Ohmega Ω USER'S MANUAL - Allied Associates Geophysical, Ltd.

Ohmega Ω USER'S MANUAL - Allied Associates Geophysical, Ltd.
Ohmega Ω
Resistivity Meter
USER’S MANUAL
Concept House, 8 The Townsend Centre,
Blackburn Road. Dunstable.
England. LU5 5BQ
Tel: ++44 (0) 1582 606 999
Fax: ++44 (0) 1582 606 991
e-mail: [email protected]
Allied Associates Geophysical Ltd
WARRANTY
Ohmega Ω
Ohmega Ω
1. Allied Associates Geophysical Ltd (AAGL) products are fully tested in our workshop
both during construction and after completion and are dispatched in full working
condition. Instruments are guaranteed for 12 months from the date of dispatch from
the factory, liability being limited in accordance with clause 9 of the General Conditions
for the Supply of Plant and Machinery for Export (UN Economic Commission for Europe,
Geneva, 1953).
2. When unpacking, please check the contents against the packing list and inspect
for damage and malfunction of any kind. In the case of any defect, inform the carrier
immediately and report in full to AAGL or their local agent the extent of the damage.
Await their reply before taking any further action, except in exceptional circumstances.
3. Should a fault be identified that cannot be remedied on site within the guaranteed
period, consult with AAGL. Normal procedure will be to return the unit (or complete
system if necessary), carriage paid, to AAGL for inspection and repair or replacement free
of charge, provided the fault has not been due to misuse.
4. As far as possible use original case and packaging material for return of the
instrument. Equipment is on occasions subject to very rough handling during transit and
AAGL cannot be liable for damage due to faulty packing.
5. It is the responsibility of the customer to notify AAGL or their agent of defect or
damage to the equipment within a reasonable time of receipt. We would recommend that
any defect or omission should be notified verbally but with written confirmation no more
than 72 hours after receipt of the product.
6. AAGL Associates Geophysical Ltd will take all necessary steps to rectify any failure,
which is deemed the responsibility of the manufacturer, as quickly as possible.
7. No liability against consequential loss can be accepted under any conditions.
Thank you for purchasing the Allied Ohmega Ω Resistivity Meter.
Allied Associates Geophysical Ltd
Concept House, 8 The Townsend Centre,
Blackburn Road. Dunstable.
England. LU5 5BQ
Tel: ++44 (0) 1582 606 999
Fax: ++44 (0) 1582 606 991
e-mail: [email protected]
Attn: Graham White (Technical enquiries)
Attn: Norman Bell (Sales enquiries)
Ohmega Ω Manual Rev E 0506
Page Allied Associates Geophysical Ltd
Ohmega Ω
Ohmega Ω
Copyright © 2006 Allied Associates Geophysical Ltd
All rights reserved including the right of reproduction
in whole or in part in any form.
Published by : Allied Associates Geophysical Ltd
Concept House
8, The Townsend Centre
Blackburn Road
DUNSTABLE.
Bedfordshire
England
LU5 5BQ
Printed in Great Britain
Ohmega Ω is a registered trademark of Allied Associates Geophysical Ltd
Ohmega Ω Manual Rev E 0506
Page Allied Associates Geophysical Ltd
CONTENTS
1.
1.1
1.2
2.
2.1
2.2
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.2.3
2.2.4
2.2.5
2.2.6
2.2.7
2.2.8
2.2.9
2.2.10
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
3.
4.
5.
Ohmega Ω
Ohmega Ω
WARRANTY
2
CONTENTS
4
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE OHMEGA Ω RESISTIVITY SYSTEM
5
The Ohmega Ω
Power Booster
5
5
THE ALLIED OHMEGA Ω
6
Construction
The Controls and Connections
ON – OFF Switch
GO button
mA (current) button
MODE button
Number of Cycles
Sample Time
Alpha-Numeric Display
External Power Supply
Manual Control
External System Connection
Making Measurements
The Signal
Power Supply
Battery Charger
Instrument Parameters
6
6
7
7
7
7
8
8
8
9
9
9
9
11
12
13
13
OHMEGA SPECIFICATIONS
14
EC CERTIFICATES OF CONFORMITY
15
USER MANUAL COMMENT SHEET
17
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Ohmega Ω
Ohmega Ω
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM
THE ALLIED OHMEGA Ω
1.1. THE OHMEGA Ω
The OHMEGA Ω is a high quality earth resistance meter capable of accurate measurement
over a wide range of conditions.
It has a maximum power output of 18 watts, manual selection of current in steps up to
200 mA, a choice of sample time / signal length averaged and three frequency settings.
