PAW - HEP web
CERN Program Library Long Writeup Q121
PAW
Physics Analysis Workstation
The Complete Reference
Version 2.03 (October 1993)
Application Software Group
Computing and Networks Division
CERN Geneva, Switzerland
Copyright Notice
PAW – Physics Analysis Workstation
CERN Program Library entry Q121
c Copyright CERN, Geneva 1993
Copyright and any other appropriate legal protection of these computer programs and associated
documentation reserved in all countries of the world.
These programs or documentation may not be reproduced by any method without prior written
consent of the Director-General of CERN or his delegate.
Permission for the usage of any programs described herein is granted apriori to those scientific
institutes associated with the CERN experimental program or with whom CERN has concluded a
scientific collaboration agreement.
Requests for information should be addressed to:
CERN Program Library Office
CERN-CN Division
CH-1211 Geneva 23
Switzerland
Tel.
+41 22 767 4951
Fax.
+41 22 767 7155
Bitnet:
[email protected]
DECnet:
VXCERN::CERNLIB (node 22.190)
Internet:
[email protected]
Trademark notice: All trademarks appearing in this guide are acknowledged as such.
Contact Person:
Technical Realization:
Edition – October 1993
René Brun /CN
([email protected])
Michel Goossens /CN ([email protected])
About this guide
Preliminary remarks
This Complete Reference of PAW (for Physics Analysis Workstation), consists of three parts:
1 A step by step tutorial introduction to the system.
2 A functional description of the components.
3 A reference guide, describing each command in detail.
The PAW system is implemented on various mainframes and personal workstations. In particular versions
exist for IBM VM/CMS and MVS/TSO, VAX/VMS and various Unix-like platforms, such as Apollo,
Dec-Station 3100, Hewlett-Packard, Silicon Graphics and Sun.
In this manual examples are in monotype face and strings to be input by the user are underlined. In
the index the page where a command is defined is in bold, page numbers where a routine is referenced
are in normal type.
In the description of the commands parameters between square brackets ...] are optional.
Acknowledgements
The authors of PAW would like to thank all their colleagues who, by their continuous interest and
encouragement, have given them the necessary input to provide a modern and easy to use data analysis
and presentation system.
They are particularly grateful to Michel Goossens as main author of part one and as technical editor of
the present document and to Michael Metcalf for his work on improving the index.
Vladimir Berezhnoi (IHEP, Serpukhov, USSR), the main author of the Fortran interpreter COMIS,
provided one of the essential components of our system. Nicole Cremel has collaborated to the first
versions of HPLOT. The PAW/HBOOK to MINUIT interface has been implemented in collaboration
with Eliane Lessner (FNAL, USA) and Fred James. Jim Loken (Oxford, UK) has been our expert on
VAX global sections. David Foster, Frederic Hemmer, Catherine Magnin and Ben Segal have contributed
to the development of the PAW TCP/IP interface. Ben has also largely contibuted to the TELNETG and
3270G systems. Per Scharff-Hansen and Johannes Raab from the OPAL collaboration have made possible
the interface with the OS9 system. Harald Johnstad (FNAL, now SSC, USA) and Lee Roberts (FNAL,
USA) have contributed to the debugging phases of PAW in the DI3000 and DECGKS environments.
Initial implementations of PAW on MVS/TSO, the Sun and the DEC Station 3100 were made by Alain
Michalon (Strasbourg, France), François Marabelle (Saclay, France) and Walter Bruckner (Heidelberg,
FRG), respectively. Lionel Cons (now at ENSIMAG, Grenoble) has contributed to the implementation of
the selection mechanisms for Ntuples. Isabelle Moulinier (Paris) has been working, as a summer student,
on various improvements in the HIGZ/HPLOT packages. Federico Carminati, the main distributor of the
CERN program library had to suffer from the many imperfections of our first releases. His collaboration
for PAW consultancy is appreciated. Gudrun Benassi has always kindly organized the distribution of the
various PAW manuals.
i
ii
Related Manuals
This document can be complemented by the following manuals:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
COMIS, Compilation and Interpretation System [1]
HBOOK User Guide — Version 4 [2]
HIGZ — High level Interface to Graphics and ZEBRA [3]
HPLOT User Guide — Version 5 [4]
KUIP — Kit for a User Interface Package [5]
MINUIT — Function Minimization and Error Analysis [6]
ZEBRA — Data Structure Management System [7]
This document has been produced using LATEX [8] with the cernman style option, developed at CERN.
All pictures shown are produced with PAW and are included in PostScript [9] format in the manual.
A PostScript file pawman.ps, containing a complete printable version of this manual, can be obtained by
anonymous ftp as follows (commands to be typed by the user are underlined) 1:
ftp asis01.cern.ch
Trying 128.141.201.136...
Connected to asis01.cern.ch.
220 asis01 FTP server (Version 6.10 Mon Apr 13 15:59:17 MET DST 1992) ready.
Name (asis01:username):
anonymous
331 Guest login ok, send e-mail address as password.
Password:
your mailaddress
ftp> cd cernlib/doc/ps.dir
ftp> binary
ftp> get paw.ps.gz
ftp> quit
1 If
you do not have the gnu gunzip utility on your system you can get the uncompressed PostScript version by typing the
command get paw.ps, without the gz suffix. In order to save Internet bandwidth, you are, however, strongly urged to try and
install the gunzip utility since gzipped files are about three times smaller than their unzipped equivalents.
iii
Table of Contents
I
PAW – Step by step
1
1 A few words on PAW
3
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
::::::::::
What is PAW? : : : : : : : : : :
What Can You Do with PAW? : :
A User’s View of PAW : : : : : :
Fundamental Objects of PAW : :
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
The Component Subsystems of PAW : :
:::::::::::::::::::::::::
:::::::::::::::::::::::::
:::::::::::::::::::::::::
:::::::::::::::::::::::::
:::::::::::::::::::::::::
:::::::::::::::::::::::::
1.6.1 KUIP - The user interface package : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
1.6.2 HBOOK and HPLOT - The histograming and plotting packages : : : : : : : : :
1.6.3 HIGZ - The graphics interface package : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
1.6.4 ZEBRA - The data structure management system : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
1.6.5 MINUIT - Function minimization and error analysis : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
1.6.6 COMIS - The FORTRAN interpreter : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
1.6.7 SIGMA - The array manipulation language : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
A PAW Glossary : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
A short history
2 General principles
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
2.1.1 IBM/VM-CMS : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
2.1.2 VAX/VMS : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
2.1.3 Unix systems : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
2.1.4 Note on the X11 version : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
2.1.5 Different modes to start PAW : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Initialising PAW : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
PAW++ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
2.3.1 Overview of PAW++ : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Command structure : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Getting help : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
2.5.1 Usage : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Special symbols for PAW : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
PAW entities and their related commands : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Access to PAW
3
3
3
5
6
9
10
10
10
11
11
12
12
12
15
15
15
15
15
16
16
17
18
20
22
23
25
25
25
iv
3 PAW by Examples
3.1 Basic Principles : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
3.2 Starting the PAW Tutorial : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
3.3 Vectors—Tutorial : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
3.4 Vectors—Examples : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
3.4.1 Starting with vectors : : : : : : : : : : : : :
3.4.2 Some more vector commands : : : : : : : :
3.4.3 The VECTOR/DRAW options : : : : : : : :
3.4.4 Vectors and Histograms : : : : : : : : : : :
3.4.5 Vector operations : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
3.4.6 Simple macro, with a loop and a VECTOR fit
3.4.7 Macros flow control : : : : : : : : : : : : :
3.4.8 More on fits : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
3.4.9 VECTOR/READ using MATCH : : : : : : :
3.5 Function drawing—Examples : : : : : : : : : : : :
3.5.1 Plot a few one-dimensional functions : : : :
3.5.2 Plot a one-dimensional function and loop : :
3.5.3 More on macro input parameters : : : : : : :
3.5.4 Plot two-dimensional functions : : : : : : :
3.5.5 The Mandelbrot distribution : : : : : : : : :
3.5.6 Three-dimensional functions drawing : : : :
3.6 Histograms—Tutorial : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
3.7 Histograms—Examples : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
3.7.1 Histograms creation : : : : : : : : : : : : :
3.7.2 Read histograms from file and plot : : : : : :
3.7.3 Histogram archiving : : : : : : : : : : : : :
3.7.4 Multiple fits on histograms : : : : : : : : : :
3.7.5 Histogram operations : : : : : : : : : : : :
3.7.6 Keep and update histograms : : : : : : : : :
3.7.7 Playing with dice : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
3.7.8 Two-dimensional histograms representations
3.7.9 Non equidistant contour plots : : : : : : : :
3.7.10 Coordinate systems : : : : : : : : : : : : :
3.7.11 Logarithmic scales on lego plots : : : : : : :
3.7.12 Subranges in histogram identifiers : : : : : :
3.7.13 Stacked Lego plots : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
3.7.14 A more complex example : : : : : : : : : :
3.8 Ntuples—Tutorial : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
3.9 Ntuples—Examples : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::
28
30
31
32
36
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
54
56
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
80
80
84
88
90
92
96
98
100
102
104
106
108
110
112
116
122
v
3.9.1 Ntuple creation : : : : : : : : : : : : :
3.9.2 Automatic and user binning : : : : : :
3.9.3 Simple selection criteria on Ntuple : : :
3.9.4 Use of Ntuple masks and loops : : : :
3.9.5 The use of Ntuple Cuts : : : : : : : : :
3.9.6 Ntuple and 2D histograms : : : : : : :
3.9.7 Profile histograms and Ntuples : : : : :
3.9.8 Copy a Ntuple variable into a Vector : :
3.9.9 Chain of Ntuples : : : : : : : : : : : :
3.10 SIGMA—Examples : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
3.10.1 Examples of the SIGMA processor (1) :
3.10.2 Examples of the SIGMA processor (2) :
3.11 Pictures and PostScript : : : : : : : : : : : : :
3.11.1 Merge pictures onto one plot : : : : : :
3.11.2 Pie charts : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
3.11.3 Feynman diagrams : : : : : : : : : : :
3.11.4 Making a complex graph with PAW : :
3.11.5 Making slides : : : : : : : : : : : : :
3.11.6 How to use PostScript files : : : : : : :
II
:::::::::::::::::::::
:::::::::::::::::::::
:::::::::::::::::::::
:::::::::::::::::::::
:::::::::::::::::::::
:::::::::::::::::::::
:::::::::::::::::::::
:::::::::::::::::::::
:::::::::::::::::::::
:::::::::::::::::::::
:::::::::::::::::::::
:::::::::::::::::::::
:::::::::::::::::::::
:::::::::::::::::::::
:::::::::::::::::::::
:::::::::::::::::::::
:::::::::::::::::::::
:::::::::::::::::::::
:::::::::::::::::::::
122
128
130
134
136
138
140
142
144
146
146
150
152
152
154
156
158
161
164
PAW - Commands and Concepts
167
4 The KUIP interface
4.1 Command line syntax : : : : : : : :
4.1.1 Command structure : : : : :
4.1.2 Arguments : : : : : : : : : :
4.1.3 More on command lines : : :
4.2 Aliases : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
4.2.1 Argument aliases : : : : : : :
4.2.2 Command aliases : : : : : :
4.3 System functions : : : : : : : : : : :
4.3.1 Inquiry functions : : : : : : :
4.3.2 String manipulations : : : : :
4.3.3 Expression evaluations : : : :
4.3.4 Histograms inquiry functions
4.3.5 Graphics inquiry functions : :
4.3.6 Cuts manipulations : : : : : :
4.4 Vectors : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
4.4.1 Creating vectors : : : : : : :
169
169
169
172
178
182
182
184
185
185
186
188
189
190
190
190
190
::::::::::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::::::::::
vi
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.4.2 Accessing vectors : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Expressions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
4.5.1 Arithmetic expressions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
4.5.2 Boolean expressions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
4.5.3 String expressions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
4.5.4 Garbage expressions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
4.5.5 The small-print on KUIP expressions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Macros : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
4.6.1 Macro definitions and variables : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
4.6.2 Flow control constructs : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
4.6.3 Restrictions for the EXEC statements : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Motif mode : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
4.7.1 The KUIP/Motif Browser Interface : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
4.7.2 KXTERM: the KUIP Terminal Emulator (or “Executive Window”)
4.7.3 User Definable Panels of Commands (“PANEL interface”) : : : : :
4.7.4 KUIP/Motif X-Windows Resources : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Nitty-Gritty : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
4.8.1 System dependencies : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
4.8.2 The edit server : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
4.8.3 Implementation details : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5 SIGMA
5.1 Access to SIGMA : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5.2 Vector arithmetic operations using SIGMA : : : :
5.2.1 Basic operators : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5.2.2 Logical operators : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5.2.3 Control operators : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5.3 SIGMA functions : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
5.3.1 SIGMA functions - A detailed description. :
5.4 Available library functions : : : : : : : : : : : : :
6 HBOOK
6.1 Introduction : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
6.1.1 The functionality of HBOOK : : : :
6.2 Basic ideas : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
6.2.1 RZ directories and HBOOK files : : :
6.2.2 Changing directories : : : : : : : : :
6.3 HBOOK batch as the first step of the analysis
6.3.1 Adding some data to the RZ file : : :
6.4 Using PAW to analyse data : : : : : : : : : :
::
::
::
::
::
::
::
::
::
::
::
::
::
::
::
::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
::
::
::
::
::
::
::
::
::
::
::
::
::
::
::
::
::::::
::::::
::::::
::::::
::::::
::::::
::::::
::::::
::::::
::::::
::::::
::::::
::::::
::::::
::::::
::::::
::::::
::::::
::::::
::::::
192
192
192
192
192
193
194
196
196
202
206
207
207
212
216
218
221
221
223
223
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
226
226
227
227
227
227
228
229
236
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
238
238
238
238
239
240
241
243
245
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
vii
:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
Ntuples: A closer look : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
6.5.1 Ntuple plotting : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
6.5.2 Ntuple variable and selection function specification : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
6.5.3 Ntuple selection mechanisms : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
6.5.4 Masks : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
6.5.5 Examples : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Fitting with PAW/HBOOK/MINUIT : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
6.6.1 Basic concepts of MINUIT. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
6.6.2 Basic concepts - The transformation for parameters with limits. : : : : : : : : :
6.6.3 How to get the right answer from MINUIT. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
6.6.4 Interpretation of Parameter Errors: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
6.6.5 Fitting histograms : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
6.6.6 A simple fit with a gaussian : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Doing more with Minuit : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
6.4.1
6.5
6.6
6.7
Plot histogram data
7 Graphics (HIGZ and HPLOT)
7.1
7.2
7.3
:
The metafiles : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
:
The HIGZ pictures : : : : : : : : : : : :
:
:
7.3.1 Pictures in memory : : : : : : :
:
7.3.2 Pictures on direct access files : :
7.3.3 Automatic storage pictures in memory :
HPLOT, HIGZ and local graphics package
7.3.4
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
HIGZ pictures generated in a HPLOT program
:::::::::::::::
More on labels : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Colour, line width, and fill area in HPLOT : :
Information about histograms : : : : : : : :
Text drawing : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
The HIGZ graphics editor : : : : : : : : : :
Setting attributes
8 Distributed PAW
8.1
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
::::::::::::::::::::
ZFTP : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Access to remote files from a PAW session : : : : : : : : : :
Using PAW as a presenter on VMS systems (global section) :
Using PAW as a presenter on OS9 systems : : : : : : : : : :
TELNETG and 3270G
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
::
::
::
::
::
::
::
::
::
::
::
::
::
::
::
::
::
::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
246
247
248
249
251
251
255
258
258
258
259
259
261
262
269
273
273
274
275
276
278
280
280
282
288
289
293
298
309
310
310
314
314
316
317
viii
III
PAW - Reference section
9 KUIP
9.1
9.2
319
:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
KUIP/SET_SHOW : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
KUIP/ALIAS
321
325
327
10 MACRO
335
11 VECTOR
338
11.1 VECTOR/OPERATIONS
::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
12 HISTOGRAM
::::
HISTOGRAM/CREATE : : : : :
HISTOGRAM/HIO : : : : : : :
HISTOGRAM/OPERATIONS : :
HISTOGRAM/GET_VECT : : :
HISTOGRAM/PUT_VECT : : :
HISTOGRAM/SET : : : : : : :
12.1 HISTOGRAM/2D_PLOT
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.7
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
343
345
350
352
354
356
361
362
362
13 FUNCTION
365
14 NTUPLE
369
15 GRAPHICS
380
:::::
GRAPHICS/VIEWING : : :
GRAPHICS/PRIMITIVES :
GRAPHICS/ATTRIBUTES :
GRAPHICS/HPLOT : : : :
15.1 GRAPHICS/MISC
15.2
15.3
15.4
15.5
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
386
387
389
398
400
16 PICTURE
404
17 ZEBRA
409
17.1 ZEBRA/RZ
17.2 ZEBRA/FZ
17.3 ZEBRA/DZ
::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
409
411
411
18 FORTRAN
414
19 NETWORK
418
19.1 NETWORK/PIAF :
:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
418
ix
20 OBSOLETE
20.1 OBSOLETE/HISTOGRAM : : : : : :
20.1.1 OBSOLETE/HISTOGRAM/FIT
:::::::::::::::::::::::::::
:::::::::::::::::::::::::::
421
421
421
Bibliography
424
Index
425
x
List of Figures
:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
1.1
1.2
PAW’s fundamental objects
PAW and its components : :
2.1
2.2
PAW and PAW++ compared : : : : : : :
PAW entities and their related commands
4.1
4.2
Example of the PAW command tree structure :
Parameter types, default values, and range limits
::::::::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::::::::
7
9
19
27
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
:::::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::::
Example for option parameters : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
Addressing scheme for KUIP vectors : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
KUIP/Motif “Main Browser” Window : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
KXTERM (KUIP/Motif “Executive Window”) : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
New Panel of Commands : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Predefined Panel of Commands : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
208
213
217
218
5.1
Using numerical integration with SIGMA
::::::::::::::::::::::::
235
6.1
6.2
6.3
The layout of the /PAWC/ dynamic store : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Schematic presentation of the various steps in the data analysis chain
Writing data to HBOOK with the creation of a HBOOK RZ file : : :
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
6.12
6.13
6.14
::::::::::
::::::::::
::::::::::
Output generated by job HTEST : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Adding data to a HBOOK RZ file : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Reading a HBOOK direct access file : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Plot of one- and two-dimensional histograms : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Print and scan Ntuple elements : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Graphical definition of cuts : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Read and plot Ntuple elements : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Selection functions and different data presentations : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Example of a simple fit of a one-dimensional distribution : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Example of a fit using sub-ranges bins : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Example of a fit using a global double gaussian fit : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
7.1
7.2
7.3
HPLOT and HIGZ in PAW : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Visualising a HIGZ picture produced in a batch HPLOT program
A graphical view of the SET parameters : : : : : : : : : : : : :
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.10
6.11
7.4
7.5
:
:
:
Example of labelling for horizontal axes : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Example of labelling for vertical axes : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
::
::
::
::
::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
:::
170
172
175
175
176
191
239
241
242
242
244
245
246
248
253
256
257
264
267
268
273
281
287
288
290
xi
7.9
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.13
7.14
7.15
7.16
7.17
7.18
:::::::::::::::::::
:::::::::::::::::::
:::::::::::::::::::
:::::::::::::::::::
PostScript grey level simulation of the basic colours : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Text alignment : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Characters available in IGTEXT : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
PostScript fonts usage (1). : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
PostScript fonts usage (2). : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
PostScript text fonts. : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
PostScript characters (1). : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
PostScript characters (2). : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
The HIGZ graphics editor : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
296
297
301
303
305
305
306
307
308
309
8.1
8.2
8.3
The TELNETG program : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Visualise histograms in global section : : : : : : :
Visualising histograms on OS9 modules from PAW
:::::::::::::::::::
:::::::::::::::::::
:::::::::::::::::::
312
316
317
:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
25
7.6
7.7
7.8
:
:
:
HIGZ portable line types : : : : : :
Usage of fill area types in HPLOT
HIGZ portable hatch styles : : : :
HIGZ portable marker types : : :
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
292
295
296
List of Tables
2.1
Special symbols
4.1
4.2
Key-binding for recall style KSH
Key-binding for recall style DCL
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
:::
:::
Syntax for arithmetic expressions : :
Syntax for boolean expressions : : : :
Syntax for string expressions : : : : :
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
193
194
194
197
::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
228
List of statements possible inside KUIP macros
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
5.1
SIGMA functions
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
Syntax for specifying Ntuple variables : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Syntax of a selection function used with a Ntuple : : : : : : : :
Functions callable from PAW : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Comparison of results of fits for the double gaussian distribution
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
Parameters and default values for IGSET : : : : : : : : :
Parameters and default values for OPTION : : : : : : : :
Parameters and default values in SET : : : : : : : : : : :
Codification for the HIGZ portable fill area interior styles
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
181
182
::::::::::::
::::::::::::
::::::::::::
::::::::::::
249
250
254
266
::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::
::::::::::::::::
283
284
285
294
xii
Part I
PAW – Step by step
1
Chapter 1: A few words on PAW
1.1
A short history
Personal workstations equipped with a 1 Mbit bitmap display, a speed of several tens of MIPS, with
at least 20-30 Mbytes of main memory and 1 Gbyte of local disk space (e.g. DEC, HP-700, IBM
RS6000, Sun Sparc and Silicon Graphics workstations) are now widely available at an affordable price
for individual users. In order to exploit the full functionality of these workstations, at the beginning of
1986 the Physics Analysis Workstation project PAW was launched at CERN. The first public release
of the system was made at the beginning of 1988. At present the system runs on most of the computer
systems used in the High Energy Physics (HEP) community but its full functionality is best exploited on
personal workstations. In addition to its powerful data analysis, particular emphasis has been put on the
quality of the user interface and of the graphical presentation.
1.2
What is PAW?
PAW is an interactive utility for visualizing experimental data on a computer graphics display. It may
be run in batch mode if desired for very large data analyses; typically, however, the user will decide on
an analysis procedure interactively before running a batch job.
PAW combines a handful of CERN High Energy Physics Library systems that may also used individually
in software that processes and displays data. The purpose of PAW is to provide many common analysis and
display procedures that would be duplicated needlessly by individual programmers, to supply a flexible
way to invoke these common procedures, and yet also to allow user customization where necessary.
Thus, PAW’s strong point is that it provides quick access to many facilities in the CERN library. One of its
limitations is that these libraries were not designed from scratch to work together, so that a PAW user must
eventually become somewhat familiar with many dissimilar subsystems in order to make effective use
of PAW’s more complex capabilities. As PAW evolves in the direction of more sophisticated interactive
graphics interfaces and object-oriented interaction styles, the hope is that such limitations will gradually
become less visible to the user.
PAW is most effective when it is run on a powerful computer workstation with substantial memory, rapid
access to a large amount of disk storage, and graphics support such as a large color screen and a threebutton mouse. If the network traffic can be tolerated, PAW can be run remotely over the network from a
large, multiuser client machine to more economical servers such as an X-terminal. In case such facilities
are unavailable, substantial effort has been made to ensure that PAW can be used also in noninteractive
or batch mode from mainframes or minicomputers using text terminals.
1.3
What Can You Do with PAW?
PAW can do a wide variety of tasks relevant to analyzing and understanding physical data, which are
typically statistical distributions of measured events. Below we list what are probably the most frequent
and best-adapted applications of PAW; the list is not intended to be exhaustive, for it is obviously possible
to use PAW’s flexibility to do a huge number of things, some more difficult to achieve than others within
the given structure.
3
Chapter 1. A few words on PAW
4
Typical PAW Applications:
Plot a Vector of Data Fields for a List of Events.
A set of raw data is typically processed by
the user’s own software to give a set of physical quantities, such as momenta, energies, particle
identities, and so on, for each event. When this digested data is saved on a file as an Ntuple, it may
be read and manipulated directly from PAW. Options for plotting Ntuples include the following:
– One Variable. If a plot of a one variable from the data set is requested, a histogram showing
the statistical distribution of the values from all the events is automatically created. Individual
events are not plotted, but appear only as a contribution to the corresponding histogram bin.
– Two or Three Variables. If a plot of two or three variables from the data set is requested, no
histogram is created, but a 2D or 3D scatter plot showing a point or marker for each distinct
event is produced.
– Four Variables. If a plot of four variables is requested, a 3D scatter plot of the first three
variables is produced, and a color map is assigned to the fourth variable; the displayed color
of the individual data points in the 3D scatter plot indicates the approximate value of the
fourth variable.
– Vector Functions of Variables. PAW allows the user to define arbitrary vector functions of
the original variables in an Ntuple,
q and to plot those instead of the bare variables. Thus one
can easily plot something like (Px2 + Py2 ) if Px and Py are original variables in the data
without having to add a new data field to the Ntuple at the time of its creation.
– Selection Functions (Cuts). PAW does not require you to use every event in your data set.
Several methods are provided to define Boolean functions of the variables themselves that
pick out subsets of the events to be included in a plot.
– Plot presentation options. The PAW user can set a variety of options to customize the format
and appearance of the plots.
Histogram of a Vector of Variables for a List of Events.
Often one is more interested in the
statistical distribution of a vector of variables (or vector functions of the variables) than in the
variables themselves. PAW provides utilities for defining the desired limits and bin characteristics
of a histogram and accumulating the bin counts by scanning through a list of events. The following
are some of the features available for the creation of histograms:
– One Dimensional Histograms. Any single variable can be analyzed using a one-dimensional
histogram that shows how many events lie in each bin. This is basically equivalent to the
single-variable data plotting application except that it is easier to specify personalized features
of the display format. A variety of features allow the user to slice and project a 2D scatter
plot and make a 1D histogram from the resulting projection.
– Two-Dimensional Histograms. The distribution of any pair of variables for a set of events can
be accumulated into a 2D histogram and plotted in a various of ways to show the resulting
surface.
– Three-Dimensional Histograms. Will be supported soon.
– Vector Functions of Variables. User-defined functions of variables in each event can be used
to define the histogram, just as for an Ntuple plot.
1.4. A User’s View of PAW
5
– Selection Functions (Cuts). Events may also be included or excluded by invoking Boolean
selection functions that are arbitrary functions of the variables of a given event.
– Event Weights. PAW allows the user to include a multiplicative statistical bias for each event
which is a scalar function of the available variables. This permits the user to correct for
known statistical biases in the data when making histograms of event distributions.
– Histogram Presentation Options. Virtually every aspect of the appearance of a histogram can
be controlled by the user. Axis labels, tick marks, titles, colors, fonts, and so on, are specified
by a large family of options. A particular set of options may be thought of as a “style” for
presenting the data in a histogram; “styles” are in the process of becoming a formal part of
PAW to aid the user in making graphics that have a standard pleasing appearance.
Fit a Function to a Histogram. Once a histogram is defined, the user may fit the resulting shape
with one of a family of standard functions, or with a custom-designed function. The parameters of
the fit are returned in user-accessible form. Fitted functions of one variable may be attached to a 1D
histogram and plotted with it. The capability of associating fits to higher dimensional histograms
and overlaying their representations on the histogram is in the process of being added to PAW.
The fitting process in PAW is normally carried out by the MINUIT library. To user this package
effectively, users must typically supply data with reasonable numerical ranges and give reasonable
initial conditions for the fit before passing the task to the automated procedure.
Annotate and Print Graphics. A typical objective of a PAW user is to examine, manipulate, and
display the properties of a body of experimental data, and then to prepare a graph of the results for
use in a report, presentation, or publication. PAW includes for convenience a family of graphics
primitives and procedures that may be used to annotate and customize graphics for such purposes.
In addition, any graphics display presented on the screen can be converted to a PostScript file for
black-and-white or color printing, or for direct inclusion in a manuscript.
1.4
A User’s View of PAW
In order to take advantage of PAW, the user must first have an understanding of its basic structure. Below
we explain the fundamental ways in which PAW and the user interact.
Intialization. PAW may be invoked in a variety of ways, depending on the user’s specific computer
system; these are described in the following chapter. As PAW starts, it prompts the user to select an interaction mode (or non-interactive mode) and window size and type (if interactive). The available window
sizes and positions are specified in the user file "higz_windows.dat". User-specific intializations are
specified in the file "pawlogon.kumac".
Text Interface. The most basic interface is the KUIP text interface. KUIP provides a basic syntax
for commands that are parsed and passed on to the PAW application routines to perform specific tasks.
Among the basic features of KUIP with which the user interacts are the following:
Command Entry. Any unique partially entered command is interpreted as a fully entered command.
KUIP responds to an ambiguous command by listing the possible alternatives. On Unix systems,
individual command lines can be edited in place using individual control keystrokes similar to
those of the emacs editor, or the bash or tcsh Unix command shells.
On other systems, a
command line that is in error can only be revised after it is entered, using an “ed” style text line
editing language.
Chapter 1. A few words on PAW
6
Parameters. Parameters are entered after the basic command on the same line and are separated by
spaces, so algebraic expressions may not have embedded blanks. An exclamation point (!) can
be used to keep the default parameters in a sequence when only a later parameter is being changed.
If an underscore (_) is the last character on a line, the command may be continued on the next
line; no spaces are allowed in the middle of continued parameter fields.
Command History. A command history is kept both in memory for interactive inspection and on
a disk file. The command history file can be recovered and used to reconstruct a set of actions
carried out interactively.
On-Line Assistance. The "usage" and "help" commands can be used to get a short or verbose
description of parameters and features of any command.
Aliases. Allow the abbreviation of partial or complete command sequences.
Macros. A text file containing PAW commands and flow control statements.
KUIP/MOTIF Interface. If the user’s workstation supports the X-window MOTIF graphics management system, PAW can be started in the KUIP/MOTIF mode. A small text panel and a command history
panel keep track of individual actions and permit entry and recall of typed commands similar to the Text
Interface mode. Other basic features of this interface include the following:
Pull-Down Menu Commands. Each PAW command that can be typed as a text command has a
corresponding item in a hierarchy of pull-down menus at the top of the MOTIF panel. Commands
that require arguments cause a parameter-entry dialog box to appear; when the arguments are
entered, the command is executed as though typed from the text interface.
Action Panel. A user may have a family of frequently executed macros or commands assigned to
specific buttons on the action panel.
Graphics Output Window. The graphics image produced by PAW commands, regardless of the
command interface, appears on a separate graphics output window. The actual size and position of this
window on the screen is controlled by a list of numbers of the form x-upper-left y-upper-left
x-width y-height in the user file higz_windows.dat. The width and height of the drawing area
within this window are subject to additional user control, and the user can specify “zones,” which are
essentially ways of dividing the window into panes to allow simultaneous display of more than one plot.
Some facilities are available in the current version of PAW to use the mouse to retrieve data such as the
height of a histogram bin. Applications currently under development will extend this style of interaction.
1.5
Fundamental Objects of PAW
PAW is implicitly based on a family of fundamental objects (see figure 1.1 on the facing page). Each
PAW command performs an action that either produces another object or produces a “side-effect” such as
a printed message or graphics display that is not saved anywhere as a data structure. Some commands do
both, and some may or may not produce a PAW data structure depending on the settings of global PAW
parameters. In this section, we describe the basic objects that the user needs to keep in mind when dealing
with PAW. The reader should perhaps note that the PAW text commands themselves do not necessarily
reflect the nature of PAW objects as clearly as they might, while the MOTIF interactive graphics interface
currently in development in fact displays distinct icons for most of the object types listed below.
1.5. Fundamental Objects of PAW
7
Data Analysis - Data Presentation
Data
Vectors
1D
2D
3D
Histograms
1D
2D
Ntuples
Analysis
Fitting
3D
RWN
CWN
Presentation
1D, 2D, and 3D Plots
Smoothing
Array Manipulation
FORTRAN Interpreter
Cuts
Projections
ASCII
RZ
pawtut01 (21/09/93)
Figure 1.1: PAW’s fundamental objects
Objects:
Ntuples.
An Ntuple is the basic type of data used in PAW. It consists of a list of identical data
structures, one for each event. Typically, an Ntuple is made available to PAW by opening a
ZEBRA file; this file, as created by HBOOK, contains one or more Ntuples and possibly also
ZEBRA logical directories, which may store a hierarchy of Ntuples. A storage area for an Ntuple
may be created directly using ntuple/create; data may then be stored in the allocated space
using the ntuple/loop or ntuple/read commands. Other commands merge Ntuples into larger
Ntuples, project vector functions of the Ntuple variables into histograms, and plot selected subsets
of events.
Cuts. A cut is a Boolean function of Ntuple variables. Cuts are used to select subsets of events in
an Ntuple when creating histograms and ploting variables.
Masks. Masks are separate files that are logically identical to a set of boolean variables added on
the end of an Ntuple’s data structure. A mask is constructed using the Boolean result of applying
a cut to an event set. A mask is useful only for efficiency; the effect of a mask is identical to that
of the cut that produced it.
1D Histograms. A histogram is the basic statistical analysis tool of PAW. Histograms are created
(“booked”) by choosing the basic characteristics of their bins, variables, and perhaps customized
display parameters; numbers are entered into the histogram bins from an Ntuple (the histogram is
“filled”) by selecting the desired events, weights, and variable transformations to be used while
counts are accumulated in the bins. Functional forms are frequently fit to the resulting histograms
Chapter 1. A few words on PAW
8
and stored with them. Thus a fit as an object is normally associated directly with a histogram,
although it may be considered separately.
2D Histograms. 2D (and higher-dimensional) histograms are logical generalizations of 1D his-
tograms. 2D histograms, for example, are viewable as the result of counting the points in a the
sections of a rectangular grid overlaid on a scatter plot of two variables. Higher-dimensional
histograms can also be fitted, and support for associating the results of a fit to a higher-dimensional
histogram is currently being incorporated in PAW.
Styles. A “style” is a set of variables that control the appearance of PAW plots. Commands of
the form igset parameter value determine fundamental characteristics of lines, axis format,
text, and so on. Commands of the form option attribute choose particular plotting options
such as logarithmic/linear, bar-chart/scatter-plot, and statistics display. Commands of the form
set parameter value control a vast set of numerical format parameters used to control plotting.
While the “style” object will eventually become a formal part of PAW, a “style” can be constructed
by the user in the form of a macro file that resets all parameters back to their defaults and then sets
the desired customizations.
Metafile. In normal interactive usage, images created on the screen correspond to no persistent
data structure. If one wishes to create a savable graphics object, the user establishes a metafile;
as a graphics image is being drawn, each command is then saved in a text file in coded form that
allows the image to be duplicated by other systems. PostScript format metafiles are especially
useful because they can be directly printed on most printers; furthermore, the printed quality of
graphics objects such as fonts can be of much higher quality than the original screen image.
Pictures.
Metafiles describing very complex graphics objects can be extremely lengthy, and
therefore inefficient in terms of storage and the time needed to redraw the image. A picture is an
exact copy of the screen image, and so its storage and redisplay time are independent of complexity.
On the other hand, a printed picture object will never be of higher quality than the original screen
image.
ZEBRA(RZ) Logical Directories.
In a single PAW session, the user may work simultaneously
with many Ntuples, histograms, and hierarchies of Ntuple and histograms. However, this is not
accomplished using the native operating system’s file handler. Instead, the user works with a set
of objects that are similar to a file system, but are instead managed by the ZEBRA RZ package.
This can be somewhat confusing because a single operating system file created by RZ can contain
an entire hierarchy of ZEBRA logical directories; furthermore, sections of internal memory can
also be organized as ZEBRA logical directories to receive newly-created PAW objects that are
not written to files. A set of commands CDIR, LDIR, and MDIR are the basic utilities for walking
through a set of ZEBRA logical directories of PAW objects; Each set of directories contained in
an actual file corresponds to a logical unit number, and the root of the tree is usually of the form
//LUNx; the PAW objects and logical directories stored in internal memory have the root //PAWC.
Operating System File Directories. Many different ZEBRA files, some with logically equivalent
Ntuples and histograms, can be arranged in the user’s operating system file directories. Thus one
must also keep clearly in mind the operating system file directories and their correspondence to
the ZEBRA logical directories containing data that one wishes to work with. In many ways, the
operating system file system is also a type of “object” that forms an essential part of the user’s
mental picture of the system.
1.6. The Component Subsystems of PAW
1.6
9
The Component Subsystems of PAW
The PAW system combines different tools and packages, which can also be used independently and some
of which have already a long history behind them (e.g. HBOOK and HPLOT, SIGMA, Minuit). Figure
1.2 shows the various components of PAW.
PAW
HPLOT
The Plotting Package
KUIP
MINUIT
User Interface
Minimization Package
Command Processor
Menu Dialogue
HIGZ
Motif Interface
The Graphics Package:
SIGMA
basic graphics and
HBOOK
graphics editor for
Histogramming
pictures in data base
N-Tuples
Arrays Manipulation
X-Window
GKS, DI3000, PHIGS
MCIntosh, IBM PC etc ...
Statistical Analysis
ZEBRA
COMIS
Data Structure Manager
FORTRAN Interpreter
Input/Output Server
Data Base Manager
ZEBRA FILES
ZEBRA MEMORY
pawtut00 (21/09/93)
Figure 1.2: PAW and its components
Chapter 1. A few words on PAW
10
1.6.1
KUIP - The user interface package
The purpose of KUIP (Kit for a User Interface Package) is to handle the dialogue between the user and
the application program (PAW in our case). It parses the commands input into the system, verifies them
for correctness and then hands over control to the relevant action routines.
The syntax for the commands accepted by KUIP is specified using a Command Definition File (CDF)
and the information provided is stored in a ZEBRA data structure, which is accessed not only during the
parsing stage of the command but also when the user invokes the online help command. Commands
are grouped in a tree structure and they can be abbreviated to their shortest unambiguous form. If an
ambiguous command is typed, then KUIP responds by showing all the possibilities. Aliases allow the
user to abbreviate part or the whole of commonly used command and parameters. A sequence of PAW
commands can be stored in a text file and, combined with flow control statements, form a powerful macro
facility. With the help of parameters, whose values can be passed to the macros, general and adaptable
task solving procedures can be developed.
Different styles of dialogue (command and various menu modes) are available and the user can switch
between them at any time. In order to save typing, default values, providing reasonable settings, can
be used for most parameters of a command. A history file, containing the n most recently entered
commands, is automatically kept by KUIP and can be inspected, copied or re-entered at any time. The
history file of the last PAW session is also kept on disk.
1.6.2
HBOOK and HPLOT - The histograming and plotting packages
HBOOK and its graphics interface HPLOT are libraries of FORTRAN callable subroutines which have
been in use for many years. They provide the following functionality:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
One- and two-dimensional histograms and Ntuples
Projections and slices of two-dimensional histograms and Ntuples
Complete control (input and output) of the histogram contents
Operations and comparison of histograms
Minimization and parameterization tools
Random number generation
Histograms and Ntuples structured in memory (directories)
Histograms and Ntuples saved onto direct access ZEBRA files
Wide range of graphics options:
–
–
–
–
–
1.6.3
Normal contour histograms, bar chart, shaded histograms, error bars, colour
Smoothed curves and surfaces
Scatter, lego, contour and surface plots
Automatic windowing
Graphics input
HIGZ - The graphics interface package
A High level Interface to Graphics and ZEBRA (HIGZ) has been developed within the PAW project.
This package is a layer between the application program (e.g. PAW) and the basic graphics package (e.g.
GKS) on a given system. Its basic aims are:
1.6. The Component Subsystems of PAW
–
–
–
–
11
Full transportability of the picture data base.
Easy manipulation of the picture elements.
Compactness of the data to be transported and accessibility of the pictures in direct access mode.
Independence of the underlying basic graphics package. Presently HIGZ is interfaced with several
GKS packages, X windows, GL (Silicon Graphics), GDDM (IBM), GPR and GMR3D (Apollo)
as well as with the DI3000 system.
These requirements have been incorporated into HIGZ by exploiting the data management system ZEBRA.
The implementation of HIGZ was deliberately chosen to be close to GKS. HIGZ does not introduce new
basic graphics features, but introduces some macroprimitives for frequently used functions (e.g. arcs,
axes, boxes, pie-charts, tables). The system provides the following features:
– Basic graphics functions, interfaced to the local graphics package, but with calling sequences nearly
identical to those of GKS.
– Higher-level macroprimitives.
– Data structure management using an interface to the ZEBRA system.
– Interactive picture editing.
These features, which are available simultaneously, are particularly useful during an interactive session, as
the user is able to “replay” and edit previously created pictures, without the need to re-run the application
program. A direct interface to PostScript is also available.
1.6.4
ZEBRA - The data structure management system
The data structure management package ZEBRA was developed at CERN in order to overcome the
lack of dynamic data structure facilities in FORTRAN, the favourite computer language in high energy
physics. It implements the dynamic creation and modification of data structures at execution time and
their transport to and from external media on the same or different computers, memory to memory, to
disk or over the network, at an insignificant cost in terms of execution-time overheads.
ZEBRA manages any type of structure, but specifically supports linear structures (lists) and trees. ZEBRA
input/output is either of a sequential or direct access type. Two data representations, native (no data
conversion when transferred to/from the external medium) and exchange (a conversion to an interchange
format is made), allow data to be transported between computers of the same and of different architectures.
The direct access package RZ can be used to manage hierarchical data bases. In PAW this facility is
exploited to store histograms and pictures in a hierarchical direct access directory structure.
1.6.5
MINUIT - Function minimization and error analysis
MINUIT is a tool to find the minima of a multi-parameter function and analyse the shape around
the minimum. It can be used for statistical analysis of curve fitting, working on a 2 or log-likelihood
function, to compute the best fit parameter values, their uncertainties and correlations. Guidance can be
provided in order to find the correct solution, parameters can be kept fixed and data points can be easily
added or removed from the fit.
Chapter 1. A few words on PAW
12
1.6.6
COMIS - The FORTRAN interpreter
The COMIS interpreter allows the user to execute interactively a set of FORTRAN routines in interpretive
mode. The interpreter implements a large subset of the complete FORTRAN language. It is an extremely
important tool because it allows the user to specify his own complex data analysis procedures, for example
selection criteria or a minimisation function.
1.6.7
SIGMA - The array manipulation language
A scientific computing programming language SIGMA (System for Interactive Graphical Mathematical
Applications), which was designed essentially for mathematicians and theoretical physicists and has been
in use at CERN for over 10 years, has been integrated into PAW. Its main characteristics are:
– The basic data units are scalars and one or more dimensional rectangular arrays, which are automatically handled.
– The computational operators resemble those of FORTRAN.
1.7
A PAW Glossary
Data Analysis Terminology
DST
Ntuple
Event
Variable
Cut
A “Data Summary Tape” is one basic form of output from a typical physics experiment. A
DST is generally not used directly by PAW, but is analyzed by customized user programs
to produce Ntuple files, which PAW can read directly.
A list of identical data structures, each typically corresponding to a single experimental
event. The data structures themselves frequently consist of a row of numbers, so that
many Ntuples may be viewed as two-dimensional arrays of data variables, with one index
of the array describing the position of the data structure in the list (i.e., the row or event
number), and the other index referring to the position of the data variable in the row (i.e.,
the column or variable number). A meaningful name is customarily assigned to each
column that describes the variable contained in that column for each event. However, the
underlying utilities dealing with Ntuples are currently being generalized to allow the name
of an element of the data structure to refer not only to a single number, but also to more
general data types such as arrays, strings, and so on. Thus it is more general to view an
Ntuple as a sequence of tree-structured data, with names assigned to the top-level roots of
the tree for each event.
A single instance of a set of data or experimental measurements, usually consisting of a
sequence of variables or structures of variables resulting from a partial analysis of the raw
data. In PAW applications, one typically examines the statistical characteristics of large
sequences of similar events.
One of a user-defined set of named values associated with a single event in an Ntuple.
For example, the (x y z ) values of a momentum vector could each be variables for a
given event. Variables are typically useful experimental quantities that are stored in an
Ntuple; they are used in algebraic formulas to define boolean cut criteria or other dependent
variables that are relevant to the analysis.
A boolean-valued function of the variables of a given event. Such functions allow the user
to specify that only events meeting certain criteria are to be included in a given distribution.
1.7. A PAW Glossary
Mask
Function
13
A set of columns of zeros and ones that is identical in form to a new set of Ntuple variables.
A mask is typically used to save the results of applying a set of cuts to a large set of events
so that time-consuming selection computations are not repeated needlessly.
Sequence of one or more statements with a FORTRAN-like syntax entered on the command
line or via an external file.
Statistical Analysis Terminology
Histogram
Booking
Filling
Fitting
Projection
Band
Slice
Weight
A one- or two-dimensional array of data, generated by HBOOK in batch or in a PAW
session. Histograms are (implicitly or explicitly) declared (booked); they can be filled by
explicit entry of data or can be derived from other histograms. The information stored
with a histogram includes a title, binning and packing definitions, bin contents and errors,
statistic values, possibly an associated function vector, and output attributes. Some of these
items are optional. The ensemble of this information constitutes an histogram.
The operation of declaring (creating) an histogram.
The operation of entering data values into a given histogram.
Least squares and maximum likelihood fits of parametric functions to histograms and
vectors.
The operation of projecting two-dimensional distributions onto either or both axes.
A band is a projection onto the X (or Y) axis restricted to an interval along the other Y (or
X) axis.
A slice is a projection onto the X (or Y) axis restricted to one bin along the other Y (or X)
axis. Hence a slice is a special case of a band, with the interval limited to one bin.
PAW allows the user to include a multiplicative statistical bias for each event which is
a scalar function of the available variables. This permits the user to correct for known
statistical biases in the data when making histograms of event distributions.
KUIP/ZEBRA User Environment Terminology
Macro
A text file containing PAW commands and logical constructs to control the flow of execution. Parameters can be supplied when calling a macro.
Vector
The equivalent of a FORTRAN array supporting up to three dimensions. The elements
of a vector can be stored using a real or an integer representation; they can be entered
interactively on a terminal or read from an external file.
Logical Directory The ZEBRA data storage system resembles a file system organized as logical directories. PAW maintains a global variable corresponding to the “current directory” where
PAW applications will look for PAW objects such as histograms. The ZEBRA directory
structure is a tree, and user functions permit the “current directory” to be set anywhere in
the current tree, as well as creating new “directories” where the results of PAW actions can
be stored. A special directory called //PAWC corresponds to a memory-resident branch of
this virtual file system. ZEBRA files may be written to the operating system file system, but
entire hierarchies of ZEBRA directories typically are contained in a single binary operating
system file.
Chapter 1. A few words on PAW
14
Graphics Production Terminology
GKS
Metafile
Picture
PostScript
The Graphical Kernel System is ISO standard document ISO 8805. It defines a common
interface to interactive computer graphics for application programs.
A file containing graphical information stored in a device independent format, which can
be replayed on various types of output devices. (e.g. the GKS Appendix E metafile and
PostScript, both used at CERN).
A graphics object composed of graphics primitives and attributes. Pictures are generated
by the HIGZ graphics interface and they can be stored in a picture direct-access database,
built with the RZ-package of the data structure manager ZEBRA.
A high level page description language permitting the description of complex text and
graphics using only text commands. Using PostScript representations of graphics makes
it possible to create graphics files that can be exchanged with other users and printed on
a wide variety of printers without regard to the computer system upon which the graphics
were produced. Any graphics display produced by PAW can be expressed in terms of
PostScript, written to a file, and printed.
Chapter 2: General principles
2.1
Access to PAW
At CERN the PAW program is interfaced on all systems via a command procedure which gives access
to the three release levels of the CERN Program Library (PROduction, OLD and the NEW areas) and sets
the proper environment if necessary. Users who are not at CERN or who are using non-central computer
systems should contact their system administrator for help on PAW.
2.1.1
IBM/VM-CMS
There are three versions available:
GKS
GDDM
X11
For any ASCII graphic terminal capable of emulating Tektronix or PG.
For IBM 3192G graphic terminals or its emulators (e.g. tn3270 on a Mac-II)
For any X-window display connected to VM
You need a machine size of at least 7 Mb, that may be defined either temporarily for the current session
(command DEFINE STORAGE 7M followed by an IPL CMS) or permanently for all subsequent sessions
(command DIRM STOR 7M; you need to logoff once to make the definition effective).
An interface Rexx exec file PAW EXEC is located on the Q-disk and has the following interface:
PAW ( ver driver
The first parameter ver can have the values PRO, NEW and OLD and the second parameter driver the
values GKS, GDDM or X11. The defaults are: PRO GKS. Help is available via FIND CMS PAW.
2.1.2
VAX/VMS
There are two versions available on VXCERN: GKS and X11. A command file CERN_ROOT:EXE]PAW.COM
is defined system-wide via the logical symbol PAW; its interface is:
PAW/ver/driver
(default is PRO GKS). You may set the initialization of PAW either as a PAWLOGON.KUMAC located in your
home directory, or through the logical symbol DEFINE PAW$LOGON disk:user.subdir]file.kumac
to be defined usually in your LOGIN.COM. Help is available via HELP @CERNLIB PAW.
2.1.3
Unix systems
There are three versions available: GKS, GPR and X11. The driver shell script is located in the file
/cern/pro/bin/paw . In order to access it automatically you could add the directory /cern/pro/bin
to your command search path. The command syntax is:
paw -v ver -d driver
(default is -v PRO -d GKS). In the GKS case this shell script sets the proper GKS environment.
15
Chapter 2. General principles
16
2.1.4
Note on the X11 version
The X11 version needs to know the X-host where graphics must be displayed; this can be specified on
each system on the command line:
VM/CMS:
Vax/VMS:
Unix:
PAW ( X11 HOST yourhost
PAW/X11/host=yourhost
paw -d X11 -h yourhost
or at the “Workstation” prompt in PAW: Workstation type (?=HELP) CR]=1 : 1.yourhost
On Vax/VMS the default X-window protocol is TCP/IP. If you want DECNET (e.g. when running from
a Vaxstation) add the DECNET option to the command as follows:
PAW/X11/DECNET/host=yourhost
If yourhost is not specified, the output is redirected (like for all X11 applications) to the display defined
via the environment variable DISPLAY.
The workstation type selects which type of workstation has to be opened. It corresponds to a line number
in a file higz_windows.dat (HIGZWIN DATA on IBM/VM machines). PAW tries to open this file in your
current working directory. If it does not succeed it tries in your HOME directory. If it doesn’t succeed
once more, it creates the file in your HOME directory as follows:
0000 0000 0600 0600
.
.
.
0000 0000 0600 0600
where the lines define each of the workstation types (from 1 to 10) with the x-margin (left), y-margin
(top), x-size (width) and y-size (height) of the corresponding window in pixels.
2.1.5
Different modes to start PAW
– A batch version of PAW is available (note that batch implies workstation type 0):
On Unix
On VMS
On VM
do:
do:
do:
paw -b macroname
PAW/BATCH=macroname
PAW (BATCH=macroname
– One can disable the automatic execution of the PAWLOGON macro:
On Unix
On VMS
On VM
do:
do:
do:
paw -n
PAW/NOLOG
PAW (NOLOG
2.2. Initialising PAW
2.2
17
Initialising PAW
When PAW is started, a system startup procedure is initiated, which indicates the current version of PAW
and requests the workstation type of the terminal or workstation which you are using.
$ PAW
******************************************************
*
*
*
W E L C O M E
to
P A W
*
*
*
*
Version 2.03/12 17 September 1993
*
*
*
******************************************************
Workstation type (?=HELP) <CR>=1 : ?
List of valid workstation types:
0: Alphanumeric terminal
1-10: Describe in file higz_windows.dat
n.host: Open the display on host (1 < n < 10)
7878: FALCO terminal
7879: xterm
Note that if you specify 0, PAW will not open a graphics workstation. This may be appropriate if one
wants to use PAW on an alphanumeric terminal.
Before passing control to the user, the system looks for a user-supplied file pawlogon.kumac or PAWLOGON
KUMAC (VM/CMS). The latter can contain commands which the user wants to be executed at PAW startup,
e.g. declaration of files, creation of aliases, definition of HPLOT parameters. A simple version of this
PAW initialisation file, displaying date and time, can be:
mess
mess
mess
mess
mess
'******************************************************'
'*
*'
'*
Starting PAW session on '//$date//' at '//$time//'
'*
*'
'******************************************************'
*'
In order to only have one version of this file on VAX/VMS the user should define a logical name
PAW$LOGON in his LOGIN.COM, as explained on the previous page. On a Unix workstation the file
pawlogon.kumac, should be put into the directory. On IBM/VM-CMS the minidisk file search rule
takes care of finding the file.
Chapter 2. General principles
18
2.3
PAW++
Motif based Graphical User Interface to the popular Physics Analysis
PAW++ is a new and powerful OSF/
Workstation PAW. The graphical user interface makes the full and rich command set of PAW available
to even the naive user. Simple point and click operations are enough to execute commands that were
previously accessable only to expert users. Figure 2.1 on the next page compares the functionalities of
basic PAW with PAW++.
At present it is released on Unix workstations and VAX/VMS.
PAW++ has, in addition to the conventional command line and macro types of interface, the following
dialogue modes:
Pull Down menus
Command panels
Object Browser
They are useful to understand the command structure of the PAW system.
They give a “panel representation” of the commands.
This is in many ways similar to the well-known browsers in the PC/MAC
utilities or the visual tools on some workstations.
Direct graphics
One can click in the graphics area and identify automatically which object
has been selected. A pop-up menu appears with a list of possible actions
on this object. For example, by clicking with the right mouse button on a
histogram, one can make directly a gaussian fit, a smoothing etc. Pop-up
menus are available by clicking on the Graphics Window to automatically
produce PostScript, Encapsulated PostScript, LATEX files or print the picture on
your local printer.
Histogram Style Panel Buttons are available to change histogram attributes, colours, line styles, fonts,
and axes representation. 2-D histograms can be rotated interactively. Zooming
and rebinning can be performed interactivaly in real time.
Ntuple Viewer
Just click on the Ntuple column name to histogram the column.
The new system is largely self-explanatory. Only a subset of PAW has been converted to this new user
interface, but work is currently in progress to offer many new facilities in future releases.
On all system on which the CERNLIB is installed, it is enough to type paw++ to enter the system.
PAW++ starts up with three windows on the screen:
The “PAW++ “Executive Window”” Which is compose with a menu bar, a Transcript Pad, a current
working directory indicator and an Input Pad.
window displays the graphics output from HIGZ/X11. Objects,
The “PAW++ Graphics 1”
e.g. histograms, displayed in the Graphics Window can be
manipulated by pointing at them, pressing the right mouse button
and selecting an operation from the popup menu. Pointing at
the edge of the Graphics Window (between displayed object
and window border) brings up a general popup menu. Up to 4
additional Graphics Window can be opened by selecting “Open
New Window” from this menu.
The “PAW++ “Main Browser””
displays all browsable classes and connected hbook files. Up to
4 additional browsers can be opened via the “View” menu of the
“PAW++ “Executive Window”” or via the “Clone” button on the
browsers. For more information on the browsers see the “Help”
menus.
2.3. PAW++
19
Basic PAW and PAW++
PAW++
Basic PAW
Command line interface and macros via KUIP.
Histogram Presenter.
Operations on histograms, fits,etc.
Arrays: Manipulation and Drawing.
Plotting of mathematical expressions.
Basic, and high level graphics.
Ntuple selection and histograming.
Fortran Interpreter: COMIS.
MOTIF interface.
Class/Object Browsers.
Direct Graphics Manipulation.
Ntuple viewer.
Histogram style panel.
pawtut02 (21/09/93)
Figure 2.1: PAW and PAW++ compared
Chapter 2. General principles
20
2.3.1
Overview of PAW++
– The upper left corner is the PAW++ “Executive Window”, with its Input Pad at the bottom and
the Transcript Pad at the top.
– The PAW++ Browser, where the various entities (pictures, 1-D and 2-D histograms and Ntuples)
are all defined with their own symbol, is shown bottom left. A “pop-up” menu has been activated
for the chosen 1-D histogram. Several actions like Plot, Smooth, Fit etc... can be performed via
this menu.
– The Graphics Window is seen top right. A 1-D view of the data points and two 2-D views (a
Surface-plot and a colored contour plot) are shown. On the 1-D view, two 1-D histograms are
superimposed. The results of a “smoothing” type of fit to the data points is also drawn. Information
about the data and the fit can be found in the inserted window.
– The Histogram Style Panel at the lower right allows graphics attributes of the histogram to be
controlled.
2.3. PAW++
21
– The upper left corner shows the Ntuple Viewer. The left window shows the name of the various
variables, characterizing the selected Ntuple. Other windows and press-buttons specify which
combinations of the various variables and which events have to be treated (plotted, scanned, : : : ).
– The lower left contains the PAW++ Browser, with this time an Ntuple selected. A double on a
Ntuple icon open automatically the Ntuple Viewer on the active Ntuple.
– The Graphics Window is seen top right and shows a 3-D view of the combination of three
variables, whose cuts are specified with the Cut Editor (see below).
– Direct graphics interactions with Ntuple data are possible. Just by clicking on a point in the
Graphics Window, the event description is displayed in the PAW++ Locate window.
– The Cut Editor panel, shown at the lower right, allows various combinations of cuts to be specified
and applied.
Chapter 2. General principles
22
2.4
Command structure
PAW is based on the KUIP[5] User Interface package, which can provide different types of dialogue
styles:
– Command mode, where the user enters a command line via the terminal keyboard.
– Alphanumeric menu mode, where the command is selected from a list.
– Graphics menu modes:
Pull-down menus, fixed layout reflecting the command structure;
Panels of function keys, interactive user definable multiple layouts.
It is possible to change interactively from one style to another.
The general format of a PAW command line is:
command parameters
The first part of the command has the format:
object/verb
where the object is the item on which the action is performed (e.g. HISTOGRAM, VECTOR, NTUPLE) and
the verb is the action to be performed (e.g. CREATE, DELETE, PLOT). In some cases the object needs
to be specified further (e.g. GRAPHICS/PRIMITIVE), while in other cases the verb’s action needs to be
clarified further (e.g. CREATE/1D). All components can be abbreviated to their shortest unambiguous
form. For example the two following lines will have the same effect of creating a vector A with nine
components:
VECTOR/CREATE A(9)
or
VE/CR A(9)
In the case that the form is ambiguous all possible interpretations for the given abbreviation are displayed.
The second part of a command are its parameters and their meaning is determined by their position.
Some of these can be mandatory with the remaining ones optional. If all mandatory parameters are not
provided on the command line, PAW will prompt the user to specify them, indicating the default values if
defined. If the user wants to assign the default value to a parameter from the command line he can use the
place-holder character exclamation mark (!) to signify this to PAW. In the case of optional parameters,
the user must provide them in the correct sequence if he wants to change their values, otherwise the
corresponding defaults are taken. Parameters containing blanks must be enclosed within single quotes.
In the example below we create a one-dimensional histogram, providing the parameters one by one
answering the PAW query:
PAW > histogram/create/1dhisto
Histogram Identifier (<CR>= ): 10
Histogram title (<CR>= ): title1
Number of channels (<CR>=100): <CR>
Low edge (<CR>=0): 10.
Upper edge (<CR>=100): 20.
2.5. Getting help
23
On the command below we provide all parameters on the command line, including an optional one
(1000.), which by default has the value 0. Note that this parameter must be specified explicitly, since
PAW does not prompt for it, as seen in the previous example. Note also the use of the exclamation mark
to take the default for the number of channels (100).
PAW > hi/cr/1d 20 title2 ! 10. 20. 1000.
2.5
Getting help
Once inside PAW, one can start entering commands. An interesting first try would be the HELP command,
which displays a list of items, preceded by a number and followed by one line of explanation. In the next
example we search for a command to create a one-dimensional histogram.
PAW > help
From
/...
1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
7:
8:
9:
10:
KUIP
MACRO
VECTOR
HISTOGRAM
FUNCTION
NTUPLE
GRAPHICS
PICTURE
ZEBRA
FORTRAN
11:
12:
NETWORK
OBSOLETE
Command Processor commands.
Macro Processor commands.
Vector Processor commands.
Manipulation of histograms, Ntuples.
Operations with Functions. Creation and plotting.
Ntuple creation and related operations.
Interface to the graphics packages HPLOT and HIGZ.
Creation and manipulation of HIGZ pictures.
Interfaces to the ZEBRA RZ, FZ and DZ packages.
Interface to MINUIT, COMIS, SIGMA and FORTRAN
Input/Output.
To access files on remote computers.
Obsolete commands.
Enter a number ('Q'=command mode): 4
/HISTOGRAM
Manipulation of histograms, Ntuples.
From
/HISTOGRAM/...
1: * FILE
2: * LIST
3: * DELETE
4: * PLOT
5: * ZOOM
6:
7:
8:
9:
10:
11:
12:
13:
14:
15:
16:
*
*
*
*
Interface to the HBOOK package.
MANY_PLOTS
PROJECT
COPY
FIT
2D_PLOT
CREATE
HIO
OPERATIONS
GET_VECT
PUT_VECT
SET
Open an HBOOK direct access file.
List histograms and Ntuples in the current directory.
Delete histogram/Ntuple ID in Current Directory
(memory).
Plot a single histogram or a 2-Dim projection.
Plot a single histogram between channels ICMIN and
ICMAX.
Plot one or several histograms into the same plot.
Fill all booked projections of a 2-Dim histogram.
Copy a histogram (not Ntuple) onto another one.
Fit a user defined (and parameter dependent) function
to a histogram ID (1-Dim or 2-Dim) in the specified
range.
Plotting of 2-Dim histograms in various formats.
Creation ("booking") of HBOOK objects in memory.
Input/Output operations of histograms.
Histogram operations and comparisons.
Fill a vector from values stored in HBOOK objects.
Replace histogram contents with values in a vector.
Set histogram attributes.
Enter a number ('
=one level back, 'Q'=command mode): 11
Chapter 2. General principles
24
/HISTOGRAM/CREATE
Creation ("booking") of HBOOK objects in memory.
From
/HISTOGRAM/CREATE/...
1:
2:
3:
4:
5:
6:
7:
8:
9:
10:
11:
1DHISTO
PROFILE
BINS
2DHISTO
PROX
PROY
SLIX
SLIY
BANX
BANY
TITLE_GLOBAL
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
Create a one dimensional histogram.
Create a profile histogram.
Create a histogram with variable size bins.
Create a two dimensional histogram.
Create the projection onto the x axis.
Create the projection onto the y axis.
Create projections onto the x axis, in y-slices.
Create projections onto the y axis, in x-slices.
Create a projection onto the x axis, in a band of y.
Create a projection onto the y axis, in a band of x.
Set the global title.
Enter a number ('
=one level back, 'Q'=command mode): 1
* /HISTOGRAM/CREATE/1DHISTO
ID
TITLE
NCX
XMIN
XMAX
VALMAX
C
C
I
R
R
R
ID TITLE NCX XMIN XMAX VALMAX ]
'Histogram Identifier' Loop
'Histogram title' D=' '
'Number of channels' D=100
'Low edge' D=0.
'Upper edge' D=100.
'Maximum bin content' D=0.
Create a one dimensional histogram. The contents are set to zero. If
VALMAX=0, then a full word is allocated per channel, else VALMAX is used
as the maximum bin content allowing several channels to be stored into
the same machine word.
<CR>=continue, 'Q'=command mode, 'X'=execute: q
The meaning of the notation used in the text displayed by the HELP command is explained on page III.
Moreover an item preceded by a star indicates a terminal leaf in the command tree, i.e. an executable
command (see on Page ?? for more details).
One can also inquire about creating a one-dimensional histogram by typing simply:
HELP histogram/create/1dhisto
or
HELP his/cre/1d
or even
HELP 1
The system will then display the following information:
* /HISTOGRAM/CREATE/1DHISTO
ID
TITLE
NCX
XMIN
XMAX
VALMAX
C
C
I
R
R
R
ID TITLE NCX XMIN XMAX VALMAX ]
'Histogram Identifier' Loop
'Histogram title' D=' '
'Number of channels' D=100
'Low edge' D=0.
'Upper edge' D=100.
'Maximum bin content' D=0.
Create a one dimensional histogram.
The contents are set to zero.
If
2.6. Special symbols for PAW
25
VALMAX=0, then a full word is allocated per channel, else VALMAX is used
as the maximum bin content allowing several channels to be stored into
the same machine word.
2.5.1
Usage
Very often a single line description of the usage of a command is sufficient as a reminder. This can be
obtained by the USAGE command, e.g.:
PAW > USAGE 1d
* /HISTOGRAM/CREATE/1DHISTO
2.6
ID TITLE NCX XMIN XMAX VALMAX ]
Special symbols for PAW
One should pay attention to the fact that, in addition to their common arithmetic meaning, the symbols
in table 2.1 have a special connotation when working with PAW .
Symbol
Meaning
blank
Separator between command and parameter and between different parameters
/
Separator between command elements
Comment line (if first character of the command line)
|
Inline comments
'
String delimiter
_
Line continuation in KUIP commands
@
Escape character to be put in front of | and ' to interpret them as literal
!
Place-holder for command parameter (i.e. default value is taken)
At beginning of command line: Unix C shell-like history
(e.g. !!, !number, !-number, !string)
]
Macro argument delimiters
#
Separator between macro file and macro member
( )
Vector subscript delimiters
:
Vector subscript range
,
Multi-dimensional vector subscript dimensions delimiter
Note: These special characters loose their effect when imbedded in single quotes.
Table 2.1: Special symbols
2.7
PAW entities and their related commands
Relations which exist between various PAW entities as described in section 1.6 on page 9 and the
operations which can be performed upon them have been schematically represented in figure 2.2. All
commands shown in the picture next to the lines connecting the objects have been abbreviated in a way
26
Chapter 2. General principles
that they are unambiguous and can be typed to PAW, which will then detail the various parameters to be
supplied.
There are three main input/output formats, namely a simple text file (e.g. with data points or commands),
a direct access ZEBRA RZ file (used by HBOOK and HIGZ for storing histograms and pictures on a
given machine) and a ZEBRA FZ sequential file, which can be used to transfer structured ZEBRA data
between various computers. The RZ and FZ representations can be transformed into each other using the
TOALFA and FRALFA commands.
The three main PAW objects, Ntuples, histograms and vectors, can be printed on an alphanumeric screen
(PRINT commands) or they can be plotted on a graphics screen (PLOT commands). The picture can be
transformed into a ZEBRA data structure and stored in a HIGZ database for later reference (e.g. editing
by the HIGZ editor), or an external presentation can be obtained via the creation of a metafile. This
“metafile” can for instance consist of GKS or PostScript commands, which can then be interpreted by
the relative drivers and printed on an output device, if so desired.
2.7. PAW entities and their related commands
27
HRIN
HROUT
HROUT
NTUPLE/READ
Histograms
NTUPLE/SCAN
VECTOR/WRITE
VECTOR/READ
Vectors
HRIN
NTUPLE/LOOP
NTUPLE/PROJECT
PUT/CONTENTS
GET/CONTENTS
Ntuples
ASCII
HBOOK
Files
Files
pawtut10 (21/09/93)
Figure 2.2: PAW entities and their related commands
Chapter 3: PAW by Examples
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
Basic Principles : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Starting the PAW Tutorial : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Vectors—Tutorial : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Vectors—Examples : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
3.4.1 Starting with vectors : : : : : : : : : : : : :
3.4.2 Some more vector commands : : : : : : : :
3.4.3 The VECTOR/DRAW options : : : : : : : :
3.4.4 Vectors and Histograms : : : : : : : : : : :
3.4.5 Vector operations : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
3.4.6 Simple macro, with a loop and a VECTOR fit
3.4.7 Macros flow control : : : : : : : : : : : : :
3.4.8 More on fits : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
3.4.9 VECTOR/READ using MATCH : : : : : : :
Function drawing—Examples : : : : : : : : : : : :
3.5.1 Plot a few one-dimensional functions : : : :
3.5.2 Plot a one-dimensional function and loop : :
3.5.3 More on macro input parameters : : : : : : :
3.5.4 Plot two-dimensional functions : : : : : : :
3.5.5 The Mandelbrot distribution : : : : : : : : :
3.5.6 3D functions drawing : : : : : : : : : : : :
Histograms—Tutorial : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Histograms—Examples : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
3.7.1 Histograms creation : : : : : : : : : : : : :
3.7.2 Read histograms from file and plot : : : : : :
3.7.3 Histogram archiving : : : : : : : : : : : : :
3.7.4 Multiple fits on histograms : : : : : : : : : :
3.7.5 Histogram operations : : : : : : : : : : : :
3.7.6 Keep and update histograms : : : : : : : : :
3.7.7 Playing with dice : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
3.7.8 Two-dimensional histograms representations
3.7.9 Non equidistant contour plots : : : : : : : :
3.7.10 Coordinate systems : : : : : : : : : : : : :
3.7.11 Logarithmic scales on lego plots :
3.7.12 Subranges in histogram identifiers
3.7.13 Stacked Lego plots : : : : : : : :
3.7.14 A more complex example : : : :
Ntuples—Tutorial : : : : : : : : : : : :
Ntuples—Examples : : : : : : : : : : :
3.9.1 Ntuple creation : : : : : : : : : :
3.9.2 Automatic and user binning : : :
28
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
30
31
32
36
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
54
56
56
58
60
62
64
66
68
80
80
84
88
90
92
96
98
100
102
104
106
108
110
112
116
122
122
128
29
3.9.3
Simple selection criteria on Ntuple :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
130
3.9.4
3.9.5
3.9.6
3.9.7
Use of Ntuple masks and loops
The use of Ntuple Cuts : : : : :
Ntuple and 2D histograms : : :
Profile histograms and Ntuples :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
134
136
138
140
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
3.9.8 Copy a Ntuple variable into a Vector : :
3.9.9 Chain of Ntuples : : : : : : : : : : : :
3.10 SIGMA—Examples : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
3.10.1 Examples of the SIGMA processor (1) :
3.10.2 Examples of the SIGMA processor (2) :
3.11 Pictures and PostScript : : : : : : : : : : : : :
3.11.1 Merge pictures onto one plot : : : : : :
3.11.2
3.11.3
3.11.4
3.11.5
Pie charts : : : : : : : : : : : : :
Making a complex graph with PAW
Making slides : : : : : : : : : : :
How to use PostScript files : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
: : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
142
144
146
146
150
152
152
154
156
159
162
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
30
3.1
Basic Principles
PAW (Physics Analysis Workstation) is an interactive system designed for data analysis and data
presentation.
PAW provides a set of commands acting on specific objects. The main objects or data type are:
vectors, histograms, and ntuples. The aim of the exmaples is to explain how to work with these
objects.
The PAW commands are organized in a tree structure, whose general structure is: OBJECT/ACTION.
Examples: NTUPLE/PLOT, HISTOGRAM/PROJECT, VECTOR/DRAW
The usual user interface is a “command line interface”: commands are typed on keyboard and
executed after <CR>. Commands parameters are separated with blank.
Commands editing and retrieving is also possible. It is controlled via the command RECALL STYLE.
Commands can be grouped into “Macros”. Macros are files with the extension .kumac containing
several commands with eventually construction like “do loop”, “if endif”, etc .. . To execute a
macro it is enough to type EXEC macroname.
It is possible to have online help on commands with the command HELP which gives the full
description of a command and with the command USAGE which gives the command syntax.
A printable version of the reference manual can be obtain with the command MANUAL.
PAW++ provides a Motif based User Interface to PAW.
PAW and PAW++ have the SAME basic functionality.
Objects
in Memory
PAW
Commands
Objects
on Files
pawtut60b (21/09/93)
3.2. Starting the PAW Tutorial
3.2
31
Starting the PAW Tutorial
Starting the PAW Tutorial
MACRO PAWLOGON
Mess '*************************************************************'
Mess '*
*'
Mess '*
Starting PAW examples
*'
Mess '*
*'
Mess '*
29-30 June 1993
*'
Mess '*
*'
Mess '*************************************************************'
This tutorial present the basic principles of PAW using a set of examples (PAW macros). It tries to
cover the most frequently used basic functions of PAW. In the examples, highlighted points are written in
UPPERCASE with a reference in the left margin. This reference point to a comment after the listing of
the macro. If the example produce a graphics output, it is given on the page behind the example. Under
each figure, the name of the corresponding macro is given.
This example shows what could be the MACRO PAWLOGON (in the file PAWLOGON.KUMAC) which is automatically executed (if it exists) at the beginning of each PAW session.
It is assumed that the macro ALDDEF is executed before each example.
alldef.kumac
MACRO ALLDEF
Size 18 24
Next
Set * Option * Igset *
Size 18 24
Histogram/Delete * Vector/Delete *
Title_global ' '
Title_global ' ' U
Option NBOX
Option NGRI
Set *WID 1
Set CSIZ 0.25 Set VSIZ 0.25 Set TSIZ 0.32
Set XMGL 1.2 Set XMGR 1.2 Set YMGU 0.5 Set YMGL 1.5
Set GSIZ 0.1
Set YHTI 0.7
Set KSIZ 0.15
Set MTYP 1
Zone 1 1
Next
Return
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
32
3.3 Vectors|Tutorial
Vector Creation
PAW > V/CRE X(10) R 1 2 3 4 5 5 4 3 2 1
PAW > V/WRITE X ! 5(F3.1,1X)
4
1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
2
5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 1.0
0
PAW > V/READ X VECT.DAT
VECT.DAT
1
9
1
9
1
9
1
9
1
2
8
2
8
2
8
2
8
2
3
7
3
7
3
7
3
7
3
4
6
4
6
4
6
4
6
4
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
5
6
4
6
4
6
4
6
4
6
7
3
7
3
7
3
7
3
7
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 10 11
10
8
8
2
8
2
8
2
8
2
8
9
1
9
1
9
1
9
1
9
6
4
2
0
PAW > SIGMA X=SIN(ARRAY(100,0#2*PI))
PAW > V/PRINT X
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80
1
0.5
X (
1 ) =
.0000000E+00
0
X (
2 ) =
.6342392E-01
-0.5
etc ...
PAW > VLOCATE X Y
-1
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
5
4
3
2
1
3
pawtut20 (21/09/93)
4
5
6
7
8
9
3.3. Vectors—Tutorial
33
Vector Drawing
PAW > SIGMA X = SIN(ARRAY(100,0#2*PI))
PAW > SIGMA Y = COS(ARRAY(100,0#2*PI))
1
PAW > VECTOR/DRAW X
0.5
PAW > VECTOR/DRAW Y
0
Vector X
Vector Y
-0.5
-1
20
40
60
80
100
PAW > VECTOR/PLOT X
4
PAW > VECTOR/PLOT Y
Vector X
2
Vector Y
0
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1
PAW > GRAPH 100 X Y
0.5
0
-0.5
-1
-1
pawtut21 (21/09/93)
1
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
34
Vectors and COMIS
The declaration VECTOR may be used inside a COMIS routine to
address a KUIP vector. If the vector does not exist, it is
created with the specifications provided by the declared dimension.
PAW > VECTOR/CREATE x(10) R 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
PAW > CALL VECT.F
PAW > VECTOR/WRITE x ! 10(1x,f3.0)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9. 10.
PAW > VECTOR/WRITE y ! 10(1x,f4.0)
1.
4.
9.
16.
25.
36.
49.
64.
SUBROUTINE VECT
VECTOR X,Y(10)
DO I=1,10
Y(I) = X(I)*X(I)
ENDDO
END
pawtut28 (21/09/93)
81. 100.
3.3. Vectors—Tutorial
35
Fitting Vectors - Errors
➊
➋
➌
PAW >
SIGMA
SIGMA
SIGMA
SIGMA
SIGMA
PAW >
PAW >
PAW >
PAW >
PAW >
APPLICATION SIGMA
> alpha = array(24,0#2*PI)
> sina = sin(alpha)+rndm(alpha)*0.3
> errx = array(24,0.2#0.2)
> erry = errx+rndm(errx)*0.1
> EXIT
VECTOR/FIT alpha sina erry P3
VECTOR/FIT alpha(1:12) sina erry G S
VECTOR/CREATE par(1) r 10
VECTOR/FIT alpha sina erry SINFIT.F S 1 par
HPLOT/ERRORS alpha sina errx erry 24
function sinfit(x)
common /pawpar/ par(1)
sinfit=par(1)*sin(x)
end
EXT PARAMETER
NO.
NAME
VALUE
1
P1
1.0309
CHISQUARE = .4981E+00
ERROR
.75837E-01
NPFIT =
24
STEP
SIZE
.95058E-02
FIRST
DERIVATIVE
.25594E-01
1
➋
0.5
0
➌
-0.5
➊
-1
0
pawtut29 (21/09/93)
1
2
3
4
5
6
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
36
3.4 Vectors|Examples
3.4.1 Starting with vectors
➏
➏
➊
➐➊
➑
➋
➍➋
➍➎
➎
➌
➊
Starting with vectors
* Starting with vectors
VECTOR/CREATE VECT1(10) | Create a vector of length 10
VECTOR/INPUT VECT1 10 8 6 4 2 3 5 7 9 11
VECTOR/CRE VX(20) R 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. _
10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.
v/cr vy(20) r 1.1 3.2 5.3 7.4 7.5 6.6 4.3 2.1 6.6 _
11.1 16.2 18.3 19.0 17.8 16.0 12.1 9.1 6.1 3.1 6.6
ZON 1 2
VECTOR/DRAW VECT1
GRAPH 20 VX VY
graph 20 VX VY *
gra 20 VX VY C
VECT/DEL *
Here we see two ways to ll a vector:
(a)
(b)
V/CREATE:
create a vector and, optionally, ll it.
V/INPUT: allows to ll an existing vector.
We will see other ways later.
➋
Graphic representations of vectors :
VECTOR/DRAW
and GRAPH.
➌ VECT/DELETE allows to
delete a vector from memory. \*" means delete all vectors in memory.
Very often in PAW a command acting on a specic kind of objects (vectors, histogram, pictures)
can access the complete object set with \*".
Note also:
➍
The PAW commands are case insensitive.
➎
Command abbreviations are permitted.
➏
The character \*" and \j" are used for comments.
➐
The character \ " is used to indicate a continuation line.
➑
The command ZONE subdivides the graphical area.
3.4. Vectors—Examples
37
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
38
3.4.2 Some more vector commands
Some more vector commands
➎
➊➋
➍➏
➌
vector/create VECT(10,3) R _
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. _
9.1 8.1 7.1 6.1 5.1 4.1 3.1 2.1 1.1 0.1 _
6.2 4.2 3.2 2.2 1.2 1.2 2.2 3.2 4.2 5.2
vector/create VECT1(10) R _
1.1 2.2 3.3 4.4 5.5 6.6 5.5 4.4 3.3 2.2
SET HTYP 244 VE/DR VECT(1:10,3)
VECTOR/DRAW VECT(1:10,3) ! SC
VECTOR/DRAW VECT1 ! L*S
ve/list
VE/WRITE VECT 'vector.data' '(3(10f5.0,/))'
➊
A vector can have up to three dimensions. Dimensions which are not specied are taken as 1,
for example VEC(10) ! VEC(10,1,1) and VEC ! VEC(1,1,1).
➋
It is possible to access a subrange of a vector, for example:
➌
The command VECT/WRITE creates the le vector.data as follows:
1.
9.
6.
2.
8.
4.
3.
7.
3.
4.
6.
2.
5.
5.
1.
6.
4.
1.
7.
3.
2.
8.
2.
3.
9.
1.
4.
V(2:3), V(3:)
or V(:5).
10.
0.
5.
Note also:
➍
The character \!" means default value of a parameter.
➎
It is possible to have several commands, separated with \", on the same line.
➏
Many commands have a parameter which denes options. Such parameters (often called CHOPT
or OPTION) have the attribute \Option" (see the help). Each option is a character string. It is
possible to mix several options, e.g. \SC" or \L*S".
3.4. Vectors—Examples
39
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
40
3.4.3 The VECTOR/DRAW options
Some possible data representations with VECTOR/DRAW
zone 2 3
ve/create v(10) R 5 1 3 2 4 1 3 1 8 6
SET HTYP 244
ve/draw v
ve/draw v ! b
ve/draw v ! l
VE/DRAW V CHOPT=L*
ve/draw v ! bl*
IGSET MTYP 21
ve/draw v ! e
ve/de V
RETURN
➊
➌
➋
➍
➊
The command SET denes some high level graphics attributes for commands like VECT/DRAW
or HIST/PLOT. Here the HTYP (Histogram hatch TYPe) is dened.
is used to dene basic graphics attributes like line width, marker type etc ... . Here
the marker type is dened. It is possible to type always SET instead of IGSET i.e. if a IGSET
parameter is invoke with the SET command, the command IGSET is automatically invoked.
➋ IGSET
➌
By default the parameters of a command are positional but it is possible to assign values by
name, i.e. PARAMETER=value. For example we have here CHOPT=L*. In this case the \!" can
be suppressed.
Note also:
➍
The statement RETURN is not mandatory in a macro except if there are several macros in the
same le. In this case, a macro within a le can be executed by: EXEC FILENAME#MACRONAME.
3.4. Vectors—Examples
41
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
42
3.4.4 Vectors and Histograms
Functionality of VECT/DRAW, VECT/PLOT, VECT/HFILL and PUT/CONT
zone 2 2
ve/create VECT1(10) R 1 2 3 4 5 5 4 3 2 1
*
ve/draw VECT1
VE/PLOT VECT1
*
CREATE/1DHISTO 100 'test vector/hfill' 5 1. 6.
max 100 2.5
VE/HFILL VECT1 100
histo/plot 100 b
hi/de 100
*
create/1dhisto 100 'test put/contents' 10 1. 11.
MAX 100 5.5
MIN 100 0.5
PUT/CONTENTS 100 VECT1
histo/plot 100
➊
➍
➋
➎
➎
➌
➊ VECT/PLOT
draws the statistic of the given vector.
lls an existing histogram (create with 1DHIST) with the values taken from a
vector. Note that the command VECTOR/PLOT can automatically book an histogram and ll
it with the vector content.
➋ VECT/HFILL
➌ PUT/CONT
Note also:
➍
replaces the content of an histogram with the values of a vector.
Histograms are hbook objects. They can be created, like here, interactively in PAW or in a
batch hbook program.They can be stored in direct access les (we will see examples later).
➎ MIN and MAX dene the minimum and maximum of an histogram.
automatically.
By default they are computed
3.4. Vectors—Examples
43
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
44
3.4.5 Vector operations
Vector operations
zone 1 2
ve/create V1(10) R 1 2 3 4 5 5 4 3 2 1
vector/operations/vscale V1 0.5
V12
VE/OP/VSCALE
V1 0.25 V14
ve/dr V1
ve/dr V12 ! S
ve/dr V14 ! S
VSUB
V1 V14 V14M
ve/dr V1
set htyp 344
ve/dr V14M ! S
set htyp 144
ve/dr V12 ! S
➊
➊
➊
Some simple operations are possible on vectors:
VBIAS
:
VSCALE
:
VADD
:
VMULTIPLY :
VSUBSTRACT:
VDIVIDE
:
Y(i)
Y(i)
Z(i)
Z(i)
Z(i)
Z(i)
=
=
=
=
=
=
a + X(i)
a * X(i)
X(i) + Y(i)
Z(i) * Y(i)
X(i) - Y(i)
X(i) / Y(i)
In these operations the resulting vectors are created automatically. Note that for more complicate operations like SQRT or trigonometric functions etc... , sigma must be used (we will
see examples later).
