ATTenuation:AUTO............................................................483
[SENSe:]SCAN<range>:INPut:GAIN:AUTO...................................................................... 484
[SENSe:]SCAN<range>:INPut:GAIN[:STATE]...................................................................484
[SENSe:]SCAN<range>:INPut:TYPE............................................................................... 484
[SENSe:]SCAN:RANGes[:COUNt]................................................................................... 485
[SENSe:]SCAN<range>:STARt....................................................................................... 485
[SENSe:]SCAN<range>:STEP........................................................................................ 485
[SENSe:]SCAN<range>:STOP........................................................................................ 486
[SENSe:]SCAN<range>:TIME......................................................................................... 486
[[SENSe:]SWEep:SPACing............................................................................................. 486
[SENSe:]SCAN<range>:BANDwidth:RESolution <Bandwidth>
This command defines the measurement bandwidth for a particular scan range.
Suffix:
<range>
Parameters:
<Bandwidth>
Example:
.
1...10
Selects the scan range.
Range:
*RST:
10 Hz to 10 MHz
9 kHz
SCAN4:BAND:RES 1MHz
Defines a measurement bandwidth of 1 MHz for the 4th scan
range.
[SENSe:]SCAN<range>:INPut:ATTenuation <Attenuation>
This command defines the attenuation level for a particular scan range.
Suffix:
<range>
Parameters:
<Attenuation>
.
1...10
Selects the scan range.
dBmin to dBmax
Range:
*RST:
Example:
Att(min) to Att(max)
10 dB
SCAN4:INP:ATT 30dB
Defines an attenuation level of 30 dB for the 4th scan range.
[SENSe:]SCAN<range>:INPut:ATTenuation:AUTO <State>
This command turns auto ranging in a particular scan range on and off.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
483
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
Suffix:
<range>
Parameters:
<State>
.
1...10
Selects the scan range.
ON | OFF
*RST:
Example:
OFF
SCAN4:INP:ATT:AUTO OFF
Turns off auto ranging in the 4th scan range.
[SENSe:]SCAN<range>:INPut:GAIN:AUTO <State>
This command includes the preamplifier in the autoranging function of the selected
receiver scan range.
Parameters:
<State>
ON
OFF
*RST:
Example:
OFF
:SCAN1:INP:GAIN:AUTO ON
Includes the preamplifier in the autoranging function for scan
range 1
[SENSe:]SCAN<range>:INPut:GAIN[:STATE] <State>
This command turns the preamplifier in a particular scan range on and off.
Suffix:
<range>
Parameters:
<State>
.
1...10
Selects the scan range.
ON | OFF
*RST:
Example:
OFF
SCAN4:INP:GAIN:STAT ON
Turns on the preamplifier for the 4th scan range.
[SENSe:]SCAN<range>:INPut:TYPE <Input>
This command selects the signal source for a particular scan range.
Suffix:
<range>
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
.
1...10
Selects the scan range.
484
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
Parameters:
<Input>
INPUT1
Selects RF input 1.
INPUT2
Selects RF input 2.
*RST:
Example:
INPUT1
SCAN4:INP:TYPE INPUT2
Selects RF input 2 as the signal source for the 4th scan range.
[SENSe:]SCAN:RANGes[:COUNt] <Ranges>
This command defines the number of scan ranges.
Parameters:
<Ranges>
Number of ranges in the scan table.
If you enter the value "0", the R&S ESR ignores the configuration of the scan table. instead, it performs the measurement
based on the current receiver configuration.
Range:
*RST:
Example:
0 to 10
0
SCAN:RANG:COUN 4
Defines 4 scan ranges.
[SENSe:]SCAN<range>:STARt <Frequency>
This command defines the start frequency of a particular scan range.
Suffix:
<range>
Parameters:
<Frequency>
Example:
.
1...10
Selects the scan range.
Range:
*RST:
fmin to fmax
150 kHz
SCAN4:STAR 30MHz
Defines a start frequency of 30 MHz for the 4th scan range.
[SENSe:]SCAN<range>:STEP <Frequency>
This command defines the frequency stepsize within a particular scan range.
Suffix:
<range>
Parameters:
<Frequency>
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
.