The receiver incorporates automatic gain steps, which provide a range of measurements
from 0.001Ω to 360kΩ
The instrument is powered by a large capacity rechargeable battery providing several
days of use without recharging in average terrain conditions. The OHMEGA Ω is housed in
an impact-resistant steel case.
1.2. POWER BOOSTER
Starting in AUGUST 2000 the power booster is fitted as standard to all Ohmega Ω
systems providing current capacity to 200mA.
Ohmega Ω Manual Rev E 0506
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Allied Associates Geophysical Ltd
Ohmega Ω
Ohmega Ω
THE GEOPULSE OHMEGA Ω
2.1 CONSTRUCTION
The OHMEGA Ω is housed in an impact-resistant
Pelican case and is fully water-resistant. The
various units are mounted below the front panel
and the whole instrument can be removed from
the case by unscrewing the plate. The transmitter/
receiver controls and display occupy the full area
of the instrument front panel.
The Ohmega Ω is supplied with 4 stainless steel
electrodes, four 100m cables on lightweight reels,
and a battery charger.
The design of the Ohmega Ω allows for the
construction of a basic resistivity meter and
incorporation of bower booster, now fitted as standard.
2.2 THE CONTROLS AND CONNECTORS
Fig.2. Two OHMEGA Ω front panel showing Operation Buttons
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All the external controls, together with the liquid crystal display are situated on the
top front panel of the instrument. They are fully waterproof. The controls are shown in
Figure 2 and are described below. In addition to the “ON” switch and the “GO” or initiate
measurement button, there are three other buttons marked mA, Mode and Cycles. See
Figure 3.
ON – OFF
Select to switch the instrument for operation or to switch the instrument off.
GO
Press this button to start measuring with the previously set parameters.
mA (Current)
The button marked mA is used to select the desired current in milli-amps. The current is
increased each time the button is pressed in the following steps:
0.5
1
2
5
10
20
50
200
The current value selected is indicated on the display.
MODE
The button marked MODE selects the type of measurement. The display will indicate the
following sequence of options as appropriate.
Resistance
Self potential
Battery Volts
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NUMBER OF CYCLES
The button marked Cycles selects the number of readings to be averaged. This can be
from 1 to 16. Details of how the signal is processed to obtain a single measurement of
ground resistance are given in Section 2.4. of this manual.
SAMPLE TIME
If the MODE and mA buttons are pressed simultaneously the sample time (or signal
length) can be changed as shown below:
0.8s
1.2s
2.4s
APLHA-NUMERIC DISPLAY
The 80-character (4x20) liquid crystal display indicates the parameters selected and the
measurement details as the survey progresses. See Figure Three. The display can be
backlit by pressing Mode and Cycles simultaneously. The light automatically switches off
after one minute if no activity is sensed during this time.
Fig.3. Ohmega Ω Display and Electrode Terminals
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EXTERNAL POWER SUPPLY
An external 12V power supply may be connected through the socket Chrg/Ext. See
Fig. 5. A connecting lead is supplied for this purpose. It is important to remember the
correct polarity when connecting to an external supply.
WARNING! Do not connect to a
car battery while it is being charged!
MANUAL CONTROL
The red and black coloured current and potential terminals marked P1, P2, C1, C2, are
situated on the front panel – See Figure Three. Single core cables may be connected to
these terminals for measuring earth resistance.
2.3 MAKING MEASUREMENTS
1. Check that the instrument is correctly connected to the current and potential cables.
See Fig. 7. When the manual Offset Wenner system is used, the current and potential
terminals are connected to the Offset Wenner system switchbox.
2. Switch on. Display shows
MODE: Resistance
1=0.5mA Cycles=2
3. Check battery volts. If the battery is below the operating voltage the display will read
BATTERY LOW
Reduce Current
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4. If the external temperature is above 40°C or below 0°C , take steps to bring the
temperature within the operating range. Check the temperature regularly since in
tropical sunshine it may well rise above the danger level. Note that although the
instrument will operate below 0°C, it is not designed for work under exceptionally low
temperature conditions.
5. Check the SP voltage. Use the MODE switch to put the instrument into the Self
Potential mode. Make a few measurements to see how it is varying by pressing the GO
switch and noting the results obtained. The amplitude and rate of change of the SP
will affect the readings at low resistance values and determine the instrument settings
required to optimise accuracy.
6. Select the current setting using the mA button. Normally start at 2mA and keep as low
as possible, consistent with obtaining good repetition. If ground conditions are such that
the instrument cannot deliver the required current or there is an open circuit it will read
CURRENT ERROR
Check Electrodes
Decrease the current and/or water the electrodes to improve ground contact.
