Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide

Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
Version 6 December 2000
© 1999-2000 Turbolinux Inc. All Rights Reserved.
The information in this manual is furnished for informational use only, is subject
to change without notice, and should not be construed as a commitment by
Turbolinux Inc. Turbolinux assumes no responsibility or liability for any errors or
inaccuracies that may appear in this book.
This publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form
or by any means -- electronic, mechanical, recording, or otherwise without the prior written
permission of Turbolinux Inc., as long as this copyright notice remains intact and
unchanged on all copies.
Turbolinux, Inc., Turbolinux, and Turbolinux logo are trademarks of Turbolinux
Incorporated. All other names and trademarks are the property of their respective owners.
Written and designed at Turbolinux Inc.
8000 Marina Boulevard, Suite 300
Brisbane, CA 94005 USA
T. 650.228.5000
F. 650.228.5001
http://www.turbolinux.com/
TABLE OF CONTENTS
P REFACE
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII
About This Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii
Contacting Us. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x
Technical Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi
C HAPTER 1
B ASIC C OMMANDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
Logging In. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Managing User Accounts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Closing a Linux Session . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
Working with Files and Directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
Managing System Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-25
Managing Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-28
Listing and Installing Packages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-33
Accessing Online Manuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-35
C HAPTER 2
A PPLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
RPM Package Operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Domain Name Server (BIND) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
Firewall Maintenance (ipchains) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-25
File Transfer Protocol Client (TFTP). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-29
File Transfer Protocol Server (ProFTP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-31
http Server (Apache) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-35
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (OpenLDAP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-44
Network File System (NFS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-49
Network Information Service (NIS). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-59
OS Integration (Samba) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-64
Printing Facilities (LPRng) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-78
Programming Languages (perl, Python) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-82
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
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Proxy/Caching Server (Squid) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-87
RPC Program Number Converter (Portmap) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-91
SQL Database Management System (PostgreSQL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-94
SQL Database Server (MySQL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-101
Super Server (inetd) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-107
Index
iv
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-1
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
P REFACE
Thank you for choosing Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390
over the other versions of Linux currently available in the
marketplace. Indeed it is an excellent choice. We at Turbolinux, Inc.
have been and continue to work hard to make Turbolinux a high
performance, comprehensive, easy to install, and yet easy to use
product.
Turbolinux, which has been the Linux leader on the Pacific Rim, is
now taking the world by storm. We have been working with Linux
since 1993 and offered our own distribution in 1997 in both English
and Japanese language versions. Now we offer Turbolinux in
Brazilian Portuguese, Chinese, French, German, Italian, Japanese,
Russian, Spanish, UK English, and US English languages.
For the latest information about Turbolinux and our fast-growing
company, please visit our web site at http://www.turbolinux.com/.
Our success and your satisfaction with Turbolinux are all made
possible through the magic of the Open Source movement and the
original creator of Linux, Linus Torvalds. We want to thank Linus
Torvalds and the countless developers around the world who have
and continue to contribute to making the magic possible.
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
vii
About This Guide
The Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide provides
all the information you need to administer and use Turbolinux
Server 6 for zSeries and S/390.
This guide is intended for use by Linux system administrators, users, and
other personnel who need to understand how to use Turbolinux Server 6 for
zSeries and S/390.
How to Use This Guide
Please use this book in conjunction with the IBM documents
Preparing for Installing Turbolinux for S/390 and Installing Turbolinux
for S/390 pdf files available at http://www.s390.ibm.com/linux/
installfest/.
Guide Organization
This guide is organized into this preface and the following chapters:
•
•
viii
Chapter 1, Basic Commands, describes the basic commands of
the Linux operating system including logging in; managing
accounts, devices, and system processes; working with file
directories, installing software packages, and accessing online
manuals.
Chapter 2, Applications, explains most of the main features of the
Turbolinux server controls over services and daemons. It
describes the configuration requirements for internetworking
super daemon inetd, tcp_wrappers, name server, web server,
samba, nfs, squid, MySQL, and OpenLDAP.
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
Typographical Conventions
This guide uses the following conventions:
•
•
•
•
•
Italics indicate CD and book titles, and emphasize words.
Monospace indicates utilities, man help, commands, programs,
and text examples that need to be entered exactly as shown.
File names, directory paths, and daemons are shown in Arial font.
Buttons, menu items, or options are indicated by initial capital
letters.
Other options, messages, and default settings are indicated by
double quotes. For example: If you select Save Profile, the message
“Profile save failed” will appear.
•
The system prompt # distinguishes the root user from an ordinary
user, who is designated by a $.
NOTE
Take care not to mistake the # representing the prompt for
the root user from a # which occasionally indicates a
remark line in script. The two are identical.
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
ix
Contacting Us
We at Turbolinux, Inc. are constantly trying to improve our products
and documentation. We invite and value your feedback regarding
any documentation inaccuracies, insufficiencies, errors, or
omissions. We will fix such problems in the next release.
Please email us your feedback on any aspect of our products at
[email protected]
x
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
Technical Support
For more information about support, services, and products from
Turbolinux, please go to http://www.turbolinux.com/s390/.
Email [email protected] for more information about support
packages available for purchase. Please specify that you would like
to purchase support for Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390.
If you have purchased a support package and require support,
contact your usual technical support representative.
We hope you enjoy running Turbolinux on your mainframe and look
forward to providing you with the high quality service that you
expect from your mainframe vendor.
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
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Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
C HAPTER 1
B ASIC
C OMMANDS
This chapter introduces some of the basic commands of the Linux operating
system. It explains the process and commands associated with:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Logging In, page 1–2
Managing User Accounts, page 1–4
Closing a Linux Session, page 1–8
Working with Files and Directories, page 1–10
Managing System Processes, page 1–25
Managing Devices, page 1–28
Listing and Installing Packages, page 1–33
Accessing Online Manuals, page 1–35
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
1-1
Basic Commands
Logging In
Like other forms of Unix, you must log in to Linux before you can use it.
Because Linux is a multiuser system, each user must be uniquely identified.
The login procedure establishes the identity of each user. This allows a
legitimate user access to the system and guards against entry by an
unauthorized user.
During the Turbolinux installation, the root account is created. One
user account can be created during installation. Additional user
accounts can be created after installation is complete.
The “#” at the end of the prompt line distinguishes the root user from an
ordinary user, who is designated by a “$.”
For more information on the differences between a root user and normal
user, see Managing User Accounts on page 1-4.
Logging In
Almost all access to the Turbolinux server is done remotely through
telnet or ssh. Occasionally, the word “terminal” is used in this
document to describe the interface on the remote machine through
which the user connects to the server.
At the terminal, the login prompt displays:
[hostname] login:
1. Enter a user name here and press <ENTER>.
Password:
2. The system asks for a user password. Enter the password that has been
assigned to the user. (For security reasons, the system does not display the
password string.)
[username]@[hostname] [currentdirectory]$
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Logging In
A proper login prompt line is shown above. For example, if the
hostname is [Turbo], and the login user is [root], the line
appears as follows:
[[email protected] /root]#
Logging Out
Before you can close your Turbolinux session, you need to log out.
Use the logout command from the command line.
1. To log out, enter the command:
[[email protected] /root]# logout
2. Press <ENTER>.
Shutting Down
To conclude your Turbolinux session without logging out first, use
the shutdown command as described in Closing a Linux Session on
page 1-8.
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Basic Commands
Managing User Accounts
In Linux there are several references to root. These references are:
• The root account
• The root account’s login directory
• The root directory, which is represented by a single forward slash (/).
The “root” account has superuser privileges. Root has the greatest power and
authority within the system. When you log in as the root user you can access,
configure, and run anything. While this gives you a great amount of power, it
can also be risky to always log in as the root user. You may not be able to
recover from configuring something incorrectly or deleting an essential or
important file.
To operate safely, log in as an ordinary user and switch (see
Switching to Another User (su) on page 1-7) to a superuser when
necessary. When you have completed the task you need to perform
as a superuser with root privileges, log out of the root account.
NOTE The root account and password should be under the strict control of
the person in charge of the system, who is usually a system administrator.
Creating and Changing User Accounts (useradd, passwd)
During the installation of Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390,
the root account is created. One user account can be created during
installation. All additional user accounts can be created after
installation is complete.
NOTE Only the superuser can use the useradd and passwd commands.
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Managing User Accounts
You can create new user accounts with the commands useradd and
passwd.
# useradd [User name to be added.]
1. Add a user account with the following command, using 'jon' as the user
name:
# useradd jon
At this point, the password for the user account 'jon' has not been set so it
would still be impossible for this user to actually log in.
Set the password for the user account just created as follows.
# passwd jon
The system displays:
Changing password for user jon
New UNIX password:
2. When the above message appears, set the password. The system displays:
Retype new UNIX password:
3. Confirm identity by entering the password again.
passwd: all authentication tokens updated successfully
The above message indicates that the password has been set.
Changing a Password
To change an already existing password, type the passwd command and
follow the prompt. For example to change user charles’ password:
# passwd charles
The system displays:
Changing password for user charles
New UNIX password:
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Basic Commands
Handling Error Messages
When setting a password, you may receive one of the following
messages:
BAD PASSWORD
it is too short
You tried to enter a password
string that was less than six
characters in length.
BAD PASSWORD
it is based on a dictionary word
You tried to enter a common name
or word found in dictionaries.
BAD PASSWORD
it is too simplistic/systematic
You tried to enter a password string
that was too simplistic or systematic.
NOTE The BAD PASSWORD error message does not prevent the user from
choosing the password. Retyping the password at the Retype new UNIX
password prompt will set the password, bad or not.
Deleting User Accounts
You can delete a user account with the command userdel.
# userdel [User name to be deleted.]
Delete a user account with the following command, using the previously
created user 'jon':
# userdel jon
Use the -r option to also delete the user’s home directory.
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Managing User Accounts
NOTE Only the superuser is allowed to run the userdel command.
Switching to Another User (su)
You can switch from the current user to another user without doing
a logout and a login.
$ su [The username you want to become.]
1. To switch from the currently logged user, 'jon' to a different user,
'charles', you would do it as follows.
$ su charles
Password
2. Enter the correct password for 'charles'.
If you don't want to continue to use the user environment of the current user,
add a "-" (minus sign) followed by a space.
$ su - charles
Without a username, you will switch to 'root'.
$ su Password:
#
As root, you may switch to an ordinary user without entering a password.
You can find out what user you are with the following command.
$ whoami
jon
In the above example, the user is logged in as 'jon'.
You can return to the previous user with the following command:
[[email protected] /root]# exit
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Basic Commands
Closing a Linux Session
You must log out before concluding a Turbolinux session.
Command Line Shutdown
1. Use the logout command from the command line.
See Logging Out on page 1-3.
2. Use the shutdown command as described in this section.
3. Shutdown command will end the Linux session.
NOTE Only the superuser is allowed to run the shutdown command.
You can shut down your Turbolinux session with the following
command.
# shutdown [options][time][message]
The following are examples of available options:
-h
stop (halt)
-r
reboot
Timed Shutdown
You can set up a timed shutdown ('time') as follows.
xx.yy
Execute shutdown at xx hours yy minutes.
+x
Execute shutdown after x number of minutes.
now
Execute shutdown immediately.
The 'message' may be omitted, or you can send a message to each logged in
user. For example, a message such as, "The system will shutdown at 6 PM;
please finish your work before then," is quite useful.
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Closing a Linux Session
Closing Down a Turbolinux Session
You can close the Turbolinux session immediately with one of the
following commands.
# shutdown -h now
Or,
# halt
With the halt command, all running processes are stopped and the
following message appears on the screen:
The System is halted.
Restarting the System after Powering Down
If you want to immediately restart Turbolinux, use one of the
following commands.
# shutdown -r now
Or,
# reboot
The computer displays a message stating that all running processes have been
stopped and restarts automatically afterward.
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Basic Commands
Working with Files and Directories
Linux keeps track of files and folders by requiring unique names and
by using a tree-like structure to store them. This section explains
how you can get a listing of the files and folders or directories on
your system, move to another directory, copy or move files or
directories, create new directories, and remove directories.
Listing Files and Directories (ls)
The ls (list files) command is used to get information on files and
directories.
$ ls [options] [file name] [directory name]
Some typical options are:
-l
Lists not only file names alone, but also full details
about each file.
-a
All files are listed, including normally hidden
files.
-F
A symbol is affixed to file names to show the
file type. (Executable files are marked with
an asterisk “*”, directories are marked with
an backslash “/”.)
NOTE In Turbolinux, ls is set as an alias for ls -F.
If no file or directory names are given, the files and directories of the current
directory are listed.
For example, see below how the various options work with /home/jon.
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Working with Files and Directories
No options
In Turbolinux, this is equivalent to the -F
option.
$ ls /home/jon
core nsmail/
The files and directories names alone are shown.
-l Option
$ ls -l /home/jon
total 352
-rw------- 1 jon jon 356352 Aug 27 07:25 core
drwx------ 2 jonjon1024 Aug 27 01:01 nsmail/
Detailed information for each file and directory is also shown.
-a Option
The table below shows the results of the ls command with the -a option. All
files and directories in the current directory, including hidden files and
directories and subdirectories are shown.
$ ls -a /home/jon
./
bashrc
.lang
.xsession
../
.elvisrc
.less
1
..Xdefaults
.emacs
.rhosts
2
bash_history
.emacs.el
.screenrc
jon1/
bash_logout
.exrc
.tcshrc
.bash_profile
.inputrc
.vimrc
Changing to a Different Directory (cd)
Use the cd (Change working Directory) command to change the
current directory to another one.
# cd [name of the desired directory]
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Basic Commands
With no directory name, cd changes the directory to the user’s home
directory.
It is not necessary to specify the full path to the desired directory
name. The following arguments can be used.
.
current directory
..
the directory above the current directory
~
user’s home directory
-
the directory immediately previous to the current
directory
This switches from the current directory (/home/jon) to the /home
directory.
$ cd /home
$ cd ..
The two commands above accomplish the same thing.
Next, switch from the current directory (/home) to the user's home
directory which was the directory immediately previous to the
current directory.
$ cd /home/jon
$ cd ./jon
$ cd jon
$ cd ~
$ cd $ cd
All of the six commands above accomplish the same thing.
Use the pwd (Print Working Directory) command to find out what your
current directory is.
$ pwd
/home/jon
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Working with Files and Directories
Copying Files (cp)
Use the cp (CoPy files) command to copy files and directories.
$ cp [options] [source filename | source directory name]
[destination filename | destination directory name]
Some typical options are:
-b
If the destination file already exists, that file
is backed up before the copy proceeds.
-f
If the destination file already exists, that file is
forceably overwritten.
-i
If the destination file name already exists, you are
asked if you want to overwrite that file or not. If
the answer is 'y', the file is overwritten. For
any answer besides 'y', the copy does not
proceed.
NOTE In Turbolinux, cp is set as an alias for cp -i.)
-u
If the destination file already exists, the copy
proceeds only when the date on the destination
file is older than the source file. (If the
destination file is newer, copy does not proceed.)
-p
Preserve the attributes of the source file (date,
ownership, permissions) in the copy.
-v
The results of the copy (source filename to
destination filename) are shown.
-R
Copy directories recursively.
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Basic Commands
For example, copy file1.txt to file2.txt.
$ cp -v file1.txt file2.txt
file1.txt -> file2.txt
With the -v option, the results of the copy are shown.
Copy file1.txt into the ../public directory.
$ cp -iv file1.txt ../public
cp: overwrite ’../public/file1.txt’? y
file1.txt -> ../public/file1.txt
Because a file with the same filename already exists, you were asked
for permission to overwrite it and answered 'y', so the copy
proceeded, and the results of the copy are shown.
For directories, you can copy directory1 to directory2.
$ cp -R directory1/ directory2/
$ ls
directory1/directory2/
The entire directory was copied.
Moving Files (mv)
Use the mv (MoVe files) command to move files and directories.
$ mv [options] [source filename | source directory name]
[destination filename | destination directory name]
Some typical options are:
-b
If the destination file already exists, that file is
backed up before the move proceeds.
-f
If the destination file already exists, that file is
forceably overwritten.
-i
If the destination file already exists, you are asked
if you want to overwrite that file or not. If the
answer is 'y', the file is overwritten. For any
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Working with Files and Directories
answer other than 'y', the move does not
proceed.
NOTE In Turbolinux, mv is set as an alias for mv -i.
-u
If the destination file already exists, the
move proceeds only when the date on the
destination file is older than the source file.
(If the destination file is newer, move does
not proceed.)
-v
The results of the move (source filename to
destination filename) are shown.
Move file1.txt into the ../public directory.
$ mv -iv file1.txt ../public
mv: overwrite ’../public/file1.txt’? y
file1.txt -> ../public/file1.txt
Because a file with the same filename already exists, you were asked for
permission to overwrite it and answered 'y', so the move proceeded, and the
results of the move are shown. If you are moving directories, the move cannot
proceed if a destination directory with the same name already exists.
Changing File Names (mv)
You also use the same mv (MoVe files) command to change the name of files
or directories.
$ mv [options] [source filename | source directory name]
[destination filename | destination directory name]
Here is a typical option:
-v
The results of the name change (source
filename to destination filename) are shown.
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Basic Commands
For example, change the name of file1.txt to file2.txt.
$ mv -v file1.txt file2.txt
file1.txt -> file2.txt
With the -v option, the results of the name change are shown.
Creating a Directory (mkdir)
Use the mkdir (MaKe DIRectory) command to create new directories.
$ mkdir [options] [name of the new directory]
Here is a typical option:
-m
Set permissions at the same time you create
the new directory.
For example, create a new directory (directory2) under the current
directory.
$ mkdir directory2
$ ls
directory2/
New directory2 was created.
Deleting Files and Directories (rm, rmdir)
Use the rm (ReMove files) command to delete files and directories.
$ rm [options] [name of file to delete | name of directory to
delete]
Typical options:
-f
Forces deletion of a file or files for which the
user does not have write permission.
-i
For each file, you are asked if you want to
delete that file or not. If the answer is 'y', the
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Working with Files and Directories
file is deleted. For any answer other than 'y',
the delete does not proceed.
-V
The results of the delete are displayed.
-r
Recursively deletes all files, subdirectories
and directories.
For example, delete file1.txt that resides under the current directory.
$ rm -i file1.txt
rm: remove ’file1.txt’? y
Because you answer 'y' to the question whether to remove the file, it
was deleted.
Delete the directory /home/directory1.
$ rm -riv /home/directory1/
rm: descend into directory ’/home/directory1’? y
removing all entries of directory /home/directory1
rm: remove ’/home/directory1/file1.txt’? y
removing /home/directory1/file1.txt
rm: remove directory ’/home/directory1’? y
removing the directory itself: /home/directory1
Because you answered 'y' to the question of descending into the directory and
removing its contents, each directory was removed and the results of the
delete are displayed.
Use the rmdir (ReMove DIRectory) command to delete empty directories.
$ rmdir directory2
In this case, you are not asked for confirmation before the removal proceeds.
Viewing Text Files (cat, less, more)
Use the cat (conCATenate) command to view the contents of text files.
$ cat [options] [name of file to view]
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Basic Commands
A typical option is:
-n
Display line numbers.
For example, display the contents of /etc/lftp.conf. The -n option adds
the line numbers to the display. (Note: Lines remarked out with a #
have been omitted.)