3.4. Vectors—Examples
45
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
46
3.4.6 Simple macro, with a loop and a VECTOR t
Simple macro, with a loop and a VECTOR t
➊
➍
➋➌
➎
➍
ve/create VECT(10,3)
VE/READ VECT 'vector.data'
*
ve/print VECT(1:10,3)
vbias vect(1:10,1) 0.5 vect(1:10,1)
zon 1 2
*
DO IP = 2,3
ve/draw vect(1:10,ip])
ORDER = IP] - 1
VECT/FIT VECT(1:10,1) VECT(1:10,IP]) ! Porder] WS
ENDDO
ve/delete VECT
➊
The le
vector.data previously created is read again in this
VECT/READ. Note that it is not necessary to specify the format.
example via the command
➋
This example shows the usage of variables in the macros (IP). The content of a variable can
be accessed via:
variable]
Note that the name of a variable in not case sensitive.
➌
Simple computations on variables are possible, like i=i]+1 or a=b]+2. However it is not
possible to do complex operations on variables. For this kind of computation vectors and
sigma (or comis) must be used.
➍
Some controls statements are available in macros (see the complete list in the next example).
➎
It is possible to t the vectors with functions. Here the function used for the t is a polynome.
The tting mechanisms are very complete in PAW and simple to use. All the details useful to
use the commands HIST/FIT and VECT/FIT are given in the PAW manual.
3.4. Vectors—Examples
47
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
48
3.4.7 Macros ow control
There are several constructs available for controlling the ow execution, which include conditional
statement blocks, several looping constructs and variable assignation.
Statement
Macro Statements
Description
MACRO mname par1=val1 ...
EXEC mname par1 par2=val2 ...
RETURN
READ par
SHIFT
label:
GOTO label
ON ERROR GOTO label
OF ERROR
ON ERROR
IF logical expression GOTO label
IF-THEN, ELSEIF, ELSE, ENDIF
CASE, ENDCASE
WHILE-DO, ENDWHILE
REPEAT, UNTIL
DO, ENDDO
FOR, ENDFOR
BREAKL
EXITM
par = arithmetic expression
begin macro mname
execute macro mname
end of a macro
read macro parameter par from keyboard
control parameters list
label (must terminate with a colon)
jump to label
resume at label on error condition
temporarily deactivate the ON ERROR GOTO handling
reactivate the latest ON ERROR GOTO handling
conditional statement
Macro ow control
Macro ow control
Macro ow control
Macro ow control
Macro ow control
Macro ow control
Macro ow control
Macro termination
assignment statement
Conditional statement
MACRO DOC1
A = 10
NN = 1.5
TOT = A]+NN]
IF TOT] > 11 THEN
MESSAGE Sum of A] and NN] is TOT]
AOK = correct
ELSE
AOK = wrong
ENDIF
MESSAGE KUIP arithmetic is AOK].
RETURN
PAW > EXEC DOC1
Sum of 10 and 1.5 is 11.5
KUIP arithmetic is correct.
3.4. Vectors—Examples
49
Unassigned variables cannot be substituted by their values.
MACRO DOC2
A = 10
NN = 1.5
TOT = A]+XX]
MESSAGE Result of sum is TOT]
RETURN
PAW > EXEC DOC2
Result of sum is 10+XX]
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
50
3.4.8 More on ts
Fit the function sin between 0 and 2
APPLICATION SIGMA
alpha=array(100,0#2*PI)
sina=sin(alpha)+rndm(alpha)*0.1
err=array(100,0.1#0.1)
EXIT
zone 2 2
V/FIT ALPHA(1:50) SINA(1:50) ERR(1:50) G
V/FIT ALPHA SINA ERR P3
V/FIT ALPHA SINA ERR P5
v/create par(1) r 10.
V/FIT ALPHA SINA ERR SINFIT.F ! 1 PAR
V/PRI PAR
➍
➍
➍
➍
➍
➊
➊
➊
➋
➌
➊
In this macro two dierent types of predened ts are used: Gaussian, Polynomial. As we will
see later, the histograms tting command HISTO/FIT has exactly the same syntax except that
the 3 vectors are replaced by an unique parameter: The histogram identier. On histograms
some other minimization mechanisms are available via the commands SPLINE, SMOOTH, etc..
.
➋
It is also possible to dened specic functions. Here the function SINFIT is dened as follow:
The function SINFIT
function sinfit(x)
common /pawpar/ par(1)
sinfit=par(1)*sin(x)
end
➌
This VECT/PRI shows that now PAR(1) is close to 1.
PAR(1) = 0.994221
➍
Vector initialization with sigma. We will see other sigma examples later.
3.4. Vectors—Examples
51
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
52
Output of the Gaussian t
**********************************************
*
*
* Function minimization by SUBROUTINE HFITV *
* Variable-metric method
*
* ID =
0 CHOPT =
*
*
*
**********************************************
Convergence when estimated distance to minimum (EDM) .LT.
FCN=
2221.676
FROM MIGRAD
EDM=
EXT PARAMETER
NO.
NAME
1
P1
2
P2
3
P3
STATUS=CONVERGED
.85E-05
VALUE
1.1316
1.5419
-.76813
STRATEGY= 1
ERROR
.24808E-01
.21417E-01
.17032E-01
.10E-03
239 CALLS
240 TOTAL
ERROR MATRIX ACCURATE
STEP
SIZE
.64412E-03
.62018E-03
.43531E-03
FIRST
DERIVATIVE
.15289
.42301E-01
-.25527
Output of the Polynomial t (P3)
CHISQUARE = .2290E+02 NPFIT = 100
**********************************************
*
*
* Function minimization by SUBROUTINE HFITV *
* Variable-metric method
*
* ID =
0 CHOPT =
*
*
*
**********************************************
Convergence when estimated distance to minimum (EDM) .LT.
FCN=
49.31862
EXT PARAMETER
NO.
NAME
1
P1
2
P2
3
P3
4
P4
CHISQUARE =
.10E-03
FROM MIGRAD
STATUS=FAILED
90 CALLS
91 TOTAL
EDM=
.79E-01 STRATEGY=1 ERROR MATRIX UNCERTAINTY= 70.2%
VALUE
-.13523
1.8729
-.86391
.91424E-01
.5137E+00
APPROXIMATE
ERROR
.34965E-02
.53793E-02
.32623E-03
.23105E-03
NPFIT =
100
STEP
SIZE
.00000E+00
.00000E+00
.00000E+00
.00000E+00
FIRST
DERIVATIVE
5.6896
-6.8643
94.054
6.6564
3.4. Vectors—Examples
53
Output of the Polynomial t (P5)
**********************************************
*
*
* Function minimization by SUBROUTINE HFITV *
* Variable-metric method
*
* ID =
0 CHOPT =
*
*
*
**********************************************
Convergence when estimated distance to minimum (EDM) .LT.
FCN=
7.164283
EXT PARAMETER
NO.
NAME
1
P1
2
P2
3
P3
4
P4
5
P5
6
P6
CHISQUARE =
FROM MIGRAD
STATUS=FAILED
EDM=
.19E+01
STRATEGY= 1
VALUE
.46785E-01
.93224
.20962
-.36899
.82836E-01
-.52834E-02
.7622E-01
APPROXIMATE
ERROR
.20704E-03
.10038E-02
.33827E-03
.32674E-03
.19712E-04
.12561E-05
NPFIT =
.10E-03
240 CALLS
241 TOTAL
ERR MATRIX NOT POS-DEF
STEP
SIZE
.68172E-07
.74579E-06
.16770E-06
.29519E-06
.66269E-07
.42267E-08
FIRST
DERIVATIVE
32.993
-551.05
-3073.1
-1084.4
821.80
-5204.8
100
Output of the \comis" t
**********************************************
*
*
* Function minimization by SUBROUTINE HFITV *
* Variable-metric method
*
* ID =
0 CHOPT =
*
*
*
**********************************************
Convergence when estimated distance to minimum (EDM) .LT.
FCN=
32.13273
EXT PARAMETER
NO.
NAME
1
P1
CHISQUARE =
FROM MIGRAD
STATUS=CONVERGED
EDM=
.92E-05
STRATEGY= 1
VALUE
.99811
.3246E+00
NPFIT =
ERROR
.13752E-01
100
.10E-03
21 CALLS
22 TOTAL
ERROR MATRIX ACCURATE
STEP
SIZE
.51510E-04
FIRST
DERIVATIVE
-.31172
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
54
3.4.9 VECTOR/READ using MATCH
* VECTOR/READ VLIST FNAME FORMAT OPT MATCH ]
V/READ
v/draw
v/draw
v/draw
➊
X,Y,Z match.dat 6x,3(F4.1) ! /Data/
X
Y ! S
Z ! S
match.dat
Title: File used for tests of the MATCH parameter in V/READ
Data : 1.0 2.0 3.0
Data : 2.0 3.0 4.0
Data : 3.0 4.0 5.0
Data : 4.0 5.0 6.0
This line will be ignored by a V/READ with MATCH
Data : 5.0 6.0 7.0
Data : 6.0 7.0 8.0
Data : 7.0 8.0 9.0
Data : 8.0 9.0 1.0
Data : 9.0 1.0 2.0
End
➋
➋
➋
This example shows how the MATCH parameter can be used in order to read only a subset of a le.
MATCH is used to specify a pattern string, restricting the vector lling only to the records in the le
which verify the pattern. Example of patterns:
/string/ match a string (starting in column 1)
-/string/ do not match a string (starting in column 1)
/string/(n) match a string, starting in column n
/string/(*) match a string, starting at any column
➊
When the MATCH parameter is used, the command V/READ reads the le in two passes:
(a) to nd how many lines should be read in order to create vectors with the proper length.
(b) to read the lines where the MATCH parameter is found.
➋
these lines are skipped during the reading pass.
3.4. Vectors—Examples
55
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
56
3.5 Function drawing|Examples
3.5.1 Plot a few one-dimensional functions
* FUNCTION/PLOT UFUNC XLOW XUP CHOPT ]
➌
➊
➋
OPT GRID
FUNC/PLOT X*SIN(X)*EXP(-0.1*X) -10. 10.
SET DMOD 2
func/plot (sin(x)+cos(x))**5
-10. 10. s
set dmod 3
func/plot (sin(x)/(x)-x*cos(x)) -10. 10. s
➊ FUN/PLOT allows
to plot 2D functions. The character \x" or \X" is used as the variable name.
The command FUN1 is analog to FUNC/PLOT but it produces also an histogram with the value
of the function. The number of steps used to compute the function along the X axis can be
dened via the command POINTS.
Note also:
allows to dene the line type for the drawing the function. Note that IGSET LTYP
cannot be used is this case because in the command FUN/PLOT many dierent lines are drawn
(axes, boxes, etc ..). So a specic attribute must be used (DMOD) for the line type of a function
or an histogram.
➋ SET DMOD
➌ OPTION GRID
allows to have a grid on the subsequent plots.
3.5. Function drawing—Examples
57
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
58
3.5.2 Plot a one-dimensional function and loop
Plot a one-dimensional function and loop
➊➋
➌
➌
MACRO PLOT 1=8
* The Macro parameter is the number of plots to be drawn.
* the defaults is 8.
set dmod 1
SET XTIC 0.0001
SET YTIC 0.0001
set xval 100.
set yval 100.
opt utit
fun/plot x*sin(x) -10 10
fun/plot x*cos(x)*sin(x) -10 10 s
a=1]-1
do i=a],1,-1
fun/plot x*sin(x)*i]/1] -10 10 s
fun/plot x*cos(x)*sin(x)*i]/1] -10 10 s
enddo
➊
In this example we can see that macros can have input parameters. These parameters can be
positional, and they can be accessed in the macro via n], where n is the parameter number
in the input list, or they can be specied by name and they are accessed like variables. The
next example gives more details on the input parameters management.
➋
If one parameter (positional or not) needs to have a default value, the value can be specied
on the MACRO line. At execution time this default value is taken if no value is given. Note that
for parameters given by name, the default value on the line MACRO is mandatory.
➌
It is possible to dene the geometry of a picture via the SET parameters described on the gure
7.3,. In this example the size of the tick marks is set to 0 (XTIC and YTIC). But it is not
possible to specify: SET XTIC 0 as, for the SET command, 0 means default value.
3.5. Function drawing—Examples
59
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
60
3.5.3 More on macro input parameters
Access to the parameter list
MACRO P1
i = 10
➊ FOR p IN *] i] 1 2
sq = p] * p]
message p] squared is sq]
ENDFOR
PAW > exe p1 23 9
23 squared is 529
9 squared is 81
10 squared is 100
1 squared is 1
2 squared is 4
Indexed positional parameters
MACRO P2
➋ DO i = 1, #]
➌ message parameter i] is %i]
ENDDO
PAW > exe p2 23
parameter
parameter
parameter
➊
The * sign allows to access the list of input parameters.
➋
The # sign allows to access the number of input parameters.
➌
% allows to have indexed positional parameters.
9
1
2
3
48
is 23
is 9
is 48
3.5. Function drawing—Examples
61
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
62
3.5.4 Plot two-dimensional functions
* FUNCTION/FUN2 ID UFUNC NCX XMIN XMAX NCY YMIN YMAX CHOPT ]
zone 2 2
FUN2 10 ABS(SIN(X)/X)*(COS(Y)*Y) 40 -6 6 40 -6 6
contour 10 40 0
hi/de 10
fun2 10 x*sin(x)*y*sin(y) 40 -10. 10. 40 -10. 10. C
h/pl 10 surf4
➊
➊
The command FUN2 allows to plot 2D functions and ll an histogram. The variables names
are X and Y.
➋
It is possible to represent a 2D histogram in several ways :
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
(k)
(l)
As a scatter plot.
With proportional boxes.
With a color table.
As a surface plot.
As a surface with color levels.
As a surface with a contour plot on top.
As a surface with Gouraud shading.
As a lego plot.
As a lego plot with colours or shading.
As a line contour plot.
As a table.
As an arrows plot.
3.5. Function drawing—Examples
63
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
64
3.5.5 The Mandelbrot distribution
Calculate and plot (BOX option) the Mandelbrot distribution
FUN2 10 mandel.f 1] -2.4 .8 1] -1.2 1.2 ' '
HI/PL 10 BOX
➊
➋
FORTRAN Routine MANDEL
real function mandel(xp)
dimension xp(2)
data nmax/30/
x=xp(1)
y=xp(2)
xx=0.
yy=0.
do n=1,nmax
tt=xx*xx-yy*yy+x
yy=2.*xx*yy+y
xx=tt
if (4..lt.xx*xx+yy*yy) go to 20
enddo
20 mandel=float(n)/float(nmax)
end
➊
This example shows one of the usages of comis. In this case, the name of the function to be
plotted by FUN2 is replaced by a comis FORTRAN function.
in the command FUN2 means to ll only the histogram without producing the plot
which is by default a surface. The plot is produced by the command HIST/PLOT.
➋ CHOPT=' '
➌
The vector XP is an input parameter given by FUN2, for each cell, to the FORTRAN program.
XP contains the X and Y coordinates of each cell. You can try to insert:
print*, XP
in mandel.f to see the values changing (in this case it is better to set the input parameter of
the macro to 10).
3.5. Function drawing—Examples
65
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
66
3.5.6 Three-dimensional functions drawing
FUNCTION/DRAW
and RANGE
zon 2 2
FUN/DRAW X**2+Y**2+Z**2=1
RANGE 0 1
FUN/DRAW X**2+Y**2+Z**2=1
RANGE 0 1 0 1
FUN/DRAW X**2+Y**2+Z**2=1
RANGE 0 1 0 1 0 1
FUN/DRAW X**2+Y**2+Z**2=1
➊
➋
➊
➋
➊
➋
➊
➊
This command draws a sphere of radius 1. The function can be also a comis program.
➋
The command RANGE modify the X, Y and Z range in which the function is drawn.
3.5. Function drawing—Examples
67
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
68
3.6 Histograms|Tutorial
Histogram Creation
HBOOK Batch Program
HBOOK
Files
Results of Data Analysis
MEMORY
NTUPLE/PLOT
NTUPLE/SCAN
VECTOR/DRAW
VECTOR/PLOT
etc ...
Specific Commands
HISTOGRAM/CREATE/1DHISTO
HISTOGRAM/CREATE/BINS
HISTOGRAM/CREATE/2DHISTO
pawtut30 (21/09/93)
514
30001
60202
8001
1103
11
(1)
(1)
(1)
(2)
(2)
(2)
Angular density
mix
p dy like
Data (gluino)
Charged particle
PHI vs Y
3.6. Histograms—Tutorial
69
1D Histogram Drawing
2D Representations
PAW > H/PL 514
PAW > H/PL 30001(50:90) E PAW > H/PL 514 *
➊
➌
➋
PAW > H/PL 60202(40:60) L
PAW > H/PL 60202(40:60) C
➊ Default
➋ Error Bars
➌ Marker at each bin
➍
➎
➍ Line
➎ Curve
3D Representations
PAW > SURF 30001 20 20
PAW > LEGO 514(1:30) 20 -20 1
← Surface Plot
Lego Plot →
pawtut31 (21/09/93)
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
70
2D Histogram Drawing (1)
2D Representations
➊
➋
➍
➊ Scatter PLot
➌
➎
➋ Text Plot
➌ Boxes Plot
➍ Colors Plot
➎ Arrows Plot
➏ Line Contour Plot
➏
➐ Filled Contour Plot
➐
pawtut32 (21/09/93)
3.6. Histograms—Tutorial
71
2D Histogram Drawing (2)
3D Representations
➊
➋
➍
➊ Lego Plot
➌
➎
➋ Filled Lego Plot
➌ Surface Plot
➍ Filled Surface Plot
➎ Surface and Contour
➏ Gouraud Shaded
➏
➐ Stacked Lego Plot
➐
pawtut33 (21/09/93)
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
72
Histogram Archiving
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
HI/FILE 1 pawtut.hbook
; LDIR
HRIN *
HI/FILE 2 pawtutnew.hbook N
MDIR 1Dhistograms
MDIR 2Dhistograms
; LDIR
CD 1Dhistograms
HROUT 514,30001,60202
; LDIR
CD \2Dhistograms
HROUT 8001,1103,11
; LDIR
************** Directory ===> //LUN1 <===
===> List of objects
HBOOK-ID VARIABLE
CYCLE
DATE/TIME
NDATA
514
0
1
930304/1520
153
30001
0
1
930304/1520
200
60202
0
1
930304/1520
152
8001
0
1
930304/1520
537
1103
0
1
930304/1521
5361
11
0
1
930304/1748
444
************** Directory ===> //LUN2 ===
===> List of subdirectories
1DHISTOGRAMS
Created 930305/1106 at record
3
2DHISTOGRAMS
Created 930305/1106 at record
4
************** Directory ===> //LUN2/1DHISTOGRAMS <===
===> List of objects
HBOOK-ID VARIABLE
CYCLE
DATE/TIME
NDATA
514
0
1
930305/1106
153
30001
0
1
930305/1106
200
60202
0
1
930305/1106
152
************** Directory ===> //LUN2/2DHISTOGRAMS <===
===> List of objects
HBOOK-ID VARIABLE
CYCLE
DATE/TIME
NDATA
8001
0
1
930305/1106
537
1103
0
1
930305/1106
5361
11
0
1
930305/1106
444
pawtut34 (21/09/93)
3.6. Histograms—Tutorial
73
Histogram Operations
Basic Operations
ADD ID1 ID2 ID3 [ C1 C2 OPTION ]
Add histograms: ID3 = C1*ID1 + C2*ID2.
SUBTRACT ID1 ID2 ID3 [ C1 C2 OPTION ]Subtract histograms: ID3 = C1*ID1 - C2*ID2.
MULTIPLY ID1 ID2 ID3 [ C1 C2 OPTION ]Multiply histogram contents: ID3 = C1*ID1 * C2*ID2.
DIVIDE ID1 ID2 ID3 [ C1 C2 OPTION ]
Divide histograms: ID3 = C1*ID1 / C2*ID2.
MIN, MAX and NORMALIZE
ID
Entries
80
PAW > H/FILE 1 pawtut.hbook
60
PAW > HISTO/PLOT 514
40
PAW > MIN 514 20
20
PAW > MAX 514 60
514
1336
0
60
50
PAW > HISTO/PLOT 514
40
PAW > HISTO/del 514
30
PAW > HRIN 514
PAW > CD //pawc
20
0.06
PAW > NORMALIZE 514 1
0.04
PAW > HISTO/PLOT 514
0.02
0
pawtut35 (21/09/93)
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
74
Histogram Projections
Basic Operations
HISTOGRAM/CREATE/BANX ID YMIN YMAX
Create a projection onto the x axis, in a band of y.
HISTOGRAM/CREATE/SLIX ID NSLICES
Create projections onto the x axis, in y-slices.
HISTOGRAM/CREATE/PROX ID
Create the projection onto the x axis.
HISTOGRAM/PROJECT ID
Fill all booked projections of a 2-Dim histogram.
Note that a BANY, SLIY, and PROY are also available
150
80
100
60
50
40
0
➊
20
1
0
0
-1
0.6 0.8
0.2 0.4
1
0
➋
100
PAW > BANX 8001 0.5 1
50
PAW > SLIX 8001 20
0
1500
PAW > PROX 8001
➌
PAW > H/PROJECT 8001
1000
PAW > H/PLOT 8001.banx
➊
500
PAW > H/PLOT 8001.slix.1 ➋
0
PAW > H/PLOT 8001.prox
pawtut36 (21/09/93)
➌
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
3.6. Histograms—Tutorial
75
Histogram Fitting
The HISTOGRAM/FIT command
HISTOGRAM/FIT ID FUNC [ CHOPT NP PAR STEP PMIN PMAX ERRPAR ]
ID
Histogram Identifier
FUNC
Function name
CHOPT
Options
NP
Number of parameters
PAR
Vector of parameters
STEP
Vector of steps size
PMIN
Vector of lower bounds
PMAX
Vector of upper bounds
ERRPAR
Vector of errors on parameters
350
300
60
250
200
150
50
100
50
0
40
0
0.5
1
1.5
PAW > VECTOR/CREATE par(5)
PAW > H/PL
30
30001(85:110)
PAW > H/FIT 30001(85:100) E QS 0 par(1:2) 20
PAW > H/FIT 30001(100:110) G QS 0 par(3:5)
10
PAW > H/FIT 30001(85:110) E+G QS 5 par
G : Func=par(1)*exp(-0.5*((x-par(2))/par(3))**2)
E : Func=exp(par(1)+par(2)*x)
pawtut37 (21/09/93)
0
0.85
0.9
0.95
1
1.05
1.1
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
76
Histogram Smoothing (1)
The HISTOGRAM/OPERATIONS/SMOOTH command
HISTOGRAM/OPERATIONS/SMOOTH ID [ OPTION SENSIT SMOOTH ]
ID
Histogram or Ntuple Identifier
OPTION
Options
SENSIT
Sensitivity parameter
SMOOTH
Smoothness parameter
For multiquadric smoothing, SENSIT controls
For spline smoothing, SENSIT and SMOOTH control
the sensitivity to statistical fluctuations.
the no. of knots (= 10 * SENSIT) and degree of
SMOOTH controls the (radius of) curvature of the
splines (= SMOOTH + 2) (thus if SENSIT and SMOOTH are
multiquadric basis functions.
at their default values a 10-knot cubic spline is used).
350
300
250
PAW > SMOOTH 30001
200
150
100
50
0
PAW > SMOOTH 11
pawtut38 (21/09/93)
5
4
3
2
1
0
-1
-2
-3
-4
-5
0
0.25
100
0.5
150
0.75
1
200
1.25
250
1.5
3.6. Histograms—Tutorial
77
Histogram Smoothing (2)
The HISTOGRAM/OPERATIONS/SPLINE command
HISTOGRAM/OPERATIONS/ID [ ISEL KNOTX KX ]
ID
Histogram or Ntuple Identifier
ISEL
Option flag
KNOTX
Number of knots
KX
Degree of the spline
PAW > SPLINE 514
PAW > H/PLOT 514
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
350
PAW > CONTOUR 1103 ! 3
300
250
PAW > SPLINE 1103
PAW > CONTOUR 1103 ! 2S
200
150
100
50
0
pawtut39 (21/09/93)
0
50
100
150
0.1
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
78
Error bars Drawing (1)
The command HISTOGRAM/PLOT provides five different options in order do draw
histograms with error bars:
➊
➋
➌
➍
➎
Simple error bars and current marker.
Like ➊ plus small lines at the end of the error bars.
Error rectangles.
A filled area through the end points of the vertical error bars.
A smoothed filled area through the end points of the vertical error bars.
➊
➋
PAW > H/PL 514(30:70) E
➊
PAW > H/PL 514(30:70) E1
➋
PAW > H/PL 514(30:70) E2
➌
PAW > H/PL 514(10:30) E3
➍
PAW > H/PL 514(10:30) E4
➎
➍
pawtut65 (21/09/93)
➌
➎
3.6. Histograms—Tutorial
79
Error bars Drawing (2)
Two commands are provided to draw error bars from data inside vectors:
➊ GRAPHICS/HPLOT/ERRORS X Y EX EY N [ ISYMB SSIZE CHOPT ]
➋ GRAPHICS/HPLOT/AERRORS X Y EXL EXU EYL EYU N [ ISYMB SSIZE CHOPT ]
The first one allows to draw symmetric error bars on X and Y directions.
The second one is more general, it allows to define asymmetric errors
both on X and Y directions.
040PAW > V/CR X(20) R 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
PAW > V/CR Y(20) R 7 2 3 4 5 5 4 3 2 1 2 3 4 3 2 1 2 3 3 3
PAW > V/CR EXL(20) R 19*0.2 0.
PAW > V/CR EXU(20) R 19*1 0.
PAW > V/CR EYL(20) R 10*0.5 9*1 0.
PAW > V/CR EYU(20) R 3 2 1 3 2 1 .5 .5 .5 .5 9*.4 0.
PAW > GRAPH 20 X Y
PAW > AERROR X Y EXL EXU EYL EYU 20 20 .2 1
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
2.5
pawtut66 (21/09/93)
5
7.5
10
12.5
15
17.5
20
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
80
3.7 Histograms|Examples
3.7.1 Histograms creation
Creation of one and two dimensional histograms
➊
➏
➌➎
➍
zon 1 2
function/fun1 100 htfun1.f 100. 0. 1.
1dh 110 'Test 1-dim Histo' 100 0. 1. 1000.
CALL UROUT.F(5000)
FUN/FUN2 200 HTFUN2 25. 0. 1. 25. 0. 1. C
hi/li
HISTOGRAM/FILE 1 PAWHISTS.HBOOK 1024 N
HROUT 0
The FORTRAN Routine HTFUN1
function htfun1(x)
data c1,c2,xm1,xm2,xs1,xs2
+/1.,0.5,0.3,0.7,0.07,0.12/
a1=-0.5*((x-xm1)/xs1)**2
a2=-0.5*((x-xm2)/xs2)**2
x1=c1
x2=c2
if(abs(a1).gt.0.0001)x1=c1*exp(a1)
if(abs(a2).gt.0.0001)x2=c2*exp(a2)
htfun1=x1+x2
end
The FORTRAN Routine HTFUN2
➏
function htfun2(x,y)
htfun2=100*htfun1(x)*htfun1(y)
end
The FORTRAN Routine UROUT
➋
➋
subroutine urout(nev)
do i=1,nev
x=HRNDM1(100,I)
CALL HFILL(110,X,0.,1.)
enddo
end
In this example comis is used in the simplest way, via the command CALL (CALL UROUT.F).
This command just calls the FORTRAN routine given as parameter and executes it.
➋ It is possible to call several routines of the CERN library. HELP CALL gives the list of available
routines (see next page). Here the routines HRNDM1 and HFILL (to ll an histogram) are called
by UROUT.
➌ It is possible to store the histograms in memory into a direct access le opened via the command
HIST/FILE. Here CHOPT=N means: \create a New hbook le". If the rst parameter (LUN)
is 0 the next free logical unit will be used.
➍ To store an histogram in a le it is enough to execute the command HROUT. HROUT 0 (or HROUT
*) stores all the histograms currently in memory.
➎ Several les can be attached via HIST/FILE during a PAW session. To change the current le
it is enough to execute CD //LUNn where \n" is the rst parameter given to HI/FILE. Note
that the command LD // gives the list of all the les currently attached. Each attached direct
access le is similar to a directory (cf UNIX).
➏ HTFUN2 is in the le htfun1.f. That is why it can be invoked without the extension .f
because it has been compiled during the CALL to htfun1.
Most of the time, the histograms are created and lled outside PAW in batch programs calling hbook
directly, and after interactively analyzed with PAW.
➊
3.7. Histograms—Examples
81
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
82
The following routines from the CERN Program Library can be called:
From HBOOK
HBOOK1,HBOOK2,HBOOKN,HFILL,HF1,HPRINT,HDELET,HRESET
HFITGA,HFITPO,HFITEX,HPROJ1,HPROJ2,HFN,HGFIT
HROPEN,PAOPEN,PACLOS,PAREAD,PAWRIT,HCDIR,HGIVEN
HTITLE,HBFUN1,HBFUN2,HRNDM1,HRNDM2,HBARX,HBARY
HPAK,HPAKE,HUNPAK,HGIVE,HGN,HGNF,HGNPAR,HF2,HFF1,HFF2
HRIN,HROUT,HI,HIE,HIX,HIJ,HIF,HIDALL,HNOENT,HX,HXY
HTITLE,HCOPY,HSTATI,HBPROF,HOPERA,HIDOPT,HDERIV
HMAXIM,HMINIM,HMAX,HMIN,HSUM,HNORMA,HREND
HEXIST,HRGET,HRPUT,HSCR,HFIND,HCX,HCXY,HLABEL
HBPROX,HBPROY,HBANDX,HBANDY,HBSLIX,HBSLIY
HBOOKB,HBSTAT,HDIFF,HUNPKE,HREBIN,HERROR
HOUTPU,HERMES,HISTDO,HFUNC,HIJXY,HXYIJ,HLPOS,HFC1
HSPLI1,HSPLI2,HMDIR,HLDIR,HLOCAT,HFITH,HFITV,HFINAM
HBNT,HBNAME,HBNAMC,HFNT,HFNTB,HGNT,HGNTF,HGNTV,HBSET
From HPLOT
HPLOT,HPLSYM,HPLERR,HPLEGO,HPLNT,HPLSUR,HPLSOF
HPLABL,HPLSET,HPLGIV,HPLOC,HPLTOC,HPLNEW,HPLOPT
From ZEBRA
FZIN,FZOUT,FZFILE,FZENDI,FZENDO
RZCDIR,RZLDIR,RZFILE,RZEND,RZIN,RZOUT,RZVIN,RZVOUT
RZOPEN,RZIODO
From KUIP
KUGETV,KUDPAR,KUVECT,KILEXP,KUTIME,KUEXEL,KUPROS
KUNWG,KUCMD,KUGUID,KUNDPV,KUPAR,KUPVAL,KUACT
3.7. Histograms—Examples
83
From HIGZ
IPL,IPM,IFA,IGTEXT,IGBOX,IGAXIS,IGPIE,IGRAPH,IGHIST
IGARC,IGLBL,IGRNG,IGMETA,IGSA,IGSET,IRQLC,IRQST,ISCR
ISELNT,ISFAIS,ISFASI,ISLN,ISMK,ISVP,ISWN,ITX,ICLRWK
IGPAVE,IGTERM
From KERNLIB
VZERO,UCOPY,RNDM,RANNOR,LENOCC,SBIT0,SBIT1,SBYT
JBIT,JBYT,UCTOH,UHTOC,CLTOU,CUTOL
ERF,ERFC,FREQ,PROB
The following common blocks may be referenced
/PAWC/, /QUEST/, /KCWORK/, /PAWPAR/, /PAWIDN/
/HCFITS/, /HCFITD/
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
84
3.7.2 Read histograms from le and plot
Read histograms from le and plot
HISTOGRAM/FILE 1 PAWHISTS.HBOOK
HRIN *
LDIR
HI/LIST
ZON 2 2
hi/pl 100
set htyp 244
hi/pl 110
ZONE 1 2 2 'S'
hi/plot 200
CLOSE 1
➊
➋
➌
➌
➎
➎
➍
➊
In this example the existing le PAWHISTS.HBOOK is attached in READ-ONLY mode.
➋
The command HRIN * (or HRIN 0) gets all the histograms from the le PAWHISTS.HBOOK into
the memory. Note that commands like HIST/PLOT take automatically the histogram from the
le if it is not already in memory.
➌
Both LDIR and HI/LIST give the list of the histograms. LDIR is the generic command to list
the content of a zebra le. It has no knowledge about the objects stored in the le that's
why it cannot retrieve the histogram names. The hbook specic command HIST/LIST is able
to nd informations on the histogram like the histogram title and the histogram type. On the
next page is given the output of these two commands.
➍
To release an histogram le it is enough to do CLOSE n where \n" is the logical unit number
used by the command HIST/FILE (the rst parameter of this command).
Note also:
➎
The usage of the command ZONE. It is used two times to dene zones with dierent sizes.
3.7. Histograms—Examples
85
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
86
Output of LDIR
************** Directory ===> //LUN1 <===
Created 911128/1154
===> List of objects
HBOOK-ID CYCLE
DATE/TIME
100
1
911128/1154
110
1
911128/1154
200
1
911128/1154
Number of records =
2 Number
Per cent of directory quota used
Per cent of file used
Blocking factor
Modified 911128/1154
NDATA
152
85
778
OFFSET
1
153
238
of megawords =
=
.050
=
.050
= 49.561
REC1
3
3
3
0 +
2039 words
Output of HIST/LIST
===> Directory :
100 (1)
htfun1.f
110 (1)
Test 1-dim Histo
200 (2)
htfun2
REC2
3.7. Histograms—Examples
87
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
88
3.7.3 Histogram archiving
In this example, the histograms in an existing hbook le are moved in a new hbook le in two
separated directories according to their type.
Histogram archiving and directories into hbook les
HISTOGRAM/FILE 0 pawtut.hbook
hi/li
hrin *
close 1
HISTOGRAM/FILE 0 pawtutnew.hbook ! N
MDIR 1Dhistograms
MDIR 2Dhistograms
ldir
cd 1Dhistograms
HROUT 514,30001,60202
ldir
cd //LUN1/2Dhistograms
HROUT 8001,1103,11,12
ldir
close 1
➊
➋
➌
➌
➍
➍
➊
Attach an existing hbook le.
➋
Create a new hbook le.
➌
Create two subdirectories in the le pawtutnew.hbook.
➍
Store the 1d and 2d histograms in two separated directories. Some commands like HROUT are
able to loop on parameters if a list is given. Such parameters have the attribute \Loop" when
a help is performed on the command.
3.7. Histograms—Examples
89
Output of LDIR
===> Directory :
10 (N)
CERN Population
514 (1)
Angular density
30001 (1)
mix
60202 (1)
p dy like
8001 (2)
Data (gluino)
1103 (2)
Charged particle theta vs. phi
11 (2)
PHI VS. Y +VE
WEIGHTED
12 (2)
PHI VS. Y +VE
WEIGHTED
************** Directory ===> //LUN1 <===
Created 930602/1428
Modified 930602/1428
===> List of subdirectories
1DHISTOGRAMS
Created 930602/1428 at record
2DHISTOGRAMS
Created 930602/1428 at record
3
4
===> List of objects
HBOOK-ID VARIABLE
CYCLE
DATE/TIME
NDATA
DATE/TIME
930602/1428
930602/1428
930602/1428
NDATA
153
200
152
DATE/TIME
930602/1428
930602/1428
930602/1428
930602/1428
NDATA
537
5361
444
13114
************** Directory ===> //LUN1/1DHISTOGRAMS <===
Created 930602/1428
===> List of objects
HBOOK-ID VARIABLE
514
0
30001
0
60202
0
Modified 930602/1428
CYCLE
1
1
1
************** Directory ===> //LUN1/2DHISTOGRAMS <===
Created 930602/1428
===> List of objects
HBOOK-ID VARIABLE
0
8001
1103
0
11
0
12
0
Modified 930602/1428
CYCLE
1
1
1
1
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
90
3.7.4 Multiple ts on histograms
Fit of the histogram 110 with two Gaussians
histogram/File 1 pawhists.hbook
hrin *
VECT/CREATE PAR(6)
histo/plot 110
SET FWID 6
SET DMOD 2
HISTO/FIT 110(1:50) G QS 0 PAR(1:3)
HISTO/FIT 110(50:100) G QS 0 PAR(4:6)
SET DMOD 1
HISTO/FIT 110 G+G QS 6 PAR
➊
➎
➎
➋
➌
➎
➍
➊
The vector PAR will be used to get the initial values of the t parameters.
➋
Compute a gaussian t on the rst 50 channels. After this command the gaussian parameters
are stored in PAR(1:3).
➌
Compute a gaussian t on the last 50 channels. After this command the gaussian parameters
are stored in PAR(4:6).
➍
Compute the global t using PAR for initial values.
Note also:
➎
The rst two gaussian ts are drawn with dashed lines and the third one with a solid line.
3.7. Histograms—Examples
91
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
92
3.7.5 Histogram operations
Perform operations on histograms read from le and save results
HISTOGRAM/FILE 1 PAWHISTS.HBOOK ! U
hrin *
zon 2 2
opt grid
igset mtyp 26
hi/pl 110 e
hi/pl 110 pl
zon 1 2 2 s
HI/OP/ADD 110 110 120 0.5 0.
hi/op/add 110 110 130 0.25 0.
set htyp 245
hi/pl 110
set htyp 254
HI/PL //PAWC/120 s
set htyp 253
hi/pl //PAWC/130 s
text 0.55 95. 'LEP Very Preliminary' 0.35 25.
hrout 0
➊
➋
➌
➊
The option \U" (for Update) in the command HIST/FILE, is used when the user wants to
change the content of an existing histogram le by adding a new histogram (HROUT p 166) or
deleting an histogram (HSCRATCH p 166).
➋
It is possible to perform operations between histograms like addition with the commands in
the menu HISTOGRAM/OPERATIONS.
➌
The memory, like the attached les, can be considered as a directory. This is the current
directory by default and //PAWC is its name. The command HI/PL //PAWC/id plots the
histogram \id" in memory while the current directory is //LUN1.
3.7. Histograms—Examples
93
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
94
How to embellish the graphical ouputs
histogram/file 1 pawhists.hbook ! u
hrin 0
zon 2 2
opt grid
SET *FON -60
SET BWID 4
SET BCOL 1.5
igset mtyp 26
hi/pl 110 e
hi/pl 110 pl
zon 1 2 2 s
hi/op/add 110 110 120 0.5 0.
hi/op/add 110 110 130 0.25 0.
set htyp 245
hi/pl 110
set htyp 254
hi/pl //pawc/120 s
set htyp 253
hi/pl //PAWC/130 s
IGSET CHHE .35
IGSET TANG 25.
ITX 0.55 95. 'LEP Very Preliminary'
hrout 0
➊
➋
➌
➍
➍
➍
➊
All the text fonts used for HISTO/PLOT are set to -60.
➋
The line width for the boxes around the histograms is set to 4 pixels. Like for the fonts it is
possible to do SET *WID to set all the width available in the SET command.
➌
The color of the shadow around the histograms is set to 5 (Yellow), it appears grey on black
and white PostScript printers.
➍
To access hardware fonts (ie PostScript fonts) the command
should be used.
ITX
and its related attributes
3.7. Histograms—Examples
95
180
180
160
160
140
140
120
120
100
100
80
80
60
60
40
40
20
20
0
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
0
0.2
Test 1-dim Histo
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Test 1-dim Histo
180
160
140
120
ary
100
P
LE
80
ry
Ve
in
elim
Pr
60
40
20
0
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
Test 1-dim Histo
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
96
3.7.6 Keep and update histograms
Graphical operations on histograms (Keep and Add)
histogram/file 1 pawhists.hbook
zone 1 2
set htyp 245
H/PL 120 K
set htyp 254
H/PL 110
set htyp
H/PL 110 +
set htyp 144
hi/pl 130 +
➊
➊
➋
➊
The option \K" in the command HIST/PLOT keep the histogram in memory at the graphics
level to allows updating. If no zone is dened, the option \K" is not necessary.
➋
If an histogram is kept in memory (automatically or via option \K") it is possible to add the
content of an other histogram with option \+".
3.7. Histograms—Examples
97
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
98
3.7.7 Playing with dice
Graphical operations on histograms (Keep and Update)
MACRO DICE 1=50
set hcol 1001
set ndvx -11.05
OPT STAT
CALL DICE.F(1])
hi/fit 3 g
➏
➊
FORTRAN routine dice
subroutine dice(n)
ifirst=1
CALL HBOOK1(3,'Playing with two dice',11,2.,13.,0.)
do 3 j=1,n
ix1=6.*rndm(.01234)+1
ix2=6.*rndm(.56789)+1
CALL HFILL(3,FLOAT(IX1+IX2),0.,1.)
if (ifirst.eq.1) then
CALL HPLOT(3,'BK',' ',0)
ifirst=0
else
CALL HPLOT(3,'BU',' ',0)
endif
enddo
end
➋
➌
➍
➎
➊
This macro call a comis routine only to be faster. The comis routine can be replaced by a
macro, in particular the options \K" and \U" are also available in command HIST/PLOT (try
HELP H/PL).
➋
The histogram is also booked in the FORTRAN program. The corresponding PAW command
is 1DHISTO.
➌
Two random numbers between 1 and 6 are generated and the histogram is lled with the sum
of this numbers to simulate dice playing.
➍
The rst time the histogram is plotted the option \K" is used to keep in memory a copy of the
histogram in order to update it later.
➎
With the \U" option, PAW looks at the current kept histogram contents and update the plot
with the new contribution without redrawing everything. This mechanism is used in data
acquisition.
➏
The statistics are also updated.
3.7. Histograms—Examples
99
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
100
3.7.8 Two-dimensional histograms representations
Dierent representations of two-dimensional histograms
histogram/file 1 pawhists.hbook
zon 2 2
HI/PL 200 BOX
CONTOUR 200 20 0
LEGO 200
SURFACE 200
hi/del *
➊
➊
➊
➊
➊
As we have already seen, the command H/PL allows to draw 2D histograms in dierent ways.
Three additional commands are also available:
* /HISTOGRAM/2D_PLOT/CONTOUR
* /HISTOGRAM/2D_PLOT/SURFACE
* /HISTOGRAM/2D_PLOT/LEGO
\index{histogram!contour}
\index{histogram!surface}
\index{histogram!lego}
ID NLEVEL CHOPT PARAM ]
ID THETA PHI CHOPT ]
ID THETA PHI CHOPT ]
These commands have more parameters than HIS/PLOT. For example CONTOUR allows to specify
a set of levels to be drawn via the parameter PARAM (see next example).
➋
Note that it is also possible to have 1D histograms represented as lego or surface plots. For
example you can do: HI/PLOT 110 LEGO.
3.7. Histograms—Examples
101
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
102
3.7.9 Non equidistant contour plots
User dened non equidistant contour plots
histogram/file 1 pawhists.hbook
VECTOR/CREATE LEVEL(8) R 10 11 12 13 14 15 90 99
zone 1 2
CONTOUR 200 8 2 LEVEL
arrow .8 .75 .5 .54 .2
ARROW .8 .75 .5 .44 .2
SET CHHE .28
ITX .81 .5 '10.0'
Arrow .5 .32 .1 .28 .2
Itx .51 .1 '100.0'
option LOGY
h/plot 200 BOX
ARROW .5 .32 .1 .28 .2
ITX .51 .1 '100.0'
close 1
➊
➋
➎
➍
➌
➏
➏
The command CONTOUR allows to draw user dened levels.
➊
The vector LEVEL contains the list of 8 levels to be drawn.
➋
Only the levels specied in the the vector LEVEL are drawn.
Note also:
➌
Some comments can be drawn with the command ITX.
➍
The size of the text is in centimeters even if the position is in histogram coordinates (current
normalization transformation).
➎
The position of the arrow is in the current normalization transformation (here histogram coordinates), but its size is in centimeters (last parameter. Here 0.2).
➏
Arrows and text can be drawn in logarithmic coordinates. For lines the logarithm should be
computed with sigma.
3.7. Histograms—Examples
103
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
104
3.7.10 Coordinate systems
Coordinate systems with legos and surfaces
histogram/file 1 pawhists.hbook
zon 2 2
OPT UTIT
TITLE 'Polar coordinates' U
HI/PL 200 LEGO,POL
title 'Cylindrical coordinates' U
HI/PL 200 LEGO,CYL
title 'Spherical coordinates' U
HI/PL 200 LEGO,SPH
title 'Pseudo rapidy coordinates' U
HI/PL 200 LEGO,PSD
close 1
➋
➋
➊
➊
➊
➊
➊
Legos and Surfaces plot can be drawn in Polar, Cylindrical, Spherical and Pseudo rapidity
coordinates.
Note also:
➋
The option UTIT allows to use \user title" on histogram. To dene the title itself, the command
TITLE should be used with the option U. Without this option TITLE dene the global title.
3.7. Histograms—Examples
105
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
106
3.7.11 Logarithmic scales on lego plots
Logarithmic scales on lego plots and surfaces plot
histogram/file 1 pawhists.hbook
zon 2 2
opt utit
hi/pl 200 lego
OPT LOGX
hi/pl 200 lego
OPT LOGY
hi/pl 200 lego
OPT LOGZ
hi/pl 200 lego
close 1
➊
➊
➊
➊
Logarithmic are possible on Legos and Surfaces plot. It works also in Polar, Cylindrical,
Spherical and Pseudo rapidity coordinates.
3.7. Histograms—Examples
107
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
108
3.7.12 Subranges in histogram identiers
Usage of subranges in histogram identiers
histogram/file 1 pawhists.hbook
hrin 0
close 1
TRACE ON
zon 2 2
HI/PL 110(56:95) E
* Comments are not printed in TRACE mode
hi/pl 200(8:8,)
box
HI/PL 200(3:15,3:15) CONT
TRACE OFF
hi/pl 200(0.:12,0.1:0.5) LEGO
➍
➊
➍
➌
➍
➋
➊
This example shows how to plot subranges of 1D or 2D histograms. The dierent possibility
to give the range are the following:
(a)
(b)
(c)
with n1 n2.
id(n1:) in this case n2 = number
id(:n2) in this case n1 = 1.
id(n1:n2)
of bins.
➋
If n1 or n2 are integer they are consider as bin numbers. But if they are real they are consider
axis values. Note that bin values and axis values can be mixed inside the same range denition.
➌
In case of 2D histograms, the two ranges are separate with \,".
Note also:
➍
The TRACE command sets ON or OFF the trace mode. When this mode is on, all the command
executed inside macros are displayed on the standard output.
Ouput of the TRACE mode
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
>>>>>
zon 2
HI/PL
hi/pl
HI/PL
TRACE
2
110(56:95) E
200(8:8,)
box
200(3:15,3:15) CONT
OFF
3.7. Histograms—Examples
109
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
110
3.7.13 Stacked Lego plots
Stacked Lego plots and subranges
hi/file 1 pawhists.hbook
zon 2 2
HIST/PLOT 200(0.:0.5,0.:0.5) LEGO1
HIST/PLOT 200(0.5:1.,0.5:1.) LEGO1
zon 1 2 2 s
OPTION BAR
HIST/PLOT 200(0.:0.5,0.:0.5)+200(0.5:1.,0.5:1.) LEGO1
close 1
➊
➊
➌
➋
➊
The two commands draw submatrices of the histogram 200 as Lego plots.
➋
The submatrices previously drawn are now stacked.
➌
The option BAR is active on Lego plots.
3.7. Histograms—Examples
111
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
112
3.7.14 A more complex example
Fit the background with a P3
➊
➋
➌
➌
➌
➍
➍
➍
➎
Macro PAWEX15A ID=30001 IP1=40 IP2=111 IZ1=33 IZ2=150 LOOP=20
*
Igset 2BUF 1
Hi/file 1 pawtut.hbook Hrin ID]
Set FWID 6 Set DMOD 1
CALL hinfo.f(ID])
NBIN = hid(1)
Vector/Create FUNC(NBIN])
Vector/Create Y(NBIN])
Vector/Create S(NBIN])
Vector/Create X(NBIN],LOOP])
Histogram/Copy ID] 1
Histogram/Copy ID] 2
*
Do i=1,LOOP]
Histogram/Plot 1
Histogram/Fit 1(IZ1]:IZ2]) P3 0q
Get/Func 1 FUNC Put/Cont 2 FUNC
Sub 1 2 3
Histogram/Fit 3(IP1]:IP2]) G 0q
Histogram/Plot 3(IP1]:IP2]) FUNCS
Get/Func 3 FUNC Put/Cont 2 FUNC
Sub 1 2 1
Get/Func 3 X(1:NBIN],i])
Call igterm
Enddo
*
Get/Func 1 FUNC Put/Cont 2 FUNC
Sub id] 2 3
Zone 1 2
Histogram/Plot ID]
Histogram/Plot 1 FUNCS
Do i=1,LOOP]
Vector/Copy X(1:NBIN],i]) Y
SIGMA S = S + Y
SIGMA Y = Y+FUNC
Put/Cont 2 Y
Histogram/Plot 2(IP1]:IP2]) SL
Enddo
Histogram/Plot 3(IP1]:IP2]) HIST
Put/Cont 2 S
Histogram/plot 2(IP1]:IP2]) Sl
*
Close 1
V/Del FUNC,X,Y,S H/Del 1,2,3
The routine hinfo.f
subroutine hinfo(id)
character*32 chtitl
vector hid(6)
call hgive(id,chtitl,ncx,xmin,xmax,ncy,ymin,ymax,nwt,loc)
3.7. Histograms—Examples
hid(1)
hid(2)
hid(3)
hid(4)
hid(5)
hid(6)
end
=
=
=
=
=
=
113
ncx
xmin
xmax
ncy
ymin
ymax
➊
This routine allows to have informations on an histogram.
➋
This loop try to nd a P3 background.
➌
After a P3 t, a new histogram is booked with the t value at each channel. This new histogram
is consider as an approximation of the background and is removed from the original histogram.
➍
A gaussian t allows to remove the pick.
➎
This loop produce the two nal plots.
114
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
3.7. Histograms—Examples
115
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
116
3.8 Ntuples|Tutorial
Ntuples: basic idea
NTUPLE
VARIABLE 1
. . .
VARIABLE i
. . .
VARIABLE n
V11
Vi1
Vn1
V12
Vi2
Vn2
V13
Vi3
Vn3
...
...
...
V1j
Vij
Vnj
...
...
...
Column ⇒ variable
Line ⇒ event
Can be accessed by:
① Name
② Number
pawtut40 (21/09/93)
3.8. Ntuples—Tutorial
117
Ntuple Creation
HBOOK Batch Program
Interactive PAW
Row
R
Column
C
Wise
W
Wise
W
NTUPLE/CREATE
Ntuple
N
Ntuple
N
NTUPLE/READ
Specific Commands (RWN Only)
COMIS Program (RWN and CWN)
HBOOK File
D
Disk
R
Resident
N
Ntuple
M
Memory
R
Resident
N
Ntuple
MEMORY
Disk Resident Ntuple: partialy in memory
pawtut41 (21/09/93)
Memory Resident Ntuple: totaly in memory
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
118
Ntuple cuts definition
The NTUPLE/CUTS command
NTUPLE/CUTS CUTID [ OPTION FNAME ]
CUTID
Cut identifier
OPTION
Options
FNAME
File name
Define the CUTID with the format $nn. nn is an integer between 1 and 99.
This cut can then be used in subsequent commands NTUPLE/PLOT, PROJECT.
150
PAW > HI/FILE 1 pawtut.hbook
PAW > NTUPLE/PLOT 10.age
100
50
0
20
30
40
50
60
40
PAW > CUT $1 grade>10
PAW > NTUPLE/PLOT 10.age $1
30
20
10
0
40
50
60
PAW > CUT $6 G
150
100
50
0
PAW > NTUPLE/PLOT 10.age $6
pawtut47 (21/09/93)
40
50
60
70
3.8. Ntuples—Tutorial
119
Ntuple Drawing
The NTUPLE/PLOT command
NTUPLE/PLOT IDN [ UWFUNC NEVENT IFIRST NUPD OPTION IDH ]
IDN
Ntuple Identifier
UWFUNC
Selection function
NEVENT
Number of events
IFIRST
First event
NUPD
Frequency to update histogram
OPTION
Options
IDH
Identifier of histogram to fill
PAW > HI/FILE 1 hrztest.hbook
PAW > NTUPLE/PLOT 30.x
400
300
200
100
0
-4
-2
0
2
4
-4
-2
0
2
4
4
PAW > NTUPLE/PLOT 30.x%y
2
0
-2
-4
PAW > NTUPLE/PLOT 30.x%z%y
4
2
0
-2
-4
15
pawtut49 (21/09/93)
10
5
-4
-2
0
2
4
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
120
Ntuple Projection
The NTUPLE/PROJECT command
NTUPLE/PROJECT IDH IDN [ UWFUNC NEVENT IFIRST ]
IDH
Identifier of histogram to fill
IDN
Identifier of Ntuple
UWFUNC
Selection function or cut identifier
NEVENT
Number of events
IFIRST
First event
Project an Ntuple onto a 1-Dim or 2-Dim histogram, possibly using a
selection function or predefined cuts.
PAW > 2DHISTO 2 ’X vs Y’ 20 -4 4 20 -4 4
PAW > NTUPLE/PROJECT 2 30.x%y
PAW > HISTO/PLOT 2 LEGO1
250
200
150
100
50
0
4
2
0
-2
pawtut50 (21/09/93)
-4
-4
-2
0
2
4
3.8. Ntuples—Tutorial
121
Loop on Ntuple Events
The NTUPLE/LOOP command
NTUPLE/LOOP IDN UWFUNC [ NEVENT IFIRST ]
IDN
Identifier of Ntuple
UWFUNC
Selection function or cut identifier
NEVENT
Number of events
IFIRST
First event
Invoke the selection function UWFUNC for each event starting at event IFIRST.
PAW > HISTO/FILE 1 hrztest.dat
PAW > NTUPLE/LOOP 30 copy.f
PAW > V/DR vx(1:10) ; V/DR vy(1:10) ; V/DR vz(1:10)
REAL FUNCTION COPY(XDUMMY)
COMMON/PAWIDN/IDNEVT,VIDN1,VIDN2,VIDN3,VIDN(10),
+
X
,
Y
,
Z
*
VECTOR VX(10000), VY(10000), VZ(10000)
*
VX(IDNEVT) = X
VY(IDNEVT) = Y
VZ(IDNEVT) = Z
END
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
-0.5
-1
-1.5
1.5
1
5
0.5
4
0
3
-0.5
2
-1
1
-1.5
-2
5
pawtut51 (21/09/93)
10
5
10
0
5
10
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
122
3.9 Ntuples|Examples
3.9.1 Ntuple creation
Creation of an Row-Wise Ntuple (RWN) and rst look at its contents
NTUPLE/CREATE 10 'CERN Population' 11 ' ' 3500 _
Category Division Flag Age Service Children Grade _
Step Nation Hrweek Cost
*
NTUPLE/READ 10 APTUPLE.DAT
HISTO/FILE 1 RWN_APTUPLE.HBOOK 1024 N
HROUT 10
NTUPLE/PRINT 10
zone 1 2
OPT STAT
SET STAT 110
NTUPLE/PLOT 10.Age
ntuple/plot 10.Division
➊
➋
➌
➌
➍
➏
➏
➍
➊ /NTUPLE/CREATE IDN TITLE NVAR CHRZPA NPRIME VARLIST:
Allows to create an Ntuple.
An Ntuple is a matrix of n columns. Each line of the matrix is often called an \event".
Internally there is two dierent way to access the data: by rows (Row-Wise Ntuple) or by
columns (Column-Wise Ntuple). The Ntuple may be created either in memory or, if necessary,
using an automatic overow to an histogram le.
➋ NT/READ
allows to ll an RW/Ntuple with numeric values read from an existing ASCII le.
➌
Like histograms, Ntuples are hbook objects and can be stored into histogram les opened via
the command HIST/FILE.
➍
The command NT/PRINT gives the description of the Ntuple (see next page).
➎ NT/PLOT
allows to plot an Ntuple. The syntax is:
NT/PLOT nid.n ......
where \nid" is the Ntuple identier (a number) and \n" is the number or the name of one of
the variable in the Ntuple. By default, if \n" is not specied, the rst variable of the Ntuple
is ploted.
Note also:
➏ OPT STAT
and SET
STAT
are used to plot some statistical informations.
3.9. Ntuples—Examples
123
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
124
Creation of Column-Wise Ntuple (CWN)
HISTO/FILE 1 CWN_APTUPLE.HBOOK 1024 N
CALL CERNPOP.F
hrout 1
ntuple/print 1
zone 1 2
opt stat
set stat 110
ntuple/plot 1.Age
NTUPLE/PLOT 1.Division
➊
➋
➌
➊
A new hbook le is open. If the Ntuple created after doesn't t in memory, it will be
automatically write on this le.
➋
This command create and read a CW/Ntuple. It is the equivalent of the /NTUPLE/CREATE
and /NTUPLE/READ commands in the previous example (for the time being these commands
work only with the RWN format). For more details on the CW/Ntuples management see the
hbook manual.
➌
The axis are directly drawn with character labels.
3.9. Ntuples—Examples
125
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
126
COMIS routine used to create a CW/Ntuple
Subroutine cernpop
*
integer category, flag, age, service, children, grade, step,
hrweek, cost
common /cern/ category, flag, age, service, children, grade,
+
step, hrweek, cost
character*4
division, nation
common /cernc/ division, nation
+
*
character*132 chform
dimension
rdata(11)
character*4 divs(13), nats(15)
data divs /'AG', 'DD', 'DG', 'EF', 'EP', 'FI', 'LEP', 'PE',
+
'PS', 'SPS', 'ST', 'TH', 'TIS'/
data nats /'AT', 'BE', 'CH', 'DE', 'DK', 'ES', 'FR', 'GB',
+
'GR', 'IT', 'NL', 'NO', 'PT', 'SE', 'ZZ'/
*
open(unit=41,file='aptuple.dat',status='old')
*
call hbnt(1,'CERN Population (CWN)',' ')
chform = ' CATEGORY100,600]:I, FLAG:U:4, AGE1,100]:I,'//
+
' SERVICE0,60]:I, CHILDREN0,10]:I, GRADE3,14]:I,'//
+
' STEP0,15]:I, HRWEEK:I, COST:I'
call hbname(1, 'CERN', category, chform)
chform = 'DIVISION:C,
NATION:C'
call hbnamc(1, 'CERN', division, chform)
*
10
read(41, '(10F4.0, F7.0)', end=20) rdata
category = rdata(1)
division = divs(int(rdata(2)))
flag
= rdata(3)
age
= rdata(4)
service = rdata(5)
children = rdata(6)
grade
= rdata(7)
step
= rdata(8)
nation
= nats(int(rdata(9)))
hrweek
= rdata(10)
cost
= rdata(11)
call hfnt(1)
goto 10
*
20
close (41)
end
3.9. Ntuples—Examples
127
RWN NT/PRINT output
********************************************************
* NTUPLE ID=
10 ENTRIES=
3354
CERN Population
*
********************************************************
* Var numb *
Name
*
Lower
*
Upper
*
********************************************************
*
1
* CATEGORY * 0.102000E+03 * 0.567000E+03 *
*
2
* DIVISION * 0.100000E+01 * 0.130000E+02 *
*
3
* FLAG
* 0.000000E+00 * 0.310000E+02 *
*
4
* AGE
* 0.210000E+02 * 0.640000E+02 *
*
5
* SERVICE
* 0.000000E+00 * 0.350000E+02 *
*
6
* CHILDREN * 0.000000E+00 * 0.600000E+01 *
*
7
* GRADE
* 0.300000E+01 * 0.140000E+02 *
*
8
* STEP
* 0.000000E+00 * 0.150000E+02 *
*
9
* NATION
* 0.100000E+01 * 0.150000E+02 *
*
10
* HRWEEK
* 0.200000E+01 * 0.440000E+02 *
*
11
* COST
* 0.686000E+03 * 0.188530E+05 *
********************************************************
CWN NT/PRINT output
******************************************************************
* Ntuple ID = 1
Entries = 3354
CERN Population (CWN)
******************************************************************
* Var numb * Type * Packing *
Range
* Block
* Name
*
******************************************************************
*
1
* I*4 *
11
* 100,600]
* CERN
* CATEGORY
*
2
* U*4 *
4
*
* CERN
* FLAG
* 1,100]
* CERN
* AGE
*
3
* I*4 *
8
*
4
* I*4 *
7
* 0,60]
* CERN
* SERVICE
*
5
* I*4 *
5
* 0,10]
* CERN
* CHILDREN
*
6
* I*4 *
5
* 3,14]
* CERN
* GRADE
*
7
* I*4 *
5
* 0,15]
* CERN
* STEP
*
8
* I*4 *
*
* CERN
* HRWEEK
*
9
* I*4 *
*
* CERN
* COST
*
10
* C*4 *
*
* CERN
* DIVISION
*
11
* C*4 *
*
* CERN
* NATION
******************************************************************
* Block
* Unpacked Bytes * Packed Bytes *
Packing Factor
*
******************************************************************
* CERN
*
44
*
22
*
2.000
*
* Total
*
44
*
22
*
2.000
*
******************************************************************
* Number of blocks = 1
Number of columns = 11
*
******************************************************************
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
128
3.9.2 Automatic and user binning
Read an Ntuple from a histogram le. Automatic and user binning
hi/file 2 'rwn_aptuple.hbook'
zon 2 2
ntuple/pl 10.age
1dhisto 11 'Age - User binning' 45 20. 65.
SET NDVX -509
NTUPLE/PROJECT 11 10.AGE
hi/plot 11
1dhisto 12 'Cost - User binning' 50 0. 20000.
SET NDVX
ntuple/plot 10.cost
set ndvx -504
ntuple/pl 10.Cost ! -12
➋
➊
➋
➊ NT/PROJECT Project
an Ntuple onto a 1-Dim or 2-Dim histogram. The histogram is not reset
before the projection. This allows several PROJECTs from dierent Ntuples.
➋
By default the labeling on the axis is automatic. It possible to change the number of division
via the commands SET NDVX, SET NDVY and SET NDVY. The number of divisions (NDIV) is
calculated according to the following convention:
(NDIV = N1 + 100*N2 + 10000*N3)
Where N1 is the number of primary divisions, N2 is the number of second order divisions and
is the number of third order divisions.
The sign of NDIV is also used to control the labeling:
N3
(a) If NDIV is positive, it is taken as a maximum number and the binning is optimized.
(b) If NDIV is negative, its absolute value is taken as the exact number of division without
optimization.
(c) If NDIV equal zero is given the default (510. i.e. 10 primary divisions and 5 secondary) is
taken.
3.9. Ntuples—Examples
129
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
130
3.9.3 Simple selection criteria on Ntuple
Ntuple SCAN and the use of simple selection criteria
➍
➊➋
➌
➎
➋➌
hi/file 2 'rwn_aptuple.hbook'
ALIAS/CREATE DIVEP 5
alias/create NATFR 7
cd //pawc
*
NT/SCAN //LUN2/10 nation=NATFR.and.division=DIVEP _
! ! 5 age service children grade step
*
hi/cr/1d 200 'Number of years at CERN' 35 0. 35.
max 200 250
set ndvx 507
set htyp 235
NT/PL //LUN2/10.SERVICE ! -200
ATITLE 'Years at CERN' 'Number of staff'
set htyp 253
NT/PL //LUN2/10.SERVICE NATION=NATFR -200 ! ! S
set htyp 250
nt/pl //LUN2/10.Service division=DIVEP.and.nation=NATFR -200 ! ! S
prints in an alphanumeric way the content of an Ntuple. On the next page is given
the output of this command.
➊ NT/SCAN
➋
In the commands NT/PLOT and NT/SCAN, the second parameter is the selection criteria. Only
the events satisfying this selection are taken into account.
➌
By default NT/PLOT ll an histogram with the indentier 1000000. The next invocation of this
command will overwrite the content of this histogram. If either NEVENT or IFIRST or NUPD
are negative, then the identier of the histogram being lled will be taken as IDF=-NEVENT or
IDF=-IFIRST or IDF=-NUPD. IDF may have been created with H/CREATE. Before lling IDF,
the contents of IDF are reset if IDF already exists. Note that IDF not equal to 1000000 is a
convenient way to force user binning. This is used here.
We'll see later another way to ll an histogram with data read in an Ntuple.
Note also:
➍
The aliases allow to dene shortcut abbreviations. The aliases are known globally e.g. in all
macros and in command mode.
➎ ATITLE
allows to dene the title on the axis.
3.9. Ntuples—Examples
131
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
132
NT/SCAN output
*******************************************************************************
* ENTRY *
AGE
*
SERVICE
*
CHILDREN *
GRADE
*
STEP
*
*******************************************************************************
!
48 !
56.000
!
34.000
!
.00000E+00!
7.0000
!
8.0000
!
!
194 !
62.000
!
27.000
!
.00000E+00!
7.0000
!
13.000
!
!
213 !
56.000
!
26.000
!
.00000E+00!
6.0000
!
13.000
!
!
214 !
45.000
!
26.000
!
.00000E+00!
6.0000
!
12.000
!
!
216 !
56.000
!
19.000
!
.00000E+00!
5.0000
!
13.000
!
!
266 !
63.000
!
26.000
!
.00000E+00!
13.000
!
10.000
!
!
267 !
59.000
!
32.000
!
.00000E+00!
13.000
!
10.000
!
!
273 !
55.000
!
26.000
!
1.0000
!
12.000
!
13.000
!
!
275 !
53.000
!
26.000
!
1.0000
!
11.000
!
13.000
!
!
279 !
51.000
!
30.000
!
.00000E+00!
6.0000
!
13.000
!
!
315 !
56.000
!
25.000
!
.00000E+00!
8.0000
!
6.0000
!
!
318 !
64.000
!
26.000
!
.00000E+00!
6.0000
!
13.000
!
!
320 !
49.000
!
26.000
!
.00000E+00!
6.0000
!
13.000
!
!
327 !
59.000
!
19.000
!
.00000E+00!
5.0000
!
13.000
!
!
328 !
51.000
!
25.000
!
.00000E+00!
5.0000
!
13.000
!
More...? ( <CR>/N/G ): n
==>
15 events have been scanned
3.9. Ntuples—Examples
133
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
134
3.9.4 Use of Ntuple masks and loops
Use of Ntuple masks and loops
hi/file 2 'rwn_aptuple.hbook'
1dhisto 20 'Distribution by grade' 12 3 15
max 20 700
ntuple/plot 10.grade ! -20
NT/MASK STMASK n 3500
NT/LOOP 10.GRADE STEP=15>>STMASK(1)
nt/loop 10.grade grade>4.and.step=13>>stmask(2)
nt/loop 10.grade _
(grade=13.and.step=10).or.(grade=14.and.step=7)>>stmask(3)
NT/PLOT 10.GRADE _
STMASK(1).OR.STMASK(2).OR.STMASK(3)>>STMASK(4) -20 ! ! s
NT/MASK STMASK P
NT/MASK STMASK C
➊
➋
➌
➍
perform operations with masks. A mask is a direct-access le with the name
(here STMASK.MASK). It must contain as many 32 bit words as there are events in
the associated Ntuple. Masks are interesting when only a few events of a Ntuple are selected
with a time consuming selection algorithm.
The symbol \" in NT/LOOP and NT/PLOT allows to ll the mask according to the selection
function.
This command allows to print the denition of the mask.
➊ NT/MASK
MNAME.MASK
➋
➌
Output of the command NT/MASK STMASK
P
=====> Current active selections in mask STMASK
Bit
1
➍
➎
➏
Nevents
41
2
877
3
57
4
975
Selection
STEP=15
GRADE>4.AND.STEP=13
(GRADE=13.AND.STEP=10).OR.(GRADE=14.AND.STEP=7)
STMASK(1).OR.STMASK(2).OR.STMASK(3)
The option \C" in NT/MASK close the mask.
Try NT/PLOT 10.GRADE STMASK(4): It produce the same result as the last NT/PLOT of the
macro.
Compare the execution time (with TIMING) of the two following commands:
NTUPLE/PLOT 10.GRADE (GRADE=13.AND.STEP=10).OR.(GRADE=14.AND.STEP=7)
NTUPLE/PLOT 10.GRADE STMASK(3)
3.9. Ntuples—Examples
135
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
136
3.9.5 The use of Ntuple Cuts
The use of Ntuple Cuts
hi/file 2 'rwn_aptuple.hbook'
CUT $1 MOD(FLAG,2).EQ.0
CUT $2 MOD(FLAG,4)>1
1d 20 'Male/female and resident/non-resident Staff' 13 1 14
OPT BAR
SET BARW 0.4
SET BARO 0.1
max 20 600
LABELS 1 13 AG DD DG EF EP FI LEP PE PS SPS ST TH TIS
set NDVX 13.15
set ndvy -506
ntuple/plot 10.division ! -20
set htyp 244
ntuple/plot 10.division $2 -20 ! ! s
set baro 0.5
set htyp 145
ntuple/plot 10.division $1 -20 ! ! s
set htyp 154
ntuple/plot 10.division $1.and.$2 -20 ! ! s
ATITLE 'Division' 'Number of staff'
➊
➊
➋
➋
➋
➌
➊ NTUPLE/CUTS denes
a cut identier with the format $nn. It is possible to store the cuts in a
le with the option \W" and read them afterwards with the option \R". When a cut is dened
it can be used in commands like NT/PLOT, NT/PROJ etc ...
It also possible to dene \graphical cuts". They are specied interactively with the mouse.
When option G is selected, graphical cuts are only operational for plots of the original Ntuple
variables, not for expressions of these variables.
Note also:
➋
The \BAR" option and the attributes \BARW" and \BARO" allow to draw bar charts.
BAR is also active on LEGO plots.
➌ LABELS
➍
used with SET
NDVX
or SET
NDVY
OPTION
allows to produce alphanumeric labeling.
Histograms with alphanumeric binning are now available in hbook. A set of routines is
available to manage such histograms. In PAW, the command SORT allows to reorder the
labels.
3.9. Ntuples—Examples
137
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
138
3.9.6 Ntuple and 2D histograms
2D Ntuple distributions and 2D histograms projections
hi/file 2 'rwn_aptuple.hbook'
clr
2d 20 ' ' 12 3 15 16 0 16 0.
NT/PROJECT 20 //lun2/10.STEP%GRADE
lego 20 20 40
PROX 20
H/PRO 20
H/PLOT 20.prox
➊
➋
➌
➍
➊
The symbol \%" is used to produce multiple dimensional distributions with ntuples. The
maximum number of dimension is 10. NT/PROJ allows to ll an histogram with data read in a
Ntuple without plotting the result.
➋
Create the projection onto the x axis. The commands PROX,
allows to dene other type of projections.
➌
Fill the projection.
➍
Plot the projection.
SLIX, SLIY, BANX
and BANY
3.9. Ntuples—Examples
139
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
140
3.9.7 Prole histograms and Ntuples
How to create a prole histogram from a Ntuple
hi/file 2 'rwn_aptuple.hbook'
zone 1 2
set MTYP 3
NT/PLOT //LUN2/10.age%grade
NT/PLOT //LUN2/10.age%grade option=prof
➊
➋
➊
The command NT/PLOT produce a bi-dimensional distribution represented as a scatter plot
with the current marker type.
➋
When the option PROF is used, a prole histogram is produce. A prole histogram, is a 1D
histogram which gives for each value of X the mean value of Y and its RMS (for more details
see the hbook manual: routine HBPROF).
3.9. Ntuples—Examples
141
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
142
3.9.8 Copy a Ntuple variable into a Vector
Copy a Ntuple variable into a Vector
hi/file 2 'aptuple.hbook'
UWFUNC 10 copy.f E
NT/LOOP 10.age copy.f
zone 1 2
vect/draw x
vect/plot x
➊
➋
The routine copy.f
REAL FUNCTION COPY(XDUMMY)
REAL
+CATEGORY,DIVISION,FLAG
,AGE
,SERVICE ,CHILDREN,
+GRADE
,STEP
,NATION ,HRWEEK ,COST
COMMON/PAWIDN/IDNEVT,VIDN1,VIDN2,VIDN3,VIDN(10),
+CATEGORY,DIVISION,FLAG
,AGE
,SERVICE ,CHILDREN,
+GRADE
,STEP
,NATION ,HRWEEK ,COST
*
VECTOR X(3354)
X(IDNEVT)=VIDN1
END
➌
➊
This command allows to dene the skeleton of the FORTRAN routine used by NTUPLE/LOOP.
➋
For each event, NTUPLE/LOOP calls copy.f.
➌
The declaration VECTOR may be used inside a COMIS routine to address a KUIP vector. If the
vector does not exist, it is created with the specications provided by the declared dimension.
3.9. Ntuples—Examples
143
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
144
3.9.9 Chain of Ntuples
This example simulate a CERN population of 335400 people.
A 10MB ntuple chain
opt stat
CHAIN MB05
➊
newaptuple.hbook newaptuple.hbook newaptuple.hbook
newaptuple.hbook newaptuple.hbook
MB05 MB05
MB1 MB1 MB1 MB1 MB1 MB1 MB1 MB1 MB1 MB1
CHAIN MB1
CHAIN MB10
CHAIN
CHAIN MB1>
CD MB10
Nt/plot 11.age
CHAIN -MB10
➊
➊
➋
➌
➍
➎
➊
Create the chain.
➋
List all the chains.
➌
Give the tree of the chain MB1.
➍
Set the current chain (MB10).
➎
Delete the chain MB10.
List of the chains and tree of MB1.
MB05
MB1
MB10
MB1
MB05
newaptuple.hbook
newaptuple.hbook
MB05
newaptuple.hbook
newaptuple.hbook
newaptuple.hbook
newaptuple.hbook
newaptuple.hbook
newaptuple.hbook
newaptuple.hbook
newaptuple.hbook
_
3.9. Ntuples—Examples
145
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
146
3.10 SIGMA|Examples
3.10.1 Examples of the SIGMA processor (1)
Examples of the SIGMA processor (1)
zone 2 2
APPLICATION SIGMA
X=ARRAY(200,0#2*PI)
sinus=sin(x)
sinx=sin(x)/x
EXIT
gra 200 x sinus
set dmod 2
gra 200 x sinx l
set dmod 0
SIGMA x=array(300,0#8)
sigma g=cosh(x)+sin(1/(.1+x*x))
gra 300 x g
sigma x=array(300,0#3)
GRAPH 300 x $SIGMA(cosh(x)+sin(1/(.1+X*X)))
sigma x=array(300,0#1)
GRAPH 300 x $RSIGMA(cosh(x)+sin(1/(.1+X*X)))
➋
➋
➊
➌
➍
This example (and the next one) shows how to use the array manipulation package sigma. There
are four ways to give directives to sigma.
➊
Precede the statement by the prex SIGMA.
➋
The PAW command: APPLication SIGMA. All commands typed in after this command will
be directly processed by sigma. The command EXIT will return control to PAW.
➌
The PAW system function $SIGMA. The expression to be evaluated must be enclosed in parentheses. The function will return the numerical value of the expression (if the result is a scalar)
or the name of a temporary vector (if the result is a vector).
➍
The PAW system function $RSIGMA. This function has be to used in comis calls expecting a
REAL argument, e.g.
CALL file.f($RSIGMA(sqrt(x(1)))
Otherwise the value may be passed as an INTEGER if the sigma result turns out to be a whole
number.
Note also:
The system function $FORMAT(number,format) to format a number according to a Fortran-like
FORMAT string, e.g. $FORMAT(x],F9.3). Supports F,E,G,I, and Z (hexadecimal). The complete
list of the system functions available is given on next page.
3.10. SIGMA—Examples
147
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
148
The function name (and arguments) is literally replaced, at run-time, by its current value. At present,
the following functions are available:
The KUIP System Functions
$DATE .......................
$TIME .......................
$CPTIME .....................
$RTIME ......................
$VDIM(VNAME,IDIM) ...........
$VLEN(VNAME,IDIM)
...........
$NUMVEC .....................
$VEXIST(VNAME) ..............
$SUBSTRING(STRING,IX,NCH) ...
$UPPER(STRING) ..............
$LOWER(STRING) ..............
$LEN(STRING) ................
$SIGMA(Expression) ..........
$RSIGMA(Expression) ..........
$FORMAT(number,format)
......
$ARGS .......................
$KEYNUM .....................
$KEYVAL .....................
$LAST .......................
$ANUM .......................
$ANAM(I) ....................
$AVAL(I) ....................
$STYLE ......................
Current date in format DD/MM/YY
Current time in format HH.MM.SS
CP time elapsed since last call (in sec)
Real time elapsed since last call (in sec)
Physical length of vector VNAME
on dimension IDIM (1..3)
As above, but for the logical length
(i.e. stripping trailing zeroes)
Current number of vectors
Index of vector VNAME
(1..$NUMVEC or 0 if VNAME does not exist)
STRING(IX:IX+NCH-1)
STRING changed to upper case
STRING changed to lower case
Length of STRING, stripping
leading/trailing blanks and single quotes
Result of the Expression computed by SIGMA
As above but a decimal point is added to
integer results
Format a number according to a Fortran
format string,
e.g. $FORMAT(1.5,F5.2) ==> ' 1.50'
Command line at program invocation
Address of latest clicked key in style GP
Value of latest clicked key in style GP
Latest command line executed
Number of aliases
Name of I-th alias
Value of I-th alias
Current style as defined by SET/STYLE
3.10. SIGMA—Examples
149
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
150
3.10.2 Examples of the SIGMA processor (2)
Examples of the SIGMA processor (2)
➊➌
➋
➌
zone 2 2
SIGMA X=ARRAY(200,0#5)
SIGMA A=8
sigma b=.01
SIGMA Y=EXP(-X)*SIN(A*X)+B*X*X
gra 200 x y
sigma x=array(200,0#2*pi)
sigma s=sin(x)
sigma s2=s/2
sigma c=cos(x)
sigma c2=c/2
sigma s4=s/4
sigma c4=c/4
gra 200 s c
gra 200 s2 c l
gra 200 s4 c l
gra 200 s c2 l
gra 200 s2 c2 l
gra 200 s4 c2 l
gra 200 s c4 l
gra 200 s2 c4 l
gra 200 s4 c4 l
sigma a=array(100,0#59.77)
sigma nc=nco(a)
sigma y=cos(a)*a
sigma x=sin(a)*a
gra nc x y
sigma a=a*2.55555
sigma y=cos(a)*a
sigma x=sin(a)*a
gra nc x y
➊
The command V=ARRAY(L,x1#x2) allows to create a vector V with the length L and initialize
it in the range x1,x2.
➋
All the objects managed by sigma are vectors . In this example A is vector of length 1.
➌
The resulting vectors (if they don't exist) are created automatically by sigma (here Y).
3.10. SIGMA—Examples
151
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
152
3.11 Pictures and PostScript
3.11.1 Merge pictures onto one plot
Merge pictures onto one plot
histogram/file 1 pawhists.hbook
SWITCH Z
PIC/CR MERGE2
set htyp 354
hi/pl 110
set htyp 345
hi/pl 110(31:40) s
PIC/CR MERGE1
set htyp 354
hi/pl 110(31:40)
IZPICT MERGE2 C
switch g
PI/MERGE MERGE1 .5 .5 .3 D
PI/DEL *
➎
➊
➊
➋
➌
➍
This example shows some application of the higz pictures.
➊ PI/CREATE
generated
allows to create a new graphic picture in memory. After this call, all the graphic
is the generic function to perform all kind of actions on the higz pictures. Here the
picture MERGE2 is set as the current picture.
➋ IZPICT
➌ PI/MERGE
➍ PI/DEL
allows to merge a picture into the current picture.
allows to delete a picture from memory. To delete a picture from a le the command
should be used.
SCRATCH
➎
The command SWITCH set the graphics switch to control plotting output to terminal (G) and/or
picture in memory (Z).
3.11. Pictures and PostScript
153
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
154
3.11.2 Pie charts
alias/cre
alias/cre
alias/cre
alias/cre
alias/cre
alias/cre
alias/cre
alias/cre
Pie chart and Bar chart
colbackg
colcompl
colred
colgreen
colblue
colyellow
colpurple
colcyan
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
v/cre vws(5) R 28.3 18.6 16.9 13.5 22.7
label 1 5 'Sun' 'DEC' 'HP' 'Apollo' 'Other'
v/cre offset(5)
v/cre colour(5)
v/cre style(5)
R 2*0. 2*20. 0.
R colred colgreen colblue colyellow colpurple
R 111 222 333 444 265
igset fais 1 zon 2 2
null 0 20 0 20
null 0 20 0 20
null 0 20 0 20
null 0 20 0 20
igset bord 1
a
a
a
a
pie
pie
pie
pie
10.
10.
10.
10.
10.
10.
10.
10.
7.
7.
7.
7.
5
5
5
5
vws
vws
vws
vws
p
l
n
l
offset
offset
offset
offset
! colour
! colour
style
style
3.11. Pictures and PostScript
155
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
156
3.11.3 Feynman diagrams
Feynman diagrams drawing
Zone 1 2
Nul 3 14.0 4 14.0 A
Igset LWID 6 Igset FAIS 1
* c-c system
Arline 13.0 8.0 10.0 8.0 0.3
Arline 10.0 10.0 13.0 10.0 0.3
Arline 10.0 8.0 10.0 10.0 0.3
* Proton
Arline 4.0 5.0 8.5 5.0 0.3
Arline 4.0 5.5 8.5 5.5 0.3
Arline 4.0 6.0 8.5 6.0 0.3
Line
8.5 6.0 13.0 4.5
Line
8.5 5.0 13.0 5.0
Line
8.5 5.5 13.0 5.5
* Gluon
Helix 10.0 8.0 8.5 6.0 0.3 7 30
* Lepton
Arline 4 13 8 12 0.3
Arline 8 12 13 13 0.3
* Photon
Helix 8 12 10 10 0.1 4 0
* Vertex
Fpoint 8.0 12.0 0.1
Fpoint 10.0 10.0 0.1
Fpoint 10.0 8.0 0.1
Fpoint 8.5 6.0 0.1
*
Igset CHHE 0.35
Itx 12.5 10.1 'c'
Itx 12.5 8.1 'c'
Itx 12.5 13.1 'e^-'
Itx 4.5 13.1 'e^-'
Itx 4.5 6.2 'P'
Itx 9.3 11.1 'g]'
Itx 9.5 6.8 'g'
*
Nul 0 15 0 15 A
Arline
2.0 3.0 4.0 3.0 0.30
Archelix 4.0 3.0 10.0 3.0 0.50 11 30 3.01
Fpoint
4.0 3.0 0.1
Fpoint
10.0 3.0 0.1
Archelix 10.0 3.0 4.0 3.0 0.50 11 30 3.01
Arline
10.0 3.0 12.0 3.0 0.20
Arline
2.0 11.0 4.0 11.0 0.30
Archelix 4.0 11.0 10.0 11.0 0.15 6 0 3.01
Fpoint
4.0 11.0 0.1
Fpoint
10.0 11.0 0.1
Archelix 10.0 11.0 4.0 11.0 0.15 6 0 3.01
Arline
10.0 11.0 12.0 11.0 0.30
➋
➊
➊
➊
➋
➊
➊
➋
PAW provides a set of commands to draw Feynman driagrams.