1...10
Selects the scan range.
Range:
*RST:
fmin to fmax
4 kHz
485
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
Example:
SCAN4:STEP 1MHz
Defines a step size of 1 MHz for the 4th scan range.
[SENSe:]SCAN<range>:STOP <Frequency>
This command defines the stop frequency of a particular scan range.
Suffix:
<range>
Parameters:
<Frequency>
Example:
.
1...10
Selects the scan range.
Range:
*RST:
fmin to fmax
30 MHz
SCAN4:STOP 500MHz
Defines a stop frequency of 500 MHz for the 4th scan range.
[SENSe:]SCAN<range>:TIME <Time>
This command defines the measurement time for a particular scan range.
Note that for time domain scans (R&S ESR-K53), the available measurement time
range depends on the resolution bandwidth.
Suffix:
<range>
Parameters:
<Time>
Example:
.
1...10
Selects the scan range.
Range:
*RST:
10 µs to 100 s
1 ms
SCAN4:TIME 1 ms
Defines a measurement time of 1 ms for the 4th scan range.
[[SENSe:]SWEep:SPACing <Spacing>
This command selects the frequency step mode.
Note that the command has no effect on the scale and display of the frequency axis.
Parameters:
<Spacing>
LINear
Linear frequency steps with a fix stepsize.
LOGarithmic
Logarithmic frequency steps with the stepsize being a percentage of the current frequency.
AUTO
The stepsize is coupled to the resolution bandwidth to get the
best measurement results.
*RST:
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
LINear
486
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
9.3.6.3
Example:
SWE:SPAC LOG
Selects logarithmic frequency steps.
Manual operation:
See "Step Mode" on page 63
Peak Search
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:PEXCursion.........................................................................487
CALCulate<n>:PEAKsearch|PSEarch:ADD...................................................................... 487
CALCulate:PEAKsearch|PSEarch:CLEar[:IMMediate]........................................................488
CALCulate<n>:PEAKsearch|PSEarch[:IMMediate]............................................................ 488
CALCulate<n>:PEAKsearch|PSEarch:MARGin................................................................. 488
CALCulate<n>:PEAKsearch|PSEarch:METHod................................................................ 488
CALCulate<n>:PEAKsearch|PSEarch:SUBRanges........................................................... 489
CALCulate<n>:PEAKsearch|PSEarch:SUBRanges:PCOunt............................................... 489
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:PEXCursion <Excursion>
This command defines the peak excursion
The peak excursion sets the requirements for a peak to be detected during a peak
search.
Suffix:
<n>
.
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
irrelevant
Parameters:
<Excursion>
The peak excursion is the distance to a trace maximum that
must be attained before a new maximum is recognized, or the
distance to a trace minimum that must be attained before a new
minimum is recognized
*RST:
6 dB
Example:
CALC:MARK:PEXC 10dB
Defines peak excursion 10 dB.
Manual operation:
See "Peak Excursion" on page 66
See "Peak Excursion" on page 80
See "Peak Excursion" on page 80
CALCulate<n>:PEAKsearch|PSEarch:ADD <Frequency>
This command manually adds a particular frequency to the peak list, regardless if the
level threshold conditions have been fulfilled for that frequency.
Note that the frequency has to be in the displayed frequency range.
Suffix:
<n>
.
irrelevant
Parameters:
<Frequency>
Numeric value in Hz. The range depends on the measurement.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
487
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
Example:
CALC:PEAK:ADD 93MHz
Adds the frequency 93 MHz to the peak list.
Manual operation:
See "Insert Frequency" on page 67
CALCulate:PEAKsearch|PSEarch:CLEar[:IMMediate]
This command deletes the contents of the peak list.
Example:
CALC:PEAK:CLE
Deletes the contents of the peak list.
Usage:
Event
CALCulate<n>:PEAKsearch|PSEarch[:IMMediate]
This command initiates a peak search and creates a peak list.
Example:
CALC:PEAK
Initiates a peak search.
Usage:
Event
CALCulate<n>:PEAKsearch|PSEarch:MARGin <Margin>
This command defines a margin for the peak search.