$ cat -n /etc/syslog.conf
4 /dev/console
7 *.info;mail.none;new.none;authpriv.none/var/log/messages
10 authpriv.#
/var/log/secure
13 mail.*
/var/log/maillog
17 *.emerg
*
21 uucp,news.crit /var/log/spooler
24 local7.*
/var/log/boot.log
29 news.=cret
/var/log/news/news.cret
30 news.=err
/var/log/news/news.err
31 news.notice
/var/log/news/news.notice
With cat, a long file will scroll off the screen and you will only be able
to see the end of it. This is inconvenient. To page through a file, use
the less command.
$ less [options] [name of file to view]
When using less to view a file, there are a number of commands available
from the keyboard. The main ones are:
<SPACE>
Scroll ahead one screen.
<ENTER>
Scroll ahead one line.
[q]
Interrupt display, exit.
[/][searchpattern]
Search backward from the current
screen for 'search pattern'.
[n]
Repeat search.
[d]
Scroll a half screen ahead.
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Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
Working with Files and Directories
[h]
Display help.
[w]
Scroll backward one screen.
[u]
Scroll backward half screen.
[y]
Scroll backward one line.
[?] [string pattern]
Search backward for [string
pattern] starting from the current
screen.
[N]
Repeat the previous search
backward, starting from the
current screen.
For example, display the contents of the file /etc/logrotate.conf. Go to
that directory and type:
$ less /etc/logrotate.conf
# see “man logrotate” for details
# rotate log files weekly
weekly
# keep 4 weeks worth of backlogs
rotate 4
# send errors to root
errors root
# create new (empty) log files after rotating old ones
#create
# truncate the original log file in place after creating a
copy
copytruncate
# compress log file copies
compress
#don’t complain about missing log files
missingok
# RPM packages drop log rotation information into this
directory
include/etc/logrotate.d
--Less--(28%)
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
1-19
Basic Commands
If only a part of the file fits onto one screen, a line appears at the
bottom saying, “-- Less -- (xx%)” in which “xx” is the percentage of
the file that has been displayed.
An abbreviated version of the less command is called more.
$ more [options] [name of file to view]
Finding Files (find)
Use the find command to search for files.
$ find [options] [path to search target] [expressions]
Typical 'find’ expressions are:
-name [string pattern]
Search for files that match [string
pattern].
-iname [string pattern]
Search for files that match [string
pattern] ignoring the distinction
between upper and lower case.
-path [string pattern]
Search for files that match [string
pattern] which includes the full
path name.
-ipath [string pattern]
Search for files that match [string
pattern] which includes the full path
name and ignores the distinction
between upper and lower case.
-uid [user ID]
Set the file's numeric user ID and
search.
-user [user name]
Set the file's owner [user name] and
search.
-gid [group ID]
Set the file's numeric group ID and
search.
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Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
Working with Files and Directories
-group [group name]
Set the file's group [group name]
and search.
For example, search for all files that end with .conf under /etc.
$ find /etc -name “*.conf”
/etc/host.conf
/etc/inetd.conf
/etc/nsswitch.conf
/etc/ld.so.conf
<lines omitted>
/etc/named.conf
/etc/irquery.conf
/etc/resolv.conf
/etc/modules.conf
You can use wildcards “*” and “?”, etc., when setting the string
pattern.
Searching for Strings (grep)
Use the grep (Global Regular Expression Printer) command to search
for a text string within text files.
$ grep [options] [string pattern for search] [target files]
Typical options are:
-i
Ignore the distinction between upper and lower
case in the search.
-l
From the usual search results, display only the
name of the file.
-n
Display line numbers.
-x
Search for only those matches that match
the whole string pattern line.
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
1-21
Basic Commands
For example, to search for the string pattern ‘prompt’ in all the files
under /etc/lftp.conf:
$ grep -n prompt /etc/lftp.conf
7:## make prompt look better
8:set prompt “lftp \u\@\h:\w “
The -n option adds the line numbers to the display of the search
results.
Compressing and Expanding Files (gzip)
Use gzip (GNU Zip) to compress or expand gzip (file extension .gz)
type files.
$ gzip [options] [file name]
Typical options are:
-d
Decompress the file.
-f
Force an overwrite of a file with the same
name.
-v
Verbosely display the results.
For example, compress all the .txt files under the current directory.
$ gzip -v *.txt
file1.txt:
file2.txt:
file3.txt:
file4.txt:
file5.txt:
-82.6%
-53.0%
-72.2%
-75.3%
-66.5%
------
replaced
replaced
replaced
replaced
replaced
with
with
with
with
with
file1.txt.gz
file2.txt.gz
file3.txt.gz
file4.txt.gz
file5.txt.gz
When the ".gz" extension has been affixed to each file, that file has
been compressed. With the -v option, the effect of the operation is
also displayed.
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Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
Working with Files and Directories
Next, expand all the files that were compressed with the previous
command.
$ gzip -dv *.gz
file1.txt.gz:
file2.txt.gz:
file3.txt.gz:
file4.txt.gz:
file5.txt.gz:
-82.6%
-53.0%
-72.2%
-75.3%
-66.5%
------
replaced
replaced
replaced
replaced
replaced
with
with
with
with
with
file1.txt.gz
file2.txt.gz
file3.txt.gz
file4.txt.gz
file5.txt.gz
Creating and Extracting Archives (tar)
Use the tar (Tape file ARchiver) command to create an archive or to
extract a file or files from an archive.
$ tar [options] [file name of archive] [target file name]
Typical options are:
-c
Create a new archive.
-f
Use file name to create an archive.
-v
Verbosely list files processed.
-x
Extract files from an archive.
-z
Compress or extract files through gzip.
For example, create a new archive of all the txt files under the
current directory.
$ tar -cvf file.tar *.txt
file1.txt
file2.txt
file3.txt
file4.txt
file5.txt
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
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Basic Commands
Next, extract all the files from the archive just created.
$ tar -xvf file.tar
file1.txt
file2.txt
file3.txt
file4.txt
file5.txt
Files are often seen with the .tar.gz extension. Such files have been
compressed with gzip after they were archived. They can be
decompressed and extracted as follows.
$ tar -zxvf file.tar.gz
file1.txt
file2.txt
file3.txt
file4.txt
file5.txt
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Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
Managing System Processes
Managing System Processes
User initiated processes, server services running in the background,
and daemons are all included under the broad meaning of the term
“process.” Because Linux is a multi-tasking, multi-user operating
system, process management is necessary. Process management
commands are explained below.
Finding Out the State of Processes (ps)
Use ps (Process Status) to find out what processes are running.
$ ps [options]
Typical options are:
-a
Display all processes initiated by the current
terminal.
-f
Display the process hierarchy in a tree
format.
-l
Display a detailed listing (long format).
-u
Display the information in a user-preferred
format
-x
Display also processes not initiated on the
current terminal (tty).
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
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Basic Commands
For example, you can display all the processes that are currently
running. (Note: This example shows only a partial listing of all
running processes.)
PID
$ ps -ax
TTY
STAT
TIME
COMMAND
1
?
S
0:020
init [3]
2
?
SW
0:00
[kmcheck]
3
?
SW
0:00
[kflushd]
4
?
SW
0:04
[kupdate]
5
?
SW
0:00
[kpiod]
6
?
SW
0:00
[kswapd]
159
?
S
0:06
syslogd -m 0
167
?
S
0:00
klogd
177
?
S
0:00
/usr/sbin/atd
187
?
S
0:01
crond
197
?
S
0:00
inetd
201
?
S
0:00
/usr/sbin/sshd
To display all the current processes in tree format use the command:
$ ps -axf
Stopping Processes (kill)
Use the kill (KILL process) command to terminate processes.
$ kill [options] [process ID]
The ‘process ID’ is a unique number attached to each process. The
“PID” shown by the ps command refers to this number.
Typical options are:
-l
List all signal names.
-[signal number]
Send the signal specified by the
signal number to the process.
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Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
Managing System Processes
Use the -l option To display a list of all available signal numbers and
names. (Note: The result displayed below is a partial list.)
$ kill -l
1)
SIGHUP
2)
SIGINT
3)
SIGQUIT
4)
SIGILL
5)
SIGTRAP
6)
SIGABRT
7)
SIGBUS
8)
SIGFPE
9)
SIGKILL
10) SIGUSR1
11)
SIGSEGV
12)
SIGUSR2
13)
SIGPIPE
14) SIGALRM
15)
SIGTERM
17)
SIGCHLD
18)
SIGCONT
19) SIGSTOP
20)
SIGTSTP
21)
SIGTTIN
22)
SIGTTOU
23) SIGURG
24)
SIGXCPU
25)
SIGXFSZ
26)
SIGVTALRM
27) SIGPROF
28)
SIGWINCH
29)
SIGIO
30)
SIGPWR
31) SIGSYS
32)
SIGRTMIN
33)
SIGRTMIN+1
If the signal number is omitted, the kill command sends software
termination signals (signal number "15) SIGTERM").
For example, terminate the process with process ID 555.
$ kill 555
If you want to force a process to terminate, send signal number "9)
SIGKILL".
$ kill -9 555
To execute the kill command on a process, you must be the owner
of that process or superuser.
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
1-27
Basic Commands
Managing Devices
As Turbolinux is a flavor of Unix, it treats the mouse, hard drives,
peripheral devices, etc., as files.
Turbolinux, like Unix, is organized in a tree structure starting with
root (/) as the base. As stated, devices are treated as files. The
devices exist in the form of an interconnected tree.
Partitions
A single physical disk must be divided into one or more partitions,
which are logically distinct areas on a physical disk.
A partition is a logical allocation of a portion of a single physical
disk. By partitioning, the system can treat one disk as if it were
multiple disks. For more information, see Setting up the Target
Linux System on page 37 of the Preparing for Installing Turbolinux for
S/390 file found at http://www.s390.ibm.com/linux/installfest/.
Since there is no concept of a drive in Turbolinux, devices are treated
as files, as shown below.
DASD hard drives:
/dev/dasda
/dev/dasdb
/dev/dasdc
... ordered by SCSI ID
Root and Swap Partitions
It is common practice to create several partitions for a single system
when you install Turbolinux. At the very least, you will need to
create a swap partition. The purpose of the swap partition is to allow
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Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
Managing Devices
for the use of 'virtual memory'. The swap partition can not be
accessed by the user.
In many cases it is useful to prepare other partitions in addition to
the root partition and swap partition. How these other partitions are
set up will vary depending on what type of Linux system you run.
For example, if there will be many login users, a great deal of space
must be made available under /home. In this case you may want to
create a separate partition that will allow a more efficient use of the
large capacity hard disk required. In order to make it easy to backup
your data, you might want to consider creating a partition for
backups only, thus separating it from the root directory.
There is no single pattern that works unconditionally. Partition your
disks to fit the system you want to create.
Finding Out Disk Usage (df, du)
Use the df (Disk Free) command to find out how much space has
been used on each partition.
$ df [options] [target device name | target partition name |
target directory name | target file name]
This command displays the total capacity, amount used, amount
available, percentage used in block (1024bytes) units as well as the
mount point. When you omit the targets, the currently mounted
partitions are displayed. Typical options are:
-a
Display information on all file systems.
-k
Display sizes in kilobytes.
-m
Display sizes in megabytes.
-h
Display sizes with a G (for gigabytes) or M
(for megabytes) suffix.
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
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Basic Commands
-H
The same as the -h option except that sizes
are displayed in 1000 byte units instead of
1024 byte units.
-i
Display sizes in inodes.
Compare the results of using various options in the following
listings.
$ df
Filesystem
1k-blocks
Used
Available Use%
Mounted on
/dev/dasda1 708652
48456
624200
7%
/
/dev/dasdc1 6382148
874988
5182960
14%
/usr
$ df -a
Filesystem
1k-blocks
Used
Available Use%
Mounted on
proc
0
0
0
-
/proc
/dev/dasda1 708652
48456
624200
7%
/
/dev/dasdc1 6382148
874988
5182960
14%
/usr
Used
Available Use%
Mounted on
/dev/dasda1 708652
48456
624200
7%
/
/dev/dasdc1 6382148
874988
5182960
14%
/usr
$ df -k
Filesystem
1-30
1k-blocks
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
Managing Devices
$ df -m
Filesystem
1M-blocks
Used
Available Use%
Mounted on
/dev/dasda1 692
47
610
7%
/
/dev/dasdc1 6233
854
5061
14%
/usr
The du (Disk Usage) Command
Use the du (Disk Usage) command to find out how much space is
occupied by each directory.
$ du [options] [target directory name | target file name]
Under the specified directory, the size of each file is shown in blocks.
If the target is omitted, information on the current directory is
displayed.
Typical options are:
-a
Display counts for all files, not only
directories.
-b
Display size in bytes.
-c
Display the total size of the target on the last
line.
-k
Display size in kilobytes.
-h
Display sizes with a G (for gigabytes) or M
(for megabytes) suffix.
-H
The same as the -h option except that sizes
are displayed in 1000 byte units instead of
1024 byte units.
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
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Basic Commands
Compare the results of using various options in the following
listings.
$ du /usr/lib/bind
44
./include/arpa
56
./include/isc
4
./include/net
4
./include/sys
168
./include
1268
./lib
1440
./
$ du -b /usr/lib/bind
1-32
45056
./include/arpa
57344
./include/isc
4096
./include/net
4096
./include/sys
172032
./include
1298432
./lib
1474560
./
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
Listing and Installing Packages
Listing and Installing Packages
Turbolinux uses RPM (Red Hat Package Manager) as its package
manager. RPM provides an efficient management environment in
which to install, uninstall, update, or examine packages. It also
manages the interdependencies that exist between packages.
Packages are stored on the Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390
Install CD in /RPMS/s390. Source packages are in /SRPMS.
NOTE Some packages require a superuser to install them.
The syntax of the RPM command is as follows:
$ rpm [options] [RPM package name]
Typical options are:
-i
Install.
-U
Upgrade.
-e
Erase.
-h
Display progress status with hash marks.
-v
Verbose display. (Use with -h for a nice
display.)
-q
Query to see what packages are currently
installed.
Various scenarios using apache 1.3.14-1.src.rpm are shown below.
To get information on the currently installed RPM package:
# rpm -q apache
apache-1.3.14-1
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
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Basic Commands
If the package is not installed, the following message appears.
# rpm -q apache
package apache-1.3.14-1 is not installed
Use this command to see a list of all the files associated with a
currently installed RPM package.
# rpm -ql apache
/etc/httpd/conf/access.conf
/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
/etc/httpd/conf/magic
<lines omitted>
/usr/share/man/man1/dbmmanage.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/htdigest.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man1/htpasswd.1.gz
/usr/share/man/man8/httpd.i.gz
To uninstall, use this command:
# rpm -e apache
Use this command to see detailed information on an RPM file.
# rpm -qi apache
Name
: apache
Version
: 1.3.14
Release
: 1
Install date : Wed Dec 6 12:02:32 2000
Group
: Networking/Daemons
Size
: 4904533
Summary
: World Wide Web server (httpd)
Relocations : (not relocateable)
Vendor : (none)
Build Date : Sun Nov 12 14:55:29 2000
Build Host : s390.dev.us.tlan
Source RPM : apache-1.3.14-1.src.rpm
License : Freely distributable &
usable
Description : Apache is a full-featured web server that is freely available, and also
happens to be the most widely used on the Internet. Install this if you would
like to run a web server.
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Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
Accessing Online Manuals
Accessing Online Manuals
In Linux, use the man command to obtain information about a
program. Use it as follows:
$ man [options] [chapter number] [the name of the command you want
information about]
Information can be viewed on the screen with the man command in
the same way as with less.
For example, to view the manual page for the ls command:
$ man ls
Typical options are:
-a
List all the manual pages relating to the
command you are looking for in sequence.
-w
List the full path of the locations of the
manual pages that would be displayed.
For example, to display all the manual pages that are related to
users, you would enter the following command:
# man -aw users
The return of this command is:
/usr/man/man1/users.1
Note that man is organized into the following sections.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Shell commands
System calls
Library calls
Special files
File formats and conventions
Games
Macro packages and conventions
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
1-35
Basic Commands
8. System administration commands
9. Kernel routines
For example, users is a Shell command and is therefore explained in
section 1.
To find information on the command users, you would do the
following:
$ man users
For a detailed explanation on the use of man, please look at the man
page on man itself.
$ man man
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Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
C HAPTER 2
A PPLICATIONS
This chapter contains information on the applications bundled with
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390.
The initial section, RPM Package Operations on page 2–3, is an introduction to
various aspects of package management including installing, uninstalling,
and package verification.
The sections after RPM Package Operations are organized alphabetically by the
service they provide.
• Domain Name Server (BIND), page 2–6
Translates IP addresses into host names, and vice versa
• Firewall Maintenance (ipchains), page 2–25
Sets up, maintains, and inspects the firewall rules in the Linux
kernel
• File Transfer Protocol Client (TFTP), page 2–29
Allows users to transfer files to and from a remote machine
• File Transfer Protocol Server (ProFTP), page 2–31
An ftp server which allows the transfer files between a PC and a
remote computer using the ARPANET standard File Transfer
Protocol
• http Server (Apache), page 2–35
The most widely used web server in the world
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
2-1
Applications
• Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (OpenLDAP), page 2–44
A directory service protocol designed to handle account
information services
• Network File System (NFS), page 2–49
Makes it possible to share files between hosts that are connected
to a network
• Network Information Service (NIS), page 2–59
Used to share information about computers on the network, such
as login names, passwords, home directories and groups
• OS Integration (Samba), page 2–64
Integrates the Windows operating system with UNIX
• Printing Facilities (LPRng), page 2–78
Print filters, facilities, and tools
• Programming Languages (perl, Python), page 2–82
Two programming languages included with Turbolinux Server 6
for zSeries and S/390
• Proxy/Caching Server (Squid), page 2–87
Keeps metadata and especially hot objects cached in RAM, caches
DNS lookups, supports non-blocking DNS lookups, and
implements negative caching of failed requests
• RPC Program Number Converter (Portmap), page 2–91
Converts RPC program numbers to DARPA protocol numbers
• SQL Database Management System (PostgreSQL), page 2–94
An object-relational DBMS that supports almost all SQL
constructs
• SQL Database Server (MySQL), page 2–101
a multi-user, multi-threaded SQL database server
• Super Server (inetd), page 2–107
A high-level program that acts as a server to other servers
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Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
RPM Package Operations
RPM Package Operations
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 comes on a CD-ROM with
install, uninstall, and other programs. The programs run as shown
below.
Install
1. Confirm that you are logged in as the root user.
# whoami
root
2. Insert the CD-ROM in the drive and mount it.
# mount /mnt/cdrom
3. Move to the directory containing the RPM package.
# cd /mnt/cdrom/RPMS/
4. Confirm the package name (represented by <xxxx>) and version.
# ls <xxxx>*
xxxx-xxx-xxxx-TLS.i386.rpm
5. Install the package.
# rpm -ivh xxxx-xxx-xxxx-TLS.i386.rpm
xxxx
6. Confirm the installation.
# rpm -qi xxxx
Uninstall
1. Use the -e option with the RPM command.
# rpm -e xxxx
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
2-3
Applications
2. To force an unconditional uninstall append the -nodeps switch.
# rpm -e xxxx --nodeps
Verify Packages
1. Use the -V option with the RPM command.
# rpm -V xxxxx
2. To verify all packages you can use:
# rpm -Va
This may produce rather verbose output so it may be best to redirect
output to a file for later viewing. One way to to this is to follow this
example:
# rpm -Va > /tmp/chk-allpkgs
What Packages are Installed?
Use the -qa option to query all installed packages. The following
command will list all installed packages in alphabetical order:
# rpm -qa | sort | more
Daemons
In Unix terminology, daemon is customarily used to denote server
programs. Daemons are memory-resident programs executed only
when they receive a request from another program. Server programs
such as FTP and TELNET are generally implemented as daemons.