NULL used with the option 'A', allows to dene world coordinates without the axis. If in
addition the option 'B' is given, the box around the plot is not drawn.
3.11. Pictures and PostScript
157
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
158
3.11.4 Making a complex graph with PAW
Pie chart and Bar chart
OPT NBOX
OPT LOGY
OPT TIC
OPT UTIT
opt ZFL1
size 16 20
set VSIZ 0.20
set YGTI 1.2
set XVAL 0.4
set YVAL 0.2
set XLAB 1.0
set YLAB 1.2
set XTIC 0.15
set YTIC 0.15
set ASIZ 0.26
set GSIZ 0.35
title_gl 'CERN Central Computer Usage'
vector/create vy(30) R 9.2 11.8 34.9 60.7 87.1 217.8 360 1250 2500 4006 _
4478 5590 5910 6246 10879 12849 18429 19481 21171 25005 _
31219 33928 37057 45520 57000 75957 98806 118993 131800 151138
sigma vx=array(30,60#89)
ve/cre f1(2) r 2*0.0
ve/cre f2(2) r 2*0.0
SET NDVX -30.05
NULL 60 90 5 250000
igset MSCF 0.75
igset mtyp 21
graph 30 vx vy p
sigma we=sqrt(vy)
ve/fi vx(:10) vy(:10) we e es ! f1
ve/fi vx(10:) vy(10:) we e es ! f2
arrow 64. 62.
10.
10. 0.15
igset txal 20
igset chhe 0.18
itx 63.
12. 'IBM 709'
arrow 65. 63.
35.
35. -0.11
itx 64.
40 'IBM 7090'
arrow 75. 65.
230.
230. -0.11
itx 70.
260. 'CDC 6600'
arrow 85. 72.
4000. 4000. -0.11
itx 78.5 4500. 'CDC 7600'
arrow 82. 78.
6500. 6500. -0.11
itx 80.
7500. 'IBM 168 '
arrow 81. 79. 10000. 10000. -0.11
itx 80. 12000. 'IBM 3032'
arrow 85. 81. 18000. 18000. -0.11
itx 83. 20000. 'IBM 3081'
igset txal 10
arrow 84. 82. 27000. 27000. -0.11
itx 82. 30000. 'SIEMENS 7880'
igset txal 20
arrow 90. 84. 42000. 42000. 0.11
itx 87. 50000. 'SIEMENS 7890'
arrow 90. 85. 68000. 68000. 0.11
3.11. Pictures and PostScript
itx 87.5 72000. 'IBM 3090'
arrow 90. 88. 100000. 100000.
itx 89. 110000. 'CRAY'
159
0.11
arise=$sigma(int((exp(f1(2))-1)*100+0.5))//'% per Annum rise'
xhand=68.
yhand=$sigma(exp(f1(1)+f1(2)*xhand]))
EXEC DRAW X=xhand] Y=yhand] TEXT=arise]
arise=$sigma(int((exp(f2(2))-1)*100+0.5))//'% per Annum rise'
xhand=84.
yhand=$sigma(exp(f2(1)+f2(2)*xhand]))
EXEC DRAW X=xhand] Y=yhand] TEXT=arise]
atitle 'Year ' 'IBM 168 Units used '
Return
MACRO DRAW
igset TXAL 30
igset TANG -35.
igset TXFP -140
igset CHHE 0.50
itx $SIGMA(X]-0.9) Y] +
igset TXAL 30
igset TANG 0.
igset TXFP -30
igset CHHE 0.22
y = y] * 1.70
itx X] Y] TEXT]
RETURN
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
160
IBM 168 Units used
CERN Central Computer Usage
10
CRAY
20% per Annum rise
☞
5
IBM 3090
SIEMENS 7890
SIEMENS 7880
IBM 3081
IBM 3032
10
4
IBM 168
CDC 7600
87% per Annum rise
☞
10
3
CDC 6600
10
2
IBM 7090
IBM 709
10
60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89
Year
3.11. Pictures and PostScript
3.11.5 Making slides
161
Making slides
alias/create mainfont -60
opt zfl1
exec discomp
RETURN
MACRO SLIDE name='Author/CERN CONF99' sn=' ' title=' '
xsize=18
ysize=22
width=0.4
xmax = xsize]-width]
ymax = ysize]-width]
size xsize] ysize]
next
igset *
igset lwid 2
pave 0 xmax] 0 ymax] width] 0 1005 tr
igset lwid 1
xtitle = $sigma((xsize]-0.2)/2.)
ytitle = ysize]-1.5
igset txfp 2
igset txal 20
igset chhe 0.6
itx xtitle] ytitle] title]
igset chhe 0.3
igset txal 10
xtext = xmax]-0.2
ytext = 0.1
igset chhe 0.2
igset txal 30
itx xtext] ytext] name]
igset txal 10
itx 0.1 0.1 sn]
igset chhe 0.3
igset lwid 2
return
MACRO DISCOMP
exec slide sn='DisComp' title='Distributed Computing'
igset txfp mainfont
igset chhe 0.5
itx 2 17 'With a distributed operating system (not yet !)'
itx 2 15 'With tools on top (RPCs, NCS,.. ?)'
igset chhe 0.4
itx 3 14 Tmess
itx 3 13 Tfork
itx 3 12 Tdata
itx 3 11 Tcomp
igset txfp -70
itx 5 14 'Time to send message to remote process'
itx 5 13 'Time to fork a process'
itx 5 12 'Time to pass data (in and out)'
itx 5 11 'Time used for computation on remote process'
igset txfp mainfont
pave 2 16 2 9 0.3 0 1001 trs
162
igset txal 33
itx 6 7 'Efficiency ='
igset txal 20
line 6.1 7 14.1 7
itx 10 7.2 Tcomp
itx 10 6.3 'Tcomp + Tmess + Tfork + Tdata'
igset txfp -240
igset chhe 0.6
igset txal 30
itx 1.5 17 P
itx 1.5 15 P
igset chhe 0.3
igset txal 20
igset txfp 2
itx 9 4 'Many time consuming applications today have'
itx 9 3 'Efficiency > 0.9'
RETURN
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
3.11. Pictures and PostScript
163
✰
With a distributed operating system (not yet )
✰
With tools on top (RPCs, NCS,.. )
Tmess
Time to send message to remote process
Tfork
Time to fork a process
Tdata
Time to pass data (in and out)
Tcomp
Time used for computation on remote process
Efficiency =
Tcomp
Tcomp + Tmess + Tfork + Tdata
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
164
3.11.6 How to use PostScript les
This macro can be used to print the tutorial examples
MACRO PRINTEX 1=1
FOR/FILE 44 pawex1].ps
METAFILE 44 -111
EXEC PAWEX1]
CLOSE 44
SHELL local print command pawex1].ps
The PostScript workstation types have the following format:
-Format]Nx]Ny]Type]
Where:
Format is an integer between 0 and 99 which denes the format of the paper. For example if
Format=3
the paper is in the standard A3 format. Format=4 and Format=0 are the same
and dene an A4 page. The A0 format is selected by Format=99.
Nx, Ny specify respectively the number of zones on the x and y axis. Nx and Ny are integers between
1 and 9.
Type can be equal to:
1 Portrait mode with a small margin at the bottom of the page.
2 Landscape mode with a small margin at the bottom of the page.
4 Portrait mode with a large margin at the bottom of the page.
5 Landscape mode with a large margin at the bottom of the page. The large margin is useful
for some PostScript printers (very often for the colour printers) they need more space to
grip the paper for mechanical reasons. Note that some PostScript colour printers can
also use the so called "special A4" format permitting the full usage of the A4 area in
this case larger margins are not necessary and Type=1 or 2 can be used.
3 Encapsulated PostScript. This Type permits the generation of les which can be included
in other documents, for example in LATEX les. Note that with this Type, Nx and Ny
must always be equal to 1, and Format has no meaning. The size of the picture must
be specied by the user via the command SIZE. Therefore the workstation type for
Encapsulated PostScript is -113. For example if the name of an Encapsulated PostScript
le is example.eps, the inclusion of this le into a LATEX le will be possible via (in the
LATEX le):
\begin{figure}
\epsffile{example.eps}
\caption{Example of Encapsulated PostScript in LaTeX}
\label{EXAMPLE}
\end{figure}
3.11. Pictures and PostScript
165
How to print all the tutorial examples on one page
MACRO PRINTALL
FOR/FILE 44 all.ps
METAFILE 44 -471
DO I=1,26
EXEC PAWEXI]
ENDDO
CLOSE 44
SHELL local print command all.ps
Note also: The command PICTURE/PRINT allows to print the current picture in memory onto a
PostScript le, and if required send it to the default PostScript printer.
166
Chapter 3. PAW by Examples
Part II
PAW - Commands and Concepts
167
Chapter 4: The KUIP interface
4.1 Command line syntax
The general syntax of a command line is a command path optionally followed by an argument list.
The command path and the arguments have to be separated from each other by one or more space
characters. Therefore arguments containing spaces or other special characters have to be quoted.
In the following we want to use an appropriate formalism to describe the syntax rules. The notation
will be introduced step by step as needed. The verbal explanation given above can be written as:
command-line ::= command-path f argument g
The slanted symbols are non-terminal, i.e. they are composed of other terminal or non-terminal
symbols. The denition of a non-terminal symbol is denoted by \::=". Symbols enclosed in braces
(\f:::g") are optional and they can appear zero or more times.
4.1.1 Command structure
The set of commands is structured as an (inverted) tree (see gure 4.1), comparable to a Unix le
system. The command set can be dynamically extended by linking new commands or menus into
the tree.
Compared to a at list structure the tree allows a cleaner representation through menus, especially
when the command set is large. PAW has more than 200 commands. It would be hard to visualize
such a number of command in a single graphics menu.
Abbreviations
A command path consists of a menu path and a command name. The menu path itself consists of
a list of menu names up to an arbitrarily deep level of sub-menus.
command-path ::= menu-path/]command-name
menu-path ::= /]menu-namef/menu-nameg
Here we introduced two more notations. Symbols in teletype mode (\/") are literals, i.e. the menu
and command names have to be separated by a slash character. Symbols enclosed in brackets (\:::]")
are optional which can appear zero or one times.
These syntax rules already show that a command path may be abbreviated by omitting part of the
leading menu path. For example, if the complete command path is
/MENU/SUBMENU/COMMAND
valid abbreviations are
MENU/SUBMENU/COMMAND
SUBMENU/COMMAND
COMMAND
but not \MENU/COMMAND" or \/SUBMENU/COMMAND". Note that the command name matching is
case-insensitive, i.e. the following are all valid possibilities:
169
Chapter 4. The KUIP interface
170
Example of command path : HISTOGRAM / CREATE / 2DHISTO
PAW
KUIP
MACRO
VECTOR
HISTOGRAM
FUNCTION
NTUPLE
GRAPHICS
PICTURE
ZEBRA
FORTRAN
NETWORK
FILE
LIST
DELETE
PLOT
ZOOM
MANY_PLOT
PROJECT
COPY
FIT
2D_PLOT
CREATE
HIO
.....
1DHISTO
PROFILE
BINS
2DHISTO
PROX
PROY
SLIX
SLIY
BANX
BANY
.....
Figure 4.1: Example of the PAW command tree structure
COMMAND
command
Command
Furthermore, menu and command names may be abbreviated by omitting trailing parts, i.e.
SUB/COMMAND
COMMA
/M/S/C
are also valid abbreviations.
The shortest unambiguous abbreviation for any command is not xed but depends on the whole
command set. KUIP lists all possible ambiguities if a given abbreviation has no unique match:
PAW > LIST
*** Ambiguous command list. Possible commands are :
4.1. Command line syntax
171
/KUIP/ALIAS/LIST
/MACRO/LIST
/VECTOR/LIST
/HISTOGRAM/LIST
/NTUPLE/LIST
/PICTURE/LIST
Ambiguity resolution
Abbreviations can lead to ambiguities if the abbreviation matches more than one command path.
For example, in an application with the commands
/MENU/COMPUTE
/MENU/SUBMENU/COMMAND
/MENU/OTHERMENU/COMMA
typing \COM" matches all three commands and \COMM" still matches the last two.
The list of all executable commands can be obtained by just typing \/". The single slash matches
every command element and therefore all available commands will be listed as possible ambiguities.
Since users tend to use abbreviations heavily also in command scripts adding a new command always
risks to break these scripts by introducing a sudden ambiguity. In order to alleviate this problem a
set of resolution rules apply before an abbreviation is nally considered ambiguous.
The rst rule is that an exact match for the command name takes preference, i.e. \COMMA" resolves
to the third command only. The second rule prefers the lowest number of menu levels. For example,
\COM" resolves to the rst command because the other two matches are one more menu level down.
More on command name resolution
KUIP provides additonal commands which can aect the way the command name, i.e. the rst token
in a command line, is interpreted.
Changing the root menu The command SET/ROOT denes the menu from which the search for
command name starts. It is not quite comparable to the Unix cd or VMS SET DEFAULT command.
If no matching command is found going downwards from the SET/ROOT menu a second attempt is
made starting o at the top menu \/".
Disabling commands The command SET/VISIBILITY allows to disable/enable individual commands. Disabled commands cannot be executed and they do not contribute to name ambiguities.
However, the HELP information is still available. In STYLE G disabled commands are shown with a
grey or hatched background.
Note that the VISIBILITY command can disable itself which makes it impossible to re-enable any
command.
Automatic macro execution The command MACRO/DEFAULT implements two facilities. First it
allows to dene a directory search path used by the EXEC command for locating .kumac macro
les. Second it controls the implicit interpretation of the command name token as a possible macro
lename:
Chapter 4. The KUIP interface
172
PAW > HELP STYLE
* KUIP/SET_SHOW/STYLE OPTION SGYLEN SGSIZE SGYSPA SGBORD WKTYPE ]
OPTION
SGYLEN
SGSIZE
SGYSPA
SGBORD
WKTYPE
C
R
R
R
R
I
'Option' D='?'
'max Y LENgth of each menu item box' D=0.025 R=0.005:0.25
'space available for the application' D=0.8 R=0:0.90
'max Y length of space between menus' D=0.02 R=-0.5:0.50
'X or Y border for menus' D=0.015 R=0:0.25
'Graphics workstation type' D=0
Possible OPTION values are:
?
C
AN
AL
show current style
Command line : select Command line input
Menu with Numbers : select general Alpha menu (with Numbers)
Menu with Letters : select general Alpha menu (with Letters)
Figure 4.2: Parameter types, default values, and range limits
-Command
-Auto
-AutoReverse
This is the default setting which does not try to interpreted cmd as macro name.
If the search path contains a le cmd.kumac it is executed, i.e. the actual command
becomes \EXEC cmd", otherwise the search for a command named cmd starts.
If cmd is either not a command name or ambiguous and a le cmd.kumac exists
the command is transformed into \EXEC cmd".
Command template The command SET/COMMAND allows to dene a template which is used when-
ever the command token does not match any command name. The template can contain \$1", ...,
\$9" which are substituted with the n'th token from the original command line, or \$*" which is
replaced by the complete line. For example, a KUIP application can be turned into a calculator by
PAW > SET/COMMAND 'mess $sigma($*)'
PAW > 17+2*5
27
\SET/COMMAND 'EXEC $*'" has almost the same eect as \DEFAULT -AutoReverse" but these are
two distinct facilities which can be active simultaneously. The dierence is that for SET/COMMAND
the token in the command name position must not match any command. If does not apply if the
token is an ambiguous command name.
Both Auto/AutoReverse and SET/COMMAND logic are ignored during the execution of macro scripts.
4.1.2 Arguments
Most commands have parameters for which the user is expected to supply argument values. Parameters are either mandatory or optional. Mandatory arguments which are not specied on the
command line are prompted for. If optional arguments are omitted a default value is used instead.
Mandatory parameters always precede the optional parameters. The command USAGE allows to see
the number of parameters for a command:
4.1. Command line syntax
173
PAW > usage manual
* KUIP/MANUAL ITEM OUTPUT OPTION ]
The optional parameters are enclosed in square brackets. The default values can be seen from the
help text for a command. The STYLE command shown in gure 4.2 has only optional arguments.
The corresponding default values are indicated in the help information as \D=value". There is also
the case of optional parameters without xed default values. For these commands the application
writer has to provide an appropriate default at execution time.
Mandatory parameters may also have a default value which is used if the prompt is acknowledged
by simple hitting the RETURN-key. Otherwise the proposed default is the value used in the previous
command execution.
The STYLE command also shows that there are three dierent kind of parameters: character values
indicated by \C" after the parameter name, real values (\R") and integer values (\I").
Whether character values are case-sensitive is up to the application. The application writer has three
choices to retrieve a character argument:
KUGETC returns the string converted to uppercase.
KUGETS returns the string as it was typed in.
KUGETF returns on operating systems with case-sensitive lenames (Unix) the string depending on
the current setting of the FILECASE command. The string is either left as it is, or it is
converted to lowercase. If lenames are not case-sensitive the argument value is converted
to whatever case is required by the operating system.
Numeric (real or integer) parameters may be restricted in the range of acceptable values. In the
help text this is indicated as \R=lower :upper . If the argument value is outside the range KUIP
prompts the user to enter an acceptable value before the command can be executed. The lower or
upper range value may be missing to indicate an unlimited range in one direction. Instead of a simple
numeric value the argument may also be an expression.
For both numeric and character parameters the range may also be given as a comma-separated list
of values. KUIP will accept an argument only if it matches one of the values in the list.
In general the arguments given on the command line are assigned to the command parameters from
left to right but there are also ways to change the order. In our syntax notation, using \j" to indicate
possible alternatives, we can write:
argument ::= value
|
!
|
!!
name=value
|
-value
An argument given as a simple value is assigned to the next parameter expected. The special
values \!" and \!!" are templates for the default value and the value from the previous command
execution, respectively.
|
Named arguments
The form \name=value" allows to invert the argument order or to skip a list of optional parameters
for which the default values should be used. For example,
174
Chapter 4. The KUIP interface
STYLE G SGBORD=0.1
is equivalent to
STYLE G ! ! ! 0.1
KUIP strips o the \name= " part before passing the argument values to the application. In fact
the application program cannot distinguish which of these possible forms the user actually typed.
A simple argument following a named argument is assigned to the parameter following the named
parameter, i.e.
STYLE G SGBORD=0.1 1
is equivalent to
STYLE G ! ! ! SGBORD=0.1 WKTYPE=1
Parameter names are case-insensitive but in general they may not be abbreviated. However, the
application write can allow abbreviations up to a certain minimum length. In the help text this is
indicated by a \*" inside the parameter name. For example, if the parameter name is shown as
LIB*RARY
the acceptable abbreviations are \LIB=", \LIBR=", \LIBRA=", \LIBRAR=", and \LIBRARY=".
KUIP does not insist that an argument of the form \name=value" matches one of the parameter
names. The argument including the \name= " part is simply assigned to the next parameter expected.
Option arguments
The last alternative \-value" to specify an argument applies only to option parameters. (Note the
distinction between option and optional. Option parameters are usually but not necessarily optional.)
In the help text option parameters are tagged by the list of possible values (gure 4.3). Frequently
these parameters are named \OPTION" or \CHOPT".
The \-value" form allows to specify option arguments out of order, emulating the Unix style of
options preceeded other command arguments. For example,
MANUAL -LATEX /KUIP
is equivalent to
MANUAL /KUIP OPTION=LATEX
Note that this is not equivalent to \MANUAL OPTION=LATEX /KUIP". Unlike to the \-value" form
subsequent simple arguments are still assigned to the next parameter expected, not to the one
following the option parameter itself.
Since a leading \-" can be part of a valid (non-option) argument the value is checked against a set
of rules before it is actually interpreted as an option assignment.
The option argument can be a concatenation of several of the allowed option values. KUIP checks
that the argument string is exclusivly constructed from valid option values. This check is done by
removing matches of option values from the argument string, starting with the longest option values
rst. For example, with the denition
4.1. Command line syntax
175
PAW > HELP MANUAL
* KUIP/MANUAL ITEM OUTPUT OPTION ]
ITEM
OUTPUT
OPTION
C 'Command or menu path'
C 'Output file name' D=' '
C 'Text formatting system' D=' '
Possible OPTION values are:
' '
LATEX
TEX
plain text : plain text format
LaTeX format (encapsulated)
LaTeX format (without header)
Figure 4.3: Example for option parameters
* HISTOGRAM/OPERATIONS/SMOOTH ID OPTION SENSIT SMOOTH ]
ID
OPTION
SENSIT
SMOOTH
C
C
R
R
'Histogram or Ntuple Identifier' Minus
'Options' D='2M'
'Sensitivity parameter' D=1. R=0.3:3.
'Smoothness parameter' D=1. R=0.3:3.
Possible OPTION values are:
0
1
2
M
Replace original histogram by smoothed.
Replace original histogram by smoothed.
Store values of smoothed function and its parameters without replacing
the original histogram (but see note below) - the smoothed function can
be displayed at editing time - see HISTOGRAM/PLOT.
Invoke multiquadric smoothing.
Figure 4.4:
Possible OPTION values are:
AB
ABC
CD
the argument \-ABCD" is not interpreted as option assignment because after removing the longest
match \ABC" the remainder \D" is not anymore a valid option value. (This case would have to be
written as \-CDAB". KUIP does not check whether the combination of values is valid. It is left to
the application to refuse execution, e.g. if some of the given option values are mutually exclusive.)
Even with this consistency check there is still a problem arising for commands using digits as option
values. One example is the command SMOOTH (gure 4.4). The command line
SMOOTH -1 2
could be interpreted as
Chapter 4. The KUIP interface
176
* HISTOGRAM/PLOT ID CHOPT ]
ID
CHOPT
C 'Histogram Identifier' Loop Minus
C 'Options' D=' ' Minus
Possible CHOPT values are:
' '
C
S
+
-
Draw the histogram.
Draw a smooth curve.
Superimpose plot on top of existing picture.
Add contents of ID to last plotted histogram.
Substract contents of ID to last plotted histogram.
Figure 4.5:
SMOOTH ID=2 OPTION=-1
Since histogram identiers can have the form of a negative number the desired interpretation is the
natural order
SMOOTH ID=-1 OPTION=2
The application writer has to inform KUIP about this by giving the ID parameter the \Minus"
attribute. For numeric parameters the \Minus" attribute is implicit. However, the argument is
taken as an option assignment if the parameter has a limited range which does not include the
corresponding negative value. For example,
SMOOTH 10 SENSIT=2 -1
is interpreted as
SMOOTH ID=-1 OPTION=1 SENSIT=2
since \-1" is outside the range for the SMOOTH parameter.
The \-" in an option assignment is usually stripped o before the value is passed to the application
program. The exception is if the minus sign itself is one of the valid option values and the next
argument expected belongs to the option parameter itself. Consider the command HISTO/PLOT
(gure 4.5). The command line
H/PLOT -S 1
is interpreted as
HISTO/PLOT ID=1 CHOPT=S
while
H/PLOT 1 -S
is equivalent to
HISTO/PLOT ID=1 CHOPT=-S
4.1. Command line syntax
177
Argument values
Since in command line blanks are used to separate the command name and the individual arguments
string values containing blanks have to be quoted. The rules are the same as used by Fortran: the
quote character is the apostroph \'", and apostroph inside a quoted string have to be duplicated:
MESS 'Hello world'
MESS 'Do or don''t'
The enclosing quote characters are stripped o before the argument value is passed to the application,
even if they are redundant, i.e. the two forms
MESS 'Hello'
MESS Hello
are equivalent. Note that the MESSAGE command has only a single parameter:
* KUIP/MESSAGE STRING ]
STRING
...
C 'Message string' D=' '
Nevertheless, in most cases quoting the message string is not necessary. If the command line contains
more arguments than there are parameters the additional values are concatenated to the argument
for the last parameter. In the concatenation each value is separated by a (single) blank character,
i.e. the commands
MESS 'Hello World'
MESS Hello World
MESS Hello
World
yield all the same output. Therefore the message text only needs quoting if the words should be
separated by more than one space character.
Quoting inhibits the interpretation of the enclosed string as special argument values. Printing an
exclamation mark as message text has to written as
MESS '!'
because \MESS !" would mean to take the default value for the parameter STRING and yield an
empty line only.
Another instance is if an argument of the form \name=value" should be taken literally. For example,
the command line
EXEC mac foo=bar
initializes the macro variable \foo" to the value \bar". However, if the intention is to pass the
string \foo=bar" as argument to the macro quotes must be used:
EXEC mac 'foo=bar'
In addition, some commands, e.g.
Chapter 4. The KUIP interface
178
* NTUPLE/PLOT IDN UWFUNC NEVENT IFIRST NUPD OPTION IDH ]
use the form \name=value" for equality tests in the cut expression UWFUNC. For example, the command
NT/PLOT 10.energy year=1993
selects all event for which the Ntuple column YEAR has the value 1993. Any name clash between
the Ntuple column and one of the command parameters requires quoting. If the column was called
NUPD instead of YEAR the command would have to be written as
NT/PLOT 10.energy 'nupd=1993'
or alternatively as \NT/PLOT 10.energy UWFUNC=nupd=1993".
Finally, quoted strings are also exempted from any substitutions of aliases, KUIP system functions,
and macro variables. For example,
MESS 'foo'
always prints \foo" while
MESS foo
can result in \bar" if preceded by the command \ALIAS/CREATE foo bar". Since square brackets
denote macro variable substitution and system functions names start with a dollar-sign it is especially
recommended to quote VMS le specications.
The operator \//" allows to concatenate several parts to a single argument value. Unquoted strings
on either side of the concatenation operator are implicitly treated as literals unless they are subject
to a substitution, i.e. the command lines
MESS
MESS
MESS
MESS
MESS
MESS
'abc'//'def'
'abc'//def
abc//'def'
abc//def
abcdef
'a'//'b'//'c'//'d'//'e'//'f'
are all equivalent (provided that abc and def are not dened as aliases). The character sequence
\//" at the beginning or end of an argument is taken literally, e.g. in
CD //LUN2//1
the command receives the value \//LUN21".
4.1.3 More on command lines
The command line syntax allows to write several commands in one line and also to extend commands
with long argument lists over several lines.
4.1. Command line syntax
179
Multiple commands on a single line
An input line presented to the KUIP command processor may contain several commands separated
by \&". The commands are executed sequentially as if they were on separate lines:
MESS Hello world! MESS How are you?
is equivalent to
MESS Hello world!
MESS How are you?
Note that the text following the semicolon will not be used to satisfy any prompts emitted by the
preceeding command, e.g. \usage& manual" will not behave as \usage manual".
The semicolon is not interpreted as line separator if it is immediately followed by a digit or one of
the characters
+
- *
?
For example, issuing a VMS command with a le version number such as
SHELL delete *.tmp*
does not require quoting. Note that this exception rule applies independently of the operating system.
In order to avoid surprises we recommend to put always at least one blank after a semicolon intended
to be a line separator.
Each command execution returns a status code which is zero for success and non-zero for failure.
The sequences \&&" and \&!" allow to execute the remaining part of an input line depending on
the status code of the preceeding command. With
cmd1 & cmd2 cmd3
the commands cmd2 and cmd3 are only executed if cmd1 succeeded while with
cmd1 ! cmd2 cmd3
the remaining commands are only executed if the rst one failed. Note that the two characters must
follow each other immediately without intervening blank.
In some commands, for example HISTO/PLOT, one of the parameters is marked in the help text
with the attribute \Loop". If the corresponding argument is a comma-separated list of values KUIP
implicitly repeats the command for each value in the list individually:
HISTO/PLOT 10,20,30
is equivalent to
HISTO/PLOT 10
HISTO/PLOT 20
HISTO/PLOT 30
Note that \," inside parentheses is not taken as value separator, i.e.
HISTO/PLOT 10(1:25,1:25)
executes a single command.
180
Chapter 4. The KUIP interface
Single commands on multiple lines
For commands with very long argument lists it can become necessary to continue it on the next line.
An input line ending with an \_" character is joined with the following line.
In the concatenation the underscore itself and all but one of the leading blanks from the next line
are removed. Blanks preceding the underscore are left intact. For example,
ME_
SS _
'Hello_
world'
is an extravagant way of writing
MESS 'Hello world'
Note that the interpretation of \_" as line continuation cannot be escaped. If the command line
should really end with an underscore the last argument must be quoted.
Recalling previous commands
The command lines types during a session are written into a history le. By default the le is called
last.kumac and is updated every 25 commands. The commands LAST and RECORDING allow to
change the le name and the frequency. At the start of a new session the existing le is renamed into
last.kumacold (except on VMS) before the new last.kumac is created. Comment lines indicate
the date and time at which the sessions were started and stopped.
In this way the user can keep track of all commands entered in the previous and in the current session.
The command \LAST -99" ushes the buered lines into last.kumac and envokes the editor on
the le. The user can then extract the interactively typed commands and copy them into another
.kumac le from which they can be re-executed.
The command \LAST -n " prints the last n commands entered. On a workstation this allows to
re-execute command sequences by doing cut-and-paste operations with the mouse.
KUIP provides a mechanism similiar to the one found in the Unix csh shell for re-executing commands:
!-n
executes the n'th last command once more.
!!
is an short-cut for \!-1" re-executing the last command.
!n
re-executes the n'th command entered since the beginning of the session.
!
prints the commands together with their numbers. The number of lines printed depend on
the recording frequency.
!foo
re-executed the latest command line starting with the string \foo".
The command line numbering can also be seen if the prompt string contains \]":
PAW > PROMPT 'Paw] '
Paw2]
On Unix and VMS KUIP also provides recalling and editing of command lines for re-executing. The
command RECALL allows to choose between dierent key-bindings:
4.1. Command line syntax
^A/^E
^F/^B
^D
^H, DEL
^K
^L
^O
^P/^N
^R/^S
^T
^U
^Y
TAB
LF, CR
181
Move cursor to beginning/end of the line.
Move cursor forward/backward one character.
Delete the character under the cursor.
Delete the character to the left of the cursor.
Kill from the cursor to the end of line.
Redraw current line.
Toggle overwrite/insert mode. Text added in overwrite mode (including yanks) overwrites existing text, while insert mode does not overwrite.
Move to previous/next item on history list.
Perform incremental reverse/forward search for string on the history list. Typing
normal characters adds to the current search string and searches for a match. Typing
^R/^S marks the start of a new search, and moves on to the next match. Typing
^H or DEL deletes the last character from the search string, and searches from the
starting location of the last search. Therefore, repeated DEL's appear to unwind to
the match nearest the point at which the last ^R or ^S was typed. If DEL is repeated
until the search string is empty the search location begins from the start of the history
list. Typing ESC or any other editing character accepts the current match and loads
it into the buer, terminating the search.
Toggle the characters under and to the left of the cursor.
Kill from the prompt to the end of line.
Yank previously killed text back at current location. Note that this will overwrite or
insert, depending on the current mode.
By default adds spaces to buer to get to next TAB stop (just after every 8th column).
Returns current buer to the program.
Table 4.1: Key-binding for recall style KSH
{ Recall style KSH has an Emacs-like binding (table 4.1) similar to the one used by the ksh and
bash shells. If the terminal returns ANSI escape sequences the arrow keys can be used instead
of ^B/^F/^N/^P. Note that the hpterm terminal emulator does not do that.
{ Recall style DCL implements the key-binding of VMS line editing (table 4.2).
{ The style names KSHO and DCLO allow to switch to overstrike mode instead of the default insert
mode.
{ Recall style NONE directs KUIP to do plain reading from the terminal input.
Although the default setting depends on the operating system both styles can be used on Unix and
VMS. Style NONE is recommendable on systems which do swapping instead of paging. For example,
on a Cray-X/MP KUIP line-editing requires that the application program itself has to react to each
individual keystroke.
On Apollo/DomainOS KUIP starts up in style NONE, if the program runs in a Display Manager pad,
and in style KSH otherwise. However, if crp is used from within a DM pad to run the program on a
remote node the automatic identication fails and style NONE must be selected manually.
Chapter 4. The KUIP interface
182
Move cursor to beginning/end of the line.
Move cursor forward/backward one character.
Delete the character to the left of the cursor.
Toggle overwrite/insert mode.
Move to previous item on history list.
Delete from the beginning of the line to the cursor.
Move to next TAB stop.
Returns current buer to the program.
BS/^E
^F/^D
DEL
^A
^B
^U
TAB
LF, CR
Table 4.2: Key-binding for recall style DCL
4.2 Aliases
KUIP aliases allow the user to dene abbreviations for parts of a command line. There are two types
of aliases, command aliases and argument aliases, which dier in the way they are recognized in a
command line. Both alias types can be dened by the ALIAS/CREATE command:
* KUIP/ALIAS/CREATE NAME VALUE CHOPT ]
NAME
VALUE
CHOPT
C 'Alias name'
C 'Alias value'
C 'Option' D='A'
Possible CHOPT values are:
A
C
N
create an Argument alias
create a Command alias
No alias expansion of value
The alias value may be any string but the alias name can only consist letters, digits, \_", \-", \@",
and \$" characters. Command and argument aliases share the same name space. If a command
alias with the same name as an existing argument alias is created, the argument alias is deleted rst,
and vice versa.
4.2.1 Argument aliases
If an argument alias name is recognized anywhere in the command line it is substituted by its value.
The name matching is case-insensitive and the substitution is literally, i.e. without case folding or
insertion of additional blanks. The replacement is scanned for further occurrences of alias names
which in turn will be replaced as well.
The alias name must be separated from the rest of the command line either by a blank or by one of
the special characters
/
,
=
:
.
%
'
(
)
(not necessarily the same character on both sides). For example, if foo and bar are alias names,
foot and Bar-B-Q are not aected. If two alias replacements need to be concatenated the \//"
operator can be used, i.e.
4.2. Aliases
183
ALIAS/CREATE DIR disk$user:paw]
ALIAS/CREATE FIL file.dat
HISTO/FILE 1 DIR//FIL
translates into \HISTO/FILE 1 disk$user:paw]file.dat". Since argument aliases are also recognized in the command position with the denition abbreviations like HISTO/FIL cannot be used
anymore.
Alias substitution does not take place inside quoted strings. The ALIAS commands themselves are
treated as a special case. In the command line parsing they are specically exempted from alias
translation in order to allow aliases can be deleted and redened without quoting. For example,
PAW > ALIAS/DELETE *
PAW > ALIAS/CREATE foo bar
PAW > ALIAS/CREATE bar BQ
PAW > ALIAS/CREATE foo tball
PAW > ALIAS/LIST
Argument aliases:
BAR
=> BQ
FOO
=> tball
No Command aliases defined.
redenes FOO rather than creating a new alias name BQ. The value part, however, is subject to alias
translations. If the aliases are created in reverse order
PAW > ALIAS/DELETE *
PAW > ALIAS/CREATE bar BQ
PAW > ALIAS/CREATE foo bar
PAW > ALIAS/LIST
Argument aliases:
BAR
=> BQ
FOO
=> BQ
No Command aliases defined.
the second alias is created as \ALIAS/CREATE
not avoid the translation. Writing instead
foo BQ".
In this case quoting the alias value does
ALIAS/CREATE foo 'bar'
will yield the same result. Since the ALIAS commands bypass part of the command line parsing the
translation of the value part has to be applied by the ALIAS/CREATE command itself. At that stage
the information about quoting is no longer available.
The option \N" allows to inhibit the alias expansion in the value. Using this option can lead to an
innite recursion of alias translations which will be detected only when one the alias names involved
is actually used.
PAW > ALIAS/DELETE *
PAW > ALIAS/CREATE foo bar
PAW > ALIAS/CREATE -N bar foo
PAW > ALIAS/LIST
Argument aliases:
BAR
=> foo
FOO
=> bar
No Command aliases defined.
184
Chapter 4. The KUIP interface
PAW > foo
*** Recursive command alias in foo
*** Recursive argument alias in foo
*** Unknown command: foo
PAW > bar
*** Recursive command alias in bar
*** Recursive argument alias in bar
*** Unknown command: bar
Alias substitution happens before the command line is tokenized into command name and arguments.
Hence, aliases can represent several arguments at once. For example,
ALIAS/CREATE limits '100 -1.57 1.57'
FUN1 10 sin(x) limits
is equivalent to
FUN1 10 sin(x) 100 -1.57 1.57
The quotes in the ALIAS/CREATE command are necessary but they are not part of the alias value.
If an alias value containing blanks is supposed to be treated as a single argument four extra quotes
are needed in order that
ALIAS/CREATE htitle '''X vs. Y'''
1D 10 htitle 100 0 1
is equivalent to
1D 10 'X vs. Y' 100 0 1
Argument aliases can lead to unexpected interpretations of command lines. For example, a user
dening
ALIAS/CREATE e EDIT
wants \E" to be short-hand for the command EDIT. However, the following consequence is probably
not intended:
PAW > nt/plot 30.e
***** Unknown name ---> EDIT
For historic reasons the default option for the ALIAS/CREATE command is to dene an argument
alias. However, the use of argument aliases can lead to subtle side-eects and should therefore be
restricted as much as possible.
4.2.2 Command aliases
This problem described above does not arise if a command alias is created instead:
ALIAS/CREATE -C e EDIT
Command aliases are only recognized if they appear at the beginning of a command line (ignoring
leading blanks). Hence, there is no need to protect command arguments from inadvertent substitutions. Furthermore the match must be exact (ignoring case dierences), i.e. the command
/GRAPHICS/HPLOT/ERRORS
can still be abbreviated as HPLOT/E.
Alias values can also represent several commands by using one of the line separators described in
section 4.1.3, e.g.
ALIAS/CREATE -C ciao 'MESS Hello world! MESS How are you?'
4.3. System functions
185
4.3 System functions
KUIP provides a set of built-in functions which allow, for example, to inquire the current dialogue
style or to manipulate strings. An application may provide additional functions. The complete list
of available functions can be obtained from \HELP FUNCTIONS".
The function name is preceeded by a $-sign. Arguments are given as a comma separated list of values
delimited by \(" and \)". The arguments may be expressions containing other system functions.
Functions without arguments must be followed by a character which is dierent from a letter, a digit,
an underscore, or a colon. \$OSMOSIS" will not be recognized as the function \$OS" followed by
\MOSIS". If that is the desired eect the concatenation operator has to be used: \$OS//MOSIS".
Note however that two functions can follow each other, e.g. \$OS$MACHINE" because the $-sign does
not belong to the function name.
The name following the $-sign may also be an environment variable. Note that in this case there is
a distinction between lowercase and uppercase on VMS. Uppercase names (without the $-sign) are
searched for rst in the logical name tables and then in the symbol table while lowercase names are
searched for only in the symbol table. The names HOME, PATH, TERM, and USER have a predened
meaning which cannot be overruled by a user denition.
The replacement value for \$xxx " is obtained in the following order:
1 If xxx matches an argument-less system functions, replace it by its value.
2 Otherwise if xxx is a dened environment variable, replace it by its value.
3 Otherwise if xxx is a system function followed by the correct number and types of arguments,
replace it by its value.
4 Otherwise no replacement takes place.
4.3.1 Inquiry functions
Style inquiries
{
returns the name of the currently active dialogue style (\C", \G", \GP", etc.). This
allows, for example, to a common logon macro containing dierent default setups depending
whether the application is started in command line mode or in Motif mode:
$STYLE
IF $STYLE='XM' THEN
...
ELSE
...
ENDIF
{
$LAST
returns the previously executed command sequence:
PAW > MESS Hello world! MESS How are you?
Hello world!
How are you?
PAW > MESS $LAST
MESS Hello world! MESS How are you?
PAW > MESS $LAST
MESS $LAST
{
$KEYVAL
returns the content of the last selected panel box in style GP and
Chapter 4. The KUIP interface
186
{
returns row/column address in the form \row.col". The column address is always
given as a two-digit number. For example, in the state shown in gure?? the result would be
$KEYNUM
PAW > MESS $KEYNUM $KEYVAL
2.04 Histo/Plot-
Alias inquiries
{
{
{
returns the number of argument aliases currently dened.
$ANAM(n ) returns the name and
$AVAL(n ) returns the value of the n'th argument alias. No substitution takes place if n is not
a number between 1 and $ANUM. There is no guarantee that \$ANAM($ANUM)" refers to the
most recently created alias.
$ANUM
Vector inquiries
{
{
returns the number of vectors currently dened.
$VEXIST(name ) returns a positive number if a vector name is currently dened. The actual
value returned is undened and may even change between tests on the same name. If the
vector is undened the value \0" is returned.
{ $VDIM(name ,dim ) returns the vector size along index dimension dim dim = 1 is used if the
second argument is omitted. If the vector is undened the value \0" is returned.
{ $VLEN(name ) returns for a 1-dimensional vector the index of the last non-zero element. For
2- and 3-dimensional vectors the result is the same as for $VDIM. If the vector is undened the
value \0" is returned.
PAW >
PAW >
10 6
PAW >
PAW >
6 0
$NUMVEC
V/CREATE v1(10) R 1 2 3 4 0 6
MESS $VDIM(v1) $VLEN(v1)
V/CREATE v2($VLEN(v1))
MESS $VDIM(v2) $VLEN(v2)
Environment inquiries
{
{
{
{
{
returns the current date in the format \dd /mm/yy".
$TIME returns the current time in the format \hh/mm/ss".
$RTIME returns the number of seconds elapsed since the previous usage of $RTIME.
$CPTIME returns the seconds of CPU time spent since the previous usage of $CPTIME.
$OS returns an identication for the operating system the application is running on, e.g. \UNIX",
\VM", or \VMS".
{ $MACHINE returns an identication for the particular hardware platform or Unix brand, e.g.
\HPUX", \IBM", or \VAX".
{ $PID returns the process number on Unix or \1" on other systems.
$DATE
4.3.2 String manipulations
{
$LEN(string )
returns the number of characters in string.
4.3. System functions
{
187
returns the position of the rst occurence of substring inside
string or zero if there is none.
{ $LOWER(string ) and
{ $UPPER(string ) return the argument string converted to lower or upper case, respectively.
{ $SUBSTRING(string ,k ,n ) returns the substring
{ string (k :k +n;1) if k > 0, or
{ string (l);k +1 :l);k +n) otherwise, where l =$LEN(string ).
In any case the upper bound is clamped to $LEN(string ). The argument n may be omitted
and the result will extend to the end of string. Character counting starts with 1 by denition
the replacement is empty if k = 0 or n= 0. If n 0 an error message is emitted.
$INDEX(string ,substring )
PAW > MESS $SUBSTRING(abcdef,2)/$SUBSTRING(abcdef,2,3)/$SUBSTRING(abcdef,5,3)
bcdef/bcd/ef
PAW > MESS $SUBSTRING(abcdef,-2)/$SUBSTRING(abcdef,-2,3)/$SUBSTRING(abcdef,-5,3)
ef/ef/bcd
{
returns the number of words in string separated by the sep character.
Leading and trailing separators are ignored and strings of consecutive separators count as one
only. The second argument may be omitted and defaults to blank as the separator character.
$WORDS(string ,sep )
PAW > MESS $WORDS(',abc,def,,ghi',',')
3
{
returns n words starting from word k. The last two arguments
may be omitted default to blank as separator character and the replacement value extending
to the last word in string.
$WORD(string ,k ,n ,sep )
PAW > MESS $WORD('abc def ghi',2)
def ghi
PAW > MESS $WORD('abc def ghi',2,1)
def
{
returns a quoted version of string, i.e. the string is enclosed by quote characters and quote characters inside string are duplicated. The main use of this function is if an
alias value containing blanks should be treated as a single lexical token in a command line:
$QUOTE(string )
ALIAS/CREATE htitle 'Histogram title'
1d 10 htitle 100 0 1
Another useful application of $QUOTE is to pass the value of an alias or macro variable as a
character constant to a comis function, for example
foo = 'bar'
CALL fun.f($QUOTE(foo]))
is equivalent to \CALL fun.f('bar')". Since the quotes around \'bar'" are not part of the
variable value the construct \CALL fun.f(foo])" would given the desired result only if the
value contains blanks forcing the implicit quoting in the variable substitution.
{ $UNQUOTE(string ) returns a string with enclosing quote characters removed. The main use
of this function is if a macro variable should be treated as several blank-separated lexical tokens:
limits = '100 0 1'
1d 10 'Histogram title' limits]
Chapter 4. The KUIP interface
188
4.3.3 Expression evaluations
{
returns the value of a numeric expression. The expression can contain numeric
constants and references to vector elements joined by \+", -", \*", \/". Parentheses may be
used to override the usual operator precedence. In addition, the functions ABS(x ) (absolute
value), INT(x ) (truncation towards zero), and MOD(x ,y ) (modulus) are available. Note that
all operations, including division of two integer numbers, use oating point arithmetic.
$EVAL(expr )
PAW > V/CREATE vec(3) R 1.2 3.4 4.5
PAW > MESS $EVAL((2+3)/4) $EVAL(vec(1)+vec(2)+vec(3))
1.25 9.1
Even if expr is merely a constant, the result is always in a canonical format with a maximum
of 6 non-zero digits. Non-signicant zeroes and the decimal point are omitted after rounding
the last digit towards +1 or ;1. A mantissa/exponent notation is used if the absolute value
is 106 or < 10;4.
PAW > MESS $EVAL(1.500) $EVAL(14.99999) $EVAL(0.000015)
1.5 15 1.5E-05
The explicit use of $EVAL is only necessary if the result should be inserted in a place where a
string is expected, for example in the MESSAGE command. In the instances where a command
expects an integer or real argument expressions are implicitly evaluated even without the $EVAL
function.
{ $SIGMA(expr ) passes the expression to sigma for evaluation. sigma is an array manipulation
package which supports a multitude of mathematical functions (SQRT, EXP, etc.) operating on
scalars and KUIP vectors:
PAW > V/CREATE v10(10) R 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
PAW > MESS $SIGMA(2*pi) $SIGMA(vsum(v10))
6.28319 55
For a description of the complete sigma expression syntax refer to chapter ??.
sigma expressions do not follow the syntax rules for KUIP expressions. Therefore they cannot
contain KUIP system functions with arguments. They may, however, contain argumentless
system functions, alias names, and macro variables.
{ $RSIGMA is a slight variation of $SIGMA. Both functions return a scalar result in the same
canonical format used by $EVAL. The only dierence is that $SIGMA removes the decimal point
from integral values while $RSIGMA leaves it in. For example, $RSIGMA should be used to
calculate argument values to be passed to a comis routine
SUBROUTINE FUN(X)
PRINT *,X
END
as oating point constants:
PAW > CALL fun.f($SIGMA(sqrt(8)))
2.828430
PAW > CALL fun.f($SIGMA(sqrt(9)))
.4203895E-44
PAW > CALL fun.f($RSIGMA(sqrt(9)))
3.000000
4.3. System functions
189
If the expression evaluates to a vector result $SIGMA (and $RSIGMA) return the name of a temporary
vector containing the result. $SIGMA with a vector result can be used in all places where a vector
name is expected, e.g.
PAW > V/PRINT $SIGMA(sqrt(array(3,1#3)))
?SIG1(1) = 1
?SIG1(2) = 1.41421
?SIG1(3) = 1.73205
The lifetime of these vectors is limited to the current command. Hence, their names should not be
assigned to macro variables and not be used in alias denitions:
PAW > A/CREATE square_roots $SIGMA(sqrt(array(3,1#3)))
PAW > V/PRINT square_roots
*** VECTOR/PRINT: unknown vector ?SIG1
{
returns the expression value formatted according to the Fortran
format specier. The possible formats are \F", \E", \G", \I", and \Z" (hexadecimal).
$FORMAT(expr ,format )
PAW >
x =
PAW >
i =
PAW >
j =
{
MESS 'x = '//$FORMAT(1.5,F5.2)
1.50
MESS 'i = '//$FORMAT(15,I5)
15
MESS 'j = '//$FORMAT(15,I5.4)
0015
allows to insert the value of an alias or macro variable into an expression
which is then treated as being part of the expression. For example,
$INLINE(name )
convert = '$UPPER'
foo = $INLINE(convert])('bar')
is equivalent to \foo = $UPPER('bar')", i.e. \foo = 'BAR'". Without $INLINE the content
of convert] would be treated as a text string with the result that \foo = '$UPPER(''bar'')'".
4.3.4 Histograms inquiry functions
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
returns 1 if histogram id exists or 0 otherwise
$HINFO(id,'ENTRIES') returns the number of entries.
$HINFO(id,'MEAN') returns the mean value.
$HINFO(id,'RMS') returns the standard deviation.
$HINFO(id,'EVENTS') returns the number of equivalent event.
$HINFO(id,'OVERFLOW') returns the content of overow channel.
$HINFO(id,'UNDERFLOW') returns the content of underow channel.
$HINFO(id,'MIN') returns the minimum bin content.
$HINFO(id,'MAX') returns the maximum bin content.
$HINFO(id,'SUM') returns the total histogram content.
$HINFO(id,'XBINS') returns the number of bins in X direction.
$HINFO(id,'XMIN') returns the lower histogram limit in X direction.
$HINFO(id,'XMAX') returns the upper histogram limit in X direction.
$HINFO(id,'YBINS') returns the number of bins in Y direction.
$HEXIST(id)
Chapter 4. The KUIP interface
190
{
{
{
returns the lower histogram limit in Y direction.
$HINFO(id,'YMAX') returns the upper histogram limit in Y direction.
$HTITLE(id) returns the histogram title.
$HINFO(id,'YMIN')
4.3.5 Graphics inquiry functions
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
{
returns the number of zones in X direction.
$GRAFINFO('YZONES') returns the number of zones in Y direction.
$GRAFINFO('NT') returns the current normalization transformation number.
$GRAFINFO('WNXMIN') returns the lower X limit of window in current NT.
$GRAFINFO('WNXMAX') returns the upper X limit of window in current NT.
$GRAFINFO('WNYMIN') returns the lower Y limit of window in current NT.
$GRAFINFO('WNYMAX') returns the upper Y limit of window in current NT.
$GRAFINFO('VPXMIN') returns the lower X limit of viewport in current NT.
$GRAFINFO('VPXMAX') returns the upper X limit of viewport in current NT.
$GRAFINFO('VPYMIN') returns the lower Y limit of viewport in current NT.
$GRAFINFO('VPYMAX') returns the upper Y limit of viewport in current NT.
$GRAFINFO('?attr') returns hplot/higz attribute (see HELP SET for valid names)
$GRAFINFO('XZONES')
4.3.6 Cuts manipulations
{
{
returns the cut expression $n
$CUTEXPAND(string) replace $n in the (quoted) string by $CUT(n)
$CUT(n)
4.4 Vectors
KUIP provides optionally (VECDEF) the facilities to store vectors of integer or real data. These vectors,
or rather arrays with up to 3 index dimensions, can be manipulated by KUIP built-in commands (see
\HELP VECTOR"). They are also accessible to application routines (KUGETV and KUVECT). Furthermore
they are interfaced to the array manipulation package sigma and to the Fortran interpreter comis
(see chapters ?? and ??).
Vectors are memory resident only, i.e. they are not preserved across program executions. The commands VECTOR/READ and VECTOR/WRITE allow to save and restore vector data from an external le
in text format.
Vector names may be composed of letters, digits, underscores and question marks up to a maximum
length of 32 characters1 . Names starting with \?" are reserved for internal use by KUIP.
The only exception is the predened vector simply called \?" which has a xed size of 100 real
elements. Unlike the others the \?" vector is mapped to a xed memory location (the common
block /KCWORK/). It does not show up in VECTOR/LIST output and it is not counted in the result
of $NUMVEC.
4.4.1 Creating vectors
Vectors can be created with the
given in Fortran notation, e.g.
1
VECTOR/CREATE
command. The size of the index dimensions is
Vector names which should be processed by SIGMA are currently limited to 7 characters.
4.4. Vectors
Denition:
VECTOR/CREATE V(NCOL)
+---+---+---+---+
|
|
| * |
|
+---+---+---+---+
Denition:
* is addressed by V(3)
VECTOR/CREATE V(NCOL,NROW)
+--+---+---+---+
|
|
|
|
|
+---+---+---+---+
|
|
|
|
|
+---+---+---+---+
|
| * |
|
|
+---+---+---+---+
Denition:
191
V(:,3) is the 1-dim array representing the 3rd row
V(2,:) is the 1-dim array representing the 2nd column
the shortcut notation V(2) can be used as well
* is addressed by V(2,3)
VECTOR/CREATE V(NCOL,NROW,NPLANE)
+---+---+---+---+
+---+---+---+---+ |
+---+---+---+---+ | +
|
|
| * |
| + |
+---+---+---+---+ | +
|
|
|
|
| + |
+---+---+---+---+ | +
|
|
|
|
| +
+---+---+---+---+
* is addressed by V(3,1,1)
Figure 4.6: Addressing scheme for KUIP vectors
VECTOR/CREATE v1(100)
VECTOR/CREATE v2(10,10)
The lower index bound always starts o at 1, i.e. \V/CREATE
the index dimension as in
v(-10:10)"
is not allowed. Omitting
VECTOR/CREATE v
is equivalent to
VECTOR/CREATE v(1)
KUIP does not keep track of the actual number of index dimension given in the
command, i.e.
VECTOR/CREATE v1(10)
VECTOR/CREATE v3(10,1,1)
are equivalent.
VECTOR/CREATE
192
Chapter 4. The KUIP interface
4.4.2 Accessing vectors
Single vector elements can be used in KUIP expressions where they are treated as numeric constants.
Vectors with a single element only we will refer to as \scalar vectors". They have the special property
that in expressions it is su"cient to give the name without the \(1)" subscript.
Complete vectors and vector subranges can be used in the $SIGMA function and as argument to
commands expecting a vector name. The subrange notation is the same as in Fortran, e.g. v(3:5).
The elements of arrays are stored in column-major order, i.e. the elements v(1,2) and v(2,2) are
adjacent in memory (see gure 4.6).
The vector processing commands are expected to deal only with contigous vectors. Therefore a
subrange referring to a non-contigous set of elements is copied into a temporary vector and cannot
be used as output parameter.
4.5 Expressions
KUIP has a built-in parser for dierent kinds of expressions: arithmetic expressions, boolean expressions, string expressions, and \garbage expressions".
4.5.1 Arithmetic expressions
The syntactic elements for building arithmetic expressions are shown in table 4.3. They can be used
{ in the macro statements DO, FOR, and EXITM
{ in macro variable assignments
{ as system function arguments where a numeric value is expected
{ as command arguments retrieved with KUGETI or KUGETR
{ as argument to the $EVAL function
Note that all arithmetic operations are done in oating point, i.e. \5/2" becomes \2.5". If a oating
point result appears in a place where an integer is expected, for example as an index, the value is
truncated.
4.5.2 Boolean expressions
Boolean expressions can only be used in the macro statements IF, WHILE, and REPEAT. The possible
syntactic elements are shown in table 4.4.
4.5.3 String expressions
String expressions can be used
{ in the macro statements CASE, FOR, and EXITM
{ in macro variable assignments
{ as system function arguments where a string value is expected
{ as argument to the $EVAL function
They may be constructed from the syntactic elements shown in table 4.5.
4.5. Expressions
193
expr ::= number
|
vector-name
|
vector-name ( expr )
|
vector-name ( expr , expr )
|
vector-name ( expr , expr , expr
|
variable-name ]
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
variable-name ] (
expr ...
alias-name
$system-function ( ...
- expr
expr + expr
expr - expr
expr * expr
expr / expr
( expr )
ABS ( expr )
INT ( expr )
MOD ( expr , expr )
)
)
for scalar vectors
)
if variable value forms of a numeric constant
or is the name of a scalar vector
if variable value is a vector name
if alias value forms of a numeric constant
if function returns a numeric value
Table 4.3: Syntax for arithmetic expressions
4.5.4 Garbage expressions
Expressions which do not satisfy any of the above syntax rules we want to call \garbage" expressions.
For example,
s = $OS$MACHINE
is not a proper string expression. Unless they appear in a macro statement where specically only
an arithmetic or a boolean expression is allowed, KUIP does not complain about these syntax errors.
Instead the following transformations are applied:
1 alias substitution
2 macro variable replacement values containing a blank character are implicitly quoted
3 system function calls are replaced one by one by their value provided that the argument is a
syntactically correct expression
4 string concatenation
The same transformations are also applied to command arguments. Therefore the concatenation
operator \//" can be omitted in many cases. For example,
MESS
MESS
MESS
MESS
$OS$MACHINE
$OS//$MACHINE
$EVAL($OS$MACHINE)
$EVAL($OS//$MACHINE)
Chapter 4. The KUIP interface
194
bool ::= expr rel-op expr
|
string eq-op string
|
expr eq-op string
|
.NOT. bool
|
bool .AND. bool
|
bool .OR. bool
|
( bool )
rel-op ::=
.LT.
|
.LE.
|
<
|
<=
|
.GT.
|
.GE.
|
>
|
>=
.EQ.
|
.NE.
=
|
<>
|
eq-op ::=
eq-op
|
Table 4.4: Syntax for boolean expressions
string ::= quoted-string
|
unquoted-string
|
string // string
|
expr // string
|
variable-name ]
|
alias-name
|
$system-function ( ...
concatenation
value of expression converted to string representation
)
Table 4.5: Syntax for string expressions
give all the same result.
4.5.5 The small-print on KUIP expressions
KUIP expressions are evaluated by a yacc-generated parser. Yacc (\Yet Another Compiler-Compiler") is a
standard Unix tool. It produces a C routine to parse an token stream which follows the syntax rules xed by
the grammar denition.
The parser needs as front-end a lexical analyzer which reads the input stream, separates it into tokens, and
returns the token type and its value to the parser. There is another Unix tool lex which can produce an
appropriate lexical analyser from a set of rules. In the case of KUIP the lexical analyser had to be hand-crafted
because the interpretation of a symbol depends very much on the global context. For example, if the input
stream consists is simply \foo" the lexical analyzer has to check consecutively:
{ If foo is dened as an alias:
{ If the alias value looks like a number, classify it as a number.
{ Otherwise classify the alias value as a string.
{ Otherwise classify it as the string \'foo'".
A similiar reasoning has to be applied for \foo]":
{ If foo is a dened macro variable:
{ If the variable value looks like a number, classify it as a number.
{ If the variable value is the name of a scalar vector, classify it as a number.
{ Otherwise classify the variable value as a string.
{ Otherwise classify it as the string \'foo]'".
4.5. Expressions
195
KUIP macro variables do not have to (and cannot) be declared. The value is always stored as a string and it
depends on the context whether the value should be interpreted as a number. Also there is no way to tell in
the beginning whether the right-hand side of an assignment is an arithmetic or a string expression.
The lexical analyzer starts o interpreting tokens as a numbers if it can. For example,
a = '1'
b = '2'
c = a]+b]
is tokenized as \number + number" and gives \c
originally quoted. If we have a string expression
= 3"
even though the values assigned to
a
and
b
are
foo]//bar]
this could result in the possible token sequences
string
number
string
number
//
//
//
//
string
string
number
number
depending whether the values of foo and bar look like a number. Accordingly we would have to dene four
grammar rules to cover these dierent cases. The same problem occurs in system functions expecting a string
argument, e.g.
$SUBSTRING(foo],2,3)
would need two rules for foo being a number or a genuine string.
Yacc allows to avoid this ination of necessary rules by using so-called lexical tie-ins. After having seen \//"
or \$SUBSTRING(" the parser can instruct the lexical analyzer that it should not attempt to classify the next
token as a number. Therefore a single rule for each system function is sucient.
However, a lexical tie-in can only be used after the parser found a unique match between the token sequence
and all grammar rules In the case of string concatenation we still have to provide two separate rules for
string // string
number // string
The grammar rule (see above) actually says that the left-hand side of the \//" operator can be either an
arithmetic or a string expression. An arithmetic expression is evaluated and then transformed into the result's
string representation. For example,
2*3//4
gives \'64'". On the other hand,
4//2*3
gives \'42*3'". It does not become \'46'" because the right-hand side is not consider to be an arithmetic
expression. It does also not become \126" because a result of a string operation is never again treated as a
number even if it looks like one.
The lexical analyzer forwards numbers in arithmetic expressions as oating point values to the parser. The
result is converted back to the string representation when it has to be stored in the macro variable. Since a
single numeric value already counts as an arithmetic expression the original string representation can be lost.
For example,
Chapter 4. The KUIP interface
196
a = '0123456789'
b = a]
MESS $LEN(a]) $LEN(b])
results in \10 11" because the assignment \b = 0123456789" is taken as an arithmetic expression which is
reformatted into 1.23457E+08. The reformatting can be inhibited by using
b = $UNQUOTE(a])
The $UNQUOTE function removes quotes around a string. If the string is already unquoted it does nothing
except that in this case the parser will treat the value of a] as a string.
Macros should not depend on this reformatting behaviour. We consider it as an obscure side-eect of the
present implemenation rather than a feature. If it causes inconvenience and we have a good idea how to avoid
it the behaviour may change in a future KUIP version.
4.6 Macros
A macro is a set of command lines stored in a le, which can be created and modied with any
text editor. The command EXEC envokes the macro and allows for two ways of specifying the macro
name:
EXEC file
EXEC file #macro
The rst form executes the rst macro contained in le while the second form selects the macro
named macro. The default extension for le is \.kumac".
Example of macro calls
PAW > EXEC abc
| Execute first (or unnamed) macro of file abc.kumac
PAW > EXEC abc#m | Execute macro M of file abc.kumac
In addition to all available KUIP commands the special \macro statements" in table 4.6 are valid
only inside macros (except for EXEC and APPLICATION, which are valid both inside and outside).
Note that the statement keywords are xed. Aliasing such as \ALIAS/CREATE jump GOTO" is not
allowed.
4.6.1 Macro denitions and variables
A .kumac le can contain several macros. An individual macro has the form
MACRO macro-name
statements
RETURN
parameter-list ]
Each statement is either a command line or one of the macro constructs described below. For the
rst macro in the le the MACRO header can be omitted. For the last macro in the le the RETURN
trailer may be omitted. Therefore a .kumac le containing only commands (like the LAST.KUMAC)
already constitutes a valid macro.
Inside a macro the EXEC statement may call other macros (see section ?? about restrictions for this).
Although the EXEC statement has the same form
4.6. Macros
197
Macro Statements
Description
Statement
MACRO mname var1=val1 ...
EXEC mname var1 var2=val2 ...
RETURN
READ var
SHIFT
label:
GOTO label
ON ERROR GOTO label
OF ERROR
ON ERROR
IF boolean expr GOTO label
IF-THEN, ELSEIF, ELSE, ENDIF
CASE, ENDCASE
WHILE-DO, ENDWHILE
REPEAT, UNTIL
DO, ENDDO
FOR, ENDFOR
BREAKL
EXITM
APPLICATION command marker
name = expression
begin macro mname
execute macro mname
end of a macro
read variable value from keyboard
control parameters list
label (must terminate with a colon)
jump to label
resume at label on error condition
temporarily deactivate the ON ERROR GOTO handling
reactivate the latest ON ERROR GOTO handling
conditional statement
Macro ow control
Macro ow control
Macro ow control
Macro ow control
Macro ow control
Macro ow control
Macro ow control
Macro termination
Inline text passed to application command
Variable assignment
Table 4.6: List of statements possible inside KUIP macros
EXEC
EXEC
macro argument-list ]
file#macro argument-list ]
as the EXEC command there are slight dierences. The command \EXEC name" executes the rst
macro in name.kumac while the EXEC statement will try rst whether a macro name is dened within
the current .kumac le.
The APPLICATION statement has the same form and similar functionality as the APPLICATION
command:
APPLICATION
text
marker
command
marker
The text up to the next line containing only the end marker starting in the rst column is written
to a temporary le and the passed to the application command. The text is not interpreted in any
way, i.e. variable substitution etc. does not take place.
Chapter 4. The KUIP interface
198
Macro variables
Macro variables do not have to be declared. They become dened by an assignment statement:
name = expression
The right-hand side of the assignment can be an arithmetic expression, a string expression, or a
garbage expression (see ??). The expression is evaluated and the result is stored as a string (even
for arithmetic expressions).
The variable value can be used in other expressions or in command lines by enclosing the name in
square brackets:
name]
For example,
greet = Hello
msg = greet]//' World'
MESS msg]
If the name enclosed in brackets is not a macro variable then no substitution takes place.
Variable values can also be queried from the user during macro execution. The statement
READ name
prompts for the variable value. If
default:
name
Macro using the READ statement
MACRO m
READ foo
bar = abc
READ bar
MESS foo] bar]
is already dened the present value will be proposed as
Output when executing
PAW > EXEC m
Macro M: foo ? (<CR>=foo]) 123
Macro M: bar ? (<CR>=abc)
123 abc
Macro arguments
The EXEC command can pass arguments to a macro. The arguments are assigned to the numbered
variables 1], 2], etc. For example, with the macro denition
MACRO m
MESS p1=1] p2=2]
we get the result
PAW > EXEC m foo bar
p1=foo p2=bar
4.6. Macros
199
Unlike named variables undened numbered variables are always replaced by the blank string ' ',
i.e.
PAW > EXEC m foo
p1=foo p2=' '
The MACRO statement can dene default values for missing arguments. With the macro denition
MACRO m 1=abc 2=def
MESS p1=1] p2=2]
we get the result
PAW > EXEC m foo
p1=foo p2=def
The macro parameters can also be named, for example:
MACRO m arg1=abc arg2=def
MESS p1=arg1] p2=arg2]
Even if the parameters are named the corresponding numbered variables are created nevertheless.
The named variables are a copy of their numbered counterparts rather that aliases, i.e. the above
macro denition is equivalent to
MACRO m 1=abc 2=def
arg1 = 1]
arg2 = 2]
The named parameters can be redened by a variable assignment which leaves the value of the
numbered variable untouched. For example,
MACRO m arg=old
MESS 1] arg]
arg = new
MESS 1] arg]
yields
PAW > EXEC m
old old
old new
The EXEC command allows to give values for named parameters in non-positional order. For example,
MACRO m arg1=abc arg2=def
MESS arg1] arg2]
can be used as
PAW > EXEC m arg2=foo
abc foo
Chapter 4. The KUIP interface
200
Unnamed EXEC arguments following a named argument are assigned to numbered variables beyond
the parameters listed in the MACRO denition. For example,
PAW > EXEC m arg1=foo bar
foo def
i.e. the second argument \bar" is not assigned to arg2] or 2] but to 3].
The construct name =value may also be used in the EXEC command for names not dened in the
macro's parameter list. The variable name is implicitly dened inside the macro. For example,
MACRO m
MESS foo]
yields
PAW > EXEC m
foo]
PAW > EXEC m foo=bar
bar
A string containing a \=" must be quoted if it should be passed to the macro literally:
PAW > EXEC m 'foo=bar'
foo=bar
Since a undened variable name can be thought of as having the value 'name]', the construct
IF var]<>'var]' THEN
allows to test whether such an external variable denition was provided.
Special variables
A numbered variable cannot be redened, i.e. an assignment such as \1
possibly manipulation of numbered variables is provided by the
= foo"
is illegal. The only
SHIFT
statement which copies 2] into 1], 3] into 2], etc. and discards the value of the last dened
numbered variable. For example, the construct
WHILE 1] <> ' ' DO
arg = 1]
...
SHIFT
ENDDO
allows to traverse the list of macro arguments.
For each macro the following special variables are always dened:
#] number of macro arguments
*] concatenation of all macro arguments, separated by blanks
@] EXITM return code of the last macro called by the current one. The value is \0" if the last
macro did not supply a return code or no macro has been called yet.
Like for numbered variables these names cannot be used on the left-hand side of an assignment. The
values or #] and *] are updated by the SHIFT statement.
4.6. Macros
201
Example of Input Macros
MACRO EXITMAC
MESSAGE At first, '@]' = @]
EXEC EXIT2
IF @] = 0 THEN
MESSAGE Macro EXIT2 successful
ELSE
MESSAGE Error in EXIT2 - code @]
ENDIF
RETURN
MACRO EXIT2
READ NUM
IF NUM] > 20 THEN
MESSAGE Number too large
EXITM NUM]-20
ELSE
VEC/CRE VV(NUM])
ENDIF
RETURN
Output when executing
PAW > EXEC EXITMAC
At first, @] = 0
Macro EXIT2: NUM ? 25
Number too large
Error in macro EXIT2 - code 5
PAW > EXEC EXITMAC
At first, @] = 0
Macro EXIT2: NUM ? 16
Macro EXIT2 successful
Variable indirection
Macro variables can be referenced indirectly. If the variable
variable the construct
name
contains the name of another
%name]
is substituted by its value. For example, this is another way to traverse the list of macro arguments:
DO i=1,#]
arg = %i]
...
ENDDO
There is only one level of indirection, i.e. the name contained in name may not start with another
\%".
Macro return code
Note that the RETURN statement ags the end of the macro denition and not the end of macro
execution, i.e. the construct
IF ... THEN
RETURN
ENDIF
| error!
is illegal. In order to return from a macro prematurely the statement
EXITM
value ]
or
EXITM
must be used. The value is stored into the variable @] in the calling macro. If no value is given it
defaults to zero.
Chapter 4. The KUIP interface
202
4.6.2 Flow control constructs
There are a variety of constructs available for controlling the ow of macro execution. Most for the
constructs extend over several lines up to an end clause. The complete block counts as a single
statement and inside each block may be nested other block statements.
The simplest form of ow control is provided by the
GOTO label
statement which continues execution at the statement following the target label:
label:
If the jump leads into the scope of a block statement, for example a DO-loop, the result is undened.
The target may be given a variable containing the actual label name, e.g.
name = label
...
GOTO name]
...
label:
Conditional execution
IF expression THEN
statements
ELSEIF expression THEN
statements
...
ELSEIF expression THEN
statements
ELSE
statements
ENDIF
The general IF construct executes the statements following the rst IF/ELSEIF clause for with the
boolean expression is true and then continues at the statement following the ENDIF.
The ELSEIF clause can be repeated any number of times or can be omitted altogether. If none of
the expressions is true, the statements following the optional ELSE clause are executed.
CASE expression IN
(label) statement
...
(label) statement
ENDCASE
statements ]
statements ]
4.6. Macros
203
The CASE switch evaluates the string expression and compares it one by one against the label lists
until the rst match is found. If a match is found the statements up to the next label are executed
before skipping to the statement following the ENDCASE. None of the statements are executed if
there is no match with any label.
Each label is a string constant and the comparison witht the selection expression is case-sensitive. A
label followed by another label without intervening statement is considered as a syntax error. If the
same statement sequence should be executed for distinct values a comma-separated list of values
can be used.
The \*" character in a label item acts as wildcard matching any string of zero or more characters,
i.e. \(*)" constitutes the default label.
Example for CASE labels with wildcards
MACRO CASE
READ FILENAME
CASE FILENAME] IN
(*.ftn, *.for) TYPE = FORTRAN
(*.c)
TYPE = C
(*.p)
TYPE = PASCAL
(*)
TYPE = UNKNOWN
ENDCASE
MESSAGE FILENAME] is a TYPE] file.
RETURN
IF expression GOTO label
This old-fashioned construct is equivalent to
IF expression THEN
GOTO label
ENDIF
ON ERROR GOTO label
This construct allows to install an error handler. If any of the commands executed in the macro ags
an error condition then macro execution continues at the given target label. The error handler can
be deactivated by the statement
OF ERROR
and reactivated by the statement
ON ERROR
Chapter 4. The KUIP interface
204
Loop constructs
The loop constructs allow the repeated execution of command sequences. For DO-loops and FORloops the number of iterations is xed before entering the loop body. For WHILE and REPEAT the
loop count depends on the boolean expression evaluated for each iteration.
DO loop = start_expr, finish_expr
statements
ENDDO
, step_expr ]
The step size defaults to \1". The arithmetic expressions involved can be oating point values but
care must be taken of rounding errors. A DO-loop is equivalent to the construct
loop_count = 0
max_count = ( finish-expr - start_expr ) / step_expr
loop = start_expr
step = step_expr
label:
IF loop_count] <= max_count] THEN
statements
loop = loop] + step]
loop_count = loop_count] + 1
GOTO label
ENDIF
where all variables except for loop are temporary.
Note that \DO i=1,0" results in zero iterations and that the expressions are evaluated only one. i.e.
the loop
n = 10
DO i=1,n]
MESS i] n]
n = n] - 1
ENDDO
is iterated 10 times and leaves \i
= 11"
afterwards.
FOR name IN expr_1 expr_2 ... expr_n ]
statements
ENDFOR
In a FOR-loop the number of iterations is determined by the number of items in the blank-separated
expression list. The expression list must not be empty. One by one each expression evaluated and
assigned to the variable name before the statements are executed. The equivalent construct is the
loop-unrolling
name = expr_1
statements
name = expr_2
statements
...
name = expr_n
statements
4.6. Macros
205
The expressions can be of any type: arithmetic, string, or garbage expressions, and they do not need
to be all of the same type. In general each expression is a single list item even if the result contains
blanks. For example,
foobar = 'foo bar'
FOR item IN foobar]
MESS item]
ENDFOR
results in a single iteration. The variable *] is treated as a special case being equivalent to
the expression list \1] 2] ... n]" which allows yet another construct to traverse the macro
arguments:
FOR arg IN *]
...
ENDFOR
WHILE expression DO
statements
ENDWHILE
The WHILE-loop is iterated while the boolean expression evaluates to true. The loop body is not
executed at all if the boolean expression is false already in the beginning. The equivalent construct
is:
label:
IF expression THEN
statements
GOTO label
ENDIF
REPEAT
statements
UNTIL expression
The body of a REPEAT-loop is executed at least once and iterated until the boolean expression
evaluates to true. The equivalent construct is:
label:
statements
IF .NOT. expression GOTO label
BREAKL
allows to terminate a loop prematurely. The BREAKL continues executing after the end clause of the
innermost DO, FOR, WHILE, or REPEAT construct. For example,
Chapter 4. The KUIP interface
206
Example of Input Macros
MACRO DOC10
NAME='TEST'
DO I=1,3
EXEC NAME]I]
ENDDO
RETURN
MACRO TEST1
MESS 'Inside macro TEST1'
RETURN
MACRO TEST2
MESS 'Inside macro TEST2'
RETURN
MACRO TEST3
MESS 'Inside macro TEST3'
RETURN
Output when executing
PAW > EXEC DOC10
Inside macro TEST1
Inside macro TEST2
Inside macro TEST3
WHILE 1=1 DO
...
IF expr THEN
BREAKL
ENDIF
...
ENDWHILE
is equivalent to
WHILE 1=1 DO
...
IF expr GOTO label
...
ENDWHILE
label:
4.6.3 Restrictions for the EXEC statements
As for the label in a GOTO statement the macro name in the EXEC statement can be an expression
which evaluates to the proper name at execution time. In \EXEC name]" the value to name] must
point to a macro within the same .kumac le.
It is also possible to use inside a macro command aliases containing an EXEC command. However,
there are a few restrictions which have to be respected.
KUIP uses a macro compiler/interpreter scheme: The macros dened in the .kumac le are translated into an internal format, a kind of machine language which is then interpreted. The present
implementation is based on Fortran for which recursive calls of subroutines must be avoided by all
means. If recursion occurs nevertheless the result varies between undened behaviour and program
crashes.
Therefore the EXEC statement cannot simply envoke the EXEC command because the corresponding
action routine is still active. Instead the compiler scans the input le for further EXEC calls and
translates all referenced .kumac les before macro execution can start. Under some circumstances
the EXEC calls escape the compiler:
4.7. Motif mode
207
{ Do not use \EXE" or any other abbreviation of the command name /MACRO/EXEC inside a macro! The macro compiler looks for the exact match of \EXEC" only. (It is also
recommendable to spell it as EXEC when typing commands because otherwise the recording in
last.kumac will not be usable without editing.)
{ Do not use an alias which is created in the macro execution itself! The macro compiler
intercepts EXEC calls hidden behind aliases. However, the alias must be known already at
compilation time while the ALIAS/CREATE will become eective only at execution time.
4.7 Motif mode
4.7.1 The KUIP/Motif Browser Interface
The KUIP/Motif Browser interface is a general tool to display and manipulate a tree structure of
objects which are dened either by KUIP itself (commands, les, macros, etc.) or by the application
(e.g. in PAW++: Zebra and Hbook les, Chains, etc.). The objects contained in the currently
selected directory can be displayed in various forms: big icons, small icons, text only, etc. It is
possible to perform actions on these objects or the directories itselves by accessing popup menus
directly attached to them: this behavior of the browser gives access to a \direct object manipulation"
user interface by opposition to the usual \command mode interface". Adding your application specic
objects into the browser is mainly done through the KUIP \Command Denition File" (CDF): you
will not get involved in any kind of Motif programming.
Description of the \Main Browser" Window
For any application based on KUIP/Motif one browser will be automatically created and displayed:
it is called the \Main Browser". Later on it is possible to \clone" this browser (by pressing the
corresponding button at the bottom/right) when it is in a certain state. This will give to the user the
possibility to have several instances of the browser window, and look at the same time to dierent
kind of objects.
A \browser window" is composed of (Fig. 4.7):
A menu bar with the menu entries \File" ➀, \View" ➁, \Options" ➂, \Commands" ➃ and
\Help" ➄.
A two lines text/label area (➊ et ➋).
The middle part of the browser is divided into two scrollable windows: the \FileList" or \Browsable window" ➌ at the left and the \DirList" or \Object window" ➍ at the right.
Two lines of information at the bottom (➎ et ➏), plus a \Clone" ➑ and a \Close" ➒ buttons.
Below follows a description of the middle (amd main) part of the browser which is divided into two
scrollable windows on the left and right sides (Fig. 4.7):
The left hand \FileList" or \Browsable window" ➌ shows the list of all the currently connected
browsables. As you will see with more detail (sections ?? and ??), a \browsable" is simply a
container of objects and is dened with the \>Browse" directive in the CDF. The browsables
\Commands", \Files" and \Macros" are built-in inside KUIP itself and are always displayed.
Chapter 4. The KUIP interface
208
➀ ➁
➂
➃
➄
➊ ➋
➌
➍
➐
➎➏
Figure 4.7: KUIP/Motif \Main Browser" Window
➑
➒
4.7. Motif mode
209
Each application can add to this list its own denitions for any kind of browsables (e.g. in
PAW++: \Zebra", \Hbook", \Chains" and \PAWC") Some browsables can also be attached
at run time by selecting the corresponding \Open" entry in the menu \File" (e.g. in PAW++:
ZEBRA/RZ les for access to histograms and ntuples).
Pressing the right mouse button in this window shows a popup menu with all the possible
actions which have been dened for this browsable.
Selecting one item (or browsable) in this window with the left mouse button executes by default
the \List" action (rst entry of the popup menu): it displays the content of the browsable in
the right hand window (\dirList" or \Object window")
Note that the rst entry of the popup menu of actions for one browsable is always \List"
and that the last entry is always \Help" : it should give information concerning the selected
browsable (see section ?? to know how to ll the information).
The right hand \DirList" or \Object window" ➍ shows the content of the currently selected
browsable for the selected path.
E.g. when you select the browsable \Macro" (built-in inside KUIP), you will get all the KUIP
macro les and sub-directories which are contained in the selected directory.
Objects are selected by clicking on them with the left mouse button. Pressing the right mouse
button pops up a menu of possible operations depending on the object type ➐.
An item in a popup menu is selected by pointing at the corresponding line and releasing the
right mouse button. Double clicking with the left mouse button is equivalent to selecting the
rst menu item.
Each menu item executes a command sequence where the name of the selected object is lled
into the appropriate place. By default the command is executed immediately whenever possible. (The commands executed can be seen by selecting \Echo Commands" in the \Options"
menu of the \Executive Window".)
In case some mandatory parameters are missing the corresponding \Command Argument
Panel" is displayed, and he remaining arguments have to be lled in. The command is executed
then by pressing the \OK" or \Execute" button. (Note that if it is not the last one in the
sequence of commands bound to the menu item, the application is blocked until the \OK" or
\Cancel" button is pressed.)
All the application specic denitions for the entities accessible through the browser (objects, browsables and action menus) have to be made in the \Command Denition File" (CDF) with a very
simple and easy-readable syntax. This will be described in detail in the sections ?? and ??.
The two lines text/label area at the top displays information about (Fig. 4.7):
the current path (or directory) for the selected browsable ➊ (entry \Path:"). The directory can
be changed by pointing at the tail of the wanted subpath and clicking the left mouse button.
Clicking a second time on the same path segment performs the directory change and updates
the \DirList" window with the list of objects.
the number of objects of all the dierent classes dened for the selected browsable in the
current directory ➋.
The two lines of information at the bottom are lled with (Fig. 4.7):
a short description of the browsable which is currently selected ➎ (entry \File:"),
Chapter 4. The KUIP interface
210
a short description of the object which is selected in the \object window" for a given browsable
➏.
Below follows a description of the dierent Browser menus:
File
This menu can be lled by the application with menu entries (buttons) which give access to the
commands that can be used to connect or de-connect a new browsable at run time (e.g. in PAW++
the commands to open or close ZEBRA/RZ les).
These buttons/menu entries are automatically generated from the denition of the action menus for
the browsables made in the CDF (see ??).
The last entry of this menu is always \Exit", to exit from the application.
E.g. The \File" menu in the PAW++ \Main Browser":
Open Hbook File... Open one ZEBRA/RZ le.
Close Hbook File... Close one ZEBRA/RZ le.
Exit
Exit from the application.
View
This menu allows to change the way objects are displayed or selected.
Icons
Small Icons
No Icons
Titles
Select All
Filter...
display objects with normal size icons and names (default).
display objects with small icons and names.
display objects without icons, but names and small titles.
display objects without icons, but long titles.
select all the objects.
ask for a lter to be put on object names.
4.7. Motif mode
211
Options
Raise Window
\cascade button" with the list of all
opened windows. Selecting one of
this window will popup the window
on top of the others.
Command Argument Panel selecting this entry will prompt the
user for a command name. If the
command is valid then the corresponding \Command Argument
Panel" with the list and description
of all parameters will be displayed.
If the command is ambiguous (e.g.
command \list") the user will be
proposed a list of all the possible
commands. He can then select one
and the corresponding \Command
Argument Panel" will be displayed.
If the command does not exist an
error message is displayed.
Commands
This menu gives access to the
complete tree of commands dened by KUIP and the application in the form of a pulldown menu. When a terminal item (command) in this
menu is selected then the corresponding \Command Argument
Panel" is displayed. The functionality of this menu is quite
similar to the browsable \Commands" (this is just a matter of
taste wether the user prefer to
access commands through this
pulldown menu or through the
\Commands" browser).
Chapter 4. The KUIP interface
212
Help
On fAppl.g
Help specic to the application (has to
be written in the CDF (Command Denition File)).