Suffix:
<n>
Parameters:
<Margin>
.
irrelevant
Range:
*RST:
-200 dB to 200 dB
6 dB
Example:
CALC:PEAK:MARG 5 dB
Manual operation:
See "Margin" on page 66
See "Margin" on page 134
See "Margin" on page 164
CALCulate<n>:PEAKsearch|PSEarch:METHod <Method>
This command selects the way the R&S ESR creates a peak list.
Suffix:
<n>
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
.
irrelevant
488
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
Parameters:
<Method>
SUBRange
Divides the scan range into smaller subranges and looks for a
particular number of peaks in each subrange.
PEAK
Looks for a particular number of peaks over the complete scan
range.
*RST:
PEAK
Example:
CALC:PEAK:METH SUBR
Divides the scan range into smaller subranges for the peak
search.
Manual operation:
See "Peak Search Mode (Peaks Subranges)" on page 65
CALCulate<n>:PEAKsearch|PSEarch:SUBRanges <Peaks> | <Subranges>
The effects of this command depend on the peak search mode that you have selected.
Suffix:
<n>
Parameters:
<Peaks>
.
irrelevant
If you have selected the "Peaks" search mode, the command
defines the number of peaks to look for during the peak search.
Range:
*RST:
<Subranges>
1 to 500
50
If you have selected the Subranges search mode, the command
defines the number of subranges that the scan range is split
into.
Range:
*RST:
1 to 50
10
Example:
CALC:PEAK:METH SUBR
CALC:PEAK:SUBR 25
Selects a subrange search and defines 25 subranges.
Manual operation:
See "No Of Peaks" on page 65
See "No of Subranges / Peaks per Subrange" on page 65
CALCulate<n>:PEAKsearch|PSEarch:SUBRanges:PCOunt <Peaks>
This command defines the number of peaks to be found in each subrange.
Before you can use this command, you have to select the subrange peak search mode
with CALCulate<n>:​PEAKsearch|PSEarch:​METHod​.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
489
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
Parameters:
<Peaks>
Number of peaks in one subrange.
Note that the maximum number of peaks is 500. Thus, the maximum number of peaks per subrange depends on the number of
subranges you have defined.
Range:
*RST:
9.3.6.4
1 to depends on the number of subranges
1
Example:
CALC:PSE:METH SUBR
CALC:PSE:SUBR 20
CALC:PSE:SUBR:PCO 5
Looks for 5 peaks in each of 20 subranges.
Manual operation:
See "No of Subranges / Peaks per Subrange" on page 65
Peak Lists
Commands useful to read peak lists described elsewhere:
●
FORMat:​DEXPort:​DSEParator​ on page 661
DISPlay[:WINDow<n>]:TRACe<t>:SYMBol.......................................................................490
MMEMory:STORe:FINal................................................................................................. 490
MMEMory:STORe:PEAKlist............................................................................................ 491
DISPlay[:WINDow<n>]:TRACe<t>:SYMBol <Symbol>
This command turns the peak labels in the diagram on and off.
Parameters:
<Symbol>
CROSs
Each peak is labelled by a symbol. The symbol and its color
depend on the trace the peak is on.
OFF
Peak labels are off.
*RST:
OFF
Example:
DISP:TRAC:SYMB CROS
Manual operation:
See "Symbols (On Off)" on page 68
MMEMory:STORe:FINal <FileName>
This command exports the contents of the final measurement peak list to a file in ASCII
format.
Parameters:
<FileName>
String containg the file name. The extension of the file is *.dat.
Example:
:MMEM:STOR:FIN 'A:\TEST.DAT'
Usage:
Event
Manual operation:
See "Peak List Export" on page 68
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
490
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
MMEMory:STORe:PEAKlist <FileName>
This command exports the contents of a peak list to a file in ASCII format.
9.3.6.5
Parameters:
<FileName>
String containg the file name. The extension of the file is *.dat.