The names of most daemons end in “d” in the form xxxd.
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Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
RPM Package Operations
Note: In this guide protocol names are shown in all upper-case
letters, for example, TELNET and FTP. Client programs
corresponding to these protocols are shown in lower-case letter, for
example, telnet and ftp. While Internet protocols are precisely
defined, the particular method of implementing them often is not
precisely defined. Thus for the FTP protocol there are various
program implementations such as ftp and ncftp, each with minor
variations. Similarly, even for a particular server there are various
programs such as in.ftpd or the expanded function version wu.ftpd.
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
2-5
Applications
Domain Name Server (BIND)
A name server uses the host name obtained from the IP address or
the inverse IP address search to find host names using a distributed
database function. One type of host name search program is /etc/hosts.
This program searches the internal host from the /etc/hosts list. DNS,
requiring that at least one domain be the same, provides host
information on the host's internal domain. The bind program is the
most common way of providing these DNS functions.
Depending on their usage and functions there are four types of name
servers. The configuration for the first three of these is discussed
under Name Server Mode Settings on page 2–11.
• Primary name server
Manages all the host name information for the internal domain. It
handles the mail server that routes mail and sends domain
information to the secondary server. An important part of its role is
to exchange information with other domain name servers.
• Secondary name server
Serving as a back-up to the primary server, it holds a copy of the
primary name server's information. In case of trouble with the
primary, the secondary name server can take over. In order to
connect to the Internet there must be either the primary or
secondary name server.
• Cache server
Upon instruction from a client, the cache server can forward
requests to the main domain server for action. As the name "cache"
indicates this server temporarily caches or stores queries sent to it
and is capable of responding to requests rapidly. For large sites this
has the merit of reducing the load on the primary and secondary
servers.
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Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
Domain Name Server (BIND)
• Slave server
This stores essentially the same information as the primary server.
The difference is the slave server cannot resolve any requests
without first issuing a request to the dedicated main server.
BIND Package Contents
The four packages containing the BIND components are found on
the Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 Install CD under:
•
•
•
•
/RPMS/s390/bind-8.2.2P5-3.s390.rpm.
/RPMS/s390/bind-contrib-8.2.2P5-3.s390.rpm.
/RPMS/s390/bind-devel-8.2.2P5-3.s390.rpm.
/RPMS/s390/bind-utils-8.2.2P5-3.s390.rpm.
It is best to install the caching-nameserver package at the same
time. Use the rpm -ql option to confirm the contents of the package.
Enter the command shown below.
# rpm -ql bind
The command results in the listing shown below.
/etc/named.conf
/etc/named/master
/etc/named/named.root
/etc/named/slave
/etc/rc.d/init.d/named
/usr/bin/h2n
/usr/sbin/named
/usr/sbin/named-xfer
/usr/sbin/ndc
/usr/share/man/cat1/h2n
/usr/share/man5/named.conf
/usr/share/man7/hostname
/usr/share/man7/mailaddr-bind
/usr/share/man8/named-xfer
/usr/share/man8/ndc
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
2-7
Applications
NOTE The contents of the directory /usr/share/doc/packages/bind-8.2.2P5 are
omitted from the above return.
The command rpm -ql caching-nameserver results in the listing shown
below.
/etc/named.boot
/etc/named.conf
/var/named/named.ca
/var/named/named.local
BIND
The first version of BIND was written at UCB (University of California
Berkeley) and named 4.3BSD UNIX. Now it has been ported to
Linux, other versions of UNIX, Windows NT, and OS/2.
Up to version 4.8.3 the program was developed under a grant from
DARPA at UCB's Computer Systems Research Group (CSRG).
Versions 4.9, 4.91 were released by DEC (now part of Compaq).
Version 4.92 sponsored by Vixie Enterprises.
From version 4.9.3 onward development and maintenance have been
handled by ISC (Internet Software Consortium) with new versions
coming out one after the other.
Version BIND8 was released in May, 1997.
BIND Configuration File
To configure BIND, edit the resolv.conf file. Open it using the less
command as follows:
# less /etc/resolv.conf
Enter the names against their IP addresses.
2-8
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
Domain Name Server (BIND)
You may have to edit the nsswitch.conf file. See the man nsswitch.conf
page for the circumstances under which this would be done. Open it
using the less command as follows:
# less /etc/nsswitch.conf
Named Startup Script
The main BIND program contains the daemon named. The startup
script for named is /etc/rc.d/init.d/named. Enter the following command to
display the contents of this daemon:
# less /etc/rc.d/init.d/named
An abbreviated version of the result of this command is in the listing
shown below:
#!/bin/sh
# named
# chkconfig: 345 55 45
./etc/rc.d/init.d/functions
./etc/sysconfig/network
[ $ {NETWORKING} = "no" ] && exit 0
[ -f /usr/sbin/named ] || exit 0
[ -f /etc/named.conf ] || exit 0
case "#1" in
start)
# Start daemons.
echo -n "Starting named: "
daemon named -u bind
echo
touch /var/lock/subsys/named
;;
stop)
# Stop daemons.
echo -u "Shutting down named: "
killproc named
rm -f /var/lock/subsys/named
echo
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
2-9
Applications
;;
status)
/usr/sbin/ndc status
exit $?
;;
restart)
/usr/sbin/ndc restart
exit $?
;;
reload)
/usr/sbin/ndc reload
exit $?
;;
probe)
/usr/sbin/ndc reload>/dev/null 2> &1 || echo start
exit 0
;;
*>
echo "Usage: named {start|stop|status|restart}"
exit 1
esac
exit 0
Starting and Stopping named
Start named by inputting the following command:
# /etc/rc.d/init.d/named start
To stop named use this command:
# /etc/rc.d/init.d/named stop
named Operation Confirmation
To confirm that named is running properly input the following
command:
# ps aux | grep named
root
2-10
203
0.0
3.2
1440
1000
?
S
00:55
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
0:00
named
Domain Name Server (BIND)
If the return is not something similar to the response shown above,
either named is not running properly or it failed to install. Check
whether named is running or reinstall BIND. For more information,
see Managing System Processes on page 1–25 and Listing and Installing Packages
on page 1–33.
Name Server Mode Settings
BIND has three operating modes. As mentioned before each mode
has certain functions.
1. primary mode
2. secondary mode
3. cache only server mode
The default mode setting in Turbolinux is cache only server. Cache
only server mode requires only two files: /etc/named.boot and /etc/
resolv.conf.
/etc/named.boot file
directory
cache
primary
.
0.0.127.in-addr.arpa
/var/named
named.ca
named.local
/etc/resolv.conf file
domain
example1.com
search
example1.com
nameserver
000.168.0.1
nameserver
000.168.0.2
When using the primary or secondary modes it is necessary to
change the configuration.
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
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Applications
For secondary mode the settings for /etc/named.boot are shown below. In
this example the primary server IP address is 000.168.0.2.
/etc/named.boot file
directory
/etc/named
cache
namedroot
secondary
example1.com
000.168.0.2
example1.zone.bak
secondary
0.168.000.in-addr.arpa
000.168.0.2
example1.rev.bak
secondary
0.0.127.in-addr.arpa
local.rev
The zone file and reverse file are acquired from the primary server IP
address 000.168.0.2 and then a backup file is created. As the
configuration for the primary server is rather complicated we will use
an example of a connection to the OCN economy internet site to
explain. OCN's web site has information on configuring.
The home page of Open Communications Networks Inc. is http:/
www.ocn.com/. For more information , see References for BIND and Resolver on
page 2–24.
Configuration Example (OCN economy example)
Setup has the six files which are shown below. The files /etc/named.boot
and /etc/resolv.conf are required, the others are optional. These choices
are specified within the /etc/named.boot file.
File Name
Actual File Name (example)
boot file
resolver file
cache file
loop-back file
normal file
inverse file
/etc/named.boot
/etc/resolv.conf
/var/named/named.root
/var/named/0.0.127.in-addr.arpa
/var/named/example1.com
/var/named/2.0.168.000.in-addr.arpa
2-12
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
Domain Name Server (BIND)
The following assumptions are used to create an example of a
configuration.
IP address
000.168.0.0 ~ 000.168.0.15
subnet mask
255.255.255.240
domain name
example1.com
secondary domain name
203.139.160.69 (host name nstk011.ocn.ad.us)
203.139.161.37 (host name pns.ocn.ad.us)
In the case that a primary name domain is created beforehand, the
IP address allotment for OCN is a total of 16. The creation process
proceeds as shown in the example below.
ATTENTION Do not use the IP address in the example given here; set
the address to the one which applies to your system setup.
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
2-13
Applications
IP Address
000.168.0.0
000.168.0.1
000.168.0.2
000.168.0.3
000.168.0.4
000.168.0.5
000.168.0.6
000.168.0.7
000.168.0.8
000.168.0.9
000.168.0.10
000.168.0.11
000.168.0.12
000.168.0.13
000.168.0.14
000.168.0.15
Host Name
none
none
Explanation
network address (fixed)
default gateway (root) of fixed
bandwidth
ns.example1.co.us
name domain (primary) fixed
bandwidth
unix1.example1.com
UNIX or Linux terminal
win1.example1.com
Windows terminal
mac1.example1.com
Macintosh terminal
(not used in this example)
(not used in this example)
(not used in this example)
(not used in this example)
(not used in this example)
(not used in this example)
(not used in this example)
(not used in this example)
(not used in this example)
none
broadcast address (fixed)
Boot file (/etc/named.boot) Configuration Example
directory
cache
.
/var/named
[1]
named.ca
[2]
primary
0.0.127.in-addr.arpa
0.0.127.in-addr.arpa
[3]
secondary
example1.com
example1.com
[4]
secondary
2.0.168.000.in-addr.arpa
2.0.168.000.in-addr.arpa
[5]
[1] In the directory line the directory is set to the name given in the
configuration file. Here it is set to /var/named.
[2] In the cache line the cache file name is specified. Download the
most recent file version from ftp://rs.internic.net/domain/
named.root. Here we have configured the name to the most recent
2-14
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
Domain Name Server (BIND)
file version, named.root. In the primary line the configurations are
setup for the loopback file, the normal file (zone file), and the inverse
file (reverse file).
[3] The loopback file name is configured here. In this case it is set to
0.0.127.in-addr.arpa.
[4] The normal file (zone file) is configured here. Here it is
example1lcom.
[5] The inverse file (reverse file) is configured here. Be sure to set this
to the network address to inverse of the normal address, in this case,
2.0.162.000.inaddr.arpa.
Resolver File (/etc/resolv.conf) Configuration Example
domain
nameserver
nameserver
nameserver
example1.com
000.168.0.2
000.168.1.2
000.168.2.2
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[1] In the domain line the domain name is set, in this case
example1.com. The nameserver line configures the name server IP
address. At least two addresses must be specified, the primary and
secondary addresses.
[2] Sets the primary name server IP address, in this case
000.168.1.2.
[3] Sets the secondary name server IP address. In this case it is set to
address provided by service provider, namely 000.168.1.2
[4] Sets the tertiary name server IP address. Tertiary names are not
essential. In this case it is set to address provided by service
provider, namely 000.168.2.2.
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
2-15
Applications
Loop-back File (/var/named/0.0.127.in-addr.arpa)
Configuration Example
0.0.127.in-addr. IN
19990318
;
10800
;
3600
;
604800
;
86400
;
SOA ns.example1.com
Serial
Refresh after 3 hours
Retry after 1 hours
Expire after 1 week
Minimum after 1 week
0.0.127.in-addr.arpa.
0.0.127.in-addr.arpa.
0.0.127.in-addr.arpa.
1.0.0.127.in-addr.arpa.
IN
IN
IN
IN
NS
NS
NS
PTR
root.ns.example1.com (
[1]
ns.example1.com.
ns.2.provider.ad.
ns3.provider.ad.
localhost
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[1] The configuration serial number value. Any value is acceptable.
However when changing the file or reconfiguring be sure to
increment the number value.
[2] Sets the primary name server host name, in this case
ns.example1.com.
[3] Sets the secondary name server host name, in this case to
ns2.provider.ad as assigned by the service provider ns.provider.ad.
[4] Sets the tertiary name server host name, in this case
ns3.provide.ad as assigned by the service provider ns.provider.ad.
Normal File (zone file) (/var/named/example1.com)
Configuration Example
example1.comIN
19990318
10800
3600
604800
86400
example1.com.
example1.com.
2-16
SOA
ns.example1.com
; Serial
; Refresh after 3 hours
; Retry after 1 hours
; Expire after 1 week
; Minimum TTL of 1 day
IN
IN
NS
NS
root.ns.example1.com(
[1]
ns.example1.com. [2]
ns2.provider.ad.
[3]
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
Domain Name Server (BIND)
example1.com.
IN
example1.com.
IN
localhost
IN
ns.example1.com. IN
unix.example1.com.IN
win1.example1.com.IN
mac1.example1.com.IN
mail.example1.com. IN
www.example1.com. IN
ftp.example1.com. IN
NS
MX
A
A
A
A
A
CNAME
CNAME
CNAME
ns3.provider.ad.
[4]
10 ns2.example1.com.[5]
127.0.0.1
[6]
000.168.0.2
[7]
000.169.0.3
[8]
000.168.04
[9]
000.168.05
[10]
ns.example1.com. [11]
ns.example1.com. [12]
ns.example1.com. [13]
[1] The configuration serial number value. Any value is acceptable.
However when changing the file or reconfiguring be sure to
increment the number value.
In the line with IN NS, NS is an abbreviation for Name Server that
configures the name server host. [2], [3], and [4] are the primary,
secondary and tertiary host names settings. In this case they are
ns.example1.com, ns2.example1.com, and ns3.example1.com,
respectively.
In the line with IN MX, MX stands for Mail eXchange.
[5] shows the value of the mail server priority order. The smaller the
value, the higher the priority. Here the mail server host name is also
specified, in this case the primary name server and mail server are
the same. Thus the high value of 10 is sets a lower priority for the
mail server host ns.example1.com.
In the IN A line, A stands for Address, the host name corresponding
to the IP address.
[6] The IP address for the localhost. localhost indicates your own
host which is usually set as the 000.0.0.1, the value shown in this
example.
[7] The IP address for ns.example1.com, in this case 000.168.0.2.
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
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Applications
[8] [9] [10] The IP addresses for each host, in this case,
unix1.example1.com, win1.example1.com and mac1.example1.com
which correspond to IP addresses 000.168.0.3, 000.168.0.4, and
000.168.0.5, respectively.
In the line with IN CNAME, CNAME stands for Canonical NAME (the
standard name), the alias IN CNAME standard naming convention.
Sets the alias for the primary server.
[11] [12] [13] The alias names, in this case, the mail server name
mail.example1.com, the web server name www.example1.com, and
the FTP server name ftp.example1.com.
Inverse File (reverse file) (/var/named/2.0.168.000.inaddr.arpa) Configuration Example
2.0.168.000.in-addr.arpa. IN
roots.example1.com (
19990318 ;
10800
;
3600
;
604800
;
86400
;
2
3
4
5
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
NS
NS
NS
PTR
A
PTR
PTR
PTR
PTR
SOA
ns.example1.com.
Serial
[1]
Refresh after 3 hours
Retry after 1 hours
Expire after 1 week
Minimum TTL of 1 day
ns.example1.com.
ns2.provider.ad.
ns3.provider.ad.
example1.com.
255.255.255.240
ns.example1.com.
unix1.example1.com.
win1.example1.com.
mac1.example1.com.
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]
[1] The configuration serial number value. Any value is acceptable.
However when changing the file or reconfiguring be sure to
increment the number value. In this case the value is set to the date.
2-18
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
Domain Name Server (BIND)
In the line with IN NS, NS is a abbreviation for Name Server that
configures the name server host.
[2] [3] [4] Are the primary, secondary, and tertiary host names
settings. In this case they are ns.example1.com, ns2.provider.ad,
and ns3.provider.ad, respectively.
In the line with IN PTR, PTR stands for PoinTer (pointer).
[5] Sets the corresponding domain name, in this case the domain
name example1.com.
In the line with IN A, the subnet mask is set.
[6] In this case, the subnet mask is 255.255.255.240 and that is
mask set.
[7] [8] [9] [10] IP address number is attached at the end of each.
The PTR (pointer) record indicates the actual host name.
Configuration Check and Confirmation
The proper operation of bind is checked using ping and nslookup.
Ping is included in the netkit-base package together with inetd. The
nslookup program is available in RPM format in the bind-utils
package.
First use ping to test whether your own domain name in the host is
returned to you when a message is sent to the external host. In the
example below, your own address 000.168.0.2 is pinged. To stop the
ping program use <CTRL> +<c>.
> ping 000.168.0.2
PING 000.168.0.2 (000.168.0.2) : 56 data
64 bytes 000.168.0.2: icmp_seq=0 ttl=128
64 bytes 000.168.0.2: icmp_seq=0 ttl=128
64 bytes 000.168.0.2: icmp_seq=0 ttl=128
64 bytes 000.168.0.2: icmp_seq=0 ttl=128
64 bytes 000.168.0.2: icmp_seq=0 ttl=128
--- 000.168.0.2 ping statistics ---
bytes
time=0.5
time=0.5
time=0.5
time=0.5
time=0.5
ms
ms
ms
ms
ms
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
2-19
Applications
5 packets transmitted, 5 packets received, 0% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 0.5/0.5/0.5 ms
If you seen a display similar to the one above, your network is
working properly. Check the internal domain host and external host
connection in the same way.
Checking using nslookup is performed in the following manner.
(1) First, change your own IP address to the host name. Check that
the host name is properly changed to the IP address.
(2) Using the same method, confirm that the internal domain host
name is changed.
(3) Last, check that the external (internet) host is properly changed.
Enter the nslookup command.
# nslookup
Default Server: ns.example1.com
Address:
000.168.0.2
Aliases:
2.0.168.000.in-addr.arpa
This is what the displayed output should look like. When you first
start nslookup it may take a while to finish running.
Next using your own or the domain internal host name to a test to
see if you can retrieve the IP address information.
As in the following example, if you are able to lookup this type of
information, you system is working properly.
Example using a dummy address:
> ns.example1.com
Server: ns.example1.com
Address: 000.168.000.in-addr.arpa
Aliases: 2.0.168.000.in-addr.arpa
Name: ns.example1.com
Address: 000.168.0.2
>Address: 000.168.0.2
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Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
Domain Name Server (BIND)
Server: ns.example1.com
Address: 000.168.0.2
Aliases: 2.0.168.000.in-addr.arpa
Name:
ns.example1.com
Address:
000.168.0.2
Aliases: 2.0.168.000.in-addr.arpa
Example using a dummy internal domain host:
> unix1.example1.com
Server: ns.example1.com
Address: 000.168.0.2
Aliases: 3.0.168.000.in-addr.arpa
Name: unix1.example1.com
Address: 000.168.0.3
>Address: 000.168.0.3
Server: ns.example1.com
Address: 000.168.0.2
Aliases: 3.0.168.000.in-addr.arpa
Name:
ns.example1.com
Address:
000.168.0.2
Aliases: 000.168.0.2.in-addr.arpa
Example using an external host:
> blue.ocn.ne.us
Server: ns.example1.com
Address: 000.168.0.2
Aliases: 226.162.139.203.in-addr.arpa
Non-authoritative answer:
Name: blue.ocn.ne.us
Address: 203.139.160.87
>203.139.160.87
Server: ns.example1.com
Address: 000.168.0.2
Aliases: 226.162.139.203.in-addr.arpa
Name:
blue.ocn.ne.us
Address:
203.139.160.87
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
2-21
Applications
Resolver Program
The resolver receives name requests from the client and forwards
the request to the name server and returns answers to the client.