On fAppl.g Resources Help specic to the application resources
(has to be written in the CDF (Command
Denition File)). Resources control the
appearance and behavior of an application.
On Kuip Resources
List the X resources available to any
KUIP/Motif based application.
On Browser
Help on the KUIP/Motif Browser interface (\Main Browser").
On Panel
Help on the KUIP/Motif \PANEL interface".
On System Functions List KUIP all internal system functions
currently available.
4.7.2 KXTERM: the KUIP Terminal Emulator (or \Executive Window")
This terminal emulator combines the best features from the (now defunct) Apollo DM pads (Input
Pad and Transcript Pad, automatic le backup of Transcript Pad, string search in pads, etc.) and
the Korn shell emacs-style command line editing and command line recall mechanism.
Description and Behavior
KXTERM (or what we call the \Executive Window" in a KUIP based application) is composed of
three main parts (Fig. 4.8):
A \menu bar" with the menu entries \File" ➀, \Edit" ➁, \View"➂, \Options"➃, and \Help"➄,.
A Transcript Pad ➋ which contains any kind of output coming from KUIP or from the
application.
An Input Pad ➊ which is an editable \scrolled widow" where the user can type commands.
Commands are typed in the input pad behind the application prompt. Via the toggle buttons ➍
labeled \H" the Input Pad and/or Transcript Pad can be placed in hold mode. In hold mode one
can paste or type a number of commands into the Input Pad and edit them without sending the
commands to the application. Releasing the hold button will causes Kxterm to submit all lines, up
to the line containing the cursor, to the application. To submit the lines below the cursor, just move
the cursor down. In this way one can still edit the lines just before they are being submitted to the
application.
Commands can be edited in the Input Pad using emacs-like key sequences (see section 4.7.2). The
Transcript Pad shows the executed commands and command output. When in hold mode the
Transcript Pad does not scroll to make the new text visible.
Every time the current directory is changed, the Current working directory indicator ➌ is updated.
The current working directory is the one which is currently selected in the \Main Browser".
Below follows a description of the dierent Kxterm menus:
4.7. Motif mode
➀ ➁ ➂
213
➃
➊
➄
➋
➀
➁
➂
➃
➄
Menu bar entry \File".
Menu bar entry \Edit".
Menu bar entry \View".
Menu bar entry \Options".
Menu bar entry \Help".
➊
➋
➌
➍
Input Pad
Transcript Pad
➌
Current working directory indicator.
Hold buttons.
Figure 4.8: KXTERM (KUIP/Motif \Executive Window")
➍
Chapter 4. The KUIP interface
214
File
About Kxterm...
Displays version information about Kxterm.
About fAppl.g ...
Displays version information about the
application Kxterm is servicing.
Save Transcript
Write the contents of the Transcript
Pad to the current le. If there is no
current le a le selection box will appear.
Save Transcript As... Write the contents of the Transcript
Pad to a user-specied le.
Print...
Print the contents of the Transcript Pad
(not yet implemented).
Kill fAppl.g
Send a SIGINT signal to the application
to cause it to core dump. This is useful when the application is hanging or
blocked. Use only in emergency situations.
Exit
Exit Kxterm and the application.
Edit
Cut
Remove the selected text. The selected text is written
to the Cut & Paste buer. Using the \Paste" function,
it can be written to any X11 program. In the Transcript Pad \Cut" defaults to the \Copy" function.
Copy
Copy the selected text. The selected text is written to
the Cut & Paste buer. Using the \Paste" function,
it can be written to any X11 program.
Paste
Insert text from the Cut & Paste buer at the cursor
location into the Input Pad.
Search... Search for a text string in the Transcript Pad.
View
Show Input
Show in a window all commands entered
via the Input Pad.
Command Panel
Gives
access
to the KUIP/Motif \PANEL interface"
for a panel which has been pre-dened in
a KUIP macro le (see section 4.7.3).
New Command Panel Gives
access
to the KUIP/Motif \PANEL interface"
for setting a new and empty panel to be
lled interactively (see section 4.7.3).
Browser
Display another instance of the browser.
4.7. Motif mode
215
Options
Clear Transcript Pad Clear all text o of the top of the Transcript Pad.
Echo Command
Echo executed commands in Transcript
Pad.
Timing
Report command execution time (real and
CPU time).
Iconify
Iconify Kxterm and all windows of the application.
Raise Window
Display a list of all windows connected to
the application. The user can select the
window he wants to popup.
Help
On Kxterm
On Edit Keys
The help you are currently reading.
Help on the emacs-style edit key sequences.
On fAppl.g
Help specic to the application (has to
be written in the CDF).
On fAppl.g Resources Help specic to the application resources
(has to be written in the CDF). Resources control the appearance and behavior of an application.
On Kuip Resources
List the X resources available to any
KUIP/Motif based application.
On Browser
Help on the KUIP/Motif Browser interface (\Main Browser").
On Panel
Help on the KUIP/Motif \PANEL interface".
On System Functions List all KUIP internal system functions
currently available.
All Kxterm menu's may be dynamically extended by the application (see section ??).
Edit Key Sequences
Please note that \C-b" means holding down the Control key and pressing the \b"-key. \M-" stands
for the Meta or Alt key.
C-b:
M-b:
Shift M-b:
M-:
Shift M-:
M-<:
C-a:
Shift C-a:
C-osfInsert:
backward character
backward word
backward word, extend selection
backward paragraph
backward paragraph, extend selection
beginning of file
beginning of line
beginning of line, extend selection
copy to clipboard
Chapter 4. The KUIP interface
216
Shift osfDelete:
Shift osfInsert:
Alt->:
M->:
C-e:
Shift C-e:
C-f:
M-]:
Shift M-]:
C-M-f:
C-d:
M-BS:
C-w:
C-y:
C-k:
C-u:
M-DEL:
C-o:
C-j:
C-n:
C-osfLeft:
C-osfRight:
C-p:
C-g:
C-l:
C-osfDown:
C-osfUp:
C-SPC:
C-c:
C-h:
F8:
Shift F8:
Shift-TAB:
cut to clipboard
paste from clipboard
end of file
end of file
end of line
end of line, extend selection
forward character
forward paragraph
forward paragraph, extend selection
forward word
kill next character
kill previous word
kill region
yank back last thing killed
kill to end of line
kill line
kill to start of line
newline and backup
newline and indent
get next command, in hold mode: next line
page left
page right
get previous command, in hold mode: previous line
process cancel
redraw display
next page
previous page
set mark here
send kill signal to application
toggle hold button of pad containing input focus
re-execute last executed command
put last executed command in input pad
change input focus
4.7.3 User Denable Panels of Commands (\PANEL interface")
KUIP/Motif includes a built-in \PANEL interface" that allows to dene command sequences which
are executed when the corresponding button in the panel is pressed (like "STYLE GP" in the basic
KUIP).
New Panel
It is possible to ll this new and empty panel interactively (see section 4.7.3) giving a label to each
button.
You can get automatically access to the command \NEWPANEL" (and its corresponding \Command
Argument Panel") by selecting the menu item \New Command Panel" in the \View" menu of the
\Executive Window" (KXTERM, Fig. 4.7.2).
Predened Panel of Commands
The previous command sequence (PANEL ...) has to be used if you want to describe your panel in
a KUIP macro le in order to keep trace of the panel denition, and be able to retrieve it later on.
You can pre-dene as many panels as you want, and you can easily access them by selecting the
menu item \Command Panel" in the \View" menu of the \Executive Window" (section 4.7.2).
4.7. Motif mode
217
NEWPANEL 4 6 'First panel' _
250 200 500 600
This new command of KUIP creates an empty
panel with 4 rows and 6 columns of buttons.
The title of this panel will be set to \First
panel". The panel size in pixels is 250 (width) x
200 (height), and the panel position (in pixels)
is 500 (along X axis), 600 (along Y axis).
This new panel denition can also be done with the command PANEL using the sequence
PANEL 0
PANEL 4.06 ' '
PANEL 0 D 'This is my first panel' 250x200+500+600
Figure 4.9: New Panel of Commands
You can describe in the KUIP macro le(s) each button or each line of buttons individually. You
can also request the macro(s) execution in your \KUIP logon" le so that the panel(s) will be
automatically displayed at the begining of the session.
Panel Edition and Saving
All the panels (new or pre-dened) can be edited interactively. Clicking with the left mouse button
on a panel button removes its denition. Clicking with the right mouse button on an empty panel
button the user will be asked to give a denition to this button:
The PANEL commands needed to recreate a panel can be automatically saved into a macro le
by pressing the "Save" button ➋ (Fig. 4.10). The panel conguration with its current size and
Chapter 4. The KUIP interface
218
➀
➁
➂
KUIP Macro for panel denition
*
* MOTIF_PANEL panel_test.kumac
*
panel 0
panel 3.02 'lis'
panel 3.03 'null 1 100 1 100'
panel 4.03 'file'
panel 6.01 'FUNDEMO'
panel 6.03 'null'
panel 0 d 'Test Panel' 371x207+670+634
➊
➋
➌
➀ ➁ ➂ Some pre-dened buttons
➊ Close button (to close panel)
➋ Save button (to save panel into a KUIP macro le)
➌ Help on the \PANEL interface" (Editing and Saving)
Figure 4.10: Predened Panel of Commands
position (which can be modied interactively) is kept into the macro. Panels can be reloaded either
by executing the command 'PANEL 0 D' or by pressing the "Command Panel" button in the "View"
menu of the \Executive Window" and entering the corresponding macro le name.
Some characters in the panel keys/buttons have a special meaning:
The dollar sign inside a key is replaced by additional keyboard input. For example:
'VEC/PRI V($)'
| entering 11:20 will execute VEC/PRI V(11:20)
Keys ending with a minus sign make an additional request of keyboard input. For example:
'VEC/PRI-'
| entering VAB will execute VEC/PRI VAB.
Keys ending with a double minus sign make an additional request of keyboard input.
example:
VEC/PRI V--'
For
| entering AB will execute VEC/PRI VAB
4.7.4 KUIP/Motif X-Windows Resources
X-Windows resources control the appearance and behavior of an application. Users who are not
pleased with the default values proposed for any resources that can aect their KUIP/Motif based
4.7. Motif mode
219
application, can override them by specifying their own values in the standard X11 way : i.e. by
editing their private \.Xdefaults" le or the system wide \/usr/lib/X11/app-defaults/<appl class>".
Each new resource has to be specied on a separate line. The syntax for editing one specic resource
is always the following:
<appl. class>*<resource name>: <resource value>
where:
\appl. class" has to be replaced by the real application class name (e.g. \Paw++" for PAW++)
which is the input parameter of the routine KUWHAM (section ??).
\resource value" is the value to be given to the corresponding \resource name". It can be an
integer, a boolean value, a color, a font, or any kind of pre-dened syntax (e.g. for geometry).
The following is a (non exhaustive) list of the most important or frequently used X-Windows resources
for a KUIP/Motif based application. The default values provided by KUIP/Motif (if any) are put
inside \']".
Background and foreground color for all windows (except KXTERM):
...*background: ...
...*foreground: ...
Geometry ('width]x'height]+'xpos]+'ypos]) of the \Executive Window" (KXTERM):
...*kxtermGeometry: ... '650x450+0+0]
Geometry of the Browser(s):
...*kuipBrowser shell.geometry: ... '-0+0] (1) or '+0+485] (2)
(1) without any graphics window - (2) with graphics window(s) managed by HIGZ.
Geometry of the Graphics Window(s) (if any):
...*kuipGraphics shell.geometry: ... '600x600-0+0]
Character font for menus, buttons and dialog area:
...*fontList: ... '-adobe-helvetica-bold-r-normal{12-120-75-75-p-70-iso8859-1]
Character font for the Input Pad and Transcript Pad (KXTERM):
...*kxtermFont: ... '*-courier-medium-r-normal*-120-*]
Character font for the \HELP" windows:
...*helpFont: ... '*-courier-bold-r-normal*-120-*]
Character font for all \Text" widgets:
...*XmText*fontList: ...
...*XmTextField*fontList: ...
Character font for the icon labels in the browser(s) \Object window":
...*dirlist*fontList: ...
Chapter 4. The KUIP interface
220
Background and foreground colors for the \Object window" in browser(s):
...*dirlist*background: ...
...*dirlist*foreground: ...
Background and foreground colors for the icons associated to the object class \obclass":
...*dirlist*<obclass>*iconBackground: ... 'white]
...*dirlist*<obclass>*iconForeground: ... 'black]
Background and foreground colors for the icon-labels associated to the object class \obclass":
...*dirlist*<obclass>*iconLabelBackground: ... 'white]
...*dirlist*<obclass>*iconLabelForeground: ... 'black]
Possibility to turn on/o the zooming eect when traversing directories structures inside the
browser(s):
...*zoomEect: ... 'on]
Speed of the zooming eect in the browser(s) when turned on:
...*zoomspeed: ... '10]
Double click interval in milliseconds (time span within which 2 button clicks must occur to be
considered as a double click rather than two single clicks):
...*doubleClickInterval: ... '250]
Background and foreground colors for the \Browsable window" in browser(s):
...*leList*background: ...
...*leList*foreground: ...
Focus policy:
...*keyboardFocusPolicy: ...
If \explicit" focus is set by the mouse or a keyboard command. If \pointer" focus is determined
by the mouse pointer position.
The appearance and behavior of the \Executive Window" are managed by \KXTERM" whose
class-name is \KXterm". It means that, for instance, to change the background and foreground
color of the \Executive Window", one has to override the following resources:
KXterm*background: ...
KXterm*foreground: ...
To this list of resources one can add all the resources which can aect any Motif widgets which are
used by KUIP/Motif.
Concerning the appareance of the icons built-in inside KUIP/Motif (browsers for \Commands",
\Files" and \Macro"), the classes of objects which are currently pre-dened are:
Cmd
InvCmd
Menu
-- Command
-- Deactivated command
-- Menu tree
4.8. Nitty-Gritty
MacFile
RwFile
RoFile
NoFile
ExFile
DirFile
DirUpFile
--------
221
Macro File
Read-write file
Readonly file
No access file
Executable file
Directory
Up directory (..)
4.8 Nitty-Gritty
4.8.1 System dependencies
KUIP tries to provide as far as possible a homogenous environment across dierent operating systems
and hardware platforms. Here we want to summarize the remaining system-dependencies. To a large
extend the comments made on Unix apply also to the MS-DOS and Windows/NT implementations.
SHELL command
The SHELL command allows to pass a command line to the underlying operating system for execution.
If used without arguments the SHELL command suspends the application program and allows to enter
OS commands interactively. When leaving the subprocess, either with the command return or exit
depending on the system, the application resumes execution.
Unix
The command HOST SHELL denes the shell to be invoked. The start-up value is
taken from the environment variable SHELL or set to sh if undened.
The command line is not necessarily passed to the shell as dened by HOST SHELL.
See the system(3) man page on your Unix system for details. On some Unix
implementations the SHELL command can fail if there is not enough free swap space
to duplicate the current process.
VMS
The SHELL command spawns a subprocess with a DCL command processor. This
is notoriously slow and there is no way to combine several DCL commands into one
SHELL command.
VM/CMS \SHELL cmd" rst tries to nd the le \CMD EXEC *" and execute it as a REXX
script. Otherwise the command is passed as-is which will either run \CMD MODULE
*" or execute the genuine CMS command CMD. There are some restrictions on the
kind of modules that can be executed in CMS subset mode. CP commands have to
be prexed, e.g. \SHELL CP Q TIME".
EDIT command
The EDIT command allows to edit a le without leaving the application program. The command
HOST EDITOR denes the editor to be invoked. The start-up value is taken from the environment
variables KUIPEDITOR, EDITOR, or set to a system dependent default.
HOST EDITOR sets the shell command (sans lename) for starting the editor. Some values have a
system dependent special meaning.
Unix
The default editor is vi. The shell command containing a \&" does not necessarily
mean that the editor will run as a background process (see section ??).
On Apollo/DomainOS \DM" uses the Display Manager editor. This is the default if
the application program is started from a DM pad.
Chapter 4. The KUIP interface
222
VMS
VM/CMS
The special names EDT and TPU use the callable interface to these two editors. The
startup time is much less than, for example EDIT/TPU which spawns a subprocess.
However, there is a problem with the callable EDT. If any error condition occurs
(invalid lename etc.) the callable EDT will be unusable for the rest of the session.
There is only one possible HOST EDITOR: XEDIT. For editing large les the virtual
machine's size must be dimensioned that the application program and XEDIT t into
the available memory at the same time.
Exception handling
KUIP installs a signal handler in order to catch exceptions and return to the command input prompt.
The command \BREAK OFF" disables the signal handler, i.e. the program aborts in case of an
exceptions. For some systems \BREAK ON" allows to request a traceback of where the exception has
happened.
There are two major types of exceptions caught by the signal handler. Program exceptions indicate
either a bug in the application program (or KUIP) or insu"cient protection against invalid input:
Floating point exceptions are caused by divide by zero, oating point overow, square root of
negative numbers etc. Floating point underows are usually silently ignored and the result
is treated as being zero.
Segmentation violation indicates an attempt to read or write a memory location outside the address
space reserved by the process, e.g. if an array index is out of bounds. In C code it is most
often caused by dereferencing a NULL pointer which is prohibited on many systems.
Bus error is usually caused by an unaligned access. Most RISC processors have strict requirements
for properly aligned data.
Illegal instruction can mean that the program tries to executed data as code, for example if the
return address on the stack has been overwritten.
Don't be surprised if the program shows irregular behaviour after an exception!
The second type of exceptions handled by the KUIP signal handler are user breaks. Hitting the break
key (usually Ctrl-C) aborts a running command and returns to the input prompt. Using Ctrl-C
is potentially unsafe unless the application is properly coded to block keyboard interrupts in critical
sections. Otherwise the interrupt can happen at an inconvinient moment which leaves the program's
data structures in an inconsistent state. The signal handler prompts the user after three consecutive
keyboard interrupts to allow exiting from a run-away process.
Unix
VMS
VM/CMS
The actual break key can be changed with the Unix command stty. The default
setup usually is \stty intr ^C". Unix provides a second kind of keyboard interrupt
which is intentionally not caught by the KUIP signal handler to allow killing run-away
processes. A convenient setting is \stty quit '\\'"
User break interception does not work for Windows/NT. Tell Microsoft that signal
handlers are pretty useless if they are not allowed to use printf and longjmp.
The user break key is Ctrl-C. Ctrl-Y is treated like Ctrl-C, i.e. it does not bring
up the DCL prompt.
There is no user break for VM/CMS. To abort a run-away session use
#CP EXT
HX
4.8. Nitty-Gritty
223
4.8.2 The edit server
By default editing from within a KUIP application is synchronous, i.e. the application is suspended
until the editor terminates. On a workstation this is an inconvenient restriction because the editor
can run in a separate window while the application continues to accept commands.
Although not an issue for the KUIP/EDIT command itself there are applications (notably cmz) which
have to process the le content after it has been edited. Therefore the editor cannot be simply started
as a background process.
To take care of this problem KUIP provides a facility called the \edit server". Instead of calling the
editor directly, KUIP starts the editor server as a background process which leaves the application
program ready to accept more commands. The server invokes the editor and waits for it. When the
editor terminates the server informs the application program about the le which is ready. KUIP can
then call the application routine for processing the edited le.
The processing routine cannot be called at the very instant the le is ready. KUIP waits until the user
hits the RETURN-key to execute the next command. The le is then checked in before the command
just entered is executed.
As a protection especially for users working alternately on a terminal or on a workstation KUIP does
not try asynchronous editing if one of the following conditions is missing:
{ The edit server module kuesvr must be found in the search path.
{ The editor command set by HOST EDITOR must end with an ampersand (\&").
{ The environment variable DISPLAY must be set.
Note that the editor command must create its own window, possibly by wrapping the editor into a
terminal window. For convenience \HOST_EDITOR 'vi &'" is interpreted automatically as \xterm
-e cmd &".
The edit server cannot be used for the Apollo DM editor. Some Unix windowing editors tend to fork
themselves as a detached process by default. For example the jot editor found on Silicon Graphics
systems requires a special option \-noFork". Otherwise the edit server and the application think
that the editor has already terminated leaving the the le unchanged.
In the KUIP/Motif interface it is essential to use the edit server mechanism. Otherwise invoking the
editor from a pop-up menu freezes the screen when the right-hand mouse button is pressed before
the subprocess terminates2 . The screen can only be unlocked by logging in remotely and killing the
application program.
For VMS asynchronous editing is presently implemented only in the Motif version using the
TPU/DISPLAY=MOTIF
windowing editor.
4.8.3 Implementation details
Command search order
With the various possibilities of changing the interpretation of a command line it is sometimes
important to know the exact order in which the dierent mechanisms are applied:
2
Can somebody elucidate this problem or knows a workaround? It seems that the application does not receive the buttonrelease event and therefore the Motif pop-up menu never releases the pointer grab???
Chapter 4. The KUIP interface
224
1 If the input line contains a semicolon line separator (section ??), split o the front part and deal
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
with the rest later. In case the line separator is \&&" or \&!" the execution of the remaining
line depends on the status code of the rst command.
If executing a macro script, substitute all variables by their values.
If the rst token is a command alias (section ??), substitute it by its value. If the replacement
contains a semicolon line separator, start again at step 1. In order to protect against recursive
aliases stop if a reasonable upper limit on the number of iterations is exceeded.
Unless the command name belongs to the KUIP/ALIAS menu, substitute argument aliases.
Argument aliases can occur in the command name position but they may not contain semicolon
line separators.
Substitute system functions (section ??).
If executing a macro with \TRACE ON", show the present command line. If \TRACE ON WAIT"
prompt for further actions:
{ execute command
{ skip execution of this command
{ quit execution of macro script
{ continue macro execution without further prompting
Separator rst token (command name cmd) from the rest of the line (argument list).
Unless executing a macro, if \DEFAULT -AutoReverse" (section ??) is active and cmd.kumac
is found in the macro search path, transform the command name into EXEC. The command
token itself has to be put back in the front of the other argument. If the command token
contains a \#" character we had to separate the front part before searching for the .kumac
le.
Match cmd as abbreviation against the command tree:
{ If cmd begins with a slash, start at the top menu.
{ Otherwise start at the SET/ROOT menu if there is no match and the current root is not
the top menu itself, start again at the top menu.
Unless executing a macro, if \DEFAULT -Auto" is active and cmd is either not a command or
ambiguous, try again procedure of step 8.
If a SET/COMMAND template is dened and cmd is unknown as command name, i.e. not just
ambiguous, apply the template replacement and go back to step 1. SET/COMMAND must be
disabled temporarily to avoid an innite recursion in case the template itself is an invalid
command.
If cmd is ambiguous, show the list of possible solutions and exit.
If cmd is not a valid command name, print error message and exit.
Otherwise tokenize the argument list and call the action routine for the command.
Name spaces
There is an admittedly confusing dierence in the characters allowed to form the various KUIP
identiers which we summarize here:
Alias names allow letters, digits, \_", \@", \-", \$".
4.8. Nitty-Gritty
225
Macro variable names allow letters, digits, \_". The rst character may not be a digit.
System function names allow letters, digits, \_". The rst character may not be a digit. Uppercase
and lowercase letters are distinct when the name is looked up as environment variable.
Vector names allow letters, digits, \_", \?". The rst character may not be a digit. Names starting
with \?" are reserved.
Although not in the hands of the application user but only the application writer:
Command and menu names allow letters, digits, and \_".
Parameter names allow letters, digits, and \_". The rst character may not be a digit.
Chapter 5: SIGMA
5.1 Access to SIGMA
The SIGMA array manipulation package can be accessed in three dierent ways in PAW:
Precede the statement by the prex SIGMA
Example
PAW > SIGMA xvec=array(100,-pi#pi*2)
PAW > SIGMA y=sin(xvec)*xvec
Note the use of the predened constant PI in SIGMA with the obvious value.
The PAW command: APPLication SIGMA
All commands typed in after this command will be directly processed by SIGMA. The command EXIT
will return control to PAW, e.g.
PAW > APPLication SIGMA
SIGMA > xvec=array(100,-pi#pi*2)
SIGMA > sinus=sin(xvec)*xvec
SIGMA > cosinus=cos(xvec)*xvec
SIGMA > exit
PAW > vector/list
Vector Name
Type
XVEC
SINUS
COSINUS
Total of
R
R
R
Length
Dim-1
100
100
100
100
100
100
Dim-2
Dim-3
3 Vector(s)
The PAW system function $SIGMA
The expression to be evaluated must be enclosed in parentheses. The function will return the
numerical value of the expression (if the result is a scalar) or the name of a temporary vector (if the
result is a vector).
Assuming that the computation of the function sin(x)*x in the above example would be only for
the purpose of producing a graph, (i.e. the result is not needed for further calculations), then one
could just have typed the following commands:
PAW > SIGMA xvec=array(100,-pi#pi*2)
PAW > GRAph 100 xvec $SIGMA(SIN(XVEC)*XVEC)
226
5.2. Vector arithmetic operations using SIGMA
227
5.2 Vector arithmetic operations using SIGMA
A complete and convenient mechanism for the mathematical manipulation of vectors is provided by
SIGMA. In the following, we use the words \array" and \vector" as synonyms. In both cases, we refer
to PAW vectors, in the sense that SIGMA oers an alternative way to generate and to manipulate
PAW vectors (see section ?? on page ??). The notation of SIGMA is similar to that of FORTRAN,
in the sense that is based upon formulae and assignment statements.
The special operator ARRAY is used to generate vectors:
vname = ARRAY
(arg1,arg2)
vname
arg1
arg2
Name of the vector (array) being created.
Denes the array structure, i.e. the Number of COmponents (NCO) of the array.
Provides the numerical values lling the array row-wise.
If arg2 is absent (or does not provide enough values) the array is lled with 1.
5.2.1 Basic operators
Add
Subtract
*
Multiply
/
Divide
**
Exponentiation
&
Concatenation
Note that ill dened operations will give 0. as result. For instance: a division by zero gives zero
as result.
+
-
5.2.2 Logical operators
Logical operators act on entities that have Boolean values
Boolean.
AND Logical operation AND
NOT Logical operation NOT
OR
Logical operation OR
EQ
EQual to
GE
Greater or Equal to
GT
Greater Than
LE
Less or Equal to
LT
Less Than
NE
Not Equal
1
(true) or
0
(false). The result is
5.2.3 Control operators
!PRINT
!NOPRINT
Provides the automatic printing of every newly created array or scalar.
Suppresses the automatic printing of every newly created array or scalar.
Chapter 5. SIGMA
228
A=ARRAY
A=ARRAY
A=ARRAY
A=ARRAY
A=ARRAY
(6,1#6)
(4)
(5,2&3&-1&2&1.2)
(3)*PI
(1,123E4)
Examples
1 2 3 4 5 6
1 1 1 1
2 3 -1 2 1.2
3.1415927 3.1415927
1230000.0
3.1415927
5.3 SIGMA functions
SIGMA provides some functions which perform a task on a whole array. These functions have no
analogues in FORTRAN because all FORTRAN functions operate on one or more single numbers.
Presently available SIGMA functions are listed in table 5.1 below.
Name
ANY
DEL
DIFF
LS
LVMAX
LVMIM
MAX
MAXV
MIN
MINV
NCO
ORDER
PROD
QUAD
SUMV
VMAX
VMIN
VSUM
Result
Explanation
Scalar The result is a Boolean scalar of value 1 (true) if at least one component
of the argument is true and 0 (false) otherwise.
Vector Analog to the Dirac-DELta Function. V1=DEL(V) sets each element of
V1 to 0.0 (if corresponding element in V is non-zero) or to 1.0 (if corresponding element is zero).
Vector V2=DIFF(V) forward dierence of V. The rightmost value in V1 is obtained
by quadratic extrapolation over the last three elements of V.
Vector V1=LS(V,N) shifts index of V to the left by N steps (cyclic).
Scalar S1=LVMAX(V1) sets S1 equal to the index (location) of the maximum value
in vector V1.
Scalar S1=LVMIN(V1) sets S1 equal to the index (location) of the minimum value
in vector V1.
Vector V3=MAX(V1,V2) sets each element of V3 equal to the maximum of the
corresponding elements in V1 and V2.
Vector V1=MAXV(V) sets each element of V1 equal to the maximum value in V.
Vector V3=MIN(V1,V2) sets each element of V3 equal to the minumum of the
corresponding elements in V1 and V2.
Vector V1=MINV(V) sets each element of V1 equal to the minimum value in V.
Scalar V1=NCO(V) Number of COmponents of vector of V.
Vector V1=ORDER(V,V2) nds a permutation that brings V2 in a non-descending
order and applies it to V to generate V1.
Vector V1=PROD(V) V1 is the running product of V.
Vector V2=QUAD(V1,H) The quadrature function QUAD numerically integrates each
row of V1 with respect to the scalar step size H.
Vector V2=SUMV(V1) running sum of V.
Scalar S1=VMAX(V1) sets S1 equal to the maximum value in vector V1.
Scalar S1=VMIN(V1) sets S1 equal to the minimum value in vector V1.
Scalar S1=VSUM(V) sum of all components of V.
Table 5.1: SIGMA functions
5.3. SIGMA functions
229
5.3.1 SIGMA functions - A detailed description.
In the following description of the SIGMA functions, the letter R always denotes the result and arg
denotes one or more arguments. Any argument may itself be an expression. In that case arg means
the result of this expression. Let OP denote any of the above array functions, then the statement:
R = OP (arg1,arg2,...)
produces R without doing anything to the contents stored under the names appearing in arg1,arg2,....
Thus, although in the description we may say \...OP does such and such to arg ...", in reality it
leaves arg intact and works on the argument to produce R.
R = ANY (arg)
The function ANY considers the result of the argument expression as a Boolean array. SIGMA
represents \true" by 1 and \false" by 0. Thus the components of arg must be either 0 or 1,
otherwise an error is generated.
If at least one component of the result of the argument expression is 1, than ANY returns the scalar
1. If all components of the result of the argument expression are 0 then ANY returns the scalar 0. If
arg is a Boolean scalar, R = arg.
Example of the ANY command
PAW > APPL SIGMA
SIGMA > !PRINT
SIGMA > W=(-2)**ARRAY(10,1#10)
NCO(W
)=
10
W
=
-2.000
4.000
-8.000
-128.0
256.0
-512.0
SIGMA > X=W GT 0
NCO(X
)=
10
X
=
0.0000
1.000
0.0000
0.0000
1.000
0.0000
SIGMA > R=ANY(X)
NCO(R
)=
1
R
1.000
| Print newly created vectors and scalars
16.00
1024.
-32.00
64.00
1.000
1.000
0.0000
1.000
DEL (arg)
DEL is a discrete analogue of a Dirac delta function. DEL works independently on each row of the
argument array. If the elements of any row of the argument are denoted by X1 X2 : : : X : : : X
then the corresponding row of the result of the delta function operation will be Z1 Z2 : : : Z : : : Z
where all Z = 0 except in three cases, in which Z = 1, namely:
R
=
i
n
i
i
n
i
1 When the component X is itself zero.
2 When X ;1 X are of opposite sign and jX j < jX ;1j If i = 1 then linear extrapolation to
i
i
i
i
i
i
i
the left is used.
3 When X X +1 are of opposite sign and jX j jX +1j If i = 1 then linear extrapolation to
the right is used.
i
i
Chapter 5. SIGMA
230
If arg is a scalar, the value of DEL(arg) will be 1 if arg is zero, and 0 otherwise.
Example of the del command
SIGMA > W=array(11,-1#1)
NCO(W
)=
11
W
=
-1.000
-0.8000
-0.6000
0.2000
0.4000
0.6000
-0.4000
0.8000
-0.2000
1.000
-0.2980E-07
SIGMA > X= (W+1.01)*W*(W-.35)*(W-.42)
NCO(X
)=
11
X
=
-0.1917E-01 -0.2357
-0.2384
-0.1501
0.7986E-02 -0.5640E-03 0.4347E-01 0.2476
-0.5524E-01-0.4425E-08
0.7578
SIGMA > R=del(x)
NCO(R
)=
11
R
=
1.000
0.0000
0.0000
1.000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
0.0000
1.000
DIFF (arg)
The DIFF function generates the forward dierence of each row of the argument array, say
X1 X2 : : : X : : : X and creates an array with components equal to the forward dierence
of X : X2 ; X1 X3 ; X2 : : : X ; X ;1 X0 where the rightmost value X0 is obtained by
quadratic extrapolation over the last three elements of the result of arg. Applied to a scalar DIFF
gives a zero result.
R
=
i
n
n
n
Example of the DIFF command
SIGMA >
NCO(X
X
5.000
SIGMA >
NCO(Y
Y
25.00
SIGMA >
NCO(Z
Z
-9.000
x=array(6,5#0)
)=
6
=
4.000
3.000
Y=x*x
)=
6
=
16.00
9.000
Z=Diff(Y)
)=
6
=
-7.000
-5.000
2.000
1.000
0.0000
4.000
1.000
0.0000
-3.000
-1.000
1.000
LS (arg1,arg2)
The LS rearrangement function performs a left shift. arg1 is the array to be shifted arg2 must be
a scalar value (rounded if necessary by the system), interpreted as the number of places the array
has to be shifted to the left. The scalar arg2 can be negative, in which case LS shifts to the right a
number of places equal to the absolute value of arg2.
It should be noted the the shift is performed circularly modulo N, where N is the number of components in the rows of the array to be shifted. Hence, LS(X,N+l) shifts the N component rows of X
by 1 to the left, and LS(X,-l) shifts the rows by N-1 to the left (or by 1 to the right). If arg1 is a
scalar, R = arg1.
R =
5.3. SIGMA functions
231
Example of the left shift command
SIGMA > X=array(4&5,array(20,1#20))
NCO(X
)=
4
5
X
=
1.000
2.000
3.000
4.000
5.000
6.000
7.000
8.000
9.000
10.00
11.00
12.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
17.00
18.00
19.00
20.00
SIGMA > y=ls(x,1)
NCO(Y
Y
=
2.000
6.000
10.00
14.00
18.00
)=
4
3.000
7.000
11.00
15.00
19.00
SIGMA > y=ls(x,-3)
NCO(Y
)=
4
Y
=
2.000
3.000
6.000
7.000
10.00
11.00
14.00
15.00
18.00
19.00
5
4.000
8.000
12.00
16.00
20.00
5
4.000
8.000
12.00
16.00
20.00
SIGMA > X=array(5,1#5)
NCO(X
)=
5
X
1.000
2.000
SIGMA > z=ls(x,3)
NCO(Z
)=
5
Z
4.000
5.000
SIGMA > z1=ls(x,-4)
NCO(Z1
)=
5
Z1
2.000
3.000
R =
LVMAX(arg1)
1.000
5.000
9.000
13.00
17.00
and
1.000
5.000
9.000
13.00
17.00
3.000
4.000
5.000
1.000
2.000
3.000
4.000
5.000
1.000
R =
LVMIN(arg1)
The functions LVMAX and LVMIN returns as a scalar result the index (position) of the largest or
smallest element, respectively, in the argument array.
Example of using the LVMAX and LVMIN commands
SIGMA > x=sin(array(10,1#10))
NCO(X
)=
10
X
=
0.841
0.909
0.141
-0.757
0.989
0.412
-0.544
SIGMA > r=lvmax(x)
NCO(R
)=
1
R
8.00
-0.959
-0.279
0.657
Chapter 5. SIGMA
232
MAX(arg1,arg2) and
R = MIN(arg1,arg2)
The functions MAX and MIN work independently on each element of their arguments. arg2 can be
a scalar. The result has the same dimension as the argument array arg1 and each element of the
result is set equal to the largest or smallest element, respectively, of the corresponding element of
the argument arrays.
R =
Example of using the MAX and MIN commands
SIGMA > x=sin(array(10,1#10))
NCO(X
)=
10
X
=
0.841
0.909
0.141
-0.757
0.989
0.412
-0.544
SIGMA >
y=cos(array(10,1#10))
NCO(Y
)=
10
Y
=
0.540
-0.416
-0.990
-0.654
-0.146
-0.911
-0.839
SIGMA > z=min(x,y)
NCO(Z
)=
10
Z
=
0.540
-0.416
-0.990
-0.146
-0.911
-0.839
-0.757
-0.959
-0.279
0.657
0.284
0.960
0.754
-0.959
-0.279
0.657
MAXV(arg) and
R = MINV(arg)
The extrema functions MAXV and MINV work on each element of their argument and the result has
the same dimension as the argument array arg1. Each element of of the result is set equal to the
largest or smallest element, respectively, of the corresponding row of the argument array.
All these functions, if applied to a scalar argument, yield R=arg.
R =
Example of using the MAX and MIN commands
SIGMA > x=array(10,0#10)
NCO(X
)=
10
X
=
0.0000
1.111
2.222
6.667
7.778
8.889
3.333
10.00
4.444
5.556
SIGMA > s=sin(x)*x
NCO(S
)=
10
S
=
0.0000
0.9958
2.494
7.755
1.767
4.539
-0.6352
-5.440
-4.286
-3.695
SIGMA > x=minv(s)
NCO(X
)=
10
X
=
-5.440
-5.440
-5.440
-5.440
-5.440
-5.440
-5.440
-5.440
-5.440
-5.440
5.3. SIGMA functions
233
NCO (arg)
The \Number of COmponents" (NCO) control function obtains the NCO vector of the arg. The
NCO vector of a scalar is the scalar 1. For any argument the NCO(NCO(arg)) gives the number of
dimensions of the arg.
R
=
Using the NCO command
SIGMA > x=array(4&3&2,array(24,2#48))
NCO(X
)=
4
3
2
X
=
2.000
4.000
6.000
8.000
10.00
12.00
14.00
16.00
18.00
20.00
22.00
24.00
26.00
34.00
42.00
28.00
36.00
44.00
30.00
38.00
46.00
SIGMA > r=nco(x)
NCO(R
)=
3
R
4.000
3.000
SIGMA > ndim=nco(nco(x))
NCO(NDIM
)=
1
NDIM
3.000
32.00
40.00
48.00
2.000
ORDER (arg1,arg2)
The ordering function ORDER acts independently on each row of arg1. arg2 must have the same
row length as arg1.
ORDER nds the permutation that brings arg2 into a non-descending sequence (row-wise) and constructs the result by applying this permutation to arg1. It may in some cases be expanded to that
structure by using the techniques of the topological arithmetic. This is particularly useful if arg2 is
a single vector with the length of the rows of arg1.
R =
Using the ORDER command
SIGMA >
NCO(X
X
1.00
SIGMA >
NCO(P
P
-3.00
SIGMA >
NCO(P
P
4.00
SIGMA >
NCO(Y
X = 1&1&2&4&-3&1&3
)=
7
=
1.00
2.00
P = ORDER(X,X)
)=
7
=
1.00
1.00
P = ORDER(X,-X)
)=
7
=
3.00
2.00
Y = ARRAY(7,1# 7)
)=
7
4.00
-3.00
1.00
3.00
1.00
2.00
3.00
4.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
-3.00
Chapter 5. SIGMA
234
Y
=
1.00
2.00
3.00
SIGMA > P = ORDER(Y,X)
NCO(P
)=
7
P
=
5.00
1.00
2.00
4.00
5.00
6.00
7.00
6.00
3.00
7.00
4.00
PROD (arg)
The PROD function generates the running product of each row of the argument array, say X1 X2 : : : X
and creates an array with components equal to the running product of the component of the argument: X1 X2 : : : X X1 X1 X2 : : : X1 X2 : : :X
R =
n
n
n
Using the TIMES command
SIGMA > x=array(6&4,array(24,1#24))
NCO(X
)=
6
4
X
=
1.000
2.000
3.000
4.000
7.000
8.000
9.000
10.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
19.00
20.00
21.00
22.00
SIGMA > y=prod(x)
NCO(Y
)=
6
Y
=
1.000
2.000
7.000
56.00
13.00
182.0
19.00
380.0
R =
QUAD
5.000
11.00
17.00
23.00
6.000
12.00
18.00
24.00
4
6.000
504.0
2730.
7980.
24.00
120.0
720.0
5040.
0.5544E+05 0.6653E+06
0.4368E+05 0.7426E+06 0.1337E+08
0.1756E+06 0.4038E+07 0.9691E+08
(arg1,arg2)
The quadrature function QUAD numerically integrates each row of arg1 with respect to the scalar
step size h dened by arg2.
The result R has the same dimension as arg1 and the integration constant is xed by choosing the
rst point of the result to be zero.
The method uses a four-point forward and backward one-strip-formula based on Lagrange interpolation. We have for the rst point of the result:
R1 =
Z
x1
x1
(arg 1)dx = 0
for the second and third points
h (9f + 19f ; 5f + f )
R +1 = R + 24
+1
+2
+3
i
i
i
i
i
i
and for all subsequent points
h (f ; 5f + 19f + 9f )
R = R ;1 + 24
;3
;2
;1
i
i
i
i
i
i
5.3. SIGMA functions
235
where the f are elements of arg1 and are assumed to be values of some functions evaluated at
equidistant intervals with interval width equal to h (h being equal to the value of arg2).
i
SIGMA > *********************
SIGMA > * SIGMA application *
SIGMA > * showing use of
*
SIGMA > *
QUAD numeric
*
SIGMA > *
integration
*
SIGMA > *********************
SIGMA > x=array(101,0#2*pi)
SIGMA > * Function value array
SIGMA > y=sin(x)
SIGMA > * Step size
SIGMA > dx=0.6283186E-01
SIGMA > print dx
NCO(DX
)=
1
DX
0.6283186E-01
SIGMA > * Integration of SIN(X)
SIGMA > * in interval 0<=X<+2*PI
SIGMA > f=quad(y,dx)
SIGMA > * Analytical result
SIGMA > * is
1-COS(X)
SIGMA > g=1-cos(x)
SIGMA > * Compute the difference
SIGMA > erro=(g-f)*10**6
SIGMA > * Plot the difference
SIGMA > * in units of 10;6
SIGMA > exit
PAW > opt GRID
PAW > gra 101 x erro
0.2
0.1
0
-0.1
-0.2
-0.3
-0.4
-0.5
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Figure 5.1: Using numerical integration with SIGMA
R =
SUMV
(arg)
SUMV function generates the running summation of each row of the argument array, say
X1 X2 : : : X : : : X and creates an array with components equal to the running sum of the X
namely: X1 X1 + X2 : : : X1 + X2 + : : :X : : : X1 + X2 + : : :X .
The
i
n
i
i
n
Using the SUM function
SIGMA > x=array(6&4,array(24,1#24))
NCO(X
)=
6
4
X
=
1.000
2.000
3.000
4.000
7.000
8.000
9.000
10.00
13.00
14.00
15.00
16.00
19.00
20.00
21.00
22.00
5.000
11.00
17.00
23.00
6.000
12.00
18.00
24.00
SIGMA > y=sumv(x)
NCO(Y
)=
6
Y
=
1.000
3.000
7.000
15.00
13.00
27.00
19.00
39.00
15.00
45.00
75.00
105.0
21.00
57.00
93.00
129.0
4
6.000
24.00
42.00
60.00
10.00
34.00
58.00
82.00
Chapter 5. SIGMA
236
R =
VMAX(arg)
and
R =
VMIN(arg)
The functions VMAX and VMIN return a scalar equal to the largest or smallest element of the array
arg.
R = VSUM (arg1)
The VSUM function generates the sum of each element of the argument array, say X1 X2 : : : X : : : X
and creates a scalar whose value is equal to the sum of all the components of X namely: X1 + X2 +
i
X3 : : : X
n
Using the VSUM function
SIGMA > x=array(10)
NCO(X
)=
10
X
=
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.00
SIGMA > r=vsum(x)
NCO(R
)=
1
R
10.0
5.4 Available library functions
The library functions available under SIGMA are listed below. All these functions have a single
argument, unless otherwise indicated. The number indicated between parentheses corresponds to
the number of the same function in the CERN program library.
ABS
ABSolute value
ACOS
ArCOSine
ALOGAM
LOGarithm of the GAMma Function (C341)
ASIN
ArcSINe
ATAN
ArcTANgent
ATAN2
ArcTANgent2 (2 arguments)
BESI0
Mod. Bessel Function I0 (C313)
BESI1
Mod. Bessel Function I1 (C313)
BESJ0
Bessel Function J0 (C312)
BESJ1
Bessel Function J1 (C312)
BESK0
Mod. Bessel Function K0 (C313)
BESK1
Mod. Bessel Function K1 (C313)
BESY0
Bessel Function Y0 (C312)
BESY1
Bessel Function Y1 (C312)
COS
COSine
COSH
Hyperbolic COSine
COSINT
COSine INTegral (C336)
n
5.4. Available library functions
237
DILOGarithm Function (C304)
EBESI0
exp(;jxj)I0 (x) (C313)
EBESI1
exp(;jxj)I1 (x) (C313)
EBESK0
exp(x)K0(x) (C313)
EBESK1
exp(x)K1(x) (C313)
ELLICK
Complete Elliptic Integral K (C308)
ELLICE
Complete Elliptic Integral E (C308)
ERF
Error Function ERF (C300)
ERFC
Error Function ERFC (C300)
EXP
EXPonential
EXPINT
EXPonential INTegral (C337)
FREQ
Normal Frequency Function FREQ (C300)
GAMMA
GAMMA Function (C305)
INT
Takes INTegral part of decimal number
LOG
Natural LOGarithm
LOG10
Common LOGarithm
MOD
Remaindering
RNDM
Random Number Generator: V1=RNDM(V), with NCO(V1)=NCO(V) generates random
numbers between 0 and 1.
SIGN
Transfer of SIGN: V2=SIGN(V,V1), V2=|V|*V1/|V1|
SIN
SINe Function
SINH
Hyperbolic SINe
SININT
SINe INTegral (C336)
SQRT
SQuare RooT
TAN
TANgent
TANH
Hyperbolic Tangent
Ill dened functions will return 0. as result. (e.g. SQRT of a negative number is taken as 0).
DILOG
Chapter 6: HBOOK
6.1 Introduction
Many of the ideas and functionality in the area of data presentation, manipulation and management
in PAW nd their origin in the HBOOK subroutine package '2], which handles statistical distributions
(histograms and Ntuples). HBOOK is normally run in a batch environment, and it produces generally
graphics output on the line printer or, optionally, via the HPLOT '4] package on a high resolution
graphic output device.
The HBOOK system consists of a few hundred FORTRAN subroutines which enable the user to
symbolically dene, ll and output one- and two-dimensional density estimators, under the form of
histograms, scatter-plots and tables.
Furthermore the analysis of large data samples is eased by the use of Ntuples, which are twodimensional arrays, characterised by a xed number N, specifying the number of entries per element,
and by a length, giving the total number of elements. An element of a Ntuple can be thought of as
a physics \event" on e.g. a Data Summary Tape (micro-DST). Selection criteria can be applied to
each \event" or element and a complete Ntuple can be statistically analysed in a fast, e"cient and
interactive way.
6.1.1 The functionality of HBOOK
The various user routines of HBOOK can be subdivided by functionality as follows:
Booking
Declare a one- or two-dimensional histogram or a Ntuple
Projections
Project two-dimensional distributions onto both axes
Ntuples
Way of writing micro data-summary-les for further processing.
This allows to make later projections of individual variables or correlation plots. Selection mechanisms may be dened
Function representation
Associates a real function of 1 or 2 variables to a histogram
Filling
Enter a data value into a given histogram, table or Ntuple
Access to information
Transfer of numerical values from HBOOK-managed memory to
Fortran variables and back
Arithmetic operations
On histograms and Ntuples
Fitting
Least squares and maximum likelihood ts of parametric functions
to histogramed data
Smoothing
Splines or other algorithms
Random number generation Based on experimental distributions
Archiving
Information is stored on mass storage for further reference in subsequent programs
Editing
Choice of the form of presentation of the histogramed data
6.2 Basic ideas
The basic data elements of HBOOK are the histogram (one- and two-dimensional) and the Ntuple.
The user identies his data elements using a single integer. Each of the elements has a number of
attributes associated with it.
238
6.2. Basic ideas
239
The HBOOK system uses the ZEBRA '7] data manager to store its data elements in a COMMON
block /PAWC/, shared with the KUIP '5] and HIGZ '3] packages, when the latter are also used (as
is the case in PAW). In fact the rst task of a HBOOK user is to declare the length of this common
to ZEBRA by a call to HLIMIT, as is seen in gures 6.3 and 6.51.
In the /PAWC/ data store, the HBOOK, HIGZ and KUIP packages have all their own division (see
'7] for more details on the notion of divisions) as follows (gure 6.1):
LINKS Some locations at the beginning of /PAWC/ for ZEBRA pointers.
WORKS Working space (or division 1) used by the various packages storing information in /PAWC/
HBOOK Division 2 of the store. Reserved to HBOOK
HIGZ
A division reserved for the HIGZ graphics package.
KUIP
A division reserved for the KUIP user interface package.
SYSTEM The ZEBRA system division. It contains some tables, as well as the Input/Output buers for
HRIN and HROUT.
link
area
work
area
free
space
HBOOK
div
HIGZ
div
KUIP
div
system
div
Figure 6.1: The layout of the /PAWC/ dynamic store
6.2.1 RZ directories and HBOOK les
An advantage of using ZEBRA in HBOOK is that ZEBRA's direct access RZ package is available.
The latter allows data structures to be uniquely addressed via pathnames, carrying a mnemonic
meaning and showing the relations between data structures. Related data structures are addressed
from a directory. Each time a RZ le is opened via a call to HRFILE a supplementary top directory
is created with a name specied in the calling sequence. This means that the user can more easily
keep track of his data and also the same histogram identiers can be used in various les, what
makes life easier if one wants to study various data samples with the same program, since they can
be addressed by changing to the relevant le by a call to HCDIR rst.
Example of using directories
CALL HRFILE(1,'HISTO1',' ')
CALL HRFILE(2,'HISTO2','U')
CALL HCDIR('//HISTO1',' ')
1
! Open first HBOOK RZ file (read only)
! Open second HBOOK RZ file (update)
! Make HISTO1 current directory
This is of course not necessary in PAW, which is already precompiled when it is run. However when treating very large data
samples or in other special applications, it might be necessary to specify a different value for the length of the dynamic store,
which is defined by a call to PAWINT from the main initialisation routine PAMAIN. The “default” value for the length of /PAWC/
is 500000 (Apollo), 200000 (IBM) or 300000 (other systems), with respectively 10000 and 68000 words initially reserved for
HIGZ and KUIP.
Chapter 6. HBOOK
240
CALL HRIN(20,9999,0)
....
CALL HCDIR('//HISTO2',' ')
CALL HRIN(10,9999,0)
....
CALL HROUT(20,ICYCLE,' ')
CALL HREND('HISTO1')
CALL HREND('HISTO2')
! Read ID 20 on file 1
! Make HISTO2 current directory
! Read ID 10 on file 2
! Write ID 20 to file 2
! Close file 1
! Close file 2
In the previous example (and also in gures 6.3 and 6.5) it is shown how an external le is available
via a directory name inside HBOOK (and PAW), and that one can change from one to the other
le by merely changing directory, via the PAW command CDIR, which calls the HBOOK routine
HCDIR.
6.2.2 Changing directories
One must pay attention to the fact that newly created histograms go to memory in the //PAWC
directory (i.e. the /PAWC/ common). As an example suppose that the current directory is //LUN1,
and an operation is performed on two histograms. These histograms are rst copied to memory
//PAWC, the operation is performed and the result is only available in //PAWC,
PAW > CDIR //LUN1
PAW > ADD 10 20 30
PAW > Histo/Plot //PAWC/30
PAW > CD //PAWC
PAW > Histo/plot 30
|
|
|
|
|
|
Set current directory to //LUN1
Add histograms 10 and 20 into 30
Histogram 30 is created in //PAWC
Show the result of the sum
Set the current directory to memory
Show the result once more
Similarly when histograms or Ntuples are plotted (e.g. by the HISTO/PLOT command), they are copied
to memory possibly replacing an old copy of the same ID. As long as the copy in memory is not
changed, each time the ID is read from the external le. This is because in a real time environment,
e.g. using global sections on VMS or modules with OS9, the data base on the external medium
can be changed by concurrent processes. However if the HBOOK data structure, associated with
the histogram or Ntuple in memory is altered (e.g. by a MAX, IDOPT, FIT command), then it
becomes the default for subsequent operations. If one wants the original copy one rst must delete
the copy from memory or explicitly use the pathname for the external le.
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
Histo/file 1 his.dat
Histo/Plot 10
H/plot 10
H/fit 10 ! G
H/plot 10
H/del 10
H/plot 10
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
The file contains ID=10
ID=10 read from file and plotted
ID=10 read again from file and plotted
Read from file, make a Gaussian fit on //PAWC/10
ID=10 read from memory since it changed
Delete histogram 10 from memory
ID=10 read again from file and plotted
6.3. HBOOK batch as the first step of the analysis
241
6.3 HBOOK batch as the rst step of the analysis
MAINFRAME
WORKSTATION
Batch Job
Interactive Data
Analysis with PAW
HBOOK
ZEBRA
Tapes
Raw Data
DST
Many
Tapes
KUIP
HPLOT
HBOOK
HIGZ
ZEBRA
SIGMA
RZ Files
Interactive access
via RLOGIN
or file transfer
using ZFTP
COMIS
MINUIT
High quality
graphics output
Figure 6.2: Schematic presentation of the various steps in the data analysis chain
Although it is possible to dene histograms interactively in a PAW session, and then read the (many
thousands of) events, in general for large data samples the relevant variables are extracted from the
Data Summary Files or DSTs and stored in histograms or an Ntuple. The histogram needs
already that a certain choice has to be made as to the range of values for the plotted parameter,
because the binning, or the coarseness, of the distribution has to be specied when the histogram is
dened (booked). Also only one- and two-dimensional histograms are possible, hence the correlations
between various parameters can be di"cult to study. Hence it seems in many cases more appropriate
to store the value of the important parameters for each event in an Ntuple. This approach preserves
the correlation between the parameters and allows selection criteria to be applied on the (reduced)
data sample at a later stage.
In general, the time consuming job of analysing all events available on tape is run on a mainframe
or CPU server, and the important event parameters are stored in a Ntuple to allow further detailed
study. For convenience the Ntuple can be output to disk for each run, and then at a later stage the
Ntuples can be merged in order to allow a global interactive analysis of the complete data sample.
A typical batch job in which data are analysed o)ine and some characteristics are stored in HBOOK
is given in 6.3. After opening the RZ HBOOK le, HBOOK is initialised by a call to HLIMIT, which
declares a length of 20000 words for the length of the /PAWC/ dynamic store. Then the one- and
two- dimensional histograms 110 and 210 are lled respectively according to the functions HTFUN1
and HTFUN2. The output generated by the program is shown in Figure 6.4.
Chapter 6. HBOOK
242
PROGRAM HTEST
PARAMETER (NWPAWC=20000)
COMMON/PAWC/H(NWPAWC)
EXTERNAL HTFUN1,HTFUN2
*.-----------------------------------------------------------CALL HLIMIT(NWPAWC)
*
Book histograms and declare functions
CALL HBFUN1(100,'Test of HRNDM1',100,0.,1.,HTFUN1)
CALL HBOOK1(110,'Filled according to HTFUN1',100,0.,1.,1000.)
CALL HBFUN2(200,'Test of HRNDM2',100,0.,1.,40,0.,1.,HTFUN2)
CALL HSCALE(200,0.)
CALL HBOOK2(210,'Fill according to HTFUN2',100,0.,1.,40,0.,1.,30.)
*
Fill histograms
DO 10 I=1,10000
X=HRNDM1(100)
CALL HFILL(110,X,0.,1.)
CALL HRNDM2(200,X,Y)
CALL HFILL(210,X,Y,1.)
10 CONTINUE
*
Save all histograms on file HTEST.DAT
CALL HRPUT(0,'HTEST.DAT','N')
CALL HDELET(100)
CALL HDELET(200)
CALL HPRINT(0)
END
FUNCTION HTFUN2(X,Y)
*
Two-dimensional guassian
HTFUN2=HTFUN1(X)*HTFUN1(Y)
RETURN
END
FUNCTION HTFUN1(X)
*
Constants for gaussians
DATA C1,C2/1.,0.5/
DATA XM1,XM2/0.3,0.7/
DATA XS1,XS2/0.07,0.12/
*
Calculate the gaussians
A1=-0.5*((X-XM1)/XS1)**2
A2=-0.5*((X-XM2)/XS2)**2
X1=C1
X2=C2
IF(ABS(A1).GT.0.0001)X1=C1*EXP(A1)
IF(ABS(A2).GT.0.0001)X2=C2*EXP(A2)
*
Return function value
HTFUN1=X1+X2
RETURN
END
Figure 6.3: Writing data to HBOOK with the creation of a HBOOK RZ le
Fill according to HTFUN2
Filled according to HTFUN1
HBOOK
ID =
110
DATE
02/09/89
NO =
2
HBOOK
ID =
210
DATE
02/09/89
NO =
4
CHANNELS 100 0
1
10 0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
I 1 1234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890
I I
********************************************************************************************************
I I
OVE
*
* OVE
I-I.975 *
* 40
--I I
.95
*
++
2
2 2++ +3 +
++
+ +
2+
3 2 + 2++++
+ 2
+
* 39
-I
I.925 *
+
+
2 ++ 32+++ +22 22+
+++
+
+ +
+ 22+2+++ +2++
+ + +
* 38
I
I
.9
*
223 +3+ +3 3++333223 +2 2
+ +
++2+ +
232+322 2+++ +24+
+
* 37
I
I
.875 *
+
++ +2++++ 342533 443224++2 2 +
+ ++23 + +42+3222233+++3+++2 22+ ++
+ + +
* 36
-I
I.85
*
++ + 5+35+3333483475 65+2+ + ++ +
+33+3 +2 +2335222+235 522 24+
++
2
* 35
I
I
.825 *
++ 2+2 558335876736583+ 2 +2+ + +
3
224+533623+35252+54 32+452++3 332 +++++
* 34
-I
I
.8
*
++
+ 532 656562546C8A88936324332+ +2+23 +332+2236433657234455556+4635+222 +23 +3 +
* 33
I
I.775 *
+2 33 375B7274C6A66A782+323++2+23 +5++3+5222256768365258276374+86334+ 32
+++ +
* 32
-I
I
.75
*
+ 2+ 2 45523786A79FB98B6AD4855224+ + ++23323+5755552468283746644543 443324 5223++ 2
* 31
I
I .725 *
+ ++4+22+637A785B8BBBA6B4656922++ 2 23 24 2+5464+435552843286C6246623636+3+ 2 3 2 3+2
* 30
I
I-I
.7
*
+
22 +2 735ABCA89G8C8A6DA5765+3+322 2+2++52234445475+355864768724+B74632+23 +3
3+
+ * 29
-I
I
.675 *
23 +4+3364HBBAFCFCBB98945C7933++ 2 5+3 +4225243752 75787896C367+475443+32242422 2 +
* 28
I
I
.65
*
+ + ++5+3795498GAC96CB9A79E6645 34 3+3 ++24537234424532777657445+4746235+2+3++ 4+2 2
* 27
I
I
-I.625 *
+
3 647774A9CE67G99BAB6B233233 4+ 2 322 42 44364+657735+735736733+4+23234 +++++2 +
* 26
I
II --I I- -I .6
*
+ ++3+342233874B8C966896565+5242+5 +2+++++2+5225+42544535456A265357253+2222+ 2+2++ + +2 * 25
I
I-I--I
I-II-I.575 *
++ + +5 74535525677984573453422 +2
++ 2 +++4+2 3526525235+4243342+32+ 23 2+
* 24
--I
I-I
I
.55
*
++ +226+584568349865+433 +2222 +
++ +4444352326542332823+444332 +2 2 + +
* 23
I
I
- -I
I
.525 *
++++2+65436+3A753535+22+++2+++ ++ + ++2 +2 ++4++2+ 224224+32 2+ ++++ 2
+
* 22
I
I
I-I
I-.5
*
22 4+23+6425 84543+++42 +2
+++2 2 + 2+2+ 3+ 24++2334223+ 223 +2
+
+
* 21
I
I-I
I
.475 *
+
+5334+7333+22 ++2+ + 3+
2 +4 +32 2 222+2 + 33++ 222 + +3++
+
* 20
-I
I-I
I---.45
*
+ 433244397 2++23232+ 24 +2
++ ++2+ 2+ +2+33 ++4 +3 ++2+3
+ +
* 19
-I
I
--I
I.425 *
+ ++ 2+ 22+24636432646+5+322 4 +++ + 2++ ++ +22+533+3++3+ +432 +322++2+
2+ ++ +
* 18
I
I
-I
I
.4
*
+++3237549588A9725H724545++33+33 + + 2 24 4 +A4633 39 25636343322+82++ ++ + +2+ +
* 17
-I
I-- I
I- .375 *
+++3+374879CCCADLD48996CE54365232 +2+2342347+563264636547B47925542444434+2+322 2+ +2
* 16
-I
I-- ----I-I
I-I.35
*
+++ +4637549EC87D8IHDICI9B754655432++23233+2554368886H68B9667889677A635C+4+223333+22 +
* 15
I
I-I
I--.325 *
+ ++++ 2445949CHHDFNHJRHIHKLDD5DC3545422233 24564875549A8E7899B4F4BC3CA7E597842+67242+++++
* 14
--I
I-.3
*
++++++2667889EDFEHULQHI*IKFIFA878666336+6+48526B79777BCCEBBAEEED58E96997A4674763463++++ 2+ * 13
--I
I -.275 *
+ ++++ 3546898BEMPNIURPH*NOECDC8958E442+3542+68554B37466AAGCEEACAC7A476599962365 343++2 +2
* 12
-------I
I-II-.25
*
+
2344658A9DAJPLDENQGDHJEEBAA93 +3225322+4259A576784DA9B98B56A85CD859797A5843523223+ 22
* 11
.225 *
3 256778BA6CEJGIEAICGCHA4A242+43+++52427545466927A78866BB66795655763454656 2 3 +++
* 10
CHANNELS 100
0
1
.2
*
+2++4357A69BC88AAFAA5665432+434 +++ ++++343233668554584442CA7664745+4++34+++2 + +++
*
9
10
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
.175 *
+ 3 3436344766755264526++3 2+ + ++ +42 22 2+32345++353562 34 33+++4 +3 +++ +
*
8
1
1234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890
.15
*
2+ + +3+44+262542+4225 232 ++++
222 + 2+ +23+242 32+222 2++342 22
22+ 2 +
*
7
.125 *
+
+2 +++22+32+ 3+++2
+ +42 + 2+ +
+ 2+
+ + ++
*
6
CONTENTS 100
111222222323222211111
1111111111111111111111
.1
*
+ +
+ +2+
++
+
+2+
+
++
+++ +
*
5
10
1 12224578227034888392975189442985544344445467789101235335456543453430088887545443322111
.075 *
+ 2 +
+
+
+
*
4
1.
22345055038484428230601947383077660674994445157562761227948358021717653142735611669210337304276
.05
*
+
*
3
.025 *
+
*
2
LOW-EDGE
1.
111111111122222222223333333333444444444455555555556666666666777777777788888888889999999999
*
*
1
*10** 1
0
0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789
UND
*
* UND
********************************************************************************************************
* ENTRIES =
10000
* ALL CHANNELS = 0.1000E+05
* UNDERFLOW = 0.0000E+00
* OVERFLOW = 0.0000E+00
LOW-EDGE
0 0000000000111111111122222222223333333333444444444455555555556666666666777777777788888888889999999999
* BIN WID = 0.1000E-01
* MEAN VALUE
= 0.4846E+00
* R . M . S = 0.2199E+00
0 0123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789
340
330
320
310
300
290
280
270
260
250
240
230
220
210
200
190
180
170
160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
*
*
*
*
*
ENTRIES =
10000
SATURATION AT=
31
SCALE .,+,2,3,.,., A,B,
STEP =
1
* MINIMUM=0
PLOT
STATISTICS
Figure 6.4: Output generated by job HTEST
I
I
---------I---------I--------I 9991
I
---------I---------I--------I
I
6.3. HBOOK batch as the first step of the analysis
243
6.3.1 Adding some data to the RZ le
The second run using program HTEST1 shows how to add some data to the HBOOK RZ le created
in the job HTEST. After opening the le in question in update mode ('U' option) with the name
EXAM2, a new directory NTUPLE is created, known as //EXAM2/NTUPLE as seen in the output of HLDIR
command at the end of the output. A one- and a two-dimensional histogram and a Ntuple with
identiers of respectively 10, 20 and 30 are booked. Each Ntuple element or \event" is characterised
by three variables (labelled 'X', 'Y' and 'Z'). The Ntuple data, when the initial size of 1000 words
is exhausted, will be written to the directory specied in the call to HBOOKN, i.e. //EXAM2/NTUPLE,
and the data in memory are replaced with those newly read. A one- and a two-dimensional projection
of X and X Y are then made onto histograms 10 and 20 respectively, before they are printed and
written on the HBOOK RZ le. At the end the current and parent directories are listed. The
contents of the latter shows that the data written in the rst job (HTEST) are indeed still present in
the le under the top directory //EXAM2. The call to RZSTAT shows usage statistics about the RZ
le.
Example of adding data to a HBOOK RZ le
PROGRAM HTEST1
PARAMETER (NWPAWC=20000)
COMMON/PAWC/H(NWPAWC)
DIMENSION X(3)
CHARACTER*8 CHTAGS(3)
DATA CHTAGS/'
X
','
Y
','
Z
'/
*.---------------------------------------------------CALL HLIMIT(NWPAWC)
*
Reopen data base
CALL HROPEN(1,'EXAM2','HTEST.DAT',0,'U')
CALL HMDIR('NTUPLE','S')
CALL HBOOK1(10,'TEST1',100,-3.,3.,0.)
CALL HBOOK2(20,'TEST2',30,-3.,3.,30,-3.,3.,250.)
CALL HBOOKN(30,'N-TUPLE',3,'//EXAM2/NTUPLE',
+
1000,CHTAGS)
*
DO 10 I=1,10000
CALL RANNOR(A,B)
X(1)=A
X(2)=B
X(3)=A*A+B*B
CALL HFN(30,X)
10 CONTINUE
*
CALL HPROJ1(10,30,0,0,1,999999,1)
CALL HPROJ2(20,30,0,0,1,999999,1,2)
CALL HPRINT(0)
CALL HROUT(0,ICYCLE,' ')
CALL HLDIR(' ',' ')
CALL HCDIR('&
,' ')
CALL HLDIR(' ',' ')
CALL RZSTAT(' ',999,' ')
CALL HREND('EXAM2')
END
Chapter 6. HBOOK
244
TEST1
HBOOK
ID =
10
DATE
02/09/89
NO =
1
280
270
260
250
240
230
220
210
200
190
180
170
160
150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
- I I - I I I
- I I-I- I I-I--I I I-I-I
I I II
I I
II
I-I
I- - --I
I -I-I-I
I-II-I
I
I
I-- -I
I --I-I
I II
-I
I-II-I
I--I
I---I
I
I
I
I
I-----I
I-I
I----I
I------I
I-I
I----- ----I
I----------I-I
I--------
CHANNELS 100
10
1
0
1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890123456789012345678901234567890
CONTENTS 100
10
1.
11111111111111122222222221222222111111111111111
1 1111333334446669000123434878888132522637496233109788775524421007777655443322222111
1266487877127932587516069303434644322909949809367004036056844525243975324963516782565365312194856211
LOW-EDGE
-------------------------------------------------3222222222222222211111111111111111
111111111111111112222222222222222
0988776554432211099887665543322100998776654433211000112334456677899001223345566788990112234455677889
0482604826048260482604826048260482604826048260482606284062840628406284062840628406284062840628406284
1.
0
0
* ENTRIES =
10000
* BIN WID = 0.6000E-01
* ALL CHANNELS = 0.9969E+04
* MEAN VALUE
=-0.3907E-02
* UNDERFLOW = 0.1200E+02
* R . M . S = 0.9857E+00
* OVERFLOW = 0.1900E+02
TEST2
HBOOK
CHANNELS
ID = 20
DATE 02/09/89
NO = 2
10 U 0
1
2
3 O
1 N 123456789012345678901234567890 V
**************************************
OVE
*
+ ++ +232++2+ +++
* OVE
2.8
*
++ 2
+2 + 2 +
* 30
2.6
*
2 2+ +34+++ ++
+
* 29
2.4
*
2+ 3322343+ 3++ +
* 28
2.2
*
+ 2
247236663524+23++
+
* 27
2
*
+
2+23769597A75 6+2+ 2
* 26
1.8
*
+ 5598576EBCDAA53357 2+ +
* 25
1.6
*
++3278CC9JFO8F98C86643+2+
* 24
1.4
*
344686AAGJJMEMIDFG964232+
+ * 23
1.2
*
++++44BBJGMQOPWNICCGI97322++ + * 22
1
*
2+545BGOMTSX*VYTJMCFA755++2
* 21
.8
*
2+4799DHSRUX****VXRQJC57635+
* 20
.6
*
+ +25CBEKLZ********MXGGCI4322 3 * 19
.4
* 2
4+779BN*U*********YOIFB862
* 18
.2
* 2 ++266CCLR************OIHA464+2 4 * 17
* + 3238ECX*T***********YKPC772
+ * 16
.2
* + +423D6LDS**X********ZUMGC543+ 2 * 15
.4
* + 2347CAHSSX*********UMK75D2 3 + * 14
.6
*
2334AAKML*V**********IIH9773++ + * 13
.8
*
+22565CLJL*X******Z*TL9H948+ +
* 12
1
* 2 2 32666EMLN****Q*ULLQMABB342+ 2 * 11
1.2
*
+ 22377BDIUS*P***TTUNBDA545+2
* 10
1.4
* + + 2 +689E7KKNWUNRIHJCEA472+++ + *
9
1.6
*
2+3+74BCMJIGOIKEIAAD6643++
2 *
8
1.8
* + + +2222856AA8HGJACB6786+2+2++
*
7
2
*
+
2 +273598EDC5977634++
*
6
2.2
* +
+ ++2+274977548883+++2 +++
*
5
2.4
*
+ +3367558445+442+
+
*
4
2.6
*
+2 + 2224+6++7234 +
+
*
3
2.8
*
+ 33+3+322++ +
*
2
3
*
++ ++ 22 2 +4+2 2
*
1
UND
*
+ + 23 +2+++
+
* UND
**************************************
LOW-EDGE
--------------1. 32222211111
1111122222
0
086420864208642024680246802468
*
I
19 I
* ENTRIES =
10000
PLOT
-------I--------I------* SATURATION AT=
255
12 I 9936 I
19
* SCALE .,+,2,3,.,., A,B,
STATISTICS
-------I--------I------* STEP =
1
* MINIMUM=0
I
14 I
********************************************************
* NTUPLE ID=
30 ENTRIES= 10000
N-TUPLE
*
********************************************************
* Var numb *
Name
*
Lower
*
Upper
*
********************************************************
*
1
*
X
* -.422027E+01 * 0.386411E+01 *
*
2
*
Y
* -.411076E+01 * 0.378366E+01 *
*
3
*
Z
* 0.485187E-04 * 0.179518E+02 *
********************************************************
===> Directory : //EXAM2/NTUPLE
30 (N)
N-TUPLE
10 (1)
TEST1
20 (2)
TEST2
===> Directory : //EXAM2
100 (1)
Test of HRNDM1
110 (1)
Filled according to HTFUN1
200 (2)
Test of HRNDM2
210 (2)
Fill according to HTFUN2
NREC
34
41
NWORDS
34064
40431
QUOTA(%)
0.85
1.02
FILE(%)
DIR. NAME
0.85
//EXAM2/NTUPLE
1.02
//EXAM2
Figure 6.5: Adding data to a HBOOK RZ le
6.4. Using PAW to analyse data
245
6.4 Using PAW to analyse data
After transferring the HBOOK RZ le, which was created in the batch job as explained in the previous
section, we start a PAW session to analyse the data which were generated2 . The PAW session below
shows that the le HTEST.DAT is rst opened via a call to HISTO/FILE. The data on the le are now
accessible as the top directory //LUN1. When listing with the LDIR command the contents of the
top directory //LUN1 and its NTUPLE subdirectory, the same information (histograms and Ntuples)
is found as in the batch job (gure 6.5)
PAW > histo/file 1 htest.dat
PAW > ldir
Reading a HBOOK direct access le
| open the HBOOK RZ file
| list current directory
************** Directory ===> //LUN1 <===
Created 890902/1955
Modified 890902/1958
===> List of subdirectories
NTUPLE
Created 890902/1958 at record
9
===> List of objects
HBOOK-ID CYCLE
DATE/TIME
100
1
890902/1955
110
1
890902/1955
200
1
890902/1955
210
1
890902/1955
NDATA
153
88
4335
767
NUMBER OF RECORDS =
7 NUMBER
PER CENT OF DIRECTORY QUOTA USED
PER CENT OF FILE USED
BLOCKING FACTOR
PAW > ldir ntuple
|
OF MEGAWORDS = 0 + 6367 WORDS
=
0.175
=
0.175
= 74.540
list directory in NTUPLE
OFFSET
1
154
242
481
REC1
3
3
3
7
REC2
4 ==>
8
7
************** Directory ===> //LUN1/NTUPLE <===
Created 890902/1958
===> List of objects
HBOOK-ID CYCLE
DATE/TIME
30
2
890902/1958
1
890902/1958
10
1
890902/1958
20
1
890902/1958
NUMBER OF RECORDS =
34 NUMBER
PER CENT OF DIRECTORY QUOTA USED
PER CENT OF FILE USED
BLOCKING FACTOR
Modified 890902/1958
NDATA
1082
1082
151
305
OFFSET
215
725
783
934
OF MEGAWORDS =
=
0.851
=
0.850
= 94.899
REC1
41
39
40
40
REC2
42
40
41
0 + 34064 WORDS
Figure 6.6: Reading a HBOOK direct access le
2
In fact it is possible to leave the data on the disk of the machine where they were written in the batch job, and connect with
NETWORK/RLOGIN host to the machine in question, getting access to the file via TCP/IP. See page 310 for more details.
Chapter 6. HBOOK
246
6.4.1 Plot histogram data
The analysis of the data can now start and we begin by looking at the histograms in the top
directory. Figure 6.7 shows the commands entered and the corresponding output plot. They should
be compared with the lineprinter output in gure 6.4.
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
>
>
>
>
zon 1 2
set htyp -3
hi/pl 110
hi/pl 210
|
|
|
|
Plotting histogram data
Divide picture into 2 vertically
Set hatch style for histogram
Plot 1-dimensional histogram 110
Plot 2-dimensional histogram 210
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
0.8
1
Filled according to HTFUN1
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
Fill according to HTFUN2
Figure 6.7: Plot of one- and two-dimensional histograms
6.5. Ntuples: A closer look
247
6.5 Ntuples: A closer look
We now turn our attention to the NTUPLE directory to show the functionality and use of Ntuples.
After making NTUPLE the current directory the available HBOOK objects are listed. The structure
of the Ntuple with identier 30 is PRINTed. The contents of the various Ntuple elements (\events")
can be viewed by the NTUPLE/SCAN command. As with most Ntuple commands a selection criterion
can be given to treat only given \selected" subsamples of the Ntuple (two examples are seen with
the further NTUPLE/SCAN commands (see gure 6.8).
Looking at Ntuple elements
PAW > cd ntuple
PAW > hi/li
| move to NTUPLE directory
| list HBOOK objects
===> Directory : //LUN1/NTUPLE
30 (N)
N-TUPLE
10 (1)
TEST1
20 (2)
TEST2
PAW > nt/print 30
| print summary for Ntuple 30
********************************************************
* NTUPLE ID=
30 ENTRIES= 10000
N-TUPLE
*
********************************************************
* Var numb *
Name
*
Lower
*
Upper
*
********************************************************
*
1
*
X
* -.422027E+01 * 0.386411E+01 *
*
2
*
Y
* -.411077E+01 * 0.378365E+01 *
*
3
*
Z
* 0.485188E-04 * 0.179518E+02 *
********************************************************
| scan the first elements
PAW > nt/scan 30
***************************************************
* ENTRY *
X
*
Y
*
Z
*
***************************************************
!
1 ! -1.0765
!
1.4405
!
3.2337
!
!
2 ! -1.2429
! -1.6043
!
4.1185
!
!
3 ! 0.54489
!
1.7043
!
3.2017
!
!
4 ! -0.81803
! 0.66588
!
1.1126
!
!
5 ! -1.8752
! 0.38176
!
3.6621
!
!
6 ! 0.37968
! -1.0601
!
1.2680
!
!
7 ! -0.52406
! -0.68243E-01! 0.27930
!
!
8 !
1.2175
! 0.91701
!
2.3231
!
!
9 ! -0.21487
! -0.26670
! 0.11730
!
!
10 ! 0.70368
! 0.82514
!
1.1760
!
!
11 ! 0.93648E-01! -2.0311
!
4.1343
!
!
12 ! -0.48216
! -2.5980
!
6.9820
!
!
13 ! -0.45801
! 0.71523
! 0.72132
!
!
14 ! -0.60272
! 0.98909E-01! 0.37306
!
!
15 ! 0.70454
! -0.25562
! 0.56172
!
More...? ( <CR>/N ): N
==>
15 events have been scanned
Chapter 6. HBOOK
248
PAW > nt/sc 30 z>16
| example of a condition on the Z variable
***************************************************
* ENTRY *
X
*
Y
*
Z
*
***************************************************
!
43 !
3.8641
! -1.5822
!
17.435
!
! 1964 ! -4.2203
! -0.37562
!
17.952
!
! 7480 ! 0.94503
! -4.1108
!
17.791
!
! 9213 ! 0.71434
! -4.0068
!
16.565
!
==>
4 events have been scanned
PAW > nt/sc 30 abs(x)>4.or.abs(y)>4
| example of a more complex selection criterium
***************************************************
* ENTRY *
X
*
Y
*
Z
*
***************************************************
! 1964 ! -4.2203
! -0.37562
!
17.952
!
! 7480 ! 0.94503
! -4.1108
!
17.791
!
! 9213 ! 0.71434
! -4.0068
!
16.565
!
==>
3 events have been scanned
Figure 6.8: Print and scan Ntuple elements
6.5.1 Ntuple plotting
The general format of the command NTUPLE/PLOT to project and plot a Ntuple as a (1-Dim or
2-Dim) histogram with automatic binning, possibly using a selection algorithm is:
NTUPLE/PLOT idn uwfunc nevent ifirst nupd chopt]
IDN
UWFUNC
NEVENT
IFIRST
NUPD
CHOPT
Ntuple Identier and variable(s) (see table 6.1)
Selection function (see table 6.2) - Default no function
Number of events to be processed (default is 999999)
First event to be procesed (default is 1)
Frequency with which to update histogram (default is 1000000)
HPLOT options (C,S,+,B,L,P,*,U,E,A)
6.5. Ntuples: A closer look
249
6.5.2 Ntuple variable and selection function specication
Format
Explanation
IDN.CHNAME
IDN.n
IDN.expression
IDN.B%A
IDN.2%1
IDN.expr1%expr2
The variable named "CHNAME"
The Ntuple variable at position n
Expression is any numerical expression
of Ntuple variables. It may include a call
to a COMIS function.
Scatter-plot of variable B versus A for
each event
Scatter-plot of variable nb. 2 versus
variable nb. 1
expr1 and expr2 can be any numerical
expression of the Ntuple variables. They
can be COMIS functions.
Any combination of the above
Example
30.x
30.3
variable x
variable 3
30.X**2+Y**2 30.X*COMIS.FOR
30.Y%X
30.1%3
Y
1
versus X
versus 3
30.SQRT(X**2+Y**2)%SIN(Z)
30.COMIS1.FTN%COS(Z)
30.3%COMIS2.FTN*SIN(X)
Table 6.1: Syntax for specifying Ntuple variables
Format
Explanation
Example
or missing No selection is applied (weight is 1).
NT/PLOT 30.X
Combination A CUT or combination of CUTs, each NT/PLOT 30.X
of cuts
created by the command NTUPLE/CUTS (use cut 1)
0
Combination A
MASK
or
combiof masks
nation of MASKs, each created by the
command NTUPLE/MASK
Logical
Any logical combination of conditions
expression
between Ntuple variables, cuts and
masks.
Numerical
Any numerical combination of conexpression
stants and Ntuple variables. In this case
the value of the expression will be applied as a weight to the element being
plotted.
Selection
Name of a selection function in a text
function
le of the form fun.ftn (Unix), FUN
FORTRAN (IBM) and FUN.FOR (VAX).
The function value is applied as a
weight
Any combination of the above
1
NT/PLOT 30.X 1.AND.2
NT/PLOT 30.X .NOT.(1.AND.3).OR.2
Assuming there exists a mask vector MSK: NT/PLOT 30.X MSK(4) (bit 4)
NT/PLOT 30.X MSK(1).OR.MSK(6)
NT/PLOT 30.X X>3.14.AND.(Y<Z+5.)
NT/PLOT 30.X 1.AND.MASK(3).OR.Z<10
NT/PLOT 30.X Y
weight X by Y NT/PLOT 30.X X**2+Y**2
weight X by X2 +Y2
NTUPLE/PLOT 30.X SELECT.FOR
For each event the plotted value of X will
be multiplied by the value of the selection
function SELECT calculated for that event.
NT/PL 30.3%F1.FTN*SIN(X) 1.OR.F2.FTN
250
Chapter 6. HBOOK
Table 6.2: Syntax of a selection function used with a Ntuple
6.5. Ntuples: A closer look
251
6.5.3 Ntuple selection mechanisms
With most Ntuple operations a selection \function" UWFUNC of a form described in table 6.2 can
be used, i.e. it can take the form of a simple or composed expression or an external FORTRAN
function, executed by COMIS '1], a cut or a mask. When used together with the NTUPLE/PLOT
command the selection function also acts as a weighting factor.
6.5.4 Masks
The mask facility allows the user to specify up to 32 selection criteria associated with a Ntuple.
These criteria are dened like cuts, but their value for each event are written to an external direct
access le, from which the information can be readily retrieved at a later stage, without recalculating
the condition value in question. In the example session below rst a new mask le MNAME.MASK
is dened, which can contain information for up to 10000 Ntuple elements. Next we dene event
election criteria and store their result at various bit positions in the mask vector MNAME.
Dening cuts and masks
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
>
>
>
>
>
>
NT/CUT 4 Z>X**2
| Define cut 4
NT/MASK MNAME N 10000
NT/PLOT 30.X X**2+Y**2>2>>MNAME(1)
NT/PLOT 30.X 4.AND.Y>1>>MNAME(2)
NT/PLOT 30.Y SIN(Z).GT.SIN(Y)>>MNAME(3)
NT/MASK MNAME P
| Print mask definitions
=====> Current active selections in mask MNAME
Bit Nevents
Selection
1
3723
X**2+Y**2>2
2
1558
4.AND.Y>1
3
7051
SIN(Z)>SIN(Y)
PAW > NT/MASK MNAME C
| close MNAME.MASK file
Of course doing this kind of gymnastics makes sense only if a time consuming selection mechanism
is used and only a few events are selected. In a subsequent run the mask le can then be read to
display the information much more quickly.