Example:
MMEM:STOR:PEAK 'D:\TEST.DAT'
Manual operation:
See "Peak List Export" on page 68
Trace Configuration
Commands useful to configure traces and final measurements described elsewhere:
●
[SENSe:​]FMEasurement:​AUTO​ on page 450
●
[SENSe:​]FMEasurement:​TIME​ on page 451
●
[SENSe:​]DETector<t>:​FMEasurement​ on page 450
[SENSe:][WINDow:]DETector<trace>[:FUNCtion]..............................................................491
DISPlay[:WINDow<n>]:TRACe<t>:MODE.........................................................................491
[SENSe:][WINDow:]DETector<trace>[:FUNCtion] <Detector>
This command selects the detector for the scan.
Suffix:
<trace>
Parameters:
<Detector>
.
1...6
Selects the trace.
APEak | NEGative | POSitive | SAMPle | RMS | AVERage |
QPEak | CAVerage | CRMS
*RST:
APEak
Example:
DET RMS
Selects the RMS detector.
Manual operation:
See "Trace 1 to 6" on page 69
DISPlay[:WINDow<n>]:TRACe<t>:MODE <Mode>
This command defines the type of display and the evaluation of the traces. WRITE corresponds to the Clr/Write mode of manual operation. The trace is switched off (=
BLANK in manual operation) with DISPlay[:​WINDow<n>]:​TRACe<t>[:​STATe]​.
The number of measurements for AVERage, MAXHold and MINHold is defined with
the [SENSe:​]AVERage<n>:​COUNt​ or [SENSe:​]SWEep:​COUNt​ commands. It should
be noted that synchronization to the end of the indicated number of measurements is
only possible in single sweep mode.
If calculation of average values is active, selection between logarithmic and linear averaging is possible. For more detail see [SENSe:​]AVERage<n>:​TYPE​ on page 663.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
491
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
Suffix:
<n>
.
window; For applications that do not have more than 1 measurement window, the suffix <n> is irrelevant.
<t>
trace
Parameters:
<Mode>
For more information on trace modes see chapter 3.2.4, "Trace
Modes", on page 44.
AVERage
Average trace mode.
BLANk
Blank trace.
MAXHold
Maximum value trace.
MINHold
Minimum value trace.
VIEW
Frozen trace.
WRITe
Clear write trace mode.
9.3.6.6
Example:
INIT:CONT OFF
Switching to single sweep mode.
SWE:COUN 16
Sets the number of measurements to 16.
DISP:TRAC3:MODE MAXH
Switches on the calculation of the maximum peak for trace 3.
INIT;*WAI
Starts the measurement and waits for the end of the 16 sweeps.
Manual operation:
See "Clear Write" on page 44
See "Max Hold" on page 45
See "Min Hold" on page 45
See "View" on page 45
See "Trace 1 to 6" on page 69
See "Trace 1 - 6" on page 71
See "Clear Write" on page 44
See "Max Hold" on page 45
See "Min Hold" on page 45
See "Average" on page 261
See "View" on page 45
LISN Settings
[SENSe:]FMEasurement:LISN:FILTer:HPAS[:STATe]........................................................493
[SENSe:]FMEasurement:LISN:PHASe............................................................................. 493
[SENSe:]FMEasurement:LISN[:TYPE]..............................................................................493
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
492
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
INPut:LISN:FILTer:HPAS[:STATe]................................................................................... 494
INPut:LISN:PHASe.........................................................................................................494
INPut:LISN[:TYPE].........................................................................................................495
[SENSe:]FMEasurement:LISN:FILTer:HPAS[:STATe] <State>
This command turns the 150 kHz highpass filter of the ENV216 network for the final
measurement on and off.
The command is available for the R&S ENV216 network.
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
*RST:
ON
Example:
FME:LISN:FILT:HPAS ON
Turns on the highpass filter.
Manual operation:
See "150 kHz Highpass Filter" on page 70
[SENSe:]FMEasurement:LISN:PHASe <Phase>, [<Phase>]
This command selects the phase of the network used for the final measurement.
Parameters:
<Phase>
L1
L2
Available for networks with four phases (R&S ESH2Z5 and
R&S ENV4200)
L3
Available for networks with four phases (R&S ESH2Z5 and
R&S ENV4200)
N
*RST:
L1
Example:
FME:LISN:PHAS L1,N
Manual operation:
See "Final Test Phase" on page 70
[SENSe:]FMEasurement:LISN[:TYPE] <Type>
This command turns automatic control of the network used for the final measurement
on and off. It also selects the type of network in use.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
493
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
Parameters:
<Type>
ENV216
R&S ENV 216: two phases and highpass are controllable.