While the name server is the program that handles making decisions
for the server program, the resolver is the client side program for
the same function.
Resolver is a component of the bind-utils package. Use the rpm -ql
option to confirm the contents of the package. Enter the command
shown below.
# rpm -ql bind-utils
The command results in the listing shown below:
/usr/bin/addr
/usr/bin/dig/
/usr/bin/dnsquery
/usr/bin/host
/usr/bin/mkservdb
/usr/bin/nslookup
/usr/bin/nsupdate
/usr/lib/nslookup.help
/usr/sbin/dnskeygen
/usr/sbin/irpd
NOTE The relevant contents of /usr/share/man are listed under References for
BIND and Resolver on page 2–24.
Resolver configuration files
The two resolver configuration files are /etc/host.conf and /etc/resolv.conf.
The /etc/host.conf handles name inquiries issued from the name server
by either name server or by the traditional UNIX hosts file method.
2-22
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
Domain Name Server (BIND)
With the host file name service all hosts must be stored in the same
hosts file. For a large network this makes system maintenance timeconsuming and unrealistic. But the merit of name server is in the
load reduction that makes for good system response when running a
small network with only or four or five hosts.
To display the /etc/host.conf file, enter the command below
# less /etc/host.conf
This command returns the following contents.
order hosts,bind
multi on
Below is the process for running the order program. In this case,
first test the name resolution function. If it does not resolve, it
means you are running bind. The multi on message means that if
the name resolution results in multiple addresses they will be
processed. With multi off only the first address found will be used in
a response.
The file /etc/resolv.conf is for use by the domain name and name server.
Display this configuration file using the less command as shown
below:
# less /etc/resolv.conf
A typical example of the contents of /etc/resolv.conf is shown below.
domain example1.com
search example1.com
nameserver 000.168.0.2
The word domain here denotes the domain associated with the server.
The word search denotes the auxiliary domain to be used when no
domain is returned by the host inquiry. Nameserver is the name
server program.
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
2-23
Applications
References for BIND and Resolver
• Bind (Berkeley Internet Name Domain)
http://www.isc.org/bind.html/
• DEC (Digital Equipment Corporation
http://www.dec.com/
• Compaq/Digital Equipment
http://www.unix.digital.com/faqs/publications/base_doc/
• ISC (Internet Software Consortium)
http://www.isc.org/
• The home page of OCN Inc.,
http://www.ocn.com/
• The following man pages are available for bind:
hostname
mailaddr-bind
ndc
named-xfer
named
named.conf
• The following man pages are available for bind-utils:
dig
dnskeygen
dnsquery
host
irs.conf
resolv.conf
resolver
named-bootconf
nslookup
2-24
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
Firewall Maintenance (ipchains)
Firewall Maintenance (ipchains)
Ipchains is used to set up, maintain, and inspect the firewall rules in
the Linux kernel.
Connecting Linux to the internet, building a firewall to protect your
system from intruders, and enabling network address translation for
a LAN are frequent sources of questions.
All traffic through a network is sent in the form of packets. For
example, downloading a 50 kilobyte package might cause you to
receive 36 or so packets of 1460 bytes each.
The first part of each packet indicates its source and destination, the
type of the packet, and other administrative details. This part of the
packet is called the header. The rest of the packet, containing the
actual data being transmitted, is usually called the body.
A packet filter is a piece of software that looks at the headers of
packets as they pass through, and decides the fate of the entire
packet. It might decide to deny the packet (i.e. discard the packet as
if it had never received it), accept the packet (i.e. let the packet go
through), or reject the packet (like deny, but tells the source of the
packet that it has done so).
Linux ipchains is required to administer the IP packet filters in Linux
kernel versions 2.1.102 and above. Under Linux, packet filtering is
built into the kernel. Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390
meets this criteria.
Linux ipchains is a rewrite of the Linux IPv4 firewalling code and a
rewrite of ipfwad.
A firewall is a device that protects a private network from the
internet as a whole. The firewall computer can reach both the
protected network and the Internet. The protected network cannot
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
2-25
Applications
reach the Internet, and the Internet cannot reach the protected
network.
There are two types of firewalls: IP or Filtering Firewalls that block
all but selected network traffic, and Proxy Servers that make the
network connections for you.
To get started quickly, we suggest you read about ipchains and
firewall configuration in the following documents:
• man ipchains
• /usr/share/doc/packages/ipchains-1.3.9/HOWTO.txt.gz.
To read the ipchains document, use the command:
# zless /usr/share/doc/packages/ipchains-1.3.9/HOWTO.txt.gz
The package containing ipchains is found on the Turbolinux Server 6
for zSeries and S/390 Install CD under /RPMS/s390/ipchains-1.3.93.s390.rpm.
Name
ipchains
configuration file /etc/sysconfig/ipchains.rules
startup script
/etc/rc.d/init.d/ipchains
related files
/proc/net/ip_fwchains
/proc/net/ip_masquerade
ipchains Package Contents:
To view the contents of the ipchains package use the rpm -ql option
as shown below
# rpm -ql ipchains
The command results in the listing shown below:
/etc/rc.d/init.d/ipchains
/etc/sysconfig/ipchains.rules
/sbin/ipchains
/sbin/ipchains-restore
/sbin/ipchains-save
/sbin/ipfwadm
/sbin/ipfwadm-wrapper
2-26
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
Firewall Maintenance (ipchains)
NOTE The contents of /usr/share/doc/packages/ipchains-1.3.9 are omitted. The
contents of /usr/share/man are listed in References for ipchains and firewall on
page 2–28.
ipchains Configuration File (/etc/sysconfig/ipchains.rules)
Configuration of Turbolinux Server firewall rules should take place
during network configuration and setup at system boot time.
At startup ipchains reads configuration information from a file which
by default is the configuration file /etc/ipchains.rules.
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 uses the firewall startup
scripting process based on /etc/rc.d/init.d/ipchains. At system startup this
script is called with the ‘start’ argument. This causes the script to
load whatever firewall rules are present in the rules table /etc/sysconfig/
ipchains.rules.
Administrators may enable or disable the firewall rules by executing
at any time the following from a command line.
To enable firewall rules, type:
sh /etc/rc.d/init.d/ipchains
start
To disable firewall rules, type:
sh /etc/rc.d/init.d/ipchains
stop
Preparing Firewall Rules. The preparation of the ipchains.rules table can
be accomplished by first loading firewall rules, either manually or
using the GUI firewall control center, GFCC, and then by saving the
rules by executing the following:
ipchains-save
> /etc/sysconfig/ipchains.rules
Please refer to the documentation for ipchains for information
regarding how to create firewall rules at
/usr/share/doc/packages/ipchains-1.3.9.
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
2-27
Applications
A rules table can be prepared on one machine. For example, a
system that has been installed as an intranet server, thus with the
resources needed to use the GFCC program to create the firewall
rules table, can be copied to a basic firewall system for use.
References for ipchains and firewall
To learn the basics of firewall systems and to obtain some details on
setting up both a filtering and proxy firewall on a Linux based PC,
use:
• The Firewall-HOWTO, available at
http://metalab.unc.edu/LDP/HOWTO/Firewall-HOWTO.html/
• The official page is the Linux IP Firewall Chains Page at
http://www.rustcorp.com/linux/ipchains/
• The following man pages are available for ipchains and firewall:
2-28
ipchains
ipchains-restore
ftpshut
ipfwadm-wrapper
ipchains-save
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
File Transfer Protocol Client (TFTP)
File Transfer Protocol Client (TFTP)
TFTP (part of the InetUtils package) 1.3.2, is the user interface to the
Internet TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol), which allows users to
transfer files to and from a remote machine. The remote host may be
specified on the command line, in which case tftp uses host as the
default host for future transfers.
TFTP has been implemented on top of the Internet User Datagram
protocol (UDP or Datagram) so it may be used to move files between
machines on different networks implementing UDP. (This should not
exclude the possibility of implementing TFTP on top of other
datagram protocols.) It is designed to be small and easy to
implement. Therefore, it lacks most of the features of a regular FTP.
The only thing it can do is read and write files (or mail) from and to a
remote server. It cannot list directories, and currently has no
provisions for user authentication. In common with other Internet
protocols, it passes 8-bit bytes of data.
InetUtils is a collection of common network programs. Among other
features, it includes:
•
•
•
•
•
An ftp client and server.
A telnet client and server.
An rsh client and server.
An rlogin client and server.
A tftp client and server.
ATTENTION
It is not safe to install TFTP on any server that is open to
the Internet.
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
2-29
Applications
TFTP Configuration
In order to use TFTP, open the file /etc/inetd.conf and delete the hash
symbol (#) preceding the following line:
#ftp stream tcp nowait root /usr/sbin/tcpd in.ftpd -1 -a
TFTP Reference
• The TFTP package contains the following man pages:
tftp
2-30
in.tftpd
tftpd
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
File Transfer Protocol Server (ProFTP)
File Transfer Protocol Server (ProFTP)
ProFTP is an ftp client and server developed by Labtam which allows
the user to transfer files between a PC and a remote computer using
the ARPANET standard File Transfer Protocol. The program can
transfer files in two different format types: ASCII format for text files,
and Binary format for image files.
FTP must run on a machine that is configured for TCP/IP network
communication or Internet access. Access can be gained through
Winsock and the use of any dial-up provider, a Remote Access Server
(RAS), or a direct connection via a local area network that supports
TCP/IP. In order for FTP to communicate with a remote computer,
that computer must have a server implementation of FTP (FTP server
based on TCP/IP transports).
You can be connected to only one remote computer at a time during
an FTP session. However, you can run multiple FTP sessions (FTP
clients) simultaneously in separate windows, with each session
connected to a different host.
ProFTP is found on the Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390
Install CD under /RPMS/s390/proftpd-1.2.0rc2-1.s390.rpm.
Name
ProFTP
daemon
/usr/sbin/proftpd
configuration file /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf
startup script
/etc/rc.d/init.d/inet
ProFTP Package Contents
To view the contents of the ProFTP package use the rpm -ql option
as shown below.
# rpm -ql proftpd
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
2-31
Applications
The following is an abbreviated listing of the results:
/etc/pam.d/proftp
/etc/proftpd/ftpusers
/etc/proftpd/proftp.conf
/usr/bin/ftpcount
/usr/bin/ftpwho
/usr/bin/ftpshut
/usr/bin/in.proftpd
/usr/bin/proftpd
NOTE The online manual files and the contents of the
/usr/share/doc/packages/proftpd-1.2.0pre10
folder are omitted from this list.
ProFTP Startup Script and Options
The ProFTP startup script is located in /etc/rc.d/init.d/inet. Use the
following command to access it:
# /etc/rc.d/init.d/inet [start|stop|restart]
ProFTP Configuration File (/etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf)
To read the very well documented ProFTP configuration file, enter
the following command:
# less /etc/proftpd/proftpd.conf
2-32
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
File Transfer Protocol Server (ProFTP)
The following is an abbreviated listing of the result:
ServerName"Test Installation"
ServerTypeinetd
DefaultServeron
ServerIdentoff
Port21
Umask022
MaskInstances30
PAMConfigProFTP
AuthPAMAuthoritativeOn
Usernobody
Groupnobody
<Directory/*>
AllowOverwriteOn
</Directory>
ProFTP Operation Confirmation
To confirm that ProFTP is running properly enter the following
command:
# ps aux | grep proftp
root
3930 0.0 1.3 1140
404 tty1 S 13:17 0:00 grep proftp
If the return is not something similar to the response shown above,
either proftp is not running properly or it failed to install. Check
whether ProFTP is running or try reinstalling it.
References for ProFTP
• An extensive user guide is available at
http://hamster.wibble.org/proftpd/userguide/linked/
userguide.html/
• http://www.lab-pro.com/index.cfm/
• http://www.proftpd.net/
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
2-33
Applications
• The following man pages are available for ProFTP:
proftpd
ftpcount
ftpwho
ftpshut
2-34
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
xferlog
http Server (Apache)
http Server (Apache)
Apache is the most widely used web server in the world. According to
February, 1999 data, Apache holds over 50% of the world share for
web servers and has become the de facto standard.
Apache Project
Apache’s collaborative development group is known as the Apache
Project. Apache features an open source code, freeware with
numerous features, high efficiency, a stable environment and easy
system management.
Information on Apache is available at the developers’ Apache Project
web site. In addition, the web magazine Apache Week gathers together a myriad
of useful information. For more information, see References for Apache and
httpd on page 2–43.
Apache is found on the Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390
Install CD under /RPMS/s390/apache-1.3.14-1.s390.rpm.
Name
Apache
daemon
configuration file
startup script
log file
/usr/sbin/httpd
/etc/httpd.conf (and three others listed on page 2–36)
/etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd
/var/lock/subsys/inet
httpd Startup Script
Apache includes the daemon called httpd for which the startup script
is /etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd. To display the startup script, enter the following
command:
# less /etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd
The daemon, httpd, has three main options:
/etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd [start|stop|restart]
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
2-35
Applications
After making any changes to the configuration you will need to
restart httpd to enable the changes. To restart httpd, use this
command:
# /etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd
restart
Confirm that httpd is operating properly by using this command:
# ps aux
|
grep
httpd
If issuing the above confirmation command does not result in a
display like:
nobody
351
0.0 3.7
1916
1164
?
S
08:13
0:00
httpd
it is possible that httpd is not operating or that the installation failed.
Verify that the package is installed by using the command:
# rpm -ql apache
Restart httpd by using the command:
# /etc/rc.d/init.d/httpd restart
httpd Configuration File
has four associated configuration files. The file location and
main functions are listed below.
Httpd
/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
overall configuration settings for
the httpd daemons
/etc/httpd/conf/srm.conf
detailed settings for related html
documents
/etc/httpd/conf/access.conf
access operation configuration
/etc/mime.types
listing of MIME file types
To utilize Apache’s wide range of features, you must configure the
above files. Detailing all of Apache's many features would take
several volumes; below we explain the basic features.
2-36
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
http Server (Apache)
httpd.conf
The httpd.conf file is for the overall configuration setting for the httpd
daemons. Confirm the contents of httpd.conf using the following
command:
# less
/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
This should return the following display:
ServerType standalone
Port 80
HostnameLookups off
User nobody
Group nobody
ServerAdmin [email protected]
ServerRoot /etc/httpd
ErrorLog logs/error_log
LogLevel warn
LogFormat “%h %l %u %t “%r” %>s %b” common
CustomLog logs/access_log common
NOTE Lines commented out with "#" are omitted
The basic directives are:
• ServerType
Directives can change the startup mode of httpd to either standalone
or inetd mode. The default is standalone mode. Httpd can start in
standalone mode or super server mode but unless you have a special
reason there are strong arguments for starting in the standalone
mode. Apache sets standalone as the default.
• Port
sets the port number at which client requests for connection are
received. The default value is 80. Port 80 is widely known to the
computing public as the client port for the httpd server. This is also
the httpd server's port used by the WKS (Well Known Services) record.
Httpd
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
2-37
Applications
Unless you have a special reason, such as wishing to display only
selected users or to start httpd from a directory other than the root, it
is recommended that you maintain the default value.
• HostnameLookups
Determines whether the access log file of client requests records the
host name or the IP address. The default of OFF records IP
addresses. This is the recommended setting.
• User and Group
Sets the user and group names of the httpd process owner. The
defaults are nobody for both user and group. The httpd process, that is
the home page, intentionally sets the security level very low by using
nobody, on the assumption that many and unspecified users will use
the system.
Unless you have a special reason, maintain the default setting. If you
should change the setting, be particularly careful about specifying
the user and group settings for the selected users.
• ServerAdmin
Sets the mail address for the httpd manager. The default is
[email protected] A message from the manager can be added here.
The default setting is fine; however if there are several web managers
it is convenient to substitute the address of a web manager mail list
instead. Note the above example uses [email protected]
• ServerRoot
The location of the configuration files is set by default to /etc/httpd. This
is the recommended location.
• ErrorLog
The name for the log for recording errors. By default error messages
are saved in the file logs/error_log. If you are using virtual hosts
separate error logs can be defined for each virtual host.
2-38
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
http Server (Apache)
• LogFormat and CustomLog
LogFormat specifies the format of access log files. CustomLog does the
same for access logs. If you are using virtual hosts, separate logs can
be defined for each virtual host.
srm.conf
Confirm the contents of the srm.conf file with the following command:
# less
/etc/httpd/conf/srm.conf
A display similar to that below should appear (lines commented out
with # are omitted)
DocumentRoot /home/httpd/html
UserDir public_html
DirectoryIndex index.html index.shtml index.cgi index.php3
FancyIndexing on
ReadmeName README
HeaderName HEADER
IndexIgnore.??* *~ *# HEADER* README* RCS
AccessFileName .htaccess
TypesConfig /etc/mime.types
Alias /icons/ /home/httpd/icons/
ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /home/httpd/cgi-bin/
The basic directives of srm.conf are:
DocumentRoot: Specifies the location of HTML files.
UserDir: Specifies the public user directory.
DirectoryIndex: By default, this is set to display file names.
Alias: Specifies the directory alias names for names not listed in
DocumentRoot.
• ScriptAlias: Specifies the directory alias names for CGI scripts
and other executable files.
•
•
•
•
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
2-39
Applications
access.conf
Confirm the contents of the access.conf file with the following
command:
# less
/etc/httpd/conf/access.conf
A display similar to that below should appear (lines commented out
with # are omitted).
<Directory />
Options FollowSymLinks
AllowOverride None
</Directory>
<Directory /home/httpd/html>
Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
AllowOverride None
order allow,deny
allow from all
</Directory>
<Directory /home/httpd/cgi-bin>
AllowOverride None
Options ExecCGI
</Directory>
The format of the access.conf file is similar to the HTML format
standard. The lines from <Directory filename> to </Directory>,
i.e., the first four lines of the above listing, configure the directory.
By default the directories are set to the root (/) directory, HTML
directory (/home/httpd.html), and cgi-bin directory (/home/httpd/cgi-bin). Other
directories can be added.
Options. The main options are as follows:
None
disables all options
All
enables all options
Indexes
when the DirectoryIndex srm.conf is
not specified, this displays a list of
directories
2-40
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
http Server (Apache)
ExecCGI
enables running CGI files
Includes
enables running SSI (Server Side
Include)
IncludesNOEXEC
enables running SSI, but with the
#exec command will run CGI and
with the #include command
disables running.
FollowSymLinks
enables symbolic linking
SymLinksIfOwnerMatch
enables symbolic linking only
when explicitly allowed by the
process owner.
AllowOverride. This is the access control file. Designates process
when .htaccess is present. The available options are shown below.
None
disables all .htaccess options
All
enables all .htaccess options
AuthConfig
enables only those settings
explicitly set in .htaccess
FileInfo
enables only those formats
explicitly set in .htaccess
Indexes
enables only those lists displays
explicitly set in .htaccess
Limit
enables only those access
operations explicitly set in .htaccess
Options
enables only those target
directories explicitly defined in
.htaccess
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
2-41
Applications
order
Specifies the priority of permission
granting/denial for access. The
available options are shown below.
allow,deny
order of decision process is allow,
then deny
deny,allow
order of decision process is deny,
allow
mutual-failure
grants permission only when both
allow and deny conditions are
satisfied
AllowFrom and DenyFrom. Specifies access permission and access
denial. Available options are shown below.
all
grants or denies permission to all
domain name
permits access from the specific
domain name
IP address
permits access from the specific IP
address
Apache Operation Confirmation
To confirm that Apache is running properly, enter the following
command.