Using a mask le of a previous run
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
>
>
>
>
>
NT/MASK
NT/PLOT
NT/PLOT
NT/PLOT
NT/MASK
MNAME
30.X MNAME(1)
30.X MNAME(2)
30.Y MNAME(3)
MNAME C
|
|
|
|
|
open the mask file for read
plot using bit 1
plot using bit 2
plot using bit 3
close MNAME.MASK file
Chapter 6. HBOOK
252
Cuts
A cut is identied by an integer (between 0 and 100) and is a logical expression of Ntuple elements,
other cuts, masks or functions.
Example of cuts
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
NT/CUT
NT/CUT
NT/CUT
NT/CUT
NT/CUT
NT/CUT
NT/CUT
NT/CUT
NT/CUT
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
4<X
0.4<X<0.8.AND.Y<SQRT(Z)
FUN.FOR
FUN.FOR.AND.Z>X**2
(1.AND.2).OR.4
1.AND.Z<0
X
SQRT(Y)
MASK(23).AND.8
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
variable
ditto
external function
ditto plus variable
combination of cuts
cut and variable
event weight
ditto
mask and cut
Cut denitions can be written to a le and later re-read.
| write all cuts to file
| read cut 4 from file
| print cut 4
PAW > NT/CUT 0 W cuts.dat
PAW > NT/CUT 4 R cuts.dat
PAW > NT/CUT 4 P
CUT number= 4 Points= 1 Variable=
FUN.FOR.AND.Z>X**2
1
Graphical cut
One can also dene a cut on the screen in a graphical way, by pointing out the upper and lower
limits (1-dimensional case) or an area dened by up to 20 points (2-dimensional case) by using the
mouse or arrow keys (see gure 6.9).
Note that graphical cuts are only valid for the original Ntuple variables and not for combinations of
the latter.
Using graphical cuts
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
nt/pl 30.x%y
CUT 1 G
zon 1 2
title 'Graphical cuts'
2d 211 'X versus Y' 50
1d 212 'X - Before and
1d 213 'Y - Before and
nt/pl 30.x%y ! -211
cut 1 d
zon 2 2 3 s
nt/pl 30.x ! -212
set htyp -3
nt/pl 30.x 1 -212 ! !
set htyp 0
nt/pl 30.y ! -213
set htyp -3
nt/pl 30.y 1 -213 ! !
-2.5 2.5 50 -2.5 2.5 0.
after cut' 60 -3. 3. 0.
after cut' 60 -3. 3. 0.
S
S
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
plot y versus x
graphical cut 1 for current plot
define picture layout
title for picture
user binning
ditto
ditto
plot y versus x in histogram 211
draw graphical cut 1
redefine the picture layout
plot x BEFORE cut in histogram 212
use hatch for plot after cut
plot x AFTER cut on same plot
no hatch for plot without cut
plot y BEFORE cut in histogram 213
use hatch for plot after cut
plot y AFTER cut on same plot
6.5. Ntuples: A closer look
253
Graphical cuts
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
-0.5
-1
-1.5
-2
-2.5
-2.5
-2
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
X versus Y
450
450
400
400
350
350
300
300
250
250
200
200
150
150
100
100
50
50
0
-3
-2
-1
0
1
X - Before and after cut
2
3
0
-3
-2
-1
0
1
Y - Before and after cut
Figure 6.9: Graphical denition of cuts
2
3
Chapter 6. HBOOK
254
COMIS selection function
In the denition of a selection criterion an external function (in the sense that it has not been
compiled and linked together with PAW) can be used. This function is interpreted by the COMIS '1]
package. The functions which are callable from within such a function are given below.
Type of function
FORTRAN library
HBOOK package
ZEBRA package
HPLOT package
KUIP package
HIGZ package
KERNLIB library
COMMON blocks
List of callable routines
SQRT LOG LOG10 EXP SIN COS TAN ASIN ACOS ATAN2 ABS MOD
MIN MAX INT REAL DBLE LEN INDEX
HBOOK1 HBOOK2 HBOOKN HFILL HF1 HPRINT HDELET HRESET
HFITGA HFITPO HFITEX HPROJ1 HPROJ2 HFN HGNPAR HROPEN
PAOPEN PACLOS PAREAD PAWRIT HPAK HPAKE HUNPAK HGIVE HGN
HGNF HF2 HFF1 HFF2 HBFUN1 HBFUN2 HRIN HROUT HI HIE HIX
HIJ HIDALL HNOENT HX HXY HCOPY HSTATI HBPROF HOPERA
HIDOPT HDERIV HRNDM1 HRNDM2 HBARX HBARY
FZIN FZOUT FZENDI FZENDO FZFILE RZCDIR RZLDIR RZFILE
RZEND RZIN RZOUT RZVIN RZVOUT
HPLOT HPLSYM HPLERR HPLEGO HPLNT HPLSUR HPLSOF HPLSET
HPLGIV HPLOC HPLSET HPLGIV HPLOC
KUGETV KUDPAR KUVECT KILEXP KUTIME KUEXEL
IPL IPM IFA IGTEXT IGBOX IGAXIS IGPIE IGRAPH IGHIST
IGARC IGLBL IGRNG IGMETA IGSA IGSET IRQLC IRQST ISELNT
ISFAIS ISFASI ISLN ISMK ISVP ISWN ITX ICLRWK ISCR
JBIT JBYT LENNOC RANNOR RNDM SBIT0 SBIT1 SBYT UCOPY
UCTOH UHTOC VZERO
/PAWC/, /QUEST/, /KCWORK/, /PAWPAR/, /PAWIDN/
Table 6.3: Function callable and common blocks which can be referenced from an external function
with PAW.
The command NTUPLE/UWFUNC allows a selection function for a Ntuple to be prepared more easily. It
generates a function with a name specied by the user and with code making available the variables
corresponding to the given Ntuple identier via a COMMON block. As an example consider the
Ntuple number 30 used previously.
6.5. Ntuples: A closer look
255
Specifying a user selection function
PAW > NTUPLE/UWFUNC 30 SELECT.FOR PT
| Generate SELECT.FOR
| Look at file SELECT.FOR
PAW > EDIT SELECT.FOR
REAL FUNCTION SELECT(XDUMMY)
REAL X
,
Y
,
Z
COMMON/PAWIDN/IDNEVT,VIDN1,VIDN2,VIDN3,
+
X
,
Y
,
Z
DIMENSION XDUMMY( 3)
CHARACTER*8 CHTAGS( 3)
DATA CHTAGS/'
X
','
Y
','
Z
'/
*
SELECT=1.
PRINT 1000,IDNEVT
DO 10 I=1, 3
PRINT 2000,I,CHTAGS(I),XDUMMY(I)
10 CONTINUE
*
1000 FORMAT(8H IDNEVT=,I5)
2000 FORMAT(5X,I3,5X,A,1H=,G14.7)
END
The user can add further FORTRAN code with the command EDIT. Remember that the value of
the function can be used for weighting each event.
6.5.5 Examples
To put into practice the syntax explained above let us consider gure 6.10. We rst plot variable Z
with the binning automatically calculated by HBOOK. Then we dene a histogram with identier 300
into which we want HBOOK to plot the squared sums of the elements X and Y. This corresponds to
the denition of the Z variable as can be seen in the FORTRAN listing in gure 6.5. As the MEAN and
RMS are only calculated on the events within the histogram boundaries, they dier slightly between
the top and bottom plot in gure 6.10.
Chapter 6. HBOOK
256
Plotting Ntuples
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
>
>
>
>
>
zon 1 2
| 2 histograms one above the other
opt STAT
| Write statistics on plot
NT/PL 30.Z
| plot variable Z of Ntuple 30
1d 300 'Z recalculated and user binning' 100 0. 10.
NT/PL 30.X**2+Y**2 ! -300
| Recalculate variable Z + plot with user binning
ID
Entries
Mean
RMS
1000
800
1000000
10000
2.014
2.003
600
400
200
0
0
2.5
5
7.5
10
12.5
15
17.5
Z
ID
Entries
Mean
RMS
500
400
300
10000
1.939
1.811
300
200
100
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Z recalculated and user binning
Figure 6.10: Read and plot Ntuple elements
8
9
10
6.5. Ntuples: A closer look
257
More complex Ntuple presentations
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
zon 2 2
opt STAT
set HTYP -3
1d 401 'NT/PL - X' 100. -2.5 2.5
nt/pl 30.1 ! -401
1d 402 'NT/PL E option - Y' 100. -2.5 2.5
igset mtyp 21
nt/pl 30.y ! -402 ! ! E
1d 403 'NT/PL B option - X' 40. -2.5 2.5
set barw 0.4
set baro 0.3
csel NB 0.33
set hcol 1001
nt/pl 30.x y>0 -403 ! ! b
1d 404 'NT/PL PL option - Y' 100. -2.5 2.5
max 404 160
nt/pl 30.y sqrt(z)>1 -404 ! ! pl
ID
Entries
Mean
RMS
240
401
10000
-0.1638E-02
0.9580
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
Divide plot in 4 zones
Select option to write statistics on plot
Define histogram hatch type
Book 1 dim histogram
Plot variable 1 (x) using histogram 401
1 dim histogram (different title)
Select market type for points on plot
Plot y variable with Error bar option
1 dim histogram (different title + binning)
Define bar width for bar chart
Define bar origin for bar chart
Print selection criterion on plot
Histogram colour black
Plot x variable as bar chart
1 dim histogram (different title)
Fix maximum for plotting hist 404
Plot y variable with PL option
240
160
160
120
120
80
80
40
40
-2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
0
NT/PL - X
-2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
NT/PL E option - Y
ID
Entries
Mean
RMS
280
403
5012
-0.7792E-02
0.9643
240
160
ID
Entries
Mean
RMS
140
404
6090
-0.5530E-02
1.166
120
200
100
160
80
120
60
80
40
40
20
0
402
10000
-0.2674E-03
0.9546
200
200
0
ID
Entries
Mean
RMS
-2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5
0
0.5
1
NT/PL B option - X
1.5
2
2.5
0
-2.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5
0
0.5
1
NT/PL PL option - Y
Figure 6.11: Selection functions and dierent data presentations
1.5
2
2.5
Chapter 6. HBOOK
258
6.6 Fitting with PAW/HBOOK/MINUIT
Minuit'6]3 is conceived as a tool to nd the minimum value of a multi-parameter function and analyze
the shape of the function around the minimum. The principal application is foreseen for statistical
analysis, working on chisquare or log-likelihood functions, to compute the best-t parameter values
and uncertainties, including correlations between the parameters. It is especially suited to handle
di"cult problems, including those which may require guidance in order to nd the correct solution.
6.6.1 Basic concepts of MINUIT.
The MINUIT package acts on a multiparameter FORTRAN function to which one must give the
generic name FCN. In the PAW/HBOOK implementation, the function FCN is called HFCNH when
the command Histo/Fit (PAW) or the routine HFITH are invoked. It is called HFCNV when the
command Vector/Fit or the routine HFITV are invoked. The value of FCN will in general depend
on one or more variable parameters.
To take a simple example, suppose the problem is to t a polynomial through a set of data points
with the command Vector/Fit. Routine HFCNV called by HFITV calculates the chisquare between a
polynomial and the data the variable parameters of HFCNV would be the coe"cients of the polynomials. Routine HFITV will request MINUIT to minimize HFCNV with respect to the parameters, that
is, nd those values of the coe"cients which give the lowest value of chisquare.
6.6.2 Basic concepts - The transformation for parameters with limits.
For variable parameters with limits, MINUIT uses the following transformation:
!
P
ext ; a
Pext = a + b ;2 a (sin Pint + 1)
Pint = arcsin 2 b ; a ; 1
so that the internal value Pint can take on any value, while the external value Pext can take on values
only between the lower limit a and the upper limit b. Since the transformation is necessarily non
linear, it would transform a nice linear problem into a nasty non-linear one, which is the reason why
limits should be avoided if not necessary. In addition, the transformation does require some computer
time, so it slows down the computation a little bit, and more importantly, it introduces additional
numerical inaccuracy into the problem in addition to what is introduced in the numerical calculation
of the FCN value. The eects of non-linearity and numerical roundo both become more important
as the external value gets closer to one of the limits (expressed as the distance to nearest limit divided
by distance between limits). The user must therefore be aware of the fact that, for example, if he
puts limits of (0 1010) on a parameter, then the values 0:0 and 1:0 will be indistinguishable to the
accuracy of most machines.
The transformation also aects the parameter error matrix, of course, so MINUIT does a transformation of the error matrix (and the \parabolic" parameter errors) when there are parameter limits.
Users should however realize that the transformation is only a linear approximation, and that it cannot
give a meaningful result if one or more parameters is very close to a limit, where @Pext [email protected] 0.
Therefore, it is recommended that:
{ Limits on variable parameters should be used only when needed in order to prevent the parameter from taking on unphysical values.
3
The following information about Minuit has been extracted from the Minuit documentation.
6.6. Fitting with PAW/HBOOK/MINUIT
259
{ When a satisfactory minimum has been found using limits, the limits should then be removed
if possible, in order to perform or re-perform the error analysis without limits.
6.6.3 How to get the right answer from MINUIT.
MINUIT oers the user a choice of several minimization algorithms. The MIGRAD (Other algorithms
are available with Interactive MINUIT, as described on Page 269) algorithm is in general the best
minimizer for nearly all functions. It is a variable-metric method with inexact line search, a stable
metric updating scheme, and checks for positive-deniteness. Its main weakness is that it depends
heavily on knowledge of the rst derivatives, and fails miserably if they are very inaccurate. If
rst derivatives are a problem, they can be calculated analytically inside the user function and
communicated to PAW via the routine HDERIV.
If parameter limits are needed, in spite of the side eects, then the user should be aware of the
following techniques to alleviate problems caused by limits:
Getting the right minimum with limits.
If MIGRAD converges normally to a point where no parameter is near one of its limits, then the
existence of limits has probably not prevented MINUIT from nding the right minimum. On the
other hand, if one or more parameters is near its limit at the minimum, this may be because the
true minimum is indeed at a limit, or it may be because the minimizer has become \blocked" at a
limit. This may normally happen only if the parameter is so close to a limit (internal value at an odd
multiple of 2 that MINUIT prints a warning to this eect when it prints the parameter values.
The minimizer can become blocked at a limit, because at a limit the derivative seen by the minimizer
@[email protected] is zero no matter what the real derivative @[email protected] is.
@F = @F @Pext = @F = 0
@Pint @Pext @Pint @Pext
Getting the right parameter errors with limits.
In the best case, where the minimum is far from any limits, MINUIT will correctly transform the error
matrix, and the parameter errors it reports should be accurate and very close to those you would
have got without limits. In other cases (which should be more common, since otherwise you wouldn't
need limits), the very meaning of parameter errors becomes problematic. Mathematically, since the
limit is an absolute constraint on the parameter, a parameter at its limit has no error, at least in
one direction. The error matrix, which can assign only symmetric errors, then becomes essentially
meaningless.
6.6.4 Interpretation of Parameter Errors:
There are two kinds of problems that can arise: the reliability of MINUIT's error estimates, and
their statistical interpretation, assuming they are accurate.
Statistical interpretation:
For discussuion of basic concepts, such as the meaning of the elements of the error matrix, or setting
of exact condence levels, see '13, 14, 15].
260
Chapter 6. HBOOK
Reliability of MINUIT error estimates.
MINUIT always carries around its own current estimates of the parameter errors, which it will print
out on request, no matter how accurate they are at any given point in the execution. For example, at
initialization, these estimates are just the starting step sizes as specied by the user. After a MIGRAD
or HESSE step, the errors are usually quite accurate, unless there has been a problem. MINUIT, when
it prints out error values, also gives some indication of how reliable it thinks they are. For example,
those marked CURRENT GUESS ERROR are only working values not to be believed, and APPROXIMATE
ERROR means that they have been calculated but there is reason to believe that they may not be
accurate.
If no mitigating adjective is given, then at least MINUIT believes the errors are accurate, although
there is always a small chance that MINUIT has been fooled. Some visible signs that MINUIT may
have been fooled are:
{
{
{
{
Warning messages produced during the minimization or error analysis.
Failure to nd new minimum.
Value of EDM too big (estimated Distance to Minimum).
Correlation coe"cients exactly equal to zero, unless some parameters are known to be uncorrelated with the others.
{ Correlation coe"cients very close to one (greater than 0.99). This indicates both an exceptionally di"cult problem, and one which has been badly parameterized so that individual errors
are not very meaningful because they are so highly correlated.
{ Parameter at limit. This condition, signalled by a MINUIT warning message, may make both
the function minimum and parameter errors unreliable. See the discussion above \Getting the
right parameter errors with limits".
The best way to be absolutely sure of the errors, is to use \independent" calculations and compare
them, or compare the calculated errors with a picture of the function. Theoretically, the covariance
matrix for a \physical" function must be positive-denite at the minimum, although it may not be
so for all points far away from the minimum, even for a well-determined physical problem. Therefore,
if MIGRAD reports that it has found a non-positive-denite covariance matrix, this may be a sign of
one or more of the following:
A non-physical region: On its way to the minimum, MIGRAD may have traversed a region which
has unphysical behaviour, which is of course not a serious problem as long as it recovers and leaves
such a region.
An underdetermined problem: If the matrix is not positive-denite even at the minimum, this
may mean that the solution is not well-dened, for example that there are more unknowns than
there are data points, or that the parameterization of the t contains a linear dependence. If this is
the case, then MINUIT (or any other program) cannot solve your problem uniquely, and the error
matrix will necessarily be largely meaningless, so the user must remove the underdeterminedness by
reformulating the parameterization. MINUIT cannot do this itself.
Numerical inaccuracies: It is possible that the apparent lack of positive-deniteness is in fact
only due to excessive roundo errors in numerical calculations in the user function or not enough
6.6. Fitting with PAW/HBOOK/MINUIT
261
precision. This is unlikely in general, but becomes more likely if the number of free parameters is very
large, or if the parameters are badly scaled (not all of the same order of magnitude), and correlations
are also large. In any case, whether the non-positive-deniteness is real or only numerical is largely
irrelevant, since in both cases the error matrix will be unreliable and the minimum suspicious.
An ill-posed problem: For questions of parameter dependence, see the discussion above on
positive-deniteness.
Possible other mathematical problems are the following:
Excessive numerical roundo: Be especially careful of exponential and factorial functions which
get big very quickly and lose accuracy.
Starting too far from the solution: The function may have unphysical local minima, especially
at innity in some variables.
6.6.5 Fitting histograms
The general syntax of the command to t histograms is:
HISTOGRAM id func chopt np par step pmin
pmax errpar ]
Only the parameters, which are of more general use, are described in detail. The full description can
be found in part 3 of this manual.
ID
FUNC
A histogram identier (1-dim or 2-dim)
A bin range may be specied, e.g. Histo/Fit 10(25:56) ...
Name of a function to be tted to the histogram.
This function can be of various forms:
1 The name of a le which contains the user dened function to be minimized. Function
name and le name must be the same. For example le FUNC.FOR is:
FUNCTION FUNC(X)
or FUNC(X,Y) for a 2-Dim histogram
COMMON/PAWPAR/PAR(2)
FUNC=PAR(1)*X +PAR(2)*EXP(-X)
END
2 One of the keywords below (1-dim histograms only), which will use the parameterization described at the right for the t.
G
Func=par(1)*exp(-0.5*((x-par(2))/par(3))**2)
E
Func=exp(par(1)+par(2)*x)
Pn
Func=par(1)+par(2)*x+par(3)*x**2...+par(n+1)*x**n, 0<n<20
3 A combination of the keywords above with the 2 operators + or *.
CHOPT
Note that in this case, the order of parameters in PAR must correspond to the order
of the basic functions. Blanks are not allowed in the expression.
All options of the HISTO/PLOT command plus the following additional ones:
0 Do not plot the result of the t. By default the tted function is drawn unless the
option \N" below is specied.
Chapter 6. HBOOK
262
Some or all parameters are bounded. In this case vectors STEP,PMIN,PMAX must be
specied. Default is: All parameters vary freely.
D The user is assumed to compute derivatives analytically using routine HDERIV. By
default, derivatives are computed numerically.
L Use Log Likelihood method. Default is 2 method.
M Invokes interactive Minuit (See on Page 269)
N Do not st ore the result of the t bin by bin with the histogram. By default the function
is calculated at the centre of each bin and the t results stored with the histogram
data structure.
Q Quiet mode. No output printed about the t.
V Verbose mode. Results are printed after each iteration. By default only nal results
are printed.
W Sets weights equal to 1.
NP
Number of parameters in t (0 NP 34)
PAR
Vector containing the t parameters.
Before the t: Vector containing the initial values
After the t: Vector containing the tted values.
STEP
Vector with step size for t parameters
PMIN
Vector with lower bounds for t parameters
PMAX
Vector with upper bounds for t parameters
ERRPAR Vector with errors on the tted parameters
When using predened functions (case 2 for the FUNC parameter) initial values need not be specied
when NP=0. In this case the parameter vector PAR, if specied, is only lled with the tted parameters
on output.
B
6.6.6 A simple t with a gaussian
Example of simple t with gaussian in PAW
PAW > opt stat
| Select option to show histogram statsitics on plot
PAW > opt fit
| Select option to show fitted parameters on plot
PAW > hi/fit 10 G | Fit histogram 10 with a single gaussian
**********************************************
*
*
* Function minimization by SUBROUTINE HFITGA *
* Variable-metric method
*
* ID =
10 CHOPT = T
*
*
*
**********************************************
Convergence when estimated distance to minimum (EDM) .LT. 0.10E-03
FCN=
96.97320
INT EXT PARAMETER
NO. NO.
NAME
1 1 Constant
2 2 Mean
3 3 Sigma
FROM MIGRAD
STRATEGY= 1
STATUS=CONVERGED CALLS=
ERROR DEF=
1.0000
VALUE
239.83
-0.53038E-02
0.98766
ERROR
2.8178
0.77729E-04
0.70224E-02
CHISQUARE = 0.1021E+01
NPFIT =
98
STEP
SIZE
0.00000
0.00000
0.00000
549 EDM=
0.26E-03
FIRST
DERIVATIVE
0.57627E-02
22.025
-0.88534
6.6. Fitting with PAW/HBOOK/MINUIT
263
Chapter 6. HBOOK
264
ID
Entries
Mean
RMS
280
10
10000
-0.3923E-02
0.9857
1.021
239.8
-0.5304E-02
0.9877
Constant
Mean
Sigma
240
200
160
120
80
40
0
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
TEST1
Figure 6.12: Example of a simple t of a one-dimensional distribution
3
6.6. Fitting with PAW/HBOOK/MINUIT
265
Fit parts of histogram separately
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
>
>
>
>
opt NSTA
ve/cr par(6)
set fit 111
hi/fit 110(1:50) G ! 0 par
|
|
|
|
Turn off option showing statistics on plot
Create a vector with 6 elements
Show fitted parameters + errors on plot
Fit first half with a gaussian and plot
**********************************************
*
*
* Function minimization by SUBROUTINE HFITGA *
* Variable-metric method
*
* ID =
110 CHOPT = TR
*
*
*
**********************************************
Convergence when estimated distance to minimum (EDM) .LT.
FCN=
90.66560
INT EXT PARAMETER
NO. NO.
NAME
1 1 Constant
2 2 Mean
3 3 Sigma
FROM MIGRAD
STRATEGY= 1
VALUE
300.28
0.30698
0.73832E-01
CHISQUARE = 0.2159E+01
NPFIT =
STATUS=CONVERGED CALLS=
ERROR DEF=
1.0000
ERROR
5.0681
0.10511E-02
0.67896E-03
STEP
SIZE
0.13342
-0.13885E-04
-0.57602E-04
INT EXT PARAMETER
NO. NO.
NAME
1 1 Constant
2 2 Mean
3 3 Sigma
FROM MIGRAD
STRATEGY= 1
VALUE
153.27
0.70186
0.11965
CHISQUARE = 0.6418E+00
PAW
PAW
PAR
PAR
PAR
PAR
PAR
PAR
NPFIT =
0.68E-05
FIRST
DERIVATIVE
0.97075E-04
-0.57797
-4.6407
| Fit second half with gaussian, do not plot
**********************************************
*
*
* Function minimization by SUBROUTINE HFITGA *
* Variable-metric method
*
* ID =
110 CHOPT = TR
*
*
*
**********************************************
Convergence when estimated distance to minimum (EDM) .LT.
30.16534
152 EDM=
45
PAW > hi/fit 110(50:99) G 0 0 par(4)
FCN=
0.10E-03
0.10E-03
STATUS=CONVERGED CALLS=
ERROR DEF=
1.0000
ERROR
3.0227
0.19599E-02
0.18242E-02
STEP
SIZE
0.65005E-01
0.40388E-03
-0.25292E-03
221 EDM=
0.87E-04
FIRST
DERIVATIVE
0.36877E-02
4.8103
6.9011
50
> hi/plot 110 SFUNC
| Plot result of fit on Same plot
> ve/pr par(1:6)
| Print the fitted parameters in PAR
(
1 ) =
300.2846
(
2 ) = 0.3069752
(
3 ) = 0.7383241E-01
(
4 ) =
153.2716
(
5 ) = 0.7018576
(
6 ) = 0.1196475
Chapter 6. HBOOK
266
Parameter
First Gaussian:
Height
Mean value
Width (sigma)
Second Gaussian:
Height
Mean value
Width (sigma)
Input value
Result of Figure 6.13 Result of Figure 6.14
1: (normalised)
0:3
0:07
300: 5:
0:307 0:001
0:074 0:001
308: 5:
0:303 0:001
0:070 0:001
0:5 (normalised) 153: 3:
0:7
0:702 0:002
0:12
0:120 0:002
154: 4:
0:703 0:002
0:119 0:002
Table 6.4: Results for the tted parameters of the gaussian distributions as compared to the initial
values which the gaussian distributions were generated in the \batch" job in gure 6.3. The table
also includes the result of the double gaussian t in section 6.14
.
Example of a more complex t
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
>
>
>
>
* Create vector of 6 elements and give initial values for combined fit of two gaussians
ve/cr par2(6) r 200 0.3 0.1 100 0.7 0.1 | initial values for the 6 fit parameters
set fit 111
| display fitted parameters plus errors
| perform the fit (sum of 2 gaussians)
hi/fit 110(2:99) G+G ! 6 par2
**********************************************
*
*
* Function minimization by SUBROUTINE HFITH *
* Variable-metric method
*
* ID =
110 CHOPT = R
*
*
*
**********************************************
Convergence when estimated distance to minimum (EDM) .LT.
FCN=
57.41251
INT EXT PARAMETER
NO. NO.
NAME
1 1 P1
2 2 P2
3 3 P3
4 4 P4
5 5 P5
6 6 P6
FROM MIGRAD
STRATEGY= 1
VALUE
307.86
0.30265
0.70029E-01
153.62
0.70303
0.11865
CHISQUARE = 0.6524E+00
NPFIT =
0.10E-03
STATUS=CONVERGED CALLS=
ERROR DEF=
1.0000
ERROR
5.3896
0.10750E-02
0.86285E-03
3.0170
0.20652E-02
0.18645E-02
94
STEP
SIZE
1.3393
0.18577E-03
0.19967E-03
0.73111
0.43051E-03
0.39360E-03
597 EDM=
0.10E-03
FIRST
DERIVATIVE
-0.51814E-03
3.5622
11.689
0.30406E-02
-1.2694
3.2237
6.6. Fitting with PAW/HBOOK/MINUIT
267
Constant
Mean
Sigma
350
2.159
300.3
0.3070
0.7383E-01
4.921
0.1052E-02
0.6180E-03
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
Filled according to HTFUN1
Figure 6.13: Example of a t using sub-ranges bins
0.8
1
Chapter 6. HBOOK
268
350
300
P1
P2
P3
P4
P5
P6
0.6524
307.9
0.3026
0.7002E-01
153.6
0.7030
0.1187
0.6
0.8
5.346
0.1080E-02
0.8478E-03
3.012
0.2076E-02
0.1835E-02
250
200
150
100
50
0
0
0.2
0.4
Filled according to HTFUN1
Figure 6.14: Example of a t using a global double gaussian t
1
6.7. Doing more with Minuit
269
6.7 Doing more with Minuit
When the HISTO/FIT or VECTOR/FIT command is invoked, PAW/HBOOK will set a default environment for Minuit. Control may be given to Minuit if the option \M" is specied in the command.
In this case, the user may enter Minuit control statements.
Overview of available MINUIT commands
CLEar
Resets all parameter names and values to undened. Must normally be followed by a PARAMETER
command or equivalent, in order to dene parameter values.
CONtour par1 par2 devs]ngrid]
Instructs MINUIT to trace contour lines of the user function with respect to the two parameters
whose external numbers are par1 and par2. Other variable parameters of the function, if any, will
have their values xed at the current values during the contour tracing. The optional parameter
devs] (default value 2.) gives the number of standard deviations in each parameter which should
lie entirely within the plotting area. Optional parameter ngrid] (default value 25 unless page size
is too small) determines the resolution of the plot, i.e. the number of rows and columns of the grid
at which the function will be evaluated.
EXIT
End of Interactive MINUIT. Control is returned to PAW.
FIX parno
Causes parameter parno to be removed from the list of variable parameters, and its value will
remain constant (at the current value) during subsequent minimizations, etc., until another command
changes its value or its status.
HELP SET]SHOw]
Causes MINUIT to list the available commands. The list of SET and SHOw commands must be
requested separately.
HESse maxcalls]
Instructs MINUIT to calculate, by nite dierences, the Hessian or error matrix. That is, it calculates
the full matrix of second derivatives of the function with respect to the currently variable parameters,
and inverts it, printing out the resulting error matrix. The optional argument maxcalls] species
the (approximate) maximum number of function calls after which the calculation will be stopped.
IMProve maxcalls]
If a previous minimization has converged, and the current values of the parameters therefore correspond to a local minimum of the function, this command requests a search for additional distinct
local minima. The optional argument maxcalls] species the (approximate) maximum number of
function calls after which the calculation will be stopped.
270
Chapter 6. HBOOK
MIGrad maxcalls]tolerance]
Causes minimization of the function by the method of Migrad, the most e"cient and complete single
method, recommended for general functions (see also MINImize). The minimization produces as a
by-product the error matrix of the parameters, which is usually reliable unless warning messages
are produced. The optional argument maxcalls] species the (approximate) maximum number
of function calls after which the calculation will be stopped even if it has not yet converged. The
optional argument tolerance] species required tolerance on the function value at the minimum.
The default tolerance is 0.1. Minimization will stop when the estimated vertical distance to the
minimum (EDM) is less than 0.001*tolerance]*UP (see SET ERR).
MINImize maxcalls]tolerance]
Causes minimization of the function by the method of Migrad, as does the MIGrad command, but
switches to the SIMplex method if Migrad fails to converge. Arguments are as for MIGrad.
MINOs maxcalls]parno]parno]...
Causes a Minos error analysis to be performed on the parameters whose numbers parno] are
specied. If none are specied, Minos errors are calculated for all variable parameters. Minos errors
may be expensive to calculate, but are very reliable since they take account of non-linearities in the
problem as well as parameter correlations, and are in general asymmetric. The optional argument
maxcalls] species the (approximate) maximum number of function calls per parameter requested,
after which the calculation will be stopped for that parameter.
RELease parno
If parno is the number of a previously variable parameter which has been xed by a command:
FIX parno, then that parameter will return to variable status. Otherwise a warning message is
printed and the command is ignored. Note that this command operates only on parameters which
were at one time variable and have been FIXed. It cannot make constant parameters variable that
must be done by redening the parameter with a PARAMETER command.
REStore code]
If no code] is specied, this command restores all previously FIXed parameters to variable status.
If code]=1, then only the last parameter FIXed is restored to variable status.
SCAn parno]numpts]from]to]
Scans the value of the user function by varying parameter number parno], leaving all other parameters xed at the current value. If parno] is not specied, all variable parameters are scanned in
sequence. The number of points numpts] in the scan is 40 by default, and cannot exceed 100.
The range of the scan is by default 2 standard deviations on each side of the current best value, but
can be specied as from from] to to]. After each scan, if a new minimum is found, the best
parameter values are retained as start values for future scans or minimizations. The curve resulting
from each scan is plotted on the output unit in order to show the approximate behaviour of the
function. This command is not intended for minimization, but is sometimes useful for debugging the
user function or nding a reasonable starting point.
6.7. Doing more with Minuit
271
SEEk maxcalls]devs]
Causes a Monte Carlo minimization of the function, by choosing random values of the variable
parameters, chosen uniformly over a hypercube centered at the current best value. The region size is
by default 3 standard deviations on each side, but can be changed by specifying the value of devs].
SET ERRordef up
Sets the value of up (default value= 1.), dening parameter errors. MINUIT denes parameter
errors as the change in parameter value required to change the function value by up. Normally, for
chisquared ts up=1, and for negative log likelihood, up=0.5.
SET LIMits parno]lolim]uplim]
Allows the user to change the limits on one or all parameters. If no arguments are specied, all limits
are removed from all parameters. If parno] alone is specied, limits are removed from parameter
parno]. If all arguments are specied, then parameter parno] will be bounded between lolim]
and uplim]. Limits can be specied in either order, MINUIT will take the smaller as lolim] and
the larger as uplim]. However, if lolim] is equal to uplim], an error condition results.
SET PARameter parno value
Sets the value of parameter parno to value. The parameter in question may be variable, xed, or
constant, but must be dened.
SET PRIntout level
Sets the print level, determining how much output MINUIT will produce. The allowed values and
their meanings are displayed after a SHOw PRInt command. Possible values for level are:
-1 No output except from SHOW commands
0 Minimum output (no starting values or intermediate results)
1 Default value, normal output
2 Additional output giving intermediate results.
3 Maximum output, showing progress of minimizations.
SET STRategy level
Sets the strategy to be used in calculating rst and second derivatives and in certain minimization
methods. In general, low values of level mean fewer function calls and high values mean more reliable
minimization. Currently allowed values are 0, 1 (default), and 2.
SHOw XXXX
All SET XXXX commands have a corresponding SHOw XXXX command. In addition, the SHOw
commands listed starting here have no corresponding SET command for obvious reasons. The full
list of SHOw commands is printed in response to the command HELP SHOw.
272
Chapter 6. HBOOK
SHOw CORrelations
Calculates and prints the parameter correlations from the error matrix.
SHOw COVariance
Prints the (external) covariance (error) matrix.
SIMplex maxcalls]tolerance]
Performs a function minimization using the simplex method of Nelder and Mead. Minimization
terminates either when the function has been called (approximately) maxcalls] times, or when
the estimated vertical distance to minimum (EDM) is less than tolerance]. The default value of
tolerance] is 0.1*UP (see SET ERR).
Chapter 7: Graphics (HIGZ and HPLOT)
7.1 HPLOT, HIGZ and local graphics package
Graphics input/output in PAW is handled by the two packages HPLOT (Histograms PLOTting) and
HIGZ (High level Interface to Graphics and Zebra). HIGZ is the basic graphics system of PAW
interfacing an basic graphics package while HPLOT, sitting on top of HIGZ, is used for plotting
HBOOK objects (Histograms, Ntuples, etc.). The gure below shows the hierarchy between HPLOT,
HIGZ and the basic graphics package (GKS, DI3000, X Windows, etc.).
PAW
HPLOT
HIGZ
G
Z
Basic Graphics Package
Figure 7.1: HPLOT and HIGZ in PAW
273
Chapter 7. Graphics (HIGZ and HPLOT)
274
Graphics could be produced in PAW either directly by HIGZ commands or by HPLOT commands. In
both cases, all the graphics is under the control of HIGZ. Two distinct modes are available in HIGZ:
one is purely graphics (the G mode) interfacing the basic graphics package, and the second (the Z
mode) allows the management of the HIGZ structures (pictures). As an example, the simple PAW
command HISTOGRAM/PLOT is handled at the dierent levels as follows:
PAW Level
HPLOT Level
HIGZ Level
Basic graphics
HISTOGRAM/PLOT ID
Takes care of ZONE, SET, OPTION, etc.
Windows and Viewport, Axis, Boxes, Histogram, Text and Attributes
Line, Text, Attributes, etc.
7.2 The metales
Metales are text les used as device independent sources of graphics output for printers of dierent
type. PAW is able to produce two types of metales.
The rst one is the basic graphics package metale (for example a GKS metale). This le is
produced by the basic graphics package and it usually needs a special interpreter to be sent to
the printers. For example, at CERN, the GKS metale (workstation type 4) must be printed with
GRPLOT.
The second type of metale is directly produced by HIGZ and is independent from the basic graphics
package used. This type of metale is a PostScript metale and could be sent directly to a PostScript
printer The PostScript workstation types have the following format:
-Format]Nx]Ny]Type]
Where:
Format
Nx, Ny
Type
Is an integer between 0 and 99 which denes the format of the paper. For example if
Format=3 the paper is in the standard A3 format. Format=4 and Format=0 are the
same and dene an A4 page. The A0 format is selected by Format=99. The US format
Letter is selected by Format=100. The US format Legal is selected by Format=200.
The US format Ledger is selected by Format=300.
Specify respectively the number of zones on the x and y axis. Nx and Ny are integers
between 1 and 9.
Can be equal to:
1
Portrait mode with a small margin at the bottom of the page.
2
Landscape mode with a small margin at the bottom of the page.
4
Portrait mode with a large margin at the bottom of the page.
5
Landscape mode with a large margin at the bottom of the page.
The large margin is useful for some PostScript printers (very often for the colour
printers) as they need more space to grip the paper for mechanical reasons.
Note that some PostScript colour printers can also use the so called "special A4"
format permitting the full usage of the A4 area in this case larger margins are not
necessary and Type=1 or 2 can be used.
3
Encapsulated PostScript. This Type permits the generation of les which can be
included in other documents, for example in LATEX les. Note that with this Type,
Nx and Ny must always be equal to 1, and Format has no meaning. The size of
7.3. The HIGZ pictures
275
the picture must be specied by the user via the SIZE command. Therefore the
workstation type for Encapsulated PostScript is -113. For example if the name of an
Encapsulated PostScriptle is example.eps, the inclusion of this le into a LATEX
le will be possible via (in the LATEX le):
\begin{figure}
\epsffile{example.eps}
\caption{Example of Encapsulated PostScript in LaTeX.}
\label{EXAMPLE}
\end{figure}
Note that all the gures in this manual are included in this way.
With Type=1,2,4 and 5 the pictures are centered on the page, and the usable area on paper is
proportional to the dimensions of A4 format.
Examples:
-111 or -4111 denes an A4 page not divided. -6322 dene an A6 landscape page divided in 3
columns and 2 rows.
1
2
3
4
5
6
The rst picture will be drawn in the area 1. The next image will appear in the next area in the order
dened above. If a page is lled, a new page is used with the same grid. Note that empty pages are
not printed in order to save paper.
Ignoring formats smaller than A12, the total number of possible dierent PostScript workstation
types is: 4 9 9 13 + 1 = 4213 !
The command GRAPHICS/METAFILE LUN METAFL is designed to produce metales. LUN is the logical
unit number of an open FORTRAN le and METAFL the metale type. For example, the following
four commands will produce a HIGZ/PostScript metale with the name "PAW.PS" containing the
graphics representation of histogram number 10:
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
>
>
>
>
FORTRAN/FILE 66 PAW.PS
GRAPHICS/META 66 -111
HISTO/PLOT 10
FORTRAN/CLOSE 66
7.3 The HIGZ pictures
The HIGZ pictures have four main goals:
HIGZ graphics primitives and attributes can be stored in a ZEBRA structure in memory in
order to display them later.
They can be stored on direct access les (in a very compact way), in order to build a picture
data base.
They can be modied with the graphics editor.
They are structured i.e. they can contains so called \graphics objects" which are used to
retrieve objects names and type in the \direct graphics mode" of PAW++.
Chapter 7. Graphics (HIGZ and HPLOT)
276
7.3.1 Pictures in memory
The general command to manage pictures in memory is: PICTURE/IZPICT. This command has two
parameters:
PNAME Picture name:
CH
Character string specifying picture name (must begin with a letter)
N
Picture number as displayed by PICT/LIST.
*
All pictures in memory.
' ' A blank indicates the current picture.
CHOPT Option value:
AL Give a full listing of the pictures in memory.
C
Picture PNAME becomes the current picture.
D
Display the picture PNAME.
F
First picture in memory becomes the current picture.
L
List pictures in memory.
M
Make a new picture in memory with the name PNAME.
N
Next picture in memory becomes the current picture.
P
Print the contents of the picture PNAME.
S
Scratch picture PNAME from memory.
In addition, simpler and more mnemonic commands are available:
PAW > PICT/CREATE PNAME
PAW > PICT/LIST
1: PNAME <-- Current Picture
| Create a picture in memory
| List pictures in memory
The last created picture in memory is called the current picture. All graphics primitives (line, text,
histogram, etc.) produced by PAW commands will be stored in this picture if it is active, i.e. if
mode Z is on.
PAW > SWITCH Z
| Switch Z mode on
PAW > PICT/LIST
1: PNAME <-- Current Picture (Active)
Note that the command PICTURE/CREATE will switch automatically Z mode on.
PAW > PICT/PLOT PNAME
will display picture PNAME. If picture PNAME is not in memory and if the current working directory (as
given by CDIR) is a picture le, PAW will try to take this picture from the le before displaying it.
HIGZ pictures can be created automatically by HPLOT via the command:
PAW > OPTION ZFL
7.3. The HIGZ pictures
277
If this command has been typed, each new plot produced by HPLOT will result in a HIGZ picture
created in memory. The following example shows how for each HIST/PLOT ID command a new
HIGZ picture is created with an automatic naming:
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
1:
2:
3:
> HIST/PLOT 10
> HIST/PLOT 110
> HIST/PLOT 20
> PICT/LIST
PICT1
PICT2
PICT3 <-- Current Picture (Active)
A similar command is given by:
PAW > OPTION ZFL1
which works exactly like OPTION ZFL except that only the last created picture is kept in memory.
For example, if we had typed OPTION ZFL1 instead of OPTION ZFL in the example above, the result
would be:
PAW > PICT/LIST
1: PICT3 <-- Current Picture (Active)
The following example is a useful macro showing how to use the HIGZ pictures (via OPTION
and the metales in order to produce a hard copy of the graphics screen:
ZFL1)
Macro showing how to convert the current picture in PostScript
MACRO POST
FORTRAN/FILE 66 PAW.PS
META -66 -111
PICT/PLOT ' '
CLOSE 66
SHELL PRINT PAW.PS
RETURN
|
|
|
|
|
Open the FORTRAN file PAW.PS on unit 66
PAW.PS is an A4 PostScript file
Convert the current picture in PostScript
Close PAW.PS
Send PAW.PS to the local printer
Typing EXEC POST, the current HPLOT picture on the screen will be sent to the printer using the
SHELL command which issues a system-dependent \print" command to the local operating system
(e.g. lp or lpr on Unix).
The command PICTURE/PRINT do the same thing:
PAW > PICT/PRINT PAW.PS
This command transform the current picture into a printable le. The le type is dened according
to the extension of the le name i.e.
FILE = lename.ps A PostScript le is generated (-111)
FILE = lename.eps A Encapsulated PostScript le is generated (-113)
Chapter 7. Graphics (HIGZ and HPLOT)
278
FILE = lename.tex A LaTex le is generated (-778)
With this command the metale type is predened. It is not possible to change it like in the macro
POST previously described. If FILE=HIGZPRINTER or FILE=' ' the PostScript le paw.ps (-111) is
generated and the operating system command dened by the environment variable HIGZPRINTER
is executed. The environment variable HIGZPRINTER should be dened as follow:
On UNIX sytems:
setenv HIGZPRINTER 'lp -dprinter_name paw.ps'
or
export HIGZPRINTER='lp -dprinter_name paw.ps'
On VAX/VMS sytems:
HIGZPRINTER == "XPRINT paw.ps /PRINTER=printer_name"
On CERNVM:
setenv HIGZPRINTER 'XPRINT PAW PS (PR printer_name'
Note that if the environment variable HIGZPRINTER is not dened the le paw.ps is created but not
printed.
Other available commands working on pictures in memory are:
PAW > PICT/RENAME PNAME PNAME2
PAW > PICT/COPY PNAME PNAME2
PAW > PICT/DELETE PNAME
PNAME can be the complete name, the picture number in memory or ' '.
PNAME2 is the complete picture name.
7.3.2 Pictures on direct access les
HIGZ pictures are stored on direct-access les and hence access times to pictures are fast. Moreover,
due to the fact that HIGZ uses high level primitives to describe the picture's structural tree, a storage
compaction factor as compared to the equivalent GKS metales of between 10 and 100 is routinely
obtained.
As HIGZ is interfaced to various basic graphics packages, a picture le can be created on one system
(e.g. DECGKS, X11, GL etc.) and transported to another machine to be interpreted with a dierent
graphics package (e.g GKSGRAL, GDDM, DI3000 etc.).
7.3. The HIGZ pictures
279
All available commands to handle pictures with ZEBRA les are shown below. Note that in the
example the picture names could be \*" (all pictures in memory), \ " (current picture) or a number
(picture number in memory).
Handling pictures with ZEBRA
PAW > * Open an existing picture file PICT.DAT on LUN 4 in Update mode
PAW > PICT/FILE 4 PICT.DAT ! U | Open the existing file PICT.DAT
PAW > LDIR
| List the content of the file PICT.DAT
************** Directory ===> //LUN4 <===
Created 890512/1110
===> List of objects
PICTURE
UNIX
ZEBRA
CERN
MARKER
PAW
PAW
1:
PAW
PAW
Modified 890622/1732
NAME
CYCLE
1
1
1
1
| Put picture "CERN" in memory
| List pictures in memory
> IZIN CERN
> PICT/LIST
CERN
> IZOUT CERN
> LDIR
| Store picture "CERN" in PICT.DAT
| List the content PICT.DAT
************** Directory ===> //LUN4 <===
Created 890512/1110
===> List of objects
PICTURE
UNIX
ZEBRA
CERN
Modified 890622/1732
NAME
CYCLE
1
1
1
2
1
MARKER
PAW > PURGE
PAW > SCRATCH ZEBRA
PAW > LDIR
| Purge the file PICTURES
| Delete the picture ZEBRA from PICT.DAT
| List the content of PICT.DAT
************** Directory ===> //LUN4 <===
Created 890512/1110
===> List of objects
PICTURE
UNIX
CERN
MARKER
NAME
Modified 890622/1732
CYCLE
1
2
1
Chapter 7. Graphics (HIGZ and HPLOT)
280
7.3.3 Automatic storage pictures in memory
After typing the command:
PAW > IGSET AURZ 1
the AURZ mode is on and all the subsequent created pictures are stored automatically in the last
picture le opened via the command PICTURE/FILE.
Example of the use of pictures in memory
PAW > PICT/FILE 4 PICT.DAT ! N
PAW > HIST/FILE 3 HEXAM.DAT
PAW > LDIR
| Open a new picture file PICT.DAT
| Open an existing histogram RZ file
| List the contain of HEXAM.DAT
************** Directory ===> //LUN3 <===
Created 880104/1414
===> List of objects
HBOOK-ID CYCLE
DATE/TIME
10
1
880104/1414
20
1
880104/1414
30
1
880104/1414
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
>
>
>
>
>
OPT ZFL
IGSET AURZ 1
HIST/PLOT 0
CDIR //LUN4
LDIR
|
|
|
|
|
Modified 880104/1414
NDATA
75
1815
1066
OFFSET
725
800
567
REC1
32
32
34
REC2
33
35
Each new plot will result in a HIGZ picture
Each new HIGZ picture is stored in PICT.DAT
All histograms in HEXAM.DAT are plotted
Set the current working directory on PICT.DAT
List the content of PICT.DAT
************** Directory ===> //LUN4 <===
Created 890928/1024
===> List of objects
PICTURE
PICT1
PICT2
PICT3
NAME
Modified 890928/1024
CYCLE
1
1
1
Note that if the command PICTURE/FILE is invoked with the option 'A', the AURZ mode is automatically enable.
7.3.4 HIGZ pictures generated in a HPLOT program
HIGZ pictures can be generated in a batch HPLOT program and later visualized in an interactive
session with PAW. The HIGZ picture le, like any HBOOK le, can be exchanged between computers
using the FTP in binary mode. As the size of the picture data base (see page 275), and hence the
associated disk storage requirements, is much smaller than the size of the metale generated by
the basic graphics package, transfer times are drastically reduced. The example below show how
to interactively visualize (with PAW) HIGZ pictures produced by HPLOT. In the same way we
7.3. The HIGZ pictures
281
can visualize and edit pictures generated by any HIGZ based application (GEANT, event scanning
programs, etc.)
Store HPLOT pictures with HIGZ
PROGRAM HPICT
*.==========>
*. HPLOT Program to demonstrate how to store HPLOT
*. pictures onto direct access HIGZ picture file
*..=========>
COMMON/PAWC/H(20000)
DIMENSION SIG(2)
CHARACTER*20 TITLE
*.___________________________________________
*.
CALL HLIMIT(20000)
* -Create histograms
DO 10 ID=1,10
WRITE(TITLE,1000)ID
1000
FORMAT('Test number',I3)
CALL HBOOK1(ID,TITLE,100,-3.,3.,0.)
10 CONTINUE
* -Fill histograms
DO 30 ID=1,10
DO 20 I=1,1000
CALL RANNOR(A,B)
CALL HFILL(ID,A,0.,1.)
20
CONTINUE
CALL HFITGA(ID,COEFF,AV,SIGM,CHI2,2,SIG)
30 CONTINUE
* -Initialize HPLOT. Set various graphics options.
CALL HPLINT(0)
CALL HPLZON(1,2,1,' ')
CALL HPLOPT('ZFL',1)
CALL HPLOPT('FIT',1)
CALL HPLOPT('STAT',1)
CALL HPLSET('STAT',1.)
CALL HPLSET('HTYP',244.)
CALL HPLSET('FWID',5.)
CALL HPLSET('VFON',-40.)
CALL HPLSET('TFON',-60.)
CALL HPLSET('PWID',4.)
CALL HPLSET('BCOL',1.01)
CALL HPLSET('CSIZ',0.25)
CALL HPLSET('CFON',-10.)
*
*
Open a picture file called "hpict.dat".
*
Option 'A' means "Automatic saving of pictures"
*
Option 'N' means "New file"
*
(option 'U' instead of 'N' updates an existing file)
*
CALL IZOPEN(1,'Pictures','hpict.dat','AN',1024,ISTAT)
*
*
Select HIGZ option to store graphics in ZEBRA memory only
*
No calls to the local graphics package.
*
CALL IGZSET('Z')
* -Plot all histograms
CALL HPLOT(0,' ',' ',0)
CALL HPLEND
*
END
Using the picture in Paw
%
PAW > PICT/FILE 20 HPICT.DAT
PAW > LDIR
Directory ===> //LUN20 <===
Created 891006/1026
Modified 891006/1026
===> List of objects
PICTURE NAME
PICT1
PICT2
PICT3
PICT4
PICT5
PAW > META 10 -111
PAW > PICT/PLOT PICT2
PAW > CLOSE 10
PAW > * Print metafile
PAW > *
(see pages 275 and following)
PAW > SHELL print PAW.METAFILE
PAW > EXIT
CYCLE
1
1
1
1
1
ID
32
28
3
0.6923
23.65
-0.1082E-01
0.9680
Constant
Mean
Sigma
24
20
16
12
8
4
0
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
Test number 3
40
ID
4
0.8654
22.03
-0.9535E-02
1.023
35
Constant
Mean
Sigma
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
Test number 4
Figure 7.2: Visualising a HIGZ picture produced in a batch HPLOT program
3
Chapter 7. Graphics (HIGZ and HPLOT)
282
7.4 Setting attributes
Attributes are parameters like: colour, character font, etc. which could be changed interactively in
PAW via the commands PICTURE/IGSET, GRAPHICS/SET and GRAPHICS/OPTION. Each attribute is
linked to one or more objects (lines, histogram, etc.). The aim of this section is to give a complete
description of the attributes available in PAW and to clarify the dierences between IGSET, which
changes attributes at the HIGZ level, and SET and OPTION, which act at the HPLOT level.
IGSET CHOPT VAL ]
This command is used to set the value of attributes related to primitives and macroprimitives. The
rst parameter is the mnemonic name of the attribute, the second is the value to be assigned.
CHOPT
Character variable specifying the name of the attribute to be set. This a character string
of 4 characters.
VAL
Value of the attribute. A value of 0 or no value specied, indicates that the attribute value
must be reset to its default value.
Examples of IGSET commands
PAW > IGSET MTYP 20
| Change marker type to 20.
| This new marker is used by all subsequent
| commands using the current marker type.
PAW > IGSET LWID
| Set the line width to its default value.
PAW > IGSET
PAW > IGSET *
| Display actual and default values of all HIGZ attributes
| Set ALL HIGZ attributes to their default values
OPTION CHOPT ]
The OPTION command has one optional parameter:
CHOPT Option name (four characters). Special values are:
'*' Set all HPLOT options to their default values
' ' Display actual and default values of all HPLOT options
SET CHOPT VAL ]
Sets an HPLOT parameter see table 7.3 and gures 7.3, 7.4, 7.5 and 7.6 for details.
CHOPT
VAR
Character variable of length 4 identifying the parameter to be redened (must be given in
uppercase). Special values are:
'*'
All parameters are set to their default values.
'SHOW' A list of all parameters and their values is printed.
New value for the parameter specied. Special values are:
0.
The corresponding parameters is set to its default value.
7.4. Setting attributes
NAME
'AURZ'
'AWLN'
'BARO'
'BARW'
'BASL'
'BORD'
'CHHE'
'CSHI'
'FACI'
'FAIS'
'FASI'
'LAOF'
'LASI'
'LTYP'
'LWID'
'MSCF'
'MTYP'
'PASS'
'PICT'
'PLCI'
'PMCI'
'TANG'
'TMSI'
'TXAL'
'TXCI'
'TXFP'
'*'
'SHOW'
default
0.
0.0
0.25
0.50
0.01
0.
0.01
0.02
1.
0.
1.
0.013
0.018
1.
1.00
1.00
1.
1.
1.
1.
1.
0.00
0.019
0.
1.
10.
283
Explanation
If 1. the last current picture is automatically saved on disk when a new
picture is created.
Axis wire length. Default is length=0 (no grid)
Oset of the left edge of the bar with respect to the left margin of the bin
for a bar chart (expressed as a fraction of the bin width).
Width of the bar in a bar chart (expressed as a fraction of the bin width).
Basic segment length in NDC space (0-1) by (0-1) for dashed lines
Border ag. If = 1., a border is drawn in boxes, pie charts,: : : .
CHaracter HEight.
Distance between each shifted drawing of a character (in percentage of
character height) for characters drawn by TEXT
Fill Area Colour Index.
Fill Area Interior Style (0.,1.,2.,3.).
Fill Area Style Index.
LAbels OFfset.
LAbels SIze (in World coordinates).
Line TYPe.
Line WIDth.
Marker SCale Factor.
Marker TYPe.
Text width (given by number of PASSes) of characters drawn by TEXT. The
width is simulated by shifting the \pen" slightly at each pass.
Starting number for automatic pictures naming.
PolyLine Colour Index.
PolyMarker Colour Index.
Text ANGle (for calculating Character up vector).
Tick Marks SIze (in world coordinates)
10*(horizontal alignment)+(vertical alignment).
TeXt Colour Index.
10*(TeXt Font) + (TeXt Precision).
(0: hard, 1: string, 2: soft)
All attributes are set to their default values.
The current and default values of the parameters controlled by IGSET are
displayed.
Table 7.1: Parameters and default values for IGSET
Chapter 7. Graphics (HIGZ and HPLOT)
284
Table 7.2: Parameters and default values for OPTION
Default
Alternative Eect
' '
'A0',
'A1',...
'NOPG'
'*P','**P',
'***P'
'NEAH'
'VERT'
'NAST'
'EAH'
'HORI'
'AST'
'NCHA'
'CHA'
'SOFT'
'TAB '
'HARD'
'NTAB'
'HTIT'
'UTIT'
'LINX'
'LINY'
'LOGX'
'LOGY'
'LINZ'
'LOGZ'
'BOX '
'NBOX'
'NTIC'
'NSTA'
'TIC'
'STA'
'NFIT'
'FIT'
'NZFL'
'ZFL'
'NZFL'
'ZFL1'
'NPTO'
'PTO'
'NBAR'
'BAR'
Picture size. Predened options are:
A0, A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6
Suppresses ('NOPG') or adds a 1, 2 or 3 digit page numbers to a plot
(Each '*' stands for a digit). The page numbers are incremented
automatically
Plots Errors bars And Histogram, if both are present
Vertical or horizontal orientation of paper
Functions are drawn with ('AST ') or without ('NAST') asterisks in each
channel.
Scatter plot are plotted with dots randomised within each bin ('NCHA')
or by printing a single character in the middle of the bin ('CHA ')
Use SOFTware or HARDware characters
tables (HTABLE) are plotted as tables ('TAB ') or as scatter plots
('NTAB')
Option for printing titles. 'HTIT' means use the hbook titles, while
'UTIT' signals the use of user titles
The scale for the X axis is linear or logarithmic.
The scale for the Y axis is linear or logarithmic.
Note that if in hbook the HIDOPT option 'LOGY' or HLOGAR was selected for a particular ID and if neither options 'LINY' nor 'LOGY' are
selected then the scale will be logarithmic. If HLOGAR or HIDOPT with
option 'LOGY' was called and the option 'LINY' is selected then the
scale will be linear
The scale for the Z axis is linear or logarithmic (for lego plots or
surfaces).
By default a rectangular box is drawn around a picture. 'NBOX' suppresses this box
Cross-wires are drawn ('TIC ') or not drawn ('NTIC') after each plot
Statistics information are printed ('STA ') or not printed ('NSTA') on
the picture
Fit parameters are printed ('FIT ') or not printed ('NFIT') on the
picture
The picture is stored ('ZFL ') or not stored ('NZFL') in a ZEBRA data
base The procedure to create a higz picture is given below.
'ZFL1' has the same eect as 'ZFL ', but only the picture last created
is kept in memory.
\Please Turn Over". With 'PTO ' a carriage return is requested between each new plot.
1-dimensional histograms are plotted as \Bar charts" ('BAR ') or as
contours ('NBAR')
7.4. Setting attributes
285
Table 7.2: Overview of the HPLOPT options (continued)
Default
'DVXR'
'DVYR'
'GRID'
'NDAT'
'NFIL'
Alternative Eect
'DVXI'
'DVYI'
'NGRI'
'NDAT'
'NFIL'
Real ('DVXR') or integer ('DVXI') labels are computed for the X axis
Real ('DVYR') or integer ('DVYI') labels are computed for the Y axis
Grid on X and Y axis
The date is printed or not on each plot
The le name is printed or not on each plot
Table 7.3: Parameters and default values in SET
CHOPT
ASIZ
BARO
BARW
BCOL
BTYP
BWID
CFON
CSHI
CSIZ
DASH
DATE
DMOD
ERRX
FCOL
FILE
FIT
FPGN
FTYP
FWID
GFON
GRID
GSIZ
HCOL
HMAX
HTYP
HWID
KSIZ
VAR
(default) Explanation
0.28 cm
0.25
0.5
1
0
1
2
0.03
0.28 cm
0.15
2
1
0.50
1
1
101
1
0
1
2
3
0.28 cm
1
0.90
0
1
0.28 cm
axis label size
bar oset for \bar charts"
bar width for \bar charts"
zone ll area colour index
zone ll area style index
box line width
comment font (10*font+precision)
character shift between two pass
comment size
length of basic dashed segment for dashed lines
date position
line style for histogram contour (see HPLOT)
error on X (% of bin width)
function ll area COLor
le name position
t values to be plotted
rst PaGe Number
function ll area TYPe
function line width
global title font (10*font+precision)
grid line type
global title size
histogram ll area colour index
histogram maximum for scale (in percent)
histogram ll area style index
histogram line width
Hershey character size (cf. KEY)
Chapter 7. Graphics (HIGZ and HPLOT)
286
Table 7.3: Parameters and default values in SET (continued)
CHOPT
LFON
NDVX
NDVY
NDVZ
PASS
PCOL
PSIZ
PTYP
PWID
SSIZ
STAT
TFON
TSIZ
VFON
VSIZ
XCOL
XLAB
XMGL
XMGR
XSIZ
XTIC
XVAL
XWID
XWIN
YCOL
YGTI
YHTI
YLAB
YMGL
YMGU
YNPG
YSIZ
YTIC
YVAL
YWID
YWIN
2SIZ
VAR
(default) Explanation
2
10510.00
10510.00
10510.00
1.
1
0.28 cm
0
1
0.28 cm
1111
2
0.28 cm
2
0.28 cm
1
1.40 cm
2.00 cm
2.00 cm
20.0 cm
0.30 cm
0.40 cm
1
2.00 cm
1
1.50 cm
1.20 cm
0.80 cm
2.00 cm
2.00 cm
0.60 cm
20.0 cm
0.30 cm
0.20 cm
1
2.00 cm
0.28 cm
axis labels font (10*font+precision)
number of divisions for X axis
number of divisions for Y axis
number of divisions for Z axis
number of pass for software characters
picture ll area colour index
page number size
picture ll area style index
picture line width
asterisk size (for functions)
stat values to be plotted
general comments font (10*font+precision)
histogram title size
axis values font (10*font+precision)
axis values size
X axis COLor
distance Y axis to labels
X margin left
X margin right
length of picture along X
X axis tick mark length
distance between the Y axis and the axis values
X ticks width
X space between zones
Y axis COLor
Y position of global title
Y position of histogram title
distance X axis to labels
Y margin low
Y margin up
Y position for the page number
length of picture along Y
Y axis tick mark length
distance between the X axis and the axis values
Y ticks width
Y space between zones
scatter plot and table character. size
7.4. Setting attributes
YGTI
GSIZ
YMGU
287
HBOOK GLOBAL TITLE
BARW
180
180
160
160
BARO
140
120
XMGL
100
120
XWIN
100
80
80
60
60
40
40
20
20
0.4
0.6
0.8
0
1
HISTOGRAM TITLE
XLAB
200
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
HISTOGRAM TITLE
SMGU
ID
Entries
Mean
RMS
ERRX
175
YTIC
150
125
2
5000
.4982
.2205
CSIZ
SMGR
Example of title along Y
0.2
YWIN
0
XMGR
YSIZ
140
0
HMAX
100
75
XSIZ
XVAL
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
HISTOGRAM TITLE
Figure 7.3: A graphical view of the SET parameters
0.6
GeV/C
YLAB
0.1
ASIZ
YVAL
TSIZ
0
YHTI
XTIC
25
YMGL
VSIZ
50
Chapter 7. Graphics (HIGZ and HPLOT)
288
7.5 More on labels
NDVX
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
0
1
-9.08
DEC
OCT
If NDVX=9.00 the default value is taken (9.01)
12.18
NOV
SEP
AUG
JUL
JUN
MAY
APR
JAN
FEB
MAR
If NDVX=12.10 the default value is taken (12.15)
OCT
NOV
DEC
S
E
P
O
C
T
N
O
V
D
E
C
8
SEP
A
U
G
7
AUG
J
U
L
6
JUL
J
U
N
5
JUN
M
A
Y
4
MAY
A
P
R
3
APR
M
A
R
2
MAR
F
E
B
1
FEB
J
A
N
-9.07
0
JAN
12.17
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
12.16
-9.06
12.15
-9.05
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
DEC
NOV
OCT
SEP
AUG
JUL
JUN
MAY
APR
MAR
0
9
D
E
C
8
N
O
V
7
O
C
T
6
DEC
S
E
P
5
NOV
A
U
G
4
OCT
J
U
L
3
SEP
J
U
N
-9.03
2
AUG
M
A
Y
12.13
1
JUL
A
P
R
-9.04
0
JUN
M
A
R
APR
F
E
B
12.14
MAY
FEB
MAR
JAN
J
A
N
FEB
JAN
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
12.12
-9.02
12.11
JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
-9.01
Figure 7.4: Example of labelling for horizontal axes
By default, labels used by AXIS and PIE are numeric labels. The command GRAPHICS/PRIMITIVES/LABELS
(or LABELS for short), allows the user to dene up to nine alphanumeric set of labels (numbered
from 1 to 9). These labels can then be used in subsequent commands using PIE or AXIS primitives
of HIGZ.
The LABELS command has three parameters:
LABNUM An integer between 1 and 9. It identies the labels set.
NLABS
The number of items to be placed on the labels (up to 50).
CHLABS NLABS character strings specifying the label items.
7.6. Colour, line width, and fill area in HPLOT
289
The label sets thus dened can be used for axes on all plots produced by PAW (HPLOT histograms,
graphs, vectors drawing, etc.) via the SET NDVX (NDVY) command. These commands have the
following structure:
Example of NXDV specication
SET NDVX i
e.g. SET NDVX 512
SET NDVX i.jk
e.g. SET NDVX 10.25
or
In the rst case the number i contains 100 times the number of secondary divisions plus the number
of primary divisions. (e.g. 512 means 12 primary and 5 secondary division. By adding 10000 times
N3 to i a third level of divisions is available.
In the second case the number in front of the dot (i) indicates the total number of divisions, the
rst digit following the dot (j) the label identier (LABNUM) (if this number is equal to 0 numeric
labels are drawn). The second digit after the (k) dot indicates the position where the labels have
to be drawn (i.e. the text justication parameter, in this case 5, indicating horizontally written text
centered on the interval). Study gures 7.4 and 7.5 for details. These two gures show that the
labels can be centered on the tick marks (1 to 4) or on the divisions (5 to 8). If the labels are
centered on the tick marks, note that the number of items in the command LABELS must be equal
to the number of tick marks (which is equal to the number of divisions plus one), otherwise the last
alphanumeric label on the axis will be undened.
By default, the number of primary divisions given by SET NDVX n, SET NDVY n or SET NDVZ n is
optimized to have a reasonable labelling. If the number of divisions has to be exactly equal to the
number given by SET NDVX n, SET NDVY n or SET NDVZ n, a negative value must be used i.e.:
Forcing an exact number of divisions
SET NDVX -i
e.g. SET NDVX -512
SET NDVX -i.jk
e.g. SET NDVX -10.25
or
For example to label each subsequent X-axis with the names of the months of the year centered in
the middle of each bin one can use:
Example of alphanumeric labels on an axis
PAW > LABEL 1 12 JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC
PAW > SET NDVX -12.15
7.6 Colour, line width, and ll area in HPLOT
The aspect of HPLOT pictures can be modied via the xWID, xTYP and xCOL attributes, where x
can be H, B, P, or F, dened as follows:
B
zone Box
F
Function
H
Histogram
Chapter 7. Graphics (HIGZ and HPLOT)
290
NDVY
If NDVY=12.10 the default value is taken (12.16)
12.11
Left
December
November
12.12
Center
December
November
12.14
Left
12.13
Right
October
December
December
November
November
November
December
November
September
July
June
August
July
June
April
April
April
January
January
August
July
July
July
June
June
June
May
May
May
April
April
April
March
February
August
June
May
February
September
July
May
March
September
August
May
March
October
September
August
August
October
October
September
September
12.16
Right
December
October
October
12.15
Center
March
March
March
February
February
February
January
January
January
February
January
Figure 7.5: Example of labelling for vertical axes
7.6. Colour, line width, and fill area in HPLOT
291
Page
The values given to the parameters PTYP, BTYP, HTYP, and FTYP are the HIGZ ll area interior styles.
Interior style provided by the basic graphics package (i.e. GKS) can be used (cf the corresponding
documentation) but in order to have the same result on all devices, numbers greater than 100 (HIGZ
styles: 7.7) should be used. Figure 7.6 shows how to use the xTYP parameter.
The parameters PCOL, BCOL, HCOL and FCOL are equivalent to PTYP, BTYP, HTYP, and FTYP respectively, but instead of changing the hatch style, they change the colour of the same areas. It is possible
to specify both the border and the inside color for the Histogram, Box Page, and Function (HCOL,
BCOL, PCOL, FCOL).
P
Example of HCOL specication
Ex:
SET
HCOL
+---|
|+--||++||||
||||
VVVV
1203
1 The Histogram is filled
0 Only the border is drawn
Border color (here 2) if the histogram is filled
Inside color (here 3) if the histogram is filled
Border color if the histogram is not filled
The same mechanism is also available for FCOL, BCOL and PCOL.
If PCOL, BCOL, HCOL or FCOL are between 1 and 99, then only the contour of the corresponding area
is changed. If they are between 1001 and 1099, then the surface is lled with the colour determined
by the corresponding ll area colour index (1 to 99). If they are between 1199 and 1999, then the
surface is lled with the colour determined by the corresponding ll area colour index (1 to 99) and
the border is drawn with the corresponding line color index (1 to 9).
If one of the *COL is greater than 1000 the corresponding value of the Fill Area Interior Style (for
HTYP, BTYP, PTYP or FTYP) is automatically set to 1 (solid).
In addition, BCOL has two digits after the dot. The rst one species the colour of the zone box
shadowing and the second the colour of the statistic box shadowing.
Chapter 7. Graphics (HIGZ and HPLOT)
292
Examples of PTYP,BTYP,HTYP and FTYP
160
1
BTYP=0
HTYP=0
140
BTYP=0
FTYP=-3
0.8
120
0.6
100
80
0.4
60
0.2
40
0
20
0
-0.2
0
0.25
0.5
0.75
1
-2 0 2 4 6 8 10 12
160
140
120
BTYP=-3
HTYP=244
100
80
60
40
20
0
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
PTYP=0
Figure 7.6: Usage of ll area types in HPLOT
1
7.7. Information about histograms
293
7.7 Information about histograms
Four options are available to plot additional informations on HPLOT pictures:
and FIT.
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
>
>
>
>
OPTION
OPTION
OPTION
OPTION
DATE
FILE
STAT
FIT
|
|
|
|
Plot
Plot
Plot
Plot
DATE, FILE, STAT
date and hour on current HPLOT picture
file name of current histogram
statistics of current histogram
Fit parameters of current histogram
For each of these OPTION commands a corresponding SET parameter is available:
PAW > SET DATE i
PAW > SET FILE i
| Default is 2
| Default is 1
where i denes the position of the date or le name:
i = 1 :
Top left corner of page/current histogram.
i = 2 :
Top right corner
i = 3 :
Bottom left corner
i = 4 :
Bottom right corner
For example the command:
PAW > SET DATE 3
sets the position of the date to the bottom left corner of the HPLOT pictures.
PAW > SET STAT i
| Default is 1111
where i corresponds to binary status bits AOURMEI as follows:
A=1
Draw the contents of all channels
O=1
Draw number of overows
U=1
Draw number of underows
R=1
Draw R.M.S.
M=1
Draw mean value
E=1
Draw number of entries
I=1
Draw histogram identier
For example the command:
PAW > SET STAT 10
sets the statistics informations to be only the number of entries.
PAW > SET FIT i
| Default is 101
where i corresponds to binary status bits CEP as follows:
C=1 Draw 2
E=1 Draw errors
P=1 Draw t parameters
For example to draw only the result of the 2 t one would use:
PAW > SET FIT 100
For all these OPTIONs, the character size is specied with the command SET
font used with SET CFON.
CSIZ and the
character
Chapter 7. Graphics (HIGZ and HPLOT)
294
Fill area style, marker and line type
The Fill Area Interior Style, The Fill Area Style Index, the Marker TYPe and the Line TYPe are set
respectively using the IGSET parameters FAIS, FASI, MTYP and LTYPE.
Example
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
>
>
>
>
IGSET
IGSET
IGSET
IGSET
FAIS
FASI
MTYP
LTYP
3
244
25
15
| Fill area are hatched
|
with the style index
| Marker type is an empty square
| Line type is dotted
HIGZ provides some portable ll area styles index coded using three digits ijk as follows:
i:
j:
k:
Distance between each hatch in mm
Angle between 90 and 180 degrees
Angle between 0 and 90 degrees
These numbers are coded according to table 7.4 and examples are shown in gure 7.7.
i
Distance
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
0:75mm
1:50mm
2:25mm
3:00mm
3:75mm
4:50mm
5:25mm
6:00mm
6:75mm
j
Angle
180
170
160
150
135
k
Angle
0
10
20
30
45
0
0
1
1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5 not drawn 5 not drawn
6
120 6
60
7
110 7
70
8
100 8
80
9
90 9
90
Table 7.4: Codication for the HIGZ portable ll area interior styles
Example
PAW > IGSET FAIS 3
PAW > IGSET FASI 190
| Fill area interior style is hatched
| Hatch type is 190
These commands will yield hatching with two sets of lines at 90 and 0 spaced 1 mm apart.
7.7. Information about histograms
295
144
305
350
244
315
351
344
325
352
444
335
353
544
345
354
644
365
356
744
375
357
844
385
358
944
395
359
Figure 7.7: HIGZ portable hatch styles
Chapter 7. Graphics (HIGZ and HPLOT)
296
Marker Type
Marker
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
Figure 7.8: HIGZ portable marker types
Line Index
Line Type
15
14
13
12
Figure 7.9: HIGZ portable line types
7.7. Information about histograms
297
Colour Index : 0
Colour Index : 1
Colour Index : 2
Colour Index : 3
Colour Index : 4
Colour Index : 5
Colour Index : 6
Colour Index : 7
Figure 7.10: PostScript grey level simulation of the basic colours
Chapter 7. Graphics (HIGZ and HPLOT)
298
7.8 Text drawing
In PAW, text output can be produced in two ways:
1. Automaticaly with commands like GRAPH or HISTO/PLOT in which a lot of text is drawn: the
axis labels, the histogram title, the global title, the statistics etc. . The attributes (font, colour
or size) and the placement of these texts are controled with the command SET. In the rest of
the chapter, the text produce automaticaly will be called HPLOT text
2. Directly with the commands ITX and TEXT. The attributes of ITX are controlled with the
command IGSET whereas the attributes of TEXT are given with the command parameters.
Text placement
The text placement specify where the text must be drawn. For the HPLOT text, the text position
is always in centimeters whereas for ITX or TEXT the current coordinate system is used.
HPLOT text
The possible text placements for HPLOT text are described in the following example:
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
SET XVAL 0.40
SET YVAL 0.20
SET YLAB 0.80
SET XLAB 1.40
SET YGTI 1.50
SET YHTI 1.20
SET YNPG 0.60
HISTO/PLOT 10
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
distance between the Y axis and the axis values
distance between the X axis and the axis values
distance X axis to labels
distance Y axis to labels
Y position of global title
Y position of histogram title
Y position for the page number
the histogram 10 is drawn with previous settings
See gure 7.3 for more details.
ITX
In the command ITX the text position is dened with two mandatory parameters (X and Y):
PAW > SELNT 1
| cm coordinates
PAW > ITX 5 5 'Hello' | 'Hello' is drawn at the position (5,5)
TEXT
In the command TEXT the text position is dened with two mandatory parameters (X and Y):
PAW > SELNT 1
| cm coordinates
PAW > TEXT 5 5 'Hello' 1 | 'Hello' is drawn at the position (5,5)
Text size
For all the texts drawn with PAW commands, the text size is always specied in centimeters.
7.8. Text drawing
299
HPLOT text
The possible text sizes for HPLOT text are described in the following example:
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
SET ASIZ 0.28
SET CSIZ 0.28
SET GSIZ 0.28
SET KSIZ 0.28
SET 2SIZ 0.28
SET TSIZ 0.28
SET VSIZ 0.28
HISTO/PLOT 10
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
axis label size
comment size
global title size
Hershey character size
scatter plot and table character. size
histogram title size
axis values size
the histogram 10 is drawn with previous settings
See gure 7.3 for more details.
ITX
The text character heigh attribute for use by future invocations of ITX is set using the CHHE parameter
as follows:
| set the character heigh to 1 cm.
PAW > IGSET CHHE 1
PAW > ITX 5 5 'Hello' | the size of 'Hello' is 1 cm.
TEXT
In the command TEXT the text size is a mandatory parameter (SIZE).
PAW > TEXT 5 5 'Hello' 1 | the size of 'Hello' is 1 cm.
Text orientation
The text orientation is an angle (in degrees) between the X axis and the text axis. By default this
angle is equal to 0.
HPLOT text
Text orientation cannot be changed with some SET parameters for the HPLOT text. It is always
automaticaly computed. For example in the command ATITLE, which draws the axis titles, the title
on the Y axis is automaticaly drawn with an angle of 90 degrees.
ITX
The text orientation attribute for use by future invocations of ITX is set using the TANG parameter
as follows:
| set the text angle to 90 degrees.
PAW > IGSET TANG 90
PAW > ITX 5 5 'Hello' | 'Hello' is drawn with an angle of 90 degrees.
TEXT
In the command TEXT the text orientation is an optional parameter (ANGLE).
PAW > TEXT 5 5 'Hello' ! 90 | 'Hello' is drawn with an angle of 90 degrees
Chapter 7. Graphics (HIGZ and HPLOT)
300
Text alignment
The text alignment controls the placement of the character string with respect to the specied text
position.
HPLOT text
Text alignment cannot be changed for the HPLOT text. It is automaticaly computed.
ITX
The text alignment attributes for use by future invocations of ITX are set using the TXAL parameter
as follows:
PAW > IGSET TXAL (10*(horizontal alignment) + (vertical alignment))
The horizontal and vertical alignments parameters must be in the range 0-3. The horizontal alignment species which end of the string (or its geometric center) is aligned with the specied point
given in ITX. The vertical alignment controls whether the top of tall characters (or the bottom of
capital letters) line up with the specied point (see gure 7.11).
ITXALH horizontal alignment
0
1
2
3
normal (usually same as 1)
left end of string at specied point
center of string at specied point
right end of string at specied point
ITXALH vertical alignment
0
1
2
3
normal
top of tallest chars plus any built in spacing
top of tallest chars
halfway between 2 and 4
Horizontal alignment
3: Right
Vertical alignment
3: Centre
2: Centre
0 or 1: Left (Normal)
1 or 2: Top
0: Bottom (Normal)
7.8. Text drawing
301
Figure 7.11: Text alignment
PAW > IGSET TXAL 23
| The horizontal and vertical alignments are centered
PAW > ITX 5 5 'Hello' | 'Hello' is drawn center adjusted
TEXT
In the command TEXT the text aligment is an optional parameter (CHOPT). Only the horizontal
alignement can be changed among three possible values: Left, Center or Right.
PAW > TEXT 5 5 'Hello' 1 ! L | 'Hello' is drawn left adjusted (default)
PAW > TEXT 5 5 'Hello' 1 ! C | 'Hello' is drawn center adjusted
PAW > TEXT 5 5 'Hello' 1 ! R | 'Hello' is drawn right adjusted
Text colour
The text colour is dene via a colour index in the colour table.
HPLOT text
PAW > SET XCOL 2
| X axis color
| Y axis color
PAW > SET YCOL 3
PAW > HISTO/PLOT 10 | the histogram 10 is drawn with previous settings
ITX
The text colour attribute for use by future invocations of ITX is set using the
follows:
TXCI
parameter as
PAW > IGSET TXCI 3
| set the text colour to green.
PAW > ITX 5 5 'Hello' | 'Hello' is drawn in green.
TEXT
The text colour attribute for use by future invocations of TEXT is set using the TXCI parameter as
follows:
PAW > IGSET TXCI 2
| set the text colour to red.
PAW > TEXT 5 5 'Hello' ! | 'Hello' is drawn in red.
Text font and precision
Text font selects the desired character font e.g. a roman font, a sans-serif font, etc. Text precision species how closely the graphics package implementation must follow the current size and
orientation attributes. String (0) precision is most liberal (hardware), stroke (2) precision is most
strict. Character precision is in the middle (1). The value of text font is dependent upon the basic
graphics package used. However, font number 0, with precision 2 is always available, independently
from the basic graphics package used (see gure ??). Hardware characters are available with all the
basic graphics packages. With X11, a large variety of font is available. They are the same as the
PostScript fonts (see gure 7.15).
Chapter 7. Graphics (HIGZ and HPLOT)
302
HPLOT text
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
>
>
>
>
>
>
SET CFON -60
SET GFON -20
SET LFON -60
SET TFON -20
SET VFON -60
HISTO/PLOT 10
Note that SET
|
|
|
|
|
|
comment font is Helvetica Bold
global title font is Times Bold
axis labels font is Helvetica Bold
general comments is Times Bold
axis values font is Helvetica Bold
the histogram 10 is drawn with previous settings
*FON ffp
set all the HPLOT text font to the same value ffp.
ITX
Text font and precision attributes for use by later invocations of ITX are set with TXFP as follows:
PAW > IGSET TXFP (10*(Text font) + (text precision))
TEXT
This command draws a software character text, independently from the basic graphics package used
by HIGZ. It can produce over 300 dierent graphic signs. The way in which software characters
are dened is via a string of valid characters, intermixed by other characters, acting as \escape"
characters (e.g. a change of alphabet, upper or lower case). The string is interpreted by TEXT and
the resulting characters are dened according to the gure 7.12, which shows the list of available
software characters. This command allows the user to mix dierent types of characters (roman, greek,
special, upper and lower case, sub and superscript). There are a total of 10 control characters.
< go to lower case
List of escape characters and their meaning
> go to upper case (default)
go to greek (Roman = default)
] end of greek
" go to special symbols
# end of special symbols
" go to superscript
? go to subscript
! go to normal level of script
& backspace one character
$ termination character (optional)
Note that characters can be also entered directly in lower case or upper case instead of using the
control characters < and >.
The boldface characters may be simulated by setting the attributes 'PASS' and 'CSHI' with IGSET.
The meaning of these attributes is the following: Every stroke used to display the character is
repeated PASS times, at a distance (in percentage of the character height) given by CSHI.
7.8. Text drawing
Upper
Roman
303
Lower
Roman
Upper
Greek
Lower
Greek
Upper
Special
Figure 7.12: Characters available in IGTEXT
Lower
Special
Chapter 7. Graphics (HIGZ and HPLOT)
304
PostScript text fonts
PostScript les the text can be generated with PostScript fonts. The gure 7.15 shows all the
PostScript fonts available on most PostScript printers. Note that the fonts -15 to -24 are the same
than -1 to -14, but they are drawn in hollow mode.
The correspondence between ASCII and ZapfDingbats font is given on gures 7.16 and 7.17. TEXT
control characters are taken into account. In addition the character switches to the ZapfDingbats
character set.
List of escape characters and their meaning
< go to lower case (optional)
> go to upper case (optional)
go to greek (Roman = default)
" go to special symbols
go to ZapfDingbats
" go to superscript
! go to normal level of script
$ termination character (optional)
]
#
#
?
&
end of greek
end of special symbols
end of ZapfDingbats
go to subscript
backspace one character
The PostScript fonts can be used with precision 0 or precision 1. On the screen, a PostScript font
used with precision 1 appears like the TEXT characters, with precision 0 its appears as hardware
character (X11 fonts). In both cases the PostScript le is the same.
Note that characters can also be entered directly in lower or upper case instead of using the escape
characters < and >.