Experience shows that when operating multicore cable systems, accurate measurements
are obtained with contact resistances below 2000Ω
7. Select the number of readings to be averaged using the Cycles button. This will
depend to a great extent on ground noise. Start with 4 readings and increase or
decrease depending on the consistency of the readings obtained.
8. Select Resistance and press the GO button. The display will initially indicate the
voltage gain being used in the measurement.
…Setting Gain
G=5 I=2mA n-3
G=5 indicates the amplifier gain setting. These are x5, x0.5, x0.05 and x0.005. In a
noisy environment, high and varying SP values may cause the amplifier to saturate during
the averaging. The display will show
GAIN ERROR
Change Current
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In this case, reduce the current to bring the signal within the operating range.
The display will then indicate the successive averages of the resistance, bleeping
each time during the process. At the standard setting the instrument takes 2.1s to
complete a set of 4 readings. A three-figure resistance will show with the decimal point
approximately placed, followed by Ω or mΩ. If the potential and current connections
have been incorrectly connected a negative sign will precede the digits. This can also be
due to ground conditions.
9. If the switching circuits operated by the current or mode buttons on the top panel are
faulty the display will read MODE ERROR.
2.4 THE SIGNAL
The transmitter uses commutated DC to produce the signal shown in Fig. 4 (a).
mA
(a)
Volts
(b)
A
B
C
Time
Fig. 4. The OHMEGA Ω SIGNAL (a) Transmitted signal (variable Periodicity), (b) Received signal. Here
the attenuated and modified signal is superimposed on slowly varying earth currents. It is sampled
over times A, B and C.
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The on period is sampled for only the last 4/5 of the on time e.g. 0.8s in 1.0s.
An example of the received signal in the presence of electrical ground noise is shown in
Figure 3b. This figure also illustrates the processing technique used to extract a value of
the required potential difference from the received signal, here shown superimposed on
a slowly varying earth current. The signal is digitally sampled over times A, B and C and
the amplitude calculated as (Va+Vc–2Vb)/4). The on/off ratio is 2.5:1 and the sample/
unsampled ratio during any “ON” period is 4:1. This is to allow any coupling and IP
affects to die away before sampling takes place.
When a number of cycles are averaged the microprocessor calculates the potential
difference from successive sets of three “ON” periods, ABC, BCD, CDE, giving values
(Va+Vc–2Vb)/4, (Vb+Vd–2Vc)/4, etc.
When conditions are adverse, e.g. a low signal/ground noise ratio, apparent as a lack
of consistency in the readings, use higher current settings that do not cause a “GAIN
ERROR” and average over 16 cycles. Gain errors are usually due to sudden increases
in ground noise saturating the system. If the area is generally very noisy it may be
necessary to operate at the longest cycling time. In extreme conditions, i.e. measuring
very low resistances against a background of large amplitude and varying SP, highly
inconsistent readings may be obtained. In this case it is necessary to put the instrument
into the computer command mode and vary the sampling parameters until satisfactory
results are obtained. See Section 3.
2.5 POWER SUPPLY
The Ohmega Ω uses sealed gel-cell batteries (7 AH at 12V). Under average working
conditions (e.g. 10 offset soundings per day at 5mA) recharging every 2 working days
would be safe practice. Electrical imaging uses more drain on the batteries and so the
instrument should be charged overnight during survey operations.
Should it be necessary to be away from a mains power source for more than a few days
the instrument can be operated using an external supply. A 12V car battery which can be
recharged from a vehicle can be used in an emergency. A separate lead is supplied which
can be clipped is onto the battery. Be sure to check the polarity before connecting to the
instrument.
WARNING!
Do not run the vehicle engine while
the instrument is connected to the battery as transients from
the alternator can damage the transmitter circuitry.
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Allied Associates Geophysical Ltd
2.6
Ohmega Ω
Ohmega Ω
BATTERY CHARGER
This operates from 240V or 115VAC. The maximum current output is such that
batteries can be left on indefinitely without suffering any damage. Charging time from
full discharge is 16 hours. If storing the Ohmega Ω for a long period of time, recharge
the battery every month. Failure to do so will result in irreversible damage to the battery
NOTE: if the meter is operated while the battery is being
charged, the charger is automatically disconnected.
2.7 INSTRUMENT PARAMETERS
The suggested values below have been selected to produce measurements with the
minimum of power. The operator can increase the speed of the survey by reducing the
current on time to 1 second or less. If this is done it is likely that the current will have
to be increased to 1, 2 or 5 mA, depending on the electrode spacing used. If unstable
measurements are obtained, the current should be increased.