# ps aux | grep apache
If the return is not something similar to the response shown below,
either httpd is not running properly or it failed to install. Check
whether httpd is running or try reinstalling Apache.
root
2-42
3930 0.0 1.3 1140
404 tty1 S 13:17 0:00 grep apache
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
http Server (Apache)
For more information, see Managing System Processes on page 1–25 and Listing
and Installing Packages on page 1–33.
References for Apache and httpd
You can find more information at the following sites:
• Apache HTTP Server Project
http://www.apache.org/
• Apache Project: About Apache
http://www.apache.org/ABOUT_APACHE.html/
• Apache Week
http://www.apacheweek.com/
The latest information and programs are available for viewing and
downloading via the Internet. Source code from the Apache Project
development effort is available at their download site or at these
mirror sites:
• Apache Project download site,
http://www.apache.org/dist/
• Apache Project mirror site,
http://www.apache.org/dyn/closer.cgi/
• The Netcraft Web Server Survey,
http://www.netcraft.com/survey/
The man page for this application is at:
• man httpd
• A well documented online manual is available on an installed
Turbolinux system under /home/httpd/html/manual
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
2-43
Applications
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
(OpenLDAP)
OpenLDAP is an open-standard directory service protocol designed
to handle account information services. The protocol runs over
Internet transport protocols, such as TCP, and can be used to access
stand-alone directory servers or X.500 directories. The LDAP
directory service is based on a client-server model.
There are many different ways to provide a directory service.
Different methods allow different kinds of information to be stored in
the directory; place different requirements on how that information
can be referenced, queried and updated; how it is protected from
unauthorized access, etc. Some directory services are local,
providing service to a restricted context (for example, the finger
service on a single machine). Other services are global, providing
service to a much broader context.
OpenLDAP Package Contents
To view OpenLDAP’s contents, use the rpm -ql option:
# rpm -ql openldap
The command results in the listing shown below.
/etc/ldap/defaultbase.ldap
/etc/ldap/ldapfilter.conf
/etc/ldap/ldapsearchprefs.conf
/etc/ldap/ldapserver
/etc/ldap/ldaptemplates.conf
/usr/bin/ldapadd
/usr/bin/ldapdelete
/usr/bin/ldapmodify
/usr/bin/ldapmodrdn
/usr/bin/ldapsearch
/usr/bin/ud
/usr/sbin/xrpcomp
/usr/share/doc/packages/openldap-1.2.10
2-44
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (OpenLDAP)
NOTE The contents of the man pages follow the /openldap-1.2.10 files; the
contents of both are omitted from this list.
ldap Operation Confirmation
Ldap’s operation can be checked using the ps command as shown
below:
ps aux | grep ldap
If ldap is operating properly, the above command should return the
message shown below. Check that the program name ldap appears
at the far right of the listing.
root
2888 0.0
1.3 1140 404 tty1 S
15:51 0:00 grep ldap
If you do not see something similar to the message shown above,
either ldap is not operating properly or it was not installed. Restart
or reinstall it. For more information, see Managing System Processes on page 1–
25 and Listing and Installing Packages on page 1–33.
ldap Startup Script
Below is at a specific example of the default startup script located in
/etc/rc.d/init.d/ldap.
To start ldap use the following command:
# /etc/rc.d/init.d/ldap start
To stop ldap use this command:
# /etc/rc.d/init.d/ldap stop
ldap Configuration File (/etc/ldap.conf)
To read the very well documented openLDAP configuration file, enter
the following command
# less /etc/ldap.conf
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
2-45
Applications
The following is an abbreviated listing of the result:
./etc/rc.d/init.d/functions
./etc/sysconfig/network
[ ${NETWORKING} = "no" ] && exit 0
[ -f /usr/bin/slapd ] || exit 0
[ -f /usr/bin/slurpd ] || exit 0
RETVAL=0
case "$1" in
start
echo -n "Starting ldap: "
daemon slapd
RETVAL=$?
if [ $RETVAL -eq 0 ]; then
if grep -q "^replogfile" /etc/ldap/slapd.conf; then
daemon slurpd
RETVAL=$?
[ $RETVAL -eq 0 ] && pidof slurpd \ cut -f 1 -d " " /
var/run/slurpd
fi
fi
echo
[ $RETVAL -eq 0 ] && touch /var/lock/subsys/ldap
;;
stop)
echo -n "Shutting down ldapf: "
killproc slapd
RETVAL=$?
if [ $RETVAL -eq 0 ]; then
if grep -q "^replogfile" /etc/ldap/slapd.conf; then
killproc slurpd
RETVAL=$?
fi
fi
echo
if [ $RETVAL -eq 0 ]; then
rm -f /var/lock/subsys/ldap
rm -f /var/run/slapd.args
fi
;;
status)
2-46
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (OpenLDAP)
status slapd
RETVAL=$?
if [ $RETVAL -eq 0 ]; then
if grep -q "^replogfile" /etc/ldap/slapd.conf; then
status slurpd
RETVAL=$?
fi
;;
restart)
$0 stop
$0 start
RETVAL=$?
;;
reload)
killproc -HUP slapd
RETVAL=$?
if [ $RETVAL -eq 0 ]; then
if grep -q "^replogfile" /etc/ldap/slapd.conf; then
killproc -HUP slurpd
RETVAL=$?
fi
fi
;;
*)
echo "Usage: $0 start|stop|restart|status}"
exit 1
esac
exit $RETVAL
OpenLDAP also has these configuration files:
stopd.conf
stopd.at.conf
stopd.oc.conf
ldaptemplates.conf
ldapfilter.conf
ldapsearchprefs.conf
ldapserver.conf
defaultbase.ldap
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
2-47
Applications
References for OpenLDAP
• OpenLDAP
http://www.openldap.org/
• University of Michigan LDAP,
http://www.umich.edu/~dirsvcs/ldap/index.html/ and
http://www.umich.edu/~dirsvcs/ldap/doc/
• Manually Implementing Roaming Access,
http://help.netscape.com/products/client/communicator/
manual_roaming2.html/
• Customizing LDAP Settings for Communicator 4.5,
http://developer.netscape.com/docs/manuals/communicator/
ldap45.htm/
• OpenLDAP has eleven man pages listed in the table below:
2-48
ldapadd
ldapdelete
ldapmodrdn
ud
ldapfilter.conf
ldapsearchprefs.conf
ldapsearch
ldapmodify
ldaptemplates.conf
ud.conf
ldapfriendly
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
Network File System (NFS)
Network File System (NFS)
NFS (Network File System) makes it possible to share files between
hosts that are connected to a network. Supported by most
installations of Unix, it is an extremely convenient way to transfer
files on Unix. Also, with some additional software, you can support
NFS on operating systems other than Unix and transparently
transfer files between many computers.
On Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390, you can install knfsd,
which boosts performance over an NFS server that is traditionally
run at the user level.
To use NFS, you must configure NFS on both the server side and the
user side. On the server side, the edits are made to the basic
configuration file, /etc/exports, and then run the daemon. On the client
side, you must mount the directories that are being made public.
NFS-server Structure
Confirm the contents of the nfs-server file by using the rpm -ql
option. Enter the following command:
# rpm -ql knfsd
The command results in the listing shown below.
/etc/rc.d/init.d/nfs
/sbin/rpcdebug
/usr/man/man5/exports.5
/usr/man/man8/exportfs.8
/usr/man/man8/nfsstat.8
/usr/sbin/rpc.mountd
/usr/sbin/rpc.nfsd
/usr/sbin/rpc.rquotad
/usr/man/man8/rquotad.8
/usr/sbin/exportfs
/usr/sbin/nhfsstone
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
2-49
Applications
/usr/sbin/rpc.statd
/var/lib/nfs
/var/lib/nfs/etab
/var/lib/nfs/rmtab
/var/lib/nfs/xtab
NOTE This list excludes the contents of /usr/share/doc/packages/knfsd-1.4.7.
All the files listed with the above command are installed when the
nfs-server RPM package is installed.
To check the operation of rpc.nfsd, enter the following command:
# ps ax | grep nfs
4267
pts/0
S
0:00
grep nfs
To check the operation of rpc.mount, enter the following command:
# ps ax | grep mount
4269
pts/0
S
0:00
grep mount
Starting and Stopping NFS
Before running knfsd first check that portmap is running. Run portmap
using the following command:
# /etc/rc.d/init.d/portmap.init
The NFS startup script is /etc/rc.d/init.d/nfs. Startup script options are:
start, stop, and restart.
Once you change the settings of NFS, you must restart it in order for
the changes to go into effect.
The syntax of the NFS startup script is:
#/etc/rc.d/init.d/nfs {start|stop|restart|status}
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Network File System (NFS)
Use the status option to check the current status of NFS. If NFS is
running, the return will resemble the following:
root
766 0.2 0.2 1764 732 ? S 08:13 0:00 nfsd
If you do not see this return, NFS may not be running or not
installed. You will have to start, restart, or install NFS.
For more information, see Managing System Processes on page 1–25 and Listing
and Installing Packages on page 1–33.
Display the contents of the NFS startup script with this command:
# less
/etc/rc.d/init.d/nfs
The return of this command looks something like this:
#!/bin/sh
#
# nfs This shell script takes care of starting and stopping
the NFS
# services.
# chkconfig: 345 85 20
# description: NFS is a popular protocol for file sharing
across TCP/IP
#
networks. This service provides NFS server functionality, \
#
which is configured via the /etc/exports file.
# probe: true
# Source function library.
. /etc/rc.d/init.d/functions
# Source networking configuration.
if [ ! -f /etc/sysconfig/network ]; then
exit 0
fi
. /etc/sysconfig/network
# Check that networking is up.
[ ${NETWORKING} = "no" ] && exit 0
[ -x /usr/sbin/rpc.nfsd ] || exit 0
[ -x /usr/sbin/rpc.mountd ] || exit 0
[ -x /etc/exports ] || exit 0
# Number of servers to be started up by default
RPCNFSDCOUNT=8
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Applications
# See how we were called.
case "$1" in
start)
# Start daemons.
echo "Starting NFS services: "
/usr/sbin/exportfs -r
echo -n "
Starting NFS statd: "
daemon rpc.statd
echo
echo -n "
Starting NFS quotas: "
daemon rpc.rquotad
echo
echo -n "
Starting NFS mountd: "
daemon rpc.mountd
echo
echo -n "Starting NFS daemon: "
daemon rpc.nfsd $RPCNFSDCOUNT
echo
touch /var/lock/subsys/nfs
;;
stop)
# Stop daemons.
echo -n "Shutting down NFS
/usr/sbin/exportfs -au
echo -n "Shutting down NFS
killproc rpc.mountd
echo
echo -n "Shutting down NFS
killproc nfsd
echo
echo -n "Shutting down NFS
killproc rpc.rquotad
echo
echo -n "Shutting down NFS
killproc rpc.statd
echo
rm -f /var/lock/subsys/nfs
;;
services: "
mountd: "
daemon: "
quotas: "
statd: "
status)
status rpc.statd
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Network File System (NFS)
status rpc.mountd
status nfsd
status rpc.rquotad
;;
restart)
echo -n "Restarting NFS services: "
echo -n "rpc.statd "
killall -HUP rpc.statd
echo -n "nfsd "
killall -HUP nfsd
echo -n "rpc.mountd "
killall -HUP rpc.mountd
echo -n "rpc.quotad "
killall -HUP rpc.rquotad
touch /var/lock/subsys/nfs
echo "done."
;;
reload)
/usr/sbin/exportfs
touch /var/lock/subsys/nfs
;;
probe)
if [ ! -f /var/lock/subsys/nfs ] ; then
echo start; exit 0
fi
/sbin/pidof rpc.mountd >/dev/null 2>&1; MOUNTD="$?"
/sbin/pidof nfsd >/dev/null 2>&1; NFSD="$?"
if [ $MOUNTD = 1 -o $NFSD = 1 ] ; then
echo restart; exit 0
fi
if [ /etc/exports -nt /var/lock/subsys/nfs ] ; then
echo reload; exit 0
fi
;;
*)
echo "Usage: nfs {start|stop|status|restart|reload}"
exit 1
esac
exit 0
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Applications
NFS Server Settings
The file in which you specify the hosts, users, and public directories
that are to given access; the access permissions, etc. is /etc/exports.
Each line in /etc/exports uses the following basic format:
[directory name]
[host name (options)]
Here directory name refers to the name of the directory that you
want to export, with the full Unix path. The host name can be written
in either the FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name) or IP address
format. There are many options; only the main ones are described
here.
For details run man exports.
Here is a list of the options:
roFile
permissions set to read only.
rwFile
permissions set to read and write.
root_squash
root access from the client is
mapped to anonymous (nobody).
no_root_squash
root access from the client is
permitted as root.
all_squash
All access is treated as access from
nobody.
anonuid=uid
With the root_squash or
all_squash options, maps to the
anonymous user ID.
anongid=gid
With the root_squash or
all_squash options, maps to the
anonymous group ID.
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NOTE By separating options with a comma, several options can be
specified at one time, but if a space is inserted between the option
and the command, you may not get the desired results.
An example listing of /etc/exports.
/usr
*.turbolinux.com(ro)
/home/you
test (rw,all_squash, anonuid=150,anongid=100)
/home/samba
(ro,all_squash)
In the first line, all machines under the turbolinux.com domain are
allowed to read (but not write) everything under /usr.
In the second line, the machine called test is allowed to read and
write to /home/you. Regardless of user, access is given as uid (user ID)
set to 150 and gid (group ID) set to 100.
In the third line, note that no host name is specified. This means
that all hosts are allowed to read (but not write) /home/samba. All
access is done through the nobody account.
Running the Server
Before running the NFS server, check to see if portmap is running with
the appropriate settings.
Like other servers, NFS is started with the init script. Because NFS is
not set to run by default in Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/
390, you must use chkconfig to configure it so that it will run as a
daemon after NFS is restarted.
#chkconfig --add nfs
NFS Server Run Check
Use exportfs to check the status of NFS exports. (There are other
possible uses for the exportfs command. Run man exportfs for
details.)
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With the example configuration of /etc/exports above, exportfs looks
like this:
#exportfs
/usr
*.turbolinux.com
/home/your
test
/home/samba
<world>
The showmount command shows which clients have which directories
mounted. For example, if host test2.turbolinux.com has /usr
mounted, it would look like this:
# showmount -a
All mount points on cadiz.calleprivada:
test2.turbolinux.com:/usr
Client Side Settings
NFS servers may have a great number and variety of clients but here
we restrict our explanation to Turbolinux.
Basically, the client can use the mount command to mount
directories that have been exported by the NFS server.
As an example, try to mount the /usr directory of the NFS server (nfssvr)
on /mnt/usr, thus:
#mount -t nfs nfssvr:/usr
/mnt/usr/
First, you must have created the mount point directory.
By editing the /etc/fstab file, you can use mount without giving all the
command line options each time.
For example add the following line to your /etc/fstab file.
nfssvr:/usr /mnt/usr
nfs
noauto,rw
Given the above, mount can be done with this alone:
# mount /mnt/usr
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Network File System (NFS)
This is an extremely simple mount example. In actual practice, many
options can be given to mount on the command line or edited into the
/etc/fstab file.
Some of the more popular options, detailed below, are: rsize, wsize,
hard, soft, and timeo.
rsize
Specifies the read buffer size. (Default is
1024.) Although there is an upper limit, the
bigger the value, the faster the transfer
speed.
wsize
Specifies the write buffer size. (Default
1024.)
hard
Even when the server is down, connection
requests can continue. When the server is
down, the message "server not responding"
appears on the console.
soft
When there is no NFS server response for a
while, the kernel is allowed to time out.
timeo
Specifies the length of the time out when
soft has been set.
An example of /etc/fstab that uses the above options is:
nfssvr:/usr /mnt/usr nfs
noauto,rw,rsize=8192,wsize=8192,soft,timeo=1000
In this case, the read and write buffer sizes are set to 8192 bytes
each and after the server has been down for 1000 (ms) time out
begins.
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NFS Security
NFS is a kind of server that has elements problematic for system
security. It is recommended that it be used only on a local network
behind a firewall, and that the administrator carefully scrutinize the
access permissions for /etc/exports.
In applying portmap access control, have a policy in place only to
accept RPC calls from specifically designated clients.
References for NFS Server
• Sun Microsystems, http://www.sun.com/
• NFS has the five man pages listed below:
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nfs
nfsd
fstab
exports
fs
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
Network Information Service (NIS)
Network Information Service (NIS)
NIS is an abbreviation for Network Information Service. It is used to
share information about computers on the network, such as login
names, passwords, home directories (/etc/passwd) and groups (/etc/group).
This section discusses how to configure an NIS server and clients.
Name
ypserv
daemon
/usr/sbin/ypserv
configuration file /etc/ypserv.conf
startup script
/etc/rc.d/init.d/ypserv
/etc/rc.d/init.d/yppasswdd
Running portmap
To use NIS, you must be running portmap. Normally, when Turbolinux
Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 boots, portmap is not started.
Enter the following command to do a portmap run check:
# /etc/rc.d/init.d/portmap status
If portmap is running, you will see:
portmap (pid 168) is running...
The portmap included in Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390
references the TCP_Wrapper access control files, /etc/hosts.allow and /etc/
host.deny, therefore, you must add the following line to the /etc/hosts.allow
file:
portmap : 000.168.1.0/255.255.255.0 : allow
NIS Package Contents
To view the contents of the NIS (ypserv) package, use the rpm -ql
option as shown below:
# rpm -ql ypserv
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This command returns the listing shown below:
/etc/rc.d/init.d/yppasswdd
/etc/rc.d/init.d/ypserv
/etc/ypserv.conf
/usr/include/rpcsvc/ypxfrd.x
/usr/lib/yp
/usr/lib/yp/create_printcap
/usr/lib/yp/makedbm
/usr/lib/yp/match_printcap
/usr/lib/yp/mknetid
/usr/lib/yp/pwupdate
/usr/lib/yp/revnetgroup
/usr/lib/yp/yphelper
/usr/lib/yp/ypinit
/usr/lib/yp/ypxfr
/usr/lib/yp/ypxfr_1perday
/usr/lib/yp/ypxfr_1perhour
/usr/lib/yp/ypxfr_2perday
/usr/sbin/rpc_yppasswdd
/usr/sbin/yp/rpc_ypxfrd
/usr/sbin/yppush
/var/yp
/var/yp/Makefile
/var/yp/securenets
NOTE The contents of /usr/share/doc/packages/ypserv-1.3.9 are omitted. The
relevant contents of /usr/share/man are found under References for NIS on
page 2–63.
NIS Operation Confirmation
The operation of ypserv can be checked using the ps command as
shown below:
ps aux | grep ypserv
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Network Information Service (NIS)
If ypserv is operating properly, the above command returns the
message shown below. Check that the program name ypserv appears
at the far right of the listing.
root 3183 0.0 1.3 1140 404 tty1 S 22:47 0:00 grep ypserv
If you do not see something similar to the message shown above,
either ypserv is not operating properly or it was not installed. Restart
or reinstall it.
For more information, see Managing System Processes on page 1–25 and Listing
and Installing Packages on page 1–33.
NIS Domain Settings
You can use the domainname command or edit /etc/sysconfig/network to
configure NIS.
Run:
# domainname [domainname]
Or add this to the /etc/sysconfig/network file:
NISDOMAIN = [domainname]
NOTE The DNS domain name should be set to one different than the
NIS domain name.
Server Settings
Check to see if /etc/ypserv.conf is available.