Example of PostScript text (result in gure 7.13)
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
IGSET
BOX 0
IGSET
IGSET
IGSET
ITX 3
ITX 3
ITX 3
ITX 3
LWID 6
16 0 5
CHHE 0.5
TXAL 3
TXFP -130
4 'K\355nstler in den gr\345\373ten st\311dten
3 '\253\265 l''\372uvre on conna\333t l''artisan\273
2 '\(proverbe fran\321ais\
1 '\252\241Ma\337ana\41 \322ag&\306!das&\313!\272, dit l''\323l\325ve.
7.8. Text drawing
305
Künstler in den größten Städten
«À l’œuvre on connaît l’artisan»
(proverbe français).
“¡Mañana! Çağdaş”, dit l’élève.
Figure 7.13: PostScript fonts usage (1).
Example of PostScript text and maths (result in gure 7.14)
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
IGSET
BOX 0
IGSET
IGSET
IGSET
ITX 8
ITX 8
ITX(8
ITX 8
LWID 6
16 0 5
CHHE 0.5
TXAL 23
TXFP -130
4 'e^+!e^-! "5# Z^o! "5# ll&^-!, qq&^\261!'
3 '| a&^\256]! \267 b&^\256]! | = \345] a^i?jk!+b^kj?i'
2 'i ("d#?m!y]&^\261!g^m]! + m y]&^\261! ) = 0" r# (~r# + m^2!) y] = 0'
1 'L?em! = e J^m]?em! A?m]! , J^m]?em!=l&^\261! g?m]!l , M^j?i! = \345&?a]! A?a! t^a]j?i! '
+ -
o
-
–
e e → Z → ll, qq
→ →
| a • b | =∑ aijk+bkj
i
– μ
–
i (∂μψγ + mψ ) = 0 ⇔ (❒ + m2)ψ = 0
μ
μ –
j
αj
Lem = e Jem Aμ , Jem=l γμl , Mi =∑ Aα τi
α
Figure 7.14: PostScript fonts usage (2).
Chapter 7. Graphics (HIGZ and HPLOT)
306
Font/Prec
PostScript Font Style
-1/0
ABCDEFghijlk0123456789
Times-Italic
-2/0
ABCDEFghijlk0123456789
Times-Bold
-3/0
ABCDEFghijlk0123456789
Times-BoldItalic
-4/0
ABCDEFghijlk0123456789
Helvetica
-5/0
ABCDEFghijlk0123456789
Helvetica-Oblique
-6/0
ABCDEFghijlk0123456789
Helvetica-Bold
-7/0
ABCDEFghijlk0123456789
Helvetica-BoldOblique
-8/0
ABCDEFghijlk0123456789
Courier
-9/0
ABCDEFghijlk0123456789
Courier-Oblique
-10/0
ABCDEFghijlk0123456789
Courier-Bold
-11/0
ABCDEFghijlk0123456789
Courier-BoldOblique
-12/0
ΑΒΧΔΕΦγηιϕλκ0123456789
Symbol
-13/0
ABCDEFghijlk0123456789
Times-Roman
-14/0
✡✢✣✤✥✦❇❈❉❊●❋✐✑✒✓✔✕✖✗✘✙
ZapfDingbats
-15/0
ABCDEFghijlk0123456789
Times-Italic
-16/0
ABCDEFghijlk0123456789
Times-Bold
-17/0
ABCDEFghijlk0123456789
Times-BoldItalic
-18/0
ABCDEFghijlk0123456789
Helvetica
-19/0
ABCDEFghijlk0123456789
Helvetica-Oblique
-20/0
ABCDEFghijlk0123456789
Helvetica-Bold
-21/0
ABCDEFghijlk0123456789
Helvetica-BoldOblique
-22/0
ΑΒΧΔΕΦγηιϕλκ0123456789
Symbol
-23/0
ABCDEFghijlk0123456789
Times-Roman
-24/0
✡✢✣✤✥✦❇❈❉❊●❋✐✑✒✓✔✕✖✗✘✙
ZapfDingbats
Figure 7.15: PostScript text fonts.
7.8. Text drawing
307
Input
Upper
Roman
Upper
Greek
Upper
Special
Upper
Zapf
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
.
,
+
*
/
=
(
)
{
}
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M
N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
.
,
+
*
/
=
(
)
{
}
Α
Β
Η
Δ
Ε
Φ
Γ
Χ
Ι
Ι
Κ
Λ
Μ
Ν
Ο
Π
Θ
Ρ
Σ
Τ
Υ
Χ
Ω
Ξ
Ψ
Ζ
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
.
,
+
−
∗
/
=
(
)
{
}
±
|
∃
∀
!
#
>
?
∫
:
;
<
[
]
≥
{
}
√
♠
♥
♦
♣
≤
×
%
∞
⊗
⊕
∅
◊
•
→
↑
←
↓
↔
.
,
+
∠
〈
÷
≠
≡
″
{
}
✡
✢
✣
✤
✥
✦
✧
★
✩
✪
✫
✬
✭
✮
✯
✰
✱
✲
✳
✴
✵
✶
✷
✸
✹
✺
✐
✑
✒
✓
✔
✕
✖
✗
✘
✙
✎
✌
☞
✍
☛
✏
✝
✈
✉
❛
❝
Input
Lower
Roman
Lower
Greek
Lower
Special
Lower
Zapf
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
m
n
o
p
q
r
s
t
u
v
w
x
y
z
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
m
n
o
p
q
r
s
t
u
v
w
x
y
z
α
β
η
δ
ε
φ
γ
χ
ι
ι
κ
λ
μ
ν
ο
π
θ
ρ
σ
τ
υ
χ
ω
ξ
ψ
ζ
≈
≅
⊥
∂
ƒ
∩
∪
⊃
⊇
⊄
⊂
⊆
∈
∉
∇
∧
∨
⇔
⇐
⇑
⇒
⇓
&
ϖ
∼
ℵ
❁
❂
❃
❄
❅
❆
❇
❈
❉
❊
❋
●
❍
■
❏
❐
❑
❒
▲
▼
◆
❖
◗
❘
❙
❚
:
;
@
\
_
|
%
\47
\74
\76
\133
\135
\42
\43
\136
\77
\41
\46
\44
\176
:
;
@
\
_
|
%
’
<
>
[
]
"
#
^
?
!
&
$
~
:
;
≅
∴
_
|
%
∋
<
>
[
]
∀
#
⊥
?
!
&
∃
∼
:
;
≅
∴
_
|
%
∋
<
>
[
]
∀
#
⊥
?
!
&
∃
∼
✚
✛
✠
✼
✿
❜
☎
✇
✜
✞
✻
✽
✂
✃
✾
✟
✁
✆
✄
❞
Figure 7.16: PostScript characters (1).
Chapter 7. Graphics (HIGZ and HPLOT)
308
Input
Upper
Roman
Upper
Greek
Upper
Special
Upper
Zapf
Input
\241
\242
\243
\244
\245
\246
\247
\250
\251
\252
\253
\254
\255
\256
\257
\260
\261
\262
\263
\264
\265
\266
\267
\270
\271
\272
\273
\274
\275
\276
\277
\300
\301
\302
\303
\304
\305
\306
\307
\310
\311
\312
\313
\314
\315
\316
\317
¡
¢
£
⁄
¥
ƒ
§
¤
'
“
«
‹
›
fi
fl
à
–
†
‡
·
À
¶
•
‚
„
”
»
…
‰
â
¿
Â
`
´
ˆ
˜
¯
˘
˙
¨
ä
˚
¸
Ä
˝
˛
ˇ
ϒ
′
≤
⁄
∞
ƒ
♣
♦
♥
♠
↔
←
↑
→
↓
°
±
″
≥
×
∝
∂
•
÷
≠
≡
≈
…
⏐
⎯
↵
ℵ
ℑ
ℜ
℘
⊗
⊕
∅
∩
∪
⊃
⊇
⊄
⊂
⊆
∈
∉
ϒ
′
≤
⁄
∞
ƒ
♣
♦
♥
♠
↔
←
↑
→
↓
°
±
″
≥
×
∝
∂
•
÷
≠
≡
≈
…
⏐
⎯
↵
ℵ
ℑ
ℜ
℘
⊗
⊕
∅
∩
∪
⊃
⊇
⊄
⊂
⊆
∈
∉
❡
❢
❣
❤
❥
❦
❧
♣
♦
♥
♠
①
②
③
④
⑤
⑥
⑦
⑧
⑨
⑩
❶
❷
❸
❹
❺
❻
❼
❽
❾
❿
➀
➁
➂
➃
➄
➅
➆
➇
➈
➉
➊
➋
➌
➍
➎
➏
\321
\322
\323
\324
\325
\326
\327
\330
\331
\332
\333
\334
\335
\336
\337
\340
\341
\342
\343
\344
\345
\346
\347
\350
\351
\352
\353
\354
\355
\356
\357
\360
\361
\362
\363
\364
\365
\366
\367
\370
\371
\372
\373
\374
\375
\376
\377
Lower
Roman
Lower
Greek
Lower
Special
Lower
Zapf
ç
Ç
é
É
è
È
ê
Ê
ë
Ë
î
Î
ï
Ï
ñ
Ñ
Æ
ô
ª
Ô
ö
Ö
û
Ł
Ø
Œ
º
Û
ü
Ü
å
∇
®
©
™
∏
√
⋅
¬
∧
∨
⇔
⇐
⇑
⇒
⇓
◊
〈
®
©
™
∑
⎛
⎜
⎝
⎡
⎢
⎣
⎧
⎨
⎩
⎪
∇
®
©
™
∏
√
⋅
¬
∧
∨
⇔
⇐
⇑
⇒
⇓
◊
〈
®
©
™
∑
⎛
⎜
⎝
⎡
⎢
⎣
⎧
⎨
⎩
⎪
➑
➒
➓
➔
→
↔
↕
➘
➙
➚
➛
➜
➝
➞
➟
➠
➡
➢
➣
➤
➥
➦
➧
➨
➩
➪
➫
➬
➭
➮
➯
æ
Å
ÿ
Ÿ
ı
á
Á
ł
ø
œ
ß
ù
Ù
〉
∫
⌠
⎮
⌡
⎞
⎟
⎠
⎤
⎥
⎦
⎫
⎬
⎭
〉
∫
⌠
⎮
⌡
⎞
⎟
⎠
⎤
⎥
⎦
⎫
⎬
⎭
➱
➲
➳
➴
➵
➶
➷
➸
➹
➺
➻
➼
➽
➾
Figure 7.17: PostScript characters (2).
7.9. The HIGZ graphics editor
309
7.9 The HIGZ graphics editor
The HIGZ pictures in memory can be modied interactively with the HIGZ graphics editor. The
command PICT/MODIFY invokes the HIGZ editor (see gure 7.18 for more details):
PAW > PICT/MODIFY PNAME
PNAME
can be the complete name, the picture number in memory or ' '.
Attributes menus
Box interior style
Box style index
Box color index
Border
Hatch
-3
Green
Primitives
Windows
Pictures
Yes
Files
Exit
To work on primitives
To work on Normalization Transf.
To work on pictures
To work on pictures files
Exit the graphics editor
Software text
Text
Fill area
Polyline
Polymarker
Axis
Arc
Box
Paving-block
Frame box
Arrow
Change Att.
Delete
Move
Front
Grid
Create new primitives
Modify existing primitives
Draw a grid
Att. Redr. Undo
Editing space
Undo the last commands
Redraw the picture
Invoke the attributes menu
Figure 7.18: The HIGZ graphics editor
Chapter 8: Distributed PAW
With the increasing number of workstations, it happens more and more frequently that a user wants
to run PAW on a mainframe or on a workstation. Several tools described in this chapter have been
developed in order to use in the most convenient way all the resources available in an heteregoneous
environment of workstations, superminis, data acquisition systems and mainframes.
TELNETG: A powerful terminal emulator. An alphanumeric window (line mode) is created on the
3270G
ZFTP
local workstation (e.g. Apollo) to create a session (like with TELNET) on a remote
computer (e.g. VAX). On the remote computer, a graphics program is run and a
window is automatically created on the local workstation to receive the graphics output.
Same as the TELNETG emulator for the case of a connection with an IBM machine in
full screen mode under VM/CMS.
The ZEBRA le transfer program optimized to transport ZEBRA RZ or FZ les between machines with dierent data representations.
There exists also the possibility to access les on a remote computer from a PAW session on a
workstation. PAW can be used in a real time environment. Access to HBOOK histograms being
lled by a dierent process on the same machine (Global sections on VAX) or a computer on the
network (e.g. OS9 modules).
Both ZFTP and real time access to histograms on a remote computer require the implementation of
a PAW server on this computer. The PAW server is automatically started from a PAW session, if
PAW has been implemented with the relevant options (PATCHY '16] ag CZ). PAW and the PAW
server must be linked with two special modules called CZ and TCPAW '17, 18].
CZ is a small FORTRAN package (about 300 lines). It provides an interface between the ZEBRA
Input/Output routines and the high level transport routines of the TCPAW package.
TCPAW'17] is a networking package, written in C by Ben Segal (about 1500 lines). It provides a
very simple FORTRAN-callable interface to TCP/IP services. It supports client and server modules
running on UNIX, Apollo, VMS, VM/CMS and OS9 environments. Small parts of TCPAW are
CERN specic but it would be perfectly possible to transport it elsewhere with minor modications.
The package currently requires the Wollongong (TWG) TCP/IP software to be present on VMS
connected systems, the IBM FAL 1.2 Product on VM/CMS, and Microware TCP/IP on OS9. The
UNIX systems Ultrix, CRAY Unicos, SUN OS, IBM AIX, Apollo/Aegis, Apple A/UX and HP-UX are
supported as delivered.
8.1 TELNETG and 3270G
Figure 8.1 describes the functionality of these two programs. They allow to run a graphics application
based on HIGZ (e.g. PAW, GEANT, etc.) on a host machine and to receive the graphics output on
the local machine. TELNETG is designed to work with operating systems supporting a command
line interface and 3270G for a full screen interface.
TELNETG and 3270G supports both graphics Input and Output. The graphics locator (commands
LOCATE, VLOCATE, etc.) as well as the various KUIP graphics menu styles (G and GP) may be
used.
Both programs exploit the fact that the HIGZ macro primitives are very compact, therefore reducing
the amount of information to be sent through the network. Compared to more conventional emulators
310
8.1. TELNETG and 3270G
311
(4014, 4207, etc.) gains in speed are typically a factor of 10 when drawing one-dimensional histograms
and may reach a factor 100 for two-dimensional plots (lego, surface, scatterplot).
Chapter 8. Distributed PAW
312
TELNETG
REMOTE CPU (Mainframe)
Standard Input
Telnet
Application using
Server
HIGZ in mode "M"
Standard Output
LOCAL CPU (Workstation)
Graphics Window
TELNETG
Alphanumeric Window
Figure 8.1: The TELNETG program
8.1. TELNETG and 3270G
313
TELNETG combines a slightly modied version of the standard TELNET program written in the C
language and an interface to the HIGZ system written in FORTRAN.
The following example shows how to use TELNETG from an Apollo to a VAX. The integer identier
of the workstation type must be preceded by a minus sign (e.g. for an Apollo DN3000):
Example of a TELNETG session
$ TELNETG vxcrna
Trying...
Open
This is the CERN Central VAXcluster running VMS V5.1
Username: USERNAME
Password: PASSWORD(not echoed)
Welcome to VAX/VMS version V5.1 on node VXCRNA
TERMINAL TYPE <? for HELP No default>:D1
VxCrnA$ PAW
******************************************************
*
*
*
W E L C O M E
to
P A W
*
*
*
*
Version 1.11/02 29 March 1991
*
*
*
******************************************************
Workstation type (?=HELP) <CR>=7878 : -10002
VERSION 7.4/2.6 OF GKSGRAL STARTED
PAW > hi/plot 10
| The graphics is sent to the Apollo
| Graphics input using the Apollo mouse
PAW > locate
Chapter 8. Distributed PAW
314
8.2 ZFTP
The ZFTP program (ZEBRA File Transfer Program) provides the same functionality as the FTP
program which is available like TELNET on all workstations and mainframes supporting TCP/IP. In
addition ZFTP has been optimized to allow the transfer of ZEBRA binary les both sequential and
direct access.
The direct access ZEBRA/RZ les (used for HBOOK histograms and HIGZ pictures) contain data
in the local data representation. Because ZEBRA is an object oriented language supporting machine
independent Input/Output, ZFTP is able to translate in ight all the ZEBRA data structures in a
transparent way in the network buers. ZFTP copies the RZ les on the local machine with the
same parameters (RECL, quota, etc.) than on the remote machine. The original date and time of
the objects is also preserved.
In addition to binary le transfer, ZFTP can also transfer alphanumeric text les (up to 80 characters/line). On IBM/VM-CMS, these les must be of type RECFM=F,LRECL=80.
The ZFTP user interface is based on KUIP and is the same on all systems. If several les have to
be transferred (maybe on a regular basis), KUIP macros may be used. The following commands are
available:
OPEN
To start a communication with a remote machine.
CLOSE
Close the current communication.
GETA
Transfer an Alphanumeric text le from the remote machine.
PUTA
Transfer an Alphanumeric text le to a remote machine.
GETRZ
Transfer a RZ le from a remote machine.
PUTRZ
Transfer a RZ le to a remote machine.
GETFZ
Transfer a FZ le from a remote machine.
PUTFZ
Transfer a FZ le to a remote machine.
RSHELL Send a command to a remote machine.
Example of a ZFTP session
# Start execution of the program from inside the PAW directory
$ ZFTP
ZFTP > open CERNVM
|Starts communication with CERNVM
| (prompt for username/password)
ZFTP > getrz RZFILE.DAT.D local.dat
| Transfer IBM file "RZFILE.DAT"
| to local file "local.dat"
ZFTP > puta local.car
| Transfer local alphanumeric file
| "local.car" to IBM
| IBM file name will be "LOCAL CAR A"
ZFTP > quit
8.3 Access to remote les from a PAW session
When running PAW, it is often necessary to access les (e.g. HBOOK les) which reside on a
dierent computer. The ZFTP program described above can be used if a very frequent access to the
le is required. A more convenient mechanism is the possibility to access the les directly. On many
systems, one may now use NFS '19] for this purpose. Under some circumstances, for example if the
8.3. Access to remote files from a PAW session
315
HBOOK le is not in exchange mode and it is to be accessed from a computer running a dierent
operating system, an alternate approach is required. To ll this gap the PAW server is provided. This
works using a conventional Client/Server model. The client (PAW) typically runs on a workstation.
When the PAW command RLOGIN is invoked, a PAW server is automatically started on the remote
machine, normally a mainframe or data server.
Once the RLOGIN REMOTE command has been executed, the PAW Current Directory is set to
//REMOTE. The PAW client can now instruct the PAW server to attach a le using the RSHELL
command (e.g. rshell file pawtest.dat). If an histogram with HBOOK ID=10 is on the remote le, than the PAW command Histo/Plot 10 will plot this histogram on the local workstation.
The histogram resides on //PAWC like other histograms coming from local les.
The RSHELL command may be used to communicate with the PAW server. The expression typed
following RSHELL is passed to the server. The current implementation of the PAW server recognizes
the commands:
rshell file filename
rshell cdir //lun11
rshell ld
rshell ld //
rshell message
Server connects lename
Server changes current directory
Server lists current directory
Server lists all connected les
Server pass message to operating system
Access to remote les from a workstation
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
rlogin CERNVM
rshell file HRZTEST.DAT
histo/plot 10
histo/fit 20 G
rlogin VXCRNA
rshell file DISK$DL:PAW]HEXAM.DAT3
histo/plot 110
rshell file HRZTEST.DAT
histo/plot 110 s
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
rshell ld //
cdir //CERNVM
histo/plot 110
histo/plot //VXCRNA/110
cdir //PAWC
histo/list
Histo/delete 0
hrin //VXCRNA/0
PAW > cdir //CERNVM
PAW > rshell file NEW.DAT.D 1024 N
PAW > hrout 0
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
connect to CERNVM
PAW server connects HRZTEST DAT A to //LUN11
plot histogram 10 from CERNVM
fit histo 20 with a gaussian and plot it
connect to VXCRNA
PAW server on VXCRNA connects file to //LUN11
plot histogram 110 from VXCRNA
PAW server on VXCRNA connects file to //LUN12
plot histogram 110 from HRZTEST.DAT
on VXCRNA on the existing picture
list all files connected on VXCRNA
Change current PAW directory to CERNVM
plot histogram 110 from CERNVM
plot histogram 110 from VXCRNA
current directory to local memory
list all histograms in //PAWC
delete all histograms in memory
read all histograms from VXCRNA
file HRZTEST.DAT to //PAWC
change directory to CERNVM
creates a new file on the D disk
write all histograms from //PAWC
to CERNVM file NEW DAT D
Chapter 8. Distributed PAW
316
8.4 Using PAW as a presenter on VMS systems (global section)
PAW > edit produce
macro produce ntimes=100
nt=ntimes]
zone 1 2
histo/plot 10 K
histo/plot 20 K
loop:
histo/plot 10 U
histo/plot 20 U
wait ' ' 1
nt=nt] -1
if nt>0 goto loop
return
PAW > global GTEST
PAW > exec produce ntimes=20
PROGRAM PRODUCE
PARAMETER MAXPAGES=100
COMMON/PAWC/IPAWC(128*MAXPAGES)
CHARACTER*8 GNAME
INTEGER*4 HCREATEG
*
GNAME='GTEST'
WAIT_TIME=1.
NUMEVT=1000
*...............
Create Global section
NPAGES=HCREATEG(GNAME,IPAWC,128*MAXPAGES)
IF(NPAGES.GT.0) THEN
PRINT 1000,GNAME
1000
FORMAT(' Global Section: ',A,' created')
ELSE
IERROR=-NPAGES
PRINT 2000,IERROR
2000
FORMAT(' Global Section Error', I6)
GO TO 99
ENDIF
CALL HLIMIT(128*NPAGES)
*...............
Book histos.
CALL HBOOK1(10,'Test1$',50,-4.,4.,0.)
CALL HBOOK1(20,'Test2$',50,-4.,4.,0.)
*...............
Fill histos.
DO 20 I=1,NUMEVT
DO 10 J=1,100
CALL RANNOR(A,B)
CALL HFILL(10,A,0.,1.)
CALL HFILL(20,B,0.,1.)
10
CONTINUE
CALL LIB$WAIT(WAIT_TIME)
20
CONTINUE
*
99
STOP
END
$ fort produce
$ link produce,SYS$INPUT/OPTIONS,cern$library:packlib/lib,kernlib/lib
PSECT=PAWC,PAGE
320
280
240
200
160
120
80
40
0
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
1
2
3
4
Test1
280
240
200
160
120
80
40
0
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
Test2
Figure 8.2: Visualise histograms in global section
In addition to the facilities described in the previous section, the standard version of PAW may be
used as an online presenter on VMS systems using the mechanism of global sections. It is possible
for two processes to reference the same histograms using global sections. For example, the rst
process may be a histogram producer (e.g. a monitoring task) and the second process PAW. As
the histograms are being gradually lled by the rst task, PAW can view them, and even reset them.
To use the global sections, it is also necessary to "page align" the common which is in the global
section. This is achieved in the "link step" when making the process (see example). The relevant
statements are SYS$INPUT/OPTIONS to tell the linker that some options follow the link statement,
and PSECT=PAWC,PAGE which is the option to page align the /PAWC/ common.
8.5. Using PAW as a presenter on OS9 systems
317
8.5 Using PAW as a presenter on OS9 systems
The technique described in previous sections may also be used to access HBOOK histograms being
lled by a monitoring task on OS9 systems from a standard PAW session running on a machine with
the TCP/IP software.
INDIRECT PAWC
PROGRAM PRODUCE
*
*
*
Monitoring task MT1 in processor OP2.
PARAMETER NWPAW=10000
COMMON/PAWC/IPAWC(NWPAW)
OP2
MT1
MT1, MT2, MT3
PAW Client
*
CALL HLIMIT(NWPAW)
*
*
*
OP1
Book histos.
running on
PAW Server
(one server per client)
a computer
running on
(shared code)
with TCP/IP
TCP/IP
one OS9 node
(Apollos, SUNs)
CALL HBOOK1(10,'TEST1$',50,-3.,3.,0.)
CALL HBOOK1(20,'TEST2$',50,-3.,3.,0.)
*
*
*
(IBM, Central VAX)
PAW >
Ethernet
Fill histos.
10
20
(many clients)
NUMEVT=10000
DO 20 I=1,NUMEVT
DO 10 J=1,100
CALL RANNOR(A,B)
CALL HFILL(10,A,0.,1.)
CALL HFILL(20,B,0.,1.)
CONTINUE
CONTINUE
*
99
OS9NET
MT1, MT2
OP3
OP4
MT1, MT2
MT1
OP1, OP2.. : OS9 processors
MT1, MT2.. : Monitoring tasks
Figure 8.3: Visualising histograms on OS9 modules from PAW
STOP
END
Example of how to access OS9 modules from PAW
PAW > rlogin O-OPAL01
PAW > rshell module OP2/MT1
PAW > histo/plot 10
PAW > hrin 0
PAW > Histo/File 1 local.dat 1024 N
PAW > hrout 0
PAW > rshell module OP3/MT2
PAW > Output 56 os9.listing
PAW > rshell ldir
PAW > Output -56
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
connect to an OS9 machine
PAW server connects to OP2/MT1
(Processor OP2, Monitoring Task MT1)
plot histogram 10
read all histograms into //PAWC
create a new file local.dat
on the client machine
save all histograms from //PAWC
to the local file
PAW server connects to another
OS9 monitoring task
Change output file on client
list all histograms in MT2
on file os9.listing
Change output file to default (unit 6)
file os9.listing is closed
318
Chapter 8. Distributed PAW
Part III
PAW - Reference section
319
320
Notation used in the reference section
Optional parameters are enclosed in square brackets, e.g. optpar]
The type of a parameter is indicated following its name as follows:
C
I
R
Character data
Integer data
Real (oating point) data
Supplementary information is given at the end of the line describing the parameter:
D=
R=
Default value
e.g. D='S' for Character data or D=40 for Integer data
Range of possible values
e.g. R=0:1 means that the variable's value lies between 0 and 1.
R=' ,L,P,*,+' enumerates the possible values for the given Character variable.
Chapter 9: KUIP
Command Processor commands.
HELP ITEM OPTION ]
C \Command or menu path" D='*'
OPTION C \View mode" D='N'
Possible OPTION values are:
EDIT
The help text is written to a le and the editor is invoked,
E
Same as 'EDIT'.
NOEDIT The help text is output on the terminal output.
N
Same as 'NOEDIT'
ITEM
Give the help of a command. If ITEM is a command its full explanation is given: syntax (as given by
the command USAGE), functionality, list of parameters with their attributes (prompt, type, default,
range, etc.). If ITEM='/' the help for all commands is given.
If HELP is entered without parameters or ITEM is a submenu, the dialogue style is switched to 'AN',
guiding the user in traversing the tree command structure.
'HELP -EDIT' (or just 'HELP -E') switches to edit mode: instead of writing the help text to the
terminal output, it is written into a temporary le and the pager or editor dened by the command
HOST_PAGER is invoked. (On Unix workstations the pager can be dened to display the help
text asynchrously in a separated window.) 'HELP -NOEDIT' (or just 'HELP -N') switches back to
standard mode. The startup value is system dependent.
USAGE ITEM
C \Command name"
Give the syntax of a command. If ITEM='/' the syntax of all commands is given.
ITEM
MANUAL ITEM OUTPUT OPTION ]
C \Command or menu path"
OUTPUT C \Output le name" D='*'
OPTION C \Text formatting system" D='*'
Possible OPTION values are:
'*'
plain text : plain text format
LATEX LaTeX format (encapsulated)
TEX
LaTeX format (without header)
Write on a le the text formatted help of a command. If ITEM is a menu path the help for all
commands linked to that menu is written. If ITEM='/' the help for the complete command tree is
written. If OUTPUT=' ' the text is written to the terminal.
ITEM
321
Chapter 9. KUIP
322
The output le produced with option LATEX can be processed directly by LaTeX, i.e. it contains a
standard header dening the meta commands used for formatting the document body. With option
TEX only the document body is written into the output le which can be included by a driver le
containing customized denitions of the standard meta commands. Example:
MANUAL / MAN.TEX LATEX
will produce the le MAN.TEX containg the documentation of all available commands in LaTeX
format.
EDIT FNAME
FNAME
C \File name"
Invoke the editor on the le. The command HOST_EDITOR can be used to dene the editor.
If FNAME does not contain an extension the default letype '.KUMAC' is supplied. The search path
dened by the command DEFAULTS is used to nd an already existing le. If the le does not exist
it is created with the given name.
LAST N FNAME ]
N
FNAME
I \N last commands to be saved"
C \File name" D='*'
D=-99 R=-99:
Perform various operations with the history le.
If FNAME is not specied, the current history le is assumed by default (the startup history le name
is LAST.KUMAC). To change the history le the command LAST 0 NEWFNAME must be entered.
If N.EQ.-99 (default case) the default host editor is called to edit the current history le, containing
all the commands of the session.
If N.LT.0 the last -N commands are printed on the screen. On MVS this allows to edit and resubmit
commands. On workstations this allows to resubmit blocks of commands by mouse-driven cut-andpaste operations.
If N.EQ.0 the history le FNAME is rewound and set as the current one (the command LAST 0
FNAME itself is not recorded).
If N.GT.0 the last N commands of the session are saved in the current history le.
See also the command RECORDING.
MESSAGE STRING ]
STRING
C \Message string"
D='*' Separate
Write a message string on the terminal. A useful command inside a macro. Several message strings
can be given in the same command line, each of them separated by one or more spaces (the usual
parameter separator) therefore multiple blanks will be dropped and only one will be kept. If multiple
blanks should not be dropped, the string must be surrounded by single quotes.
323
SHELL CMD ]
C \Shell command string" D='*'
Execute a command of the host operating system. The command string is passed to the command
processor dened by HOST_SHELL. If CMD=' ' the shell is spawned as interactive subprocess. To
return from the shell enter 'RETURN' (the full word, not just hCRi) or 'exit' (depending on the
operation system).
CMD
WAIT STRING SEC ]
STRING
SEC
C \Message string" D='*'
R \Number of seconds" D=0
R=0:
Make a pause (e.g. inside a macro). Wait a given number of seconds (if SEC.GT.0) or just until
hCRi is entered (if SEC.EQ.0). A message string is also written on the terminal before waiting.
UNITS
List all Input/Output logical units currently open. The les attached to them are also shown.
EXIT
End of the interactive session.
QUIT
End of the interactive session.
FUNCTIONS
*** KUIP System Functions ***
The function name (and arguments) is literally replaced, at run-time, by its current value. At present,
the following functions are available:
$DATE .......................
$TIME .......................
$CPTIME .....................
$RTIME ......................
$VDIM(VNAME,IDIM) ...........
$VLEN(VNAME,IDIM)
...........
$NUMVEC .....................
$VEXIST(VNAME) ..............
$SUBSTRING(STRING,IX,NCH) ...
$UPPER(STRING) ..............
Current date in format DD/MM/YY
Current time in format HH.MM.SS
CP time elapsed since last call (in sec)
Real time elapsed since last call (in sec)
Physical length of vector VNAME
on dimension IDIM (1..3)
As above, but for the logical length
(i.e. stripping trailing zeroes)
Current number of vectors
Index of vector VNAME
(1..$NUMVEC or 0 if VNAME does not exist)
STRING(IX:IX+NCH-1)
STRING changed to upper case
Chapter 9. KUIP
324
$LOWER(STRING) ..............
$LEN(STRING) ................
$INDEX(STR1,STR2) ...........
$WORDS(STRING,SEP) ..........
$WORD(STRING,K,N,SEP) .......
$QUOTE(STRING) ..............
$UNQUOTE(STRING) ............
$EVAL(Expression) ...........
$SIGMA(Expression) ..........
$RSIGMA(Expression) ..........
$ARGS .......................
$KEYNUM .....................
$KEYVAL .....................
$LAST .......................
$ANUM .......................
$ANAM(I) ....................
$AVAL(I) ....................
$STYLE ......................
$OS .........................
$MACHINE ....................
STRING changed to lower case
Length of STRING
Position of first occurence of STR2 in STR1
Number of words separated by SEP
Extract N words starting at word K
Add quotes around STRING
Remove quotes around STRING
Result of the Expression computed by KUIP
Result of the Expression computed by SIGMA
As above but a decimal point is added to
integer results
Format a number according to a Fortran
format string, e.g.
$FORMAT(1.5,F5.2) ==> ' 1.50'
$FORMAT(123,I5.5) ==> '00123'
Command line at program invocation
Address of latest clicked key in style GP
Value of latest clicked key in style GP
Latest command line executed
Number of aliases
Name of I-th alias
Value of I-th alias
Current style as defined by SET/STYLE
Operating system name, e.g. UNIX or VMS
Hardware or Unix brand, e.g. VAX or HPUX
$HEXIST(id) .................
$HINFO(id,'ENTRIES') ........
$HINFO(id,'MEAN') ...........
$HINFO(id,'RMS') ............
$HINFO(id,'EVENTS') .........
$HINFO(id,'OVERFLOW') .......
$HINFO(id,'UNDERFLOW') ......
$HINFO(id,'MIN') ............
$HINFO(id,'MAX') ............
$HINFO(id,'SUM') ............
$HINFO(id,'XBINS') ..........
$HINFO(id,'XMIN') ...........
$HINFO(id,'XMAX') ...........
$HINFO(id,'YBINS') ..........
$HINFO(id,'YMIN') ...........
$HINFO(id,'YMAX') ...........
$HTITLE(id) .................
$GRAFINFO('XZONES') .........
$GRAFINFO('YZONES') .........
$GRAFINFO('NT') .............
$GRAFINFO('WNXMIN') .........
1 if histogram ID exists or 0 otherwise
Number of entries
Mean value
Standard deviation
Number of equivalent events
Content of overflow channel
Content of underflow channel
Minimum bin content
Maximum bin content
Total histogram content
Number of bins in X direction
Lower histogram limit in X direction
Upper histogram limit in X direction
Number of bins in Y direction
Lower histogram limit in Y direction
Upper histogram limit in Y direction
Histogram title
Number of zones in X direction
Number of zones in Y direction
Current Normalization Transformation number
Lower X limit of window in current NT
$FORMAT(number,format)
......
9.1. KUIP/ALIAS
$GRAFINFO('WNXMAX') .........
$GRAFINFO('WNYMIN') .........
$GRAFINFO('WNYMAX') .........
$GRAFINFO('VPXMIN') .........
$GRAFINFO('VPXMAX') .........
$GRAFINFO('VPYMIN') .........
$GRAFINFO('VPYMAX') .........
$GRAFINFO('?attr') ..........
valid names)
$CUT(n) .....................
$CUTEXPAND(string) ..........
$CUT(n)
9.1
325
Upper X limit of window in current NT
Lower Y limit of window in current NT
Upper Y limit of window in current NT
Lower X limit of viewport in current NT
Upper X limit of viewport in current NT
Lower Y limit of viewport in current NT
Upper Y limit of viewport in current NT
HPLOT/HIGZ attribute (see HELP SET for
Cut expression $n
Replace $n in the (quoted) string by
KUIP/ALIAS
Operations with aliases. Aliases are dened to provide shortcut abbreviations for the input line or
some part of it. When encountered on an input line an alias is replaced by its string value which can
contain further aliases. (Be careful not to dene recursive aliases.)
To juxtaposition aliases, a double slash can be used as concatenation sign. Inside quoted strings and
for the ALIAS commands themselves the alias substitution is inhibited. Otherwise
ALIAS/CREATE ALPHA BETA
ALIAS/CREATE ALPHA BETA
whould create an recursive alias BETA and
ALIAS/CREATE ALPHA BETA
ALIAS/CREATE BETA GAMMA
ALIAS/DELETE ALPHA
would delete the alias name BETA instead of ALPHA itself.
CREATE NAME VALUE CHOPT ]
C \Alias name"
VALUE C \Alias value"
CHOPT C \Option" D='A'
Possible CHOPT values are:
A create an Argument alias
C create a Command alias
N No alias expansion of value
Create an alias NAME which should be substituted by VALUE. An alias name is a sequence of letters
and digits starting with a letter. The underscores ('_'), the at-sign ('@') and the dollar-sign ('$')
count as letters.
There are two types of aliases: Command aliases are recognized only if they occur in the command
position, i.e. as the rst token on the line. Argument aliases are recognized anywhere on the
command line (except inside quoted strings) if they are surrounded by one of the following separators:
NAME
Chapter 9. KUIP
326
blank
/
,
=
:
.
%
'
(
)
Also switch ON the alias translation, i.e. ALIAS/TRANSLATION ON. If CHOPT='C' then the alias
is a command alias, i.e. an alias that will only be translated when it is the rst token on a command
line. Example:
Alias/Create GG Graph/Struct/Scratch
Alias/Create FF File1/Name1/Name2
GG FF/ID
is equivalent to
Graph/Struct/Scratch File1/Name1/Name2/ID
Alias/Create LS DIR C
is equivalent to
DIR
only when LS is the rst token on a command line. In the following case LS will not be translated
SHELL LS
Aliases occuring inside an value are expanded indepedent whether the value is enclosed by quotes.
The option -N allows to suppress this implicit alias expansion.
LIST
List all aliases (names and values).
DELETE ALIST
C \Alias list"
Delete the denition of aliases in the list ALIST. The aliases are separated in the list by a comma
and imbedded blanks are not allowed. If ALIST='*' then delete all aliases and the alias translation
is switched OFF (i.e.: ALIAS/TRANSLATION OFF is executed).
ALIST
TRANSLATION OPTION ]
C \Option" D='ON'
Possible OPTION values are:
?
show current setting
ON
switch alias translation ON
OFF switch alias translation OFF
Switch ON/OFF the alias translation. If OFF, alias denitions are not used in parsing the command
lines. It is automatically switched ON when an alias is created. If OPTION='?' the current value is
shown. The startup value is OFF.
OPTION
9.2. KUIP/SET_SHOW
9.2
327
KUIP/SET_SHOW
Set or show various KUIP parameters and options.
STYLE OPTION SGYLEN SGSIZE SGYSPA SGBORD WKTYPE ]
C
R
R
R
R
I
\Option" D='?'
SGYLEN
\max Y LENgth of each menu item box" D=0.025 R=0.005:0.25
SGSIZE
\space available for the application" D=0.8 R=0:0.90
SGYSPA
\max Y length of space between menus" D=0.02 R=-0.5:0.50
SGBORD
\X or Y border for menus" D=0.015 R=0:0.25
WKTYPE
\Graphics workstation type" D=0
Possible OPTION values are:
?
show current style
C
Command line : select Command line input
AN Menu with Numbers : select general Alpha menu (with Numbers)
AL Menu with Letters : select general Alpha menu (with Letters)
G
Graphics menu hardware : select Graphics menu (with hardware character fonts)
GW Graphics menu shadowed : select Graphics menu (with shadowed Width eect)
GS Graphics menu Software : select Graphics menu (with Software character fonts)
GP Panel keys : select Graphics menu (with Panel keys only, i.e. no command tree menu)
OPTION
Motif/X11 : select Motif/X11 interface
XM
Select the user dialogue style (or working mode). The startup value is 'C' (command mode). The
current value is returned by the system function $STYLE.
The G-styles are only available if the application program is calling KUWHAG instead of KUWHAT.
When one of these options is choosen the remaining parameters control the geometrical layout of
the menus on the screen and the graphics workstation type (in case HIGZ was not initialized).
Style 'XM' is only available if the program is calling KUWHAM. In that case switching to other styles
is not possible.
PANEL LINE GKEY ]
LINE
GKEY
R \Line number" D=0
C \Graphics key value(s)"
D='*'
Set up the panel of graphics keys (used by STYLE GP).
Examples:
PANEL
PANEL
0
2 A/L QUIT V/L
PANEL
2 A/L ' '
V/L ' ' ' '
| reset the panel
| initialize line 2 with 3 graphics keys,
respectively A/L, QUIT, V/L
| initialize line 2 with 5 graphics keys,
Chapter 9. KUIP
328
PANEL 2.04 MESSAGE
PANEL 2.04
PANEL -2.08
PANEL -6.16
|
|
|
|
and fill 1st and 3rd keys
initialize 4th key of 2nd line to MESSAGE
clear 4th key of 2nd line
initialize line 2 with 8 graphics keys
initialize line 6 with 16 graphics keys
Note that the key number on the right of the decimal point must always be dened with two digits.
Keys ending with a minus sign make an additional request of keyboard input the complete command
line will be the key text, with a blank at the place of the minus, concatenated with the additional
keyboard input. Example:
PANEL 1.03 'VEC/PRI-'
| entering VAB will execute VEC/PRI VAB.
Keys ending with a double minus sign behave as above but no blank is put at the place of the double
minus. Example:
PANEL 1.03 'VEC/PRI V--'
| entering AB will execute VEC/PRI VAB
The dollar sign inside a key is replaced by additional keyboard input. Example:
PANEL 1.03 'VEC/PRI V($)'
| entering 11:20 will execute VEC/PRI V(11:20)
NEWPANEL LINE COL TITLE WIDTH HEIGHT XPOS YPOS
LINE
COL
TITLE
WIDTH
HEIGHT
XPOS
YPOS
I
I
C
I
I
I
I
\Number of lines" D=5 R=1:30
\Number of columns" D=5 R=1:30
\Panel Title" D='New Panel'
\Panel width (in pixels)" D=300 R=10:
\Panel height (in pixels)" D=300 R=10:
\X Position (in pixels)" D=0 R=0:
\Y Position (in pixels)" D=0 R=0:
Set up a new panel with empty keys (to be lled interactively).
COMMAND CHPATH ]
CHPATH
C \Path name for command line"
D='*'
Set a lter for the parsing of command lines. If it has been called, it means that whenever a command
line is entered, if and only if it is not an existing command (not just ambiguous), it is inserted into
the CHPATH string, with $n (n=1..9) being replaced by the n-th token of the command (tokens are
separated by spaces), or $* being replaced by the whole command line. Examples:
COMMAND 'V/CR $*(10)'
AA
BB
V/LIST
=>
=>
=>
V/CR AA(10)
V/CR BB(10)
V/LIST
9.2. KUIP/SET_SHOW
329
COMMAND 'VECTOR/PLOT $1 555 $2'
AA E
=>
VECTOR/PLOT AA 555 E
BB
=>
VECTOR/PLOT BB 555
COMMAND
COMMAND *
=>
=>
shows its current value
reset (equivalent to COMMAND $*)
Note that COMMAND and subsequent command lines can be used inside macros, excepted when
producing macro statements (like EXEC, IF, GOTO, etc.). For example, the above examples would
work also inside macros, while COMMAND 'EXEC $*' or COMMAND 'GOTO $1' will not.
APPLICATION PATH CMDEX ]
C \Application name" D='*'
CMDEX C \Exit command" D='EXIT'
Set the application name. This means that all input lines will be concatenated to the string PATH
(until the command specied by the parameter CMDEX is executed, which resets the application to
the null string). The value of CMDEX may be specied if the default value EXIT has to be changed
(i.e. because already used by the application). APPLICATION can also be inserted in a macro: in
this case at least 4 characters must be specied (i.e. APPL).
PATH
ROOT PATH ]
C \Root directory" D='/'
Set the root for searching commands. If PATH='?' the current root is shown. This allows to access
commands regardless of possible ambiguities with dierent menus. Commands are rst searched
starting from the current root: if a command is found it is executed. Only if a command is not found
a second pass of search is done, starting now from the top root of the command tree (i.e. '/').
PATH
TIMING OPTION ]
C \Option" D='ON'
Possible OPTION values are:
OPTION
ON
OFF
ALL
Set ON/OFF/ALL the timing of commands. If ON, the real time and the CPU time for the latest
executed command (or macro) are presented. If ALL, the time is shown for each command being
executed within a macro. The startup value is OFF.
PROMPT PROMPT
C \Prompt string" D='*'
Set the prompt string for the command mode dialogue. If PROMPT is blank the current prompt is
left unchanged. If PROMPT contains the character sequence '']' the current command number is
inserted between the square brackets.
PROMPT
330
Chapter 9. KUIP
BREAK OPTION ]
C \Option" D='ON'
Possible OPTION values are:
OPTION
ON
OFF
TB
?
Set ON/OFF the break handling. If OPTION='?' the current value is shown. The startup value is
ON.
Hitting the keyboard interrupt (CTRL/C on VMS or CTRL/Q on the Apollo) under break ON
condition, the current command or macro execution will be interrupted and the user will get again
the application prompt.
BREAK TB switch ON the traceback of the routines called, with their line numbers, when an error
occurs. This allows the detection of the routines which provoked the error.
COLUMNS NCOL ]
I \Number of columns for terminal output" D=80 R=-1:
Set the maximum number of columns for terminal output. If NCOL=0 the current number of
columns is shown. If NCOL=-1 the current number of columns is taken from the environment
variable COLUMNS. If COLUMNS is undened the startup value is 80.
NCOL
RECORDING NREC ]
I \Rate for recording on history le" D=25 R=0:
Set the recording rate for the history le. Every NREC commands of the session the current history
le is updated. If NREC=0 the history is not kept at all (i.e. the le is not written). See also the
command LAST.
NREC
HOST_EDITOR EDITOR TOP LEFT WIDTH HEIGHT DXPAD DYPAD NPADS ]
C \Host editor command" D='?'
TOP
I \Top position of the edit window" D=20 R=0:
LEFT
I \Left position of the edit window" D=20 R=0:
WIDTH
I \Width of the edit window" D=0 R=0:
HEIGHT I \Height of the edit window" D=0 R=0:
I \X oset for help PAD windows" D=30 R=0:
DXPAD
DYPAD
I \Y oset for help PAD windows" D=20 R=0:
NPADS
I \Maximum number of shifted pads" D=4 R=1:
Set the host command to invoke the editor. The EDIT command will invoke this editor. If EDITOR='?' the current host editor command is shown.
EDITOR
9.2. KUIP/SET_SHOW
331
On Apollo the special value EDITOR='DM' invoke Display Manager pads. The special values
EDITOR='WINDOW' and 'PAD' can be used to specify the window positions (in pixel units).
'WINDOW' denes the parameters for edit pads, while 'PAD' denes the parameters for read-only
pads (e.g. used by 'HELP -EDIT').
On VMS the special values EDITOR='EDT' and 'TPU' invoke the callable editors. The startup time
is considerably lower compared to spawning the editor as a subprocess. The callable EDT has one
disadvantage though: after an error, e.g. trying to edit a le in a non-existing directory, subsequent
calls will always fail. The TPU call can be augmented by command line options, e.g.
HOST_EDITOR TPU/DISP=DECW
| DECwindow interface to EVE
On Unix a variety of editors are available, e.g.
HOST_EDITOR vi
HOST_EDITOR 'emacs -geometry 80x48'
On Unix workstations it is possible to do asynchronous editing via the KUIP edit server, i.e. to start
an editor in a separate window while the application can continue to receive commands. In order to
do that the following conditions must be fullled:
- The KUIP edit server 'kuesvr' must be found in the search path.
- The editor command set by HOST_EDITOR must end with an ampersand ('&').
- The environment variable 'DISPLAY' must be set.
The ampersand ags your intention to use the edit server if possible. If the edit server cannot be
used the ampersand will be ignored, i.e. even with
HOST_EDITOR 'vi &'
the KUIP/EDIT command will block until the editor terminates if either the 'kuesvr' is not available
or 'DISPLAY' is undened. When using the edit server the editor command is expected to create its
own window. 'vi' being a frequent choice, the above command is automatically interpreted as
HOST_EDITOR 'xterm -e vi &'
The startup value can be dened by the environment variable 'EDITOR'. Otherwise it is set to a
system dependent default: 'DM' (Apollo), 'EDT' (VMS), 'XEDIT' (VM/CMS), 'vi' (Unix).
HOST_PAGER PAGER ]
C \Host pager command" D='?'
Set the host command to view a le in read-only mode. If OPTION='?' the current host pager
command is shown. The 'HELP -EDIT' command will invoke this pager, e.g.
PAGER
HOST_PAGER more
On Unix workstations the pager can be asynchronous by creating a separate window, e.g.
HOST_PAGER 'xterm -e view &'
HOST_PAGER 'ved &'
On Apollo the special value PAGER='DM' denes the use of Display Manager read-only pads. The
pad positions can be adjusted by the HOST_EDITOR command.
The startup value can be dened by the environment variables 'KUIPPAGER' or 'PAGER'. If neither
of them is dened the value set by the HOST_EDITOR command is used. On VAX/VMS the startup
value is 'TYPE/PAGE'.
Chapter 9. KUIP
332
HOST_SHELL SHELL ]
C \Host shell command" D='?'
Set the default host shell invoked by the KUIP/SHELL command. If OPTION='?' the current host
shell is shown. The startup value is taken from the 'SHELL' environment variable.
SHELL
RECALL_STYLE OPTION ]
C \Command recall and editing style" D='?'
Possible OPTION values are:
?
show current setting
KSH
Korn shell : Emacs like command line editing
KSHO Korn shell + Overwrite : like 'KSH' but overwrite instead of insert mode
DCL
VAX/VMS DCL : DCL command line editing
DCLO VAX/VMS DCL + Overwrite : like 'DCL' but overwrite instead of insert mode
NONE disable command line editing
Set the command recall and editing style. If OPTION='?' the current style is shown. The startup
value is 'DCL' on VAX/VMS, 'NONE' on Cray and Apollo DM pads, and 'KSH' on other systems.
If the terminal emulator returns ANSI escape sequences (hpterm doesn't!) the up/down arrow keys
can be used to recall items from the command history list and the left/right arrow keys to move the
cursor.
'KSH' style provides the following control keys for editing:
OPTION
^A/^E
^F/^B
^D
^H, DEL
^K
^L
^O
^P/^N
^R/^S
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Move cursor to beginning/end of the line.
Move cursor forward/backward one character.
Delete the character under the cursor.
Delete the character to the left of the cursor.
Kill from the cursor to the end of line.
Redraw current line.
Toggle overwrite/insert mode. Text added in overwrite mode
(including yanks) overwrites existing text, while insert mode
does not overwrite.
: Move to previous/next item on history list.
: Perform incremental reverse/forward search for string on
the history list. Typing normal characters adds to the
current search string and searches for a match. Typing
^R/^S marks the start of a new search, and moves on to
the next match. Typing ^H or DEL deletes the last
character from the search string, and searches from the
starting location of the last search.
Therefore, repeated DEL's appear to unwind to the match
nearest the point at which the last ^R or ^S was typed.
If DEL is repeated until the search string is empty the
search location begins from the start of the history
9.2. KUIP/SET_SHOW
^T
^U
^Y
:
:
:
TAB
:
LF, CR
:
333
list. Typing ESC or any other editing character accepts
the current match and loads it into the buffer,
terminating the search.
Toggle the characters under and to the left of the cursor.
Kill from the prompt to the end of line.
Yank previously killed text back at current location.
Note that this will overwrite or insert, depending on
the current mode.
By default adds spaces to buffer to get to next TAB stop
(just after every 8th column).
Returns current buffer to the program.
'DCL' style provides the following control keys for editing:
BS/^E
^F/^D
DEL
^A
^B
^U
TAB
LF, CR
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
Move cursor to beginning/end of the line.
Move cursor forward/backward one character.
Delete the character to the left of the cursor.
Toggle overwrite/insert mode.
Move to previous item on history list.
Delete from the beginning of the line to the cursor.
Move to next TAB stop.
Returns current buffer to the program.
VISIBILITY CMD CHOPT ]
CMD
CHOPT
C \Command name" D='*'
C \?, OFF, ON" D='?'
Possible CHOPT values are:
?
OFF
ON
Set or show the visibility attributes of a command.
If CHOPT='OFF':
- the command it is not executable anymore
- STYLE G draws a shadowed box on the command
- HELP may be still requested on the command
The startup value is ON.
FILECASE OPTION ]
OPTION
C \Case conversion for lenames"
Possible OPTION values are:
D='?'
Chapter 9. KUIP
334
show current setting
KEEP
lenames are kept as entered on the command line
CONVERT lenames are case converted
RESTORE restore previous FILECASE setting
Set or show the case conversion for lenames.
This command has only an eect on Unix systems to select whether lenames are kept as entered
on the command line. The startup value is 'CONVERT', i.e. lenames are converted to lowercase.
On other systems lenames are always converted to uppercase.
The 'RESTORE' option set the conversion mode to the value eective before the last FILECASE
KEEP/CONVERT command. E.g. the sequence
?
FILECASE KEEP& EDIT Read.Me& FILECASE RESTORE
forces case sensitivity for the EDIT command and restores the previous mode afterwards.
LCDIR DIRECTORY ]
C \Directory name" D='*'
Set or show the local working directory.
The current working directory is set to the given path name or the current directory is shown.
To show the current directory used LCDIR without argument. 'LCDIR ' switches to the home
directory. 'LCDIR .' switches back to the working directory at the time the program was started.
DIR*ECTORY
Chapter 10: MACRO
Macro Processor commands.
EXEC MNAME MARGS ]
C \Macro name"
MARGS C \Macro arguments" D='*' Separate
Execute the command lines contained in the macro MNAME. As a le can contain several macros,
the character '#' is used to select a particular macro inside a le as explained below.
If MNAME does not contain the character '#', the le MNAME.KUMAC is searched and the rst
macro is executed (it may be an unnamed macro if a MACRO statement is not found as rst
command line in the le).
If MNAME is of the form FILE#MACRO, the le named FILE.KUMAC is searched and the macro
named MACRO is executed.
Examples:
MNAME
EXEC ABC
to exec first (or unnamed) macro of file ABC.KUMAC
EXEC ABC#M to exec macro M of file ABC.KUMAC
The command MACRO/DEFAULTS can be used to dene a directory search path for macro les.
LIST MNAME ]
C \Macro name pattern" D='*'
List all macros in the search path dened by MACRO/DEFAULTS. Macros are les with the extension
KUMAC. MNAME may be specied to restrict the list to the macros containing such a string in the
rst part of their name. For example,
MNAME
MACRO/LIST ABC
will list only macros starting with ABC.
TRACE OPTION LEVEL ]
C \Option" D='ON'
LEVEL
C \Level" D='*' R='
Possible OPTION values are:
OPTION
,TEST,WAIT'
ON
OFF
Set ON/OFF the trace of commands during macro execution. If TRACE='ON' the next command is
written on the terminal before being executed. If LEVEL='TEST' the command is only echoed but
not executed. If LEVEL='WAIT' the command WAIT is automatically inserted after the execution
of each command. The startup values are OPTION='OFF' and LEVEL=' '.
335
Chapter 10. MACRO
336
DEFAULTS PATH OPTION ]
C \Search path for macro les" D='?'
OPTION C \Automatic EXEC" D='?'
Possible OPTION values are:
?
show current setting
COMMAND
search for commands only
C
same as 'Command'
AUTO
search for commands before macros
A
same as 'Auto'
AUTOREVERSE search for macros before commands
AR
same as 'AutoReverse'
Set or show MACRO search attributes.
On Unix and VMS systems PATH denes a comma separated list of directories in which the commands
KUIP/EDIT, MACRO/EXEC, and MACRO/LIST search for macro les. For example,
PATH
MACRO/DEFAULT '.,macro,~/macro'
MACRO/DEFAULT '],.macro],macro]'
| Unix
| VMS
denes to search les rst in the current directory, then in the subdirectory 'macro' of the current
directory, and last the subdirectory 'macro' of the home directory.
On VM/CMS system PATH denes a comma separated list of lemodes. E.g.
MACRO/DEFAULT '*'
MACRO/DEFAULT 'A,C'
| search all disks
| search only disks A and C
If PATH='?' the currently dened search path is shown. If PATH='.' the search path is undened,
i.e. les are search for in the current directory (A-disk on VM/CMS) only. The startup value is
PATH='.'.
The search path is not applied if the le specication already contains an explicit directory path or
if it starts with a '-' character (which is stripped o).
OPTION allows to dene whether macros can be envoked by their name only without prepending
the KUIP/EXEC command:
DEFAULT -Command
CMD
DEFAULT -Auto
CMD
DEFAULT -AutoReverse
CMD
| CMD must be a command
| if CMD is not a command try EXEC CMD
| try EXEC CMD first& if not found try command CMD
The startup value is 'Command' (also reset by PATH='.').
Important note:
Inside macros the DEFAULT -A (or -AR) logic is disabled, i.e. DEFAULT -C is always assumed.
337
RECURSION OPTION ]
C \Option" D='ON'
Possible OPTION values are:
OPTION
ON
OFF
Set ON/OFF the option to execute macros recursively. The startup value is OFF.
Chapter 11: VECTOR
Vector Processor commands. Vectors are equivalent to FORTRAN 77 arrays and they use the same
notation except when omitting indexes (see last line below). Up to 3 dimensions are supported.
Examples:
Vec(20) (mono-dimensional with 20 elements)
may be addressed by:
Vec
Vec(13)
Vec(12:)
Vec(:10)
Vec(5:8)
for
for
for
for
for
all elements
element 13-th
elements 12-th to last
elements first to 10-th
elements 5-th to 8-th
Vec(3,100) (bi-dimensional with 3 columns by 100 rows):
may be addressed by:
Vec(2,5:8)
Vec(2:3,5:8)
Vec(2,5)
Vec(:,3)
Vec(2)
for
for
for
for
for
elements 5-th to 8-th in 2-nd column
elements 5-th to 8-th in 2-nd to 3-rd columns
element 5-th in 2-nd column
all elements in 3-rd row
all elements in 2-nd column (SPECIAL CASE)
The latest line shows the special (and non-standard with FORTRAN 77) notation such that missing
indexes are substituted to the right.
An 'invisible' vector called '?', mono-dimensional and of length 100, is always present. Is is used
for communicating between user arrays and KUIP vectors, being equivalenced with the real array
VECTOR(100) in the labelled common block /KCWORK/.
CREATE VNAME TYPE VALUES ]
C \Vector name(length)"
TYPE
C \Vector type" D='R' R='R,I'
VALUES C \Value list" D='*' Vararg
Create a vector named VNAME (elements are set to zero). The dimensions are taken from the
name, for example VEC(20), VEC(3,100), VEC(2,2,10). Up to 3 dimensions are supported. Dimensions which are not specied are taken to 1, for example VEC(10) |i VEC(10,1,1) and VEC
|i VEC(1,1,1). The vector may be of type Real or Integer. A vector is lled at the same time if
parameters are given after the TYPE:
VNAME
VEC/CREATE V(10) R 1 2 3 4 5 66 77 88 99 111
VEC/CREATE W(20) R 1 2 3
In the last example only the rst three elements are lled. Vector elements may be changed later
with the command VECTOR/INPUT.
If many equal values have to be entered consecutively, one can specify just one value and precede it
by a repetition factor and an asterisk. Example:
338
339
VEC/CREATE Z(20) R 5*1 2 4*3
--->
VEC/CREATE Z(20) R 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 3
3
Enter HELP VECTOR for more information on vector addressing.
LIST
List all vectors (name, dimensions, type).
DELETE VLIST
C \Vector list" D='*'
Delete from memory all vectors in the list VLIST. The vectors are separated in the list by a comma
and imbedded blanks are not allowed. An asterisk at the end of VLIST acts as string placeholder:
VLIST
VEC/DEL AB*
VEC/DEL *
--->
--->
deletes all vectors starting by AB
deletes all vectors
COPY VNAM1 VNAM2
C \Source vector name"
VNAM2 C \Destination vector name"
Copy a vector into another one. Mixed vector type copy is supported (e.g. Integer |i Real and
viceversa). If VNAM2 does not exist it is created with the required dimensions, not necessarily the
same as the source vector if a sub-range was specied. For example, if A is a 3 x 100 vector and
B does not exist, COPY A(2,11:60) B will create B as a 50 elements mono-dimensional vector
a special (and non-standard with FORTRAN 77) notation is used such that, still using the above
vectors, COPY A(2,1:100) B and COPY A(2) B have the same eect.
Note that VECTOR/COPY does not allow a range for the destination vector not specifying consecutive elements (i.e. along the rst dimension):
VNAM1
VEC/COPY
VEC/COPY
VEC/COPY
VEC/COPY
VEC/COPY
V(5)
V1(2:3,5)
V1(5,2:3)
V1(3,3:4)
V1(2:3,5)
W(3,4)
V2(4:5,9)
V2(4:5,9)
V2(4,4:5)
V2(2,4:5)
|
|
|
|
|
O.K.
O.K.
O.K.
NOT allowed
NOT allowed
Enter HELP VECTOR for more information on vector addressing.
INPUT VNAME VALUES ]
C \Vector name"
VALUES C \Value list" D='*' Vararg
Enter values into a vector from the terminal. Example:
VNAME
VEC/INPUT V(6:10) 1.1 2.22 3.333 4.4444 5.55555
If many equal values have to be entered consecutively, one can specify just one value and precede it
by a repetition factor and an asterisk. Example:
VEC/INPUT V 5*1 2 4*3
--->
VEC/INPUT V 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 3 3
Enter HELP VECTOR for more information on vector addressing.
Chapter 11. VECTOR
340
PRINT VNAME DENSE ]
C \Vector name"
DENSE I \Output density" D=1 R=0:2
Write to the terminal the content of a vector. Enter HELP VECTOR for more information on vector
addressing.
If DENSE.EQ.0 the output is one vector element per line. If DENSE.EQ.1 the output for a sequence of
identical vector elements is compressed to two lines stating the start and end indices. If DENSE.EQ.2
the output for a sequence of identical vector elements is compressed to a single line.
VNAME
READ VLIST FNAME FORMAT OPT MATCH ]
C \Vector list"
FNAME
C \File name" D='*'
FORMAT C \Format" D='*'
OPT
C \Options" D='OC' R='OC,O, ,C'
MATCH
C \Matching pattern" D='*'
Enter values into vector(s) from a le. A format can be specied, e.g. FORMAT='F10.5,2X,F10.5',
or the free format is used if FORMAT is not supplied.
If vector(s) are not existing they will be created of the size as read from the le.
Vectors in the list VLIST are separated by a comma and imbedded blanks are not allowed. If
subscripts are present in vector names, the smallest one is taken.
OPT is used to select between the following options:
VLIST
'OC'
'O'
' '
'C'
file
file
file
file
is
is
is
is
Opened, read and then Closed (default case)
Opened and then read (left open for further reading)
read (already open, left so for further reading)
read and then Closed (already open)
If the character 'Z' is present in OPT, the vector elements equal to zero after reading are set to the
latest non-zero element value (for example reading 1 2 3 0 0 4 0 5 will give 1 2 3 3 3 4 4 5).
MATCH is used to specify a pattern string, restricting the vector lling only to the records in the le
which verify the pattern. Example of patterns:
/string/
-/string/
/string/(n)
/string/(*)
match a string (starting in column 1)
do not match a string (starting in column 1)
match a string, starting in column n
match a string, starting at any column
Enter HELP VECTOR for more information on vector addressing.
WRITE VLIST FNAME FORMAT CHOPT ]
VLIST
FNAME
FORMAT
CHOPT
C
C
C
C
\Vector list"
\File name" D='*'
\Format" D='5(1X,G13.7)'
\Options" D='OC'
341
Possible CHOPT values are:
OC
O
'*'
C
Write to a le the content of vector(s). If FNAME=' ' the content is written to the terminal. A
format can be specied, e.g. FORMAT='F10.5,2X,F10.5', or the default one is used if FORMAT is
not supplied.
Vectors in the list VLIST are separated by a comma and imbedded blanks are not allowed. If
subscripts are present in vector names, the smallest one is taken.
CHOPT is used to select between the following options:
'OC'
'O'
' '
'C'
file
file
file
file
is
is
is
is
Opened, written and then Closed (default case)
Opened and then written (left open for further writing)
written (already open, left so for further writing)
written and then Closed (already open)
Enter HELP VECTOR for more information on vector addressing.
DRAW VNAME ID CHOPT ]
VNAME
ID
CHOPT
C \Vector name"
C \Histogram Identier"
C \Options" D='*'
D='12345'
Possible CHOPT values are:
'*' Draw an histogram.
C
Draw a smooth curve.
S
Superimpose plot on top of existing picture.
+
Add contents of ID to last plotted histogram.
B
Select Bar chart format.
L
Connect channels contents by a line.
P
Draw the current polymarker at each channel.
*
Draw a * at each channel.
Draw vector VNAME interpreting it as a histogram. Optionally save the contents in histogram ID.
HFILL VNAME ID
VNAME
ID
C \Vector name"
C \Histogram Identier"
Fill the existing histogram ID with vector VNAME. Note that the command VECTOR/PLOT can
automatically book, ll and plot the contents of a vector.
Chapter 11. VECTOR
342
PLOT VNAME ID CHOPT ]
C \Vector name"
C \Histogram Identier"
C \Options" D='*'
VNAME
ID
CHOPT
D='12345'
Possible CHOPT values are:
'*'
C
S
+
B
L
P
*
Draw an histogram.
Draw a smooth curve.
Superimpose plot on top of existing picture.
Add contents of ID to last plotted histogram.
Select Bar chart format.
Connect channels contents by a line.
Draw the current polymarker at each channel.
Draw a * at each channel.
Each element of VNAME is used to ll an histogram which is automatically booked with 100 channels and then plotted. If VNAME has the form VNAME1%VNAME2 then a scatter-plot of vector
VNAME1 versus VNAME2 is plotted. If ID is given dierent of 12345, then a 2-Dim histogram is
created with 40 bins by 40 bins and lled. One can use the command VECTOR/HFILL to ll an
already existing histogram.
FIT X Y EY FUNC CHOPT NP PAR STEP PMIN PMAX ERRPAR ]
X
Y
EY
FUNC
CHOPT
NP
PAR
STEP
PMIN
PMAX
ERRPAR
C
C
C
C
C
I
C
C
C
C
C
\Vector of X coordinates"
\Vector of Y coordinates"
\Vector of errors on Y" D='?'
\Function name"
\Character options" D='*'
\Number of parameters" D=0 R=0:20
\Vector of parameters"
\Vector of steps size"
\Vector of lower bounds"
\Vector of upper bounds"
\Vector of errors on parameters"
Possible CHOPT values are:
11.1. VECTOR/OPERATIONS
'*'
0
N
Q
V
B
L
D
W
M
E
343
Do the t, plot the result and print the parameters.
Do not plot the result of the t. By default the tted function is drawn unless the
option 'N' below is specied.
Do not store the result of the t bin by bin with the histogram. By default the function
is calculated at the middle of each bin and the t results stored with the histogram
data structure.
Quiet mode. No print
Verbose mode. Results after each iteration are printed By default only nal results
are printed.
Some or all parameters are bounded. The vectors STEP,PMIN,PMAX must be specied. Default is: All parameters vary freely.
Use Log Likelihood. Default is chisquare method.
The user is assumed to compute derivatives analytically using the routine HDERIV.
By default, derivatives are computed numerically.
Sets weights equal to 1. Default weights taken from the square root of the contents
or from HPAKE/HBARX (PUT/ERRORS).
The interactive Minuit is invoked.
Performs a better Error evaluation (MIGRAD + HESSE + MINOS).
Fit a user dened function to the points dened by the two vectors X and Y and the vector of
associated errors EY. See command Histo/Fit for explanation of parameters. Note that if option 'W'
is specied or EY='?' (default), the array EY is ignored. Option 'L' is not available.
11.1
VECTOR/OPERATIONS
Simple arithmetic operations between vectors. In all the operations only the minimum vector length
is considered, i.e. an operation between a vector A of dimension 10 and a vector B of dimension 5
will involve the rst 5 elements in both vectors. If the destination vector does not exist, it is created
with the same length as the source vector.
VBIAS VNAM1 BIAS VNAM2
VNAM1
BIAS
VNAM2
C \Source vector name"
R \Bias value"
C \Destination vector name"
VNAM2(I) = BIAS + VNAM1(I)
VSCALE VNAM1 SCALE VNAM2
VNAM1
SCALE
VNAM2
C \Source vector name"
R \Scale factor"
C \Destination vector name"
VNAM2(I) = SCALE * VNAM1(I)
344
VADD VNAM1 VNAM2 VNAM3
C \First source vector name"
VNAM2 C \Second source vector name"
VNAM3 C \Destination vector name"
VNAM3(I) = VNAM1(I) + VNAM2(I)
VNAM1
VMULTIPLY VNAM1 VNAM2 VNAM3
C \First source vector name"
VNAM2 C \Second source vector name"
VNAM3 C \Destination vector name"
VNAM3(I) = VNAM1(I) * VNAM2(I)
VNAM1
VSUBTRACT VNAM1 VNAM2 VNAM3
C \First source vector name"
VNAM2 C \Second source vector name"
VNAM3 C \Destination vector name"
VNAM3(I) = VNAM1(I) - VNAM2(I)
VNAM1
VDIVIDE VNAM1 VNAM2 VNAM3
C \First source vector name"
VNAM2 C \Second source vector name"
VNAM3 C \Destination vector name"
VNAM3(I) = VNAM1(I) / VNAM2(I) ( or 0 if VNAM2(I)=0 )
VNAM1
Chapter 11. VECTOR
Chapter 12: HISTOGRAM
Manipulation of histograms, Ntuples. Interface to the HBOOK package.
FILE LUN FNAME LRECL CHOPT ]
LUN
FNAME
LRECL
CHOPT
I
C
I
C
\Logical unit number" R=0:128
\File name"
\Record length in words" D=1024
\Options" D='*'
Possible CHOPT values are:
Existing le is opened (read mode only).
A new le is opened.
Existing le is opened to be modied.
Reset lock.
'*'
N
U
D
Open an HBOOK direct access le. If LUN is 0 the next free logical unit will be used. If LRECL is
0 the system will determine the correct record length of an existing le.
LIST CHOPT ]
CHOPT
C \Options"
D='*'
Possible CHOPT values are:
List histograms and Ntuples in the current directory.
A verbose format is used (HINDEX), (only for //PAWC).
List with histograms sorted by increasing IDs.
'*'
I
S
List histograms and Ntuples in the current directory.
DELETE ID
ID
C \Histogram Identier"
Loop
Delete histogram/Ntuple ID in Current Directory (memory). If ID=0 delete all histograms and
Ntuples. To delete histograms in disk les use command HIO/HSCRATCH.
PLOT ID CHOPT ]
ID
CHOPT
C \Histogram Identier" Loop
C \Options" D='*' Minus
Minus
Possible CHOPT values are:
345
346
'*'
C
S
+
+B
L
P
*
K
U
E
E1
E2
E3
E4
A
BOX
COL
Z
SURF
SURF1
SURF2
SURF3
SURF4
LEGO
LEGO1
LEGO2
CONT
TEXT
CHAR
HIST
FUNC
CYL
POL
SPH
PSD
Chapter 12. HISTOGRAM
Draw the histogram.
Draw a smooth curve.
Superimpose plot on top of existing picture.
Add contents of ID to last plotted histogram.
Substract contents of ID to last plotted histogram.
Draw the delta with the last plotted histogram.
Select Bar chart format.
Connect channels contents by a line.
Draw the current polymarker at each channel or cell.
Draw a * at each channel.
Must be given if option 'U' is given later.
Update channels modied since last call.
Draw error bars and current marker. E0 is also allowed.
Draw small lines at the end of the error bars.
Draw error rectangles.
Draw a lled area through the end points of the vertical error bars.
Draw a smoothed lled area through the end points of the vertical error bars.
Axis labels and tick marks are not drawn.
Draw 2-Dim with proportional boxes.
Draw 2-Dim with a color table.
Used with COL or SURF, it draws the color map.
Draw as a surface plot (angles are set via the command angle).
Draw as a surface with color levels
Same as SURF1 but without cell lines.
Same as SURF but with the contour plot (in color) on top.
Draw as a surface with Gouraud shading.
Draw as a lego plot (angles are set via the command angle).
Draw lego plot with light simulation.
Draw lego plot with color levels.
Draw 2-Dim as a contour plot (15 levels).
Draw 2-Dim as a table.
Draw 2-Dim with characters (a la HBOOK).
Draw only histogram (no errors or associated function).
Draw only the associated function (not the histogram).
Cylindrical coordinates for 3D plots.
Polar coordinates for 3D plots.
Spherical coordinates for 3D plots.
Pseudo-rapidity/phi coordinates for 3D plots.
Plot a single histogram or a 2-Dim projection. If ID=0 or ID=* all the histograms in the current
directory are plotted. Each plotted histogram will start either a new picture or a new zone in the
347
current picture.
Histogram subranges can be specified in 2 different ways:
1- h/pl id(ic1:ic2) with ic1 and ic2 integers means plot
from channel ic1 to channel ic2
2- h/pl id(x1:x2) with x1 and x2 reals (with a .) means plot
from channel corresponding to x1
Note that the mixed mode h/pl id(x1:ic2) is also accepted
This subrange works also for 2-DIM cases.
Ex: Histo/plot 10(25:1.) or Histo/plot 20(4:18,0.:0.5).
1 Dim histograms could be plotted with option LEGO or SURF. In this case the angles are THETA=1
and PHI=-1. When option 'E' is used, the marker type can be changed with SMK, the marker size
with SET KSIZ, the marker color with SPMCI.
To plot projection X of ID type
HI/PLOT ID.PROX
To plot band 1 in Y of ID type
HI/PLOT ID.BANY.1
To plot slice 3 in Y of ID type
HI/PLOT ID.SLIY.3
In addition to the Cartesian coordinate systems, Polar, cylindrical, spherical, pseudo-rapidity/phi
coordinates are available for LEGO and SURFACE plots, including stacked lego plots. For example:
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
>
>
>
>
Histo/plot
Histo/plot
Histo/plot
Histo/plot
10+20+30
10+20+30
10+20+30
10+20+30
LEGO1CYL
LEGO1POL
LEGO1SPH
LEGO1PSD
| stacked cylindrical lego plot
|
polar
|
spherical
|
pseudo-rapidity/phi
Note that the viewing angles may be changed via the command ANGLES.
ZOOM ID CHOPT ICMIN ICMAX ]
\Histogram Identier" Loop Minus
CHOPT
\Options" D='*'
ICMIN
\First channel" D=1
ICMAX
\Last channel" D=9999
Possible CHOPT values are:
'*' Plot the zoomed histogram.
C
Draw a smooth curve.
S
Superimpose plot on top of existing picture.
+
Add contents of ID to last plotted histogram.
B
Select Bar chart format.
L
Connect channels contents by a line.
P
Draw the current polymarker at each channel.
*
Draw a * at each channel.
ID
C
C
I
I
Chapter 12. HISTOGRAM
348
Plot a single histogram between channels ICMIN and ICMAX. Each plotted histogram will start either
a new picture or a new zone in the current picture. If no parameters are given to the command, then
the system waits for two points using the graphics cursor. To quit ZOOM, click the right button of
the mouse or CRTL/E.
MANY_PLOTS IDLIST
IDLIST
C \List of histogram Identiers"
Vararg
Plot one or several histograms into the same plot. Plotted histograms are superimposed on the same
zone of the picture.
PROJECT ID
ID
C \Histogram Identier"
Loop
Fill all booked projections of a 2-Dim histogram. Filling is done using the 2-D contents of ID.
COPY ID1 ID2 TITLE ]
ID1
ID2
TITLE
C \First histogram Identier"
C \Second histogram Identier"
C \New title" D='*'
Loop
Copy a histogram (not Ntuple) onto another one. Bin denition, contents, errors, etc. are preserved.
If TITLE is not given, ID2 has the same title as ID1.
FIT ID FUNC CHOPT NP PAR STEP PMIN PMAX ERRPAR ]
ID
FUNC
CHOPT
NP
PAR
STEP
PMIN
PMAX
ERRPAR
C
C
C
I
C
C
C
C
C
\Histogram Identier"
\Function name" D='*'
\Options" D='*'
\Number of parameters" D=0 R=0:34
\Vector of parameters"
\Vector of steps size"
\Vector of lower bounds"
\Vector of upper bounds"
\Vector of errors on parameters"
Possible CHOPT values are:
349
Do the t, plot the result and print the parameters.
0
Do not plot the result of the t. By default the tted function is drawn unless the
option 'N' below is specied.
N
Do not store the result of the t bin by bin with the histogram. By default the function
is calculated at the middle of each bin and the t results stored with the histogram
data structure.
Q
Quiet mode. No print
V
Verbose mode. Results after each iteration are printed By default only nal results
are printed.
B
Some or all parameters are bounded. The vectors STEP,PMIN,PMAX must be specied. Default is: All parameters vary freely.
L
Use Log Likelihood. Default is chisquare method.
D
The user is assumed to compute derivatives analytically using the routine HDERIV.
By default, derivatives are computed numerically.
W
Sets weights equal to 1. Default weights taken from the square root of the contents
or from HPAKE/HBARX (PUT/ERRORS).
M
The interactive Minuit is invoked.
E
Performs a better Error evaluation (MIGRAD + HESSE + MINOS).
Fit a user dened (and parameter dependent) function to a histogram ID (1-Dim or 2-Dim) in the
specied range. FUNC may be:
'*'
A- The name of a file which contains the user defined
function to be minimized. Function name and file name
must be the same. For example file FUNC.FOR is:
FUNCTION FUNC(X)
or FUNC(X,Y) for a 2-Dim histogram
COMMON/PAWPAR/PAR(2)
FUNC=PAR(1)*X +PAR(2)*EXP(-X)
END
Ex: His/fit 10 func.for ! 5 par
B- One of the following keywords (1-Dim only):
G : to fit Func=par(1)*exp(-0.5*((x-par(2))/par(3))**2)
E : to fit Func=exp(par(1)+par(2)*x)
Pn: to fit Func=par(1)+par(2)*x+par(3)*x**2......+par(n+1)*x**n
Ex: His/fit 10 g
C- A combination of the keywords in B with the 2 operators + or *.
Ex: His/Fit 10 p4+g ! 8 par
His/Fit 10 p2*g+g ! 9 par
Note that in this case, the order of parameters in PAR must
correspond to the order of the basic functions.
For example, in the first case above, par(1:5) apply to
the polynomial of degree 4 and par(6:8) to the gaussian while
in the second case par(1:3) apply to the polynomial of degree 2,
par(4:6) to the first gaussian and par(7:9) to the second gaussian.
Blanks are not allowed in the expression.
Chapter 12. HISTOGRAM
350
For cases A and C, before the execution of this command, the vector PAR must be lled (via
Vector/Input) with the initial values. For case B, if NP is set to 0, then the initial values of PAR will
be calculated automatically. After the t, the vector PAR contains the new values of parameters. If
the vector ERRPAR is given, it will contain the errors on the tted parameters. A bin range may be
specied with ID.
Ex. Histo/Fit 10(25:56).
12.1
HISTOGRAM/2D_PLOT
Plotting of 2-Dim histograms in various formats.
LEGO ID THETA PHI CHOPT ]
C
R
R
C
\Histogram Identier" Loop
THETA
\Angle THETA in degrees" D=30.
PHI
\Angle PHI in degrees" D=30.
CHOPT
\Options" D='*'
Possible CHOPT values are:
'*' Hidden line algorithm is used.
1
Hidden surface algorithm is used. The colour of the lego is given by SET HCOL CI
where CI is a colour index. For the top and the sides of the lego the same hue is used
but with a dierent light.
2
Hidden surface algorithm is used. The colour of each bar changes according to the
value of Z. It is possible to change the set of colours used with SET HCOL c.L where
L dene a palette of colours given by the command ATT/PALETTE.
Draw a lego plot from 2-Dim or 1-Dim histograms. It is also possible to produce stacked lego plots.
A stacked lego plot consists of a superimposition of several histograms, whose identiers are given
in the command LEGO separated by the character "+".
ID
PAW > LEGO ID1+ID2+ID3
| Maximum number of ID's is 10. The colours of
| each IDn is given by the command ATT/PALETTE
Examples:
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
>
>
>
>
>
SET HCOL 2
LEGO 20
LEGO 20 ! ! 1
LEGO 20 ! ! 2
PALETTE 1 3 2 3 4
|
|
|
|
|
|
PAW > SET HCOL 0.1
|
PAW > LEGO 10+20+30
|
PAW > LEGO 10+20+30 ! ! 1 |
The colour the histogram is 2 (red)
Display a lego with lines
Display a lego with different lights
Display a lego with colours
Create the palette number 1 with 3
elements: 2,3
The subsequent stack lego plots will use list 1
Plot a stack of lego plots with lines
Plot a stack of lego plots with light
Notes: - The commands OPTION BAR, SET BARW and SET BARO act on lego plots
- The options 1 and 2 must be used only on selective erase
devices.
12.1. HISTOGRAM/2D_PLOT
351
SURFACE ID THETA PHI CHOPT ]
\Histogram Identier" Loop
THETA
\Angle THETA in degrees" D=30.
PHI
\Angle PHI in degrees" D=30.
CHOPT
\Options" D='*'
Possible CHOPT values are:
'*' Hidden line algorithm is used.
1
Hidden surface algorithm is used and each cell is lled with a colour corresponding to
the Z value (or grey scale with PostScript). It is possible to change the set of colours
used with SET HCOL ic.L where L dene a palette of colours given by the command
ATT/PALETTE.
2
Similar to option '1' except that the cell lines are not drawn. This is very useful to
draw contour plots with colours if THETA=90 and PHI=0.
3
Surface is drawn with a contour plot in color on top. The contour plot is drawn with
the colors dened with the command PALETTE.
4
Surface is drawn with Gouraud shading.
Draw a surface plot from 2-Dim or 1-Dim histograms. With this command it is possible to draw
color contour plots:
ID
C
R
R
C
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
>
>
>
>
ATT/PAL 1 3 2 3 4
SET HCOL 0.1
SET NDVZ 4
SURF id 90 0 2
|
|
|
|
Define the palette 1 with 3 elements
Set the list 1 as colours for histograms
Set the number of Z divisions to 4
Draw the contour
Note: - The options 1 to 4 must be used only on selective erase devices.
CONTOUR ID NLEVEL CHOPT PARAM ]
\Histogram Identier" Loop
NLEVEL
\Number of contour lines" D=10
CHOPT
\Options" D='1'
PARAM
\Vector of contour levels"
Possible CHOPT values are:
0 Use colour to distinguish contours.
1 Use line style to distinguish contours.
2 Line style and colour are the same for all contours.
3 The contour is drawn with lled colour levels. The levels are equidistant. The color
indices are taken in the current palette (dened with the command PALETTE). If
the number of levels (NLEVEL) is greater than the number of entries in the current
palette, the palette is explore again from the beginning in order to reach NLEVEL.
S Superimpose plot on top of existing picture.
Draw a contour plot from a 2-Dim histogram. If PARAM is not given, contour levels are equidistant.
If given, the vector PARAM may contain up to 50 values.
ID
C
I
C
C
Chapter 12. HISTOGRAM
352
12.2
HISTOGRAM/CREATE
Creation ("booking") of HBOOK objects in memory.
1DHISTO ID TITLE NCX XMIN XMAX VALMAX ]
ID
TITLE
NCX
XMIN
XMAX
VALMAX
C
C
I
R
R
R
\Histogram Identier" Loop
\Histogram title" D='*'
\Number of channels" D=100
\Low edge" D=0.