ENV4200
R&S ENV 4200: four phases are controllable.
ESH2Z5
R&S ESH2-Z5: four phases and protective earth are controllable.
ESH3Z5
R&S ESH3-Z5: two phases and protective earth are controllable.
FOURphase
R&S ESH2-Z5: four phases and protective earth are controllable.
OFF
Turns off remote control of the LISN.
TWOPhase
R&S ESH3-Z5: two phases and protective earth are controllable.
*RST:
OFF
Example:
FME:LISN TWOP
Turns automatic control of the network on and selects the R&S
ESH3-Z5 network.
Manual operation:
See "LISN Type" on page 70
INPut:LISN:FILTer:HPAS[:STATe] <State>
This command turns the 150 kHz highpass filter of the ENV216 network for the premeasurement on and off.
The command is available for the R&S ENV216 network.
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
Example:
INP:LISN:FILT:HPAS ON
Turns on the highpass filter.
Manual operation:
See "150 kHz Highpass Filter" on page 70
See "LISN Control" on page 173
INPut:LISN:PHASe <Phase>, [<Phase>]
This command selects the phase of the network used for the premeasurement.
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
494
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
Parameters:
<Phase>
L1
L2
Available for networks with four phases (R&S ESH2Z5 and
R&S ENV4200)
L3
Available for networks with four phases (R&S ESH2Z5 and
R&S ENV4200)
N
*RST:
L1
Example:
INP:LISN:PHAS L1,L2
Selects phases L1 and L2 for the scan.
Manual operation:
See "Prescan Phase" on page 70
See "LISN Control" on page 173
INPut:LISN[:TYPE] <Type>
This command turns automatic control of the network used for the premeasurement on
and off. It also selects the type of network in use.
Parameters:
<Type>
ENV216
R&S ENV 216: two phases and highpass are controllable.
ENV4200
R&S ENV 4200: four phases are controllable.
ESH2Z5
R&S ESH2-Z5: four phases and protective earth are controllable.
ESH3Z5
R&S ESH3-Z5: two phases and protective earth are controllable.
FOURphase
R&S ESH2-Z5: four phases and protective earth are controllable.
OFF
Turns off remote control of the LISN.
TWOPhase
R&S ESH3-Z5: two phases and protective earth are controllable.
*RST:
OFF
Example:
INP:LISN TWOP
Turns automatic control of the network on and selects the R&S
ESH3-Z5 network.
Manual operation:
See "LISN Type" on page 70
See "LISN Control" on page 173
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
495
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
9.3.7 Working with Markers
●
●
●
9.3.7.1
Configuring Marker Functionality.......................................................................... 496
Using Markers....................................................................................................... 499
Using Delta Markers..............................................................................................506
Configuring Marker Functionality
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:COUPled[:STATe]................................................................ 496
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:FUNCtion:CENTer................................................................496
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:FUNCtion:CSTep................................................................. 497
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:FUNCtion:ZOOM..................................................................497
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:SCOupled[:STATe]...............................................................497
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:X:SLIMits:LEFT....................................................................498
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:X:SLIMits:RIGHT..................................................................498
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:X:SLIMits[:STATe]................................................................499
DISPlay[:WINDow<n>]:MINFo:STATe..............................................................................499
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:COUPled[:STATe] <State>
This command couples or decouples the receiver frequency to the current marker frequency.
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
Example:
CALC:MARK:COUP ON
Couples the frequency to the marker frequency.
Manual operation:
See "Marker Track" on page 76
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:FUNCtion:CENTer
This command matches the center or receiver frequency to the frequency of a marker.
If you use the command in combination with a delta marker, that delta marker is turned
into a normal marker.
Suffix:
<n>
.
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
Selects the marker.
Example:
CALC:MARK2:FUNC:CENT
Sets the center frequency to the frequency of marker 2.
Manual operation:
See "Tune to Marker" on page 76
See "Center =Mkr Freq (span > 0)" on page 282
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
496
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:FUNCtion:CSTep
This command matches the frequency step size to the current marker frequency.
The command turns delta markers into normal markers.
Suffix:
<n>
.
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
Selects the marker.
Example:
CALC:MARK3:FUNC:CST
Sets the center frequency to the same value as the frequency of
marker 3.
Usage:
Event
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:FUNCtion:ZOOM <Range>
This command defines the range to be zoomed around marker 1. Marker 1 is activated
first, if necessary.
The marker frequency becomes the new receiver or center frequency and the span is
adjusted according to the zoom factor.
Note that you should perform a complete measurement with synchronization to the end
of the measurement. This is only possible for single sweeps.
Suffix:
<n>
.
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
Selects the marker.
Parameters:
<Range>
<numeric_value>
Example:
INIT:CONT OFF
Switches to single sweep mode
CALC:MARK:FUNC:ZOOM 1kHz;*WAI
Activates zooming and waits for its end.
Manual operation:
See "Marker Zoom (span > 0)" on page 278
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:SCOupled[:STATe] <State>
This command couples or decouples the marker frequency to the scan range settings.
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
*RST:
ON
Example:
CALC:MARK:SCO ON
Couples the scan range settings to the marker frequency.
Manual operation:
See "Settings Coupled" on page 76
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
497
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:X:SLIMits:LEFT <Limit>
This command sets the left limit of the marker search range.
If the power measurement in zero span is active, this command limits the evaluation
range to the trace.
Note: The function is only available if the search limit for marker and delta marker is
switched on (see CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SLIMits[:​STATe]​).
Suffix:
<n>
.
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
irrelevant
Parameters:
<Limit>
The value range depends on the span or sweep time.
The unit is Hz for frequency domain measurements and s for
time domain measurements.
Range:
*RST:
0 to MAX
left diagram border
Example:
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM ON
Switches the search limit function on.
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM:LEFT 10MHz
Sets the left limit of the search range to 10 MHz.
Manual operation:
See "Left Limit" on page 79
See "Left Limit" on page 168
See "Left Limit" on page 79
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:X:SLIMits:RIGHT <Limit>
This command sets the right limit of the marker search range.
If the power measurement in zero span is active, this command limits the evaluation
range to the trace.
Note: The function is only available if the search limit for marker and delta marker is
switched on ( CALCulate<n>:​MARKer<m>:​X:​SLIMits[:​STATe]​).
Suffix:
<n>
.
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
irrelevant
Parameters:
<Limit>
The value range depends on the span or sweep time.
The unit is Hz for frequency domain measurements and s for
time domain measurements.
Range:
*RST:
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
0 to MAX
left diagram border
498
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
Example:
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM ON
Switches the search limit function on.
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM:RIGH 20MHz
Sets the right limit of the search range to 20 MHz.
Manual operation:
See "Right Limit" on page 79
See "Right Limit" on page 168
See "Right Limit" on page 79
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:X:SLIMits[:STATe] <State>
This command turns marker search limits on and off.
If the power measurement in zero span is active, this command limits the evaluation
range on the trace.
Suffix:
<n>
.
Selects the measurement window.
<m>
marker
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
*RST:
OFF
Example:
CALC:MARK:X:SLIM ON
Switches on search limitation.
Manual operation:
See "Search Limits" on page 79
See "Search Lim Off" on page 79
See "Limits (On/Off)" on page 167
DISPlay[:WINDow<n>]:MINFo:STATe <State>
This command turns the marker info field in the diagram on and off.
Parameters:
<State>
ON | OFF
*RST:
9.3.7.2
ON
Example:
DISP:MINF:STAT ON
Turns the marker info field on.
Manual operation:
See "Marker Info (On Off)" on page 76
Using Markers
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:AOFF..................................................................................500
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:MAXimum:LEFT...................................................................500
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:MAXimum:NEXT.................................................................. 500
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:MAXimum[:PEAK]................................................................ 501
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:MAXimum:RIGHt..................................................................501
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:MINimum:LEFT....................................................................502
User Manual 1175.7068.02 ─ 06
499
R&S®ESR
Remote Control
Remote Commands in Receiver Mode
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:MINimum:NEXT................................................................... 502
CALCulate<n>:MARKer<m>:MINimum