Next create the /var/yp/securenets file. Specify the usable scope of the NIS
network by setting a combination of the netmask and the network
address. Add the following line:
[netmask]
[network address]
The netmask that corresponds to the network address is specified in
the netmask field, and the network address is specified in the
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network address field. When the netmask is all 1s (that is, ones), the
network address becomes the host address.
For example, on a private network 000.168.1.0/24, for NIS to work,
the var/yp/securenets file would look like this:
255.255.255.255
127.0.0.1
255.255.255.0
000.168.1.0
In keeping with this objective, the /var/yp/Makefile will change. Start
ypserv and run the NIS initialization dialog program.
# ypserv
# /use/lib/yp/ypinit -m
To run the server enter the following commands:
# /etc/rc.d/init.d/ypserv start
# /etc/rc.d/init.d/yppasswd start
To run the server the next time the system reboots, enable the server
by using the chkconfig command.
# chkconfig --add ypserv
# chkconfig --add yppasswd
Client Settings
Add the following entry to the end of the /etc/passwd file.
+::::::
Add the following entry to the end of the /etc/group file.
+:::
Start ypbind using the following command:
# /etc/rc.d/init.d/ypbind start
To run ypbind on the next reboot, enable ypbind by using the chkconfig
command as follows:
# chkconfig --add ypbind
Test to see if NIS is running properly like this:
# ypwhich
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Network Information Service (NIS)
This command should return the following:
nissvr.turbolinux.com
displayed.
<-- The NIS server name is
# ypcat passwd
user1:ylkXjOSM2R5rQ:501:501::/home/usr1:/bin/bash
user2:aqFAzdBEx8iZE:502:502::/home/user2:/bin/bash
How to Specify a Server by Means of ypbind
Edit the /etc/yp.conf file:
domain [domain name]
server [server name]
How to Add a New User to the NIS Server
A new user may be added to the NIS server with the useradd
command:
# useradd [user name]
To refresh the NIS database, run:
# /use/lib/yp/ypinit -m
References for NIS
The following man pages are available for ypserv:
netgroup
ypserv.conf
makedbm
mknetid
pwupdate
revnetgroup
rpc.yppasswdd
rpc.ypxfrd
ypinit
yppasswdd
yppush
ypserv
ypxfr
ypxfrd
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Applications
OS Integration (Samba)
Samba is free, open source, software that can be used to integrate
the Windows OS with Unix. Samba makes it possible to share the
resources of Unix computers, such as Linux, with Windows so that
an economical file server or print server, etc., can be set up for both
systems. Also, by running a Samba client, the Windows resources
can accessed from the UNIX side.
We will not discuss the Samba client here. For details, see the online
manual found under /usr/share/doc/packages/samba-2.0.6/docs/faq.
Samba was developed by the Australian programmer, Andrew
Tridgell, and first made public in 1992. The current development
source is the Samba Team.
The version Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 uses is
samba-2.0.7.
Samba Organization
Samba’s main organization is as follows:
Daemon
Configuration File
Configuration
/usr/sbin/smbd
/etc/smbd.conf
File and printer sharing via
the SMB protocol
/usr/sbin/nmbd
NetBIOS
WINS server functionality
in NetBIOS
Samba startup mode
Samba may be run in standalone mode in which the Samba daemon
is always on call or in superserver (inetd) mode. When starting Samba
from the superserver, better security can be achieved by using
TCP_Wrapper. These three modes are detailed below.
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OS Integration (Samba)
Standalone Mode
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 starts Samba in
standalone mode by default. In this manual our focus will be on
standalone mode, but following are some hints for using Samba in
Superserver mode.
Superserver Mode
To start Samba in superserver mode, add the following two lines to
the /etc/inetd.conf file, then restart inetd.
netbios-ssn stream tcp nowait root
/usr/sbin/smbd
netbios-sn
/usr/sbin/nmbd
dgram
udp wait
root
Superserver Mode (with TCP_Wrapper)
To start Samba in superserver mode using TCP_Wrapper, add the
following two lines to the /etc/inetd.conf file, then restart inetd.
swat-ssn stream tcp nowait root /usr/sbin/tcpd /usr/sbin/smbd
swat-sn
dgram
udp wait
root /usr/sbin/tcpd /usr/sbin/smbd
Starting and Stopping Samba
To utilize Samba, first enable SWAT in /etc/inetd.conf file
#vi /etc/inetd.conf
Then uncomment the line that contains the following:
swat
stream
tcp
nowait.400
root
/usr/sbin/swat
swat
After any changes are made in the inetd.conf file, one must restart the
daemon. Use the following commands:
#killall -HUP /etc/inetd.conf
#/etc/rc.d/init.d/inetd.conf restart
Samba Startup Script (/etc/rc.d/init.d/smb)
The Samba startup script is /etc/rc.d/init.d/smb.
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The startup script can take the following options: start, stop,
restart, and status.
Whenever the Samba configuration is changed, you must restart
Samba in order for the changes to go into effect.
To start Samba:
# /etc/rc.d/init.d/smb start
To stop Samba:
# /etc/rc.d/init.d/smb stop
To restart Samba:
# /etc/rc.d/init.d/smb restart
To check Samba’s status:
# /etc/rc.d/init.d/smb status
Samba Operation Confirmation
Check if Samba is running with this command:
# ps aux | grep smb
The return should resemble:
root 766 0.2 0.2 1764 732 ? S 08:13 0:00 smbd -D
If you do not see a result like this, Samba may not be running or was
not installed. Restart or install it.
For more information, see Managing System Processes on page 1–25 and Listing
and Installing Packages on page 1–33.
Samba Configuration
In this section, we explain the settings on the server side, how to
directly configure the configuration file.
Samba gets its settings from the /etc/smb.conf file, a plain text file
composed of several sections, each of which is proceeded by a name
surrounded by square brackets ([ ]). Its name becomes the unit for
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file sharing. Each section which allows file sharing must correspond
to a directory (except printers).
[public]
path=home/samba/public
This means that the settings in the [public] section apply to the /home/
directory. Some section names are already reserved,
namely, [global], [homes], and [printers].
samba/public
[global]
Settings that apply to Samba as a whole
[homes]
Settings that apply to shared home
directories
[printers]
Settings that apply to shared printers
When Samba is installed, the Samba configuration file, smb.conf is
created under /etc. As given, smb.conf simply runs smbd and most of
Samba’s features are available to be used. But out consideration for
security, one should edit smb.conf to reflect the environment in which
it is used.
Standard /etc/smb.conf contains (abbreviated):
[global]
coding system = euc
client code page = 932
workgroup = WORKGROUP
server string = Samba %v
encrypt passwords = Yes
map to guest = Bad User
dns proxy = No
guest account = smbguest
[homes]
comment = %U’s home directory
read only = No
browseable = No
[printers]
comment = All Printers
path = /var/spool/samba
print ok = Yes
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browseable = No
[private]
comments = Private space; one can write one’s own files.
path = /home/samba/private
read only = No
[public]
comment = Public space; anyone car write any files
path = /home/samba/public
guest ok = Yes
read only = No
force group = public
force create mode = 0664
force directory mode = 0775
[tmp]
comment = Read only file space
path = /tmp
guest ok = Yes
Here is an explanation section by section.
[global] Section
The [global] section appears at the top of smb.conf and lists settings
that apply to Samba as a whole. We will explain the items that occur
above:
• coding system
This determines how incoming Shift-JIS file names from Windows
clients are converted into kanji encoding. Initially, it is set to euc. It
is effective only if client code page is set to 932. You should leave
this set to its initial default value.
• workgroup
This determines what Windows network NT domain name or
workgroup name to which the Samba server belongs. The initial
value is "WORKGROUP".
• server string
Some explanation about the server is given. When browsed by a
Windows client on a networked computer, this string appears in the
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"comment" column. The default is "Samba %v," where "%v" is
replaced with the Samba version number. For Turbolinux Server 6
for zSeries and S/390, %v is Samba 2.0.7.
• encrypt passwords
This controls whether encrypted passwords will be negotiated when
the client accesses the Samba server. This parameter can be set to
either "Yes" or "No". The initial value is: "Yes".
Windows NT 4.0 (Service Packs 3 and above) and Windows 98 expect
encrypted passwords by default, so this parameter must be set to
"Yes". More about configuring for encrypted passwords will be given
later.
• map to guest
This parameter tells smbd what to do with a request from a user that
does not completely match a registered Unix user account. It can
take any one of the three values listed below. The initial value is set
to "Bad User".
Never
Login requests with an invalid
password are rejected.
Bad User
Logins with an invalid password
are rejected, unless the username
does not exist, in which case it is
treated as a guest login and
mapped into the "guest account"
(explained later).
Bad Password
Logins with an invalid password
are treated as a guest login and
mapped into the "guest account"
(explained later).
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ATTENTION
You should set this to either "Never" or "Bad User". Beware
of using "Bad Password", because a user who enters an
incorrect password will be logged in as "guest". No error
message is displayed, so the user will wonder why he can
no longer access his own files and directories.
• dns proxy
When a NetBIOS name cannot be found, this specifies whether to
treat the name as the given DNS name or not. This parameter must
be either "Yes" or "No". The default is "No".
• guest account
If the "guest ok=Yes" parameter is set in a section, this is the
username that will be used for access to services. The default is
"smbguest".
[homes] Section
This [homes] section holds settings that apply to user home
directories.
• comment
Some explanation about the directory is given. When this directory is
browsed by a Windows client on a networked computer, this string
appears in the "comment" column. The default is "%U’s Home
directory", where the variable "%U" is replaced with the login name
on the Samba server. If the user’s name is ‘jane’, ‘Jane’s Home
directory’ is displayed.
• read only
Determines whether the home directory is read only or writing is
also allowed. This parameter must be either "Yes" or "No". The
default is "No".
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• browseable
When this directory is browsed by a Windows client on a networked
computer, this string appears in the "comment" column. The
parameter must be either "Yes" or "No". The default is "No".
[printers] Section
This section holds settings that apply to the printers shares.
• comment
Some explanation about printers is given. When this directory is
browsed by a Windows client on a networked computer, this string
appears in the "comment" column. The default is "All Printers".
• path
Specifies the full path to the print spool directory. The default value
is /var/spool/samba.
• print ok
Determines whether the client can write to the print spool file or not.
This parameter must be either "Yes" or "No". The default is "Yes".
• browseable
When this directory is browsed by a Windows client on a networked
computer, determines whether the printer will be displayed or not.
This parameter must be either "Yes" or "No". The default is "No".
[private] Section
This section contains a sample of what may be used when you want
to share private directories. It is not essential, but there may be
occasions when it is needed.
The section name will be the name of shared directory. Here the
shared directory is set to public.
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Applications
• comment
This contains some explanation of the directory. When this directory
is browsed by a Windows client on a networked computer, this string
will be displayed in the "comment" column. The default is "Private
space; one can write one’s own files."
• path
Specifies the full path of the shared directories. The default is /home/
samba/private.
• read only
Determines whether the home directory is read only or writing is
also allowed. This parameter must be either "Yes" or "No". The
default is "No".
[public] Section
This is an example of what may be used when you want to share
public directories. It is not essential, but there may occasions when
it is needed.
• comment
This contains some explanation of the directory. When this directory
is browsed by a Windows client on a networked computer, this string
will be displayed in a 'comment' box. The default is "Public space;
anyone can write any files."
• path
Specifies the full path of the shared directories. The default is /home/
samba/public.
• guest ok
Determines whether the access from a quest account is allowed or
not. If it is allowed, access will be allowed from the user account set
in the "guest account" parameter of the [Global] section.
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OS Integration (Samba)
• read only
Determines whether the home directory is read only or writing is also
allowed. This parameter must be either "Yes" or "No". The default is
"No".
• force group
Here you can force the setting of group ownership of the files and
directories created in this directory. The default is "public".
• force create mode
Here you can force the setting of permissions of files created in this
directory. The default is "644".
• force directory mode
Here you can force the setting of permissions of directories created
in this directory. The default is "755."
[tmp] Section
This section is an example of the configuration you can use when
you want to share a temporary directory (read only). It is not
essential, but there may occasions when it is needed.
• comment
This contains some explanation of the directory. When this directory
is browsed by a Windows client on a networked computer, this string
will be displayed in a "comment" column. The default is "Read only
file space."
• path
Specifies the full path of the shared directories. The default is /tmp.
• guest ok
Determines whether access from a quest account is allowed or not.
If it is allowed, access will be allowed from the user account set in
the "guest account" parameter of the [global] Section.
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Applications
Encrypted Passwords
From Windows NT4.0 (Service Packs 3 and above), and in
Windows98, encrypted passwords have been used as the default
instead of the plain text passwords that used to be common on
networks. Because these encrypted passwords were not compatible
with Unix systems, access as usual was not possible. So it was
necessary to make a password file especially for the Samba server.
To enable encrypted passwords, as explained in a previous item, it is
necessary to set the parameter "encrypt passwords=Yes" in the [global]
Section.
To use encrypted passwords, there is a password file especially
created for the Samba server called smbpasswd in which users can be
registered. Some words of explanation follow.
NOTE To carry out these operations, you must be logged in as the
superuser.
• Creating the smbpasswd file
Create an empty file called smbpasswd under /etc.
# touch /etc/smbpasswd
# chmod 600 /etc/smbpasswd
• User registration
In order for a user to register in the smbpasswd file, he or she must be
registered on the system. Here we use the user ‘jane’ as an example.
# useradd jane
# smbpasswd -a jane
New SMB Password :
Repeat New SMB Password :
Added user jane
User jane enabled
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OS Integration (Samba)
To write a registered user into the smbpasswd file, run this command:
# cat /etc/passwd | mksbpasswd.sh > /etc/smbpasswd
After appending to the smbpasswd file, change the user’s password.
#smbpasswd -a -e jane
Once changed, restart Samba.
File and Printer Sharing
There are four ways to set the format for file and printer sharing. You
must decide which of the four values below to set for the "security"
parameter in the [global] section. The "security" parameter is
probably the most important setting in smb.conf.
• share
Shares are set up for directories and devices. They are of the same
level as share settings in Windows95. Users not registered with the
Samba server still have access. From a security standpoint, this is
the most lenient configuration.
• user
Shares are set up user by user. Recognition is done by Samba, so a
user who would gain access must be registered in advance with the
Samba server. Furthermore, for access from Windows98 and NT SP3 and
higher, encrypted passwords are needed. For details see Encrypted Passwords
on page 2–74.
• server
This is the same configuration as for "user" above, but the
recognition is done not by the Samba server but by another
WindowsNT server. The user who would gain access must be already
registered with another WindowsNT server. In this case, because the
Samba server is seen as one client for the WindowsNT server, you
need to make sure you have an additional WindowsNT client license.
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Applications
• domain
This is the same configuration as for "user" above, but the Samba
server is designated as a member of an already-existing WindowsNT
domain. In short, the recognition is not done by the Samba server,
but by the WindowsNT server (domain controller) instead. A user
who would gain access must already be registered with this domain.
In this case, because the Samba server is seen as one client for the
WindowsNT server, you need to make sure you have an additional
WindowsNT client license.
As in the previous item, when the "security" parameter is not made
explicit, "security=user" is assumed.
Testing the settings
To check if the configuration file has been properly composed, run
testparm as follows:
# testparm
This command returns the following:
Load smb config files from /etc/smb.conf
Processing section "[homes]"
Processing section "[printers]"
Processing section "[private]"
Processing section "[public]"
Processing section "[tmp]"
Loaded services file OK.
Press enter to see a dump of your service definitions
The display pauses at this point, so you can press ‘Enter’ to see the
results of the test.
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OS Integration (Samba)
References for Samba
• The website for the Samba Team is located at
http://www.samba.org/
• Several FAQ documents are available under
/usr/share/doc/packages/samba-2.0.6/docs/faq
• The following man pages are available for Samba:
nmblookup
smbclient
smbrun
smbstatus
smbtar
testparm
testprns
smb.conf
samba
nmbd
smbd
smbpasswd
swat
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Applications
Printing Facilities (LPRng)
This section introduces the LPRng, print filters, printing facilities
and tools included in Turbolinux.
On the Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390, the traditional
Berkeley LPR/LPD has been replaced with LPRng. Two newer
printing systems have emerged - LPRng and CUPS.
LPRng is Berkeley LPR/LPD Next Generation, CUPS is the Common
Unix Printing System. Turbolinux chose to use LPRng in preference
to CUPS on the basis of maturity and for maximum backwards
compatibility.
LPRng Package Contents
To view the contents of the LPRng package use the rpm -ql option as
shown below.
# rpm -ql LPRng
The command results in the listing shown below:
/etc/lpd.conf
/etc/lpd.perms
/etc/rc.d/init.d/lpd
/usr/bin/cancel
/usr/bin/lp
/usr/bin/lpq
/usr/bin/lpr
/usr/bin/lprm
/usr/bin/lpstat
/usr/libexec/filters/lpbanner
/usr/libexec/filters/lpf
/usr/libexec/filters/pclbanner
/usr/libexec/filters/psbanner
/usr/sbin/checkpc
/usr/sbin/lpc|
/usr/sbin/lpd
/usr/sbin/lpraccnt
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Printing Facilities (LPRng)
NOTE The contents of /usr/share/doc/packages/LPRng-3.6.26 are omitted from this
listing. The relevant contents of /usr/man are listed under References for LPRng
on page 2–81.
LPRng Startup Script
The startup script for LRPng is /etc/rc.d/init.d/lpd. View the contents of
the default startup script using the less command as shown below:
# less /etc/rc.d/init.d/lpd
Start lpd by entering the following command:
# /etc/rc.d/init.d/lpd start
Stop lpd by entering the following command:
# /etc/rc.d/init.d/lpd stop
LPD Configuration File (/etc/lpd.conf)
At startup LPRng reads configuration information from a file which by
default is the configuration file /etc/lpd.conf. Each line in the configuration file
is commented out, that is, preceded by the hash (or pound) symbol [#] at the
beginning of the line. To modify the default settings, delete the hash symbol
and make the desired changes.
Print Spooling Overview
The following figure shows the flow of data between the individual
components of the LPRng print spooling system. A program (or user) will use
the lpr program to send a file to the lpd server over a TCP/IP connection.
Refer to the HTML documentation on LPRng on page 2–81 for
comprehensive information on how to use printer filters with LPRng.
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Applications
program
lpr
printcap
lpd
filter
printer
lpd
filter
printer
Sample Printcap Entry
Here is a sample printcap:
lp:[email protected]
The printcap information tells the client programs that when a client wants
to print a job on the lp printer, that these jobs should be sent to the psqueue
on host printerserver.acme.com.
On the printerserver, the following printcap entry is used by the lpd server to
do the printing.
psqueue:server
:lp=/dev/lp0
:sd=/var/spool/lpd/psqueue
:if=/usr/lib/filters/ifhp
Simple Server Printcap Example
#Local ASCII printer
lp1|printer
:server
:cm=Dumb printer
:lp=/dev/lp1
:sd=/var/spool/lpd/lp1
:if=log:af=acct
:if=/usr/lib/filters/lpf
:mx=0:sh:sf
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Printing Facilities (LPRng)
LPRng checkpc Utility
The checkpc (check printcap file) is one of the most useful utilities in
the LPRng package. It performs the following functions:
•
•
•
•
•
Reads all the configuration and printcap files
Tests whether devices are set up correctly.
Sets the permissions for spool directories and device files
Truncates the accounting and log files to a maximum size.
Remove old entries from queue directories.
For a new installation, you will want to run
# checkpc -f -V
to set permissions right. The -f flag instructs the program to correct file
permissions. If you do not run this as root, you will receive a warning about
that fact and any chown(2) calls will (most likely) fail.