\Upper edge" D=100.
\Maximum bin content" D=0.
Create a one dimensional histogram. The contents are set to zero. If VALMAX=0, then a full word
is allocated per channel, else VALMAX is used as the maximum bin content allowing several channels
to be stored into the same machine word.
PROFILE ID TITLE NCX XMIN XMAX YMIN YMAX CHOPT ]
C
C
I
R
R
R
R
C
ID
TITLE
NCX
XMIN
XMAX
YMIN
YMAX
CHOPT
\Histogram Identier"
\Histogram title" D='*'
\Number of channels" D=100
\Low edge in X" D=0.
\Upper edge in X" D=100.
\Low edge in Y" D=-1.E30
\Upper edge in Y" D=1.E30
\Options" D='*'
Possible CHOPT values are:
'*'
S
Error on mean
Spread option
Create a prole histogram. Prole histograms accumulate statistical quantities of a variable y in bins
of a variable x. The contents are set to zero.
BINS ID TITLE NCX XBINS VALMAX ]
ID
TITLE
NCX
XBINS
VALMAX
C
C
I
C
R
\Histogram Identier"
\Histogram title" D='*'
\Number of channels" D=100
\Vector of NCX+1 low-edges"
\Maximum bin content" D=0.
Create a histogram with variable size bins. The low-edge of each bin is given in vector XBINS
(NCX+1) values. The contents are set to zero. See 1DHISTO for VALMAX.
12.2. HISTOGRAM/CREATE
353
2DHISTO ID TITLE NCX XMIN XMAX NCY YMIN YMAX VALMAX ]
C \Histogram Identier" Loop
TITLE
C \Histogram title" D='*'
NCX
I \Number of channels in X" D=40
XMIN
R \Low edge in X" D=0.
XMAX
R \Upper edge in X" D=40.
NCY
I \Number of channels in Y" D=40
YMIN
R \Low edge in Y" D=0.
YMAX
R \Upper edge in Y" D=40.
VALMAX R \Maximum bin content" D=0.
Create a two dimensional histogram. The contents are set to zero. See 1DHISTO for VALMAX.
ID
PROX ID
C \Histogram (2-Dim) Identier" Loop
Create the projection onto the x axis. The projection is not lled until the Histo/Project command
is executed.
ID
PROY ID
C \Histogram (2-Dim) Identier" Loop
Create the projection onto the y axis. The projection may be lled with Histo/Project.
ID
SLIX ID NSLICES
ID
NSLICES
C \Histogram (2-Dim) Identier"
I \Number of slices"
Loop
Create projections onto the x axis, in y-slices. The projection may be lled with Histo/Project.
SLIY ID NSLICES
ID
NSLICES
C \Histogram (2-Dim) Identier"
I \Number of slices"
Loop
Create projections onto the y axis, in x-slices. The projection may be lled with Histo/Project.
BANX ID YMIN YMAX
ID
YMIN
YMAX
C \Histogram (2-Dim) Identier"
R \Low edge in Y"
R \Upper edge in Y"
Loop
Create a projection onto the x axis, in a band of y. The projection may be lled with Histo/Project.
Chapter 12. HISTOGRAM
354
BANY ID XMIN XMAX
C \Histogram (2-Dim) Identier" Loop
XMIN R \Low edge in X"
XMAX R \Upper edge in X"
Create a projection onto the y axis, in a band of x. The projection may be lled with Histo/Project.
ID
TITLE_GLOBAL CHTITL CHOPT ]
C \Global title" D='*'
CHOPT
C \Options" D='*'
Possible CHOPT values are:
'*' The global title is plotted at the top of each picture.
U
If the option 'UTIT' is on, a user title is plotted at the bottom of each histogram.
Set the global title. The size and the Y position of the global title may be changed by the commands
SET GSIZ and SET YGTI respectively. The size and the Y position of the user title may be changed
by the commands SET TSIZ and SET YHTI respectively.
CHTITL
12.3
HISTOGRAM/HIO
Input/Output operations of histograms.
HRIN ID ICYCLE IOFSET ]
C \Histogram Identier" Loop
ICYCLE I \Cycle number" D=999
IOFSET I \Oset" D=0
Read histogram/Ntuple ID from the current directory on direct access le to memory. An identical
histogram is created but with an ID equal to that of the original histogram plus the oset IOFSET.
Identier may be '0' or '*' (for all histograms). If ICYCLE i 1000 and ID=0 read all histograms in
all subdirectories as well. If IOFSET = 99999 then the contents of histogram ID on the disk le are
added to the current histogram in memory if it exists. For example to add all histograms from FILE1
and FILE2 in memory, the sequence of commands can be:
ID
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
>
>
>
>
Histo/File 1 FILE1
Hrin 0
Histo/File 2 FILE2
Hrin 0 ! 99999
HROUT ID CHOPT ]
C \Histogram Identier"
CHOPT C \Options" D='*'
Possible CHOPT values are:
ID
Loop
12.3. HISTOGRAM/HIO
355
Write histo/Ntuple ID from memory to current directory.
Writes all histograms in subdirectories as well.
'*'
T
Write histo/Ntuple ID from memory to current directory. Identier may be '0' or '*' (for all histograms).
HSCRATCH ID
ID
C \Histogram Identier"
Loop
Delete histogram ID in Current Directory on disk. If ID='0' or '*' delete all histograms. To delete
histograms in memory use command HISTO/DELETE.
HFETCH ID FNAME
ID
FNAME
C \Histogram Identier"
C \File name"
Fetch histogram ID from le FNAME. FNAME has been created by the old version of HBOOK3
(Unformatted).
HREAD ID FNAME
ID
FNAME
C \Histogram Identier"
C \File name"
Read histogram ID from le FNAME. FNAME has been created by the old version of HBOOK3
(Formatted).
PRINT ID CHOPT ]
ID
CHOPT
C \Histogram Identier"
C \Options" D='*'
Loop
Possible CHOPT values are:
'*'
S
Print histograms.
Only statistics (Number of entries, mean, RMS, underow, overow) are printed.
Print histograms (line-printer format) on screen. The command OUTPUT_LP may be used to change
the output le.
DUMP ID
ID
C \Histogram Identier"
Loop
Dump the histogram ZEBRA data structure on the terminal.
Chapter 12. HISTOGRAM
356
OUTPUT_LP LUN FNAME ]
I \Logical unit number"
C \File name" D='*'
LUN
FNAME
D=6
Change the HBOOK "line printer" le name. If FNAME=' ' then OUTPUT is appended to an
already opened le on unit LUN. If LUN is negative, the le is closed and subsequent output is
directed to unit 6.
GLOBAL_SECT GNAME
C \Global section name"
GNAME
D='*'
Map the global section GNAME (VAX only). The current directory is changed to //GNAME.
GRESET ID
ID
C \Histogram Identier"
Reset histogram ID in the global section.
12.4
HISTOGRAM/OPERATIONS
Histogram operations and comparisons.
ADD ID1 ID2 ID3 C1 C2 OPTION ]
ID1
ID2
ID3
C1
C2
OPTION
C
C
C
R
R
C
\First histogram Identier"
\Second histogram Identier"
\Result histogram Identier"
\Scale factor for ID1" D=1.
\Scale factor for ID2" D=1.
\Option" D='*'
Possible OPTION values are:
'*'
E
Add histograms: ID3 = C1*ID1 + C2*ID2. Applicable to 1-Dim and 2-Dim histograms. See
command HRIN to add histograms with same IDS from dierent les. If option 'E' is set, error bars
are calculated for ID3.
12.4. HISTOGRAM/OPERATIONS
357
SUBTRACT ID1 ID2 ID3 C1 C2 OPTION ]
\First histogram Identier"
ID2
\Second histogram Identier"
ID3
\Result histogram Identier"
C1
\Scale factor for ID1" D=1.
C2
\Scale factor for ID2" D=1.
OPTION
\Option" D='*'
Possible OPTION values are:
ID1
C
C
C
R
R
C
'*'
E
Subtract histograms: ID3 = C1*ID1 - C2*ID2. Applicable to 1-Dim and 2-Dim histograms. If option
'E' is set, error bars are calculated for ID3.
MULTIPLY ID1 ID2 ID3 C1 C2 OPTION ]
\First histogram Identier"
ID2
\Second histogram Identier"
ID3
\Result histogram Identier"
C1
\Scale factor for ID1" D=1.
C2
\Scale factor for ID2" D=1.
OPTION
\Option" D='*'
Possible OPTION values are:
ID1
C
C
C
R
R
C
'*'
E
Multiply histogram contents: ID3 = C1*ID1 * C2*ID2. Applicable to 1-Dim and 2-Dim histograms.
If option 'E' is set, error bars are calculated for ID3.
DIVIDE ID1 ID2 ID3 C1 C2 OPTION ]
\First histogram Identier"
ID2
\Second histogram Identier"
ID3
\Result histogram Identier"
C1
\Scale factor for ID1" D=1.
C2
\Scale factor for ID2" D=1.
OPTION
\Option" D='*'
Possible OPTION values are:
ID1
C
C
C
R
R
C
'*'
E
Divide histograms: ID3 = C1*ID1 / C2*ID2. Applicable to 1-Dim and 2-Dim histograms. If option
'E' is set, error bars are calculated for ID3.
Chapter 12. HISTOGRAM
358
RESET ID TITLE ]
C \Histogram Identier" Loop
TITLE C \New title" D='*'
Reset contents and errors of an histogram. Bin denition is not modied.
ID
DIFF ID1 ID2 CHOPT ]
C \First Histogram Identier"
ID2
C \Second Histogram Identier"
CHOPT C \Options" D='D'
Possible CHOPT values are:
'*' The comparison is done only on the shape of the two histograms.
N
Include also comparison of the relative normalization of the two histograms, in addition
to comparing the shapes. PROB is then a combined condence level taking account
of absolute contents.
D
Debug printout, produces a blank line and two lines of information at each call,
including the ID numbers, the number of events in each histogram, the PROB value,
and the maximum Kolmogorov distance between the two histograms. For 2-Dim
histograms, there are two Kolmogorov distances (see below). If 'N' is specied, there
is a third line of output giving the PROB for shape alone, and for normalization.
O
Overow, requests that overow bins be taken into account.
U
Underow, requests that underow bins be taken into account.
L
Left: include x-underows
R
Right: include x-overows
T
Top: include y-overows
B
Bottom: include y-underows
F1
Histogram 1 has no error (is a function)
F2
Histogram 2 has no error (is a function)
Test of compatibility for two 1-Dim histograms ID1 and ID2. A probability PROB is calculated
as a number between zero and one, where PROB near one indicates very similar histograms, and
PROB near zero means that it is very unlikely that the two arose from the same parent distribution.
For two histograms sampled randomly from the same distribution, PROB will be (approximately)
uniformly distributed between 0 and 1. See discussion in HBOOK manual under "HDIFF- Statistical
Considerations". By default (if no options are selected with CHOPT) the comparison is done only
on the shape of the two histograms, without consideration of the dierence in numbers of events,
and ignoring all underow and overow bins.
ID1
SORT ID CHOPT ]
C \Histogram Identier"
CHOPT C \Options" D='XA'
Possible CHOPT values are:
ID
Loop
12.4. HISTOGRAM/OPERATIONS
359
X-axis is being treated.
Y Y-axis is being treated.
Z Z-axis is being treated.
A Alphabetically.
E Reverse alphabetical order.
D By increasing channel contents.
V By decreasing channel contents.
Sort the alphanumeric labels of the histogram ID according to the value of CHOPT.
X
SMOOTH ID OPTION SENSIT SMOOTH ]
\Histogram or Ntuple Identier" Minus
\Options" D='2M'
SENSIT
\Sensitivity parameter" D=1. R=0.3:3.
SMOOTH
\Smoothness parameter" D=1. R=0.3:3.
Possible OPTION values are:
0 Replace original histogram by smoothed.
1 Replace original histogram by smoothed.
2 Store values of smoothed function and its parameters without replacing the original
histogram (but see note below) - the smoothed function can be displayed at editing
time - see HISTOGRAM/PLOT.
M Invoke multiquadric smoothing.
Q Invoke the 353QH algorithm (see HBOOK routine HSMOOF).
S Invoke spline smoothing.
V Verbose (default for all except 1-D histogram).
N Do not plot the result of the t.
F Write Fortran77 function to HQUADF.DAT (multiquadric only)
Smooth a histogram or "simple" ntuple. ("simple" = 1, 2, or 3 variables.)
For multiquadric smoothing, SENSIT controls the sensitivity to statistical uctuations. SMOOTH
controls the (radius of) curvature of the multiquadric basis functions.
Note: 1) The multiquadric basis functions are SQRT(R**2+D**2), where R is
ID
OPTION
C
C
R
R
the distance from the "centre", and D is a scale parameter and
also the curvature at the "centre". "Centres" are located at
points where the 2nd differential or Laplacian of event density
is statistically significant.
2) The data must be statistically independent, i.e. events (weighted
or unweighted) drawn randomly from a parent probability
distribution or differential cross-section.
For spline smoothing, SENSIT and SMOOTH control the no. of knots (= 10 * SENSIT) and degree
of splines (= SMOOTH + 2) (thus if SENSIT and SMOOTH are at their default values a 10-knot
cubic spline is used).
Note: 1) The spline option ALWAYS replaces the contents of a 2-D histogram.
Chapter 12. HISTOGRAM
360
(Also chi-squared is unavailable in this case.)
2) Use the SPLINE command for more flexibility.
SPLINE ID ISEL KNOTX KX ]
C \Histogram Identier"
ISEL
I \Option ag" D=2
KNOTX I \Number of knots" D=10
KX
I \Degree of the spline" D=3
Smooth 1-Dim or 2-Dim histogram ID using B-splines. If ID is a 1-Dim histogram then:
ID
ISEL = 0,1 replace original histogram by smoothed.
= 2
superimpose as a function when editing.
If ID is a 2-Dim histogram then original contents are replaced.
PARAM ID ISEL R2MIN MAXPOW ]
C \Histogram Identier"
ISEL
I \Control word" D=11
R2MIN
R \Min correlation coe"cient" D=1.
MAXPOW I \Max degree of polynomials" D=5 R=1:20
Perform a regression on contents of the 1-Dim histogram ID. Find the best parameterization in terms
of elementary functions (regressors). See HBOOK guide HPARAM. Control word ISEL=1000*T
+100*W +10*S +P
ID
S = 1
0
P = 0
1
2
W = 0
1
T = 0
1
2
3
4
5
resulting parametric fit superimposed on histogram
no superposition
minimal output: the residual sum of squares is printed
normal output: in addition, the problem characteristics and
options are printed& also the standard deviations and
confidence intervals of the coefficients.
extensive output: the results of each iteration are printed
with the normal output.
weights on histogram contents are already defined via HBARX
or HPAKE. If not they are taken to be equal to the
square-root of the contents.
weights are equal to 1.
monomials will be selected as the elementary functions
Chebyshev polynomials with a definition region: -1,1]
Legendre polynomials with a definition region: -1,1]
shifted Chebyshev polynomials with a definition region: 0,1]
Laguerre polynomials with a definition region: 0,+infinite]
Hermite polynomials with a definition region: -inf,+inf]
The FORTRAN code of the parameterization is written onto the le FPARAM.DAT.
12.5. HISTOGRAM/GET_VECT
361
HSETPR PARAM VALUE
C \Parameter name" D='FEPS'
VALUE R \Parameter value" D=0.001
Set various parameters for command PARAM.
PARAM
12.5
HISTOGRAM/GET_VECT
Fill a vector from values stored in HBOOK objects.
CONTENTS ID VNAME
C \Histogram Identier"
VNAME C \Vector name"
Get contents of histogram ID into vector VNAME.
ID
ERRORS ID VNAME
C \Histogram Identier"
VNAME C \Vector name"
Get errors of histogram ID into vector VNAME.
ID
FUNCTION ID VNAME
C \Histogram Identier"
VNAME C \Vector name"
Get function associated to histogram ID into vector VNAME.
ID
ABSCISSA ID VNAME
C \Histogram Identier"
VNAME C \Vector name"
Get values of center of bins abscissa into vector VNAME.
ID
REBIN ID X Y EX EY N IFIRST ILAST ]
C \Histogram Identier"
X
C \Name of vector X"
Y
C \Name of vector Y"
EX
C \Name of vector EX"
EY
C \Name of vector EY"
N
I \Number of elements to ll" D=100
IFIRST I \First bin" D=1
ILAST
I \Last bin" D=100
Get contents and errors into vectors, grouping bins. Bin width and centers are also extracted. Allow
to combine 2, 3 or more bins into one.
ID
Chapter 12. HISTOGRAM
362
E.g.:
REBIN 110 X Y EX EY 25 11 85
will group by 3 channels 11 to 85 and return
new abscissa, contents and errors.
Errors in X are equal to 1.5*BINWIDTH.
N.B.:
REBIN ID X Y EX EY is a convenient way to return in
one call abscissa, contents and errors for 1-Dim histogram.
In this case the errors in X are equal to 0.5*BINWIDTH.
12.6
HISTOGRAM/PUT_VECT
Replace histogram contents with values in a vector.
CONTENTS ID VNAME
ID
VNAME
C \Histogram Identier"
C \Vector name"
Replace contents of histogram with values of vector VNAME.
ERRORS ID VNAME
ID
VNAME
C \Histogram Identier"
C \Vector name"
Replace errors of histogram with values of vector VNAME.
12.7
HISTOGRAM/SET
Set histogram attributes.
MAXIMUM ID VMAX
ID
VMAX
C \Histogram Identier"
R \Maximum value"
Loop
Set the maximum value on the Y axis. To select again an automatic scale, just set VMAX less then
the minimum.
MINIMUM ID VMIN
ID
VMIN
C \Histogram Identier"
R \Minimum value"
Loop
Set the minimum value on the Y axis. To select again an automatic scale, just set VMIN greater
then the maximum.
12.7. HISTOGRAM/SET
363
NORMALIZE_FACTOR ID XNORM ]
ID
XNORM
C \Histogram Identier"
R \Normalization factor"
D=1
Set the contents/errors normalization factor. Only valid for histograms (1-Dim). (does not change
contents, only presentation).
SCALE_FACTOR_2D ID XSCALE ]
ID
XSCALE
C \Histogram Identier"
R \Scale factor" D=0
Set the scale factor for histograms (2-Dim).
IDOPT ID OPTION
ID
OPTION
C \Histogram Identier"
C \Options"
Possible OPTION values are:
364
Set all options to the default values
SHOW
Print all the options currently set
BLAC
1 Dim histogram printed with X characters
CONT* 1 Dim histogram is printed with the contour option
STAR
1 Dim histogram is printed with a * at the Y value
SCAT* Print a 2 Dim histogram as a scatter-plot
TABL
Print a 2 Dim histogram as a table
PROS* Plot errors as the Spread of each bin in Y for prole histograms
PROE
Plot errors as the mean of each bin in Y for prole histograms
STAT
Mean value and RMS computed at lling time
NSTA* Mean value and RMS computed from bin contents only
ERRO
Errors bars printed as SQRT(contents)
NERR* Do not print print error bars
INTE
Print the values of integrated contents bin by bin
NINT* Do not print integrated contents
LOGY
1 Dim histogram is printed in Log scale in Y
LINY* 1 Dim histogram is printed in linear scale in Y
PCHA* Print channel numbers
NPCH
Do not print channel numbers
PCON* Print bin contents
NPCO
Do not print bin contents
PLOW* Print values of low edge of the bins
NPLO
Do not print the low edge
PERR
Print the values of the errors for each bin
NPER* Do not print the values of the errors
PFUN
Print the values of the associated function bin by bin
NPFU* Do not print the values of the associated function
PHIS* Print the histogram prole
NPHI
Do not print the histogram prole
PSTA* Print the values of statistics (entries,mean,RMS,etc.)
NPST
Do not print values of statistics
ROTA
Print histogram rotated by 90 degrees
NROT* Print histogram vertically
1EVL
Force an integer value for the steps in the Y axis
AEVL* Steps for the Y axis are automatically computed
2PAG
Histogram is printed over two pages
1PAG* Histogram is printed in one single page
AUTO* Automatic scaling
Set options for histogram ID. (* means default).
SETD*
Chapter 12. HISTOGRAM
Chapter 13: FUNCTION
Operations with Functions. Creation and plotting.
FUN1 ID UFUNC NCX XMIN XMAX CHOPT ]
C
C
I
R
R
C
\Histogram Identier"
UFUNC
\Name of the function"
NCX
\Number of channels" D=100
XMIN
\Low edge" D=0.
XMAX
\Upper edge" D=100.
CHOPT
\Options" D='P'
Possible CHOPT values are:
ID
R=1:
The function is drawn.
Create a one dimensional histogram and ll the bins with the values of a (single-valued) function.
The function UFUNC may be given in two ways:
-An expression of the variable x in case of a simple function.
P
Ex: FUN1
10 sin(x)/x
100 0 10
-UFUNC is the name of a COMIS function in a text le with the name UFUNC.FTN or UFUNC.FOR
or UFUNC FORTRAN (Apollo, VAX, IBM).
FUN2 ID UFUNC NCX XMIN XMAX NCY YMIN YMAX CHOPT ]
\Histogram (2-Dim) Identier"
\Name of the function"
NCX
\Number of channels in X" D=40 R=1:
XMIN
\Low edge in X" D=0.
XMAX
\Upper edge in X" D=40.
NCY
\Number of channels in Y" D=40 R=1:
YMIN
\Low edge in Y" D=0.
YMAX
\Upper edge in Y" D=40.
CHOPT
\Options" D='S'
Possible CHOPT values are:
'*' Create the histogram.
S
The function is drawn as a surface.
L
The function is drawn as a lego plot.
C
The function is drawn as a contour plot.
Create a two dimensional histogram and ll the bins with the values of a (two-valued) function. The
function UFUNC may be given in two ways:
-An expression of the variables x and y in case of a simple function.
ID
UFUNC
C
C
I
R
R
I
R
R
C
365
Chapter 13. FUNCTION
366
Ex: FUN2
10 abs(sin(x**2+y**2)) 40 -2 2 40 -2 2 C
-UFUNC is the name of a COMIS function in a text le with the name UFUNC.FTN or UFUNC.FOR
or UFUNC FORTRAN (Apollo, VAX, IBM).
DRAW UFUNC CHOPT ]
UFUNC
CHOPT
C \Name of function"
C \Options" D='*'
Draw the function UFUNC in the current ranges specied by the command: RANGE XLOW XUP
YLOW YUP ZLOW ZUP and with THETHA and PHI angles specied by the command ANGLE
THETA PHI. The number of points to evaluate the function between XLOW, XUP YLOW, YUP,
and ZLOW, ZUP can be changed by the command POINTS NPX NPY NPZ.
The function UFUNC may be given in two ways: - As an expression of the variables X, Y, Z in the
case of a
simple
Ex:
PAW >
PAW >
PAW >
PAW >
function.
FUN/DRAW
FUN/DRAW
FUN/DRAW
FUN/DRAW
X*Y*Z
| equivalent to :
X*Y*Z=0
X**2+Y**2+Z**2=1
X**2+Y**2=1-Z**2
- As a COMIS function in a text le with the name UFUNC.FTN or
UFUNC.FOR or UFUNC FORTRAN (Apollo, VAX, IBM).
Ex:
The file FTEST.FOR contains:
FUNCTION FTEST(X,Y,Z)
IF(X.LE.0..AND.Y.LE.0.)THEN
FTEST=(X+0.5)**2+(Y+0.5)**2+(Z+0.5)**2-0.2
ELSE
FTEST=(X-0.5)**2+(Y-0.5)**2+(Z-0.5)**2-0.1
ENDIF
END
PAW > RANGE -1 1 -1 1 -1 1
the 3
PAW > POINTS 20 20 20
directions
PAW > FUN/DRAW FTEST.FOR
| Define the range as a cube between -1 1 in
directions
| FUN/DRAW will use 20 points in the 3
| Draw 2 spheres centered on (-0.5,-0.5,-0.5)
and (0.5,0.5,0.5) with the radius SQRT(0.2)
and SQRT(0.1)
367
PLOT UFUNC XLOW XUP CHOPT ]
\Name of function"
\Lower limit"
XUP
\Upper limit"
CHOPT
\Options" D='C'
Possible CHOPT values are:
C Draw a smooth curve.
S Superimpose plot on top of existing picture.
+ Add contents of ID to last plotted histogram.
L Connect channel contents by a line.
P Draw the current polymarker at each channel.
* Draw a * at each channel.
Plot single-valued function UFUNC between XLOW and XUP. The function UFUNC may be given
in two ways:
-An expression of the variable x in case of a simple function.
UFUNC
XLOW
C
R
R
C
Ex: FUN/PLOT
sin(x)/x
0 10
-UFUNC is the name of a COMIS function in a text le with the name UFUNC.FTN or UFUNC.FOR
or UFUNC FORTRAN (Apollo, VAX, IBM). For example, if the le FTEST.FOR contains:
FUNCTION FTEST(X)
FTEST=SIN(X)*EXP(-0.1*X)
END
Then, FUN/PLOT FTEST.FOR 0 10, will interpret the Fortran code in the le FTEST.FOR and
draw the function for x between 0 and 10.
The number of points to evaluate the function between XLOW and XUP can be changed by the
command /FUN/POINTS. Only 1-Dim functions are supported. For 2-Dim use FUN2.
POINTS NPX NPY NPZ ]
I \Number of points on X axis" D=20 R=2:1000
I \Number of points on Y axis" D=20 R=2:1000
NPZ I \Number of points on Z axis" D=20 R=2:1000
Change the number of points to be used by FUN/DRAW and FUN/PLOT. Note that the default for
NPX is 20 for 3-Dim plots (FUN/DRAW) but it is 100 for 1-Dim plots (FUN/PLOT).
NPX
NPY
RANGE XLOW XUP YLOW YUP ZLOW ZUP ]
XLOW
XUP
YLOW
YUP
ZLOW
ZUP
R
R
R
R
R
R
\X Lower limit"
\X Upper limit"
\Y Lower limit"
\Y Upper limit"
\Z Lower limit"
\Z Upper limit"
D=-1.
D=1.
D=-1.
D=1
D=-1.
D=1.
368
Change the range used by FUN/DRAW.
ANGLE THETA PHI ]
R \Angle THETA in degrees" D=30.
R \Angle PHI in degrees" D=30.
Change the angle used by FUN/DRAW and HISTO/PLOT.
THETA
PHI
Chapter 13. FUNCTION
Chapter 14: NTUPLE
Ntuple creation and related operations.
CREATE IDN TITLE NVAR CHRZPA NPRIME VARLIST
C \Ntuple Identier"
TITLE
C \Ntuple title" D='*'
NVAR
I \Number of variables" D=1 R=1:512
CHRZPA
C \RZ path" D='*'
NPRIME
I \Primary allocation" D=1000
VARLIST C \Names of the NVAR variables" Vararg
Create a Row_Wise_Ntuple. (See below how to create a Column_Wise_Ntuple). The Ntuple may be
created either purely in memory or possibly using an automatic overow to an RZ le. Memory
allocation works in the following way. If CHRZPA = ' ', then a bank of NPRIME words is created.
When the space in this bank is exhausted at lling time, a new linear structure of length NPRIME
is created and this process will be repeated should the structure become exhausted. If CHRZPA
contains the top directory name of an already existing RZ le (as declared with HISTO/FILE), then
a bank of length NPRIME is also created, but at lling time, this bank is moved to the RZ le when
full, and then it is overwritten by any new entries. The Ntuple can be lled by calling HFN from
an interactively dened subroutine called by the command NTUPLE/LOOP or by NTUPLE/READ.
The number of variables per data point is given in the parameter NVAR.
To create a Column_Wise_Ntuple, create a le, eg. newnt.f with:
IDN
10
Subroutine Newnt
character*8 mother,in1,in2
common/ntupc/mother,in1,in2
common/ntupr/xover
lin=41
lout=42
id=1
open(unit=lin,file='datafile.dat',status='old')
call hropen(lout,'NTUPLE','New_Ntuple.hbook','N',1024,istat)
call hbnt(id,'New Ntuple',' ')
call hbname(id,'ntupr',xover,'XOVER')
call hbnamc(id,'ntupc',mother,'MOTHER:c*8,in1:c*8,in2:c*8')
read(lin,1000,end=20,err=20)xover,mother,in1,in2
1000 format(e15.7,2x,a,7x,a,7x,a)
20
call hfnt(1)
go to 10
call hrout(id,icycle,' ')
call hrend('NTUPLE')
close (lin)
close (lout)
end
369
Chapter 14. NTUPLE
370
and then call this routine via the CALL command:
PAW > call newnt.f
LIST
List all Ntuples in the Current Directory. Note that the command HISTO/LIST lists all histograms
and Ntuples in the Current Directory.
PRINT IDN
IDN
C \Ntuple Identier"
Print a summary about Ntuple IDN. Number of entries, variables names and limits are listed.
RECOVER IDN
IDN
I \Ntuple Identier"
To recover Ntuple ID. If the job producing the Ntuple crashed or the header was not stored correctly
in the le with HROUT, RECOVER will scan the Ntuple to rebuild the header table and recompute
the number of entries. The le on which the Ntuple resides must be open in Update mode.
SCAN IDN UWFUNC NEVENT IFIRST NVARS VARLIS ]
IDN
UWFUNC
NEVENT
IFIRST
NVARS
VARLIS
C
C
I
I
I
C
\Ntuple Identier"
\User cut function" D='0'
\Number of events" D=99999999
\First event" D=1
\Number of variables to scan" D=8
\Names of the NVARS variables to scan"
D='*' Vararg
Scan the entries of an Ntuple subject to user cuts. Scan the variables for NEVENT events starting
at IFIRST, requiring that the events satisfy cut UWFUNC. Up to 8 variables may be scanned, the
default is to scan the rst 8 variables. VARLIS may contain a list of the original variables or/and
expressions of the original variables. For example, if IDN=30 has the 3 variables X,Y,Z, one can do:
PAW > scan 30
PAW > scan 30 z>10
PAW > scan 30 z>10 ! ! 5 z abs(x) y+z x func.for
where func.for is a COMIS function returning an expression
of the original variables. This function func.for may be
generated automatically by the PAW command:
PAW > uwfunc 30 func.for
371
LOOP IDN UWFUNC NEVENT IFIRST ]
C \Identier of Ntuple"
UWFUNC C \Selection function or cut identier" D='*'
NEVENT I \Number of events" D=99999999
IFIRST I \First event" D=1
Invoke the selection function UWFUNC for each event starting at event IFIRST. In UWFUNC, the
user can ll one or several histograms previously booked. The loop will be terminated if UWFUNC
returns a negative value. For more information about UWFUNC, see command NTUPLE/PLOT.
IDN
MERGE IDN1 IDN2 UWFUNC NEVENT IFIRST ]
C \Identier of rst Ntuple"
IDN2
C \Identier of second Ntuple"
UWFUNC C \Selection function or cut identier" D='*'
NEVENT I \Number of events" D=99999999
IFIRST I \First event" D=1
Merge two Ntuples. Invoke the selection function UWFUNC for each of the NEVENT events starting
at event IFIRST of Ntuple IDN1. Suppose you have 4 les containing Ntuple ID=10 and you want
to merge the 4 les into the le 4, the sequence is:
IDN1
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
PAW
>Histo/file 1 file1
>Histo/file 2 file2
>Histo/file 3 file3
>Histo/file 4 file4 1024 U
>Ntuple/Merge //lun1/10 //lun4/10
>Ntuple/Merge //lun2/10 //lun4/10
>Ntuple/Merge //lun3/10 //lun4/10
>Ntuple/plot 10.x .........
Only the events with UWFUNCi0 are appended to IDN2. IDN2 may be empty. Note that the Ntuple
variables may be redened inside UWFUNC. For more information about UWFUNC, see command
NTUPLE/PLOT.
PROJECT IDH IDN UWFUNC NEVENT IFIRST ]
C \Identier of histogram to ll"
IDN
C \Identier of Ntuple"
UWFUNC C \Selection function or cut identier" D='*'
NEVENT I \Number of events" D=99999999
IFIRST I \First event" D=1
Project an Ntuple onto a 1-Dim or 2-Dim histogram, possibly using a selection function or predened
cuts. IDN may be given as IDN or IDN.X , IDN.Y%X , IDN.1, IDN.2%1. Y%X means variable Y of
Ntuple IDN versus variable X. For more information about UWFUNC, see command NTUPLE/PLOT.
The histogram IDH is not reset before lling. This allows several PROJECTs from dierent Ntuples.
IDH
Chapter 14. NTUPLE
372
READ IDN FNAME FORMAT CHOPT NEVENT ]
C \Ntuple Identier"
FNAME
C \File name"
FORMAT C \Format" D='*'
CHOPT
C \Options" D='*'
NEVENT I \Number of events" D=1000000
Read Ntuple values from the alphanumeric le FNAME with the format specications in FORMAT.
Before executing this command, the Ntuple IDN must have been created with the command Ntuple/Create.
IDN
PLOT IDN UWFUNC NEVENT IFIRST NUPD OPTION IDH ]
\Ntuple Identier"
UWFUNC
\Selection function" D='0'
NEVENT
\Number of events" D=99999999
IFIRST
\First event" D=1
NUPD
\Frequency to update histogram" D=100000000
OPTION
\Options" D='*'
IDH
\Identier of histogram to ll" D=1000000
Possible OPTION values are:
IDN
C
C
I
I
I
C
I
'*'
Draw a smooth curve.
S
Superimpose plot on top of existing picture.
+
Add contents of IDN to last plotted ntuple.
B
Bar chart format.
L
Connect channels contents by a line.
P
Draw the current polymarker at each channel or cell.
*
Draw a * at each channel.
U
Update channels modied since last call.
E
Compute (HBARX) and draw error bars with current marker.
A
Axis labels and tick marks are not drawn.
'*'
Draw the ntuple as an histogram.
PROF
Fill a Prole histogram (mean option).
PROFS Fill a Prole histogram (spread option).
Project and plot an Ntuple as a (1-Dim or 2-Dim) histogram with automatic binning (ID=1000000),
possibly using a selection algorithm. See parameter CHOPT in command HISTO/PLOT to have
more details on the possible OPTION.
C
IDN may be given as IDN
IDN.X
IDN.Y%X
373
IDN.1
IDN.2%1
IDN.expression1
IDN.expression1%expression2
Y%X means a scatter-plot Y(I) versus X(I) where I is the event number. 2%1 means a scatterplot variable 2 versus variable 1. In this example, X and Y are the names of the variables 1 and 2
respectively. Expression 1 is any numerical expression of the Ntuple variables. It may include a call
to a COMIS function.
UWFUNC may have the following forms:
1- UWFUNC='0' or missing (only IDN given). No selection is applied.
2- UWFUNC is a CUT or combination of valid CUTS created by the
command NTUPLE/CUTS. Ex:
UWFUNC=$1
means use cut $1
UWFUNC=$1.AND.$2
UWFUNC=.NOT.($1.AND.$2)
UWFUNC=($1.OR.$2).AND.$3
3- UWFUNC is a FORTRAN expression
Ex:
X>3.14.AND.(Y<Z+3.15)
4- UWFUNC is a variable name or an arithmetic expression
Ex:
NT/PLOT 30.X Y weight of each event is variable Y
NT/PLOT 30.X X**2+Y**2
5- UWFUNC is the name of a selection function in a text file with
the name UWFUNC.FTN, UWFUNC.FOR, UWFUNC FORTRAN (Apollo, VAX, IBM).
The command UWFUNC may be used to generate automatically this function. For example if
IDN=30 is an Ntuple with 3 variables per event and 10000 events, then
NTUPLE/PLOT 30.X SELECT.FOR
will process the 10000 events of the Ntuple IDN=30. For each event, the function SELECT is called.
It returns the weight of the event. Example:
FUNCTION SELECT(X)
DIMENSION X(3)
IF(X(1)**1+X(2)**2.LT.1.5)THEN
SELECT=0.
ELSE
SELECT=1.
ENDIF
END
The le SELECT.FOR (VAX), SELECT.FTN (Apollo) or SELECT FORTRAN (IBM) can be edited
from PAW using the command EDIT. Note that if the su"x (.FTN, .FORTRAN or .FOR) is omitted,
then COMIS will start from the precompiled version in memory and not from the le. Results of a
selection can be saved in a MASK (See NTUPLE/MASK).
Chapter 14. NTUPLE
374
Ex: NT/PLOT 30.X Z<0.4>>MNAME(4)
means mark bit 4 in mask MNAME for all events satisfying
the condition Z<0.4
A MASK may also be given as input to a selection expression.
Ex:
NT/PLOT 30.X MNAME(4).and.Z<0.4
means all events satisfying bit 4 of MNAME AND Z<0.4
It is possible to plot expressions of the original variables.
Ex 1: NT/PLOT 30.SIN(X)%SQRT(Y**2+Z**2) Z<0.4
plots a scatter-plot of variable U versus V for all events
satisfying the condition Z<0.4. U and V are defined as being
U=SIN(X) and V=SQRT(X**2+Y**2)
Ex 2: NT/PLOT 30.FUNC.FTN(X)%(SIN(Y)+3.) Z<0.2.and.TEST.FTN>6
plots a scatter-plot of variable U versus V for all events
satisfying the condition (Z<0.2 and the result of the COMIS
function TEST.FTN >6). U and V are defined as being
U=Result of the COMIS function FUNC.FTN, V=SIN(Y)+3.
The default identier of the histogram being lled is IDH=1000000. At the next invocation of this
command, it will be overwritten. If either NEVENT or IFIRST or NUPD are negative, then the
identier of the histogram being lled will be taken as IDH=-NEVENT or IDH=-IFIRST or IDH=NUPD. IDH may have been created with H/CREATE. Before lling IDH, the contents of IDH are
reset if IDH already exists. Use NTUPLE/PROJECT to cumulate several passes into IDH. Note
that IDH not equal to 1000000 is a convenient way to force user binning. Every NUPD events, the
current status of the histogram is displayed.
CHAIN CNAME ENTRY ]
C \Chain Name" D='*'
ENTRY C \Chain Member(s) j -P Path" D='*' Vararg
Using the chain command one can build logical Ntuples of unlimited size. The chain command
creates an Ntuple chain CNAME and add member(s) ENTRY. If the chain already exists the member
is simply added. More than one member may be specied at a time. A chain can contain three
dierent type of members: les, logical units and other chains. The member type is deduced from
the format of the member. Entries containing the characters . / : $ are considered to be les,
entries like //LUN4 are assumed to be logical units and all other type of entries are chains. Chain
names must be unique. After a chain has been dened it can be traversed, by all Ntuple commands
(NT/PLOT, NT/PROJ, NT/LOOP), by changing the current working directory to the chain: CD
//CNAME. A member may be deleted from a chain by preceding it by a - sign. A complete chain
can be deleted by preceding the chain name by a -. All chains can be deleted by giving a - as chain
name. Not specifying any parameters results in the listing of all dened chains. A chain tree will be
printed by appending a i character to the chain name. The path of all chain members, from chain
CNAME downwards, can be changed by specifying a chain path. This is done by giving a chain
name followed by the -P option and a path specication. The chain path will be pre-pended to the
member names. Chains down the tree can override a path specied higher up in the tree.
CNAME
375
Examples of chain (Ntuple tree) definition:
CHAIN
Year93 Jan Feb March April May ...
CHAIN
Jan
Week1 Week2 Week3 Week4
CHAIN
Week1
file1.hbook file2.hbook ...
CHAIN
Week2
file3.hbook file4.hbook ...
CD //Jan
NT/PLOT 10.e
& loop over all files in chains Week1, Week2, Week3, ...
CD //Year93
& loop over all files in chains Jan, Feb, March, ...
CHAIN Year93 -P /user/delphi
& all files from chain Year93 downward will
be changed to /user/delphi/file1.hbook,
...
CHAIN Year93>
& print the chain tree Year93
CHAIN -Feb
& delete chain Feb
CHAIN Jan -file3.hbook
& delete file3.hbook from chain Jan
DRAW IDN VALUE OPTION ]
IDN
VALUE
OPTION
C \Ntuple Identier"
C \Isosurface value (for 3-D)"
C \Options" D='*'
D='0'
Draw a simple ntuple (1, 2 or 3 variables). For simple ntuples, with 1, 2 or 3 variables per event,
this command will draw a histogram with HPLOT options. If the ntuple has an associated functional
representation, as the result, e.g., of using SMOOTH, it will also draw the function. No selections
are allowed.
For 3-variable ntuples which have been SMOOTHed, give a VALUE for the isosurface of event density.
If VALUE=0, an isosurface value half way between the minimum and maximum tted smoothing
function values will be used.
WAVE IDN LUN ]
IDN
LUN
C \Ntuple Identier"
I \Logical unit no."
D=-1
Produce a formatted le suitable for Wavefront's Data Visualiser. Only for simple 3-variable ntuples
which have been SMOOTHed. A le with logical unit no. LUN must previously have been opened
with the FORTRAN/FILE command.
CUTS CUTID OPTION FNAME ]
CUTID
OPTION
FNAME
C \Cut identier"
C \Options" D='P' Minus
C \File name" D='*'
Possible OPTION values are:
Chapter 14. NTUPLE
376
Dene a new cut CUTID using graphics input on the latest 1-Dim or 2-Dim projection of the Ntuple. For a 1-Dim projection, give 2 points cutmin,cutmax. For a
2-Dim projection, give up to 20 points to delimit the selected area. The polygon will
automatically be closed by PAW.
Print denition of cut CUTID.
Reset cut CUTID.
Read denition of cut CUTID from le FNAME.
Write denition of cut CUTID on le FNAME (text le).
Draw cut contour.
G
P
R
W
D
Dene the CUTID with the format $nn. nn is an integer between 1 and 99. This cut can then be
used in subsequent commands NTUPLE/PLOT, PROJECT.
OPTION='expression' allows to define the cut CUTID. For example
the command:
PAW > CUTS $1 X<0.8.and.Y<SQRT(X)
defines the cut $1.
Note that CUTID=$0 means all cuts except for 'G' option. When option G is selected, graphical cuts
are only operational for plots of the original Ntuple variables, not for expressions of these variables.
CSELECT CHOPT CSIZE ]
C \Options" D='N'
R \Comment size" D=0.28
CHOPT
CSIZE
Possible CHOPT values are:
'*'
R
C
B
N
Comment is left adjusted to the current zone
Comment is right adjusted to the current zone
Comment is centered to the current zone
Comment is drawn below the top zone line
All subsequent NTUPLE/PLOT commands will print the selection mechanism with
the options specied in CHOPT.
To write selection mechanism as a comment on the picture. By default, the comment is drawn left
justied above the top zone line. Example:
CSEL
CSEL NRB 0.4
CSEL
CB
All coming NT/PLOT commands will draw a comment
of size CSIZE=0.28cm Left justified.
All coming NT/PLOT commands will draw a comment
of size 0.4 cm Right justified Below the top line.
Draw previous selection mechanism Centered Below
the top zone line.
The Global title font (SET GFON) with precision 1 is used to draw the text.
377
MASK MNAME CHOPT NUMBER ]
C \Mask name"
CHOPT
C \Options" D='*'
NUMBER I \Bit number" D=0
Possible CHOPT values are:
'*' Existing mask on le MNAME.MASK is attached for READ only.
U
Existing mask on le MNAME.MASK is attached for UPDATE.
N
A new mask on le MNAME.MASK is created for NUMBER events.
P
The comments for all active bits is printed.
C
Mask is closed.
R
Reset bit number NUMBER.If NUMBER=99, resets all bits.
Perform Operations with masks. A mask is a direct-access le with the name MNAME.MASK. It
must contain as many 32 bit words as there are events in the associated Ntuple. Masks are interesting
when only a few events of a Ntuple are selected with a time consuming selection algorithm. For
example if the command:
MNAME
NT/PLOT 30.X
Z<0.4.AND.SELECT.FTN>>MNAME(6)
then for all events in Ntuple 30 satisfying the condition above, the bit 6 in the corresponding mask
words will be set. One can then use the mask as selection mechanism. Example:
NT/PLOT 30.X MNAME(6)
will produce the same results than the NT/PLOT command above, but will be much faster if only a
small fraction of all the events is selected. MASKS are automatically saved across PAW sessions on
les. Example:
MASK TEST N 10000
creates a new mask on file TEST.MASK with enough words to
process a Ntuple with 10000 events
MASK TEST UP
opens an existing mask for update and
prints the active selection bits with explanation
UWFUNC IDN FNAME CHOPT ]
C \Ntuple Identier"
FNAME C \File name"
CHOPT C \Options" D='*'
Possible CHOPT values are:
'*' Generate the FORTRAN skeleton of a selection function.
E
Present the selection function in the local editor.
P
Code to print events is generated (not valid for new Ntuples).
T
Names of the Ntuple variables are generated in DATA statements (not valid for new
Ntuples).
IDN
Chapter 14. NTUPLE
378
To generate the FORTRAN skeleton of a selection function. Example: If Ntuple ID=30 has variable
names 'X,Y,Z,ETOT,EMISS,etc] then:
NTUPLE/UWFUNC 30 SELECT.FOR will generate the le SELECT.FOR with:
FUNCTION SELECT(XDUMMY)
COMMON/PAWIDN/IDNEVT,VIDN1,VIDN2,VIDN3,X,Y,Z,ETOT,EMISS,etc
SELECT=1.
END
Then using the command EDIT one can modify this le which could then look something like
(IDNEVT is the event number):
FUNCTION SELECT(XDUMMY)
COMMON/PAWIDN/IDNEVT,VIDN1,VIDN2,VIDN3,X,Y,Z,ETOT,EMISS,etc
IF(X**2+Y**2.GT.Z**2.OR.ETOT.GT.20.)THEN
SELECT=1.
ELSE
SELECT=0.
ENDIF
END
If in a subsequent command NTUPLE/PLOT, the selection function SELECT is used, then:
If NTUPLE/PLOT 30.ETOT SELECT.FOR
VIDN1=ETOT
If NTUPLE/PLOT 30.SQRT(X**2+Y**2)%(ETOT-EMISS)
VIDN1=ETOT-EMISS
VIDN2=SQRT(X**2+Y**2)
LINTRA IDN CHOPT NEVENT IFIRST NVARS VARLIS ]
\Ntuple Identier"
CHOPT
\Options" D='*'
NEVENT
\Number of events" D=99999999
IFIRST
\First event" D=1
NVARS
\Number of the most signicant variables " D=20 R=0:20
VARLIS
\Names of the NVARS most signicant variables "
Possible CHOPT values are:
N The variables are normalized. This option is useful in the case the ranges of variables
are very dierent
P Print more results about the analysis
Data reduction on Ntuple. The method used is the PRINCIPAL COMPONENTS ANALYSIS. The
Principal Components Analysis method consists in applying a linear transformation to the original
variables of a ntuple. This transformation is described by an orthogonal matrix and is equivalent to
a rotation of the original space to a new set of coordinates vectors, which hopefully provide easier
IDN
C
C
I
I
I
C
379
identication and dimensionality reduction. This matrix is real positive denite and symmetric and
has all its eigenvalues greater than zero. Among the family of all complete orthonormal bases, the
basis formed by the eigenvectors of the covariance matrix and belonging to the largest eigenvalues
corresponds to the most signicant features for the description of the original ntuple. Reduction of
the variables for NEVENT events starting at IFIRST The default is to take all the 20 rst variables.
This command creates a le : -i XTOXSI.FORTRAN or xtoxsi.for,xtoxsi.ftn. This le contains a
Fortran function which computes the new variables. These new variables can be visualized in PAW
with for example:
PAW > Ntuple/plot id.xtoxsi.ftn(1)
PAW > Ntuple/plot id.xtoxsi.ftn(1)%xtoxsi.ftn(3)
VMEM MXSIZE ]
I \Maximum size of dynamic memory buer in MBytes" D=-1 R=-2:128
Change or show the size of the dynamic memory buer used to store Ntuple columns during Ntuple
analysis. The default is 10 MB. Giving a value of 0 turns the buer facility o. The upper limit
is 128 MB, but be sure you have enough swap space and realize that when the buer is swapped
to disk you loose part of the benet of the buer facility (which is to reduce the number of disk
accesses). Omitting the argument or specifying -1 will show you the current upper limit and used
and free space. Giving -2 shows which columns are currently stored in memory.
MXSIZE
Chapter 15: GRAPHICS
Interface to the graphics packages HPLOT and HIGZ.
SET CHATT VALUE ]
CHATT
VALUE
C \Attribute name"
R \Attribute value"
D='SHOW'
D=0
Set a specic HPLOT attribute. If CHATT='SHOW', print defaults and current values for all
attributes. If CHATT='*', restore default values for all attributes. If VALUE=0, the attribute is set
to its default value.
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|
HPLSET : Current values in use
|
+------------+---------------+---------------+--------------------------------+
| Parameter | Current value | Default value |
Explanation
|
+------------+---------------+---------------+--------------------------------+
|
XSIZ
|
20.00
|
20.00
| length of X axis
|
|
YSIZ
|
20.00
|
20.00
| length of Y axis
|
|
XMGL
|
2.00
|
2.00
| X MarGin Left
|
|
XMGR
|
2.00
|
2.00
| X MarGin Right
|
|
|
XLAB
|
1.40
|
1.40
| distance y axis to LABel
|
XVAL
|
.40
|
.40
| distance y axis to axis VALues |
|
XTIC
|
.30
|
.30
| X axis TICk marks length
|
|
YMGL
|
2.00
|
2.00
| Y MarGin Low
|
|
YMGU
|
2.00
|
2.00
| Y MarGin Up
|
|
YLAB
|
.80
|
.80
| distance x axis to LABel
|
|
YVAL
|
.20
|
.20
| distance x axis to axis VALues |
|
YTIC
|
.30
|
.30
| Y axis TICk marks length
|
|
YNPG
|
.60
|
.60
| Y position for Number of PaGe |
|
YGTI
|
1.50
|
1.50
| Y position of Global TItle
|
|
YHTI
|
1.20
|
1.20
| Y position of Histogram TItle |
|
KSIZ
|
.28
|
.28
| Hershey charact. (HPLKEY) SIZe |
|
GSIZ
|
.28
|
.28
| Global title SIZe
|
|
TSIZ
|
.28
|
.28
| histogram Title SIZe
|
|
ASIZ
|
.28
|
.28
| Axis label SIZe
|
|
CSIZ
|
.28
|
.28
| Comment and stat SIZe
|
|
PSIZ
|
.28
|
.28
| Page number SIZe
|
|
VSIZ
|
.28
|
.28
| axis Values SIZe
|
|
SSIZ
|
.28
|
.28
| aSterisk SIZe (for functions) |
|
2SIZ
|
.28
|
.28
| scatter-plot & table char. SIZe|
|
XWIN
|
2.00
|
2.00
| X space between WINdows
|
|
YWIN
|
2.00
|
2.00
| Y space between WINdows
|
|
HMAX
|
.90
|
.90
| Histogram MAXimum for scale
|
|
PASS
|
1.00
|
1.00
| number of PASS for characters |
|
CSHI
|
.03
|
.03
| Character SHIft between 2 pass |
380
381
|
BARO
|
.25
|
.25
| BAR histogram Offset (%)
|
|
BARW
|
.50
|
.50
| BAR histogram Width (%)
|
|
DASH
|
.15
|
.15
| length of basic DASHed segment |
|
DMOD
|
1
|
1
| Dash MODe (or type) for lines |
|
GRID
|
3
|
3
| GRID line type
|
|
DATE
|
2
|
2
| DATE position
|
|
FILE
|
1
|
1
| FILE name position
|
|
STAT
|
1111
|
1111
| STAT values to be plotted
|
|
FIT
|
101
|
101
| FIT values to be plotted
|
|
HTYP
|
0
|
0
| Histogram fill area TYPe
|
|
BTYP
|
0
|
0
| Box fill area TYPe
|
|
PTYP
|
0
|
0
| Picture fill area TYPe
|
0
| Function fill area TYPe
|
|
FTYP
|
0
|
|
HCOL
|
.00
|
1.00
| Histogram fill area COLor
|
|
BCOL
|
1.00
|
1.00
| Box fill area and shading COLor|
|
PCOL
|
1
|
1
| Picture fill area COLor
|
|
FCOL
|
1
|
1
| Function fill area COLor
|
|
XCOL
|
1
|
1
| X axis COLor
|
|
YCOL
|
1
|
1
| Y axis COLor
|
|
HWID
|
1
|
1
| Histogram line WIDth
|
|
BWID
|
1
|
1
| Box line WIDth
|
|
PWID
|
1
|
1
| Picture line WIDth
|
|
FWID
|
1
|
1
| Function line WIDth
|
|
XWID
|
1
|
1
| X ticks WIDth
|
|
YWID
|
1
|
1
| Y ticks WIDth
|
2
|
2
| Text (and Title) FONT and PREC |
|
TFON
|
|
GFON
|
2
|
2
| Global title FONT and PREC
|
|
VFON
|
2
|
2
| axis Values FONT and PREC
|
|
LFON
|
2
|
2
| axis Labels FONT and PREC
|
|
CFON
|
2
|
2
| Comment FONT and PREC
|
|
NDVX
| 10510.00
| 10510.00
| Number of DIVisions for X axis |
|
NDVY
| 10510.00
| 10510.00
| Number of DIVisions for Y axis |
|
NDVZ
| 10510.00
| 10510.00
| Number of DIVisions for Z axis |
|
FPGN
|
1
|
1
| First PaGe Number
|
|
ERRX
|
.50
|
.50
| ERRor on X (% of bin width)
|
|
1DEF
|
0
|
0
| 1D Plot Option
|
|
2DEF
|
0
|
0
| 2D Plot Option
|
+------------+---------------+---------------+--------------------------------+
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|
IGSET : Current values in use
|
+-------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------------------+
| Parameter | Current value | Default value |
Explanation
|
+-------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------------------+
|
FAIS
|
0
|
0
| Fill area interior style
|
|
FASI
|
1
|
1
| Fill area style index
|
|
LTYP
|
1
|
1
| Line type
|
382
Chapter 15. GRAPHICS
|
BASL
|
.150
|
.010 | Basic segment length (NDC)
|
|
LWID
|
1.000
|
1.000 | Line width
|
|
MTYP
|
1
|
1
| Marker type
|
|
MSCF
|
1.000
|
1.000 | Marker scale factor
|
|
PLCI
|
1
|
1
| Polyline color index
|
|
PMCI
|
1
|
1
| Polymarker color index
|
|
FACI
|
1
|
1
| Fill area color index
|
|
TXCI
|
1
|
1
| Text color index
|
|
TXAL
|
0 0
|
0 0
| Text alignment
|
|
CHHE
|
.280
|
.010 | Character height
|
|
TANG
|
.000
|
.000 | Text angle
|
|
TXFP
|
0 2
|
0 2
| Text font and precision
|
|
PICT
|
1
|
1
| Current automatic number
|
|
BORD
|
0
|
0
| Border flag
|
|
PASS
|
1
|
1
| Number of pass in IGTEXT
|
|
CSHI
|
.030
|
.020 | IGTEXT shift
|
|
LASI
|
.018
|
.018 | Label axis size
|
|
LAOF
|
.013
|
.013 | Label axis offset
|
|
TMSI
|
.019
|
.019 | Tick marks size
|
|
AWLN
|
.000
|
.000 | Axis wire lenght
|
|
BARO
|
.250
|
.250 | Offset of IGHIST (IGRAPH) bars|
|
BARW
|
.500
|
.500 | Width of IGHIST (IGRAPH) bars |
|
NCOL
|
8
|
8
| Number of COLors
|
|
CLIP
|
1
|
1
| Clipping mode
|
|
NLIN
|
40
|
40
| Number of line for 3D shapes |
|
AURZ
|
0
|
0
| Automatic saving flag
|
|
DIME
|
2
|
2
| Dimension used (2D or 3D)
|
+-------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------------------+
OPTION CHOPTN ]
C \Option name" D='SHOW'
Set general plotting options for HPLOT. If CHOPTN='SHOW' print all current and default options.
If CHOPTN='*', restore all default options.
CHOPTN
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|
HPLOPT : Option values
|
+-------------+-------------+---------------+---------------------------------+
|
Current
|
Default
| Alternative |
Explanation
|
+-------------+-------------+---------------+---------------------------------+
|
VERT
|
VERT
|
HORI
| VERTical or HORIzontal
|
|
|
|
| orientation of paper
|
|
NEAH
|
NEAH
|
EAH
| Error bars And Histogram are
|
| plotted (if both are present)
|
|
|
|
|
NCHA
|
NCHA
|
CHA
| scatter plots drawn with dots
|
|
|
|
| (NCHA) or 1 char./bin (CHA)
|
383
|
NAST
|
NAST
|
AST
| functions drawn with (AST)
|
|
|
|
| or without (NAST) asterisks
|
|
SOFT
|
SOFT
|
HARD
| SOFTware or HARDware characters |
|
|
|
| are used
|
|
NSQR
|
NSQR
|
SQR
| size is set to the largest
|
|
|
|
| square (SQR)
|
|
HTIT
|
HTIT
|
UTIT
| HBOOK TITle (HTIT)
|
|
|
|
| or User TITle (UTIT) is printed |
|
TAB
|
TAB
|
NTAB
| table printed as TABles (TAB)
|
|
|
|
| or scatter plots (NTAB)
|
|
BOX
|
BOX
|
NBOX
| a box is (BOX) or is not (NBOX) |
|
|
|
| drawn around picture
|
|
NTIC
|
NTIC
|
TIC
| cross-wires are drawned (TIC)
|
|
|
|
| or not (NTIC) on each plot
|
|
NSTA
|
NSTA
|
STA
| STAtistics are printed (STA)
|
|
|
|
| or not (NSTA) on each plot
|
|
NFIT
|
NFIT
|
FIT
| FIT parameters are printed
|
|
|
|
| or not (NFIT) on each plot
|
|
NZFL
|
NZFL
|
ZFL
| picture is (ZFL) or is not
|
|
|
|
| (NZFL) put in Z data base
|
|
NPTO
|
NPTO
|
PTO
| PTO (Please Turn Over)
|
|
|
|
| (NPTO)
|
|
NBAR
|
NBAR
|
BAR
| BAR charts for histogram
|
|
|
|
| (NBAR)
|
|
DVXR
|
DVXR
|
DVXI
| Integer (DVXI) or Real (DVXR)
|
|
|
|
| divisions for X axis
|
|
DVYR
|
DVYR
|
DVYI
| Integer (DVYI) or Real (DVYR)
|
|
|
|
| divisions for Y axis
|
|
NGRI
|
NGRI
|
GRID
| GRID or not grid (NGRI)
|
|
|
|
| on X and Y axis
|
|
NDAT
|
NDAT
|
DATE
| DATE is printed (DATE)
|
|
|
|
| or not (NDAT) on each plot
|
|
NFIL
|
NFIL
|
FILE
| FILE name is printed (FILE)
|
|
|
|
| or not (NFIL) on each plot
|
|
A4
|
A4
|
A0/6
| page format for the plotter
|
|
|
|
| (A0,A1,A2,A3,A4,A5,A6)
|
|
NOPG
|
NOPG
|
P
| page number is (P
)
|
|
|
|
| or is not (NOPG) printed
|
|
LINY
|
LINY
|
LOGY
| LINear or LOGarithmic scale
|
|
|
|
| in Y
|
|
LINX
|
LINX
|
LOGX
| LINear or LOGarithmic scale
|
|
|
|
| in X
|
|
LINZ
|
LINZ
|
LOGZ
| LINear or LOGarithmic scale
|
|
|
|
| in Z (Lego or Surface)
|
+-------------+-------------+---------------+---------------------------------+
Chapter 15. GRAPHICS
384
METAFILE LUN METAFL CHMETA ]
I \Logical unit number" D=0
METAFL I \Metale ID" D=0
CHMETA C \Metale name" D='*'
Set the metale logical unit and metale type. This command controls the destination of the
subsequent graphics output. Example:
LUN
LUN =-10 output only on metafile opened on unit 10&
LUN = 0 output only on screen&
LUN = 10 output on both screen and metafile opened on unit 10&
Use the command FORTRAN/FILE to open a new le, FORTRAN/CLOSE to close it. Note that
PAW opens the le PAW.METAFILE on the unit 10 at initialization time.
METAFL=
4
METAFL=-111
METAFL=-112
METAFL=-113
METAFL=-114
METAFL=-115
METAFL=-777
METAFL=-778
Appendix E GKS.
HIGZ/PostScript (Portrait).
HIGZ/PostScript (Landscape).
HIGZ/Encapsulated PostScript.
HIGZ/PostScript Color (Portrait).
HIGZ/PostScript Color (Landscape).
HIGZ/LaTex Encapsulated.
HIGZ/LaTex.
The PostScript metale types have the following format:
-Format]Nx]Ny]Type]
Where:
'Format] Is an integer between 0 and 99 which denes the format of the
paper. For example if Format=3 the paper is in the standard
A3 format. Format=4 and Format=0 are the same and
define an A4 page.
The A0 format is selected by Format=99.
The US format Letter is selected by Format=100.
The US format Legal is selected by Format=200.
The US format Ledger is selected by Format=300.
'Nx, Ny] Specify respectively the number of zones on the x and y axis.
Nx and Ny are integers between 1 and 9.
'Type] Can be equal to:
1:
2:
4:
5:
Portrait mode with a small margin at the bottom of the page.
Landscape mode with a small margin at the bottom of the page.
Portrait mode with a large margin at the bottom of the page.
Landscape mode with a large margin at the bottom of the page.
385
The large margin is useful for some PostScript printers (very
often for the colour printers) as they need more space to grip
the paper for mechanical reasons. Note that some PostScript
colour printers can also use the so called "special A4" format
permitting the full usage of the A4 area& in this case larger
margins are not necessary and {\tt Type}=1 or 2 can be used.
3: Encapsulated PostScript. This Type permits the generation of
files which can be included in other documents, for example
in LaTeX files. Note that with this Type, Nx and Ny must always
be equal to 1, and Format has no meaning. The size of the
picture
must be specified by the user via the SIZE command. Therefore
the workstation type for Encapsulated PostScript is -113. For
example if the name of an encapsulated PostScript file is
example.eps, the inclusion of this file into a LaTeX file will
be possible via (in the LaTeX file):
\begin{figure}
\epsffile{example.eps}
\caption{Example of Encapsulated PostScript in LaTeX.}
\label{EXAMPLE}
\end{figure}
With Type=1,2,4 and 5 the pictures are centered on the page, and the usable area on paper is
proportional to the dimensions of A4 format. Examples: -111 or -4111 denes an A4 page not
divided. -6322 dene an A6 landscape page divided in 3 columns and 2 rows.
+-------+-------+-------+
|
1
|
2
|
3
|
+-------+-------+-------+
|
4
|
5
|
6
|
+-------+-------+-------+
The rst picture will be drawn in the area 1. After each clear the screen, the graphics output will
appear in the next area in the order dened above. If a page is lled, a new page is used with the
same grid. Note that empty pages are not printed in order to save paper. Ignoring formats smaller
than A12, the total number of possible dierent PostScript workstation types is: 4x9x9x13+1 =
4213 !
WORKSTATION IWKID CHOPT IWTYP ]
IWKID
CHOPT
IWTYP
I \Workstation ID" D=1 Loop
C \Options" D='OA'
I \Workstation type" D=1
Possible CHOPT values are:
Chapter 15. GRAPHICS
386
O
C
A
D
L
Open a new workstation
Close a workstation
Activate a workstation
Deactivate a workstation
Give the list of open workstations
To create/delete workstations or change status.
IWKID > 0
IWKID = 0
IWKID < 0
Do the action specified by CHOPT on the
workstation identified by IWKID.
Do the action specified by CHOPT on all
workstations.
Do the action specified by CHOPT on the
workstation identified by -IWKID and the
complementary action on all the others.
SLIDE
Invoke the SLIDE package.
15.1
GRAPHICS/MISC
Miscellaneous HPLOT functions.
NEXT
Clear the screen. Initialize a new HIGZ picture if option ZFL or ZFL1 has been selected. Select the
Normalization Transformation number 1 (cm).
CLR
Clear the screen.
LOCATE NTPRI CHOPT ]
NTPRI
CHOPT
I \Transformation with highest priority"
C \Options" D='R'
D=-1
Possible CHOPT values are:
R Request mode is used to locate the points (default)
S Sample mode is used to locate the points
I Integrate an histogram between 2 bins
+ Use the tracking cross (default is cross-hair)
T The output is done on the terminal.
15.2. GRAPHICS/VIEWING
387
Locate points on the screen using the graphics cursor and output coordinates on terminal. Control
is returned when the BREAK (right) mouse button is clicked (or CRTL/E) or when 20 points
are located. The optional parameter NTPRI may be specied to locate a point in the specic
transformation number NTPRI. NTPRI=-1 (default) means that all the histogram transformation
numbers (10, 20, etc.) have priority on transformation number 1. Note: With the Motif version of
PAW the locator is automatically invoke when the mouse cursor enter the window.
VLOCATE VECX VECY CHOPT NTPRI ]
C
C
C
I
\Vector for coordinates X"
\Vector for coordinates Y"
CHOPT
\Options" D='*' Minus
NTPRI
\Transformation with highest priority" D=-1
Possible CHOPT values are:
'*' Use the cross-hair
+
Use the tracking cross
Use the rubber line
L
Connect points by a polyline
P
Draw the current polymarker at each point
*
Draw a * at each point
S
Sample mode is used. Allows to see the coordinates of point before clicking
Locate a set of points using the graphics cursor. Return corresponding coordinates in vectors X and
Y. If vectors X or Y do not exist, they are automatically created. Control is returned when the point
is outside picture limits or when the BREAK (right) mouse button is clicked (or CRTL/E). The
optional parameter NTPRI may be specied to locate a point in the specic transformation number
NTPRI (see LOCATE).
VECX
VECY
HMOVE
Change the contents of a histogram channel using the cursor. Position the cursor to the channel to
be changed, trigger graphics input, position the cursor to the new channel value (a rubber band box
is used to visualize the change), trigger graphics input to x the new value.
15.2
GRAPHICS/VIEWING
To dene Normalization transformations. Either automatically (ZONE and SIZE) or 'by hand' (SVP,
SWN and SELNT).
ZONE NX NY IFIRST CHOPT ]
NX
NY
IFIRST
CHOPT
I
I
I
C
\Number of divisions along X"
\Number of divisions along Y"
\First division number" D=1
\Option" D='*'
D=1
D=1
Chapter 15. GRAPHICS
388
Possible CHOPT values are:
'*'
Redene zones on current picture
'*' Dene the zones for all subsequent pictures.
Subdivide the picture into NX by NY zones, starting at zone IFIRST (count along X rst).
S
SIZE XSIZE YSIZE ]
R \Size along X" D=20.
YSIZE R \Size along Y" D=20.
Set the size of the picture. On the terminal, the pictures will have the ratio YSIZE/XSIZE, and, if
a metale is produced, pictures will be YSIZE by XSIZE cm. This command sets the parameters for
the normalization transformation number 1 to '0-XSIZE], '0-YSIZE].
XSIZE
SVP NT X1 X2 Y1 Y2
I \Normalization transformation number"
R \Low X of viewport in NDC" D=0 R=0:1
X2 R \High X of viewport in NDC" D=1 R=0:1
Y1 R \Low Y of viewport in NDC" D=0 R=0:1
Y2 R \High Y of viewport in NDC" D=1 R=0:1
Set the viewport of the normalization transformation NT in the Normalized Device Coordinates
(NDC).
NT
X1
SWN NT X1 X2 Y1 Y2
I \Normalize transformation number"
X1 R \Low X of window in WC" D=0
X2 R \High X of window in WC" D=20
Y1 R \Low Y of window in WC" D=0
Y2 R \High Y of window in WC" D=20
Set the window of the normalization transformation NT in World Coordinates (WC).
NT
SELNT NT
I \Normalization transformation number"
Select a normalization transformation number.
NT
If ZONE 2 2 is active , then:
+------------------------------+
|
|
| +----------+
+---------+ |
| |
|
|
| |
If ZONE 1 1 is active, then:
+-----------------------------+
|
|
| +-----------------------+ |
| |
| |
15.3. GRAPHICS/PRIMITIVES
| |
NT=10 |
| NT=20 | |
| |
|
|
| |
| +----------+
+---------+ |
|
|
| +----------+
+---------+ |
| |
|
|
| |
| |
NT=30 |
| NT=40 | |
| |
|
|
| |
| +----------+
+---------+ |
|
|
|
NT=1
|
+------------------------------+
15.3
389
| |
| |
| |
| |
| |
| |
| |
NT=10
| |
| |
| |
| |
| |
| |
| |
| |
| |
| |
| |
| +-----------------------+ |
|
NT=1
|
+-----------------------------+
GRAPHICS/PRIMITIVES
Call HIGZ drawing primitives
PLINE N X Y
N
X
Y
I \Number of points"
C \Vector name for X coordinates"
C \Vector name for Y coordinates"
Draw a polyline of N points X,Y in the current Normalization transformation. Use commands SLN,
SLWSC and SPLCI (or IGSET) to change line attributes.
LINE X1 Y1 X2 Y2
X1
Y1
X2
Y2
R
R
R
R
\X rst coordinate"
\Y rst coordinate"
\X second coordinate"
\Y second coordinate"
Draw a line connecting points (X1,Y1) and (X2,Y2) in the current Normalization transformation.
Use commands SLN, SLWSC and SPLCI (or IGSET) to change line attributes.
FAREA N X Y
N
X
Y
I \Number of points"
C \Vector name for X coordinates"
C \Vector name for Y coordinates"
Fill the area dened by the N points X,Y in the current Normalization transformation. Use commands
SFASI, SFAIS and SFACI (or IGSET) to change ll area attributes.
Chapter 15. GRAPHICS
390
PMARKER N X Y
N
X
Y
I \Number of points"
C \Vector name for X coordinates"
C \Vector name for Y coordinates"
Draw polymarkers at the N points X,Y in the current Normalization transformation. Use commands
SMK and SPMCI (or IGSET) to change polymarker attributes.
BOX X1 X2 Y1 Y2
X1
X2
Y1
Y2
R
R
R
R
\X coordinate of rst corner"
\X coordinate of second corner"
\Y coordinate of rst corner"
\Y coordinate of second corner"
Draw and ll a box with the current ll area attributes. Use the current Normalization transformation.
FBOX X1 X2 Y1 Y2 X3 X4 Y3 Y4
X1
X2
Y1
Y2
X3
X4
Y3
Y4
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
\X coord of 1st corner of ext box"
\X coord of 2nd corner of ext box"
\Y coord of 1st corner of ext box"
\Y coord of 2nd corner of ext box"
\X coord of 1st corner of int box"
\X coord of 2nd corner of int box"
\Y coord of 1st corner of int box"
\Y coord of 2nd corner of int box"
Draw and ll a frame (2 nested boxes) with the current ll area attributes. Use the current Normalization transformation.
ARROW X1 X2 Y1 Y2 SIZE ]
X1
X2
Y1
Y2
SIZE
R
R
R
R
R
\X coordinate of start point"
\X coordinate of end point"
\Y coordinate of start point"
\Y coordinate of end point"
\Arrow size" D=0.4
Draw an arrow (X1,Y1) |-i (X2,Y2) if SIZEi0. Draw an arrow (X1,Y1) h|i (X2,Y2) if SIZEh0.
Use the current Normalization transformation.
15.3. GRAPHICS/PRIMITIVES
HELIX X1 Y1 X2 Y2 R WI PHI ]
X1
Y1
X2
Y2
R
WI
PHI
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
\X coordinate of the begin of helix" D=0.
\Y coordinate of the begin of helix" D=0.
\X coordinate of the end of helix" D=10.
\Y coordinate of the end of helix" D=10.
\Radius of helix" D=.3
\Number of turns " D=1.
\Projection angle " D=15.
Plots an helix on current page Feynman graph: gluon phi = 30, photon phi = 0.
ARCHELIX X1 Y1 X2 Y2 R WI PHI RL ]
X1
Y1
X2
Y2
R
WI
PHI
RL
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
R
\X coordinate of the begin of helix" D=0.
\Y coordinate of the begin of helix" D=0.
\X coordinate of the end of helix" D=10.
\Y coordinate of the end of helix" D=10.
\Radius of helix" D=.3
\Number of turns " D=1.
\Projection angle " D=30.
\Radius of loop " D=15.
Plots an helix on current page Feynman graph: gluon phi = 30, photon phi = 0.
ARLINE X1 Y1 X2 Y2 H ]
X1
Y1
X2
Y2
H
R
R
R
R
R
\X coordinate of the begin" D=0.
\Y coordinate of the begin" D=0.
\X coordinate of the end" D=10.
\Y coordinate of the end" D=10.
\arrow size" D=.5
Line with arrow (fermion line)
FPOINT X Y R ]
X
Y
R
R \X " D=0.
R \Y " D=0.
R \Radius " D=.5
Draw lled point (vertex)
391
Chapter 15. GRAPHICS
392
AXIS X0 X1 Y0 Y1 WMIN WMAX NDIV CHOPT ]
X0
X1
Y0
Y1
WMIN
WMAX
NDIV
CHOPT
R
R
R
R
R
R
I
C
\X axis origin in WC"
\X end axis in WC"
\Y axis origin in WC"
\Y end axis in WC"
\Lowest value for labels"
\Highest value for labels"
\Number of divisions" D=510
\Options" D='*' Minus
Possible CHOPT values are:
'*' Draw an axis with default values.
G
Logarithmic scale, default is linear.
B
Blank axis. Useful to superpose axis.
U
Unlabeled axis, default is labeled.
+
Tick marks are drawn on Positive side. (default)
Tick marks are drawn on the negative side.
=
Tick marks are drawn on Equal side
P
Labels are drawn Parallel to the axis
O
Labels are drawn Orthogonal to the axis (Top to Down).
0
Labels are drawn Orthogonal to the axis (Down to Top).
R
labels are Right adjusted on tick mark.
L
labels are Left adjusted on tick mark.
C
labels are Centered on tick mark.
M
In the Middle of the divisions.
Y
Direction of labels DOWN . Default is RIGHT
.
Dot obligatory
T
Alphanumeric labels .
S
Tick marks Size
H
Labels Height
D
Distance labels-axis
N
No bining optimization
I
Integer labeling
Draw an axis in the current Normalization transformation.
NDIV=N1 + 100*N2 + 10000*N3
N1, N2, N3 = Number of 1st, 2nd, 3rd divisions respectively, eg:.
NDIV=0 --> no tick marks.
NDIV=2 --> 2 divisions, one tick mark in the middle
of the axis.
Orientation of tick marks on axis: Tick marks are normally drawn
15.3. GRAPHICS/PRIMITIVES
on the positive side of the axis.However, if X0=X1, then Negative .
CHOPT='+': tick marks are drawn on Positive side. (default)
CHOPT='-': tick marks are drawn on the negative side.
i.e: '+-' --> tick marks are drawn on both sides of the axis.
Position of labels on axis: Labels are normally drawn on side
opposite to tick marks.However:
CHOPT= '='
on Equal side
Orientation of labels on axis: Labels are normally drawn
parallel to the axis. However if X0=X1, then Orthogonal
if Y0=Y1, then Parallel
CHOPT= 'P' : Parallel to the axis
CHOPT= 'O' : Orthogonal to the axis (Top to Down).
CHOPT= '0' : Orthogonal to the axis (Down to Top).
Position of labels on tick marks: Labels are centered on
tick marks. However , if X0=X1, then they are right adjusted.
CHOPT='R': labels are Right adjusted on tick mark.
(default is centered)
CHOPT='L': labels are Left adjusted on tick mark.
CHOPT='C': labels are Centered on tick mark.
CHOPT='M': In the Middle of the divisions.
Direction of labels: Default is RIGHT
CHOPT='Y':
Down
Format of labels: Blank characters are stripped, and then the
label is correctly aligned. The dot,if last character of the
string, is also stripped, unless
CHOPT='.'
Dot obligatory
In the following, we have some parameters, like
tick marks length and characters height (in percentage
of the length of the axis).The default values are as follows:
Primary tick marks: 3.0 %
Secondary tick marks: 1.5 %
Third order tick marks: .75 %
Characters height for labels: 2%
Characters spacing (related to height): 40%
Labels offset: 4.0 %
Type of labels: Labels are normally numeric . However, alphanumeric
labels can be drawn (see command LABEL).
CHOPT='T':
Alphanumeric labels .
Intrinsic parameters: These values can be changed with the command
IGSET. The default value is used unless the corresponding option is
selected by CHOPT:
CHOPT='D' The distance between the labels and the axis
(the offset) is given by the preceding command
IGSET with the parameter LAOF.
CHOPT='H' The size (height) of the labels is given by the
preceding command IGSET with the parameter LASI.
393
Chapter 15. GRAPHICS
394
CHOPT='S' The size of the tick marks is given by the preceding
command IGSET with the parameter TMSI.
Axis bining optimization: By default the axis bining is optimized .
CHOPT='N': No bining optimization
CHOPT='I': Integer labeling
ARC X1 Y1 R1 R2 PHIMIN PHIMAX ]
R \X coordinate of centre"
Y1
R \Y coordinate of centre"
R1
R \Inner radius"
R2
R \Outer radius" D=-1.
PHIMIN R \Minimum angle" D=0.
PHIMAX R \Maximum angle" D=360.
Draw an arc of circle in the current Normalization transformation. If R1 is not equal to R2 the area
between the two arcs of radius R1 and R2 is lled according to the current ll area attributes. The
border is never drawn unless the interior style is hollow or the command IGSET BORD 1 has been
called. If R1 is equal to R2 a polyline is drawn.
X1
PIE X0 Y0 RADIUS N VALUES CHOPT IAO IAS IAC ]
\X coordinate of centre of the pie"
Y0
\Y coordinate of centre of the pie"
RADIUS
\Radius of the pie chart"
N
\Number of values"
VALUES
\Vector name for N values"
CHOPT
\Options" D='*'
IAO
\Name of vector with osets" D='*'
IAS
\Name of vector with styles" D='*'
IAC
\Name of vector with colors" D='*'
Possible CHOPT values are:
'*' Draw a Pie Chart with default values.
C
Colours array is present.
L
Alphanumeric labels are required.
O
Oset array is present.
N
The label of each slice will be the corresponding numeric value in array VALUES.
P
The label of each slice will be in expressed in percentage.
S
Style array is present.
H
Force the labels size to be the current character height. Without this option the labels
size is computed automatically.
R
Draw the labels aligned on the radius of each slice.
Draw a pie chart in the current Normalization transformation.
X0
R
R
R
I
C
C
C
C
C
15.3. GRAPHICS/PRIMITIVES
395
TEXT X Y TEXT SIZE ANGLE CHOPT ]
\X coordinate"
Y
\Y coordinate"
TEXT
\Text to be drawn"
SIZE
\Text size" D=0.3
ANGLE
\Comment angle" D=0
CHOPT
\Justication option" D='L'
Possible CHOPT values are:
L Text is Left justied.
C Text is Centered.
R Text is Right justied.
Draw text at position X,Y in the current normalization transformation using the software font IGTEXT. SIZE is always given in centimeters (as dened by the command SIZE). Boldface eects can
be obtained using the parameters PASS and CSHI of the command SET. The text color can be
changed by IGSET TXCI.
X
R
R
C
R
R
C
ITX X Y TEXT
R \X coordinate"
Y
R \Y coordinate"
TEXT C \Text to be drawn"
Draw text at position X,Y in the current Normalization transformation, using the current font parameters. The font and the precision can be changed by IGSET TXFP. The character size can be
changed by IGSET CHHE. The text color can be changed by IGSET TXCI. The text orientation can
be changed with IGSET TXAL. The text angle can be changed by IGSET TANG.
X
LABELS LABNUM NLABS CHLABS
I \Label identier" D=1 R=1:9
NLABS
I \Number of labels" D=0 R=0:50
CHLABS C \List of labels" D='*' Vararg
Dene a list of labels to be used by subsequent commands such as PIE and AXIS. The position of
the labels on the axis may be changed with SET NDVX (NDVY).
LABNUM
PAVE X1 X2 Y1 Y2 DZ ISBOX ISFRAM CHOPT ]
X1
X2
Y1
Y2
DZ
ISBOX
ISFRAM
CHOPT
R
R
R
R
R
I
I
C
\X bottom left corner of box"
\X top right corner of box"
\Y bottom left corner of box"
\Y top right corner of box"
\Box width" D=0.4
\Box style" D=0
\Frame style" D=5
\Option" D='TR'
Chapter 15. GRAPHICS
396
Possible CHOPT values are:
TR
TL
BR
BL
L
R
TBS
K
Top and Right frame are drawn
Top and Left frame
Bottom and Right frame
Bottom and Left frame
Left frame only
Right frame only
Top frame only pointing left
Bottom frame only pointing left
Shadow mode
Key mode
Draw a paving-block (box with 3D eect). ISBOX (ISFRAM) may be 1000+ICOLOR where ICOLOR
is the color index of the box (frame), otherwise the style index. If ISBOX (ISFRAM) =0, only the
box contour is drawn with the current polyline attributes.
HIST N X Y CHOPT ]
N
X
Y
CHOPT
I
C
C
C
\Number of values"
\Vector name for X coordinates"
\Vector name for Y coordinates"
\Options" D='AHW'
Possible CHOPT values are:
15.3. GRAPHICS/PRIMITIVES
A
H
W
R
N
F
C
L
*
P
B
397
X and Y axes are drawn (default).
An histogram is drawn as a contour (default).
The Window/Viewport parameters are automatically computed from the X and Y
values (default).
The histogram is Rotated, i.e. the values in X are used for the ordinate and the values
in Y for the abscissa (default is the contrary). If option R is selected (and option 'N'
is not selected), the user must give: 2 values for Y (Y(1)=YMIN and Y(2)=YMAX)
N values for X, one for each bin. Otherwise the user must give: N values for Y, one
for each bin. 2 values for X (X(1)=XMIN and X(2)=XMAX) If option 'N' is selected
see below.
Non equidistant bins (default is equidistant). The arrays X and Y must be dimensioned
as follows: If option R is not selected (default) then give: (N+1) values for X (limits
of bins). N values for Y, one for each bin. Otherwise give: (N+1) values for Y (limits
of bins). N values for X, one for each bin.
The area delimited by the histogram is lled according to the ll area interior style
and the ll area style index or colour index. Contour is not drawn unless CHOPT='H'
is also selected.
A Smooth curve is drawn across points at the centre of each bin of the histogram.
A straight Line is drawn across points at the centre of each bin of the histogram.
A star is plotted at the center of each bin of the histogram.
Idem as '*' but with the current marker.
A Bar chart with equidistant bins is drawn as ll areas. (Contours are drawn). The
bar origin and the bar width can be controlled by the routine IGSET using the options
BARO and BARW respectively.
Draw an histogram dened by arrays X and Y. The number of components needed in vectors X
and/or in Y may be dependent upon the value of CHOPT (see options 'R' and 'N'). To set Log
scales in X and/or Y, use OPT LOGX/LOGY. Note that when an option is specied, it is also
necessary to specify the options 'AW' or 'AHW' in order to start a new zone or/and draw the axes.