In low resistivity conditions the current should be increased further. Check the waveform
to make sure that a good voltage signal is being detected.
In noisy conditions either the current on time or the number of cycles should be
increased.
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3.
Allied Associates Geophysical Ltd
Ohmega Ω
Ohmega Ω
ALLIED OHMEGA Ω SPECIFICATIONS
TRANSMITTER
Maximum power output:
Current range
:
Square wave repetition:
Number of readings averaged:
18W
0.5mA to 200 mA
8.4s, 4.2s. 2.8s.
1 to 16.
RECEIVER
Input voltage range:
Input impedance:
0 –180V with auto gain averaging.
22MΩ
Measurement range:
Low pass filter
360KΩ – 0.001Ω
Display:
Power supply:
80 character alphanumeric liquid crystal
Rechargeable sealed gel-cell.
7 AH @ 12V
Weight:
Electrode capacity
6kg
2 Current, 2 Potential
GENERAL
Allied Associates Geophysical Ltd
Concept House, 8 The Townsend Centre,
Blackburn Road. Dunstable.
England. LU5 5BQ
Tel: ++44 (0) 1582 606 999
Fax: ++44 (0) 1582 606 991
e-mail: [email protected]
Ohmega Ω Manual Rev E 0506
Page 14
4.
Allied Associates Geophysical Ltd
Ohmega Ω
Ohmega Ω
CERTIFICATE OF CONFORMITY
Product:
Charger for ALLIED OHMEGA Ω earth resistance meter
Serial No. ……………………
Date of Shipment: …………………………………………….
EMC 89/336/EEC Generic EN50081/1 Light Industrial Emissions,
EN50082/1 Light Industrial Immunity
Tests Applied
BSEN 55011 Class B Conducted Emissions
BSEN 55011 Class B Radiated Emissions
BSEN 61000-4-4 Fast Burst Transients to Level 2 Light Industrial
BSEN 61000-4-2 Static Discharge to Level 2 Light Industrial
Category 1 PASS
Low Voltage Directive 73/23/EEC: N/A below 50V AC.
Machinery Directive 98/37/EEC: N/A – no moving parts.
We, on behalf of Allied Associates Geophysical Ltd, confirm the Product described above
meets the requirement in all respects.
Signed……………………….. Authorised Signatory………………………..
Allied Associates Geophysical Ltd
Concept House, 8 The Townsend Centre,
Blackburn Road. Dunstable.
England. LU5 5BQ
Tel: ++44 (0) 1582 606 999
Fax: ++44 (0) 1582 606 991
e-mail: [email protected]
Ohmega Ω Manual Rev E 0506
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Allied Associates Geophysical Ltd
Ohmega Ω
Ohmega Ω
CERTIFICATE OF CONFORMITY
Product:
ALLIED OHMEGA Ω earth resistance meter
Serial No. ……………………
Date of Shipment:…………………………………………….
EMC 89/336/EEC Generic EN50081/1 Light Industrial Emissions,
EN50082/1 Light Industrial Immunity
Tests Applied
BSEN 55011 Class B Radiated Emissions
BSEN 61000-4-4 Fast Burst Transients to Level 2 Light Industrial
BSEN 61000-4-2 Static Discharge to Level 2 Light Industrial
Category 3 PASS
BSEN 55011 Class B Conducted Emissions: N/A – battery only
Low Voltage Directive 73/23/EEC: N/A below 50V AC.
Machinery Directive 98/37/EEC: N/A – no moving parts.
We, on behalf of Campus International Products Ltd., confirm the Product described
above meets the requirement in all respects.
Signed……………………….. Authorised Signatory………………………..
Allied Associates Geophysical Ltd
Concept House, 8 The Townsend Centre,
Blackburn Road. Dunstable.
England. LU5 5BQ
Tel: ++44 (0) 1582 606 999
Fax: ++44 (0) 1582 606 991
e-mail: [email protected]
Ohmega Ω Manual Rev E 0506
Page 16
Allied Associates Geophysical Ltd
Ohmega Ω
Ohmega Ω
Alllied Associates Geophysical Ltd
USER MANUAL COMMENTS SHEET
Please note on a copy of this form any suggestions for improvement or any errors found
in this manual. Please return the form to:Graham White
Alllied Associates Geophysical Ltd
Concept House
Blackburn Road
DUNSTABLE
Bedfordshire
LU5 5BQ
ENGLAND
Manual Title:
Rev Number:
Comments:
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