The program reports everything it changes. Since it is not too clever about
some things (visit the man page), you should keep an eye on the output, and
run it again if needed. If it keeps failing, change the permissions yourself.
# lpr [email protected] <filename>
NOTE You must have lpd running. Lpd is the line printer daemon and is
normally invoked at boot time from the rc(8) file.
References for LPRng
•
•
•
•
http://www.astart.com/lprng/LPRng.html/
http://www.astart.com/lprng/LPRng-HOWTO.html/
man lpd
man lpd.perms
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Applications
Programming Languages (perl, Python)
This section addresses two programming languages that are included with
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390.
Perl
Perl is a high-level programming language that derives primarily from the C
programming language, and to a lesser extent from sed, awk, the Unix shell,
and several other tools and languages.
Perl's process, file, and text manipulation facilities make it particularly wellsuited for tasks involving quick prototyping, system utilities, software tools,
system management tasks, database access, graphical programming,
networking, and world wide web programming.
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Programming Languages (perl, Python)
Perl Package Contents
To view the contents of the Perl package use the rpm -ql option as shown
below:
# rpm -ql perl
The command returns the listing shown below:
/usr/bin/a2p
/usr/bin/c2ph
/usr/bin/find2perl
/usr/bin/h2ph
/usr/bin/h2xs
/usr/bin/perl
/usr/bin/perl15
/usr/bin/perl15.00503
/usr/bin/perldoc
/usr/bin/pl2pm
/usr/bin/pod2html
/usr/bin/pod2latex
/usr/bin/pod2man
/usr/bin/pstruct
/usr/bin/s2p
/usr/bin/sper15.00503
/usr/bin/suidperl
/usr/lib/perl5
/usr/lib/perl5/5.00503
/usr/lib/perl5/man
/usr/lib/perl5/man/man3
/usr/lib/perl5/site_perl
/usr/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005
/usr/lib/perl5/site_perl/5.005/i386-Linux
NOTE The contents of /usr/lib/perl15/5.00503, /usr/lib/perl5/man/man3, and/usr/man/
man1
are omitted. The man pages are listed below under Perl References.
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Perl References
• The Perl Mongers’ Perl Advocacy site,
http://www.perl.org/
• O’Reilly Publications’ Perl website,
http://www.perl.com/
• Perl contains the man pages listed below:
a2p
perldsc
perlform
perllol
perltie
perl
perlembed
perlopentug
perlpod
perltoc
perlapio
perlfaq
perlguts
perlport
perltoot
perlbook
perlfaq1
perlhist
perlre
perltrop
perlbot
perlfaq2
perlreftut
perlref
perlvar
perlbug
perlfaq3
perllocale
perlipc
perlxs
perlcall
perlfaq4
perlthrtut
perlrun
perlmod
perldata
perlfaq5
perlxstut
perlsec
s2p
perldebug
perlfaq6
perlmodinstall
perlstyle
perldelta
perlfaq7
perlmodlib
perlsub
perldiag
perlfaq8
perlobj
perlsyn
perldoc
perlfaq9
perlop
perlfunc
There are approximately 150 man pages listed under /usr/lib/perl5/man. Use the
dir command with the more option as follows to view the list:
# /usr/lib/perl5/man/man3 dir| more
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Programming Languages (perl, Python)
Python
Python is an interpreted, iterative object-oriented programming language
often compared to Tcl, Perl, Scheme and Java.
Python Package Contents
To view the contents of the Python package use the rpm -ql option as shown
below.
# rpm -ql python
The command returns the listing shown below.
/usr/bin/python
/usr/bin/python1.5
/usr/lib/python1.5
/usr/lib/python1.5/lib-dynload <contents omitted>
/usr/lib/python1.5/lib-stdwin <contents omitted>
/usr/lib/python1.5/plat-linux-i386 <contents omitted>
/usr/lib/python1.5/
NOTE The contents of /usr/lib/python1.5, that are not themselves directories, are
omitted.
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Applications
Python Operation Confirmation
Python’s operation can be checked using the ps command as shown below:
# ps aux | grep python
If Python is operating properly the above command should return something
similar to the following message:
root 3926 0.0 1.3 1140 404 tty1 s 13:00 0:00 grep python
If you do not see this message, either Python is not operating properly or it
was not installed. Restart or reinstall it. For more information, see Managing
System Processes on page 1–25 and Listing and Installing Packages on page 1–33.
References for Python
• A major Python website is located at:
http://www.python.org
There are no man pages for Python
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Proxy/Caching Server (Squid)
Proxy/Caching Server (Squid)
Squid is a proxy caching server for web clients, supporting FTP, gopher, and
HTTP data objects. Squid keeps metadata and especially hot objects cached
in RAM, caches DNS lookups, supports non-blocking DNS lookups, and
implements negative caching of failed requests.
Squid supports SSL, extensive access controls, and full request logging. By
using the lightweight Internet Cache Protocol, Squid caches can be
hierarchically linked to other Squid-based proxy servers for streamlined
caching of pages.
Squid consists of a main server program, squid; a Domain Name System (DNS)
lookup program, dnsserver; some optional programs for rewriting requests
and performing authentication; and some management and client tools.
When Squid starts up, it spawns a configurable number of dnsserver processes,
each of which can perform a single blocking DNS lookup. This reduces the
amount of time the cache waits for DNS lookups.
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Applications
Squid Package Contents
To view the contents of the Squid package use the rpm -ql option as shown
below.
# rpm -ql squid
The command results in the listing shown below. (Contents of the errors, icons,
and /usr/share/doc/packages/squid directories are omitted.)
/etc/logrotate.d/squid
/etc/rc.d/init.d/squid
/etc/squid/errors
/etc/squid/mib.txt
/etc/squid/mime.conf
/etc/squid/mime.conf.default
/etc/squid/squid.conf
/etc/squid/squid.conf.default
/usr/lib/squid/cachemgr.cgi
/usr/lib/squid/dnsserver
/usr/lib/squid/errors
/usr/lib/squid/icons
/usr/lib/squid/unlinkd
/usr/sbin/client
/usr/sbin/squid
/usr/share/doc/packages
/var/log/squid
/var/spool/squid
Squid Configuration
The Squid control files are located under /etc/squid. The main configuration
control file is called squid.conf and will nearly always require customization.
The most commonly customized settings include access controls.
To view a chapter on configuration basics, visit the Squid User’s Guide at http:/
/www.squid-cache.org/.
Default Settings (/etc/squid/squid.conf)
The default setup configuration is located at /etc/squid/squid.conf on the
Turbolinux Server. To view it, enter the following command:
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Proxy/Caching Server (Squid)
# less /etc/squid/squid.conf
This is a selection of the results. The Squid configuration page contains a great
deal of useful internal documentation.
#http_port
3128
#icp_port
3130
#htcp_port
4827
#mcast_groups
239.128.16.128
#cache_peer
hostname
icp_query_timeout
(ms) (defauly=0)
type
http_port
icp_port
options
Access Controls. You will want to add access controls for your local network to
enable your users to use the Squid proxy cache. For example, if your local
network uses address 000.168.1.0 with a netmask of 255.255.255.0, you would
add the following:
acl mynet src 000.168.1.0/255.255.255.0
http_access allow mynet
Neighbor Selection Algorithm. Please read the documentation in /etc/squid/
regarding use of this parameter.
squid.conf
Squid Operation Confirmation
Squid’s operation can be checked using the ps command as shown below:
# ps aux | grep squid
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If Squid is operating properly the above command should return something
similar to the following message:
root 3926 0.0 1.3 1140 404 tty1 s 13:00 0:00 grep squid
If you do not see this message, either Squid is not operating properly or it was
not installed. Restart or reinstall it. For more information, see Managing
System Processes on page 1–25 and Listing and Installing Packages on page 1–33.
Squid References
• Squid Web Proxy Cache home page,
http://www.squid-cache.org/
• Squid User’s Guide,
http://ww.squid-docs.soureforge.net/latest/html/book1.htm/
• A Squid FAQ is available at
http://squid.nlanr.net/Doc/FAQ/FAQ-1.html/
• There are no man pages in the Squid package.
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RPC Program Number Converter (Portmap)
RPC Program Number Converter (Portmap)
The portmap server converts RPC program numbers to DARPA protocol
numbers. It is necessary to run it in order to use a server, such as NFS and
NIS, that employs RPC calls.
Portmap Package Contents
To view the contents of the portmap package use the rpm -ql option as
shown below:
# rpm -ql portmap
The command returns the listing shown below.
/etc/rc.d/init.d/portmap
/etc/rc.d/rc0.d/K89portmap
/etc/rc.d/rc1.d/K89portmap
/etc/rc.d/rc2.d/K89portmap
/etc/rc.d/rc3.d/S11portmap
/etc/rc.d/rc5.d/S11portmap
/etc/rc.d/rc6.d/K89portmap
/sbin/portmap
/usr/man/man8/pmap_dump8
/usr/man/man8/pmap_set.8
/usr/man/man8/portmap.8
/usr/sbin/pmap_dump
/usr/sbin/pmap_set
/usr/share/doc/packages/portmap-4.0
/usr/share/doc/packages/portmap-4.0/BLURB
/usr/share/doc/packages/portmap-4.0/CHANGES
/usr/share/doc/packages/portmap-4.0/README
/usr/share/doc/packages/portmap-4.0
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Portmap Startup Script and Options
The portmap startup script is located in /etc/rc.d/init.d/portmap. Use the following
command set to access it:
# /etc/rc.d/init.d/portmap [start|stop|restart]
Once you change the settings of portmap, you must restart it in order for the
changes to go into effect.
Access Control
Portmap is extremely convenient, but from the security standpoint it is also
extremely problematic. In the default installation of portmap under
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390, the TCP_Wrapper library can be
used for access control.
Once running under the initial settings of Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries
and S/390, portmap does not accept requests from other clients. Because of
this, you will not be able to use servers such as NFS and NIS by simply running
portmap. You will need to modify /etc/hosts.allow, the access control file, for
TCP_Wrapper by following the example below.
In this example, access is allowed from the .turbolinux.com domain or
from host 000.168.0.1.
portmap: .turbolinux.com
portmap: 000.168.0.1
The changes in the access control file will be reflected without restarting
portmap.
ATTENTION
If portmap crashes, all rpc services must be restarted.
NOTE Portmap is not started from tcpd or from the superserver, but portmap
itself can reference /etc/hosts.allow and /etc/hosts.deny.
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RPC Program Number Converter (Portmap)
Portmap References
In the man pages for portmap, one finds the options for the various
commands and references to related (non-portmap) man pages.
• Portmap has three man pages: portmap, pmap_set and pmap_dump.
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Applications
SQL Database Management System
(PostgreSQL)
PostgreSQL is a sophisticated Object-Relational DBMS, supporting almost all
SQL constructs, including subselects, transactions, and user-defined types
and functions. It is the most advanced open-source database available
anywhere.
PostgreSQL uses a client/server model of communication. That means that a
PostgreSQL server continually runs, waiting for client requests. The server
processes the request and returns the result to the client.
Because the PostgreSQL server runs as an independent process on the
computer, there is no way for a user to interact with it directly. Instead, there
are client applications designed specifically for user interaction. You can
interact with PostgreSQL using the psql interface.
PostgreSQL is an enhancement of the POSTGRES database management
system, a next-generation DBMS research prototype.
NOTE PostgreSQL’s daemon is named postmaster.
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SQL Database Management System (PostgreSQL)
PostrgreSQL Package Contents
To view the contents of the PostgreSQL package, use the rpm -ql option as
shown below:
rpm -ql postgresql
A truncated version of this command’s results are shown below.
/usr/bin/createdb
/usr/bin/createlang
/usr/bin/createuser
/usr/bin/destroydb
/usr/bin/destroylang
/usr/bin/destroyuser
/usr/bin/pg_dump
/usr/bin/pg_dumpall
/usr/bin/pg_id
/usr/bin/psql
PostgreSQL Startup Script (/etc/rc.d/init.d/postgresql/)
The startup script for postgresql is:
/etc/rc.d/init.d/postgresql {start|stop}
To view the default startup script, enter the following command:
#less /etc/rc.d/init.d/postgresql
The following is an abbreviated listing of the return:
./etc/rc.d/init.d/functions
./etc/sysconfig/network
[ ${NETWORKING} = "no" ] && exit 0
[ -f /usr/bin/postmaster ] || exit 0
case "$1" in
start
echo -n "Checking postgresql installation: "
if [ -f /var/lib/pgsql/PG_VERSION ] && [ -d /var/
lib/pgsql/base/template 1 ]
then
if [ ’cat /var/lib/pgsql/PG_VERSION’ != ’6.5’ ]
then
echo "old version. Need to Upgrade."
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Applications
echo "see /usr/doc/postgresql-6.5.2/
README.rpm for more information."
exit 1
else
echo "looks good!"
fi
else
echo "no database files found."
if [ ! -d /var/lib/pgsql ]
then
mkdir -p /var/lib/pgsql
fi
su -l postgres -c ’/usr/bin/initdb --pglib=/usr/lib/
pgsql --pgdata=/var/lib/pgsql’
fi
pid=’pidof postmaster
if [ $pid ]
then
echo "Postmaster already running."
else
rm -f /tmp/.s.PGSQL.* > /dev/null
echo -n "Starting postgresql service: "
su -l postgres -c ’/usr/bin/ postmaster -i -S -D/var/
lib/pgsql/’
sleep 1
pid= ’pidof postmaster’
if [ $pid ]
then
echo "failed."
fi
;;
stop)
echo -n "Stopping postgresql service: "
killproc postmaster
sleep 2
rm -f /var/run/postmaster.pid
rm -f /var/lock/subsys/postgresql
echo
;;
status)
status postmaster
;;
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SQL Database Management System (PostgreSQL)
restart)
$0 stop
$0 start
;;
*)
echo "Usage: postgresql start|stop|status|restart)"
exit 1
esac
exit 0
PostgreSQL Operation Confirmation
PostgreSQL’s operation can be checked using the ps command as shown
below.
ps aux | grep postgresql
If postgreSQL is operating properly the above command should return the
message shown below. Check that the program name postgresql appears at
the far right of the listing.
root
2890 0.0
1.3 1140 404 tty1 S
15:54 0:00 grep postgresql
If you do not see something similar to the message shown above, either
postgreSQL is not operating properly or it was not installed. Restart or
reinstall it. For more information, see Managing System Processes on page 1–25
and Listing and Installing Packages on page 1–33.
PostgreSQL Configuration Parameters
The following information is from the PostgreSQL Administrator’s Guide
found at http://postgresql.readysetnet.com/users-lounge/docs/6.5/admin/
The full set of parameters available in configure can be obtained by typing:
$ ./configure --help
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Applications
The following parameters may be of interest to installers:
Directory and file names
--prefix=PREFIX
install architecture-independent files in
PREFIX [/usr/local/pgsql]
--bindir=DIR
user executables in DIR [EPREFIX/
bin]
--libdir=DIR
object code libraries in DIR [EPREFIX/
lib]
--includedir=DIR
C header files in DIR [PREFIX/
include]
--mandir=DIR
man documentation in DIR [PREFIX/
man]
Features and packages
--disable-FEATURE
do not include FEATURE (same as -enable-FEATURE=no)
--enable-FEATURE[=ARG]
include FEATURE [ARG=yes]
--with-PACKAGE[=ARG]
use PACKAGE [ARG=yes]
--without-PACKAGE
do not use PACKAGE (same as --withPACKAGE=no)
--enable and --with options recognized
--with-template=templateuse operating system template file
see template directory
--with-includes=incdir
site header files for tk/tcl, etc in DIR
--with-libs=incdir
also search for libraries in DIR
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SQL Database Management System (PostgreSQL)
--with-libraries=libdir also search for libraries in DIR
--enable-locale
enable locale support
--enable-recode
enable cyrillic recode support
--with-mb=encoding
enable multi-byte support
--with-pgport=portnum
change default startup port
--with-maxbackends=n
set default maximum number of server
processes
--with-tcl
build Tcl interfaces and pgtclsh
--with-tclconfig=tcldir tclConfig.sh and tkConfig.sh are in DIR
--with-perl
build Perl interface
--with-odbc
build ODBC driver package
--with-odbcinst=odbcdir change default directory for
odbcinst.ini
--enable-cassert
enable assertion checks (debugging)
--with-CC=compiler
use specific C compiler
--with-CXX=compiler
use specific C++ compiler
--without-CXX
prevent building C++ code
Some systems may have trouble building a specific feature of PostgreSQL. For
example, systems with a damaged C++ compiler may need to specify --withoutCXX to instruct the build procedure to skip construction of libpq++.
References for PostgreSQL
• PostgreSQL web home page,
http://www.postgresql.org/
• PostgreSQL user’s guide,
http://postgresql.readysetnet.com/users-lounge/docs/6.5/admin/
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Applications
• PostgreSQL has approximately 70 man pages listed in the table below:
close
create_table
createdb
delete_index
grant
cluster
create_table_as
createlang
delete_language
insert
commit
create_trigger
createuser
delete_operator
listen
copy
create_type
deletedb
delete_rule
load
create_aggregate
create_user
deletelang
delete_sequence
lock
create_database
create_version
deleteuser
delete_table
move
create_function
declare
pgdump
delete_trigger
notify
create_index
delete
psql
delete_type
reset
create_language
drop
abort
delete_user
revoke
create_operator
delete_aggregate
alter_table
end
rollback
create_rule
delete_database
alter_user
explain
select
create_sequence
delete_function
begin
fetch
select_into
create_view
delete_view
pgdumpall
set
show
update
vacuum
unlisten
postmaster
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Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
SQL Database Server (MySQL)
SQL Database Server (MySQL)
MySQL is a multi-user, multi-threaded SQL database server. SQL (Structured
Query Language) is the most popular and standardized database language in
the world. MySQL is a client/server implementation that consists of a server
daemon, mysqld, and several client programs and libraries.
SQL is a standardized language that makes it easy to store, update and access
information. For example, you can use SQL to retrieve product information
and store customer information for a web site. MySQL is also fast and flexible
enough to allow you to store logs and pictures in it.
MySQL is speedy, robust, and easy to use. It was originally developed because
there was a need for a SQL server that could handle very large databases an
order of magnitude faster than what any database vendor could offer on
inexpensive hardware.
MySQL is built on a set of routines that have been used in a highly
demanding production environment for many years. Although MySQL is still
under development, it offers a rich and highly useful function set.
The package containing MySQL is found on the Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries
and S/390 Install CD under /RPMS/s390/MySQL-3.22.32-5.s390.rpm.
Name
MySQL
daemon
/usr/sbin/mysqld
configuration file See MySQL Configuration
startup script
/usr/bin/safe_mysqld
on page 2–103
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Applications
MySQL Package Contents
The contents of the MySQL package can be viewed using the rpm -ql option
as shown below:
# rpm -ql MySQL
The command results in the listing shown below.
/etc/logrotate.d/mysql
/etc/rc.d/init.d/mysql
/usr/bin/insamchk
/usr/bin/isamlog
/usr/bin/mysql_fix_privilege_tables
/usr/bin/mysql_installdb
/usr/bin/mysql_setpermission
/usr/bin/mysql_zap
/usr/bin/mysqlbug
/usr/bin/perror
/usr/bin/replace
/usr/bin/resolveip
/usr/bin/safe_mysqld
/usr/sbin/mysqld
/usr/share/doc/packages/MySQL-3.22.32
/usr/share/info/mysql.info.gz
/usr/share/mysql
NOTE The contents of the /usr/share/doc/packages/MySQL-3.22.32 and /usr/share/
mysql directories
are omitted.
MySQL Startup Options
MySQL’s startup script is located at /etc/rc.d/init.d/mysql.
Follow this command to execute the MySQL daemon:
# /etc/rc.d/init.d/mysql start
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SQL Database Server (MySQL)
The following options can be specified when starting MySQL:
-#|--debug=logfile
Employ the specified debug log
-T|--debug-info
set debug mode
-P|--port=pnum
employ the specified port number for
connecting to the database server.
Other MySQL Scripts
/usr/bin/safe_mysqld
executable shell script for starting
mysqld safely
/usr/bin/mysqld
executable
/usr/sbin/mysqld
executable
MySQL Configuration
The following information is from the MySQL online documentation found
at http://www.mysql.com/Manual_chapter/manual_toc.html/.
The configure script gives you a great deal of control over how you configure
your MySQL distribution. Typically you do this using options on the
configure command line. You can also affect configure using certain
environment variables. For a list of options supported by configure, run this
command:
shell> ./configure --help
Some of the more commonly-used configure options are described below.
To compile just the MySQL client libraries and client programs and not the
server, use the --without-server option:
shell> ./configure --without-server
If you do not have a C++ compiler, MySQL will not compile (it is the one
client program that requires C++). In this case, you can remove the code in
configure that tests for the C++ compiler and then run
./configure with the --without-server option. The compile step will still
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Applications
try to build MySQL, but you can ignore any warnings about `mysql.cc'. (If
make stops, try make -k to tell it to continue with the rest of the build even if
errors occur.)
If you do not want your log files and database directories located under /usr/
local/var, use one of the following configure commands:
shell> ./configure --prefix=/usr/local/mysql
shell> ./configure --prefix=/usr/local
--localstatedir=/usr/local/mysql/data
The first command changes the installation prefix so that everything is
installed under /usr/local/mysql rather than the default of /usr/local.
The second command preserves the default installation prefix, but overrides
the default location for database directories (normally /usr/local/var) and
changes it to /usr/local/mysql/data.
If you are using Unix and you want the MySQL socket located somewhere
other than the default location (normally in the directory /tmp or /var/run), use
a configure command like this:
shell> ./configure --with-unix-socket-path=/usr/local/mysql/tmp/
mysql.sock
NOTE The given file must be an absolute pathname!
If you want to compile statically linked programs (for example, to make a
binary distribution or to get more speed), run configure like this:
shell> ./configure --with-client-ldflags=-all-static --withmysqld-ldflags=-all-static
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SQL Database Server (MySQL)
If you are using gcc and don't have libg++ or libstdc++ installed, you can
tell configure to use gcc as your C++ compiler:
shell> CC=gcc CXX=gcc ./configure
When you use gcc as your C++ compiler, it will not attempt to link in libg++
or libstdc++. If the build fails and produces errors about your compiler or
linker not being able to create the shared library libmysqlclient.so.#
(where # is a version number), you can work around this problem by giving
the --disable-shared option to configure. In this case, configure will not
build a shared libmysqlclient.so.# library.
You can configure MySQL not to use default column values for non-NULL
columns (that is, columns that are not allowed to be NULL). This causes
INSERT statements to generate an error unless you explicitly specify values
for all columns that require a non-NULL value. To suppress use of default
values, run configure like this:
shell> CXXFLAGS=-DDONT_USE_DEFAULT_FIELDS ./configure
By default, MySQL uses the ISO-8859-1 (Latin1) character set. To change the
default set, use the --with-charset option:
shell> ./configure --with-charset=CHARSET
CHARSET may be one of big5, cp1251, cp1257, czech, danish, dec8, dos,
euc_kr, gb2312, gbk, german1, hebrew, hp8, hungarian, koi8_ru, koi8_ukr,
latin1, latin2, sjis, swe7, tis620, ujis, usa7, or win1251ukr. If you want to
convert characters between the server and the client, you should take a look
at the SET OPTION CHARACTER SET command.
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Applications
ATTENTION
If you change character sets after having created any tables, you
will have to run myisamchk -r -q on every table. Your indices
may be sorted incorrectly otherwise. (This can happen if you install MySQL, create some tables, then reconfigure MySQL to use a
different character set and reinstall it.)
To configure MySQL with debugging code, use the --with-debug option:
shell> ./configure --with-debug
This causes a safe memory allocator to be included that can find some errors
and that provides output about what is happening.
If your client programs are using threads, you need to also compile a threadsafe version of the MySQL client library with the --with-thread-safeclient configure options. This will create a libmysqlclient_r library with
which you should link your threaded applications.
For more information, see the MySQL Reference Manual and the other
references listed below.
References for MySQL
• MySQL Reference Manual,
http://www.mysql.com/Manual_chapter/manual_toc.html/
• Developer Shed’s “Beginning MySQL Tutorial”,
http://www.devshed.com/Server_Side/MySQL/Intro/
• MySQL has man pages for the items listed below:
mysqlaccess
mysqladmin
mysqlbug
mysqlshow
mysql2mysql
safe_mysqld
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Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
mysqldump
Super Server (inetd)
Super Server (inetd)
Currently, inetd is one of the most popular super server programs. By default
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 installs inetd and sets it as the
system program at bootup time.
When the system is initialized, inetd runs the start-up script (/etc/rc.d/init.d/inet).
Inetd examines the port defined in the configuration file (/etc/inetd.conf) and
waits for a connection request (request packet). When there is a connection
request, inetd listens to the specified port and responds with a service by
executing a server program. The server program then takes over the
connection request itself while the service socket handles the normal input,
output and error service requests. When the server program terminates, the
inetd program returns to monitoring the port's state.
The main server programs, including ftp and telnet, are used for
controlling and managing services. Turbolinux Server is a super server in that it
is a high-level program acting as a server to other servers. The program
includes inetd and its expanded function version, TCP_wrapper, name server,
web server, samba, and NFS server. System managers should be sure they have
a full understanding of the super server and these programs.
Server Program
Linux and Unix operate by executing commands from the user's computer
via client programs.
Client programs send requests to the server. The server program receives
client requests and responds to the client by executing super server programs
to fulfill client requests. For example, in the case of FTP, the client program
ProFTP calls the server program in.ftpd which executes the requested services.
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Applications
TCP_Wrapper
Opinion is divided on whether TCP_Wrapper should be called a super server.
The reasoning behind calling TCP_Wrapper a super server is:
• From the point-of-view of functionality, it offers various server features for
the control and management of servers.
• In terms of connectivity, it permits close connections and program
interchange with other super servers (inetd, etc.).
Super Server Mode and Standalone Mode
Super servers permit the direct control and management of server programs.
In standalone mode the control and management commands are executed
directly. On the other hand, super server mode applies to programs executed
under the control of the super server. Whether a program is run in super
server or standalone mode depends on its function and role.
Super Server Functions and Role
• System load reduction
When programs are executed in standalone mode, each server program must
be resident in memory and this consumes a substantial amount of memory.
Typically all the server programs are not running. In addition, immediately
after requests are processed the system returns to the wait state while the
memory remains occupied. The super server resides in memory as an agent
on behalf of the server programs where it can manage memory usage and
reduce the system load.
• System management load reduction
In cases when numerous server programs are executed in standalone mode
each server program must be managed individually. It is important for system
administrators to be able to respond to the growing requirement for services
and the resulting proliferation of different server programs. A super server
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Super Server (inetd)
gives the administrator a means of uniform control and management of these
programs.
• System redundancy and stability
In super server mode, should a server program fail to execute properly, for
whatever reason, upon the next request the service will be re-executed. This
feature contributes to the system's redundancy and stability.
Many new services are being developed everyday and many more server
programs are becoming necessary. These programs as well as non-executable
programs can be managed in a unified environment by the super server
which includes this ability as one of its basic features. In practice, the various
implementations of super servers, such as Linux and FreeBSD, by default are
set to operate server programs in the super server mode.
Super Server Issues
While the server program is executing, and/or ending, a program in
response to requests, it is possible for the load to actually increase. This could
happen under the following conditions:
• When persistent requests for a connection are made
• When the program runtime initialization process takes a long time
In cases when a particular service is putting a heavy load on the system, it is
more efficient to run in standalone mode. A typical example is a web server
which is quite likely to receive persistent requests for a particular connection.
The mail server program sendmail is also frequently executed in standalone
mode for the same reason. According to the situation the appropriate mode
should be selected.
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Applications
Name
inetd
daemon
/usr/sbin/inetd
configuration file /etc/inetd.conf
startup script
/etc/rc.d/init.d/inet
log file
/var/lock/subsys/inet
related files
/etc/services
service name and port number list
/etc/protocols
protocol name and port number list
inetd Startup Options
The following options can be specified when starting inetd:
-d
set debug mode
-l
create a log file
-c maximum
specifics the maximum number of daemons at
startup time. The maximum is specified for each
service. The ax-child parameter can be used as a
superscript.
-C rate
specify in 1 minute units the maximum IP address
daemons startup default setting. The maximumconnections-per-ip-per-minute parameter allowed
for each service can be used as a superscript
-R rate
specify in 1 minute units the maximum services at
startup. Default is 256.
-a
specify the IP address to listen to.
-p
specifies the file holding the process IDs other
than the default process.
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Super Server (inetd)
inetd Configuration File (/etc/inetd.conf)
At startup inetd reads configuration information from a file which by default
is the configuration file /etc/inetd.com. Configuration fields are separated by
either a space or tab character. Comments are preceded by the hash (or
pound) symbol [#] at the beginning of the line. Each line in the
configuration file is listed below.
service_name
args
socket_type
protocol
flag
user
server_path
Below is an explanation of each field.
service name
Indicates the service name such as ftp, telnet, etc.
The list of host and port names is recorded in /etc/
services
socket_type
Indicates the type of socket such as stream (stream
type), dgram (datagram type), etc.
protocol
Indicates the type of protocol used such as tcp,
udp, etc selected from the list of protocols stored
in /etc/protocols.
flag
A marker for either the wait or nowait flag; allows
only to dgram (datagram) type sockets. The wait
flag indicates a wait while a request/response
exchange take places; the nowait flag indicates
that a request will have no wait for a response.
user
Users such as root, nobody, etc. indicate the user's
level of permission to access services.
server_path
The full path name of the server program
executed.
args
The server program startup name and the options
specified in the server_path.
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Applications
Default Settings (/etc/inetd.conf)
Below is a specific example of a default setup configuration created by /etc/
inetd.conf in Turbolinux Server.
Enter the following command:
# less /etc/inetd.conf
The following is an abbreviated listing of the result:
#dtalk
stream
tcp
nowait
nobody
/usr/sbin/tcpd
in.dtalkd
#exec
stream
tcp
nowait
root
/usr/sbin/tcpd
in.rexecd
#ftp
stream
tcp
nowait
root
/usr/sbin/tcpd
in.ftpd -1 -a
#gopher
stream
tcp
nowait
root
/usr/sbin/tcpd
gn
#imap
stream
tcp
nowait
root
/usr/sbin/tcpd
imapd
#login
stream
tcp
nowait
root
/usr/sbin/tcpd
in.rlogind
#nntp
stream
tcp
nowait
root
/usr/sbin/tcpd
in.nntpd
#ntalk
dgram
udp
wait
root
/usr/sbin/tcpd
in.ntalkd
#pop-3
stream
tcp
nowait
root
/usr/sbin/tcpd
ipop3d
#shell
stream
tcp
nowait
root
/usr/sbin/tcpd
in.rshd
#smtp
stream
tcp
nowait
root
/usr/bin/smtpd
smtpd
#talk
dgram
udp
wait
root
/usr/sbin/tcpd
in.talkd
#telnet
stream
tcp
nowait
root
/usr/sbin/tcpd
in.telnetd -h
With Turbolinux Server the defaults set by /etc/inetd.conf are set to the
optimum configuration for a secure setup. There is no need to run all of the
available daemons; each service is commented in a line preceded by a hash
mark [#].
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Super Server (inetd)
Enable Changes to Default inetd Settings (restart)
Changes and edits to inetd.conf do not automatically enable the new default
settings. It is necessary to restart inetd to make the changes take effect. Below
we shown several ways of restarting. By examining the startup script inetd, you
can see that the methods use essentially the same process (killall -HUP
inetd). It is possible to use any of the methods shown.
# killall -HUP inetd
# /etc/rc.d/init.d/inet restart
# /etc/rc.d/init.d/inet reload
Configuration Example
The example below shows the steps in setting up service permissions using
ftp. It uses the case of a single client-host connection in which the server host
IP address is 000.168.1.52 and the client IP address is 000.168.1.53 in which
ftp provides the permissions.
1. Locate the place in /etc/inetd.conf where you find the line with ftp
commented out (with # symbol at the beginning of the line) and remove
the # symbol.
#ftp stream
l -a
tcp
nowait
root
/usr/sbin/tcpd
in.ftpd -
With an editor program change the line as shown below and save the file.
ftp
stream
-a
tcp
nowait
root
/usr/sbin/tcpd
in.ftpd -l
2. To enable these changes input the command below to restart inetd.
# killall
-HUP
inetd
3. Alter the TCP_Wrapper configuration file. At the end of the /etc/hosts.allow
file append the following line:
ALL: 000.168.1.52:
allow
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Applications
inetd Package Contents
The inetd component is not included in the main Turbolinux package. To
view the contents of the inetd package use the rpm -ql option as shown below.
# rpm -ql inetd
The command results in the listing shown below.
/etc/rc.d/init.d/inet
/usr/sbin/inetd
/usr/share/doc/packages/inetd-0.16
/usr/share/doc/packages/inetd-0.16/BUGS.gz
/usr/share/doc/packages/inetd-0.16/ChangeLog.gz
/usr/share/doc/packages/inetd-0.16/README.gz
/usr/man/man5/inetd.conf.5.gz
/usr/man/man8/inetd.8.gz
inetd Startup Script
The startup script for inetd is /etc/rc.d/init.d/inet. The contents of the default
startup script is shown below in slightly abbreviated form.
./etc/rc.d/init.d/functions
./etc/sysconfig/network
if [ ${NETWORKING} = “no” ]
then
exit O
fi
[ -f /usr/sbin/inetd ] || exit O
case “$1” in
start)
echo -n “Starting INET services; “
daemon inetd
echo
touch /var/lock/subsys/inet
;;
stop)
echo -n “Stopping INET services; “
killproc inetd
echo
rm -f /var/lock/subsys/inet
;;
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Super Server (inetd)
status)
status inetd
;;
restart|reload)
killall -HUP inet
;;
*)
echo “Usage: inet|start|stop|status|restart|reload}”
exit 1
esac
exit O
Startup Script Command Line Options
Command line options for the startup script /etc/rc.d.init.d/inet are shown below.
/etc/rc.d/init.d/inet start
/etc/rc.d/init.d/inet stop
/etc/rc.d/init.d/inet status
/etc/rc.d/init.d/inet restart
/etc/rc.d/init.d/inet reload
starts inetd
stops inetd
displays status of inetd
restarts inetd
reloads inetd
As you can see by examining the startup script, restart and reload perform
the same operation.
inetd Operation Confirmation
In Turbolinux Server inetd is set to operate by default. Its operation can be
checked using the ps command as shown below.
ps aux | grep inetd
If inetd is operating properly the above command should display the message
shown below. Check that the program name inetd appears at the far right of
the listing.
root
163
0.0
1.2
792 400 ?
S
15:20
0:00
inetd
If you do not see the message shown above either inetd is not operating
properly or it was not installed. Restart inetd or reinstall it.
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Applications
For more information, see Managing System Processes on page 1–25 and Listing
and Installing Packages on page 1–33.
inetd References
• An inetd introduction is available at
http://www.uwsg.iu.edu/usail/network/services/inetd.html/
• man inetd
• man inetd.conf
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Index
A
access.conf file 2-40
Account
deleting 1-6
root 1-4
switching 1-6
Apache 2-35
B
BIND 2-8
BIND Configration File 2-8
BIND Package Contents 2-7
C
cat (concatenate)
command 1-17
cd
command 1-11
Changing file names 1-15
Changing password 1-5
Changing user accounts 1-4
checkpc Utility 2-81
Command
kill (stopping processes) 1-26
Commands
cat (concatenate), less,
more 1-17
cd (change directory) 1-11
cp (copy) 1-13
df and du (disk usage) 1-29
find 1-20
grep (searching for strings) 1-21
gzip (compressing and expanding
files) 1-22
kill (stopping processes) 1-26
man (online manuals) 1-35
mkdir (make directory) 1-16
mv (move) 1-14, 1-15
ps (processes) 1-25
pwd (print working
directory) 1-12
rm and rmdir (remove files) 1-16
rpm and turbopkg
(packages) 1-33
tar (creating and extracting
files) 1-23
Compressing and expanding (gzip)
files 1-22
cp (copy)
command 1-13
Creating a directory 1-16
Creating and extracting (tar)
files 1-23
customer support xi
D
daemons
about 2-4
Deleting
files 1-16
user accounts 1-6
Devices 1-28
Directories
deleting 1-16
working with 1-10
Directory
changing 1-11
creating 1-16
Disk usage (df, du)
command 1-29
F
Files
changing names 1-15
copying 1-13
deleting 1-16
moving 1-14
viewing 1-17
working with 1-10
find
command 1-20
G
grep (searching for strings)
command 1-21
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
I–1
gzip (compressing and expanding
files)
command 1-22
H
Halt system
at login screen 1-9
Help
online manuals 1-35
httpd
configuration file 2-36
startup 2-35
httpd Startup Script 2-35
I
inetd 2-107
configuration file 2-111
defaults 2-89, 2-112
package contents 2-88, 2-114
install
RPM packages 2-3
inverse file (reverse) 2-18
K
kill (stopping processes)
command 1-26
L
less
command 1-17
Logging in 1-2
loop-back file 2-16
LPRng 2-78
M
mkdir (make directory)
command 1-16
more
command 1-17
Moving files 1-14
mv (move)
command 1-14, 1-15
MySQL Configuration 2-103
I–2
N
Named Startup Script 2-9
named.boot file 2-14
NFS 2-49
NFS Server Run Check 2-55
NFS-Server Structure 2-49
NIS 2-59
NIS Domain Settings 2-61
normal file (zone) 2-16
O
Online manuals (man)
command 1-35
OpenLDAP 2-44
P
Packages (rpm, turbopkg)
about 1-33
packet
about 2-25
Partitions 1-28
Password
changing 1-5
error messages 1-6
Portmap 2-91
Portmap Package Contents 2-91
PostgreSQL 2-94
PostgreSQL Configuration
Parameters 2-97
Powering down 1-9
Print Spooling 2-79
Printcap 2-80
Processes (ps)
command 1-25
ProFTP 2-31
pwd (print working directory)
command 1-12
R
resolv.conf file 2-15
Resolver configuration files 2-22
Resolver Program 2-22
rm and rmdir (remove files)
command 1-16
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
root account 1-4
Root and swap partitions 1-28
rpm (package manager)
using 1-33
RPM operations 2-108
S
Searching for strings (grep)
command 1-21
server
functions and roles 2-108
Shutting down 1-8
srm.conf file 2-39
Stopping processes (kill)
command 1-26
Support policy xi
Switching user accounts 1-6
T
tar (creating and extracting files)
command 1-23
TCP_Wrapper 2-108
about 2-108
TFTP 2-29
turbopkg (package manager)
using 1-33
U
uninstall
RPM command 2-3
User accounts
managing 1-4
V
Viewing text files 1-17
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
I–3
I–4
Turbolinux Server 6 for zSeries and S/390 User Guide
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