GRAPH N X Y CHOPT ]
N
X
Y
CHOPT
I
C
C
C
\Number of values"
\Vector name for X coordinates"
\Vector name for Y coordinates"
\Options" D='ALW'
Possible CHOPT values are:
Chapter 15. GRAPHICS
398
X and Y axes are drawn (default).
L Every point is connected with a straight line. (default)
W The Window/Viewport parameters are automatically computed from the X and Y
values (default).
C The values in Y are plotted in the form of a smooth curve. A Spline approximation
algorithm is used.
F A ll area is drawn. If the option 'CF' is used the contour of the ll area is smooth.
The border of the ll area is drawn if the command IGSET BORD 1 has been typed.
The ll area type may be changed via the IGSET parameters FASI and FASI
R The graph is Rotated, i.e. the values in X are used for the ordinate and the values in
Y for the abscissa (default is the contrary).
B A Bar chart with equidistant bins is drawn as ll areas. (Contours are drawn). The
bar origin and the bar width can be controlled by the routine IGSET using the options
BARO and BARW respectively.
* A star is plotted at every point.
P A marker is plotted at every point, according to current marker type and polymarker
colour index.
Draw a curve through a set of points. To set Log scales in X and/or Y, use OPT LOGX/LOGY.
Note that when an option is specied, it is also necessary to specify the options 'AW' or 'ALW' in
order to start a new zone or/and draw the axes.
A
15.4
GRAPHICS/ATTRIBUTES
Change HIGZ attributes.
SLN ILN ]
I \Line style" D=1 R=1:
Set the line style (IGSET LTYP can also be used).
ILN
SFAIS INTS ]
I \Fill area interior style" D=0 R=0:3
Set the ll area interior style (IGSET FAIS can also be used):
INTS
Hollow=0, Solid=1, Pattern=2, Hatch=3
SFASI STYLI ]
I \Fill area style index" D=1
Set the ll area style index (IGSET FASI can also be used).
STYLI
SFACI IFACI ]
I \Fill area color index" D=1
Set the ll area color index (IGSET FACI can also be used).
IFACI
15.4. GRAPHICS/ATTRIBUTES
SPLCI IPLCI ]
I \Polyline color index" D=1
Set the polyline color index (IGSET PLCI can also be used).
IPLCI
SPMCI IPMCI ]
I \Polymarker color index" D=1
Set the polymarker color index (IGSET PMCI can also be used).
IPMCI
STXCI ITXCI ]
I \Text color index" D=1
Set the text color index (IGSET TXCI can also be used).
ITXCI
STXFP IFONT IPREC ]
I \Font number" D=0
I \Font precision" D=2
Set text font and precision (IGSET TXFP can also be used).
IFONT
IPREC
SCHH CHH ]
R \Character height" D=0.28
Set the character height (IGSET CHHE can also be used).
CHH
SLWSC LW ]
R \Line width" D=1 R=1:
Set the line width scale factor (IGSET LWID can also be used).
LW
SMK MKT ]
I \Marker type" D=1
Set the marker type (IGSET MTYP can also be used).
MKT
COLOR_TABLE ICOL RED GREEN BLUE ]
I \Color Index" D=1
RED
R \Weight of red" D=0. R=0.:1.
GREEN R \Weight of green" D=0. R=0.:1.
R \Weight of blue" D=0. R=0.:1.
BLUE
Dene the color ICOL.
ICOL
399
Chapter 15. GRAPHICS
400
PALETTE PALNB NEL LIST ]
I \Palette number" D=0 R=0:9
NEL
I \Number of elements in the palette" D=0 R=0:50
LIST
I \List of the palette elements" D=0
Dene a palette of attributes. The palette number is used in the command SET. The command SET
HCOL 0.1 denes the palette number 1 as colour indices used by the command LEGO in case of
stacked lego plots and plotting of SURFACE with options 1 or 2, LEGO with option 2 and CONTOUR
with option 3.
By default the palettes are initialized with 6 elements: 2,3,4,5,6,7.
If the number of elements (NEL) is equal to 0 (default), the palette is lled automatically according
to the number of colours dened with the command IGSET NCOL:
PALNB
a) If NCOL is smaller or equal to 8, the palette is filled with a
subset of the 8 basic colours.
Examples:
PAW > IGSET NCOL 8
| Define the number of colours
PAW > PALETTE 1
| The palette 1 is filled with
| 8 elements: 0,5,7,3,6,2,4,1
PAW > IGSET NCOL 4
| Define the number of colours
PAW > PALETTE 1
| The palette 1 is filled with
| 4 elements: 0,5,7,3
b) If NCOL is greater than 8, the palette is filled
with colours varying continuously from blue to red. This is
called a "geographical palette".
Examples:
PAW > IGSET NCOL 16
| Define the number of colours
PAW > PALETTE 1
| Fill palette 1 with 8 elements
| (8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15) varying
| continuously from blue to red
Note that after the command IGSET NCOL, the color indices from
8 to NCOL are set with gray levels. The command PALETTE 1
reset the same indices with a "geographical palette" varying
continuously from blue to red.
15.5
GRAPHICS/HPLOT
Draw various HPLOT objects (symbols, errors, key, etc.).
SYMBOLS X Y N ISYMB SSIZE ]
C \Vector of X coordinates"
Y
C \Vector of Y coordinates"
N
I \Number of points" D=1
ISYMB I \Symbol number" D=24
SSIZE R \Symbol size" D=0.28
Draw the same symbol at several points x,y in the current normalization transformation.
X
15.5. GRAPHICS/HPLOT
401
ERRORS X Y EX EY N ISYMB SSIZE CHOPT ]
X
Y
EX
EY
N
ISYMB
SSIZE
CHOPT
C
C
C
C
I
I
R
C
\Vector of X coordinates"
\Vector of Y coordinates"
\Vector of X error bars"
\Vector of Y error bars"
\Number of points" D=1
\Symbol number" D=24
\Symbol size" D=0.28
\Options" D='*'
Possible CHOPT values are:
'*'
C
W
0
1
2
3
4
Coordinates are expressed in histogram coordinates (of the last drawn histogram).
Error bars are drawn.
Coordinates are expressed in centimeters.
A new window is dened and axis are drawn.
Draw the error bars (default).
Draw small lines at the end of the error bars.
Draw error rectangles.
Draw a lled area through the end points of the vertical error bars.
Draw a smoothed lled area through the end points of the vertical error bars.
Draw (according to the CHOPT value) a series of points using a symbol and error bars in horizontal
and vertical direction in the current normalization transformation. If ISYMB = 0 or SSIZE = 0. no
symbol is drawn. Note that the options can be cumulated.
AERRORS X Y EXL EXU EYL EYU N ISYMB SSIZE CHOPT ]
X
Y
EXL
EXU
EYL
EYU
N
ISYMB
SSIZE
CHOPT
C
C
C
C
C
C
I
I
R
C
\Vector of X coordinates"
\Vector of Y coordinates"
\Vector of X error bars (Low)"
\Vector of X error bars (Up)"
\Vector of Y error bars (Low)"
\Vector of Y error bars (Up)"
\Number of points" D=1
\Symbol number" D=24
\Symbol size" D=0.28
\Options" D='*'
Possible CHOPT values are:
Chapter 15. GRAPHICS
402
'*'
C
W
0
1
2
3
4
Coordinates are expressed in histogram coordinates (of the last drawn histogram).
Error bars are drawn.
Coordinates are expressed in centimeters.
A new window is dened and axis are drawn.
Draw the error bars (default).
Draw small lines at the end of the error bars.
Draw error rectangles.
Draw a lled area through the end points of the vertical error bars.
Draw a smoothed lled area through the end points of the vertical error bars.
Draw (according to the CHOPT value) a series of points using a symbol and asymmetric error bars
in horizontal and vertical direction in the current normalization transformation. If ISYMB = 0 or
SSIZE = 0. no symbol is drawn. Note that the options can be cumulated.
KEY X Y ISYMB TEXT ]
X
Y
ISYMB
TEXT
R
R
I
C
\X coordinate of comment"
\Y coordinate of comment"
\Symbol number" D=24
\Legend" D='*'
Draw one symbol and its explanation (legend) at a point x,y in the current normalization transformation.
TICKS CHOPT XVAL YVAL ]
CHOPT
XVAL
YVAL
C \Options" D='*'
R \X position" D=1.E30
R \Y position" D=1.E30
Possible CHOPT values are:
'*'
X
Y
A
B
L
R
Tick marks are drawn on the edges of the picture
Cross-wire drawn perpendicular to the X-axis
Cross-wire drawn perpendicular to the Y-axis
Value drawn Above cross-wire
Value drawn Below cross-wire
Value drawn Left of cross-wire
Value drawn Right of cross-wire
Draw 'cross-wires' on a picture, optionally with tick marks and values. Cross-wires are lines perpendicular to the X and/or Y axis.
XVAL intersection on the X-axis
YVAL intersection on the Y-axis
15.5. GRAPHICS/HPLOT
403
The values of XVAL are always histogram coordinates. The tick marks will be drawn on both side
of the cross wire, unless the cross-wires are requested on the boundary of the box surrounding the
histogram (i.e. at the extreme limits of the drawn histogram). In this case tick marks will only be
drawn inside the box. The options 'A' and 'B' (for Above and Below) refer only to the cross-wire
perpendicular to the Y axis. In each case only one cross-wire will be drawn. Similarly 'L' and 'R'
(Left and Right) refer only to the cross-wires perpendicular to the X-axis. It is possible to redene
the length of tick marks on the X or Y axis with SET XTIC or SET YTIC. The position of the axis
values may be changed with SET XVAL or SET YVAL.
ATITLE XTIT YTIT ]
C \X Axis title" D='*'
YTIT C \Y Axis title" D='*'
Draw axis titles on the axes of the present plot zone.
XTIT
GRID
Draw a grid in cm.
NULL XMIN XMAX YMIN YMAX CHOPT ]
\Low range in X" D=0.
XMAX
\High range in X" D=1.
YMIN
\Low range in Y" D=0.
YMAX
\High range in Y" D=1.
CHOPT
\Options" D='*'
Possible CHOPT values are:
'*' Draw a frame box only.
S
Redene the scale for the current zone.
A
Axis labels and tick marks are not drawn.
B
The box is not drawn.
Draw a frame box. If XMIN, XMAX, etc. are given, draw a frame box with the window coordinates
set to XMIN, XMAX, YMIN, YMAX. Axis labels and tick marks are drawn by default.
XMIN
R
R
R
R
C
Chapter 16: PICTURE
Creation and manipulation of HIGZ pictures.
FILE LUN FNAME LRECL CHOPT ]
\Logical unit number" R=1:128
FNAME
\File name"
LRECL
\Record length in words" D=1024
CHOPT
\Options" D='*'
Possible CHOPT values are:
'*' Existing le is opened.
N
A new le is opened.
U
Existing le is modied.
A
Automatic saving.
Open a HIGZ direct access picture le. If CHOPT='AU' or 'AN', pictures will be automatically saved
on the direct access le. This automatic saving facility can be switched o using IGSET AURZ 0.
LUN
I
C
I
C
LIST
List all the HIGZ pictures currently stored in memory.
CREATE PNAME
C \Picture name" Loop
Create a new picture, named PNAME, in memory. Note that all commands which start a new
picture (clear workstation) automatically create pictures named PICT1, PICT2, etc. if the command
OPTION ZFL or OPTION ZFL1 has been executed.
PNAME
DELETE PNAME
C \Picture name" D='*' Loop
Delete the picture PNAME from memory. PNAME='*' means all pictures.
PNAME
SCRATCH PNAME ICYCLE ]
C \Picture name" D='*' Loop
I \Cycle number " D=9999
Delete the picture PNAME from current directory on disk.
PNAME
ICYCLE
PLOT PNAME ]
C \Picture name" D='*' Loop
Plot the picture PNAME. PNAME=' ' means the current picture. PNAME='*' means all pictures.
PNAME
404
405
MODIFY PNAME CHOPT ]
C \Picture name" D='*'
C \Options" D='*'
PNAME
CHOPT
Possible CHOPT values are:
S
A
Software characters are used for the text in menus.
The option shadow is used.
Edit the picture PNAME. PNAME=' ' means the current picture. This command is only available
on workstations.
MERGE PNAME X Y SCALE CHOPT ]
C
R
R
R
C
PNAME
X
Y
SCALE
CHOPT
\Picture name"
\X coordinates (NDC) where to draw PNAME"
\Y coordinates (NDC) where to draw PNAME"
\Scale factor" D=1.
\Options" D='*'
D=0
D=0
Possible CHOPT values are:
'*'
D
Merge the picture PNAME with the current picture.
Picture PNAME is displayed during merging.
Add the picture PNAME to the current picture.
COPY PNAME1 PNAME2
PNAME1
PNAME2
C \Picture name"
C \New picture name"
Loop
Copy a picture.
RENAME PNAME1 PNAME2
PNAME1
PNAME2
C \Old picture name"
C \New picture name"
Rename a picture.
PRINT FILE ]
FILE
C \File name"
D='*'
Print the current picture. The current picture is transformed into a printable le. The le type is
dened according to the extension of the le name i.e.
Chapter 16. PICTURE
406
FILE = filename.ps
FILE = filename.eps
A PostScript file is generated (-111)
A Encapsulated PostScript file
is generated (-113)
A LaTex file is generated (-778)
FILE = filename.tex
Do HELP META for details about the metale types. Note that a new picture is automatically
created for each new plot if the OPTION ZFL1 is on.
If FILE=HIGZPRINTER or FILE=' ' the PostScript le paw.ps (-111) is generated and the operating
system command dened by the environment variable HIGZPRINTER is executed.
The environment variable HIGZPRINTER should be dened as follow:
On UNIX sytems:
setenv HIGZPRINTER 'lp -dprinter_name paw.ps'
or
export HIGZPRINTER='lp -dprinter_name paw.ps'
On VAX/VMS sytems:
HIGZPRINTER == "XPRINT paw.ps /PRINTER=printer_name"
On CERNVM:
setenv HIGZPRINTER 'XPRINT PAW PS (PR printer_name'
Note that if the environment variable HIGZPRINTER is not dened the le paw.ps is created but
not printed.
IZOUT PNAME ]
PNAME
C \Picture name"
D='*' Loop
Write the picture PNAME to a direct access picture le (see command PICTURE/FILE). PNAME='
' means the current picture. PNAME='*' means all pictures.
IZIN PNAME ICYCLE ]
PNAME
ICYCLE
C \Picture name" Loop
I \Cycle number " D=9999
Read picture into memory from a direct access picture le. (see command PICTURE/FILE).
PNAME='*' means all pictures.
IZPICT PNAME CHOPT ]
PNAME
CHOPT
C \Picture name"
C \Options" D='M'
Possible CHOPT values are:
407
Make a new picture in memory with name PNAME. An empty structure is created in
memory and becomes the current picture. If PNAME = ' ', the picture is automatically
named as PICTnnn, where the starting value of nnn is either 0 (default), or the value
assigned by IGSET to the parameter PICT.
D Display the picture PNAME in memory.
S Scratch the picture PNAME from memory. If PNAME = ' ' the current picture is
scratched.
N The picture following the current picture in memory becomes the current picture. If
the current picture is the last one in memory, the rst picture in memory becomes the
current picture.
L Give the list of the pictures in memory, following the sequence of their storage in
memory.
F The First picture in memory becomes the current picture.
P Print the picture data structure. Useful to debug programs.
C Set Current picture. All calls to HIGZ graphic functions are stored in the current
structure according to the option selected be IGZSET.
Perform various operations on a picture. PNAME=' ' means the current picture. PNAME='*' means
all pictures.
M
SWITCH CHOPT ]
C \Options" D='G'
Possible CHOPT values are:
G graphics output only.
Z Graphics primitives stored in ZEBRA memory only.
Set the graphics switch to control plotting output to terminal (G) and/or picture in memory (Z).
CHOPT
IGSET CHATT VALUE ]
C \Attribute name" D='SHOW'
VALUE R \Attribute value" D=0.
Set a HIGZ attribute. If CHATT='SHOW' print default and current values for all attributes. If
CHATT='*' restore default values for all attributes. If VALUE=0, the attribute is set to its default
value.
CHATT
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|
IGSET : Current values in use
|
+-------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------------------+
| Parameter | Current value | Default value |
Explanation
|
+-------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------------------+
|
FAIS
|
0
|
0
| Fill area interior style
|
|
FASI
|
1
|
1
| Fill area style index
|
|
LTYP
|
1
|
1
| Line type
|
408
Chapter 16. PICTURE
|
BASL
|
.150
|
.010 | Basic segment length (NDC)
|
|
LWID
|
1.000
|
1.000 | Line width
|
|
MTYP
|
1
|
1
| Marker type
|
|
MSCF
|
1.000
|
1.000 | Marker scale factor
|
|
PLCI
|
1
|
1
| Polyline color index
|
|
PMCI
|
1
|
1
| Polymarker color index
|
|
FACI
|
1
|
1
| Fill area color index
|
|
TXCI
|
1
|
1
| Text color index
|
|
TXAL
|
0 0
|
0 0
| Text alignment
|
|
CHHE
|
.280
|
.010 | Character height
|
|
TANG
|
.000
|
.000 | Text angle
|
|
TXFP
|
0 2
|
0 2
| Text font and precision
|
|
PICT
|
1
|
1
| Current automatic number
|
|
BORD
|
0
|
0
| Border flag
|
|
PASS
|
1
|
1
| Number of pass in IGTEXT
|
|
CSHI
|
.030
|
.020 | IGTEXT shift
|
|
LASI
|
.018
|
.018 | Label axis size
|
|
LAOF
|
.013
|
.013 | Label axis offset
|
|
TMSI
|
.019
|
.019 | Tick marks size
|
|
AWLN
|
.000
|
.000 | Axis wire lenght
|
|
BARO
|
.250
|
.250 | Offset of IGHIST (IGRAPH) bars|
|
BARW
|
.500
|
.500 | Width of IGHIST (IGRAPH) bars |
|
NCOL
|
8
|
8
| Number of COLors
|
|
CLIP
|
1
|
1
| Clipping mode
|
|
NLIN
|
40
|
40
| Number of line for 3D shapes |
|
AURZ
|
0
|
0
| Automatic saving flag
|
|
DIME
|
2
|
2
| Dimension used (2D or 3D)
|
+-------------+---------------+---------------+-------------------------------+
Chapter 17: ZEBRA
Interfaces to the ZEBRA RZ, FZ and DZ packages.
17.1
ZEBRA/RZ
ZEBRA/RZ package: direct access Input/Output.
FILE LUN FNAME LRECL CHOPT ]
\Logical unit number" R=1:128
FNAME
\File name"
LRECL
\Record length in WORDS" D=1024
CHOPT
\Options" D='*'
Possible CHOPT values are:
'*' Read only mode.
U
Update mode.
Open an existing direct access le.
LUN
I
C
I
C
MAKE LUN FNAME LRECL NREC NWKEY CHFORM CHTAGS ]
I \Logical unit number" R=1:128
FNAME
C \File name"
LRECL
I \Record length in WORDS" D=1024
NREC
I \Number of records" D=1000
NWKEY
I \Number of words per Key" D=1
CHFORM C \Key format" D='I' R='I,B,A,H'
CHTAGS C \List of Tags" D='HBOOK-ID'
Open a new direct access le.
LUN
MDIR CHDIR NWKEY CHFORM CHTAGS ]
C \Directory name"
NWKEY
I \Number of words per Key" D=1
CHFORM C \CHFORM" D='I'
CHTAGS C \List of Tags" D='HBOOK-ID'
Create a new RZ directory below the current directory.
CHDIR
DDIR CHDIR
C \Directory name"
Delete the directory CHDIR from the current directory.
CHDIR
409
Chapter 17. ZEBRA
410
LDIR CHPATH CHOPT ]
CHPATH
CHOPT
C \Path name" D='*'
C \Options" D='*'
Possible CHOPT values are:
'*'
A
T
List contents of a directory.
List all the Ntuple extensions.
List a directory Tree.
List contents of a directory (memory or disk). To list all RZ les currently opened, type 'LD //'.
Note that if the Current Directory is //PAWC, this command uses the same format as HISTO/LIST.
CDIR CHPATH CHOPT ]
CHPATH
CHOPT
C \Path name" D='*'
C \Options" D='*'
Change the current working directory (CWD). IF CHPATH is given make it the new CWD. Otherwise,
print the pathname of the CWD.
Ex.
CD dir1
& make DIR1 the new CWD
CD //file1/dir2 & make //FILE1/DIR2 the new CWD
CD
& print the name of the CWD
PURGE KEEP ]
KEEP
I \Number of cycles to be kept"
D=1
Purge an RZ directory.
LOCK CHLOCK ]
CHLOCK
C \Lock identier"
D='RZFILE'
Lock an RZ directory.
FREE CHLOCK ]
CHLOCK
C \Lock identier"
D='RZFILE'
Free an RZ directory.
STAT CHPATH
CHPATH
C \Name of top directory"
Print space statistics for an RZ le.
17.2. ZEBRA/FZ
17.2
411
ZEBRA/FZ
ZEBRA/FZ package: sequential access Input/Output.
FILE LUN FNAME LRECL CHOPT ]
\Logical unit number" R=1:128
FNAME
\File name"
LRECL
\Record length in words" D=900
CHOPT
\Options" D='IX'
Possible CHOPT values are:
I Input le.
O Output le.
X Binary exchange mode.
A Alphanumeric exchange mode.
Open an FZ sequential formatted or unformatted le.
LUN
I
C
I
C
TOFZ LUN CHOPT ]
I \Logical unit number of FZ le"
CHOPT C \Options" D='*'
Copy the current directory tree onto an FZ le.
LUN
R=1:128
FRFZ LUN CHOPT ]
I \Logical unit number of FZ le"
CHOPT C \Options" D='*'
Copy the FZ le into the current directory tree.
LUN
R=1:128
TOALPHA FNAME
C \Name of the FZ text le"
Copy the current directory tree onto a FZ le. An alphanumeric format is used. The le FNAME
can be exchanged between dierent machines.
FNAME
FRALPHA FNAME
C \Name of the FZ text le"
Copy the FZ alphanumeric le into the current directory.
FNAME
17.3
ZEBRA/DZ
ZEBRA/DZ package: debugging.
Chapter 17. ZEBRA
412
SHOW NAME NUMBER CHOPT ]
NAME
NUMBER
CHOPT
C \Bank name"
I \Bank number" D=1
C \Options" D='BSV'
Possible CHOPT values are:
B
S
V
D
L
Z
Print the bank.
Print the bank contents from left to right Sideways with up to ten elements per line.
Print the vertical (down) structure.
Print the bank contents from top to bottom Downwards with ve elements per line.
Print the linear structure.
Print the data part of each bank in hexadecimal format
Display the contents of a bank or a data structure identied by its NAME and NUMBER. The output
format of the data part is controlled by the internal or external I/O characteristic.
SURV NAME NUMBER ]
NAME
NUMBER
C \Bank name"
I \Bank number"
D=1
Print a survey of the structure identied by NAME, NUMBER.
SNAP IDIV CHOPT ]
IDIV
CHOPT
I \Division number "
C \Options" D='M'
D=2 R=0:24
Possible CHOPT values are:
M
E
F
K
L
W
Z
Print Map entry for each bank
Extend map entry to dump all links of each bank (otherwise only as many links as
will t on a line)
Full. Dump all active banks, links and data
Kill. Dropped banks to be treated as active (dropped banks are not normally dumped
under D or F option)
Dump all Link areas associated with the store
Dump the Working space, links and data
Dump the information in hexadecimal.
Snap of one or more divisions. Provides a snapshot of one or more divisions in a ZEBRA store. The
kind of information provided is controlled by CHOPT.
17.3. ZEBRA/DZ
413
VERIFY IDIV CHOPT ]
I \Division number " D=0 R=0:24
CHOPT C \Options" D='CLSU'
Possible CHOPT values are:
C Check chaining of banks only
L Check validity of the structural links (implies 'C')
S Check the store parameters
U Check the validity of the up and origin (implies 'C')
F Errors are considered fatal and generate a call to ZFATAL
Check the structure of one or more ZEBRA divisions. The verication detail depends on the settings
in CHOPT.
IDIV
STORE IXSTOR ]
I \Store number" D=0 R=0:24
Display the structure of the ZEBRA store IXSTOR. Output the parameters characterizing the store,
followed by a list of all divisions and all link areas associated with the store in question.
IXSTOR
Chapter 18: FORTRAN
Interface to MINUIT, COMIS, SIGMA and FORTRAN Input/Output.
HMINUIT
To input commands for Interactive MINUIT in a macro. Example:
Application HMINUIT EXIT
SET EPS 1.E-14
MIGRAD
SET PRIN 2
MINOS
EXIT
Histo/fit 10 g m
COMIS
Invoke the COMIS FORTRAN interpreter. COMIS allows to execute FORTRAN routines without
recompiling and relinking. It communicates with PAW commands through vectors and functions.
COMIS has its PAW-independent command structure. Example in command mode:
PAW > Comis
CS >
do 10 i=1,10
MND>
x=sqrt(i)*10.
MND>
print *,i,x
MND> 10 continue
MND>
END
CS > quit
PAW >
COMIS code may be inserted into a macro. Example:
Vector/Create Y(10) r 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
*
* In the following COMIS code, the statement "Vector Y" declares
* to COMIS an existing KUIP vector. KUIP dimension is assumed.
* The statement "Vector X(10)" creates a new KUIP vector.
* (Note that SUBROUTINEs must be declared before the MAIN program)
* (KUIP vectors cannot be created into the MAIN program)
*
APPLIcation COMIS QUIT
SUBROUTINE DEMO
Vector Y
Vector X(10)
do 10 i=1,10
XX=i
X(i)=Y(i)*sqrt(XX)*10.
414
415
10
CONTINUE
END
CALL DEMO
END
QUIT
Vector/print X
| Print KUIP vector created by COMIS
CALL UROUT
C \User routine"
Execute the routine UROUT. UROUT may be a routine compiled and linked with PAW. For example
: CALL HPRINT(10). UROUT may also be the name of a le which can be edited interactively with
the command EDIT. For example if le UROUT.FOR contains:
UROUT
SUBROUTINE UROUT(N)
SUM=0.
DO 10 I=1,N
SUM=SUM+I
10 CONTINUE
PRINT *,SUM
END
Then one can type CALL UROUT.FOR(10). The routine UROUT may also contains references to
the library routines mentioned below. The following routines from the CERN Program Library can
be called:
From HBOOK:
HBOOK1,HBOOK2,HBOOKN,HFILL,HF1,HPRINT,HDELET,HRESET
HFITGA,HFITPO,HFITEX,HPROJ1,HPROJ2,HFN,HGFIT
HROPEN,PAOPEN,PACLOS,PAREAD,PAWRIT,HCDIR,HGIVEN
HTITLE,HBFUN1,HBFUN2,HRNDM1,HRNDM2,HBARX,HBARY
HPAK,HPAKE,HUNPAK,HGIVE,HGN,HGNF,HGNPAR,HF2,HFF1,HFF2
HRIN,HROUT,HI,HIE,HIX,HIJ,HIF,HIDALL,HNOENT,HX,HXY
HTITLE,HCOPY,HSTATI,HBPROF,HOPERA,HIDOPT,HDERIV
HMAXIM,HMINIM,HMAX,HMIN,HSUM,HNORMA,HREND
HEXIST,HRGET,HRPUT,HSCR,HFIND,HCX,HCXY,HLABEL
HBPROX,HBPROY,HBANDX,HBANDY,HBSLIX,HBSLIY,HPROF2
HBOOKB,HBSTAT,HDIFF,HUNPKE,HREBIN,HERROR,HGNTB
HOUTPU,HERMES,HISTDO,HFUNC,HIJXY,HXYIJ,HLPOS,HFC1
HSPLI1,HSPLI2,HMDIR,HLDIR,HLOCAT,HFITH,HFITV,HFINAM
HBNT,HBNAME,HBNAMC,HFNT,HFNTB,HGNT,HGNTF,HGNTV,HBSET
From HPLOT:
HPLOT,HPLSYM,HPLERR,HPLEGO,HPLNT,HPLSUR,HPLSOF,HPLFRA
HPLABL,HPLSET,HPLGIV,HPLOC,HPLTOC,HPLNEW,HPLOPT
From ZEBRA:
FZIN,FZOUT,FZFILE,FZENDI,FZENDO
RZCDIR,RZLDIR,RZFILE,RZEND,RZIN,RZOUT,RZVIN,RZVOUT
Chapter 18. FORTRAN
416
RZOPEN,RZIODO,RZCLOS,RZQUOT
From KUIP:
KUGETV,KUDPAR,KUVECT,KILEXP,KUTIME,KUEXEL,KUPROS
KUNWG,KUCMD,KUGUID,KUNDPV,KUPAR,KUPVAL,KUACT
From HIGZ:
IPL,IPM,IFA,IGTEXT,IGBOX,IGAXIS,IGPIE,IGRAPH,IGHIST
IGARC,IGLBL,IGRNG,IGMETA,IGSA,IGSET,IRQLC,IRQST,ISCR
ISELNT,ISFAIS,ISFASI,ISLN,ISMK,ISVP,ISWN,ITX,ICLRWK
IGPAVE,IGTERM
From KERNLIB:
VZERO,UCOPY,RNDM,RANNOR,LENOCC,SBIT0,SBIT1,SBYT
JBIT,JBYT,UCTOH,UHTOC,CLTOU,CUTOL,ERF,ERFC,FREQ
PROB,DENLAN,DSTLAN,DIFLAN,XM1LAN,XM2LAN,RANLAN
The following common blocks may be referenced:
/PAWC/, /QUEST/, /KCWORK/, /PAWPAR/, /PAWIDN/
/HCFITS/, /HCFITD/
LOOP NTIMES UROUT
NTIMES
UROUT
I \Number of calls"
C \User routine"
D=1
The routine UROUT is called NTIMES times. See command CALL for explanation of UROUT.
FILE LUN FNAME
LUN
FNAME
I \Logical unit number"
C \File name"
Open a FORTRAN formatted text le.
CLOSE LUN
LUN
I \Logical unit number"
R=1:128
Close the le on unit LUN. If the le has been opened with HISTO/FILE, PICTURE/FILE, etc, then
before closing the unit, PAW will close correctly the le with CALL HREND or FZENDI(O), ICLWK,
etc.
REWIND LUN
LUN
I \Logical unit number"
Rewind the le on unit LUN.
R=1:128
417
SIGMA EXPR ]
C \Expression" D='*'
Invoke the SIGMA package. SIGMA is an array manipulation package using its own vector-oriented
language, outside the PAW command conventions. SIGMA may be invoked in one of the three
following ways:
EXPR
1- Using the KUIP $SIGMA function. Example:
PAW > Vector/Create x(10) r 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
PAW > Graph 10 x $sigma(sqrt(x))
2- Using
PAW >
PAW >
PAW >
the SIGMA command. Example:
sigma x=array(10,1#10)
sigma y=sqrt(x)
Graph 10 x y
3- Using
PAW >
SIGMA
SIGMA
SIGMA
PAW >
the APPLication command. Example:
APPLication SIGMA
> x=array(10,1#10)
> y=sqrt(x)
> exit
Graph 10 x y
Chapter 19: NETWORK
To access les on remote computers. To send messages to a remote process (ZEBRA server)
RLOGIN HOST
C \Host name" D='*'
Start a communication with a remote machine HOST. Current Directory will be changed to //HOST.
HOST
RSHELL MESSAGE
C \Message to remote host" D='*'
Send MESSAGE to current remote host. Note that the Current Directory must be //HOST (see
RLOGIN). Some PAW commands (Histo/Plot, Histo/List) can communicate directly with HOST.
MESSAGE
19.1
NETWORK/PIAF
To establish and control the connection to the Piaf server. The Parallel Interactive Analysis Facility
(Piaf) is a cluster of 5 high-performance HP workstations.
A locally running PAW session (client) connected to the Piaf server can access Hbook RZ les
stored on the server side in a transparent way. Commands with high CPU or I/O requirements, e.g.
NT/PLOT and NT/PROJECT are processed by the server and only the resulting histograms etc.
are sent back to the client.
In order to use the Piaf server the PAW client must have been compiled with the communications
option CZ using TCP/IP as transport protocol.
CONNECT SERVER NODE ]
C \Server name" D='piaf'
NODE
C \Front-end node" D='128.141.201.28'
Establish a connection to the Piaf server. Subsequent HISTO/FILE commands can refer to les on
the server using path names '//piaf/le.hbook'.
SERVER
STAGE SOURCE TARGET OPTION ]
C \Source le identier"
TARGET C \Target le name" D='*'
OPTION C \Options" D='*'
Possible OPTION values are:
N NoWait. Submit the request to the staging system and return immediately.
Stage an Ntuple le on the Piaf server. The source le identier can be the name of a local le on
the client system, a Fatmen path, or a tape identier. If the target le name is not specied it is
constructed from the source identier.
Unless the option N is used the STAGE command waits until the staging is completed and the le
is ready to be used.
SOURCE
418
19.1. NETWORK/PIAF
419
GET REMOTE LOCAL FORMAT RECL ]
\Remote le name"
LOCAL
\Local le name" D='*'
FORMAT
\Text or binary" D='RZ'
RECL
\Record length in bytes" D=0 R=0:
Possible FORMAT values are:
T
Text le.
RZ
Zebra RZ le in exchange format.
BIN Binary le with record length given by RECL.
Copy a le from the Piaf server to the client system. If not specied the local le name will be same
as the remote le name. RECL needs to be specied only for BIN format. For IBM only: A text le
with RECL=0 is written in V-format. Otherwise it is written in F-format with the given LRECL.
REMOTE
C
C
C
I
PUT LOCAL REMOTE FORMAT ]
C \Local le name"
REMOTE C \Remote le name" D='*'
FORMAT C \Text or binary" D='RZ'
Possible FORMAT values are:
T
Text le.
RZ
Zebra RZ le in exchange format.
BIN Binary le.
Copy a le from the client system to the Piaf server. If not specied the remote le name will
be same as the local le name. Note for VMS: Avoid text les with variable record length. Use
Stream_LF format instead.
LOCAL
LS FILES ]
C \File pattern" D='*'
List les stored on the Piaf server.
FILES
CAT FILE
C \File name"
Print a Piaf le on the terminal.
FILE
RM FILE
C \File name"
Delete a Piaf le.
FILE
420
Chapter 19. NETWORK
MV FROM TO
C \Old le name"
TO
C \New le name"
Rename a Piaf le.
FROM
CP FROM TO
C \Old le name"
TO
C \New le name"
Copy a Piaf le to a new le.
FROM
STATUS
Inquire the status of the Piaf server.
MODE OPTION ]
C \Processing mode" D='?'
Possible OPTION values are:
?
Inquire the current mode.
SEQ Set sequential processing mode.
PAR Set parallel processing mode.
Inquire or change the processing mode of the Piaf server. In parallel mode the Piaf server uses slave
servers to process Ntuple requests on all available machines in parallel.
With certain types of COMIS selection functions, e.g. when reading from an external le for each
event, parallel processing is not possible. The Piaf server should be switched to sequential mode, i.e.
the master server alone processes the Ntuple request.
OPTION
LOGLEVEL LEVEL
I \Log level" D=0
Set the level of diagnostic output from the Piaf server.
LEVEL
DISCONNECT
Close the connection to the Piaf server.
Chapter 20: OBSOLETE
Obsolete commands.
20.1 OBSOLETE/HISTOGRAM
20.1.1 OBSOLETE/HISTOGRAM/FIT
Fitting and smoothing (1-Dim or 2-Dim) histograms. Results are given as histogram-associated
functions, and t parameters printed on screen.
EXPONENTIAL ID ISEL IFTLOW IFTUP ]
C \histogram Identier"
ISEL
I \option ag " D=12
IFTLOW I \First channel" D=1
IFTUP
I \Last channel " D=99999
Fit histogram ID with an exponential function between channels IFTLOW and IFTUP. Obsolete
command. Use Command Hist/Fit instead. Control word ISEL = 100*W+10*P+S.
ID
S=2
1
P=1
>1
0
W=1
0
superimposes function to histogram
no superimposing
output from final iteration
output at iterations from 0 to (P-1), N=0,1,2,..
no output
sets weights equal to 1
calculates statistical errors as
E=SQRT(CONTENTS) unless the 1-Dim histogram
ID is weighted with HBARX or HPAKE
GAUSS ID ISEL IFTLOW IFTUP ]
C \histogram Identier"
ISEL
I \option ag " D=12
IFTLOW I \First channel" D=1
IFTUP
I \Last channel " D=99999
Fit histogram ID with a Gaussian between channels IFTLOW and IFTUP. Obsolete command. Use
Command Hist/Fit instead. Control word ISEL = 100*W+10*P+S.
ID
S=2
1
P=1
>1
0
W=1
0
superimposes function to histogram
no superimposing
output from final iteration
output at iterations from 0 to (P-1), N=0,1,2,..
no output
sets weights equal to 1
calculates statistical errors as
E=SQRT(CONTENTS) unless the 1-Dim histogram
ID is weighted with HBARX or HPAKE
421
Chapter 20. OBSOLETE
422
POLYNOMIAL ID NCOEFF ISEL IFTLOW IFTUP ]
C \histogram Identier"
NCOEFF I \Number of coe"cients" D=3
ISEL
I \option ag " D=12
IFTLOW I \First channel" D=1
IFTUP
I \Last channel " D=99999
Fit histogram ID with a polynomial between channels IFTLOW and IFTUP. NCOEFF is the degree
of the polynomial plus one. Obsolete command. Use Command Hist/Fit instead. Control word ISEL
= 100*W+10*P+S.
ID
S=2
1
P=1
>1
0
W=1
0
superimposes function to histogram
no superimposing
output from final iteration
output at iterations from 0 to (P-1), N=0,1,2,..
no output
sets weights equal to 1
calculates statistical errors as
E=SQRT(CONTENTS) unless the 1-Dim histogram
ID is weighted with HBARX or HPAKE
FUNCTION ID FUNC NP DPAR ISEL IFTLOW IFTUP STEP PMIN PMAX ]
C \Histogram Identier"
FUNC
C \Function name"
NP
I \Number of parameters"
DPAR
C \Vector of parameters"
ISEL
I \Option ag " D=12
IFTLOW I \First channel" D=1
IFTUP
I \Last channel " D=99999
STEP
C \Vector of steps size"
PMIN
C \Vector of lower bounds"
PMAX
C \Vector of upper bounds"
Obsolete command. Use Command Hist/Fit instead. Fit a user dened (and parameter dependent)
function to a histogram ID between channels IFTLOW and IFTUP. FUNC is the name of a le which
contains the user dened function to be minimized. For example le FUNC.FOR is:
ID
DOUBLE PRECISION FUNCTION FUNC(X)
DOUBLE PRECISION X,DPAR
COMMON/PAWPAR/DPAR(100)
FUNC=DPAR(1)*X +DPAR(2)*EXP(-X)
END
After the t, the vector DPAR contains the new values of parameters. Control word ISEL =
10000*B+100*W+10*P+S.
20.1. OBSOLETE/HISTOGRAM
S=2
1
P=1
>1
0
W=1
0
superimposes function to histogram
no superimposing
output from final iteration
output at iterations from 0 to (P-1), N=0,1,2,..
no output
sets weights equal to 1
calculates statistical errors as
E=SQRT(CONTENTS) unless the 1-Dim histogram
ID is weighted with HBARX or HPAKE
B=0 All parameters vary freely (vectors STEP,PMIN,PMAX not required)
1 Some or all parameters are bounded
STEP(I)=0 means parameter I is fixed to its initial value
423
Bibliography
'1] V. Berezhnoi (editor). COMIS { Compilation and Interpretation System, Program Library L210.
CERN, 1988.
'2] R.Brun. HBOOK users guide (Version 4.15), Program Library Y250. CERN, 1992.
'3] R.Bock et al. HIGZ Users Guide, Program Library Q120. CERN, 1991.
'4] R.Brun and H.Renshall. HPLOT users guide, Program Library Y251. CERN, 1990.
'5] R.Brun and P.Zanarini. KUIP { Kit for a User Interface Package, Program library I202. CERN,
1988.
'6] F.James and M.Roos. MINUIT { Users Guide, Program Library D506. CERN, 1981.
'7] R.Brun, M.Goossens, and J.Zoll. ZEBRA Users Guide, Program Library Q100. CERN, 1991.
'8] L. Lamport.
LATEX
A Document Preparation System. Addison-Wesley, 1986.
'9] Adobe. PostScript Language Manual (Second Edition). Addison Wesley, 1990.
'10] Graphics section. Guide to computer graphics at CERN, DD/US/1987. CERN, 1990.
'11] R.Brun, F.Bruyant, M.Maire, A.C.McPherson, and P.Zanarini. GEANT3 (DD/EE/81-1). CERN,
1987.
'12] M. Brun, R. Brun, and F. Rademakers. CMZ - A Source Code Management System. CodeME
S.A.R.L., 1991.
'13] F.James. Interpretation of the errors on parameters as given by MINUIT, Supplement to \CERN
Program Library Long writeup D506". CERN, 1978.
'14] F.James. Determining the statistical Signicance of experimental Results. Technical Report
DD/81/02 and CERN Report 81{03, CERN, 1981.
'15] W.T.Eadie, D.Drijard, F.James, M.Roos, and B.Sadoulet. Statistical Methods in Experimental
Physics. North-Holland, 1971.
'16] H.J. Klein and J. Zoll. PATCHY Reference Manual, Program Library L400. CERN, 1988.
'17] B.Segal. The TCPAW package. CERN, 1989.
'18] R.Brun and B.Segal. A distributed Physics Analysis workbench. CERN, 1989.
'19] Sun Microsystems. Network File System Version 2. Sun Microsystems, 1987.
424
Index
CP, 420
CREATE, 325, 338, 369, 404
CSELECT, 376
CUTS, 375
DDIR, 409
DEFAULTS, 336
DELETE, 326, 339, 345, 404
DIFF, 358
DISCONNECT, 420
DIVIDE, 357
DRAW, 341, 366, 375
DUMP, 355
EDIT, 322
ERRORS, 361, 362, 401
EXEC, 335
EXIT, 323
EXPONENTIAL, 421
FAREA, 389
FBOX, 390
FILECASE, 333
FILE, 345, 404, 409, 411, 416
FIT, 342, 348
FORTRAN/CALL, 415
FORTRAN/CLOSE, 416
FORTRAN/COMIS, 414
FORTRAN/FILE, 416
FORTRAN/HMINUIT, 414
FORTRAN/LOOP, 416
FORTRAN/REWIND, 416
FORTRAN/SIGMA, 417
FPOINT, 391
FRALPHA, 411
FREE, 410
FRFZ, 411
FUN1, 365
FUN2, 365
FUNCTION/ANGLE, 368
FUNCTION/DRAW, 366
FUNCTION/FUN1, 365
FUNCTION/FUN2, 365
FUNCTION/PLOT, 367
FUNCTION/POINTS, 367
FUNCTION/RANGE, 367
FUNCTIONS, 323
FUNCTION, 361, 422
*
IGSET parameter, 283
***P
HPLOPT option, 284
**P
HPLOPT option, 284
*COL
SET parameter, 291
*P
HPLOPT option, 284
/MACRO/EXEC, 207
RETURN, 40
$SIGMA, 226
1DHISTO, 352
2DHISTO, 353
ABSCISSA, 361
ADD, 356
AERRORS, 401
ANGLE, 368
APPLICATION, 329
ARCHELIX, 391
ARC, 394
ARLINE, 391
ARROW, 390
ATITLE, 403
AXIS, 392
BANX, 353
BANY, 354
BINS, 352
BOX, 390
BREAK, 330
CALL, 415
CAT, 419
CDIR, 410
CHAIN, 374
CLOSE, 416
CLR, 386
COLOR_TABLE, 399
COLUMNS, 330
COMIS, 414
COMMAND, 328
CONNECT, 418
CONTENTS, 361, 362
CONTOUR, 351
COPY, 339, 348, 405
425
426
GAUSS, 421
GET, 419
GLOBAL_SECT, 356
GRAPHICS/ATTRIBUTES/COLOR_TABLE, 399
GRAPHICS/ATTRIBUTES/PALETTE, 400
GRAPHICS/ATTRIBUTES/SCHH, 399
GRAPHICS/ATTRIBUTES/SFACI, 398
GRAPHICS/ATTRIBUTES/SFAIS, 398
GRAPHICS/ATTRIBUTES/SFASI, 398
GRAPHICS/ATTRIBUTES/SLN, 398
GRAPHICS/ATTRIBUTES/SLWSC, 399
GRAPHICS/ATTRIBUTES/SMK, 399
GRAPHICS/ATTRIBUTES/SPLCI, 399
GRAPHICS/ATTRIBUTES/SPMCI, 399
GRAPHICS/ATTRIBUTES/STXCI, 399
GRAPHICS/ATTRIBUTES/STXFP, 399
GRAPHICS/HPLOT/AERRORS, 401
GRAPHICS/HPLOT/ATITLE, 403
GRAPHICS/HPLOT/ERRORS, 401
GRAPHICS/HPLOT/GRID, 403
GRAPHICS/HPLOT/KEY, 402
GRAPHICS/HPLOT/NULL, 403
GRAPHICS/HPLOT/SYMBOLS, 400
GRAPHICS/HPLOT/TICKS, 402
GRAPHICS/METAFILE, 384
GRAPHICS/MISC/CLR, 386
GRAPHICS/MISC/HMOVE, 387
GRAPHICS/MISC/LOCATE, 386
GRAPHICS/MISC/NEXT, 386
GRAPHICS/MISC/VLOCATE, 387
GRAPHICS/OPTION, 382
GRAPHICS/PRIMITIVES/ARCHELIX, 391
GRAPHICS/PRIMITIVES/ARC, 394
GRAPHICS/PRIMITIVES/ARLINE, 391
GRAPHICS/PRIMITIVES/ARROW, 390
GRAPHICS/PRIMITIVES/AXIS, 392
GRAPHICS/PRIMITIVES/BOX, 390
GRAPHICS/PRIMITIVES/FAREA, 389
GRAPHICS/PRIMITIVES/FBOX, 390
GRAPHICS/PRIMITIVES/FPOINT, 391
GRAPHICS/PRIMITIVES/GRAPH, 397
GRAPHICS/PRIMITIVES/HELIX, 391
GRAPHICS/PRIMITIVES/HIST, 396
GRAPHICS/PRIMITIVES/ITX, 395
GRAPHICS/PRIMITIVES/LABELS, 395
GRAPHICS/PRIMITIVES/LINE, 389
INDEX
GRAPHICS/PRIMITIVES/PAVE, 395
GRAPHICS/PRIMITIVES/PIE, 394
GRAPHICS/PRIMITIVES/PLINE, 389
GRAPHICS/PRIMITIVES/PMARKER, 390
GRAPHICS/PRIMITIVES/TEXT, 395
GRAPHICS/SET, 380
GRAPHICS/SLIDE, 386
GRAPHICS/VIEWING/SELNT, 388
GRAPHICS/VIEWING/SIZE, 388
GRAPHICS/VIEWING/SVP, 388
GRAPHICS/VIEWING/SWN, 388
GRAPHICS/VIEWING/ZONE, 387
GRAPHICS/WORKSTATION, 385
GRAPH, 397
GRESET, 356
GRID, 403
HELIX, 391
HELP, 321
HFETCH, 355
HFILL, 341
HISTOGRAM/2D_PLOT/CONTOUR, 351
HISTOGRAM/2D_PLOT/LEGO, 350
HISTOGRAM/2D_PLOT/SURFACE, 351
HISTOGRAM/COPY, 348
HISTOGRAM/CREATE/1DHISTO, 352
HISTOGRAM/CREATE/2DHISTO, 353
HISTOGRAM/CREATE/BANX, 353
HISTOGRAM/CREATE/BANY, 354
HISTOGRAM/CREATE/BINS, 352
HISTOGRAM/CREATE/PROFILE, 352
HISTOGRAM/CREATE/PROX, 353
HISTOGRAM/CREATE/PROY, 353
HISTOGRAM/CREATE/SLIX, 353
HISTOGRAM/CREATE/SLIY, 353
HISTOGRAM/CREATE/TITLE_GLOBAL, 354
HISTOGRAM/DELETE, 345
HISTOGRAM/FILE, 345
HISTOGRAM/FIT, 348
HISTOGRAM/GET_VECT/ABSCISSA, 361
HISTOGRAM/GET_VECT/CONTENTS, 361
HISTOGRAM/GET_VECT/ERRORS, 361
HISTOGRAM/GET_VECT/FUNCTION, 361
HISTOGRAM/GET_VECT/REBIN, 361
HISTOGRAM/HIO/DUMP, 355
HISTOGRAM/HIO/GLOBAL_SECT, 356
HISTOGRAM/HIO/GRESET, 356
INDEX
HISTOGRAM/HIO/HFETCH, 355
HISTOGRAM/HIO/HREAD, 355
HISTOGRAM/HIO/HRIN, 354
HISTOGRAM/HIO/HROUT, 354
HISTOGRAM/HIO/HSCRATCH, 355
HISTOGRAM/HIO/OUTPUT_LP, 356
HISTOGRAM/HIO/PRINT, 355
HISTOGRAM/LIST, 345
HISTOGRAM/MANY_PLOTS, 348
HISTOGRAM/OPERATIONS/ADD, 356
HISTOGRAM/OPERATIONS/DIFF, 358
HISTOGRAM/OPERATIONS/DIVIDE, 357
HISTOGRAM/OPERATIONS/HSETPR, 361
HISTOGRAM/OPERATIONS/MULTIPLY, 357
HISTOGRAM/OPERATIONS/PARAM, 360
HISTOGRAM/OPERATIONS/RESET, 358
HISTOGRAM/OPERATIONS/SMOOTH, 359
HISTOGRAM/OPERATIONS/SORT, 358
HISTOGRAM/OPERATIONS/SPLINE, 360
HISTOGRAM/OPERATIONS/SUBTRACT, 357
HISTOGRAM/PLOT, 345
HISTOGRAM/PROJECT, 348
HISTOGRAM/PUT_VECT/CONTENTS, 362
HISTOGRAM/PUT_VECT/ERRORS, 362
HISTOGRAM/SET/IDOPT, 363
HISTOGRAM/SET/MAXIMUM, 362
HISTOGRAM/SET/MINIMUM, 362
HISTOGRAM/SET/NORMALIZE_FACTOR, 363
HISTOGRAM/SET/SCALE_FACTOR_2D, 363
HISTOGRAM/ZOOM, 347
HIST, 396
HMINUIT, 414
HMOVE, 387
HOST_EDITOR, 330
HOST_PAGER, 331
HOST_SHELL, 332
HREAD, 355
HRIN, 354
HROUT, 354
HSCRATCH, 355
HSETPR, 361
IDOPT, 363
IGSET, 407
INPUT, 339
ITX, 395
IZIN, 406
427
IZOUT, 406
IZPICT, 406
KEY, 402
KUIP/ALIAS/CREATE, 325
KUIP/ALIAS/DELETE, 326
KUIP/ALIAS/LIST, 326
KUIP/ALIAS/TRANSLATION, 326
KUIP/EDIT, 322
KUIP/EXIT, 323
KUIP/FUNCTIONS, 323
KUIP/HELP, 321
KUIP/LAST, 322
KUIP/MANUAL, 321
KUIP/MESSAGE, 322
KUIP/QUIT, 323
KUIP/SET_SHOW/APPLICATION, 329
KUIP/SET_SHOW/BREAK, 330
KUIP/SET_SHOW/COLUMNS, 330
KUIP/SET_SHOW/COMMAND, 328
KUIP/SET_SHOW/FILECASE, 333
KUIP/SET_SHOW/HOST_EDITOR, 330
KUIP/SET_SHOW/HOST_PAGER, 331
KUIP/SET_SHOW/HOST_SHELL, 332
KUIP/SET_SHOW/LCDIR, 334
KUIP/SET_SHOW/NEWPANEL, 328
KUIP/SET_SHOW/PANEL, 327
KUIP/SET_SHOW/PROMPT, 329
KUIP/SET_SHOW/RECALL_STYLE, 332
KUIP/SET_SHOW/RECORDING, 330
KUIP/SET_SHOW/ROOT, 329
KUIP/SET_SHOW/STYLE, 327
KUIP/SET_SHOW/TIMING, 329
KUIP/SET_SHOW/VISIBILITY, 333
KUIP/SHELL, 323
KUIP/UNITS, 323
KUIP/USAGE, 321
KUIP/WAIT, 323
LABELS, 395
LAST, 322
LCDIR, 334
LDIR, 410
LEGO, 350
LINE, 389
LINTRA, 378
LIST, 326, 335, 339, 345, 370, 404
LOCATE, 386
428
LOCK, 410
LOGLEVEL, 420
LOOP, 371, 416
LS, 419
MACRO/DEFAULTS, 336
MACRO/EXEC, 335
MACRO/LIST, 335
MACRO/RECURSION, 337
MACRO/TRACE, 335
MAKE, 409
MANUAL, 321
MANY_PLOTS, 348
MASK, 377
MAXIMUM, 362
MDIR, 409
MERGE, 371, 405
MESSAGE, 322
METAFILE, 384
MINIMUM, 362
MODE, 420
MODIFY, 405
MULTIPLY, 357
MV, 420
NETWORK/PIAF/CAT, 419
NETWORK/PIAF/CONNECT, 418
NETWORK/PIAF/CP, 420
NETWORK/PIAF/DISCONNECT, 420
NETWORK/PIAF/GET, 419
NETWORK/PIAF/LOGLEVEL, 420
NETWORK/PIAF/LS, 419
NETWORK/PIAF/MODE, 420
NETWORK/PIAF/MV, 420
NETWORK/PIAF/PUT, 419
NETWORK/PIAF/RM, 419
NETWORK/PIAF/STAGE, 418
NETWORK/PIAF/STATUS, 420
NETWORK/RLOGIN, 418
NETWORK/RSHELL, 418
NEWPANEL, 328
NEXT, 386
NORMALIZE_FACTOR, 363
NTUPLE/CHAIN, 374
NTUPLE/CREATE, 369
NTUPLE/CSELECT, 376
NTUPLE/CUTS, 375
NTUPLE/DRAW, 375
INDEX
NTUPLE/LINTRA, 378
NTUPLE/LIST, 370
NTUPLE/LOOP, 371
NTUPLE/MASK, 377
NTUPLE/MERGE, 371
NTUPLE/PLOT, 372
NTUPLE/PRINT, 370
NTUPLE/PROJECT, 371
NTUPLE/READ, 372
NTUPLE/RECOVER, 370
NTUPLE/SCAN, 370
NTUPLE/UWFUNC, 377
NTUPLE/VMEM, 379
NTUPLE/WAVE, 375
NULL, 403
OBSOLETE/HISTOGRAM/FIT/EXPONENTIAL, 421
OBSOLETE/HISTOGRAM/FIT/FUNCTION, 422
OBSOLETE/HISTOGRAM/FIT/GAUSS, 421
OBSOLETE/HISTOGRAM/FIT/POLYNOMIAL, 422
OPTION, 382
OUTPUT_LP, 356
PALETTE, 400
PANEL, 327
PARAM, 360
PAVE, 395
PICTURE/COPY, 405
PICTURE/CREATE, 404
PICTURE/DELETE, 404
PICTURE/FILE, 404
PICTURE/IGSET, 407
PICTURE/IZIN, 406
PICTURE/IZOUT, 406
PICTURE/IZPICT, 406
PICTURE/LIST, 404
PICTURE/MERGE, 405
PICTURE/MODIFY, 405
PICTURE/PLOT, 404
PICTURE/PRINT, 405
PICTURE/RENAME, 405
PICTURE/SCRATCH, 404
PICTURE/SWITCH, 407
PIE, 394
PLINE, 389
PLOT, 342, 345, 367, 372, 404
PMARKER, 390
POINTS, 367
INDEX
POLYNOMIAL, 422
PRINT, 340, 355, 370, 405
PROFILE, 352
PROJECT, 348, 371
PROMPT, 329
PROX, 353
PROY, 353
PURGE, 410
PUT, 419
QUIT, 323
RANGE, 367
READ, 340, 372
REBIN, 361
RECALL_STYLE, 332
RECORDING, 330
RECOVER, 370
RECURSION, 337
RENAME, 405
RESET, 358
REWIND, 416
RLOGIN, 418
RM, 419
ROOT, 329
RSHELL, 418
SCALE_FACTOR_2D, 363
SCAN, 370
SCHH, 399
SCRATCH, 404
SELNT, 388
SET, 380
SFACI, 398
SFAIS, 398
SFASI, 398
SHELL, 323
SHOW, 412
SIGMA, 417
SIZE, 388
SLIDE, 386
SLIX, 353
SLIY, 353
SLN, 398
SLWSC, 399
SMK, 399
SMOOTH, 359
SNAP, 412
SORT, 358
429
SPLCI, 399
SPLINE, 360
SPMCI, 399
STAGE, 418
STATUS, 420
STAT, 410
STORE, 413
STXCI, 399
STXFP, 399
STYLE, 327
SUBTRACT, 357
SURFACE, 351
SURV, 412
SVP, 388
SWITCH, 407
SWN, 388
SYMBOLS, 400
TEXT, 395
TICKS, 402
TIMING, 329
TITLE_GLOBAL, 354
TOALPHA, 411
TOFZ, 411
TRACE, 335
TRANSLATION, 326
UNITS, 323
USAGE, 321
UWFUNC, 377
VADD, 344
VBIAS, 343
VDIVIDE, 344
VECTOR/COPY, 339
VECTOR/CREATE, 338
VECTOR/DELETE, 339
VECTOR/DRAW, 341
VECTOR/FIT, 342
VECTOR/HFILL, 341
VECTOR/INPUT, 339
VECTOR/LIST, 339
VECTOR/OPERATIONS/VADD, 344
VECTOR/OPERATIONS/VBIAS, 343
VECTOR/OPERATIONS/VDIVIDE, 344
VECTOR/OPERATIONS/VMULTIPLY, 344
VECTOR/OPERATIONS/VSCALE, 343
VECTOR/OPERATIONS/VSUBTRACT, 344
VECTOR/PLOT, 342
INDEX
430
VECTOR/PRINT, 340
VECTOR/READ, 340
VECTOR/WRITE, 340
VERIFY, 413
VISIBILITY, 333
VLOCATE, 387
VMEM, 379
VMULTIPLY, 344
VSCALE, 343
VSUBTRACT, 344
WAIT, 323
WAVE, 375
WORKSTATION, 385
WRITE, 340
ZEBRA/DZ/SHOW, 412
ZEBRA/DZ/SNAP, 412
ZEBRA/DZ/STORE, 413
ZEBRA/DZ/SURV, 412
ZEBRA/DZ/VERIFY, 413
ZEBRA/FZ/FILE, 411
ZEBRA/FZ/FRALPHA, 411
ZEBRA/FZ/FRFZ, 411
ZEBRA/FZ/TOALPHA, 411
ZEBRA/FZ/TOFZ, 411
ZEBRA/RZ/CDIR, 410
ZEBRA/RZ/DDIR, 409
ZEBRA/RZ/FILE, 409
ZEBRA/RZ/FREE, 410
ZEBRA/RZ/LDIR, 410
ZEBRA/RZ/LOCK, 410
ZEBRA/RZ/MAKE, 409
ZEBRA/RZ/MDIR, 409
ZEBRA/RZ/PURGE, 410
ZEBRA/RZ/STAT, 410
ZONE, 387
ZOOM, 347
2SIZ
SET parameter, 286
3270G, 310
A0
HPLOPT
option, 284
HPLOPT
option, 284
HPLOPT
option, 284
A1
A2
A3
HPLOPT
option, 284
HPLOPT
option, 284
HPLOPT
option, 284
A4
A5
A6
HPLOPT option, 284
*], macro argument, 200
@], macro return code, 200
#], macro argument number,
@], macro return code, 201
200
abbreviation, 10, 22
active picture, 276
alias, 10, 182
ALIAS/CREATE, 182{184, 207
alldef.kumac, 31
alphanumeric
labels, 288
ANY, 228
ANY (SIGMA), 229
Apollo, 15
APPLICATION, 196, 197
application SIGMA, 226
arc
border, 283
array
lling, 227
in SIGMA, 227
ARRAY (SIGMA), 227
ASIZ
SET parameter,
AST
HPLOPT option,
AST
HPLOPT option,
ATITLE, 299
285
284
284
attribute, 282
AURZ
IGSET parameter, 283
SET parameter, 280
automatic
storage of pictures, 280
automatic naming of pictures, 283
AWLN
IGSET
parameter, 283
INDEX
AXIS,
axis
431
288
divisions, 289
labels oset, 283
labels size, 283
tick marks size, 283
title, 130
backspace, 302, 304
band, 13
BAR
bar
BAR
HPLOPT
option, 284
chart, 285
option, 284
bar charts, 136
HPLOPT
BARO
IGSET parameter, 283
SET parameter, 285
BARW
IGSET parameter, 283
SET parameter, 285
bash shell, 5
basic operator in SIGMA, 227
BASL
IGSET
parameter, 283
batch, 3, 16
BCOL
SET
parameter, 285, 291
binning
alphanumeric, 136
automatic, 128
user dened, 128
book histogram, 13
boolean value in SIGMA, 227
BORD
IGSET
box
BOX
parameter, 283
around picture, 285
border, 283
HPLOPT option,
BREAKL, 197
284
Browsable window, 207, 220
BTYP
SET
BWID
SET
parameter, 285, 291
parameter, 285
CASE,
197, 202
CDF (Command Denition File), 207, 209, 210,
212, 215
CDF Command Denition File, 10
CDIR, 276
CDIR, 240
CERN Program Library
NEW, 15
OLD, 15
PRO, 15
CERNLIB, 18
CFON
SET parameter,
CHA
HPLOPT option,
CHA
HPLOPT option,
285
284
284
change directory, 239
character
escape, 302
CHHE
IGSET parameter, 283
SET parameter, 299
chisquare, 11
client, 317
cmd1, 179
cmd2, 179
cmd3, 179
CMS, 15
CMZ, 223
colour, 282, 289, 291
COMIS, 12, 46, 53, 64, 66, 80, 98, 146, 187,
188, 190, 254
command
abbreviation, 10, 22
denition le (CDF), 10
parameter, 40
mandatory, 22
optional, 22
search path, 15
structure, 22
visibility, 171
INDEX
432
Command Argument Panel, 209, 211, 216
common /PAWC/, 239
components
of PAW, 9
control operator in SIGMA, 227
coordinate systems
cylindrical, 104
polar, 104
pseudo rapidy, 104
spherical, 104
correlation, 11
cross-wires, 285
CSHI
IGSET parameter, 283,
SET parameter, 285
CSIZ
SET parameter, 285
302
current
directory, 239
picture, 276
cut, 7, 12, 248, 252
graphical, 252
Cut Editor, 21
CZ, 310
92
change, 239
current, 92, 239
display, 15
divisions, 289
DMOD
SET
DO, 197
parameter, 285
Domain, 15
driver, 15
DST, 12, 238, 241
Data Summary Tape, 12
DVXI
HPLOPT
DVXR
HPLOPT
DVYI
HPLOPT
DVYR
HPLOPT
EAH
option, 285
option, 285
option, 285
option, 285
HPLOPT option,
EDIT, 255
EDIT, 184, 221
DASH
SET
parameter, 285
data structure, 239
DATE
HPLOPT option,
SET parameter,
PAWC,
293
285, 293
date, 293
and hour on pictures, 285, 293
DECNET, 15, 310
default setting, 10
DEL, 228
DEL (SIGMA), 229
delta function, 229
DI3000, 11
dialogue style, 10
DIFF, 230
DIFF, 228
DIFF (SIGMA), 230
diologue
style, 10
directory, 8
284
editor, 309
EDM, 270, 272
ELSE, 197
emacs, 5
Encapsulated PostScript, 274
ENDCASE, 202
error
bars, 285
errors on tted parameters, 259
ERRX
SET
parameter, 285
event, 12
exchange input/output, 11
exclamation mark character
place-holder, 22
EXEC, 277
EXEC, 171, 196{200, 206
Executive Window, 18, 20, 209, 212, 213, 216,
218{220
EXITM, 197, 200
FACI
INDEX
433
IGSET parameter, 283
FAIS
IGSET parameter, 283
SET parameter, 294
FASI
IGSET parameter, 283
SET parameter, 294
FCOL
SET parameter, 285, 291
Feynman diagrams, 156
FILE
HPLOPT option,
SET parameter,
293
285, 293
le name
on pictures, 285, 293
FILECASE, 173
ll
area, 289
interior style, 294
style index, 294
histogram, 13
ll area
colour index, 283
interior style, 283
style index, 283
FIT
HPLOPT option,
SET parameter,
284, 293
293
t, 11, 13, 258
parameters on pictures, 285, 293
FIT
HPLOPT option,
SET parameter,
font, 282
PostScript, 304
text, 301
fonts, 297
FOR, 197
284
285
FPGN
SET
parameter, 285
FTP, 314
FTYP
SET
parameter, 285, 291
function, 13, 185
drawing
one-dimensional, 56, 58
three-dimensional, 66
two-dimensional, 62
in SIGMA, 228
range, 66
FWID
SET
parameter, 285
GDDM, 15
GDDM (IBM), 11
GFON
SET
parameter, 285
GKS, 11, 15, 26, 274
Graphical Kernel System, 14
GL (Silicon Graphics), 11
global
section, 240, 310, 316
GMR3D (Apollo), 11
GOTO, 197, 206
GPR, 15
GPR (Apollo), 11
GRAPH, 298
graphical
cut, 252
graphics
editor, 309
terminal, 15
Graphics Window, 18, 20, 21
Greek letters, 302, 304
GRID
HPLOPT option,
SET parameter,
grid, 285
GRPLOT, 274
GSIZ
SET
285
285
parameter, 285
HARD
HPLOPT
option, 284
hardware characters, 285
hatch style, 294, 295
HBOOK, 10, 42, 80, 84, 88, 122, 124, 136,
140, 238, 254, 284
Title, 285
HCDIR, 239, 240
HCOL
SET
HDERIV,
parameter, 285, 291
259
INDEX
434
HELP, 15, 23
HELP, 171
HELP FUNCTIONS,
HESSE, 260
HFCNH, 258
HFCNV, 258
HFITH, 258
HFITV, 258
HIDOPT, 284
HIFIT, 269
185
HIGZ, 10, 18, 26, 152, 190, 239, 254, 273,
275, 280, 282, 284
G mode, 274
graphics editor, 309
Z mode, 274, 276
HIST/PLOT, 277
HISTO/FIL, 183
HISTO/PLOT, 298
HISTO/PLOT, 176, 179
HISTOFILE, 245
histogram, 7, 13, 238
archiving, 88
booking, 13
contour, 102
non equidistant, 102
creation, 80
le, 80, 84
subdirectories, 88
lling, 13, 80
t, 90
list, 84, 86
maximum, 42
minimum, 42
operations, 92
graphical, 96, 98
plot, 84
presentation, 289
prole, 140
project, 138
stacked lego plots, 110
subrange, 108, 110
two-dimensional representations, 100
update, 96
Histogram Style Panel, 18, 20
HISTOGRAM/PLOT, 274
history le, 10
HLIMIT, 239
HLOGAR, 284
HMAX
SET parameter,
HORI
HPLOPT option,
host, 15
HPLOPT, 285
***P, 284
**P, 284
*P, 284
A0, 284
A1, 284
A2, 284
A3, 284
A4, 284
A5, 284
A6, 284
AST , 284
AST, 284
BAR , 284
BAR, 284
BOX , 284
CHA , 284
CHA, 284
DATE, 293
DVXI, 285
DVXR, 285
DVYI, 285
DVYR, 285
EAH, 284
FILE, 293
FIT , 284
FIT, 284, 293
GRID, 285
HARD, 284
HORI, 284
HTIT, 284
LINX, 284
LINY, 284
LINZ, 284
LOGX, 284
LOGY, 284
LOGZ, 284
NAST, 284
NBAR, 284
285
284
INDEX
435
NBOX, 284
NCHA, 284
NDAT, 285
NEAH, 284
NFIL, 285
NFIT, 284
NGRI, 285
NOPG, 284
NPTO, 284
NSTA, 284
NTAB, 284
NTIC, 284
NZFL, 284
PTO , 284
PTO, 284
SOFT, 284
STA , 284
STAT, 293
STA, 284
TAB , 284
TIC , 284
TIC, 284
UTIT, 284
VERT, 284
ZFL , 284
ZFL1, 284
ZFL, 284
HPLOT, 10, 190, 238, 254, 273, 280, 282
HPLOT/E, 184
HRFILE, 239
HRIN, 239
HROUT, 239
HTABLE, 284
HTIT
HPLOPT option,
HTYP
SET parameter,
HWID
SET parameter,
284
285, 291
285
IBM, 15
IBM 3192G graphics terminal, 15
IF, 197
IGSET, 40
IGSET ( ), 282
IGSET, 282, 283, 294, 298, 302
IGSET
*, 283
AURZ, 283
AWLN, 283
BARO, 283
BARW, 283
BASL, 283
BORD, 283
CHHE, 283
CSHI, 283, 302
FACI, 283
FAIS, 283
FASI, 283
LAOF, 283
LASI, 283
LTYP, 283
LWID, 283
MSCF, 283
MTYP, 283
PASS, 283, 302
PICT, 283
PLCI, 283
PMCI, 283
SHOW, 283
TANG, 283
TMSI, 283
TXAL, 283
TXCI, 283
TXFP, 283
IGTEXT, xi, 303
initialisation, 17
Input Pad, 18, 20, 212{214, 219
input/output, 11
integer or real divisions on axis, 285
interactive, 3
ITX, 298{302
IZPICT, 276
KERNLIB, 254
KEY, 285
KSIZ
SET
KUGETI,
KUGETR,
KUGETV,
parameter, 285
192
192
190
KUIP, 10, 239, 254
INDEX
436
KUIP/EDIT,
223
KUIP/Motif, 207, 208, 212{216, 218{220
KUVECT, 190
label, 288
text justication, 289
label:, 197
LABELS, 288
LAOF
IGSET
LASI
IGSET
LAST, 180
parameter, 283
parameter, 283
LATEX
PostScript, 274
LDIR, 245
LFON
SET parameter,
286
library functions in SIGMA, 236
limits on tted parameters, 259
line
type, 294, 296
width, 289
linear scale, 285
lines, 282
LINX
HPLOPT
LINY
HPLOPT
LINZ
HPLOPT
option, 284
option, 284
option, 284
logarithmic scale, 285
on lego plots, 106
logical operator in SIGMA, 227
LOGX
HPLOPT
LOGY
HPLOPT
LOGZ
HPLOPT
option, 284
option, 284
option, 284
lower case letters, 302, 304
LS, 230
LS, 228
LS (SIGMA), 230
LTYP
IGSET
parameter, 283
LTYPE
SET parameter, 294
//LUN1, 240
LVMAX, 228
LVMAX (SIGMA),
LVMIM, 228
LVMIN (SIGMA),
LWID
IGSET parameter, 283
231
231
MACRO,
196, 197, 199, 200
Macro
argument number
#], 200
arguments
*], 200
return code
@], 200
@], 201
macro, 10, 13
conditional statement, 48
ow control, 48
indexed positional parameters, 60
loop, 46
parameter, 10
parameter list, 60
statements, 196, 197
variable, 46
Macro Flow Control, 202
MACRO/DEFAULT, 171
Main Browser, 18, 207, 208, 210, 212, 215
making slides, 161
mandatory parameter, 22
Mandelbrot distribution, 64
marker
type, 294, 296
MASK, 249
mask, 7, 13, 248, 251
match, 54
MAX, 228
MAX (SIGMA), 232
MAXV, 228
MAXV (SIGMA), 232
menu, 10, 22
MESSAGE, 177, 188
METAFILE, 275
INDEX
437
metale, 8, 14, 26, 274
MIGRAD, 259, 260
MIN, 228
minimisation, 11, 258
MIN (SIGMA), 232
MINUIT, 11, 258
MINV, 228
MINV (SIGMA), 232
MIPS, 3
mode
HIGZ
G mode, 274
Z mode, 274, 276
MODIFY, 309
Motif, 18
MSCF
IGSET parameter, 283
MTYP
IGSET parameter, 283
SET parameter, 294
NAST
HPLOPT
option, 284
native input/output, 11
NBAR
HPLOPT option,
NBOX
HPLOPT option,
NCHA
HPLOPT option,
NCO, 228
NCO (SIGMA),
NDAT
HPLOPT option,
NDVX
SET parameter,
NDVY
SET parameter,
NDVZ
SET parameter,
NEAH
HPLOPT option,
NFIL
HPLOPT option,
NFIT
HPLOPT option,
284
284
284
233
285
286, 289
286
286
284
285
284
NGRI
HPLOPT option,
NOPG
HPLOPT option,
NPTO
HPLOPT option,
NSTA
HPLOPT option,
NTAB
HPLOPT option,
NTCUT, 251, 252
NTCUTS, 249
NTIC
HPLOPT option,
NTMASK, 251
NTPLOT, 251
285
284
284
284
284
284
Ntuple, 7, 12, 238, 247
cut, 248
mask, 248
weight, 248
ntuple
and vector, 142
chain, 144
creation
CWN, 124
RWN, 122
cuts, 134, 136
loop, 134, 142
masks, 134
print, 122
CWN, 127
RWN, 127
prole histogram, 140
project, 128, 138
read
CWN, 124
RWN, 122
scan, 130, 132
selection criteria, 130
Ntuple Viewer, 18, 21
NTUPLEPLOT, 248
NZFL
HPLOPT
option, 284
Object window, 207, 209, 219, 220
OF ERROR, 197
INDEX
438
ON ERROR, 197
ON ERROR GOTO,
SET parameter, 286, 291
PG terminal type, 15
197
online help, 10
operating system, 8
operator in SIGMA, 227
OP (SIGMA), 229
OPTION ( ), 282
OPTION, 274, 277, 282, 293
optional parameter, 22
ORDER, 228
ORDER (SIGMA), 233
OS9, 317
module, 240, 310
OSI, 310
PICT
IGSET parameter,
PICT/LIST, 276
picture, 8, 14, 275, 285
print, 165
PICTURE/CREATE, 276
PICTURE/FILE, 280
PICTURE/PRINT, 277
PIE, 288
place-holder
exclamation mark character, 22
page
format, 285
number, 285
PAWMAIN, 239
PANEL, 217
panel
menu, 22
PANEL interface, 212, 214{216, 218
paper orientation, 285
parameter, 10
errors (t), 259
PASS
IGSET parameter, 283,
SET parameter, 286
302
path, 15
PAW, 258
access, 15
entities, 26
initialisation, 17
object, 26
server, 310, 317
structure, 9
PAW (Physics Analysis Workstation), 18
PAW++, 18, 20, 21
PAW++ Locate, 21
/PAWC/ common, 239
/PAWC/ common, 239, 240
//PAWC directory, 240
PAWINT, 239
PAWLOGON, 15{17
PCOL
283
PLCI
IGSET
parameter, 283
PLOT
commands, 26
PLOTHIS, 240
PMCI
IGSET
parameter, 283
polyline
colour index, 283
type, 283
width, 283
polymarker
colour index, 283
scale factor, 283
type, 283
PostScript, 14, 26, 152, 164, 274
colour printers, 274
fonts, 304
Courier, 304
Courier-Bold, 304
Courier-BoldOblique, 304
Courier-Oblique, 304
Helvetica, 304
Helvetica-Bold, 304
Helvetica-BoldOblique, 304
Helvetica-Oblique, 304
Symbol, 304
Times-Bold, 304
Times-BoldItalic, 304
Times-Italic, 304
Times-Roman, 304
ZapfDingbats, 304
special A4, 274
INDEX
439
precision
text, 301
prex SIGMA, 226
presenter, 316, 317
PRINT
commands, 26
PROD, 228
PROF (SIGMA), 234
projection, 13
PSIZ
SET parameter,
PTO
HPLOPT option,
PTO
HPLOPT option,
286
284
284
PTO (Please Turn Over), 285
PTYP
SET
parameter, 286, 291
pull-down menu, 22
put
contents, 42
PWID
SET
parameter, 286
QUAD, 228
QUAD (SIGMA),
READ,
234
197
real time, 240
RECALL, 180
RECORDING, 180
remote
access, 245, 310
le, 314
login, 314, 317
shell, 314, 317
REPEAT, 197
replay, 11
RETURN, 196, 197, 201
RLOGIN, 314, 317
RSHELL, 314, 317
RZ le, 11
SCAN,
247
scatter plot
table, 238
selection
function, 248, 251, 254
server, 317
SET, 40
SET ( ), 282
SET, 274, 282, 289, 293, 298, 299
IGSET
*COL, 291
2SIZ, 286
ASIZ, 285
AURZ, 280
BARO, 285
BARW, 285
BCOL, 285, 291
BTYP, 285, 291
BWID, 285
CFON, 285
CHHE, 299
CSHI, 285
CSIZ, 285
DASH, 285
DATE, 285, 293
DMOD, 285
ERRX, 285
FAIS, 294
FASI, 294
FCOL, 285, 291
FILE, 285, 293
FIT , 285
FIT, 293
FPGN, 285
FTYP, 285, 291
FWID, 285
GFON, 285
GRID, 285
GSIZ, 285
HCOL, 285, 291
HMAX, 285
HTYP, 285, 291
HWID, 285
KSIZ, 285
LFON, 286
LTYPE, 294
MTYP, 294
NDVX, 286, 289
NDVY, 286
NDVZ, 286
INDEX
440
PASS,
PCOL,
PSIZ,
PTYP,
PWID,
SSIZ,
STAT,
TANG,
TFON,
TSIZ,
TXAL,
TXCI,
TXFP,
VFON,
VSIZ,
XCOL,
XLAB,
XMGL,
XMGR,
XSIZ,
XTIC,
XVAL,
XWID,
XWIN,
YCOL,
YGTI,
YHTI,
YLAB,
YMGL,
YMGU,
YNPG,
YSIZ,
YTIC,
YVAL,
YWID,
YWIN,
286
286, 291
286
286, 291
286
286
286, 293
299
286
286
300
301
302
286
286
286
286
286
286
286
286
286
286
286
286
286
286
286
286
286
286
286
286
286
286
286
SET , 282
SET/COMMAND, 172, 224
SET/ROOT, 224
SET/VISIBILITY, 171
SHELL, 277
SHELL, 221
shell
bash, 5
tcsh, 5
SHIFT, 197, 200
SHOW
IGSET
parameter, 283
SIGMA, 12, 44, 46, 50, 102, 146, 150, 188,
190, 226{237
$SIGMA, 226
access, 226
APPLication SIGMA, 226
array, 227
lling, 227
structure, 227
basic operator, 227
boolean value, 227
control operator, 227
function, 228
library functions, 236
logical operator, 227
prex SIGMA, 226
vector, 227
SIZE, 275
slice, 13
SMOOTH, 175, 176
SOFT
HPLOPT
option, 284
software
characters, 285
special parameters, 200
special symbols, 25, 302, 304
SSIZ
SET parameter,
STA
HPLOPT option,
STA
HPLOPT option,
STAT
HPLOPT option,
SET parameter,
286
284
284
293
286, 293
statistic
analysis, 11
parameters on pictures, 285, 293
STRING, 177
structure of PAW, 9
style, 8
STYLE G, 171
style of dialogue, 10
subscript, 302, 304
SUMV, 228
INDEX
441
SUMV (SIGMA), 235
superscript, 302, 304
SWITCH
Z, 276
symbols, 25
system functions, 185
TAB
HPLOPT option, 284
TANG
IGSET parameter, 283
SET parameter, 299
TCP/IP, 15, 245, 310, 317
TCPAW, 310
tcsh shell, 5
Tektronix, 15
TELNET, 310, 314
TELNETG, 310
termination character, 302, 304
TEXT, 283, 298, 299, 301, 302, 304
text, 102
alignment, 283
horizontal, 300
vertical, 300
angle, 283
character height, 283
colour index, 283
data, 26
font, 283, 301
precision, 283, 301
width, 283
text alignment, 301
TFON
SET parameter,
TIC
HPLOPT option,
TIC
HPLOPT option,
tick marks, 289
title, 104
286
284
284
TMSI
IGSET
parameter, 283
tn3270, 15
Transcript Pad, 18, 20, 212{215, 219
TSIZ
SET
parameter, 286
TXAL
IGSET parameter, 283
SET parameter, 300
TXCI
IGSET parameter, 283
SET parameter, 301
TXFP
IGSET parameter, 283
SET parameter, 302
Unix, 5
unix, 15
UNTIL, 197
upper case letters, 302, 304
USAGE, 172
USAGE command, 25
user
title, 285
UTIT
HPLOPT option,
UWFUNC, 254
UWFUNC, 178
284
VAX, 15, 310
VAX/VMS, 316
Vaxstation, 15
VECDEF, 190
vector, 13
and COMIS, 142
and ntuple, 142
arithmetic, 227
create, 36
delete, 36
dimensions, 38
draw, 36, 38, 40, 42
t, 50
graph, 36, 158
hll, 42
in SIGMA, 227
input, 36
operations, 44, 227
plot, 42
read, 46
using match, 54
subranges, 38
write, 38
VECTOR/CREATE, 190, 191
INDEX
442
VECTOR/LIST, 190
VECTOR/READ, 190
VECTOR/WRITE, 190
VEFIT, 269
SET
version, 15
VERT
HPLOPT option,
VFON
SET parameter,
VISIBILITY, 171
VM-CMS, 15
VMAX, 228
VMAX (SIGMA),
VMIN, 228
VMIN (SIGMA),
VMS, 15, 316
284
286
236
236
VSIZ
SET parameter,
VSUM, 228
VSUM (SIGMA),
286
236
weight, 248
weighting factor, 251
WHILE, 197
workstation, 3, 15
type, 17
workstation type, 274
X windows, 11, 15
X11, 15, 18
XCOL
SET
XLAB
SET
XMGL
SET
XMGR
SET
XSIZ
SET
XTIC
SET
XVAL
SET
XWID
SET
XWIN
parameter, 286
parameter, 286
parameter, 286
parameter, 286
parameter, 286
parameter, 286
parameter, 286
parameter, 286
YCOL
SET
YGTI
SET
YHTI
SET
YLAB
SET
YMGL
SET
YMGU
SET
YNPG
SET
YSIZ
SET
YTIC
SET
YVAL
SET
YWID
SET
YWIN
SET
parameter, 286
parameter, 286
parameter, 286
parameter, 286
parameter, 286
parameter, 286
parameter, 286
parameter, 286
parameter, 286
parameter, 286
parameter, 286
parameter, 286
parameter, 286
ZEBRA, 8, 11, 84, 239, 254, 310
FRALFA, 26
FZ le, 26
RZ le, 26, 314
TOALFA, 26
ZFL
HPLOPT
ZFL
option, 284
HPLOPT option, 284
ZFL (option), 276
ZFL1
HPLOPT
option, 284
ZFL1 (option), 277
ZFTP, 314
zftp, 310
ZONE, 274
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement